WorldWideScience

Sample records for chattanooga shale

  1. Chattanooga Shale conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    Seven papers are included, relating to the exploitation of the uranium contained in shales. One of these papers discusses the IGT Hytort process, and was previously abstracted. Separate abstracts were prepared for the remaining six papers. (DLC)

  2. Engineering assessment and feasibility study of Chattanooga Shale as a future source of uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-01

    This report describes the engineering, feasibility, economics, and environmental aspects of exploitation of Chattanooga Shale to recover U, synthetic crude oil, and byproduct Th, NH/sub 3/, S, Mo, V, Ni, and Co. It is concluded that the shale is a potential source of U, energy, and byproduct metals. This volume of the report covers the engineering description, feasibility, and economics of exploitation of the shale. (DLC)

  3. Engineering assessment and feasibility study of Chattanooga Shale as a future source of uranium. [Environmental, socioeconomic, regulatory impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-01

    This volume characterizes the major baseline environmental features of the Chattanooga Shale study and projects the effects which may accrue from implementation of a large scale development to recover uranium from the shale. Environmental, socioeconomic, and regulatory impacts are covered. The prototype project is located in Dekalb County in Tennessee. (DLC)

  4. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Mississippian Sunbury shale and Devonian–Mississippian Chattanooga shale in the Appalachian Basin Province, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higley, Debra K.; Rouse, William A.; Enomoto, Catherine B.; Trippi, Michael H.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Drake, Ronald M.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gianoutsos, Nicholas J.; Pearson, Ofori N.; Doolan, Colin; Le, Phuong A.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2016-11-08

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous resources that total 464 million barrels of oil and 4.08 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Lower Mississippian Sunbury Shale and Middle Devonian–Lower Mississippian Chattanooga Shale of the Appalachian Basin Province.

  5. Engineering assessment and feasibility study of Chattanooga Shale as a future source of uranium. [Preliminary mining; data on soils, meteorology, water resources, and biological resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-01

    This volume contains five appendixes: Chattanooga Shale preliminary mining study, soils data, meteorologic data, water resources data, and biological resource data. The area around DeKalb County in Tennessee is the most likely site for commercial development for recovery of uranium. (DLC)

  6. 40 CFR 81.42 - Chattanooga Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.42 Chattanooga Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Chattanooga Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Georgia-Tennessee) has been revised to consist of the territorial area... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chattanooga Interstate Air...

  7. Chattanooga Electric Power Board Case Study Distribution Automation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, Jim [Chattanooga Electric Power Board (EPB), TN (United States); Melin, Alexander M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Starke, Michael R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-10-01

    In 2009, the U.S. Department of Energy under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) awarded a grant to the Chattanooga, Tennessee, Electric Power Board (EPB) as part of the Smart Grid Investment Grant Program. The grant had the objective “to accelerate the transformation of the nation’s electric grid by deploying smart grid technologies.” This funding award enabled EPB to expedite the original smart grid implementation schedule from an estimated 10-12 years to 2.5 years. With this funding, EPB invested heavily in distribution automation technologies including installing over 1,200 automated circuit switches and sensors on 171 circuits. For utilities considering a commitment to distribution automation, there are underlying questions such as the following: “What is the value?” and “What are the costs?” This case study attempts to answer these questions. The primary benefit of distribution automation is increased reliability or reduced power outage duration and frequency. Power outages directly impact customer economics by interfering with business functions. In the past, this economic driver has been difficult to effectively evaluate. However, as this case study demonstrates, tools and analysis techniques are now available. In this case study, the impact on customer costs associated with power outages before and after the implementation of distribution automation are compared. Two example evaluations are performed to demonstrate the benefits: 1) a savings baseline for customers under normal operations1 and 2) customer savings for a single severe weather event. Cost calculations for customer power outages are performed using the US Department of Energy (DOE) Interruption Cost Estimate (ICE) calculator2. This tool uses standard metrics associated with outages and the customers to calculate cost impact. The analysis shows that EPB customers have seen significant reliability improvements from the implementation of distribution automation. Under

  8. 77 FR 64544 - Minor Boundary Revision at Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Minor Boundary Revision at Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park AGENCY... Military Park is modified to include an additional 13.75 acres of land identified as Tract 11-109....

  9. Chemistry of oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iida, T.

    1974-01-01

    A review with several references covers the formation, distribution, and mining of oil shales of Fu-Shun colliery; retorting furnaces for oil shale; refining of crude shale oils; and components of oil from Fu-Shun oil shales including pyrolle, matrine, fatty acid anilides, 2,4,5-trimethylpyrrole, and middle-layer bases.

  10. Radioactivity and uranium content of some Cretaceous shales, central Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourtelot, Harry A.

    1955-01-01

    The Sharon Springs member of the Pierre shale of Cretaceous age, a hard black organic-rich shale similar to the Chattanooga shale, is radioactive throughout central and western South Dakota, most of Nebraska, northern Kansas, and northeastern Colorado. In the Missouri River valley, thin beds of the shale contain as much as 0.01 percent uranium. Beds as much as 20 feet thick or more have a radioactivity of about 0.01 percent equivalent uranium in southwestern Nebraska according to interpretation of gamma-ray well logs. The radioactivity and uranium content is highest in the Missouri River valley in South Dakota and in southwestern Nebraska where the shale rests disconformably on the underlying Niobrara formation of Cretaceous age. Near the Black Hills, and in the area to the north, the shale of the Sharon Springs member rests on a wedge of the Gammon ferruginous member of the Pierre, which is represented by a disonformity to the east and south, and the radioactivity of the shale is low although greater than that of over-lying strata. The shale also contains a suite of trace elements in which arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and vanadium are conspicuous. Molybdenum and tin are less abundant in the Sharon Springs than in similar shales of Palezoic age and silver and selenium are more abundant. In the Great Plains region, the upper 30-50 feet of Cretaceous shales overlain unconformably by the White River group of Oligocene age has been altered to bright-colored material. This altered zone is chiefly the result of pre-Oligocene weathering although post-Oligocene ground water conditions also have affected the zone. The greatest radioactivity occurs in masses of unaltered shale measuring about 1 x 4 feet in cross section included in the lower part of the altered zone. Where the zone is developed on shale and marl of the Niobrara formation, parts of the included unaltered shale contains as much as 0.1 percent equivalent uranium and 0

  11. Developments in Oil Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-17

    demonstration (RD&D). The ongoing program will confirm whether an economically significant shale oil volume can be extracted under current operating...Petroleum Trade, [http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/pdf/pages/sec1_15.pdf]. 2 Oil sands yield a bitumen substantially heavier most crude oils and shale oil. 3...hydrocarbon products that can be extracted from the shale. The most promising oil shales occur in the Green River formation that underlies 16,000 square

  12. Revisions to the original extent of the Devonian Shale-Middle and Upper Paleozoic Total Petroleum System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Catherine B.; Rouse, William A.; Trippi, Michael H.; Higley, Debra K.

    2016-04-11

    Technically recoverable undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in continuous accumulations are present in Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian strata in the Appalachian Basin Petroleum Province. The province includes parts of New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia, and Alabama. The Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian strata are part of the previously defined Devonian Shale-Middle and Upper Paleozoic Total Petroleum System (TPS) that extends from New York to Tennessee. This publication presents a revision to the extent of the Devonian Shale-Middle and Upper Paleozoic TPS. The most significant modification to the maximum extent of the Devonian Shale-Middle and Upper Paleozoic TPS is to the south and southwest, adding areas in Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi where Devonian strata, including potential petroleum source rocks, are present in the subsurface up to the outcrop. The Middle to Upper Devonian Chattanooga Shale extends from southeastern Kentucky to Alabama and eastern Mississippi. Production from Devonian shale has been established in the Appalachian fold and thrust belt of northeastern Alabama. Exploratory drilling has encountered Middle to Upper Devonian strata containing organic-rich shale in west-central Alabama. The areas added to the TPS are located in the Valley and Ridge, Interior Low Plateaus, and Appalachian Plateaus physiographic provinces, including the portion of the Appalachian fold and thrust belt buried beneath Cretaceous and younger sediments that were deposited on the U.S. Gulf Coastal Plain.

  13. Oil shale commercialization study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, M.M.

    1981-09-01

    Ninety four possible oil shale sections in southern Idaho were located and chemically analyzed. Sixty-two of these shales show good promise of possible oil and probable gas potential. Sixty of the potential oil and gas shales represent the Succor Creek Formation of Miocene age in southwestern Idaho. Two of the shales represent Cretaceous formations in eastern Idaho, which should be further investigated to determine their realistic value and areal extent. Samples of the older Mesozonic and paleozoic sections show promise but have not been chemically analyzed and will need greater attention to determine their potential. Geothermal resources are of high potential in Idaho and are important to oil shale prospects. Geothermal conditions raise the geothermal gradient and act as maturing agents to oil shale. They also might be used in the retorting and refining processes. Oil shales at the surface, which appear to have good oil or gas potential should have much higher potential at depth where the geothermal gradient is high. Samples from deep petroleum exploration wells indicate that the succor Creek shales have undergone considerable maturation with depth of burial and should produce gas and possibly oil. Most of Idaho's shales that have been analyzed have a greater potential for gas than for oil but some oil potential is indicated. The Miocene shales of the Succor Creek Formation should be considered as gas and possibly oil source material for the future when technology has been perfectes. 11 refs.

  14. Common clay and shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virta, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the latest developments in the global common clay and shale industry, particularly in the U.S. It claims that common clay and shale is mainly used in the manufacture of heavy clay products like brick, flue tile and sewer pipe. The main producing states in the U.S. include North Carolina, New York and Oklahoma. Among the firms that manufacture clay and shale-based products are Mid America Brick & Structural Clay Products LLC and Boral USA.

  15. Power from oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yerushalmi, J.; Wohlfarth, A.; Schwartz, M.; Luria, S.

    1988-02-01

    The possibilities for burning oil shale directly to generate a substantial fraction of Israel's electric power are to be investigated by means of a demonstration plant. The plant incorporates a fluidized bed reactor in which combustion tests have shown Israeli oil-shale will burn with high carbon utilization and without the need for supplementary fuel. Sulphur dioxide emissions are nearly all absorbed by the limestone that makes up about 50% of the shale. The design is for co-generation, supplying low pressure process steam for a chemical plant and electricity to the grid. Economic evaluation suggests that oil shale power generation in Israel could in the future be at least competitive with coal and under some circumstances have a cost advantage.

  16. Fire and explosion hazards of oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The US Bureau of Mines publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil shale rocks and dust. Three areas have been examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles. 10 refs., 54 figs., 29 tabs.

  17. Significance of Shale Gas Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John Shelton; Mike D. Bumaman; Wenwu Xia; Nathaniel Harding

    2009-01-01

    Natural gas production from shale formations is growing exponentially in the United States. This paper introduces the five major shale formations in the United States and the technologies used to produce them. The Barnett, Haynesville,Fayetteville, Woodford, and Marcellus combined hold an estimated 978 trillion cubic feet of total gas reserves. These findings along with recent technological advances in horizontal drilling and completion methods have transformed the natural gas exploration and production industry in the U.S. and have fundamentally changed the U.S. energy picture. Specifically this paper states that the United States through the utilization of natural gas from shale can reduce its carbon emissions and can become more energy self-sufficient. Finally, the Harding & Shelton Group states in this paper that the opportunity to locate and produce shale gas in China is very similar to that which has taken place in the United States.

  18. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D.C.

    1993-04-22

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical conditions (heating, mixing, pyrolysis, oxidation) exist in both systems.The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed this quarter. (1) Twelve pyrolysis runs were made on five different oil shales. All of the runs exhibited a complete absence of any plugging, tendency. Heat transfer for Green River oil shale in the rotary kiln was 84.6 Btu/hr/ft[sup 2]/[degrees]F, and this will provide for ample heat exchange in the Adams kiln. (2) One retorted residue sample was oxidized at 1000[degrees]F. Preliminary indications are that the ash of this run appears to have been completely oxidized. (3) Further minor equipment repairs and improvements were required during the course of the several runs.

  19. Paraho oil shale project. [Coloardo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pforzheimer, H.

    1976-01-01

    The Paraho Oil Shale Project is a privately financed program to prove the Paraho retorting process and hardware on oil shale at Anvil Points, Colo., near Rifle. The project was launched in late 1973 under the sponsorship of 17 participants many of whom were active in earlier oil shale research. Two new Paraho retorts, a pilot and a semiworks size unit, were installed at Anvil Points. The oil-shale mine on the adjacent Naval Oil Shale Reserve was reactivated. The mine and new retorts were put into operation during 1974. The pilot plant is used to explore operating parameters in order to define conditions for testing in the larger semiworks size retort. The experimental operations in 1974 set the stage for the successful runs in 1975 and early 1976. The results of the Paraho operations to date have been encouraging. They demonstrate that the process works, that the equipment is durable, and that both are environmentally acceptable on a pilot and a semiworks plant scale.

  20. Mechanical Characterization of Mancos Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, S.; Ingraham, M. D.; Dewers, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    A series of tests on Mancos shale have been undertaken to determine the failure surface and to characterize anisotropy. This work supports additional studies which are being performed on the same block of shale; fracture toughness, permeability, and chemical analysis. Mechanical tests are being conducted after specimens were conditioned for at least two weeks at 70% constant relative humidity conditions. Specimens are tested under drained conditions, with the constant relative humidity condition maintained on the downstream side of the specimen. The upstream is sealed. Anisotropy is determined through testing specimens that have been cored parallel and perpendicular to the bedding plane. Preliminary results show that when loaded parallel to bedding the shale is roughly 50% weaker. Test are run under constant mean stress conditions when possible (excepting indirect tension, unconfined compression, and hydrostatic). Tests are run in hydrostatic compaction to the desired mean stress, then differential stress is applied axially in displacement control to failure. The constant mean stress condition is maintained by decreasing the confining pressure by half of the increase in the axial stress. Results will be compared to typical failure criteria to investigate the effectiveness of capturing the behavior of the shale with traditional failure theory. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND2015-6107 A.

  1. Geomechanical Characterization of Marcellus Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamor Lora, Rafael; Ghazanfari, Ehsan; Asanza Izquierdo, Enrique

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the reservoir conditions and material properties that govern the geomechanical behavior of shale formations under in situ conditions is of vital importance for many geomechanical applications. The development of new numerical codes and advanced multi-physical (thermo-hydro-chemo-mechanical) constitutive models has led to an increasing demand for fundamental material property data. Previous studies have shown that deformational rock properties are not single-value, well-defined, linear parameters. This paper reports on an experimental program that explores geomechanical properties of Marcellus Shale through a series of isotropic compression (i.e. σ 1 = σ 2 = σ 3) and triaxial (i.e. σ 1 > σ 2 = σ 3) experiments. Deformational and failure response of these rocks, as well as anisotropy evolution, were studied under different stress and temperature conditions using single- and multi-stage triaxial tests. Laboratory results revealed significant nonlinear and pressure-dependent mechanical response as a consequence of the rock fabric and the occurrence of microcracks in these shales. Moreover, multi-stage triaxial tests proved to be useful tools for obtaining failure envelopes using a single specimen. Furthermore, the anisotropic nature of Marcellus Shale was successfully characterized using a three-parameter coupled model.

  2. The Influence of Shales on Slope Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, Doug

    2016-02-01

    Shales play a major role in the stability of slopes, both natural and engineered. This paper attempts to provide a review of the state-of-the-art in shale slope stability. The complexities of shale terminology and classification are first reviewed followed by a brief discussion of the important physical and mechanical properties of relevance to shale slope stability. The varied mechanisms of shale slope stability are outlined and their importance highlighted by reference to international shale slope failures. Stability analysis and modelling of anisotropic rock slope masses are briefly discussed and the potential role of brittle rock fracture and damage highlighted. A short review of shale slopes in open pits is presented.

  3. Shale Oil Value Enhancement Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James W. Bunger

    2006-11-30

    Raw kerogen oil is rich in heteroatom-containing compounds. Heteroatoms, N, S & O, are undesirable as components of a refinery feedstock, but are the basis for product value in agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, surfactants, solvents, polymers, and a host of industrial materials. An economically viable, technologically feasible process scheme was developed in this research that promises to enhance the economics of oil shale development, both in the US and elsewhere in the world, in particular Estonia. Products will compete in existing markets for products now manufactured by costly synthesis routes. A premium petroleum refinery feedstock is also produced. The technology is now ready for pilot plant engineering studies and is likely to play an important role in developing a US oil shale industry.

  4. Mechanism for Burgess Shale-type preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaines, Robert R.; Hammarlund, Emma U.; Hou, Xianguang;

    2012-01-01

    Exceptionally preserved fossil biotas of the Burgess Shale and a handful of other similar Cambrian deposits provide rare but critical insights into the early diversification of animals. The extraordinary preservation of labile tissues in these geographically widespread but temporally restricted...... soft-bodied fossil assemblages has remained enigmatic since Walcott's initial discovery in 1909. Here, we demonstrate the mechanism of Burgess Shale-type preservation using sedimentologic and geochemical data from the Chengjiang, Burgess Shale, and five other principal Burgess Shale-type deposits......, provided by bed-capping cements that were emplaced at the seafloor, is a feature that is shared among Burgess Shale-type deposits, and resulted from the unusually high alkalinity of Cambrian oceans. Thus, Burgess Shale-type preservation of soft-bodied fossil assemblages worldwide was promoted by unique...

  5. An NMR study on shale wettability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odusina, Elijah; Sondergeld, Carl; Rai, Chandra [University of Oklahoma (United States)

    2011-07-01

    In recent years, the importance of shales as unconventional gas resources has grown significantly. It is therefore important to reach a better understanding of their petrophysical properties. One of the important rock properties that is directly linked to successful hydrocarbon recovery is wettability. This paper presents a study on shale wettability using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to monitor sequential imbibition of brine and oil. Due to the presence of mineralogical variations, low permeability and viscosity, and complex pore structure, the interpretation of wettability using conventional approaches becomes complex. Samples that included 21 core plugs from the Eagle Ford shale, 12 from the Barnett, 11 from the Floyd, and 10 from the Woodford shale were analyzed. The NMR study confirmed the water-wet behavior of Berea sandstone. From the study, it was seen that the Woodford shale showed more affinity for dodecane than did the other shales.

  6. Fractured shale gas potential in New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, D.G.; Lombardi, T.E. [Ticora Geosciences Inc., Arvada, CO (United States); Martin, J.P. [New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, Albany, NY (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The history of gas production in the Devonian and Silurian age shales of New York dates back 180 years with the discovery of hundreds of shallow shale wells along the Lake Erie shoreline. Although the resource potential for shale gas in New York is large, ranging from 163-313 trillion cubic feet, it has not been a major contributor to natural gas production in the state. Ordovician Utica shale may also hold potential as a new commercial shale gas reservoir. More than 20,000 Devonian shale wells are currently producing in the Appalachian Basin. Experience has shown that each shale play is unique and requires solutions to problems associated with commercial production that are unique to each play. The authors note that continued examination of the shale potential in New York is warranted, although more information is needed to address geological and reservoir properties in the shale, including resource distribution, natural fracture patterns, and limitations of the reservoir. Devonian shales have been recognized as a major gas resource that require advanced production methods for recovery. This paper described the depositional environment and thickness of black shale sequences in the Appalachian Basin, which consists of an alluvial plain, a shelf-delta front, the base of the slope, and the deep basin. The extensive natural fractures which are oriented in an east-north direction are considered to be potential conduits for hydrocarbon flow. The amount of organic carbon in the rock also contributes to the natural gas storage through either adsorption or solution within the reservoir system. This paper also outlines strategies for exploration and development of fractured gas shale reservoirs. It was suggested that exploration strategies should focus on finding areas that have significant natural gas resources as well as sufficient permeability for economic production. 94 refs., 21 tabs., 24 figs.

  7. A perspective on Canadian shale gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Mike; Davidson, Jim; Mortensen, Paul

    2010-09-15

    In a relatively new development over just the past few years, shale formations are being targeted for natural gas production. Based on initial results, there may be significant potential for shale gas in various regions of Canada, not only in traditional areas of conventional production but also non-traditional areas. However, there is much uncertainty because most Canadian shale gas production is currently in experimental or early developmental stages. Thus, its full potential will not be known for some time. If exploitation proves to be successful, Canadian shale gas may partially offset projected long-term declines in Canadian conventional natural gas production.

  8. Oil shale, shale oil, shale gas and non-conventional hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clerici A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a world “revolution” in the field of unconventional hydrocarbon reserves, which goes by the name of “shale gas”, gas contained inside clay sediments micropores. Shale gas finds particular development in the United States, which are now independent of imports and see a price reduction to less than one third of that in Europe. With the high oil prices, in addition to the non-conventional gas also “oil shales” (fine-grained sedimentary rocks that contain a large amount of organic material to be used both to be directly burned or to extract liquid fuels which go under the name of shale oil, extra heavy oils and bitumen are becoming an industrial reality. Both unconventional gas and oil reserves far exceed in the world the conventional oil and gas reserves, subverting the theory of fossil fuels scarcity. Values and location of these new fossil reserves in different countries and their production by comparison with conventional resources are presented. In view of the clear advantages of unconventional fossil resources, the potential environmental risks associated with their extraction and processing are also highlighted.

  9. Thermophysical properties of Conasauga shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.D.

    1978-12-04

    Thermophysical-property characterizations of five Conasauga shale cores were determined at temperatures between 298 and 673 K. Methods of specimen fabrication for different tests were evaluated. Thermal-conductivity and thermal-expansion data were found to be dependent on the structure and orientation of the individual specimens. Thermal conductivities ranged between 2.8 and 1.0 W/m-K with a small negative temperature dependence. Thermal expansions were between 2 and 5 x 10/sup -3/ over the temperature range for the group. Heat capacity varied with the composition. 17 figures, 3 tables.

  10. Scales over Shale: How Pennsylvania Got Fracked

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, Carlo E.

    Shale gas has become one of Pennsylvania's major resources in recent years and the gas boom has proceeded in spite of uncertainty over the environmental risks of its production process. This thesis argues that location alone cannot explain why shale gas boomed in Pennsylvania. Using interviews with corporate and state executives, I argue that the scalar dimensions of the neoliberal environmental governance of shale gas were critical to understanding why shale gas boomed in Pennsylvania. These actors supported the preemption of local scales of governance by the state as a scalar fix for capital accumulation from shale gas development. They also legitimated the scalar fix by assembling a neat stack of scale frames that made shale gas seem to benefit everyone. These scale frames made shale gas appear as if it would provide local employment, regional supplies of cheap gas, national energy security, abundant gas for tight global markets, and a mitigating strategy for global climate change. In arguing this point, I present a history of how shale gas became a resource that outlines the critical role of the state in that process.

  11. Different Methods of Predicting Permeability in Shale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbia, Ernest Ncha; Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Krogsbøll, Anette

    Permeability is often very difficult to measure or predict in shale lithology. In this work we are determining shale permeability from consolidation tests data using Wissa et al., (1971) approach and comparing the results with predicted permeability from Kozeny’s model. Core and cuttings materials...

  12. Shale Gas Play Screening and Evaluation Criteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael D. Burnaman; Wenwu Xia; John Shelton

    2009-01-01

    The uniqueness of shale gas plays is contrasted with conventional oil and gas exploration. Based on our ten year history in shale gas exploration, a practical 17 point list of criteria to use for screening shale gas projects and ranking that encompasses geoscience, geochemistry, reservoir engineering, drilling, completions and production operations is developed and explained. Other considerations that will impact shale gas development are identified and discussed. Some key methodologies to incorporate in the evaluation process are also proposed. The outcome of this proposed screening process, if rigorously applied,should quickly identify the projects that have the most likely chance for success for recommendation to management. Examples from active shale gas plays in the United States are used to support these criteria and references to relevant recent publications and presentations are provided.

  13. Intelligent fracture creation for shale gas development

    KAUST Repository

    Douglas, Craig C.

    2011-05-14

    Shale gas represents a major fraction of the proven reserves of natural gas in the United States and a collection of other countries. Higher gas prices and the need for cleaner fuels provides motivation for commercializing shale gas deposits even though the cost is substantially higher than traditional gas deposits. Recent advances in horizontal drilling and multistage hydraulic fracturing, which dramatically lower costs of developing shale gas fields, are key to renewed interest in shale gas deposits. Hydraulically induced fractures are quite complex in shale gas reservoirs. Massive, multistage, multiple cluster treatments lead to fractures that interact with existing fractures (whether natural or induced earlier). A dynamic approach to the fracturing process so that the resulting network of reservoirs is known during the drilling and fracturing process is economically enticing. The process needs to be automatic and done in faster than real-time in order to be useful to the drilling crews.

  14. Future Recovery of Energy and Mineral Values from Organic-Rich Shales (Summary L'avenir de la production d'énergie et de la valeur minérale des schistes riches en matière organique (résumé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park W. C.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Oil shale deposits vary significantly in their geological nature and can represent enormous reserves of low grades ores for various minerals such as alumina, sodium carbonates, molybdenum, nickel, vanadium, and uranium. The treatment of these rocks for mineral values can be economically attractive when coupled with the production of synthetic oil. Mutually shared costs for extractinq the mineral values can be favorably affected by utilizing by-products from the oil shale retorting. These can include the residual char for a carbonaceous reductant or fuel, C02 for acidification, or lime and soda ash for caustic. Conversely, an inappropriate choice of oil shale retorting conditions can substantially lower subsequent recovery of mineral values from the spent shale. The proceeding considerations will be discussed for several oil shale deposits including: 1. The Green River formation in the mid-western United States which is not only oil rich but also represents a nearly inexhaustible domestic supply of alumina and sodium carbonates and 2. The block shale of Julia Creek, Queensland, Australia, the Devonian Chattanooga shale in the United States, the Cambrian Kulm shale in Sweden, the Permian Lodeve shale in southern France, and the Paleozoic shales from Korea and USSR for energy and metal values such as molybdenum, nickel, vanadium, and uranium. La nature géologique des dépôts de schistes à huile est très variée ; ces schistes peuvent représenter des réserves énormes de minerais à faible teneur de métaux tels que l'aluminium, le molybdène, le nickel, le vanadium, l'uranium, sans oublier le carbonate de sodium. Le traitement de ces roches pour leur valeur minérale peut être attractif économiquement s'il est associé à la production d'huile synthétique. La répartition des coûts d'extraction des métaux peut être favorablement affectée en utilisant les sous-produits du traitement des schistes à huile. Ceci peut comprendre le goudron

  15. Phanerozoic black shales and the Wilson Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabucho-Alexandre, J.; Hay, W. W.; de Boer, P. L.

    2011-09-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of black shales is related to the development of the environments in which they accumulate and to a propitious combination of environmental variables. Whereas much has been done in recent years to improve our understanding of the mechanisms behind the temporal distribution of black shales in the Phanerozoic, the interpretation of the palaeogeographical distribution of black shales is still dominated by an oversimplistic set of three uniformitarian depositional models that do not capture the complexity and dynamics of environments of black shale accumulation. These three models, the restricted circulation, the (open) ocean oxygen minimum and the continental shelf models, are in fact a uniformitarian simplification of the variety of depositional environments that arise and coexist throughout the course of a basin's Wilson Cycle, i.e. the dynamic sequence of events and stages that characterise the evolution of an ocean basin, from the opening continental rift to the closing orogeny. We examine the spatial distribution of black shales in the context of the Wilson Cycle using examples from the Phanerozoic. It is shown that the geographical distribution of black shales, their position in the basin infill sequence and their nature (e.g. type of organic matter, lithology) depend on basin evolution because the latter controls the development of sedimentary environments where black shales may be deposited.

  16. Quantifying porosity, compressibility and permeability in Shale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbia, Ernest Ncha; Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Frykman, Peter

    (XRD) of shale samples show about 50% silt and high content of kaolinite in the clay fraction when compared with offshore samples from the Central Graben. Porosity measurements from helium porosimetry-mercury immersion (HPMI), mercury injection capillary pressure (MICP) and nuclear magnetic resonance...... (NMR) show that, the MICP porosity is 9-10% points lower than HPMI and NMR porosity. Compressibility result shows that deep shale is stiffer in situ than normally assumed in geotechnical modelling and that static compressibility corresponds with dynamic one only at the begining of unloading stress...... strain data. We found that Kozeny's modelled permeability fall in the same order of magnitude with measured permeability for shale rich in kaolinite but overestimates permeability by two to three orders of magnitudes for shale with high content of smectite. The empirical Yang and Aplin model gives good...

  17. Helium release during shale deformation: Experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Stephen J.; Gardner, W. Payton; Heath, Jason E.

    2016-07-01

    This work describes initial experimental results of helium tracer release monitoring during deformation of shale. Naturally occurring radiogenic 4He is present in high concentration in most shales. During rock deformation, accumulated helium could be released as fractures are created and new transport pathways are created. We present the results of an experimental study in which confined reservoir shale samples, cored parallel and perpendicular to bedding, which were initially saturated with helium to simulate reservoir conditions, are subjected to triaxial compressive deformation. During the deformation experiment, differential stress, axial, and radial strains are systematically tracked. Release of helium is dynamically measured using a helium mass spectrometer leak detector. Helium released during deformation is observable at the laboratory scale and the release is tightly coupled to the shale deformation. These first measurements of dynamic helium release from rocks undergoing deformation show that helium provides information on the evolution of microstructure as a function of changes in stress and strain.

  18. Ordovician faunas of Burgess Shale type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Roy, Peter; Orr, Patrick J; Botting, Joseph P; Muir, Lucy A; Vinther, Jakob; Lefebvre, Bertrand; el Hariri, Khadija; Briggs, Derek E G

    2010-05-13

    The renowned soft-bodied faunas of the Cambrian period, which include the Burgess Shale, disappear from the fossil record in the late Middle Cambrian, after which the Palaeozoic fauna dominates. The disappearance of faunas of Burgess Shale type curtails the stratigraphic record of a number of iconic Cambrian taxa. One possible explanation for this loss is a major extinction, but more probably it reflects the absence of preservation of similar soft-bodied faunas in later periods. Here we report the discovery of numerous diverse soft-bodied assemblages in the Lower and Upper Fezouata Formations (Lower Ordovician) of Morocco, which include a range of remarkable stem-group morphologies normally considered characteristic of the Cambrian. It is clear that biotas of Burgess Shale type persisted after the Cambrian and are preserved where suitable facies occur. The Fezouata biota provides a link between the Burgess Shale communities and the early stages of the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event.

  19. Paleontology: a new Burgess Shale fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Derek E G

    2014-05-19

    A spectacular Cambrian soft bodied fauna some 40 km from Walcott's original Burgess Shale locality includes over 50 taxa, some 20% new to science. New anatomical evidence from this site will illuminate the evolution of early marine animals.

  20. Cementing Properties of Oil Shale Ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The oil crisis has prompted renewed interest in direct burning of oil shale as an alternative energy source.A major problem in this process is the large portion of ash produced.The cementing properties of this ash were investigated to determine its applicability as a building material.By means of XRD, IR, NMR and ICP, we have studied the effects of burning temperature on the reactivity of ash.Maximum reactivity was obtained with ash samples produced at 700 °C to 900 °C.In this range, the strength of oil-shale-based material, with properties similar to cement, which is composed of oil shale and several other kinds of solid wastes, can achieve the standard of 42.5# cement.Our study has provided an experimental foundation and theoretical base for a massive utilization of oil shale.

  1. Military jet fuel from shale oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, E. N.

    1980-01-01

    Investigations leading to a specification for aviation turbine fuel produced from whole crude shale oil are described. Refining methods involving hydrocracking, hydrotreating, and extraction processes are briefly examined and their production capabilities are assessed.

  2. [Chemical hazards arising from shale gas extraction].

    OpenAIRE

    Daria Pakulska

    2015-01-01

    The development of the shale industry is gaining momentum and hence the analysis of chemical hazards to the environment and health of the local population is extremely timely and important. Chemical hazards are created during the exploitation of all minerals, but in the case of shale gas production, there is much more uncertainty as regards to the effects of new technologies application. American experience suggests the increasing risk of environmental contamination, mainly groundwater. The g...

  3. The influence of shale gas on steamcracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupieper, A. [Linde Engineering Dresden GmbH, Dresden (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    US shale gas reserves with more than 860 TCF (Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration study World Shale Gas Resources) account for 2 of the global largest reserves after China. In 7 areas of the US, these reserves are systematically explored, providing a significant amount of cheap natural gas source for decades. The ethane share, carried by such shale gas, can reach up to 16%. Ethane has been already in the past 2 most important feedstock for Steamcrackers, being the backbone of the Petrochemical Industry. Due to availability of vast shale gas, the US steamcracker industry is facing a shift from naphtha to shale gas ethane, as the margin of Ethylene produced from shale gas ethane is significantly larger than that of naphtha based Ethylene (app. + 630 USD/t Ethylene). As a consequence shale gas is ''the magic bullet'' incinerating investments into Steamcrackers and downstream plants for U.S petrochemical industry. Steamcracker Projects with an additional ethylene production capacity of more than 17 million tons/a by 2020 are announced or already under construction. Investments into downstream plants refining the C2 derivatives will follow or are already in planning/engineering phase. But the US market cannot absorb all related products, causing a significant export exposure, which will influence global trade flows for C2 derivatives and affect prices. This article presents the impact of shale gas ethane cracking on: - Trade flow of C2 derivatives; - By-product deficits; - Alternate C3+ derivative production routes; - Challenges related to engineering requirements and project execution for Steamcracker projects. (orig.)

  4. Mechanism for Burgess Shale-type preservation

    OpenAIRE

    Robert R. Gaines; Hammarlund, Emma U.; Hou, Xianguang; Qi, Changshi; Gabbott, Sarah E.; Zhao, Yuanlong; Peng, Jin; Canfield, Donald E.

    2012-01-01

    Exceptionally preserved fossil biotas of the Burgess Shale and a handful of other similar Cambrian deposits provide rare but critical insights into the early diversification of animals. The extraordinary preservation of labile tissues in these geographically widespread but temporally restricted soft-bodied fossil assemblages has remained enigmatic since Walcott’s initial discovery in 1909. Here, we demonstrate the mechanism of Burgess Shale-type preservation using sedimentologic and geochemic...

  5. Highlights of the Messel Oil Shale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephan Schaal

    2008-01-01

    The Messel oil shale, Germany, was deposited in a maar crater that formed 47 million years ago. Since 1975 the Senckenberg Research Institute in Frankfurt am Main, has conducted systematic scientific excavations of this oil shale with much success. Besides plants and insects, more than 130 species of well-preserved fossil vertebrates like reptiles, fishes, birds and mammals have been found and have made Messel world-famous. Some examples of these vertebrates are presented.

  6. Environmental control costs for oil shale processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-10-01

    The studies reported herein are intended to provide more certainty regarding estimates of the costs of controlling environmental residuals from oil shale technologies being readied for commercial application. The need for this study was evident from earlier work conducted by the Office of Environment for the Department of Energy Oil Shale Commercialization Planning, Environmental Readiness Assessment in mid-1978. At that time there was little reliable information on the costs for controlling residuals and for safe handling of wastes from oil shale processes. The uncertainties in estimating costs of complying with yet-to-be-defined environmental standards and regulations for oil shale facilities are a critical element that will affect the decision on proceeding with shale oil production. Until the regulatory requirements are fully clarified and processes and controls are investigated and tested in units of larger size, it will not be possible to provide definitive answers to the cost question. Thus, the objective of this work was to establish ranges of possible control costs per barrel of shale oil produced, reflecting various regulatory, technical, and financing assumptions. Two separate reports make up the bulk of this document. One report, prepared by the Denver Research Institute, is a relatively rigorous engineering treatment of the subject, based on regulatory assumptions and technical judgements as to best available control technologies and practices. The other report examines the incremental cost effect of more conservative technical and financing alternatives. An overview section is included that synthesizes the products of the separate studies and addresses two variations to the assumptions.

  7. Mechanism for Burgess Shale-type preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Robert R; Hammarlund, Emma U; Hou, Xianguang; Qi, Changshi; Gabbott, Sarah E; Zhao, Yuanlong; Peng, Jin; Canfield, Donald E

    2012-04-03

    Exceptionally preserved fossil biotas of the Burgess Shale and a handful of other similar Cambrian deposits provide rare but critical insights into the early diversification of animals. The extraordinary preservation of labile tissues in these geographically widespread but temporally restricted soft-bodied fossil assemblages has remained enigmatic since Walcott's initial discovery in 1909. Here, we demonstrate the mechanism of Burgess Shale-type preservation using sedimentologic and geochemical data from the Chengjiang, Burgess Shale, and five other principal Burgess Shale-type deposits. Sulfur isotope evidence from sedimentary pyrites reveals that the exquisite fossilization of organic remains as carbonaceous compressions resulted from early inhibition of microbial activity in the sediments by means of oxidant deprivation. Low sulfate concentrations in the global ocean and low-oxygen bottom water conditions at the sites of deposition resulted in reduced oxidant availability. Subsequently, rapid entombment of fossils in fine-grained sediments and early sealing of sediments by pervasive carbonate cements at bed tops restricted oxidant flux into the sediments. A permeability barrier, provided by bed-capping cements that were emplaced at the seafloor, is a feature that is shared among Burgess Shale-type deposits, and resulted from the unusually high alkalinity of Cambrian oceans. Thus, Burgess Shale-type preservation of soft-bodied fossil assemblages worldwide was promoted by unique aspects of early Paleozoic seawater chemistry that strongly impacted sediment diagenesis, providing a fundamentally unique record of the immediate aftermath of the "Cambrian explosion."

  8. Legal Regime of Shale Gas Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu – Horia Maican

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Some countries with large reserves intend to promote shale gas production, in order to reduce their dependency on imported gas. Shale gas will be an important new aspect in the world energy scene, with many effects.European Union wants secure and affordable sources of energy. Natural gas is the cleanest fossil fuel and a vital component of European Union's energy strategy. One of the most important aspects is that gas produces significantly cleaner energy than other fossil fuels.From a legal point of view, extraction of oil and natural gas is one of the most highly-regulated activities.In European Union, the regulation of shale gas activities is different if we compare with United States. United States has a complete framework of federal and state regulation of shale gas extraction. More than that, these regulations have evolved in order to respond to the United States shale gas boom.Legal regime of shale gas extraction in every member state of European Union must put together national and European Union regulations in this field of activity.

  9. Assessment of undiscovered shale gas and shale oil resources in the Mississippian Barnett Shale, Bend Arch–Fort Worth Basin Province, North-Central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Kristen R.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Lewan, Michael D.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2015-12-17

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 53 trillion cubic feet of shale gas, 172 million barrels of shale oil, and 176 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Barnett Shale of the Bend Arch–Fort Worth Basin Province of Texas.

  10. Assessment of potential shale gas and shale oil resources of the Norte Basin, Uruguay, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy; Klett, Timothy R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Weaver, Jean N.; Brownfield, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Using a performance-based geological assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 13.4 trillion cubic feet of potential technically recoverable shale gas and 0.5 billion barrels of technically recoverable shale oil resources in the Norte Basin of Uruguay.

  11. Piceance Basin Oil Shale Data: Assays, Boreholes and Formation Tops

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This database contains Oil Shale Assays, Borehole Locations and Formation Tops that were used in support of the 2009 Oil Shale Assessment (Survey Fact Sheet...

  12. New method for prediction of shale gas content in continental shale formation using well logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng-Jie; Cui, Zhe; Jiang, Zhen-Xue; Shao, Yu; Liao, Wei; Li, Li

    2016-06-01

    Shale needs to contain a sufficient amount of gas to make it viable for exploitation. The continental heterogeneous shale formation in the Yan-chang (YC) area is investigated by firstly measuring the shale gas content in a laboratory and then investigating use of a theoretical prediction model. Key factors controlling the shale gas content are determined, and a prediction model for free gas content is established according to the equation of gas state and a new petrophysical volume model. Application of the Langmuir volume constant and pressure constant obtained from results of adsorption isotherms is found to be limited because these constants are greatly affected by experimental temperature and pressures. Therefore, using measurements of adsorption isotherms and thermodynamic theory, the influence of temperature, total organic carbon (TOC), and mineralogy on Langmuir volume constants and pressure constants are investigated in detail. A prediction model for the Langmuir pressure constant with a correction of temperatures is then established, and a prediction model for the Langmuir volume constant with correction of temperature, TOC, and quartz contents is also proposed. Using these corrected Langmuir constants, application of the Langmuir model determined using experimental adsorption isotherms is extrapolated to reservoir temperature, pressure, and lithological conditions, and a method for the prediction of shale gas content using well logs is established. Finally, this method is successfully applied to predict the shale gas content of the continental shale formation in the YC area, and practical application is shown to deliver good results with high precision.

  13. Shale gas development: a smart regulation framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konschnik, Katherine E; Boling, Mark K

    2014-01-01

    Advances in directional drilling and hydraulic fracturing have sparked a natural gas boom from shale formations in the United States. Regulators face a rapidly changing industry comprised of hundreds of players, operating tens of thousands of wells across 30 states. They are often challenged to respond by budget cuts, a brain drain to industry, regulations designed for conventional gas developments, insufficient information, and deeply polarized debates about hydraulic fracturing and its regulation. As a result, shale gas governance remains a halting patchwork of rules, undermining opportunities to effectively characterize and mitigate development risk. The situation is dynamic, with research and incremental regulatory advances underway. Into this mix, we offer the CO/RE framework--characterization of risk, optimization of mitigation strategies, regulation, and enforcement--to design tailored governance strategies. We then apply CO/RE to three types of shale gas risks, to illustrate its potential utility to regulators.

  14. Multiphysical Testing of Soils and Shales

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrari, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    Significant advancements in the experimental analysis of soils and shales have been achieved during the last few decades. Outstanding progress in the field has led to the theoretical development of geomechanical theories and important engineering applications. This book provides the reader with an overview of recent advances in a variety of advanced experimental techniques and results for the analysis of the behaviour of geomaterials under multiphysical testing conditions. Modern trends in experimental geomechanics for soils and shales are discussed, including testing materials in variably saturated conditions, non-isothermal experiments, micro-scale investigations and image analysis techniques. Six theme papers from leading researchers in experimental geomechanics are also included. This book is intended for postgraduate students, researchers and practitioners in fields where multiphysical testing of soils and shales plays a fundamental role, such as unsaturated soil and rock mechanics, petroleum engineering...

  15. Thermocatalytical processing of coal and shales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaksyntay Kairbekov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the questions of thermocatalytical conversion of organic mass of coal (OMC, it is shown that in the absence of a catalyst process is carried out by a radical process. Accumulated data on the properties for radicals of different structure and therefore different reaction capacity enables us to understand and interpret the conversion of OMC. Thermal conversion of OMC regarded as a kind of depolymerization, accompanied by decomposition of the functional groups with the formation of radicals, competing for hydrogen atom. Catalyst can change the direction and conditions of the process. Modern catalysts can reduce the process pressure up to 50 atm., with a high degree of coal conversion. We consider examples of simultaneous conversion of coal and shale, shale and masut, shale and tar.

  16. Joint DoD/DoE Shale Oil Project. Volume 3. Testing of Refined Shale Oil Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    10-9. GROWTH RATINGS OF CLADOSPORIUM RESINAE AT VARIOUS INCUBATION STAGES ......................... 10-25 S 0 xv - LIST OF TABLES (Continued) TABLE 10...both shale DFM and shale JP-5 support heavy growth of Cladosporium resinae . Short-term engine performance tests were conducted on two gas turbine...microbiological growth of shale DFM and shale JP-5 was investigated by inoculating a mixture of fuel and 0 nutrient medium with Cladosporium resinae

  17. CO2 Sequestration within Spent Oil Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, H.; Worrall, F.; Gluyas, J.; Morgan, C.; Fraser, J.

    2013-12-01

    Worldwide deposits of oil shales are thought to represent ~3 trillion barrels of oil. Jordanian oil shale deposits are extensive and of high quality, and could represent 100 billion barrels of oil, leading to much interest and activity in the development of these deposits. The exploitation of oil shales has raised a number of environmental concerns including: land use, waste disposal, water consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions. The dry retorting of oil shales can overcome a number of the environmental impacts, but this leaves concerns over management of spent oil shale and CO2 production. In this study we propose that the spent oil shale can be used to sequester CO2 from the retorting process. Here we show that by conducting experiments using high pressure reaction facilities, we can achieve successful carbonation of spent oil shale. High pressure reactor facilities in the Department of Earth Sciences, Durham University, are capable of reacting solids with a range of fluids up to 15 MPa and 350°C, being specially designed for research with supercritical fluids. Jordanian spent oil shale was reacted with high pressure CO2 in order to assess whether there is potential for sequestration. Fresh and reacted materials were then examined by: Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) methods. Jordanian spent oil shale was found to sequester up to 5.8 wt % CO2, on reacting under supercritical conditions, which is 90% of the theoretical carbonation. Jordanian spent oil shale is composed of a large proportion of CaCO3, which on retorting decomposes, forming CaSO4 and Ca-oxides which are the focus of carbonation reactions. A factorially designed experiment was used to test different factors on the extent of carbonation, including: pressure; temperature; duration; and the water content. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) techniques were then used to determine the significance of

  18. [Chemical hazards arising from shale gas extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakulska, Daria

    2015-01-01

    The development of the shale industry is gaining momentum and hence the analysis of chemical hazards to the environment and health of the local population is extreiely timely and important. Chemical hazards are created during the exploitation of all minerals, but in the case of shale gas production, there is much more uncertainty as regards to the effects of new technologies application. American experience suggests the increasing risk of environmental contamination, mainly groundwater. The greatest, concern is the incomplete knowledge of the composition of fluids used for fracturing shale rock and unpredictability of long-term effects of hydraulic fracturing for the environment and health of residents. High population density in the old continent causes the problem of chemical hazards which is much larger than in the USA. Despite the growing public discontent data on this subject are limited. First of all, there is no epidemiological studies to assess the relationship between risk factors, such as air and water pollution, and health effects in populations living in close proximity to gas wells. The aim of this article is to identify and discuss existing concepts on the sources of environmental contamination, an indication of the environment elements under pressure and potential health risks arising from shale gas extraction.

  19. Electromagnetic De-Shaling of Coal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, T.P.R.; Mesina, M.B.; Kuilman, W.

    2003-01-01

    The efficiency with which an electromagnetic sensor array is able to distinguish density and ash content of coal and shale mixtures was determined experimentally. The investigated sensor was originally designed for automatic metal detection and sorting in industrial glass recycle processing, where i

  20. Chemical hazards arising from shale gas extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Pakulska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of the shale industry is gaining momentum and hence the analysis of chemical hazards to the environment and health of the local population is extremely timely and important. Chemical hazards are created during the exploitation of all minerals, but in the case of shale gas production, there is much more uncertainty as regards to the effects of new technologies application. American experience suggests the increasing risk of environmental contamination, mainly groundwater. The greatest concern is the incomplete knowledge of the composition of fluids used for fracturing shale rock and unpredictability of long-term effects of hydraulic fracturing for the environment and health of residents. High population density in the old continent causes the problem of chemical hazards which is much larger than in the USA. Despite the growing public discontent data on this subject are limited. First of all, there is no epidemiological studies to assess the relationship between risk factors, such as air and water pollution, and health effects in populations living in close proximity to gas wells. The aim of this article is to identify and discuss existing concepts on the sources of environmental contamination, an indication of the environment elements under pressure and potential health risks arising from shale gas extraction. Med Pr 2015;66(1:99–117

  1. China organic-rich shale geologic features and special shale gas production issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwen Ju

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The depositional environment of organic-rich shale and the related tectonic evolution in China are rather different from those in North America. In China, organic-rich shale is not only deposited in marine environment, but also in non-marine environment: marine-continental transitional environment and lacustrine environment. Through analyzing large amount of outcrops and well cores, the geologic features of organic-rich shale, including mineral composition, organic matter richness and type, and lithology stratigraphy, were analyzed, indicating very special characteristics. Meanwhile, the more complex and active tectonic movements in China lead to strong deformation and erosion of organic-rich shale, well-development of fractures and faults, and higher thermal maturity and serious heterogeneity. Co-existence of shale gas, tight sand gas, and coal bed methane (CBM proposes a new topic: whether it is possible to co-produce these gases to reduce cost. Based on the geologic features, the primary production issues of shale gas in China were discussed with suggestions.

  2. Fracturing and brittleness index analyses of shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhoorn, Auke; Primarini, Mutia; Houben, Maartje

    2016-04-01

    The formation of a fracture network in rocks has a crucial control on the flow behaviour of fluids. In addition, an existing network of fractures , influences the propagation of new fractures during e.g. hydraulic fracturing or during a seismic event. Understanding of the type and characteristics of the fracture network that will be formed during e.g. hydraulic fracturing is thus crucial to better predict the outcome of a hydraulic fracturing job. For this, knowledge of the rock properties is crucial. The brittleness index is often used as a rock property that can be used to predict the fracturing behaviour of a rock for e.g. hydraulic fracturing of shales. Various terminologies of the brittleness index (BI1, BI2 and BI3) exist based on mineralogy, elastic constants and stress-strain behaviour (Jin et al., 2014, Jarvie et al., 2007 and Holt et al., 2011). A maximum brittleness index of 1 predicts very good and efficient fracturing behaviour while a minimum brittleness index of 0 predicts a much more ductile shale behaviour. Here, we have performed systematic petrophysical, acoustic and geomechanical analyses on a set of shale samples from Whitby (UK) and we have determined the three different brittleness indices on each sample by performing all the analyses on each of the samples. We show that each of the three brittleness indices are very different for the same sample and as such it can be concluded that the brittleness index is not a good predictor of the fracturing behaviour of shales. The brittleness index based on the acoustic data (BI1) all lie around values of 0.5, while the brittleness index based on the stress strain data (BI2) give an average brittleness index around 0.75, whereas the mineralogy brittleness index (BI3) predict values below 0.2. This shows that by using different estimates of the brittleness index different decisions can be made for hydraulic fracturing. If we would rely on the mineralogy (BI3), the Whitby mudstone is not a suitable

  3. Fracture development in shale and its relationship to gas accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenlong Ding

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Shale with high quartz, feldspar and carbonate, will have low Poisson’s ratio, high Young’s modulus and high brittleness. As a result, the shale is conducive to produce natural and induced fractures under external forces. In general, there is a good correlation between fracture development in shale and the volume of brittle minerals present. Shale with high TOC or abnormally high pressure has well-developed fractures. Shale fracture development also shows a positive correlation with total gas accumulation and free gas volume, i.e., the better shale fractures are developed, the greater the gas accumulation and therefore the higher the gas production. Fractures provide migration conduits and accumulation spaces for natural gas and formation water, which are favorable for the volumetric increase of free natural gas. Wider fractures in shale result in gas loss. In North America, there is a high success ratio of shale gas exploration and high gas production from high-angle fracture zones in shale. Good natural gas shows or low yield producers in the Lower Paleozoic marine organic matter-rich rocks in the Sichuan Basin are closely related to the degree of fracture development in brittle shales.

  4. Environmental contamination due to shale gas development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annevelink, M P J A; Meesters, J A J; Hendriks, A J

    2016-04-15

    Shale gas development potentially contaminates both air and water compartments. To assist in governmental decision-making on future explorations, we reviewed scattered information on activities, emissions and concentrations related to shale gas development. We compared concentrations from monitoring programmes to quality standards as a first indication of environmental risks. Emissions could not be estimated accurately because of incomparable and insufficient data. Air and water concentrations range widely. Poor wastewater treatment posed the highest risk with concentrations exceeding both Natural Background Values (NBVs) by a factor 1000-10,000 and Lowest Quality Standards (LQSs) by a factor 10-100. Concentrations of salts, metals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hydrocarbons exceeded aquatic ecotoxicological water standards. Future research must focus on measuring aerial and aquatic emissions of toxic chemicals, generalisation of experimental setups and measurement technics and further human and ecological risk assessment.

  5. Geomechanical Properties of Unconventional Shale Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad O. Eshkalak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Production from unconventional reservoirs has gained an increased attention among operators in North America during past years and is believed to secure the energy demand for next decades. Economic production from unconventional reservoirs is mainly attributed to realizing the complexities and key fundamentals of reservoir formation properties. Geomechanical well logs (including well logs such as total minimum horizontal stress, Poisson’s ratio, and Young, shear, and bulk modulus are secured source to obtain these substantial shale rock properties. However, running these geomechanical well logs for the entire asset is not a common practice that is associated with the cost of obtaining these well logs. In this study, synthetic geomechanical well logs for a Marcellus shale asset located in southern Pennsylvania are generated using data-driven modeling. Full-field geomechanical distributions (map and volumes of this asset for five geomechanical properties are also created using general geostatistical methods coupled with data-driven modeling. The results showed that synthetic geomechanical well logs and real field logs fall into each other when the input dataset has not seen the real field well logs. Geomechanical distributions of the Marcellus shale improved significantly when full-field data is incorporated in the geostatistical calculations.

  6. Microfracturing during primary migration in shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Marcello Goulart; Donzé, Frédéric; Renard, François; Panahi, Hamed; Papachristos, Efthymios; Scholtès, Luc

    2017-01-01

    In several geological environments, chemical reactions are coupled to rock deformation and the associated stresses induced locally interact with the far field loading. This is the case in immature shales that undergo burial and diagenesis, where the organic matter evolves with temperature into hydrocarbons which induces local volume expansion. At large scale, this mechanism is responsible for the transport of hydrocarbons from source to reservoir rocks, a process referred to as primary migration. However, how the interactions between local fluid production, microfracturing, and transport are coupled remain to be understood. Here, we analyze this coupling phenomenon by developing a discrete element model where the generation of local overpressures occurring in kerogen patches is simulated, while the surrounding rock is subjected to external loading. It is shown that, due to local fluid overpressure; microfracturing occurs and brings the fluids to migrate through the medium. The numerical results are confirmed by laboratory experiments where the network of microfractures induced in an immature Green River shale sample heated under small differential stress was imaged in three dimensions using X-ray microtomography. Moreover, the numerical simulations identify that the state of differential stress and the initial kerogen distribution constitute two key parameters that control the formation of the three-dimensional percolating microfracture network and could thus explain primary migration in shale rocks.

  7. Shale engineering application: the MAL-145 project in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vassilellis, George D.; Li, Charles; Bust, Vivian K. [Gaffney, Cline and Associates (United States); Moos, Daniel; Cade, Randal [Baker Hughes Inc (United States)

    2011-07-01

    With the depletion of conventional fossil fuels and the rising energy demand, oil shale and shale gas are becoming an important component of the oil and gas markets in North America. The aim of this paper is to present a novel methodology for predicting production in shale and tight formations. This method, known as the shale engineering approach and modeling, provides reservoir simulations based on modeling the propagation of the simulated rock volume. This technique was applied to an Upper Devonian shale formation in West Virginia, United States, and was compared to available data such as production logs and downhole microseismic data. Results showed a good match between the shale engineering approach data and early well performance. This paper presented a new reservoir simulation methodology which is successful in forecasting production and which can also be used for field development design and optimization.

  8. Plan for addressing issues relating to oil shale plant siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noridin, J. S.; Donovan, R.; Trudell, L.; Dean, J.; Blevins, A.; Harrington, L. W.; James, R.; Berdan, G.

    1987-09-01

    The Western Research Institute plan for addressing oil shale plant siting methodology calls for identifying the available resources such as oil shale, water, topography and transportation, and human resources. Restrictions on development are addressed: land ownership, land use, water rights, environment, socioeconomics, culture, health and safety, and other institutional restrictions. Descriptions of the technologies for development of oil shale resources are included. The impacts of oil shale development on the environment, socioeconomic structure, water availability, and other conditions are discussed. Finally, the Western Research Institute plan proposes to integrate these topics to develop a flow chart for oil shale plant siting. Western Research Institute has (1) identified relative topics for shale oil plant siting, (2) surveyed both published and unpublished information, and (3) identified data gaps and research needs. 910 refs., 3 figs., 30 tabs.

  9. Shale gas. Opportunities and challenges for European energy markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Joode, J.; Plomp, A.J.; Ozdemir, O. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    The outline of the presentation shows the following elements: Introduction (Shale gas revolution in US and the situation in the EU); What could be the impact of potential shale gas developments on the European gas market?; How may shale gas developments affect the role of gas in the transition of the power sector?; and Key messages. The key messages are (1) Prospects for European shale gas widely differ from US case (different reserve potential, different competition, different market dynamics); (2) Shale gas is unlikely to be a game changer in Europe; and (3) Impact of shale gas on energy transition in the medium and long term crucially depends on gas vs. coal prices and the 'penalty' on CO2 emissions.

  10. Combustion characteristics of Daqing oil shale and oil shale semi-cokes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIAO Zhen-yong; WU Guo-guang; LI Ping; ZHAO Na; WANG Pan-cheng; MENG Xian-liang

    2009-01-01

    Thermo-gravimetric-analysis (TGA) was used to analyze the combustion characteristics of an oil shale and semi-cokes prepared from it. The effect of prior pyrolysis and TGA heating rate on the combustion process was studied. Prior pyrolysis affects the initial temperature of mass loss and the ignition temperature. The ignition temperature increases as the volatile content of the sample decreases. TG/DTG curves obtained at different heating rates show that heating rate has little effect on ignition temperature. But the peak of combustion shifts to higher temperatures as the heating rate is increased. The Coats-Redfern integration method was employed to find the combustion-reaction kinetic parameters for the burning of oil shale and oil shale semi-coke.

  11. Shale gas characteristics of the Lower Toarcian Posidonia Shale in Germany: from basin to nanometre scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Hans-Martin; Bernard, Sylvain; Horsfield, Brian; Krüger, Martin; Littke, Ralf; di primio, Rolando

    2013-04-01

    The Early Toarcian Posidonia Shale is a proven hydrocarbon source rock which was deposited in a shallow epicontinental basin. In southern Germany, Tethyan warm-water influences from the south led to carbonate sedimentation, whereas cold-water influxes from the north controlled siliciclastic sedimentation in the northwestern parts of Germany and the Netherlands. Restricted sea-floor circulation and organic matter preservation are considered to be the consequence of an oceanic anoxic event. In contrast, non-marine conditions led to sedimentation of coarser grained sediments under progressively terrestrial conditions in northeastern Germany The present-day distribution of Posidonia Shale in northern Germany is restricted to the centres of rift basins that formed in the Late Jurassic (e.g., Lower Saxony Basin and Dogger Troughs like the West and East Holstein Troughs) as a result of erosion on the basin margins and bounding highs. The source rock characteristics are in part dependent on grain size as the Posidonia Shale in eastern Germany is referred to as a mixed to non-source rock facies. In the study area, the TOC content and the organic matter quality vary vertically and laterally, likely as a consequence of a rising sea level during the Toarcian. Here we present and compare data of whole Posidonia Shale sections, investigating these variations and highlighting the variability of Posidonia Shale depositional system. During all phases of burial, gas was generated in the Posidonia Shale. Low sedimentation rates led to diffusion of early diagenetically formed biogenic methane. Isochronously formed diagenetic carbonates tightened the matrix and increased brittleness. Thermogenic gas generation occurred in wide areas of Lower Saxony as well as in Schleswig Holstein. Biogenic methane gas can still be formed today in Posidonia Shale at shallow depth in areas which were covered by Pleistocene glaciers. Submicrometric interparticle pores predominate in immature samples. At

  12. Fugitive emissions from the Bakken shale illustrate role of shale production in global ethane shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kort, E. A.; Smith, M. L.; Murray, L. T.; Gvakharia, A.; Brandt, A. R.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Sweeney, C.; Travis, K.

    2016-05-01

    Ethane is the second most abundant atmospheric hydrocarbon, exerts a strong influence on tropospheric ozone, and reduces the atmosphere's oxidative capacity. Global observations showed declining ethane abundances from 1984 to 2010, while a regional measurement indicated increasing levels since 2009, with the reason for this subject to speculation. The Bakken shale is an oil and gas-producing formation centered in North Dakota that experienced a rapid increase in production beginning in 2010. We use airborne data collected over the North Dakota portion of the Bakken shale in 2014 to calculate ethane emissions of 0.23 ± 0.07 (2σ) Tg/yr, equivalent to 1-3% of total global sources. Emissions of this magnitude impact air quality via concurrent increases in tropospheric ozone. This recently developed large ethane source from one location illustrates the key role of shale oil and gas production in rising global ethane levels.

  13. Military Fuels Refined from Paraho-II Shale Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    Laboratories showed that growth of Cladosporium resinae was supported by the shale-derived JP-5 and DFM. 1t The performances of shale fuels in a turbine...27 11 Corrosion Tendencies of Shale Fuels ............................. 28 12 Growth Rating of Cladosporium Resinae in Tubes After Days of...screw cap test tubes and overlayed with 3 ml of the test fuel. Each tube was inoculated with one drop of a spore suspension of Cladosporium resinae , QM

  14. Map of assessed shale gas in the United States, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Biewick, Laura R. H.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has compiled a map of shale-gas assessments in the United States that were completed by 2012 as part of the National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey quantitatively estimated potential volumes of undiscovered gas within shale-gas assessment units. These shale-gas assessment units are mapped, and square-mile cells are shown to represent proprietary shale-gas wells. The square-mile cells include gas-producing wells from shale intervals. In some cases, shale-gas formations contain gas in deeper parts of a basin and oil at shallower depths (for example, the Woodford Shale and the Eagle Ford Shale). Because a discussion of shale oil is beyond the scope of this report, only shale-gas assessment units and cells are shown. The map can be printed as a hardcopy map or downloaded for interactive analysis in a Geographic Information System data package using the ArcGIS map document (file extension MXD) and published map file (file extension PMF). Also available is a publications access table with hyperlinks to current U.S. Geological Survey shale gas assessment publications and web pages. Assessment results and geologic reports are available as completed at the U.S. Geological Survey Energy Resources Program Web Site, http://energy.usgs.gov/OilGas/AssessmentsData/NationalOilGasAssessment.aspx. A historical perspective of shale gas activity in the United States is documented and presented in a video clip included as a PowerPoint slideshow.

  15. Water Resources Management for Shale Energy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoxtheimer, D.

    2015-12-01

    The increase in the exploration and extraction of hydrocarbons, especially natural gas, from shale formations has been facilitated by advents in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies. Shale energy resources are very promising as an abundant energy source, though environmental challenges exist with their development, including potential adverse impacts to water quality. The well drilling and construction process itself has the potential to impact groundwater quality, however if proper protocols are followed and well integrity is established then impacts such as methane migration or drilling fluids releases can be minimized. Once a shale well has been drilled and hydraulically fractured, approximately 10-50% of the volume of injected fluids (flowback fluids) may flow out of the well initially with continued generation of fluids (produced fluids) throughout the well's productive life. Produced fluid TDS concentrations often exceed 200,000 mg/L, with elevated levels of strontium (Sr), bromide (Br), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), barium (Ba), chloride (Cl), radionuclides originating from the shale formation as well as fracturing additives. Storing, managing and properly disposisng of these fluids is critical to ensure water resources are not impacted by unintended releases. The most recent data in Pennsylvania suggests an estimated 85% of the produced fluids were being recycled for hydraulic fracturing operations, while many other states reuse less than 50% of these fluids and rely moreso on underground injection wells for disposal. Over the last few years there has been a shift to reuse more produced fluids during well fracturing operations in shale plays around the U.S., which has a combination of economic, regulatory, environmental, and technological drivers. The reuse of water is cost-competitive with sourcing of fresh water and disposal of flowback, especially when considering the costs of advanced treatment to or disposal well injection and lessens

  16. Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of coal and oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiumin Zhang; Demin He; Jun Guan [Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China). Institute of Coal Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of coal and oil shale was investigated by using Yilan oil shale, Longkou oil shale, Huolinhe lignite, Taiji gas coal and Ruqigou anthracite as raw materia1s. A fixed-bed pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of these coal and oil shale were investigated. The results indicated that synergetic effect existed with the oil yield increased, water yield decreased, and the synergetic effect varied with the mass percentage of coal differed. The co-pyrolysis oil yield of Yilan oil shale and Ruqigou anthracite is a little higher than the linear sum of their oil yield in the pyrolysis process. But for the co-pyrolysis of Taiji gas coal and Yilan oil shale, no significant change of the oil yield was found. Huolinhe lignite and Longkou oil shale were chosen as the material for the solid heat carrier experiment. Synergetic effect analyses of both the fixed-bed pyrolysis and the retorting process with solid heat carrier were given. Huolinhe lignite is an ideal material for oil recovery by pyrolysis, with high volatile and low ash, its oil content is 8.55%. Longkou oil shale is an ideal material for oil recovery by pyrolysis, with high oil content of 14.38%. The optimum co-pyrolysis temperature for Huolinhe lignite and Longkou oil shale is 510{sup o}C. Synergetic effect was found with the oil increased 9% and water decreased 36%. 5 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.

  17. Developments in production of synthetic fuels out of Estonian shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarna, Indrek

    2010-09-15

    Estonia is still the world leader in utilization of oil shale. Enefit has cooperated with Outotec to develop a new generation of solid heat carrier technology - Enefit280, which is more efficient, environmentally friendlier and has higher unit capacity. Breakeven price of oil produced in Enefit280 process is competitive with conventional oils. The new technology has advantages that allow easy adaptation to other oil shales around the world. Hydrotreated shale oil liquids have similar properties to crude oil cuts. Design for a shale oil hydrotreater unit can use process concepts, hardware components, and catalysts commercially proven in petroleum refining services.

  18. Geothermal alteration of clay minerals and shales: diagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, C.E.

    1979-07-01

    The objective of this report is to perform a critical review of the data on the mineral and chemical alterations that occur during diagenesis and low-grade metamorphism of shale and other clay-rich rocks - conditions similar to those expected from emplacement of heat-producing radioactive waste in a geologic repository. The conclusions drawn in this document are that the following type of alterations could occur: smectite alteration, ion mobilization, illitic shales, kaolinite reactions, chlorite reactions, organic reactions, paleotemperatures, low temperature shales, high temperature shales, and phase equilibrium changes.

  19. Thermal evolution and shale gas potential estimation of the Wealden and Posidonia Shale in NW-Germany and the Netherlands : a 3D basin modelling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruns, B.; Littke, R.; Gasparik, M.; van Wees, J.-D.; Nelskamp, S.

    2016-01-01

    Sedimentary basins in NW-Germany and the Netherlands represent potential targets for shale gas exploration in Europe due to the presence of Cretaceous (Wealden) and Jurassic (Posidonia) marlstones/shales as well as various Carboniferous black shales. In order to assess the regional shale gas prospec

  20. Why stratigraphy and sedimentology in shales are important : an example from the Woodford Shale, Permian Basin, west Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, N.B. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Colorado School of Mines, Boulder, CO (United States); Hemmesch, N.T.; Mnich, C.A. [Colorado School of Mines, Boulder, CO (United States). Geology and Geological Engineering; Aoudia, K.; Miskimins, J. [Colorado School of Mines, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering

    2010-07-01

    This presentation explained why stratigraphy and sedimentology in shales are important. The presentation provided an example from the Woodford Shale, Permian Basin, located in western Texas. Several illustrations were presented to demonstrate a stratigraphic sequence in black shale. Other topics that were discussed included geologic settings; paleogeography; silled basins; motivation for rock properties research; and factor analysis results. It was concluded that sequence stratigraphic analyses in black shales requires an integrated, multidisciplinary approach. The presentation showed that third and fourth order stratigraphic cycles are indicated by the repetition of exotic beds whose composition vary regionally. tabs., figs.

  1. Trace elements in oil shale. Progress report, 1979-1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chappell, W R

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this research program is to understand the potential impact of an oil shale industry on environmental levels of trace contaminants in the region. The program involves a comprehensive study of the sources, release mechanisms, transport, fate, and effects of toxic trace chemicals, principally the trace elements, in an oil shale industry. The overall objective of the program is to evaluate the environmental and health consequences of the release of toxic trace elements by shale and oil production and use. The baseline geochemical survey shows that stable trace elements maps can be constructed for numerous elements and that the trends observed are related to geologic and climatic factors. Shale retorted by above-ground processes tends to be very homogeneous (both in space and in time) in trace element content. Leachate studies show that significant amounts of B, F, and Mo are released from retorted shales and while B and Mo are rapidly flushed out, F is not. On the other hand, As, Se, and most other trace elements are not present in significant quantities. Significant amounts of F and B are also found in leachates of raw shales. Very large concentrations of reduced sulfur species are found in leachates of processed shale. Very high levels of B and Mo are taken up in some plants growing on processed shale with and without soil cover. There is a tendency for some trace elements to associate with specific organic fractions, indicating that organic chelation or complexation may play an important role. Many of the so-called standard methods for analyzing trace elements in oil shale-related materials are inadequate. A sampling manual is being written for the environmental scientist and practicing engineer. A new combination of methods is developed for separating the minerals in oil shale into different density fractions. Microbial investigations have tentatively identified the existence of thiobacilli in oil shale materials such as leachates. (DC)

  2. More gaps than shale: stratigraphic incompleteness of marine shale successions using a Toarcian example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabucho-Alexandre, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Marine shale successions are probably the best archives of earth history. The degree of completeness of a marine shale succession is a critical factor in the interpretation of the geologic record of climatic, oceanic, and biogeochemical processes, in the prediction of timescales of those processes, in the determination of the duration of events, and in the establishment of correlations between successions. The sedimentation rates of marine shale successions are often calculated by dividing the thickness of a succession by the duration of the stratigraphic interval it occupies. Sedimentation rates calculated this way are always much lower than rates measured directly in equivalent modern environments. When we apply modern rates to the deposits left behind by their ancient equivalents, and correct for compaction due to overburden and time, we find that the entire succession can be deposited in a relatively short time. Since we know that the stratigraphic interval occupied by such ancient deposits is much longer, we must conclude that the succession is very incomplete. In this presentation, I will use a few different methods to show that 65 to >80% of the duration of the Toarcian oceanic anoxic event in Yorkshire, U.K., is represented by gaps rather than shale. This means that the Toarcian oceanic anoxic event is not as short as proposed by authors who studied the cyclostratigraphy of the Yorkshire succession, and that it probably represents a much longer-term history of environmental change driven by processes acting on longer time scales.

  3. Shale oil potential and thermal maturity of the Lower Toarcian Posidonia Shale in NW Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, J.; Littke, R.; Weniger, P.; Ostertag-Henning, C.; Nelskamp, S.

    2015-01-01

    A suite of drilling cores and outcrop samples of the Lower Toarcian Posidonia Shale (PS) were collected from multiple locations including the Swabian Alb and Franconian Alb of Southwest-Germany, Runswick Bay of UK and Loon op Zand well (LOZ-1) of the West Netherlands Basin. In order to assess the th

  4. Shale gas wastewater management under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Sun, Alexander Y; Duncan, Ian J

    2016-01-01

    This work presents an optimization framework for evaluating different wastewater treatment/disposal options for water management during hydraulic fracturing (HF) operations. This framework takes into account both cost-effectiveness and system uncertainty. HF has enabled rapid development of shale gas resources. However, wastewater management has been one of the most contentious and widely publicized issues in shale gas production. The flowback and produced water (known as FP water) generated by HF may pose a serious risk to the surrounding environment and public health because this wastewater usually contains many toxic chemicals and high levels of total dissolved solids (TDS). Various treatment/disposal options are available for FP water management, such as underground injection, hazardous wastewater treatment plants, and/or reuse. In order to cost-effectively plan FP water management practices, including allocating FP water to different options and planning treatment facility capacity expansion, an optimization model named UO-FPW is developed in this study. The UO-FPW model can handle the uncertain information expressed in the form of fuzzy membership functions and probability density functions in the modeling parameters. The UO-FPW model is applied to a representative hypothetical case study to demonstrate its applicability in practice. The modeling results reflect the tradeoffs between economic objective (i.e., minimizing total-system cost) and system reliability (i.e., risk of violating fuzzy and/or random constraints, and meeting FP water treatment/disposal requirements). Using the developed optimization model, decision makers can make and adjust appropriate FP water management strategies through refining the values of feasibility degrees for fuzzy constraints and the probability levels for random constraints if the solutions are not satisfactory. The optimization model can be easily integrated into decision support systems for shale oil/gas lifecycle

  5. Oil Shale: History, Incentives, and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-13

    of Crude Oil (for July 2005 to Jan. 2006), at [http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pri_rac2_dcu_nus_m.htm]. Crude oil production costs vary widely by... oil production declined through the 1970s, many marginally profitable and often smaller refineries were closed or idled.48 Of the 324 refineries...whereas Shell’s estimate is based on oil field-based technology for resource extraction. The Ideal Size for an Oil Shale Facility As domestic crude

  6. Catalytic gasification of oil-shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, A.; Avakyan, T. [I.M. Gubkin Russian State Univ. of Oil and Gas, Moscow (Russian Federation); Strizhakova, Yu. [Samara State Univ. (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    Nowadays, the problem of complex usage of solid fossil fuels as raw materials for obtaining of motor fuels and chemical products is becoming increasingly important. A one of possible solutions of the problem is their gasification with further processing of gaseous and liquid products. In this work we have investigated the process of thermal and catalytic gasification of Baltic and Kashpir oil-shales. We have shown that, as compared with non-catalytic process, using of nickel catalyst in the reaction increases the yield of gas, as well as hydrogen content in it, and decreases the amount of liquid products. (orig.)

  7. Market analysis of shale oil co-products. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    Data are presented in these appendices on the marketing and economic potential for soda ash, aluminia, and nahcolite as by-products of shale oil production. Appendices 1 and 2 contain data on the estimated capital and operating cost of an oil shales/mineral co-products recovery facility. Appendix 3 contains the marketing research data.

  8. Shale Gas in Europe: pragmatic perspectives and actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horsfield B.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas will continue to play a key role in the EU’s energy mix in the coming years, with unconventional gas’ role increasing in importance as new resources are exploited worldwide. As far as Europe’s own shale gas resources are concerned, it is especially the public’s perception and level of acceptance that will make or break shale gas in the near-term. Both the pros and cons need to be discussed based on factual argument rather than speculation. Research organizations such as ours (GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences have an active and defining role to play in remedying this deficiency. As far as science and technology developments are concerned, the project “Gas Shales in Europe” (GASH and the shale gas activities of “GeoEnergie” (GeoEn are the first major initiatives in Europe focused on shale gas. Basic and applied geoscientific research is conducted to understand the fundamental nature and interdependencies of the processes leading to shale gas formation. When it comes to knowledge transfer, the perceived and real risks associated with shale gas exploitation need immediate evaluation in Europe using scientific analysis. To proactively target these issues, the GFZ and partners are launching the European sustainable Operating Practices (E-SOP Initiative for Unconventional Resources. The web-based Shale Gas Information Platform (SHIP brings these issues into the public domain.

  9. Shale Gas in Europe: pragmatic perspectives and actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, A.; Horsfield, B.; Kapp, I.

    2012-10-01

    Natural gas will continue to play a key role in the EU's energy mix in the coming years, with unconventional gas' role increasing in importance as new resources are exploited worldwide. As far as Europe's own shale gas resources are concerned, it is especially the public's perception and level of acceptance that will make or break shale gas in the near-term. Both the pros and cons need to be discussed based on factual argument rather than speculation. Research organizations such as ours (GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences) have an active and defining role to play in remedying this deficiency. As far as science and technology developments are concerned, the project "Gas Shales in Europe" (GASH) and the shale gas activities of "GeoEnergie" (GeoEn) are the first major initiatives in Europe focused on shale gas. Basic and applied geoscientific research is conducted to understand the fundamental nature and interdependencies of the processes leading to shale gas formation. When it comes to knowledge transfer, the perceived and real risks associated with shale gas exploitation need immediate evaluation in Europe using scientific analysis. To proactively target these issues, the GFZ and partners are launching the European sustainable Operating Practices (E-SOP) Initiative for Unconventional Resources. The web-based Shale Gas Information Platform (SHIP) brings these issues into the public domain.

  10. Nuclear Waste Disposal: A Cautionary Tale for Shale Gas Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, William M.; Cherry, John A.; Parker, Beth L.; Ryan, M. Cathryn

    2014-07-01

    Nuclear energy and shale gas development each began with the promise of cheap, abundant energy and prospects for national energy independence. Nuclear energy was touted as "too cheap to meter," and shale gas promised jobs and other economic benefits during a recession.

  11. Updated methodology for nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Kathryn E.; Birdwell, Justin E.

    2013-01-01

    Unconventional petroleum resources, particularly in shales, are expected to play an increasingly important role in the world’s energy portfolio in the coming years. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), particularly at low-field, provides important information in the evaluation of shale resources. Most of the low-field NMR analyses performed on shale samples rely heavily on standard T1 and T2 measurements. We present a new approach using solid echoes in the measurement of T1 and T1–T2 correlations that addresses some of the challenges encountered when making NMR measurements on shale samples compared to conventional reservoir rocks. Combining these techniques with standard T1 and T2 measurements provides a more complete assessment of the hydrogen-bearing constituents (e.g., bitumen, kerogen, clay-bound water) in shale samples. These methods are applied to immature and pyrolyzed oil shale samples to examine the solid and highly viscous organic phases present during the petroleum generation process. The solid echo measurements produce additional signal in the oil shale samples compared to the standard methodologies, indicating the presence of components undergoing homonuclear dipolar coupling. The results presented here include the first low-field NMR measurements performed on kerogen as well as detailed NMR analysis of highly viscous thermally generated bitumen present in pyrolyzed oil shale.

  12. Implementation of an anisotropic mechanical model for shale in Geodyn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attia, A; Vorobiev, O; Walsh, S

    2015-05-15

    The purpose of this report is to present the implementation of a shale model in the Geodyn code, based on published rock material models and properties that can help a petroleum engineer in his design of various strategies for oil/gas recovery from shale rock formation.

  13. The Geopolitical Impact of Shale Gas: The Modelling Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auping, W.L.; De Jong, S.; Pruyt, E.; Kwakkel, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    The US’ shale gas revolution, a spectacular increase in natural gas extraction from previously unconventional sources, has led to considerable lower gas prices in North America. This study focusses on consequences of the shale gas revolution on state stability of traditional oil and gas exporting co

  14. A fly ash and shale fired brick production line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuYali

    2005-01-01

    The article describes the fly ash and shale fired brick production line with annual output of 1250 million bricks, designed by Xi'an Research and Design Institute of Wall and Roof Material, commissioned by QinDian Building Material Subcompany, and set an example for using fly ash and shale in China.

  15. Effects of retorting factors on combustion properties of shale char. 3. Distribution of residual organic matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiangxin; Jiang, Xiumin; Cui, Zhigang; Liu, Jianguo; Yan, Junwei

    2010-03-15

    Shale char, formed in retort furnaces of oil shale, is classified as a dangerous waste containing several toxic compounds. In order to retort oil shale to produce shale oil as well as treat shale char efficiently and in an environmentally friendly way, a novel kind of comprehensive utilization system was developed to use oil shale for shale oil production, electricity generation (shale char fired) and the extensive application of oil shale ash. For exploring the combustion properties of shale char further, in this paper organic matters within shale chars obtained under different retorting conditions were extracted and identified using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. Subsequently, the effects of retorting factors, including retorting temperature, residence time, particle size and heating rate, were analyzed in detail. As a result, a retorting condition with a retorting temperature of 460-490 degrees C, residence time of circulating fluidized bed technology with fractional combustion.

  16. Market enhancement of shale oil: The native products extraction technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunger, J.W. (Bunger (James W.) and Associates, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)); DuBow, J.B. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States))

    1991-10-01

    The overall objective of this work was to assess the feasibility of enhancing shale oil commercialization through SO/NPX technology. Specific objectives were: (1) To determine the properties and characteristics of fractions isolable from shale oil utilizing separation sequences which are based on thermodynamic considerations; (2) To identify product streams of market value for promising technology development; (3)To conduct technology development studies leading to a shale oil extraction and processing sequence which promises economic enhancement of shale oil commercialization; (4) To develop an analytical methodology and model for obtaining engineering design data required for process development; (5) To estimate the economics of SO/NPX including the potential for enhancing the profitability of a commercial-scale shale oil MIS retort.

  17. Development of Shale Gas Supply Chain Network under Market Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Chebeir

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand of energy has turned the shale gas and shale oil into one of the most promising sources of energy in the United States. In this article, a model is proposed to address the long-term planning problem of the shale gas supply chain under uncertain conditions. A two-stage stochastic programming model is proposed to describe and optimize the shale gas supply chain network. Inherent uncertainty in final products’ prices, such as natural gas and natural gas liquids (NGL, is treated through the utilization of a scenario-based method. A binomial option pricing model is utilized to approximate the stochastic process through the generation of scenario trees. The aim of the proposed model is to generate an appropriate and realistic supply chain network configuration as well as scheduling of different operations throughout the planning horizon of a shale gas development project.

  18. Oil shale and nahcolite resources of the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    This report presents an in-place assessment of the oil shale and nahcolite resources of the Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin of western Colorado. The Piceance Basin is one of three large structural and sedimentary basins that contain vast amounts of oil shale resources in the Green River Formation of Eocene age. The other two basins, the Uinta Basin of eastern Utah and westernmost Colorado, and the Greater Green River Basin of southwest Wyoming, northwestern Colorado, and northeastern Utah also contain large resources of oil shale in the Green River Formation, and these two basins will be assessed separately. Estimated in-place oil is about 1.5 trillion barrels, based on Fischer a ssay results from boreholes drilled to evaluate oil shale, making it the largest oil shale deposit in the world. The estimated in-place nahcolite resource is about 43.3 billion short tons.

  19. Assessment of industry needs for oil shale research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackworth, J.H.

    1987-05-01

    Thirty-one industry people were contacted to provide input on oil shale in three subject areas. The first area of discussion dealt with industry's view of the shape of the future oil shale industry; the technology, the costs, the participants, the resources used, etc. It assessed the types and scale of the technologies that will form the industry, and how the US resource will be used. The second subject examined oil shale R D needs and priorities and potential new areas of research. The third area of discussion sought industry comments on what they felt should be the role of the DOE (and in a larger sense the US government) in fostering activities that will lead to a future commercial US oil shale shale industry.

  20. Potential small-scale development of western oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, V.; Renk, R.; Nordin, J.; Chatwin, T.; Harnsberger, M.; Fahy, L.J.; Cha, C.Y.; Smith, E.; Robertson, R.

    1989-10-01

    Several studies have been undertaken in an effort to determine ways to enhance development of western oil shale under current market conditions for energy resources. This study includes a review of the commercial potential of western oil shale products and byproducts, a review of retorting processes, an economic evaluation of a small-scale commercial operation, and a description of the environmental requirements of such an operation. Shale oil used as a blend in conventional asphalt appears to have the most potential for entering today's market. Based on present prices for conventional petroleum, other products from oil shale do not appear competitive at this time or will require considerable marketing to establish a position in the marketplace. Other uses for oil shale and spent shale, such as for sulfur sorbtion, power generation, cement, aggregate, and soil stabilization, are limited economically by transportation costs. The three-state area area consisting of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming seems reasonable for the entry of shale oil-blended asphalt into the commercial market. From a review of retorting technologies and the product characteristics from various retorting processes it was determined that the direct heating Paraho and inclined fluidized-bed processes produce a high proportion of heavy material with a high nitrogen content. The two processes are complementary in that they are each best suited to processing different size ranges of materials. An economic evaluation of a 2000-b/d shale oil facility shows that the operation is potentially viable, if the price obtained for the shale oil residue is in the top range of prices projected for this product. Environmental requirements for building and operating an oil shale processing facility are concerned with permitting, control of emissions and discharges, and monitoring. 62 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  1. Texture and anisotropy analysis of Qusaiba shales

    KAUST Repository

    Kanitpanyacharoen, Waruntorn

    2011-02-17

    Scanning and transmission electron microscopy, synchrotron X-ray diffraction, microtomography and ultrasonic velocity measurements were used to characterize microstructures and anisotropy of three deeply buried Qusaiba shales from the Rub\\'al-Khali basin, Saudi Arabia. Kaolinite, illite-smectite, illite-mica and chlorite show strong preferred orientation with (001) pole figure maxima perpendicular to the bedding plane ranging from 2.4-6.8 multiples of a random distribution (m.r.d.). Quartz, feldspars and pyrite crystals have a random orientation distribution. Elastic properties of the polyphase aggregate are calculated by averaging the single crystal elastic properties over the orientation distribution, assuming a nonporous material. The average calculated bulk P-wave velocities are 6.2 km/s (maximum) and 5.5 km/s (minimum), resulting in a P-wave anisotropy of 12%. The calculated velocities are compared with those determined from ultrasonic velocity measurements on a similar sample. In the ultrasonic experiment, which measures the effects of the shale matrix as well as the effects of porosity, velocities are smaller (P-wave maximum 5.3 km/s and minimum 4.1 km/s). The difference between calculated and measured velocities is attributed to the effects of anisotropic pore structure and to microfractures present in the sample, which have not been taken into account in the matrix averaging. © 2011 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  2. Ion chromatographic analysis of oil shale leachates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, N.L.

    1990-10-01

    In the present work an investigation of the use of ion chromatography to determine environmentally significant anions present in oil shale leachates was undertaken. Nadkarni et al. have used ion chromatography to separate and quantify halogen, sulfur and nitrogen species in oil shales after combustion in a Parr bomb. Potts and Potas used ion chromatography to monitor inorganic ions in cooling tower wastewater from coal gasification. Wallace and coworkers have used ion chromatography to determine anions encountered in retort wastewaters. The ions of interest in this work were the ions of sulfur oxides including sulfite (SO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}), sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}), thiosulfate (S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}), dithionite (S{sub 2}O{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}), dithionate (S{sub 2}O{sub 6}{sup 2{minus}}), peroxyodisulfate (S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2{minus}}), and tetrathionate (S{sub 4}O{sub 6}{sup 2{minus}}), and thiocyanate (SCN{sup {minus}}), sulfide (S{sup 2{minus}}) hydrosulfide (HS{sup {minus}}), cyanide (CN{sup {minus}}), thiocyanate (SCN{sup {minus}}), and cyanate (OCN{sup {minus}}). A literature search was completed and a leaching procedure developed. 15 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Enhanced Microbial Pathways for Methane Production from Oil Shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Fallgren

    2009-02-15

    Methane from oil shale can potentially provide a significant contribution to natural gas industry, and it may be possible to increase and continue methane production by artificially enhancing methanogenic activity through the addition of various substrate and nutrient treatments. Western Research Institute in conjunction with Pick & Shovel Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted microcosm and scaled-up reactor studies to investigate the feasibility and optimization of biogenic methane production from oil shale. The microcosm study involving crushed oil shale showed the highest yield of methane was produced from oil shale pretreated with a basic solution and treated with nutrients. Incubation at 30 C, which is the estimated temperature in the subsurface where the oil shale originated, caused and increase in methane production. The methane production eventually decreased when pH of the system was above 9.00. In the scaled-up reactor study, pretreatment of the oil shale with a basic solution, nutrient enhancements, incubation at 30 C, and maintaining pH at circumneutral levels yielded the highest rate of biogenic methane production. From this study, the annual biogenic methane production rate was determined to be as high as 6042 cu. ft/ton oil shale.

  4. A comprehensive environmental impact assessment method for shale gas development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renjin Sun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The great success of US commercial shale gas exploitation stimulates the shale gas development in China, subsequently, the corresponding supporting policies were issued in the 12th Five-Year Plan. But from the experience in the US shale gas development, we know that the resulted environmental threats are always an unavoidable issue, but no uniform and standard evaluation system has yet been set up in China. The comprehensive environment refers to the combination of natural ecological environment and external macro-environment. In view of this, we conducted a series of studies on how to set up a comprehensive environmental impact assessment system as well as the related evaluation methodology and models. First, we made an in-depth investigation into shale gas development procedures and any possible environmental impacts, and then compared, screened and modified environmental impact assessment methods for shale gas development. Also, we established an evaluating system and assessment models according to different status of the above two types of environment: the correlation matrix method was employed to assess the impacts on natural ecological environment and the optimization distance method was modified to evaluate the impacts on external macro-environment. Finally, we substitute the two subindexes into the comprehensive environmental impact assessment model and achieved the final numerical result of environmental impact assessment. This model can be used to evaluate if a shale gas project has any impact on environment, compare the impacts before and after a shale gas development project, or the impacts of different projects.

  5. Oil shale resources of the Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a comprehensive assessment of in-place oil in oil shales of the Eocene Green River Formation of the Uinta Basin of eastern Utah and western Colorado. The oil shale interval was subdivided into eighteen roughly time-stratigraphic intervals, and each interval was assessed for variations in gallons per ton, barrels per acre, and total barrels in each township. The Radial Basis Function extrapolation method was used to generate isopach and isoresource maps, and to calculate resources. The total inplace resource for the Uinta Basin is estimated at 1.32 trillion barrels. This is only slightly lower than the estimated 1.53 trillion barrels for the adjacent Piceance Basin, Colorado, to the east, which is thought to be the richest oil shale deposit in the world. However, the area underlain by oil shale in the Uinta Basin is much larger than that of the Piceance Basin, and the average gallons per ton and barrels per acre values for each of the assessed oil shale zones are significantly lower in the depocenter in the Uinta Basin when compared to the Piceance Basin. These relations indicate that the oil shale resources in the Uinta Basin are of lower grade and are more dispersed than the oil shale resources of the Piceance Basin.

  6. Alteration of Mancos Shale by synthetic hydrofracturing fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruichak, J. N.; Ilgen, A.; Wang, Y.; Griego, J.; Rodriguez, M.

    2015-12-01

    Shale gas produced through hydrofracturing has changed the energy perspective in the United States. Shale gas extraction is complicated by the fast decline in wellbore production, to mitigate which re-stimulation and drilling new wells are required. Our goal is to conduct laboratory experiments that examine methane transport from low-permeability matrices to fracture networks induced by hydraulic fracturing. In particular, we address whether mineralogical alteration of shale by hydrofracturing fluids has an effect on matrix-to-fracture methane transport. We performed a set of laboratory experiments addressing the alteration of Mancos shale by synthetic hydrofracturing fluid at hydrothermal conditions (90 °C). Both powdered shale and shale chips were investigated. Solid characterization was done using bulk and micro-X-ray diffraction (XRD, μXRD), and micro-X-ray Fluorescence mapping (µXRF). Analysis of the aqueous samples was done using ion chromatography (IC) for major anions and cations and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) - for trace metals. Our results indicate that calcium, barium, strontium , magnesium, manganese, silica, sodium, chloride and sulfate were released from Mancos shale after reaction with hydrofracturing fluid. Altered zones on shale surface after 2 months of reaction are thin - likely, within a few microns. The XRD patterns normalized to the 100% peak for quartz indicate that the dolomite, calcite, biotite, and kaolinite peaks decrease in intensity relative to the quartz peaks with increased alteration time, indicative of the partial dissolution of these minerals. Understanding mineralogical composition of an altered layer of Mancos shale will provide insight whether methane transport through these zones will be affected compared to the unaltered material. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the

  7. Analysis of the environmental control technology for oil shale development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Nevers, N.; Eckhoff, D.; Swanson, S.; Glenne, B.; Wagner, F.

    1978-02-01

    The environmental control technology proposed in the various oil shale projects which are under development are examined. The technologies for control of air pollution, water pollution, and for the disposal, stabilization, and vegetation of the processed shale were thoroughly investigated. Although some difficulties may be encountered in any of these undertakings, it seems clear that the air and water pollution problems can be solved to meet any applicable standard. There are no published national standards against which to judge the stabilization and vegetation of the processed shale. However, based on the goal of producing an environmentally and aesthetically acceptable finished processed shale pile, it seems probable that this can be accomplished. It is concluded that the environmental control technology is available to meet all current legal requirements. This was not the case before Colorado changed their applicable Air Pollution regulations in August of 1977; the previous ones for the oil shale region were sufficiently stringent to have caused a problem for the current stage of oil shale development. Similarly, the federal air-quality, non-deterioration regulations could be interpreted in the future in ways which would be difficult for the oil shale industry to comply with. The Utah water-quality, non-deterioration regulations could also be a problem. Thus, the only specific regulations which may be a problem are the non-deterioration parts of air and water quality regulations. The unresolved areas of environmental concern with oil shale processing are mostly for the problems not covered by existing environmental law, e.g., trace metals, polynuclear organics, ground water-quality changes, etc. These may be problems, but no evidence is yet available that these problems will prevent the successful commercialization of oil shale production.

  8. THE PELLETS APPLICATION IN LABORATORY RESEARCHING OF INHIBITIVE MUD/SHALE INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borivoje Pašić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Wellbore instability appears to be a serious problem during drilling process through shale. Shales instability cause basically comes out of its mineralogical composition (especially clay minerals content and physico-chemical properties. Many research activities about shale instability causes and shale properties (affecting shale behavior during interaction with water phase of different drilling muds definition have been carried out by now. In these laboratory tests were used original shales samples given by coring process or collecting shale cuttings from shale shakers, and different shale samples from outcrop. From this reason is very difficult compare laboratory tests results given by different authors. Possible solution is use artificial shale samples (pellets with exact mineralogical composition, enabling extensive laboratory tests and tests results comparison. In this paper presented laboratory tests of pellets swelling in inhibitive muds (the paper is published in Croatian.

  9. Shale gas - los yacimientos de hidrocarburos no convencionales: origen del Shale gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Longoria Treviño

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El shale gas tiene su origen en la acumulación de materia orgánica en cuencas marinas. En Norteamérica el gas de lutita (shale gas es una fuente emergente de gas natural de bajo costo. El gas natural es una fuente de energía abundante y relativamente limpia al quemarse. Se ha convertido en un combustible popular tanto para aplicaciones residenciales como industriales. De acuerdo con los datos recientes se estima que el suministro de gas natural derivado de yacimientos no convencionales (gas de lutita – shale gas durará más de 100 años. El gas natural ofrece un remplazo potencial para sustituir a los combustibles fósiles que producen gases de efecto invernadero y que en la actualidad se usan en la generación de energía, calefacción y transporte. Las emisiones de gas de efecto invernadero de la combustión de gas natural son aproximadamente 30% más limpias que aquellas que se derivan del aceite y 45% más limpias de las del carbón.

  10. Oil shale program. Eighteenth quarterly report, April 1980-June 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, A. L. [ed.

    1980-11-01

    Instrumentation and evaluation activities are in progress at two DOE-supported in situ oil shale field projects, namely, the Geokinetics Oil Shale Project near Vernal, Utah, and the Occidental Oil Shale Project near DeBeque, Colorado. In support of these projects, it is necessary to develop new and advanced instrumentation systems and associated deployment, recording and analysis techniques that are unique to the field project needs. A rock mechanics program provides material properties, material response models and computational methods for use in the design analysis, and evaluation functions. In addition, retorting studies are in progress on problems unique to the low void conditions encountered in field experiments.

  11. What controls the strength and brittleness of shale rocks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybacki, Erik; Reinicke, Andreas; Meier, Tobias; Makasi, Masline; Dresen, Georg

    2014-05-01

    With respect to the productivity of gas shales, in petroleum science the mechanical behavior of shales is often classified into rock types of high and low 'brittleness', sometimes also referred to as 'fraccability'. The term brittleness is not well defined and different definitions exist, associated with elastic properties (Poisson's ratio, Young's modulus), with strength parameters (compressive and tensile strength), frictional properties (cohesion, friction coefficient), hardness (indentation), or with the strain or energy budget (ratio of reversible to the total strain or energy, respectively). Shales containing a high amount of clay and organic matter are usually considered as less brittle. Similarly, the strength of shales is usually assumed to be low if they contain a high fraction of weak phases. We performed mechanical tests on a series of shales with different mineralogical compositions, varying porosity, and low to high maturity. Using cylindrical samples, we determined the uniaxial and triaxial compressive strength, static Young's modulus, the tensile strength, and Mode I fracture toughness. The results show that in general the uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) linearly increases with increasing Young's modulus (E) and both parameters increase with decreasing porosity. However, the strength and elastic modulus is not uniquely correlated with the mineral content. For shales with a relatively low quartz and high carbonate content, UCS and E increase with increasing quartz content, whereas for shales with a relatively low amount for carbonates, but high quartz content, both parameters increase with decreasing fraction of the weak phases (clays, kerogen). In contrast, the average tensile strength of all shale-types appears to increase with increasing quartz fraction. The internal friction coefficient of all investigated shales decreases with increasing pressure and may approach rather high values (up to ≡ 1). Therefore, the mechanical strength and

  12. Shale: an overlooked option for US nuclear waste disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuzil, Christopher E.

    2014-01-01

    Toss a dart at a map of the United States and, more often than not, it will land where shale can be found underground. A drab, relatively featureless sedimentary rock that historically attracted little interest, shale (as used here, the term includes clay and a range of clay-rich rocks) is entering Americans’ consciousness as a new source of gas and oil. But shale may also offer something entirely different—the ability to safely and permanently house high-level nuclear waste.

  13. Burgess shale faunas and the cambrian explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, S C

    1989-10-20

    Soft-bodied marine faunas from the Lower and Middle Cambrian, exemplified by the Burgess Shale of British Columbia, are a key component in understanding the major adaptive radiations at the beginning of the Phanerozoic ("Cambrian explosion"). These faunas have a widespread distribution, and many taxa have pronounced longevity. Among the components appear to be survivors of the preceding Ediacaran assemblages and a suite of bizarre forms that give unexpected insights into morphological diversification. Microevolutionary processes, however, seem adequate to account for this radiation, and the macroevolutionary patterns that set the seal on Phanerozoic life are contingent on random extinctions. They weeded out the morphological spectrum and permitted rediversification among surviving clades. Although the predictability of which clades will play in successive acts of the Phanerozoic theater is low, at least the outlines of the underlying ecological plot are already clear from the opening of the drama.

  14. Assessing the adsorption properties of shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pini, Ronny

    2015-04-01

    Physical adsorption refers to the trapping of fluid molecules at near liquid-like densities in the pores of a given adsorbent material. Fine-grained rocks, such as shales, contain a significant amount of nanopores that can significantly contribute to their storage capacity. As a matter of fact, the current ability to extract natural gas that is adsorbed in the rock's matrix is limited, and current technology focuses primarily on the free gas in the fractures (either natural or stimulated), thus leading to recovery efficiencies that are very low. Shales constitute also a great portion of so-called cap-rocks above potential CO2 sequestration sites; hereby, the adsorption process may limit the CO2 mobility within the cap-rock, thus minimizing the impact of leakage on the whole operation. Whether it is an unconventional reservoir or a cap-rock, understanding and quantifying the mechanisms of adsorption in these natural materials is key to improve the engineering design of subsurface operations. Results will be presented from a laboratory study that combines conventional techniques for the measurement of adsorption isotherms with novel methods that allows for the imaging of adsorption using x-rays. Various nanoporous materials are considered, thus including rocks, such as shales and coals, pure clay minerals (a major component in mudrocks) and engineered adsorbents with well-defined nanopore structures, such as zeolites. Supercritical CO2 adsorption isotherms have been measured with a Rubotherm Magnetic Suspension balance by covering the pressure range 0.1-20~MPa. A medical x-ray CT scanner has been used to identify three-dimensional patterns of the adsorption properties of a packed-bed of adsorbent, thus enabling to assess the spatial variability of the adsorption isotherm in heterogeneous materials. The data are analyzed by using thermodynamically rigorous measures of adsorption, such as the net- and excess adsorbed amounts and a recently developed methodology is

  15. Morphology of retorted oil shale particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D.C.; Mahajan, O.P.

    The formation of two distinct coked particle morphotypes, namely exfoliated and peripheral, during oil shale retorting and their implications toward the coking mechanism are discussed. Rapid heating causes swelling, exfoliation, and formation of a matrix of veinlets and cracks; these changes lead to uniform coking within the particle body. In contrast, slow heating produces the peripheral morphotype with a low coke density at the center and a high coke density at the periphery. The difference in the coking morphology of the two particle types has been explained on the basis of kerogen pyrolysis kinetics. Of the two morphotypes, peripheral coke makes the particles stronger and more resistant to size attrition. In addition to the formation of coke in the particle body of the two morphotypes, coke is also formed on the outer surface of both the particle types. It has been concluded that more coke is produced from the secondary decomposition reactions than directly from the kerogen itself. 25 references, 8 figures.

  16. Age of the Bedford Shale, Berea Sandstone, and Sunbury Shale in the Appalachian and Michigan basins, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Witt, Wallace

    1970-01-01

    The suggestion by Sanford (1967, p. 994) that the Bedford Shale, Berea Sandstone, and Sunbury Shale of the Michigan basin are of Late Devonian age because these strata contain Hymenozonotriletes lepidophytus Kedo is invalid for these formations in the Appalachian basin, the area of their type localities. Endosporites lacunosus Winslow, a synonym of Hymenozonotriletes lepidophytus Kedo, occurs in upper Chautauqua (Upper Devonian) rocks through much of the Kinderhook (Lower Mississippian) strata in Ohio. The Sunbury Shale, the Sunbury Member of the Orangeville Shale in part of northern Ohio, contains a Siplionodella fauna which clearly demonstrates the Kinderhook age of the unit. The basal strata of the Bedford Shale contain Spathoffnathodus anteposlcornis which suggests a very Late Devonian or very Early Mississippian age for this part of the Bedford. Except for the basal fossil zone, most of the Bedford Shale and the younger Berea Sandstone overlie the Murrysville sand, which along the Allegheny Front in central Pennsylvania contains an Adiantites flora of Early Mississippian (Kinderhook) age. The presence of Adiantites in the Murrysville sand indicates that most of the Bedford Shale and all the Berea Sandstone are of Early Mississippian age. Lithostratigraphic evidence suggests that the Berea Sandstone of Ohio may be a temporal equivalent of the basal Beckville Member of the Pocono Formation of the Anthracite region of Pennsylvania. The clearly demonstrable Kinderhook age of the Sunbury, Berea, and most of the Bedford in the Appalachian basin strongly indicates a similar age for the same units in the Michigan basin.

  17. Shale nanopore reconstruction with compressive sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Long; Xiao, Lizhi

    2017-03-01

    With increasing global demand for energy resources, shale gas has been paid considerable attention in recent years. Nanopore geometry is the basis for all microscopic rock physics and petrophysical numerical experiments for shale. At present, nano digital cores can be acquired via thin section reconstruction, nanometer-scale x-ray computed tomography (nano-CT), and focused ion beam and scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM). FIB-SEM detects nanoscale pores in the xy-plane with a resolution of up to 0.8 nm voxel‑1, and it is usually provides higher resolution than nano-CT. The main workload associated with FIB-SEM is the need to recut the sample many times and scan every section, with these then being overlaid to create a three-dimensional (3D) pore model. Each cutting distance can be ascertained, but this cannot be controlled precisely because of the fundamental limits of focused ion beams. Many interpolation methods can be used to fit the anisotropy resolution. However, these methods can also alter the geometry of the pores. Nanopores that are close to the limiting resolution are particularly susceptible to stretching. Linear interpolation is likely to lengthen the pores in the low-resolution direction. The subsequent calculation of sensitive physical attributes will be affected by geometric alterations. Through foundational work in the compressive sensing (CS) method, we present a reconstruction workflow for maintaining the pore shape using prior knowledge and reliable information. The images are reassembled with equal distance, so the nanoscale structures can have a resolution of unity in three dimensions.

  18. Low-temperature gas from marine shales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarvie Daniel M

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Thermal cracking of kerogens and bitumens is widely accepted as the major source of natural gas (thermal gas. Decomposition is believed to occur at high temperatures, between 100 and 200°C in the subsurface and generally above 300°C in the laboratory. Although there are examples of gas deposits possibly generated at lower temperatures, and reports of gas generation over long periods of time at 100°C, robust gas generation below 100°C under ordinary laboratory conditions is unprecedented. Here we report gas generation under anoxic helium flow at temperatures 300° below thermal cracking temperatures. Gas is generated discontinuously, in distinct aperiodic episodes of near equal intensity. In one three-hour episode at 50°C, six percent of the hydrocarbons (kerogen & bitumen in a Mississippian marine shale decomposed to gas (C1–C5. The same shale generated 72% less gas with helium flow containing 10 ppm O2 and the two gases were compositionally distinct. In sequential isothermal heating cycles (~1 hour, nearly five times more gas was generated at 50°C (57.4 μg C1–C5/g rock than at 350°C by thermal cracking (12 μg C1–C5/g rock. The position that natural gas forms only at high temperatures over geologic time is based largely on pyrolysis experiments under oxic conditions and temperatures where low-temperature gas generation could be suppressed. Our results indicate two paths to gas, a high-temperature thermal path, and a low-temperature catalytic path proceeding 300° below the thermal path. It redefines the time-temperature dimensions of gas habitats and opens the possibility of gas generation at subsurface temperatures previously thought impossible.

  19. Shale Gas characteristics of Permian black shales (Ecca group, Eastern Cape, South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geel, Claire; Booth, Peter; Schulz, Hans-Martin; Horsfield, Brian; de Wit, Maarten

    2013-04-01

    This study involves a comprehensive and detailed lithological, sedimentalogical, structural and geochemical description of the lower Ecca Group in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. The Ecca group hosts a ~ 245 million year old organic-rich black shale, which has recently been the focus of interest of petroleum companies worldwide. The shale was deposited under anoxic conditions in a setting which formed as a consequence of retro-arc foreland basin development related to the Cape Fold Belt. This sedimentary/tectonic environment provided the conditions for deeply buried black shales to reach maturity levels for development in the gas window. The investigation site is called the Greystone Area and is situated north of Wolwefontein en route to Jansenville. The area has outcrops of the Dwyka, the Ecca and the lower Beaufort Groups. The outcrops were mapped extensively and the data was used in conjunction with GIS software to produce a detailed geological map. North-south cross sections were drawn to give indication of bed thicknesses and formation depths. Using the field work, data two boreholes were accurately sited on the northern limb of a shallow easterly plunging syncline. The first borehole reached 100m and the second was drilled to 292m depth (100m percussion and 192m core). The second borehole was drilled 200m south of the first, to penetrate the formations at a greater depth and to avoid surface weathering. Fresh core from the upper Dwyka Group, the Prince Albert Formation, the Whitehill Formation, Collingham Formation and part of the Ripon Formation were successfully extracted and a detailed stratigraphic log has been drawn up. The core was sampled during extraction and the samples were immediately sent to the GFZ in Potsdam, Germany, for geochemical analyses. As suspected the black shales of the the Whitehill Formation are high in organic carbon and have an average TOC value of 4.5%, whereas the Prince Albert and Collingham Formation are below 1%. Tmax values

  20. Sweet spot identification and smart development -An integrated reservoir characterization study of a posidonia shale of a posidonia shale outcrop analogue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, J.H. ten; Verreussel, R.M.C.H.; Ventra, D.; Zijp, M.H.A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Shale gas reservoir stimulation procedures (e.g. hydraulic fracturing) require upfront prediction and planning that should be supported by a comprehensive reservoir characterization. Therefore, understanding shale depositional processes and associated vertical and lateral sedimentological variabilit

  1. Viscous Creep in Dry Unconsolidated Gulf of Mexico Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C.; Zoback, M. D.

    2002-12-01

    We conducted laboratory experiments to investigate creep characteristics of dry unconsolidated shale recovered from the pathfinder well, Gulf of Mexico (GOM). We subjected jacketed cylindrical specimens (25.4 mm diameter) to hydrostatic pressure that increased from 10 to 50 MPa in steps of 5 MPa. We kept the pressure constant in each step for at least 6 hours and measured axial and lateral strains (provided by LVDTs) and ultrasonic velocities (provided by seismic-wave transducers). The dry shale exhibited pronounced creep strain at all pressure levels, indicating that the dry frame of the shale possesses an intrinsic viscous property. Interestingly, the creep behavior of the shale is different above and below 30 MPa confining pressure. Above 30 MPa, the amount of creep strain in 6 hours is nearly constant with equal pressurization steps, indicating a linear viscous rheology. Below 30 MPa, the amount of creep increases linearly as pressure is raised in constant incremental steps, suggesting that the creep deformation accelerates as pressure increases within this pressure range. Thus, the general creep behavior of the GOM shale is characterized by a bilinear dependence on pressure magnitude. This creep characteristic is quite different from that observed in unconsolidated reservoir sands (Hagin and Zoback, 2002), which exhibited nearly constant amount of creep regardless of the pressure magnitude for equal increasing steps of pressure. The shale exhibits a lack of creep (and nearly negligible strain recovery) when unloaded, suggesting that the creep strain is irrecoverable and can be considered viscoplastic deformation. SEM observations show that the major mechanism of compaction of the dry shale appears to be packing of clay and a progressive collapse of pore (void) spaces. Creep compaction is considerably more significant than compaction that occurs instantaneously, indicating that the process of shale compaction is largely time-dependent.

  2. Cyclone oil shale retorting concept. [Use it all retorting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harak, A.E.; Little, W.E.; Faulders, C.R.

    1984-04-01

    A new concept for above-ground retorting of oil shale was disclosed by A.E. Harak in US Patent No. 4,340,463, dated July 20, 1982, and assigned to the US Department of Energy. This patent titled System for Utilizing Oil Shale Fines, describes a process wherein oil shale fines of one-half inch diameter and less are pyrolyzed in an entrained-flow reactor using hot gas from a cyclone combustor. Spent shale and supplemental fuel are burned at slagging conditions in this combustor. Because of fines utilization, the designation Use It All Retorting Process (UIARP) has been adopted. A preliminary process engineering design of the UIARP, analytical tests on six samples of raw oil shale, and a preliminary technical and economic evaluation of the process were performed. The results of these investigations are summarized in this report. The patent description is included. It was concluded that such changes as deleting air preheating in the slag quench and replacing the condenser with a quench-oil scrubber are recognized as being essential. The addition of an entrained flow raw shale preheater ahead of the cyclone retort is probably required, but final acceptance is felt to be contingent on some verification that adequate reaction time cannot be obtained with only the cyclone, or possibly some other twin-cyclone configuration. Sufficient raw shale preheating could probably be done more simply in another manner, perhaps in a screw conveyor shale transporting system. Results of the technical and economic evaluations of Jacobs Engineering indicate that further investigation of the UIARP is definitely worthwhile. The projected capital and operating costs are competitive with costs of other processes as long as electric power generation and sales are part of the processing facility.

  3. Skimming the surface with Burgess Shale arthropod locomotion

    OpenAIRE

    Minter, Nicholas J.; Mángano, M. Gabriela; Caron, Jean-Bernard

    2011-01-01

    The first arthropod trackways are described from the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale Formation of Canada. Trace fossils, including trackways, provide a rich source of biological and ecological information, including direct evidence of behaviour not commonly available from body fossils alone. The discovery of large arthropod trackways is unique for Burgess Shale-type deposits. Trackway dimensions and the requisite number of limbs are matched with the body plan of a tegopeltid arthropod. Tegopelt...

  4. Trace elements in oil shale. Progress report, 1976--1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chappell, W.R.

    1979-01-01

    The overall objective of the program is to evaluate the environmental and health consequences of the release of toxic trace elements (As, B, F, Mo, Se) by shale oil production and use. Some of the particularly significant results are: The baseline geochemical survey shows that stable trace elements maps can be constructed for numerous elements and that the trends observed are related to geologic and climatic factors. Shale retorted by above-ground processes tends to be very homogeneous (both in space and in time) in trace element content. This implies that the number of analytical determinations required of processed shales is not large. Leachate studies show that significant amounts of B, F, And Mo are released from retorted shales and while B and Mo are rapidly flushed out, F is not. On the other hand, As, Se, and most other trace elements ae not present in significant quantities. Significant amounts of F and B are also found in leachates of raw shales. Very large concentrations of reduced sulfur species are found in leachates of processed shale. Upon oxidation a drastic lowering in pH is observed. Preliminary data indicates that this oxidation is catalyzed by bacteria. Very high levels of B and Mo are taken up in some plants growing on processed shale with and without soil cover. These amounts depend upon the process and various site specific characteristics. In general, the amounts taken up decrease with increasing soil cover. On the other hand, we have not observed significant uptake of As, Se, and F into plants. There is a tendency for some trace elements to associate with specific organic fractions, indicating that organic chelation or complexation may play an important role. In particular, most of the Cd, Se, and Cr in shale oil is associated with the organic fraction containing most of the nitrogen-containing compounds.

  5. A Transversely Isotropic Thermo-mechanical Framework for Oil Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semnani, S. J.; White, J. A.; Borja, R. I.

    2014-12-01

    The present study provides a thermo-mechanical framework for modeling the temperature dependent behavior of oil shale. As a result of heating, oil shale undergoes phase transformations, during which organic matter is converted to petroleum products, e.g. light oil, heavy oil, bitumen, and coke. The change in the constituents and microstructure of shale at high temperatures dramatically alters its mechanical behavior e.g. plastic deformations and strength, as demonstrated by triaxial tests conducted at multiple temperatures [1,2]. Accordingly, the present model formulates the effects of changes in the chemical constituents due to thermal loading. It is well known that due to the layered structure of shale its mechanical properties in the direction parallel to the bedding planes is significantly different from its properties in the perpendicular direction. Although isotropic models simplify the modeling process, they fail to accurately describe the mechanical behavior of these rocks. Therefore, many researchers have studied the anisotropic behavior of rocks, including shale [3]. The current study presents a framework to incorporate the effects of transverse isotropy within a thermo-mechanical formulation. The proposed constitutive model can be readily applied to existing finite element codes to predict the behavior of oil shale in applications such as in-situ retorting process and stability assessment in petroleum reservoirs. [1] Masri, M. et al."Experimental Study of the Thermomechanical Behavior of the Petroleum Reservoir." SPE Eastern Regional/AAPG Eastern Section Joint Meeting. Society of Petroleum Engineers, 2008. [2] Xu, B. et al. "Thermal impact on shale deformation/failure behaviors---laboratory studies." 45th US Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium. American Rock Mechanics Association, 2011. [3] Crook, AJL et al. "Development of an orthotropic 3D elastoplastic material model for shale." SPE/ISRM Rock Mechanics Conference. Society of Petroleum Engineers

  6. Sweet spots for hydraulic fracturing oil or gas production in underexplored shales using key performance indicators: Example of the Posidonia Shale formation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heege, J.H. ter; Zijp, M.H.A.A.; Nelkamp, S.

    2015-01-01

    While extensive data and experiences are available for hydraulic fracturing and hydrocarbon production from shales in the U.S.A., such a record is lacking in many underexplored shale basins worldwide. As limited data is usually available in these basins, analysis of shale prospectivity and identific

  7. Validation Results for Core-Scale Oil Shale Pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staten, Josh; Tiwari, Pankaj

    2015-03-01

    This report summarizes a study of oil shale pyrolysis at various scales and the subsequent development a model for in situ production of oil from oil shale. Oil shale from the Mahogany zone of the Green River formation was used in all experiments. Pyrolysis experiments were conducted at four scales, powdered samples (100 mesh) and core samples of 0.75”, 1” and 2.5” diameters. The batch, semibatch and continuous flow pyrolysis experiments were designed to study the effect of temperature (300°C to 500°C), heating rate (1°C/min to 10°C/min), pressure (ambient and 500 psig) and size of the sample on product formation. Comprehensive analyses were performed on reactants and products - liquid, gas and spent shale. These experimental studies were designed to understand the relevant coupled phenomena (reaction kinetics, heat transfer, mass transfer, thermodynamics) at multiple scales. A model for oil shale pyrolysis was developed in the COMSOL multiphysics platform. A general kinetic model was integrated with important physical and chemical phenomena that occur during pyrolysis. The secondary reactions of coking and cracking in the product phase were addressed. The multiscale experimental data generated and the models developed provide an understanding of the simultaneous effects of chemical kinetics, and heat and mass transfer on oil quality and yield. The comprehensive data collected in this study will help advance the move to large-scale in situ oil production from the pyrolysis of oil shale.

  8. Life-cycle analysis of shale gas and natural gas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C.E.; Han, J.; Burnham, A.; Dunn, J.B.; Wang, M. (Energy Systems); ( EVS)

    2012-01-27

    The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. Using the current state of knowledge of the recovery, processing, and distribution of shale gas and conventional natural gas, we have estimated up-to-date, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we have developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps - such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings - that need to be addressed further. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than those of conventional natural gas. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty regarding whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas emissions. This life-cycle analysis provides insight into the critical stages in the natural gas industry where emissions occur and where opportunities exist to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

  9. Experimental investigations of the wettability of clays and shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borysenko, Artem; Clennell, Ben; Sedev, Rossen; Burgar, Iko; Ralston, John; Raven, Mark; Dewhurst, David; Liu, Keyu

    2009-07-01

    Wettability in argillaceous materials is poorly understood, yet it is critical to hydrocarbon recovery in clay-rich reservoirs and capillary seal capacity in both caprocks and fault gouges. The hydrophobic or hydrophilic nature of clay-bearing soils and sediments also controls to a large degree the movement of spilled nonaqueous phase liquids in the subsurface and the options available for remediation of these pollutants. In this paper the wettability of hydrocarbons contacting shales in their natural state and the tendencies for wettability alteration were examined. Water-wet, oil-wet, and mixed-wet shales from wells in Australia were investigated and were compared with simplified model shales (single and mixed minerals) artificially treated in crude oil. The intact natural shale samples (preserved with their original water content) were characterized petrophysically by dielectric spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance, plus scanning electron, optical and fluorescence microscopy. Wettability alteration was studied using spontaneous imbibition, pigment extraction, and the sessile drop method for contact angle measurement. The mineralogy and chemical compositions of the shales were determined by standard methods. By studying pure minerals and natural shales in parallel, a correlation between the petrophysical properties, and wetting behavior was observed. These correlations may potentially be used to assess wettability in downhole measurements.

  10. The status of shale gas in New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J. [New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, Albany, NY (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This paper discussed the exploration and development of shale gas plays in the Appalachian Basin in New York, with particular reference to the Utica shale gas play and the Marcellus Formation in the Middle Devonian Hamilton shale. Gas production mechanisms were reviewed along with the types of shale gas systems, including biogenic and thermogenic gas systems. The rocks of the Appalachian Basin have been impacted by at least 1 of 3 major Paleozoic tectonic events. Maps and illustrations depicting the depositional facies, stratigraphy and total organic carbon content of the oil and gas fields were provided along with the names of key formations. Preliminary studies have shown that the Marcellus Formation has a wide range of total organic carbon content, thermal maturity and kerogen quality. The variability is by unit, depth and geographical location. The maturity of the Utica shale closely follows the proximity to the orogen. The total organic carbon content of the Utica shale is bedding dependent as well as geographically dependent. tabs., figs.

  11. Standardized surface engineering design of shale gas reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangchuan Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the special physical properties of shale gas reservoirs, it is necessary to adopt unconventional and standardized technologies for its surface engineering construction. In addition, the surface engineering design of shale gas reservoirs in China faces many difficulties, such as high uncertainty of the gathering and transportation scale, poor adaptability of pipe network and station layout, difficult matching of the process equipments, and boosting production at the late stage. In view of these problems, the surface engineering construction of shale gas reservoirs should follow the principles of “standardized design, modularized construction and skid mounted equipment”. In this paper, standardized surface engineering design technologies for shale gas reservoirs were developed with the “standardized well station layout, universal process, modular function zoning, skid mounted equipment selection, intensive site design, digitized production management” as the core, after literature analysis and technology exploration were carried out. Then its application background and surface technology route were discussed with a typical shale gas field in Sichuan–Chongqing area as an example. Its surface gathering system was designed in a standardized way, including standardized process, the modularized gathering and transportation station, serialized dehydration unit and intensive layout, and remarkable effects were achieved. A flexible, practical and reliable ground production system was built, and a series of standardized technology and modularized design were completed, including cluster well platform, set station, supporting projects. In this way, a system applicable to domestic shale gas surface engineering construction is developed.

  12. Comparative dermal carcinogenesis of shale and petroleum-derived distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C R; Walter, M K; Ferguson, P W; Katchen, M

    1988-03-01

    Ten test materials derived from petroleum or hydrotreated shale oils were applied 3 times/week for up to 105 weeks to the shaved skin of 25 male and 25 female C3H/HeN mice per group. Mineral oil and benzo(a) pyrene (0.15%) were control materials. Clinical observations were recorded during the study. At death, histopathologic examination was conducted on skin, internal organs and any gross lesions. Exposures to some materials were ended midway in the study due to severe irritation. Chronic toxicity of all materials was limited to inflammatory and degenerative skin changes. Significant increases over control incidence of skin tumors (squamous cell carcinoma and fibrosarcoma) occurred with both petroleum and shale-derived naphtha (21%, 50%), Jet A (26%, 28%), JP-4 (26%, 50%), and crude oils (84%, 54%). Severely hydrotreated shale oil and petroleum and shale-derived diesel distillates were not considered tumorigenic. Results indicate that toxicity of comparable petroleum and shale-derived fractions was qualitatively similar and confirm earlier findings that hydrotreating reduces or eliminates carcinogenicity of raw shale oil.

  13. Climate impact of potential shale gas production in the EU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forster, D.; Perks, J. [AEA Technology plc, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    Existing estimates of GHG emissions from shale gas production and available abatement options were used to obtain improved estimates of emissions from possible shale gas exploitation in the EU. GHG emissions per unit of electricity generated from shale gas were estimated to be around 4 to 8% higher than for electricity generated by conventional pipeline gas from within Europe. These additional emissions arise in the pre-combustion stage, predominantly in the well completion phase when the fracturing fluid is brought back to the surface together with released methane. If emissions from well completion are mitigated, through flaring or capture, and utilised, then this difference is reduced to 1 to 5%. The analysis suggests that the emissions from shale gas-based power generation (base case) are 2 to 10% lower than those from electricity generated from sources of conventional pipeline gas located outside of Europe (in Russia and Algeria), and 7 to 10% lower than those from electricity generated from LNG imported into Europe. However, under our 'worst case' shale gas scenario, where all flow back gases at well completion are vented, emissions from electricity generated from shale gas would be similar to the upper emissions level for electricity generated from imported LNG and for gas imported from Russia.

  14. Western oil shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 8. Health effects of oil shale development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotariu, G.J.

    1982-02-01

    Information on the potential health effects of a developing oil shale industry can be derived from two major sources: (1) the historical experience in foreign countries that have had major industries; and (2) the health effects research that has been conducted in the US in recent years. The information presented here is divided into two major sections: one dealing with the experience in foreign countries and the second dealing with the more recent work associated with current oil shale development in the US. As a result of the study, several observations can be made: (1) most of the current and historical data from foreign countries relate to occupational hazards rather than to impacts on regional populations; (2) neither the historical evidence from other countries nor the results of current research have shown pulmonary neoplasia to be a major concern, however, certain types of exposure, particularly such mixed source exposures as dust/diesel or dust/organic-vapor have not been adequately studied and the lung cancer question is not closed; (3) the industry should be alert to the incidence of skin disease in the industrial setting, however, automated techniques, modern industrial hygiene practices and realistic personal hygiene should greatly reduce the hazards associated with skin contact; and (4) the entire question of regional water contamination and any resultant health hazard has not been adequately addressed. The industrial practice of hydrotreating the crude shale oil will diminish the carcinogenic hazard of the product, however, the quantitative reduction of biological activity is dependent on the degree of hydrotreatment. Both Soviet and American experimentalists have demonstrated a correlation betweed carcinogenicity/toxicity and retorting temperature; the higher temperatures producing the more carcinogenic or toxic products.

  15. A shale rock physics model for analysis of brittleness index, mineralogy and porosity in the Barnett Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhiqi; Li, Xiang-Yang; Liu, Cai; Feng, Xuan; Shen, Ye

    2013-04-01

    We construct a rock physics workflow to link the elastic properties of shales to complex constituents and specific microstructure attributes. The key feature in our rock physics model is the degrees of preferred orientation of clay and kerogen particles defined by the proportions of such particles in their total content. The self-consistent approximation method and Backus averaging method are used to consider the isotropic distribution and preferred orientation of compositions and pores in shales. Using the core and well log data from the Barnett Shale, we demonstrate the application of the constructed templates for the evaluation of porosity, lithology and brittleness index. Then, we investigate the brittleness index defined in terms of mineralogy and geomechanical properties. The results show that as clay content increases, Poisson's ratio tends to increase and Young's modulus tends to decrease. Moreover, we find that Poisson's ratio is more sensitive to the variation in the texture of shales resulting from the preferred orientation of clay particles. Finally, based on the constructed rock physics model, we calculate AVO responses from the top and bottom of the Barnett Shale, and the results indicate predictable trends for the variations in porosity, lithology and brittleness index in shales.

  16. Shale depositional processes: Example from the Paleozoic Barnett Shale, Fort Worth Basin, Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouelresh, Mohamed; Slatt, Roger

    2011-12-01

    A long held geologic paradigm is that mudrocks and shales are basically the product of `hemipelagic rain' of silt- and/or clay-sized, detrital, biogenic and particulate organic particles onto the ocean floor over long intervals of time. However, recently published experimental and field-based studies have revealed a plethora of micro-sedimentary features that indicate these common fine-grained rocks also could have been transported and/or reworked by unidirectional currents. In this paper, we add to this growing body of knowledge by describing such features from the Paleozoic Barnett Shale in the Fort Worth Basin, Texas, U.S.A. which suggests transport and deposition was from hyperpycnal, turbidity, storm and/or contour currents, in addition to hemipelagic rain. On the basis of a variety of sedimentary textures and structures, six main sedimentary facies have been defined from four 0.3 meter intervals in a 68m (223 ft) long Barnett Shale core: massive mudstone, rhythmic mudstone, ripple and low-angle laminated mudstone, graded mudstone, clay-rich facies, and spicule-rich facies. Current-induced features of these facies include mm- to cmscale cross- and parallel-laminations, scour surfaces, clastic/biogenic particle alignment, and normal- and inverse-size grading. A spectrum of vertical facies transitions and bed types indicate deposition from waxing-waning flows rather than from steady `rain' of particles to the sea floor. Detrital sponge spicule-rich facies suggests transport to the marine environment as hypopycnal or hyperpycnal flows and reversal in buoyancy by transformation from concentrated to dilute flows; alternatively the spicules could have originated by submarine slumping in front of contemporaneous shallow marine sponge reefs, and then transported basinward as turbidity current flows. The occurrence of dispersed biogenic/organic remains and inversely size graded mudstones also support a hyperpycnal and/or turbidity flow origin for a significant part of

  17. Mathematical modelling of anisotropy of illite-rich shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnokov, E.M.; Tiwary, D.K.; Bayuk, I.O.; Sparkman, M.A.; Brown, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    The estimation of illite-rich shale anisotropy to account for the alignment of clays and gas- or brine-filled cracks is presented via mathematical modelling. Such estimation requires analysis to interpret the dominance of one effect over another. This knowledge can help to evaluate the permeability in the unconventional reservoir, stress orientation, and the seal capacity for the conventional reservoir. Effective media modelling is used to predict the elastic properties of the illite-rich shale and to identify the dominant contributions to the shale anisotropy. We consider two principal reasons of the shale anisotropy: orientation of clay platelets and orientation of fluid-filled cracks. In reality, both of these two factors affect the shale anisotropy. The goal of this study is, first, to separately analyse the effect of these two factors to reveal the specific features in P- and S-wave velocity behaviour typical of each of the factors, and, then, consider a combined effect of the factors when the cracks are horizontally or vertically aligned. To do this, we construct four models of shale. The behaviour of P- and S-wave velocities is analysed when gas- and water-filled cracks embedded in a host matrix are randomly oriented, or horizontally or vertically aligned. The host matrix can be either isotropic or anisotropic (of VTI symmetry). In such a modelling, we use published data on mineralogy and clay platelet alignment along with other micromechanical measurements. In the model, where the host matrix is isotropic, the presence of a singularity point (when the difference VS1 - VS2 changes its sign) in shear wave velocities is an indicator of brine-filled aligned cracks. In the model with the VTI host matrix and horizontally aligned cracks filled with gas, an increase in their volume concentration leads to that the azimuth at which the singularity is observed moves toward the symmetry axis. In this case, if the clay content is small (around 20 per cent), the

  18. Epistemic values in the Burgess Shale debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Christian

    2009-12-01

    Focusing primarily on papers and books discussing the evolutionary and systematic interpretation of the Cambrian animal fossils from the Burgess Shale fauna, this paper explores the role of epistemic values in the context of a discipline (paleontology) striving to establish scientific authority within a larger domain of epistemic problems and issues (evolutionary biology). The focal point of this analysis is the repeated claims by paleontologists that the study of fossils gives their discipline a unique 'historical dimension' that makes it possible for them to unravel important aspects of evolution invisible to scientists who study the extant biosphere. The first part of the paper explores the shifting of emphasis in the writings of paleontologists between two strategies that employ opposing views on the classical positivist and physicalist ideal of science. The second part analyzes paleontologists' claims of privileged access to life's historical dimension in a situation where a theoretical upheaval occurring independent of the epistemical problem at hand completely shifts the standards for evaluating the legitimacy of various knowledge claims. Though the various strategies employed in defending the privileged historical perspective of paleontology have been disparate and, to an extent contradictory, each impinges on the acceptance of a specific epistemic ideal or set of values and success or failure of each depends on the compatibility of this ideal with the surrounding community of scientists.

  19. Petrophysical Properties of North Sea Shales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth S. Okiongbo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a data set comprising estimated permeabilities of 22 natural mudstones which also have been characterised in terms of their pore size distribution, porosity, grain density and Total Organic Carbon (TOC content. Pore size distribution and grain density were determined using mercury porosimetry and pycnometer method. TOC was determ ined by direct combustion of the organic carbon in LECO RLS-100 Carbon Sulphur analyser. Permeabilities were estimated based on the measured pore throat size distribution plus assumed pore alignment and pore shape using the model of Yang and Aplin. TOC and grain density ranges from 3.44- 9.98% and 2.61-2.70 g/cm3, respectively. Porosity decreases from ~24-3% between the depth range of 1515-4781 m. The pore size distribution data show that the m ean pore radius decreases from ~36-2 nm within the same depth range, the shift to smaller mean pore radii is driven primarily by the collapse of pores larger than 10nm with increase in consolidation. These values represent some of the smallest pore sizes known for rocks and in part provide a qualitative explanation for the low shale permeabilities. Estimated vertical permeabilities range from 9.5×10-23 to 8.6×10-21 m2. In general, permeability decreases logarithmically with porosity.

  20. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, M.J.; Mensinger, M.C.; Rue, D.M.; Lau, F.S. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Schultz, C.W. (Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States)); Parekh, B.K. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States)); Misra, M. (Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States)); Bonner, W.P. (Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States))

    1992-11-01

    The Devonian oil shales of the Eastern United States are a significant domestic energy resource. The overall objective of the multi-year program, initiated in October 1987 by the US Department of Energy is to perform the research necessary to develop the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting (PFH) process for producing oil from Eastern oil shales. The program also incorporates research on technologies in areas such as raw shale preparation, beneficiation, product separation, and waste disposal that have the potential of improving the economics and/or environmental acceptability of recovering oil from oil shales using the PFH process. The results of the original 3-year program, which was concluded in May 1991, have been summarized in a four-volume final report published by IGT. DOE subsequently approved a 1-year extension to the program to further develop the PFH process specifically for application to beneficiated shale as feedstock. Studies have shown that beneficiated shale is the preferred feedstock for pressurized hydroretorting. The program extension is divided into the following active tasks. Task 3. testing of process improvement concepts; Task 4. beneficiation research; Task 5. operation of PFH on beneficiated shale; Task 6. environmental data and mitigation analyses; Task 7. sample procurement, preparation, and characterization; and Task 8. project management and reporting. In order to accomplish all the program objectives, the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the prime contractor, worked with four other institutions: the University of Alabama/Mineral Resources Institute (MRI), the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), the University of Nevada (UN) at Reno, and Tennessee Technological University (TTU). This report presents the work performed during the program extension from June 1, 1991 through May 31, 1992.

  1. Environmental baselines: preparing for shale gas in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, John; Manamsa, Katya; Bell, Rachel; Darling, George; Dochartaigh, Brighid O.; Stuart, Marianne; Ward, Rob

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater is a vital source of freshwater in the UK. It provides almost 30% of public water supply on average, but locally, for example in south-east England, it is constitutes nearly 90% of public supply. In addition to public supply, groundwater has a number of other uses including agriculture, industry, and food and drink production. It is also vital for maintaining river flows especially during dry periods and so is essential for maintaining ecosystem health. Recently, there have been concerns expressed about the potential impacts of shale gas development on groundwater. The UK has abundant shales and clays which are currently the focus of considerable interest and there is active research into their characterisation, resource evaluation and exploitation risks. The British Geological Survey (BGS) is undertaking research to provide information to address some of the environmental concerns related to the potential impacts of shale gas development on groundwater resources and quality. The aim of much of this initial work is to establish environmental baselines, such as a baseline survey of methane occurrence in groundwater (National methane baseline study) and the spatial relationships between potential sources and groundwater receptors (iHydrogeology project), prior to any shale gas exploration and development. The poster describes these two baseline studies and presents preliminary findings. BGS are currently undertaking a national survey of baseline methane concentrations in groundwater across the UK. This work will enable any potential future changes in methane in groundwater associated with shale gas development to be assessed. Measurements of methane in potable water from the Cretaceous, Jurassic and Triassic carbonate and sandstone aquifers are variable and reveal methane concentrations of up to 500 micrograms per litre, but the mean value is relatively low at 2km. The geological modelling process will be presented and discussed along with maps combining

  2. Western states enhanced oil shale recovery program: Shale oil production facilities conceptual design studies report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-08-01

    This report analyzes the economics of producing syncrude from oil shale combining underground and surface processing using Occidental's Modified-In-Situ (MIS) technology and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Hot Recycled Solids (HRS) retort. These retorts form the basic technology employed for oil extraction from oil shale in this study. Results are presented for both Commercial and Pre-commercial programs. Also analyzed are Pre-commercialization cost of Demonstration and Pilot programs which will confirm the HRS and MIS concepts and their mechanical designs. These programs will provide experience with the circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor (CFBC), the MIS retort, the HRS retort and establish environmental control parameters. Four cases are considered: commercial size plant, demonstration size plant, demonstration size plant minimum CFBC, and a pilot size plant. Budget cost estimates and schedules are determined. Process flow schemes and basic heat and material balances are determined for the HRS system. Results consist of summaries of major equipment sizes, capital cost estimates, operating cost estimates and economic analyses. 35 figs., 35 tabs.

  3. Coupled Fracture and Flow in Shale in Hydraulic Fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, J. W.; Mori, H.; Viswanathan, H.

    2014-12-01

    Production of hydrocarbon from shale requires creation and maintenance of fracture permeability in an otherwise impermeable shale matrix. In this study, we use a combination of triaxial coreflood experiments and x-ray tomography characterization to investigate the fracture-permeability behavior of Utica shale at in situ reservoir conditions (25-50 oC and 35-120 bars). Initially impermeable shale core was placed between flat anvils (compression) or between split anvils (pure shear) and loaded until failure in the triaxial device. Permeability was monitored continuously during this process. Significant deformation (>1%) was required to generate a transmissive fracture system. Permeability generally peaked at the point of a distinct failure event and then dropped by a factor of 2-6 when the system returned to hydrostatic failure. Permeability was very small in compression experiments (conformed to Forscheimer's law. The coupled deformation and flow behavior of Utica shale, particularly the large deformation required to initiate flow, indicates the probable importance of activation of existing fractures in hydraulic fracturing and that these fractures can have adequate permeability for the production of hydrocarbon.

  4. Experimental Study of Shale Rock Self-Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restuccia, Francesco; Ptak, Nicolas; Rein, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    Self-heating phenomena due to spontaneous exothermic reactions in oxidative environments are common for many porous materials, even at low temperatures. Combustion of shale outcrop formations has been reported in recent years, with self-heating a potential initiating cause. This work studies experimentally and for the first time the self-heating behavior of shale rock, a porous sedimentary rock. Using field samples collected from shale outcrop at Kimmeridge Bay (UK) and the Frank-Kamenetskii theory of criticality, we determine effective kinetic parameters and thermal properties for different shale particle size distributions and upscale the results to field formations of different thicknesses. We show that for fine particle sizes, with diameter below 2mm, spontaneous ignition is possible for rock formations of thickness between 25m and 5.4m at ambient temperatures between 16°C and 44°C. For the same temperature range, the required thickness is between 375km and 15km for coarse particles of diameter below 17mm. This shows that shale rock is reactive, with reactivity highly dependent on particle diameter, and self-ignition is possible for small particles in outcrops or formations accidentally exposed to oxygen.

  5. Skimming the surface with Burgess Shale arthropod locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minter, Nicholas J; Mángano, M Gabriela; Caron, Jean-Bernard

    2012-04-22

    The first arthropod trackways are described from the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale Formation of Canada. Trace fossils, including trackways, provide a rich source of biological and ecological information, including direct evidence of behaviour not commonly available from body fossils alone. The discovery of large arthropod trackways is unique for Burgess Shale-type deposits. Trackway dimensions and the requisite number of limbs are matched with the body plan of a tegopeltid arthropod. Tegopelte, one of the rarest Burgess Shale animals, is over twice the size of all other benthic arthropods known from this locality, and only its sister taxon, Saperion, from the Lower Cambrian Chengjiang biota of China, approaches a similar size. Biomechanical trackway analysis demonstrates that tegopeltids were capable of rapidly skimming across the seafloor and, in conjunction with the identification of gut diverticulae in Tegopelte, supports previous hypotheses on the locomotory capabilities and carnivorous mode of life of such arthropods. The trackways occur in the oldest part (Kicking Horse Shale Member) of the Burgess Shale Formation, which is also known for its scarce assemblage of soft-bodied organisms, and indicate at least intermittent oxygenated bottom waters and low sedimentation rates.

  6. Ozone impacts of natural gas development in the Haynesville Shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemball-Cook, Susan; Bar-Ilan, Amnon; Grant, John; Parker, Lynsey; Jung, Jaegun; Santamaria, Wilson; Mathews, Jim; Yarwood, Greg

    2010-12-15

    The Haynesville Shale is a subsurface rock formation located beneath the Northeast Texas/Northwest Louisiana border near Shreveport. This formation is estimated to contain very large recoverable reserves of natural gas, and during the two years since the drilling of the first highly productive wells in 2008, has been the focus of intensive leasing and exploration activity. The development of natural gas resources within the Haynesville Shale is likely to be economically important but may also generate significant emissions of ozone precursors. Using well production data from state regulatory agencies and a review of the available literature, projections of future year Haynesville Shale natural gas production were derived for 2009-2020 for three scenarios corresponding to limited, moderate, and aggressive development. These production estimates were then used to develop an emission inventory for each of the three scenarios. Photochemical modeling of the year 2012 showed increases in 2012 8-h ozone design values of up to 5 ppb within Northeast Texas and Northwest Louisiana resulting from development in the Haynesville Shale. Ozone increases due to Haynesville Shale emissions can affect regions outside Northeast Texas and Northwest Louisiana due to ozone transport. This study evaluates only near-term ozone impacts, but the emission inventory projections indicate that Haynesville emissions may be expected to increase through 2020.

  7. Wellbore stability in shales considering chemo-poroelastic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Ewerton M.P.; Pastor, Jorge A.S.C.; Fontoura, Sergio A.B.; Rabe, Claudio [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil. Grupo de Tecnologia e Engenharia de Petroleo

    2004-07-01

    Under compaction and low geothermal gradients are deep water characteristics. Both under compaction and low geothermal gradients generate considerable thickness of smectite-rich shales. These rocks are the major source of wellbore stability problems, because they are susceptible to adverse physico-chemical reactions when in contact with inadequate drilling fluids. Due shales are low permeability rocks diffusion processes dominate the changes of pore pressure around wellbore. Diffusion of fluids, ions and temperature occurs in shales during drilling and demand a fully coupled modelling taking account these factors. Despite temperature importance, in this paper wellbore stability in shales is analyzed through a model that considers only the coupling between poroelastic and physico-chemical effects. The coupled equations are solved analytically and have been implemented in a computational simulator with user-friendly interface. Time-dependent simulations of wellbore stability in shales are presented for a typical deep water scenario. The results show that physico-chemical effects change pore pressure around wellbore and have high impact on the wellbore stability. (author)

  8. Stress dependence of permeability of intact and fractured shale cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Noort, Reinier; Yarushina, Viktoriya

    2016-04-01

    Whether a shale acts as a caprock, source rock, or reservoir, understanding fluid flow through shale is of major importance for understanding fluid flow in geological systems. Because of the low permeability of shale, flow is thought to be largely confined to fractures and similar features. In fracking operations, fractures are induced specifically to allow for hydrocarbon exploration. We have constructed an experimental setup to measure core permeabilities, using constant flow or a transient pulse. In this setup, we have measured the permeability of intact and fractured shale core samples, using either water or supercritical CO2 as the transporting fluid. Our measurements show decreasing permeability with increasing confining pressure, mainly due to time-dependent creep. Furthermore, our measurements show that for a simple splitting fracture, time-dependent creep will also eliminate any significant effect of this fracture on permeability. This effect of confinement on fracture permeability can have important implications regarding the effects of fracturing on shale permeability, and hence for operations depending on that.

  9. Generic Argillite/Shale Disposal Reference Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Liange; Colon, Carlos Jové; Bianchi, Marco; Birkholzer, Jens

    2014-08-08

    Radioactive waste disposal in a deep subsurface repository hosted in clay/shale/argillite is a subject of widespread interest given the desirable isolation properties, geochemically reduced conditions, and widespread geologic occurrence of this rock type (Hansen 2010; Bianchi et al. 2013). Bianchi et al. (2013) provides a description of diffusion in a clay-hosted repository based on single-phase flow and full saturation using parametric data from documented studies in Europe (e.g., ANDRA 2005). The predominance of diffusive transport and sorption phenomena in this clay media are key attributes to impede radionuclide mobility making clay rock formations target sites for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The reports by Hansen et al. (2010) and those from numerous studies in clay-hosted underground research laboratories (URLs) in Belgium, France and Switzerland outline the extensive scientific knowledge obtained to assess long-term clay/shale/argillite repository isolation performance of nuclear waste. In the past several years under the UFDC, various kinds of models have been developed for argillite repository to demonstrate the model capability, understand the spatial and temporal alteration of the repository, and evaluate different scenarios. These models include the coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical (THM) and Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) models (e.g. Liu et al. 2013; Rutqvist et al. 2014a, Zheng et al. 2014a) that focus on THMC processes in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) bentonite and argillite host hock, the large scale hydrogeologic model (Bianchi et al. 2014) that investigates the hydraulic connection between an emplacement drift and surrounding hydrogeological units, and Disposal Systems Evaluation Framework (DSEF) models (Greenberg et al. 2013) that evaluate thermal evolution in the host rock approximated as a thermal conduction process to facilitate the analysis of design options. However, the assumptions and the

  10. Unconventional shale-gas systems: The Mississippian Barnett Shale of north-central Texas as one model for thermogenic shale-gas assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvie, D.M.; Hill, R.J.; Ruble, T.E.; Pollastro, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    Shale-gas resource plays can be distinguished by gas type and system characteristics. The Newark East gas field, located in the Fort Worth Basin, Texas, is defined by thermogenic gas production from low-porosity and low-permeability Barnett Shale. The Barnett Shale gas system, a self-contained source-reservoir system, has generated large amounts of gas in the key productive areas because of various characteristics and processes, including (1) excellent original organic richness and generation potential; (2) primary and secondary cracking of kerogen and retained oil, respectively; (3) retention of oil for cracking to gas by adsorption; (4) porosity resulting from organic matter decomposition; and (5) brittle mineralogical composition. The calculated total gas in place (GIP) based on estimated ultimate recovery that is based on production profiles and operator estimates is about 204 bcf/section (5.78 ?? 109 m3/1.73 ?? 104 m3). We estimate that the Barnett Shale has a total generation potential of about 609 bbl of oil equivalent/ac-ft or the equivalent of 3657 mcf/ac-ft (84.0 m3/m3). Assuming a thickness of 350 ft (107 m) and only sufficient hydrogen for partial cracking of retained oil to gas, a total generation potential of 820 bcf/section is estimated. Of this potential, approximately 60% was expelled, and the balance was retained for secondary cracking of oil to gas, if sufficient thermal maturity was reached. Gas storage capacity of the Barnett Shale at typical reservoir pressure, volume, and temperature conditions and 6% porosity shows a maximum storage capacity of 540 mcf/ac-ft or 159 scf/ton. Copyright ?? 2007. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  11. Can shale safely host US nuclear waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuzil, C.E.

    2013-01-01

    "Even as cleanup efforts after Japan’s Fukushima disaster offer a stark reminder of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) stored at nuclear plants worldwide, the decision in 2009 to scrap Yucca Mountain as a permanent disposal site has dimmed hope for a repository for SNF and other high-level nuclear waste (HLW) in the United States anytime soon. About 70,000 metric tons of SNF are now in pool or dry cask storage at 75 sites across the United States [Government Accountability Office, 2012], and uncertainty about its fate is hobbling future development of nuclear power, increasing costs for utilities, and creating a liability for American taxpayers [Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future, 2012].However, abandoning Yucca Mountain could also result in broadening geologic options for hosting America’s nuclear waste. Shales and other argillaceous formations (mudrocks, clays, and similar clay-rich media) have been absent from the U.S. repository program. In contrast, France, Switzerland, and Belgium are now planning repositories in argillaceous formations after extensive research in underground laboratories on the safety and feasibility of such an approach [Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future, 2012; Nationale Genossenschaft für die Lagerung radioaktiver Abfälle (NAGRA), 2010; Organisme national des déchets radioactifs et des matières fissiles enrichies, 2011]. Other nations, notably Japan, Canada, and the United Kingdom, are studying argillaceous formations or may consider them in their siting programs [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2012; Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO), (2011a); Powell et al., 2010]."

  12. Characterization and beneficiation of the Egyptian black shale for possible extraction of organic matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abd El-Rahiem F.H.; Hassan M.S.; Selim K.A.; Abdel-Khalek N.A

    2014-01-01

    The present paper focuses on obtaining concentrate enriched with organic matter that could be suitable for a retorting process from black shale; this is black shale from the Safaga area on the Red Sea Coast. X-ray diffraction and optical polarising microscope are used in evaluating black shale minerals. Attrition scrubbing and flotation were conducted for enrichment of organic matter in the black shale sample. Mineralogical studies revealed that black shale samples contain bituminous calcareous clay stone, quartz, apatite and pyrite. Rabah mine black shale contains 28% organic matter. The results of the different separation techniques indicate that attrition and flotation techniques successively enriched the organic matter in the black shale. The organic matter could be enriched in the black shale and obtained a concen-trate with 59%assaying and 85%recovery.

  13. Plan and justification for a Proof-of-Concept oil shale facility. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The technology being evaluated is the Modified In-Situ (MIS) retorting process for raw shale oil production, combined with a Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor (CFBC), for the recovery of energy from the mined shale. (VC)

  14. Plan and justification for a Proof-of-Concept oil shale facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The technology being evaluated is the Modified In-Situ (MIS) retorting process for raw shale oil production, combined with a Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor (CFBC), for the recovery of energy from the mined shale. (VC)

  15. Stratigraphy, sedimentology and bulk organic geochemistry of black shales from the Proterozoic Vindhyan Supergroup (central India)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Banerjee; S Dutta; S Paikaray; U Mann

    2006-02-01

    Four organic-rich shale units of the Proterozoic Vindhyan sedimentary succession have been scanned to reveal their origin and hydrocarbon potential.The wavy-crinkly nature of the carbonaceous laminae is suggestive of a microbial mat origin of the shales.These shales are thus different from Phanerozoic black shales which typically exhibit planar laminae.The hydrocarbon potential of the black shale units has been evaluated by Rock-Eval pyrolysis.Total organic carbon content of many of the shales exceeds 1%.The mean _max for the black shales translate to a vitrinite re flectance range of 2.05 –2.40%Rm based on standard conversion techniques.These shales have reached the catagenetic stage near the beginning of anthracite formation.

  16. Integrated reservoir characterization of a Posidonia Shale outcrop analogue: From serendipity to understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijp, M.H.A.A.; Veen, J.H. ten; Verreussel, R.M.C.H.; Ventra, D.

    2014-01-01

    Shale gas reservoir stimulation procedures (e.g. hydraulic fracturing) require upfront prediction and planning that should be supported by a comprehensive reservoir characterization. Therefore, understanding shale depositional processes and associated vertical and lateral sedimentological variabilit

  17. SFC status report on major shale oil projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zukor, S.H.

    1982-06-01

    The SFC was created by the Energy Security Act on June 30, 1980. Solicitations for financial assistance from the DOE came from Union Oil and the Tosca company, both for projects near Parachute, Colorado. Both projects received DOE assistance. The first SFC solicitations came in 1981. 6 Of 28 solicitations were for shale oil. In January 1983, seven phase I maturity criteria were applied to the projects and the list was reduced to eleven--only one of which was for shale oil. The SFC will now meet to consider which of the eleven projects that met the maturity criteria of Phase I can also meet the six Phase I criteria. Of the shale oil projects that lacked maturity, a brief is included that indicates SFC policy will tradeoff some near-term production for diversity that will enhance long term use.

  18. Burgess shale-type biotas were not entirely burrowed away

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaines, Robert R.; Droser, Mary L.; Orr, Patrick J.;

    2012-01-01

    Burgess Shale-type biotas occur globally in the Cambrian record and offer unparalleled insight into the Cambrian explosion, the initial Phanerozoic radiation of the Metazoa. Deposits bearing exceptionally preserved soft-bodied fossils are unusually common in Cambrian strata; more than 40 are now......, however, suggest a more complex scenario. Ichnologic and microstratigraphic data from Burgess Shale-type deposits indicate that (1) bioturbation exerts a limiting effect on soft-bodied preservation; (2) the observed increase in the depth and extent or bioturbation following the Middle Cambrian would have...... restricted preservation of Burgess Shale type biotas in a number of settings; but (3) increasing depth and extent of bioturbation would not have affected preservation in many other settings, including the most richly fossiliferous portions of the Chengjiang (China) deposit and the Greater Phyllopod Bed...

  19. Evaluation of Devonian-shale potential in Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komar, C. A.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to inform interested oil and gas operators about EGSP results as they pertain to the Devonian gas shales of the Appalachian basin in eastern Ohio. Geologic data and interpretations are summarized, and areas where the accumulation of gas may be large enough to justify commercial production are outlined. Because the data presented in this report are generalized and not suitable for evaluation of specific sites for exploration, the reader should consult the various reports cited for more detail and discussion of the data, concepts, and interpretations presented. A complete list of EGSP sponsored work pertinent to the Devonian shales in Ohio is contained as an appendix to this report. Radioactive shale zones are also mapped.

  20. Measurement of water activity from shales through thermo hygrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabe, Claudio [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil. Grupo de Tecnologia e Engenharia de Petroleo (GTEP)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a campaign of lab tests to obtain the water activity from shales and its pore fluid originated from offshore and onshore basin. The results of water activity from shales indicate that the values rang from 0.754 to 0.923 and for the pore fluid are between 0.987 and 0.940. The results show that the water activity of interstitial water can be obtained in 6 days and the rock in 10 days using the thermo hygrometer used. The degree of saturation, water content, kind and tenor of expansible and hydratable clay mineral, total and interconnected porosity, salinity of interstitial fluid and the capillary pressure of shale samples affected the results of water activity. (author)

  1. Tiger Team Assessment of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    This report documents the Tiger Team Assessment of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colordao, Utah, and Wyoming (NPOSR-CUW). NPOSR-CUW consists of Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 3 (NPR-3) located near Casper, Wyoming; Naval Oil Shale Reserve Number 1 (NOSR-1) and Naval Oil Shale Reserve Number 3 (NOSR-3) located near Rifle, Colorado; and Naval Oil Shale Reserve Number 2 (NOSR-2) located near Vernal, Utah, which was not examined as part of this assessment.

  2. Oil shale in the United States: prospects for development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drabenstott, M.; Duncan, M.; Borowski, M.

    1984-05-01

    The development of an oil shale industry has had its ups and downs throughout this century. Despite vast reserves of recoverable shale oil, energy prices usually have been high enough to make extraction of that oil commercially viable. The tripling and then tripling again of world oil prices in the 1970s gave initial promise that development had become economically feasible. After only a few years of rapid development activity, however, the effort was brought to a near-halt by falling world oil prices. The results were a substantial reduction in economic activity for northwestern Colorado and, maybe more importantly, sharply lower expectations for the region's future economic growth. In both the upturn and the downturn, the local public sector was essentially shielded from financial stress because the energy companies helped fund public spending on infrastructure and services. The future for oil shale remains uncertain. A few energy companies continue to pursue their development plans. To spur development of commercial scale plants, Synthetic Fuels Corporation has made loan and price guarantees to energy firms. Some projects may soon be extracting oil, providing needed technological and financial information on various techniques of oil extraction. But the future for oil shale remains clouded by uncertainties regarding the cost of producing syncrude and future oil prices. Environmental issues could also hamper oil shale development. Therefore, oil shale remains, as it has for more than a century, a technical and economic enigma that has only begun to be understood and developed. 8 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  3. Revegetation research on oil shale lands in the Piceance Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redente, E.F.; Cook, C.W.

    1981-02-01

    The overall objective of this project is to study the effects of various reclamation practices on above- and belowground ecosystem development associated with disturbed oil shale lands in northwestern Colorado. Plant growth media that are being used in field test plots include retorted shale, soil over retorted shale, subsoil materials, and surface disturbed topsoils. Satisfactory stands of vegetation failed to establish on unleached retorted shale during two successive years of seeding. All seedings with soil over retorted shale were judged to be successful at the end of three growing seasons, but deep-rooted shrubs that depend upon subsoil moisture may have their growth hampered by the retorted shale substrate. Natural revegetation on areas with various degrees of disturbance shows that natural invasion and succession was slow at best. Invasion of species on disturbed topsoil plots showed that after three years introduced seed mixtures were more effective than native mixtures in occupying space and closing the community to invading species. Fertilizer appears to encourage the invasion of annual plants even after the third year following application. Long-term storage of topsoil without vegetation significantly decreases the mycorrhizal infection potential and, therefore, decreases the relative success of aboveground vegetation and subsequent succession. Ecotypic differentation related to growth and competitive ability, moisture stress tolerance, and reproductive potential have been found in five native shrub species. Germplasm sources of two grasses and two legumes, that have shown promise as revegetation species, have been collected and evaluated for the production of test seed. Fertilizer (nitrogen) when added to the soil at the time of planting may encourage competition from annual weeds to the detriment of seeded species.

  4. Deformation and Fracture of Shale at the Nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, K. C.; Borja, R. I.

    2013-12-01

    The deformation and fracture properties of shales depend on the mechanical properties of their basic constituents, including the solid clay particles, inclusions such as silt and organics, and the multi-scale porosity comprised of existing micro-fractures and the nano-scale porosity of the porous clay matrix. A great deal of understanding of the overall macroscopic (field scale) mechanical properties of shales can be gained by studying the deformation and fracture properties of these constituents along with their composite behavior, i.e., the mechanisms of deformation and fracture of shale. This project builds upon our recently acquired ability to image with fixed ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) the 3D geometry of a porous shale sample to nanometer resolution, as well as to test this sample on a nanoindenter at both the particle and composite scales, in order to develop a 3D mechanistic model to interpret the results of nanoindentation tests. The pore-scale study considers the intrinsic deformation and fracture properties of clay particles, and the effect of silt inclusions and particle packing into an anisotropic composite matrix. The analysis accounts for anisotropic and heterogeneous shale elasticity, plasticity, damage, and fissility. A finite element (FE) model is being developed which uses a recently developed finite deformation crystal plasticity algorithm and an enhanced FE method for capturing strong discontinuity. The model aims to capture the effects of the particle elasticity, plastic yielding, and the damage induced by the indenter, including the fracturing and chipping within the mineral grains and around the perimeter of the indent. Anisotropy of fracture properties is examined with respect to delamination of the clay matrix in the bed-parallel direction and to breaking of plate-like clay particles. The ultimate goal of this research is to establish a framework for investigating the poromechanical properties of shale at the nano

  5. Proceedings of the first thermomechanical workshop for shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-03-01

    Chapter 2 provides a description of the three federal regulations that pertain to the development of a high-level nuclear waste repository regardless of the rock type. Chapter 3 summarizes the reference shale repository conditions selected for this workshop. A room-and-pillar configuration was considered at an extraction ratio of about 0.25. The depth was assumed to be 700 m. Chapter 4 gives a summary of several case histories that were considered to be valuable in gaining an understanding of some of the design and construction features that might be unique in creating underground openings in shale. Chapter 5 assesses the data and information needs, availability, technology for acquisition, and the research and development necessary for analytical/numerical modeling in heat transfer, fluid flow, and thermomechanics. Chapter 6 assesses data and information needs in the laboratory and considerations associated with shale rock characterization. Chapter 7 assesses the data and information needs, availability, technology for acquisition, and the research and development necessary for field/in situ testing. Chapter 8 presents the consensus of the workshop participants that there is a definite need to advance the state of knowledge concerning the thermomechanical behavior of shales and to gain experience in applying this knowledge to the design of room-and-pillar excavations. Finally, Chapter 9 provides a summary of the research and development needs in the various interacting activities of repository development, including analytical/numerical modeling, laboratory testing, and field/in situ testing. The main conclusion of the workshop was that a need exists for an aggressive program in laboratory, field, numerical modeling, and design studies to provide a thermomechanical, technological base for comparison of shale types and shale regions/areas/sites.

  6. Application of Ester based Drilling Fluid for Shale Gas Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauki, Arina; Safwan Zazarli Shah, Mohamad; Bakar, Wan Zairani Wan

    2015-05-01

    Water based mud is the most commonly used mud in drilling operation. However, it is ineffective when dealing with water-sensitive shale that can lead to shale hydration, consequently wellbore instability is compromised. The alternative way to deal with this kind of shale is using synthetic-based mud (SBM) or oil-based mud (OBM). OBM is the best option in terms of technical requirement. Nevertheless, it is toxic and will create environmental problems when it is discharged to onshore or offshore environment. SBM is safer than the OBM. The aim of this research is to formulate a drilling mud system that can carry out its essential functions for shale gas drilling to avoid borehole instability. Ester based SBM has been chosen for the mud formulation. The ester used is methyl-ester C12-C14 derived from palm oil. The best formulation of ester-based drilling fluid was selected by manipulating the oil-water ratio content in the mud which are 70/30, 80/20 and 90/10 respectively. The feasibility of using this mud for shale gas drilling was investigated by measuring the rheological properties, shale reactivity and toxicity of the mud and the results were compared with a few types of OBM and WBM. The best rheological performance can be seen at 80/20 oil-water ratio of ester based mud. The findings revealed that the rheological performance of ester based mud is comparable with the excellent performance of sarapar based OBM and about 80% better than the WBM in terms of fluid loss. Apart from that, it is less toxic than other types of OBM which can maintain 60% prawn's survival even after 96 hours exposure in 100,000 ppm of mud concentration in artificial seawater.

  7. Eastern gas shales bibliography selected annotations: gas, oil, uranium, etc. Citations in bituminous shales worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, V.S. (comp.)

    1980-06-01

    This bibliography contains 2702 citations, most of which are annotated. They are arranged by author in numerical order with a geographical index following the listing. The work is international in scope and covers the early geological literature, continuing through 1979 with a few 1980 citations in Addendum II. Addendum I contains a listing of the reports, well logs and symposiums of the Unconventional Gas Recovery Program (UGR) through August 1979. There is an author-subject index for these publications following the listing. The second part of Addendum I is a listing of the UGR maps which also has a subject-author index following the map listing. Addendum II includes several important new titles on the Devonian shale as well as a few older citations which were not found until after the bibliography had been numbered and essentially completed. A geographic index for these citations follows this listing.

  8. Geomechanical and anisotropic acoustic properties of Lower Jurassic Posidonia Shales from Whitby (UK)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhubayev, Alimzhan; Houben, Maartje; Smeulders, David; Barnhoorn, Auke

    2014-01-01

    The Posidonia Shale Formation (PSF) is one of the possible resource shales for unconventional gas in Northern Europe and currently is of great interest to hydrocarbon exploration and production. Due to low permeability of shales, economically viable production requires hydraulic fracturing of the re

  9. Multidisciplinary approach for detailed characterization of shale gas reservoirs, a Netherlands showcase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijp, M.H.A.A.; Nelskamp, S.; Schavemaker, Y.A.; Veen, J.H. ten; Heege, J.H. ter

    2013-01-01

    The success of shale gas exploration and production in the United States has triggered other countries around the world to look into possibilities of producing gas from different shales. As it turns out, one of the main difficulties when looking for shale gas is obtaining an in depth understanding o

  10. Assessing Radium Activity in Shale Gas Produced Brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, W.; Hayes, K. F.; Ellis, B. R.

    2015-12-01

    The high volumes and salinity associated with shale gas produced water can make finding suitable storage or disposal options a challenge, especially when deep well brine disposal or recycling for additional well completions is not an option. In such cases, recovery of commodity salts from the high total dissolved solids (TDS) of the brine wastewater may be desirable, yet the elevated concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides such as Ra-226 and Ra-228 in produced waters (sometimes substantially greater than the EPA limit of 5 pCi/L) may concentrate during these steps and limit salt recovery options. Therefore, assessing the potential presence of these Ra radionuclides in produced water from shale gas reservoir properties is desirable. In this study, we seek to link U and Th content within a given shale reservoir to the expected Ra content of produced brine by accounting for secular equilibrium within the rock and subsequent release to Ra to native brines. Produced brine from a series of Antrim shale wells and flowback from a single Utica-Collingwood shale well in Michigan were sampled and analyzed via ICP-MS to measure Ra content. Gamma spectroscopy was used to verify the robustness of this new Ra analytical method. Ra concentrations were observed to be up to an order of magnitude higher in the Antrim flowback water samples compared to those collected from the Utica-Collingwood well. The higher Ra content in Antrim produced brines correlates well with higher U content in the Antrim (19 ppm) relative to the Utica-Collingwood (3.5 ppm). We also observed an increase in Ra activity with increasing TDS in the Antrim samples. This Ra-TDS relationship demonstrates the influence of competing divalent cations in controlling Ra mobility in these clay-rich reservoirs. In addition, we will present a survey of geochemical data from other shale gas plays in the U.S. correlating shale U, Th content with produced brine Ra content. A goal of this study is to develop a

  11. Using Neutrons to Study Fluid-Rock Interactions in Shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiStefano, V. H.; McFarlane, J.; Anovitz, L. M.; Gordon, A.; Hale, R. E.; Hunt, R. D.; Lewis, S. A., Sr.; Littrell, K. C.; Stack, A. G.; Chipera, S.; Perfect, E.; Bilheux, H.; Kolbus, L. M.; Bingham, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    Recovery of hydrocarbons by hydraulic fracturing depends on complex fluid-rock interactions that we are beginning to understand using neutron imaging and scattering techniques. Organic matter is often thought to comprise the majority of porosity in a shale. In this study, correlations between the type of organic matter embedded in a shale and porosity were investigated experimentally. Selected shale cores from the Eagle Ford and Marcellus formations were subjected to pyrolysis-gas chromatography, Differential Thermal Analysis/Thermogravimetric analysis, and organic solvent extraction with the resulting affluent analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The pore size distribution of the microporosity (~1 nm to 2 µm) in the Eagle Ford shales was measured before and after solvent extraction using small angle neutron scattering. Organics representing mass fractions of between 0.1 to 1 wt.% were removed from the shales and porosity generally increased across the examined microporosity range, particularly at larger pore sizes, approximately 50 nm to 2 μm. This range reflects extraction of accessible organic material, including remaining gas molecules, bitumen, and kerogen derivatives, indicating where the larger amount of organic matter in shale is stored. An increase in porosity at smaller pore sizes, ~1-3 nm, was also present and could be indicative of extraction of organic material stored in the inter-particle spaces of clays. Additionally, a decrease in porosity after extraction for a sample was attributed to swelling of pores with solvent uptake. This occurred in a shale with high clay content and low thermal maturity. The extracted hydrocarbons were primarily paraffinic, although some breakdown of larger aromatic compounds was observed in toluene extractions. The amount of hydrocarbon extracted and an overall increase in porosity appeared to be primarily correlated with the clay percentage in the shale. This study complements fluid transport neutron

  12. Arctic black shale formation during Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Event 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenniger, Marc; Nøhr-Hansen, Henrik; Hills, Len V.

    2014-01-01

    The Late Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2) represents a major perturbation of the global carbon cycle caused by the widespread deposition of organic-rich black shales. Although the paleoceanographic response and the spatial extent of bottom-water anoxia in low and mid-paleolatitudes are re......The Late Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2) represents a major perturbation of the global carbon cycle caused by the widespread deposition of organic-rich black shales. Although the paleoceanographic response and the spatial extent of bottom-water anoxia in low and mid...

  13. Organic Substances from Unconventional Oil and Gas Production in Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, W. H.; Varonka, M.; Crosby, L.; Schell, T.; Bates, A.; Engle, M.

    2014-12-01

    Unconventional oil and gas (UOG) production has emerged as an important element in the US and world energy mix. Technological innovations in the oil and gas industry, especially horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, allow for the enhanced release of oil and natural gas from shale compared to conventional oil and gas production. This has made commercial exploitation possible on a large scale. Although UOG is enormously successful, there is surprisingly little known about the effects of this technology on the targeted shale formation and on environmental impacts of oil and gas production at the surface. We examined water samples from both conventional and UOG shale wells to determine the composition, source and fate of organic substances present. Extraction of hydrocarbon from shale plays involves the creation and expansion of fractures through the hydraulic fracturing process. This process involves the injection of large volumes of a water-sand mix treated with organic and inorganic chemicals to assist the process and prop open the fractures created. Formation water from a well in the New Albany Shale that was not hydraulically fractured (no injected chemicals) had total organic carbon (TOC) levels that averaged 8 mg/L, and organic substances that included: long-chain fatty acids, alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic compounds, alkyl benzenes, and alkyl phenols. In contrast, water from UOG production in the Marcellus Shale had TOC levels as high as 5,500 mg/L, and contained a range of organic chemicals including, solvents, biocides, scale inhibitors, and other organic chemicals at thousands of μg/L for individual compounds. These chemicals and TOC decreased rapidly over the first 20 days of water recovery as injected fluids were recovered, but residual organic compounds (some naturally-occurring) remained up to 250 days after the start of water recovery (TOC 10-30 mg/L). Results show how hydraulic fracturing changes the organic

  14. Oil shale research and coordination. Progress report, 1980-1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chappell, W R

    1981-01-01

    Purpose is to evaluate the environmental and health consequences of the release of toxic trace elements by an oil shale industry. Emphasis is on the five elements As, Mo, F, Se, and B. Results of four years' research are summarized and the research results over the past year are reported in this document. Reports by the task force are included as appendices, together with individual papers on various aspects of the subject topic. Separate abstracts were prepared for the eleven individual papers. A progress report on the IWG oil shale risk analysis is included at the end of this document. (DLC)

  15. Veining Failure and Hydraulic Fracturing in Shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mighani, S.; Sondergeld, C. H.; Rai, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    During the hydraulic fracturing, the pressurized fluid creates new fractures and reactivates existing natural fractures forming a highly conductive Stimulated Reservoir Volume (SRV) around the borehole. We extend the previous work on Lyons sandstone and pyrophyllite to anisotropic shale from the Wolfcamp formation. We divide the rock anisotropy into two groups: a) conventional and b) unconventional (shaly) anisotropy. X-ray Computed Tomography (CT), compressional velocity anisotropy, and SEM analysis are used to identify three causes of anisotropy: bedding planes, clay lamination, and calcite veins. Calcite vein is a subsequently filled with calcite bonded weakly to the matrix. Velocity anisotropy and visual observations demonstrate the calcite filled veins to be mostly subparallel to the fabric direction. Brazilian tests are carried out to observe the fracture initiation and propagation under tension. High speed photography (frame rate 300,000 frame/sec) was used to capture the failure. Strain gauges and Acoustic Emission (AE) sensors recorded the deformation leading up to and during failure. SEM imaging and surface profilometry were employed to study the post-failure fracture system and failed surface topology. Fracture permeability was measured as a function of effective stress. Brazilian tests on small disks containing a centered single vein revealed the shear strength of the veins. We interpret the strain data and number, frequency, and amplitude of AE events which are correlated well with the observed fracture process zone, surface roughness, and permeability. The unpropped fracture has enhanced permeability by two orders of magnitude. The observed anisotropic tensile failure seems to have a universal trend with a minimum strength occurring at 15o orientation with respect to the loading axis. The veins at 15o orientation with respect to the loading axis were easily activated at 30% of the original failure load. The measured strength of the vein is as low as 6

  16. The Importance of Geochemical Parameters and Shale Composition on Rock Mechanical Properties of Gas Shale Reservoirs: a Case Study From the Kockatea Shale and Carynginia Formation From the Perth Basin, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labani, Mohammad Mahdi; Rezaee, Reza

    2015-05-01

    Evaluation of the gas shale mechanical properties is very important screening criteria for determining the potential intervals for hydraulic fracturing and as a result in gas shale sweet spot mapping. Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio are two controlling mechanical properties that dictate the brittleness of the gas shale layers. These parameters can be determined in the laboratory by testing the rock sample under different conditions (static method) or can be calculated using the well-logging data including sonic and density log data (dynamic method). This study investigates the importance of the shale composition and geochemical parameters on the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio using log data. The data set of this study is coming from five different wells targeting the Kockatea Shale and Carynginia formation, two potential gas shale formations in the Perth Basin, Western Australia. The results show that converse to the common idea the effect of organic matter quantity and maturity on the rock mechanical properties of the gas shale reservoirs is not so much prominent, while the composition of the rock has an important effect on these properties. Considering the weight percentage of shale composition and organic matter quantity it could be concluded that effect of these parameters on rock mechanical properties is dependent on their weight contribution on the shale matrix. As well as effect of thermal maturity on the shale matrix and consequently on the rock mechanical properties of the shales is dependent on the organic matter content itself; therefore, obviously with a low organic matter content thermal maturity has no prominent effect on the brittleness as well.

  17. Pore Scale Analysis of Oil Shale/Sands Pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chen-Luh [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Miller, Jan [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2011-03-01

    There are important questions concerning the quality and volume of pore space that is created when oil shale is pyrolyzed for the purpose of producing shale oil. In this report, 1.9 cm diameter cores of Mahogany oil shale were pyrolyzed at different temperatures and heating rates. Detailed 3D imaging of core samples was done using multiscale X-ray computed tomography (CT) before and after pyrolysis to establish the pore structure. The pore structure of the unreacted material was not clear. Selected images of a core pyrolyzed at 400oC were obtained at voxel resolutions from 39 microns (Οm) to 60 nanometers (nm). Some of the pore space created during pyrolysis was clearly visible at these resolutions and it was possible to distinguish between the reaction products and the host shale rock. The pore structure deduced from the images was used in Lattice Boltzmann simulations to calculate the permeability in the pore space. The permeabilities of the pyrolyzed samples of the silicate-rich zone were on the order of millidarcies, while the permeabilities of the kerogen-rich zone after pyrolysis were very anisotropic and about four orders of magnitude higher.

  18. 3D numerical modeling of shale gas stimulation and seisimicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahid, A.S.; Wassing, B.B.T.; Verga, F.; Fokker, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    The economic production from shale gas reservoir depends on the success of hydraulic stimulation, which is aimed at the creation of a permeable complex fracture network. This is achieved by the reactivation of a natural fracture network; however, the reactivation may be accompanied by unwanted seism

  19. 18 CFR 270.306 - Devonian shale wells in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... has been filed; (e) A mud log from the well for which the determination is sought, with a detailed... Devonian Age Antrim shale through: (i) A well the surface drilling of which began after December 31, 1979... drilling of which began after December 31, 1979, but before January 1, 1993; or (iii) A recompletion...

  20. CFBC to burn oil shale in the northern Negev

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaal, M.; Podshivalov, V. (Israel Electric Corp., Haifa (Israel)); Wohlfarth, A.; Schwartz, M. (PAMA, Mishov Rotem (Israel))

    1994-09-01

    This paper describes a 525 MWe power station designed to run on a high sulphur, high moisture content oil shale. Fluidized bed combustion is expected to be used by all three of the main 150 MWe units as well as by the initial demonstration unit which is rated at some 75 MWe. (UK)

  1. Comparison of the Acceptability of Various Oil Shale Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnham, A K; McConaghy, J R

    2006-03-11

    While oil shale has the potential to provide a substantial fraction of our nation's liquid fuels for many decades, cost and environmental acceptability are significant issues to be addressed. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) examined a variety of oil shale processes between the mid 1960s and the mid 1990s, starting with retorting of rubble chimneys created from nuclear explosions [1] and ending with in-situ retorting of deep, large volumes of oil shale [2]. In between, it examined modified-in-situ combustion retorting of rubble blocks created by conventional mining and blasting [3,4], in-situ retorting by radio-frequency energy [5], aboveground combustion retorting [6], and aboveground processing by hot-solids recycle (HRS) [7,8]. This paper reviews various types of processes in both generic and specific forms and outlines some of the tradeoffs for large-scale development activities. Particular attention is given to hot-recycled-solids processes that maximize yield and minimize oil shale residence time during processing and true in-situ processes that generate oil over several years that is more similar to natural petroleum.

  2. Beneficiation-hydroretort processing of US oil shales, engineering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.R.; Riley, R.H.

    1988-12-01

    This report describes a beneficiation facility designed to process 1620 tons per day of run-of-mine Alabama oil shale containing 12.7 gallons of kerogen per ton of ore (based on Fischer Assay). The beneficiation facility will produce briquettes of oil shale concentrate containing 34.1 gallons of kerogen per ton (based on Fischer Assay). The beneficiation facility will produce briquettes of oil shale concentrate containing 34.1 gallons of kerogen per ton (based on Fischer Assay) suitable for feed to a hydroretort oil extraction facility of nominally 20,000 barrels per day capacity. The beneficiation plant design prepared includes the operations of crushing, grinding, flotation, thickening, filtering, drying, briquetting, conveying and tailings empoundment. A complete oil shale beneficiation plant is described including all anticipated ancillary facilities. For purposes of determining capital and operating costs, the beneficiation facility is assumed to be located on a generic site in the state of Alabama. The facility is described in terms of the individual unit operations with the capital costs being itemized in a similar manner. Additionally, the beneficiation facility estimated operating costs are presented to show operating costs per ton of concentrate produced, cost per barrel of oil contained in concentrate and beneficiation cost per barrel of oil extracted from concentrate by hydroretorting. All costs are presented in fourth quarter of 1988 dollars.

  3. Microstructures of Early Jurassic (Toarcian) shales of Northern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, M.E.; Barnhoorn, A.; Wasch, L.; Trabucho-Alexandre, João; Peach, C.J.; Drury, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    The Toarcian (Early Jurassic) Posidonia Shale Formation is a possible unconventional gas source in Northern Europe and occurs within the Cleveland Basin (United Kingdom), the Anglo-Paris Basin (France), the Lower Saxony Basin and the Southwest Germany Basin (Germany), and the Roer Valley Graben, the

  4. Numerical Simulation of Shale Gas Production with Thermodynamic Calculations Incorporated

    KAUST Repository

    Urozayev, Dias

    2015-06-01

    In today’s energy sector, it has been observed a revolutionary increase in shale gas recovery induced by reservoir fracking. So-called unconventional reservoirs became profitable after introducing a well stimulation technique. Some of the analysts expect that shale gas is going to expand worldwide energy supply. However, there is still a lack of an efficient as well as accurate modeling techniques, which can provide a good recovery and production estimates. Gas transports in shale reservoir is a complex process, consisting of slippage effect, gas diffusion along the wall, viscous flow due to the pressure gradient. Conventional industrial simulators are unable to model the flow as the flow doesn’t follow Darcy’s formulation. It is significant to build a unified model considering all given mechanisms for shale reservoir production study and analyze the importance of each mechanism in varied conditions. In this work, a unified mathematical model is proposed for shale gas reservoirs. The proposed model was build based on the dual porosity continuum media model; mass conservation equations for both matrix and fracture systems were build using the dusty gas model. In the matrix, gas desorption, Knudsen diffusion and viscous flow were taken into account. The model was also developed by implementing thermodynamic calculations to correct for the gas compressibility, or to obtain accurate treatment of the multicomponent gas. Previously, the model was built on the idealization of the gas, considering every molecule identical without any interaction. Moreover, the compositional variety of shale gas requires to consider impurities in the gas due to very high variety. Peng-Robinson equation of state was used to com- pute and correct for the gas density to pressure relation by solving the cubic equation to improve the model. The results show that considering the compressibility of the gas will noticeably increase gas production under given reservoir conditions and slow down

  5. Multiscale study for stochastic characterization of shale samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasebi, Pejman; Javadpour, Farzam; Sahimi, Muhammad; Piri, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    Characterization of shale reservoirs, which are typically of low permeability, is very difficult because of the presence of multiscale structures. While three-dimensional (3D) imaging can be an ultimate solution for revealing important complexities of such reservoirs, acquiring such images is costly and time consuming. On the other hand, high-quality 2D images, which are widely available, also reveal useful information about shales' pore connectivity and size. Most of the current modeling methods that are based on 2D images use limited and insufficient extracted information. One remedy to the shortcoming is direct use of qualitative images, a concept that we introduce in this paper. We demonstrate that higher-order statistics (as opposed to the traditional two-point statistics, such as variograms) are necessary for developing an accurate model of shales, and describe an efficient method for using 2D images that is capable of utilizing qualitative and physical information within an image and generating stochastic realizations of shales. We then further refine the model by describing and utilizing several techniques, including an iterative framework, for removing some possible artifacts and better pattern reproduction. Next, we introduce a new histogram-matching algorithm that accounts for concealed nanostructures in shale samples. We also present two new multiresolution and multiscale approaches for dealing with distinct pore structures that are common in shale reservoirs. In the multiresolution method, the original high-quality image is upscaled in a pyramid-like manner in order to achieve more accurate global and long-range structures. The multiscale approach integrates two images, each containing diverse pore networks - the nano- and microscale pores - using a high-resolution image representing small-scale pores and, at the same time, reconstructing large pores using a low-quality image. Eventually, the results are integrated to generate a 3D model. The methods

  6. Numerical Simulation of Natural Gas Flow in Anisotropic Shale Reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Negara, Ardiansyah

    2015-11-09

    Shale gas resources have received great attention in the last decade due to the decline of the conventional gas resources. Unlike conventional gas reservoirs, the gas flow in shale formations involves complex processes with many mechanisms such as Knudsen diffusion, slip flow (Klinkenberg effect), gas adsorption and desorption, strong rock-fluid interaction, etc. Shale formations are characterized by the tiny porosity and extremely low-permeability such that the Darcy equation may no longer be valid. Therefore, the Darcy equation needs to be revised through the permeability factor by introducing the apparent permeability. With respect to the rock formations, several studies have shown the existence of anisotropy in shale reservoirs, which is an essential feature that has been established as a consequence of the different geological processes over long period of time. Anisotropy of hydraulic properties of subsurface rock formations plays a significant role in dictating the direction of fluid flow. The direction of fluid flow is not only dependent on the direction of pressure gradient, but it also depends on the principal directions of anisotropy. Therefore, it is very important to take into consideration anisotropy when modeling gas flow in shale reservoirs. In this work, the gas flow mechanisms as mentioned earlier together with anisotropy are incorporated into the dual-porosity dual-permeability model through the full-tensor apparent permeability. We employ the multipoint flux approximation (MPFA) method to handle the full-tensor apparent permeability. We combine MPFA method with the experimenting pressure field approach, i.e., a newly developed technique that enables us to solve the global problem by breaking it into a multitude of local problems. This approach generates a set of predefined pressure fields in the solution domain in such a way that the undetermined coefficients are calculated from these pressure fields. In other words, the matrix of coefficients

  7. Changes in Texture and Retorting Yield in Oil Shale During Its Bioleaching by Bacillus Mucilaginosus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xue-qing; REN He-jun; LIU Na; ZHANG Lan-ying; ZHOU Rui

    2013-01-01

    Bioleaching of oil shale by Bacillus mucilaginosus was carried out in a reaction column for 13 d.The pH value of the leaching liquor decreased steadily from 7.5 to 5.5 and the free silicon dioxide concentration reached approximately 200 mg/L in it.Scanning electron microscopy(SEM) observations revealed that a mass of small particles separated from the matrix of oil shale.Energy dispersive spectrometry(EDS) analysis implied that the total content of Si,O,A1 was decreased in the particle area of the matrix.These facts indicate that the silicate was removed,leading to the structural transformation of oil shale.Comparison of the shale oil yields before and after bioleaching illustrated that approximately 10% extra shale oil was obtained.This finding suggests that the demineralisation of the oil shale by silicate bacteria improves shale oil yield.

  8. Mo isotopes in OAE 2 black shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Stephane; Vance, Derek; Cameron, Vyllinniskii; Archer, Corey; Robinson, Stuart A.

    2014-05-01

    Sedimentary rocks, especially organic-rich deposits, have the potential to track change in the oxygenation state of the ocean over geological time. Oceanic anoxic events (OAEs) correspond to periods of profound and rapid environmental change, which have led to both the widespread deposition of black shales and the development of widespread anoxia in the ocean. Understanding the variations in redox conditions during these events is of primary importance, since recent observations and modelling have shown that processes invoked to explain the origin of OAEs are being observed today as a consequence of anthropogenic change. Here, we compare redox-sensitive trace metal (RSTM) distributions and molybdenum (Mo) isotope variations during a major Cretaceous OAE (OAE 2, Bonarelli event). Whereas RSTM have the potential to provide insights regarding local depositional conditions and processes in palaeoceanographic systems, Mo-isotope data can, under certain circumstances, provide quantitative estimates of how the global extent of seawater anoxia may have fluctuated in the past. We selected for study a series sections within the western Tethys (La Contessa and Furlo, Italy) and in the northern Atlantic (DSDP site 367, Cape Verde Basin and ODP site 1276, Newfoundland Basin. RSTM contents show similar trends through all the studied sections, characterized by low concentration below and above the OAE interval and higher concentrations within the Bonarelli interval. This suggests rapid variations in the redox conditions, from suboxic to euxinic conditions during OAE 2. The RSTM enrichment factors (EFs) indicate different depositional conditions and palaeoceanographic processes between the Tethys and the North Atlantic. Whereas the North Atlantic sites show evidence of weak watermass restriction associated with the action of a particulate shuttle within the water column, the EFs of the Tethyan sections are characteristic of unrestricted marine systems. Despite local differences in

  9. Environmental analysis of the eastern shale hydroretorting data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rex, R.C. Jr.; Lynch, P.A.

    1984-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to perform a preliminary environmental analysis of certain chemical aspects of Eastern shale hydroretorting utilizing the data from the twenty-one (21) bench scale unit runs conducted during the HYTORT Feasibility Study. The report contained herein primarily addresses the potential types and quantities of pollutants emanating directly from the hydroretorting of oil shale (i.e., the retort paper). The following areas are discussed in detail: nitrogen distribution; sulfur distribution; gas trace constituents; sour water constituents; and shale leachates. The results of the analysis have not identified any potential pollutants or quantities which cannot be brought to conformance with currently promulgated environmental standards using existing technology. Additional analysis of the process chemistry portion of the HYTORT data base, coupled with the process and mechanical design information, can provide a methodology for dealing with the identified environmental concerns as they pertain to a commercial facility. Section 5.0 of the report delineates the areas which should be addressed in a continuing analysis of environmental concerns. The suggested program divides naturally into three phases, of which Phase 1 has been completed: Phase 1 - Environmental Analysis of the Eastern Shale Hydroretorting Data Base; Phase 2 - Generic (non-site-specific) Environmental Analysis; and Phase 3 - Site-Specific Environmental Analysis. Phase 2 details the anticipated emissions from all areas of a commercial HYTORT facility operating on a typical Eastern shale using the results of this Phase 1 effort and the HYTORT data base. Phase 3 utilizes this information to assess the effects of plant emissions on chosen sites in the context of applicable laws and regulations. 7 references, 18 figures, 2 tables.

  10. Discussion on the exploration & development prospect of shale gas in the Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dazhong Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sichuan Basin, a hotspot and one of the most successful areas for shale gas exploration and development, can largely reflect and have a big say in the future prospect of shale gas in China. Through an overall review on the progress in shale gas exploration and development in the Sichuan Basin, we obtained the following findings: (1 the Sichuan Basin has experienced the marine and terrestrial depositional evolution, resulting in the deposition of three types of organic-matter-rich shales (i.e. marine, transitional, and terrestrial, and the occurrence of six sets of favorable shale gas enrichment strata (i.e. the Sinian Doushantuo Fm, the Cambrian Qiongzhusi Fm, the Ordovician Wufeng–Silurian Longmaxi Fm, the Permian Longtan Fm, the Triassic Xujiahe Fm, and the Jurassic Zhiliujing Fm; (2 the five key elements for shale gas accumulation in the Wufeng-Longmaxi Fm are deep-water shelf facies, greater thickness of organic-rich shales, moderate thermal evolution, abundant structural fractures, reservoir overpressure; and (3 the exploration and development of shale gas in this basin still confronts two major challenges, namely, uncertain sweet spots and potential prospect of shale gas, and the immature technologies in the development of shale gas resources at a depth of more than 3500 m. In conclusion, shale gas has been discovered in the Jurassic, Triassic and Cambrian, and preliminary industrial-scale gas has been produced in the Ordovician-Silurian Fm in the Sichuan Basin, indicating a promising prospect there; commercial shale gas can be produced there with an estimated annual gas output of 30–60 billion m3; and shale gas exploration and production experiences in this basin will provide valuable theoretical and technical support for commercial shale gas development in China.

  11. Intergrated study of the Devonian-age black shales in eastern Ohio. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, J.D.; Struble, R.A.; Carlton, R.W.; Hodges, D.A.; Honeycutt, F.M.; Kingsbury, R.H.; Knapp, N.F.; Majchszak, F.L.; Stith, D.A.

    1982-09-01

    This integrated study of the Devonian-age shales in eastern Ohio by the Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological Survey is part of the Eastern Gas Shales Project sponsored by the US Department of Energy. The six areas of research included in the study are: (1) detailed stratigraphic mapping, (2) detailed structure mapping, (3) mineralogic and petrographic characterization, (4) geochemical characterization, (5) fracture trace and lineament analysis, and (6) a gas-show monitoring program. The data generated by the study provide a basis for assessing the most promising stratigraphic horizons for occurrences of natural gas within the Devonian shale sequence and the most favorable geographic areas of the state for natural gas exploration and should be useful in the planning and design of production-stimulation techniques. Four major radioactive units in the Devonian shale sequence are believed to be important source rocks and reservoir beds for natural gas. In order of potential for development as an unconventional gas resource, they are (1) lower and upper radioactive facies of the Huron Shale Member of the Ohio Shale, (2) upper Olentangy Shale (Rhinestreet facies equivalent), (3) Cleveland Shale Member of the Ohio Shale, and (4) lower Olentangy Shale (Marcellus facies equivalent). These primary exploration targets are recommended on the basis of areal distribution, net thickness of radioactive shale, shows of natural gas, and drilling depth to the radioactive unit. Fracture trends indicate prospective areas for Devonian shale reservoirs. Good geological prospects in the Devonian shales should be located where the fracture trends coincide with thick sequences of organic-rich highly radioactive shale.

  12. Micro and nano-size pores of clay minerals in shale reservoirs: Implication for the accumulation of shale gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shangbin; Han, Yufu; Fu, Changqin; Zhang, han; Zhu, Yanming; Zuo, Zhaoxi

    2016-08-01

    A pore is an essential component of shale gas reservoirs. Clay minerals are the adsorption carrier second only to organic matter. This paper uses the organic maturity test, Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) to study the structure and effect of clay minerals on storing gas in shales. Results show the depositional environment and organic maturity influence the content and types of clay minerals as well as their structure in the three types of sedimentary facies in China. Clay minerals develop multi-size pores which shrink to micro- and nano-size by close compaction during diagenesis. Micro- and nano-pores can be divided into six types: 1) interlayer, 2) intergranular, 3) pore and fracture in contact with organic matter, 4) pore and fracture in contact with other types of minerals, 5) dissolved and, 6) micro-cracks. The contribution of clay minerals to the presence of pores in shale is evident and the clay plane porosity can even reach 16%, close to the contribution of organic matter. The amount of clay minerals and pores displays a positive correlation. Clay minerals possess a strong adsorption which is affected by moisture and reservoir maturity. Different pore levels of clay minerals are mutually arranged, thus essentially producing distinct reservoir adsorption effects. Understanding the structural characteristics of micro- and nano-pores in clay minerals can provide a tool for the exploration and development of shale gas reservoirs.

  13. A molecular organic geochemical study of black shales associated with diatomites from the Oligocene Meinilite Shale (Flysch Carpathians, SE Poland)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Koster, J.; Rospondek, M.; Zubrzycki, A.; Kolouba, M.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1995-01-01

    Black shales of the Menilite Formation, the source rock for oils in the Carpathian overthrust belt, display a large variability in their bulk and molecular geochemical parameters. Biomarker and stable carbon isotope analyses indicate a variable contribution from different algae (particularly dinofla

  14. Volume 9: A Review of Socioeconomic Impacts of Oil Shale Development WESTERN OIL SHALE DEVELOPMENT: A TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotariu, G. J.

    1982-02-01

    The development of an oil shale industry in northwestern Colorado and northeastern Utah has been forecast at various times since early this century, but the comparatively easy accessibility of other oil sources has forestalled development. Decreasing fuel supplies, increasing energy costs, and the threat of a crippling oil embargo finally may launch a commercial oil shale industry in this region. Concern for the possible impacts on the human environment has been fostered by experiences of rapid population growth in other western towns that have hosted energy resource development. A large number of studies have attempted to evaluate social and economic impacts of energy development and to determine important factors that affect the severity of these impacts. These studies have suggested that successful management of rapid population growth depends on adequate front-end capital for public facilities, availability of housing, attention to human service needs, long-range land use and fiscal planning. This study examines variables that affect the socioeconomic impacts of oil shale development. The study region is composed of four Colorado counties: Mesa, Moffat, Garfield and Rio Blanco. Most of the estimated population of 111 000 resides in a handful of urban areas that are separated by large distances and rugged terrain. We have projected the six largest cities and towns and one planned company town (Battlement Mesa) to be the probable centers for potential population impacts caused by development of an oil shale industry. Local planners expect Battlement Mesa to lessen impacts on small existing communities and indeed may be necessary to prevent severe regional socioeconomic impacts. Section II describes the study region and focuses on the economic trends and present conditions in the area. The population impacts analyzed in this study are contingent on a scenario of oil shale development from 1980-90 provided by the Department of Energy and discussed in Sec. III. We

  15. Organic geochemical characterization of Aleksinac oil shale deposit (Serbia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajica, Gordana; Kašanin-Grubin, Milica; Šajnović, Aleksandra; Stojanović, Ksenija; Kostić, Aleksandar; Jovančićević, Branimir

    2016-04-01

    Oil shales represent a good source of energy and industrial raw material. The Aleksinac oil shale deposit is the biggest and most important oil shale deposit in Serbia. It covers an area of over 20 km2, and it has three fields: "Dubrava", "Morava" and "Logorište". The potential reserves of oil shale in the Aleksinac deposit are estimated at about 2.1 billion tons. The genesis of oil shales is associated with the lacustrine depositional environments, which existed from Upper to Lower Miocene. In order to determine the generative potential, type of organic matter (OM) and thermal maturity, Rock-Eval pyrolysis was used. In analyzed oil shale samples the content of total organic carbon (TOC), as a general indicator of petroleum generation potential, range from 1.48 to 29.57%. The content of naturally generated hydrocarbons, expressed as S1 peak from the Rock-Eval pyrolysis in most analyzed samples have extremely low values 0.002-0.28, which indicate low maturity level [1]. The pyrolysable hydrocarbons expressed as S2 peak from the Rock-Eval pyrolysis, represent the potential to generate hydrocarbons and with that the potential of oil generation through thermal decomposition of kerogen. S2 ranging 3.93-141.36 mg HC/g rock is higher than 20 mg HC/g rock and indicates excellent source rock potential [1]. In order to accept a formation as a source rock, it should exhibit TOC more than 0.5 % and sufficient maturity, but also OM types should be suitable for the oil and gas generation. The kerogen type is determined by Hydrogen Index (HI) and diagram HI vs. Tmax (temperature, corresponding to S2 peak maximum). HI in range 265-728 mg HC/g TOC, indicates Type I and Type II kerogen or their mixture i.e. oil prone kerogen [1], whereas only one sample appears to be oil/gas prone (Type II/III). Similar results are obtained by plotting the Tmax against HI. Maturation degree depends on the overall thermal history of the evaluated rocks; it is very important parameter for evaluation

  16. The Architecture and Frictional Properties of Faults in Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paola, N.; Imber, J.; Murray, R.; Holdsworth, R.

    2015-12-01

    The geometry of brittle fault zones in shale rocks, as well as their frictional properties at reservoir conditions, are still poorly understood. Nevertheless, these factors may control the very low recovery factors (25% for gas and 5% for oil) obtained during fracking operations. Extensional brittle fault zones (maximum displacement oil mature black shales in the Cleveland Basin (UK). Fault cores up to 50 cm wide accommodated most of the displacement, and are defined by a stair-step geometry. Their internal architecture is characterised by four distinct fault rock domains: foliated gouges; breccias; hydraulic breccias; and a slip zone up to 20 mm thick, composed of a fine-grained black gouge. Hydraulic breccias are located within dilational jogs with aperture of up to 20 cm. Brittle fracturing and cataclastic flow are the dominant deformation mechanisms in the fault core of shale faults. Velocity-step and slide-hold-slide experiments at sub-seismic slip rates (microns/s) were performed in a rotary shear apparatus under dry, water and brine-saturated conditions, for displacements of up to 46 cm. Both the protolith shale and the slip zone black gouge display shear localization, velocity strengthening behaviour and negative healing rates, suggesting that slow, stable sliding faulting should occur within the protolith rocks and slip zone gouges. Experiments at seismic speed (1.3 m/s), performed on the same materials under dry conditions, show that after initial friction values of 0.5-0.55, friction decreases to steady-state values of 0.1-0.15 within the first 10 mm of slip. Contrastingly, water/brine saturated gouge mixtures, exhibit almost instantaneous attainment of very low steady-state sliding friction (0.1), suggesting that seismic ruptures may efficiently propagate in the slip zone of fluid-saturated shale faults. Stable sliding in faults in shale can cause slow fault/fracture propagation, affecting the rate at which new fracture areas are created and, hence

  17. Petrology of the Devonian gas-bearing shale along Lake Erie helps explain gas shows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadhead, R.F.; Potter, P.E.

    1980-11-01

    Comprehensive petrologic study of 136 thin sections of the Ohio Shale along Lake Erie, when combined with detailed stratigraphic study, helps explain the occurrence of its gas shows, most of which occur in the silty, greenish-gray, organic poor Chagrin Shale and Three Lick Bed. Both have thicker siltstone laminae and more siltstone beds than other members of the Ohio Shale and both units also contain more clayshales. The source of the gas in the Chagrin Shale and Three Lick Bed of the Ohio Shale is believed to be the bituminous-rich shales of the middle and lower parts of the underlying Huron Member of the Ohio Shale. Eleven petrographic types were recognized and extended descriptions are provided of the major ones - claystones, clayshales, mudshales, and bituminous shales plus laminated and unlaminated siltstones and very minor marlstones and sandstones. In addition three major types of lamination were identified and studied. Thirty-two shale samples were analyzed for organic carbon, whole rock hydrogen and whole rock nitrogen with a Perkin-Elmer 240 Elemental Analyzer and provided the data base for source rock evaluation of the Ohio Shale.

  18. Marcellus shale gas potential in the southern tier of New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faraj, B. [Talisman Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Duggan, J. [Hunt Oil Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Marcellus shale is a significant, underexplored, shale gas target in the Appalachian Basin. Gas-in-place estimates in the Marcellus shale range from 200 to 100 billion cubic feet (bcf). The Devonian shales have favorable attributes such as high total organic content (TOC), high gas content, favorable mineralogy and over-pressured. Land owned by Fortuna Energy in the northern Appalachian Basin may contain significant shale gas with unrisked gas-in-place in excess of 10 trillion cubic feet. Unlocking the true shale gas potential requires innovative drilling and completion techniques. This presentation discussed Marcellus shale gas potential in the southern tier and a test program being conducted by Fortuna to test the potential. Several photographs were shown, including Taughannock Falls, Finger Lakes and the Ithaca Shale, Sherburne Sandstone, and Geneseo Shale; two orthogonal fracture sets in the Upper Devonian Geneseo Shale; and two orthogonal fracture sets in the Upper Devonian Rocks, near Corning, New York. Figures that were presented included the supercontinent Pangaea in the early Triassic; undiscovered gas resources in the Appalachian Basin; stratigraphy; and total gas production in New York since 1998. Fortuna's work is ongoing in the northern Appalachian Basin. tabs., figs.

  19. The Wettability of Shale by CO2 and Its Impact on Geologic CO2 Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiltinan, E. J.; Cardenas, M. B.; Espinoza, D. N.; Yoon, H.; Dewers, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    The geologic sequestration of CO2 is widely considered as a potential solution for decreasing anthropogenic atmospheric CO2 emissions. Wettability of fluids within reservoir materials is a critical factor in determining the efficiency of structural and residual trapping, two major mechanisms of geologic sequestration. Individual reservoir minerals are often targeted for wettability studies. Current practice applies these results, recorded under laboratory conditions, to in-situ reservoir rock; however the wide variety of measured contact angles reported in the literature calls this practice into question. To address these issues and to study the wettability of shale caprock, resedimentation techniques are employed. These techniques allow for the creation of synthetic shales with controlled, homogeneous mineralogies. In addition, the systematic variation of the mineralogy allows for the characterization of shale wettability as a function of mineralogical composition. A novel design has been developed and used to conduct wettability experiments at reservoir conditions using high resolution X-ray computer tomography. Using this technique the wettability of resedimented shales and natural shales are compared at different reservoir conditions. Next, Lattice Boltzmann modelling methods are used to simulate capillary entry pressure into a shale capillary. Adhesion parameters along the wall are tuned to the results of the synthetic shales and heterogeneity is incorporated to estimate the capillary entry pressure into a natural shale. Understanding the mineralogical components of shale wetting allows for the prediction of capillary entry pressure based on shale mineralogy which can be used to help select secure CO2 storage sites.

  20. The flux of radionuclides in flowback fluid from shale gas exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond, S; Clancy, S A; Davies, R J; Worrall, F

    2014-11-01

    This study considers the flux of radioactivity in flowback fluid from shale gas development in three areas: the Carboniferous, Bowland Shale, UK; the Silurian Shale, Poland; and the Carboniferous Barnett Shale, USA. The radioactive flux from these basins was estimated, given estimates of the number of wells developed or to be developed, the flowback volume per well and the concentration of K (potassium) and Ra (radium) in the flowback water. For comparative purposes, the range of concentration was itself considered within four scenarios for the concentration range of radioactive measured in each shale gas basin, the groundwater of the each shale gas basin, global groundwater and local surface water. The study found that (i) for the Barnett Shale and the Silurian Shale, Poland, the 1 % exceedance flux in flowback water was between seven and eight times that would be expected from local groundwater. However, for the Bowland Shale, UK, the 1 % exceedance flux (the flux that would only be expected to be exceeded 1 % of the time, i.e. a reasonable worst case scenario) in flowback water was 500 times that expected from local groundwater. (ii) In no scenario was the 1 % exceedance exposure greater than 1 mSv-the allowable annual exposure allowed for in the UK. (iii) The radioactive flux of per energy produced was lower for shale gas than for conventional oil and gas production, nuclear power production and electricity generated through burning coal.

  1. Sweet spot identification in underexplored shales using multidisciplinary reservoir characterization and key performance indicators: example of the Posidonia Shale Formation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heege, J.H. ter; Zijp, M.H.A.A.; Nelskamp, S.; Douma, L.A.N.R.; Verreussel, R.M.C.H.; Veen, J.H. ten; Bruin, G. de; Peters, M.C.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Sweet spot identification in underexplored shale gas basins needs to be based on a limited amount of data on shale properties in combination with upfront geological characterization and modelling, because actual production data is usually absent. Multidisciplinary reservoir characterization and inte

  2. Sweet spot identification in underexplored shales using multidisciplinary reservoir characterization and key performance indicators : Example of the Posidonia Shale Formation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Heege, Jan; Zijp, Mart; Nelskamp, Susanne; Douma, Lisanne; Verreussel, Roel; Ten Veen, Johan; de Bruin, Geert; Peters, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Sweet spot identification in underexplored shale gas basins needs to be based on a limited amount of data on shale properties in combination with upfront geological characterization and modelling, because actual production data is usually absent. Multidisciplinary reservoir characterization and inte

  3. Factors controlling the compositional variations among the marine and non-marine black shales from Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baioumy, Hassan M. [Central Metallurgical R and D Institute, PO Box 87 Helwan, Cairo (Egypt); Ismael, Ismael S. [Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Suez (Egypt)

    2010-07-01

    Non-marine (Jurassic) and marine (Cretaceous) black shales from Egypt were subjected to mineralogical and geochemical analyses to examine the controlling factors of their compositional variations. Non-marine black shales are composed of kaolinite and quartz with traces of gypsum, illite, calcite, feldspars, and dolomite, while marine black shales from the Red Sea area are composed of smectite, kaolinite, quartz, calcite, and dolomite with traces of feldspars. Abu Tartur marine black shales are composed of smectite and quartz with traces of feldspars and gypsum. Non-marine black shales show considerably higher Nb, Ta, Hf, and Zr contents and Th/Yb ratios compared to the marine black shales. On the other hand, marine black shales show considerably higher Cr, V, and Zn contents with positive correlations between these elements and organic carbon (C{sub org.}){sub .} Red Sea black shales have higher Ni/Co, V/Cr, and U/Al ratios. Chondrite normalized values of the medium and heavy rare earth elements (MREEs and HREEs, respectively) are higher in the non-marine black shales compared to the marine black shales. Pyrite from non-marine black shales is characterized by high positive {delta}{sup 34}S isotope values (average of + 9.3 permille). Pyrite from Red Sea black shales has low negative {delta}{sup 34}S values (average of -16.7 permille), pyrite from black shales of the lower member of the Duwi Formation has positive {delta}{sup 34}S values (average of 5.8 permille), while pyrite from marine black shales of the middle member has negative {delta}{sup 34}S values (average of -0.83 permille). Source area composition, weathering conditions, depositional environments, and type of organic matter are considered to be the probable controlling factors of these variations. The more felsic constituents in the source area of non-marine black shales is responsible for the relatively high Nb, Ta, Hf, and Zr contents and Th/Yb ratio. Relatively high kaolinite contents and Chemical

  4. Two-step processing of oil shale to linear hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliseev, O.L.; Ryzhov, A.N.; Latypova, D.Zh.; Lapidus, A.L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). N.D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry; Avakyan, T.A. [Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-01

    Thermal and catalytic steam reforming of oil shale mined from Leningrad and Kashpir deposits was studied. Experiments were performed in fixed bed reactor by varying temperature and steam flow rate. Data obtained were approximated by empirical formulas containing some parameters calculated by least-squares method. Thus predicting amount of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane in producer gas is possible for given particular kind of oil shale, temperature and steam flow rate. Adding Ni catalyst enriches hydrogen and depletes CO content in effluent gas at low gasification temperatures. Modeling gas simulating steam reforming gases (H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2} mixture) was tested in hydrocarbon synthesis over Co-containing supported catalyst. Selectivity of CO conversion into C{sub 5+} hydrocarbons reaches 84% while selectivity to methane is 7%. Molecular weight distribution of synthesized alkanes obeys Anderson-Schulz-Flory equation and chain growth probability 0.84. (orig.)

  5. Porous structure and specific surface of oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopachenok, L.V.; Belyanin, Yu.I.; Proskuryakov, V.A.

    1976-01-01

    The total oil shale pore volume, measured by mercury porometry and benzene picnometry, was 0.157 cu m/g (0.225 cc/cc), with 62% of it made up of 200 to 600 angstrom pores and 3.2% of pores below 31.4 angstroms. The oil shale and kerogen specific surface, measured by low-temperature adsorption of radioactive krypton, decreased from 8.7 to 4.1 sq m/g with increase in the organic matter content from 29 to 97.16%. Crushing in a ball mill changed only the particle external surface and thus did not increase adsorptivity relative to flotation concentration reagents.

  6. Gasification of oil shale for hydrogen containing gas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, A.L. [I.M. Gubkin Russian State Univ. of Oil and Gas, Moscow (Russian Federation); United Research and Development Center Ltd., Moscow (Russian Federation); Strizhakova, Yu. [Samara State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation); Zhagfarov, F.G.; Usova, T.; Avakyan, T. [I.M. Gubkin Russian State Univ. of Oil and Gas, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-12-30

    Qualified using of combustible shale, peat and wood for production of fuel and chemical products is a very actual problem for our country because of their large resource. It is possible to carry out two principal different ways of their use: thermal processing and gasification with following processing of gas products. Production of synthesis gas with composition CO:H{sub 2}=1:2 (vol) is possible at gasification of combustible shale. This gas is converted into the mixture of hydrocarbons over cobalt catalysts at 170-280 C at 1-3 bar. The hydrocarbons can be used as motor, including diesel, or reactive fuel. We proposed the effective catalysts at which conversion of synthesis gas in liquid products equals 80-90%. (orig.)

  7. Carbon Shale Combustion in the Fluidized Bed Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olek Małgorzata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present the possibilities of coal shale combustion in furnaces with bubbling fluidized bed. Coal shale can be autothermally combusted in the fluidized bed, despite the low calorie value and high ash content of fuel. Established concentrations of CO (500 ppm and VOC (30 mg/m3 have indicated a high conversion degree of combustible material during combustion process. Average concentrations of SO2 and NOx in the flue gas were higher than this received from the combustion of high quality hard coal, 600 ppm and 500 ppm, respectively. Optional reduction of SO2 and NOx emission may require the installation of flue gas desulphurization and de-NOx systems.

  8. U.S. shale gas trends - economic and global implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, T.

    2016-09-01

    Natural gas from shale has moved the U.S., and North America more broadly, to become one of the largest producers of the commodity worldwide. Large technological gains have allowed reservoirs of unconventional hydrocarbons to become commercially viable to extract and market. The addition of this growing supply into the global marketplace, has upended longstanding trading patterns, and created new economic outcomes worth noting. This paper will discuss the recent trends of shale energy development in the U.S., the impact it is having on domestic and international markets, and the implications as the world shifts to a new low carbon energy paradigm. It will cover changes in workforce, midstream build out, power generation trends, petrochemicals, and emerging LNG export capacities.

  9. Modelling the drying of a parallelepipedic oil shale particle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porto, P.S.S.; Lisboa, A.C.L. [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). School of Chemical Engineering], Emails: porto@feq.unicamp.br, lisboa@feq.unicamp.br

    2005-04-15

    A numerical model is proposed to describe the process of drying a parallelepipedic oil shale particle. Assuming Fick's law, the diffusion equation for the shape of the particle was used. The objective of the study was to develop a computer program in Fortran to estimate the moisture content of an oil shale particle undergoing drying as a function of time and position. The average moisture content was also obtained. The model takes into account the migration of water by diffusion within the solid and its loss at the interface. The model results were compared to experimental data from an apparatus which measured the mass loss of a particle. The apparatus comprised an electronic balance attached by a thin wire to the particle placed inside an incubator. (author)

  10. Alternative routes for the chemical industry regarding US shale gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneissel, B. [Stratley AG, Koeln (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    Cracking ethane from wet shale gas in North America sets a bench mark to global ethylene production costs. Regarding very attractive ethane prices from extraction of low cost wet shale gas we suggest in North America ethylene production costs will roughly vary between 400 and 600 $/ t. As in other parts of the world, except Middle East, the availability of ethane seems to be more limited other sources for ethylene, such as methane, coal and biomass are investigated. Oxidative coupling of methane (OCM) has its limits and may only lead to competitive production costs for large scale operations. Coal converted to ethylene via calcium carbide and subsequent hydrogenation may hardly be a viable answer. Ethylene derived by dehydration of ethanol from fermentation of corn sugar may be an answer for very low crop prices. Further research on the conversion of methane with emphasis on its industrial implementation as a major carbon resource is recommended. (orig.)

  11. Unconventional energy resources: 2015 review. Shale gas and liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Neil S.; Bowker, Kent; Cander, Harris; Cardott, Brian; Charette, Marc; Chew, Kenneth; Chidsey, Thomas; Dubiel, Russell F.; Egenhoff, Sven O.; Enomoto, Catherine B.; Hammes, Ursula; Harrison, William; Jiang, Shu; LeFever, Julie A.; McCracken, Jock; Nordeng, Stephen; Nyahay, Richard; Sonnenberg, Stephen; Vanden Berg, Michael; ,

    2015-01-01

    Introduction As the source rocks from which petroleum is generated, organic-rich shales have always been considered an important component of petroleum systems. Over the last few years, it has been realized that in some mudrocks, sufficient hydrocarbons remain in place to allow for commercial development, although advanced drilling and completion technology is typically required to access hydrocarbons from these reservoirs. Tight oil reservoirs (also referred to as continuous oil accumulations) contain hydrocarbons migrated from source rocks that are geologically/stratigraphically interbedded with or occur immediately overlying/underlying them. Migration is minimal in charging these tight oil accumulations (Gaswirth and Marra 2014). Companies around the world are now successfully exploiting organic-rich shales and tight rocks for contained hydrocarbons, and the search for these types of unconventional petroleum reservoirs is growing. Unconventional reservoirs range in geologic age from Ordovician to Tertiary (Silverman et al. 2005; EIA 2013a). 

  12. Application of high-precision 3D seismic technology to shale gas exploration: A case study of the large Jiaoshiba shale gas field in the Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuqing Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation pattern of the marine shale gas in South China is different from that in North America. The former has generally thin reservoirs and complex preservation conditions, so it is difficult to make a fine description of the structural features of shale formations and to reflect accurately the distribution pattern of high-quality shale by using the conventional 2D and 3D seismic exploration technology, which has an adverse effect on the successful deployment of horizontal wells. In view of this, high-precision 3D seismic prospecting focusing on lithological survey was implemented to make an accurate description of the distribution of shale gas sweet spots so that commercial shale gas production can be obtained. Therefore, due to the complex seismic geological condition of Jiaoshiba area in Fuling, SE Sichuan Basin, the observation system of high-precision 3D seismic acquisition should have such features as wide-azimuth angles, small trace intervals, high folds, uniform vertical and horizontal coverage and long spread to meet the needs of the shale gas exploration in terms of structural interpretation, lithological interpretation and fracture prediction. Based on this idea, the first implemented high-precision 3D seismic exploration project in Jiaoshiba area played an important role in the discovery of the large Jiaoshiba shale gas field. Considering that the high-quality marine shale in the Sichuan Basin shows the characteristics of multi-layer development from the Silurian system to the Cambrian system, the strategy of shale gas stereoscopic exploration should be implemented to fully obtain the oil and gas information of the shallow, medium and deep strata from the high-precision 3D seismic data, and ultimately to expand the prospecting achievements in an all-round way to balance the high upstream exploration cost, and to continue to push the efficient shale gas exploration and development process in China.

  13. Cristobalitic stage in the diagenesis of diatomaceous shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, K.J.; Nakata, J.K.

    1974-01-01

    With increasing depth of burial, diagenetic cristobalite in the Monterey Shale of California shows a decrease in the d(101) spacing from 4.115 to 4.040 angstroms, indicative of a progressive change in its internal structure. The spacing is 0.004 to 0.015 angstrom smaller in porcellanite than in associated chert, probably because the cristobalite of porcellanite formed later than that of chert.

  14. Shale Gas Well Completions and Maximizing Gas Recoveries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael D. Burnaman; Stephen Smith; Wenwu Xia

    2009-01-01

    It is shown that stress fields within the earth are the principle control for hydraulic fracture direction in horizontal shale gas wells. Hydraulic fracturing is a process of increasing permeability within gas shales and involves a sophisticated organization of technology, good planning and proper management of equipment over a very short time period to be successful.The direction and extent of the induced fractures can be determined in near real-time at the well site via application of earthquake seismology theory in a now common process known as frac mapping. Next to the horizontal lateral azimuth, the total volume of slurry pumped into the well is a major factor in determining well EURs. Vertical fracture growth can be controlled and is important in concentration of the slurry within the main zone target zone that has the high TOC and porosity. Cemented casing with perforations is currently the most used method for zone isolation. New open-hole sleeve packers may eventually provide more flexibility in fracture design while also providing a means for refracturing multi-stage fractured horizontal wells, a technique not now commonly available. Multi-Stage fracture design requires incorporating rock properties with fracturing effect simulations and then verifying results using 3D reservoir simulations. Maximizing the gas recovery factors and EURs can be accomplished through use of closely spaced laterals with inter-fingered fracture stages and exploiting the stress shadow fracturing phenomenon.Even greater EURs may be possible if the wells can be refractured thereby opening up additional permeability channels. Shale gas development has progressed in an environmentally sensitive manner within the U.S. and will continue in this manner.During the past ten years, all of these technologies have been either newly developed or were the advancement of existingtechnology with modifications. The opportunity exists to take these proven technologies to other areas of the world

  15. New burgess shale fossil sites reveal middle cambrian faunal complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, D; Briggs, D; Morris, S C

    1983-10-14

    Soft-bodied and lightly sclerotized Burgess shale fossils have been found at more than a dozen new localities in an area extending for 20 kilometers along the front of the Cathedral Escarpment in the Middle Cambrian Stephen Formation of the Canadian Rockies. Five different fossil assemblages from four stratigraphic levels have been recognized. These assemblages represent distinct penecontemporaneous marine communities that together make up a normal fore-reef faunal complex.

  16. Statistical model of the classification of shale in a hydrocyclone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopachenok, L.V.; Punin, A.E.; Belyanin, Yu.I.; Proskuryakov, V.A.

    1977-10-01

    The mathematical model obtained by experimental and statistical methods for the classification of shale in a hydrocyclone is adequate for a real industrial-scale process, as indicated by the statistical analysis carried out for it, and together with the material-balance relationships it permits the calculation of the engineering parameters for any classification conditions within the region of the factor space investigated, as well as the search for the optimum conditions for the industrial realization of the process.

  17. Relationship of shale dewatering and smectite dehydration to undercompaction occurrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leftwich, J.T. Jr.

    1996-12-01

    The cause(s) of abnormal fluid pressures in sedimentary basins are not clearly understood. One step in determining the mechanism(s) of abnormal pressure generation in sedimentary basins is to develop an understanding of the relationship among undercompacted shale, abnormal pressure, and temperature. Our research focused on understanding undercompaction and how it related to smectite-illite conversion. A series of carefully designed experiments were used to help clarify and evaluate the relationship of smectite-illite transformation to undercompaction.

  18. Ignition technique for an in situ oil shale retort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Chang Y.

    1983-01-01

    A generally flat combustion zone is formed across the entire horizontal cross-section of a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles formed in an in situ oil shale retort. The flat combustion zone is formed by either sequentially igniting regions of the surface of the fragmented permeable mass at successively lower elevations or by igniting the entire surface of the fragmented permeable mass and controlling the rate of advance of various portions of the combustion zone.

  19. Policy Brief: Shale Gas in India: Look Before You Leap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-15

    Natural gas forms 9 per cent of the total commercial energy mix in India, but demand far exceeds supply, as shown in Figure 1. Part of the demand in 2012–13 was made up by the import of liquefied natural gas (LNG) to the extent of 18 bcm. Several power plants, which were in operation, or ready for commissioning, or in an advanced state of construction, representing about 10,000 MW of generation capacity, were, however, idle for want of gas. The exploration and production of shale gas in the United States (US) has been a game changer, making the country self-sufficient in natural gas over the last few years. This has created considerable excitement globally, particularly in Europe. India is also looking at exploring shale gas domestically to fill in the supply–demand gap. But will what works for the US also work for Europe and India? This policy brief explores this question in the context of India. It explains the nature of shale gas, the technology for its extraction from underground sources, and its potential for India. It also highlights overseas acquisitions of this resource by Indian companies even before it is sourced domestically, and then examines the viability of the technology in India. One of the key determinants of the viability of this technology is the availability of large quantities of clean water. This policy brief raises a red flag on this complementary input for exploiting shale gas resources in India, given that India is a water stressed country, and is fast approaching water scarcity conditions.

  20. Paraho oil shale module. Site development plan, Task 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    A management plan and schedule which covers all requirements for gaining access to the site and for conducting a Paraho Process demonstration program have been prepared. The oil shale available should represent a regional resource of suitable size and quality for commercial development. Discussed in this report are: proof of ownership; requirements for rights-of-way for access to the site; local zoning restrictions; water rights; site availability verification; and other legal requirements. (DMC)

  1. Geochemical controls on shale groundwaters: Results of reaction path modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Damm, K.L.; VandenBrook, A.J.

    1989-03-01

    The EQ3NR/EQ6 geochemical modeling code was used to simulate the reaction of several shale mineralogies with different groundwater compositions in order to elucidate changes that may occur in both the groundwater compositions, and rock mineralogies and compositions under conditions which may be encountered in a high-level radioactive waste repository. Shales with primarily illitic or smectitic compositions were the focus of this study. The reactions were run at the ambient temperatures of the groundwaters and to temperatures as high as 250/degree/C, the approximate temperature maximum expected in a repository. All modeling assumed that equilibrium was achieved and treated the rock and water assemblage as a closed system. Graphite was used as a proxy mineral for organic matter in the shales. The results show that the presence of even a very small amount of reducing mineral has a large influence on the redox state of the groundwaters, and that either pyrite or graphite provides essentially the same results, with slight differences in dissolved C, Fe and S concentrations. The thermodynamic data base is inadequate at the present time to fully evaluate the speciation of dissolved carbon, due to the paucity of thermodynamic data for organic compounds. In the illitic cases the groundwaters resulting from interaction at elevated temperatures are acid, while the smectitic cases remain alkaline, although the final equilibrium mineral assemblages are quite similar. 10 refs., 8 figs., 15 tabs.

  2. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales -- Beneficiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, M.J.; Lau, F.S.; Mensinger, M.C. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Schultz, C.W.; Mehta, R.K.; Lamont, W.E. (Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States)); Chiang, S.H.; Venkatadri, R. (Pittsburgh Univ., PA (United States)); Misra, M. (Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States))

    1992-05-01

    The Mineral Resources Institute at the University of Alabama, along with investigators from the University of Pittsburgh and the University of Nevada-Reno, have conducted a research program on the beneficiation, of Eastern oil shales. The objective of the research program was to evaluate and adapt those new and emerging technologies that have the potential to improve the economics of recovering oil from Eastern oil shales. The technologies evaluated in this program can be grouped into three areas: fine grinding kerogen/mineral matter separation, and waste treatment and disposal. Four subtasks were defined in the area of fine grinding. They were as follows: Ultrasonic Grinding, Pressure Cycle Comminution, Stirred Ball Mill Grinding, and Grinding Circuit Optimization. The planned Ultrasonic grinding research was terminated when the company that had contracted to do the research failed. Three technologies for effecting a separation of kerogen from its associated mineral matter were evaluated: column flotation, the air-sparged hydrocyclone, and the LICADO process. Column flotation proved to be the most effective means of making the kerogen/mineral matter separation. No problems are expected in the disposal of oil shale tailings. It is assumed that the tailings will be placed in a sealed pond and the water recycled to the plant as is the normal practice. It may be advantageous, however, to conduct further research on the recovery of metals as by-products and to assess the market for tailings as an ingredient in cement making.

  3. Wellbore stability analysis in chemically active shale formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Xiang-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining wellbore stability involves significant challenges when drilling in low-permeability reactive shale formations. In the present study, a non-linear thermo-chemo-poroelastic model is provided to investigate the effect of chemical, thermal, and hydraulic gradients on pore pressure and stress distributions near the wellbores. The analysis indicates that when the solute concentration of the drilling mud is higher than that of the formation fluid, the pore pressure and the effective radial and tangential stresses decrease, and v. v. Cooling of the lower salinity formation decreases the pore pressure, radial and tangential stresses. Hole enlargement is the combined effect of shear and tensile failure when drilling in high-temperature shale formations. The shear and tensile damage indexes reveal that hole enlargement occurs in the vicinity of the wellbore at an early stage of drilling. This study also demonstrates that shale wellbore stability exhibits a time-delay effect due to changes in the pore pressure and stress. The delay time computed with consideration of the strength degradation is far less than that without strength degradation.

  4. Taphonomic and sedimentologic characterization of roof-shale floras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gastaldo, R.A.; Pfefferkorn, H.W.; DiMichele, W.A. [Auburn University, Auburn, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology

    1995-12-31

    Roof-shale floras have been a major source of data for the understanding of Carboniferous vegetation. Early debate on their origin centered around the question of whether these megafloral assemblages are autochthonous or allochthonous. In these discussions, the sedimentological context in which the preserved fossil assemblage (taphoflora) occurred was largely ignored. W.C. Darrah saw the complexity of these issues, presented helpful starting points for further investigations, and influenced the thinking of the next generation. This chapter characterizes the sedimentological and taphonomic features of a spectrum of roof-shale floras. There are three levels at which the preservation of plant parts can be viewed: (1) early taphonomic processes and earliest diagenesis can destroy or preserve plant parts in a given clastic depositional setting; (2) those plant parts that are preserved can be autochthonous, parautochthonour, or allochthonous in relationship to their original place of growth; (3) with respect to a peat layer (coal bed), the overlying clastic material can be deposited in a continuous transition, after a short temporal break (discontinuity), or after a significant hiatus of time. Characterization of roof-shale floras must take into consideration the sedimentological interpretation of the associated lithologies, the stratigraphic sequence, and the taphonomic processes involved in their formation. Characterization is essential before such floras can be used in higher-level interpretations, such as paleoecological reconstructions. 72 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. The role of ethics in shale gas policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo-Martín, Inmaculada; Hays, Jake; Finkel, Madelon L

    2014-02-01

    The United States has experienced a boom in natural gas production due to recent technological innovations that have enabled natural gas to be produced from unconventional sources, such as shale. There has been much discussion about the costs and benefits of developing shale gas among scientists, policy makers, and the general public. The debate has typically revolved around potential gains in economics, employment, energy independence, and national security as well as potential harms to the environment, the climate, and public health. In the face of scientific uncertainty, national and international governments must make decisions on how to proceed. So far, the results have been varied, with some governments banning the process, others enacting moratoria until it is better understood, and others explicitly sanctioning shale gas development. These policies reflect legislature's preferences to avoid false negative errors or false positive ones. Here we argue that policy makers have a prima facie duty to minimize false negatives based on three considerations: (1) protection from serious harm generally takes precedence over the enhancement of welfare; (2) minimizing false negatives in this case is more respectful to people's autonomy; and (3) alternative solutions exist that may provide many of the same benefits while minimizing many of the harms.

  6. Impact of ductility on hydraulic fracturing in shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMinn, Chris; Auton, Lucy

    2016-04-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is a method for extracting natural gas and oil from low-permeability rocks such as shale via the high-pressure injection of fluid into the bulk of the rock. The goal is to initiate and propagate fractures that will provide hydraulic access deeper into the reservoir, enabling gas or oil to be collected from a larger region of the rock. Fracture is the tensile failure of a brittle material upon reaching a threshold tensile stress, but some shales have a high clay content and may yield plastically before fracturing. Plastic deformation is the shear failure of a ductile material, during which stress relaxes through irreversible rearrangements of the particles of the material. Here, we investigate the impact of the ductility of shales on hydraulic fracturing. We first consider a simple, axisymmetric model for radially outward fluid injection from a wellbore into a ductile porous rock. We use this model to show that plastic deformation greatly reduces the maximum tensile stress, and that this maximum stress does not always occur at the wellbore. We then complement these results with laboratory experiments in an analogue system, and with numerical simulations based on the discrete element method (DEM), both of which suggest that ductile failure can indeed dramatically change the resulting deformation pattern. These results imply that hydraulic fracturing may fail in ductile rocks, or that the required injection rate for fracking may be much larger than the rate predicted from models that assume purely elastic mechanical behavior.

  7. Chemistry which created Green River Formation oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    The genesis pattern presented for Green River Formation oil shale explains the major observation. Deposition of relatively large quantities of hydrogen-rich organic matter in the oil shales is a natural consequence of the chemical conditions (basic water and reducing atmosphere) and the physical limitation of clastic materials developed in the stratified ancient Lake Uinta. Stability of the stratification produced the continuous deposition of the organic matter and its uniformity over the deposit. Authigenic formation of the oil-shale minerals proceeds naturally from the lake stratification, and the varve production stems from the seasonable development of organic matter. The lake's stratification produced uniform deposition over the entire area it covered, making the correlatable lateral persistence of the thin laminations a natural consequence. As the lake developed, the attack on aluminosilicates by sodium carbonate in the lower layer produced a silicate skeleton protected by aluminum trihydroxide. On deposition, this aluminum-rich skeleton formed illite in quantity. As the lake became more basic, the protecting aluminum hydroxide coating dissolved amphoterically and illite production dropped at a specific point. Continual build-up of sodium carbonate and aluminate ion in the water of the lake's lower layer reached conditions which precipitated dawsonite and crystallized nahcolite in the sediment as a result of CO/sub 2/ production from organic matter. (JMT)

  8. The chemistry which created Green River Formation oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.W.

    1983-02-01

    The genesis pattern presented for Green River Formation oil shale explains the major observation. Deposition of relatively large quantities of hydrogen-rich organic matter in the oil shales is a natural consequence of the chemical conditions (basic water and reducing atmosphere) and the physical limitation of clastic materials developed in the stratified ancient Lake Uinta. Stability of the stratification produced the continuous deposition of the organic matter and its uniformity over the deposit. Authigenic formation of the oil-shale minerals proceeds naturally from the lake stratification, and the varve production stems from the seasonable development of organic matter. The lake's stratification produced uniform deposition over the entire area it covered, making the correlatable lateral persistence of the thin laminations a natural consequence. As the lake developed, the attack on aluminosilicates by sodium carbonate in the lake's lower layer produced a silicate skeleton protected by aluminum trihydroxide. On deposition, this aluminum-rich skeleton formed illite in quantity. As the lake became more basic, the protecting aluminum hydroxide coating dissolved amphoterically and illite production dropped at a specific point. Continual build-up of sodium carbonate and aluminate ion in the water of the lake's lower layer reached conditions which

  9. Geology of the oil shales of Messel near Darmstadt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthess, G.

    1966-07-25

    The oil shale, with a thickness of nearly 190 m, represents the middle part of the strata of Messel. Freshly mined, it consists of about 40% water and about 25% organic matter. The rest are clay minerals, chiefly montmorillonite. Kaolinite, messelite, vivianite, pyrites, markasite, siderite, and gypsum occur in small quantities. The organic components are kerogens which are extraordinary rich in oxygen. They are tied adsorptively to montmorillonite. The bitumina are supposed to be chiefly derived from algae, in a smaller extent from fungi and pollen. Plants as well as the large ganoid fishes and the crocodiles indicate a tropical to subtropical climate and a larger extent of the former water system. The oil shales of Messel are preserved in a tectonic graben that is 1,000 m long and up to 700 m wide. This graben is divided into 3 depressions. Both depressions are close together in the south and diverge northward. The ground water lifted in the open mining shows high degrees of total hardness and unusual high sulfate and phosphate contents. These matters can be derived from the weathering events in the exposed oil shale. (133 refs.)

  10. Oil shale derived pollutant control materials and methods and apparatuses for producing and utilizing the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Richard D.; Carrington, Robert A.

    2010-05-04

    Pollution control substances may be formed from the combustion of oil shale, which may produce a kerogen-based pyrolysis gas and shale sorbent, each of which may be used to reduce, absorb, or adsorb pollutants in pollution producing combustion processes, pyrolysis processes, or other reaction processes. Pyrolysis gases produced during the combustion or gasification of oil shale may also be used as a combustion gas or may be processed or otherwise refined to produce synthetic gases and fuels.

  11. The Description of Shale Reservoir Pore Structure Based on Method of Moments Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjie; Wang, Changcheng; Shi, Zejin; Wei, Yi; Zhou, Huailai; Deng, Kun

    2016-01-01

    Shale has been considered as good gas reservoir due to its abundant interior nanoscale pores. Thus, the study of the pore structure of shale is of great significance for the evaluation and development of shale oil and gas. To date, the most widely used approaches for studying the shale pore structure include image analysis, radiation and fluid invasion methods. The detailed pore structures can be studied intuitively by image analysis and radiation methods, but the results obtained are quite sensitive to sample preparation, equipment performance and experimental operation. In contrast, the fluid invasion method can be used to obtain information on pore size distribution and pore structure, but the relative simple parameters derived cannot be used to evaluate the pore structure of shale comprehensively and quantitatively. To characterize the nanoscale pore structure of shale reservoir more effectively and expand the current research techniques, we proposed a new method based on gas adsorption experimental data and the method of moments to describe the pore structure parameters of shale reservoir. Combined with the geological mixture empirical distribution and the method of moments estimation principle, the new method calculates the characteristic parameters of shale, including the mean pore size (x¯), standard deviation (σ), skewness (Sk) and variation coefficient (c). These values are found by reconstructing the grouping intervals of observation values and optimizing algorithms for eigenvalues. This approach assures a more effective description of the characteristics of nanoscale pore structures. Finally, the new method has been applied to analyze the Yanchang shale in the Ordos Basin (China) and Longmaxi shale from the Sichuan Basin (China). The results obtained well reveal the pore characteristics of shale, indicating the feasibility of this new method in the study of the pore structure of shale reservoir. PMID:26992168

  12. A New Leanchoiliid Megacheiran Arthropod from the Lower Cambrian Emu Bay Shale, South Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Edgecombe, Gregory D; Diego C. García-Bellido; Paterson, John R

    2011-01-01

    The Leanchoiliidae is well-known from abundant material of Leanchoilia, from the Burgess Shale and Chengjiang Konservat-Lagerstätten. The first Australian member of the group is Oestokerkus megacholix gen. et sp. nov., described from the Emu Bay Shale (Cambrian Series 2, Stage 4), at Buck Quarry, Kangaroo Island, South Australia, and is intermediate in age between the well known leanchoiliid species from the Burgess Shale and Chengjiang. Phylogenetic analysis of “short great appendage” arthro...

  13. Demecology in the Cambrian: synchronized molting in arthropods from the Burgess Shale

    OpenAIRE

    Haug, Joachim T; Caron, Jean-Bernard; Haug, Carolin

    2013-01-01

    Background The Burgess Shale is well known for its preservation of a diverse soft-bodied biota dating from the Cambrian period (Series 3, Stage 5). While previous paleoecological studies have focused on particular species (autecology) or entire paleocommunities (synecology), studies on the ecology of populations (demecology) of Burgess Shale organisms have remained mainly anecdotal. Results Here, we present evidence for mass molting events in two unrelated arthropods from the Burgess Shale Wa...

  14. Nanometer-Scale Pore Characteristics of Lacustrine Shale, Songliao Basin, NE China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wang

    Full Text Available In shale, liquid hydrocarbons are accumulated mainly in nanometer-scale pores or fractures, so the pore types and PSDs (pore size distributions play a major role in the shale oil occurrence (free or absorbed state, amount of oil, and flow features. The pore types and PSDs of marine shale have been well studied; however, research on lacustrine shale is rare, especially for shale in the oil generation window, although lacustrine shale is deposited widely around the world. To investigate the relationship between nanometer-scale pores and oil occurrence in the lacustrine shale, 10 lacustrine shale core samples from Songliao Basin, NE China were analyzed. Analyses of these samples included geochemical measurements, SEM (scanning electron microscope observations, low pressure CO2 and N2 adsorption, and high-pressure mercury injection experiments. Analysis results indicate that: (1 Pore types in the lacustrine shale include inter-matrix pores, intergranular pores, organic matter pores, and dissolution pores, and these pores are dominated by mesopores and micropores; (2 There is no apparent correlation between pore volumes and clay content, however, a weak negative correlation is present between total pore volume and carbonate content; (3 Pores in lacustrine shale are well developed when the organic matter maturity (Ro is >1.0% and the pore volume is positively correlated with the TOC (total organic carbon content. The statistical results suggest that oil in lacustrine shale mainly occurs in pores with diameters larger than 40 nm. However, more research is needed to determine whether this minimum pore diameter for oil occurrence in lacustrine shale is widely applicable.

  15. New shale shaker as a primary unit for controlling solids in drilling fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, A.; Pahlke, K.; Schillinger, H.

    1988-04-01

    The purpose of the shale shaker is the primary separation of the cuttings from the drilling fluid at comparatively low cost; it thus exerts a substantial influence on the equipment installed downstream. Nevertheless, further development of this vital machine has been neglected for many years. Relatively coarse-meshed vibrating screens have been employed for decades on the shale shakers available on drilling rigs. A new shale shaker is described, and experience hitherto gained in the field is discussed.

  16. The Exploitation of shale gas – A Grave peril for human health and life

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitru Mazilu

    2014-01-01

    In recent years the American example is evoked insistently for the exploitation of shale gas. The main argument for this exploitation is the positive impact of this exploitation for the energy crisis. A movie produced by Americans who are concerned about the serious human consequences of shale gas exploitation, and which was broadcasted by many televisions including Romanian ones – shows terrifying images: „the tap water that was drinkable before drilling for shale gas started to burst into f...

  17. Flow of products of thermal decomposition of oil shale through porous skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyazeva, A. G.; Maslov, A. L.

    2016-11-01

    Oil shale is sedimentary rock formed by the accumulation of pelagic sediments, minerals and their further transformation. Experimental investigation of shale decomposition is very complex and expensive. The model of underground oil shale retorting is formulated in this paper. Model takes into account the reactions in solid phase and in fluid, mass and heat exchange, gaseous product flow in pores. Example of the numerical solution of the developed system of equations for the particular problem is shown.

  18. Prevention of Heaving in Structures Built on Black Shale by Prevention of Crystal Growth within the Shales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-30

    gypsum growth within natural black shale environments. - 10 - TABLE I ORGANIC ADDITIVES USED IN PROJECT ADDITIVE SOURCE Amino Acetic Acid Pfanstiehl...EDTA Iowa State University Labs EMA 1103 Monsanto? Ethoquad 6012909 R113-50 Armak Ethoquad 6921305 RI15-50 Armak Gallic Acid JT Baker Glutamic Acid Iowa...the acid character of the additive. Duplicate experi- ments were used for each time period. Symbols are the same as in Figs. 2 and 3. Dequest 2060

  19. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales. Progress report, December 1991--February 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, F.S.; Mensinger, M.C.; Roberts, M.J.; Rue, D.M.

    1992-03-01

    The objective is to perform the research necessary to develop the pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting (PFH) process for producing oil from Easter oil shales. The program also incorporates research on technologies in areas such as raw shale preparation, beneficiation, product separation, and waste disposal that have the potential of improving the economics and/or environmental acceptability of recovering oil from oil shales using the PFH process. Accomplishments for this period are presented for the following tasks: Testing of Process Improvement Concepts; Beneficiation Research; Operation of PFH on Beneficiated Shale; Environmental Data and Mitigation Analyses; Sample Procurement, Preparation, and Characterization; and Project Management and Reporting. 24 figs., 19 tabs. (AT)

  20. Oxidation of the Boltysh deposit shale with atmosperic oxygen in a water-alkali medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proskuryakov, V.A.; Soloveichik, Z.V.; Yakovlev, V.I.

    1971-01-01

    Conditions for obtaining organic acids from Boltysh oil shale containing 43.12 percent organic matter were studied by oxidizing the shale with air in a water-alkali medium at different temperatures, oxidation times, and alkali consumptions. Maximum yield of 42.6 percent of high molecular acids was obtained at 175/sup 0/C; the yield of dibasic acids increased to 22 percent with increasing temperature. The degree of oxidation of shale kerogen increased from 55.6 to 79.6 percent with increase in oxidation time from 1 to 5 hours, the reaction proceeding stepwise from shale kerogen to high-molecular acids to dibasic acids.

  1. Water use for Shale-gas production in Texas, U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicot, Jean-Philippe; Scanlon, Bridget R

    2012-03-20

    Shale-gas production using hydraulic fracturing of mostly horizontal wells has led to considerable controversy over water-resource and environmental impacts. The study objective was to quantify net water use for shale-gas production using data from Texas, which is the dominant producer of shale gas in the U.S. with a focus on three major plays: the Barnett Shale (~15,000 wells, mid-2011), Texas-Haynesville Shale (390 wells), and Eagle Ford Shale (1040 wells). Past water use was estimated from well-completion data, and future water use was extrapolated from past water use constrained by shale-gas resources. Cumulative water use in the Barnett totaled 145 Mm(3) (2000-mid-2011). Annual water use represents ~9% of water use in Dallas (population 1.3 million). Water use in younger (2008-mid-2011) plays, although less (6.5 Mm(3) Texas-Haynesville, 18 Mm(3) Eagle Ford), is increasing rapidly. Water use for shale gas is water withdrawals; however, local impacts vary with water availability and competing demands. Projections of cumulative net water use during the next 50 years in all shale plays total ~4350 Mm(3), peaking at 145 Mm(3) in the mid-2020s and decreasing to 23 Mm(3) in 2060. Current freshwater use may shift to brackish water to reduce competition with other users.

  2. Oil shale in the Piceance Basin: an analysis of land use issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubenson, D.; Pei, R.

    1983-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to contribute to a framework for establishing policies to promote efficient use of the nation's oil shale resources. A methodology was developed to explain the effects of federal leasing policies on resource recovery, extraction costs, and development times associated with oil shale surface mines. This report investigates the effects of lease size, industrial development patterns, waste disposal policies, and lease boundaries on the potential of Piceance Basin oil shale resource. This approach should aid in understanding the relationship between federal leasing policies and requirements for developing Piceance Basin oil shale. 16 refs., 46 figs. (DMC)

  3. Overpressure generation by load transfer following shale framework weakening due to smectite diagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahann, R.W.; Swarbrick, R.E.

    2011-01-01

    Basin model studies which have addressed the importance of smectite conversion to illite as a source of overpressure in the Gulf of Mexico have principally relied on a single-shale compaction model and treated the smectite reaction as only a fluid-source term. Recent fluid pressure interpretation and shale petrology studies indicate that conversion of bound water to mobile water, dissolution of load-bearing grains, and increased preferred orientation change the compaction properties of the shale. This results in substantial changes in effective stress and fluid pressure. The resulting fluid pressure can be 1500-3000psi higher than pressures interpreted from models based on shallow compaction trends. Shale diagenesis changes the mineralogy, volume, and orientation of the load-bearing grains in the shale as well as the volume of bound water. This process creates a weaker (more compactable) grain framework. When these changes occur without fluid export from the shale, some of the stress is transferred from the grains onto the fluid. Observed relationships between shale density and calculated effective stress in Gulf of Mexico shelf wells confirm these changes in shale properties with depth. Further, the density-effective stress changes cannot be explained by fluid-expansion or fluid-source processes or by prediagenesis compaction, but are consistent with a dynamic diagenetic modification of the shale mineralogy, texture, and compaction properties during burial. These findings support the incorporation of diagenetic modification of compaction properties as part of the fluid pressure interpretation process. ?? 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Shale hydrocarbon reservoirs: some influences of tectonics and paleogeography during deposition: Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eoff, Jennifer D

    2014-01-01

    Continuous hydrocarbon accumulations in shale reservoirs appear to be characterized by common paleotectonic and paleogeographic histories and are limited to specific intervals of geologic time. In addition, most North American self-sourced shale correlates with geologic time periods of calcitic seas and greenhouse conditions and with evolutionary turnover of marine metazoans. More knowledge about the relations among these controls on deposition is needed, but conceptual modeling suggests that integrating tectonic histories, paleogeographic reconstructions, and eustatic curves may be a useful means by which to better understand shale plays already in development stages and potentially identify new organic-carbon-rich shale targets suitable for continuous resource development.

  5. Petrophysical Properties of Cody, Mowry, Shell Creek, and Thermopolis Shales, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, P. H.

    2013-12-01

    The petrophysical properties of four shale formations are documented from well-log responses in 23 wells in the Bighorn Basin in Wyoming. Depths of the examined shales range from 4,771 to 20,594 ft. The four formations are the Thermopolis Shale (T), the Shell Creek Shale (SC), the Mowry Shale (M), and the lower part of the Cody Shale (C), all of Cretaceous age. These four shales lie within a 4,000-ft, moderately overpressured, gas-rich vertical interval in which the sonic velocity of most rocks is less than that of an interpolated trendline representing a normal increase of velocity with depth. Sonic velocity, resistivity, neutron, caliper, and gamma-ray values were determined from well logs at discrete intervals in each of the four shales in 23 wells. Sonic velocity in all four shales increases with depth to a present-day depth of about 10,000 ft; below this depth, sonic velocity remains relatively unchanged. Velocity (V), resistivity (R), neutron porosity (N), and hole diameter (D) in the four shales vary such that: VM > VC > VSC > VT, RM > RC > RSC > RT, NT > NSC ≈ NC > NM, and DT > DC ≈ DSC > DM. These orderings can be partially understood on the basis of rock compositions. The Mowry Shale is highly siliceous and by inference comparatively low in clay content, resulting in high sonic velocity, high resistivity, low neutron porosity, and minimal borehole enlargement. The Thermopolis Shale, by contrast, is a black fissile shale with very little silt--its high clay content causes low velocity, low resistivity, high neutron response, and results in the greatest borehole enlargement. The properties of the Shell Creek and lower Cody Shales are intermediate to the Mowry and Thermopolis Shales. The sonic velocities of all four shales are less than that of an interpolated trendline that is tied to velocities in shales above and below the interval of moderate overpressure. The reduction in velocity varies among the four shales, such that the amount of offset (O) from

  6. Role of spent shale in oil shale processing and the management of environmental residues. Final technical report, January 1979-May 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hines, A.L.

    1980-08-15

    The adsorption of hydrogen sulfide on retorted oil shale was studied at 10, 25, and 60/sup 0/C using a packed bed method. Equilibrium isotherms were calculated from the adsorption data and were modeled by the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Polanyi equations. The isosteric heat of adsorption was calculated at three adsorbent loadings and was found to increase with increased loading. A calculated heat of adsorption less than the heat of condensation indicated that the adsorption was primarily due to Van der Waals' forces. Adsorption capacities were also found as a function of oil shale retorting temperature with the maximum uptake occurring on shale that was retorted at 750/sup 0/C.

  7. Weathering characteristics of the Lower Paleozoic black shale in northwestern Guizhou Province, south China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Jinchuan; Tang, Xuan; Yang, Chao; Tang, Shuai

    2016-07-01

    The northwestern Guizhou in the Yangtze Craton of south China has a tremendous potential of shale gas resource. In this paper, we present results from major and trace elements, total organic carbon, mineralogical composition analysis and petrophysical parameters to characterise shale weathering features. Further, the differences of black shale between underground and outcrops have also been presented to examine the changes of black shale after weathering. Our results show that the trace elements of shale have varying degrees of loss in the weathering leaching process, both in Niutitang shale and Longmaxi shale, the loss of B, V, Ni, Cu, Zn and Ba is obvious, but the element migration quantity in the former is greater than in the latter. Decomposition of minerals such as pyrite, feldspar and calcite result in the leaching of Na, Ca, Mg and Fe. The loss rate of total organic carbon (TOC) in black shales ranges from 18% to 70% with an average of 43%; moreover, the loss of organic carbon in samples with high TOC content is larger than in those samples with low TOC content. Results following the testing of porosity and permeability show that porosity increases significantly after weathering but permeability changes little. Furthermore, the increment of porosity is greater in the Niutitang shale (with more sulphide minerals) than in the Longmaxi shale, suggesting that the oxidation of sulphide minerals may have led to the formation of an acidic environment, causing the other minerals in the black shale to weather more quickly, thus resulting in increased porosity. The content of clay minerals in the core samples is slightly lesser than the outcrop samples, but the TOC content in the core samples is greater and has a larger specific surface area. This suggest that the TOC content played a decisive role on the specific surface area of shale. In addition, changes in the black shale caused by the weathering process mainly depend on the mineral composition and the TOC content

  8. Weathering characteristics of the Lower Paleozoic black shale in northwestern Guizhou Province, south China

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yang Liu; Jinchuan Zhang; Xuan Tang; Chao Yang; Shuai Tang

    2016-07-01

    The northwestern Guizhou in the Yangtze Craton of south China has a tremendous potential of shale gas resource. In this paper, we present results from major and trace elements, total organic carbon, mineralogical composition analysis and petrophysical parameters to characterise shale weathering features. Further, the differences of black shale between underground and outcrops have also been presented to examine the changes of black shale after weathering. Our results show that the trace elements of shale have varying degrees of loss in the weathering leaching process, both in Niutitang shale and Longmaxi shale, the loss of B, V, Ni, Cu, Zn and Ba is obvious, but the element migration quantity in the formeris greater than in the latter. Decomposition of minerals such as pyrite, feldspar and calcite result in the leaching of Na, Ca, Mg and Fe. The loss rate of total organic carbon (TOC) in black shales ranges from 18% to 70% with an average of 43%; moreover, the loss of organic carbon in samples with high TOC contentis larger than in those samples with low TOC content. Results following the testing of porosity and permeability show that porosity increases significantly after weathering but permeability changes little. Furthermore, the increment of porosity is greater in the Niutitang shale (with more sulphide minerals) than in the Longmaxi shale, suggesting that the oxidation of sulphide minerals may have led to the formationof an acidic environment, causing the other minerals in the black shale to weather more quickly, thus resulting in increased porosity. The content of clay minerals in the core samples is slightly lesser than the outcrop samples, but the TOC content in the core samples is greater and has a larger specific surface area. This suggest that the TOC content played a decisive role on the specific surface area of shale. In addition, changes in the black shale caused by the weathering process mainly depend on the mineral composition and the TOC content in

  9. Steep Decline and Low Hydrocarbon Recovery in Fractured Shale: What and Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Q.; Barber, T.; Gao, Z.; Gao, X.; Ewing, R. P.

    2014-12-01

    Since 2000, the technological advances of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing in the United States have led to a dramatic increase in hydrocarbon (gas and oil) production from shale formations, changing the energy landscape in the US and worldwide. Since 2005, the surge in tight oil production from shale formations has provided tremendous optimism regarding future United States hydrocarbon production, unexpectedly becoming the fastest-growing frontier of unconventional resources. According to the Energy Information Administration's newly released report in 2014, US oil output from tight oil prospects will almost double from the 2012 level of 2.5 million barrels per day, to 4.8 by 2019. However, total gas recovery from the Barnett play was reported to be only12-30%, and the tight-oil recovery rate from shale formations is even lower at 5-10%. The main barrier to sustainable development of US shale, the pore structure of the nanopores storing and transporting hydrocarbons, has been quietly ignored. We have studied pore structure, edge-accessible porosity, and how wettability is associated with mineral and organic kerogen phases, from four complementary tests: vacuum saturation with vacuum-pulling on dry shale followed with tracer introduction, tracer diffusion into fluid-saturated shale, fluid and tracer imbibition into partially-saturated shale, and Wood's metal intrusion followed with SEM imaging and elemental mapping. The first three tests use tracer-bearing fluids (API brine or n-decane), with tracer distribution on shale mapped with micro-scale laser ablation-ICP-MS analyses. These innovative approaches indicate the limited accessibility (several millimeters from shale sample edge) and connectivity of nanopores in shales under atmospheric condition, which is linked to the steep initial (e.g., 1st year) decline and low overall recovery because of the limited connection of hydrocarbon molecules in the shale matrix to the stimulated fracture network.

  10. Reclamation studies on oil shale lands in northwestern Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, C.W.; Redente, E.F.

    1980-02-01

    The overall objective of this project is to study the effects of various reclamation practices on above- and belowground ecosystem development associated with disturbed oil shale lands in northwestern Colorado. Plant growth media that are being used in field test plots include retorted shale, soil over retorted shale, subsoil materials, and surface disturbed topsoils. Some of the more significant results are: (1) a soil cover of at least 61 cm in conjunction with a capiallary barrier provided the best combination of treatments for the establishment of vegetation and a functional microbial community, (2) aboveground production values for native and introduced species mixtures are comparable after three growing seasons, (3) cover values for native species mixtures are generally greater than for introduced species, (4) native seed mixtures, in general, allow greater invasion to occur, (5) sewage sludge at relatively low rates appears to provide the most beneficial overall effect on plant growth, (6) cultural practices, such as irrigated and mulching have significant effects on both above- and belowground ecosystem development, (7) topsoil storage after 1.5 years does not appear to significantly affect general microbial activities but does reduce the mycorrhizal infection potential of the soil at shallow depths, (8) populations of mycorrhizal fungi are decreased on severely disturbed soils if a cover of vegetation is not established, (9) significant biological differences among ecotypes of important shrub species have been identified, (10) a vegetation model is outlined which upon completion will enable the reclamation specialist to predict the plant species combinations best adapted to specific reclamation sites, and (11) synthetic strains of two important grass species are close to development which will provide superior plant materials for reclamation in the West.

  11. Mechanistic Processes Controlling Gas Sorption in Shale Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaef, T.; Loring, J.; Ilton, E. S.; Davidson, C. L.; Owen, T.; Hoyt, D.; Glezakou, V. A.; McGrail, B. P.; Thompson, C.

    2014-12-01

    Utilization of CO2 to stimulate natural gas production in previously fractured shale-dominated reservoirs where CO2 remains in place for long-term storage may be an attractive new strategy for reducing the cost of managing anthropogenic CO2. A preliminary analysis of capacities and potential revenues in US shale plays suggests nearly 390 tcf in additional gas recovery may be possible via CO2 driven enhanced gas recovery. However, reservoir transmissivity properties, optimum gas recovery rates, and ultimate fate of CO2 vary among reservoirs, potentially increasing operational costs and environmental risks. In this paper, we identify key mechanisms controlling the sorption of CH4 and CO2 onto phyllosilicates and processes occurring in mixed gas systems that have the potential of impacting fluid transfer and CO2 storage in shale dominated formations. Through a unique set of in situ experimental techniques coupled with molecular-level simulations, we identify structural transformations occurring to clay minerals, optimal CO2/CH4 gas exchange conditions, and distinguish between adsorbed and intercalated gases in a mixed gas system. For example, based on in situ measurements with magic angle spinning NMR, intercalation of CO2 within the montmorillonite structure occurs in CH4/CO2 gas mixtures containing low concentrations (<5 mol%) of CO2. A stable montmorillonite structure dominates during exposure to pure CH4 (90 bar), but expands upon titration of small fractions (1-3 mol%) of CO2. Density functional theory was used to quantify the difference in sorption behavior between CO2 and CH4 and indicates complex interactions occurring between hydrated cations, CH4, and CO2. The authors will discuss potential impacts of these experimental results on CO2-based hydrocarbon recovery processes.

  12. Short and long-term strength of shale rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybacki, Erik; Dresen, Georg

    2016-04-01

    Stimulation of oil and gas bearing shales commonly utilizes advanced hydraulic fracturing techniques to enhance the production rate. Successful hydrofrac campaigns depend on the geomechanical properties of the reservoir. For example, the short term strength and brittleness may control the hydraulic breakdown pressure and borehole stability. The long term creep properties may determine the closure rate of hydraulically induced fractures, for example by proppant embedment. We performed a series of mechanical tests on shales with different mineral content, porosity and maturity. Cylindrical samples of 1-5 cm in diameter and 2-10 cm in length were deformed at confining pressures of 0.1 - 400 MPa and temperatures of 25°-400°C in constant strain rate and constant stress mode in order to evaluate the influence of loading conditions and composition on their strength and ductility. Short-term constant strain rate tests show that, at fixed loading direction with respect to bedding orientation, the peak strength and Young's modulus vary with mineral content, humidity and porosity, but depend also on applied pressure, temperature and strain rate. The (porosity-corrected) variation of peak strength and Young's modulus with composition can be roughly estimated from the mechanical behavior of all components at given pressure-temperature conditions and their volumetric proportion. Samples deforming in the brittle-semibrittle regime may be characterized by empirical brittleness indices based on their deformation behavior, Young's modulus, or bulk composition. These indices are correlated at low pressure-temperature conditions (corresponding to long-term deformation experiments at constant load show transient viscoplastic creep behavior. The associated strain rates increase with increasing differential stress, increasing temperature and decreasing pressure, accompanied by slight porosity reduction. Therefore, estimates of fracture healing rates by proppant embedment require to

  13. Mesozoic black shales, source mixing and carbon isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suan, Guillaume

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decades, considerable attention has been devoted to the paleoenvironmental and biogeochemical significance of Mesozoic black shales. Black shale-bearing successions indeed often display marked changes in the organic carbon isotope composition (δ13Corg), which have been commonly interpreted as evidence for dramatic perturbations of global carbon budgets and CO2 levels. Arguably the majority of these studies have discarded some more "local" explanations when interpreting δ13Corg profiles, most often because comparable profiles occur on geographically large and distant areas. Based on newly acquired data and selected examples from the literature, I will show that the changing contribution of organic components with distinct δ13C signatures exerts a major but overlooked influence of Mesozoic δ13Corg profiles. Such a bias occurs across a wide spectrum of sedimentological settings and ages, as shown by the good correlation between δ13Corg values and proxies of kerogen proportions (such as rock-eval, biomarker, palynofacies and palynological data) recorded in Mesozoic marginal to deep marine successions of Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous age. In most of these successions, labile, 12C-enriched amorphous organic matter of marine origin dominates strata deposited under anoxic conditions, while oxidation-resistant, 13C-rich terrestrial particles dominate strata deposited under well-oxygenated conditions. This influence is further illustrated by weathering profiles of Toarcian (Lower Jurassic) black shales from France, where weathered areas dominated by refractory organic matter show dramatic 13C-enrichment (and decreased total organic carbon and pyrite contents) compared to non-weathered portions of the same horizon. The implications of these results for chemostratigraphic correlations and pCO2 reconstructions of Mesozoic will be discussed, as well as strategies to overcome this major bias.

  14. Cambrian burgess shale animals replicated in clay minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr; Briggs; Kearns

    1998-08-21

    Although the evolutionary importance of the Burgess Shale is universally acknowledged, there is disagreement on the mode of preservation of the fossils after burial. Elemental mapping demonstrates that the relative abundance of elements varies between different anatomical features of the specimens. These differences reflect the compositions of the minerals that replicated the decaying organism, which were controlled by contrasts in tissue chemistry. Delicate morphological details are replicated in the elemental maps, showing that authigenic mineralization was fundamental to preserving these fossils, even though some organic remains are also present.

  15. Water management technologies used by Marcellus Shale Gas Producers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-07-30

    Natural gas represents an important energy source for the United States. According to the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Information Administration (EIA), about 22% of the country's energy needs are provided by natural gas. Historically, natural gas was produced from conventional vertical wells drilled into porous hydrocarbon-containing formations. During the past decade, operators have increasingly looked to other unconventional sources of natural gas, such as coal bed methane, tight gas sands, and gas shales.

  16. Logging identification of the Longmaxi mud shale reservoir in the Jiaoshiba area, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Compared with conventional gas reservoirs, shale gas reservoirs are not sensitive to petrophysical properties, making it much difficult to identify this kind of reservoirs with well logging technologies. Therefore, through a comparison of the logging curves of the Lower Silurian Longmaxi marine shale in the Jiaoshiba area, Sichuan Basin, it is found that the mud shale on conventional log curves generally features high gamma ray, high uranium, low thorium, low kalium, relative high resistivity, high interval transit time, low neutron, low density and low photoelectric absorption cross section index, while on elements logging curves, it features an increase of silicon content and a decrease of aluminum and iron content. Based on the logging response characteristics of mud shale, the logging curves most sensitive to shale, gamma ray, neutron and density logging were selected and overlaid to identify mud shale effectively. On the basis of qualitative identification, the density logging value can identify the non-organic-rich mud shale from organic-rich mud shale, because the former has a density of 2.61–2.70 g/cm3, while the latter has a density of less than 2.61 g/cm3. The identification results agree well with the results of field gas content test, TOC experiment, and gas logging, so this study can provide reference for the logging interpretation.

  17. Numerical simulation and fracture evaluation method of dual laterolog in organic shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Maojin; Wang, Peng; Li, Jun; Liu, Qiong; Yang, Qinshan

    2014-01-01

    Fracture identification and parameter evaluation are important for logging interpretation of organic shale, especially fracture evaluation from conventional logs in case the imaging log is not available. It is helpful to study dual laterolog responses of the fractured shale reservoir. First, a physical model is set up according to the property of organic shale, and three-dimensional finite element method (FEM) based on the principle of dual laterolog is introduced and applied to simulate dual laterolog responses in various shale models, which can help identify the fractures in shale formations. Then, through a number of numerical simulations of dual laterolog for various shale models with different base rock resistivities and fracture openings, the corresponding equations of various cases are constructed respectively, and the fracture porosity can be calculated consequently. Finally, we apply this methodology proposed above to a case study of organic shale, and the fracture porosity and fracture opening are calculated. The results are consistent with the fracture parameters processed from Full borehole Micro-resistivity Imaging (FMI). It indicates that the method is applicable for fracture evaluation of organic shale.

  18. New insights from jurassic shale characterization: Strengthen subsurface data with outcrop analogues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijp, M.; Veen, J. ten; Ventra, D.; Verreussel, R.; Laerhoven, L. van; Boxem, T.

    2014-01-01

    This study shows the first results of an ongoing project on the characterization of variations in lithological- and geomechanical properties of targetted gas shale formations. The aim of this study is to get an increased insight into both the fraccability and productivity of a shale formations. Ulti

  19. Borehole petrophysical chemostratigraphy of Pennsylvanian black shales in the Kansas subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doveton, J.H.; Merriam, D.F.

    2004-01-01

    Pennsylvanian black shales in Kansas have been studied on outcrop for decades as the core unit of the classic Midcontinent cyclothem. These shales appear to be highstand condensed sections in the sequence stratigraphic paradigm. Nuclear log suites provide several petrophysical measurements of rock chemistry that are a useful data source for chemostratigraphic studies of Pennsylvanian black shales in the subsurface. Spectral gamma-ray logs partition natural radioactivity between contributions by U, Th, and K sources. Elevated U contents in black shales can be related to reducing depositional environments, whereas the K and Th contents are indicators of clay-mineral abundance and composition. The photoelectric factor log measurement is a direct function of aggregate atomic number and so is affected by clay-mineral volume, clay-mineral iron content, and other black shale compositional elements. Neutron porosity curves are primarily a response to hydrogen content. Although good quality logs are available for many black shales, borehole washout features invalidate readings from the nuclear contact devices, whereas black shales thinner than tool resolution will be averaged with adjacent beds. Statistical analysis of nuclear log data between black shales in successive cyclothems allows systematic patterns of their chemical and petrophysical properties to be discriminated in both space and time. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Experimental-industrial apparatus for obtaining a mixture of untreated dicarboxylic acids from shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proskuryakov, V.A.; Sokolov, V.N.

    1971-01-01

    A suspension of shale flotation concentrates and sodium hydroxide were charged batchwise into a shell-and-tube gas-lift reactor in which the shale was oxidized with air at about 230/sup 0/C and 40 atm to yield a mixture of dicarboxylic acids.

  1. Pyrolysis of Compositions of Mixtures of Combustible Shales and Brown Coals Deposited in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lishtvan, I. I.; Dudarchik, V. M.; Kraiko, V. M.; Belova, Yu. V.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents the results of investigating the pyrolysis of compositions of mixtures of brown coals and combustible shales in a close-packed and a moving layer and the yield dynamics of the pyrolysis gas and resin. A comparative analysis of the quality of pyrolysis products obtained from combustible shales and brown coal and from their mixtures has been performed.

  2. Combined Rock-physical Modelling and Seismic Inversion Techniques for Characterisation of the Posidonia Shale Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Justiniano, A.; Jaya, M.; Diephuis, G.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to characterise the Jurassic Posidonia Shale Formation at Block Q16 located in the West Netherlands Basin. The characterisation was carried out through combining rock-physics modelling and seismic inversion techniques. The results show that the Posidonia Shale Formatio

  3. Characterization of raw and burnt oil shale from Dotternhausen: Petrographical and mineralogical evolution with temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiéry, Vincent, E-mail: vincent.thiery@mines-douai.fr [Mines Douai, LGCgE-GCE, F-59508 Douai (France); Université de Lille (France); Bourdot, Alexandra, E-mail: alexandra.bourdot@gmail.com [Mines Douai, LGCgE-GCE, F-59508 Douai (France); Bulteel, David, E-mail: david.bulteel@mines-douai.fr [Université de Lille (France)

    2015-08-15

    The Toarcian Posidonia shale from Dotternhausen, Germany, is quarried and burnt in a fluidized bed reactor to produce electricity. The combustion residue, namely burnt oil shale (BOS), is used in the adjacent cement work as an additive in blended cements. The starting material is a typical laminated oil shale with an organic matter content ranging from 6 to 18%. Mineral matter consists principally of quartz, feldspar, pyrite and clays. After calcination in the range, the resulting product, burnt oil shale, keeps the macroscopic layered texture however with different mineralogy (anhydrite, lime, iron oxides) and the formation of an amorphous phase. This one, studied under STEM, reveals a typical texture of incipient partial melting due to a long retention time (ca. 30 min) and quenching. An in-situ high temperature X-ray diffraction (HTXRD) allowed studying precisely the mineralogical changes associated with the temperature increase. - Highlights: • We present oil shale/burnt oil shale characterization. • The Posidonia Shale is burnt in a fluidized bed. • Mineralogical evolution with temperature is complex. • The burnt oil shale is used in composite cements.

  4. An in situ FTIR step-scan photoacoustic investigation of kerogen and minerals in oil shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstadt, Kristin N; Katti, Dinesh R; Katti, Kalpana S

    2012-04-01

    Step-scan photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy experiments were performed on Green River oil shale samples obtained from the Piceance Basin located in Colorado, USA. We have investigated the molecular nature of light and dark colored areas of the oil shale core using FTIR photoacoustic step-scan spectroscopy. This technique provided us with the means to analyze the oil shale in its original in situ form with the kerogen-mineral interactions intact. All vibrational bands characteristic of kerogen were found in the dark and light colored oil shale samples confirming that kerogen is present throughout the depth of the core. Depth profiling experiments indicated that there are changes between layers in the oil shale molecular structure at a length scale of micron. Comparisons of spectra from the light and dark colored oil shale core samples suggest that the light colored regions have high kerogen content, with spectra similar to that from isolated kerogen, whereas, the dark colored areas contain more mineral components which include clay minerals, dolomite, calcite, and pyrite. The mineral components of the oil shale are important in understanding how the kerogen is "trapped" in the oil shale. Comparing in situ kerogen spectra with spectra from isolated kerogen indicate significant band shifts suggesting important nonbonded molecular interactions between the kerogen and minerals.

  5. 78 FR 64905 - Carriage of Conditionally Permitted Shale Gas Extraction Waste Water in Bulk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... Waste Water in Bulk AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of availability and request for comments... shale gas extraction waste water in bulk via barge, and invites public comment. The policy letter... endorsement or letter allowing the barge to transport shale gas extraction waste water in bulk. The...

  6. Experience and prospects of oil shale utilization for power production in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapov, O. P.

    2016-09-01

    Due to termination of work at the Leningrad Shale Deposit, the Russian shale industry has been liquidated, including not only shale mining and processing but also research and engineering (including design) activities, because this deposit was the only commercially operated complex in Russia. UTT-3000 plants with solid heat carrier, created mainly by the Russian specialists under scientific guidance of members of Krzhizhanovsky Power Engineering Institute, passed under the control of Estonian engineers, who, alongside with their operation in Narva, construct similar plants in Kohtla-Jarve, having renamed the Galoter Process into the Enifit or Petroter. The main idea of this article is to substantiate the expediency of revival of the oil shale industry in Russia. Data on the UTT-3000 plants' advantages, shale oils, and gas properties is provided. Information on investments in an UTT-3000 plant and estimated cost of Leningrad oil shale mining at the Mezhdurechensk Strip Mine is given. For more detailed technical and economic assessment of construction of a complex for oil shale extraction and processing, it is necessary to develop a feasibility study, which should be the first stage of this work. Creation of such a complex will make it possible to produce liquid and gaseous power fuel from oil shale of Leningrad Deposit and provide the opportunity to direct for export the released volumes of oil and gas for the purposes of Russian budget currency replenishment.

  7. Western oil-shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 2: technology characterization and production scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    A technology characterization of processes that may be used in the oil shale industry is presented. The six processes investigated are TOSCO II, Paraho Direct, Union B, Superior, Occidental MIS, and Lurgi-Ruhrgas. A scanario of shale oil production to the 300,000 BPD level by 1990 is developed. (ACR)

  8. The impact of water content and ionic diffusion on the uniaxial compressive strength of shale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talal AL-Bazali

    2013-12-01

    Finally, the impact of ionic diffusion on the compressive strength of shale was carried out in the absence of both chemical osmosis and capillary forces. Results show that the invasion of sodium and calcium ions into shale reduced its compressive strength considerably while the invasion of potassium ions enhanced its compressive strength.

  9. Biogenic gas in the Cambrian-Ordovcian Alum Shale (Denmark and Sweden)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, H.M.; Wirth, R.; Biermann, S.; Arning, E.T. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Potsdam - Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ, Potsdam (Germany); Krueger, M.; Straaten, N. [BGR Hannover (Germany); Bechtel, A. [Montanuniv. Leoben (Austria); Berk, W. van [Technical Univ. of Clausthal (Germany); Schovsbo, N.H. [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland - GEUS, Copenhagen (Denmark); Crabtree, Stephen [Gripen Gas (Sweden)

    2013-08-01

    Shale gas is mainly produced from thermally mature black shales. However, biogenic methane also represents a resource which is often underestimated. Today biogenic methane is being produced from the Upper Devonian Antrim Shale in the Michigan Basin which was the most successfully exploited shale gas system during the 1990-2000 decade in the U.S.A. before significant gas production from the Barnett Shale started (Curtis et al., 2008). The Cambro-Ordovician Alum Shale in northern Europe has thermal maturities ranging from overmature in southern areas (Denmark and southern Sweden) to immature conditions (central Sweden). Biogenic methane is recorded during drilling in central Sweden. The immature Alum Shale in central Sweden has total organic carbon (TOC) contents up to 20 wt%. The hydrogen index HI ranges from 380 to 560 mgHC/gTOC at very low oxygen index (OI) values of around 4 mg CO{sub 2}/gTOC, Tmax ranges between 420 - 430 C. The organic matter is highly porous. In general, the Alum Shale is a dense shale with intercalated sandy beds which may be dense due to carbonate cementation. Secondary porosity is created in some sandy beds due to feldspar dissolution and these beds serve as gas conduits. Methane production rates with shale as substrate in the laboratory are dependent on the kind of hydrocarbon-degrading microbial enrichment cultures used in the incubation experiments, ranging from 10-620 nmol/(g*d). In these experiments, the CO{sub 2} production rate was always higher than for methane. Like the northern part of North America, also Northern European has been covered by glaciers during the Pleistocene and similar geological processes may have developed leading to biogenic shale gas formation. For the Antrim Shale one hypothesis suggests that fresh waters, recharged from Pleistocene glaciation and modern precipitation, suppressed basinal brine salinity along the northern margins of the Michigan Basin to greater depths and thereby enhancing methanogenesis

  10. A Novel Experimental Technique to Monitor the Time-Dependent Water and Ions Uptake when Shale Interacts with Aqueous Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-Bazali, Talal

    2013-09-01

    The time-dependent water and ions uptake when shale interacts with aqueous solutions is quantified using a combination of immersion and gravimetric techniques. Results show that when shale interacts with salt solutions, water uptake into shale goes through three distinct stages; water movement out of shale (due to chemical osmosis), water movement into shale (due to diffusion osmosis) and stationary state (equilibrium stage). This work shows that chemical osmosis dominates water movement in early times while diffusion osmosis takes over later. In addition, it is shown that the amount of water movement due to chemical osmosis depends on the chemical potential gradient while the amount of water movement due to diffusion osmosis is highly related to the ionic concentration imbalance. In addition, the amount of ions uptake into shale at equilibrium is shown to depend on the type and concentration of salt solution. Furthermore, this work shows that potassium ion has a strengthening effect on shale while sodium and calcium ions have a weakening effect on shale. Results also show that the shale's compressive strength alteration is greatly influenced by the type and concentration of the salt solution. Furthermore, the shale's compressive strength alteration is shown to be time dependent and correlates very well with the time-dependent flux of water and ions. Finally, it is shown that chemical osmosis and diffusion osmosis take place simultaneously when shale interacts with water-based muds. The overall impact on shale stability is governed by the net water flow resulting from chemical osmosis and diffusion osmosis.

  11. Acid mine drainage potential of raw, retorted, and combusted Eastern oil shale: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, P.J.; Yelton, J.L.; Reddy, K.J.

    1987-09-01

    In order to manage the oxidation of pyritic materials effectively, it is necessary to understand the chemistry of both the waste and its disposal environment. The objective of this two-year study was to characterize the acid production of Eastern oil shale waste products as a function of process conditions, waste properties, and disposal practice. Two Eastern oil shales were selected, a high pyrite shale (unweathered 4.6% pyrite) and a low pyrite shale (weathered 1.5% pyrite). Each shale was retorted and combusted to produce waste products representative of potential mining and energy conversion processes. By using the standard EPA leaching tests (TCLP), each waste was characterized by determining (1) mineralogy, (2) trace element residency, and (3) acid-base account. Characterizing the acid producing potential of each waste and potential trace element hazards was completed with laboratory weathering studies. 32 refs., 21 figs., 12 tabs.

  12. Toxicity of Water Accommodated Fractions of Estonian Shale Fuel Oils to Aquatic Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinova, Irina; Kanarbik, Liina; Sihtmäe, Mariliis; Kahru, Anne

    2016-02-01

    Estonia is the worldwide leading producer of the fuel oils from the oil shale. We evaluated the ecotoxicity of water accommodated fraction (WAF) of two Estonian shale fuel oils ("VKG D" and "VKG sweet") to aquatic species belonging to different trophic levels (marine bacteria, freshwater crustaceans and aquatic plants). Artificial fresh water and natural lake water were used to prepare WAFs. "VKG sweet" (lower density) proved more toxic to aquatic species than "VKG D" (higher density). Our data indicate that though shale oils were very toxic to crustaceans, the short-term exposure of Daphnia magna to sub-lethal concentrations of shale fuel oils WAFs may increase the reproductive potential of survived organisms. The weak correlation between measured chemical parameters (C10-C40 hydrocarbons and sum of 16 PAHs) and WAF's toxicity to studied species indicates that such integrated chemical parameters are not very informative for prediction of shale fuel oils ecotoxicity.

  13. A conceptual review of water extraction requirements associated with shale gas activities in New Brunswick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shea, K.J. [Dillon Consulting Limited (Canada)], email: koshea@dillon.ca

    2011-07-01

    With the depletion of conventional energy resources and the rising energy demand, the shale gas industry is growing. In North America, the percentage of this resource in the energy production mix is becoming significant, thanks to newly developed techniques which have created more economically viable opportunities. However, the public is expressing some concern over the water needs of the shale gas industry. The aim of this paper is to explain why the public is concerned with shale gas activity water usage and how the industry can address this concern. It is shown that shale gas developments are occurring in areas where no relationship exists between oil and gas industries and local communities and the public is therefore turning towards other, less scientifically rigorous, sources of information. This paper recommends that the industry benchmark its water usage against other activities so that the public can better understand the real impact of the shale gas industry on the water resources.

  14. Assessment of industry needs for oil shale research and development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackworth, J.H.

    1987-05-01

    Thirty-one industry people were contacted to provide input on oil shale in three subject areas. The first area of discussion dealt with industry`s view of the shape of the future oil shale industry; the technology, the costs, the participants, the resources used, etc. It assessed the types and scale of the technologies that will form the industry, and how the US resource will be used. The second subject examined oil shale R&D needs and priorities and potential new areas of research. The third area of discussion sought industry comments on what they felt should be the role of the DOE (and in a larger sense the US government) in fostering activities that will lead to a future commercial US oil shale shale industry.

  15. Upper Devonian radiolarians separated from chert of the Ford Lake Shale, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, Brian K.; Jones, D.L.; Allison, C.

    1978-01-01

    Leaching of black bedded chert from the Ford Lake Shale, Kandik Basin, Alaska, with dilute hydrofluoric acid resulted in the complete separation of moderately well preserved radiolarians. Preliminary study of an assemblage obtained from the lower half of the formation revealed six to eight forms apparently identical to specimens previously known from the Tournaisian of southern France and northwestern Turkey, including four genera not previously described from North America. Sparse, poorly preserved conodonts in the same sample are of Late Devonian age. We conclude that certain radiolarian species, hitherto known only from the early Carboniferous, span the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary. The radiolarian assemblage of the Ford Lake Shale sample contrasts markedly with Late Devonian assemblages known from the Canol Shale of northern Canada and the Huron Member of the Ohio Shale; the Ford Lake Shale fauna may reflect greater oceanic influences than these other localities, which lie farther inland from the Devonian continental margin.

  16. An Ordovician variation on Burgess Shale-type biotas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botting, Joseph P; Muir, Lucy A; Jordan, Naomi; Upton, Christopher

    2015-04-24

    The Cambrian Burgess Shale-type biotas form a globally consistent ecosystem, usually dominated by arthropods. Elements of these communities continued into the Early Ordovician at high latitude, but our understanding of ecological changes during the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event (GOBE) is currently limited by the paucity of Ordovician exceptionally preserved open-marine faunas. Here we clarify the early stages of the GOBE by describing a new open-marine Konservat-Lagerstätte from the Early Ordovician of Wales. The Afon Gam Biota includes many lineages typical of the Cambrian Burgess Shale-type biotas, but the most abundant groups were sponges, algae and worms, with non-trilobite arthropods being unexpectedly rare. Labile tissues occur abundantly in the sponges and are also present in other groups, including brachiopods and hyoliths. Taphonomic biases are considered and rejected as explanations for arthropod rarity; the preserved biota is considered to be an approximation to the original community composition. We note that other exceptionally preserved communities in the Welsh Ordovician are also sponge-dominated, suggesting a regional change in benthic ecology during the early stages of the GOBE.

  17. A web of controversies: complexity in the burgess shale debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Using the Burgess Shale controversies as a case-study, this paper argues that controversies within different domains may interact as to create a situation of "com- plicated intricacies," where the practicing scientist has to navigate through a context of multiple thought collectives. To some extent each of these collectives has its own dynamic complete with fairly negotiated standards for investigation and explanation, theoretical background assumptions and certain peculiarities of practice. But the intellectual development in one of these collectives may "spill over" having far reaching consequences for the treatment of apparently independent epistemic problems that are subject of investigation in other thought collectives. For the practicing scientist it is necessary to take this complex web of interactions into account in order to be able to navigate in such a situation. So far most studies of academic science have had a tendency to treat the practicing scientist as members of a single (enclosed) thought collective that stands intellectually isolated from other similar entities unless the discipline was in a state of crisis of paradigmatic proportions. The richness and complexity of Burgess Shale debate shows that this encapsulated kind of analysis is not enough.

  18. Environmental hazard of oil shale combustion fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinova, Irina; Bityukova, Liidia; Kasemets, Kaja; Ivask, Angela; Käkinen, Aleksandr; Kurvet, Imbi; Bondarenko, Olesja; Kanarbik, Liina; Sihtmäe, Mariliis; Aruoja, Villem; Schvede, Hedi; Kahru, Anne

    2012-08-30

    The combined chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of oil shale combustion fly ash was performed. Ash was sampled from the most distant point of the ash-separation systems of the Balti and Eesti Thermal Power Plants in North-Eastern Estonia. The fly ash proved potentially hazardous for tested aquatic organisms and high alkalinity of the leachates (pH>10) is apparently the key factor determining its toxicity. The leachates were not genotoxic in the Ames assay. Also, the analysis showed that despite long-term intensive oil-shale combustion accompanied by considerable fly ash emissions has not led to significant soil contamination by hazardous trace elements in North-Eastern Estonia. Comparative study of the fly ash originating from the 'new' circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion technology and the 'old' pulverized-fired (PF) one showed that CFB fly ash was less toxic than PF fly ash. Thus, complete transfer to the 'new' technology will reduce (i) atmospheric emission of hazardous trace elements and (ii) fly ash toxicity to aquatic organisms as compared with the 'old' technology.

  19. Characterization and separation of pyrite from Abu Tartur black shale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ibrahim S.S.; El Kammar A.M.; Guda A.M.

    2015-01-01

    This work aimed for pyrite separation from Abu Tartur black shale as a source of sulfur to be an added economic value of Abu Tartur area. The considered samples in the present work were collected from a core drilled in Abu Tartur plateau representing the pyrite-rich black shale of the U. Cretaceous age. Sample characterization was carried out using petrographic microscope, XRD, DTA/DTG, C/S and XRF techniques. Clay minerals, silt-sized quartz, calcite, and hematite were the main minerals associating pyr-ite (5.34%). Liberation behavior of the sample was about 80%below 5 lm. Sample processing was achieved through one-day soaking followed by classification using 1 inch Mozley hydro-cyclone where about 35.5% by weight went to underflow and 64.5% went to overflow. The underflow product was subjected to an advanced gravity separation process using SB-40 Falcon Concentrator through a CCD statistical design prepared by Design-Expert 6.0 software proposed to opti-mize the separation process through a study for the effects of frequency (Hz) and water pressure (Psi) on both assay and recovery of the sulfur-rich heavy fraction. A heavy concentrate weighed 10.90%with inorganic sulfur content reached 11.37%(21.24%pyrite) with overall recovery (50.01%) was obtained after two cleaning at the optimum conditions.

  20. Developments in CO2 mineral carbonation of oil shale ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uibu, M; Velts, O; Kuusik, R

    2010-02-15

    Solid waste and atmospheric emissions originating from power production are serious problems worldwide. In the Republic of Estonia, the energy sector is predominantly based on combustion of a low-grade carbonaceous fossil fuel: Estonian oil shale. Depending on the combustion technology, oil shale ash contains 10-25% free lime. To transport the ash to wet open-air deposits, a hydraulic system is used in which 10(7)-10(8) cubic meters of Ca(2+)-ion-saturated alkaline water (pH level 12-13) is recycled between the plant and sedimentation ponds. The goals of the current work were to design an ash-water suspension carbonation process in a continuous mode laboratory-scale plant and to search for potential means of intensifying the water neutralization process. The carbonation process was optimized by cascading reactor columns in which the pH progressed from alkaline to almost neutral. The amount of CO(2) captured from flue gases can reach 1-1.2 million ton at the 2007 production level of the SC Narva Power Plants. Laboratory-scale neutralization experiments were carried out to compare two reactor designs. Sedimentation of PCC particles of rhombohedral crystalline structure was demonstrated and their main characteristics were determined. A new method providing 50x greater specific intensity is also discussed.

  1. Survey of energy resources: focus on shale gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    The energy sector around the world is undergoing major changes resulting from increasing competitive pressures and concerns about costs, security of supply and the environment. At the same time, 1.6 billion people, almost a quarter of the world population, do not have access to commercial energy and the need for energy infrastructure investment is huge. The energy challenges are not the same in all regions. While rapidly burgeoning economies in the developing world are focusing on expanding energy access to support their economic growth and provide basic energy services to their citizens, industrialised countries are focusing on securing energy supplies in a competitive environment and in a publicly and environmentally acceptable way. In recent years, shale gas has been making headlines as a potential solution for many of the energy-related challenges, in particular in the United States. A number of studies on shale gas have been conducted, the majority focusing on the assessment of the resource base and the role of emerging technologies, which can significantly increase the current reserve estimates.

  2. Volume 9: A Review of Socioeconomic Impacts of Oil Shale Development WESTERN OIL SHALE DEVELOPMENT: A TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotariu, G. J.

    1982-02-01

    The development of an oil shale industry in northwestern Colorado and northeastern Utah has been forecast at various times since early this century, but the comparatively easy accessibility of other oil sources has forestalled development. Decreasing fuel supplies, increasing energy costs, and the threat of a crippling oil embargo finally may launch a commercial oil shale industry in this region. Concern for the possible impacts on the human environment has been fostered by experiences of rapid population growth in other western towns that have hosted energy resource development. A large number of studies have attempted to evaluate social and economic impacts of energy development and to determine important factors that affect the severity of these impacts. These studies have suggested that successful management of rapid population growth depends on adequate front-end capital for public facilities, availability of housing, attention to human service needs, long-range land use and fiscal planning. This study examines variables that affect the socioeconomic impacts of oil shale development. The study region is composed of four Colorado counties: Mesa, Moffat, Garfield and Rio Blanco. Most of the estimated population of 111 000 resides in a handful of urban areas that are separated by large distances and rugged terrain. We have projected the six largest cities and towns and one planned company town (Battlement Mesa) to be the probable centers for potential population impacts caused by development of an oil shale industry. Local planners expect Battlement Mesa to lessen impacts on small existing communities and indeed may be necessary to prevent severe regional socioeconomic impacts. Section II describes the study region and focuses on the economic trends and present conditions in the area. The population impacts analyzed in this study are contingent on a scenario of oil shale development from 1980-90 provided by the Department of Energy and discussed in Sec. III. We

  3. Clean and Secure Energy from Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinti, Jennifer [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Birgenheier, Lauren [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Deo, Milind [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Facelli, Julio [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hradisky, Michal [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kelly, Kerry [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Miller, Jan [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); McLennan, John [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Ring, Terry [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Ruple, John [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Uchitel, Kirsten [Inst. for Clean and Secure Energy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2015-09-30

    This report summarizes the significant findings from the Clean and Secure Energy from Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Resources program sponsored by the Department of Energy through the National Energy Technology Laboratory. There were four principle areas of research; Environmental, legal, and policy issues related to development of oil shale and oil sands resources; Economic and environmental assessment of domestic unconventional fuels industry; Basin-scale assessment of conventional and unconventional fuel development impacts; and Liquid fuel production by in situ thermal processing of oil shale Multiple research projects were conducted in each area and the results have been communicated via sponsored conferences, conference presentations, invited talks, interviews with the media, numerous topical reports, journal publications, and a book that summarizes much of the oil shale research relating to Utah’s Uinta Basin. In addition, a repository of materials related to oil shale and oil sands has been created within the University of Utah’s Institutional Repository, including the materials generated during this research program. Below is a listing of all topical and progress reports generated by this project and submitted to the Office of Science and Technical Information (OSTI). A listing of all peer-reviewed publications generated as a result of this project is included at the end of this report; Geomechanical and Fluid Transport Properties 1 (December, 2015); Validation Results for Core-Scale Oil Shale Pyrolysis (February, 2015); and Rates and Mechanisms of Oil Shale Pyrolysis: A Chemical Structure Approach (November, 2014); Policy Issues Associated With Using Simulation to Assess Environmental Impacts (November, 2014); Policy Analysis of the Canadian Oil Sands Experience (September, 2013); V-UQ of Generation 1 Simulator with AMSO Experimental Data (August, 2013); Lands with Wilderness Characteristics, Resource Management Plan Constraints, and Land Exchanges

  4. Sharing Water Data to Encourage Sustainable Choices in Areas of the Marcellus Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, S. L.; Abad, J. D.; Vastine, J.; Yoxtheimer, D.; Wilderman, C.; Vidic, R.; Hooper, R. P.; Brasier, K.

    2012-12-01

    Natural gas sourced from shales but stored in more permeable formations has long been exploited as an energy resource. Now, however, gas is exploited directly from the low-porosity and low-permeability shale reservoirs through the use of hydrofracturing. Hydrofracturing is not a new technique: it has long been utilized in the energy industry to promote flow of oil and gas from traditional reservoirs. To exploit gas in reservoirs such as the Marcellus shale in PA, hydrofracturing is paired with directional drilling. Such hydrofracturing utilizes large volumes of water to increase porosity in the shale formations at depth. Small concentrations of chemicals are added to the water to improve the formation and maintenance of the fractures. Significant public controversy has developed in response to the use of hydrofracturing especially in the northeastern states underlain by the Marcellus shale where some citizens and scientists question whether shale gas recovery will contaminate local surface and ground waters. Researchers, government agencies, and citizen scientists in Pennsylvania are teaming up to run the ShaleNetwork (www.shalenetwork.org), an NSF-funded research collaboration network that is currently finding, collating, sharing, publishing, and exploring data related to water quality and quantity in areas that are exploiting shale gas. The effort, focussed initially on Pennsylvania, is now developing the ShaleNetwork database that can be accessed through HydroDesktop in the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System. In the first year since inception, the ShaleNetwork ran a workshop and reached eight conclusions, largely focussed on issues related to the sources, entry, and use of data. First, the group discovered that extensive water data is available in areas of shale gas. Second, participants agreed that the Shale Network team should partner with state agencies and industry to move datasets online. Third, participants discovered that the database allows

  5. Seismic prediction of sweet spots in the Da'anzhai shale play, Yuanba area, the Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Changzi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Burial depth, thickness, total organic carbon (TOC content, brittleness and fracture development of shale reservoirs are the main geologic indexes in the evaluation of sweet spots in shale gas plays. Taking the 2nd interval of Da'anzhai shale of the Lower Jurassic as the study object, a set of techniques in seismic prediction of sweet spots were developed based on special processing of seismic data and comprehensive analysis of various data based on these geologic indexes. First, logging and seismic responses of high quality shales were found out through fine calibration of shale reservoir location with seismogram, which was combined with seismic facies analysis to define the macroscopic distribution of the shale. Then, seismic impedance inversion and GR inversion were used to identify shale from limestone and sandstone. Based on statistical analysis of sensitive parameters such as TOC, the uranium log inversion technique was used to quantitatively predict TOC of a shale reservoir and the thickness of a high quality shale reservoir. After that, fracture prediction technique was employed to predict play fairways. Finally, the pre-stack joint P-wave and S-wave impedance inversion technique was adopted to identify shales with high brittleness suitable for hydraulic fracturing. These seismic prediction techniques have been applied in sorting out sweet spots in the 2nd interval of the Da'anzhai shale play of the Yuanba area, and the results provided a sound basis for the optimization of horizontal well placement and hydraulic fracturing.

  6. Irradiation of organic matter by uranium decay in the Alum Shale, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewan, M. D.; Buchardt, B.

    1989-06-01

    The Alum Shale of Sweden contains black shales with anomalously high uranium concentrations in excess of 100 ppm. Syngenetic or early diagenetic origin of this uranium indicates that organic matter within these shales has been irradiated by decaying uranium for approximately 500 Ma. Radiation-induced polymerization of alkanes through a free-radical cross-linking mechanism appears to be responsible for major alterations within the irradiated organic matter. Specific radiation-induced alterations include generation of condensate-like oils at reduced yields from hydrous pyrolysis experiments, decrease in atomic H/C ratios of kerogens, decrease in bitumen/organic-carbon ratios, and a relative increase in low-molecular weight triaromatic steroid hydrocarbons. Conversely, stable carbon isotopes of kerogens, reflectance of vitrinite-like macerais, oil-generation kinetics, and isomerization of 20R to 20S αα C 29-steranes were not affected by radiation. The radiation dosage needed to cause the alterations observed in the Alum Shale has been estimated to be in excess of 10 5 Mrads with respect to organic carbon. This value is used to estimate the potential for radiation damage to thermally immature organic matter in black shales through the geological rock record. High potential for radiation damage is not likely in Cenozoic and Mesozoic black shales but becomes more likely in lower Paleozoic and Precambrian black shales.

  7. Problems in the wellbore integrity of a shale gas horizontal well and corresponding countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonglan Tian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Changning–Weiyuan national shale gas demonstration area, SW Sichuan Basin, the wellbore integrity damage occurs in some shale gas wells and has direct effect on the gas production rate of single shale gas horizontal well. After statistics analysis was performed on the problems related with wellbore integrity, such as casing damage, casing running difficulty and cement sheath blow-by, the multi-factor coupling casing stress calculation and evaluation mode laws established. Then study was conducted on the influential mechanism of multi-factor coupling (temperature effect, casing bending and axial pressure on casing damage. The shale slip mechanism and its relationship with casing sheared formation were analyzed by using the Mohr–Coulomb criterion. Inversion analysis was performed on the main controlling factors of casing friction by using the developed casing hook load prediction and friction analysis software. And finally, based on the characteristics of shale gas horizontal wells, wellbore integrity control measures were proposed in terms of design and construction process, so as to improve the drilling quality (DQ. More specifically, shale gas well casing design calculation method and check standard were modified, well structure and full bore hole trajectory design were optimized, drilling quality was improved, cement properties were optimized and cement sealing integrity during fracturing process was checked. These research findings are significant in the design and management of future shale gas borehole integrity.

  8. Life cycle water consumption for shale gas and conventional natural gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Corrie E; Horner, Robert M; Harto, Christopher B

    2013-10-15

    Shale gas production represents a large potential source of natural gas for the nation. The scale and rapid growth in shale gas development underscore the need to better understand its environmental implications, including water consumption. This study estimates the water consumed over the life cycle of conventional and shale gas production, accounting for the different stages of production and for flowback water reuse (in the case of shale gas). This study finds that shale gas consumes more water over its life cycle (13-37 L/GJ) than conventional natural gas consumes (9.3-9.6 L/GJ). However, when used as a transportation fuel, shale gas consumes significantly less water than other transportation fuels. When used for electricity generation, the combustion of shale gas adds incrementally to the overall water consumption compared to conventional natural gas. The impact of fuel production, however, is small relative to that of power plant operations. The type of power plant where the natural gas is utilized is far more important than the source of the natural gas.

  9. Investigation of the kinetics of water uptake into partially saturated shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan, H.; Andersen, M. S.; Rutlidge, H.; Marjo, C. E.; Acworth, R. I.

    2016-04-01

    Several processes have been proposed to describe the low recovery of hydraulic fracturing fluid in unconventional shale reservoirs which has caused both technical and environmental concerns. This study describes novel hydraulic experiments to quantitatively investigate the kinetics of water uptake into partially saturated shale through investigating the pressure response of injecting fluids (NaCl, KCl, MgCl2, and CaCl2 with different ionic concentrations) into crushed and sieved shale fragments. The results of the study indicate that the cumulative water uptake under pressure is likely to be controlled by three processes: surface hydration, capillary hydration including advective flow, and osmotic hydration. Each of these processes is a function of the differences between the in situ pore fluid and the injection fluid (solution chemistry and concentration) and the shale physicochemical properties, in particular the contact surface area, pore diameter, and the Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC). The uptake is not instantaneous, but is diffusion limited, with the rate governed by a number of kinetic processes. Uptake proceeds in three stages, each associated with a different process: (1) predominantly surface hydration, (2) predominantly capillary hydration and finally, (3) predominantly osmotic hydration. It was also shown that shale can take up a significant amount of water compared to its available solid volume. However, contrary to the conventional understanding, the increase in salinity of the injection fluid does not necessarily lead to reduced water uptake into shales, but is dependent on the type and concentration of cations within the shale and injecting fluid.

  10. THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF THE PRODUCTION OF SHALE GAS POTENTIAL : THE CASE OF TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TURGUT BAYRAMOĞLU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy is a main input for economy. Because of an increase in other fossil fuels’ prices and it’s accepted as an important resource for energy supply for the countries which don’t have enough oil and natural gas resources, shale gas became a current issue in the world. Technically producable shale gas in the world is about 6.621 bcm (billion cubic meter. We can say that this amount may be higher if unsought areas are added. Turkey is one of the countries which has shale gas potential. According to a report published by EIA in 2011, Turkey has approximately 424 billion cubic meter shale gas reserves. This shale gas potential can reduce Turkey’s energy dependence if we think of the fact that annual natural gas consumption of Turkey is 46 bcm. Despite all, production of shale gas has not been searched in terms of it’s advantages and disadvantages. The aim of this study is to present the advantages and disadvantages of shales gas for the world and Turkey. Reducing energy dependence, supporting a more clean energy than coal, balancing the oil prices are some advantages. Nevertheless, it’s a fossil fuel, it’s production is expensive and it gets negative social and environmental reactions.

  11. Observations of the release of non-methane hydrocarbons from fractured shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommariva, Roberto; Blake, Robert S; Cuss, Robert J; Cordell, Rebecca L; Harrington, Jon F; White, Iain R; Monks, Paul S

    2014-01-01

    The organic content of shale has become of commercial interest as a source of hydrocarbons, owing to the development of hydraulic fracturing ("fracking"). While the main focus is on the extraction of methane, shale also contains significant amounts of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs). We describe the first real-time observations of the release of NMHCs from a fractured shale. Samples from the Bowland-Hodder formation (England) were analyzed under different conditions using mass spectrometry, with the objective of understanding the dynamic process of gas release upon fracturing of the shale. A wide range of NMHCs (alkanes, cycloalkanes, aromatics, and bicyclic hydrocarbons) are released at parts per million or parts per billion level with temperature- and humidity-dependent release rates, which can be rationalized in terms of the physicochemical characteristics of different hydrocarbon classes. Our results indicate that higher energy inputs (i.e., temperatures) significantly increase the amount of NMHCs released from shale, while humidity tends to suppress it; additionally, a large fraction of the gas is released within the first hour after the shale has been fractured. These findings suggest that other hydrocarbons of commercial interest may be extracted from shale and open the possibility to optimize the "fracking" process, improving gas yields and reducing environmental impacts.

  12. Simultaneous Measurement of Elastic and Electrical Anisotropy of Shales under Elevated Pressure: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, L.; Niu, Q.; Prasad, M.

    2015-12-01

    Low-porosity shales are generally considered as transverse isotropic (TI) material, both elastically and electrically. We explore the correlation of elastic and electrical anisotropy of shales to mineralogy and organic richness. Both, elastic and electrical anisotropies in rocks are known to be functions of clay and kerogen contents. The elastic anisotropy in clay- and organic-rich shales is related to their laminated and lenticular texture that is enhanced with compaction and diagenesis leading. The correlation of complex resistivity and anisotropy in shales with clay content has theoretically modeled using cation exchange capacity of the clay minerals. Although, it is appear likely that elastic and electrical anisotropy might be controlled by similar petrophyiscal properties, very little research exists that explores the relationship between these two anisotropies and how petrophysical properties might influence them. We present an experimental data of elastic and electrical anisotropy in shales acquired with a new system that allows simultaneous measurements of acoustic velocities and complex resistivities under hydrostatic pressure in three directions: parallel, 45° and perpendicular to any orientation, such as bedding planes. Our results of five shale samples show: Elastic and electrical anisotropy are inversely related to pressure Electrical anisotropy is generally higher than elastic anisotropy Electrical anisotropy is more sensitive to pressure change Complex resistivity anisotropy for in-phase resistivity and phase is highly frequency dependent In future, we plan to measure shale samples with varying clay and organic contents and correlate anisotropy to petrophysical properties.

  13. Effects of strain rate and confining pressure on the deformation and failure of shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.M. (Schlumberger Cambridge Research (GB)); Sheppard, M.C. (Anadrill/Schlumberger (US)); Houwen, O.H. (Sedco Forex (FR))

    1991-06-01

    Previous work on shale mechanical properties has focused on the slow deformation rates appropriate to wellbore deformation. Deformation of shale under a drill bit occurs at a very high rate, and the failure properties of the rock under these conditions are crucial in determining bit performance and in extracting lithology and pore-pressure information from drilling parameters. Triaxial tests were performed on two nonswelling shales under a wide range of strain rates and confining and pore pressures. At low strain rates, when fluid is relatively free to move within the shale, shale deformation and failure are governed by effective stress or pressure (i.e., total confining pressure minus pore pressure), as is the case for ordinary rock. If the pore pressure in the shale is high, increasing the strain rate beyond about 0.1%/sec causes large increases in the strength and ductility of the shale. Total pressure begins to influence the strength. At high stain rates, the influence of effective pressure decreases, except when it is very low (i.e., when pore pressure is very high); ductility then rises rapidly. This behavior is opposite that expected in ordinary rocks. This paper briefly discusses the reasons for these phenomena and their impact on wellbore and drilling problems.

  14. Environmental concerns and regulatory initiatives related to hydraulic fracturing in shale gas formations: potential implications for North American gas supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumi, Lisa [Earthworks (Canada)

    2010-09-15

    Shale gas resources have been referred to as a game changer for North America and it is expected that shale gas will account for over 30% of the natural gas production in North America by 2020. However, the development of this resource has raised several concerns, notably in terms of water use and contamination; more stringent regulations could be implemented in the coming years. The aim of this paper is to present the effect that more stringent regulations would have on gas development in the Marcellus shale, which accounts for 20% of North American shale gas production. Information on hydraulic fracturing and its environmental impacts is provided herein, along with information on the regulatory initiatives underway in the Marcellus shale region. This paper pointed out that novel regulations relating to shale gas development could significantly reduce the growth in shale gas production.

  15. Zero Discharge Water Management for Horizontal Shale Gas Well Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Jennifer Hause; Raymond Lovett; David Locke Harry Johnson; Doug Patchen

    2012-03-31

    Hydraulic fracturing technology (fracking), coupled with horizontal drilling, has facilitated exploitation of huge natural gas (gas) reserves in the Devonian-age Marcellus Shale Formation (Marcellus) of the Appalachian Basin. The most-efficient technique for stimulating Marcellus gas production involves hydraulic fracturing (injection of a water-based fluid and sand mixture) along a horizontal well bore to create a series of hydraulic fractures in the Marcellus. The hydraulic fractures free the shale-trapped gas, allowing it to flow to the well bore where it is conveyed to pipelines for transport and distribution. The hydraulic fracturing process has two significant effects on the local environment. First, water withdrawals from local sources compete with the water requirements of ecosystems, domestic and recreational users, and/or agricultural and industrial uses. Second, when the injection phase is over, 10 to 30% of the injected water returns to the surface. This water consists of flowback, which occurs between the completion of fracturing and gas production, and produced water, which occurs during gas production. Collectively referred to as returned frac water (RFW), it is highly saline with varying amounts of organic contamination. It can be disposed of, either by injection into an approved underground injection well, or treated to remove contaminants so that the water meets the requirements of either surface release or recycle use. Depending on the characteristics of the RFW and the availability of satisfactory disposal alternatives, disposal can impose serious costs to the operator. In any case, large quantities of water must be transported to and from well locations, contributing to wear and tear on local roadways that were not designed to handle the heavy loads and increased traffic. The search for a way to mitigate the situation and improve the overall efficiency of shale gas production suggested a treatment method that would allow RFW to be used as make

  16. Wastewater management and Marcellus Shale gas development: trends, drivers, and planning implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahm, Brian G; Bates, Josephine T; Bertoia, Lara R; Galford, Amy E; Yoxtheimer, David A; Riha, Susan J

    2013-05-15

    Extraction of natural gas from tight shale formations has been made possible by recent technological advances, including hydraulic fracturing with horizontal drilling. Global shale gas development is seen as a potential energy and geopolitical "game-changer." However, widespread concern exists with respect to possible environmental consequences of this development, particularly impacts on water resources. In the United States, where the most shale gas extraction has occurred, the Marcellus Shale is now the largest natural gas producing play. To date, over 6,000,000 m(3) of wastewater has been generated in the process of extracting natural gas from this shale in the state of Pennsylvania (PA) alone. Here we examine wastewater management practices and trends for this shale play through analysis of industry-reported, publicly available data collected from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection Oil and Gas Reporting Website. We also analyze the tracking and transport of shale gas liquid waste streams originating in PA using a combination of web-based and GIS approaches. From 2008 to 2011 wastewater reuse increased, POTW use decreased, and data tracking became more complete, while the average distance traveled by wastewater decreased by over 30%. Likely factors influencing these trends include state regulations and policies, along with low natural gas prices. Regional differences in wastewater management are influenced by industrial treatment capacity, as well as proximity to injection disposal capacity. Using lessons from the Marcellus Shale, we suggest that nations, states, and regulatory agencies facing new unconventional shale development recognize that pace and scale of well drilling leads to commensurate wastewater management challenges. We also suggest they implement wastewater reporting and tracking systems, articulate a policy for adapting management to evolving data and development patterns, assess local and regional wastewater treatment

  17. Impact of Shale Gas Development on Water Resource in Fuling, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Huang, Xianjin; Yang, Qinyuan; Tu, Jianjun

    2015-04-01

    As a low-carbon energy, shale gas rapidly developed in U.S. in last years due to the innovation of the technique of hydraulic fracture, or fracking. Shale gas boom produces more gas with low price and reduced the reliance on fuel import. To follow the American shale gas success, China made an ambitious plan of shale gas extraction, 6.5 billion m3 by 2015. To extract shale gas, huge amount water is needed to inject into each gas well. This will intensify the competition of water use between industry, agricultural and domestic sectors. It may finally exacerbate the water scarcity in China. After the extraction, some water was returned to the ground. Without adequate treatment, the flowback water can introduce heavy metal, acids, pesticides, and other toxic material into water and land. This may inevitably worsen the water and land contamination. This study analysed the potential water consumption and wastewater generation in shale gas development in Fuling, Southwest China. The survey found the average water consumption is 30,000 cubic meter for one well, higher than shale well in U.S. Some 2%-20% water flowed back to the ground. The water quality monitoring showed the Total Suspended Solid (TSS) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) were the main factors above those specified by China's water regulation. Shale gas is a lower-carbon energy, but it is important to recognize the water consuming and environmental pollution during the fracking. Strict monitoring and good coordination during the shale gas exploitation is urgently needed for the balance of economic development, energy demand and environmental protection.

  18. Shale gas reservoir characteristics of Ordovician-Silurian formations in the central Yangtze area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Chang'an; Zhang, Tingshan; Wei, Yong; Zhang, Zhao

    2017-03-01

    The characteristics of a shale gas reservoir and the potential of a shale gas resource of Ordovician-Silurian age in the north of the central Yangtze area were determined. Core samples from three wells in the study area were subjected to thin-section examination, scanning electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance testing, X-ray diffraction mineral analysis, total organic carbon (TOC) testing, maturity testing, gas-bearing analysis, and gas component and isothermal adsorption experiments. A favorable segment of the gas shale reservoir was found in both the Wufeng Formation and the lower part of the Longmaxi Formation; these formations were formed from the late Katian to early Rhuddanian. The high-quality shale layers in wells J1, J2, and J3 featured thicknesses of 54.88 m, 48.49 m, and 52.00 m, respectively, and mainly comprised carbonaceous and siliceous shales. Clay and brittle minerals showed average contents of 37.5% and 62.5% (48.9% quartz), respectively. The shale exhibited type II1 kerogens with a vitrinite reflectance ranging from 1.94% to 3.51%. TOC contents of 0.22%-6.05% (average, 2.39%) were also observed. The reservoir spaces mainly included micropores and microfractures and were characterized by low porosity and permeability. Well J3 showed generally high gas contents, i.e., 1.12-3.16 m3/t (average 2.15 m3/t), and its gas was primarily methane. The relatively thick black shale reservoir featured high TOC content, high organic material maturity, high brittle mineral content, high gas content, low porosity, and low permeability. Shale gas adsorption was positively correlated with TOC content and organic maturity, weakly positive correlated with quartz content, and weakly negatively correlated with clay content. Therefore, the Wufeng and Longmaxi formations in the north of the central Yangtze area have a good potential for shale gas exploration.

  19. Shale gas reservoir characteristics of Ordovician-Silurian formations in the central Yangtze area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Chang'an; Zhang, Tingshan; Wei, Yong; Zhang, Zhao

    2016-07-01

    The characteristics of a shale gas reservoir and the potential of a shale gas resource of Ordovician-Silurian age in the north of the central Yangtze area were determined. Core samples from three wells in the study area were subjected to thin-section examination, scanning electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance testing, X-ray diffraction mineral analysis, total organic carbon (TOC) testing, maturity testing, gas-bearing analysis, and gas component and isothermal adsorption experiments. A favorable segment of the gas shale reservoir was found in both the Wufeng Formation and the lower part of the Longmaxi Formation; these formations were formed from the late Katian to early Rhuddanian. The high-quality shale layers in wells J1, J2, and J3 featured thicknesses of 54.88 m, 48.49 m, and 52.00 m, respectively, and mainly comprised carbonaceous and siliceous shales. Clay and brittle minerals showed average contents of 37.5% and 62.5% (48.9% quartz), respectively. The shale exhibited type II1 kerogens with a vitrinite reflectance ranging from 1.94% to 3.51%. TOC contents of 0.22%-6.05% (average, 2.39%) were also observed. The reservoir spaces mainly included micropores and microfractures and were characterized by low porosity and permeability. Well J3 showed generally high gas contents, i.e., 1.12-3.16 m3/t (average 2.15 m3/t), and its gas was primarily methane. The relatively thick black shale reservoir featured high TOC content, high organic material maturity, high brittle mineral content, high gas content, low porosity, and low permeability. Shale gas adsorption was positively correlated with TOC content and organic maturity, weakly positive correlated with quartz content, and weakly negatively correlated with clay content. Therefore, the Wufeng and Longmaxi formations in the north of the central Yangtze area have a good potential for shale gas exploration.

  20. Fluidized-bed retorting of Colorado oil shale: Topical report. [None

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albulescu, P.; Mazzella, G.

    1987-06-01

    In support of the research program in converting oil shale into useful forms of energy, the US Department of Energy is developing systems models of oil shale processing plants. These models will be used to project the most attractive combination of process alternatives and identify future direction for R and D efforts. With the objective of providing technical and economic input for such systems models, Foster Wheeler was contracted to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates for commercial scale processing plants to produce syncrude from oil shales via various routes. This topical report summarizes the conceptual design of an integrated oil shale processing plant based on fluidized bed retorting of Colorado oil shale. The plant has a nominal capacity of 50,000 barrels per operating day of syncrude product, derived from oil shale feed having a Fischer Assay of 30 gallons per ton. The scope of the plant encompasses a grassroots facility which receives run of the mine oil shale, delivers product oil to storage, and disposes of the processed spent shale. In addition to oil shale feed, the battery limits input includes raw water, electric power, and natural gas to support plant operations. Design of the individual processing units was based on non-confidential information derived from published literature sources and supplemented by input from selected process licensors. The integrated plant design is described in terms of the individual process units and plant support systems. The estimated total plant investment is similarly detailed by plant section and an estimate of the annual operating requirements and costs is provided. In addition, the process design assumptions and uncertainties are documented and recommendations for process alternatives, which could improve the overall plant economics, are discussed.

  1. The role of alkenes produced during hydrous pyrolysis of a shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leif, R.N.; Simoneit, B.R.T. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences

    2000-07-01

    Hydrous pyrolysis experiments conducted on Messel shale with D{sub 2}O demonstrated that a large amount of deuterium becomes incorporated into the hydrocarbons generated from the shale kerogen. In order to understand the pathway of deuterium (and protium) exchange and the role of water during hydrous pyrolysis, we conducted a series of experiments using aliphatic compounds (1,13-tetradecadiene, 1-hexadecene, eicosane and dotriacontane) as probe molecules. These compounds were pyrolyzed in D{sub 2}O, shale/D{sub 2}O, and shale/H{sub 2}O and the products analyzed by GC-MS. In the absence of powdered shale, the incorporation of deuterium from D{sub 2}O occurred only in olefinic compounds via double bond isomerization. The presence of shale accelerated deuterium incorporation into the olefins and resulted in a minor amount of deuterium incorporation in the saturated n-alkanes. The pattern of deuterium substitution of the diene closely matched the deuterium distribution observed in the n-alkanes generated from the shale kerogen in the D{sub 2}O/shale pyrolyses. The presence of the shale also resulted in reduction (hydrogenation) of olefins to saturated n-alkanes with concomitant oxidation of olefins to ketones. These results show that under hydrous pyrolysis conditions, kerogen breakdown generates n-alkanes and terminal n-alkenes by free radical hydrocarbon cracking of the aliphatic kerogen structure. The terminal n-alkenes rapidly isomerize to internal alkenes via acid-catalyzed isomerization under hydrothermal conditions, a significant pathway of deuterium (and protium) exchange between water and the hydrocarbons. These n-alkenes simultaneously undergo reduction to n-alkanes (major) or oxidation to ketones (minor) via alcohols formed by the hydration of the alkenes. (Author)

  2. Inflation and government indecisiveness: key deterrents to significant shale oil production by 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-10-01

    This work examines the progress of the shale oil industry in its efforts to achieve production of synthetic crude oil from oil shale on a profitable, commercial basis. A projection is made regarding the ability of the shale oil industry to produce 1,000,000 bbl of synthetic crude oil by 1985. That year was chosen because of the long lead time required to obtained leases; to acquire investment capital; to gain approval of environmental impact documents; and to acquire the equipment and construct plants of sufficient magnitude to be economically feasible. 31 references.

  3. Sustainability, Shale Gas, and Energy Transition in China: Assessing Barriers and Prioritizing Strategic Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Sovacool, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    demonstrated that the lack of governmental support and guidelines, lack of regulations and standards, and lack of core technologies are the most important barriers hindering the energy transition to shale gas in China. The refinement of subsidies, advanced research, and harmonized standards could in large......Shale gas, as an emerging unconventional resource in China, has been regarded as a promising option for diversifying away from traditional fossil fuels and enhancing national security of energy supply. This study analyzed the barriers affecting the sustainable shale gas revolution in China...

  4. Distribution of naturally occurring radionuclides (U, Th) in Timahdit black shale (Morocco)

    OpenAIRE

    Galindo, C.; Mougin, L.; Fakhi, S.; Nourreddine, A.; Lamghari, A.; Hannache, H.

    2007-01-01

    Attention has been focused recently on the use of Moroccan black oil shale as the raw material for production of a new type of adsorbent and its application to U and Th removal from contaminated wastewaters. The purpose of the present work is to provide a better understanding of the composition and structure of this shale and to determine its natural content in uranium and thorium. A black shale collected from Timahdit (Morocco) was analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction and SEM techniques. It ...

  5. Interdisciplinary Investigation of CO2 Sequestration in Depleted Shale Gas Formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoback, Mark D. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Kovscek, Anthony R. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Wilcox, Jennifer [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    This project investigates the feasibility of geologic sequestration of CO2 in depleted shale gas reservoirs from an interdisciplinary viewpoint. It is anticipated that over the next two decades, tens of thousands of wells will be drilled in the 23 states in which organic-rich shale gas deposits are found. This research investigates the feasibility of using these formations for sequestration. If feasible, the number of sites where CO2 can be sequestered increases dramatically. The research embraces a broad array of length scales ranging from the ~10 nanometer scale of the pores in the shale formations to reservoir scale through a series of integrated laboratory and theoretical studies.

  6. The atmospheric inventory of Xenon and noble cases in shales The plastic bag experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernatowicz, T. J.; Podosek, F. A.; Honda, M.; Kramer, F. E.

    1984-01-01

    A novel trapped gas analysis protocol is applied to five shales in which the samples are sealed in air to eliminate the possibility of gas loss in the preanalysis laboratory vacuum exposure of a conventional protocol. The test is aimed at a determination concerning the hypothesis that atmospheric noble gases occur in the same proportion as planetary gases in meteorites, and that the factor-of-23 deficiency of air Xe relative to planetary Xe is made up by Xe stored in shales or other sedimentary rocks. The results obtained do not support the shale hypothesis.

  7. Mineralogical, geochemical and hydrocarbon potential of subsurface Cretaceous shales, Northern Western Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Mousa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty four Cretaceous shale core samples of Gibb Afia-1, Betty-1, Salam-1X and Mersa Matruh-1 wells were mineralogically and geochemically studied using XRD, XRF and Rock Eval Pyrolysis. Kaolinite, smectite and illite are the main clay minerals in addition to rare chlorite, while the non-clay minerals include quartz, calcite, dolomite and rare siderite. The shales were derived through intensive chemical weathering of mafic basement and older sedimentary rocks. These sediments were deposited in a near-shore shallow marine environment with some terrestrial material input. The shales have poor to fair organic content. It is marginally to rarely mature.

  8. The real shale gases scandal; Le vrai scandale des gaz de schiste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jobert, Marine; Veillerette, Francois

    2011-08-28

    Shale and oil gases are in the center of a national debate in France. They are accused of being responsible of aquifers and ground pollution, of air poisoning, of earthquake triggering and so on. Opponents to shale gas exploitation have won the first round but the potential beneficiaries, the industrialists and politics, have not given up. This book unravels the existing connections between the administration, industrial and political powers and demonstrates why the shale gases exploitation projects are not abandoned despite their proven harmful impact on the environment. (J.S.)

  9. Study of hydrocarbon--shale interaction. Progress report No. 1, July 1, 1976--October 1, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schettler, P.D. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Work on Hydrocarbon-Shale Interaction at Juniata College from June 1, 1976 through September 30, 1976 is summarized. Work was accomplished in the following areas: constrictive and geometric effects associated with gas production from shale wells, diffusion constants, hydrocarbon gas analysis, adsorption isotherms and powder x-ray diffraction. A bibliography on adsorption and diffusion in shale was prepared and is included. A detailed description of the procedures used in construction and calibration of the apparatus used for sorption measurements is included. All experimental work was done on cores from Well No. 20403 in Lincoln County, West Virginia.

  10. Modeling shales and marls reflections by autoregression method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Umairia; Ching, Dennis Ling Chuan; Daud, Hanita; Januarisma, Vikri

    2016-11-01

    Seismic modeling is pervasive in exploring the subsurface structure. The propagation of elastic waves in homogenous medium has to be modeled to create synthetic seismograms. A numerical solution of partial differential equations describes the propagation phenomenon in elastic medium under the initial and boundary condition that is Clayton Engquist (CE). The subsurface discontinuities like fractures effect the seismic reflections that are used for subsurface imaging. A fractured velocity model with shales and marls sedimentary rocks is built and common depth point (CDP) seismograms with single shot are preprocessed by automatic gain control. The subsurface reflections are modeled by using the first-order autoregressive (AR(1)) model. A comparison of synthetic and real data AR model is made on the basis of average reflectivity, R2 and means square error (MSE). The real data has smaller average reflectivity, -1.80e-10, 93.966% explained variation i.e. R2 and 1.71e-07 minimum MSE.

  11. Multiscale model reduction for shale gas transport in fractured media

    CERN Document Server

    Akkutlu, I Y; Vasilyeva, Maria

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a multiscale model reduction technique that describes shale gas transport in fractured media. Due to the pore-scale heterogeneities and processes, we use upscaled models to describe the matrix. We follow our previous work \\cite{aes14}, where we derived an upscaled model in the form of generalized nonlinear diffusion model to describe the effects of kerogen. To model the interaction between the matrix and the fractures, we use Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Method. In this approach, the matrix and the fracture interaction is modeled via local multiscale basis functions. We developed the GMsFEM and applied for linear flows with horizontal or vertical fracture orientations on a Cartesian fine grid. In this paper, we consider arbitrary fracture orientations and use triangular fine grid and developed GMsFEM for nonlinear flows. Moreover, we develop online basis function strategies to adaptively improve the convergence. The number of multiscale basis functions in each coarse region ...

  12. Thermodynamically consistent model of brittle oil shales under overpressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izvekov, Oleg

    2016-04-01

    The concept of dual porosity is a common way for simulation of oil shale production. In the frame of this concept the porous fractured media is considered as superposition of two permeable continua with mass exchange. As a rule the concept doesn't take into account such as the well-known phenomenon as slip along natural fractures, overpressure in low permeability matrix and so on. Overpressure can lead to development of secondary fractures in low permeability matrix in the process of drilling and pressure reduction during production. In this work a new thermodynamically consistent model which generalizes the model of dual porosity is proposed. Particularities of the model are as follows. The set of natural fractures is considered as permeable continuum. Damage mechanics is applied to simulation of secondary fractures development in low permeability matrix. Slip along natural fractures is simulated in the frame of plasticity theory with Drucker-Prager criterion.

  13. Impact of shale gas development on regional water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidic, R D; Brantley, S L; Vandenbossche, J M; Yoxtheimer, D; Abad, J D

    2013-05-17

    Unconventional natural gas resources offer an opportunity to access a relatively clean fossil fuel that could potentially lead to energy independence for some countries. Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing make the extraction of tightly bound natural gas from shale formations economically feasible. These technologies are not free from environmental risks, however, especially those related to regional water quality, such as gas migration, contaminant transport through induced and natural fractures, wastewater discharge, and accidental spills. We review the current understanding of environmental issues associated with unconventional gas extraction. Improved understanding of the fate and transport of contaminants of concern and increased long-term monitoring and data dissemination will help manage these water-quality risks today and in the future.

  14. Shales and other argillaceous strata in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, S.; Johnson, K.S.

    1985-03-01

    This report presents detailed geologic and hydrologic data that describe shales and other argillaceous rocks; data are from the open literature. These data are intended to be used in the future to aid in assessment of various strata and their potential for repository siting. No observations, conclusions, or recommendations are made by the authors of this report relative to the suitability of various argillaceous rocks for waste disposal. There are, however, other published reports that contain technical data and evaluative statements regarding the suitability of various argillaceous rocks for repository siting. Where appropriate, the authors of this report have referenced this previously published literature and have summarized the technical data. 838 refs., 121 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Trip report for field visit to Fayetteville Shale gas wells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-09-30

    This report describes a visit to several gas well sites in the Fayetteville Shale on August 9, 2007. I met with George Sheffer, Desoto Field Manager for SEECO, Inc. (a large gas producer in Arkansas). We talked in his Conway, Arkansas, office for an hour and a half about the processes and technologies that SEECO uses. We then drove into the field to some of SEECO's properties to see first-hand what the well sites looked like. In 2006, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) made several funding awards under a program called Low Impact Natural Gas and Oil (LINGO). One of the projects that received an award is 'Probabilistic Risk-Based Decision Support for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Facilities in Sensitive Ecosystems'. The University of Arkansas at Fayetteville has the lead on the project, and Argonne National Laboratory is a partner. The goal of the project is to develop a Web-based decision support tool that will be used by mid- and small-sized oil and gas companies as well as environmental regulators and other stakeholders to proactively minimize adverse ecosystem impacts associated with the recovery of gas reserves in sensitive areas. The project focuses on a large new natural gas field called the Fayetteville Shale. Part of the project involves learning how the natural gas operators do business in the area and the technologies they employ. The field trip on August 9 provided an opportunity to do that.

  16. Porphyrin geochemistry of Atlantic Jurassic-Cretaceous black shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, E.W.; Louda, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Late Jurassic-early Cretaceous black shales and an overlying sequence of Albian-Campanian zeolitic claystones from the Falkland Plateau (DSDP/IPOD Leg 71, Site 511) were analyzed for tetrapyrrole pigment type and abundance. The black shale sequence was found to be rich in DPEP-series dominated free-base, nickel (Ni) and, to a lesser extent, vanadyl (V = 0) porphyrins. A low level of organic maturity (i.e. precatagenesis) is indicated for these strata as nickel chelation by free-base porphyrins is only 50-75% complete, proceeding down-hole to 627 meters sub-bottom. Electronic and mass spectral data reveal that the proposed benzo-DPEP (BD) and tetrahydrobenzo-DPEP (THBD) series are present in the free-base and Ni species, as well as the more usual occurrence in V = 0 porphyrin arrays. Highly reducing conditions are suggested by an abundance of the PAH perylene, substantial amounts of the THBD/BD series and a redox equilibrium between free-base DPEP and 7,8-dihydro-DPEP series, which exist in a 7:1 molar ratio. The Albian-Campanian claystone strata were found to be tetrapyrrole poor, and those pigments present were typed as Cu/Ni highly dealkylated (C/sub 26/ max.) etioporphyrins, thought to be derived via redeposition and oxidation of terrestrial organic matter (OM). Results from the present study are correlated to their past analyses of Jurassic-Cretaceous sediments from Atlantic margins in an effort to relate tetrapyrrole quality and quantity to basin evolution and OM sources in the proto-Atlantic.

  17. Triaxial coreflood study of the hydraulic fracturing of Utica Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, J. W.; Frash, L.; Viswanathan, H. S.

    2015-12-01

    One of the central questions in unconventional oil and gas production research is the cause of limited recovery of hydrocarbon. There are many hypotheses including: 1) inadequate penetration of fractures within the stimulated volume; 2) limited proppant delivery; 3) multiphase flow phenomena that blocks hydrocarbon migration; etc. Underlying any solution to this problem must be an understanding of the hydrologic properties of hydraulically fractured shale. In this study, we conduct triaxial coreflood experiments using a gasket sealing mechanism to characterize hydraulic fracture development and permeability of Utica Shale samples. Our approach also includes fracture propagation with proppants. The triaxial coreflood experiments were conducted with an integrated x-ray tomography system that allows direct observation of fracture development using x-ray video radiography and x-ray computed tomography at elevated pressure. A semi-circular, fracture initiation notch was cut into an end-face of the cylindrical samples (1"-diameter with lengths from 0.375 to 1"). The notch was aligned parallel with the x-ray beam to allow video radiography of fracture growth as a function of injection pressure. The proppants included tungsten powder that provided good x-ray contrast for tracing proppant delivery and distribution within the fracture system. Fractures were propagated at injection pressures in excess of the confining pressure and permeability measurements were made in samples where the fractures propagated through the length of the sample, ideally without penetrating the sample sides. Following fracture development, permeability was characterized as a function of hydrostatic pressure and injection pressure. X-ray video radioadiography was used to study changes in fracture aperture in relation to permeability and proppant embedment. X-ray tomography was collected at steady-state conditions to fully characterize fracture geometry and proppant distribution.

  18. 页岩灰对油页岩低温干馏产物的影响%Impact of the Shale Ash on the Low-temperature Carbonization of the Oil Shale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛玉梅; 张静; 孟宪鑫; 邢方亮; 朱晓霞

    2011-01-01

    分别介绍了油页岩低温干馏试验、油页岩与页岩灰掺混的干馏试验,结果表明,其他条件相同时,页岩灰与油页岩以4:1比例掺混时,油页岩干馏所产页岩油(凝点10℃,密度0.898 2g/cm3)与油页岩不掺混页岩灰干馏所得页岩油(凝点26℃,密度0.909 6g/cm3)相比,页岩油品质有所提升,有助于后续加工.%In the low-temperature carbonization process of the oil shale, the process conditions of the shale oil production in the presence of gray shale was introduced in this paper. The studies have shown that in the temperature around 520℃, comparing with shale oil (solidifying point of 26℃, density of 0.909 6g/cm3) produced by distillation of oil shale without mixing gray shale, shale oil (solidifying point of 10℃, density of 0.898 2g/cm3) produced by distillation of oil shale under the dry distillation conditions of oil shale and gray shale in a ratio of 4:1, enjoys higher quality and is helpful for subsequent processing.

  19. Electric property evidences of carbonification of organic matters in marine shales and its geologic significance: A case study of the Lower Cambrian Qiongzhusi shale in the southern Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuman Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Searching for some reliable evidences that can verify the carbonification of organic matters in marine shales is a major scientific issue in selecting shale gas fairways in old strata. To this end, based on core, logging and testing data, the electric property of two organic-rich shale layers in the Lower Cambrian Qiongzhusi Fm. and the Lower Silurian Longmaxi Fm. in the southern Sichuan Basin was compared to examine the carbonification signs of organic matters in the Qiongzhusi shale and its influence on gas occurrence in the shales. The following conclusions were reached: (1 the electric property experiment shows that the Qiongzhusi shale in the study area has had carbonification of organic matters. The low resistivity of dry samples from this highly mature organic-rich shale and ultra-low resistivity on downhole logs can be used to directly judge the degree of organic matter carbonification and the quality of source rocks; (2 in the Changning area, the Qiongzhusi shale shows low resistivity of dry samples and low to ultra-low resistivity on logs, indicating that organic matters are seriously carbonized, while in the Weiyuan area, the Qiongzhusi shale shows a basically normal resistivity on log curves, indicating its degree of graphitization between the Longmaxi Fm. and Qiongzhusi Fm. in the Changning area; (3 shale with medium-to-high resistivity is remarkably better than that with ultra-low resistivity in terms of gas generation potential, matrix porosity and gas adsorption capacity; (4 industrial gas flow has been tested in the organic shales with medium-to-high resistivity in the Jianwei–Weiyuan–Tongnan area in the north, where the Qiongzhusi shale is a favorable shale gas exploration target.

  20. Appraisal of transport and deformation in shale reservoirs using natural noble gas tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, Jason E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kuhlman, Kristopher L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Robinson, David G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bauer, Stephen J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gardner, William Payton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Univ. of Montana, Missoula, MT (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report presents efforts to develop the use of in situ naturally-occurring noble gas tracers to evaluate transport mechanisms and deformation in shale hydrocarbon reservoirs. Noble gases are promising as shale reservoir diagnostic tools due to their sensitivity of transport to: shale pore structure; phase partitioning between groundwater, liquid, and gaseous hydrocarbons; and deformation from hydraulic fracturing. Approximately 1.5-year time-series of wellhead fluid samples were collected from two hydraulically-fractured wells. The noble gas compositions and isotopes suggest a strong signature of atmospheric contribution to the noble gases that mix with deep, old reservoir fluids. Complex mixing and transport of fracturing fluid and reservoir fluids occurs during production. Real-time laboratory measurements were performed on triaxially-deforming shale samples to link deformation behavior, transport, and gas tracer signatures. Finally, we present improved methods for production forecasts that borrow statistical strength from production data of nearby wells to reduce uncertainty in the forecasts.

  1. Assessment of shale-gas resources of the Karoo Province, South Africa and Lesotho, Africa, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2016-07-08

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resource of 44.5 trillion cubic feet of shale gas in the Karoo Province of South Africa and Lesotho, Africa.

  2. Combustion of spent shales from the Rotem deposit. Pt. 1. Concurrent thermal processes: Pyrolysis and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabicky, J. (Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel). Institutes for Applied Research Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel). M.R. Bloch Center for Coal Research); Wohlfarth, A. (Pama - Energy Resources Development Ltd., Arava (Israel))

    1991-06-01

    Spent shales prepared by the Fisher method from oil shales of the Rotem deposit/Israel were studied in a continuous fluidized bed reactor at 700-900deg C under atmospheric pressure, using mixtures of nitrogen and carbon dioxide as the fluidizing gas. A set of simultaneus processes takes place, including pyrolysis of the organic residue in the spent shales, decomposition of calcium carbonate, dehydration of clay phases, decomposition of pyrites, reduction of anhydrite to calcium sulfide and other minor reactions. An important secondary process is gasification of the organic residue by carbon dioxide produced by carbonate decomposition or combustion. The extent to which these reactions take place depends on temperature, composition of the fluidizing gas, particle size of the spent shales, and mean residence time of the particles in the reactor. (orig.).

  3. Oil shale mining cost analysis. Volume I. Surface retorting process. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resnick, B.S.; English, L.M.; Metz, R.D.; Lewis, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    An Oil Shale Mining Economic Model (OSMEM) was developed and executed for mining scenarios representative of commercially feasible mining operations. Mining systems were evaluated for candidate sites in the Piceance Creek Basin. Mining methods selected included: (1) room-and-pillar; (2) chamber-and-pillar, with spent shale backfilling; (3) sublevel stopping; and (4) sublevel stopping, with spent shale backfilling. Mines were designed to extract oil shale resources to support a 50,000 barrels-per-day surface processing facility. Costs developed for each mining scenario included all capital and operating expenses associated with the underground mining methods. Parametric and sensitivity analyses were performed to determine the sensitivity of mining cost to changes in capital cost, operating cost, return on investment, and cost escalation.

  4. Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado, Oil Shale Geodatabase (Compiled from 3 legacy publications)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This geodatabase is a digital reproduction of three legacy USGS oil shale publications--MF-958 (Pitman and Johnson, 1978), MF-1069 (Pitman, 1979), and OC-132 (Pitman...

  5. Nanoscale simulation of shale transport properties using the lattice Boltzmann method: permeability and diffusivity

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Li; Kang, Qinjun; Yao, Jun; Tao, Wenquan

    2014-01-01

    Porous structures of shales are reconstructed based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of shale samples from Sichuan Basin, China. Characterization analyzes of the nanoscale reconstructed shales are performed, including porosity, pore size distribution, specific surface area and pore connectivity. The multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) fluid flow model and single-relaxation-time (SRT) LBM diffusion model are adopted to simulate the fluid flow and Knudsen diffusion process within the reconstructed shales, respectively. Tortuosity, intrinsic permeability and effective Knudsen diffusivity are numerically predicted. The tortuosity is much higher than that commonly employed in Bruggeman equation. Correction of the intrinsic permeability by taking into consideration the contribution of Knudsen diffusion, which leads to the apparent permeability, is performed. The correction factor under different Knudsen number and pressure are estimated and compared with existing corrections re...

  6. USGS National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Shale Gas Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey has compiled a map of shale gas assessments in the United States that were completed by 2012, such assessments having been included as...

  7. Oil Shale Core Holes Containing Nahcolite in the State of Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This file contains points that describe locations of oil shale core holes that contain nahcolite in the state of Colorado and is available as an ESRI shapefile,...

  8. Oil Shale Core Hole and Rotary Hole Locations in the State of Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This file contains points that describe locations of oil shale core holes and rotary holes in the state of Colorado and is available as an ESRI shapefile, Google...

  9. Effect of mineral matter and phenol in supercritical extraction of oil shale with toluene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abourriche, A.; Ouman, M.; Ichcho, S.; Hannache, H.; Pailler, R.; Naslain, R.; Birot, M.; Pillot, J.-P.

    2005-03-01

    In the present work, Tarfaya oil shale was subjected to supercritical toluene extraction. The experimental results obtained show clearly that the mineral matter and phenol have a significant effect on the yield and the composition of the obtained oil.

  10. Geological characteristics and resource potentials of oil shale in Ordos Basin, Center China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunlai, Bai; Yingcheng, Zhao; Long, Ma; Wu-jun, Wu; Yu-hu, Ma

    2010-09-15

    It has been shown that not only there are abundant oil, gas, coal, coal-bed gas, groundwater and giant uranium deposits but also there are abundant oil shale resources in Ordos basin. It has been shown also that the thickness of oil shale is, usually, 4-36m, oil-bearing 1.5%-13.7%, caloric value 1.66-20.98MJ/kg. The resource amount of oil shale with burial depth less than 2000 m is over 2000x108t (334). Within it, confirmed reserve is about 1x108t (121). Not only huge economic benefit but also precious experience in developing oil shale may be obtained in Ordos basin.

  11. Dynamic imaging of oil shale pyrolysis using synchrotron X-ray microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saif, Tarik; Lin, Qingyang; Singh, Kamaljit; Bijeljic, Branko; Blunt, Martin J.

    2016-07-01

    The structure and connectivity of the pore space during the pyrolysis of oil shales determines hydrocarbon flow behavior and ultimate recovery. We image the time evolution of the pore and microfracture networks during oil shale pyrolysis using synchrotron X-ray microtomography. Immature Green River (Mahogany Zone) shale samples were thermally matured under vacuum conditions at temperatures up to 500°C while being periodically imaged with a 2 µm voxel size. The structural transformation of both organic-rich and organic-lean layers within the shale was quantified. The images reveal a dramatic change in porosity accompanying pyrolysis between 390 and 400°C with the formation of micron-scale heterogeneous pores. With a further increase in temperature, the pores steadily expand resulting in connected microfracture networks that predominantly develop along the kerogen-rich laminations.

  12. Influence of frequency, grade, moisture and temperature on Green River oil shale dielectric properties and electromagnetic heating processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakala, J. Alexandra [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Stanchina, William [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Soong, Yee [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Hedges, Sheila [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Development of in situ electromagnetic (EM) retorting technologies and design of specific EM well logging tools requires an understanding of various process parameters (applied frequency, mineral phases present, water content, organic content and temperature) on oil shale dielectric properties. In this literature review on oil shale dielectric properties, we found that at low temperatures (<200° C) and constant oil shale grade, both the relative dielectric constant (ε') and imaginary permittivity (ε'') decrease with increased frequency and remain constant at higher frequencies. At low temperature and constant frequency, ε' decreases or remains constant with oil shale grade, while ε'' increases or shows no trend with oil shale grade. At higher temperatures (>200º C) and constant frequency, epsilon' generally increases with temperature regardless of grade while ε'' fluctuates. At these temperatures, maximum values for both ε' and ε'' differ based upon oil shale grade. Formation fluids, mineral-bound water, and oil shale varve geometry also affect measured dielectric properties. This review presents and synthesizes prior work on the influence of applied frequency, oil shale grade, water, and temperature on the dielectric properties of oil shales that can aid in the future development of frequency- and temperature-specific in situ retorting technologies and oil shale grade assay tools.

  13. Influence of frequency, grade, moisture and temperature on Green River oil shale dielectric properties and electromagnetic heating processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakala, J. Alexandra; Soong, Yee; Hedges, Sheila [National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Stanchina, William [National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Development of in situ electromagnetic (EM) retorting technologies and design of specific EM well logging tools requires an understanding of various process parameters (applied frequency, mineral phases present, water content, organic content and temperature) on oil shale dielectric properties. In this literature review on oil shale dielectric properties, we found that at low temperatures (< 200 C) and constant oil shale grade, both the relative dielectric constant ({epsilon}') and imaginary permittivity ({epsilon}'') decrease with increased frequency and remain constant at higher frequencies. At low temperature and constant frequency, {epsilon}' decreases or remains constant with oil shale grade, while {epsilon}'' increases or shows no trend with oil shale grade. At higher temperatures (> 200 C) and constant frequency, {epsilon}' generally increases with temperature regardless of grade while {epsilon}'' fluctuates. At these temperatures, maximum values for both {epsilon}' and {epsilon}'' differ based upon oil shale grade. Formation fluids, mineral-bound water, and oil shale varve geometry also affect measured dielectric properties. This review presents and synthesizes prior work on the influence of applied frequency, oil shale grade, water, and temperature on the dielectric properties of oil shales that can aid in the future development of frequency- and temperature-specific in situ retorting technologies and oil shale grade assay tools. (author)

  14. Idealized Shale Sorption Isotherm Measurements to Determine Pore Volume, Pore Size Distribution, and Surface Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, R.; Wang, B.; Aljama, H.; Rupp, E.; Wilcox, J.

    2014-12-01

    One method for mitigating the impacts of anthropogenic CO2-related climate change is the sequestration of CO2 in depleted gas and oil reservoirs, including shale. The accurate characterization of the heterogeneous material properties of shale, including pore volume, surface area, pore size distributions (PSDs) and composition is needed to understand the interaction of CO2 with shale. Idealized powdered shale sorption isotherms were created by varying incremental amounts of four essential components by weight. The first two components, organic carbon and clay, have been shown to be the most important components for CO2 uptake in shales. Organic carbon was represented by kerogen isolated from a Silurian shale, and clay groups were represented by illite from the Green River shale formation. The rest of the idealized shale was composed of equal parts by weight of SiO2 to represent quartz and CaCO3 to represent carbonate components. Baltic, Eagle Ford, and Barnett shale sorption measurements were used to validate the idealized samples. The idealized and validation shale sorption isotherms were measured volumetrically using low pressure N2 (77K) and CO2 (273K) adsorbates on a Quantachrome Autosorb IQ2. Gravimetric isotherms were also produced for a subset of these samples using CO2 and CH4adsorbates under subsurface temperature and pressure conditions using a Rubotherm magnetic suspension balance. Preliminary analyses were inconclusive in validating the idealized samples. This could be a result of conflicting reports of total organic carbon (TOC) content in each sample, a problem stemming from the heterogeneity of the samples and different techniques used for measuring TOC content. The TOC content of the validation samples (Eagle Ford and Barnett) was measured by Rock-Eval pyrolysis at Weatherford Laboratories, while the TOC content in the Baltic validation samples was determined by LECO TOC. Development of a uniform process for measuring TOC in the validation samples is

  15. Using Archean and Paleoproterozoic Shales and Tillites as a Window into Crustal Evolution and Surface Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindeman, I. N.; Bekker, A.; Zakharov, D. O.

    2014-12-01

    Precambrian shales and tillites have been insufficiently studied so far. We present oxygen and hydrogen isotope data for 103 bulk shale and tillites that were collected from drillholes on all continents from 3.2 to 1.4Ga. These samples have also been analyzed for total organic and inorganic carbon, total sulfur, δ13Corg values and by XRF for major and trace elements to calculate chemical index of alteration (CIA). Having uncompromised fresh samples from drillcores is a must for this kind of investigation. We have a particularly good coverage for the ca. 2.7-2.2 Ga time interval when Earth experienced 3-4 Snowball Earth glaciations associated with the rapid rise in atmospheric O2 and fluctuations in CO2, thus affecting weathering cycle and attainment of isotopic fractionation. All units have similar to Phanerozoic ranges in δ13Corg values (-23 to -33‰ PDB) and Corg content (0.1 to 10 wt. %). Compared to Phanerozoic shales, Precambrian shales have comparable ranges in δ18O values (+7 to +20‰), with slightly decreasing means with increasing age, and identical δ17O-δ18O slope (0.528). Shales in some drill holes display wide δ18O ranges over short stratigraphic intervals suggesting significant variability in the provenance. We however observe a significant, several permil downward shift and decrease in the range of δ18O values (7-9‰) in 2.2-2.5 Ga shales from several continents that are associated with the Paleoproterozoic glaciations. Scattered negative correlation of CIA with δ18O, for some of these shales broadly associated with the Paleoproterozoic glaciations suggest contact with glacial meltwater having ultra-low-δ18O values during deposition or diagenesis of these shales. The δD values of shales range from -50 to -75‰, and are comparable to Phanerozoic values, with the exception of the ~2.5-2.2 Ga shales that reach to -100‰. We also compare O isotope values of ultra-low-δ18O, +8 to -27‰ SMOW subglacial hydrothermal rocks recently discovered

  16. New insights on the Karoo shale gas potential from borehole KZF-1 (Western Cape, South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Stuart A.; Götz, Annette E.; Montenari, Michael

    2016-04-01

    A study on world shale reserves conducted by the Energy Information Agency (EIA) in 2013 concluded that there could be as much as 390 Tcf recoverable reserves of shale gas in the southern and south-western parts of the Karoo Basin. This would make it the 8th-largest shale gas resource in the world. However, the true extent and commercial viability is still unknown, due to the lack of exploration drilling and modern 3D seismic. Within the framework of the Karoo Research Initiative (KARIN), two deep boreholes were drilled in the Eastern and Western Cape provinces of South Africa. Here we report on new core material from borehole KZF-1 (Western Cape) which intersected the Permian black shales of the Ecca Group, the Whitehill Formation being the main target formation for future shale gas production. To determine the original source potential for shale gas we investigated the sedimentary environments in which the potential source rocks formed, addressing the research question of how much sedimentary organic matter the shales contained when they originally formed. Palynofacies indicates marginal marine conditions of a stratified basin setting with low marine phytoplankton percentages (acritarchs, prasinophytes), good AOM preservation, high terrestrial input, and a high spores:bisaccates ratio (kerogen type III). Stratigraphically, a deepening-upward trend is observed. Laterally, the basin configuration seems to be much more complex than previously assumed. Furthermore, palynological data confirms the correlation of marine black shales of the Prince Albert and Whitehill formations in the southern and south-western parts of the Karoo Basin with the terrestrial coals of the Vryheid Formation in the north-eastern part of the basin. TOC values (1-6%) classify the Karoo black shales as promising shale gas resources, especially with regard to the high thermal maturity (Ro >3). The recently drilled deep boreholes in the southern and south-western Karoo Basin, the first since the

  17. Geomechanical and anisotropic acoustic properties of Lower Jurassic Posidonia shales from Whitby (UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhubayev, Alimzhan; Houben, Maartje; Smeulders, David; Barnhoorn, Auke

    2014-05-01

    The Posidonia Shale Formation (PSF) is one of the possible resource shales for unconventional gas in Northern Europe and currently is of great interest to hydrocarbon exploration and production. Due to low permeability of shales, economically viable production requires hydraulic fracturing of the reservoir. The design of hydrofractures requires an estimate of stress state within the reservoir and geomechanical properties such as Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. Shales are often highly anisotropic and the models which neglect shale anisotropy may fail to predict the behaviour of hydrofractures. Seismic attenuation anisotropy, on the other hand, can play a key role in quantitative rock characterization. Where the attenuation anisotropy can potentially be linked to anisotropic permeability of shales, its fluid/gas saturation and preferred development of anisotropic fracture orientations. In this research, by utilizing the so-called Thomsen's notations, the elastic anisotropy of our (fractured and unfractured) shales has been investigated using a pulse transmission technique in the ultrasonic frequency range (0.3-1 MHz). Assuming transverse isotropy of the shales, and taking the axis x3 as the axis of rotational symmetry, directional Young's moduli and Poisson's ratios were obtained. The Young's modulus measured parallel to bedding (E1) is found to be larger than the Young's modulus measured orthogonal to bedding (E3). In case of the Poisson's ratios, we found that ν31 is larger than ν12, where νijrelates elastic strain in xj direction to stress applied in xi direction. Finally, attenuation anisotropy in dry and layer-parallel fractured Posidonia shale samples has been studied in the same frequency range. The attenuation of compressional (QP-1) and shear (QS-1) waves increases substantially with a macro (or wavelength) fracture introduction, especially for P and S waves propagating orthogonal to the bedding. In non-fractured and fractured dry shales, QP-1 is

  18. Assessment of Long-Term Research Needs for Shale-Oil Recovery (FERWG-III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, S.S.

    1981-03-01

    The Fossil Energy Research Working Group (FERWG), at the request of E. Frieman (Director, Office of Energy Research) and G. Fumich, Jr. (Assistant Secretary for Fossil Fuels), has reviewed and evaluated the U.S. programs on shale-oil recovery. These studies were performed in order to provide an independent assessment of critical research areas that affect the long-term prospects for shale-oil availability. This report summarizes the findings and research recommendations of FERWG.

  19. Characterization and Thermal/Catalytic Upgrading of Kerogen in a Green River Oil Shale

    OpenAIRE

    Yeboah, Isaac

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive structural characterization of oil shale (kerogen) and subsequent upgrading to fuels are of paramount scientific and industrial importance, calling for a better understanding. In this work, an oil shale from Green River formation was employed and characterized by multiple techniques such as Rock-Eval pyrolysis, TOC, XRD, FTIR and TGA-MS. It is found that the inorganic matter were mainly calcite, dolomite and Fe-doped quartz, while the organic matter consists of soluble bitumen a...

  20. A new phyllopod bed-like assemblage from the Burgess Shale of the Canadian Rockies

    OpenAIRE

    Caron, Jean-Bernard; Gaines, Robert; Aria, Cédric; Mangano, Gabriela; Streng, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Burgess Shale-type fossil assemblages provide the best evidence of the ‘Cambrian explosion’. Here we report the discovery of an extraordinary new soft-bodied fauna from the Burgess Shale. Despite its proximity (ca. 40km) to Walcott’s original locality, the Marble Canyon fossil assemblage is distinct, and offers new insights into the initial diversification of metazoans, their early morphological disparity, and the geographic ranges and longevity of many Cambrian taxa. The arthropod-dominated ...

  1. Application of organic petrography in North American shale petroleum systems: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Cardott, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    Organic petrography via incident light microscopy has broad application to shale petroleum systems, including delineation of thermal maturity windows and determination of organo-facies. Incident light microscopy allows practitioners the ability to identify various types of organic components and demonstrates that solid bitumen is the dominant organic matter occurring in shale plays of peak oil and gas window thermal maturity, whereas oil-prone Type I/II kerogens have converted to hydrocarbons and are not present. High magnification SEM observation of an interconnected organic porosity occurring in the solid bitumen of thermally mature shale reservoirs has enabled major advances in our understanding of hydrocarbon migration and storage in shale, but suffers from inability to confirm the type of organic matter present. Herein we review organic petrography applications in the North American shale plays through discussion of incident light photographic examples. In the first part of the manuscript we provide basic practical information on the measurement of organic reflectance and outline fluorescence microscopy and other petrographic approaches to the determination of thermal maturity. In the second half of the paper we discuss applications of organic petrography and SEM in all of the major shale petroleum systems in North America including tight oil plays such as the Bakken, Eagle Ford and Niobrara, and shale gas and condensate plays including the Barnett, Duvernay, Haynesville-Bossier, Marcellus, Utica, and Woodford, among others. Our review suggests systematic research employing correlative high resolution imaging techniques and in situ geochemical probing is needed to better document hydrocarbon storage, migration and wettability properties of solid bitumen at the pressure and temperature conditions of shale reservoirs.

  2. Shale gas policy in the United Kingdom: An argumentative discourse analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cotton, M; Rattle, I; Van Alstine, J

    2014-01-01

    Shale gas has become an energy policy priority in the United Kingdom in light of profitable extraction activities in the United States. Since 2012 the Coalition Government has created key economic drivers to encourage shale exploration, whilst growing activism in affected site communities has stirred significant media and academic commentary. This study examines the growing national debate as a matter of discourse, adopting an argumentative discourse analytic approach to assess data collected...

  3. The Complex Physical-Chemical Interaction of Fracking Fluids with Gas Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathles, L. M.; Engelder, T.; Bryndzia, T.

    2014-12-01

    The chemical aspects of hydrofracturing might seem straight forward: Inject a fluid with sand and some chemicals, recover the injected water now contaminated with chemicals from the shale, and produce gas. But there are some complications that turn out to be very interesting. First of all, it is possible to recover only about 20% of the injected water. Secondly, the fresh injected water (1-5 kppm) has been turned into a very saline bine (~200 kppm). It's easy to say the water has just been imbibed into the gas-filled dry shale, like water into a dry sponge, except the organic parts of the shale which host nearly all the porosity are hydrophobic. The shale is strongly oil wet; nevertheless it imbibes water. It's easy to say the water just mixed with water in the shale and became salty, but there is almost no water in the shale, and no salt either. How the water becomes salty begs easy explanation. The talk will quantitatively discuss these issues in light of experiments we have carried out, concluding that powerful capillary and osmotic forces draw fracking water into the shale while making the return waters salty. How this is achieved will certainly tell us something about the fracture network and its connections. The practical implication is that hydrofracture fluids will be locked into the same "permeability jail" that sequestered overpressured gas for over 200 million years. If one wants to dispose of fracking waters, one could probably not choose a safer way to do so that to inject them into a gas shale.

  4. The impact of water content and ionic diffusion on the uniaxial compressive strength of shale

    OpenAIRE

    Talal AL-Bazali

    2013-01-01

    Experimental data showed that water content has a profound influence on the uniaxial compressive strength of shale. Testing has shown a great decrease in the uniaxial compressive strength as the water content increases. Regression analysis was used in this work to develop a general equation for predicting uniaxial compressive strength of shale from the available information on its water content and dry uniaxial compressive strength. The impact of ionic diffusion on the compressive strength...

  5. On the possibility of magnetic nano-markers use for hydraulic fracturing in shale gas mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, Jaroslaw; Bogacki, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Recently shale gas production became essential for the global economy, thanks to fast advances in shale fracturing technology. Shale gas extraction can be achieved by drilling techniques coupled with hydraulic fracturing. Further increasing of shale gas production is possible by improving the efficiency of hydraulic fracturing and assessing the spatial distribution of fractures in shale deposits. The latter can be achieved by adding magnetic markers to fracturing fluid or directly to proppant, which keeps the fracture pathways open. After that, the range of hydraulic fracturing can be assessed by measurement of vertical and horizontal component of earth's magnetic field before and after fracturing. The difference in these components caused by the presence of magnetic marker particles may allow to delineate spatial distribution of fractures. Due to the fact, that subterranean geological formations may contain minerals with significant magnetic properties, it is important to provide to the markers excellent magnetic properties which should be also, independent of harsh chemical and geological conditions. On the other hand it is of great significance to produce magnetic markers at an affordable price because of the large quantities of fracturing fluids or proppants used during shale fracturing. Examining the properties of nano-materials, it was found, that they possess clearly superior magnetic properties, as compared to the same structure but having a larger particle size. It should be then possible, to use lower amount of magnetic marker, to obtain the same effect. Although a research on properties of new magnetic nano-materials is very intensive, cheap magnetic nano-materials are not yet produced on a scale appropriate for shale gas mining. In this work we overview, in detail, geological, technological and economic aspects of using magnetic nano-markers in shale gas mining. Acknowledgment This work was supported by the NCBiR under Grant "Electromagnetic method to

  6. Making Knowledge from Numbers : The Shale Network as an Honest Broker for Evaluating and Educating about the Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing in the Marcellus Shale Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, J.; Brantley, S.; Williams, J.; Dykhoff, S.; Brazil, L. I.

    2015-12-01

    The Marcellus Shale Network is an NSF-funded project that investigates the impacts of hydraulic fracturing for shale gas development on water resources in and around the state of Pennsylvania. It is a collaborative effort that aims to be an honest broker in the shale gas conversation by involving multiple entities (including universities, government agencies, industry groups, nonprofits, etc.) to collect, analyze, and disseminate data that describe the past and current conditions of water in the Marcellus shale region. A critical component of this project has been to engage multiple types of stakeholders - academia, government agencies, industry, and citizen science groups - in annual workshops to present and discuss how to ensure the integrity of water resources in light of the challenges that natural gas extraction can present. Each workshop has included a hands-on activity that allows participants to access water quality data using the tools provided by the CUAHSI Water Data Center. One of these tools is HydroDesktop, which is an open source GIS application that can be used in formal and informal education settings as a geoscience research tool. In addition to being a GIS, HydroDesktop accesses CUAHSI's large catalog of water data thus enabling students, professional researchers, and citizen scientists to discover data that can expand the understanding of water quality issues in one's local environment and beyond. This presentation will highlight the goals of the Shale Network project and the stakeholders involved in addition to how cyberinfrastructure is being used to create a democratic, data-driven conversation about the relationship between energy production from shale gas and our water resources.

  7. The carpenter fork bed, a new - and older - Black-shale unit at the base of the New Albany shale in central Kentucky: Characterization and significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, S.F.; Ettensohn, F.R.; Norby, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    Black shales previously interpreted to be Late Devonian cave-fill or slide deposits are shown to be much older Middle Devonian black shales only preserved locally in Middle Devonian grabens and structural lows in central Kentucky. This newly recognized - and older -black-shale unit occurs at the base of the New Albany Shale and is named the Carpenter Fork Bed of the Portwood Member of the New Albany Shale after its only known exposure on Carpenter Fork in Boyle County, central Kentucky; two other occurrences are known from core holes in east-central Kentucky. Based on stratigraphic position and conodont biostratigraphy, the unit is Middle Devonian (Givetian: probably Middle to Upper P. varcus Zone) in age and occurs at a position represented by an unconformity atop the Middle Devonian Boyle Dolostone and its equivalents elsewhere on the outcrop belt. Based on its presence as isolated clasts in the overlying Duffin Bed of the Portwood Member, the former distribution of the unit was probably much more widespread - perhaps occurring throughout western parts of the Rome trough. Carpenter Fork black shales apparently represent an episode of subsidence or sea-level rise coincident with inception of the third tectophase of the Acadian orogeny. Deposition, however, was soon interrupted by reactivation of several fault zones in central Kentucky, perhaps in response to bulge migration accompanying start of the tectophase. As a result, much of central Kentucky was uplifted and tilted, and the Carpenter Fork Bed was largely eroded from the top of the Boyle, except in a few structural lows like the Carpenter Fork graben where a nearly complete record of Middle to early Late Devonian deposition is preserved.

  8. Biodegradation of Kupferschiefer black shale organic matter (Fore-Sudetic Monocline, Poland) by indigenous microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlakowska, Renata; Sklodowska, Aleksandra

    2011-05-01

    This study provides the first evidence for the direct biodegradation of persistent organic matter extracted from the organic-rich polymetallic black shale ore Kupferschiefer, one of the most important sources of metals in the world. It was demonstrated that an enriched community of indigenous heterotrophic microorganisms isolated from black shale grown under aerobic conditions could utilize shale organic matter as the sole carbon and energy source. Colonization of shale organic matter was observed. The main biodegradation intermediates and products such as phosphonic acid dioctadecyl ester and isoindole-1,3 were detected in the aqueous phase of cultures. The bacterial community showed the ability to PAH biodegradation, assimilation of organic acids and esters as well as lipase activity. The intracellular accumulation of phosphorus by bacteria during growth on organic matter was confirmed. Strains within the genus Pseudomonas were found to dominate the bacterial population at the end of the experiment. The results of this study confirm that indigenous bacteria are likely to play a role in the biotransformation of black shale and can influence the geochemical cycles of ancient organic carbon in the deep terrestrial subsurface. This process may also occur in tailings ponds containing black shale, and cause the mobilization of potentially toxic compounds to the soil and groundwater.

  9. Potential water resource impacts of hydraulic fracturing from unconventional oil production in the Bakken shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Namita; Chilkoor, Govinda; Wilder, Joseph; Gadhamshetty, Venkataramana; Stone, James J

    2017-01-01

    Modern drilling techniques, notably horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, have enabled unconventional oil production (UOP) from the previously inaccessible Bakken Shale Formation located throughout Montana, North Dakota (ND) and the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. The majority of UOP from the Bakken shale occurs in ND, strengthening its oil industry and businesses, job market, and its gross domestic product. However, similar to UOP from other low-permeability shales, UOP from the Bakken shale can result in environmental and human health effects. For example, UOP from the ND Bakken shale generates a voluminous amount of saline wastewater including produced and flowback water that are characterized by unusual levels of total dissolved solids (350 g/L) and elevated levels of toxic and radioactive substances. Currently, 95% of the saline wastewater is piped or trucked onsite prior to disposal into Class II injection wells. Oil and gas wastewater (OGW) spills that occur during transport to injection sites can potentially result in drinking water resource contamination. This study presents a critical review of potential water resource impacts due to deterministic (freshwater withdrawals and produced water management) and probabilistic events (spills due to leaking pipelines and truck accidents) related to UOP from the Bakken shale in ND.

  10. Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of shale gas, natural gas, coal, and petroleum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Andrew; Han, Jeongwoo; Clark, Corrie E; Wang, Michael; Dunn, Jennifer B; Palou-Rivera, Ignasi

    2012-01-17

    The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. It has been debated whether the fugitive methane emissions during natural gas production and transmission outweigh the lower carbon dioxide emissions during combustion when compared to coal and petroleum. Using the current state of knowledge of methane emissions from shale gas, conventional natural gas, coal, and petroleum, we estimated up-to-date life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings that need to be further addressed. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than conventional natural gas, 23% lower than gasoline, and 33% lower than coal. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas. Moreover, this life-cycle analysis, among other work in this area, provides insight on critical stages that the natural gas industry and government agencies can work together on to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

  11. Estimating the carbon sequestration capacity of shale formations using methane production rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhiyuan; Clarens, Andres

    2013-10-01

    Hydraulically fractured shale formations are being developed widely for oil and gas production. They could also represent an attractive repository for permanent geologic carbon sequestration. Shales have a low permeability, but they can adsorb an appreciable amount of CO2 on fracture surfaces. Here, a computational method is proposed for estimating the CO2 sequestration capacity of a fractured shale formation and it is applied to the Marcellus shale in the eastern United States. The model is based on historical and projected CH4 production along with published data and models for CH4/CO2 sorption equilibria and kinetics. The results suggest that the Marcellus shale alone could store between 10.4 and 18.4 Gt of CO2 between now and 2030, which represents more than 50% of total U.S. CO2 emissions from stationary sources over the same period. Other shale formations with comparable pressure-temperature conditions, such as Haynesville and Barnett, could provide significant additional storage capacity. The mass transfer kinetic results indicate that injection of CO2 would proceed several times faster than production of CH4. Additional considerations not included in this model could either reinforce (e.g., leveraging of existing extraction and monitoring infrastructure) or undermine (e.g., leakage or seismicity potential) this approach, but the sequestration capacity estimated here supports continued exploration into this pathway for producing carbon neutral energy.

  12. Mixed integer simulation optimization for optimal hydraulic fracturing and production of shale gas fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J. C.; Gong, B.; Wang, H. G.

    2016-08-01

    Optimal development of shale gas fields involves designing a most productive fracturing network for hydraulic stimulation processes and operating wells appropriately throughout the production time. A hydraulic fracturing network design-determining well placement, number of fracturing stages, and fracture lengths-is defined by specifying a set of integer ordered blocks to drill wells and create fractures in a discrete shale gas reservoir model. The well control variables such as bottom hole pressures or production rates for well operations are real valued. Shale gas development problems, therefore, can be mathematically formulated with mixed-integer optimization models. A shale gas reservoir simulator is used to evaluate the production performance for a hydraulic fracturing and well control plan. To find the optimal fracturing design and well operation is challenging because the problem is a mixed integer optimization problem and entails computationally expensive reservoir simulation. A dynamic simplex interpolation-based alternate subspace (DSIAS) search method is applied for mixed integer optimization problems associated with shale gas development projects. The optimization performance is demonstrated with the example case of the development of the Barnett Shale field. The optimization results of DSIAS are compared with those of a pattern search algorithm.

  13. Can Switching from Coal to Shale Gas Bring Net Carbon Reductions to China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yue; Edwards, Ryan; Tong, Fan; Mauzerall, Denise L

    2017-02-21

    To increase energy security and reduce emissions of air pollutants and CO2 from coal use, China is attempting to duplicate the rapid development of shale gas that has taken place in the United States. This work builds a framework to estimate the lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from China's shale gas system and compares them with GHG emissions from coal used in the power, residential, and industrial sectors. We find the mean lifecycle carbon footprint of shale gas is about 30-50% lower than that of coal in all sectors under both 20 year and 100 year global warming potentials (GWP20 and GWP100). However, primarily due to large uncertainties in methane leakage, the upper bound estimate of the lifecycle carbon footprint of shale gas in China could be approximately 15-60% higher than that of coal across sectors under GWP20. To ensure net GHG emission reductions when switching from coal to shale gas, we estimate the breakeven methane leakage rates to be approximately 6.0%, 7.7%, and 4.2% in the power, residential, and industrial sectors, respectively, under GWP20. We find shale gas in China has a good chance of delivering air quality and climate cobenefits, particularly when used in the residential sector, with proper methane leakage control.

  14. Numerical Investigation into the Influence of Bedding Plane on Hydraulic Fracture Network Propagation in Shale Formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushi, Zou; Xinfang, Ma; Shicheng, Zhang; Tong, Zhou; Han, Li

    2016-09-01

    Shale formations are often characterized by low matrix permeability and contain numerous bedding planes (BPs) and natural fractures (NFs). Massive hydraulic fracturing is an important technology for the economic development of shale formations in which a large-scale hydraulic fracture network (HFN) is generated for hydrocarbon flow. In this study, HFN propagation is numerically investigated in a horizontally layered and naturally fractured shale formation by using a newly developed complex fracturing model based on the 3D discrete element method. In this model, a succession of continuous horizontal BP interfaces and vertical NFs is explicitly represented and a shale matrix block is considered impermeable, transversely isotropic, and linearly elastic. A series of simulations is performed to illustrate the influence of anisotropy, associated with the presence of BPs, on the HFN propagation geometry in shale formations. Modeling results reveal that the presence of BP interfaces increases the injection pressure during fracturing. HF deflection into a BP interface tends to occur under high strength and elastic anisotropy as well as in low vertical stress anisotropy conditions, which generate a T-shaped or horizontal fracture. Opened BP interfaces may limit the growth of the fracture upward and downward, resulting in a very low stimulated thickness. However, the opened BP interfaces favor fracture complexity because of the improved connection between HFs and NFs horizontally under moderate vertical stress anisotropy. This study may help predict the HF growth geometry and optimize the fracturing treatment designs in shale formations with complex depositional heterogeneity.

  15. An assessment of using oil shale for power production in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, L.J.; Holcomb, R.S.; Petrich, C.H.; Roop, R.D.

    1990-11-01

    This report addresses the oil shale-for-power-production option in Jordan. Under consideration are 20- and 50-MW demonstration units and a 400-MW, commercial-scale plant with, at the 400-MW scale, a mining operation capable of supplying 7.8 million tonnes per year of shale fuel and also capable of disposal of up to 6.1 million tonnes per year of wetted ash. The plant would be a direct combustion facility, burning crushed oil shale through use of circulating fluidized bed combustion technology. The report emphasizes four areas: (1) the need for power in Jordan, (2) environmental aspects of the proposed oil shale-for-power plant(s), (3) the engineering feasibility of using Jordan's oil shale in circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) boiler, and (4) the economic feasibility of the proposed plant(s). A sensitivity study was conducted to determine the economic feasibility of the proposed plant(s) under different cost assumptions and revenue flows over the plant's lifetime. The sensitivity results are extended to include the major extra-firm benefits of the shale-for-power option: (1) foreign exchange savings from using domestic energy resources, (2) aggregate income effects of using Jordan's indigenous labor force, and (3) a higher level of energy security. 14 figs., 47 tabs.

  16. Oil shale plant siting methodology: A guide to permits and approvals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordin, J.S.; Hill, S.; Barker, F.; Renk, R.; Dean, J.

    1988-09-01

    This report is a guide to the permits and approvals required to develop an oil shale resource. The permitting requirements of the federal government, six states (Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, Indiana, Kentucky, and Ohio), and selected county or local governments are reviewed. The permits and approvals are organized into nine categories: (1) mineral leases and rights-of-way, (2) acquisition of a water supply, (3) environmental impact statement, (4) environmental quality (air quality, water quality, waste disposal, and wildlife values), (5) historical and cultural protection, (6) land use and socioeconomics, (7) prospecting and mining, (8) safety and health, and (9) transportation and communication. This report also contains examples of the permitting process required for the startup of two hypothetical oil shale plants. The first example is for a hypothetical 50,000 barrel-per-day oil shale plant located near Rio Blanco, Colorado. This plant uses conventional open pit mining and surface (Lurgi) processing of the shale. The permitting costs for this plant, including baseline data acquisition and monitoring, exceed $2 million. The second example, a 5,000 barrel-per-day demonstration plant in eastern Montgomery County, Kentucky, is based on open pit mining and surface (Hytort) processing of the shale. Permitting costs for the demonstration plant, including an environmental impact statement, could approach $500,000. Several potential impediments to the development of an oil shale resource are identified and discussed. 33 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  17. Hydrocarbon Development from Shale: A Set of Important, Unsolved Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingraffea, A. R.; Burchell, A.; Howarth, R.; Wilson, A.; Doe, P.; Colborn, T.; Wood, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing has become synonymous with the new technologies and processes used to develop oil and methane from shale formations. We will address the following important set of problems associated with such development and the role scientists are playing in communicating these to the public. Human Health Consequences: The health consequences of the wide-range of fugitive hydrocarbon emissions associated with methane and oil are not adequately addressed. New evidence about exposure to, and the known and possible health effects of, these toxic hitch hikers will be presented. Methane Emissions: Methane is a more powerful greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide, though atmospheric residence is shorter. Methane is emitted through-out the development life-cycle, albeit there is uncertainty over the rate, and short-term effect on global warming. Leakage from Faulty Wells: Multiple industry studies show that about 5 percent of oil and gas wells immediately leak methane and other fluids into the atmosphere and water wells due to integrity issues and increasing rates of leakage over time. With millions of wells drilled worldwide, and millions more expected, this problem is neither negligible nor preventable with current technology. Federal Exemptions and Home Rule: 'Fracking' currently slips through federal environmental statutory law because of an industry-friendly exemption. However, trusts are established in US law and the Public Trust Doctrine provides a basis for courts to enjoin 'fracking' due to the potential impact on beneficiaries of the trust --present and future generations. The public trust designates government as a trustee of crucial resources and imposes a fiduciary obligation on agencies to prevent "substantial impairment" of- and protect access to- clean air, clean water and other natural resources vital for public welfare and survival. Already applied to the realm of ecology, the doctrine is reviewed as a legal and policy toot to protect communities

  18. Understanding gas shales using inorganic, ternary geochemical systematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sudeshna; Jones, Adrian; Verchovsky, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    We have developed a new approach of simultaneous analyses of carbon, nitrogen and noble gases, for isotopic and elemental compositions in bulk shales from different depths (11785 to 11909 feet) of a core from the Haynesville Bossier formation to decouple the different trapped components. This is preceded by major, minor and trace elemental analyses to understand their paleo productivity, tectonic and redox conditions of deposition as well as constraining their alteration and weathering. 5 to 10 mg of samples have been combusted from 200-1200°C in incremental steps of 100°C. Based on δ13C, we identify both marine+lacustrine (δ13C ~ -25 ‰, C/N ~ 5) and minor continental organic matter (δ13C ~ -27 ‰, C/N ~ 60) in the samples, in agreement with observations from elemental compositions. Extremely depleted δ13C of ≤ -34 ‰ in some temperature steps, can be attributed to methanogenesis. Two carbonate populations, primary (δ13C ~ 0 to 2 ‰) and diagenetic (δ13C ~ -13 to -11 ‰) can also be identified. We have been able to identify the multiple C components present in the samples, including very minor ones, without resorting to acid treatment. The bulk N δ15N values vary from -1.2to +6.4 ‰, but show a wide range from -15 to 15 ‰ within individual steps. By suitable modelling, we constrain the primary δ15N to be 5 to 8 ‰, identifiable in very high temperature steps of heating. This is possible if there is penetration of hot fluids that eliminates organic N along a reaction front leaving it fractionated, but leaves behind an unreacted core of residual nitrogen unaffected by isotopic fractionation (Boudou et al., 2008). Our study indicates that using bulk N values as primary signatures to constrain the redox conditions of deposition or thermal maturity of shales as is the practice, should be done with caution. Simultaneously obtained noble gases were used to constrain gas retention in the samples. Deviations of measured 4He/40Ar* (where 40Ar

  19. Water-Free Shale Stimulation: Experimental Studies of Electrofracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, S. J.; Geilikman, M. B.; Gardner, W. P.; Broome, S. T.; Glover, S.; Williamson, K.; Su, J.

    2015-12-01

    Electrofracturing is a water-free stimulation method that might be applicable to hydrocarbon reservoirs. This method of dynamic fragmentation uses high-voltage pulses applied to rock via a pair of electrodes. Fragmentation occurs through two general processes (Cho et al, 2006): 1) electrohydraulic shock and 2) internal breakdown inside bulk solid dielectrics. In the first process, electrical current passing through brackish or salty water found naturally in the formation generates a shock wave of sufficient magnitude to crush/fail the rock as the wave travels through it. In the second process, the electric current flows through the rock preferentially along mineral interfaces; tensile and branching cracks are induced at the boundary interfaces either by heating and differential expansion, or by a shock wave induced by the electrical impulse itself. Both processes have been examined experimentally on rocks and on concrete starting in the late 1980's.In light of the "shale revolution" that has reinvigorated the North American petroleum resource base over the last decade, we developed a laboratory based experimental system to study coupled deformation and gas flow during high-voltage pulse application at elevated confining pressure (to 70 MPa). We deformed twelve samples using 6.5 μs full width at half maximum exponential voltage pulses from 80 to 200 kV. Exponential decay loading was shown to fracture shale at pressure, producing a 5-8 order-of-magnitude increase in permeability (initiating in the nD range) with significant fracturing. Fractures were documented using CT and SEM. The preponderance of fractures are parallel to bedding with fractures often extending from end to end in the samples, which were up to 9 cm in length. The bedding-parallel fractures are adjacent to, or off centered to, the input pulse location. Fractures oblique to bedding planes are present as well, but are fewer in number. The test system, and experimental and observational methods and

  20. Effect of Shale Distribution on Hydrocarbon Sands Integrated with Anisotropic Rock Physics for AVA Modelling: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Aamir; Zubair; Hussain, Matloob; Rehman, Khaista; Toqeer, Muhammad

    2016-08-01

    Shales can be distributed in sand through four different ways; laminated, structural, dispersed and any combination of these aforementioned styles. A careful analysis of well log data is required for the determination of shale distribution in sand affecting its reservoir quality. The objective of this study is to characterize the effect of shale distribution on reservoir quality of sands using well log data. The correlation of well data in terms of lithology has revealed four sand and three shale layers in Lower Goru Formation acting as a major reservoir in the study area. Our results indicate that the laminated type of shale distribution prevails at the Basal sand level, which does not affect its reservoir quality greatly. The remaining layers of variable vertical extent show a variety of shale distribution models affecting their reservoir quality adversely. We also present anisotropic rock physics modelling for AVA analysis at Basal sand level.

  1. Shale Gas Information Platform SHIP: the scientific perspective in all that hype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, A.; Horsfield, B.; Kapp, I.

    2012-04-01

    With the Shale Gas Information Platform SHIP, the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences engages in the public discussion of technical and environmental issues related to shale gas exploration and production. Unconventional fossil fuels, already on stream in the USA, and now under rapid development globally, have brought about a fundamental change in energy resource distribution and energy politics. Among these resources, shale gas is currently most discussed, with the public perspective focusing on putative environmental risk rather than on potential benefits. As far as Europe's own shale gas resources are concerned, scientific and technological innovations will play key roles in defining the dimension of future shale gas production, but it is especially the public's perception and level of acceptance that will make or break shale gas in the near-term. However, opinions on environmental risks diverge strongly: risks are minor and controllable according to industry, while environmental groups often claim the opposite. The Shale Gas Information Platform SHIP brings the perspective of science to the discussion on technical and environmental issues related to shale gas exploration and production. SHIP will not only showcase but discuss what is known and what is not yet know about environmental challenges and potential risks. SHIP features current scientific results and best practice approaches and builds on a network of international experts. The project is interactive and aims to spark discussion among all stakeholders. The Shale Gas Information Platform SHIP covers basic information and news on shale gas, but at the heart of SHIP is the Knowledge Base, a collection of scientific reviews from international experts. The articles give an overview on the current state of knowledge on a certain topic including knowledge gaps, and put this into context of past experiences, current best practices, and opinions expressed by different stakeholders. The articles are open

  2. Statistical evaluation of the impact of shale gas activities on ozone pollution in North Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mahdi; John, Kuruvilla

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade, substantial growth in shale gas exploration and production across the US has changed the country's energy outlook. Beyond its economic benefits, the negative impacts of shale gas development on air and water are less well known. In this study the relationship between shale gas activities and ground-level ozone pollution was statistically evaluated. The Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) area in north-central Texas was selected as the study region. The Barnett Shale, which is one the most productive and fastest growing shale gas fields in the US, is located in the western half of DFW. Hourly meteorological and ozone data were acquired for fourteen years from monitoring stations established and operated by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ). The area was divided into two regions, the shale gas region (SGR) and the non-shale gas (NSGR) region, according to the number of gas wells in close proximity to each monitoring site. The study period was also divided into 2000-2006 and 2007-2013 because the western half of DFW has experienced significant growth in shale gas activities since 2007. An evaluation of the raw ozone data showed that, while the overall trend in the ozone concentration was down over the entire region, the monitoring sites in the NSGR showed an additional reduction of 4% in the annual number of ozone exceedance days than those in the SGR. Directional analysis of ozone showed that the winds blowing from areas with high shale gas activities contributed to higher ozone downwind. KZ-filtering method and linear regression techniques were used to remove the effects of meteorological variations on ozone and to construct long-term and short-term meteorologically adjusted (M.A.) ozone time series. The mean value of all M.A. ozone components was 8% higher in the sites located within the SGR than in the NSGR. These findings may be useful for understanding the overall impact of shale gas activities on the local and regional ozone

  3. Development of measures to improve technologies of energy recovery from gaseous wastes of oil shale processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugov, A. N.; Ots, A.; Siirde, A.; Sidorkin, V. T.; Ryabov, G. A.

    2016-06-01

    Prospects of the use of oil shale are associated with its thermal processing for the production of liquid fuel, shale oil. Gaseous by-products, such as low-calorie generator gas with a calorific value up to 4.3MJ/m3 or semicoke gas with a calorific value up to 56.57 MJ/m3, are generated depending on the oil shale processing method. The main methods of energy recovery from these gases are either their cofiring with oil shale in power boilers or firing only under gaseous conditions in reconstructed or specially designed for this fuel boilers. The possible use of gaseous products of oil shale processing in gas-turbine or gas-piston units is also considered. Experiments on the cofiring of oil shale gas and its gaseous processing products have been carried out on boilers BKZ-75-39FSl in Kohtla-Järve and on the boiler TP-101 of the Estonian power plant. The test results have shown that, in the case of cofiring, the concentration of sulfur oxides in exhaust gases does not exceed the level of existing values in the case of oil shale firing. The low-temperature corrosion rate does not change as compared to the firing of only oil shale, and, therefore, operation conditions of boiler back-end surfaces do not worsen. When implementing measures to reduce the generation of NO x , especially of flue gas recirculation, it has been possible to reduce the emissions of nitrogen oxides in the whole boiler. The operation experience of the reconstructed boilers BKZ-75-39FSl after their transfer to the firing of only gaseous products of oil shale processing is summarized. Concentrations of nitrogen and sulfur oxides in the combustion products of semicoke and generator gases are measured. Technical solutions that made it possible to minimize the damage to air heater pipes associated with the low-temperature sulfur corrosion are proposed and implemented. The technological measures for burners of new boilers that made it possible to burn gaseous products of oil shale processing with low

  4. The Role of Innovative Development in Unconventional Hydrocarbon Exploitation in the Context of the Shale Gas Revolution in the USA

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Due to the recent drop in oil prices, there is a strong interest in the influence of the shale revolution on the global supply and demand of hydrocarbon fuels. Consequently, the attention of many economists and industry analysts is drawn to the technological, institutional and regulatory aspects of hydrocarbon production from shale deposits in the USA. The authors analyze factors facilitating the shale gas revolution in the USA, and find that in addition to the obvious factors, such as high p...

  5. A model-based analysis of the implications of shale gas developments for the European gas market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Joode, J.; Plomp, A.J.; Ozdemir, O. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-04-15

    Shale gas in Europe could potentially be a big thing, especially in particular regions. Whereas test drillings need to confirm the technical recoverability of deposits and further research is needed on the environmental and safety aspects of shale gas production, this paper illustrates that shale gas developments may have substantial implications for regional gas balances, gas flows, and infrastructure requirements throughout Europe in the next decades.

  6. The attenuation anisotropy of mudstones and shales in subsurface formations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Ge; DENG Jixin

    2005-01-01

    We have measured the relationships in the laboratorial condition between the attenuation in three samples of mudstones and shales as well as two samples of layered sandstones and the alteration in direction, confining pressure and pore fluid. The relative contributions of different attenuation mechanisms are also discussed. Studies show that the attenuation in dry and saturated samples is strongly related to pressure and direction. The attenuation coefficient of P-wave propagating parallel to bedding (PH) is less than that of P-wave propagating vertical to bedding (PV), while the attenuation coefficient of S-wave both propagating and vibrating parallel to bedding (SH) and that of S-wave propagating vertical to bedding while vibrating parallel to bedding (SV1) are less than that of S-wave propagating parallel to bedding while vibrating vertical to bedding (SV). Under oil saturated conditions, the Biot flow attenuation acts as the dominant mechanism for waves propagating parallel to bedding, while the frame anelastic attenuation and squirt flow attenuation seem to play important roles in condition of propagation vertical to bedding.

  7. The evolution of medical technology: lessons from the Burgess Shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, S A

    2001-04-01

    Many forthcoming medical advances-growth factors, tissue engineering, gene therapy, attachable prosthetic limbs, and implantable computers--are so new that as yet there is no clinical experience with them. Each therapeutic technique will evolve in an environment containing few guideposts to help judge its efficacy and safety. Recent developments in evolution theory (based on an analysis of Cambrian fossils in Canada's Burgess Shale quarry) suggest that evolution passes, at times, through innovative cycles of progress--when diversification of design leads to perfection of form--with the concomitant production of many unsuccessful models. The evolution of the total knee replacement is a perfect example of the process, because many of the early devices have proven to be dismal failures. However, modern knee replacements would not have been developed without them. Because the risk of unforeseen complications associated with new medical products cannot be discerned in advance, each patient-consumer should have the opportunity to intelligently weigh an innovative product's risk potential against its possible benefit. The proposal made here, for a temporary New Product status for new drugs and devices after a product is cleared by the Food and Drug Administration for general marketing, provides a mechanism for making such decisions.

  8. Post Retort, Pre Hydro-treat Upgrading of Shale Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, John

    2012-09-30

    Various oil feedstocks, including oil from oil shale, bitumen from tar sands, heavy oil, and refin- ery streams were reacted with the alkali metals lithium or sodium in the presence of hydrogen or methane at elevated temperature and pressure in a reactor. The products were liquids with sub- stantially reduced metals, sulfur and nitrogen content. The API gravity typically increased. Sodi- um was found to be more effective than lithium in effectiveness. The solids formed when sodium was utilized contained sodium sulfide which could be regenerated electrochemically back to so- dium and a sulfur product using a "Nasicon", sodium ion conducting membrane. In addition, the process was found to be effective reducing total acid number (TAN) to zero, dramatically reduc- ing the asphaltene content and vacuum residual fraction in the product liquid. The process has promise as a means of eliminating sulfur oxide and carbon monoxide emissions. The process al- so opens the possibility of eliminating the coking process from upgrading schemes and upgrad- ing without using hydrogen.

  9. Anatomy of the middle ordovician sevier shale basin, eastern Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Ganapathy; Walker, Kenneth R.

    1983-04-01

    The Sevier Shale basin in eastern Tennessee comprises one of the thickest clastic sequences (nearly 2500 m) of Middle Ordovician age in North America. The lower one-half of the sequence is composed of Lenoir, Whitesburg, Blockhouse and Sevier Formations, in ascending order. The sequence ranges in age from Whiterockian to lower Wilderness in North American stages. The Middle Ordovician sequence exhibits tidal flat (Mosheim Member of Lenoir Fm.), subtidal (main body of Lenoir Fm.), slope (Whitesburg Fm.), anoxic basin (Blockhouse Fm), turbidite and contourite (Sevier Fm.) facies. The Sevier basin evolved in five stages: First, a widespread marine transgression initiated carbonate-shelf deposition in the study area. Second, a major tectonic downwarping event caused the stable shelf to break and subside rapidly at a rate of 60-65 cm 1000 yrs -1, and areas of shelf facies became areas of slope and basin facies. Third, global transgressions maintained the deep anoxic conditions for nearly 10 Ma. Fourth, turbidites began to fill the basin from a westward-prograding submarine fan system. Fifth, contour currents reworked the turbidites and progressively ventilated the Sevier basin. The basin-filling process terminated with shallow-water/subaerial clastics at the end of Middle Ordovician.

  10. Well test analysis for Devonian-shale wells. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, K.; Chen, C.C.; Yeh, N.S.; Ohaeri, C.; Reynolds, A.C.; Raghavan, R.

    1981-09-30

    This work presents broad interpretive rules for analyzing Devonian Shale Wells based on simulated drawdown and buildup tests. The report consists of four parts: (1) New Pressure Transient Analysis Methods for Naturally Fractured Reservoirs, (2) Pressure Transient Analysis Methods for Bounded Naturally Fractured Reservoirs, (3) Pressure Response at Observation Wells in Fractured Reservoirs, and (4) Unsteady Flow to a Well Produced at a Constant Pressure in a Fractured Reservoir. Each of these sections is an independent unit; that is, knowledge of the other sections, even though desirable, is not necessary to understand the material in a given section. The principal contribution of this work is the identification of a new flow regime during the early transient period. The discovery of this flow regime represents a major advance in our ability to analyze pressure transient tests. The identification of the new flow regime also explains the response of wells in fractured reservoirs that until now have been considered anomalous. Systematic procedures to analyze single well (drawdown and buildup) tests and multiwell (interference) tests are discussed.

  11. Hydrologic properties of shale and related argillaceous rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moiseyev, A.N.

    1979-11-15

    This report is the result of a bibliographic study designed primarily to collect hydrologic data on American clay-rich rocks. The following information was also sought: stratigraphy, environment of deposition, mineralogic composition, and diagenetic changes. The collected numerical data are presented in tables which contain densities, porosities, and/or hydraulic conductivities of approximately 360 samples. Additional data include hydraulic diffusivities, resistivities, flow rates, and rock strengths. Geologic information suggests that large deposits of shale which may be suited for waste repository belong to all ages and were formed in both marine and continental environments. Of the studied units, the most promising are Paleozoic in the eastern half of the country, Mesozoic in the central part, and Cenozoic in the Gulf Coast area and the West. Less widespread units locally present some additional possibilities. Mineralogic investigations suggest that the smectite content in rocks shows a decrease in time (70% in Recent rocks; 35% in pre-Mesozoic rocks). Because of this predominance of smectite in younger rocks, the modeling of repositories in post-Paleozoic formations might require knowledge of additional and poorly known parameters. Results of investigations into the mathematical relationships between porosity and permeability (or hydralic conductivity) suggest that in situ permeabilities could be estimated from sonic logs and fluid pressure changes at depth. 16 figures, 8 tables.

  12. Analysis of the mechanical property of mudstone/shale in paralic coal measures and its influence factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao-ping MENG; Xian-ming XIAN

    2013-01-01

    The mechanical property of mudstone/shale in coal measures is a key factor of engineering mechanics that influences the development of shale gas.A rock mechanics test was performed in order to analyze the complete stress-strain mechanic characteristics and influence factors of mudstone/shale in paralic coal measures,from the Carboniferous-Permian periods in a coal field of Northern China.The relationship between the mechanical properties of mudstone/shale in coal measures,and its chemical component,water content are established,and their models are constructed.Research results show that mudstone/shale has low mechanical strength,low elastic modulus and a high Poisson's ratio.The complete stress-strain curve has apparent elastoplastic deformation characteristics,and after reaching peak strength,it exhibits obvious strain softening characteristics.The uniaxial compressive strength of mudstone/shale and its elastic modulus increases exponentially with the increase of SiO2 content,and as the ignition loss increases,the uniaxial compressive strength and elastic modulus of mudstone/shale will decrease according to the law of power function.The compressive strength of mudstone/shale and its elastic modulus will decrease with the increase of water content in mudstone/shale.

  13. Upfront predictions of hydraulic fracturing and gas production in underexplored shale gas basins: Example of the posidonia shale formation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TerHeege, J.H.; Zijp, M.; DeBruin, G.; Buijze, L.

    2014-01-01

    Upfront predictions of hydraulic fracturing and gas production of potential shale gas targets in Europe are important as often large potential resources are deduced without detailed knowledge on the potential for successful stimulation. Such predictions are challenging as they need to be based on li

  14. Volatile-organic molecular characterization of shale-oil produced water from the Permian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naima A.; Engle, Mark A.; Dungan, Barry; Holguin, F. Omar; Xu, Pei; Carroll, Kenneth C.

    2016-01-01

    Growth in unconventional oil and gas has spurred concerns on environmental impact and interest in beneficial uses of produced water (PW), especially in arid regions such as the Permian Basin, the largest U.S. tight-oil producer. To evaluate environmental impact, treatment, and reuse potential, there is a need to characterize the compositional variability of PW. Although hydraulic fracturing has caused a significant increase in shale-oil production, there are no high-resolution organic composition data for the shale-oil PW from the Permian Basin or other shale-oil plays (Eagle Ford, Bakken, etc.). PW was collected from shale-oil wells in the Midland sub-basin of the Permian Basin. Molecular characterization was conducted using high-resolution solid phase micro extraction gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Approximately 1400 compounds were identified, and 327 compounds had a >70% library match. PW contained alkane, cyclohexane, cyclopentane, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene), alkyl benzenes, propyl-benzene, and naphthalene. PW also contained heteroatomic compounds containing nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. 3D van Krevelen and double bond equivalence versus carbon number analyses were used to evaluate molecular variability. Source composition, as well as solubility, controlled the distribution of volatile compounds found in shale-oil PW. The salinity also increased with depth, ranging from 105 to 162 g/L total dissolved solids. These data fill a gap for shale-oil PW composition, the associated petroleomics plots provide a fingerprinting framework, and the results for the Permian shale-oil PW suggest that partial treatment of suspended solids and organics would support some beneficial uses such as onsite reuse and bio-energy production.

  15. Desalination and reuse of high-salinity shale gas produced water: drivers, technologies, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Devin L; Arias Chavez, Laura H; Ben-Sasson, Moshe; Romero-Vargas Castrillón, Santiago; Yip, Ngai Yin; Elimelech, Menachem

    2013-09-03

    In the rapidly developing shale gas industry, managing produced water is a major challenge for maintaining the profitability of shale gas extraction while protecting public health and the environment. We review the current state of practice for produced water management across the United States and discuss the interrelated regulatory, infrastructure, and economic drivers for produced water reuse. Within this framework, we examine the Marcellus shale play, a region in the eastern United States where produced water is currently reused without desalination. In the Marcellus region, and in other shale plays worldwide with similar constraints, contraction of current reuse opportunities within the shale gas industry and growing restrictions on produced water disposal will provide strong incentives for produced water desalination for reuse outside the industry. The most challenging scenarios for the selection of desalination for reuse over other management strategies will be those involving high-salinity produced water, which must be desalinated with thermal separation processes. We explore desalination technologies for treatment of high-salinity shale gas produced water, and we critically review mechanical vapor compression (MVC), membrane distillation (MD), and forward osmosis (FO) as the technologies best suited for desalination of high-salinity produced water for reuse outside the shale gas industry. The advantages and challenges of applying MVC, MD, and FO technologies to produced water desalination are discussed, and directions for future research and development are identified. We find that desalination for reuse of produced water is technically feasible and can be economically relevant. However, because produced water management is primarily an economic decision, expanding desalination for reuse is dependent on process and material improvements to reduce capital and operating costs.

  16. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales. Annual report, June 1991--May 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, M.J.; Mensinger, M.C.; Rue, D.M.; Lau, F.S. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Schultz, C.W. [Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States); Parekh, B.K. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States); Misra, M. [Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States); Bonner, W.P. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States)

    1992-11-01

    The Devonian oil shales of the Eastern United States are a significant domestic energy resource. The overall objective of the multi-year program, initiated in October 1987 by the US Department of Energy is to perform the research necessary to develop the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting (PFH) process for producing oil from Eastern oil shales. The program also incorporates research on technologies in areas such as raw shale preparation, beneficiation, product separation, and waste disposal that have the potential of improving the economics and/or environmental acceptability of recovering oil from oil shales using the PFH process. The results of the original 3-year program, which was concluded in May 1991, have been summarized in a four-volume final report published by IGT. DOE subsequently approved a 1-year extension to the program to further develop the PFH process specifically for application to beneficiated shale as feedstock. Studies have shown that beneficiated shale is the preferred feedstock for pressurized hydroretorting. The program extension is divided into the following active tasks. Task 3. testing of process improvement concepts; Task 4. beneficiation research; Task 5. operation of PFH on beneficiated shale; Task 6. environmental data and mitigation analyses; Task 7. sample procurement, preparation, and characterization; and Task 8. project management and reporting. In order to accomplish all the program objectives, the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the prime contractor, worked with four other institutions: the University of Alabama/Mineral Resources Institute (MRI), the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), the University of Nevada (UN) at Reno, and Tennessee Technological University (TTU). This report presents the work performed during the program extension from June 1, 1991 through May 31, 1992.

  17. Preliminary analysis of surface mining options for Naval Oil Shale Reserve 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-20

    The study was undertaken to determine the economic viability of surface mining to exploit the reserves. It is based on resource information already developed for NOSR 1 and conceptual designs of mining systems compatible with this resource. Environmental considerations as they relate to surface mining have been addressed qualitatively. The conclusions on economic viability were based primarily on mining costs projected from other industries using surface mining. An analysis of surface mining for the NOSR 1 resource was performed based on its particular overburden thickness, oil shale thickness, oil shale grade, and topography. This evaluation considered reclamation of the surface as part of its design and cost estimate. The capital costs for mining 25 GPT and 30 GPT shale and the operating costs for mining 25 GPT, 30 GPT, and 35 GPT shale are presented. The relationship between operating cost and stripping ratio, and the break-even stripping ratio (BESR) for surface mining to be competitive with room-and-pillar mining, are shown. Identification of potential environmental impacts shows that environmental control procedures for surface mining are more difficult to implement than those for underground mining. The following three areas are of prime concern: maintenance of air quality standards by disruption, movement, and placement of large quantities of overburden; disruption or cutting of aquifers during the mining process which affect area water supplies; and potential mineral leaching from spent shales into the aquifers. Although it is an operational benefit to place spent shale in the open pit, leaching of the spent shales and contamination of the water is detrimental. It is therefore concluded that surface mining on NOSR 1 currently is neither economically desirable nor environmentally safe. Stringent mitigation measures would have to be implemented to overcome some of the potential environmental hazards.

  18. Rates and Mechanisms of Oil Shale Pyrolysis: A Chemical Structure Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, Thomas; Pugmire, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Three pristine Utah Green River oil shale samples were obtained and used for analysis by the combined research groups at the University of Utah and Brigham Young University. Oil shale samples were first demineralized and the separated kerogen and extracted bitumen samples were then studied by a host of techniques including high resolution liquid-state carbon-13 NMR, solid-state magic angle sample spinning 13C NMR, GC/MS, FTIR, and pyrolysis. Bitumen was extracted from the shale using methanol/dichloromethane and analyzed using high resolution 13C NMR liquid state spectroscopy, showing carbon aromaticities of 7 to 11%. The three parent shales and the demineralized kerogens were each analyzed with solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy. Carbon aromaticity of the kerogen was 23-24%, with 10-12 aromatic carbons per cluster. Crushed samples of Green River oil shale and its kerogen extract were pyrolyzed at heating rates from 1 to 10 K/min at pressures of 1 and 40 bar and temperatures up to 1000°C. The transient pyrolysis data were fit with a first-order model and a Distributed Activation Energy Model (DAEM). The demineralized kerogen was pyrolyzed at 10 K/min in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure at temperatures up to 525°C, and the pyrolysis products (light gas, tar, and char) were analyzed using 13C NMR, GC/MS, and FTIR. Details of the kerogen pyrolysis have been modeled by a modified version of the chemical percolation devolatilization (CPD) model that has been widely used to model coal combustion/pyrolysis. This refined CPD model has been successful in predicting the char, tar, and gas yields of the three shale samples during pyrolysis. This set of experiments and associated modeling represents the most sophisticated and complete analysis available for a given set of oil shale samples.

  19. High efficiency shale oil recovery. Fifth quarterly report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D.C.

    1993-04-22

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical conditions (heating, mixing, pyrolysis, oxidation) exist in both systems.The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed this quarter. (1) Twelve pyrolysis runs were made on five different oil shales. All of the runs exhibited a complete absence of any plugging, tendency. Heat transfer for Green River oil shale in the rotary kiln was 84.6 Btu/hr/ft{sup 2}/{degrees}F, and this will provide for ample heat exchange in the Adams kiln. (2) One retorted residue sample was oxidized at 1000{degrees}F. Preliminary indications are that the ash of this run appears to have been completely oxidized. (3) Further minor equipment repairs and improvements were required during the course of the several runs.

  20. Volatile-organic molecular characterization of shale-oil produced water from the Permian Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naima A; Engle, Mark; Dungan, Barry; Holguin, F Omar; Xu, Pei; Carroll, Kenneth C

    2016-04-01

    Growth in unconventional oil and gas has spurred concerns on environmental impact and interest in beneficial uses of produced water (PW), especially in arid regions such as the Permian Basin, the largest U.S. tight-oil producer. To evaluate environmental impact, treatment, and reuse potential, there is a need to characterize the compositional variability of PW. Although hydraulic fracturing has caused a significant increase in shale-oil production, there are no high-resolution organic composition data for the shale-oil PW from the Permian Basin or other shale-oil plays (Eagle Ford, Bakken, etc.). PW was collected from shale-oil wells in the Midland sub-basin of the Permian Basin. Molecular characterization was conducted using high-resolution solid phase micro extraction gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Approximately 1400 compounds were identified, and 327 compounds had a >70% library match. PW contained alkane, cyclohexane, cyclopentane, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene), alkyl benzenes, propyl-benzene, and naphthalene. PW also contained heteroatomic compounds containing nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. 3D van Krevelen and double bond equivalence versus carbon number analyses were used to evaluate molecular variability. Source composition, as well as solubility, controlled the distribution of volatile compounds found in shale-oil PW. The salinity also increased with depth, ranging from 105 to 162 g/L total dissolved solids. These data fill a gap for shale-oil PW composition, the associated petroleomics plots provide a fingerprinting framework, and the results for the Permian shale-oil PW suggest that partial treatment of suspended solids and organics would support some beneficial uses such as onsite reuse and bio-energy production.

  1. Pore Characterization of Shale Rock and Shale Interaction with Fluids at Reservoir Pressure-Temperature Conditions Using Small-Angle Neutron Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, M.; Hjelm, R.; Watkins, E.; Xu, H.; Pawar, R.

    2015-12-01

    Oil/gas produced from unconventional reservoirs has become strategically important for the US domestic energy independence. In unconventional realm, hydrocarbons are generated and stored in nanopores media ranging from a few to hundreds of nanometers. Fundamental knowledge of coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes that control fluid flow and propagation within nano-pore confinement is critical for maximizing unconventional oil/gas production. The size and confinement of the nanometer pores creates many complex rock-fluid interface interactions. It is imperative to promote innovative experimental studies to decipher physical and chemical processes at the nanopore scale that govern hydrocarbon generation and mass transport of hydrocarbon mixtures in tight shale and other low permeability formations at reservoir pressure-temperature conditions. We have carried out laboratory investigations exploring quantitative relationship between pore characteristics of the Wolfcamp shale from Western Texas and the shale interaction with fluids at reservoir P-T conditions using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). We have performed SANS measurements of the shale rock in single fluid (e.g., H2O and D2O) and multifluid (CH4/(30% H2O+70% D2O)) systems at various pressures up to 20000 psi and temperature up to 150 oF. Figure 1 shows our SANS data at different pressures with H2O as the pressure medium. Our data analysis using IRENA software suggests that the principal changes of pore volume in the shale occurred on smaller than 50 nm pores and pressure at 5000 psi (Figure 2). Our results also suggest that with increasing P, more water flows into pores; with decreasing P, water is retained in the pores.

  2. Western oil shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 7: an ecosystem simulation of perturbations applied to shale oil development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-01

    Progress is outlined on activities leading toward evaluation of ecological and agricultural impacts of shale oil development in the Piceance Creek Basin region of northwestern Colorado. After preliminary review of the problem, it was decided to use a model-based calculation approach in the evaluation. The general rationale and objectives of this approach are discussed. Previous studies were examined to characterize climate, soils, vegetation, animals, and ecosystem response units. System function was methodically defined by developing a master list of variables and flows, structuring a generalized system flow diagram, constructing a flow-effects matrix, and conceptualizing interactive spatial units through spatial matrices. The process of developing individual mathematical functions representing the flow of matter and energy through the various system variables in different submodels is discussed. The system model diagram identified 10 subsystems which separately account for flow of soil temperatures, soil water, herbaceous plant biomass, shrubby plant biomass, tree cover, litter biomass, shrub numbers, animal biomass, animal numbers, and land area. Among these coupled subsystems there are 45 unique kinds of state variables and 150 intra-subsystem flows. The model is generalizeable and canonical so that it can be expanded, if required, by disaggregating some of the system state variables and allowing for multiple ecological response units. It integrates information on climate, surface water, ecology, land reclamation, air quality, and solid waste as it is being developed by several other task groups.

  3. The Value of Water in Extraction of Natural Gas from the Marcellus Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimsaite, R.; Abdalla, C.; Collins, A.

    2013-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing of shale has increased the demand for the essential input of water in natural gas production. Increased utilization of water by the shale gas industry, and the development of water transport and storage related infrastructure suggest that the value of water is increasing where hydraulic fracturing is occurring. Few studies on the value of water in industrial uses exist and, to our knowledge, no studies of water's value in extracting natural gas from shale have been published. Our research aims to fill this knowledge gap by exploring several key dimensions of the value of water used in shale gas development. Our primary focus was to document the costs associated with water acquisition for shale gas extraction in West Virginia and Pennsylvania, two states located in the gas-rich Marcellus shale formation with active drilling and extraction underway. This research involved a) gathering data on the sources of and costs associated with water acquisition for shale gas extraction b) comparing unit costs with prices and costs paid by the gas industry users of water; c) determining factors that potentially impact total and per unit costs of water acquisition for the shale gas industry; and d) identifying lessons learned for water managers and policy-makers. The population of interest was all private and public entities selling water to the shale gas industry in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Primary data were collected from phone interviews with water sellers and secondary data were gathered from state regulatory agencies. Contact information was obtained for 40 water sellers in the two states. Considering both states, the average response rate was 49%. Relatively small amounts of water, approximately 11% in West Virginia and 29% in Pennsylvania, were purchased from public water suppliers by the shale gas industry. The price of water reveals information about the value of water. The average price charged to gas companies was 6.00/1000 gallons and 7

  4. Exploring Lithologic Controls on Solute Transport at the Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singha, K.; Kuntz, B. W.; Toran, L.

    2009-12-01

    The Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (SHCZO) team has found that soil chemistry does not correlate with variability in pore fluid chemistry, suggesting the presence of macropores. Because of such heterogeneity, it is often difficult to relate short-term event chemistry to what we know about the chemistry of waters in catchments. Additionally, it is not clear what role the shale bedrock has on flow and transport of solutes within the catchment. We have been conducting tracer tests at the laboratory and field-scale to move toward describing short-term flux and solute transport behavior with the goal of integrating behavior over geologic time clarify the relationship between soil chemistry and pore fluid data. In field sites where such high permeability contrasts exist, what roles do flow and transport play in long-term fate of solutes? What is the importance of the interface between the shale bedrock and the regolith above? Is the shale bedrock “impermeable”? To improve characterization of permeability of the consolidated shale, we drilled four 17-m deep bedrock wells at the SHCZO and have collected a suite of borehole logs. From the drilling and data collected within the new wells, we can make the following conclusions: that there is a “slow drilling” zone around 6-7 m below land surface, above which is highly weathered shale that is reddish in color, beneath which is largely unfractured blue-grey shale. The natural gamma data similar indicate a higher percentage of clays with depth than in the top 6 m, which corresponds with data from Jin et al. (submitted, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta) that shows variability in shale bedrock density down about 6 m. Pump and slug test indicate an effective hydraulic conductivity of the Rose Hill Shale in the drilled boreholes on the order of 10-6 m/s, although hydraulic conductivity of the shale bedrock matrix estimated in a triaxial compression chamber is approximately10-15 m/s. In field-scale and lab-scale tracer

  5. Assessing the utility of FIB-SEM images for shale digital rock physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Shaina; El-Sobky, Hesham; Torres-Verdín, Carlos; Balhoff, Matthew T.

    2016-09-01

    Shales and other unconventional or low permeability (tight) reservoirs house vast quantities of hydrocarbons, often demonstrate considerable water uptake, and are potential repositories for fluid sequestration. The pore-scale topology and fluid transport mechanisms within these nanoporous sedimentary rocks remain to be fully understood. Image-informed pore-scale models are useful tools for studying porous media: a debated question in shale pore-scale petrophysics is whether there is a representative elementary volume (REV) for shale models? Furthermore, if an REV exists, how does it differ among petrophysical properties? We obtain three dimensional (3D) models of the topology of microscale shale volumes from image analysis of focused ion beam-scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM) image stacks and investigate the utility of these models as a potential REV for shale. The scope of data used in this work includes multiple local groups of neighboring FIB-SEM images of different microscale sizes, corresponding core-scale (milli- and centimeters) laboratory data, and, for comparison, series of two-dimensional (2D) cross sections from broad ion beam SEM images (BIB-SEM), which capture a larger microscale field of view than the FIB-SEM images; this array of data is larger than the majority of investigations with FIB-SEM-derived microscale models of shale. Properties such as porosity, organic matter content, and pore connectivity are extracted from each model. Assessments of permeability with single phase, pressure-driven flow simulations are performed in the connected pore space of the models using the lattice-Boltzmann method. Calculated petrophysical properties are compared to those of neighboring FIB-SEM images and to core-scale measurements of the sample associated with the FIB-SEM sites. Results indicate that FIB-SEM images below ∼5000 μm3 volume (the largest volume analyzed) are not a suitable REV for shale permeability and pore-scale networks; i.e. field of view

  6. Mobility of rhenium, platinum group elements and organic carbon during black shale weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Lillie A.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard; Petsch, Steven T.

    2002-05-01

    This study investigates the effects of black shale weathering on the Re-Os isotope system, platinum group element concentrations and the degradation of organic matter. Samples from a weathering profile in Late Devonian (˜365 Myr) Ohio Shale show a pronounced decrease (˜77%) in organic carbon (C org) near the present soil surface, relative to the interior portion of the outcrop. A similar trend is observed for total N (˜67% loss). Conversely, organic phosphorus (P org) concentrations increase by ˜59% near the soil surface. The decrease in C org is accompanied by a pronounced decrease in Re (˜99%) and, to a lesser extent, Os (˜39%). Palladium and Pt do not appear to be significantly mobile. The effects of Re and Os mobility on the Re-Os isotope system are significant: none of the samples plots on a 365 Myr isochron. Rather, the samples define a trend with a slope corresponding to an age of ˜18 Myr with an initial 187Os/ 188Os of ˜6.1. This indicates recent disturbance of the Re-Os system. Isotope mass balance calculations imply that the labile fraction of Os is significantly more radiogenic ( 187Os/ 188Os of ˜7.8) than the average of the unweathered samples ( 187Os/ 188Os of ˜6.4). Based on data from this study, the molar ratio of labile Re to C org in Ohio Shale is estimated at 7×10 -8. We estimate the present-day riverine, black shale-derived Re flux to seawater using literature data on Re burial in anoxic marine sediments, and assuming steady-state between Re release during black shale weathering and Re burial in anoxic marine sediments. Then, the labile Re/C org observed in this study implies that ˜0.5 Tmol of C org is released annually from weathering of black shales, a trace lithology in the continental crust. This flux corresponds to ˜12% of the estimated annual CO 2 flux from oxidative weathering of sedimentary rocks. The labile molar Re/Os of ˜270 indicates that black shale weathering releases ˜130 mol Os per year, which accounts for ˜7% of

  7. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2004-01-01

    CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf/ton) of

  8. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-10-29

    CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf/ton) of

  9. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2004-04-01

    CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 percent (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf

  10. Numerical simulation of ultrasonic wave transmission experiments in rocks of shale gas reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiao; Yao, Guanghua; Zhu, Honglin; Tan, Yanhu; Xu, Fenglin

    2017-01-01

    Shale gas reservoirs have risen in importance in China's new power source exploration and development program. The investigation of the propagation of ultrasonic waves in shale forms the basis for the full waveform application of acoustic logging data to the exploration of shale gas. Using acoustic wave theory, initial conditions, vibration source conditions, and stability conditions are developed in combination with experimental background of ultrasonic wave transmission. With improved boundary conditions, we performed numerical simulations of the ultrasound transmission experiments in shale using the high-order staggered-grid finite difference method (second-order in the time domain and fourth-order in the space domain). With programs developed within MatLab, the results obtained from numerical simulations agree well with experimental results based on physical models. In addition, using snapshots of the wave field that give a microscopic perspective, the propagation laws for ultrasonic waves can be analyzed. Using this method, human error is avoided, transmission experiments costs can be reduced and efficiency improved. This method extends the scope of experimental investigations regarding the transmission of ultrasonic waves in a shale gas reservoir with increasing stratification, and thus has great theoretical value and practical significance.

  11. Modelling of underground geomechanical characteristics for electrophysical conversion of oil shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukharkin, A. A.; Koryashov, I. A.; Martemyanov, S. M.; Ivanov, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    Oil shale energy extraction is an urgent issue for modern science and technique. With the help of electrical discharge phenomena it is possible to create a new efficient technology for underground conversion of oil shale to shale gas and oil. This method is based on Joule heat in the rock volume. During the laboratory experiments the problem has arisen, when the significant part of a shale fragment is being heated, but the further heating is impossible due to specimen cracking. It leads to disruption in current flow and heat exchange. Evidently, in the underground conditions these failure processes will not proceed. Cement, clay and glass fiber/epoxy resin armature have been used for modelling of geomechanical underground conditions. Experiments have shown that the use of a reinforcing jacket makes it possible to convert a full rock fragment. Also, a thermal field extends radially from the centre of a tree-type structure, and it has an elliptic cross section shape. It is explained by the oil shale anisotropy connected with a rock laminar structure. Therefore, heat propagation is faster along the layers than across ones.

  12. Risks to Water Resources from Shale Gas Development and Hydraulic Fracturing in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengosh, Avner; Jackson, Robert B.; Warner, Nathaniel; Darrah, Thomas H.; Kondash, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    The rise of shale gas development through horizontal drilling and high volume hydraulic fracturing has expanded oil and gas exploration in the USA. The rapid rate of shale gas exploration has triggered an intense public debate regarding the potential environmental and human health effects. A review of the updated literature has identified four potential risks for impacts on water resources: (1) stray gas contamination of shallow aquifers near shale gas sites; (2) contamination of surface water and shallow groundwater from spills, leaks, and disposal of inadequately treated wastewater or hydraulic fracturing fluids; (3) accumulation of toxic and radioactive residues in soil or stream sediments near disposal or spill sites; and (4) over-extraction of water resources for drilling and hydraulic fracturing that could induce water shortages and conflicts with other water users, particularly in water-scarce areas. As part of a long-term research on the potential water contamination associated with shale gas development, new geochemical and isotopic techniques have been developed for delineating the origin of gases and contaminants in water resource. In particular, multiple geochemical and isotopic (carbon isotopes in hydrocarbons, noble gas, strontium, boron, radium isotopes) tracers have been utilized to distinguish between naturally occurring dissolved gas and salts in water and contamination directly induced from shale gas drilling and hydraulic fracturing operations.

  13. Could Shale Gas Become a Reliable Energy Source for Europe and Romania?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANA PAPATULICĂ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available While shale gas and oil is a success story in USA and Canada where production has considerably increased in the last five years the situation is quite different in Europe where exploration and production activities are quite low and prospects are not encouraging. Even in the Eastern Europe the first results of exploration are disappointing for the American companies, which have the technical expertise for exploring and extraction shale gas. Due to global warming there is now at the world scale a fierce confrontation between environmentalists and lobbyists of producing companies regarding the negative effects of hydraulic fracturing. Shale gas development in Europe depends more on the coal substitution by gas and on the use of CCS technologies. The collapse of crude oil prices may delay many projects in the field of shale gas and oil, especially in Europe. The prospects of oil gas in Romania are linked to the energy security concept, whose implementation requires diversification of energy supply on some levels. The development of shale gas in order to diversify the energy supply cannot compensate the groundwater pollution and other negative effects, like earthquake. The temporary withdrawal of Chevron from Romania will have some positive effects, allowing to our country a necessary time-out to better substantiate public policies in the field and to producing companies some time required for carrying out new technologies, less polluting and harmful.

  14. Selective catalytic reduction of NO by ammonia over oil shale ash and fly ash catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Changtao Yue; Shuyuan Li [University of Petroleum, Beijing (China). State Key Lab of Heavy Oil Processing

    2003-07-01

    Acid rain and urban air pollution, produced mainly by pollutants such as SOX and NOX and other volatile organic compounds, has become the most serious environmental problem. The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with NH{sub 3} in the presence of oxygen is a wellproven method to limit the NOX emissions. The work in this field has been the subject of much research in recent years. In this paper, NO reduction with NH{sub 3} over oil shale ash or fly ash catalysts was studied. Fe, Cu, V or Ni as active elements was loaded by adding aqueous solutions of the metal nitrate over the oil shale ash or fly ash support. The activities of the catalysts for NO removal were measured in a fixed-bed reactor. According to the results, oil shale ash or fly ash, after pre-treatment, can be reasonably used as the SCR catalyst support to remove NO from flue gas. Cu gave the highest catalytic activity and NO conversion for fly ash while V for oil shale ash. As the support, fly ash is more feasible than oil shale ash. Because of their low cost and high efficiency, the catalysts should be used in the SCR process. Further research on this subject is necessary in the future to understand more details of the SCR system and issue of pollution control. 9 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Numerical simulation of ultrasonic wave transmission experiments in rocks of shale gas reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Shale gas reservoirs have risen in importance in China’s new power source exploration and development program. The investigation of the propagation of ultrasonic waves in shale forms the basis for the full waveform application of acoustic logging data to the exploration of shale gas. Using acoustic wave theory, initial conditions, vibration source conditions, and stability conditions are developed in combination with experimental background of ultrasonic wave transmission. With improved boundary conditions, we performed numerical simulations of the ultrasound transmission experiments in shale using the high-order staggered-grid finite difference method (second-order in the time domain and fourth-order in the space domain. With programs developed within MatLab, the results obtained from numerical simulations agree well with experimental results based on physical models. In addition, using snapshots of the wave field that give a microscopic perspective, the propagation laws for ultrasonic waves can be analyzed. Using this method, human error is avoided, transmission experiments costs can be reduced and efficiency improved. This method extends the scope of experimental investigations regarding the transmission of ultrasonic waves in a shale gas reservoir with increasing stratification, and thus has great theoretical value and practical significance.

  16. Life cycle carbon footprint of shale gas: review of evidence and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Christopher L; Clavin, Christopher

    2012-06-05

    The recent increase in the production of natural gas from shale deposits has significantly changed energy outlooks in both the US and world. Shale gas may have important climate benefits if it displaces more carbon-intensive oil or coal, but recent attention has discussed the potential for upstream methane emissions to counteract this reduced combustion greenhouse gas emissions. We examine six recent studies to produce a Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis of the carbon footprint of both shale and conventional natural gas production. The results show that the most likely upstream carbon footprints of these types of natural gas production are largely similar, with overlapping 95% uncertainty ranges of 11.0-21.0 g CO(2)e/MJ(LHV) for shale gas and 12.4-19.5 g CO(2)e/MJ(LHV) for conventional gas. However, because this upstream footprint represents less than 25% of the total carbon footprint of gas, the efficiency of producing heat, electricity, transportation services, or other function is of equal or greater importance when identifying emission reduction opportunities. Better data are needed to reduce the uncertainty in natural gas's carbon footprint, but understanding system-level climate impacts of shale gas, through shifts in national and global energy markets, may be more important and requires more detailed energy and economic systems assessments.

  17. Experimental study on the physical and chemical properties of the deep hard brittle shale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Xiong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the hard brittle shale formation, rock composition, physical and chemical properties, mechanics property before and after interacting with fluid have direct relation with borehole problems, such as borehole wall collapse, mud loss, hole shrinkage. To achieve hard brittle shale micro-structure, physical–chemical properties and mechanics property, energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction (XRD, cation exchange capacity experiment and hardness test are conducted. The result of laboratory experiments indicates that, clay mineral and quartz is dominated in mineral composition. In clay mineral, illite and illite/semectite mixed layers are abundant and there is no sign of montmorillonite. Value of cation exchange capacity (CEC ranges from 102.5–330 mmol/kg and average value is 199.56 mmol/kg. High value of CEC and content of clay mineral means hard brittle shale has strong ability of hydration. The image of XRD shows well developed micro-cracks and pores, which make rock failure easily, especially when fluid invades rock inside. Shale sample soaked with anti-high temperature KCL drilling fluid on shorter immersing time has stronger strength, whereas shale sample soaked with plugging and film forming KCL drilling fluid on longer immersing time has stronger strength.

  18. Cambrian Burgess Shale-type deposits share a common mode of fossilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Robert R.; Briggs, Derek E. G.; Yuanlong, Zhao

    2008-10-01

    Although Cambrian Burgess Shale-type (BST) biotas arefundamental to understanding the radiation of metazoans, thenature of their extraordinary preservation remains controversial.There remains disagreement about the importance of the roleof early mineral replication of soft tissues versus the conservationof primary organic remains. Most prior work focused on soft-bodiedfossils from the two most important BST biotas, those of theBurgess Shale (Canada) and Maotianshan Shale (Chengjiang, China).Fossils from these two deposits do not provide ideal candidatesfor specimen-level taphonomic study because they have been altered:the Burgess Shale by greenschist facies metamorphism and theMaotianshan Shale by intensive subsurface weathering. Elementalmapping of soft-bodied fossils from 11 other BST deposits worldwidedemonstrates that BST preservation represents a single majortaphonomic pathway that may share a common cause wherever itoccurs. The conservation of organic tissues, and not early authigenicmineralization, is the primary mechanism responsible for thepreservation of BST assemblages. Early authigenic mineral replacementpreserves certain anatomical features of some specimens, butthe preservation of non-biomineralized BST fossils requiressuppression of the processes that normally lead to the degradationof organic remains in marine environments.

  19. Harmonization of initial estimates of shale gas life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for electric power generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Garvin A; O'Donoughue, Patrick; Arent, Douglas J; Bazilian, Morgan

    2014-08-05

    Recent technological advances in the recovery of unconventional natural gas, particularly shale gas, have served to dramatically increase domestic production and reserve estimates for the United States and internationally. This trend has led to lowered prices and increased scrutiny on production practices. Questions have been raised as to how greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the life cycle of shale gas production and use compares with that of conventionally produced natural gas or other fuel sources such as coal. Recent literature has come to different conclusions on this point, largely due to differing assumptions, comparison baselines, and system boundaries. Through a meta-analytical procedure we call harmonization, we develop robust, analytically consistent, and updated comparisons of estimates of life cycle GHG emissions for electricity produced from shale gas, conventionally produced natural gas, and coal. On a per-unit electrical output basis, harmonization reveals that median estimates of GHG emissions from shale gas-generated electricity are similar to those for conventional natural gas, with both approximately half that of the central tendency of coal. Sensitivity analysis on the harmonized estimates indicates that assumptions regarding liquids unloading and estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) of wells have the greatest influence on life cycle GHG emissions, whereby shale gas life cycle GHG emissions could approach the range of best-performing coal-fired generation under certain scenarios. Despite clarification of published estimates through harmonization, these initial assessments should be confirmed through methane emissions measurements at components and in the atmosphere and through better characterization of EUR and practices.

  20. Investigation into co-pyrolysis characteristics of oil shale and coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Zhenyong; Wu Guoguang; Li Ping; Meng Xianliang; Zheng Zhilei

    2012-01-01

    Samples of five types of coal and oil shale from the Daqing region have been subjected to co-pyrolysis in different blending ratios with thermo-gravimetry (TG).given a heating rate of 30 ℃/min to a final temperature of 900 ℃.Investigations on pyrolysis of mixing coal and oil shale in different proportions were carried out,indicating that the main scope of weight loss corresponding to hydrocarbon oil and gas release was between 350 and 550 ℃.At higher temperatures,significant weight loss was attributed to coke decomposition.Characteristic pyrolysis parameters of blends from oil shale and the high ranked XZ coal varied with the blending ratio,but oil shale dominated the process.At the same blending proportions,highly volatile medium and low ranked coal of low moisture and ash content reacted well during pyrolysis and could easily create synergies with oil shale.Medium and high ranked coal with high moisture content played a negative role in co-pyrolysis.

  1. Searching for anomalous methane in shallow groundwater near shale gas wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenhui; You, Cheng; Gonzales, Matthew; Wendt, Anna K.; Wu, Fei; Brantley, Susan L.

    2016-12-01

    Since the 1800s, natural gas has been extracted from wells drilled into conventional reservoirs. Today, gas is also extracted from shale using high-volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF). These wells sometimes leak methane and must be re-sealed with cement. Some researchers argue that methane concentrations, C, increase in groundwater near shale-gas wells and that "fracked" wells leak more than conventional wells. We developed techniques to mine datasets of groundwater chemistry in Pennsylvania townships where contamination had been reported. Values of C measured in shallow private water wells were discovered to increase with proximity to faults and to conventional, but not shale-gas, wells in the entire area. However, in small subareas, C increased with proximity to some shale-gas wells. Data mining was used to map a few hotspots where C significantly correlates with distance to faults and gas wells. Near the hotspots, 3 out of 132 shale-gas wells ( 2%) and 4 out of 15 conventional wells (27%) intersect faults at depths where they are reported to be uncased or uncemented. These results demonstrate that even though these data techniques do not establish causation, they can elucidate the controls on natural methane emission along faults and may have implications for gas well construction.

  2. Depositional Model of the Marcellus Shale in West Virginia Based on Facies Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruner, Kathy

    2011-11-14

    A lithologic analysis of well exposed Marcellus outcrops has identified six different facies in West Virginia and neighboring states: (1) light gray calcareous shale, (2) fossiliferous limestone, (3) black calcareous shale, (4) black noncalcareous shale, (5) dark gray noncalcareous shale, and (6) K-bentonite. Close interbedding of these rock types attests to a complex, ever-changing environment on the eastern foreland ramp of the Appalachian Basin. The environmental setting was clearly not a deep trough, permanently anoxic, salinity stratified, sediment starved, and populated exclusively by phytoplankton—the traditional depositional model. To the contrary, our sedimentary data suggest a rather shallow water depth, intermittent anoxia, normal-marine salinity, a fluctuating input of siliciclastic mud, and faunal communities of low and moderate diversity. Interbedding of the shale and limestone lithofacies as well as the vertical stacking of facies associations is explained most simply by fluctuations in water depth coupled with fluctuations in sediment supply. The sea floor was, at times, immediately below wave base (Facies 1 and 2), around the depth of the thermocline (Facies 2 and 3), or below the thermocline (Facies 4 and 5), relative sea level changing through two sequences of lowstand, transgression, and highstand. Simultaneously the supply of siliciclastic mud was greater at times of lowstand (increased erosion) and highstand (prograding shoreline), and the supply smaller during transgression (sediment stored in distant coastal plain).

  3. Potential reduction in terrestrial salamander ranges associated with Marcellus shale development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Adrianne; Wiewel, Amber N. M.; Grant, Evan H. Campbell

    2014-01-01

    Natural gas production from the Marcellus shale is rapidly increasing in the northeastern United States. Most of the endemic terrestrial salamander species in the region are classified as ‘globally secure’ by the IUCN, primarily because much of their ranges include state- and federally protected lands, which have been presumed to be free from habitat loss. However, the proposed and ongoing development of the Marcellus gas resources may result in significant range restrictions for these and other terrestrial forest salamanders. To begin to address the gaps in our knowledge of the direct impacts of shale gas development, we developed occurrence models for five species of terrestrial plethodontid salamanders found largely within the Marcellus shale play. We predicted future Marcellus shale development under several scenarios. Under scenarios of 10,000, 20,000, and 50,000 new gas wells, we predict 4%, 8%, and 20% forest loss, respectively, within the play. Predictions of habitat loss vary among species, but in general, Plethodon electromorphus and Plethodonwehrlei are predicted to lose the greatest proportion of forested habitat within their ranges if future Marcellus development is based on characteristics of the shale play. If development is based on current well locations,Plethodonrichmondi is predicted to lose the greatest proportion of habitat. Models showed high uncertainty in species’ ranges and emphasize the need for distribution data collected by widespread and repeated, randomized surveys.

  4. Detailed description of oil shale organic and mineralogical heterogeneity via fourier transform infrared mircoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Kathryn E.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Foster, Michael; Gutierrez, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Mineralogical and geochemical information on reservoir and source rocks is necessary to assess and produce from petroleum systems. The standard methods in the petroleum industry for obtaining these properties are bulk measurements on homogenized, generally crushed, and pulverized rock samples and can take from hours to days to perform. New methods using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy have been developed to more rapidly obtain information on mineralogy and geochemistry. However, these methods are also typically performed on bulk, homogenized samples. We present a new approach to rock sample characterization incorporating multivariate analysis and FTIR microscopy to provide non-destructive, spatially resolved mineralogy and geochemistry on whole rock samples. We are able to predict bulk mineralogy and organic carbon content within the same margin of error as standard characterization techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD) and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis. Validation of the method was performed using two oil shale samples from the Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin with differing sedimentary structures. One sample represents laminated Green River oil shales, and the other is representative of oil shale breccia. The FTIR microscopy results on the oil shales agree with XRD and LECO TOC data from the homogenized samples but also give additional detail regarding sample heterogeneity by providing information on the distribution of mineral phases and organic content. While measurements for this study were performed on oil shales, the method could also be applied to other geological samples, such as other mudrocks, complex carbonates, and soils.

  5. Practical measures for reducing the risk of environmental contamination in shale energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Quaranta, John D; McCawley, Michael

    2014-07-01

    Gas recovery from shale formations has been made possible by advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technology. Rapid adoption of these methods has created a surge in natural gas production in the United States and increased public concern about its environmental and human health effects. We surveyed the environmental literature relevant to shale gas development and studied over fifteen well sites and impoundments in West Virginia to evaluate pollution caused by air emissions, light and noise during drilling. Our study also characterized liquid and solid waste streams generated by drilling and hydraulic fracturing and evaluated the integrity of impoundments used to store fluids produced by hydraulic fracturing. While most shale gas wells are completed with little or no environmental contamination, we found that many of the problems associated with shale gas development resulted from inattention to accepted engineering practices such as impoundment construction, improper liner installation and a lack of institutional controls. Recommendations are provided based on the literature and our field studies. They will address not all but a great many of the deficiencies that result in environmental release of contaminants from shale gas development. We also identified areas where new technologies are needed to fully address contaminant releases to air and water.

  6. Paleoecology of the Devonian-Mississippian black-shale sequence in eastern Kentucky with an atlas of some common fossils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barron, L.S.; Ettensohn, F.R.

    1981-04-01

    The Devonian-Mississippian black-shale sequence of eastern North America is a distinctive stratigraphic interval generally characterized by low clastic influx, high organic production in the water column, anaerobic bottom conditions, and the relative absence of fossil evidence for biologic activity. The laminated black shales which constitute most of the black-shale sequence are broken by two major sequences of interbedded greenish-gray, clayey shales which contain bioturbation and pyritized micromorph invertebrates. The black shales contain abundant evidence of life from upper parts of the water column such as fish fossils, conodonts, algae and other phytoplankton; however, there is a lack of evidence of benthic life. The rare brachiopods, crinoids, and molluscs that occur in the black shales were probably epiplanktic. A significant physical distinction between the environment in which the black sediments were deposited and that in which the greenish-gray sediments were deposited was the level of dissolved oxygen. The laminated black shales point to anaerobic conditions and the bioturbated greenish-gray shales suggest dysaerobic to marginally aerobic-dysaerobic conditions. A paleoenvironmental model in which quasi-estuarine circulation compliments and enhances the effect of a stratified water column can account for both depletion of dissolved oxygen in the bottom environments and the absence of oxygen replenishment during black-shale deposition. Periods of abundant clastic influx from fluvial environments to the east probably account for the abundance of clays in the greenish-gray shale as well as the small amounts of oxygen necessary to support the depauparate, opportunistic, benthic faunas found there. These pulses of greenish-gray clastics were short-lived and eventually were replaced by anaerobic conditions and low rates of clastic sedimentation which characterized most of black-shale deposition.

  7. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-04-28

    Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

  8. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-02-10

    Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

  9. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-02-11

    Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

  10. Microfossils and molecular records in oil shales of the Songliao Basin and implications for paleo-depositional environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Several oil shale beds, over 10 m thick, occur at the base of the first member of the Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation (K2qn1) in the Songliao Basin. They act both as excellent source rocks for conventional oil and as potential oil deposit for shale oil production. Here we combine micropaleon-tology with organic geochemistry to investigate the paleo-depositional environment and organic source characteristics of the oil shales and black shales. Our results indicate that algal remains are dominant microfossils in K2qn1 oil shales, and their relatively high abundance suggests a major algal thriving event during the oil shale deposition. The presence of fresh water and brackish water species, Sentusidinium, Vesperopsis and Nyktericysta, and marine or brackish water deltaic and lagoonal species such as Kiokansium and Dinogymniopsis demonstrate that this paleo-continental lake was influenced by marine transgressions at the time of K2qn1 oil shale formation. The extremely low pristine/phytane ratios, relatively high abundance of gammacerane and 4-methyl steranes, and low δ 13C values of C14-C37 n-alkanes in the oil shale organic extracts indicate the deposition of oil shales in anoxic and highly stratified water columns and the significant contribution of lacustrine algae to sedimentary organic matter. High molecular-weight paraffinic hydrocarbons with unusually high abundance of nC43, nC45, and nC47 may be related to special algal species associated with marine transgression events. The giant water body of Songliao paleo-lake and the change in the organic and chemical environment (such as nutrition source and water column salinity) associated with seawater transgression into the lake are among the most important reasons for oil shales in the Songliao Basin being different from mudstone and oil shale in other rifted basins.

  11. Homology of head sclerites in Burgess Shale euarthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Hernández, Javier

    2015-06-15

    The Cambrian fossil record of euarthropods (extant arachnids, myriapods, crustaceans, hexapods) has played a major role in understanding the origins of these successful animals and indicates that early ancestors underwent an evolutionary transition from soft-bodied taxa (lobopodians) to more familiar sclerotized forms with jointed appendages [1-3]. Recent advances in paleoneurology and developmental biology show that this major transformation is reflected by substantial changes in the head region of early euarthropods, as informed by the segmental affinity of the cephalic appendages [1, 4-6]. However, data on the implications of this reorganization for non-appendicular exoskeletal structures are lacking, given the difficulty of inferring the precise segmental affinities of these features. Here, I report neurological remains associated with the stalked eyes and "anterior sclerite" in the (middle Cambrian) Burgess Shale euarthropods Helmetia expansa and Odaraia alata and provide evidence that these features are associated with nerve traces originating from the anterior brain region, the protocerebrum. The position of the protocerebral ganglia in exceptionally preserved Cambrian euarthropods indicates the homology of the anterior sclerite in extinct groups (e.g., fuxianhuiids, bivalved forms, artiopodans [7, 8]) and allows new comparisons with the dorsal cephalic plate of radiodontans, large nektonic predators whose anterior segmental organization bears fundamental similarities to that of Paleozoic lobopodians [1, 6, 9, 10]. These observations allow reconstruction of the segmental architecture of the head region in the earliest sclerotized euarthropods and demonstrate the deep homology between exoskeletal features in an evolutionary continuum of taxa with distinct types of body organization.

  12. Multiscale model reduction for shale gas transport in fractured media

    KAUST Repository

    Akkutlu, I. Y.

    2016-05-18

    In this paper, we develop a multiscale model reduction technique that describes shale gas transport in fractured media. Due to the pore-scale heterogeneities and processes, we use upscaled models to describe the matrix. We follow our previous work (Akkutlu et al. Transp. Porous Media 107(1), 235–260, 2015), where we derived an upscaled model in the form of generalized nonlinear diffusion model to describe the effects of kerogen. To model the interaction between the matrix and the fractures, we use Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Method (Efendiev et al. J. Comput. Phys. 251, 116–135, 2013, 2015). In this approach, the matrix and the fracture interaction is modeled via local multiscale basis functions. In Efendiev et al. (2015), we developed the GMsFEM and applied for linear flows with horizontal or vertical fracture orientations aligned with a Cartesian fine grid. The approach in Efendiev et al. (2015) does not allow handling arbitrary fracture distributions. In this paper, we (1) consider arbitrary fracture distributions on an unstructured grid; (2) develop GMsFEM for nonlinear flows; and (3) develop online basis function strategies to adaptively improve the convergence. The number of multiscale basis functions in each coarse region represents the degrees of freedom needed to achieve a certain error threshold. Our approach is adaptive in a sense that the multiscale basis functions can be added in the regions of interest. Numerical results for two-dimensional problem are presented to demonstrate the efficiency of proposed approach. © 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

  13. International on Workshop Advances in Laboratory Testing & Modelling of Soils and Shales

    CERN Document Server

    Laloui, Lyesse

    2017-01-01

    In this spirit, the ATMSS International Workshop “Advances in Laboratory Testing & Modelling of Soils and Shales” (Villars-sur-Ollon, Switzerland; 18-20 January 2017) has been organized to promote the exchange of ideas, experience and state of the art among major experts active in the field of experimental testing and modelling of soils and shales. The Workshop has been organized under the auspices of the Technical Committees TC-101 “Laboratory Testing”, TC-106 “Unsaturated Soils” and TC-308 “Energy Geotechnics” of the International Society of Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. This volume contains the invited keynote and feature lectures, as well as the papers that have been presented at the Workshop. The topics of the lectures and papers cover a wide range of theoretical and experimental research, including unsaturated behaviour of soils and shales, multiphysical testing of geomaterials, hydro–mechanical behaviour of shales and stiff clays, the geomechanical behaviour of the ...

  14. Dust explosion of oil shale and olive cake solid fuels: a comparison study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamdan, M.A.; Sakhrieh, A. [Jordan Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Amman (Jordan)

    2005-07-01

    This paper investigates the inhibition of oil shale and olive cake dust explosions when they are used as an alternative source of fuel. Special emphasis was given to the effect of particle size of the same material on the maximum permissible oxygen concentration to prevent dust explosion for different concentrations using nitrogen as the diluent gas. It was found that olive cake is ignited more easily than oil shale all over the range of particle sizes and dust concentration. Tests on different particle sizes were carried out, and it was found that the maximum permissible oxygen concentration for a given dust concentration increases with increasing the particle size for both oil shale and olive cake. (Author)

  15. Western oil shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 1. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-01

    The general goal of this study is to present the prospects of shale oil within the context of (1) environmental constraints, (2) available natural and economic resources, and (3) the characteristics of existing and emerging technology. The objectives are: to review shale oil technologies objectively as a means of supplying domestically produced fuels within environmental, social, economic, and legal/institutional constraints; using available data, analyses, and experienced judgment, to examine the major points of uncertainty regarding potential impacts of oil shale development; to resolve issues where data and analyses are compelling or where conclusions can be reached on judgmental grounds; to specify issues which cannot be resolved on the bases of the data, analyses, and experienced judgment currently available; and when appropriate and feasible, to suggest ways for the removal of existing uncertainties that stand in the way of resolving outstanding issues.

  16. Permeability, compressibility and porosity of Jurassic shale from the Norwegian-Danish Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbia, Ernest Ncha; Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Krogsbøll, Anette

    2014-01-01

    . Porosity measurements obtained using helium porosimetry-mercury immersion (HPMI), mercury injection capillary pressure (MICP) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques on the shale samples show that MICP porosity is 6-10% lower than HPMI or NMR porosity. Compressibility, from uniaxial loading......, and elastic wave velocities were measured simultaneously on saturated samples under drained conditions at room temperature. Uniaxial loading tests indicate that shale is significantly stiffer in situ than is normally assumed in geotechnical modelling. Permeability can be predicted from elastic moduli......, and from combined MICP and NMR data. The permeability predicted from Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET)-specific surface-area measurements using Kozeny's formulation for these shales, being rich in silt and kaolinite, falls in the same order of magnitude as permeability measured from constant rate of strain (CRS...

  17. A new phyllopod bed-like assemblage from the Burgess Shale of the Canadian Rockies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Jean-Bernard; Gaines, Robert R; Aria, Cédric; Mángano, M Gabriela; Streng, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Burgess Shale-type fossil assemblages provide the best evidence of the 'Cambrian explosion'. Here we report the discovery of an extraordinary new soft-bodied fauna from the Burgess Shale. Despite its proximity (ca. 40 km) to Walcott's original locality, the Marble Canyon fossil assemblage is distinct, and offers new insights into the initial diversification of metazoans, their early morphological disparity, and the geographic ranges and longevity of many Cambrian taxa. The arthropod-dominated assemblage is remarkable for its high density and diversity of soft-bodied fossils, as well as for its large proportion of new species (22% of total diversity) and for the preservation of hitherto unreported anatomical features, including in the chordate Metaspriggina and the arthropod Mollisonia. The presence of the stem arthropods Misszhouia and Primicaris, previously known only from the early Cambrian of China, suggests that the palaeogeographic ranges and longevity of Burgess Shale taxa may be underestimated.

  18. The Antarctic cryptoendolithic microbial ecosystem as a model for studying microbes in shale and coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vestal, J.R. (University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (USA). Dept. of Biological Sciences)

    1991-04-01

    In Antarctica, there exists a complete microbial ecosystem that lives hidden within the pore spaces of sandstone (cryptoendolithic). Studying microbes within this solid matrix has presented certain technical problems which have been overcome. This has allowed studies to be conducted that have shown the effects of the physical and chemical environment on growth and metabolism of the microbes in these rocks. Similar microbial communities have recently been discovered that can exist within the solid matrix of shale and coal. Even though the community and environment are different from the Antarctic microbes, many of the methods and hypotheses regarding their existence are the same. Answers to questions relating how and why these microbes exist in shale and coal may have important implications for coal desulfurization, or degradation of the shale matrix to release hydrocarbons. 40 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. Research on the Eco-Geochemical Effects of Black Shales in Pingli County, Shaanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方维萱; 兀鹏武; 黄转莹

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the results of eco-geochemical research on black rock series en riched in metallic elements in Pingli County, Shaanxi Province, which lies at the northern mar gin of the Yangtze Platform. There is a suite of bone coal-bearing black carbonaceous rocks in the Cambrian Donghe Formation throughout the region. Soils in Pingli contain high metallic el ements derived from the bone coal and carbonaceous rocks. Edible plants growing in the soils contain high Se, Cu and Mo. Two case studies are documented. One is a black shale area with bone coal and Se enrichment, and the other is a black shale area with bone coal mine and cop per mineralization. Eco-geochemical effects of metallic element-rich black shales on plants are reported in this paper.

  20. Lithology and minerageny of black shale of the Taimyr-Severnaya Zemlya region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozoleva, Irina

    2014-05-01

    In the Taimyr Peninsula and Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago, black shale deposits are widespread - subaqueous fine-grained, often thin-bedded, dark-coloured rocks of clayey, carbonate, silica or mixed composition, significantly enriched (1-18%) with organic matter (OM). Two large age intervals of accumulation are distinguished: Riphean and Early-Middle Paleozoic (with maxima in the Ordovician and Silurian). Black shale Riphean complexes are spread in the northern part of the Taimyr Peninsula, where they build up a strip 100-150 km wide along the coast from the Gulf of Minin to the Gulf of Thaddeus and on Bolshevik Isl. Two types of black shale deposits are distinguished (Zabiyaka, 1972; Kabankov, 1980). The first type - predominantly siliciclastic deposits. Represented by cyclical alternation of flyschoid and turbidite types of terrigenous deposits with carbonaceous shale members. Deposits are unevenly enriched in OM in the form of filamentous, lenticular, lumpy accumulations and are often accompanied by pyrite. OM content to 2.5%, rarely to 6%. The second type - carbonate-terrigenous-clayey deposits. Represented by intensely displaced metamorphosed sandstone, siltstone, and mudstone interbedded with marble and limestone. Carbonaceous deposits are intensively. OM content 0.66-2.3%. OM is distributed unevenly, often localized along fractures. Black shale complexes of Middle-Lower Paleozoic age include deposits from the Lower Cambrian to Lower Carboniferous (Sobolevskaya et al., 1979; Lazarenko, 1980). On October Revolution Isl., the Lower Cambrian-Lower Ordovician deposits are spread. In Taimyr, black shale complexes build up a relatively narrow, about 75-100 km, strip stretching in sublatitudinal direction, limited by regional faults (Main Taimyr in the north, Pyasina-Faddey in the south). Deposits are represented by a wide range of lithological genetic rock types. Carbonate-argillaceous rocks with terrigenous material admixture and siliceous-terrigenous with a small

  1. Combustion of spent shales from the Rotem deposit. Pt. 2. Behavior in oxygen-containing atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabicky, J. (Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel). Inst. for Applied Research Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel). M.R. Bloch Center for Coal Research); Wohlfarth, A. (Energy Resources Development Ltd., Mishor Rotem, Arava (Israel))

    1991-09-01

    Spent shales prepared by the Fisher method from oils shales of the Rotem deposit were studied in a continuous fluidized bed reactor at 700-900deg C under atmospheric pressure, using mixtures of nitrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide as the fluidizing gas. Combustion of the organic residue takes place together with other processes, the most important of which are decomposition of calcium carbonate and gasification of the organic residue by carbon dioxide produced by combustion and carbonate decomposition. The extent to which each of these reactions takes place determines wether the particles undergo predominantly pyrolytic or oxidative processes. This depends on temperature, composition of the fluidizing gas, particle size of the spent shales, and mean residence time of the particles in the reactor. (orig.).

  2. Development of a closed water supply system for the production of shale kerogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopachenok, L.V.; Ivanova, Ye.N.; Proskuryakov, V.A.

    1979-01-01

    Results of development of closed water supply system for production of shale kerogen are presented. The studies were carried out under laboratory conditions. The possibility of excluding industrial runoff into open water collectors and limiting the collection of fresh water to the production of kerogen-70 by using clarified runoff for ash hydraulic removal system of shale central heating plants during grinding and flotation of shale is indicated. A system for producing kerogen-70 which is rational for this situation was developed. A technical and economic analysis of the measures related to preliminary treatment of thermal electric power plant runoff prior to their use in the production of kerogen was conducted on the basis of experimentally derived results.

  3. Method for forming an in situ oil shale retort with horizontal free faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Thomas E.; Fernandes, Robert J.

    1983-01-01

    A method for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles in an in situ oil shale retort is provided. A horizontally extending void is excavated in unfragmented formation containing oil shale and a zone of unfragmented formation is left adjacent the void. An array of explosive charges is formed in the zone of unfragmented formation. The array of explosive charges comprises rows of central explosive charges surrounded by a band of outer explosive charges which are adjacent side boundaries of the retort being formed. The powder factor of each outer explosive charge is made about equal to the powder factor of each central explosive charge. The explosive charges are detonated for explosively expanding the zone of unfragmented formation toward the void for forming the fragmented permeable mass of formation particles having a reasonably uniformly distributed void fraction in the in situ oil shale retort.

  4. Numerical simulation of the electrical properties of shale gas reservoir rock based on digital core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xin; Zou, Changchun; Li, Zhenhua; Meng, Xiaohong; Qi, Xinghua

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we study the electrical properties of shale gas reservoir rock by applying the finite element method to digital cores which are built based on an advanced Markov Chain Monte Carlo method and a combination workflow. Study shows that the shale gas reservoir rock has strong anisotropic electrical conductivity because the conductivity is significantly different in both horizontal and vertical directions. The Archie formula is not suitable for application in shale reservoirs. The formation resistivity decreases in two cases; namely (a) with the increase of clay mineral content and the cation exchange capacity of clay, and (b) with the increase of pyrite content. The formation resistivity is not sensitive to the solid organic matter but to the clay and gas in the pores.

  5. An Integrated Water Treatment Technology Solution for Sustainable Water Resource Management in the Marcellus Shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew Bruff; Ned Godshall; Karen Evans

    2011-04-30

    This Final Scientific/ Technical Report submitted with respect to Project DE-FE0000833 titled 'An Integrated Water Treatment Technology Solution for Sustainable Water Resource Management in the Marcellus Shale' in support of final reporting requirements. This final report contains a compilation of previous reports with the most current data in order to produce one final complete document. The goal of this research was to provide an integrated approach aimed at addressing the increasing water resource challenges between natural gas production and other water stakeholders in shale gas basins. The objective was to demonstrate that the AltelaRain{reg_sign} technology could be successfully deployed in the Marcellus Shale Basin to treat frac flow-back water. That objective has been successfully met.

  6. Plankton from Early Cambrian black shale series on the Yangtze Platform, and its influences on lithologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas BRAUN; CHEN Junyuan

    2003-01-01

    Black shales, cherts, and associated lithologies in the Early Cambrian of the Yangtze Platform yielded abundant phytoplankton, the earliest well preserved skeletons of zooplankton (radiolarians) and abundant phosphatic ovoid bodies, probably representing fecal pellets, produced by Mesozooplankton grazing on phytoplankton. The oceanic food chain in surface waters is therefore considered to be more complete than known up to now with respect to primary and secondary consumers in the Early Cambrian plankton ecosystem. On the basis of primary sedimentary compositions preserved in phosphorite concretions and chert layers it is shown that biosiliceous sedimentation mixed with organic substance played a significant role within the black shale sequence of the Hetang and Niutitang formations. The resulting lithology corresponds closely in character to the bituminous Alum-shale and Lydite-sequences of Lower Silurian (Llandoverian) age along northern Gondwana (e.g. Thuringia, Bohemia).

  7. Closed Process of Shale Oil Recovery from Circulating Washing Water by Hydrocyclones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Huang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The conventional oil recovery system in the Fushun oil shale retorting plant has a low oil recovery rate. A large quantity of fresh water is used in the system, thereby consuming a considerable amount of water and energy, as well as polluting the environment. This study aims to develop a closed process of shale oil recovery from the circulating washing water for the Fushun oil shale retorting plant. The process would increase oil yield and result in clean production. In this process, oil/water hydrocyclone groups were applied to decrease the oil content in circulating water and to simultaneously increase oil yield. The oil sludge was removed by the solid/liquid hydrocyclone groups effectively, thereby proving the smooth operation of the devices and pipes. As a result, the oil recovery rate has increased by 5.3 %, which corresponds to 230 tonnes a month.

  8. Field examination of shale and argillite in northern Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, J. R.; Woodward, L. A.; Emanuel, K. M.; Keil, K.

    1981-12-01

    Thirty-two locales underlain by clay-rich strata ranging from Cambrian Pioche Shale to Mississippian Chainman Shale and equivalents were examined in northern Nye County, Nevada. The text of the report summarizes data for each stratigraphic unit examined. Checklists for tabulating field data at each locale are included in an appendix. Working guidelines used to evaluate the locales include a minimum thickness of 150 m (500 ft) of relatively pure clay-rich bedrock, subsurface depth between 150 m (500 ft) and 900 m (3000 ft), low topographic relief, low seismic and tectonic activity, and avoidance of areas with mineral resource production or potential. Field studies indicate that only the Chainman Shale, specifically in the central and northern parts of the Pancake Range, appears to contain sites that meet these guidelines.

  9. On a boundary layer problem related to the gas flow in shales

    KAUST Repository

    Barenblatt, G. I.

    2013-01-16

    The development of gas deposits in shales has become a significant energy resource. Despite the already active exploitation of such deposits, a mathematical model for gas flow in shales does not exist. Such a model is crucial for optimizing the technology of gas recovery. In the present article, a boundary layer problem is formulated and investigated with respect to gas recovery from porous low-permeability inclusions in shales, which are the basic source of gas. Milton Van Dyke was a great master in the field of boundary layer problems. Dedicating this work to his memory, we want to express our belief that Van Dyke\\'s profound ideas and fundamental book Perturbation Methods in Fluid Mechanics (Parabolic Press, 1975) will live on-also in fields very far from the subjects for which they were originally invented. © 2013 US Government.

  10. Review of Underground Construction Methods and Opening Stability for Repositories in Clay/Shale Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This report reviews the art and practice of excavating and constructing underground facilities in clay/shale media, as part of a multi-year evaluation of the technical feasibility of direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in dual-purpose canisters (DPCs). The purpose is to review worldwide examples of large-scale excavations in clay/shale media, the methods used for excavation and constructi on, and the costs. It is anticipated that this information will help to show the feasibility of construction for a deep geologic respository for (on the order of) 10,000 large, heavy, heat-generating waste packages. This report will refine the clay/shale disposal concept for DPC -based waste packages, in support of future studies that include cost estimation.

  11. 页岩油分类与评价%Classification and evaluation of shale oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金川; 林腊梅; 李玉喜; 唐玄; 朱亮亮; 邢雅文; 姜生玲; 荆铁亚; 杨升宇

    2012-01-01

    Shale oil is liquid hydrocarbon formed in the effective source rocks with free phase(condense oil),adsorbed and dissolved phase(dissolved in gas,kerogen and residual water).According to hydrocarbon phase,genesis and exploration procedures of hydrocarbon within the shale,the shale oil and gas are classified into two groups and eight classes.Based on the shale oil characteristics in China,the shale oil forming conditions and distribution law were concluded.Large scale distribution of effective shales,development of organic rich shales in deep water-half deep water with thermal maturity,and good matrix physical properties are the necessary conditions for the formation of shale oil.Furthermore,we created the shale oil development mode in the continental faulted lake basin,and pointed out that the probability volumetric calculation method can be used to assess shale oil resource,and also put forward the parameter system and criteria for shale oil prospective area,favorable area and target area.The success in shale oil development has significant impact on the energy consumption structure in China.%页岩油是以游离(含凝析态)、吸附及溶解(可溶解于天然气、干酪根和残余水等)态等多种方式赋存于有效生烃泥页岩地层层系中且具有勘探开发意义的非气态烃类。根据泥页岩地层中所含烃类相态、成因机理及勘探开发等特点,将页岩类油气划分为页岩气和页岩油等两类八种。结合页岩油特点,指出了我国页岩油形成条件和分布规律,即规模分布的有效生烃泥页岩、形成于深水-半深水相的富有机质泥页岩、较高的有机质丰度和适当的热演化程度以及较好的基质物性条件等是页岩油形成的主要条件。建立了中国陆相断陷湖盆页岩油发育模式,指出概率体积法可以作为页岩油资源评价的主要方法,提出了页岩油远景区、有利区及目标区优选的参数体系和标准。作为非常规

  12. Fracking in Tight Shales: What Is It, What Does It Accomplish, and What Are Its Consequences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, J. Quinn; Turcotte, Donald L.; Moores, Eldridge M.; Brodsky, Emily E.; Rundle, John B.

    2016-06-01

    Fracking is a popular term referring to hydraulic fracturing when it is used to extract hydrocarbons. We distinguish between low-volume traditional fracking and the high-volume modern fracking used to recover large volumes of hydrocarbons from shales. Shales are fine-grained rocks with low granular permeabilities. During the formation of oil and gas, large fluid pressures are generated. These pressures result in natural fracking, and the resulting fracture permeability allows oil and gas to escape, reducing the fluid pressures. These fractures may subsequently be sealed by mineral deposition, resulting in tight shale formations. The objective of modern fracking is to reopen these fractures and/or create new fractures on a wide range of scales. Modern fracking has had a major impact on the availability of oil and gas globally; however, there are serious environmental objections to modern fracking, which should be weighed carefully against its benefits.

  13. Interactive Matching between the Temperature Profile and Secondary Reactions of Oil Shale Pyrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yu; Han, Zhennan; Wu, Hao;

    2016-01-01

    degrees C and a shale char bed operating at different temperatures. At low temperatures (550 degrees C), severe cracking occurred, converting both heavy and light oil to carbon and gas. The desirably matched reactor temperature profile for high oil yield is discussed via analysis of the tendency......This article investigates the effect of the reactor temperature profile on the distribution and characteristics of the products from fixed-bed pyrolysis of oil shale. Experiments were performed in a one-stage fixed-bed reactor and in a two-stage fixed-bed reactor. In the one-stage reactor......, the shale oil yield reached 7.40 wt % with a reactor temperature profile from 900 to 550 degrees C and decreased to 2.23 wt % with the reverse temperature profile. The effect of the temperature profile was investigated further in the two-stage fixed-bed reactor combining a pyrolysis stage operating at 550...

  14. Dissolution of cemented fractures in gas bearing shales in the context of CO2 sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Kamil; Szymczak, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    Carbon dioxide has a stronger binding than methane to the organic matter contained in the matrix of shale rocks [1]. Thus, the injection of CO2 into shale formation may enhance the production rate and total amount of produced methane, and simultaneously permanently store pumped CO2. Carbon dioxide can be injected during the initial fracking stage as CO2 based hydraulic fracturing, and/or later, as a part of enhanced gas recovery (EGR) [2]. Economic and environmental benefits makes CO2 sequestration in shales potentially very for industrial-scale operation [3]. However, the effective process requires large area of fracture-matrix interface, where CO2 and CH4 can be exchanged. Usually natural fractures, existing in shale formation, are preferentially reactivated during hydraulic fracturing, thus they considerably contribute to the flow paths in the resulting fracture system [4]. Unfortunately, very often these natural fractures are sealed by calcite [5]. Consequently the layer of calcite coating surfaces impedes exchange of gases, both CO2 and CH4, between shale matrix and fracture. In this communication we address the question whether carbonic acid, formed when CO2 is mixed with brine, is able to effectively dissolve a calcite layer present in the natural fractures. We investigate numerically fluid flow and dissolution of calcite coating in natural shale fractures, with CO2-brine mixture as a reactive fluid. Moreover, we discuss the differences between slow dissolution (driven by carbonic acid) and fast dissolution (driven by stronger hydrochloric acid) of calcite layer. We compare an impact of the flow rate and geometry of the fracture on the parameters of practical importance: available surface area, morphology of dissolution front, time scale of the dissolution, and the penetration length. We investigate whether the dissolution is sufficiently non-uniform to retain the fracture permeability, even in the absence of the proppant. The sizes of analysed fractures

  15. Mineralogy and geochemistry of Mississippian and Lower Pennsylvanian black shales at the northern margin of the Variscan mountain belt (Germany and Belgium)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rippen, D.; Uffmann, A.K.; Littke, R. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Energy and Mineral Resources Group (EMR)

    2013-08-01

    Ongoing exploration on unconventional gas resources in Central Europe led to a focus of interest on Paleozoic black shale formations. The work presented here comprises diverse assessment-critical data of potentially economic black shale formations of the Carboniferous, including mineralogy, geochemical data, petrophysical data and geological parameters such as burial and thermal history. The sampled and investigated Paleozoic black shales are highly mature to overmature in terms of oil generation, although some gas generation potential remains. Especially the shales of the uppermost Mississippian (Upper Alum Shale/Chokier Formation) have high contents of organic carbon, are tens of meters thick and reached the gas window. Adjacent carbonates are often stained black and rich in solid bitumen, indicating a former oil impregnation of these reservoirs. Furthermore, the geochemical and petrophysical properties of the Upper Alum Shale and Chokier Formation black shales are similar to those of already producing shale gas plays like the Barnett shale in the USA. These shale sequences are enriched in silica, needed for enhanced fraccability performance at production stage. Although all hydrocarbon potential for the Mississippian shales is exhausted, a high retention potential of thermally generated gas is favored by thick overlying sequences of greywackes and shales in most of the investigated areas. Based on these observations, the Upper Alum Shale and the Chokier formation can be regarded as potential gas shale targets. Any exploration will have to take place north of the outcrop areas, because present-day Mississippian strata are completely eroded south of the studied outcrops. Most other Mississippian and Pennsylvanian black shales are relatively thin and are therefore not considered as primary targets for shale gas plays. (orig.)

  16. Shale Gas Extraction in Europe and Germany - The Impacts of Environmental Protection and Energy Security on Emerging Regulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleming, Ruven

    2016-01-01

    Shale gas extraction is a technology that is recently arriving in Europe and Germany. The technology brings about a considerable amount of potential environmental threats, but the extraction of shale gas also promises energy security rewards. When the European and German systems for energy and envir

  17. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, T.L.; Turner, J.P.; Hasfurther, V.R.; Skinner, Q.D.

    1992-06-01

    The scope of this program is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 [times] 3.0 [times] 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by RBOSC to carry out this study. Research objectives were designed to evaluate hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical properties and conditions which would affect the design and performance of large-scale embankments. The objectives of this research are: assess the unsaturated movement and redistribution of water and the development of potential saturated zones and drainage in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the unsaturated movement of solubles and major chemical constituents in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the physical and constitutive properties of the processed oil shale and determine potential changes in these properties caused by disposal and weathering by natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the use of previously developed computer model(s) to describe the infiltration, unsaturated movement, redistribution, and drainage of water in disposed processed oil shale; evaluate the stability of field scale processed oil shale solid waste embankments using computer models.

  18. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, T.L.; Turner, J.P.; Hasfurther, V.R.; Skinner, Q.D.

    1992-06-01

    The scope of this program is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 {times} 3.0 {times} 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by RBOSC to carry out this study. Research objectives were designed to evaluate hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical properties and conditions which would affect the design and performance of large-scale embankments. The objectives of this research are: assess the unsaturated movement and redistribution of water and the development of potential saturated zones and drainage in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the unsaturated movement of solubles and major chemical constituents in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the physical and constitutive properties of the processed oil shale and determine potential changes in these properties caused by disposal and weathering by natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the use of previously developed computer model(s) to describe the infiltration, unsaturated movement, redistribution, and drainage of water in disposed processed oil shale; evaluate the stability of field scale processed oil shale solid waste embankments using computer models.

  19. Preparation and characterization of latex particles as potential physical shale stabilizer in water-based drilling fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junyi; Qiu, Zhengsong; Huang, Wei'an; Song, Dingding; Bao, Dan

    2014-01-01

    The poly(styrene-methyl methacrylate) latex particles as potential physical shale stabilizer were successfully synthesized with potassium persulfate as an initiator in isopropanol-water medium. The synthesized latex particles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), particle size distribution measurement (PSD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). FT-IR and TGA analysis confirmed that the latex particles were prepared by polymerization of styrene and methyl methacrylate and maintained good thermal stability. TEM and PSD analysis indicated that the spherical latex particles possessed unimodal distribution from 80 nm to 345 nm with the D90 value of 276 nm. The factors influencing particle size distribution (PSD) of latex particles were also discussed in detail. The interaction between latex particles and natural shale cores was investigated quantitatively via pore pressure transmission tests. The results indicated that the latex particles as potential physical shale stabilizer could be deformable to bridge and seal the nanopores and microfractures of shale to reduce the shale permeability and prevent pore pressure transmission. What is more, the latex particles as potential physical shale stabilizer work synergistically with chemical shale stabilizer to impart superior shale stability.

  20. Preparation and Characterization of Latex Particles as Potential Physical Shale Stabilizer in Water-Based Drilling Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyi Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The poly(styrene-methyl methacrylate latex particles as potential physical shale stabilizer were successfully synthesized with potassium persulfate as an initiator in isopropanol-water medium. The synthesized latex particles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, particle size distribution measurement (PSD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA. FT-IR and TGA analysis confirmed that the latex particles were prepared by polymerization of styrene and methyl methacrylate and maintained good thermal stability. TEM and PSD analysis indicated that the spherical latex particles possessed unimodal distribution from 80 nm to 345 nm with the D90 value of 276 nm. The factors influencing particle size distribution (PSD of latex particles were also discussed in detail. The interaction between latex particles and natural shale cores was investigated quantitatively via pore pressure transmission tests. The results indicated that the latex particles as potential physical shale stabilizer could be deformable to bridge and seal the nanopores and microfractures of shale to reduce the shale permeability and prevent pore pressure transmission. What is more, the latex particles as potential physical shale stabilizer work synergistically with chemical shale stabilizer to impart superior shale stability.

  1. Systematic Investigation of REE Mobility and Fractionation During Continental Shale Weathering Along a Climate Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, L.; Ma, L.; Dere, A. L. D.; White, T.; Brantley, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) have been identified as strategic natural resources and their demand in the United States is increasing rapidly. REE are relatively abundant in the Earth's crust, but REE deposits with minable concentrations are uncommon. One recent study has pointed to the deep-sea REE-rich muds in the Pacific Ocean as a new potential resource, related to adsorption and concentration of REE from seawater by hydrothermal iron-oxyhydroxides and phillipsite (Kato et al., 2010). Finding new REE deposits will be facilitated by understanding global REE cycles: during the transformation of bedrock into soils, REEs are leached into natural waters and transported to oceans. At present, the mechanisms and factors controlling release, transport, and deposition of REE - the sources and sinks - at Earth's surface remain unclear. Here, we systematically studied soil profiles and bedrock in seven watersheds developed on shale bedrock along a climate transect in the eastern USA, Puerto Rico and Wales to constrain the mobility and fractionation of REE during chemical weathering processes. In addition, one site on black shale (Marcellus) bedrock was included to compare behaviors of REEs in organic-rich vs. organic-poor shale end members under the same environmental conditions. Our investigation focused on: 1) the concentration of REEs in gray and black shales and the release rates of REE during shale weathering, 2) the biogeochemical and hydrological conditions (such as redox, dissolved organic carbon, and pH) that dictate the mobility and fractionation of REEs in surface and subsurface environments, and 3) the retention of dissolved REEs on soils, especially onto secondary Fe/Al oxyhydroxides and phosphate mineral phases. This systematic study sheds light on the geochemical behaviors and environmental pathways of REEs during shale weathering along a climosequence.

  2. Hazard-Specific Vulnerability Mapping for Water Security in a Shale Gas Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D. M.; Holding, S.; McKoen, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Northeast British Columbia (NEBC) is estimated to hold large reserves of unconventional natural gas and has experienced rapid growth in shale gas development activities over recent decades. Shale gas development has the potential to impact the quality and quantity of surface and ground water. Robust policies and sound water management are required to protect water security in relation to the water-energy nexus surrounding shale gas development. In this study, hazard-specific vulnerability mapping was conducted across NEBC to identify areas most vulnerable to water quality and quantity deterioration due to shale gas development. Vulnerability represents the combination of a specific hazard threat and the susceptibility of the water system to that threat. Hazard threats (i.e. potential contamination sources and water abstraction) were mapped spatially across the region. The shallow aquifer susceptibility to contamination was characterised using the DRASTIC aquifer vulnerability approach, while the aquifer susceptibility to abstraction was mapped according to aquifer productivity. Surface water susceptibility to contamination was characterised on a watershed basis to describe the propensity for overland flow (i.e. contaminant transport), while watershed discharge estimates were used to assess surface water susceptibility to water abstractions. The spatial distribution of hazard threats and susceptibility were combined to form hazard-specific vulnerability maps for groundwater quality, groundwater quantity, surface water quality and surface water quantity. The vulnerability maps identify priority areas for further research, monitoring and policy development. Priority areas regarding water quality occur where hazard threat (contamination potential) coincide with high aquifer susceptibility or high overland flow potential. Priority areas regarding water quantity occur where demand is estimated to represent a significant proportion of estimated supply. The identification

  3. The enrichment behavior of natural radionuclides in pulverized oil shale-fired power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaasma, Taavi; Kiisk, Madis; Meriste, Tõnis; Tkaczyk, Alan Henry

    2014-12-01

    The oil shale industry is the largest producer of NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) waste in Estonia. Approximately 11-12 million tons of oil shale containing various amounts of natural radionuclides is burned annually in the Narva oil shale-fired power plants, which accounts for approximately 90% of Estonian electricity production. The radionuclide behavior characteristics change during the fuel combustion process, which redistributes the radionuclides between different ash fractions. Out of 24 operational boilers in the power plants, four use circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology and twenty use pulverized fuel (PF) technology. Over the past decade, the PF boilers have been renovated, with the main objective to increase the efficiency of the filter systems. Between 2009 and 2012, electrostatic precipitators (ESP) in four PF energy blocks were replaced with novel integrated desulphurization technology (NID) for the efficient removal of fly ash and SO2 from flue gases. Using gamma spectrometry, activity concentrations and enrichment factors for the (238)U ((238)U, (226)Ra, (210)Pb) and (232)Th ((232)Th, (228)Ra) family radionuclides as well as (40)K were measured and analyzed in different PF boiler ash fractions. The radionuclide activity concentrations in the ash samples increased from the furnace toward the back end of the flue gas duct. The highest values in different PF boiler ash fractions were in the last field of the ESP and in the NID ash, where radionuclide enrichment factors were up to 4.2 and 3.3, respectively. The acquired and analyzed data on radionuclide activity concentrations in different PF boiler ashes (operating with an ESP and a NID system) compared to CFB boiler ashes provides an indication that changes in the fuel (oil shale) composition and boiler working parameters, as well as technological enhancements in Estonian oil shale fired power plants, have had a combined effect on the distribution patterns of natural radionuclides

  4. Influence of Composition and Deformation Conditions on the Strength and Brittleness of Shale Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybacki, E.; Reinicke, A.; Meier, T.; Makasi, M.; Dresen, G. H.

    2015-12-01

    Stimulation of shale gas reservoirs by hydraulic fracturing operations aims to increase the production rate by increasing the rock surface connected to the borehole. Prospective shales are often believed to display high strength and brittleness to decrease the breakdown pressure required to (re-) initiate a fracture as well as slow healing of natural and hydraulically induced fractures to increase the lifetime of the fracture network. Laboratory deformation tests were performed on several, mainly European black shales with different mineralogical composition, porosity and maturity at ambient and elevated pressures and temperatures. Mechanical properties such as compressive strength and elastic moduli strongly depend on shale composition, porosity, water content, structural anisotropy, and on pressure (P) and temperature (T) conditions, but less on strain rate. We observed a transition from brittle to semibrittle deformation at high P-T conditions, in particular for high porosity shales. At given P-T conditions, the variation of compressive strength and Young's modulus with composition can be roughly estimated from the volumetric proportion of all components including organic matter and pores. We determined also brittleness index values based on pre-failure deformation behavior, Young's modulus and bulk composition. At low P-T conditions, where samples showed pronounced post-failure weakening, brittleness may be empirically estimated from bulk composition or Young's modulus. Similar to strength, at given P-T conditions, brittleness depends on the fraction of all components and not the amount of a specific component, e.g. clays, alone. Beside strength and brittleness, knowledge of the long term creep properties of shales is required to estimate in-situ stress anisotropy and the healing of (propped) hydraulic fractures.

  5. Oxidative weathering recorded by U-Th-Pb behavior in shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogstad, E. J.; Bekker, A.

    2009-12-01

    Pb-isotope data from eleven suites of sedimentary (shales) and metasedimentary rocks (metapelites), new data or from the literature, are studied for indications of their Th/U histories. Variations in 208Pb/204Pb versus 206Pb/204Pb can be interpreted as indicating syn-depositional and/or post-depositional variations in Th/U. REE data can be used to test if apparent Th/U variations resulted from placer concentration of REE-, U-, and Th-rich heavy minerals. Such placer Th- or U-enrichment has not been identified in any of the shale Pb-Pb v. REE data. The early and middle Archean metasedimentary suites described (Isua, Barberton, Buhwa) show no evidence for separation of Th/U, suggesting that surficial conditions were too poor in free oxygen for uranium to be substantially transformed into U6+. A 2.7 Ga graphitic metapelite suite, the Vermilion Lake Formation from NE Minnesota, shows some decrease in Th/U consistent with addition of U upon reduction of U6+to U4+ by the sediments. Younger suites from the Early Proterozoic (Black Hills, 1.8 Ga shelf sediments of the S.W. U.S.A., Belt Supergroup), to samples from the late Paleozoic of the Appalachians, show profound separation of Th from U, consistent with oxic weathering in the modern style. Studies that showed U-enrichment in organic-rich shales as the effect of the rise of atmospheric oxygen neglect the effect of oxidative U-loss in sediments; in this study U-loss in contemporary organic-poor shales is shown to be the necessary, complementary reservoir to account for oxidative U mobility. Both high Th/U in organic-poor shales, or low Th/U in organic-rich shales, therefore, show the effect of oxidation on U.

  6. Nanoscale Experimental Characterization and 3D Mechanistic Modeling of Shale with Quantified Heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, K. C.; Borja, R. I.

    2014-12-01

    Shale is a fine-grained sedimentary rock consisting primarily of clay and silt, and is of particular interest with respect to hydrocarbon production as both a source and seal rock. The deformation and fracture properties of shale depend on the mechanical properties of its basic constituents, including solid clay particles, inclusions such as silt and organics, and multiscale porosity. This paper presents the results of a combined experimental/numerical investigation into the mechanical behavior of shale at the nanoscale. Large grids of nanoindentation tests, spanning various length scales ranging from 200-20000 nanometers deep, were performed on a sample of Woodford shale in both the bedding plane normal (BPN) and bedding plane parallel (BPP) directions. The nanoindentions were performed in order to determine the mechanical properties of the constituent materials in situ as well as those of the highly heterogeneous composite material at this scale. Focused ion beam (FIB) milling and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used in conjunction (FIB-SEM) to obtain 2D and 3D images characterizing the heterogeneity of the shale at this scale. The constituent materials were found to be best described as consisting of near micrometer size clay and silt particles embedded in a mixed organic/clay matrix, with some larger (near 10 micrometers in diameter) pockets of organic material evident. Indented regions were identified through SEM, allowing the 200-1000 nanometer deep indentations to be classified according to the constituent materials which they engaged. We use nonlinear finite element modeling to capture results of low-load (on the order of milliNewtons) and high-load (on the order of a few Newtons) nanoindentation tests. Experimental results are used to develop a 3D mechanistic model that interprets the results of nanoindentation tests on specimens of Woodford shale with quantified heterogeneity.

  7. Variations in the geochemistry of closely interbedded oil-prone coals and shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curry, D.J. (Exxon Production Research, Houston, TX (United States))

    1994-07-01

    Paralic and deltaic environments frequently contain closely interbedded oil-prone coals and carbonaceous shales of similar organic facies. However, differences in depositional and diagenetic conditions can result in significant variations in geochemistry between these coals and shales. These variations are observed in sediments from a range of ages and areas, including Australia, New Zealand, and Indonesia. For example, pristane/phytane and pristane/n-C[sub 17] ratios are frequently higher in coals than in associated shales, although n-alkane distributions are similar. The C[sub 27] Ts/Tm ratios are frequently much lower in coals, although most other biomarker ratios are generally the same for coals and shales. However, absolute biomarker concentrations, particularly of C[sub 27] Tm hopane, can be two to four times higher in coals. Significantly, many coals contain high concentrations of diasteranes (equivalent to those observed in shales). Differences in other parameters such as the C[sub 30] diahopane/C[sub 30] hopane ratios and pyrolysate compositions are also evident. Data indicate that rocks begin to become more coal-like at TOCs of approximately 25%. The variations in these parameters are probably the result of variability in early depositional and diagenetic conditions, such as eH, pH, and microbial action. In addition, these parameters are probably influenced by the effects of an organic vs. an inorganic matrix. The impact of this variability must be considered when conducting oil-source correlation studies and when assessing the relative contributions of coals and shales to the generation of oil in a basin.

  8. Estimation of anisotropy parameters in organic-rich shale: Rock physics forward modeling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herawati, Ida, E-mail: ida.herawati@students.itb.ac.id; Winardhi, Sonny; Priyono, Awali [Mining and Petroleum Engineering Faculty, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    Anisotropy analysis becomes an important step in processing and interpretation of seismic data. One of the most important things in anisotropy analysis is anisotropy parameter estimation which can be estimated using well data, core data or seismic data. In seismic data, anisotropy parameter calculation is generally based on velocity moveout analysis. However, the accuracy depends on data quality, available offset, and velocity moveout picking. Anisotropy estimation using seismic data is needed to obtain wide coverage of particular layer anisotropy. In anisotropic reservoir, analysis of anisotropy parameters also helps us to better understand the reservoir characteristics. Anisotropy parameters, especially ε, are related to rock property and lithology determination. Current research aims to estimate anisotropy parameter from seismic data and integrate well data with case study in potential shale gas reservoir. Due to complexity in organic-rich shale reservoir, extensive study from different disciplines is needed to understand the reservoir. Shale itself has intrinsic anisotropy caused by lamination of their formed minerals. In order to link rock physic with seismic response, it is necessary to build forward modeling in organic-rich shale. This paper focuses on studying relationship between reservoir properties such as clay content, porosity and total organic content with anisotropy. Organic content which defines prospectivity of shale gas can be considered as solid background or solid inclusion or both. From the forward modeling result, it is shown that organic matter presence increases anisotropy in shale. The relationships between total organic content and other seismic properties such as acoustic impedance and Vp/Vs are also presented.

  9. A Geochemical Framework for Evaluating Shale-Hydraulic Fracture Fluid Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, A. L.; Jew, A. D.; Dustin, M. K.; Joe-Wong, C. M.; Thomas, D.; Maher, K.; Brown, G. E.; Bargar, J.; Bill, M.; Conrad, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    The development of shale oil and gas reservoirs has increased dramatically due to the application of hydraulic fracturing techniques. Fracture fluids contain dissolved oxygen and numerous chemical additives [1] that are out of equilibrium with the reducing conditions in shale reservoirs and could react extensively with shale minerals and alter porosity. Yet, the complex dissolution-precipitation reactions in shales along with the poorly constrained characteristics of many fracture fluid additives hinder predictive modeling based on established reaction kinetics and thermodynamic constants [2]. Here, we are developing a reaction framework to better predict reaction progress and porosity evolution upon exposure of shales to hydraulic fracturing fluids. To this end, the reactive transport model CrunchFlow [3] was applied to the results of batch reactor experiments containing shales of different mineralogical and organic compositions exposed to simulated fracturing fluid. Despite relatively good agreement between modeled and experimental data for pH and aqueous Ca concentrations, which are strongly governed by carbonate dissolution, the model is presently unable to reproduce observed trends in aqueous Fe concentration. This is largely attributable to the dearth of thermodynamic data for certain fracture fluid components and the complex interactions between multiple Fe-bearing mineral phases. Experimental results revealed that the presence of organic fracture fluid components strongly influenced the precipitation of Fe-bearing phases, which are speculated to coat fracture fluid polymers that formed in the reactors. The incorporation of these effects in our reactive transport model will permit improved prediction of reservoir permeability evolution and metal release during hydraulic fracturing operations. [1] Stringfellow et al. (2014) J. Hazard. Mater. [2] Carroll et al. (2013) Environ. Sci. Technol. [3] Steefel and Maher (2009) Rev. Mineral. Geochem.

  10. Formation of nanoporous pyrobitumen residues during maturation processes within the Barnett Shale (Fort Worth Basin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, S.; Wirth, R.; Schreiber, A.; Schulz, H.-M.; Horsfield, B.

    2012-04-01

    Hydrocarbon generation processes occur within organic-rich shales as a response to increases in thermal maturation. Shale gas reservoir quality is thought to be largely dependent on the extent to which solid organic material has been converted to pore space during catagenesis. Although pores may drastically vary in variety and abundance within differing shales, the occurrence of nanopores within organic particles has recently been documented for an important number of gas shale systems (i.e., Barnett, Haynesville, Utica, Eagle Ford, Woodford, Horn River, Marcellus, Posidonia …). However, despite their ubiquitous nature, the formation and the geochemical nature of these nanoporous organic compounds remain unclear. Here, we present the characterization of samples from the organic-rich Mississippian Barnett shale gas system (Fort Worth Basin, Texas, USA) at varying stages of thermal maturation. Using a combination of compositional organic geochemistry and spectromicroscopy techniques, including synchrotron-based scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM - data collected using the CLS 10ID-1 STXM beamline) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we document a net increase in sample geochemical heterogeneity with increasing maturity. In addition to the presence of bitumen in samples of oil window maturity, very likely genetically derived from thermally degraded kerogen, the formation of nanoporous pyrobitumen has been inferred for samples of gas window maturity, likely resulting from the formation of gaseous hydrocarbons by secondary cracking of bitumen compounds. By providing in-situ insights into the fate of bitumen and pyrobitumen as a response to the thermal evolution of the macromolecular structure of kerogen, the present contribution constitutes an important step towards better constraining hydrocarbon generation processes occurring within unconventional gas shale systems.

  11. Characterization and analysis of Devonian shales as related to release of gaseous hydrocarbons. Well V-7 Wetzel County, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyoncu, R.S.; Boyer, J.P.; Snyder, M.J.

    1979-08-15

    This program was initiated in September 1976, with the objective and scope of determining the relationships between the shale characteristics, hydrocarbon gas contents, and well location, and thereby provide a sound basis for (1) assessing the productive capacity of the Eastern Devonian Gas Shale deposits, and (2) guiding research, development and demonstration projects to enhance the recovery of natural gas from the shale deposits. Included in the scope of the program are a number of elemental tasks as a part of the Resource Inventory and Shale Characterization subprojects of DOE's Eastern Gas Shales Project designed to provide large quantities of support data for current and possibly future needs of the Project.

  12. GIS-and Web-based Water Resource Geospatial Infrastructure for Oil Shale Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Wei [Wendy; Minnick, Matthew; Geza, Mengistu; Murray, Kyle; Mattson, Earl

    2012-09-30

    The Colorado School of Mines (CSM) was awarded a grant by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct a research project en- titled GIS- and Web-based Water Resource Geospatial Infrastructure for Oil Shale Development in October of 2008. The ultimate goal of this research project is to develop a water resource geo-spatial infrastructure that serves as “baseline data” for creating solutions on water resource management and for supporting decisions making on oil shale resource development. The project came to the end on September 30, 2012. This final project report will report the key findings from the project activity, major accomplishments, and expected impacts of the research. At meantime, the gamma version (also known as Version 4.0) of the geodatabase as well as other various deliverables stored on digital storage media will be send to the program manager at NETL, DOE via express mail. The key findings from the project activity include the quantitative spatial and temporal distribution of the water resource throughout the Piceance Basin, water consumption with respect to oil shale production, and data gaps identified. Major accomplishments of this project include the creation of a relational geodatabase, automated data processing scripts (Matlab) for database link with surface water and geological model, ArcGIS Model for hydrogeologic data processing for groundwater model input, a 3D geological model, surface water/groundwater models, energy resource development systems model, as well as a web-based geo-spatial infrastructure for data exploration, visualization and dissemination. This research will have broad impacts of the devel- opment of the oil shale resources in the US. The geodatabase provides a “baseline” data for fur- ther study of the oil shale development and identification of further data collection needs. The 3D geological model provides better understanding through data interpolation and

  13. Paleoredoc and pyritization of soft-bodied fossils in the Ordovician Frankfort Shale of New York

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrell, Una C.; Briggs, Derek E. G.; Hammarlund, Emma U.;

    2013-01-01

    Multiple beds in the Frankfort Shale (Upper Ordovician, New York State), including the original "Beecher's Trilobite Bed," yield fossils with pyritized soft-tissues. A bed-by-bed geochemical and sedimentological analysis was carried out to test previous models of soft-tissue pyritization by inves......Multiple beds in the Frankfort Shale (Upper Ordovician, New York State), including the original "Beecher's Trilobite Bed," yield fossils with pyritized soft-tissues. A bed-by-bed geochemical and sedimentological analysis was carried out to test previous models of soft-tissue pyritization...

  14. Elemental composition of airborne dust in the shale shaker house during an offshore drilling operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A.B.; Larsen, E.; Hansen, L.V.

    1991-01-01

    During 2 days of an offshore drilling operation in the North Sea, 16 airborne dust samples from the atmosphere of the Shale Shaker House were collected onto filters. During this operation, drilling mud composed of a water slurry of barite (BaSO4) together with minor amounts of additives, among them...... coupled plasma-mass spectrometry). The total amount of dust collected varied from 0.04 to 1.41 mg m-3 with barium (Ba) as the single most abundant element. The open shale shakers turned out to be the major cause of generation of dust from the solid components of the drilling mud....

  15. Ecological risks of shale oil and gas development to wildlife, aquatic resources and their habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittingham, Margaret C; Maloney, Kelly O; Farag, Aïda M; Harper, David D; Bowen, Zachary H

    2014-10-07

    Technological advances in hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling have led to the exploration and exploitation of shale oil and gas both nationally and internationally. Extensive development of shale resources has occurred within the United States over the past decade, yet full build out is not expected to occur for years. Moreover, countries across the globe have large shale resources and are beginning to explore extraction of these resources. Extraction of shale resources is a multistep process that includes site identification, well pad and infrastructure development, well drilling, high-volume hydraulic fracturing and production; each with its own propensity to affect associated ecosystems. Some potential effects, for example from well pad, road and pipeline development, will likely be similar to other anthropogenic activities like conventional gas drilling, land clearing, exurban and agricultural development and surface mining (e.g., habitat fragmentation and sedimentation). Therefore, we can use the large body of literature available on the ecological effects of these activities to estimate potential effects from shale development on nearby ecosystems. However, other effects, such as accidental release of wastewaters, are novel to the shale gas extraction process making it harder to predict potential outcomes. Here, we review current knowledge of the effects of high-volume hydraulic fracturing coupled with horizontal drilling on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in the contiguous United States, an area that includes 20 shale plays many of which have experienced extensive development over the past decade. We conclude that species and habitats most at risk are ones where there is an extensive overlap between a species range or habitat type and one of the shale plays (leading to high vulnerability) coupled with intrinsic characteristics such as limited range, small population size, specialized habitat requirements, and high sensitivity to disturbance

  16. Organic carbon isotopes of the Sinian and Early Cambrian black shales on Yangtze Platform, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李任伟; 卢家烂; 张淑坤; 雷加锦

    1999-01-01

    Organic matter of the Sinian and early Cambrian black shales on the Yangtze Platform belongs to the light carbon group of isotopes with the δ13C values from - 27 % to -35 % , which are lower than those of the contemporaneously deposited carbonates and phosphorites. A carbon isotope-stratified paleooceanographic model caused by upwelling is proposed, which can be used not only to interpret the characteristics of organic carbon isotopic compositions of the black shales, but also to interpret the paleogeographic difference in the organic carbon isotope compositions of various types of sedimentary rocks.

  17. Temporal-resolved characterization of laser-induced plasma for spectrochemical analysis of gas shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Ming; He, Yi; Yu, Qiaoling; Duan, Yixiang

    2016-07-01

    Optical emission of laser ablation plasma on a shale target surface provides sensitive laser-induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS) detection of major, minor or trace elements. An exploratory study for the characterization of the plasma induced on shale materials was carried out with the aim to trigger a crucial step towards the quantitative LIBS measurement. In this work, the experimental strategies that optimize the plasma generation on a pressed shale pellet surface are presented. The temporal evolution properties of the plasma induced by ns Nd:YAG laser pulse at the fundamental wavelength in air were investigated using time-resolved space-integrated optical emission spectroscopy. The electron density as well as the temperatures of the plasma were diagnosed as functions of the decay time for the bulk plasma analysis. In particular, the values of time-resolved atomic and ionic temperatures of shale elements, such as Fe, Mg, Ca, and Ti, were extracted from the well-known Boltzmann or Saha-Boltzmann plot method. Further comparison of these temperatures validated the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) within specific interval of the delay time. In addition, the temporal behaviors of the signal-to-noise ratio of shale elements, including Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, Ba, Li, Ti, K, Na, Sr, V, Cr, and Ni, revealed the coincidence of their maximum values with LIBS LTE condition in the time frame, providing practical implications for an optimized LIBS detection of shale elements. Analytical performance of LIBS was further evaluated with the linear calibration procedure for the most concerned trace elements of Sr, V, Cr, and Ni present in different shales. Their limits of detection obtained are elementally dependent and can be lower than tens of parts per million with the present LIBS experimental configurations. However, the occurrence of saturation effect for the calibration curve is still observable with the increasing trace element content, indicating that, due to the

  18. Inventory of Shale Formations in the US, Including Geologic, Hydrological, and Mechanical Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobson, Patrick; Houseworth, James

    2013-11-22

    The objective of this report is to build upon previous compilations of shale formations within many of the major sedimentary basins in the US by developing GIS data delineating isopach and structural depth maps for many of these units. These data are being incorporated into the LANL digital GIS database being developed for determining host rock distribution and depth/thickness parameters consistent with repository design. Methods were developed to assess hydrological and geomechanical properties and conditions for shale formations based on sonic velocity measurements.

  19. Oil Shale Development from the Perspective of NETL's Unconventional Oil Resource Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.W. (REM Engineering Services, Morgantown, WV); Shadle, L.J.; Hill, D. (REM Engineering Services, Morgantown, WV)

    2007-01-01

    The history of oil shale development was examined by gathering relevant research literature for an Unconventional Oil Resource Repository. This repository contains over 17,000 entries from over 1,000 different sources. The development of oil shale has been hindered by a number of factors. These technical, political, and economic factors have brought about R&D boom-bust cycles. It is not surprising that these cycles are strongly correlated to market crude oil prices. However, it may be possible to influence some of the other factors through a sustained, yet measured, approach to R&D in both the public and private sectors.

  20. Paleoenvironmental and source rock assessment of black shales of Pennsylvanian Age, Powder River and northern Denver basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, J.L.; King, J.D.; Lubeck, C.M.; Leventhal, J.S.; Daws, T.A.

    1988-07-01

    Thin Middle Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) organic-rich black shales (cumulative thickness < 50 ft) underlie much of the northern Denver basin and southeastern Powder River basin. In the Powder River basin, these shales are part of the middle member of the Minnelusa Formation. During Desmoinesian time, the present area of the southeastern Powder River basin and Nebraska was a shallow, at times highly saline, restricted sea. In contrast, in the present area of northeastern Colorado, black shales were deposited in a marine environment with normal salinity that was probably continuous with the Mid-Continent Pennsylvanian sea. Assessment of the paleoenvironment has been carried out using organic geochemical parameters. Shales deposited in the restricted basin setting contain abundant porphyrins (25,000-30,000 ppm relative to total extractable organic matter) and significant quantities of aryl isoprenoids. The aryl isoprenoid compounds (1) are evidence for the presence of the sulfur bacteria families Chlorobiaceae and possibly Chromatiaceae and (2) indicate that euxinic conditions existed in the water column. High ratios of sulfur to carbon in the shales support this interpretation. In contrast, extracts from black shale in the normal sea to the south contain lower porphyrin concentrations (generally less than 1000 ppm) and aryl isoprenoids are minor constituents or are absent. Sulfur/carbon ratios in these latter shales are similar to those observed for normal marine shales (that is, not euxinic conditions). Other paleoenvironmental indicators (sterane composition, alkane distribution) are consistent with these observations. Bulk organic matter in the black shales from both environments is type II and has good source potential for generation of liquid hydrocarbons during catagenesis. Pyrolysis yields of 50 kg/MT (50,000 ppm) are common, and in some shales, yield is 100 kg/MT (100,000 ppm).

  1. Shale disposal of U.S. high-level radioactive waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sassani, David Carl; Stone, Charles Michael; Hansen, Francis D.; Hardin, Ernest L.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Martinez, Mario J.; Rechard, Robert Paul; Sobolik, Steven Ronald; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Cygan, Randall Timothy; Gaither, Katherine N.; Holland, John Francis; Brady, Patrick Vane

    2010-05-01

    This report evaluates the feasibility of high-level radioactive waste disposal in shale within the United States. The U.S. has many possible clay/shale/argillite basins with positive attributes for permanent disposal. Similar geologic formations have been extensively studied by international programs with largely positive results, over significant ranges of the most important material characteristics including permeability, rheology, and sorptive potential. This report is enabled by the advanced work of the international community to establish functional and operational requirements for disposal of a range of waste forms in shale media. We develop scoping performance analyses, based on the applicable features, events, and processes identified by international investigators, to support a generic conclusion regarding post-closure safety. Requisite assumptions for these analyses include waste characteristics, disposal concepts, and important properties of the geologic formation. We then apply lessons learned from Sandia experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Project and the Yucca Mountain Project to develop a disposal strategy should a shale repository be considered as an alternative disposal pathway in the U.S. Disposal of high-level radioactive waste in suitable shale formations is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable and self-sealing, conditions are chemically reducing, and sorption tends to prevent radionuclide transport. Vertically and laterally extensive shale and clay formations exist in multiple locations in the contiguous 48 states. Thermal-hydrologic-mechanical calculations indicate that temperatures near emplaced waste packages can be maintained below boiling and will decay to within a few degrees of the ambient temperature within a few decades (or longer depending on the waste form). Construction effects, ventilation, and the thermal pulse will lead to clay dehydration and deformation, confined to an excavation disturbed zone within

  2. Airborne Trace Gas and Aerosol Measurements in Several Shale Gas Basins during the SONGNEX (Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus) Campaign 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warneke, C.; Trainer, M.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Oil and natural gas from tight sand and shale formations has increased strongly over the last decade. This increased production has been associated with emissions of methane, non-methane hydrocarbons and other trace gases to the atmosphere, which are concerns for air quality, climate and air toxics. The NOAA Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus (SONGNEX) aircraft campaign took place in 2015, when the NOAA WP-3 aircraft conducted 20 research flights between March 19 and April 27, 2015 in the following shale gas regions: Denver-Julesberg, Uintah, Upper Green River, San Juan, Bakken, Barnett, Eagle Ford, Haynesville, Woodford, and Permian. The NOAA P3 was equipped with an extensive set of gas phase measurements, including instruments for methane, ethane, CO, CO2, a new H3O+CIMS, canister and cartridge samples for VOCs, HCHO, glyoxal, HNO3, NH3, NOx, NOy, PANs, ozone, and SO2. Aerosol number and size distributions were also measured. This presentation will focus on an overview of all the measurements onboard the NOAA WP-3 aircraft and discuss the differences between the shale gas regions. Due to a drop in oil prices, drilling for oil decreased in the months prior to the mission, but nevertheless the production of oil and natural gas were near the all-time high. Many of the shale gas basins investigated during SONGNEX have quite different characteristics. For example, the Permian Basin is a well-established field, whereas the Eagle Ford and the Bakken saw an almost exponential increase in production over the last few years. The basins differ by the relative amounts of natural gas versus oil that is being produced. Previous work had shown a large variability in methane emissions relative to the production (leak rate) between different basins. By including more and qualitatively different basins during SONGNEX, the study has provided an extensive data set to address how emissions depend on raw gas composition, extraction techniques and regulation. The influence of these

  3. Contaminants from Cretaceous Black Shale Part 1: Natural weathering processes controlling contaminant cycling in Mancos Shale, southwestern United States, with emphasis on salinity and selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Fahy, Juli W.; Elliott, John G.; Grauch, Richard I.; Stillings, Lisa L.

    2013-01-01

    Soils derived from black shale can accumulate high concentrations of elements of environmental concern, especially in regions with semiarid to arid climates. One such region is the Colorado River basin in the southwestern United States where contaminants pose a threat to agriculture, municipal water supplies, endangered aquatic species, and water-quality commitments to Mexico. Exposures of Cretaceous Mancos Shale (MS) in the upper basin are a major contributor of salinity and selenium in the Colorado River. Here, we examine the roles of geology, climate, and alluviation on contaminant cycling (emphasis on salinity and Se) during weathering of MS in a Colorado River tributary watershed. Stage I (incipient weathering) began perhaps as long ago as 20 ka when lowering of groundwater resulted in oxidation of pyrite and organic matter. This process formed gypsum and soluble organic matter that persist in the unsaturated, weathered shale today. Enrichment of Se observed in laterally persistent ferric oxide layers likely is due to selenite adsorption onto the oxides that formed during fluctuating redox conditions at the water table. Stage II weathering (pedogenesis) is marked by a significant decrease in bulk density and increase in porosity as shale disaggregates to soil. Rainfall dissolves calcite and thenardite (Na2SO4) at the surface, infiltrates to about 1 m, and precipitates gypsum during evaporation. Gypsum formation (estimated 390 kg m−2) enriches soil moisture in Na and residual SO4. Transpiration of this moisture to the surface or exposure of subsurface soil (slumping) produces more thenardite. Most Se remains in the soil as selenite adsorbed to ferric oxides, however, some oxidizes to selenate and, during wetter conditions is transported with soil moisture to depths below 3 m. Coupled with little rainfall, relatively insoluble gypsum, and the translocation of soluble Se downward, MS landscapes will be a significant nonpoint source of salinity and Se to the

  4. Gamma 60Co-irradiation of organic matter in the Phosphoria Retort Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewan, M. D.; Ulmishek, G. F.; Harrison, W.; Schreiner, F.

    1991-04-01

    Irradiation experiments were conducted on a thermally immature rock sample of the Phosphoria Retort Shale and its isolated kerogen. A 60Co-source for gamma radiation was employed at dosages ranging from 81 to 885 Mrads, which are attainable by Paleozoic and Precambrian black shales with syngenetic uranium enrichments. Kerogen elemental, isotopic, and pyrolysate compositions are not affected at these dosages, but the bitumens extracted from the irradiated rock are affected. The major effects are reductions in the amounts of bitumen, acyclic isoprenoids, and high-molecular weight acyclic carboxylic acids. Natural differences in the amounts of bitumen and acyclic isoprenoid due to regional and stratigraphie variations in organic source input and depositional conditions make the radiation-induced reductions in these parameters difficult to use as indicators of natural radiation damage in black shales. However, the preferential reduction in the high-molecular weight acyclic carboxylic acids, which are ubiquitous in the living precursory organic matter, is diagnostic of experimental γ-irradiation but may not be diagnostic of natural irradiation. The overall process associated with radiation damage is polymerization by cross-linking through a free radical mechanism. As a result, irradiation of organic matter in black shales is more likely to retard rather than enhance petroleum generation.

  5. Geological settings of the protected Selisoo mire (northeastern Estonia threatened by oil shale mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Hiiemaa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The protected Selisoo mire in northeastern Estonia is located above valuable oil shale resources, partly in the permitted mining area. We describe in detail the geomorphology and geological setting of the mire to understand the natural preconditions for its formation, development and preservation. We used the LiDAR-based digital elevation model for relief analysis, mapped the peat thickness with ground-penetrating radar and described the Quaternary cover through corings. Ridges, oriented perpendicular to the generally southward-sloping terrain, and shallow depressions at the surface of mineral soil have influenced mire formation and its spatio-temporal dynamics. The Quaternary cover under the mire is thin and highly variable. Therefore the mire is hydro­geologically insufficiently isolated from the limestone bedrock that is drained by the nearby oil shale mine and consequently the mining activities approaching the mire may have a negative influence on the wetland and proposed Natura 2000 site. Natura 2000 type wetlands, both protected or currently outside the nature reserves, cover a significant portion of the prospective oil shale mining areas. The distribution and resilience of those sites may significantly influence further utilization of oil shale resources.

  6. Fluidized-bed pyrolysis of oil shale: oil yield, composition, and kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, J H; Huss, E B; Ott, L L; Clarkson, J E; Bishop, M O; Taylor, J R; Gregory, L J; Morris, C J

    1982-09-01

    A quartz isothermal fluidized-bed reactor has been used to measure kinetics and oil properties relevant to surface processing of oil shale. The rate of oil formation has been described with two sequential first-order rate equations characterized by two rate constants, k/sub 1/ = 2.18 x 10/sup 10/ exp(-41.6 kcal/RT) s/sup -1/ and k/sub 2/ = 4.4 x 10/sup 6/ exp(-29.7 kcal/RT) s/sup -1/. These rate constants together with an expression for the appropriate weighting coefficients describe approximately 97/sup +/% of the total oil produced. A description is given of the results of different attempts to mathematically describe the data in a manner suitable for modeling applications. Preliminary results are also presented for species-selective kinetics of methane, ethene, ethane and hydrogen, where the latter is clearly distinguished as the product of a distinct intermediate. Oil yields from Western oil shale are approximately 100% Fischer assay. Oil composition is as expected based on previous work and the higher heating rates (temperatures) inherent in fluidized-bed pyrolysis. Neither the oil yield, composition nor the kinetics varied with particle size between 0.2 and 2.0 mm within experimental error. The qualitatively expected change in oil composition due to cracking was observed over the temperature range studied (460 to 540/sup 0/C). Eastern shale exhibited significantly faster kinetics and higher oil yields than did Western shale.

  7. Molecular characterization and comparison of shale oils generated by different pyrolysis methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdwell, Justin E.; Jin, Jang Mi; Kim, Sunghwan

    2012-01-01

    Shale oils generated using different laboratory pyrolysis methods have been studied using standard oil characterization methods as well as Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric photoionization (APPI) to assess differences in molecular composition. The pyrolysis oils were generated from samples of the Mahogany zone oil shale of the Eocene Green River Formation collected from outcrops in the Piceance Basin, Colorado, using three pyrolysis systems under conditions relevant to surface and in situ retorting approaches. Significant variations were observed in the shale oils, particularly the degree of conjugation of the constituent molecules and the distribution of nitrogen-containing compound classes. Comparison of FT-ICR MS results to other oil characteristics, such as specific gravity; saturate, aromatic, resin, asphaltene (SARA) distribution; and carbon number distribution determined by gas chromatography, indicated correspondence between higher average double bond equivalence (DBE) values and increasing asphaltene content. The results show that, based on the shale oil DBE distributions, highly conjugated species are enriched in samples produced under low pressure, high temperature conditions, and under high pressure, moderate temperature conditions in the presence of water. We also report, for the first time in any petroleum-like substance, the presence of N4 class compounds based on FT-ICR MS data. Using double bond equivalence and carbon number distributions, structures for the N4 class and other nitrogen-containing compounds are proposed.

  8. Molecular mechanism of adsorption/desorption hysteresis: dynamics of shale gas in nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Wang, FengChao; Liu, He; Wu, HengAn

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the adsorption and desorption behavior of methane has received considerable attention since it is one of the crucial aspects of the exploitation of shale gas. Unexpectedly, obvious hysteresis is observed from the ideally reversible physical sorption of methane in some experiments. However, the underlying mechanism still remains an open problem. In this study, Monte Carlo (MC) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are carried out to explore the molecular mechanisms of adsorption/desorption hysteresis. First, a detailed analysis about the capillary condensation of methane in micropores is presented. The influence of pore width, surface strength, and temperature on the hysteresis loop is further investigated. It is found that a disappearance of hysteresis occurs above a temperature threshold. Combined with the phase diagram of methane, we explicitly point out that capillary condensation is inapplicable for the hysteresis of shale gas under normal temperature conditions. Second, a new mechanism, variation of pore throat size, is proposed and studied. For methane to pass through the throat, a certain energy is required due to the repulsive interaction. The required energy increases with shrinkage of the throat, such that the originally adsorbed methane cannot escape through the narrowed throat. These trapped methane molecules account for the hysteresis. Furthermore, the hysteresis loop is found to increase with the increasing pressure and decreasing temperature. We suggest that the variation of pore throat size can explain the adsorption/desorption hysteresis of shale gas. Our conclusions and findings are of great significance for guiding the efficient exploitation of shale gas.

  9. Modern Shale Gas Horizontal Drilling: Review of Best Practices for Exploration Phase Planning and Execution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nathaniel Harding; Stephen Smith; John Shelton; Mike D. Bumaman

    2009-01-01

    The challenging characteristics of shale formations often require horizontal drilling to economically develop their potential. While every shale gas play is unique, there are several best practices for the proper planning and execution of a horizontal well. In planning a horizontal well, the optimal method and technology for building inclination and extending the lateral section must be determined. Properly specified logging-while-drilling tools are essential to keep the wellbore within the target formation. Planning must also focus on casing design. Doing so will help ensure stability and enable reliable and productive completions. Shales pose a challenge for these elements of well planning due to their thin strata and potentially low mechanical competence when foreign fluids are introduced. Once a plan is developed, executing it is even more important to prove a viable exploration program. Fast, efficient drilling with wellbore control and minimal torque and drag should be the priority. This may be achieved by focusing on fluid hydraulics and rheology and bottom hole assembly. Managed pressure drilling (MPD) will help fast drilling, well control and stability. If MPD can be combined with new generation rotary steerable systems that allow the drill string to maintain rotation, impressive efficiencies are possible. Modern drilling parameter analysis represents the newest opportunity for executing shale gas horizontal wells. A method for ROP analysis to improve operational parameters and equipment selection is also proposed.

  10. Petrophysics of shale intervals in the Skjold Field, Danish North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbia, Ernest Ncha; Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Oji, C. O.

    2011-01-01

    . Mineralogical variation is reflected in cation exchange capacity, BET specific surface, and grain density. Shales vary in total organic carbon, radioactivity, carbonate content, porosity and modeled permeability. Cross plots of logging data splits intervals according to mineralogy, porosity, modeled...... permeability, and induration. The most effective of intervals splitting is obtained by cross-plotting shear velocity and gamma ray....

  11. 18 CFR 270.303 - Natural gas produced from Devonian shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Natural gas produced... DETERMINATION PROCEDURES Requirements for Filings With Jurisdictional Agencies § 270.303 Natural gas produced from Devonian shale. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is produced from Devonian...

  12. Estimating emissions of toxic hydrocarbons from natural gas production sites in the Barnett Shale region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, J. E.; Townsend-Small, A.; Lyon, D. R.; Tsai, T.; Meinardi, S.; Blake, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    Throughout the past decade, shale gas operations have moved closer to urban centers and densely populated areas, contributing to growing public concerns regarding exposure to hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). These HAPs include gases like hexane, 1,3-butadiene and BTEX compounds, which can cause minor health effects from short-term exposure or possibly cancer due to prolonged exposure. During the Barnett Shale Coordinated Campaign in October, 2013, ground-based whole air samples revealed enhancements in several of these toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) downwind of natural gas well pads and compressor stations. Two methods were used to estimate the emission rate of several HAPs in the Barnett Shale. The first method utilized CH4 flux measurements derived from the Picarro Mobile Flux Plane (MFP) and taken concurrently with whole air samples, while the second used a CH4 emissions inventory developed for the Barnett Shale region. From these two approaches, the regional emission estimate for benzene (C6H6) ranged from 48 ± 16 to 84 ± 26 kg C6H6 hr-1. A significant regional source of atmospheric benzene is evident, despite measurement uncertainty and limited number of samples. The extent to which these emission rates equate to a larger public health risk is unclear, but is of particular interest as natural gas productions continues to expand.

  13. From weird wonders to stem lineages: the second reclassification of the Burgess Shale fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brysse, Keynyn

    2008-09-01

    The Burgess Shale, a set of fossil beds containing the exquisitely preserved remains of marine invertebrate organisms from shortly after the Cambrian explosion, was discovered in 1909, and first brought to widespread popular attention by Stephen Jay Gould in his 1989 bestseller Wonderful life: The Burgess Shale and the nature of history. Gould contrasted the initial interpretation of these fossils, in which they were 'shoehorned' into modern groups, with the first major reexamination begun in the 1960s, when the creatures were perceived as 'weird wonders', possessing unique body plans and unrelated to modern organisms. More recently, a third phase of Burgess Shale studies has arisen, which has not yet been historically examined. This third phase represents a revolutionary new understanding, brought about, I believe, by a change in taxonomic methodology that led to a new perception of the Burgess creatures, and a new way to comprehend their relationships with modern organisms. The adoption of cladistics, and its corollary, the stem group concept, has forged a new understanding of the Burgess Shale ... but has it also changed the questions we are allowed to ask about evolution?

  14. Fracking the Debate : Frame Shifts and Boundary Work in Dutch Decision Making on Shale Gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metze, T.A.P.

    2014-01-01

    The meaning of hydraulic fracturing for shale gas is contested worldwide: is it an energy game changer, a transition fuel, or a technology that poses severe environmental problems? In the Netherlands, a policy controversy developed in which fracturing was reframed from ‘business as usual’ to a poten

  15. Shale Gas, the Environment and Energy Security : A New Framework For Energy Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleming, Ruven

    2017-01-01

    `This pioneering and in-depth study into the regulation of shale gas extraction examines how changes in the constitutional set-ups of EU Member States over the last 25 years have substantially altered the legal leverage of environmental protection and energy security as state objectives. As well as

  16. Geochemical Characteristics and its Geological Significance of Oil Shale from the Youganwo Formation, Maoming Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuanyuan; Qiu, Nansheng

    2016-04-01

    Geochemical elements of oil shale in the Maoming Basin were analyzed to discuss provenance attribute and depositional environment of the Youganwo formation. Experimental date of the major elements, trace elements and rare earth elements of 24 samples from the Maoye 1 well were examined.The analyzed oil shale samples were characterized by enrichment of Th, U, Pb and LREE, depleted of Zr, Cr and Hf,negative Eu and Ce anomalies, indicating that these samples were originated from continental crust. The chemical index of alteration (CIA) values and the Zr/Sc-Th/Sc diagrams indicate that source rocks had undergone intense chemical weathering and deposition recirculation. Based on the La/Th-Hf and La/Yb-∑REE diagrams and the negative anomaly of Eu element, the oil shale in the Maoming Basin has diverse sources, which mainly came from felsic source region of the upper crust or the mixture of felsic volcanic rocks, granite and sedimentary rocks. Ratios of the Sr/Cu, MgO/CaO suggest that oil shale was formed in fresh water under warm and humid climate, shallow water column became deeper during the middle and late sedimentary period. The depositional environment is interpreted to be limnetic with weak reduction at the early stage and gradually turned into semi-deep to deep lacustrine.

  17. Geomechanical Characteristics of Gas Shales: A Case Study in the North Perth Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasouli, Vamegh; Sutherland, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Gas shales are one type of unconventional reservoirs which have attracted significant attention for gas production in recent years. Gas production from very tight shales requires employment of hydraulic fracturing as a stimulation technique. To design hydraulic fracture operation the mechanical properties of the targeted and surrounding formations should be estimated. Also, the magnitude and orientation of in situ stresses in the field need to be known to estimate the fracture initiation and propagation pressures. This study focuses on gas shale characteristics in the North Perth Basin and uses data corresponding to well Arrowsmith-2 (AS-2) which is the first dedicated shale gas well drilled in Western Australia. A log-based analysis was used to build the rock mechanical model (RMM). The RMM results were used to set up a hydraulic fracturing laboratory experiment. The test was done in the presence of three principal stresses to mimic the real field stress conditions. The test results include the pressure-time curve which was used to estimate the initiation and propagation pressure at that depth. The results were used to draw some practical conclusions related to hydraulic fracturing operation in the field.

  18. Discrimination of moist oil shale and limestone using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paris, P., E-mail: peeter.paris@ut.ee; Piip, K.; Lepp, A.; Lissovski, A.; Aints, M.; Laan, M.

    2015-05-01

    Laser-induced plasma emission spectra of Estonian oil shale and associated limestone with varying moisture content were studied. Time gated spectra excited by 1064 nm laser radiation were recorded. Spectral lines for determination of plasma parameters were selected. Moisture causes the reduction of the intensity of the total emission, and increases the intensity of the H{sub α} line. It was found that the effect of the moisture content on the plasma temperature and electron concentration was inconsiderable. Using the ratio of intensities of H{sub α} and Mg spectral lines, it was possible to distinguish reliably between limestone and oil shale independently of their moisture content. - Highlights: • Laser induced plasma emission spectra of both; Estonian oil shale and limestone with varying moisture content were studied. • The temporal change of the laser induced plasma plume temperature T{sub e} and electron density n{sub e} were evaluated. • Plasma temperature and electron concentration changed with the moisture content inconsiderably. • Limestone and oil shale are distinguished independently of their moisture content by the intensity ratio of H{sub α} and Mg lines.

  19. A dual-porosity model for simulating solute transport in oil shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, K.C.

    1987-01-01

    A model is described for simulating three-dimensional groundwater flow and solute transport in oil shale and associated geohydrologic units. The model treats oil shale as a dual-porosity medium by simulating flow and transport within fractures using the finite-element method. Diffusion of solute between fractures and the essentially static water of the shale matrix is simulated by including an analytical solution that acts as a source-sink term to the differential equation of solute transport. While knowledge of fracture orientation and spacing is needed to effectively use the model, it is not necessary to map the locations of individual fractures. The computer program listed in the report incorporates many of the features of previous dual-porosity models while retaining a practical approach to solving field problems. As a result the theory of solute transport is not extended in any appreciable way. The emphasis is on bringing together various aspects of solute transport theory in a manner that is particularly suited to the unusual groundwater flow and solute transport characteristics of oil shale systems. (Author 's abstract)

  20. The Shale Gas Revolution : U.S. and EU Policy and Research Agendas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, Tim; Johnson, Corey

    2012-01-01

    The shale gas revolution raises a host of questions for policy makers and researchers on both sides of the Atlantic. We provide a brief overview of the regulatory environment as it relates to hydraulic fracturing for natural gas in the United States and the European Union. We then pose a set of open

  1. Energy supply strategy: getting technology commercialized, shale oil and enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steger, J.E.; Sullo, P.; Michaelis, M.; Nason, H.K.

    1979-12-01

    Purpose is to identify factors inhibiting the near-term investment of industrial funds for producing oil from shale and through enhanced oil recovery, and to estimate the investment and production which would result if these deterrents were removed and suitable incentives provided. The barriers are discussed under the following categories: economic, environmental, institutional/regulatory, and technical. (DLC)

  2. Black shale studies in Kentucky. Annual report, October 1, 1977--September 30, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackburn, W.H. (comp.)

    1978-01-01

    Black shale studies have focussed on their geochemistry, stratigraphy, and subsurface characterization, and on the compilation of an archive of cored material. Technical progress made in these areas are reported. In addition, two Master's theses prepared under the stratigraphic study project and one under the geochemical study project are included and are abstracted and indexed separately. (JSR)

  3. Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting of eastern oil shales. Final report, June 1992--January 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, M.J.; Mensinger, M.C.; Erekson, E.J.; Rue, D.M.; Lau, F.S. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Schultz, C.W.; Hatcher, W.E. [Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States). Mineral Resources Inst.; Parekh, B.K. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; Bonner, W.P. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The Devonian oil shales of the Eastern United States are a significant domestic energy resource. The overall objective of the multi-year program, initiated in September 1987 by the US Department of Energy was to perform the research necessary to develop the pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting (PFH) process for producing oil from Eastern oil shales. The program also incorporates research on technologies in areas such as raw shale preparation, beneficiation, product separation and upgrading, and waste disposal that have the potential of improving the economics and/or environmental acceptability of recovering oil from oil shales using the PFH process. The program was divided into the following active tasks: Task 3 -- Testing of Process Improvement Concepts; Task 4 -- Beneficiation Research; Task 6 -- Environmental Data and Mitigation Analyses; and Task 9 -- Information Required for the National Environmental Policy Act. In order to accomplish all of the program objectives, tho Institute of Gas Technology (ICT), the prime contractor, worked with four other institutions: The University of Alabama/Mineral Resources Institute (MRI), the University of Alabama College of Engineering (UA), University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), and Tennessee Technological University (TTU). This report presents the work performed by IGT from June 1, 1992 through January 31, 1993.

  4. Thermal maturity of northern Appalachian Basin Devonian shales: Insights from sterane and terpane biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Ryder, Robert T.; Trippi, Michael H.; Alimi, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    To better estimate thermal maturity of Devonian shales in the northern Appalachian Basin, eleven samples of Marcellus and Huron Shale were characterized via multiple analytical techniques. Vitrinite reflectance, Rock–Eval pyrolysis, gas chromatography (GC) of whole rock extracts, and GC–mass spectrometry (GCMS) of extract saturate fractions were evaluated on three transects that lie across previously documented regional thermal maturity isolines. Results from vitrinite reflectance suggest that most samples are immature with respect to hydrocarbon generation. However, bulk geochemical data and sterane and terpane biomarker ratios from GCMS suggest that almost all samples are in the oil window. This observation is consistent with the presence of thermogenic gas in the study area and higher vitrinite reflectance values recorded from overlying Pennsylvanian coals. These results suggest that vitrinite reflectance is a poor predictor of thermal maturity in early mature areas of Devonian shale, perhaps because reported measurements often include determinations of solid bitumen reflectance. Vitrinite reflectance interpretations in areas of early mature Devonian shale should be supplanted by evaluation of thermal maturity information from biomarker ratios and bulk geochemical data.

  5. The acceptability of shale gas? Values in the design of technologies, institutions and stakeholder interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Correlje, A.F.; Cuppen, E.H.W.J.; Dignum, M.; Pesch, U.; Taebi, B.

    2013-01-01

    Shale gas is a relatively new technology that is embraced by some as the ‘game changer’ in energy land, and opposed by others because of its risks and other potentially negative impacts. Recent experiences in the US and Europe have shown that the technology witnesses divergent societal acceptance is

  6. Assessment of shale-oil resources of the Central Sumatra Basin, Indonesia, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2015-11-12

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 459 million barrels of shale oil, 275 billion cubic feet of associated gas, and 23 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Central Sumatra Basin, Indonesia.

  7. Development of Nuclear Renewable Oil Shale Systems for Flexible Electricity and Reduced Fossil Fuel Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Curtis; Charles Forsberg; Humberto Garcia

    2015-05-01

    We propose the development of Nuclear Renewable Oil Shale Systems (NROSS) in northern Europe, China, and the western United States to provide large supplies of flexible, dispatchable, very-low-carbon electricity and fossil fuel production with reduced CO2 emissions. NROSS are a class of large hybrid energy systems in which base-load nuclear reactors provide the primary energy used to produce shale oil from kerogen deposits and simultaneously provide flexible, dispatchable, very-low-carbon electricity to the grid. Kerogen is solid organic matter trapped in sedimentary shale, and large reserves of this resource, called oil shale, are found in northern Europe, China, and the western United States. NROSS couples electricity generation and transportation fuel production in a single operation, reduces lifecycle carbon emissions from the fuel produced, improves revenue for the nuclear plant, and enables a major shift toward a very-low-carbon electricity grid. NROSS will require a significant development effort in the United States, where kerogen resources have never been developed on a large scale. In Europe, however, nuclear plants have been used for process heat delivery (district heating), and kerogen use is familiar in certain countries. Europe, China, and the United States all have the opportunity to use large scale NROSS development to enable major growth in renewable generation and either substantially reduce or eliminate their dependence on foreign fossil fuel supplies, accelerating their transitions to cleaner, more efficient, and more reliable energy systems.

  8. Rock physics and seismic modeling of shale reservoirs with horizontal fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiwu; DONG Ning; GUO Zhiqi

    2016-01-01

    The presence of horizontal fractures enhances seismic anisotropy of shales.Calculation based on the effective medium theory indicates that horizontal fractures have little effects on velocities along the direction pa-rallel to fractures,but can significantly reduce velocities along the direction normal to fractures.Seismic respon-ses of shales with horizontal fractures are calculated based on the reflector model and the anisotropic propagator matrix method,in which the reflections are a combination of the contrast in impedance due to the variations in fracture density,anisotropic propagation of waves within the shales,and the tuning and interferences associated with layer thickness.Calculated results indicate that seismic reflections are sensitive to reservoir layer thickness and fracture density.Anisotropic propagation alters amplitudes and phases of reflections.It corresponds to high-er reflection amplitudes for the case of surrounding sandstone with higher velocity because the increase in frac-ture density increases the contrast in impedance between the shale and sandstone.In contrast,the surrounding sandstone with lower velocity corresponds to lower reflection amplitudes for the increase in fracture density.

  9. Distribution of naturally occurring radionuclides (U, Th) in Timahdit black shale (Morocco)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo, C. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, 23, rue du Loess BP28, 67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France)]. E-mail: Catherine.galindo@ires.in2p3.fr; Mougin, L. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, 23, rue du Loess BP28, 67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Fakhi, S. [Laboratoire de Radiochimie (LRC), Faculte des Sciences Ben M' sik, Casablanca (Morocco); Nourreddine, A. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, 23, rue du Loess BP28, 67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Lamghari, A. [Laboratoire de Radiochimie (LRC), Faculte des Sciences Ben M' sik, Casablanca (Morocco); Hannache, H. [Laboratoire de Materiaux Thermo-Structuraux Faculte des Sciences Ben M' sik, Casablanca (Morocco)

    2007-07-01

    Attention has been focused recently on the use of Moroccan black oil shale as the raw material for production of a new type of adsorbent and its application to U and Th removal from contaminated wastewaters. The purpose of the present work is to provide a better understanding of the composition and structure of this shale and to determine its natural content in uranium and thorium. A black shale collected from Timahdit (Morocco) was analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction and SEM techniques. It was found that calcite, dolomite, quartz and clays constitute the main composition of the inorganic matrix. Pyrite crystals are also present. A selective leaching procedure, followed by radiochemical purification and {alpha}-counting, was performed to assess the distribution of naturally occurring radionuclides. Leaching results indicate that {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 23}Th and {sup 228}Th have multiple modes of occurrence in the shale. U is interpreted to have been concentrated under anaerobic conditions. An integrated isotopic approach showed the preferential mobilization of uranium carried by humic acids to carbonate and apatite phases. Th is partitioned between silicate minerals and pyrite.

  10. Distribution of naturally occurring radionuclides (U, Th) in Timahdit black shale (Morocco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, C; Mougin, L; Fakhi, S; Nourreddine, A; Lamghari, A; Hannache, H

    2007-01-01

    Attention has been focused recently on the use of Moroccan black oil shale as the raw material for production of a new type of adsorbent and its application to U and Th removal from contaminated wastewaters. The purpose of the present work is to provide a better understanding of the composition and structure of this shale and to determine its natural content in uranium and thorium. A black shale collected from Timahdit (Morocco) was analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction and SEM techniques. It was found that calcite, dolomite, quartz and clays constitute the main composition of the inorganic matrix. Pyrite crystals are also present. A selective leaching procedure, followed by radiochemical purification and alpha-counting, was performed to assess the distribution of naturally occurring radionuclides. Leaching results indicate that 238U, 235U, 234U, 232Th, 230Th and 228Th have multiple modes of occurrence in the shale. U is interpreted to have been concentrated under anaerobic conditions. An integrated isotopic approach showed the preferential mobilization of uranium carried by humic acids to carbonate and apatite phases. Th is partitioned between silicate minerals and pyrite.

  11. Microfluidic Investigation of Oil Mobilization in Shale Fracture Networks at Reservoir Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, M. L.; Jimenez-Martinez, J.; Carey, J. W.; Viswanathan, H. S.

    2015-12-01

    Investigations of pore-scale fluid flow and transport phenomena using engineered micromodels has steadily increased in recent years. In these investigations fluid flow is restricted to two-dimensions allowing for real time visualization and quantification of complex flow and reactive transport behavior, which is difficult to obtain in other experimental systems. One drawback to these studies is the use of engineered materials that do not faithfully represent the rock properties (e.g., porosity, wettability, roughness, etc.) encountered in subsurface formations. In this work, we describe a unique high pressure (up to 1500 psi) and temperature (up to 80 °C) microfluidics experimental system in which we investigate fluid flow and transport in geo-material (e.g., shale, Portland cement, etc.) micromodels. The use of geo-material micromodels allows us to better represent fluid-rock interactions including wettability, chemical reactivity, and nano-scale porosity at conditions representative of natural subsurface environments. Here, we present experimental results in fracture systems with applications to hydrocarbon mobility in hydraulically fractured shale. Complex fracture network patterns are derived from 3D x-ray tomography images of actual fractures created in shale rock cores. We use both shale and glass micromodels, allowing for a detailed comparison between flow phenomena in the different materials. We discuss results from two-phase huff-and-puff experiments involving N2 and n-Decane, as well as three-phase displacement experiments involving supercritical CO2, brine, and n-Decane.

  12. Baseflow recession analysis across the Eagle Ford shale play (Texas, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciniega, Saul; Brena-Naranjo, Agustin; Hernandez-Espriu, Jose Antonio; Pedrozo-Acuña, Adrian

    2016-04-01

    Baseflow is an important process of the hydrological cycle as it can be related to aquatic ecosystem health and groundwater recharge. The temporal and spatial dynamics of baseflow are typically governed by fluctuations in the water table of shallow aquifers hence groundwater pumping and return flow can greatly modify baseflow patterns. More recently, in some regions of the world the exploitation of gas trapped in shale formations by means of hydraulic fracturing (fracking) has raised major concerns on the quantitative and qualitative groundwater impacts. Although fracking implies massive amounts of groundwater withdrawals, its contribution on baseflow decline has not yet been fully investigated. Furthermore, its impact with respect to other human activities or climate extremes such as irrigation or extreme droughts, respectively, remain largely unknown. This work analyzes baseflow recession time-space patterns for a set of watersheds located across the largest shale producer in the world, the Eagle Ford shale play in Texas (USA). The period of study (1985-2014) includes a pre-development and post-development period. The dataset includes 56 hydrometric time series located inside and outside the shale play. Results show that during the development and expansion of the Eagle Ford play, around 70 % of the time series displayed a significant decline wheras no decline was observed during the pre-development)

  13. ¨ A Dilemma of Abundance: Governance Challenges of Reconciling Shale Gas Development and Climate Change Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karena Shaw

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Shale gas proponents argue this unconventional fossil fuel offers a “bridge” towards a cleaner energy system by offsetting higher-carbon fuels such as coal. The technical feasibility of reconciling shale gas development with climate action remains contested. However, we here argue that governance challenges are both more pressing and more profound. Reconciling shale gas and climate action requires institutions capable of responding effectively to uncertainty; intervening to mandate emissions reductions and internalize costs to industry; and managing the energy system strategically towards a lower carbon future. Such policy measures prove challenging, particularly in jurisdictions that stand to benefit economically from unconventional fuels. We illustrate this dilemma through a case study of shale gas development in British Columbia, Canada, a global leader on climate policy that is nonetheless struggling to manage gas development for mitigation. The BC case is indicative of the constraints jurisdictions face both to reconcile gas development and climate action, and to manage the industry adequately to achieve social licence and minimize resistance. More broadly, the case attests to the magnitude of change required to transform our energy systems to mitigate climate change.

  14. Thermo-sensitive polymer nanospheres as a smart plugging agent for shale gas drilling operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Ji; Qiu, Zheng-Song; Zhong, Han-Yi; Huang, Wei-An; Dai, Wen-Hao

    2017-01-01

    Emulsifier-free poly(methyl methacrylate-styrene) [P(MMA-St)] nanospheres with an average particle size of 100 nm were synthesized in an isopropyl alcohol-water medium by a solvothermal method. Then, through radical graft copolymerization of thermo-sensitive monomer N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm) and hydrophilic monomer acrylic acid (AA) onto the surface of P(MMA-St) nanospheres at 80 °C, a series of thermo-sensitive polymer nanospheres, named SD-SEAL with different lower critical solution temperatures (LCST), were prepared by adjusting the mole ratio of NIPAm to AA. The products were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, particle size distribution, and specific surface area analysis. The temperature-sensitive behavior was studied by light transmittance tests, while the sealing performance was investigated by pressure transmission tests with Lungmachi Formation shales. The experimental results showed that the synthesized nanoparticles are sensitive to temperature and had apparent LCST values which increased with an increase in hydrophilic monomer AA. When the temperature was higher than its LCST value, SD-SEAL played a dual role of physical plugging and chemical inhibition, slowed down pressure transmission, and reduced