WorldWideScience

Sample records for chassis

  1. 5th International Munich Chassis Symposium 2014

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The key drivers of innovation in the field of chassis systems are measures to improve vehicle dynamics and driving safety, efforts to reduce fuel consumption, and intelligent development methods. In addition, chassis development is focusing on enhancing ride comfort while also improving NVH characteristics. At the same time, modularization strategies, concepts for the electrification of the powertrain, and steps towards greater system connectivity are making increasingly complex demands on the chassis and its development. Developers are being called upon to respond to these challenges with a variety of solutions. Contents The chassis of the future.- Trends in chassis development.- New chassis systems.- Vehicle dynamics tuning.- Chassis functions.- Driving simulators and development methods.- Ride comfort.- Vehicle stability.- Innovative steering systems and redundancy.- Electronics and testing.- The future of the braking system.- Development methods.- New tire developments and virtual methods.- Tire pressure ...

  2. 6th International Munich Chassis Symposium 2015

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Connectivity has arrived in the vehicle - whether it is in-car internet or car-to-car communication. For the chassis too, the connected car is increasingly becoming a driver of innovation. Predictive and intelligent chassis systems and automated driving are just some of the topics being addressed. In addition to enhancing driving comfort and safety, interconnecting the powertrain with the chassis can also provide new functions, not only in cars but also in commercial vehicles. What is more, modularization, electrification of the powertrain, intelligent development methods and efforts to reduce fuel consumption are also driving innovations in chassis systems. Contents Consumer protection and methods.- New chassis systems.- Active chassis systems.- Energy efficiency, safety, and resources.- Driver assistance systems.- Development process.- Vehicle lateral dynamics.- Steering technology.- Test bench methods.- Environmental aspects and future technologies.- Control and simulation.- Road surface, tire, and wheel i...

  3. FPS camera sync and reset chassis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sync and reset chassis provides all the circuitry required to synchronize an event to be studied, a remote free-running focus projection and scanning (FPS) data-acquisition TV camera, and a video signal recording system. The functions, design, and operation of this chassis are described in detail

  4. 46 CFR 340.5 - Containers and chassis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Containers and chassis. 340.5 Section 340.5 Shipping... ALLOCATION OF SHIPPING SERVICES, CONTAINERS AND CHASSIS, AND PORT FACILITIES AND SERVICES FOR NATIONAL SECURITY AND NATIONAL DEFENSE RELATED OPERATIONS § 340.5 Containers and chassis. (a) When a defense...

  5. Bulkhead Interface Chassis for optical fiber patching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, M.

    1985-06-01

    An optical fiber patch panel was designed to meet the changing needs of optical fiber communication link installations. This paper deals with the specification and construction details of the Bulkhead Interface Chassis patch panel. Included is ordering information for the commercial parts needed and shop drawings of the pieces to be machined.

  6. Bulkhead interface chassis for optical fiber patching

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, M.

    1985-06-01

    An optical fiber patch panel was designed to meet the changing needs of optical fiber communication link installations. This paper deals with the specification and construction details of the Bulkhead Interface Chassis patch panel. Included is ordering information for the commercial parts needed and shop drawings of the pieces to be machined.

  7. Chassis Control based on Fuzzy Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Vivas Lopez, Carlos Albertos; Morales-Menendez, Ruben; Ramirez-Mendoza, Ricardo,; Sename, Olivier; Dugard, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Based on a Global Chassis Control system with three-layers architecture (decision, control, and physical layers) a Fuzzy Logic (FL) approach is exploited. The FL based decision layer identifies the current driving condition of the vehicle and decides the control strategy to take care of this driving condition. A confusion matrix validates the classification results. The control strategy is implemented through the subsystems (suspension, steering, and braking) at the FL based control layer. Th...

  8. Computational analysis on plug-in hybrid electric motorcycle chassis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, S. J.; Bakar, R. A.; Gan, L. M.

    2013-12-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric motorcycle (PHEM) is an alternative to promote sustainability lower emissions. However, the PHEM overall system packaging is constrained by limited space in a motorcycle chassis. In this paper, a chassis applying the concept of a Chopper is analysed to apply in PHEM. The chassis 3dimensional (3D) modelling is built with CAD software. The PHEM power-train components and drive-train mechanisms are intergraded into the 3D modelling to ensure the chassis provides sufficient space. Besides that, a human dummy model is built into the 3D modelling to ensure the rider?s ergonomics and comfort. The chassis 3D model then undergoes stress-strain simulation. The simulation predicts the stress distribution, displacement and factor of safety (FOS). The data are used to identify the critical point, thus suggesting the chassis design is applicable or need to redesign/ modify to meet the require strength. Critical points mean highest stress which might cause the chassis to fail. This point occurs at the joints at triple tree and bracket rear absorber for a motorcycle chassis. As a conclusion, computational analysis predicts the stress distribution and guideline to develop a safe prototype chassis.

  9. Information Processing of Chassis Dynamometer based on Controller Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shupeng Zhao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of chassis dynamometer of hybrid vehicle based on CAN bus was studied. Chassis dynamometer of hybrid vehicle measurement methods and loading devices are analyzed, and laid the foundation for the resistance simulation of chassis dynamometer. Road resistance simulation on HEV chassis dynamometer is researched, getting electric quantity simulation type of chassis dynamometer driving resistance. The research and development of hybrid vehicle chassis dynamometer based on CAN Bus is conducive to enhance the level of whole hybrid vehicle and car assembly, establish the test procedures, test methods and test standards, provide a research platform and methods for test evaluation of HEV energy utilization. The chassis dynamometer system needs to be calibrated in order to ensure its accuracy .The drum Test bench surface traction can be measured from the motor casing tangential force using force sensor mounted on the motor casing. The design adopts bidirectional calibration arm, it can decrease the effect of extra torque to ensure the test precision of automobile chassis dynamometer surface traction. The method of hybrid vehicles fuel consumption experiment test is analyzed through experiment test on the HEV chassis dynamometer and actual road. We obtain some regularity of hybrid vehicles energy consumption and hybrid vehicles fuel consumption test method through studying lightweight hybrid vehicles fuel economy.

  10. Activities of the Boom and Chassis Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    dell, Jason Scott; Meeks, Thomas Bayne; Merkel, Kelly; Nelson, Brent; Winchell, Tom

    Group One of the NASA Lunar Enabler Project has designed the primary chassis and boom structures for the lunar vehicle. Both components also feature V-clamps that were adapted to interface connections within the structure. The chassis features a front end, rear end section, middle cross-section, and face plate. The rear section contains an extra compartment for the engine, hydraulic pump, fuel bottles, and oil reservoir necessary for the wheel drives. Each section consists of tubular aluminum 6061-T6. The boom features four degrees of freedom system, where the minimum factor of safety of any part is 1.5 (but, normally much higher). It consists of a tapered upper boom, lower boom, and three elbows that complement the articulation joints. Each section of the boom has been constructed from aluminum 6061-T6. There are four joints and eight V-clamps in the boom assembly. The V-clamps feature support rings that prevent axial rotation. They provide easy adaptability and assembly.

  11. Further advancement of chassis-dynamometer measurement and control technology; Kodoka suru chassis dinamo keisoku seigyo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Y. [Meidensha Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-03-01

    A new chassis-dynamometer was developed and put into the practical use in 1992. Currently this chassis-dynamometer, in which rollers are mounted on the AC-dynamometer shaft end, is being used in the majority of passenger car testing application. This paper present bow the associated measurement and control technology was upgraded and discusses the future trend in this field. (author)

  12. Design and Optimization of Carbon-Fiber Chassis Panels

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Eric Carlton

    2014-01-01

    Each year, the Virginia Tech (VT) Formula SAE (FSAE) team creates a high performance car to compete against 120 teams from around the world in a series of dynamic events evaluating acceleration, maneuverability, and handling. In an effort to improve upon the VT 2013 car, the torsional stiffness of the chassis was increased. Increasing the torsional stiffness of the chassis allows the suspension to be more precisely tuned, resulting in a better overall performance. An investigation was cond...

  13. Cyanobacterial chassis engineering for enhancing production of biofuels and chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xinyan; Sun, Tao; Pei, Guangsheng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Weiwen

    2016-04-01

    To reduce dependence on fossil fuels and curb greenhouse effect, cyanobacteria have emerged as an important chassis candidate for producing biofuels and chemicals due to their capability to directly utilize sunlight and CO2 as the sole energy and carbon sources, respectively. Recent progresses in developing and applying various synthetic biology tools have led to the successful constructions of novel pathways of several dozen green fuels and chemicals utilizing cyanobacterial chassis. Meanwhile, it is increasingly recognized that in order to enhance productivity of the synthetic cyanobacterial systems, optimizing and engineering more robust and high-efficient cyanobacterial chassis should not be omitted. In recent years, numerous research studies have been conducted to enhance production of green fuels and chemicals through cyanobacterial chassis modifications involving photosynthesis, CO2 uptake and fixation, products exporting, tolerance, and cellular regulation. In this article, we critically reviewed recent progresses and universal strategies in cyanobacterial chassis engineering to make it more robust and effective for bio-chemicals production. PMID:26883347

  14. Yeast metabolic chassis designs for diverse biotechnological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouhten, Paula; Boruta, Tomasz; Andrejev, Sergej; Pereira, Filipa; Rocha, Isabel; Patil, Kiran Raosaheb

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of industrially important molecules for which microbial production routes have been experimentally demonstrated is rapidly increasing. The development of economically viable producer cells is, however, lagging behind, as it requires substantial engineering of the host metabolism. A chassis strain suitable for production of a range of molecules is therefore highly sought after but remains elusive. Here, we propose a genome-scale metabolic modeling approach to design chassis strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae - a widely used microbial cell factory. For a group of 29 products covering a broad range of biochemistry and applications, we identified modular metabolic engineering strategies for re-routing carbon flux towards the desired product. We find distinct product families with shared targets forming the basis for the corresponding chassis cells. The design strategies include overexpression targets that group products by similarity in precursor and cofactor requirements, as well as gene deletion strategies for growth-product coupling that lead to non-intuitive product groups. Our results reveal the extent and the nature of flux re-routing necessary for producing a diverse range of products in a widely used cell factory and provide blueprints for constructing pre-optimized chassis strains. PMID:27430744

  15. [Progress in developing and applying Streptomyces chassis - A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Liping; Deng, Zixin; Liu, Tiangang

    2016-03-01

    Natural products and their derivatives play an important role in modern healthcare. Their diversity in bioactivity and chemical structure inspires scientists to discover new drug entities for clinical use. However, chemical synthesis of natural compounds has insurmountable difficulties in technology and cost. Also, many original-producing bacteria have disadvantages of needing harsh cultivation conditions, having low productivity and other shortcomings. In addition, some gene clusters responsible for secondary metabolite biosynthesis are silence in the original strains. Therefore, it is of great significance to exploit strategy for the heterologous expression of natural products guided by synthetic biology. Recently, researchers pay more attention on using actinomycetes that are the main source of many secondary metabolites, such as antibiotics, anticancer agents, and immunosuppressive drugs. Especially, with huge development of genome sequencing, abundant resources of natural product biosynthesis in Streptomyces have been discovered, which highlight the special advantages on developing Streptomyces as the heterologous expression chassis cells. This review begins with the significance of the development of Streptomyces chassis, focusing on the strategies and the status in developing Streptomyces chassis cells, followed by examples to illustrate the practical applications of a variety of Streptomyces chassis.

  16. Identification of Dynamics Modal Parameter for Car Chassis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sani, M S M; Rahman, M M; Noor, M M; Kadirgama, K; Izham, M H N [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, 26600 UMP, Pekan, Pahang (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    This paper explores and investigates the dynamic characteristics of car chassis structure by using experimental modal analysis (EMA) method and modal testing. Dynamic characteristics are divided into three parameters include natural frequency, damping factor and mode shape. In this study, modal testing was performed on the car chassis including the impact hammer and shaker test. Data analyzer was used to convert the response signal from the sensor, which was in the time domain to frequency domain. Result obtained from both methods, is compared on each axis (X, Y and Z axis). However, small discrepancy was observed in terms of natural frequency, which is within the range of 5%. Based on the results, interpretation and comparison were made for both methods.

  17. Installation of Dual Reductant Tanks on a Truck Chassis

    OpenAIRE

    Saleeb, Markos

    2013-01-01

    Exhaust after treatment technology based on a reductant (urea) injection into the silencer, has been set up to be a very efficient tool to reduce the emission of the Engines especially NOx. The reductant is stored in a tank positioned on the truck chassis. The reductant tank volume of today is required to be increased to meet the requirements of the market and that is motivated by Euro VI regulations which aim to a higher reduction of the emission of the NOx of the trucks. In this thesis the ...

  18. Using Adequate Ball Bearings in RC Car Chassis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Fridrik

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the usage and misusage of ball bearings in rc car chassis technology of today . As this area is under massive development and could have a great impact in real cars it is important for new researchers to understand the importance of using the correct parts in constructing new devices and technologies based on the current one. As problems in economy are increasing it is important for new discovery’s to be tested in small scale models rather than full scale.

  19. Communication protocol in chassis detecting wireless transmission system based on WiFi

    Science.gov (United States)

    In chassis detecting wireless transmission system, the wireless network communication protocol plays a key role in the information exchange and synchronization between the host and chassis PDA. This paper presents a wireless network transmission protocol based on TCP/IP which makes the rules of info...

  20. 26 CFR 48.4061(a)-5 - Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis. 48..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4061(a)-5 Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis. (a) Sale of completed vehicle. An automobile truck (as defined by §...

  1. 77 FR 71673 - Decision To Rescind Buy America Waiver for Minivans and Minivan Chassis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... technical documentation were full size vans and/or pickup trucks, and not minivans. Braun also alleged that... 21, 2010 (75 FR 35123). The waiver exempted minivans and minivan chassis from the Buy America final..., FTA waived its Buy America final assembly requirement for minivans and minivan chassis. 75 FR...

  2. Finite Element Analysis of Fire Truck Chassis for Steel and Carbon Fiber Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvi Gauri Sanjay

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chassis is the foremost component of an automobile that acts as the frame to support the vehicle body. Hence the frame ought to be very rigid and robust enough to resist shocks vibrations and stresses acting on a moving vehicle. Steel in its numerous forms is commonly used material for producing chassis and overtime alumimium has acquired its use. However, in this study traditional materials are replaced with ultra light weight carbon fiber materials. High strength and low weight of carbon fibers makes it ideal for manufacturing automotive chassis. This paper depicts the modal and static structural analysis of TATA 407 fire truck chassis frame for steel as well as carbon fibers. From the analyzed results, stress, strain and total deformation values were compared for both the materials. Since it is easy to analyze structural systems by finite element method, the chassis is modified using PRO-E and the Finite Element Analysis is performed on ANSYS workbench.

  3. General-purpose microprocessor-based control chassis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the Pion Generation for Medical Irradiations (PIGMI) program at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is to develop the technology to build smaller, less expensive, and more reliable proton linear accelerators for medical applications. For this program, a powerful, simple, inexpensive, and reliable control and data acquisition system was developed. The system has a NOVA 3D computer with a real time disk-operating system (RDOS) that communicates with distributed microprocessor-based controllers which directly control data input/output chassis. At the heart of the controller is a microprocessor crate which was conceived at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. This idea was applied to the design of the hardware and software of the controller

  4. Functional Virtual Prototyping in Vehicle Chassis Reform Analysis and Improvement Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The contribution of functional virtual prototyping to vehicle chassis development is presented. The different topics that we took into consideration were reform analysis and improvement design during the vehicle chassis development. A frame of coordinates based on the digital-model was established, the main CAE analysis methods, multi-body system dynamics and finite element analysis were applied to the digital-model build by CAD/CAM software. The method was applied in the vehicle chassis reform analysis and improvement design, all the analysis and design projects were implemented in the uniform digital-model, and the development was carried through effectively.

  5. Developments in chassis engineering; Entwicklungen im Karosseriebau. Tagung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Competent experts of the motor car industry, supply industry and universities presented 22 papers on the status and trends in chassis engineering. Subjects: Lightweight construction, safety, special vehicles and development projects. [German] Kompetente Fachleute von Fahrzeugherstellern, Zulieferfirmen und Hochschulen berichten in 22 Referaten ueber den technischen Stand und die Trends im Karosseriebau. Eine Fachausstellung, Pausengespraeche und ein Empfang am ersten Abend des Kongresses bieten ausfuehrlich Gelegenheit zu fachlichen und geschaeftlichen Gespraechen. Mit dem Themenschwerpunkt Konzept und Design wurde die Tagung eroeffnet. Mit einem Rundblick von der Karosserie des kleinen Stadtfahrzeugs hin zur Karosserie der grossen Luxuslimousine wurde sie beendet. Besonders umfangreich wurde in dieser Tagung das Thema Leichtbau abgehandelt. An konkreten Beispielen wurde aufgezeigt, auf welchen Wegen - verschiedenen Wegen - Gewichtsoptimierung erzielt wird, wobei die Anforderungen an Steifigkeit, Crashverhalten, Ergonomie und Komfort nicht nur erhalten sondern teilweise noch erhoeht werden. Einzelne Komponenten, Module, Rohkarosserien und Gesamtfahrzeuge wurden nebst Problemstellungen und Problemloesungen veranschaulicht. Neben dem zentralen Thema Leichtbau in der Tagung wurde in kuerzeren Vortragsbloecken ueber Fortschritte in der passiven Sicherheit, ueber spezielle Fahrzeugkonzepte und ueber zeitzonenversetztes Arbeiten in Entwicklungsprojekten berichtet. (orig./AKF)

  6. Static Analysis, Design Modification and Modal Analysis of Structural Chassis Frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Ps

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The chassis frame is an important part in a truck and it carries the whole load acting on the truck as well as different parts of the automobile. So it must be strong enough to resist the shock, twist, vibration and other stresses. Maximum stress and maximum deflection are important criteria for design of the chassis. The objective of present is to determine the maximum stress, maximum deflection and to recognize critical regions under static loading condition. Static structural analysis of the chassis frame is carried out by FEA Method. The structural chassis frame is modeled using PRO-E wildfire 4.0 software. The Pre-processing has done with HYPERMESH software; then the problem has been solved through RADIOSS and the post processing was done by HYPERVIEW. The results obtained like maximum shear stress, Von-mises stress and maximum deflections are used for improving design modification. Modal analysis of the chassis frame done using ANSYS WORKBENCH. Through modal analysis, natural frequencies and corresponding vibration mode shapes of the structure are obtained.

  7. Electric vehicle chassis dynamometer test methods at JPL and their correlation to track tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marte, J.; Bryant, J.

    1983-01-01

    Early in its electric vehicle (EV) test program, JPL recognized that EV test procedures were too vague and too loosely defined to permit much meaningful data to be obtained from the testing. Therefore, JPL adopted more stringent test procedures and chose the chassis dynamometer rather than the track as its principal test technique. Through the years, test procedures continued to evolve towards a methodology based on chassis dynamometers which would exhibit good correlation with track testing. Based on comparative dynamometer and track test results on the ETV-1 vehicle, the test methods discussed in this report demonstrate a means by which excellent track-to-dynamometer correlation can be obtained.

  8. Self-propelled automatic chassis of Lunokhod-1: History of creation in episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malenkov, Mikhail

    2016-03-01

    This report reviews the most important episodes in the history of designing the self-propelled automatic chassis of the first mobile extraterrestrial vehicle in the world, Lunokhod-1. The review considers the issues in designing moon rovers, their essential features, and the particular construction properties of their systems, mechanisms, units, and assemblies. It presents the results of exploiting the chassis of Lunokhod-1 and Lunokhod-2. Analysis of the approaches utilized and engineering solutions reveals their value as well as the consequences of certain defects.

  9. 26 CFR 48.4063-1 - Tax-free sales of bodies to chassis manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Tax-free sales of bodies to chassis manufacturers. 48.4063-1 Section 48.4063-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4063-1 Tax-free sales of bodies...

  10. Enumerating metabolic pathways for the production of heterologous target chemicals in chassis organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carbonell Pablo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We consider the possibility of engineering metabolic pathways in a chassis organism in order to synthesize novel target compounds that are heterologous to the chassis. For this purpose, we model metabolic networks through hypergraphs where reactions are represented by hyperarcs. Each hyperarc represents an enzyme-catalyzed reaction that transforms set of substrates compounds into product compounds. We follow a retrosynthetic approach in order to search in the metabolic space (hypergraphs for pathways (hyperpaths linking the target compounds to a source set of compounds. Results To select the best pathways to engineer, we have developed an objective function that computes the cost of inserting a heterologous pathway in a given chassis organism. In order to find minimum-cost pathways, we propose in this paper two methods based on steady state analysis and network topology that are to the best of our knowledge, the first to enumerate all possible heterologous pathways linking a target compounds to a source set of compounds. In the context of metabolic engineering, the source set is composed of all naturally produced chassis compounds (endogenuous chassis metabolites and the target set can be any compound of the chemical space. We also provide an algorithm for identifying precursors which can be supplied to the growth media in order to increase the number of ways to synthesize specific target compounds. Conclusions We find the topological approach to be faster by several orders of magnitude than the steady state approach. Yet both methods are generally scalable in time with the number of pathways in the metabolic network. Therefore this work provides a powerful tool for pathway enumeration with direct application to biosynthetic pathway design.

  11. Multi-criteria optimization of chassis parameters of Nissan 200 SX for drifting competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniowski, M.

    2016-09-01

    The work objective is to increase performance of Nissan 200sx S13 prepared for a quasi-static state of drifting on a circular path with given constant radius (R=15 m) and tyre-road friction coefficient (μ = 0.9). First, a high fidelity “miMA” multibody model of the vehicle is formulated. Then, a multicriteria optimization problem is solved with one of the goals to maximize a stable drift angle (β) of the vehicle. The decision variables contain 11 parameters of the vehicle chassis (describing the wheel suspension stiffness and geometry) and 2 parameters responsible for a driver steering and accelerator actions, that control this extreme closed-loop manoeuvre. The optimized chassis setup results in the drift angle increase by 14% from 35 to 40 deg.

  12. Failure of the chassis of roller skates for agonistic figure skating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Olmi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this work was to investigate the early failure, which occurred in the chassis of a roller skate for figure skating. The paper deals with the preliminary analysis of the crack and with the integrated approach, which had to be followed to overcome the problem. Literature in the fields of physiology and biomechanics was studied to correctly simulate the load distribution on the chassis. Finite element simulation, experimental stress analysis and analytical modeling of impact phenomena had to be combined together to estimate the entity of dynamic loads and the corresponding state of stress. The analysis led to the determination of the primary cause of failure, bending fatigue, and to the suggestion of a simple solution to improve and optimize the project.

  13. Investigation of Diagonal Antenna-Chassis Mode in Mobile Terminal LTE MIMO Antennas for Bandwidth Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuai; Zhao, Kun; Ying, Zhinong;

    2015-01-01

    mechanism of the mismatch of these three bandwidth ranges is also explained. Furthermore, the diagonal antenna-chassis mode is also studied for MIMO elements in the adjacent and diagonal corner locations. As a practical example, a wideband collocated LTE MIMO antenna is proposed and measured. It covers......A diagonal antenna-chassis mode is investigated in long-term evolution multiple-input-multiple-output (LTE MIMO) antennas. The MIMO bandwidth is defined in this paper as the overlap range of the low-envelope correlation coefficient, high total efficiency, and -6-dB impedance matching bandwidths....... Utilizing the diagonal mode analysis, the MIMO bandwidth of the collocated MIMO antennas is improved efficiently at the frequencies of lower than 960 MHz. This is realized through moving the three bandwidths to the same range without the degradation of impedance bandwidth and total efficiency. The physical...

  14. The influence of compliant chassis components on motorcycle dynamics: an historical overview and the potential future impact of carbon fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Kelvin; Thomas, Richard; Williams, Owen

    2012-07-01

    This paper details the influence of compliant chassis components on motorcycle dynamics. Initially, research which has previously been carried out in terms of motorcycle dynamics and in particular the impact of compliant chassis components on motorcycle dynamics is discussed. This paper then considers the consequences of these findings with regard to the use of modern materials such as carbon fibre reinforced plastics and the impact they will potentially have on motorcycle dynamics and its simulation.

  15. Open source approaches to establishing Roseobacter clade bacteria as synthetic biology chassis for biogeoengineering

    OpenAIRE

    Borg, Yanika; Grigonyte, Aurelija Marija; Boeing, Philipp; Wolfenden, Bethan; Smith, Patrick; Beaufoy, William; Rose, Simon; Ratisai, Tonderai; Zaikin, Alexey; Nesbeth, Darren N.

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The nascent field of bio-geoengineering stands to benefit from synthetic biologists’ efforts to standardise, and in so doing democratise, biomolecular research methods. Roseobacter clade bacteria comprise 15–20% of oceanic bacterio-plankton communities, making them a prime candidate for establishment of synthetic biology chassis for bio-geoengineering activities such as bioremediation of oceanic waste plastic. Developments such as the increasing affordability of DNA synthesis and laborat...

  16. Design of an Integrated Vehicle Chassis Control System with Driver Behavior Identification

    OpenAIRE

    Bing Zhu; Yizhou Chen; Jian Zhao; Yunfu Su

    2015-01-01

    An integrated vehicle chassis control strategy with driver behavior identification is introduced in this paper. In order to identify the different types of driver behavior characteristics, a driver behavior signals acquisition system was established using the dSPACE real-time simulation platform, and the driver inputs of 30 test drivers were collected under the double lane change test condition. Then, driver behavior characteristics were analyzed and identified based on the preview optimal cu...

  17. Technique for calibration of chassis components based on encoding marks and machine vision metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Li-mei; Zhang, Chun-bo; Wei, Yi-ying; Chen, Hua-wei

    2011-01-01

    A novel technique for calibrating crucial parameters of chassis components is proposed, which utilizes the machine vision metrology to measure 3D coordinates of the center of a component's hole for assembling in the 3D world coordinate system. In the measurement, encoding marks with special patterns will be assembled on the chassis component associated with cross drone and staff gauge located near the chassis. The geometry and coordinates of the cross drone consist of two planes orthogonal to each other and the staff gauge is in 3D space with high precision. A few images are taken by a high-resolution camera in different orientations and perspectives. The 3D coordinates of 5 key points on the encoding marks will be calculated by the machine vision technique and those of the center of the holes to be calibrated will be calculated by the deduced algorithm in this paper. Experimental results show that the algorithm and the technique can satisfy the precision requirement when the components are assembled, and the average measurement precision provided by the algorithm is 0.0174 mm.

  18. Integrated chassis control for vehicle rollover prevention with neural network time-to-rollover warning metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Zhu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The rollover of road vehicles is one of the most serious problems related to transportation safety. In this article, a novel rollover prevention control system composed of rollover warning and integrated chassis control algorithm is proposed. First, a conventional time-to-rollover warning algorithm was presented based on the 3-degree of freedom vehicle model. In order to improve the precision of vehicle rollover prediction, a back-propagation neural network was adopted to regulate time to rollover online by considering multi-state parameters of the vehicle. Second, a rollover prevention algorithm based on integrated chassis control was investigated, where the active front steering and the active yaw moment control were coordinated by model predictive control methodology. Finally, the algorithms were evaluated under several typical maneuvers utilizing MATLAB/Simulink and Carsim co-simulation. The results show that the proposed neural network time-to-rollover metrics can be a good measure of the danger of rollover, and the roll stability of the simulated vehicle is improved significantly with reduced side slip angle and yaw rate by the proposed integrated chassis control rollover prevention system.

  19. Technique for Calibration of Chassis components based on encoding marks and machine Vision metrology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Li-mei; ZHANG Chun-bo; WEI Yi-ying; CHEN Hua-wei

    2011-01-01

    @@ A novel technique for calibrating crucial parameters of chassis components is proposed, which utilizes the machine vision metrology to measure 3D coordinates of the center of a component's hole for assembling in the 3D world coordinate system.In the measurement, encoding marks with special patterns will be assembled on the chassis component associated with cross drone and staff gauge located near the chassis.The geometry and coordinates of the cross drone consist of two planes orthogonal to each other and the staff gauge is in 3D space with high precision.A few images are taken by a highresolution camera in different orientations and perspectives.The 3D coordinates of 5 key points on the encoding marks will be calculated by the machine vision technique and those of the center of the holes to be calibrated will be calculated by the deduced algorithm in this paper.Experimental results show that the algorithm and the technique can satisfy the precision requirement when the components are assembled, and the average measurement precision provided by the algorithm is 0.0174 mm.

  20. Stresses In Vehicle Chassis Joints - A Canparison Of SPATE With Other Analysis Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loader, A. J.; Turner, W. B.; Harwood, N.

    1987-04-01

    Joints in ladder frame chassis have been studied as part of an SERC Teaching Company Schene. The joints between the cross members and side members are complex structures involving bolts, welds and/or rivets, as the cross member section can be tubular, box or C-section. It is therefore difficult to apply simple analytical methods to such joints. This paper compares the stresses obtained by brittle lacquer, strain gauge and SPATE measurements with those found from a finite elenent analysis of the joints.

  1. Broadband noise and vibration reduction for lightweight chassis design using smart structure technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messner, L.; Gusenbauer, M.; Rittenschober, T.

    2007-04-01

    Lightweight design is gaining more and more importance in the automotive industry. Engineers are trying hard to reduce the increased weight of chassis due to safety and comfort issues. This paper presents new achievements in the field of control design for smart structures, targeting at innovative lightweight, high-performance and low-noise engineering constructions with integrated embedded systems technology: The first part of the paper focuses on new developments in the field of low-cost, highly efficient smart structure power electronics for piezoelectric elements. These elements will be integrated into automotive chassis, which are able to measure any structure-borne disturbance such as vibrations. The second part of the paper presents frontier research in the design of a high-performance control concept for smart structure applications. This innovative control concept based on a nonlinear state observer design, targets at highly robust and broadband suppression of structure-borne noise in terms of fast changing frequencies. The controller performance is not only assessed with respect to stability and disturbance rejection but also with respect to technical feasibility and implementation issues (required sample rate, rounding errors due to inappropriate data formats, latency, etc.).

  2. Design of an Integrated Vehicle Chassis Control System with Driver Behavior Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An integrated vehicle chassis control strategy with driver behavior identification is introduced in this paper. In order to identify the different types of driver behavior characteristics, a driver behavior signals acquisition system was established using the dSPACE real-time simulation platform, and the driver inputs of 30 test drivers were collected under the double lane change test condition. Then, driver behavior characteristics were analyzed and identified based on the preview optimal curvature model through genetic algorithm and neural network method. Using it as a base, an integrated chassis control strategy with active front steering (AFS and direct yaw moment control (DYC considering driver characteristics was established by model predictive control (MPC method. Finally, simulations were carried out to verify the control strategy by CarSim and MATLAB/Simulink. The results show that the proposed method enables the control system to adjust its parameters according to the driver behavior identification results and the vehicle handling and stability performance are significantly improved.

  3. Balance of XYL1 and XYL2 expression in different yeast chassis for improved xylose fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian eZha

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Reducing xylitol formation is an important step in engineering xylose reductase/xylitol dehydrogenase pathway for ethanol production from xylose in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, to balance the expression of XYL1 and mutant XYL2 encoding xylose reductase and NADP+-preferring xylitol dehydrogenase for reduced xylitol production, we utilized a strategy combining chassis selection and direct fine-tuning of XYL1 and XYL2 expression. A XYL1 gene under control of various promoters of ADH1, truncated ADH1 and PGK1, and a mutated XYL2 with different copy numbers were constructed into different xylose-utilizing modules, which were then expressed in two yeast chassis W303a and L2612. The strategy enabled us to achieve an improved L2612-derived recombinant strain with XYL1 controlled by promoter PGK1 and with two copies of XYL2. The strain exhibited 21.3% lower xylitol yield and 40.0% higher ethanol yield. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the combinatorial strategy for construction of efficient xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  4. Performance improvement for 4-strokes motorcycle engine by modifying exhaust system with CFD and chassis dyno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiarto, B. [Indonesia Univ., Jakarta (Indonesia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    In this study, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was used to evaluate the impact of a motorcycle exhaust system. A chassis dynamometer tester was used to validate the model. Three kinds of exhaust systems were tested: (1) a standard muffler; (2) a popular type of Indonesian exhaust system with a glass wool step filter; and (3) an optimized exhaust system. The optimized system consisted of a small muffler and a straight filter without a border. Results of the CFD study showed that the exhaust system achieved maximum acceleration at 6000 rpm. Acceleration decreased at higher rotations. In the standard exhaust system, the highest rates of turbulence were observed at the muffler's borders. Acceleration rates produced by the exhaust systems differed significantly, and were caused by the muffler exhaust system construction. It was concluded that when flows increase from the exit, acceleration rates increase at lower rotations. 7 refs., 17 figs.

  5. Modal Correlation Based Analysis on Dynamic Characters of a Commercial Semi-Trailer's Chassis Frames

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Hui-hua; ZUO Zheng-xing; LIAO Ri-dong; LONG Kai

    2007-01-01

    In order to evaluate two different schemes' structural dynamic characters, dynamic response analysis of a commercial truck's main chassis frames is carried out.On the basis of correlation study between the tested and calculated modal results, the assembled frames' finite element analysis (FEA) models with sufficient precision are built up.Random response analysis in frequency domain is carried out with these FEA models, RMS values of von Mises and main principle stresses of these two frames are obtained.It shows that the analysis results of the distributing tendency and concrete value ranges are coincident very well with test results.And from the results, it could be concluded that frames of scheme A endures relative better loading conditions and should be adopted as the final scheme.

  6. Open source approaches to establishing Roseobacter clade bacteria as synthetic biology chassis for biogeoengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Yanika; Grigonyte, Aurelija Marija; Boeing, Philipp; Wolfenden, Bethan; Smith, Patrick; Beaufoy, William; Rose, Simon; Ratisai, Tonderai; Zaikin, Alexey; Nesbeth, Darren N

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The nascent field of bio-geoengineering stands to benefit from synthetic biologists' efforts to standardise, and in so doing democratise, biomolecular research methods. Roseobacter clade bacteria comprise 15-20% of oceanic bacterio-plankton communities, making them a prime candidate for establishment of synthetic biology chassis for bio-geoengineering activities such as bioremediation of oceanic waste plastic. Developments such as the increasing affordability of DNA synthesis and laboratory automation continue to foster the establishment of a global 'do-it-yourself' research community alongside the more traditional arenas of academe and industry. As a collaborative group of citizen, student and professional scientists we sought to test the following hypotheses: (i) that an incubator capable of cultivating bacterial cells can be constructed entirely from non-laboratory items, (ii) that marine bacteria from the Roseobacter clade can be established as a genetically tractable synthetic biology chassis using plasmids conforming to the BioBrick(TM) standard and finally, (iii) that identifying and subcloning genes from a Roseobacter clade species can readily by achieved by citizen scientists using open source cloning and bioinformatic tools. Method. We cultivated three Roseobacter species, Roseobacter denitrificans, Oceanobulbus indolifexand Dinoroseobacter shibae. For each species we measured chloramphenicol sensitivity, viability over 11 weeks of glycerol-based cryopreservation and tested the effectiveness of a series of electroporation and heat shock protocols for transformation using a variety of plasmid types. We also attempted construction of an incubator-shaker device using only publicly available components. Finally, a subgroup comprising citizen scientists designed and attempted a procedure for isolating the cold resistance anf1 gene from Oceanobulbus indolifexcells and subcloning it into a BioBrick(TM) formatted plasmid. Results. All species were stable

  7. Open source approaches to establishing Roseobacter clade bacteria as synthetic biology chassis for biogeoengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Yanika; Grigonyte, Aurelija Marija; Boeing, Philipp; Wolfenden, Bethan; Smith, Patrick; Beaufoy, William; Rose, Simon; Ratisai, Tonderai; Zaikin, Alexey; Nesbeth, Darren N

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The nascent field of bio-geoengineering stands to benefit from synthetic biologists' efforts to standardise, and in so doing democratise, biomolecular research methods. Roseobacter clade bacteria comprise 15-20% of oceanic bacterio-plankton communities, making them a prime candidate for establishment of synthetic biology chassis for bio-geoengineering activities such as bioremediation of oceanic waste plastic. Developments such as the increasing affordability of DNA synthesis and laboratory automation continue to foster the establishment of a global 'do-it-yourself' research community alongside the more traditional arenas of academe and industry. As a collaborative group of citizen, student and professional scientists we sought to test the following hypotheses: (i) that an incubator capable of cultivating bacterial cells can be constructed entirely from non-laboratory items, (ii) that marine bacteria from the Roseobacter clade can be established as a genetically tractable synthetic biology chassis using plasmids conforming to the BioBrick(TM) standard and finally, (iii) that identifying and subcloning genes from a Roseobacter clade species can readily by achieved by citizen scientists using open source cloning and bioinformatic tools. Method. We cultivated three Roseobacter species, Roseobacter denitrificans, Oceanobulbus indolifexand Dinoroseobacter shibae. For each species we measured chloramphenicol sensitivity, viability over 11 weeks of glycerol-based cryopreservation and tested the effectiveness of a series of electroporation and heat shock protocols for transformation using a variety of plasmid types. We also attempted construction of an incubator-shaker device using only publicly available components. Finally, a subgroup comprising citizen scientists designed and attempted a procedure for isolating the cold resistance anf1 gene from Oceanobulbus indolifexcells and subcloning it into a BioBrick(TM) formatted plasmid. Results. All species were stable

  8. Open source approaches to establishing Roseobacter clade bacteria as synthetic biology chassis for biogeoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeing, Philipp; Wolfenden, Bethan; Smith, Patrick; Beaufoy, William; Rose, Simon; Ratisai, Tonderai; Zaikin, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The nascent field of bio-geoengineering stands to benefit from synthetic biologists’ efforts to standardise, and in so doing democratise, biomolecular research methods. Roseobacter clade bacteria comprise 15–20% of oceanic bacterio-plankton communities, making them a prime candidate for establishment of synthetic biology chassis for bio-geoengineering activities such as bioremediation of oceanic waste plastic. Developments such as the increasing affordability of DNA synthesis and laboratory automation continue to foster the establishment of a global ‘do-it-yourself’ research community alongside the more traditional arenas of academe and industry. As a collaborative group of citizen, student and professional scientists we sought to test the following hypotheses: (i) that an incubator capable of cultivating bacterial cells can be constructed entirely from non-laboratory items, (ii) that marine bacteria from the Roseobacter clade can be established as a genetically tractable synthetic biology chassis using plasmids conforming to the BioBrickTM standard and finally, (iii) that identifying and subcloning genes from a Roseobacter clade species can readily by achieved by citizen scientists using open source cloning and bioinformatic tools. Method. We cultivated three Roseobacter species, Roseobacter denitrificans, Oceanobulbus indolifexand Dinoroseobacter shibae. For each species we measured chloramphenicol sensitivity, viability over 11 weeks of glycerol-based cryopreservation and tested the effectiveness of a series of electroporation and heat shock protocols for transformation using a variety of plasmid types. We also attempted construction of an incubator-shaker device using only publicly available components. Finally, a subgroup comprising citizen scientists designed and attempted a procedure for isolating the cold resistance anf1 gene from Oceanobulbus indolifexcells and subcloning it into a BioBrickTM formatted plasmid. Results. All species were stable

  9. Experimental Study on the Ride Comfort of a Crawler Power Chassis Scale Model Based on the Similitude Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jianzhu; WANG Fengchen; YU Bin; TONG Pengcheng; CHEN Kuifu

    2015-01-01

    The ride comfort experimental assessment of crawler off-road vehicle is relatively overlooked, and is expensive and difficult to execute with higher and higher ride comfort performance requirements. To trade off between precise and cost, an experimental method based on the similitude theory is proposed. Under the guidance of the similitude theory, a 1:5 crawler power chassis scale model equipped with a kind of variable stiffness suspension system is used. The power spectrum density(PSD), the root mean square(RMS) of weighed acceleration, peak factor, average absorbed power(AAP) and vibration dose value(VDV) are selected as ride comfort evaluation indexes, and tests results are transformed via similarity indexes to predict the performance of full-scale power chassis. PSD shows that the low-order natural frequency of the vertical natural frequency(z axis) is 1.1 Hz, and the RMS, AAP and VDV values indicate the ride comfort performance of this kind of power chassis is between the“A little uncomfortable”and“Rather uncomfortable”. From the results, low-order vertical natural frequency, obtalned by PSD, validates that the similarity relationship between two models is satisfied, and 1:5 scale model used in experiment meets the similarity relationship with the full-scale model; consequently, the ride comfort prophase evaluation with the 1:5 scale model is feasible. The attempt of applying the similitude theory to crawler vehicle ride comfort test study decreases the cost and improves the test feasibility with sufficient test precise.

  10. KHARKIV PLANT OF SELF-PROPELLED CHASSIS THE PRODUCER OF UNIQUE NON-CLASSIC LAYOUT TRACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Kryvokon, A.

    2015-01-01

    Стаття присвячена історії Харківського заводу транспортних самохідних шасі, виробника тракторів нетрадиційної компоновки так званих самохідних шасі. Подано інформацію про технічні характеристики тракторів, а також їх моделі. Висвітлюються факти про створення, проектування і модифікації самохідних шасі, їх використання в різних спеціальних сферахThe article is about the history of Kharkiv Plant of Self-propelled Chassis, producer of unconventional layout tractors so-called self-propelled chass...

  11. CHASSIS - Une Plate-forme pour la Construction de Systèmes d'Information Ouverts

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantas, Dimitri; Nierstrasz, Oscar; Dittrich, Klaus; Jonscher, Dirk

    1993-01-01

    Les systèmes d'information d'aujourd'hui ont de plus en plus la nécessité d'être ouverts. Ceci implique qu'ils doivent répondre aux besoins de réseaux ouverts, de logiciel et de matériel hétérogènes et “interopérables,” et, surtout, à des besoins évolutifs et changeants. Le projet CHASSIS vise le développement d'un cadre informatique et méthodologique pour la conception et la construction de systèmes d'information hétérogènes, sûrs et fiables à partir de composants de logiciel et bases de don...

  12. 浅析采用多用型纵梁的车架设计%Brief Analysis of the Chassis Design for a multi-functional Longeron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴带迪

    2011-01-01

    设计了一种兼顾1020两驱底盘与猎豹四驱底盘的车架多用型纵梁,依据此纵梁重新设计1020两驱底盘与猎豹四驱底盘的系列车架。通过建模、有限元分析以及实验验证,采用多用型纵梁的系列车架符合设计要求。%The paper designed a multi-functional longitudinal offset for both 1020 2-wheel drive and cheetah 4-wheel drive chassis.Based on this multi-functional longitudinal offset,to re-design the chassis for 1020 2-wheel drive and cheetah 4-wheel drive series.Thr

  13. DLR@UniST - Synergies emerging from integrating four individual electric drives in a lightweight chassis controlled by intelligent driving strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Höfer, Andreas; Friedrich, Horst E.; Wiesebrock, Andreas; Bosch, Volker; Schumann, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    In the context of future electric vehicles, new requirements and restrictions but also larger degrees of freedom have been revealed for vehicle concepts. To meet the revised factors, new approaches are necessary as well as an integral view of the vehicle and its subsystems. As a consequence the Institute for Vehicle Concepts at DLR e.V. is developing an innovative electrically driven chassis system along with the Institute for Internal Combustion Engines and Automotive Engineering of the Univ...

  14. Chassis optimization as a cornerstone for the application of synthetic biology based strategies in microbial secondary metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago eBeites

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The increased number of bacterial genome sequencing projects has generated over the last years a large reservoir of genomic information. In silico analysis of this genomic data has renewed the interest in bacterial bioprospecting for bioactive compounds by unveiling novel biosynthetic gene clusters of unknown or uncharacterized metabolites. However only a small fraction of those metabolites is produced under laboratory-controlled conditions; the remaining clusters represent a pool of novel metabolites that are waiting to be awaken. Activation of the biosynthetic gene clusters that present reduced or no expression (known as cryptic or silent clusters by heterologous expression has emerged as a strategy for the identification and production of novel bioactive molecules.Synthetic biology, with engineering principles at its core, provides an excellent framework for the development of efficient heterologous systems for the expression of biosynthetic gene clusters. However, a common problem in its application is the host-interference problem, i.e. the unpredictable interactions between the device and the host that can hamper the desired output. Although an effort has been made to develop orthogonal devices, the most proficient way to overcome the host-interference problem is through genome simplification.In this review we present an overview on the strategies and tools used in the development of hosts/chassis for the heterologous expression of specialized metabolites biosynthetic gene clusters. Finally, we introduce the concept of specialized host as the next step of development of expression hosts.

  15. Integrated Chassis Control of Active Front Steering and Yaw Stability Control Based on Improved Inverse Nyquist Array Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An integrated chassis control (ICC system with active front steering (AFS and yaw stability control (YSC is introduced in this paper. The proposed ICC algorithm uses the improved Inverse Nyquist Array (INA method based on a 2-degree-of-freedom (DOF planar vehicle reference model to decouple the plant dynamics under different frequency bands, and the change of velocity and cornering stiffness were considered to calculate the analytical solution in the precompensator design so that the INA based algorithm runs well and fast on the nonlinear vehicle system. The stability of the system is guaranteed by dynamic compensator together with a proposed PI feedback controller. After the response analysis of the system on frequency domain and time domain, simulations under step steering maneuver were carried out using a 2-DOF vehicle model and a 14-DOF vehicle model by Matlab/Simulink. The results show that the system is decoupled and the vehicle handling and stability performance are significantly improved by the proposed method.

  16. Integrated chassis control of active front steering and yaw stability control based on improved inverse nyquist array method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bing; Chen, Yizhou; Zhao, Jian

    2014-01-01

    An integrated chassis control (ICC) system with active front steering (AFS) and yaw stability control (YSC) is introduced in this paper. The proposed ICC algorithm uses the improved Inverse Nyquist Array (INA) method based on a 2-degree-of-freedom (DOF) planar vehicle reference model to decouple the plant dynamics under different frequency bands, and the change of velocity and cornering stiffness were considered to calculate the analytical solution in the precompensator design so that the INA based algorithm runs well and fast on the nonlinear vehicle system. The stability of the system is guaranteed by dynamic compensator together with a proposed PI feedback controller. After the response analysis of the system on frequency domain and time domain, simulations under step steering maneuver were carried out using a 2-DOF vehicle model and a 14-DOF vehicle model by Matlab/Simulink. The results show that the system is decoupled and the vehicle handling and stability performance are significantly improved by the proposed method.

  17. Soil compaction of various Central European forest soils caused by traffic of forestry machines with various chassis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Allman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The primary objective of this paper was to compare the effects of different types of forestry machine chassis on the compaction of the top layers of soil and to define the soil moisture content level, at which machine traffic results in maximum compaction.Area of study: Measurements were conducted in eight forest stands located in Slovakia and the Czech Republic. The soil types in the stands subjected to the study were luvisols, stagnosols, cambisols, and rendzinas.Material and Methods: The measurements were focused on tracked and wheeled (equipped with low pressure tyres cut-to-length machines, and skidders equipped with wide and standard tyres. The bulk density of soil was determined from soil samples extracted from the ruts, the centre of the skid trail, and the undisturbed stand. To determine soil moisture content, at which the soil is the most susceptible to compaction, the Proctor standard test was employed.Main results: The moisture content for maximal compaction fluctuated from 12% to 34.06%. Wheeled machines compacted the soil to 1.24 – 1.36 g.cm-3 (30.3 – 35.4 % compaction in dried state. Bulk density of soil in stands where tracked machine operated was lower, ranging from 1.02 to 1.06 g.cm-3 (25.3 % compaction.Research highlights: All wheeled machines caused the same amount of soil compaction in the ruts, despite differences in tyres, machine weight, etc. Maximum compaction caused by forestry machines occurred at minimal moisture contents, easily achievable in European climatic conditions.  Keywords: soil compaction; bulk density; soil moisture content limits; cut-to-length machines; skidders.

  18. 应用合成生物学策略优化光合蓝细菌底盘%Engineering photosynthetic cyanobacterial chassis: a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巫琴; 陈磊; 王江新; 张卫文

    2013-01-01

    Photosynthetic cyanobacteria possess a series of good properties,such as their abilities to capture solar energy for CO2 fixation,low nutritional requirements for growth,high growth rate,and relatively simple genetic background.Due to the high oil price and increased concern of the global warming in recent years,cyanobacteria have attracted widespread attention because they can serve as an 'autotrophic microbial factory' for producing renewable biofuels and fine chemicals directly from CO2.Particularly,significant progress has been made in applying synthetic biology techniques and strategies to construct and optimize cyanobacteria chassis.In this article,we critically summarized recent advances in developing new methods to optimize cyanobacteria chassis,improving cyanobacteria photosynthetic efficiency,and in constructing cyanobacteria chassis tolerant to products or environmental stresses.In addition,various industrial applications of cyanobacteria chassis are also discussed.%光合蓝细菌具有一系列良好的特质,包括利用太阳能固定CO2、营养需求低、生长迅速以及遗传背景简单等.近年来,光合蓝细菌作为生产可再生燃料和精细化学制品的“自养型人工细胞工厂”引起了社会的广泛关注,促进了相关研究的升温.目前在应用合成生物学的技术和研究策略来优化光合蓝细菌作为底盘生物等方面已取得了一些令人鼓舞的进展.文中综述了近年来在光合蓝细菌底盘优化的方法、光合效率的提高以及各种耐受性蓝细菌底盘的构建方面的进展,并对光合蓝细菌底盘构建的工业应用价值进行了讨论.

  19. 森林工程装备底盘研究综述%A Review on the Chassis of the Forest Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱阅; 阚江明; 徐道春; 刘晋浩

    2015-01-01

    随着我国林业的发展和劳动力日益紧张,森林工程作业机械化的重要性更加凸显。在我国山地、丘陵地区,森林工程装备底盘的性能决定了森林工程装备能否“上山入林”,影响森林工程机械化的进程。本文对近些年国内外装备底盘上的研究成果进行介绍,包括具有较强越野能力的装备底盘以及有助于改善底盘性能的关键机构(悬架、转向、车轮),分析各自的优缺点,基于我国典型林区立地条件的基础上提出适合我国山地、丘陵地区作业的森林工程装备底盘的性能要求。%With the development of forestry and increasingly tense labor force in China , the importance of mechanized operation of forest machine becomes more prominent .In the mountainous and hilly areas , the performance of chassis of forest machine can de-termine the possibility to “reach mountain and hill” for forest engineering equipment , which affects the process of mechanization of for-est machine .Some design principles and methods of chassis used in forestry equipment are introduced according to some references at home and abroad in recent years including strong off-road forestry chassises and several important parts that contribute to improve the performance of chassis(suspension, steering, and wheels).At the same time, the advantages and disadvantages are analyzed in de-tail.In the end, based on the analysis of typical forest areas in our country the performance requirments of chassis for forest machine that are suitable to work in the mountainous and hilly areas are put forward .

  20. Compare and Analysis of Performance between Model SYM5330THB1 Local-made Chassis and a Foreign-made Chassis for Vocational Truck%SYM5330THB1型专用车自主底盘与某进口底盘性能对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈天志; 胡颖; 黄辉阳; 宋敏

    2012-01-01

    为提高专用车自主底盘的制动性能,提升自主品牌的影响力,以某型专用车(泵车)采用的SYM5330THB1型自主底盘和某进口底盘为例,着重对比分析两款专用车底盘的制动系统、精细化水平以及制动试验检测结果,分析两款专用车底盘制动系统的优缺点,为进一步提高自主专用车底盘制动性能提供参考.%In order to upgrade brake performance of localized chasses for special wagons in China and to increase influence of local brands, we have taken for instance a special wagon (pump truck) which adopts a SYM5330THB1 chassis of local made against a foreign made chassis. Emphases were laid on comparison and analysis of the 2 type chasses in terms of their brake systems, levels in fine fabrication, as well as results of brake tests and inspection, respectively. Works have been done on the two types' strong points and weak points, respectively, so as to provide references for further upgrading brake performance of the chassis for local-made special vehicles.

  1. 汽车底盘的保养与维修方法探讨%Discussion on maintenance and repair methods of automobile chassis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李展交

    2016-01-01

    The chassis is an important part of the car,car driven mainly by the subject,strengthen the daily maintenance of the chassis and maintenance is to extend the service life of automobile is an important way,is also promoting China's automobile production and application to achieve further technology high quality development in an effective way,realize the modern means of science and technology in the automobile industry in the development of application and innovation and development.%汽车底盘是汽车车中的重要组成部分,是汽车驱动下主要受重主体,加强对汽车底盘的日常保养和维护是延长汽车寿命的重要途径,同时也是促进我国汽车生产、应用进一步实现技术高质量发展的有效途径,实现现代科学技术手段在汽车事业发展中的应用与创新发展。

  2. 前桥摆转式四轮底盘转向系统的转向机理研究%Research on the Steering Theory of Front Axle Swing Sowing Four-wheel Chassis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕莹; 张静; 李志伟

    2016-01-01

    四轮底盘在小地块水田作业时,减少地头空行转弯时间是提高作业时间利用率的重要环节。为实现四轮底盘小半径转弯,以提高水田播插底盘作业率为主要研究目标,对四轮底盘在90°、180°等不同转弯形式下进行分析,得出适合小地块水稻播插作业时以较小转弯半径的转弯方式;前桥摆转四轮底盘在转向时,通过控制前桥驱动轮的转动,使前驱动桥主动围绕着转向装置转动,可以带动底盘以任意角度转向。采用ADAMS软件对四轮底盘后轮轨迹进行模拟,在确保后轮完全不吃入已完成作业区的倒U转弯方式的情况下,提出设计前桥摆转式四轮底盘转向系统的可行性。%Four-wheel chassis when working in a small piece of paddy field, reduce blank line turning time is an important link in work utilization rate operation time. In this paper, in order to realize four-wheel chassis small turning radius, increase the paddy field on chassis operation efficiency as the main research target, 90°, 180° in the four-wheel chassis under different forms of turning modeling analysis, and concluded that suitable turning way of smaller turning radius for small plot rice sowing operations ; When the front axle Swing four-wheel chassis steering, By controlling the rotation of the front drive axle, to the front drive axle can rotate active around the steering device, and drive the chassis steering in an arbitrary Angle; Through ADAMS soft-ware for simulating four-wheel chassis rear wheel track, and ensuring the rear wheels do not enter that the as-signments section has been completed, put forward to design front axle pendulum type four-wheel chassis steer-ing system operability.

  3. 灵巧型电动底盘的设计与研究%Design and study of smart electric chassis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑坤; 李月辉; 吕琼莹

    2011-01-01

    灵巧型电动底盘采用四轮独立驱动和转向控制,主要由电动轮模块、平衡模块、控制模块组成.电动轮采用模块化设计理念,具有结构合理、行驶灵活、灵巧实用等特点.平衡模块使车辆无论在什么路况下行驶时始终保持底盘的水平平衡状态.同时,该底盘采用无刹车制动技术,可以通过调整各轮的转向角度控制驻停,使制动系统变得简单,安全性高.该底盘实现了四轮独立控制,简化了传动系统,减小了转弯半径,提高转弯速度,使底盘的机动灵活性更好,改善了操纵稳定性.%Smart electric chassis with four-wheel independent driving and steering control mainly consists of electric wheel module,balancing module, and control module.Modular design concept is adopted in electric wheel,which is characterized with its reasonable structure,flexible drive as well as smart and practical.The balancing module can ensure the balancing condition of the driving chassis no matter what driving path it is ,which can enhance the stability of the vehicle carrying system.By applying the technology without brake,through adjusting steering angle of each wheel,the parking of the vehicle is controlled, which makes the braking system become simple and the security is enhanced.The chassis can control the four-wheel independently,which simplify the transmission system,reduce the turning radius,improve the speed and turning maneuverability as well as improve the control stability.

  4. 铝合金矩形机箱工装设计及拼焊工艺%Welding Fixture Design and Assemble Welding Process for Aluminum Alloy Rectangle Chassis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐彬; 魏连峰; 王泽明; 王世忠; 俞德怀

    2013-01-01

    The problems which include difficulty in assembly,joint quality control,large distortion after welding exist in assembly welding process of heavy-thickness aluminum rectangle chassis.The corresponding fixture types were chosen for different type of structure plates.According to the characteristic of chassis type bodies deformation after welding,a fixture for the chassis was designed.Based on these works,electron beam welding is successfully used in the chassis assembly welding process.The chassis after welding meet the specifications of design requirement.The results show that the designed fixture and process is practical,and this research is advantageously used in solving these problems.%大厚度铝合金矩形机箱在拼焊生产过程中,存在组装难度大,焊缝质量不易保证,焊后变形大等问题.针对铝合金矩形机箱焊后马鞍型和螺旋型变形特点,选用表面定位方式,设计了多种类型的夹板,完成了箱体焊接工装的设计.在此基础上,采用真空电子束焊,通过严格的工艺措施完成了机箱的拼焊,获得了深宽比符合要求的焊缝,保证了机箱结构的完整性.经检测,矩形机箱满足设计要求.实践证明,此工装和工艺方案可行,对类似构件的制造有指导意义.

  5. 浅论铝合金真空钎焊机箱的应用和加工%Elementary Discussion on the Application and Processing of Vacuum Brazing Aluminum Alloy Chassis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王飚; 李卫民

    2014-01-01

    本文阐述了真空钎焊技术的优点及铝合金真空钎焊机箱的应用和加工的重要性,突出了机载装备中真空钎焊的必要性。其次,本文以某型号机箱为例,围绕着铝合金真空钎焊机箱加工的四个方面详细地加以介绍、描述和总结了加工工艺及要点。最后,本文指出了铝合金真空钎焊机箱能够提升航空电子系统的整体效能,只有通过提高工艺水平,规范生产流程,才能确保机载电子设备机箱的生产和质量稳定,提高生产效益。%Firstly, this paper expounded on the advantages of vacuum brazing technology and the importance of application and processing of vacuum brazing aluminum alloy chassis, with the emphasis on the necessity of vacuum brazing in airborne equipment. Secondly, taking a certain type of chassis as an example, this paper introduced, described and summarized the processing technology and key point of vacuum brazing process of aluminum alloy chassis in four aspects. Finally, it was pointed out that vacuum brazing aluminum alloy chassis was able to improve the overall effectiveness of avionics system, only by improving the technological level , and standardizing the production process, in order to ensure the production and quality of airborne electronic equipment chassis, and improve production efficiency.

  6. 农用全地形仿形行走底盘地面力学特性%Terramechanics of All Terrain Adaptive Locomotion Chassis for Farmland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘平义; 高金成; 李海涛; 张绍英; 魏文军

    2012-01-01

    According to the technical measures for reducing the mechanical soil compaction, all terrain adaptive locomotion chassis for farmland with uhra-low pressure tires was proposed as solution scheme based on the conventional wheeled locomotion mechanism. The mechanical model between the tire and ultra-low pressure was established. The terramechanics of all terrain adaptive locomotion chassis for farmland which used ultra-low pressure tires was anayled. At last, compared with the existing four-wheel drive tractor, it was proved that all terrain adaptive locomotion vehicles for farmland could reduce the mechanical soil compaction and met the modern agriculture's need with well performance and tractive effort.%针对减少农田土壤机械压实的技术措施,在常规轮式行走机构的基础上,提出配备超低气压轮胎的农用全地形仿形行走底盘的解决方案.建立了超低气压轮胎的地面力学模型,研究了配备超低气压轮胎的农用全地形仿形行走底盘的地面力学特性,并与现有的四轮驱动拖拉机进行对比分析,结果表明,农用全地形仿形行走车能够有效减小土壤机械压实,且牵引性能良好,满足现代农业的发展需要.

  7. 紫杉二烯生物合成模块与不同底盘的适配%Fitness of Taxadiene Biosynthetic Modules with Different S. cerevisiae Chassis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张正伟; 丁明珠; 元英进

    2014-01-01

    以酿酒酵母BY4742及其单敲菌株作为底盘细胞,优化底盘细胞甲羟戊酸途径,上调并融合表达牻牛儿基牻牛儿基焦磷酸( GGPP)合成的相关基因,引入人工合成的外源GGPP合成酶基因与紫杉二烯合成酶基因,构建了多载体紫杉二烯生物合成模块;还利用酵母组装技术,通过对紫杉二烯合成路径相关基因进行模块化设计组装,构建了依托单一着丝粒( CEN)质粒的紫杉二烯生物合成模块.将构建的2个模块与不同底盘细胞进行适配,使紫杉二烯产量获得了数倍提升,最高产量可达74.84 mg/L.%In the research works of constructing taxadiene aritficaial synthetic cell, S. cerevisiae is a common-ly used chassis. The highest taxadiene yield in S. cerevisiae that has been reported was 8. 7 mg/L. In this work, the fitness of different taxadiene biosynthetic modules with different S. cerevisiae chassis was studied to elevate the taxadiene yield to a higher level. We chose the S. cerevisiae strains BY4742 and the single knoc-kout strains of BY4742 as chassis, constructed the multi-plasmids taxadiene biosynthetic module by optimizing the mevalonic acid( MVA) pathway with tHMGR, importing the synthetic genes GGPPSsa and tTS, up-regula-ting and co-expressing the genes BTS1 and ERG20 which are correlated with the synthesis of geranylgeranyl diphosphate(GGPP). Then we redesigned and reconstructed the module inserted into a single CEN plasmid by the method of DNA assembler. Through fitting the different modules with different chassis, we acquired strains with diffe-rent taxadiene yields, the highest yield was 74. 84 mg/L in the strain with the single-plasmid module and the chassis of YNL280C. The results indicated that the single-plasmid taxadiene biosynthetic module was more stable in the chassis than the multi-plasmids one, and the regulation of the pathways correlated with the MVA pathway will also influent the taxadiene yield.

  8. HTF5980A底盘悬架系统动态特性研究%Study on Dynamic Characteristics of Suspension System for HTF5980A Chassis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨波; 赵焱明; 高炬; 刘懿敏

    2013-01-01

    The structure and working principle of the connected Hydro-pneumatic suspension for HTF5980A chassis were presented. And then, an Amesim model of the connected hydro-pneumatic suspension for multi-axle vehicle was built, a method on modeling the hydro-pneumatic suspension was discussed. The dynamic characteristic of it was studied by simulation, and the result was compared with the result from bench test. It was indicated that the Amesim model could exactly describe the connected Hydro-pneumatic suspension system. The Adams model of the HTF5980A chassis and the Amesim model of the whole vehicle suspension system were established, the ride comfort was studied by co-simulation. The result provided a basis for both the optimal design of connected hydro-pneumatic suspension and the dynamic analysis of vehicle system.%阐述 HTF5980A底盘油气悬架的结构、工作原理,基于 Amesim平台,详细讨论油气悬架各个部位的建模方法,建立其仿真模型,计算连通式油气悬架的动态特性,并与台架试验结果进行对比。试验结果表明:所建立的模型能够正确描述连通式油气悬架的动态特性。基于Adams平台建立HTF5980A整车动力学模型,基于Amesim建立整车悬架系统液压部分模型,完成整车平顺性联合仿真。研究结果不仅为连通式油气悬架优化设计提供了依据,而且为整车动力学及疲劳分析奠定了基础。

  9. Matching and Optimization for Chassis System of Wheeled Self-propelled Guns%轮式自行火炮底盘匹配与优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗中峰; 徐诚; 徐亚栋

    2015-01-01

    In order to deal with the optimum design for the chassis system(CS)of wheeled self-propelled guns,the way of MDO was introduced for analyzing the complicated system.Taking opti-mum design for a 8 by 8 wheeled self-propelled gun for instance,the optimization model was estab-lished,then was partitioned into several subsystems.In accordance with the requests for the chassis matching with the fire system the respective computation models were provided.Subsequently the coupling relationships among subsystems were analyzed in a manner of MDO.Finally,the instrumen-tal variables were introduced to decouple subsystems from each other by the individual disciplinary feasible strategy.A combinatorial optimization algorithm of non-dominated sorting genetic algorithmⅡ and sequential quadratic programming was selected to optimize the resulting problem and the calcu-lation example was verified the validity of this design pattern.%为解决轮式自行火炮底盘匹配问题,以某8×8轮式自行火炮为例提供了一套匹配优化方案。该方案采用多学科设计优化的思想,首先依据匹配要求将轮式自行火炮底盘匹配模型分解,规定各个子模型相应的功能,并建立优化模型;然后将单学科可行法优化策略引入辅助设计变量,选用由第二代非劣排序遗传算法和序列二次规划法构成的组合算法进行求解;最后通过计算实例验证了方案的合理性。

  10. Nursing of patients with stoma chassis leakage and causes analysis%造口患者造口底盘渗漏的原因分析及护理对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温咏珊; 张惠芹

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解造口患者造口底盘渗漏发生的原因,并提出相应的护理措施。方法对20例在本院造口门诊就诊发生造口底盘渗漏患者的资料进行回顾性总结,分析发生造口底盘渗漏的原因。结果本组20例造口患者造口底盘渗漏的原因是:患者造口护理技能差、造口周围皮肤凹陷、造口底盘选用不当、体重增加及造口位置差、造口回缩。结论教会造口患者认识造口底盘渗漏的原因,重新选择造口底盘、或加猪油膏补片、或增高凸面底盘的高度,从而防止造口底盘渗漏的发生,提高患者生活质量。%Objective To investigate the cause of stoma chassis leakage (SCL) and summarize the nursing experience. Method The clinical data of 20 patients with SCL were retrospectively analyzed on the colostomy outpatients. Result The causes of SCL in those stoma patients included insufficient skills of stoma care, peridermal depression, poorly fitting stoma chassis, weight gain, poor positioning and retraction of the stoma. Conclusion Such nursing measures as enhanced awareness of SCL causes, careful reselection of a suitable stoma chassis, addition of ointment patches or heightening of the convex chassis can be effective in prevention of SCL leakage, enhancement of patient′s confidence and improvement of their quality of life.

  11. 基于底盘测功机的轮式工程机械底盘动力性能测试%Dynamical property testing on wheel construction machinery chasses using chassis dynamometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玮; 王强; 李艳峰; 王稳华; 毛迪

    2011-01-01

    To adopt the chassis output and transmission-system lost powers of construction machinery assessment indicators, the rolling mechanisms and sensors are rationally selected to test the chassis output power by using a DC motor as the resistance loading device. Thereafter, the engine, together with the power transmission route,is analyzed. To assess the engine and transmission system via testing data, this approach provides a data support on chassis maintenance of wheel construction machinery.%采用工程机械底盘输出功率、底盘传动系统损耗功率为工程机械动力性能的评价指标,通过选用直流电机作为工程机械阻力加载机构,选用合理的滚筒机构以及传感器对工程机械底盘输出功率进行测试.分析发动机的动力传输路线,通过测试数据评判工程机械发动机以及传动系统,对轮式工程机械的底盘维修提供有力的数据支持.

  12. Research of replacement time of stoma chassis in patients with colon stoma during hospitalization period%结肠造口病人住院期间造口底盘更换时间的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘学英; 廖倩; 周华; 吴娟; 邓雪雁; 唐义英; 汪丽萍; 万雨莉; 胡鸽

    2016-01-01

    [目的]探讨结肠造口病人住院期间造口底盘更换的适宜时间。[方法]采取单纯随机抽样方法将156例结肠造口病人分为 A组、B 组、C 组,分别间隔3 d、5 d、7 d 更换1次造口底盘,观察其效果并比较造口周围皮肤状况、病人对造口的自我感受情况。[结果]B 组底盘浸渍宽度、渗漏、造口周围皮肤并发症及造口材料费用等均优于 C 组(P 0.05)。[结论]结肠造口病人住院期间造口底盘更换间隔时间以5 d 为宜;标准的造口护理流程和适宜的造口底盘更换时间,能减少造口周围皮肤并发症的发生,病人感觉更舒适。%Objective:To investigate the suitable replacement time of colostomy stoma chassis during hospitaliza-tion.Methods:A total of 156 cases of colostomy patients using simple random sampling method were divided in-to A,B,C three groups,with the stoma chassis replacement interval of three days,five days,seven days respec-tively.Observation and comparison were conducted on the skin condition around the periosteal wound,DET score and the feeling of patients.Results:According to the comparison of the width of impregnated chassis,con-dition of leakage,probability of skin complications,DET score and the material expenses of these three sample groups,results of group B is better than that of group C(P 0.05).Conclusion:Under the standardized nursing procedure,the interval of five days is the most appropriate time for colostomy stoma patient to replace stoma chassis.It can reduce the probability of skin complications around stoma and make patient feel more comfortable during treatment.

  13. 结肠造口病人住院期间造口底盘更换时间的研究%Research of replacement time of stoma chassis in patients with colon stoma during hospitalization period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘学英; 廖倩; 周华; 吴娟; 邓雪雁; 唐义英; 汪丽萍; 万雨莉; 胡鸽

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the suitable replacement time of colostomy stoma chassis during hospitaliza-tion.Methods:A total of 156 cases of colostomy patients using simple random sampling method were divided in-to A,B,C three groups,with the stoma chassis replacement interval of three days,five days,seven days respec-tively.Observation and comparison were conducted on the skin condition around the periosteal wound,DET score and the feeling of patients.Results:According to the comparison of the width of impregnated chassis,con-dition of leakage,probability of skin complications,DET score and the material expenses of these three sample groups,results of group B is better than that of group C(P 0.05).Conclusion:Under the standardized nursing procedure,the interval of five days is the most appropriate time for colostomy stoma patient to replace stoma chassis.It can reduce the probability of skin complications around stoma and make patient feel more comfortable during treatment.%[目的]探讨结肠造口病人住院期间造口底盘更换的适宜时间。[方法]采取单纯随机抽样方法将156例结肠造口病人分为 A组、B 组、C 组,分别间隔3 d、5 d、7 d 更换1次造口底盘,观察其效果并比较造口周围皮肤状况、病人对造口的自我感受情况。[结果]B 组底盘浸渍宽度、渗漏、造口周围皮肤并发症及造口材料费用等均优于 C 组(P 0.05)。[结论]结肠造口病人住院期间造口底盘更换间隔时间以5 d 为宜;标准的造口护理流程和适宜的造口底盘更换时间,能减少造口周围皮肤并发症的发生,病人感觉更舒适。

  14. 玉米收获机底盘车架疲劳寿命研究%Study on fatigue life of frame for corn combine chassis machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志; 周林; 赵博; 梁学修

    2015-01-01

    提出一种玉米收获机底盘车架疲劳寿命预测方法.利用ANSYS软件对玉米收获机底盘车架进行有限元分析,得到最大模态变形位置和静应力分析条件下的应力分布;在有限元分析数据基础上,粘贴应变片,组建应力测量系统,实测田间及道路条件下的应变时间历程;对采集的应变数据开展预处理,初步分析其受力情况及动载荷特征,采用nCode软件完成疲劳寿命预测.试验结果表明,车身横梁疲劳寿命为24.1万h、支撑部件寿命为16 500万h,满足使用要求,但支撑部件强度设计过剩,采用workbench的shape optimization对该部件开展轻量化设计,在满足疲劳可靠性条件下,减少了该部件质量24%.%The chassis frame is the installed base of the corn combine harvester, which bears a lot of force from the longitudinal bending, torsion, lateral bending, horizontal rhombic and their combined loads. The frame has obvious dynamic load characteristics, therefore the static strength check is not enough and research on the fatigue life is needed. As the lack of basic research, the key data accumulation is insufficient, the tradition design method is relatively limited, many Chinese products lack the necessary fatigue strength in design, and the reliability is poor. Experience in the automotive industry has proved that the combination of fatigue load spectrum and CAE technology can greatly improve the forecasting ability. Fatigue strength study of the corn combine harvester is the foundation of improving the reliability and an important method to reduce the structural mass. In order to reduce the structural weight and improve the fatigue reliability of the corn combine harvester, this paper studies a method to evaluate fatigue life of the main frame. Firstly, using ANSYS software, the stress distribution of the corn harvester chassis frame was analyzed, and the stress distribution of the maximum modal deformation position and under static stress

  15. 一种新型汽车底盘外检用地沟小车研究%On a New Kind of Car Used in Outside Inspection of Automobile Chassis in Gutter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康杰; 邸建辉; 张亚男

    2013-01-01

    介绍一种用于汽车检测线的汽车底盘外检辅助装置。该装置使用电机驱动,能够承载体重为110 kg以内的检测人员上下升降和沿轨道水平移动,达到能方便检查汽车底盘外观安全状况的目的;该装置上还设有工具平台,用于放置检测工具和将检测结果以无线传输给上位机的触摸式平板电脑。%This paper introduces a kind of auxiliary device for outside inspection of automobile chassis. Been driven by electric motors, this device can bear a worker whose weight is within 110 kg and can move up and down, and can move horizontally along the orbit, so as to conveniently check the chassis appearance and the security situation. There is also a tool platform device on the car, being used to place testing tools and transfer wirelessly the inspection result to the principle touch panel PC.

  16. Comparative Study on Heat Dissipation Performance of Liquid Cooling and Air Cooling Technology of Airborne Chassis%机载机箱液冷与风冷技术的散热性能对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵波

    2015-01-01

    随着机载机箱内部的热密度越来越高以及安装空间的有限性,对机箱的散热性能和外形尺寸也提出了更高的要求. 首先分析了强迫风冷的散热方式,其次运用Flotherm软件对液冷机箱的散热性能进行了仿真验证,结果表明液冷机箱能更好地满足高热流密度的散热要求和结构外形要求.%With heat density inside the airborne cabinet rapidly improves higher and higher, and considering the limited instal-lation space, we propose higher request to the heat dissipation and the boundary dimension of cabinet. In this paper, we firstly introduce the heat dissipation pattern of forced-air cooling, and then use the software FLOTHERM to conduct simulation veri-fication on the heat dissipation performance of the liquid-cooled chassis. The results show that liquid-cooled chassis can bet-ter satisfies requirements on aspects of the heat dissipation and the structure appearance of high heating flux density.

  17. The Bus Chassis Upgraded Based on Independent Suspension%基于独立悬架的客车底盘升级

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明; 向号; 向雨路

    2014-01-01

    Suspension is one of the important assembly about modern vehicle,which puts frame and axle join up Elastic flexibly.Its maintask is to transfer function of all the force and moment between the wheel and frame,and alleviate the impact load which transfers to frame from uneven pavement,all of which to ensure the normal operation of vehicle.And adopting independent suspension can reduce the spring load part weight greatly,reduced vibration load,So improved vehicle running smoothness. Before,the use of passenger car suspension generally adopt a dependent suspension.As people pay attention to ride comfort, control stability,running smoothness,the original suspension system already cannot satisfy the requirement of people.Faw bus (chengdu)company devotes to improve passenger car quality and increase passenger car products market share.Now this paper is upgrading chassis of CDL6606 model,changes the original plate spring suspension into that the front suspension adopts double wishbone type independent suspension and the rear suspension uses little leaf spring suspension.%悬架是现代汽车的重要组成之一,它把车架(或车身)与车轴(或车轮)弹性地连接起来。其主要任务是传递作用在车轮和车架之间的一切力和力矩,并且缓和由不平路面传给车架的冲击载荷,衰减由冲击载荷引起的承载系统的振动,以保证汽车的正常行驶。而采用独立悬架可大大减轻非簧载部分重量,减轻了振动载荷,所以改善了汽车的行驶平顺性。以往客车悬架的使用普遍都采用非独立悬架,随着人们对乘坐舒适性、操纵稳定性、行驶平顺性的重视,原有悬架系统已不能满足人们的要求,为满足市场需要,一汽客车(成都)公司致力于改善客车品质、增加产品市场占有率,本文对 CDL6606车型进行底盘升级,将原有前后钢板弹簧悬架改为,前悬架采用双横臂式独立悬架,后悬架采用少片簧悬架。

  18. 欧洲“火星快车”探测器自行底盘概念设计的启示%The concept design of the self-propelling chassis for European ExoMars rover

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇燕

    2013-01-01

    通过对月球车和火星车的跟踪调研,重点介绍了俄罗斯所承担的欧洲空间局“火星快车”项目中火星车自行底盘概念的设计思想和具体实施情况.结合火星表面的复杂环境,研制方探讨了几种底盘结构设计方案,通过对比分析确立了6×6×4+4Ⅲ方案为优化方案;根据该优化方案研制的比例模型样机通过行走试验验证,结果表明自行底盘概念设计思想正确,有助于提高行星车在复杂地形中的运动能力、稳定性和可靠性.最后针对我国深空探测项目实施的需求,提出了拟开展工作建议.%This paper describes the conceptual design of the self propelling chassis developed by Russia for the ESA project ExoMars. In the context of the complex environment on the surface of the Mars, several design plans of the Mars probe chassis are discussed, among which the optimized plan of 6×6×4+4 Ⅲ is identified, that means four steering drives and four stepped-driven wheels-stepping device and balanced suspension. The scale model prototype developed according to the optimized plan was tested in the test field. The results show that the conceptual design of the self propelling chassis is correct, and can increase the mobility, stability and reliability of the planet rover. In the end, some proposals are put forward in light of implementing China's deep space exploration projects.

  19. 履带机器人通用地面力学模型分析与底盘设计%A universal terramechanics model and the chassis design of a tracked robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雨潭; 朱华; 高志军; 程新景

    2015-01-01

    为了解决如何选取最优的履带机器人底盘相关参数的问题,创建一个包含履带底盘相关参数的通用履带机器人地面力学模型. 选取在软地面进行转弯的履带机器人作为物理模型进行数学建模,在建模过程中,考虑履带推土阻力与地面摩擦力,并引入打滑速度,最终得到了履带转弯过程中所受阻力矩的数学模型. 根据正在设计的履带机器人以及其工作环境路面的相关参数进行优化设计,得到了最优的履带宽度、接地长度与两条履带的间距. 最后,根据所得到的结果进行了样机的试制与试验,所得结果与理论计算结果相接近. 结果表明,所创建的履带机器人通用地面力学模型在进行机器人底盘设计时具有一定的理论指导意义.%In order to solve the problem of selecting the optimal parameters of the tracked robot chassis, a universal terramechanics model of tracked robot with related parameters was created.The tracked robot turning in the soft ground was used as the physical model of the mathematical modeling.In the process of modeling, considering the bulldozing resistance and the ground friction, by introducing the sliding speed, the resistance moment mathematical model of the turning process was obtained.According to the parameters of the tracked robot being designed and the corresponding pavement parameters, the optimal track width, the length of track on the ground and the distance be-tween two tracks of the coal mine rescue robot were got.Finally, a trial of the prototype was carried out, and the test results were close to the theoretical calculation.The result proves that the universal terramechanics model has certain theoretical guidance meaning in the design of the robot chassis.

  20. 履带机器人通用地面力学模型分析与底盘设计%A universal terramechanics model and the chassis design of a tracked robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雨潭; 朱华; 高志军; 程新景

    2015-01-01

    为了解决如何选取最优的履带机器人底盘相关参数的问题,创建一个包含履带底盘相关参数的通用履带机器人地面力学模型。选取在软地面进行转弯的履带机器人作为物理模型进行数学建模,在建模过程中,考虑履带推土阻力与地面摩擦力,并引入打滑速度,最终得到了履带转弯过程中所受阻力矩的数学模型。根据正在设计的履带机器人以及其工作环境路面的相关参数进行优化设计,得到了最优的履带宽度、接地长度与两条履带的间距。最后,根据所得到的结果进行了样机的试制与试验,所得结果与理论计算结果相接近。结果表明,所创建的履带机器人通用地面力学模型在进行机器人底盘设计时具有一定的理论指导意义。%In order to solve the problem of selecting the optimal parameters of the tracked robot chassis, a universal terramechanics model of tracked robot with related parameters was created. The tracked robot turning in the soft ground was used as the physical model of the mathematical modeling. In the process of modeling, considering the bulldozing resistance and the ground friction, by introducing the sliding speed, the resistance moment mathematical model of the turning process was obtained. According to the parameters of the tracked robot being designed and the corresponding pavement parameters, the optimal track width, the length of track on the ground and the distance be⁃tween two tracks of the coal mine rescue robot were got. Finally, a trial of the prototype was carried out, and the test results were close to the theoretical calculation. The result proves that the universal terramechanics model has certain theoretical guidance meaning in the design of the robot chassis.

  1. An SVM-Based Classifier for Estimating the State of Various Rotating Components in Agro-Industrial Machinery with a Vibration Signal Acquired from a Single Point on the Machine Chassis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Ruiz-Gonzalez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to assess the feasibility of estimating the state of various rotating components in agro-industrial machinery by employing just one vibration signal acquired from a single point on the machine chassis. To do so, a Support Vector Machine (SVM-based system is employed. Experimental tests evaluated this system by acquiring vibration data from a single point of an agricultural harvester, while varying several of its working conditions. The whole process included two major steps. Initially, the vibration data were preprocessed through twelve feature extraction algorithms, after which the Exhaustive Search method selected the most suitable features. Secondly, the SVM-based system accuracy was evaluated by using Leave-One-Out cross-validation, with the selected features as the input data. The results of this study provide evidence that (i accurate estimation of the status of various rotating components in agro-industrial machinery is possible by processing the vibration signal acquired from a single point on the machine structure; (ii the vibration signal can be acquired with a uniaxial accelerometer, the orientation of which does not significantly affect the classification accuracy; and, (iii when using an SVM classifier, an 85% mean cross-validation accuracy can be reached, which only requires a maximum of seven features as its input, and no significant improvements are noted between the use of either nonlinear or linear kernels.

  2. Real-time analysis of aromatics in combustion engine exhaust by resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOF-MS): a robust tool for chassis dynamometer testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, T.W. [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Transport and Air Quality Unit, Ispra, VA (Italy); Clairotte, M.; Manfredi, U.; Carriero, M.; Martini, G.; Krasenbrink, A.; Astorga, C. [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Transport and Air Quality Unit, Ispra, VA (Italy); European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy and Transport, Sustainable Transport Unit, Ispra, Varese (Italy); Streibel, T.; Pommeres, A.; Sklorz, M. [University of Rostock, Analytical Chemistry/Joint Mass Spectrometry Centre, Institute of Chemistry, Rostock (Germany); Elsasser, M.; Zimmermann, R. [Cooperation Group Complex Molecular Systems (CMA)/Joint Mass Spectrometry Centre (JMSC), Neuherberg (Germany); University of Rostock, Analytical Chemistry/Joint Mass Spectrometry Centre, Institute of Chemistry, Rostock (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    Resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOF-MS) is a robust method for real-time analysis of monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in complex emissions. A mobile system has been developed which enables direct analysis on site. In this paper, we utilize a multicomponent calibration scheme based on the analytes' photo-ionisation cross-sections relative to a calibrated species. This allows semi-quantification of a great number of components by only calibrating one compound of choice, here toluene. The cross-sections were determined by injecting nebulised solutions of aromatic compounds into the TOF-MS ion source with the help of a HPLC pump. Then, REMPI-TOF-MS was implemented at various chassis dynamometers and test cells and the exhaust of the following vehicles and engines investigated: a compression ignition light-duty (LD) passenger car, a compression ignition LD van, two spark ignition LD passenger cars, 2 two-stroke mopeds, and a two-stroke engine of a string gas trimmer. The quantitative time profiles of benzene are shown. The results indicate that two-stroke engines are a significant source for toxic and cancerogenic compounds. Air pollution and health effects caused by gardening equipment might still be underestimated. (orig.)

  3. Real-time analysis of aromatics in combustion engine exhaust by resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOF-MS): a robust tool for chassis dynamometer testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, T W; Clairotte, M; Streibel, T; Elsasser, M; Pommeres, A; Manfredi, U; Carriero, M; Martini, G; Sklorz, M; Krasenbrink, A; Astorga, C; Zimmermann, R

    2012-07-01

    Resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOF-MS) is a robust method for real-time analysis of monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in complex emissions. A mobile system has been developed which enables direct analysis on site. In this paper, we utilize a multicomponent calibration scheme based on the analytes' photo-ionisation cross-sections relative to a calibrated species. This allows semi-quantification of a great number of components by only calibrating one compound of choice, here toluene. The cross-sections were determined by injecting nebulised solutions of aromatic compounds into the TOF-MS ion source with the help of a HPLC pump. Then, REMPI-TOF-MS was implemented at various chassis dynamometers and test cells and the exhaust of the following vehicles and engines investigated: a compression ignition light-duty (LD) passenger car, a compression ignition LD van, two spark ignition LD passenger cars, 2 two-stroke mopeds, and a two-stroke engine of a string gas trimmer. The quantitative time profiles of benzene are shown. The results indicate that two-stroke engines are a significant source for toxic and cancerogenic compounds. Air pollution and health effects caused by gardening equipment might still be underestimated.

  4. 基于微粒群算法的汽车底盘控制系统集成优化%Simultaneous optimization design of vehicle chassis integrated control system based on particle swarm optimization algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘显贵; 陈无畏; 罗善明; 钟铭恩

    2015-01-01

    interferences between the mechanical structure and control system of vehicle chassis system and to further enhance the overall performance of vehicle, the method of simultaneous optimization of mechanical structure and controller parameters of vehicle chassis system based on Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm is presented in this paper. According to the fundamental principle of vehicle dynamics, a half car mode of active suspension system and anti-lock braking systems established at first. Then the linear quadratic gauss controller of the active suspension system and sliding mode controller of anti-lock braking system are designed. Taking controllers designed for active suspension system and anti-lock braking system as bottom controllers, the upper coordinated control logic of the systems is put forward and the upper PID coordinated controller is designed on the basis of analyzing the coupling conflict between active suspension system and anti-lock braking system. Finally, a Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm was adopted for simultaneous optimization of mechanical structure and controller parameters of vehicle chassis integrated control system, because the traditional design method of a vehicle system is always to design control parameters following structure parameters and it can not obtain the global optimal performances for the system. In order to verify the effectiveness of the algorithm, the simultaneous optimization program is developed based on Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm in MATLAB environment while the mechanical structure and control parameters of chassis control system are set as optimization variables and the overall vehicle dynamics performance is set as objective function. Simulation result shows that the pitching angular acceleration of vehicle is reduced and vehicle riding comfort performance is improved after optimized. Braking distance and dynamic load of front and rear wheels of vehicle are also reduced significantly which indicating vehicle

  5. Design and engineering structure analysis on paddy-field chassis steering drive axle with standard all-wheel-drive%标准四驱水田自走底盘转向驱动桥设计与工程结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宏新; 郑利双; 徐高伟; 王晨

    2015-01-01

    In the main grain crop production in China, comprehensive mechanization level for paddy field is the lowest. At the same time, there exists the“bottleneck”problem of“bottleneck”problem such as rice planting mechanization. In the case of transplanter, although we have grasped the core technology of key components, overall machinery can not be popularized and applied due to lack of the support of cost-effective chassis. At present, in Chinese market, most of chassis are imported from Japan and South Korea, which widely use hydraulic transmission and variable speed technology. Because paddy planting operation has the characteristics of stable load and constant speed, using hydraulic transmission and continuous variable device causes low efficiency and has no much practical significance, and meanwhile, the demand for the power increases from 9 to 13 and even 15 kw. Northeast Agricultural University has designed a standard all-wheel drive light paddy self-propelled chassis with diesel-power and mechanical transmission for this situation, whose most prominent shape feature is that four wheels have same size and the front axle is different from any existing paddy field chassis structure. The chassis has the advantages of high transmission efficiency, large torque reserve, anti-sink capacity, dynamic stabilization, and good performance of crossing the earth bank between the paddy fields. As a transmission part, steering drive axle not only is a carrier installed, but also needs to bear the weight of chassis and the effect of impulsive load, and have the function of deflection wheel, and hence its structure is more complex than the traditional shell. The operating environment of paddy field chassis is harsher than general vehicle, which has stricter requirement of sludge, subsidence, bank and over load on axle. So, engineering analysis of structural design process is particularly important, however, conventional theoretical analysis and calculation method can not

  6. Chassis Number and Engine Number of Inspection and Emerging Technologies%车架号及发动机号的检验与显现技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯炳昌; 张凯

    2015-01-01

    Due to the robbery of motor vehicle has a professional and strong, strong liquidity,crime a short time, fled the scene and the characteristics of rapid, with the public security organs to from field collected valuable evidence or clues, stolen goods is difficult, low detection rate, leading to the crime of motor vehicle theft and robbery in such cases soon become high incidence of criminal cases in new and criminals increasingly rampant, serious harm to people and property safety and social stability. This paper based on the summary of the author's work experience,the inspection of the vehicle frame number and engine number and display methods are classified,from tampering vehicle chassis number,engine number recognition to display technology are discussed, to effectively combat vehicle theft and robbery crime has certain practical value.%由于盗抢机动车犯罪具有专业性强、流动性大、作案时间短、逃离现场快等特点,再加上公安机关难以从现场收集有价值的证据或线索,追赃难,破案率低,导致此类案件很快成为新型的刑事高发案件,且犯罪分子日益猖獗,严重危害人们的财产安全及社会稳定。笔者根据多年工作经验,对机动车车架号及发动机号的检验及显现方法进行大致分类,从被篡改机动车车架号、发动机号的识别到显现技术进行探讨,对有效打击盗抢机动车犯罪具有一定借鉴意义。

  7. Robot driver for vehicle durability emission test on chassis dynamometer%底盘测功机上用于汽车排放耐久性试验的驾驶机器人

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓冰; 张为公

    2005-01-01

    A method for a vehicle durability emission test using a robot driver instead of human drivers on the chassis dynamometer is presented.The system architecture of vehicle durability emission test cell,the road load simulation strategy and the tele-monitoring system based on Browser/Client structure are described.Furthermore,the construction of the robot driver,vehicle performance self-learning algorithm,multi-mode vehicle control model and vehicle speed tracking strategy based on fuzzy logic are also discussed.Besides,the capability of control parameters self-compensation on-line makes it possible to compensate the wear of vehicle components and the variety of clutch true bite point during the long term test.Experimental results show that the robot driver can be applicable to a wide variety of vehicles and the obtained results stay within a tolerance band of ±2km/h.Moreover the robot driver is able to control tested vehicles with good repeatability and consistency;therefore,this method presents a solution to eliminate the uncertainty of emission test results by human drivers and to ensure the accuracy and reliability of emission test results.%提出利用驾驶机器人在底盘测功机上代替人类驾驶员进行排放耐久性试验的方法.给出了汽车排放耐久性试验系统的组成,底盘测功机道路阻力模拟策略和基于B/S架构的远程监控系统;着重讨论了驾驶机器人的构成,汽车性能自学习算法,多层汽车控制模型和基于模糊逻辑的车速跟踪控制方法.此外,驾驶机器人还具有控制参数在线补偿能力,补偿了长时间试验过程中汽车部件的磨损以及离合器接合点的漂移.试验结果表明,驾驶机器人车速控制精度在±2 km/h范围内,精度高,重复性好,可以消除汽车试验中人为因素的影响,保证了排放试验数据的准确度和有效性.

  8. Vehicle path tracking by integrated chassis control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saman Salehpour; Yaghoub Pourasad; Seyyed Hadi Taheri

    2015-01-01

    The control problem of trajectory based path following for passenger vehicles is studied. Comprehensive nonlinear vehicle model is utilized for simulation vehicle response during various maneuvers in MATLAB/Simulink. In order to follow desired path, a driver model is developed to enhance closed loop driver/vehicle model. Then, linear quadratic regulator (LQR) controller is developed which regulates direct yaw moment and corrective steering angle on wheels. Particle swam optimization (PSO) method is utilized to optimize the LQR controller for various dynamic conditions. Simulation results indicate that, over various maneuvers, side slip angle and lateral acceleration can be reduced by 10%and 15%, respectively, which sustain the vehicle stable. Also, anti-lock brake system is designed for longitudinal dynamics of vehicle to achieve desired slip during braking and accelerating. Proposed comprehensive controller demonstrates that vehicle steerability can increase by about 15% during severe braking by preventing wheel from locking and reducing stopping distance.

  9. 三自由度铰接林用底盘的设计与越障性能分析%The design of forestry chassis with articulated body of three degrees of freedom and analysis of its obstacle surpassing ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱阅; 阚江明

    2016-01-01

    针对一般林业机械动力底盘在丘陵山区行驶、作业时,由于地形适应性差及附着力不足导致车轮打滑,影响整机作业效果等问题,根据多自由度仿形原理,设计一种对地面仿形行走的6轮三自由度铰接林用底盘。通过Solidworks对三自由度铰接林用底盘进行三维建模,并对车辆底盘林地行驶过程中常遇到的爬越斜坡、双轮越障和单轮越障等3种情况进行运动仿真,通过车架的质心变化曲线和车轮与地面之间的作用力分析三自由度铰接林用底盘的越障性能。结果表明:与普通6轮底盘相比,三自由度铰接林用底盘具有良好的地形适应性和通过性,且转向灵活,能够保持良好的附着力,具有更好的越障性能,能够满足在崎岖不平的路面上行驶作业的要求。%Due to poor adaptability to terrain and lack of adhesive force,conventional forestry machinery chasses are prone to wheel-slippage when working in hilly area. Aiming at this problem, a six-wheel driven articulated chassis adopting the principle of profiling terrain was designed with three degrees of freedom (DF). A 3D modeling of forestry chassis with 3-DF articulated body was conducted by solidworks, and was simulated dynamically based on ADAMS for slope climbing and obstacle surpassing with one or two wheels. The performance of obstacle crossing for the forestry chassis with 3-DF articulated body was analyzed through the curves of center of mass for frame and the force between wheels and ground. The simulation showed that the chassis with 3-DF articulated body had good adaptability to the terrain, good traffic ability and flexible steering ability compared with conventional six-wheeled chassis. It can provide enough adhesion force and meet requirements for forestry machinery working in rough hilly area.

  10. 高真空压铸铝合金轿车底盘部件的压射工艺试验及优化%Experiment and Optimization of Shot Parameters of High Vacuum Die Casting for Aluminum Alloy Car Chassis Part

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林海; 万里; 刘后尧; 张寓朝; 吴湛方; 杨林方; 李高; 吴树森

    2011-01-01

    采用自主研发的高真空压铸控制系统,以某铝合金轿车底盘部件为对象,研究了高真空压铸工艺参数如真空度、抽真空时间、压射速度及高速切换点等对铸件内部质量及力学性能的影响.试验结果表明:该铝合金轿车底盘关键部件的最佳高真空压铸工艺参数:抽真空启动位置110 mm,抽真空停止位置700 mm;冲头慢压射速度0.19 m/s,快压射速度5.8 m/s;慢/快速转换点即高速切换点240 mm;型腔真空度91 kPa以上.高真空压铸的底盘部件本体试样抗拉强度达到281.56 MPa,屈服强度达到155.44 MPa、伸长率达到7.34%,完全满足该铸件的技术要求.经过严格的产品检测,该铝合金轿车底盘部件已成功用于某国产自主品牌轿车.%Based on innovative high vacuum control system, effects of shot parameters including vacuum level, venting time, shot velocity and switch position of fast velocity on casting quality and mechanical properties were investigated for the high vacuum die-cast car chassis part in this paper.The results show that optimal process parameters are as follows: the vacuumed startup and stop position are 110 mm and 700 mm respectively, and the vacuum level of cavity is up to 91 kPa;meanwhile the slow and fast velocity of the injection punch are 0.19 and 5.8 m/s, and switch position of fast velocity is 240 mm.The round car chassis part can be achieved under above parameters,whose tensile strength is 281.56 MPa, yield strength 155.44 MPa and elongation up to7.34%.The chassis part was successfully employed in a domestic own-brand car.

  11. 一种滑移式升降可调通用底盘结构设计与关键技术研究%Design and key technology research on one kind of slip-type lifting adjustable general chassis structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴红雷; 弋景刚; 孔德刚; 袁永伟

    2015-01-01

    目前设施农业机械多以内燃机为动力源,与电动机驱动比较,存在污染严重、操作不灵活等问题。故,提出了一种前、中、后均可悬挂农机具的滑移式升降可调通用底盘设计思想,搭建了通用底盘的结构模型;为满足底盘平面倾斜升降调节要求,设计了一种液压滑轨升降调节机构。采用体积小、比功率大、传动效率高的电动轮毂作为四轮独立驱动系统的行走轮,建立了电动轮毂加速过程的受力平衡方程。为增加连续作业时间,采用串联式混合动力结构;分析了四轮独立驱动在滑移转向工况下,内外两侧电动轮毂转速与转弯半径的运动关系,为滑移式升降可调通用底盘的样机试制和控制策略及算法的设计奠定理论基础。%Internal combustion engine is used to most facility agricultural machinery as its pow‐er supply ,w hich has some serious problems such as pollution ,inconvenience ,and poor gener‐ality compared with themotordrive today .So ,a design idea of a kind of slip‐type lifting adjust‐able general chassis which can be hang implements at the front ,middle and the back of it , w hich sets up the chassis structure model to satisfy the requirement of the of chassis plane tilt‐ing and lifting regulation through as kind of hydraulic sliding rail lifting adjusting mechanism is put forward in the paper .It uses the motor wheel chair hub with small size ,big specific power and high drive efficiency as the walking wheel of four‐wheel independent driving sys‐tem .And it also builds the force balance equation of motor wheel chair hub in acceleration process ,and serial hybrid electric power train system is adopted in order to increase working hours .Furtherly ,the motion relation is analyzed between the inside and outside of motor wheel chair hub’s rotate speed and turning radius under slid‐turning conditions ,and it also lays a theoretical foundation for

  12. 基于底盘测功机的摩托车耐久性和工况排放试验中冷却风机出口风速随距离衰减的研究%Study on the Reduction of Wind Speed at Outlet of Inter-cooling Fan During Motorcycle Durability and Operation Mode Tests Based on Chassis Dynamometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张力伟; 王仲太

    2012-01-01

    摩托车国Ⅲ工况排放测试和耐久性测试中,摩托车要在底盘测功机上跟踪规定的曲线行驶,风机模拟道路行驶中的自然风冷却车辆,速度满足风速等于车速。由于从风机出口断面到摩托车发动机有一定距离,随着距离的增加,出口风速、风量会发生衰减和扩散,这样,到达发动机的风速必然小于车速,致使冷却效果下降,模拟效果不佳,长时间运行还会对发动机、催化转化器产生损害,影响排放结果。%During the tests on emission and durability of motorcycle, which is Euro-III compliant. Motorcycle will operate on the stipulated curve on chassis dynamometer. The fan imitate the natural during the operation to cool the motorcycle. With the increase of the distance between the cross-section of the outlet of fan, the speed and volume of wind will be reduced, this gives rise to the poor cooling effect. And this will even damage the engine and catalytic converter after the long-time operation.

  13. 基于某商务电动汽车操纵稳定性仿真分析的底盘布置化%Chassis Disposal Project Optimization Based on the Handing and Stability Simulation Analysis of the Commercial Electric Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄菊花; 闫雪

    2012-01-01

    针对某项目研发的传统商务用车,为了满足研发后电动汽车的操纵稳定性要求,运用ADAMS/Car软件建立电动汽车整车虚拟样机仿真模型,建立钢板弹簧非独立后悬架模型是建模一大难点,在多体动力学模型的基础上研究电机总成和车用动力锂离子电池组等的分布对汽车操纵稳定性的影响,提出底盘布置优化方案,根据汽车行业评定标准进行评分,结果显示底盘优化后电动汽车的操纵稳定性试验各项指标均符合要求.%In accordance with certain traditional commercial vehicle in research and development in a project, in order to meet the handing and stability need of the electric vehicle developed. The full virtual simulation model is build with ADAMS/Car software firstly and build leaf spring rear independent suspension model. Secondly research the effect of the disposal of electrical machine and dynamic battery on vehicles handing and stability based on the multibody dynamics model and a chassis disposal project t optimization is proposed. Finally rating vehicles handing and stability according to the auto industry standard and the results showed that stability test indexes of the vehicle improved comply with the requirements.

  14. Single tower model selection of super high-rise twin-tower structure with small-chassis and high-podium%小底盘高裙房双塔超高层结构单塔模型选择方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈瑛; 刘鹏飞; 孙洪波; 张晓静; 李霞

    2013-01-01

    由于各塔楼之间的扭转耦联,小底盘高裙房双塔楼结构表现出复杂的结构特性.根据整体模型计算的自振周期,很难判断具体属于哪个塔楼.为控制周期比,需要建立多个单塔模型来验算周期比,单塔模型的剖分应使其计算的位移、内力与整体模型计算结果尽量一致.以某实际工程为例,提出了小底盘高裙房双塔结构单塔模型的剖分方法,对3个计算模型进行结构静力弹性分析,比较了各模型的自振周期、位移比、剪重比和刚重比,得出一些有益的结论,可为类似工程的设计提供借鉴.%Due to the torsion coupling between towers,the twin-tower structure with small-chassis and high-podium exhibits the complex structural characteristics.The period belongs to which tower can not be evaluated by the overall calculations.The multiple single tower models should be set up to control the period ratio.The results of calculation such as displacement and internal force should be uniform between single tower model and overall model.The separating method for obtaining single tower model was investigated by a practical project,The results of static elastic analysis of three different models,such as the period,the displacement ratio,the shear-weight ratio,and the rigidity-gravity ratio,were compared.The conclusion is expected to provide a useful reference for the analysis and design of similar high-rise building structures.

  15. Design and Optimisation of Sae Mini Baja Chassis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Anjani Devi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to design and develop the roll cage for All - Terrain Vehicle accordance with the rulebook of BAJA 2014 given by SAE. The frame of the SAE Baja vehicle needs to be lightweight and structurally sound to be competitive but still protect the driver. The vehicle needs to traverse all types of off-road conditions including large rocks, downed logs, mud holes, steep inclines, jumps and off camber turns. During the competition events there is significant risk of rollovers, falling from steep ledges, collisions with stationary objects, or impacts from other vehicles. Material for the roll cage is selected based on strength and availability. A software model is prepared in Pro-engineer. Later the design is tested against all modes of failure by conducting various simulations and stress analysis with the aid of ANSYS 13. Based on the result obtained from these tests the design is modified accordingly. A target of 2 is set for Yield Factor of Safety.

  16. Synthetic Biology with Cytochromes P450 Using Photosynthetic Chassis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnanasekaran, Thiyagarajan

    in the synthesis of diterpene resin acid (isopimaric acid) from the genus Picea were exploited. In Sorghum bicolor, the dhurrin pathway is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum, and it is comprised of two P450s (CYP79A1 and CYP71E1) and a glycosyl transferase UGT85B1. We chose the dhurrin pathway because every...... were successfully expressed and localized to the thylakoids, but expressing the UGT85B1 along with the P450s has not been achieved yet. In the third subproject, the aim was to transiently engineer the diterpene resin acid Isopimaric acid pathway in the chloroplast of Nicotiana benthamiana...

  17. Global Chassis Control and Braking Control using Tyre Forces Measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerard, M.P.

    2011-01-01

    Mobility and traffic safety is a major concern in the society today. Many accidents take place because the vehicle is not following the trajectory that the driver desires. To avoid such accidents, an increasing number of active safety systems are introduced in modern vehicles. Still, most of the ti

  18. Biofuels from E. Coli: Engineering E. coli as an Electrofuels Chassis for Isooctane Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-07-16

    Electrofuels Project: Ginkgo Bioworks is bypassing photosynthesis and engineering E. coli to directly use carbon dioxide (CO2) to produce biofuels. E. coli doesn’t naturally metabolize CO2, but Ginkgo Bioworks is manipulating and incorporating the genes responsible for CO2 metabolism into the microorganism. By genetically modifying E. coli, Ginkgo Bioworks will enhance its rate of CO2 consumption and liquid fuel production. Ginkgo Bioworks is delivering CO2 to E. coli as formic acid, a simple industrial chemical that provides energy and CO2 to the bacterial system.

  19. TNO ADVANCE: a modular simulation tool for combined chassis and powertrain analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillaart, E. van den; Mourad, S.; Lupker, H.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper TNO-Advance is presented. It is built in a modular way, therefore allowing quick assembling of specific vehicle configurations and easy integration of new component models and future evolutions of existing models. Its entensive library is built in Matlab/Simulink, taking advantage of i

  20. Information of the chassis and information of the program in synthetic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchin, Antoine

    2009-12-01

    Synthetic biology aims at reconstructing life to put to the test the limits of our understanding. It is based on premises similar to those which permitted invention of computers, where a machine, which reproduces over time, runs a program, which replicates. The underlying heuristics explored here is that an authentic category of reality, information, must be coupled with the standard categories, matter, energy, space and time to account for what life is. The use of this still elusive category permits us to interact with reality via construction of self-consistent models producing predictions which can be instantiated into experiments. While the present theory of information has much to say about the program, with the creative properties of recursivity at its heart, we almost entirely lack a theory of the information supporting the machine. We suggest that the program of life codes for processes meant to trap information which comes from the context provided by the environment of the machine. PMID:19816808

  1. Semitrailer chassis design against fatigue on the basis of field test data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauwelussen, Joop; Horn, L.; Alderliesten, R.; Ham, G. ten; Rhee, D. van; Klink, M. van

    2012-01-01

    During the previous HVTT conference in Melbourne, results have been presented of a project FORWARD, including eleven different trailer manufacturers, involving testing and modeling activities to establish a practical basis for realistic fatigue assessment as a step towards an improved light-weight t

  2. Engineering C4 photosynthesis into C3 chassis in the synthetic biology age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Mara L; Mantegazza, Otho; Weber, Andreas P M

    2016-07-01

    C4 photosynthetic plants outperform C3 plants in hot and arid climates. By concentrating carbon dioxide around Rubisco C4 plants drastically reduce photorespiration. The frequency with which plants evolved C4 photosynthesis independently challenges researchers to unravel the genetic mechanisms underlying this convergent evolutionary switch. The conversion of C3 crops, such as rice, towards C4 photosynthesis is a long-standing goal. Nevertheless, at the present time, in the age of synthetic biology, this still remains a monumental task, partially because the C4 carbon-concentrating biochemical cycle spans two cell types and thus requires specialized anatomy. Here we review the advances in understanding the molecular basis and the evolution of the C4 trait, advances in the last decades that were driven by systems biology methods. In this review we emphasise essential genetic engineering tools needed to translate our theoretical knowledge into engineering approaches. With our current molecular understanding of the biochemical C4 pathway, we propose a simplified rational engineering model exclusively built with known C4 metabolic components. Moreover, we discuss an alternative approach to the progressing international engineering attempts that would combine targeted mutagenesis and directed evolution. PMID:26945781

  3. Hierarchical video surveillance architecture: a chassis for video big data analytics and exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiboye, Sola O.; Birch, Philip; Chatwin, Christopher; Young, Rupert

    2015-03-01

    There is increasing reliance on video surveillance systems for systematic derivation, analysis and interpretation of the data needed for predicting, planning, evaluating and implementing public safety. This is evident from the massive number of surveillance cameras deployed across public locations. For example, in July 2013, the British Security Industry Association (BSIA) reported that over 4 million CCTV cameras had been installed in Britain alone. The BSIA also reveal that only 1.5% of these are state owned. In this paper, we propose a framework that allows access to data from privately owned cameras, with the aim of increasing the efficiency and accuracy of public safety planning, security activities, and decision support systems that are based on video integrated surveillance systems. The accuracy of results obtained from government-owned public safety infrastructure would improve greatly if privately owned surveillance systems `expose' relevant video-generated metadata events, such as triggered alerts and also permit query of a metadata repository. Subsequently, a police officer, for example, with an appropriate level of system permission can query unified video systems across a large geographical area such as a city or a country to predict the location of an interesting entity, such as a pedestrian or a vehicle. This becomes possible with our proposed novel hierarchical architecture, the Fused Video Surveillance Architecture (FVSA). At the high level, FVSA comprises of a hardware framework that is supported by a multi-layer abstraction software interface. It presents video surveillance systems as an adapted computational grid of intelligent services, which is integration-enabled to communicate with other compatible systems in the Internet of Things (IoT).

  4. 75 FR 35123 - Notice of Buy America Waiver for Minivans and Minivan Chassis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... Toyota has not responded to public procurements.\\1\\ \\1\\ Contrary to Chrysler's assertion that Toyota has not responded to public procurements, in May 2010 FTA learned that Toyota may have certified... to communicate with Toyota by letter, e-mail, and telephone to determine whether Toyota is...

  5. Engineering C4 photosynthesis into C3 chassis in the synthetic biology age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Mara L; Mantegazza, Otho; Weber, Andreas P M

    2016-07-01

    C4 photosynthetic plants outperform C3 plants in hot and arid climates. By concentrating carbon dioxide around Rubisco C4 plants drastically reduce photorespiration. The frequency with which plants evolved C4 photosynthesis independently challenges researchers to unravel the genetic mechanisms underlying this convergent evolutionary switch. The conversion of C3 crops, such as rice, towards C4 photosynthesis is a long-standing goal. Nevertheless, at the present time, in the age of synthetic biology, this still remains a monumental task, partially because the C4 carbon-concentrating biochemical cycle spans two cell types and thus requires specialized anatomy. Here we review the advances in understanding the molecular basis and the evolution of the C4 trait, advances in the last decades that were driven by systems biology methods. In this review we emphasise essential genetic engineering tools needed to translate our theoretical knowledge into engineering approaches. With our current molecular understanding of the biochemical C4 pathway, we propose a simplified rational engineering model exclusively built with known C4 metabolic components. Moreover, we discuss an alternative approach to the progressing international engineering attempts that would combine targeted mutagenesis and directed evolution.

  6. Deinococcus as new chassis for industrial biotechnology: biology, physiology and tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, E; Bernard, R; Castang, S; Chabot, N; Coze, F; Dreux-Zigha, A; Hauser, E; Hivin, P; Joseph, P; Lazarelli, C; Letellier, G; Olive, J; Leonetti, J-P

    2015-07-01

    Deinococcus spp are among the most radiation-resistant micro-organisms that have been discovered. They show remarkable resistance to a range of damage caused by ionizing radiation, desiccation, UV radiation and oxidizing agents. Traditionally, Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been the two platforms of choice for engineering micro-organisms for biotechnological applications, because they are well understood and easy to work with. However, in recent years, researchers have begun using Deinococcus spp in biotechnologies and bioremediation due to their specific ability to grow and express novel engineered functions. More recently, the sequencing of several Deinococcus spp and comparative genomic analysis have provided new insight into the potential of this genus. Features such as the accumulation of genes encoding cell cleaning systems that eliminate organic and inorganic cell toxic components are widespread among Deinococcus spp. Other features such as the ability to degrade and metabolize sugars and polymeric sugars make Deinococcus spp. an attractive alternative for use in industrial biotechnology.

  7. Dynamic principles for motorcycle chassis dynamometer%摩托车底盘测功机动力学原理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文润; 王培玲; 严峻; 郑健明

    2001-01-01

    从工程力学角度,应用运动学、动力学原理和相对运动关系,研究分析了摩托车道路行驶中和在底盘测功机上进行道路模拟试验中的受力状况,并建立了行驶方程;为将摩托车道路行驶工况有效、等量地转移到底盘测功机上,模拟各项行驶阻力提供了底盘测功机设计和研制的理论依据和方法。

  8. Development trend of automotive chassis comfort%汽车底盘舒适性发展概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安世昌

    2004-01-01

    汽车底盘的发展越来越舒适,给各类汽车的整体舒适性提高提供了很大的支持,针对我国的实际国情,研究底盘各系统的舒适化方向对汽车舒适性的提高有很大的意义.

  9. Study on Vehicle Chassis Integrated Control%车辆底盘集成控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李刚; 宗长富; 张泽星; 段明序; 梁赫奇; 洪伟

    2012-01-01

    基于模型预测控制理论,从提高车辆极限工况稳定性角度,研究车辆纵向和侧向运动的水平集成控制及纵向、侧向和垂向的全局集成控制.确定了分层集成控制结构,设计了转向/制动模型预测控制器和主动悬架控制器.采用单轮规则制动分配法,实现了车辆底盘转向/制动的水平集成控制和转向/制动/悬架的全局集成控制,并通过仿真实验对算法进行验证.结果表明:集成控制能有效提高车辆极限工况的稳定性和主动安全性.%For enhancing the vehicle stability in the extreme conditions, the vehicle horizontal integrated control of longitudinal and lateral movement ant the overall integrated control of longitudinal, lateral and vertical improvement were studied based on the model predictive control theory. The hierarchical integrat- ed control structure was determined. The steering/braking model predictive controller and active suspen- sion controller were disigned. The single-wheel braking force allocation method was used. It achieves the steering/braking horizontal integrated control and the steering/braking/suspension overall integrated con- trol. The simulation test was used to verify the algorithm. The result shows that the integrated control can enhance the vehicle stability and active safety effectively in the extreme conditions .

  10. Reduced evolvability of Escherichia coli MDS42, an IS-less cellular chassis for molecular and synthetic biology applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blattner Frederick R

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolvability is an intrinsic feature of all living cells. However, newly emerging, evolved features can be undesirable when genetic circuits, designed and fabricated by rational, synthetic biological approaches, are installed in the cell. Streamlined-genome E. coli MDS42 is free of mutation-generating IS elements, and can serve as a host with reduced evolutionary potential. Results We analyze an extreme case of toxic plasmid clone instability, and show that random host IS element hopping, causing inactivation of the toxic cloned sequences, followed by automatic selection of the fast-growing mutants, can prevent the maintenance of a clone developed for vaccine production. Analyzing the molecular details, we identify a hydrophobic protein as the toxic byproduct of the clone, and show that IS elements spontaneously landing in the cloned fragment relieve the cell from the stress by blocking transcription of the toxic gene. Bioinformatics analysis of sequence reads from early shotgun genome sequencing projects, where clone libraries were constructed and maintained in E. coli, suggests that such IS-mediated inactivation of ectopic genes inhibiting the growth of the E. coli cloning host might happen more frequently than generally anticipated, leading to genomic instability and selection of altered clones. Conclusions Delayed genetic adaptation of clean-genome, IS-free MDS42 host improves maintenance of unstable genetic constructs, and is suggested to be beneficial in both laboratory and industrial settings.

  11. A Genetic System for Clostridium ljungdahlii: a Chassis for Autotrophic Production of Biocommodities and a Model Homoacetogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leang, C; Ueki, T; Nevin, KP; Lovley, DR

    2013-02-04

    Methods for genetic manipulation of Clostridium ljungdahlii are of interest because of the potential for production of fuels and other biocommodities from carbon dioxide via microbial electrosynthesis or more traditional modes of autotrophy with hydrogen or carbon monoxide as the electron donor. Furthermore, acetogenesis plays an important role in the global carbon cycle. Gene deletion strategies required for physiological studies of C. ljungdahlii have not previously been demonstrated. An electroporation procedure for introducing plasmids was optimized, and four different replicative origins for plasmid propagation in C. ljungdahlii were identified. Chromosomal gene deletion via double-crossover homologous recombination with a suicide vector was demonstrated initially with deletion of the gene for FliA, a putative sigma factor involved in flagellar biogenesis and motility in C. ljungdahlii. Deletion of fliA yielded a strain that lacked flagella and was not motile. To evaluate the potential utility of gene deletions for functional genomic studies and to redirect carbon and electron flow, the genes for the putative bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenases, adhE1 and adhE2, were deleted individually or together. Deletion of adhE1, but not adhE2, diminished ethanol production with a corresponding carbon recovery in acetate. The double deletion mutant had a phenotype similar to that of the adhE1-deficient strain. Expression of adhE1 in trans partially restored the capacity for ethanol production. These results demonstrate the feasibility of genetic investigations of acetogen physiology and the potential for genetic manipulation of C. ljungdahlii to optimize autotrophic biocommodity production.

  12. 宝斯通客车底盘悬架设计%Suspension design of BEST bus chassis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑青勇

    2009-01-01

    文章以宝斯通客车底盘为例,对双横臂独立悬架刚度、横向稳定杆的刚度和前、后悬架的刚度阻尼匹配进行了计算;对影响操纵稳定性、制动性的参数,如侧倾中心、纵倾中心进行了分析%Taking BEST bus as an example, it calculates the rigidity of front suspension, the transverse stabilizer rod, the damping match of front and rear suspension, and analyses the effect of operational stability, brake parameter, such as the roll center and pitch center.

  13. Comparative study of two die-casting technological processes for aluminum alloy chassis%铝合金底盘压铸工艺的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    来亚敏; 胡成亮; 刘全坤

    2006-01-01

    对某铝合金底盘铸件采用UG进行实体造型,利用ProCAST软件对2种工艺方案下的充型和凝固过程进行了数值模拟,直观显示了铸件的压铸成型过程,预测了铸件在成型过程中可能出现的各种铸造缺陷,并根据模拟结果对比选出了较合理的工艺,从而提高了铝合金压铸件的整体质量.

  14. Design on Welding Technology of Aluminum Alloy Chassis%铝合金机箱的焊接工艺设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艳华

    2006-01-01

    长期以来,由于焊接方法及焊接工艺参数的选取不当,严重影响了计算机箱体的焊接质量.主要通过对焊接位置、焊缝坡口、工装、机械加工工艺措施的分析比较,提出了一套符合计算机箱体焊接的工艺方案,较好地解决了存在的问题.

  15. 机箱铝横梁端面钻夹具设计%Design of Fixture for Aluminum Cross Beam Surface of Chassis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪冰

    2004-01-01

    我公司生产的XC系列机箱中须在铝制横梁端面上钻削两个Ф3mm的孔。由于工件尺寸较长,最长的在600mm以上。原加工方法是在工件的端面划线然后在摇臂钻上钻孔,这样加工出的零件尺寸精度和孔的垂直度不易保证。在组装成品机箱时箱体不正,梁的端面易产生较大的间隙而影响产品质量。如果将工件横放,动力头也横放进行横向钻孔,这样就可以消除工件在高度方向上的不稳定因素,再配合合理的夹具

  16. 推土机底盘支架螺纹联接改造方法%Upgrading of screw connection of bulldozer's chassis supporting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方颜空

    2006-01-01

    潜孔钻和推土机是矿山主要采矿设备,检修上述设备经常遇到行走部分无法恢复诸多问题,尤为突出的是支重轮座子的联接因长期在复杂环境中使用出现锈蚀、松旷等无法修复的难题,本方法着重论述如何有效恢复行走部分支重轮座子的联接问题,并进行了方案的可行性论证,提出了相应的修复方案.以便指导矿山生产.

  17. The Design for Chassis Dynamometer of Motorcycle with Intelligence%智能化摩托车道路模拟试验台设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晋小莉; 顾怀宁; 段保民

    2004-01-01

    阐述了智能化摩托车道路模拟试验台的设计技术指标和总体结构的组成.对机械部分的转鼓-测功机组的设计、智能化控制系统实现方法的设计和冷却系统的设计作了介绍,还对模拟试验台可实施测试的3种运行方式作了简单叙述.

  18. MCGS组态软件在摩托车底盘测功机系统中的应用%Application of MCGS in Motorcycle Chassis Dynamometer System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶俊卫; 张坤良; 任立环; 庞晓伟; 李建兴; 彭秀英

    2006-01-01

    本文阐述了摩托车底盘测功机的工作原理,介绍了MCGS工业组态软件的特点及其在底盘测功机测试系统中的应用.着重地对MCGS在底盘测功机测试系统中的通讯、数据处理、行驶阻力曲线以及测试摩托车排放的工况曲线等做了详细叙述.

  19. Comparative Study of Methods for Setting Running Resistance on a Chassis Dynamometer%底盘测功机行驶阻力设定方法比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹涛; 郑义; 李晶; 袁克忠

    2014-01-01

    分析了摩托车道路行驶阻力的数学模型及各国标准中查表法阻力设定的差异.对3种摩托车采用滑行法进行了滑行参数测量,拟合出摩托车的行驶阻力曲线,与查表法获得的阻力曲线相比较,并对分别应用两种方法获得的阻力进行的排放试验结果进行了分析.

  20. Development of DPC-1 typed motorcycle chassis dynamometer%DPC-1型摩托车底盘测功机的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王培玲; 李萍

    2007-01-01

    详细介绍了DPC-1型摩托车底盘测功机的系统构成、主要技术参数和惯量模拟以及阻力设定和风速跟踪等关键技术;给出了同一辆摩托车在3种不同摩托车底盘测功机上进行比对试验的结果,证明其设计水平和测量精度不低于国外同类产品水平.

  1. Plastics in car production. Pt. 1. Chassis, body and engine; Einsatz von Kunststoffen in der Automobilproduktion. T. 1. Fahrwerk, Karosserie und Motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guhr, U.; Grefenstein, A.; Hauck, C.; Reinelt, D. [BASF AG, Ludwigshafen am Rhein (Germany)

    2000-04-01

    Both the car and plastics are innovative fields of technology. Due to their extraordinary versatility, plastics offer a wide range of applications for automotive engineering. The driving force behind the use of plastics is above all their potential for saving weight and enabling cost-effective processing, as well as allowing a great degree of design freedom. Today, a modern mid-range car contains about 130 kg of thermoplastic materials, making up about 10% of the car's overall weight. (orig.) [German] Das Automobil und die Kunststoffe gehoeren zu den innovativen Technologiegebieten. Aufgrund ihrer Leistungsvielfalt bieten Kunststoffe dem Automobilbau vielfaeltige Einsatzmoeglichkeiten. Treibende Kraefte fuer die Verwendung von Kunststoffen sind vor allem deren Potenzial hinsichtlich Gewichtseinsparung und kostenguenstiger Verarbeitung, verbunden mit einer grossen Gestaltungsfreiheit. Ein modernes Mittelklassefahrzeug enthaelt heute etwa 130 kg thermoplastische Kunststoffe, das sind etwa 10% des Gesamtfahrzeug-Gewichts. (orig.)

  2. Vehicle Component Benchmarking Using a Chassis Dynamometer: Using a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu and a 2013 Mercedes E350 (SAE Paper 2015-01-0589)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light-duty vehicle greenhouse gas (GHG) and fuel economy (FE) standards for MYs 2012 -2025 are requiring vehicle powertrains to become much more efficient. The EPA is using a full vehicle simulation model, called the Advanced Light-duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA), to ...

  3. Foreign Brand is More Welcome in Field of Chassis of Concrete Pump Truck%混凝土泵车底盘,进口品牌受青睐

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇杨

    2008-01-01

    混凝土泵车也称臂架式混凝土泵车,其型式定义为:将混凝土泵和液压折叠式臂架都安装在汽车或拖挂车底盘上,并沿臂架铺设输送管道,最终通过末端软管输出混凝土的机器。由于臂架具有变幅、折叠和回转功能,可以在臂架所能及的范围内布料,近年来已经成为泵送混凝土施工机械的首选机型,目前地下基础的混凝土浇筑有80%是由混凝土泵车来完成的。

  4. 电子设备机箱电磁屏蔽分析和设计%Electronic Equipment Chassis Electromagnetic Shielding Analysis and Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵旭阳

    2012-01-01

    On the analysis of the electronic equipment working environment,and on the basis of the electronic equipment of external clear main interference source,and shielding effectiveness analysis.For improving Electronic Equipments' resist-disturbance capability,contraposing outside interference source,advance shielding filtering and ground and otherwise resist-disturbance design method,to insure Electronic Equipments can be working up to snuff in the condition of complex execrable war field EME.%在分析了电子设备工作环境的基础上,明确了电子设备外部的主要干扰源,并进行了屏蔽效能分析。为提高电子设备抗干扰性能,针对外部干扰源提出了屏蔽、滤波和接地等抗干扰设计方案,确保电子设备能在复杂恶劣的环境下正常工作。

  5. 计算机机箱温度场的测试与仿真%Measurement and simulation of temperature field for computer chassis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵地; 刘贵喜; 朱国玺

    2006-01-01

    探讨了计算机机箱温度场的测量方法,采用具有冷端补偿的K型热电偶数字转换器MAX6675设计实现了多点温度分布测试系统,该测试系统具有精度高、稳定性高的突出特点.此外,利用热分析软件Flotherm对机箱的温度场进行模拟仿真分析,仿真计算结果与测试结果一致,验证了仿真模型和仿真结果的有效性.

  6. Technical Analysis of VW Tiguan Ⅱ Powertrain & Chassis System%大众途观技术解析之二动力总成及底盘系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱正德

    2010-01-01

    @@ 相比目前在国内市场占据优势的自主品牌和日系品牌,德系SUV"途观"动力强劲、安全完善且操控性及地形掌控能力更为出色. 根据所采用的发动机(2.0TSl或1.8TSl)、变速器(6档手自一体或6档手动)、主流采用四轮驱动模式,以及不同的配置,途观(Tiguan)有从最低的1.8TSl手动都会版(前驱)直至2.0TSl手自一体旗舰版(四驱)等多种选型.

  7. The application of Human-simulated Intelligent Control on Power-measuring motor of Motorcycle Chassis%仿人智能控制在摩托车底盘测功机中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张里; 雷李; 张天星

    2006-01-01

    摩托车测试系统中道路模拟阻力加载是整个测试系统数据准确性的关键,本文中根据仿人智能控制理论的基本原理,构造了仿人智能控制器,实现了对电涡流测功机道路模拟阻力的精确加载.

  8. Examine the Accuracy of ″DEC-1 Chassis Dynamometer″ by Means of Comparison Test%利用比对试验的方法考核"DPC-1型底盘测功机"的精度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王培玲

    2004-01-01

    本文通过采用同一辆受试摩托车在三种不同摩托车底盘测功机上进行比对试验的方法,考核分析了天津大学科达测控技术公司研发的"DPC-1型底盘测功机"的测试数据的准确性和精度.

  9. Realization of Control System for Motorcycle AC Chassis Dynamometers Based on DeviceNet%基于DeviceNet的摩托车交流底盘测功机电控系统的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦大鹏; 甘永梅; 韩力; 王兆安

    2004-01-01

    根据摩托车交流底盘测功机的功能要求和特点,提出了以DeviceNet作为主体的网络平台构架成的用于摩托车测试的现场总线控制系统.给出了电控系统的总体设计方案:具体论述了电控系统的硬件构成及PLC、变频器、上下位工控机部分的功能,并详细阐述了控制系统中的PLC、上下位工控机软件的设计与实现.最后通过比对实验表明本系统与国外同类设备相比,精度满足设计要求,性价比高.

  10. Realization of Control System for Motorcycle AC Chassis Dynamometers Based on DeviceNet%基于DeviceNet的摩托车交流底盘测功机电控系统的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦大鹏; 甘永梅; 韩力; 王兆安

    2005-01-01

    根据摩托车交流底盘测功机的功能要求和特点,提出了以DeviceNet作为主体的网络平台构架成的用于摩托车测试的现场总线控制系统.给出了电控系统的总体设计方案;具体论述了电控系统的硬件构成及PLC、变频器、上下位工控机等部分的功能;详细阐述了控制系统中的PLC、上下位工控机软件的设计与实现;最后通过比对实验表明本系统与国外同类设备相比,精度满足设计要求,性价比高.

  11. PLC在摩托车底盘测功机测控系统中的应用%Application of PLC on the Testing and Control System of Motorcycle Chassis Dynamometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立莹; 晋小莉

    2005-01-01

    本文根据电机闭环控制变频调速原理,设计了摩托车底盘测功机测控系统,阐述了PLC在该系统中的应用,并设计了硬件结构和软件流程.使系统实现了恒转速工作方式、恒转矩工作方式和自动道路负荷方式运行.

  12. Virtual Prototype Design of Chassis of Rice Field Seedling-machine Refited by Sand-motorcycle%沙滩摩托车改成秧田播种机底盘虚拟样机设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄燕娟; 杨丹彤; 吴文烨; 曾鹏; 陈桂亮; 蔡旭晖; 李志伟

    2009-01-01

    沙滩摩托车具有高地隙、零配件通用等特点,将其改装成水稻秧田播种机底盘有利于秧田机械化育秧技术的推广.为此,利用Pro/E软件建立了秧田播种机底盘主要工作部件的三维模型,利用UG软件进行了整机的虚拟装配、干涉检验并进行了动力学和运动学分析,实现了水稻秧田播种机底盘的虚拟样机设计.虚拟样机为进一步完善样机的设计起到了重要的作用,也为其它农业机械的虚拟样机设计提供了参考和借鉴.

  13. 基于CAN总线的摩托车底盘测功机控制系统研制%Development of control system based on CAN-bus of motorcycle chassis dynamometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴锋; 桂旭阳; 张锋

    2004-01-01

    设计了用于测量摩托车整车动力性和工况法排放的底盘测功机控制系统.采用带有在片控制器局部网络(controller area network,CAN)控制器的PIC18F458单片机作为CAN节点,系统主要由控制节点、数据采集节点和PC节点三部分组成.数据采集节点采集系统的控制参数,并将采集到的参数分别传送到PC节点用于显示测试进程,传送到控制节点用于控制.实际运行显示,本系统工作稳定,数据传输可靠,控制实时性好.

  14. 摩托车交流底盘测功机电控系统的设计与实现%The Design and Realization of the Motorcycle AC Chassis Dynamometer Electric Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜庆明; 甘永梅; 杨旭; 王晓钰; 韩力; 王兆安

    2004-01-01

    根据摩托车交流底盘测功机的功能要求提出了电控系统的设计方案;具体论述了电控系统的硬件构成及各部分的功能,并详细阐述了控制系统中的PLC、上下位工控机软件的设计与实现;介绍了在提高系统安全性、可靠性和抗干扰能力方面所采取的措施.

  15. Development and application of host computer system for motorcycle emission chassis dynamometer%摩托车排放转鼓试验台主控计算机系统的研制及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金振华; 黄开圣; 卢青春; 聂圣芳

    2006-01-01

    为满足摩托车研究开发和法规检测排放试验的要求,开发了摩托车排放转鼓试验台主控计算机系统.硬件采用工业控制计算机、数据采集接口卡和通讯接口卡;软件采用虚拟仪器开发平台开发.系统实现了摩托车定容采样试验、连续稀释采样试验和直接采样试验的数据采集、设备控制及数据处理.实车试验表明:该系统可靠性好、功能全面且便于扩展.

  16. Main Performance Mensuration of Chassis of Rice Field Seedling-machine Refited by Sand-motorcycle%沙滩摩托车改成秧田播种机底盘主要性能测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄燕娟; 杨丹彤; 陈桂亮; 蔡旭晖; 吴文烨; 曾鹏; 李志伟

    2009-01-01

    沙滩摩托车具有高地隙、零配件通用等特点,将其改装成水稻秧田播种机底盘有利于秧田机械化育秧技术的推广.为了检验改装后的底盘是否能满足水稻秧田播种的要求,故需对主要性能进行测定.测定项目主要包括:重心位置、最小转弯直径、爬坡能力、最低稳定车速和制动性能等,为进一步优化设计和同类底盘设计提供参考.

  17. 摩托车整车底盘耐久试验设定方法简介%A Brief Introduction of the Setting of Motorcycle Chassis Durability Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符金华

    2004-01-01

    底盘耐久试验的设定包括:试验里程、试验工况、试验中摩托车辆状态及试验中设备的设定和评价基准的设定.底盘耐久试验的设定要经过多次试验的积累、归纳总结,恰当的设定既保证有充分的试验强度又使其在合理的范围内,使得底盘耐久试验能在产品检验中发挥出最大的作用.

  18. Analysis on the Setting Tolerance of Road Running Resistance on Motorcycle Chassis Dynamometer%摩托车底盘测功机道路行驶阻力允差设定判据的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程文平; 曹琳; 张庚辰

    2007-01-01

    国标GB 14622-2002、GB 18176-2002中对底盘测功机阻力设定误差作了明确规定,给出了两种设定方法.为了判定哪种方法更加科学准确,在实际操作中是否便于操作,本文结合理论分析和数学推导得出结论,可将道路行驶阻力误差最大值不超过6N作为简明的依据.

  19. Measuring and Controlling Software System of Motorcycle AC Chassis Dynamometer%摩托车交流底盘测功机测控软件系统的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李盘靖; 李民; 王炜; 秦现生

    2004-01-01

    摩托车底盘测功机是在室内完成整车性能试验、工况排放试验等专项试验所必需的大型检测设备.笔者依据有关国家标准,为一种新型摩托车交流底盘测功机研究开发了一套测控软件系统.该软件系统能实现试验数据的采集,管理测试项目,监控测试过程,为有效利用底盘测功机奠定了基础,保证了各种性能试验快速、可靠、方便地进行.

  20. 微客车架结构抗撞性能的分析与优化研究%Crashworthiness analysis and optimization for chassis frame structure of mini-bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵婷婷; 王军杰

    2011-01-01

    通过有限元分析软件LS-DYNA 进行碰撞仿真分析,研究了某新开发的微型客车的100%正面碰撞性能.根据相应的国家正碰法规CMVDR294和GB 11551-2003对仿真结果进行评价,发现正碰仿真中车架变形量、车门框变形量以及前壁板入侵量过大,不满足设计要求.针对上述问题,结合车身具体结构特性提出了车架结构优化方案.采用仿真技术进行优化方案的筛选和验证.验证结果表明优化方案有效地提高了车身、车架结构的抗撞性能.为此类微型客车正面碰撞性能的分析与优化提供方法和理论基础.%The front crash simulation based on LS-DYNA software is built to analyze the structural crashworthiness of mini-bus, which result evaluated according to the national frontal crash standard CMVDR294 and GB l1551-2003,indicates that the deformation of the frame, doorframe and front panel are too excessive in the simulation to meet the design requirements. In order to improve the crashworthiness of the bus, the optimization plans about the frame structure are proposed based on the structure characteristics of the body, which are selected and verified by simulation that the crashworthiness of the frame is enhanced efficiently. It provides approach and theoretical reference for crashworthiness analysis and design optimization of the mini-bus structure.

  1. Study of Appraisement Platform for the Matching of Tank Chassis With Cannon%坦克底盘与火炮匹配性评价平台研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费丽博; 毛保全

    2005-01-01

    建立了坦克底盘与火炮匹配性评价的理论模型,应用虚拟样机技术和动力学软件ADAMS分析了坦克底盘与火炮参数化动力学模型,得出匹配性评价动态参数.以获得的评价参数为基础,使用SQLSERVER作为数据库开发平台,通过建立完整的火炮和坦克底盘的数据库结构,以VC++.NET作为编程工具,在平台内实现了匹配性评价的数学模型.

  2. Golden Dragon COASTER Bus Competition Equation: No Corrosion Blind Spot Bus Body × HYUNDAI Chassis%金旅考斯特客车竞争方程式:无锈蚀盲点车身×现代底盘

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晶菁

    2010-01-01

    @@ 最近,连接厦门金旅海沧厂区和湖里厂区的道路上多了一道独特的风景线,一台台载运考斯特车身的货车在这条路上流动着,去海沧还是银白金属本色的车身,回湖里时却变成了青灰色的电泳漆.

  3. 可调地隙采摘式菠萝运输车底盘的设计与研究%Design and Research of Chassis of Pineapple Transporter with Plucking and Adjustable Ground Clearance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴伟斌; 冯运琳; 罗阔; 詹潇智; 曾伟鹏; 廖劲威; 卢迪豪; 黄涛; 洪添胜

    2016-01-01

    At present, the harvest and transportation of pineapple in China are mainly depengding on artificial labor, which lacks mechanization, leading to the low production efficiency and the high labor cost.In order to promote the de-velopment of Chinese pineapple industry, realize the mechanization of the pineapple planting industry, improve the effi-ciency of pineapple transportation as well as reduce the orchardist ' s laboring intensity, our team designed a type of pine-apple transporter with plucking and adjustable to gap.Based on the field investigation data, we designed a kind of new frame and new carriage structure to make the transporter meet the need of pineapple planting industry.With SolidWorks 3 d modeling and motion simulation, using SolidWorks Simulation software to study the car beam, frame and lifting mech-anism by finite element stress method,we check the rationality of the design and optimize organization structure of the de-sign.The pivotal technology is using hydraulic scissor lift structure to meet the need of adjustable ground clearance of pin -eapple transporter, and using gasoline-electric hybrid provides driving force in order to simplify the transmission and re-duce the fuel consumption.%目前,我国的菠萝的采收与运输主要以人工为主,缺乏机械化,生产效率低,人工成本较高.为此,研制了一款可调地隙采摘式菠萝运输车,并基于实地调研资料,设计了新式的车架与车厢结构,使运输车适应于菠萝种植业作业需求.采用SolidWorks进行三维建模,并进行运动仿真,利用SolidWorks Simulation软件对车横梁、车架、升降机构等进行有限元受力分析,校核设计机构的合理性,优化设计结构.本产品关键技术为采用了剪叉式液压升降结构,可满足离地间隙可调的性能要求,并采用汽油发电机混合动力提供行驶动力,简化了传动机构且降低了油耗.

  4. A New Design of Hydro-pneumatic Suspension Chassis of All-terrance Crane Truck%某新型全路面起重机底盘油气悬架系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡文俊

    2010-01-01

    介绍了某新型多轴全路面起重机底盘左右连通式自动调高油气悬架系统的组成和设计方法.包括油气弹簧的设计、蓄能器的选型、双横臂和调高系统的设计,并介绍了该新型油气悬架的特点,为其他专用汽车底盘设计提供了参考.

  5. 泵车底盘后轴空气悬架气囊压力控制的研究%Study on Pressure Control of Air Suspensions for Concrete Pump Chassis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康为科; 赵亮; 胡颖

    2014-01-01

    针对目前三一自制泵车底盘空气悬架下支撑板变形损坏的问题,对进口泵车底盘空气悬架气囊气压控制原理进行了对比分析研究,提出了自制泵车底盘的空气悬架气囊压力的控制方案.改进后空气悬架气囊的压力控制简单、可靠、成本低廉,解决了空气悬架下支撑板变形损坏的问题.

  6. The Steering Control System Design of Flexible Chassis for Conservatory Work Based on Bridge Circuit%基于电桥电路的温室作业柔性底盘转向控制系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨露; 郭康权; 丁新民

    2013-01-01

    为了开发现代设施农业动力装备,研制了一种基于偏置轴的四轮独立驱动、独立转向的柔性底盘.为了提高四轮独立驱动柔性底盘的转向控制性能,设计了一种基于电桥电路的转向控制系统,利用电桥的相邻两个桥臂输入方向盘信号和车轮位置信号,通过电桥输出调节车轮速度的方法实现车轮自动跟踪平衡位置.同时,提出了以TMS320F2812DSP作为中央控制器搭建转向控制系统的硬件电路,并进行了系统的软件设计.

  7. 78 FR 10686 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming Long-Wheel Base 2005 Mercedes-Benz...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... Nonconforming Long-Wheel Base 2005 Mercedes-Benz G-Class (463 Chassis) Multi-Purpose Passenger Vehicles Are... (NHTSA) of a petition for a decision that 2005 Long-Wheel Base (LWB) Mercedes-Benz G-class (463 chassis....S.- certified version of the 2005 LWB Mercedes-Benz G-class (463 chassis) MPV) and they are...

  8. 41 CFR 101-26.501-2 - Standardized buying programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and 6×4 cab-chassis, stake, van, dump, and truck-tractor; 19,000 to 60,000 pounds GVWR. (ii) 4×4 and 6×4 cab-chassis, stake, dump, and truck-tractor; 26,000 to 52,000 pounds GVWR. (iii) 1,200 and 2,000... Federal Specification No. KKK-A-1822): Type I, modular body on cab-chassis; Type II, van body with...

  9. 摩托车在底盘测功机上运转时轮胎滚动阻力对试验的影响(1)%The Influence of Tire Rolling Resistance when the Motorcycle Running on a Chassis Dynamometer upon the Test(1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵素郑

    2007-01-01

    摩托车在底盘测功机转鼓上运转时,因轮胎产生的滚动阻力会带来一些与道路试验不同的问题,给试验效果造成影响.通过理论分析、结合实践经验对这些问题进行详细讨论,并提出了相应的解决方法.

  10. Simulation of Road Resistance on Chassis Dynamometer when Giving Emission Tests According Euro Ⅰ,Euro Ⅱ and EPA%欧Ⅱ、欧Ⅲ、EPA排放测试时底盘测功机的道路行驶阻力模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪盛

    2005-01-01

    @@ 近几年,国内摩托车企业在研发和检测手段上有了长足进步,基本上都配备了底盘测功机,但大部分企业主要是用来进行工况排放检测,对如何充分利用底盘测功机模拟道路行驶工况,进行整车和发动机性能试验,以指导产品开发还比较陌生.本文通过比较目前国际通用的3个标准对道路阻力设定的要求,分析如何才能准确在底盘测功机上模拟实际道路行驶阻力.

  11. 摩托车在底盘测功机上运转时轮胎滚动阻力对试验的影响(2)%The Influence of Tire Rolling Resistance when the Motorcycle Running on a Chassis Dynamometer upon the Test (2)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵素郑

    2007-01-01

    车辆理论用F=A+Bv+Cv2多项式表示车辆在平直道路匀速行驶时的行驶阻力,A+Bv是滚动阻力,Cv2是空气阻力。欲使车辆台试与路试等效,需要车辆在2种试验中的外部阻力相等。

  12. 自主品牌结硕果华菱汽车欲主导重卡和重型专用车底盘市场%Independent Brand be Success VALIN Would like to Lead Heavy Truck and Heavy SPV Chassis Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左伏桃

    2006-01-01

    @@ 2月28日,"华菱汽车2006年度商务大会暨新产品发布会"在安徽省马鞍山市隆重召开.来自全国各地400余名华菱重卡经销商、改装厂和配套商代表济济一堂,回顾过去,展望未来.

  13. Automatic-Control Challenges in Future Urban Vehicles: A Blend of Chassis, Energy and Networking Management Les défis de la commande automatique dans les futurs véhicules urbains : un mélange de gestion de châssis, d’énergie et du réseau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savaresi S.M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this paper is the discussion of new challenges that the scientific field of automatic-control will face in the next decades, in the area of vehicles control. The focus is on urban vehicles for personal mobility, since this type of vehicles will be subject to the biggest changes in the next decades. The paper is articulated in three sections – in a top-down framework – briefly addressing and discussing the following items: the main drivers, which will force a change in urban personal mobility; the main types of vehicles, which are expected to address at best such drivers; the main automatic-control challenges on such type of vehicles. The scope of this paper is purposely non-technical. Its aim is mainly to discuss the emerging new challenges from the perspective of the automatic-control scientists and practitioners. The goal of the paper is to establish a discussion framework on the problems and opportunities, which will arise in this field, in the near future. Le sujet du présent article est une discussion sur les nouveaux défis auxquels le domaine scientifique de la commande automatique des véhicules va faire face dans les prochaines décennies. L’accent est mis sur les véhicules urbains destinés à une mobilité individuelle, puisque c’est ce type de véhicules qui va faire l’objet des plus grands changements dans les prochaines décennies. Le présent article s’articule, selon une démarche descendante, en trois sections abordant et discutant brièvement les éléments suivants : les principaux moteurs qui vont imposer un changement en matière de mobilité individuelle; les principaux types de véhicules qui sont attendus pour répondre au mieux à de tels moteurs et les principaux défis de la commande automatique sur un tel type de véhicules. À dessein, la portée du présent article est non technique. Son but est principalement de discuter les nouveaux défis émergeants, à partir de perspectives des milieux scientifiques et professionnels de la commande automatique. L’objectif du présent article consiste à établir un canevas de discussion sur les problèmes et opportunités qui verront le jour en ce domaine dans un proche avenir.

  14. Main line pressure detection system of centralized grease lubrication equipment for vehicle chassis based on virtual instrument%基于虚拟仪器的底盘集中润滑装置主油路压力检测系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏俞涌; 盛奎川; 余有芳

    2009-01-01

    为了精确检测车辆底盘自动集中润滑系统工作性能参数,研发了基于虚拟仪器的集中润滑装置主油路压力检测系统,该压力检测系统主要由压力和温度传感器、信号调理器、数据采集卡和计算机等硬件组成;并应用LabVIEW开发了系统检测平台;实现了润滑系统工作时主油路的动态压力波形采集与显示.实践结果证明,该检测系统具有较高的测量精度和良好的实用性.

  15. Use Professional Quality to Set Efficient Benchmarking——Interview of JIANGHUAI Bus and Coach Chassis Marketing Company%用专业品质树立高效标杆——访江淮客车底盘营销公司

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍越

    2010-01-01

    @@ 今年头两个月,客车底盘市场一改去年的颓势,行业整体增幅30%左右.其中,江淮底盘的销量更是高达2516台,较去年同期增长86.1%,增幅高出行业平均水平近2倍.

  16. 29 CFR 570.52 - Occupations of motor-vehicle driver and outside helper (Order 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., semitrailer, motorcycle, or similar vehicle propelled or drawn by mechanical power and designed for use as a...) The term gross vehicle weight includes the truck chassis with lubricants, water and a full tank or tanks of fuel, plus the weight of the cab or driver's compartment, body and special chassis and...

  17. 77 FR 65444 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 1991 Mercedes-Benz G-Class (463...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... Nonconforming 1991 Mercedes-Benz G-Class (463 Chassis) Multi-Purpose Passenger Vehicles Are Eligible for... petition for a decision that 1991 Mercedes-Benz G-class (463 chassis) multi-purpose passenger vehicles... complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). How...

  18. 26 CFR 48.4221-3 - Tax-free sale of articles for export, or for resale by the purchaser to a second purchaser for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... manufacturer that the vaccine is intended for uses other than the vaccination of persons described in 42 U.S.C...: Example (1). Q, a U.S. motor vehicle manufacturer, previously sold a truck chassis to R, a company in... liability under section 4061(a)(1) with respect to both the body and the chassis. Example (2). X, a...

  19. Effects of reconfiguration on the performance of mobile navigation robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Yili; Xu He; Li Han; Wang Shuguo; Ma Yuliu

    2006-01-01

    An innovative mobile robot that has reconfigurable locomotion chassis and reconfigurable bionic wheels has been developed to meet the needs of different payload and different terrain. Several prototypes have been achieved by the reconfiguration. By modeling relative comparison coefficients, these prototypes are analyzed in terms of geometrical parameter of trafficability, static stability and maneuverability. The effects of reconfiguration on these indices of robot performance can be compared, i.e. the variable height of chassis h has the biggest effect, the variable length of chassis l is the second, then is the camber angleβ and the caster angle α. Some principles for reconfiguration are proposed.

  20. Characteristics Study of Portable Hand-Held Phone Antenna by MoM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉莹; 徐晓文

    2003-01-01

    The characteristics of one kind of handset antenna are analyzed by the method of moments. By using the Pocklington equation and the Galerkin method, the current distribution on the handset antenna is calculated, the input impedance and radiation patterns are obtained. In addition, the characteristics of monopoles mounted on conducting chassis box with different sizes are analyzed. The results show that the size of the conducting chassis box has significant effect on the performance of the handset antenna. Therefore, appropriately changing the size of the conducting chassis box may improve the performance of the handset antenna.

  1. Track guided self-driven container wagon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, I.A.

    1999-01-01

    The linear motor consists of a series of stator coils (2) located along the Track guided self-driven container wagon Track guided self-driven container wagon track and a reaction rail (3) fitted under the wagon chassis (4).

  2. 23 CFR 1215.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... driver, except that such term does not include a vehicle which is constructed on a truck chassis, a motorcycle, a trailer, or any motor vehicle which is not required on the date of the enactment of...

  3. 40 CFR 86.527-90 - Test procedures, overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... startups and motorcycle operation on a chassis dynamometer, through a specified driving schedule. A... emission control systems installed on or incorporated in a new motorcycle shall be functioning during...

  4. 49 CFR 325.33 - Site characteristics; highway operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... or utility poles. (2) Rural mailboxes. (3) Traffic railings of any type of construction except solid... irregular tire, body, or chassis impact noise; and (2) Loose material, such as gravel or sand. (f)...

  5. 75 FR 32803 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning a GTX Mobile+ Hand Held Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ... the chassis, installing the radio card into the CF card slot, sliding the radio antenna for the radio... determination may request, pursuant to 19 CFR 177.31 that CBP reexamine the matter anew and issue a new...

  6. Effects of Cold Temperature and Ethanol Content on VOC Emissions from Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Supporting information Table S6 provides emission rates in g/km of volatile organic compounds measured from gasoline vehicle exhaust during chassis dynamometer...

  7. 现代汽车与厦门金旅经典合作辉煌再续记品质飞跃、动力无限的厦门金旅现代底盘考斯特%Classics Cooperation of Hyundai and Xiamen Golden Dragon to Continue Gloriou——Unlimited Motional Chassis COAST of Xiamen Golden Dragon and Hyumdai has Leaped for Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    适存

    2009-01-01

    @@ 历史铸就经典,品质创造永恒,"考斯特"对很多人不会陌生它在中巴的市场上独领风骚数十年,已成为经典中型客车的代名词,有着超强的市场生命力.2009年的中国客车市场,厦门金旅现代底盘考斯特车型的重磅推出,一石激起千层浪,引起了业界和媒体的广泛关注.

  8. Stanovení parametrů motocyklového motoru na válcovém dynamometru

    OpenAIRE

    Paráček, Marek

    2014-01-01

    This diploma thesis focuses on the topic of engine and chassis dynamometers. Emphasis is given to historical development as well as current findings in this field, especially in field of motorcycle dynamometers. This diploma thesis also describes the motorcycle engine and its main structural parts. The practical part of this diploma thesis deals with measuring motorcycle parameters by using a chassis dynamometer. These parameters have been measured with various combinations of air filters and...

  9. A new tool for economic nondestructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique introduced here works with relatively low digitalisation rates. An increase in accuracy is achieved by mathematical interpolation of the digitalised curves in the areas of interest. The equipment is built up modularly and uses standardised chassis systems on the basis of the VXI bus. It has one transmitter/pre-amplifier unit per module, which can be accommodated either in the chassis housing or near the test head in a local housing. (orig.)

  10. Synthesis of action variable for motor controllers of a mobile system with special wheels for movement on stairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Krys

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a procedure of obtaining waveform of angular velocities for special segmented wheels required for smooth movement of a stair-climbing chassis on stairs. The waveform was determined for a specified velocity of the chassis using a dynamic contact analysis in the CAD system SolidWorks. The main part of the work was to verify whether real motors on a testing chassis are capable of producing the required angular velocity with its significant step changes. The values of angular velocities were sent to drive control units from a software control system of the chassis. The chassis was recorded during the movement on stairs on a video camera and the resulting video was then analyzed by a special single-purpose image processing algorithm, which detected key points in individual frames. Outcome of the algorithm are tables with positions and velocities of individual key points during time. Tests proved that with lower velocities it is possible to achieve very good results with the chassis moving almost steadily.

  11. Whip antenna design for portable rf systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnapalli, Saila; Canora, Frank J.

    1995-12-01

    Whip type antennas are probably the most commonly used antennas in portable rf systems, such as cordless and cellular phones, rf enabled laptop computers, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and handheld computers. Whip antennas are almost always mounted on the chassis which contains the radio and other electronics. The chassis is usually a molded plastic which is coated with a conducting paint for EMI purposes. The chassis which appears as a lossy conductor to the antenna, has several effects -- detuning, altering the gain of the antenna, and shadowing its radiation pattern. Extensive modeling and measurements must be performed in order to fully characterize the affects of the chassis on the whip antenna, and to optimize antenna type, orientation and position. In many instances, modeling plays a more important role in prediction of the performance of whip antennas, since measurements become difficult due to the presence of common mode current on feed cables. In this paper models and measurements are used to discuss the optimum choice of whip antennas and the impact of the chassis on radiation characteristics. A modeling tool which has been previously described and has been successfully used to predict radiated field patterns is used for simulations, and measured and modeled results are shown.

  12. Narrow-track wheeled agricultural tractor parameter variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzomi, A; Rondelli, V

    2013-10-01

    Despite a general consensus among farmers, manufacturers, and researchers that wheeled agricultural tractor design has changed over time, there is little published evidence. There is debate as to whether the standardized rollover protective structure (ROPS) energy and force requirements, based on a tractor reference mass and pertaining to studies conducted more than 40 years ago, are appropriate for modern tractors. This article investigated the physical parameters of 326 modern narrow-track tractors, measured according to OECD Code 6 over 16 years (1993 to 2008 inclusive): 252 (-77%) were fixed-chassis tractors and 74 (-23%) were articulated. To understand the significance of design changes, the data were analyzed with respect to time and as a function of tractor mass. Articulated and fixed-chassis data were treated separately. The time data allowed qualitative analysis, while the mass data allowed quantitative analysis. The parameters show some changes over time and clearly indicate differences between articulated and fixed-chassis types. The parameter changes, along with the differences between types, may have important safety ramifications for ROPS energy absorption requirements, and these aspects are discussed. Regression lines with R2 values were fitted to the mass-related data for fixed-chassis and articulated tractors to determine the suitability of fit. The mass relations also displayed differences between fixed-chassis and articulated tractors. Thus, the most significant recommendation from this study is that the standardized testing procedure for narrow-track wheeled agricultural tractor category should be split into two groups: fixed-chassis and articulated. PMID:24673034

  13. Biosynthesis of Taxadiene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae : selection of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase directed by a computer-aided docking strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Zhu Ding

    Full Text Available Identification of efficient key enzymes in biosynthesis pathway and optimization of the fitness between functional modules and chassis are important for improving the production of target compounds. In this study, the taxadiene biosynthesis pathway was firstly constructed in yeast by transforming ts gene and overexpressing erg20 and thmgr. Then, the catalytic capabilities of six different geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthases (GGPPS, the key enzyme in mevalonic acid (MVA pathway catalyzing famesyl diphosphate (FPP to geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP, were predicted using enzyme-substrate docking strategy. GGPPSs from Taxus baccata x Taxus cuspidate (GGPPSbc, Erwinia herbicola (GGPPSeh, and S. cerevisiae (GGPPSsc which ranked 1st, 4th and 6th in docking with FPP were selected for construction. The experimental results were consistent with the computer prediction that the engineered yeast with GGPPSbc exhibited the highest production. In addition, two chassis YSG50 and W303-1A were chosen, and the titer of taxadiene reached 72.8 mg/L in chassis YSG50 with GGPPSbc. Metabolomic study revealed that the contents of tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA intermediates and their precursor amino acids in chassis YSG50 was lower than those in W303-1A, indicating less carbon flux was divided into TCA cycle. Furthermore, the levels of TCA intermediates in the taxadiene producing yeasts were lower than those in chassis YSG50. Thus, it may result in more carbon flux in MVA pathway in chassis YSG50, which suggested that YSG50 was more suitable for engineering the taxadiene producing yeast. These results indicated that computer-aided protein modeling directed isoenzyme selection strategy and metabolomic study could guide the rational design of terpenes biosynthetic cells.

  14. Biosynthesis of Taxadiene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae : selection of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase directed by a computer-aided docking strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ming-Zhu; Yan, Hui-Fang; Li, Lin-Feng; Zhai, Fang; Shang, Lu-Qing; Yin, Zheng; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Identification of efficient key enzymes in biosynthesis pathway and optimization of the fitness between functional modules and chassis are important for improving the production of target compounds. In this study, the taxadiene biosynthesis pathway was firstly constructed in yeast by transforming ts gene and overexpressing erg20 and thmgr. Then, the catalytic capabilities of six different geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthases (GGPPS), the key enzyme in mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway catalyzing famesyl diphosphate (FPP) to geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP), were predicted using enzyme-substrate docking strategy. GGPPSs from Taxus baccata x Taxus cuspidate (GGPPSbc), Erwinia herbicola (GGPPSeh), and S. cerevisiae (GGPPSsc) which ranked 1st, 4th and 6th in docking with FPP were selected for construction. The experimental results were consistent with the computer prediction that the engineered yeast with GGPPSbc exhibited the highest production. In addition, two chassis YSG50 and W303-1A were chosen, and the titer of taxadiene reached 72.8 mg/L in chassis YSG50 with GGPPSbc. Metabolomic study revealed that the contents of tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) intermediates and their precursor amino acids in chassis YSG50 was lower than those in W303-1A, indicating less carbon flux was divided into TCA cycle. Furthermore, the levels of TCA intermediates in the taxadiene producing yeasts were lower than those in chassis YSG50. Thus, it may result in more carbon flux in MVA pathway in chassis YSG50, which suggested that YSG50 was more suitable for engineering the taxadiene producing yeast. These results indicated that computer-aided protein modeling directed isoenzyme selection strategy and metabolomic study could guide the rational design of terpenes biosynthetic cells. PMID:25295588

  15. 反倾销对底盘行业造成升级压力——专访天津大学机械学院副教授天津惠德汽车进气系统有限公司总经理兼总工程师刘德新%Anti-dumping causes pressure for upgrade for chassis industry——An special interview to the associate professor of Tianiin University, the General Manager & Chief Engineer of Tianiin HuiDe Air Intake Manifold Co., Ltd, Dexin Liu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯吉瑜

    2009-01-01

    @@ 9月11日,美国总统奥巴马决定,对从中国进口的所有小轿车和轻型卡车轮胎实施为期三年的惩罚性关税.白宫发言人罗伯特·吉布斯说,对从中国进口轮胎实施的惩罚性关税税率第一年为35%,第二年为30%,第三年为25%.

  16. Concentrating photovoltaic solar panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashion, Steven A; Bowser, Michael R; Farrelly, Mark B; Hines, Braden E; Holmes, Howard C; Johnson, Jr., Richard L; Russell, Richard J; Turk, Michael F

    2014-04-15

    The present invention relates to photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic concentrator modules, and related methods. In particular, the present invention features concentrator modules having interior points of attachment for an articulating mechanism and/or an articulating mechanism that has a unique arrangement of chassis members so as to isolate bending, etc. from being transferred among the chassis members. The present invention also features adjustable solar panel mounting features and/or mounting features with two or more degrees of freedom. The present invention also features a mechanical fastener for secondary optics in a concentrator module.

  17. The Opel Speedster; Der Opel Speedster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, R.

    2001-04-01

    The Opel Speedster is a medium-range sports car with an aluminium chassis and a GFRP body. It is based on the Lotus Elise and was developed to maturity in the course of two years. The emphasis was on good dynamic characteristics. [German] Der Opel Speedster ist ein Mittelmotor-Sportwagen mit Aluminium-Chassis und einer Karosserie aus glasfaserverstaerktem Kunststoff. Entwicklungs-Schwerpunkt war eine exzellente Fahrdynamik, die hohen Fahrspass gewaehrleisten soll. Der Opel Speedster wurde auf Basis des Lotus Elise in rund zwei Jahren zur Serienreife entwickelt. (orig.)

  18. Reduced vehicle model for optimizing the Body In White (BIW) with respect to vehicle dynamics and handling; Reduziertes Berechnungsmodell fuer ein Kraftfahrzeug zur Auslegung der Karosserie hinsichtlich fahrdynamischer Zielgroessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolk, O. [Bayerische Motoren Werke AG (BMW), Muenchen (Germany). Karosserieentwicklung Anbauteile/Technologiekonzepte

    2005-07-01

    The author's investigations showed that the meeting of dynamic criteria for car body and chassis will not necessary serve to optimize car dynamics in general. The study describe the identification of secondary stiffness criteria and supplementary load cases with which the general dynamics of the car can be calculated and predicted. For fast and automatic motor vehicle assessment and optimization, a reduced calculation model is introduced in which the chassis is replaced by intersecting loads on the car body and the loads on the car body is modelled as a quasistatic load at a given moment of the driving process. (orig.)

  19. Thermal computations for electronics conductive, radiative, and convective air cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Ellison, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    IntroductionPrimary mechanisms of heat flowConductionApplication example: Silicon chip resistance calculationConvectionApplication example: Chassis panel cooled by natural convectionRadiationApplication example: Chassis panel cooled only by radiation 7Illustrative example: Simple thermal network model for a heat sinked power transistorIllustrative example: Thermal network circuit for a printed circuit boardCompact component modelsIllustrative example: Pressure and thermal circuits for a forced air cooled enclosureIllustrative example: A single chip package on a printed circuit board-the proble

  20. Component Control System for a Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser-Chanpong, Nathan (Inventor); Spain, Ivan (Inventor); Dawson, Andrew D. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Waligora, Thomas M. (Inventor); Akinyode, Akinjide Akinniyi (Inventor); Reed, Ryan M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A vehicle includes a chassis, a modular component, and a central operating system. The modular component is supported by the chassis. The central operating system includes a component control system, a primary master controller, and a secondary master controller. The component control system is configured for controlling the modular component. The primary and secondary master controllers are in operative communication with the component control system. The primary and secondary master controllers are configured to simultaneously transmit commands to the component control system. The component control system is configured to accept commands from the secondary master controller only when a fault occurs in the primary master controller.

  1. 24 CFR 3280.608 - Hangers and supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., plastic drainage piping shall be supported at intervals not to exceed 4 feet and plastic water piping... provide protection against motion, vibration, road shock, or torque in the chassis. (3) Hangers and straps supporting plastic pipe shall not compress, distort, cut or abrade the piping and shall allow free...

  2. Analysis of Links Positions in Landing Gear Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewczyński, D.; Tora, G.

    2014-08-01

    This article contains a kinematic analysis of an aircraft chassis mechanism in a range of positions. The mechanism of the chassis is made up of several smaller subsystems with different functions. The first mechanism is used to eject the chassis before landing (touchdown) and fold it to hatchway after the lift off. The second mechanism is designed to perform rotation of the crossover with the wheel, in order to adjust the position of the wheel to fit it in the limited space in the hold. The third mechanism allows movement of the chassis resulting from the change in length of the damper. To determine the position of the following links of the mechanism calculus of vectors was applied in which unit vectors were used to represent the angular position of the links. The aim of the analysis is to determine the angle of convergence and the angle of heel wheels as a function of the variable length of hydraulic cylinder, length of the shock absorber, length of the regulations rods

  3. Lubrication fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is organized under the following headings: lubricating oils; lubricating greases; synthetic lubricants; machine elements; lubricant application; internal combustion engines; stationary gas turbines; steam turbines; hydraulic turbines; nuclear power plants; automotive chassis components; automotive power transmissions; compressors; handling, storing, and dispensing lubricants, in-plant handling for lubricant conservation

  4. 47 CFR 95.671 - Serial number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Serial number. 95.671 Section 95.671 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO... number. The serial number of each CB transmitter must be engraved on the transmitter chassis....

  5. 49 CFR 571.224 - Standard No. 224; Rear impact protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... energy absorption requirement (S5.2.2) of 49 CFR 571.223. S4. Definitions. Chassis means the load... Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.224 Standard No. 224; Rear impact protection. S1. Scope. This... the rear of trailers and semitrailers with a GVWR of 4,536 kg or more. S3. Application. This...

  6. Application of a vehicle dynamic simulation model in the motorcycle development of BMW. Einsatz eines Fahrdynamik-Simulationsmodells in der Motorradentwicklung bei BMW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisselmann, D.; Iffelsberger, L.; Brandlhuber, B.

    1993-02-01

    At BMW a nonliner overall vehicle model was developed for investigations about vehicle dynamics of motorcycles. The model represents the main components of the system chassis/driver/environment. A validation of the model was performed by various driving tests. The applied computer software (NEWEUL and ACSL) allows the realization of a modular model structure and comfortable and rapid simulation studies. (orig./HM).

  7. Benchmarking and Hardware-In-The-Loop Operation of a 2014 MAZDA SkyActiv

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engine Performance evaluation in support of LD MTE. EPA used elements of its ALPHA model to apply hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) controls to the SKYACTIV engine test setup to better understand how the engine would operate in a chassis test after combined with future leading edge tech...

  8. 26 CFR 48.6412-3 - Amount of tax paid on each article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... during a representative period may be used. For example, truck chassis of the same model that are sold by...(a) for transportation, delivery, insurance, installation, etc., for a reasonable category of... identified by a common stock or class number or which are of the same model, class, or line. For the...

  9. Utilization of Durability Criterion to Develop Automotive Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricardo, Luiz Carlos Hernandes

    2010-01-01

    Today the automotive companies must reduce the time to development of new products with improvement in performance, durability and low cost reductions where possible. To achieve this goal the carmakers need to improve the design criterion of car systems like body, chassis and suspension components...

  10. 21 CFR 1002.11 - Supplemental reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supplemental reports. 1002.11 Section 1002.11 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... model or chassis family of a product listed in table 1 of § 1002.1 for which a report under § 1002.10...

  11. An active structural acoustic control approach for the reduction of the structure-borne road noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douville, Hugo; Berry, Alain; Masson, Patrice

    2002-11-01

    The reduction of the structure-borne road noise generated inside the cabin of an automobile is investigated using an Active Structural Acoustic Control (ASAC) approach. First, a laboratory test bench consisting of a wheel/suspension/lower suspension A-arm assembly has been developed in order to identify the vibroacoustic transfer paths (up to 250 Hz) for realistic road noise excitation of the wheel. Frequency Response Function (FRF) measurements between the excitation/control actuators and each suspension/chassis linkage are used to characterize the different transfer paths that transmit energy through the chassis of the car. Second, a FE/BE model (Finite/Boundary Elements) was developed to simulate the acoustic field of an automobile cab interior. This model is used to predict the acoustic field inside the cabin as a response to the measured forces applied on the suspension/chassis linkages. Finally, an experimental implementation of ASAC is presented. The control approach relies on the use of inertial actuators to modify the vibration behavior of the suspension and the automotive chassis such that its noise radiation efficiency is decreased. The implemented algorithm consists of a MIMO (Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output) feedforward configuration with a filtered-X LMS algorithm using an advanced reference signal (width FIR filters) using the Simulink/Dspace environment for control prototyping.

  12. Gas heat treatment plants for the aluminium industry; Gasbeheizte Waermebehandlungsanlagen fuer die Aluminium-Industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olberts, P.; Hanus, A. [LOI Thermprocess GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2004-09-01

    LOI Thermoprocess has developed new, flexible, innovative furnace designs for heat treatment of aluminium in general (car industry) and particularly for cylinder heads, engine units, chassis components, textured components, wheels, rolled sheet and extrusions. The furnaces are heated by means of radiant tubes (recuperators) and by the more usual open gas heating system (flue gas recirculation). (orig.)

  13. Carbonaceous Aerosols Emitted from Light-Duty Vehicles Operating on Gasoline and Ethanol Fuel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examines the chemical properties of carbonaceous aerosols emitted from three light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDVs) operating on gasoline (e0) and ethanol-gasoline fuel blends (e10 and e85). Vehicle road load simulations were performed on a chassis dynamometer using the t...

  14. Cold temperature effects on speciated MSAT emissions from light duty vehicles operating on gasoline and ethanol blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions of speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including mobile source air toxics (MSATs), were measured in vehicle exhaust from three light-duty gasoline vehicles. Vehicle testing was conducted using a three phase LA92 driving cycle on a temperature controlled chassis...

  15. Benchmarking and Hardware-In-The-Loop Operation of a 2014 MAZDA SkyActiv (SAE 2016-01-1007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engine Performance evaluation in support of LD MTE. EPA used elements of its ALPHA model to apply hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) controls to the SKYACTIV engine test setup to better understand how the engine would operate in a chassis test after combined with future leading edge tech...

  16. 75 FR 19461 - Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 2006 and 2007 Mercedes Benz G-Class Long...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... 2007 Mercedes Benz G-Class Long-Wheelbase MPVs Are Eligible for Importation AGENCY: National Highway... Safety Administration (NHTSA) has received a petition to decide that 2006 and 2007 Mercedes Benz G-Class... safety standards (the U.S.-certified 2006 and 2007 Mercedes Benz G-Class (463 chassis) LWB MPV), and...

  17. The new S-Class by Mercedes-Benz; Die neue S-Klasse von Mercedes-Benz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebl, Johannes; Siebenpfeiffer, Wolfgang (eds.)

    2013-07-15

    The brochure under consideration reports on the new Mercedes S-Class and consists of contributions to aspects like: historical aspects, vehicle concept, project management, digital-mock-up-process and packaging, design, car body, interior equipment, electrical systems/electronics, drives assistance systems, chassis, safety aspects, power train, noise, vibration, harshness, aerodynamics consumption, emission, testing, production.

  18. 75 FR 31837 - Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Mercedes-Benz

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... Standard; Mercedes-Benz AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Grant of petition for exemption. SUMMARY: This document grants in full the Mercedes... Mercedes-Benz E-Class, C- Class and SLK Class chassis vehicles which the agency has already exempted...

  19. 46 CFR 520.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... containers without chassis, but does not include crates, boxes or pallets. Controlled carrier means an ocean... rolls, wood pulp in unitized bales, paper and paper board in rolls or in pallet or skid-sized sheets... transfer of cargo from a vessel of one carrier to a vessel of another in the course of all-water or...

  20. 46 CFR 340.4 - Shipping services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping services. 340.4 Section 340.4 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY PRIORITY USE AND ALLOCATION OF SHIPPING SERVICES, CONTAINERS AND CHASSIS, AND PORT FACILITIES AND SERVICES FOR NATIONAL SECURITY...

  1. What's Happening on the School Bus Performance Front?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Hanford L.

    The most urgent order of business in the national scene is to complete the development of a series of new performance tests for school bus bodies and chassis to establish a benchmark for safe construction that can be verified by independent testing agencies. Such performance tests should incorporate the new Federal Joint Strength Efficiency…

  2. Equipment Operator 3 and 2. NAVTRA 10640-G. Rate Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    A guide for advancement and training in the Equipment Operator 3 and 2 ratings for Navy personnel is provided in this manual. The chapters outline the duties and responsibilities of the equipment operators involved with engines, fuels, lubricants, pollution control, automotive power trains and chassis, automotive vehicles, materials-handling…

  3. Coupling element antenna with slot tuning for handheld devices at LTE frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrio, Samantha Caporal Del; Pelosi, Mauro; Franek, Ondrej;

    2012-01-01

    Tunable antennas are a promising way to overcome bandwidth limitations for the new communication standards. Since it is the chassis that resonates in the low frequencies, its tuning is pertinent and allows for more compact size designs. This paper proposes a coupling element based antenna...

  4. HOTLink Rack Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Franck, A R; Kasley, P A; Shea, M F

    2001-01-01

    A remote data acquisition chassis, called a HOTLink Rack Monitor, HRM, has been developed for use in the Fermilab control system. This chassis provides for 64 analog input channels, 8 analog output channels, and 8 bytes of digital I/O. The interface to the host VMEbus crate is by way of a 320 MHz HOTLink serial connection to a PMC mezzanine module. With no processor intervention, all data sources in the remote chassis are read at 100 microsec intervals, timestamped, and stored in a 2 MB circular buffer on the PMC module. In operation, the memory always contains the most recent 16k samples of 10 kHz data from all 64 analog input channels. An expansion module that resides in the HRM chassis records snapshot data for 8 analog channels, each channel consisting of up to 16k readings, digitized at rates up to 10 MHz. Snapshot data is also returned and stored in buffers on the PMC module. Because the HRM presents a memory-mapped interface to the host, it is independent of the operating system and may be used in any ...

  5. Materials Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-08-01

    Roadmap identifying the efforts of the Materials Technical Team (MTT) to focus primarily on reducing the mass of structural systems such as the body and chassis in light-duty vehicles (including passenger cars and light trucks) which enables improved vehicle efficiency regardless of the vehicle size or propulsion system employed.

  6. Analysis of Links Positions in Landing Gear Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brewczyński D.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article contains a kinematic analysis of an aircraft chassis mechanism in a range of positions. The mechanism of the chassis is made up of several smaller subsystems with different functions. The first mechanism is used to eject the chassis before landing (touchdown and fold it to hatchway after the lift off. The second mechanism is designed to perform rotation of the crossover with the wheel, in order to adjust the position of the wheel to fit it in the limited space in the hold. The third mechanism allows movement of the chassis resulting from the change in length of the damper. To determine the position of the following links of the mechanism calculus of vectors was applied in which unit vectors were used to represent the angular position of the links. The aim of the analysis is to determine the angle of convergence and the angle of heel wheels as a function of the variable length of hydraulic cylinder, length of the shock absorber, length of the regulations rods

  7. State estimation for integrated vehicle dynamics control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, J.; Bremmer, P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses a vehicle controller and a state estimator that was implemented and tested in a vehicle equipped with a combined braking and chassis control system to improve handling. The vehicle dynamics controller consists of a feed forward body roll compensation and a feedback stability con

  8. 煤气机

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Caterpillar G3520C first of new gas gen-set line;Characteristic Analysis of an Efficient Hybrid Air Conditioning System (lst Report, Performance Analysis of Compression and Absorption Hybrid Cycle);Chassis dynamometer emission measurements from refuse trucks using Dual-Fuel Natural gas engine;Combustion Characteristics of a Prechamber Lean-Burn Gas Engine……

  9. 26 CFR 148.1-5 - Constructive sale price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... at less than the fair market price, see paragraphs (a) and (d) of § 316.15 of Regulations 46 (26 CFR... for cooking, warming, or keeping warm food or beverages for consumption on the premises; (c) Taxable... industries: (a) Taxable automobile trucks (consisting of automobile truck bodies and chassis); (b)...

  10. Six axis force feedback input device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohm, Timothy (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a low friction, low inertia, six-axis force feedback input device comprising an arm with double-jointed, tendon-driven revolute joints, a decoupled tendon-driven wrist, and a base with encoders and motors. The input device functions as a master robot manipulator of a microsurgical teleoperated robot system including a slave robot manipulator coupled to an amplifier chassis, which is coupled to a control chassis, which is coupled to a workstation with a graphical user interface. The amplifier chassis is coupled to the motors of the master robot manipulator and the control chassis is coupled to the encoders of the master robot manipulator. A force feedback can be applied to the input device and can be generated from the slave robot to enable a user to operate the slave robot via the input device without physically viewing the slave robot. Also, the force feedback can be generated from the workstation to represent fictitious forces to constrain the input device's control of the slave robot to be within imaginary predetermined boundaries.

  11. Cold Temperature and Biodiesel Fuel Effects on Speciated Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds from Diesel Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured in diesel exhaust from three medium heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern aftertreatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted on a chassis dynamometer at two ambient temperatures (-6.7°C and 21.7°C) operating on ...

  12. 一种电子机箱的结构设计研究%The Structural Design of an Electronic Chasssi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋尚; 张利清; 卢阳

    2016-01-01

    With the development of military electronic technology , electronic equipment chassis is widely used in the field of aviation and aerospace .The job of the military electronic equipment development must pay at-tention to ensure function ,also ensure the reliability of the electronic chassis products in order to ensure that the case can adapt to various flight conditions .The paper combines with the actual demand to design a kind of military electronic equipment chassis structure .Compared with the traditional plug type chassis , the chassis has some features such as large internal connections reliability an high stiffness , light weight , good manufac-turability , convenient bugging , heat conduction , etc.Through the whole machine by overall fixation by bolt , the chassis with structure stiffness big , can adapt to harsh environment of space flight , improving the working reliability of the electronic equipment and adaptability .Through the phase change heat sink thermal control device as a case , the chassis arrives good heat dissipation effect .%随着军用电子技术的发展,电子设备机箱在航空、航天等领域应用非常的广泛。为了保证机箱能够适应各种飞行条件,研制一种既要保证功能,又要保证可靠性的电子机箱产品是军用电子设备研制必须重视的工作。文中针对实际需求,研究了一种军用电子设备机箱的结构设计。与传统的插板式机箱相比,这种机箱具有刚度大、内部连接可靠性高、重量轻、工艺性好、调试方便、导热能力强等优点。整机通过贯穿的螺栓实现整体固定,其结构刚度大,能够适应严酷航天飞行环境,提高电子设备工作的可靠性和适应性,另外,通过相变热控装置作为整个机箱热沉,达到良好的散热效果。

  13. Coil Springs Layer Used to Support a Car Vertical Dynamics Simulator and to Reduce the Maximum Actuation Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan N. Dumitriu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A Danaher Thomson linear actuator with ball screw drive and a realtime control system are used here to induce vertical displacements under the driver/user seat of an in-house dynamic car simulator. In order to better support the car simulator and to dynamically protect the actuator’s ball screw drive, a layer of coil springs is used to support the whole simulator chassis. More precisely, one coil spring is placed vertically under each corner of the rectangular chassis. The paper presents the choice of the appropriate coil springs, so that to minimize as much as possible the ball screw drive task of generating linear motions, corresponding to the vertical displacements and accelerations encountered by a driver during a real ride. For this application, coil springs with lower spring constant are more suited to reduce the forces in the ball screw drive and thus to increase the ball screw drive life expectancy.

  14. Reduction of the particulate and nitric oxide from the diesel engine using a plasma chemical hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new plasma/catalyst continuously regenerative hybrid system (PCRHS) is introduced to reduce diesel particulate matter (DPM), NOx, CO, etc., contained in diesel exhaust gas. The catalyst temperature, plasma energy density, and exhaust gas characteristics were investigated with a passenger diesel car (2500cc) at the dynamometer test bed and chassis dynamometer with CVS-75 test mode. It was reported that the smoke removal efficiency was around 70% at the dynamometer test bed with 80 W energy consumption, and that PM removal efficiency was 68% at the chassis dynamometer. The NOx was reduced up to 20% according to the electrode types and temperature, respectively. The hybrid system test shows that DPM and CO were almost removed and NOx reduced to 30% simultaneously by the system. Considering these results, PCRHS could be a promising method to regenerate diesel particulate

  15. Power module assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jeremy B.; Newson, Steve

    2011-11-15

    A power module assembly of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicular power inverter, wherein the power inverter has a grounded chassis, is provided. The power module assembly comprises a conductive base layer electrically coupled to the chassis, an insulating layer disposed on the conductive base layer, a first conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, a second conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, wherein the first and second conductive nodes are electrically isolated from each other. The power module assembly also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the first conductive node, and further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the second conductive node.

  16. Development of an ultra-safe, ultra-low emissions natural gas-fueled bus. Phase 1: Systems design -- Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubesh, J. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) contracted with Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) to develop an ultra-safe, ultra-low emissions natural gas-fueled school bus. To develop the bus, SwRI teamed with Blue Bird, Incorporated, a school bus manufacturer, Deere Power Systems Group, an engine manufacturer, and CNG Cylinder Company, a supplier of compressed natural gas storage and handling systems. The primary focus of work for Phase 1 was the design of the component systems, i.e. vehicle, engine, and fuel storage systems. The bus chassis prototype is expected to be completed by the middle of July, 1995. A complete prototype vehicle body and chassis should be delivered to SwRI by the beginning of December, 1995. This prototype vehicle will include the new compressed natural gas cylinders and associated fuel storage system hardware which has been designed by CNG Cylinder Company.

  17. Suppression of chaotic vibrations in a nonlinear half-car model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tusset, Ângelo Marcelo, E-mail: tusset@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: piccirillo@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: fcjanzen@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: wagner-barth@hotmail.com; Piccirillo, Vinícius, E-mail: tusset@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: piccirillo@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: fcjanzen@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: wagner-barth@hotmail.com; Janzen, Frederic Conrad, E-mail: tusset@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: piccirillo@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: fcjanzen@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: wagner-barth@hotmail.com; Lenz, Wagner Barth, E-mail: tusset@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: piccirillo@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: fcjanzen@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: wagner-barth@hotmail.com [UTFPR- PONTA GROSSA, PR (Brazil); Balthazar, José Manoel, E-mail: jmbaltha@rc.unesp.br [UNESP-BAURU, SP (Brazil); Fonseca Brasil, Reyolando M. L. R. da, E-mail: reyolando.brasil@ufabc.edu.br [UFABC-SANTO ANDRE, SP (Brazil)

    2014-12-10

    The present work investigates the nonlinear response of a half-car model. The disturbances of the road are assumed to be sinusoidal. After constructing the bifurcation diagram, we using the 0-1 test for identify the chaotic motion. The principal objective of this study is to eliminate the chaotic behaviour of the chassis and reduce its vibration, and for this reason a control system for semi-active vehicle suspension with magnetorheological damper is proposed. The control mechanism is designed based on SDRE technique, where the control parameter is the voltage applied to the coil of the damper. Numerical results show that the proposed control method is effective in significantly reducing of the chassis vibration, increasing therefore, passenger comfort.

  18. Tank-automotive robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Gerald R.

    1999-07-01

    To provide an overview of Tank-Automotive Robotics. The briefing will contain program overviews & inter-relationships and technology challenges of TARDEC managed unmanned and robotic ground vehicle programs. Specific emphasis will focus on technology developments/approaches to achieve semi- autonomous operation and inherent chassis mobility features. Programs to be discussed include: DemoIII Experimental Unmanned Vehicle (XUV), Tactical Mobile Robotics (TMR), Intelligent Mobility, Commanders Driver Testbed, Collision Avoidance, International Ground Robotics Competition (ICGRC). Specifically, the paper will discuss unique exterior/outdoor challenges facing the IGRC competing teams and the synergy created between the IGRC and ongoing DoD semi-autonomous Unmanned Ground Vehicle and DoT Intelligent Transportation System programs. Sensor and chassis approaches to meet the IGRC challenges and obstacles will be shown and discussed. Shortfalls in performance to meet the IGRC challenges will be identified.

  19. Aids to School Bus Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Navistar International Transportation Corporation, Chicago, IL, used three separate NASA-developed technologies in the design and testing of their 3000 Series Bus Chassis which was developed expressly for school bus applications. For structural analysis, they used the MSC/NASTRAN program which mathematically analyzes a design and predicts how it will hold up under stress. They also used the SPATE 9000 system for non-contact measurement of stress, load transfer mechanisms, detection of hidden flaws, and monitoring structural changes during fatigue testing. SPATE 9000 was based on infrared stress measurement technology developed by Langley Research Center. They also employed the Wyle Ride Quality Meter, which was developed by Langley to aid in passenger aircraft design by providing an accurate measurement of ride vibration and sound level. These numbers translate into a subjective discomfort level index. These technologies contribute to the company's 45-48 percent share of the school bus chassis market.

  20. An overview of pathway prediction tools for synthetic design of microbial chemical factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir Sajo Mienda

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing need for the bio-based industrial production of compounds via microbial cell factories leads to a demand for computational pathway prediction tools. A variety of algorithms have been developed that can be used to identify possible metabolic pathways and their corresponding enzymatic parts. These prediction tools play a central role in metabolic pathway design and microbial chassis selection for industrial chemical production. Here, we briefly discuss how the development of some key computational tools, which are currently available for pathway construction, could facilitate the synthetic redesign of microbial chassis. Special emphasis is given to the characteristics and drawback(s of some of the computational tools used in pathway prediction, and a generalized workflow for the design of microbial chemical factories is provided. Perspectives, challenges and future trends are briefly highlighted.

  1. Capability of a power splitted CVT in light and heavy duty lorries; Potenzial von leistungsverzweigten Getrieben in leichten und schweren Nutzfahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, A.; Harms, H.H. [TU Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Landmaschinen und Fluidtechnik

    2005-07-01

    Adaptive, semi-active, and also active controlled chassis systems are state-of-the-art in passenger cars so to improve driving safety and comfort. Continuous damping control systems for commercial vehicles, trailers, and semi-trailers are already offered in volume production and entail a significant improvement of the driving dynamics. In order to evaluate the potential of active controlled chassis systems for commercial vehicles, a functional prototype of an active roll stabilization system was built by ZF and implemented in a coach. The results taken from the driving tests provided for evaluation data on driving dynamics and thus, an evaluation of a comparison with controlled damping systems could be established. (orig.)

  2. Determination of alternative fuels combustion products: Phase 2 final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitney, K.A.

    1997-06-01

    This report describes the laboratory efforts to accomplish four independent tasks: (1) speciation of hydrocarbon exhaust emissions from a light-duty vehicle operated over the chassis dynamometer portion of the light-duty FTP after modifications for operation on butane and butane blends; (2) evaluation of NREL`s Variable Conductance Vacuum Insulated Catalytic Converter Test Article 4 for the reduction of cold-start FTP exhaust emissions after extended soak periods for a Ford FFV Taurus operating on E85; (3) support of UDRI in an attempt to define correlations between engine-out combustion products identified by SwRI during chassis dynamometer testing, and those found during flow tube reactor experiments conducted by UDRI; and (4) characterization of small-diameter particulate matter from a Ford Taurus FFV operating in a simulated fuel-rich failure mode on CNG, LPG, M85, E85, and reformulated gasoline. 22 refs., 18 figs., 17 tabs.

  3. Operation manual for Sandia MA165 neutron generator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sandia MA165 Neutron Generator System was designed for use in the Sandia Safeguards Unattended Equipment/Material Pass-Through. As this neutron generator system design evolved, it became simpler to use while it also became more versatile. Two operations which were previously controlled manually by the operator were automated in the new design. Its stand alone characteristic has allowed it to become a versatile laboratory tool. Los Alamos National Scientific Laboratory and Brookhaven National Laboratory are both currently using versions of the MA165 system for their research. Aside from power supplies, the system consists of a neutron generator package and an electronic control chassis. This manual describes, in detail, the neutron generator package, the theory of operation of the electronic control chassis, and instructions for using the MA165 system

  4. Vliv podvozku na tahové vlastnosti traktorů

    OpenAIRE

    Vykydal, Petr

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this PhD thesis was to analysis laboratory and field measurements tractors with different chassis designs. For the measurements were used John Deere tractors with name 8320R if a wheel and if 8320RT crawler tractor, possessing the same engine power. Before the field measurements were conducted laboratory tests of tractors, which resulted was the compilation of the full speed characteristics. The field measurements were focused on identifying characteristics of tensile test tractors...

  5. WAY OF FORECASTING OF WEIGHT OF A WING OF THE PLANE OF A TRANSPORT CATEGORY IN THE CONDITIONS OF DESIGN UNCERTAINTY

    OpenAIRE

    Бондар, Юрій Іванович; Сухов, Віталій Віталійович

    2014-01-01

    Identify the relationship between the aerodynamic loads , weight of the wing structure and its deformations is an important issue in the early stages of the design of transport category aircraft.Existing methods of the weight analysis allow to estimate weight of basic elements of the plane (a wing, a fuselage, plumage, the chassis, wing mechanisation), but forecasting of distribution of these weights along their basic axes is a special problem.The work purpose is working out of a way of forec...

  6. Stavba soutěžního vozu pro automobilové závody v Rally

    OpenAIRE

    Mandík, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals about the conditions and requirements that must be aply for the construction of the race car. It summarizes the important technical regulations, that development must follow. The second half of the work describes construction of car, which started from bare bodywork. Construction began preparing the body, its safety equipment and installation of necessary components. Then is described the chassis installation in and finally drive assembly.

  7. Assess the design of lorries and quarries for aggregates transport. Report to the Minerals Industry research Organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Brighton, James L.; Richards, Terence E.

    2010-01-01

    The majority of aggregates extracted in the UK are transported from the quarry to the point of sale by construction trucks of either rigid chassis or articulated vehicle design. These vehicles have a unique set of requirements for haulage logistics as many of them must be capable of driving on unmade surfaces and constructed dirt roads not only within the quarry but more importantly at the goods destination. Such vehicles have to balance the on-road requirements of minimum energy consumption,...

  8. Engineering prokaryotic transcriptional activators as metabolite biosensors in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Mette Louise; Snoek, Tim; Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin;

    2016-01-01

    real-time monitoring of production has attracted attention. Here we applied systematic engineering of multiple parameters to search for a general biosensor design in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on small-molecule binding transcriptional activators from the prokaryote superfamily......,cis-muconic acid at different levels, and found that reporter gene output correlated with production. The transplantation of prokaryotic transcriptional activators into the eukaryotic chassis illustrates the potential of a hitherto untapped biosensor resource useful for biotechnological applications....

  9. Effect of measurement protocol on organic aerosol measurements of exhaust emissions from gasoline and diesel vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Youngseob; Sartelet, Karine; SEIGNEUR, Christian; CHARRON, Aurélie; Besombes, Jean-Luc; Jaffrezo, Jean-Luc; Marchand, Nicolas; POLO, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    Exhaust emissions of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) from passenger vehicles are usually estimated only for the particle phase via the total particulate matter measurements. However, they also need to be estimated for the gas phase, as they are semi-volatile. To better estimate SVOC emission factors of passenger vehicles, a measurement campaign using a chassis dynamometer was conducted with different instruments: (1) a constant volume sampling (CVS) system in which emissions were dilut...

  10. Accurate Trajectory and Orientation of a Motorcycle derived from low-cost Satellite and Inertial Measurement Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Waegli, Adrian; Schorderet, Alain; Prongué, Christophe; Skaloud, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Inertially aided satellite positioning can bring its benefits to all disciplines in which detailed knowledge of the trajectory is a prerequisite for improving performance. In motorcycling for instance, the determination of slips of tires requires the determination of the precise trajectory and the orientation of the motorcycle’s chassis. The correct exploitation of torque or force sensors as well as studies of the vibratory behavior of pneumatics necessitate the knowledge of the orientation o...

  11. Real-world driving speciated VOC hot start missions of the 2001 French passenger car fleet

    OpenAIRE

    FLANDRIN, Y; Vidon, R; Cazier, F.; Hue, S.; DECHAUX, JC; Nollet, V.

    2001-01-01

    A 25 passenger cars sample was selected on the basis of a 2001 year French fleet prediction. Various types of vehicle technologies, i.e. diesel and petrol cars both equipped with or without catalyst, were tested on a chassis dynamometer with constant volume sampling for regulated emissions and individual Volatile Organic Compounds determination. A particular emphasis has been placed on toxic and/or photochemically reactive compounds such as benzene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and 1,3-b...

  12. System Design and Implementation of Smart Dashboard for Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Jia-Sheng Hu; Chien-Chu Yeh

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the development of automobile focuses on the chassis structure and motion control. However, due to the concept of smart and safe vehicle, the integrated dashboard becomes a necessary issue. The proposed system can not only represent the conventional dashboard in a digital form but also endow the system with an intelligent guidance. The statuses such as speed, battery SOC, braking, mileage, and the activation of TCS and ABS can be seen and monitored in all driving scenarios. For exam...

  13. FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG BERHUBUNGAN DENGAN DERMATITIS KONTAK PADA PEKERJA DI PT INTI PANTJA PRESS INDUSTRI

    OpenAIRE

    Hari Suryo Utomo; Fatma Lestari

    2007-01-01

    Factors Related to Contact Dermatitis on Workers at PT Inti Pantja Press Industri. PT Inti Pantja Press Industri (IPPI) is an automotive manufacturing industry for car pressing body and car chassis. In the manufacturing process, its uses a variety of chemicals which may cause contact dermatitis for workers. There are other factors which may cause the contact dermatitis to workers worsen including indirect causes. The objective of this research is to investigate factors related to contact derm...

  14. The new Mercedes-Benz AROCS; Der neue AROCS von Mercedes-Benz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuern, Joerg; Mierisch, Uwe; Mueller-Finkeldei, Rainer; Koellermeyer, Albrecht [Daimler AG, Stuttgart (Germany). Mercedes-Benz Trucks

    2013-03-15

    The requirements placed on modern construction vehicles are very diverse. In quarries and mines, extreme load-carrying capacity and durability are required, whereas transporting concrete demands lightweight construction. From two to four axles, all-wheel configurations must be covered. Vehicle applications include semitrailers and customized chassis frames for dump truck, concrete moving, and special-purpose body designs. The new Mercedes-Benz Arocs satisfies these properties. (orig.)

  15. Porovnání traktorů výkonové třídy nad 300 kW

    OpenAIRE

    Klimešová, Radka

    2012-01-01

    This thesis aims to compare the performance class of tractors above 300 kW according to technical parameters and Exploitation, propose suitable machinery for the tractor trains and lines. The initialport of the thesis is devoted to the technical parameters of tractors, especially the engine, transmission system, chassis, cab, electro-hydraulic system and electronic equipment. In the conclusion, the individual tractors are compared and evaluated according to the selected method.

  16. Effect of Biodiesel Origin on the Regulated and PAH Emissions from a Modern Passenger Car

    OpenAIRE

    KARAVALAKIS George; FONTARAS GEORGIOS; BAKEAS Evangelos; STOURNAS Stamos

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of low concentration biodiesel blends on the regulated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions from a modern passenger vehicle. The vehicle was Euro 4 compliant fitted with a direct injection common-rail diesel engine and a diesel oxidation catalyst. Emission and fuel consumption measurements were performed on a chassis dynamometer using constant volume sampling (CVS) technique, following the European regulations. All measurements were conducted ...

  17. Simulerings- och optimeringsmodell för vibrationsdämpande förarhyttupphängning

    OpenAIRE

    Hansson, Per-Anders

    1991-01-01

    A time domain simulation model for the dynamic system chassi-suspension-cab is described and used. The validation showed good agreement between model and experimental results. The influence of different suspension parameters on vibration damping capacity and the requirement for free space in the construction were investigated. Particular emphasis was placed on the effects of passive non-linear suspension elements. An optimization model has been developed and used to optimize suspension parame...

  18. Vliv huštění pneumatik na tahové vlastnosti traktorů

    OpenAIRE

    Mizséri, Ádám

    2015-01-01

    The thesis describes the bearing between the chassis and the land, and current trends used of tires. Are listed and described the different types of tire construction. The main objective of this thesis is to describe a methodology for the experimental measurement of the drawbar properties of the tractor and analyze changes in drawbar performance due changes in inflation pressure of the tires. Measured and calculated data are processed by regression analysis.

  19. Reduction of Temperature in Concentrator Photovoltaic Module Using Coating with High Thermal Emissivity and Conductivity

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura Satoshi; Sakamoto Kazumasa; Nishioka Kensuke

    2016-01-01

    The temperature of solar cells considerably increases under light-concentrating operations, and the conversion efficiency of solar cells decreases with increasing temperature. It is very important to reduce the cell temperature in concentrator photovoltaic modules. The thermal radiation layers with high thermal emissivity and thermal conductivity was coated on the aluminum samples which is used for the chassis of concentrator photovoltaic and the effect was evaluated under the conditions with...

  20. ANALYSIS OF VIBRATION ON MULTI-LEAF SPRING IN AN AUTOMOBILE UNDER LOADING USING FEM TOOL ANSYS

    OpenAIRE

    Kiran Jadhav*, Rahul Joshi, Dr Pradip Kumar Patil

    2016-01-01

    The leaf springs are widely used in suspension system of railway carriages and automobiles. But the form in which it is normally seen is laminated leaf spring.To assure proper spring life, the maintenance and inspection process must include the entire suspension system of springs and chassis parts. The motoring public has learned that proper maintenance on their vehicles is essential to obtain longer life and economical service in this age of rising equipment and fuel costs. In most norma...

  1. Mechanical Engineering Design Project report: Enabler control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Christian; Delvecchio, Dave; Scarborough, Alan; Havics, Andrew A.

    1992-01-01

    The Controls Group was assigned the responsibility for designing the Enabler's control system. The requirement for the design was that the control system must provide a simple user interface to control the boom articulation joints, chassis articulation joints, and the wheel drive. The system required controlling hydraulic motors on the Enabler by implementing 8-bit microprocessor boards. In addition, feedback to evaluate positions and velocities must be interfaced to provide the operator with confirmation as well as control.

  2. Biosynthesis of Taxadiene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae : Selection of Geranylgeranyl Diphosphate Synthase Directed by a Computer-Aided Docking Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Ming-Zhu; Yan, Hui-fang; Li, Lin-Feng; Zhai, Fang; Shang, Lu-Qing; Yin, Zheng; Yuan, Ying-jin

    2014-01-01

    Identification of efficient key enzymes in biosynthesis pathway and optimization of the fitness between functional modules and chassis are important for improving the production of target compounds. In this study, the taxadiene biosynthesis pathway was firstly constructed in yeast by transforming ts gene and overexpressing erg20 and thmgr. Then, the catalytic capabilities of six different geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthases (GGPPS), the key enzyme in mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway catalyzing f...

  3. Development and review of Euro 5 passenger car emission factors based on experimental results over various driving cycles

    OpenAIRE

    FONTARAS GEORGIOS; FRANCO GARCIA Vicente; Dilara, Panagiota; MARTINI Giorgio; MANFREDI Urbano

    2013-01-01

    The mass emissions of CO2 and regulated pollutants (NOX, HC, CO, PM) of thirteen Euro 5 compliant passenger cars (seven gasoline, six Diesel) were measured on a chassis dynamometer. The vehicles were driven repeatedly over the European type-approval driving cycle (NEDC) and the more dynamic WMTC and CADC driving cycles. Distance-specific emission factors were derived for each pollutant and sub-cycle which were subsequently compared to the corresponding emission factors provided by the referen...

  4. The Goods Upstairs Car Innovative Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng-Lan; Zhang, Bo; Gao, Bo; Liu, Yan-Xin; Gao, Bo

    2016-05-01

    The design is a new kind of cars used for loading goods when you upstairs. The cars -- ones are very safe and convenient --consist of body, chassis, bottom, round, object, stage, upstairs, train wheels, handles, storage tank, security fence etc. The design, composed of combination of each structure, achieves the purpose of loading goods and even some large potted plants when you go upstairs or downstairs very flatly.

  5. Simulation on Dual-stream Transmission System of Unmanned Tracked Armored Vehicle Using ADAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the dual-stream transmission system of unmanned tracked armored vehicle, simulation analysis is carried out. Using SolidWorks to establish three-dimensional model of its chassis, the result of the simulation is processed in AdAMS/Solver. The simulation results are showed in lines. Comparative analysis for each simulation lines is conducted, and it verifies the feasibility of the dual-stream transmission system.

  6. Dynamic design of automotive systems: Engine mounts and structural joints

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Singh

    2000-06-01

    Dynamic design and vibro-acoustic modelling issues for automotive structures are illustrated via two case studies. The first case examines the role performance of passive and adaptive hydraulic engine mounts. In the second, the importance of welded joints and adhesives in vehicle bodies and chassis structures is highlighted via generic 'T' and 'L' beams assemblies. In each case, analytical and experimental results are presented. Unresolved research issues are briefly discussed.

  7. Five Ministries Jointly Regulates the Order of Auto Export

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Flive Ministries including the Ministry of Commerce, the National Development and Reform Commission(NDRC), China Customs, General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine, National Certification and Accreditation Administration jointly promulgated a notice on November 31, 2006, announcing that from March 1, 2007,to conduct the license administration on the export of autos (including passenger cars, commercial cars, chassis and full set of auto parts).

  8. Stair-climbing capabilities of USU's T3 ODV mobile robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D. Reed; Wood, Carl G.

    2001-09-01

    A six-wheeled autonomous omni-directional vehicle (ODV) called T3 has been developed at Utah State University's (USU) Center for Self-Organizing and Intelligent Systems (CSOIS). This paper focuses on T3's ability to climb stairs using its unique configuration of 6 independently driven and steered wheels and active suspension height control. The ability of T3, or any similar vehicle, to climb stairs is greatly dependent on the chassis orientation relative to the stairs. Stability criteria is developed for any vehicle dimensions and orientation, on any staircase. All possible yaw and pitch angles on various staircases are evaluated to find vehicle orientations that will allow T3 to climb with the largest margin of stability. Different controller types are investigated for controlling vertical wheel movement with the objective of keeping all wheels in contact with the stairs, providing smooth load transfer between loaded and unloaded wheels, and maintaining optimum chassis pitch and roll angles. A controller is presented that uses feedback from wheel loading, vertical wheel position, and chassis orientation sensors. The implementation of the controller is described, and T3's stair climbing performance is presented and evaluated.

  9. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Accidents Caused by the Motorcycle Aspect in Urban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aji Suraji

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Traffic safety should be given the highest priority in order to reduce accidents. It seems that motorcycles give the most contribution to accidents than other vehicles, especially in urban area. The accidents are caused by poor condition factors of the motorcycles. Therefore, it is important to know the motorcycle aspect as a base to implement an action program to reduce accident risks. The objectives of this research were to analyze motorcycle aspect on accident risks including tires, brakes, lamps, engines, chassis, mirrors, conspicuity, and equipments for riding. This was a perceptional research where the victims are as respondents, and questionnaire forms were given to 50 respondents. The method of analysis used in this research was Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Results of this research indicate that tires, brakes and equipments, did not give significant influence on factors causing the accidents. However, the other variables namely lamps, engines, chassis, mirrors and conspicuity gave significant influence on traffic accident risks. Final modeling results that were obtained showed that the factors that cause motorcycle accidents are the following: lamps, engine, chassis, mirrors, and conspicuity.

  10. ELECTRONICS UPGRADE OF HIGH RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcintosh, J; Joe Cordaro, J

    2008-03-10

    High resolution mass spectrometers are specialized systems that allow researchers to determine the exact mass of samples to four significant digits by using magnetic and electronic sector mass analyzers. Many of the systems in use today at research laboratories and universities were designed and built more than two decades ago. The manufacturers of these systems have abandoned the support for some of the mass spectrometers and parts to power and control them have become scarce or obsolete. The Savannah River National Laboratory has been involved in the upgrade of the electronics and software for these legacy machines. The Electronics Upgrade of High Resolution Mass Spectrometers consists of assembling high-end commercial instrumentation from reputable manufacturers with a minimal amount of customization to replace the electronics for the older systems. By taking advantage of advances in instrumentation, precise magnet control can be achieved using high resolution current sources and continuous feedback from a high resolution hall-effect probe. The custom equipment include a precision voltage divider/summing amplifier chassis, high voltage power supply chassis and a chassis for controlling the voltage emission for the mass spectrometer source tube. The upgrade package is versatile enough to interface with valve control, vacuum and other instrumentation. Instrument communication is via a combination of Ethernet and traditional IEEE-488 GPIB protocols. The system software upgrades include precision control, feedback and spectral waveform analysis tools.

  11. Active vibration control on a quarter-car for cancellation of road noise disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgacem, Walid; Berry, Alain; Masson, Patrice

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, a methodology is presented for the cancellation of road noise, from the analysis of vibration transmission paths for an automotive suspension to the design of an active control system using inertial actuators on a suspension to reduce the vibrations transmitted to the chassis. First, experiments were conducted on a Chevrolet Epica LS automobile on a concrete test track to measure accelerations induced on the suspension by the road. These measurements were combined with experimental Frequency Response Functions (FRFs) measured on a quarter-car test bench to reconstruct an equivalent three dimensional force applied on the wheel hub. Second, FRFs measured on the test bench between the three-dimensional driving force and forces at each suspension/chassis linkage were used to characterize the different transmission paths of vibration energy to the chassis. Third, an experimental model of the suspension was constructed to simulate the configuration of the active control system, using the primary (disturbance) FRFs and secondary (control) FRFs also measured on the test bench. This model was used to optimize the configuration of the control actuators and to evaluate the required forces. Finally, a prototype of an active suspension was implemented and measurements were performed in order to assess the performance of the control approach. A 4.6 dB attenuation on transmitted forces was obtained in the 50-250 Hz range.

  12. 随车起重运输车底盘设计要点浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏文义

    2014-01-01

    Compared with ordinary flat truck, the main characteristics of truck with loading crane are: In the installation of crane frame parts, local large bearing;large bearing axle and suspension;because the crane and the rear legs arranged,it effects of chassis system layout and so on, so in the design of the chassis to fully consider these factors, these are reasonable matching performance configuration and spatial arrangement of the system of the frame chassis, effectively strengthen, to maximize the truck refit requirements.%与普通平板车相比随车起重运输车的主要特点有:在安装起重机的部位,车架局部承载较大;前桥及前悬架承载较大;由于起重机及其后支腿的布置影响底盘其它系统的布置等,因此在进行底盘的设计时要充分考虑这些因素,对底盘各系统的性能配置及空间布置进行合理的匹配,对车架进行有效的加强,以最大限度地满足随车起重运输车改装要求。

  13. Fast SCR Thyratron Driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of an improvement project on the linear accelerator at SLAC, it was necessary to replace the original thyratron trigger generator, which consisted of two chassis, two vacuum tubes, and a small thyratron. All solid-state, fast rise, and high voltage thyratron drivers, therefore, have been developed and built for the 244 klystron modulators. The rack mounted, single chassis driver employs a unique way to control and generate pulses through the use of an asymmetric SCR, a PFN, a fast pulse transformer, and a saturable reactor. The resulting output pulse is 2 kV peak into 50 (Omega) load with pulse duration of 1.5 μs FWHM at 180 Hz. The pulse risetime is less than 40 ns with less than 1 ns jitter. Various techniques are used to protect the SCR from being damaged by high voltage and current transients due to thyratron breakdowns. The end-of-line clipper (EOLC) detection circuit is also integrated into this chassis to interrupt the modulator triggering in the event a high percentage of line reflections occurred

  14. Low Floor Americans with Disabilities Compliant Alternate Fuel Vehicle Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Bartel

    2004-11-26

    This project developed a low emission, cost effective, fuel efficient, medium-duty community/transit shuttle bus that meets American's with Disabilities Act (ADA) requirements and meets National Energy Policy Act requirements (uses alternative fuel). The Low Profile chassis, which is the basis of this vehicle is configured to be fuel neutral to accommodate various alternative fuels. Demonstration of the vehicle in Yellowstone Park in summer (wheeled operation) and winter (track operation) demonstrated the feasibility and flexibility for this vehicle to provide year around operation throughout the Parks system as well as normal transit operation. The unique configuration of the chassis which provides ADA access with a simple ramp and a flat floor throughout the passenger compartment, provides maximum access for all passengers as well as maximum flexibility to configure the vehicle for each application. Because this product is derived from an existing medium duty truck chassis, the completed bus is 40-50% less expensive than existing low floor transit buses, with the reliability and durability of OEM a medium duty truck.

  15. Dynamic Vibration Analysis of Heavy Vehicle Truck Transmission Gearbox Housing Using FEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwani Kumar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this original research article is to study the loose fixture mounting affect of heavy vehicle transmission gearbox housing. The studies were completed in three phases. In first phase the aim was to find the actual suitable boundary condition. After finding the boundary condition in second phase the fixture bolts were loosened to monitor the affect of looseness and in third phase the positional looseness based study were completed. The looseness of transmission housing causes heavy vibration and noise. In order to prevent this noise and vibration the transmission housing is tightly mounted on the chassis frame using bolts. In our design transmission housing is constraint on chassis frame using 37 bolts. Truck transmission system determines the level of noise together with the chassis, engine and bodywork. Vehicle transmissions under torsional vibration condition caused rattling and clattering noises. Reciprocity Principle was used to determine the failure frequencies for transmission housing. In reciprocity principle gear and shafts are suppressed and all the forces transmitted through the bearings are applied on the empty housing. FEA based ANSYS 14.5 has been used as analysis tool. The free vibration frequency for zero displacement condition varies from 1669 Hz to 2865 Hz and for loose transmission casing frequency varies from 1311 Hz to 3110 Hz. The analysis have theoretical and practical aspects and useful for transmission housing structure optimization.

  16. Analysis of connection element classes and locations and of some structural requirements for the mounting of different superstructure types on transport vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Đ. Majkić

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the basic requirements for transport vehicles. A special request regarding the adaptation of transport vehicles for the transport of various types of cargo was taken into consideration. Superstructures and the situation arising after mounting superstructures on wheeled transport vehicles were analyzed and the following was described: console coupling, stirrups, simplex elastic coupling, two-way elastic and rigid connection elements. Vehicle torsional elasticity is provided by a proper choice of the type of connection between the superstructure and the vehicle chassis. Applying the instructions of vehicle manufacturers for using appropriate connections between the truck superstructure and the vehicle chassis provides positive torsional elasticity of the vehicle. The paper gives the general recommendations of the Volvo, Mercedes and Renault transport vehicle producers for the use of particular connection types of locations as well as structural requirements for the mounting of concrete mixers, tippers and truck tanks on their vehicles. Introduction Achieving a high level of transport effectiveness depends on a number of factors. One of the most important ones is the possibility to increase the payload share in the gross vehicle weight. This share depends on the net vehicle weight, a method of coupling the truck superstructure with the chassis frame as well as on the truck superstructure construction. Realization of this requirement is of significant importance, particularly for large business systems since it results in the reduction of number of necessary vehicles, more economic fleet maintenance and the fleet capacity increase. It is also relatively easy to adapt the vehicle for the transportation of other loads, depending on user's current needs. The adaptation is correctly performed if manufacturer's recommendations are followed during the mounting of the superstructure on the chassis. This paper gives the analysis of the

  17. Thermal Simulation and Optimization Design for a NovelA TCA Cha ssis%某新型 ATCA 插箱热学仿真分析及优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐计元; 江波; 孙帆; 肖克齐; 李东来

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid increase of integration density and heat flux of the new electronic equipment with ATCA standard, great pressure has been placed on its cooling.In this paper, the thermal simulation for a no-vel ATCA chassis ( The PCB power is 300 W) at module level and chassis level are performed based on FLO-THERM.The effect of the plate-fin parameters on the cooling of electronic chips is firstly researched and then the effect of wind path design and fan selection on the cooling of ATCA chassis is studied.Finally optimization suggestions on the structure design of ATCA modules and chassis are provided.The thermal simulation and op-timization methods introduced in this paper can be used as reference for the air cooling chassis design of the new electronic equipment.%采用ATCA技术标准的新一代电子设备集成密度和功率密度更高,由此带来的散热要求也相应增加。文中以某新型ATCA插箱(单板功率高达300 W)为例,利用FLOTHERM软件分别进行了模块级与插箱级热学仿真分析。文中研究了ATCA 刀片式板卡的冷板结构参数对芯片散热性能的影响,在此基础上进一步研究了风道设计及风机选型对ATCA插箱散热性能的影响,并根据热学仿真分析结果为ATCA刀片式板卡及其插箱的结构设计提出了优化建议。文中所介绍的热学仿真分析思路及优化方法可为新型电子设备风冷插箱的散热设计提供参考。

  18. 10例造口底盘医疗器械相关性压疮的原因分析及对策%Cause analysis and interventions of 10 cases in Medical Device Related Pressure Ulcer of colostomy stoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐洪莲; 郝建玲; 陈静; 吕桂芬; 邱群

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析发生在造口底盘下压疮的原因,并采用针对性护理措施。方法:对2014年4月至2015年12月造口护理门诊就诊的10例造口底盘下压疮患者进行原因分析,并制定护理对策,观察创面恢复情况。结果:10例均使用腰带和二件式底盘;6例底盘下缘卷边;4例凸面底盘突出部造成压力;4例造口位置欠佳(3例位置过低、1例位于右上腹肋缘下);4例合并其他并发症;2例合并糖尿病。10例患者经护理后创面愈合,愈合时间5~67d,平均时间24.8d。结论:造口底盘下压疮与佩戴腰带有关,要加强评估底盘佩戴的时间、腰带的松紧度;加强底盘下缘固定,防止卷边;调整底盘型号避免皮肤受压;位置欠佳者偏心圆裁剪底盘。同时根据压疮的分期和面积,选择合适的敷料处理创面,促进创面愈合。%Objective: To evaluate the causes of medical device related pressure ulcer under the Colostomy Stoma and implement interventions accordingly. Methods: Investigate the possible reasons of 10 patients with medical device related pressure ulcer between April 2014 and December 2015, and making nursing plans accordingly, then observe the effects. Results: The reasons for the 10 patients with pressure ulcer were as follows: all of them using belt and two-piece chassis; six patients using convex chassis for stoma retraction; and for another four patients whose stomas were in poor position, one patient's stoma was under the right upper quadrant costal margin, while the other three's were too low; four patients had comorbidities; and two patients had diabetes. After the intervention according to the pressure ulcer guidelines, all pressure ulcers were healed, with healing time of 5-67 d, and the average time was 24.8 d. Conclusions: Pressure ulcer under stoma chassis was related to belt. We should assess chassis conditions and belt wearing time as well as tightness. And we can

  19. EMI investigation and modeling of a flat panel display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Satyajeet

    It is often important to carry out EMI analysis in the design phase of an electronic product to predict the radiated emissions. An EMI analysis is important to predict if the product complies with the FCC regulations as well as to gain an understanding of the noise coupling and radiation mechanisms. EMI analysis and prediction of radiated emissions in electronic products that have an electrically large chassis, pose a challenge due to the presence of multiple resonant structures and noise-coupling mechanisms. The study focusses on the investigation of the main noise coupling mechanisms, the approach and methods used for the modeling of a flat panel display. Full-wave simulation models are a powerful tool for the prediction of radiated emissions and the visualization of coupling paths within the product. The first part deals with the measurement of radiated emissions from the display under standard test conditions and the identification of the main noise sources using near-field scanning. The contribution of the chassis components - frame, back cover and the back panel, to the radiated emission is analyzed using shielding measurements. Noise coupling from the main board, flex cables, display driver boards and the display is analyzed from measurements. The second part deals with the full-wave modeling of the components - main board, flex cables, chassis and the display driver boards. The modeling approach is demonstrated by highlighting some of the challenges in modeling larger structures having many details. The simulation model contains the main components of the TV that contribute to far-field radiation. The full-wave modeling is done using the CST Microwave Studio. Two sets of simulation models are described - the common mode models and the complete models. The use of the common mode models for the identification of the resonant structures is demonstrated. The far-field radiated emissions along with the coupling mechanism within the flat panel display can be

  20. TEM Cell Testing of Cable Noise Reduction Techniques From 2 MHz to 200 MHz - Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Arthur T.; Evans, William C.; Reed, Joshua L.; Shimp, Samuel K.; Fitzpatrick, Fred D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents empirical results of cable noise reduction techniques as demonstrated in a TEM cell operating with radiated fields from 2 - 200 MHz. It is the first part of a two-paper series. This first paper discusses cable types and shield connections. In the second paper, the effects of load and source resistances and chassis connections are examined. For each topic, well established theories are compared to data from a real-world physical system. Finally, recommendations for minimizing cable susceptibility (and thus cable emissions) are presented. There are numerous papers and textbooks that present theoretical analyses of cable noise reduction techniques. However, empirical data is often targeted to low frequencies (e.g. 100 MHz). Additionally, a comprehensive study showing the relative effects of various noise reduction techniques is needed. These include the use of dedicated return wires, twisted wiring, cable shielding, shield connections, changing load or source impedances, and implementing load- or source-to-chassis isolation. We have created an experimental setup that emulates a real-world electrical system, while still allowing us to independently vary a host of parameters. The goal of the experiment was to determine the relative effectiveness of various noise reduction techniques when the cable is in the presence of radiated emissions from 2 MHz to 200 MHz. The electronic system (Fig. 1) consisted of two Hammond shielded electrical enclosures, one containing the source resistance, and the other containing the load resistance. The boxes were mounted on a large aluminium plate acting as the chassis. Cables connecting the two boxes measured 81 cm in length and were attached to the boxes using standard D38999 military-style connectors. The test setup is shown in Fig. 2. Electromagnetic fields were created using an HP8657B signal generator, MiniCircuits ZHL-42W-SMA amplifier, and an EMCO 5103 TEM cell. Measurements were taken using an Agilent E4401B

  1. Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, Aniko; Cross, E. Vincent, II; Chang, Mai Lee

    2015-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) is a discipline investigating the factors affecting the interactions between humans and robots. It is important to evaluate how the design of interfaces affect the human's ability to perform tasks effectively and efficiently when working with a robot. By understanding the effects of interface design on human performance, workload, and situation awareness, interfaces can be developed to appropriately support the human in performing tasks with minimal errors and with appropriate interaction time and effort. Thus, the results of research on human-robot interfaces have direct implications for the design of robotic systems. For efficient and effective remote navigation of a rover, a human operator needs to be aware of the robot's environment. However, during teleoperation, operators may get information about the environment only through a robot's front-mounted camera causing a keyhole effect. The keyhole effect reduces situation awareness which may manifest in navigation issues such as higher number of collisions, missing critical aspects of the environment, or reduced speed. One way to compensate for the keyhole effect and the ambiguities operators experience when they teleoperate a robot is adding multiple cameras and including the robot chassis in the camera view. Augmented reality, such as overlays, can also enhance the way a person sees objects in the environment or in camera views by making them more visible. Scenes can be augmented with integrated telemetry, procedures, or map information. Furthermore, the addition of an exocentric (i.e., third-person) field of view from a camera placed in the robot's environment may provide operators with the additional information needed to gain spatial awareness of the robot. Two research studies investigated possible mitigation approaches to address the keyhole effect: 1) combining the inclusion of the robot chassis in the camera view with augmented reality overlays, and 2) modifying the camera

  2. 汽车底盘螺纹连接设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宗琪

    2014-01-01

    简要分析了螺纹连接在汽车结构中的作用和松动的原因,指出在预紧力变形和受轴向、横向动静载荷作用下,螺纹连接会发生松动。%a brief analysis of the causes of the threaded connection looseness, points out that in the pre tightening force deformation and axial, transverse static dynamic loading, thread connection looseness. And briefly discussed the chassis design application.

  3. On the structural behaviour of variable-geometry oval-trajectory Darrieus wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otero, A.D. [College of Engineering, University of Buenos Aires, Paseo Colon 850, Buenos Aires C1063ACV (Argentina); Ponta, F.L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering - Engineering Mechanics, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Drive, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    We developed a computational model based on a finite-element mixed formulation with quadratic isoparametric beam elements. We applied this model to the analysis of a blade-wagon: a novel structure characteristic of an innovative concept in wind-power called VGOT Darrieus turbine. We studied the structural behaviour of its main components: chassis, suspension and blade, using combinations of beam/bar elements in an appropriate assembling. We defined a set of parameters to characterize the structural behaviour which help to understand the contribution of the different components and assist the process of redesign. (author)

  4. Improvement of vehicle stability in cornering on uneven road; Akuro senkaiji ni okeru sharyo no anzensei kojo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobimatsu, K.; Harada, M.; Harada, H. [National Defense Academy, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The active control of vehicle suspensions and rear wheel steering systems in turning on uneven roads is analyzed by means of LQR control theory, assuming that cornering forces depend on tire normal loads in addition to tire slip angles. The authors quantitatively investigated the effectiveness of the integrated control of the active suspension and the rear wheel steering, comparing the contributions of each individual system. Furthermore, in this paper, the role of the chassis control and driver control are studied in order to improve the stability of vehicle motion disturbed by the road surface. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  5. Bioinformatics for the synthetic biology of natural products: integrating across the Design-Build-Test cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, Pablo; Currin, Andrew; Jervis, Adrian J; Rattray, Nicholas J W; Swainston, Neil; Yan, Cunyu; Takano, Eriko; Breitling, Rainer

    2016-08-27

    Covering: 2000 to 2016Progress in synthetic biology is enabled by powerful bioinformatics tools allowing the integration of the design, build and test stages of the biological engineering cycle. In this review we illustrate how this integration can be achieved, with a particular focus on natural products discovery and production. Bioinformatics tools for the DESIGN and BUILD stages include tools for the selection, synthesis, assembly and optimization of parts (enzymes and regulatory elements), devices (pathways) and systems (chassis). TEST tools include those for screening, identification and quantification of metabolites for rapid prototyping. The main advantages and limitations of these tools as well as their interoperability capabilities are highlighted. PMID:27185383

  6. Advanced light source master oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Master Oscillator of the Advanced Light Source operates at a frequency of 499.654 MHz which is the 328th harmonic of the storage ring. The oscillator is capable of providing up to a maximum of ± 500 KHz frequency deviation for various experimental purposes. Provisions for external signal injection as well as using an external signal source have been designed into the unit. A power distribution system has also been included to provide signals for various parts of the ALS machine and user requirements. The Master Oscillator is made up with modules housed in a Euro chassis. 4 refs., 7 figs

  7. Engineering cyanobacteria as photosynthetic feedstock factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Stephanie G; Ducat, Daniel C

    2015-03-01

    Carbohydrate feedstocks are at the root of bioindustrial production and are needed in greater quantities than ever due to increased prioritization of renewable fuels with reduced carbon footprints. Cyanobacteria possess a number of features that make them well suited as an alternative feedstock crop in comparison to traditional terrestrial plant species. Recent advances in genetic engineering, as well as promising preliminary investigations of cyanobacteria in a number of distinct production regimes have illustrated the potential of these aquatic phototrophs as biosynthetic chassis. Further improvements in strain productivities and design, along with enhanced understanding of photosynthetic metabolism in cyanobacteria may pave the way to translate cyanobacterial theoretical potential into realized application.

  8. PRODUCT DESIGN, DEVELOPMENTAND VIABILITY ANALYSIS : MOTORCYCLE HELMETLIGHT SECURITY SYSTEM “DragonFlight”

    OpenAIRE

    Ferruz Gracia, Pedro Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Every single one of us have heard ones or know someone who have had a badexperience with a motorbike, maybe it was his or her fault, perhaps it was originateddue to the mistake of other vehicle or just was a simple distraction that caused as aresult that small fright or that horrible accident.All the people who ride motorcycles assume that when an impact comes, our body isthe chassis, our own body is in jeopardy to the unexpected just protected with a helmetand some protection clothes.The mai...

  9. Experimental Study on Effects of Different Proportional Methanol-Gasoline on Automobiles%不同比例甲醇汽油对整车性能影响的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高昱; 王铁; 刘道东; 李海林

    2011-01-01

    Based on the running state test of autocar on drum-type chassis dynamometer. this paper makes quantitative and qualitative analysis of engine dynamical performances and fuel economy of autocar fueled with different proportional methanol-gasoline ( M15 and M85 ) .%通过在滚筒式底盘测功机上进行燃烧不同燃料的桑塔纳汽车的测试实验,定量和定性地分析了不同比例甲醇汽油(M15和M85)对整车动力性和经济性的影响.

  10. Durability evaluation in the automotive engineering - from theory to product; Betriebsfestigkeit in der Fahrzeugentwicklung - von der Theorie zum Produkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, T.; Liu, J.; Maescher, G.; Mauch, H.; Stolze, F.J. [Volkswagen AG, Abt. Betriebsfestigkeit, Brieffach 17 12, 38436 Wolfsburg (Germany)

    2003-09-01

    The procedures for durability evaluation in the automotive engineering are represented, especially the methods, load assumption, fatigue testing and the regulations for the release and quality control. By practical examples of the vehicle development from chassis, aggregate and body the procedure is described, in particular the used experimental and virtual simulation methods (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Dargestellt wird die prinzipielle Vorgehensweise beim Nachweis der Betriebsfestigkeit in der Fahrzeugentwicklung: die Methoden, Lastannahme, Festigkeitspruefung und die Vorschriften fuer die Freigabe und Qualitaetssicherung. An praktischen Beispielen der Fahrzeugentwicklung aus Fahrwerk, Aggregat und Karosserie werden die Vorgehensweise und die verwendeten experimentellen und rechnerischen Simulationsmethoden erlaeutert. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. Plastics in car production. Pt. 2. Coating and surface treatment; Einsatz von Kunststoffen in der Automobilproduktion. T. 2. Lackierung und Folienbeschichtung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guhr, U.; Grefenstein, A.; Hauck, C.; Reinelt, D. [BASF AG, Ludwigshafen am Rhein (Germany)

    2000-05-01

    Because of their extraordinary versatility, plastics offer many applications in automotive design. In the first part of the article, in the March edition of ATZ, the use of plastic materials in car production was described from the point of view of chassis, body and engine components. In this second part, the surface treatment of plastic body components is discussed. (orig.) [German] Aufgrund ihrer Leistungsvielfalt bieten Kunststoffe dem Automobilbau vielfaeltige Einsatzmoeglichkeiten. In der Maerz-Ausgabe der ATZ wurde der Einsatz dieser Werkstoffe in der Automobilproduktion in Fahrwerks-, Karosserie- und Motorkomponenten beschrieben. Der vorliegende zweite Teil widmet sich der Thematik der Oberflaechenbehandlung mit Kunststoffen. (orig.)

  12. 陕西汽车集团有限责任公司%Shaanxi Automobile Group Co.,Ltd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ (hereinafter called "SAG") was established in 1968 with headquarters located in Xi'an,Shaanxi Province.Now,it has developed to a big automobile enterprise group with factories area of 4.5 million square meters,RMB 14.9 billion of asset and over 23000 employees.Its products ranges from heavy military off-road trucks,heavy duty trucks,big and medium-size bus (chassis),medium and light trucks,heavy axles,Cummins engines to vehicle components fields.

  13. Algorithms for skiascopy measurement automatization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomins, Sergejs; Trukša, Renārs; KrūmiĆa, Gunta

    2014-10-01

    Automatic dynamic infrared retinoscope was developed, which allows to run procedure at a much higher rate. Our system uses a USB image sensor with up to 180 Hz refresh rate equipped with a long focus objective and 850 nm infrared light emitting diode as light source. Two servo motors driven by microprocessor control the rotation of semitransparent mirror and motion of retinoscope chassis. Image of eye pupil reflex is captured via software and analyzed along the horizontal plane. Algorithm for automatic accommodative state analysis is developed based on the intensity changes of the fundus reflex.

  14. DC source assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Jeremy B; Newson, Steve

    2013-02-26

    Embodiments of DC source assemblies of power inverter systems of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicle having an electrically grounded chassis are provided. An embodiment of a DC source assembly comprises a housing, a DC source disposed within the housing, a first terminal, and a second terminal. The DC source also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the first terminal. The DC source assembly further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the second terminal.

  15. KSC-05PD-1586

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. On the table is a refurbished, spare orbiter point sensor chassis and a motherboard. Components are being tested to determine why one of the four liquid hydrogen tank low-level fuel cut-off sensors failed in a routine prelaunch check during the launch countdown July 13. The failure caused mission managers to scrub Discovery's first launch attempt. The sensor protects the Shuttle's main engines by triggering their shutdown in the event fuel runs unexpectedly low. The sensor is one of four inside the liquid hydrogen section of the External Tank (ET).

  16. Electronics box having internal circuit cards interconnected to external connectors sans motherboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockett, John E. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An electronics chassis box includes a pair of opposing sidewalls, a pair of opposing end walls, a bottom surface, a top cover, and ring connectors assemblies mounted in selective ones of the walls of the electronic box. Boss members extend from the bottom surface at different heights upon which circuit cards are mounted in spatial relationship to each other. A flex interconnect substantially reduces and generally eliminates the need of a motherboard by interconnecting the circuit cards to one another and to external connectors mounted within the ring connector assemblies.

  17. Composite Sandwich Design for Formula SAE Monocoque

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez, Christopher Medina

    2013-01-01

    This paper is an approach in how to design a composite sandwich laminate, that is to be used for an open wheeled race car with a monocoque chassis. The composite sandwich design of the monocoque must be in accordance with the 2013 Formula SAE regulations. The composite sandwich laminate is to be used in a preliminary monocoque design based on the Revolve NTNU’s 2013 student race car, the KA Aquilo R. The composite materials for the monocoque’s sandwich structure are HexPly 6376 and Rohacel...

  18. Optimização de uma estrutura para absorção de energia de impacto

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, Tiago Daniel Heliodoro

    2008-01-01

    A partir de um modelo automóvel proposto por um designer foram modeladas, em software CAD comercial, estruturas compatíveis para o chassis e para a carroçaria, seguindo algumas das práticas usadas na indústria automóvel. A estrutura modelada foi sujeita a testes de simulação numérica, usando o ABAQUS, um software comercial que usa o Método dos Elementos Finitos. Foram usados dois materiais, um aço e um alumínio, de modo a poder tomar uma decisão sobre o material mais apropri...

  19. System control for the modulated 252Cf source ''Shuffler''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design and theory of operation of the control chassis for a 252Cf nondestructive assay system are described. This system repetitively transfers a 252Cf source from the irradiation region to a shielded position before measuring the delayed neutrons. The design criteria for the system were: rapid movement and precise positioning of the 252Cf source, precise positioning of the sample, and very accurate timing of the irradiate and count cycles. To achieve these results crystal oscillators were used for timing, and stepping motors were used to position the sample and the source. (U.S.)

  20. Edge determination algorithm of game road for intelligent automobile based on plane array CCD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhi-kun; WANG Fu-bin; PAN Xiao-di; LIU Jie; HUANG Chang-fa

    2009-01-01

    The contribution factor of automobile movement stability on the structure feature of seek road intelligent automobile chassis was analyzed. The kinematic model of linear two-degree freedom for intelligent automobile was established. The noise influence to the image of game road on the image rebuilding of different acquisition data of game road was analyzed. The threshold for image division was determined by the statistical analysis to grey histogram of game road image. This method indicates its adaption to CCD image of low distinguish ability.

  1. Bioinformatics for the synthetic biology of natural products: integrating across the Design–Build–Test cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currin, Andrew; Jervis, Adrian J.; Rattray, Nicholas J. W.; Swainston, Neil; Yan, Cunyu; Breitling, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Covering: 2000 to 2016 Progress in synthetic biology is enabled by powerful bioinformatics tools allowing the integration of the design, build and test stages of the biological engineering cycle. In this review we illustrate how this integration can be achieved, with a particular focus on natural products discovery and production. Bioinformatics tools for the DESIGN and BUILD stages include tools for the selection, synthesis, assembly and optimization of parts (enzymes and regulatory elements), devices (pathways) and systems (chassis). TEST tools include those for screening, identification and quantification of metabolites for rapid prototyping. The main advantages and limitations of these tools as well as their interoperability capabilities are highlighted. PMID:27185383

  2. 传统轿车搭载混合动力系统整车技术%Entire Car Technology of Traditional Car with Hybrid Power System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余才光; 包寿红; 马智涛; 张彤

    2012-01-01

    结合混合动力车工作原理,从动力系统、底盘、整车电子电器等方面,详细说明传统轿车改制成混合动力车所涉及到的整车技术。%Based on the working principle of hybrid EV, the entire car technology in remaking traditional car to hybrid car has been described in details from the aspects of power system, chassis and electronic apparatus.

  3. Mobile unit for the conditioning of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unit for the conditioning of radioactive waste by means of encapsulation comprises a casing machine, which consists, on the one hand, of a shielded and aerated tunnel; the tunnel itself is furnished with a fixed production station for the casing, a fixed control station and a fixed sealing station; the casing machine consists, on the other hand of an inactive zone and a shielded container; the conditioning unit consists of a chassis platform and a girder in the rear and also of a detachable gooseneck. (orig.)

  4. The design of the center hole punch%关于中心打孔机的设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂荣臻; 曹建中

    2014-01-01

    The utility model relates to a center punch, including chassis, motor, rail, and two compressive bar inside the casing has stated push block, the top of the chassis with a nut, one end of the screw nut, through the top of the chassis and blocks are linked together, motor guide rail and the casing is fixed, the motor seat by machine guide rail and slide casing connection, motor seat is, the output of the motor connection power head; As described in the lower end of the block with a roller, block in the middle of the bilateral symmetry runs up two chute, each one end of the push rod is equipped with guide wheel, guide wheel sliding inside the chute, each lever through back to resellers and chassis rotation connection, in the middle of each lever and on the other side of the roller. Center punching machine of the utility model not only can fast clamping workpiece, three fast clamping, automatic centering, the purpose of realizing automatic centering.%本实用新型涉及一种中心打孔机,包括机壳、电机座、电机导轨和两个压杆,所述机壳内具有推块,机壳的顶部具有螺母,螺杆的一端通过螺母穿过机壳的顶部与推块相连,电机导轨与机壳固定连接,电机座通过电机导轨与机壳滑动连接,电机座内具有电机,电机的输出端连接有动力头;所述推块的下端具有滚轮,推块的中部两侧对称开有向上的两个斜槽,每个压杆的一端装有导向轮,导向轮在斜槽内滑动,每个压杆的中部通过回转销与机壳转动连接,每个压杆的另一端也均装有滚轮。本实用新型的中心打孔机,不仅能快速的夹紧工件,三点快速夹紧,自动定心,实现自动打中心孔的目的。

  5. Dueco Plug-In Hybrid Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillip Eidler

    2011-09-30

    Dueco, a final stage manufacture of utility trucks, was awarded a congressionally directed cost shared contract to develop, test, validate, and deploy several PHEV utility trucks. Odyne will be the primary subcontractor responsible for all aspects of the hybrid system including its design and installation on a truck chassis. Key objectives in this program include developing a better understanding of the storage device and system capability; improve aspects of the existing design, optimization of system and power train components, and prototype evaluation. This two year project will culminate in the delivery of at least five vehicles for field evaluation.

  6. Design and development of an automotive propulsion system utilizing a Rankine cycle engine (water based fluid). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demler, R.L.

    1977-09-01

    Under EPA and ERDA sponsorship, SES successfully designed, fabricated and tested the first federally sponsored steam powered automobile. The automobile - referred to as the simulator - is a 1975 Dodge Monaco standard size passenger car with the SES preprototype Rankine cycle automotive propulsion system mounted in the engine compartment. In the latter half of 1975, the simulator successfully underwent test operations at the facilities of SES in Watertown, Massachusetts and demonstrated emission levels below those of the stringent federally established automotive requirements originally set for implementation by 1976. The demonstration was accomplished during testing over the Federal Driving Cycle on a Clayton chassis dynamometer. The design and performance of the vehicle are described.

  7. Light duty vehicle driveability investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toulmin, H.A. Jr.

    1978-12-01

    This report describes the results of an automobile driveability, emission, fuel economy and performance testing program conducted for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A total of twenty-two 1977 and 1978 model vehicles were subjected to a series of tests when adjusted to the manufacturers' recommended settings and when adjusted to simulate maladjustments found on in-use vehicles in an earlier EPA Restorative Maintenance Evaluation Project. The CRC driveability tests were performed on a weather controlled large roll chassis dynamometer at 16C and the emissions and fuel economy tests were conducted according to the 1975 Federal Test Procedure, except that evaporative emissions tests were not conducted.

  8. Applications and research in frame longeron of hydroforming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Hao; Jiao Mengwang; Wei Yuansheng; Du Huijun; Li Shuli; Yang Hongxin; Yang Jie

    2012-01-01

    The application feasibility of hydroforming in frame longeron large parts is verified for the first time at home. The result of the research on the structure design and process analysis for frame longeron shows that hydroforming can he fully realized. With stiffness is comparison, collision test simulation and cross section force with traditional drawing- assembly welding techniques, it has been found that hydroforming combining has multiple advantages such as light- weight, high stiffness, reduction in the number of parts, high precision, hence reduction the associated machining and welding and so on. It is especially suitable for forming various lightweight components used for the chassis parts in automotive.

  9. Frictional couplings of wheel with a rail in a brake control system of rail vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Baier, A; A. Niedworok

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Discussion on use of frictional coupling of wheel with a rail for detection of surface condition of track ways in coal mine undergrounds is the paper objective.Design/methodology/approach: The method for detection of surface condition of track ways is based on using of dedicated converter installed on the locomotive chassis with active part in a form of “tracking wheel” that moves on the rail surface together with the locomotive. The converter is equipped with a system for torque loa...

  10. Robust levitation control for maglev systems with guaranteed bounded airgap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinquan; Chen, Ye-Hwa; Guo, Hong

    2015-11-01

    The robust control design problem for the levitation control of a nonlinear uncertain maglev system is considered. The uncertainty is (possibly) fast time-varying. The system has magnitude limitation on the airgap between the suspended chassis and the guideway in order to prevent undesirable contact. Furthermore, the (global) matching condition is not satisfied. After a three-step state transformation, a robust control scheme for the maglev vehicle is proposed, which is able to guarantee the uniform boundedness and uniform ultimate boundedness of the system, regardless of the uncertainty. The magnitude limitation of the airgap is guaranteed, regardless of the uncertainty. PMID:26524957

  11. Particles Emission from Gasoline Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun-fang; GE Yun-shan; TAN Jian-wei; HE Chao; YOU Ke-wei; YOU Qiu-wen

    2009-01-01

    Number concentration and size distribution from gasoline cars are investigated at transient modes on the chassis dynamometers,which are measured using electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI) for the ECE15 and EUDC cycles.Results indicate that,during cold start,particle number emission is higher than that under hot start.It is found that the number of particles increases with the vehicle speeds.Furthermore,particles with diameter smaller than 200 nm constitute the predominant part of total emission in the entire cycle.In addition,the tentative information about composition of emitted particles is also discussed.

  12. Overcoming obstacles to the commercialization of natural gas school buses and shuttle buses. Final report, February 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biederman, R.; Blazek, C.

    1993-03-01

    The report provides an overview of the objectives, conclusions and recommendations discussed during the GRI-sponsored workshop. The workshop was unique in that it brought together a number of industry groups - chassis builders, engine manufacturers, end users, and natural gas distribution companies. The workshop focused upon identifying obstacles to the commercialization of natural gas school buses and shuttle buses in the near-term, defined as 1993 to 1996. Additional topics included R and D and technology transfer needs, infrastructure development, and legislative and regulatory impacts. Considerable attention was also devoted to the experience of end users, with regard to methods of facilitating fleet conversion and improving conversion economics.

  13. Bulk Current Injection Testing of Cable Noise Reduction Techniques, 50 kHz to 400 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Arthur T.; Hare, Richard J.; Singh, Manisha

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents empirical results of cable noise reduction techniques as demonstrated using bulk current injection (BCI) techniques with radiated fields from 50 kHz - 400 MHz. It is a follow up to the two-part paper series presented at the Asia Pacific EMC Conference that focused on TEM cell signal injection. This paper discusses the effects of cable types, shield connections, and chassis connections on cable noise. For each topic, well established theories are compared with data from a real-world physical system.

  14. An analysis on China’s segmented truck market in 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The truck market in 2007 maintained the rapid growth trend formed in 2006. The year saw a total of 2.1145 million trucks sold, a year on year growth of 22.46 percent. Detailed figures: finished truck: 1.5164 million units, a year on year growth of 15.11 percent; truck chassis: 450,400 units, a year on year growth of 31.98 percent; semi-trailer: 177,800 units, a year on year growth of 91.86 percent.

  15. ANALYSIS OF TOWING HOOKS OF CARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Turgut YÜKSEL

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Towing hooks generally are assembled to vehicles as accessory. They are used to tow caravans and trailers having no engine, which provide accommodation and haulage of loads, respectively. So, the transport capacity of cars is increased safely. Towing hooks require different constructive structures due to different chassis or monocoque body of each car type; hence they are to be manufactured and assembled in small- or middle-size factories as per order. In this study, three different constructions of towing hook are modelled and structurally analysed. The results obtained are compared with each other to improve the structural strength.

  16. Measurements of Gun Tube Motion and Muzzle Pointing Error of Main Battle Tanks

    OpenAIRE

    McCall, Peter L.

    2001-01-01

    Beginning in 1990, the US Army Aberdeen Test Center (ATC) began testing a prototype cannon mounted in a non-armored turret fitted to an M1A1 Abrams tank chassis. The cannon design incorporated a longer gun tube as a means to increase projectile velocity. A significant increase in projectile impact dispersion was measured early in the test program. Through investigative efforts, the cause of the error was linked to the increased dynamic bending or flexure of the longer tube observed while the ...

  17. FootSpring: A Compliance Model for the ATHLETE Family of Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Dawn Deborah; Chavez-Clemente, Daniel; Sunspiral, Vytas K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes and evaluates one method of modeling compliance in a wheel-on-leg walking robot. This method assumes that all of the robot s compliance takes place at the ground contact points, specifically the tires and legs, and that the rest of the robot is rigid. Optimization is used to solve for the displacement of the feet and of the center of gravity. This method was tested on both robots of the ATHLETE family, which have different compliance. For both robots, the model predicts the sag of points on the robot chassis with an average error of about one percent of the height of the robot.

  18. Computer-aided design of a coffee-dragging device

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus Vinicuis Morais de Oliveira; Mauri Martins Teixeira; Haroldo Carlos Fernandes; Daniel Marçal de Queiroz; Raphael Magalhães Gomes Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Dragging is the most costly and time-consuming stage of the coffee harvest. Therefore, its mechanization is important. The objectives of this study were to design, build, and evaluate the dynamics of a coffee-dragging device in a laboratory setting. The prototype consists of a dragging device with rods mounted on a metal plate and a chassis. Computer-aided design (CAD) software was used to generate a solid second-order tetrahedral mesh for use in finite element analyses of the device and its ...

  19. Blast resistant vehicle seat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripley, Edward B

    2013-02-12

    Disclosed are various seats for vehicles particularly military vehicles that are susceptible to attack by road-bed explosive devices such as land mines or improvised explosive devices. The seats often have rigid seat shells and may include rigid bracing for rigidly securing the seat to the chassis of the vehicle. Typically embodiments include channels and particulate media such as sand disposed in the channels. A gas distribution system is generally employed to pump a gas through the channels and in some embodiments the gas is provided at a pressure sufficient to fluidize the particulate media when an occupant is sitting on the seat.

  20. EMI suppression of klystron pulse power supply for XFEL/SPring-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The klystron modulator power source of XFEL/SPring-8 is requested the low electro-magnetic interference (EMI), in order to realize the high stable beam by the feedback loops of high-precision beam monitors. We suppressed the EMI-noise by monocoque structure of the solid iron chassis, the eliminating the DC core bias circuit for the pulse transformer, and the co-axial pare noise filter. To estimate the effect of the noise filter, we measured the conducted noise on the heater power line. The thyratron noise was suppressed to about 10Vpk-pk, and would not interfere to the beam monitor. (author)

  1. 纵向控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    [ 篇名 ] Evolutionary optimisation of a model reference adaptive control system,[ 篇名 ] Longitudinal Control Design and Experiment for Heavy-Duty Trucks,[ 篇名 ] On-line Approximation Based Aircraft Longitudinal Control, [ 篇名 ]Real-time estimation and compensation of road slip for longitudinal control,[篇名 ] Test bed for vehicle longitudinal control using chassis dynamometer and virtual reality: an application to adaptive cruise control,[ 篇名] The comfort highway copilot - an advanced driving assistance system,[ 篇名 ] Understanding and Modeling the Human Driver,[篇名 ] Vehicle Control Algorithms for Cooperative Driving With Automated Vehicles and Intervehicle Communications。

  2. Testing Digital Electronic Protection Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gabourin, S

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines the core concepts and realisation of the Safe Machine Parameters Controller (SMPC) testbench, based on a VME crate and LabVIEW program. Its main goal is to ensure the correct function of the SMPC for the protection of the CERN accelerator complex. To achieve this, the tester has been built to replicate the machine environment and operation, in order to ensure that the chassis under test is completely exercised. The complexity of the task increases with the number of input combinations. This paper also outlines the benefits and weaknesses of developing a test suite independently of the hardware being tested, using the “V” approach.

  3. 基于一次回归正交试验的双滚筒轮胎滚动阻力模型%Dual Roller Tire Rolling Resistance Based on Linear Regression Orthogonal Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆良; 崔相军

    2011-01-01

    According to existing problems of the wasting power caused by tire rolling resistance on dual roller chassis dynamometer in power capability testing,the principle of measuring tire rolling resistance which is tested on the dual roller was analyzed.The mathematic model of tire rolling resistance correlated with tire load,speed,pressure and structure parameters of dual roller chassis dynamometer was provided.Linear regression orthogonal experiment L8(27)was adopted,and 8 experiments were re-arranged.Regression equation was drawn to express tire rolling resistance.%针对汽车动力性检测时轮胎在双滚筒底盘测功机上的滚动阻力消耗功率问题,分析了双滚筒轮胎滚动阻力测试的原理,建立了轴荷、车速、胎压及双滚筒底盘测功机结构参数与滚动阻力的数学模型,应用一次回归正交试验方法L8(27),重新安排8次试验,用回归方程表达了轮胎滚动阻力。

  4. Doppler Lidar System Design via Interdisciplinary Design Concept at NASA Langley Research Center - Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Charles M.; Jackson, Trevor P.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Petway, Larry B.

    2013-01-01

    Optimized designs of the Navigation Doppler Lidar (NDL) instrument for Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) were accomplished via Interdisciplinary Design Concept (IDEC) at NASA Langley Research Center during the summer of 2013. Three branches in the Engineering Directorate and three students were involved in this joint task through the NASA Langley Aerospace Research Summer Scholars (LARSS) Program. The Laser Remote Sensing Branch (LRSB), Mechanical Systems Branch (MSB), and Structural and Thermal Systems Branch (STSB) were engaged to achieve optimal designs through iterative and interactive collaborative design processes. A preliminary design iteration was able to reduce the power consumption, mass, and footprint by removing redundant components and replacing inefficient components with more efficient ones. A second design iteration reduced volume and mass by replacing bulky components with excessive performance with smaller components custom-designed for the power system. Mechanical placement collaboration reduced potential electromagnetic interference (EMI). Through application of newly selected electrical components and thermal analysis data, a total electronic chassis redesign was accomplished. Use of an innovative forced convection tunnel heat sink was employed to meet and exceed project requirements for cooling, mass reduction, and volume reduction. Functionality was a key concern to make efficient use of airflow, and accessibility was also imperative to allow for servicing of chassis internals. The collaborative process provided for accelerated design maturation with substantiated function.

  5. 铝合金铸造副车架开发%Development of Aluminum Alloy Casting Sub-frame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈磊; 程稳正; 孙珏; 王仕伟; 陈志刚; 侯杰

    2015-01-01

    以铝合金材料代替传统钢材是乘用车底盘结构件轻量化设计的有效方式之一,尤其在高端乘用车上应用更为广泛。介绍了铝合金副车架的设计开发过程。开发实践表明,采用铝合金材料及挤压铸造工艺,通过合理的结构设计及系统的工艺开发,可达到底盘系统对于结构件强度及耐久性的严格要求,提高整车的轻量化水平。%The substitution of traditional steel with aluminum alloy is an effective approach of lightweight design of passenger car chassis structural parts, especially in high-end passenger car. This article introduces the development process of aluminum alloy sub-frame. The development practice shows that, with the application of aluminum alloy and extrusion casting technology, with the aid of rational design of structure and systemic development of technology, the strict requirements on strength and durability of chassis structural component can be satisfied, and the lightweight level of vehicle is improved.

  6. Designing Omni-Directional Mobile Robot with Mecanum Wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefri E.M. Salih

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the processes undertaken in the design and development of an intelligent omni-directional mobile robot using four custom-made mecanum wheels. The mecanum wheel developed consists of nine rollers made from delrin. All mecanum wheels are independently powered using four units of precisian gear DC motors and the wheel/motor assemblies were mounted directly to the robot chassis made using an aluminum frame. A four channel high power H-bridge using 2 units of LMD 18200 motor drivers IC circuit was design, built and interfaced to a BasicStamp (BS2 microcontroller board. Basic mobility algorithm using BasicStamp software was developed to test the basic mobility capabilities and test the qualitative view of the system's mobility performance. An experiment was set-up to analyze the motion characteristic of the mobile robot motion in Y-axis, X-axis and rotary motion. Data from the experiment will be used for mathematically model for mobile robot platform and speed controller modeling and design. Mecanum wheel mobile robot provides a convenient platform for further development in the mobile platform. The combination of mechanical design on the wheel and chassis, motion control and multiple input/output sensors allow the exploration of large number of control algorithm and software to be implemented to the robot for practical applications.

  7. MRE: a web tool to suggest foreign enzymes for the biosynthesis pathway design with competing endogenous reactions in mind

    KAUST Repository

    Kuwahara, Hiroyuki

    2016-04-29

    To rationally design a productive heterologous biosynthesis system, it is essential to consider the suitability of foreign reactions for the specific endogenous metabolic infrastructure of a host. We developed a novel web server, called MRE, which, for a given pair of starting and desired compounds in a given chassis organism, ranks biosynthesis routes from the perspective of the integration of new reactions into the endogenous metabolic system. For each promising heterologous biosynthesis pathway, MRE suggests actual enzymes for foreign metabolic reactions and generates information on competing endogenous reactions for the consumption of metabolites. These unique, chassis-centered features distinguish MRE from existing pathway design tools and allow synthetic biologists to evaluate the design of their biosynthesis systems from a different angle. By using biosynthesis of a range of high-value natural products as a case study, we show that MRE is an effective tool to guide the design and optimization of heterologous biosynthesis pathways. The URL of MRE is http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/mre/.

  8. Study and Development of a Screener Test for Fuel Economy Passenger Car Motor Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroshi Watanabe; Nobuo Ushioda; Yasuhiro Ogasawara

    2012-01-01

    Fuel economy regulations have been issued in many countries to save energy,and it is one of the most essential performance requirements for Passenger Car Motor Oil(PCMO) this decade.The performance is also important to reduce green house gas(GHG) emissions.Automotive,Oil and Additive industries have been developing fuel economy tests in fired engine for PCMO.The ASTM 5 Car test was started in 1982 and ASTM Sequence Ⅵ series test was also developed by the industries as one of fuel economy tests after the 5 Car test.However,the fired engine(combustion) test condition is more complicated and the combustion mode in engine introduce high variability into a fuel economy measurement.Screening by bench testing is complicated by the difficulty to reproduce friction conditions of all of engine parts.Based on the background,a motored engine friction torque test(MEFT) was developed as one of the solutions for fuel economy screening test.Using a newly developed MEFT,key additive chemistries were evaluated and compared in the test,and it distinguished the differences in additive chemistries,in addition to those in viscosity and friction modifiers.The Sequence Ⅵ-D FEI 1(Seq.Ⅵ-D FEI 1) and chassis dynamometer vehicle tests were also conducted in this study,and the test data has shown an excellent correlation among MEFT,Seq.Ⅵ-D FEI 1 and chassis dynamometer vehicle tests.

  9. Driving characteristics of a motorcycle fuelled with hydrogen-rich gas produced by an onboard plasma reformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rong-Fang, Horng; Chih-Sheng, Wen; Chihng-Tsung, Liauh [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kun Shan University, No. 949, Da-Wan Road, Yang-Kung City, Tainan County, Taiwan 710 (China); Yu, Chao [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Atomic Energy Council (China); Ching-Tsuen, Huang [Fuel Cycle and Materials Administration, Atomic Energy Council (China)

    2008-12-15

    The driving performance and emission characteristics of a 125 cc motorcycle equipped with an onboard plasma reformer for producing hydrogen-rich gas were investigated. Butane with suitable air flow rate was induced into the plasma reformer to produce hydrogen-rich gas, which was used as supplementary fuel for the internal combustion engine. The motorcycle was run under steady and transient conditions on a chassis dynamometer to assess the driving performance and exhaust emissions. Prior to the driving, the operation parameters of the plasma reformer were optimized in a series of tests and the results were an O{sub 2}/C ratio of 0.55 and a butane supply rate of 1.16 L/min. It was shown that under a constant speed of 40 km/h, with the CO and HC emissions similar to that of the original engine, the NO{sub x} emission was found to be improved by 56.8%. During transient driving condition, the improvement of 16%-41% in NO{sub x} concentration was achieved by adding hydrogen-rich gas. The emissions of the motorcycle were also analyzed on a chassis dynamometer tracing an ECE-40 driving pattern. The NO{sub x} emission was improved by 34% as was the HC emission by 4.08%, although the CO emission was increased. Simultaneously, the acceleration characteristics of the vehicle were tested, and were similar under both fuelling systems. (author)

  10. XTMS: pathway design in an eXTended metabolic space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, Pablo; Parutto, Pierre; Herisson, Joan; Pandit, Shashi Bhushan; Faulon, Jean-Loup

    2014-07-01

    As metabolic engineering and synthetic biology progress toward reaching the goal of a more sustainable use of biological resources, the need of increasing the number of value-added chemicals that can be produced in industrial organisms becomes more imperative. Exploring, however, the vast possibility of pathways amenable to engineering through heterologous genes expression in a chassis organism is complex and unattainable manually. Here, we present XTMS, a web-based pathway analysis platform available at http://xtms.issb.genopole.fr, which provides full access to the set of pathways that can be imported into a chassis organism such as Escherichia coli through the application of an Extended Metabolic Space modeling framework. The XTMS approach consists on determining the set of biochemical transformations that can potentially be processed in vivo as modeled by molecular signatures, a specific coding system for derivation of reaction rules for metabolic reactions and enumeration of all the corresponding substrates and products. Most promising routes are described in terms of metabolite exchange, maximum allowable pathway yield, toxicity and enzyme efficiency. By answering such critical design points, XTMS not only paves the road toward the rationalization of metabolic engineering, but also opens new processing possibilities for non-natural metabolites and novel enzymatic transformations. PMID:24792156

  11. Spatial organization of heterologous metabolic system in vivo based on TALE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ling-Yun; Qiu, Xin-Yuan; Zhu, Ling-Yun; Wu, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Yuan; Zhu, Qian-Hui; Fan, Dong-Yu; Zhu, Chu-Shu; Zhang, Dong-Yi

    2016-01-01

    For years, prokaryotic hosts have been widely applied in bio-engineering. However, the confined in vivo enzyme clustering of heterologous metabolic pathways in these organisms often results in low local concentrations of enzymes and substrates, leading to a low productive efficacy. We developed a new method to accelerate a heterologous metabolic system by integrating a transcription activator-like effector (TALE)-based scaffold system into an Escherichia coli chassis. The binding abilities of the TALEs to the artificial DNA scaffold were measured through ChIP-PCR. The effect of the system was determined through a split GFP study and validated through the heterologous production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) by incorporating TALE-fused IAA biosynthetic enzymes in E. coli. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to use the TALE system as a scaffold for the spatial organization of bacterial metabolism. This technique might be used to establish multi-enzymatic reaction programs in a prokaryotic chassis for various applications. PMID:27184291

  12. MRE: a web tool to suggest foreign enzymes for the biosynthesis pathway design with competing endogenous reactions in mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Hiroyuki; Alazmi, Meshari; Cui, Xuefeng; Gao, Xin

    2016-07-01

    To rationally design a productive heterologous biosynthesis system, it is essential to consider the suitability of foreign reactions for the specific endogenous metabolic infrastructure of a host. We developed a novel web server, called MRE, which, for a given pair of starting and desired compounds in a given chassis organism, ranks biosynthesis routes from the perspective of the integration of new reactions into the endogenous metabolic system. For each promising heterologous biosynthesis pathway, MRE suggests actual enzymes for foreign metabolic reactions and generates information on competing endogenous reactions for the consumption of metabolites. These unique, chassis-centered features distinguish MRE from existing pathway design tools and allow synthetic biologists to evaluate the design of their biosynthesis systems from a different angle. By using biosynthesis of a range of high-value natural products as a case study, we show that MRE is an effective tool to guide the design and optimization of heterologous biosynthesis pathways. The URL of MRE is http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/mre/. PMID:27131375

  13. Design and analysis of a hemi-anechoic chamber at Michigan Technological University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Jason; Jangale, Ashish; Rao, Mohan D.

    2005-09-01

    A four-wheel chassis roll dynamometer test facility was installed on the campus of Michigan Technological University (MTU). The chassis dynamometer was enclosed in a soundproof hem-anechoic room in order to conduct noise radiation measurements on test vehicles. All surfaces of the room, except the floor and control room window, were acoustically treated with donated tetrahedral acoustic cones and panels. The acoustic absorption properties of these materials were characterized through reverberation chamber and impedance tube testing, and the effects of air gaps, cone orientation, and cone mounting materials were qualitatively evaluated. The design of the wall, ceiling, and door treatments of the chamber was based on the sound absorption properties of these materials, in addition to spatial constraints and cost considerations. The treated chamber acoustics were predicted based on the amount of acoustic material that could be applied to given chamber dimensions and would still preserve the functionality of the room. These predictions were validated through evaluation of the actual room treatment based on average reverberation time at 100-Hz third-octave band, free sound field characteristic 6-dB reduction in sound pressure level (SPL) per doubling in distance from source, noise reduction at the chamber boundaries, and background SPL Noise Criteria (NC) Rating.

  14. Combined control effects of brake and active suspension control on the global safety of a full-car nonlinear model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchamna, Rodrigue; Youn, Edward; Youn, Iljoong

    2014-05-01

    This paper focuses on the active safety of a full-vehicle nonlinear model during cornering. At first, a previously developed electronic stability controller (ESC) based on vehicle simplified model is applied to the full-car nonlinear model in order to control the vehicle yaw rate and side-slip angle. The ESC system was shown beneficial not only in tracking the vehicle path as close as possible, but it also helped in reducing the vehicle roll angle and influences ride comfort and road-holding capability; to tackle that issue and also to have better attitude motion, making use of optimal control theory the active suspension control gain is developed from a vehicle linear model and used to compute the active suspension control force of the vehicle nonlinear model. The active suspension control algorithm used in this paper includes the integral action of the suspension deflection in order to make zero the suspension deflection steady state and keep the vehicle chassis flat. Keeping the chassis flat reduces the vehicle load transfer and that is helpful for road holding and yaw rate tracking. The effects of the two controllers when they work together are analysed using various computer simulations with different steering wheel manoeuvres.

  15. Desempenho de um microtrator utilizando-se motores com diferentes alternativas energéticas = Performance of a microtractor using engines with different energetic alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denílson Eduardo Rodrigues

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho avaliou-se o desempenho de um microtrator equipado com três diferentes tipos de acionamento. Um mesmo chassi de um microtrator foi instalado, alternadamente, com um motor elétrico trifásico (MCA, um motor elétrico de corrente contínua (MCC e com um motor de combustão interna (MCI. Os ensaios do microtrator com cada um dos motores permitiram a determinação da força de tração máxima, da velocidade de deslocamento, do consumo de combustível e a patinagem dos rodados. O MCC desenvolveu maior força de tração, sendo 22% superior aos demais. O consumo específico de energia para os microtratores decresceu com o aumento da patinagem. This study evaluated the performance of a microtractor implemented in three different operational types. A microtractor chassis was alternately operated with a three-phase electric engine (MCA, a direct-current electric engine (MCC and an internal combustion engine (MCI. The rehearsals of the microtractor implemented in each one of the engines allowed determinations of the maximum tractive force, the forward speed and the fuel consumption in wheel skiddings. The MCC developed greater snatch force, being 22% superior to the others. The specific consumption on energy for the microtractors decreased as the skiddings increased.

  16. Power-conditioning system for the Advanced Test Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) is a pulsed, linear induction, electron accelerator currently under construction and nearing completion at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Site 300 near Livermore, California. The ATA is a 50 MeV, 10 kA machine capable of generating electron beam pulses at a 1 kHz rate in a 10 pulse burst, 5 pps average, with a pulse width of 70 ns FWHM. Ten 18 kV power supplies are used to charge 25 capacitor banks with a total energy storage of 8 megajoules. Energy is transferred from the capacitor banks in 500 microsecond pulses through 25 Command Resonant Charge units (CRC) to 233 Thyratron Switch Chassis. Each Thyratron Switch Chassis contains a 2.5 microfarad capacitor and is charged to 25 kV (780 joules) with voltage regulation of +- .05%. These capacitors are switched into 10:1 step-up resonant transformers to charge 233 Blumleins to 250 kV in 20 microseconds. A magnetic modulator is used instead of a Blumlein to drive the grid of the injector

  17. DLQ25A轮胎式起重机底架结构 开裂成因的应力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭建生; 余红飞

    2000-01-01

    For the cracking on the chassis of DLQ25A movable crane, the ANSYS program is used to establish the shell-elements FEA model of main beam with supporting leg. During the establishing model, the technology of the displacement couple simulates successfully the link between the fixed legs of the movable legs. And the method is made for applying the load of non-uniform distribution. The result from the model is identical to the actuality of the chassis. This work provides the consideration bases for improving the design of chasses.%针对DLQ25A轮胎起重机底架结构开裂的情况,采用ANSYS程序建立了主梁与支腿一体的板壳单元有限元分析模型。在建构模型中,作者采用节点位移耦合技术,成功地模拟了轮胎起重机底架结构中的固定支腿与活动支腿的连接,同时提出了处理非均匀分布的圆周载荷的方法。该分析模型与实际情况较为吻合,为改善该机底架结构的设计提供了有力的理论依据。

  18. CONVERSION OF DIESEL ENGINE INTO SPARK IGNITION ENGINE TO WORK WITH CNG AND LPG FUELS FOR MEETING NEW EMISSION NORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Kaleemuddin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating fuel prices and associated pollution problems of largely exploited petroleum liquid fuel has stimulated the research on abundantly available gaseous fuels to keep the mobility industry intact. In the present work an air cooled diesel engine was modified suitably into a spark ignition engine incorporating electronic ignition and variable speed dependant spark timing to accommodate both LPG and CNG as fuels. Engine was optimized for stoichiometric operation on engine dynamometer. Materials of a few intricate engine components were replaced to suit LPG and CNG application. Ignition timing was mapped to work with gaseous fuels for different speeds. Compensation was done for recovering volumetric efficiency when operated with CNG by introducing more volume of air through resonator. Ignition timing was observed to be the pertinent parameter in achieving good performance with gaseous fuels under consideration. Performance and emission tests were carried out on engine dynamometer and chassis dynamometer. Under wide open throttle and at rated speed condition, it was observed that the peak pressure with LPG was lying between diesel fuel and CNG fuel operation due to slow burning nature of gaseous fuels. As compression ratio was maintained same for LPG and CNG fuel operation, low CO emissions were observed with LPG where as HC + NOx emissions were lower with CNG fuel operation. Chassis dynamometer based emission tests yielded lower CO2 levels with CNG operation.

  19. Wire Scanner Beam Profile Measurements for the LANSCE Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilpatrick, John D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gruchalla, Michael E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Derwin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pillai, Chandra [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sedillo, James Daniel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Brian G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-15

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is replacing beam profile measurement systems, commonly known as Wire Scanners (WS). Using the principal of secondary electron emission, the WS measurement system moves a wire or fiber across an impinging particle beam, sampling a projected transverse-beam distribution. Because existing WS actuators and electronic components are either no longer manufactured or home-built with antiquated parts, a new WS beam profile measurement is being designed, fabricated, and tested. The goals for these new WS's include using off-the-shelf components while eliminating antiquated components, providing quick operation while allowing for easy maintainability, and tolerating external radioactivation. The WS measurement system consists of beam line actuators, a cable plant, an electronics processor chassis, and software located both in the electronics chassis (National Instruments LabVIEW) and in the Central Control Room (EPICS-based client software). This WS measurement system will measure Hand H{sup +} LANSCE-facility beams and will also measure less common beams. This paper describes these WS measurement systems.

  20. Impedance measurement set-up based on off-the-shelf PXI modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersen, F. J.; Martinsen, Ø. G.; Grimnes, S.; Høgetveit, J. O.

    2010-04-01

    As bioimpedance measurements are being done in an increasing variety of measurands and environments, measurement equipment must be flexible in use and easy to handle for the researcher. Measurement equipment used today is excellent for a range of uses, but it is often bulky, heavy, and not very flexible. A new compact and flexible measurement set-up based on off-the-shelf modules is described. The system is based on commercially available PXI-modules, one module that may be custom made, and custom software. The basis of the system is a PXI chassis with a power supply unit. The chassis is equipped with a controller module running software controlling the system, a signal generator, and a multichannel digitizer. All of this is commercially available. Both a custom made and a commercially available impedance interfaces were used. A LabVIEW program is controlling the measurement system, and provides a user interface. The LabVIEW program handles necessary signal conditioning and calibration. The measurement system is capable of doing frequency response measurements at frequencies up to 15 MHz. In addition to the two normal voltage pick-up electrodes used in four-electrode measurements, this system has the possibility to use 5 extra voltage pick-up electrodes. This simplifies exploration of segmental impedance, anisotropy, reciprocity, etc.

  1. TEM Cell Testing of Cable Noise Reduction Techniques from 2 MHz to 200 MHz -- Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Arthur T.; Evans, William C.; Reed, Joshua L.; Shimp, Samuel K., III; Fitzpatrick, Fred D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents empirical results of cable noise reduction techniques as demonstrated in a TEM cell operating with radiated fields from 2 - 200 MHz. It is the second part of a two-paper series. The first paper discussed cable types and shield connections. In this second paper, the effects of load and source resistances and chassis connections are examined. For each topic, well established theories are compared to data from a real-world physical system. Finally, recommendations for minimizing cable susceptibility (and thus cable emissions) are presented. There are numerous papers and textbooks that present theoretical analyses of cable noise reduction techniques. However, empirical data is often targeted to low frequencies (e.g. 100 MHz). Additionally, a comprehensive study showing the relative effects of various noise reduction techniques is needed. These include the use of dedicated return wires, twisted wiring, cable shielding, shield connections, changing load or source impedances, and implementing load- or source-to-chassis isolation. We have created an experimental setup that emulates a real-world electrical system, while still allowing us to independently vary a host of parameters. The goal of the experiment was to determine the relative effectiveness of various noise reduction techniques when the cable is in the presence of radiated emissions from 2 MHz to 200 MHz.

  2. Front and Back Movement Analysis of a Triangle-Structured Three-Wheeled Omnidirectional Mobile Robot by Varying the Angles between Two Selected Wheels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Mohanraj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Omnidirectional robots can move in all directions without steering their wheels and it can rotate clockwise and counterclockwise with reference to their axis. In this paper, we focused only on front and back movement, to analyse the square- and triangle-structured omnidirectional robot movements. An omnidirectional mobile robot shows different performances with the different number of wheels and the omnidirectional mobile robot’s chassis design. Research is going on in this field to improve the accurate movement capability of omnidirectional mobile robots. This paper presents a design of a unique device of Angle Variable Chassis (AVC for linear movement analysis of a three-wheeled omnidirectional mobile robot (TWOMR, at various angles (θ between the wheels. Basic mobility algorithm is developed by varying the angles between the two selected omnidirectional wheels in TWOMR. The experiment is carried out by varying the angles (θ = 30°, 45°, 60°, 90°, and 120° between the two selected omniwheels and analysing the movement of TWOMR in forward direction and reverse direction on a smooth cement surface. Respectively, it is compared to itself for various angles (θ, to get its advantages and weaknesses. The conclusion of the paper provides effective movement of TWOMR at a particular angle (θ and also the application of TWOMR in different situations.

  3. Synthesis and single-molecule imaging of highly mobile adamantane-wheeled nanocars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Pin-Lei E; Wang, Lin-Yung; Khatua, Saumyakanti; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B; Link, Stephan; Tour, James M

    2013-01-22

    The synthesis and single-molecule imaging of two inherently fluorescent nanocars equipped with adamantane wheels is reported. The nanocars were imaged using 4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene (BODIPY) as the chromophore, which was rigidly incorporated into the nanocar chassis via Sonogashira cross-coupling chemistry that permitted the synthesis of nanocars having different geometries. In particular, studied here were four- and three-wheeled nanocars with adamantane wheels. It was found that, for the four-wheeled nanocar, the percentage of moving nanocars and the diffusion constant show a significant improvement over p-carborane-wheeled nanocars with the same chassis. The three-wheeled nanocar showed only limited mobility due to its geometry. These results are consistent with a requisite wheel-like rolling motion. We furthermore developed a model that relates the percentage of moving nanocars in single-molecule experiments with the diffusion constant. The excellent agreement between the model and the new results presented here as well as previous single-molecule studies of fluorescent nanocars yields an improved understanding of motion in these molecular machines.

  4. 新型智能数字化高效节能羽绒洗脱机设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏春; 韩翔; 刘静

    2015-01-01

    本设计的新型智能数字化高效节能羽绒洗脱机采用底盘弹性安装方式,在底盘上的水平外滚筒,安装于外滚筒顶部的多个脉冲松毛器,旋转连接于外滚筒内部的滚筒、驱动滚筒转动的驱动装置;利用PLC电控箱以及与PLC电控箱连接的浊度仪,其传感器安装于外滚筒内,实现对羽毛洗、脱一体并精确化控制,自动化程度高。%the design of the new intel igent digital high efficiency and energy saving of feather washing the chassis elastic instal ation, outside chassis level rol er, instal ed on the outside at the top of the drum multiple pulse loose wool implement, rotating connection within the outer cylinder rol er, drive rol er rotation drive;Using PLC and electric control with PLC electric control connection turbidity meter, the sensor instal ed on the outer cylinder, to achieve the feather wash, integrated and accurate control, high degree of automation.

  5. 清障拖车总体设计%Complete Design of Towing Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡瑞; 耿海建; 陈松林

    2012-01-01

    The heavy duly truck 4 × 2 chassis was integrated for being reformed to be towing vehicle which met the rated lifting quality of 7T and should guarantee the distribution of front and rear axle loading to be reasonable for meeting the requirement of vehicle performance. The mode designing was done based on showing the lifting requirement, introducing the method of reforming chassis, general arrangement and calculating the working structure, assembly reasonable. The CAE strength analysis was done and then the wrecker was successful of trail.%将4×2重卡底盘改制成额定托举质量为7t的清障拖车,介绍了底盘的改制方法、总布置和工作结构计算,并在配重合理布置的基础上完成了建模设计,通过CAE强度分析,校核了前后桥的轴荷分配,证明了改制方案能够满足整车性能要求。

  6. On-road particle number measurements using a portable emission measurement system (PEMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallus, Jens; Kirchner, Ulf; Vogt, Rainer; Börensen, Christoph; Benter, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    In this study the on-road particle number (PN) performance of a Euro-5 direct-injection (DI) gasoline passenger car was investigated. PN emissions were measured using the prototype of a portable emission measurement system (PEMS). PN PEMS correlations with chassis dynamometer tests show a good agreement with a chassis dynamometer set-up down to emissions in the range of 1·1010 #/km. Parallel on-line soot measurements by a photo acoustic soot sensor (PASS) were applied as independent measurement technique and indicate a good on-road performance for the PN-PEMS. PN-to-soot ratios were 1.3·1012 #/mg, which was comparable for both test cell and on-road measurements. During on-road trips different driving styles as well as different road types were investigated. Comparisons to the world harmonized light-duty test cycle (WLTC) 5.3 and to European field operational test (euroFOT) data indicate the PEMS trips to be representative for normal driving. Driving situations in varying traffic seem to be a major contributor to a high test-to-test variability of PN emissions. However, there is a trend to increasing PN emissions with more severe driving styles. A cold start effect is clearly visible for PN, especially at low ambient temperatures down to 8 °C.

  7. Influence of forest machine function on operator exposure to whole-body vibration in a cut-to-length timber harvester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwin, L M; Owende, P M O; Kanali, C L; Lyons, J; Ward, S M

    2004-09-15

    The influence of machine function (tree felling and processing, and machine movement over the terrain) on operator exposure to whole-body vibration in a cut-to-length (CTL) timber harvester was evaluated. Vibrations were measured on the seat and the cabin chassis in three orthogonal (x, y, z) axes for the tree felling and processing, and during motion on a test track. It was found that the level of vibration transmitted to the operator during felling and processing was mainly affected by the tree size (diameter). For tree diameter at breast height (dbh) range of 0.25-0.35 m that was investigated, the vertical (z-axis) vibration component during processing increased by up to 300%, and increased by 50% during felling. However, the associated vibration levels were not sufficient to pose any serious health risks to the operator for an exposure limit of 8 h. Vibration at the operator seat and cabin chassis was predominant in the lateral (y-axis) and vertical (z-axis) respectively, during vehicle motion over the standard test track. Vibration peaks of approximately 0.20 and 0.17 ms(-2) occurred at 5 and 3.2 Hz respectively.

  8. Evolutionary algorithm for vehicle driving cycle generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perhinschi, Mario G; Marlowe, Christopher; Tamayo, Sergio; Tu, Jun; Wayne, W Scott

    2011-09-01

    Modeling transit bus emissions and fuel economy requires a large amount of experimental data over wide ranges of operational conditions. Chassis dynamometer tests are typically performed using representative driving cycles defined based on vehicle instantaneous speed as sequences of "microtrips", which are intervals between consecutive vehicle stops. Overall significant parameters of the driving cycle, such as average speed, stops per mile, kinetic intensity, and others, are used as independent variables in the modeling process. Performing tests at all the necessary combinations of parameters is expensive and time consuming. In this paper, a methodology is proposed for building driving cycles at prescribed independent variable values using experimental data through the concatenation of "microtrips" isolated from a limited number of standard chassis dynamometer test cycles. The selection of the adequate "microtrips" is achieved through a customized evolutionary algorithm. The genetic representation uses microtrip definitions as genes. Specific mutation, crossover, and karyotype alteration operators have been defined. The Roulette-Wheel selection technique with elitist strategy drives the optimization process, which consists of minimizing the errors to desired overall cycle parameters. This utility is part of the Integrated Bus Information System developed at West Virginia University. PMID:22010377

  9. Doppler lidar system design via interdisciplinary design concept at NASA Langley Research Center: Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Charles M.; Jackson, Trevor P.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Petway, Larry B.

    2014-06-01

    Optimized designs of the Navigation Doppler Lidar (NDL) instrument for Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) were accomplished via Interdisciplinary Design Concept (IDEC) at NASA Langley Research Center during the summer of 2013. Three branches in the Engineering Directorate and three students were involved in this joint task through the NASA Langley Aerospace Research Summer Scholars (LARSS) Program. The Laser Remote Sensing Branch (LRSB), Mechanical Systems Branch (MSB), and Structural and Thermal Systems Branch (STSB) were engaged to achieve optimal designs through iterative and interactive collaborative design processes. A preliminary design iteration was able to reduce the power consumption, mass, and footprint by removing redundant components and replacing inefficient components with more efficient ones. A second design iteration reduced volume and mass by replacing bulky components with excessive performance with smaller components custom-designed for the power system. Mechanical placement collaboration reduced potential electromagnetic interference (EMI). Through application of newly selected electrical components and thermal analysis data, a total electronic chassis redesign was accomplished. Use of an innovative forced convection tunnel heat sink was employed to meet and exceed project requirements for cooling, mass reduction, and volume reduction. Functionality was a key concern to make efficient use of airflow, and accessibility was also imperative to allow for servicing of chassis internals. The collaborative process provided for accelerated design maturation with substantiated function.

  10. Spatial organization of heterologous metabolic system in vivo based on TALE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ling-Yun; Qiu, Xin-Yuan; Zhu, Ling-Yun; Wu, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Yuan; Zhu, Qian-Hui; Fan, Dong-Yu; Zhu, Chu-Shu; Zhang, Dong-Yi

    2016-05-17

    For years, prokaryotic hosts have been widely applied in bio-engineering. However, the confined in vivo enzyme clustering of heterologous metabolic pathways in these organisms often results in low local concentrations of enzymes and substrates, leading to a low productive efficacy. We developed a new method to accelerate a heterologous metabolic system by integrating a transcription activator-like effector (TALE)-based scaffold system into an Escherichia coli chassis. The binding abilities of the TALEs to the artificial DNA scaffold were measured through ChIP-PCR. The effect of the system was determined through a split GFP study and validated through the heterologous production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) by incorporating TALE-fused IAA biosynthetic enzymes in E. coli. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to use the TALE system as a scaffold for the spatial organization of bacterial metabolism. This technique might be used to establish multi-enzymatic reaction programs in a prokaryotic chassis for various applications.

  11. Crash protection of stock car racing drivers--application of biomechanical analysis of Indy car crash research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, John W; Begeman, Paul C; Faller, Ronald K; Sicking, Dean L; McClellan, Scott B; Maynard, Edwin; Donegan, Michael W; Mallott, Annette M; Gideon, Thomas W

    2006-11-01

    Biomechanical analysis of Indy car crashes using on-board impact recorders (Melvin et al. 1998, Melvin et al. 2001) indicates that Indy car driver protection in high-energy crashes can be achieved in frontal, side, and rear crashes with severities in the range of 100 to 135 G peak deceleration and velocity changes in the range of 50 to 70 mph. These crashes were predominantly single-car impacts with the rigid concrete walls of oval tracks. This impressive level of protection was found to be due to the unique combination of a very supportive and tight-fitting cockpit-seating package, a six-point belt restraint system, and effective head padding with an extremely strong chassis that defines the seat and cockpit of a modern Indy car. In 2000 and 2001, a series of fatal crashes in stock car racing created great concern for improving the crash protection for drivers in those racecars. Unlike the Indy car, the typical racing stock car features a more spacious driver cockpit due to its resemblance to the shape of a passenger car. The typical racing seat used in stock cars did not have the same configuration or support characteristics of the Indy car seat, and five-point belt restraints were used. The tubular steel space frame chassis of a stock car also differs from an Indy car's composite chassis structure in both form and mechanical behavior. This paper describes the application of results of the biomechanical analysis of the Indy car crash studies to the unique requirements of stock car racing driver crash protection. Sled test and full-scale crash test data using both Hybrid III frontal crash anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) and BioSID side crash ATDs for the purpose of evaluating countermeasures involving restraint systems, seats and head/neck restraints has been instrumental in guiding these developments. In addition, the development of deformable walls for oval tracks (the SAFER Barrier) is described as an adjunct to improved occupant restraint through control

  12. Desenvolvimento e avaliação de um descaroçador e prensa enfardadeira itinerantes para o beneficiamento do algodão Development of a mobile gin and baler press for cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeane F. Jerônimo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Novas tecnologias vêm sendo incorporadas ao sistema produtivo da cotonicultura brasileira, visando verticalizar a produção por meio do beneficiamento do algodão em caroço possibilitando, aos produtores ou associações, a agregação de valor à sua produção. Objetivou-se então, com o presente trabalho, desenvolver e avaliar um equipamento de beneficiamento composto de descaroçador e prensa enfardadeira itinerantes. O descaroçador se compõe de: limpador, cilindro de serras, cilindro de escovas, condensador e rolo. A prensa enfardadeira é constituída de chapas de prensagem, cilindros hidráulicos, bomba hidráulica, válvula de controle de acionamento, dispositivos de filtragem do óleo hidráulico e manômetro. Esses equipamentos são montados sobre um reboque composto por chassi de cantoneiras em U, quatro rodas de aro 13, pontas de eixo, dois feixes de cinco molas, lastro em chapa de ferro e sistema de frenagem. Na avaliação e validação do conjunto pelos cotonicultores, este conjunto recebeu o conceito "muito bom" quanto ao rendimento do descaroçador, o peso do fardo e em relação à qualidade da fibra obtida. A qualidade da fibra obtida com o conjunto descaroçador e prensa enfardadeira atendeu aos padrões da indústria têxtil.New technologies have been incorporated into the Brazilian cotton production system, in order to verticalize the production through processing, allowing the producers or associations to add value to their production. Thus, the present study aimed to develop and evaluate processing equipment composed of mobile gin and baler press. The ginner consists of cleaner, saw cylinder, cylinder brushes, condenser and coil. The baler press is constituted of pressing sheets, hydraulic cylinders, hydraulic pump, control valve actuation, devices for filtering hydraulic oil and manometer. These devices are mounted on a trailer chassis composed of U-shaped angle iron chassis, four wheels (rim 13, shaft ends, two

  13. Crash protection of stock car racing drivers--application of biomechanical analysis of Indy car crash research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, John W; Begeman, Paul C; Faller, Ronald K; Sicking, Dean L; McClellan, Scott B; Maynard, Edwin; Donegan, Michael W; Mallott, Annette M; Gideon, Thomas W

    2006-11-01

    Biomechanical analysis of Indy car crashes using on-board impact recorders (Melvin et al. 1998, Melvin et al. 2001) indicates that Indy car driver protection in high-energy crashes can be achieved in frontal, side, and rear crashes with severities in the range of 100 to 135 G peak deceleration and velocity changes in the range of 50 to 70 mph. These crashes were predominantly single-car impacts with the rigid concrete walls of oval tracks. This impressive level of protection was found to be due to the unique combination of a very supportive and tight-fitting cockpit-seating package, a six-point belt restraint system, and effective head padding with an extremely strong chassis that defines the seat and cockpit of a modern Indy car. In 2000 and 2001, a series of fatal crashes in stock car racing created great concern for improving the crash protection for drivers in those racecars. Unlike the Indy car, the typical racing stock car features a more spacious driver cockpit due to its resemblance to the shape of a passenger car. The typical racing seat used in stock cars did not have the same configuration or support characteristics of the Indy car seat, and five-point belt restraints were used. The tubular steel space frame chassis of a stock car also differs from an Indy car's composite chassis structure in both form and mechanical behavior. This paper describes the application of results of the biomechanical analysis of the Indy car crash studies to the unique requirements of stock car racing driver crash protection. Sled test and full-scale crash test data using both Hybrid III frontal crash anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) and BioSID side crash ATDs for the purpose of evaluating countermeasures involving restraint systems, seats and head/neck restraints has been instrumental in guiding these developments. In addition, the development of deformable walls for oval tracks (the SAFER Barrier) is described as an adjunct to improved occupant restraint through control

  14. The Actinobacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum, an Industrial Workhorse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo-Young; Na, Yoon-Ah; Kim, Eungsoo; Lee, Heung-Shick; Kim, Pil

    2016-05-28

    Starting as a glutamate producer, Corynebacterium glutamicum has played a variety of roles in the industrial production of amino acids, one of the most important areas of white biotechnology. From shortly after its genome information became available, C. glutamicum has been applied in various production processes for value-added chemicals, fuels, and polymers, as a key organism in industrial biotechnology alongside the surprising progress in systems biology and metabolic engineering. In addition, recent studies have suggested another potential for C. glutamicum as a synthetic biology platform chassis that could move the new era of industrial microbial biotechnology beyond the classical field. Here, we review the recent progress and perspectives in relation to C. glutamicum, which demonstrate it as one of the most promising and valuable workhorses in the field of industrial biotechnology.

  15. The Influence of Semi-active Dampers on the Vibration Behaviour of Passenger Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Sebastian; Brechter, Daniel; Janßen, Andreas; Mauch, Heiko

    The number of mechatronic components in modern car suspensions is increasing continuously to solve conflicts concerning design goals. Thus, changes in the vibration behaviour of the vehicle are caused. It needs to be ascertained whether this influence has to be taken into account when determining the fatigue life of a car and its components. Therefore, changes of the loads are studied in measurements and multi-body simulations of a passenger car with semi-active dampers. The evaluation of the forces at the wheel centre and at the shock absorber tower shows that different settings of semi-active dampers have an influence on fatigue life of the chassis and the car body. It is concluded that these effects need to be taken into account when determining fatigue life. Furthermore, multi-body simulations have been successfully applied to study the influence of semi-active dampers on the loads.

  16. Electric vehicle test report Cutler-Hammer Corvette

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Vehicles were characterized for the state of the art assessment of electric vehicles. The vehicle evaluated was a Chevrolet Corvette converted to electric operation. The original internal combustion engine was replaced by an electric traction motor. Eighteen batteries supplied the electrical energy. A controller, an onboard battery charger, and several dashboard instruments completed the conversion. The emphasis was on the electrical portion of the drive train, although some analysis and discussion of the mechanical elements are included. Tests were conducted both on the road (actually a mile long runway) and in a chassis dynamometer equipped laboratory. The majority of the tests performed were according to SAE Procedure J227a and included maximum effort accelerations, constant speed range, and cyclic range. Some tests that are not a part of the SAE Procedure J227a are described and the analysis of the data from all tests is discussed.

  17. A wall-crawling robot for reactor vessel inspection in advanced reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A consortium of four universities and the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has designed a prototype wall-crawling robot to perform weld inspection in advanced nuclear reactors. Design efforts for the reactor vessel inspection robot (RVIR) concentrated on the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor because it presents the most demanding environment in which such a robot must operate. The RVIR consists of a chassis containing two sets of suction cups that can alternately grasp the side of the vessel being inspected, providing both locomotion and steering functions. Sensors include three CCD cameras and a weld inspection device based on new shear-wave technology. The restrictions of the inspection environment presented major challenges to the team. These challenges were met in the prototype, which has been tested in a non-radiation, room-temperature mockup of the robot work environment and shown to perform as expected. (author)

  18. A wall-crawling robot for reactor vessel inspection in advanced reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A consortium of four universities and the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has designed a prototype wall-crawling robot to perform weld inspection in advanced nuclear reactors. Design efforts for the reactor vessel inspection robot (RVIR) concentrated on the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor because it presents the most demanding environment in which such a robot must operate. The RVIR consists of a chassis containing two sets of suction cups that can alternately grasp the side of the vessel being inspected, providing both locomotion and steering functions. Sensors include three CCD cameras and a weld inspection device based on new shear-wave technology. The restrictions of the inspection environment presented major challenges to the team. These challenges were met in the prototype, which has been tested in a non-radiation, room-temperature mockup of the robot work environment and shown to perform as expected

  19. Lunokhod 2 - A retrospective Glance after 30 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromov, V.; Kemurdjian, A.; Bogatchev, A.; Koutcherenko, V.; Malenkov, M.; Matrossov, S.; Vladykin, S.; Petriga, V.; Khakhanov, Y.

    2003-04-01

    30 years have passed since the second Soviet research Lunokhod-2 rover landed on the Moon on January 16, 1973 within the framework of the Luna-21 mission. Scientific explorations of the lunar surface and space, begun with the Lunokhod-1 rover (1970-1971), were continued with Lunokhod-2. Creation of Lunokhod-1 and Lunokhod-2 marked realization of direction on study of planets using mobile self-propelled robots. Other direction connected with using planetary rovers to transport astronauts, scientific equipment and weights was realized as a result of creation of the American LRV lunar rover. Astronauts during Apollo-15 (1971), Apollo-15 (1972) and Apollo-15 (1972) missions used it. Programs of operation for Lunokhod-1,-2 on the Moon envisaged investigations of topographic and morphological peculiarities of the terrain, determination of the chemical composition and physical and mechanical properties of soil, experiments on the laser detection and ranging of the Moon and, etc. Successful fulfilment of programs was ensured, to a considerable extent, with the self-propelled chassis developed at VNIITRANSMASH to order of the Lavochkin Scientific and Production Association (NPOL). The chassis, on the one hand, ensured necessary cross-country ability for Lunokhod-1,-2, on the other hand, it was as the independent scientific instrument, which provided investigation as temperature measurement of the lunar surface, surface topography and craters distribution, physical and mechanical properties of soil with the special PROP instrument equipped with the penetrometer, chassis traction-cohesive characteristics, upper surface layer by a character its deformation by the mover, etc. A number of improvements of Lunokhod-2 improving its operating characteristics were performed on the basis of results of Lunokhod-1 operation. Lunokhod-1,-2 operation confirmed that automatic mobile robots can be used as effective means for studying planets and their satellites. At the same time, an

  20. 17. Aachen colloquium automobile and engine technology. Proceedings; 17. Aachener Kolloquium Fahrzeug- und Motorentechnik. Kolloquiumsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The Proceedings of the '17th Aachener Colloquium - Automobile and Engine Tecnology', held 6. - 8.October 2008 in Aachen/Germany, contains effectively 104 papers. These contributions deal with the following main subjects:new diesel engines I and II; hybrids I and II; CAE-methods; friction estimation by sensor fusion; ADAS for increased traffic safety I and II; new spark ignition engines I-III; exhausat aftertreatment diesel engines; FVV-project reports; integrated chassis control systems; driver assistance in commercial vehicles; si engines with alternative fuels; engine acoustics; steering systems I and II; detection traffic environment for ADAS; combustion concepts EGR and VVT; engine mechanics; development of safe vehicle systems; supercharging - downsizing; emission concepts diesel engines I and II; automotive strategy concepts; suspension systems; vehicle development; integrated safety;chasis systems. (org.)

  1. Reduction of Temperature in Concentrator Photovoltaic Module Using Coating with High Thermal Emissivity and Conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperature of solar cells considerably increases under light-concentrating operations, and the conversion efficiency of solar cells decreases with increasing temperature. It is very important to reduce the cell temperature in concentrator photovoltaic modules. The thermal radiation layers with high thermal emissivity and thermal conductivity was coated on the aluminum samples which is used for the chassis of concentrator photovoltaic and the effect was evaluated under the conditions with wind. The temperature of sample with coating showed lower temperature than that without coating. In the condition with wind, the coated sample with high thermal emissivity and high thermal conductivity showed the lowest temperature due to the effect of thermal radiation and thermal conduction.

  2. Advanced casting technologies for lightweight automotive applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan A. Luo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of alloy and process developments in aluminum and magnesium castings for lightweight automotive applications. Wear-resistant aluminum alloys, creep-resistant and high strength/ductility magnesium alloys have been developed for automotive applications. On the process front, vacuum-assisted die casting and high vacuum die casting technologies have been developed for high-integrity body and chassis applications. Thin-wall and hollow casting components are being produced by low-pressure die casting processes for structural applications. Overcasting technology is gaining traction and has enabled mixed material designs for automotive sub-systems such as engine cradles and instrument panel beams. Simulation tools developed to predict the interfacial interactions of the dissimilar components and the structural integrity of the overcast systems are being validated in the casting trials.

  3. Preprint of the Fall 1997 JSAE (Japan Society of Automotive Engineers) Meeting Science Lecture. No. 974; Jidosha gijutsukai 1997 nen shuki taikai gakujutsu koenkai maezurishu. 974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    This is a comprehensive compilation of 66 papers made public in the Fall 1997 JSAE Meeting, including the following by field: 13 papers on engine combustion; 4 on analysis of chassis structure; 12 on travel of vehicles; 6 on improvement of exhaust gas from diesel engines; 9 on basic study of combustion characteristics using fuels such as methanol, natural gas and hydrogen; 3 on study of heat flux on the piston face of internal engines; others on processing technology, noise, etc. Among these, the following were paid attention to as studies aiming at reducing NOx and smoke of diesel engines for pollution prevention: Emission and combustion characteristics of multiple stage diesel combustion, and Study on homogeneous charge diesel combustion engine. As studies on the use of petroleum substituting fuels, Visualizing ignition and combustion of methanol mixtures in a diesel engine, Improving performance and emissions in a diesel engine dual-fueled with natural gas, and Fundamental combustion characteristics of lean hydrogen mixtures

  4. A Design of Product Collaborative Online Configuration Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoguo; Zheng, Jin; Zeng, Qian

    According to the actual needs of mass customization, the personalization of product and its collaborative design, the paper analyzes and studies the working mechanism of modular-based product configuration technology and puts forward an information model of modular product family. Combined with case-based reasoning techniques (CBR) and the constraint satisfaction problem solving techniques (CSP), we design and study the algorithm for product configuration, and analyze its time complexity. A car chassis is made as the application object, we provide a prototype system of online configuration. Taking advantage of this system, designers can make appropriate changes on the existing programs in accordance with the demand. This will accelerate all aspects of product development and shorten the product cycle. Also the system will provide a strong technical support for enterprises to improve their market competitiveness.

  5. Carnosic acid biosynthesis elucidated by a synthetic biology platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignea, Codruta; Athanasakoglou, Anastasia; Ioannou, Efstathia; Georgantea, Panagiota; Trikka, Fotini A; Loupassaki, Sofia; Roussis, Vassilios; Makris, Antonios M; Kampranis, Sotirios C

    2016-03-29

    Synthetic biology approaches achieving the reconstruction of specific plant natural product biosynthetic pathways in dedicated microbial "chassis" have provided access to important industrial compounds (e.g., artemisinin, resveratrol, vanillin). However, the potential of such production systems to facilitate elucidation of plant biosynthetic pathways has been underexplored. Here we report on the application of a modular terpene production platform in the characterization of the biosynthetic pathway leading to the potent antioxidant carnosic acid and related diterpenes in Salvia pomifera and Rosmarinus officinalis.Four cytochrome P450 enzymes are identified (CYP76AH24, CYP71BE52, CYP76AK6, and CYP76AK8), the combined activities of which account for all of the oxidation events leading to the biosynthesis of the major diterpenes produced in these plants. This approach develops yeast as an efficient tool to harness the biotechnological potential of the numerous sequencing datasets that are increasingly becoming available through transcriptomic or genomic studies. PMID:26976595

  6. The Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels Program Evaluation of EC-Diesel and Diesel Particulate Filters in Southern California Vehicle Fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EC-Diesel and particulate filter combination greatly reduced the particulate matter, hydrocarbon, and carbon monoxide emissions of all vehicles tested in the program to date. Particulate matter reductions greater than 98% were achieved. For several vehicles tested, the PM and HC emissions were less than background levels. Based on preliminary statistical analysis, there is 95%+ confidence that EC-D and particulate filters reduced emissions from three different types of vehicles. A fuel consumption penalty was not detectable using the current test procedures and chassis dynamometer laboratory. Test vehicles equipped with the CRT and DPX particulate filters and fueled with EC-Diesel fuel have operated reliably during the program start-up period

  7. 车身

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    [ 篇名 ] A hybrid method for vehicle axle noise simulation with experimental validation,[ 篇名 ] A linearized turbulent production in the k- ε model for engineering applications,[ 篇名 ] A Method for Estimating Axle Weights of In-motion Vehicles and Its Evaluation,[ 篇名 ] A new concept for occupant deceleration control in a crash - part 2,[ 篇名 ] A new experimental methodology to estimate chassis force transmissibility and applications to road NVH improvement,[ 篇名 ] A SMART ECOBIKE WITH RIM-MOTOR,[ 篇名 ] A study on optimum design for thin-walled beam structures of vehicles,[ 篇名 ] A study on the distortion characteristic due to spot welding of body structure assembly for passenger car,[ 篇名 ] A VIBRO-ACOUSTICAL INVESTIGATION FOR CAR ROLLING NOISE CHARACTERIZATION AND OPTIMIZATION,[ 篇名 ] 780 N/mm{sup }2 grade hot-rolled high-strength steel sheet for automotive suspension system。

  8. Plastic cars for developing nations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, S.

    1997-11-01

    Plastic automobiles may have passed a milestone on the long road to commercial reality with the development of Composite Concept Vehicle (CCV) from Chrysler Corp. in Auburn Hills, Mich. This basic compact car--so basic it could be called bare bones--is built by attaching an injection-molded thermoplastic polyester body onto a tubular steel chassis. The 1,200-pound CCV, which is expected to require one-third the labor and investment needed to build a conventional small car, was designed for new buyers in the emerging economies of China, India, and Southeast Asia. If commercialized, the car would likely cost about $6,000--halfway between a motorcycle and an entry-level auto. The small car was unveiled in September 1996 at the Frankfurt Auto Show in Germany.

  9. Analytics for Metabolic Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Christopher J; Chan, Leanne Jade G; Nhan, Melissa; Adams, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    Realizing the promise of metabolic engineering has been slowed by challenges related to moving beyond proof-of-concept examples to robust and economically viable systems. Key to advancing metabolic engineering beyond trial-and-error research is access to parts with well-defined performance metrics that can be readily applied in vastly different contexts with predictable effects. As the field now stands, research depends greatly on analytical tools that assay target molecules, transcripts, proteins, and metabolites across different hosts and pathways. Screening technologies yield specific information for many thousands of strain variants, while deep omics analysis provides a systems-level view of the cell factory. Efforts focused on a combination of these analyses yield quantitative information of dynamic processes between parts and the host chassis that drive the next engineering steps. Overall, the data generated from these types of assays aid better decision-making at the design and strain construction stages to speed progress in metabolic engineering research.

  10. Electric car design. Interim summary report, Phase I: deliverable item 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-05-09

    The work included in this Interim Summary Report is part of the Electric Car Program, the goal of which is to develop by 1979 a totally new electric car with substantially improved performance over those electric cars available in 1976. The rationale used in designing a four-passenger electric car for use in an urban environment is presented. The approach taken was to design an electric car utilizing current technology. On the basis of tradeoff analyses, upgrading improvements were identified which would permit the electric car to more nearly meet all of the ERDA near-term goals. The electric car design, including the chassis, drive train, major components, and the control are summarized. The Phase I electric car design will meet many of the ERDA near-term goals. Upgrading development programs are identified which, when incorporated in Phase II vehicle development, will result in upgraded performance, which essentially meets ERDA's near-term goals.

  11. EPICS Input/Output Controller (IOC) application developer`s guide. APS Release 3.12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraimer, M.R.

    1994-11-01

    This document describes the core software that resides in an Input/Output Controller (IOC), one of the major components of EPICS. The basic components are: (OPI) Operator Interface; this is a UNIX based workstation which can run various EPICS tools; (IOC) Input/Output Controller; this is a VME/VXI based chassis containing a Motorola 68xxx processor, various I/O modules, and VME modules that provide access to other I/O buses such as GPIB, (LAN), Local Area Network; and this is the communication network which allows the IOCs and OPIs to communicate. Epics provides a software component, Channel Access, which provides network transparent communication between a Channel Access client and an arbitrary number of Channel Access servers.

  12. First demonstration of a vehicle mounted 250GHz real time passive imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Chris

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes the design and performance of a ruggedized passive Terahertz imager, the frequency of operation is a 40GHz band centred around 250GHz. This system has been specifically targeted at vehicle mounted operation, outdoors in extreme environments. The unit incorporates temperature stabilization along with an anti-vibration chassis and is sealed to allow it to be used in a dusty environment. Within the system, a 250GHz heterodyne detector array is mated with optics and scanner to allow real time imaging out to 100 meters. First applications are envisaged to be stand-off, person borne IED detection to 30 meters but the unique properties in this frequency band present other potential uses such as seeing through smoke and fog. The possibility for use as a landing aid is discussed. A detailed description of the system design and video examples of typical imaging output will be presented.

  13. Antifragility and Tinkering in Biology (and in Business Flexibility Provides an Efficient Epigenetic Way to Manage Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe M. Binder

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The notion of antifragility, an attribute of systems that makes them thrive under variable conditions, has recently been proposed by Nassim Taleb in a business context. This idea requires the ability of such systems to ‘tinker’, i.e., to creatively respond to changes in their environment. A fairly obvious example of this is natural selection-driven evolution. In this ubiquitous process, an original entity, challenged by an ever-changing environment, creates variants that evolve into novel entities. Analyzing functions that are essential during stationary-state life yield examples of entities that may be antifragile. One such example is proteins with flexible regions that can undergo functional alteration of their side residues or backbone and thus implement the tinkering that leads to antifragility. This in-built property of the cell chassis must be taken into account when considering construction of cell factories driven by engineering principles.

  14. A new active variable stiffness suspension system using a nonlinear energy sink-based controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anubi, Olugbenga Moses; Crane, Carl D.

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents the active case of a variable stiffness suspension system. The central concept is based on a recently designed variable stiffness mechanism which consists of a horizontal control strut and a vertical strut. The horizontal strut is used to vary the load transfer ratio by actively controlling the location of the point of attachment of the vertical strut to the car body. The control algorithm, effected by a hydraulic actuator, uses the concept of nonlinear energy sink (NES) to effectively transfer the vibrational energy in the sprung mass to a control mass, thereby reducing the transfer of energy from road disturbance to the car body at a relatively lower cost compared to the traditional active suspension using the skyhook concept. The analyses and simulation results show that a better performance can be achieved by subjecting the point of attachment of a suspension system, to the chassis, to the influence of a horizontal NES system.

  15. Method for the multi-criteria optimization of car wheel suspension mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Alexandru

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a general method for the multi-criteria optimization of the rear wheels suspension mechanisms in terms of kinematic behavior. The suspension mechanism is decomposed in basic binary links, and the kinematic synthesis is separately performed for each of them. The design variables are the global coordinates of the joint locations on the car body (chassis. The disposing of the joints on the wheel carrier were exclusively established by constructive criteria. The design objectives relate to kinematic position parameters of the wheel (displacements of the wheel centre along longitudinal and transversal directions, and modifications of the wheel axis direction, the optimization goal being to minimize these variations during the wheel travel. A computer program for the kinematic study was developed in C++. The application was performed for the wheel suspension mechanism of a race car.

  16. Advancement of Multifunctional support structure technologies (AMFSST)

    CERN Document Server

    John, R; Frerker, H J; Newerla, A

    2008-01-01

    The multifunctional support structure (MFSS) technology is promising a reduction of overall mass and packing volume for spacecraft (S/C) electronic components. This technology eliminates the electronic box chassis and the cabling between the boxes by integrating the electronics, thermal control and the structural support into one single element. The ultimate goal of the MFSS technology is to reduce size, weight, power consumption, cost and production time for future spacecraft components. The paper focus on the main challenges and solutions related to the thermal management within the MFSS technology based on the selected charge regulator (CR) application. Starting with the main set of thermal requirements for the CR the paper will include, conceptual and detailed design based on highconductivity carbon fibre CFRP, description and results of the thermal material sample test program ; parameter and results for the performed first thermal simulation

  17. Sliding Mode Variable Structure Control and Real-Time Optimization of Dry Dual Clutch Transmission during the Vehicle’s Launch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiguo Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reflect driving intention adequately and improve the launch performance of vehicle equipped with five-speed dry dual clutch transmission (DCT, the issue of coordinating control between engine and clutch is researched, which is based on the DCT and prototype car developed independently. Four-degree-of-freedom (DOF launch dynamics equations are established. Taking advantage of predictive control and genetic algorithm, target tracing curves of engine speed and vehicle velocity are optimally specified. Sliding mode variable structure (SMVS control strategy is designed to track these curves. The rapid prototyping experiment and test are, respectively, conducted on the DCT test bench and in the chassis dynamometer. Results show that the designed SMVS control strategy not only effectively embodies the driver’s intention but also has strong robustness to the vehicle parameter’s variations.

  18. A model for developing job rotation schedules that eliminate sequential high workloads and minimize between-worker variability in cumulative daily workloads: Application to automotive assembly lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sang-Young; Ko, Jeonghan; Jung, Myung-Chul

    2016-07-01

    The aim of study is to suggest a job rotation schedule by developing a mathematical model in order to reduce cumulative workload from the successive use of the same body region. Workload assessment using rapid entire body assessment (REBA) was performed for the model in three automotive assembly lines of chassis, trim, and finishing to identify which body part exposed to relatively high workloads at workstations. The workloads were incorporated to the model to develop a job rotation schedule. The proposed schedules prevent the exposure to high workloads successively on the same body region and minimized between-worker variance in cumulative daily workload. Whereas some of workers were successively assigned to high workload workstation under no job rotation and serial job rotation. This model would help to reduce the potential for work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) without additional cost for engineering work, although it may need more computational time and relative complex job rotation sequences. PMID:26995031

  19. The IMO-1 mobile irradiation unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IMO-I is made up by a gamma irradiation bucket and a fixed source, mounted on a trailer specially designed. This equipment has been completed with a radiocomunication device. The irradiator unit consist of two fixed and one movable body. The irradiation bucket has a volume of 30 x 40 x 30 cm and is moved through an hydraulic system with allows its vertical movement between the upper or charging position and the bottom or irradiation position. The telecontrol device has been installed in the room contiguous to the irradiator. The conventional industrial sources of Co60, are vertically located in stainless steel source holders at the botton fixed body and they can be changed according with the desired geometry. The trailer has been built over a plain chassis assembled structure with a double axle at the rear. It consists of two rooms, one for the irradiator machine and the other one for the telecontrol device and the radiocomunication facility. (author)

  20. Evaluation of the micro-carburetor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, M.F.; Hall, R.A.; Mazor, S.D.

    1981-08-01

    A prototype sonic, variable-venturi automotive carburetor, developed by Micro Carburetor Corporation, was evaluated for its effects on vehicle performance, fuel economy, and exhaust emissions. A 350 CID Chevrolet Impala vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer over the 1975 Federal Test Procedure, urban driving cycle. The Micro-carburetor was tested and compared with stock and modified-stock engine configurations. Subsequently, the test vehicle's performance characteristics were examined with the stock carburetor and again with the Micro-carburetor in a series of on-road driveability tests. The test engine was then removed from the vehicle and installed on an engine dynamometer. Engine tests were conducted to compare the fuel economy, thermal efficiency, and cylinder-to-cylinder mixture distribution of the Micro-carburetor to that of the stock configuration. Test results show increases in thermal efficiency and improvements in fuel economy at all test conditions.

  1. Optical interconnect technologies for high-bandwidth ICT systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chujo, Norio; Takai, Toshiaki; Mizushima, Akiko; Arimoto, Hideo; Matsuoka, Yasunobu; Yamashita, Hiroki; Matsushima, Naoki

    2016-03-01

    The bandwidth of information and communication technology (ICT) systems is increasing and is predicted to reach more than 10 Tb/s. However, an electrical interconnect cannot achieve such bandwidth because of its density limits. To solve this problem, we propose two types of high-density optical fiber wiring for backplanes and circuit boards such as interface boards and switch boards. One type uses routed ribbon fiber in a circuit board because it has the ability to be formed into complex shapes to avoid interfering with the LSI and electrical components on the board. The backplane is required to exhibit high density and flexibility, so the second type uses loose fiber. We developed a 9.6-Tb/s optical interconnect demonstration system using embedded optical modules, optical backplane, and optical connector in a network apparatus chassis. We achieved 25-Gb/s transmission between FPGAs via the optical backplane.

  2. An Increase in Estimation Accuracy Position Determination of Inertial Measurement Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beran Ladislav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an increase in measurement accuracy of the Inertial Measurement Units (IMU. In the Inertial Navigation Systems (INS a fusion of gyroscopes, accelerometers and in some cases magnetometers are typically used. The typical problem of cheap IMU is non-stationary offset and high level of noise. The next problem of IMU is a problem with a bumpy floor. For this case it is necessary to a have high quality chassis to eliminate additional noise. Also, it is possible to eliminate this noise by using some algorithm, but results are still poor. These properties lead to the inaccurate position estimation in the integration process. Even a small offset error leads to a big mistake in position determination and grows quickly with a time. This research is focused on the elimination of these poor properties and increase of accuracy of position estimation using Kalman Filtration.

  3. Time Triggered Protocol (TTP) for Integration Modular Avionics (IMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwaltney, David A.; Bauer, Guenther; Jakovljevic, Mirko; Gagea,Leonard; Motzet, Guenter

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation is a review of the Time Triggered Protocol, designed to work with NASA's Integrated Safety-Critical Advanced Avionics Communication and Control (ISAACC) system. ISAACC is the product of the Propulsion High-Impact Avionics Technologies (PHIAT) project at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) during FY03 to the end of FY05. The goal is an avionics architecture suitable for control and monitoring of safety critical systems of manned spacecraft. It must be scalable to allow its use in robotic vehicles or launch pad and propulsion test stand monitoring and control systems. The developed IMA should have: a common power supply and rugged chassis for a set of modules, many upgradeable software functions on one module (i.e. processing unit Reduced weight, straightforward update and system integration. It is also important that it have Partitioning and a Memory Management Unit (MMU)

  4. Real time capable infrared thermography for ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sieglin, B., E-mail: Bernhard.Sieglin@ipp.mpg.de; Faitsch, M.; Herrmann, A.; Brucker, B.; Eich, T.; Kammerloher, L.; Martinov, S. [Max-Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    Infrared (IR) thermography is widely used in fusion research to study power exhaust and incident heat load onto the plasma facing components. Due to the short pulse duration of today’s fusion experiments, IR systems have mostly been designed for off-line data analysis. For future long pulse devices (e.g., Wendelstein 7-X, ITER), a real time evaluation of the target temperature and heat flux is mandatory. This paper shows the development of a real time capable IR system for ASDEX Upgrade. A compact IR camera has been designed incorporating the necessary magnetic and electric shielding for the detector, cooler assembly. The camera communication is based on the Camera Link industry standard. The data acquisition hardware is based on National Instruments hardware, consisting of a PXIe chassis inside and a fibre optical connected industry computer outside the torus hall. Image processing and data evaluation are performed using real time LabVIEW.

  5. Development of light metals automotive structural subsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, A.A.; Sachdev, A.K. [General Motors Research and Development Center, Warren, MI (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Key technological developments in aluminum and magnesium alloys were reviewed in relation to the manufacturing processes that enable lightweight automotive structural subsystems. Examples included the materials and processes evolution of lightweight body structures, chassis systems, and instrument panel beams. New aluminum and magnesium alloys and manufacturing technologies used to reduce mass and improve performance in vehicle cradle structures were discussed. Hydroforming processes used to enable the use of lightweight aluminum alloy tubes in automotive body structures were also reviewed, in addition to body architectures enabled by different materials and manufacturing processes. The review noted that magnesium instrument panels are now being designed to provide significant performance improvement, reduced vibration, and enhanced crashworthiness in new automobiles. It was concluded that vehicles will incorporate more lightweight materials such as nanocomposites and aluminum and magnesium sheets. 9 refs., 10 figs.

  6. Velocity and normal tyre force estimation for heavy trucks based on vehicle dynamic simulation considering the road slope angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zeyu; Zhang, Yunqing; Yang, James

    2016-02-01

    A precise estimation of vehicle velocities can be valuable for improving the performance of the vehicle dynamics control (VDC) system and this estimation relies heavily upon the accuracy of longitudinal and lateral tyre force calculation governed by the prediction of normal tyre forces. This paper presents a computational method based on the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) method to estimate both longitudinal and lateral velocities and develops a novel quasi-stationary method to predict normal tyre forces of heavy trucks on a sloping road. The vehicle dynamic model is constructed with a planar dynamic model combined with the Pacejka tyre model. The novel quasi-stationary method for predicting normal tyre forces is able to characterise the typical chassis configuration of the heavy trucks. The validation is conducted through comparing the predicted results with those simulated by the TruckSim and it has a good agreement between these results without compromising the convergence speed and stability.

  7. 10th Schaeffler Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Every four years, Schaeffler provides an insight into its latest developments and technologies from the engine, transmission and chassis as well as hybridization and electric mobility sectors. In 2014 the Schaeffler Symposium with the motto “Solving the Powertrain Puzzle” took place from 3th to 4th of April in Baden-Baden. Mobility for tomorrow is the central theme of this proceeding. The authors are discussing the different requirements, which are placed on mobility in different regions of the world. In addition to the company's work in research and development, a comprehensive in-house mobility study also provides a reliable basis for the discussion. The authors are convinced that there will be a paradigm shift in the automotive industry. Issues such as increasing efficiency and advancing electrification of the powertrain, automatic and semi-automatic driving, as well as integration in information networks will define the automotive future. In addition, the variety of solutions available worldwide will ...

  8. Polymerase Chain Reaction on a Viral Nanoparticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr-Smith, James; Pacheco-Gómez, Raúl; Little, Haydn A; Hicks, Matthew R; Sandhu, Sandeep; Steinke, Nadja; Smith, David J; Rodger, Alison; Goodchild, Sarah A; Lukaszewski, Roman A; Tucker, James H R; Dafforn, Timothy R

    2015-12-18

    The field of synthetic biology includes studies that aim to develop new materials and devices from biomolecules. In recent years, much work has been carried out using a range of biomolecular chassis including α-helical coiled coils, β-sheet amyloids and even viral particles. In this work, we show how hybrid bionanoparticles can be produced from a viral M13 bacteriophage scaffold through conjugation with DNA primers that can template a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This unprecedented example of a PCR on a virus particle has been studied by flow aligned linear dichroism spectroscopy, which gives information on the structure of the product as well as a new protototype methodology for DNA detection. We propose that this demonstration of PCR on the surface of a bionanoparticle is a useful addition to ways in which hybrid assemblies may be constructed using synthetic biology.

  9. 全承载客车生产厂区技术要求与布置设计%Technical Requirements and Layout Design of Bearing Structure Bus/Coach Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴志兆

    2014-01-01

    The author introduces the technical requirements and layout design of the third stage bearing structure Suzhou Higer bus plant with the capacity of 5 000 busses/coaches per year. He emphasizes on the production pro-cesses and equipments layout of welding, painting, chassis parts assembling and total assembly workshop.%介绍苏州海格第三期年产5000辆全承载大客车生产厂区的技术要求及布置设计;重点阐述焊装、涂装、底盘件装配及总装的生产工艺和设备情况。

  10. DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF A LOW SPEED IMPACT TESTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Navarrete

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact response of sandwich panels with an improved structure to increase their impact resistance isinvestigated. In order to compare the impact performance of sandwich structures, a specific and instrumenteddrop-weight impact tester was designed and developed. The experimental part of this work is an evaluation oncomposite sandwich panels behavior used in the manufacturing of the UNAM Electrobús chassis. Two differentsandwich structures are analyzed: the first type is a structure composed by a glass fiber-polyester matrix compositefacesheets and a polyethylene honeycomb core. The second one consists of facesheets made from a glass fiberepoxymatrix composite laminate and core formed by internal phenolic honeycomb structure. The first structurewas specifically designed to improve crashworthiness for transport applications. The main results of this study areevaluated from the absorbed energy performance of the sandwich structures subjected to a single impact, and thedevelopment of useful criteria for materials selection.

  11. An assessment of consistence of exhaust gas emission test results obtained under controlled NEDC conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balawender, K.; Jaworski, A.; Kuszewski, H.; Lejda, K.; Ustrzycki, A.

    2016-09-01

    Measurements concerning emissions of pollutants contained in automobile combustion engine exhaust gases is of primary importance in view of their harmful impact on the natural environment. This paper presents results of tests aimed at determining exhaust gas pollutant emissions from a passenger car engine obtained under repeatable conditions on a chassis dynamometer. The test set-up was installed in a controlled climate chamber allowing to maintain the temperature conditions within the range from -20°C to +30°C. The analysis covered emissions of such components as CO, CO2, NOx, CH4, THC, and NMHC. The purpose of the study was to assess repeatability of results obtained in a number of tests performed as per NEDC test plan. The study is an introductory stage of a wider research project concerning the effect of climate conditions and fuel type on emission of pollutants contained in exhaust gases generated by automotive vehicles.

  12. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for the production of phenylpyruvate derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuang Ping; Zhang, Liang; Mao, Jian; Ding, Zhong Yang; Shi, Gui Yang

    2015-11-01

    Phenylpyruvate derivatives (PPD), such as phenylpropanoids, DL-phenylglycine, dl-phenylalanine, and styrene, are biosynthesized using phenylpyruvate as the precursor. They are widely used in human health and nutrition products. Recently, metabolic engineering provides effective strategies to develop PPD producers. Based on phenylpyruvate-producing chassis, genetically defined PPD producers have been successfully constructed. In this work, the most recent information on genetics and on the molecular mechanisms regulating phenylpyruvate synthesis pathways in Escherichia coli are summarized, and the engineering strategies to construct the PPD producers are also discussed. The enzymes and pathways are proposed for PPD-producer constructions, and potential difficulties in strain construction are also identified and discussed. With respect to recent advances in synthetic biology, future strategies to construct efficiently producers are discussed. PMID:26386181

  13. Usage of virtual test rigs for axle test design and evaluation; Einsatz virtueller Pruefstaende zur Auslegung und Bewertung von Achserprobungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigel, Nicolas; Weihe, Stefan [Daimler AG, Stuttgart (Germany). Transportersparte - Abt. Rohbau und Festigkeit; Jung, Gerald; Moeller, Riccardo [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Betriebsfestigkeit (LBF), Darmstadt (Germany); Bruder, Thomas [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Betriebsfestigkeit und Systemzuverlaessigkeit (LBF), Darmstadt (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Virtual test rigs can be used for evaluation of hardware testing, derivation of simplified tests as well as for signal generation and thus they are a valuable toll to significantly enhance quality and efficiency of durability testing. The present article describes the development of a simulation model of a 13 DOF test rig for truck axle modules. A multibody simulation model is set up for the mechanical elements of the test rig as well as the axle holding fixture and the axle module. Hydraulics and control are integrated via a co-simulation model. Emphasis is placed on validation of test rig and chassis models as well as the required level of detail of the axle module models. (orig.)

  14. Compressed gas fuel storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wozniak, John J. (Columbia, MD); Tiller, Dale B. (Lincoln, NE); Wienhold, Paul D. (Baltimore, MD); Hildebrand, Richard J. (Edgemere, MD)

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas vehicle fuel storage system comprised of a plurality of compressed gas pressure cells supported by shock-absorbing foam positioned within a shape-conforming container. The container is dimensioned relative to the compressed gas pressure cells whereby a radial air gap surrounds each compressed gas pressure cell. The radial air gap allows pressure-induced expansion of the pressure cells without resulting in the application of pressure to adjacent pressure cells or physical pressure to the container. The pressure cells are interconnected by a gas control assembly including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and means for connecting the fuel storage system to a vehicle power source and a refueling adapter. The gas control assembly is enclosed by a protective cover attached to the container. The system is attached to the vehicle with straps to enable the chassis to deform as intended in a high-speed collision.

  15. Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garetson, Thomas [The Clarity Group, Incorporated, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-03-31

    The objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOEs) Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation (AVTE) project was to provide test and evaluation services for advanced technology vehicles, to establish a performance baseline, to determine vehicle reliability, and to evaluate vehicle operating costs in fleet operations.Vehicles tested include light and medium-duty vehicles in conventional, hybrid, and all-electric configurations using conventional and alternative fuels, including hydrogen in internal combustion engines. Vehicles were tested on closed tracks and chassis dynamometers, as well as operated on public roads, in fleet operations, and over prescribed routes. All testing was controlled by procedures developed specifically to support such testing.

  16. EMMA: The expert system for munition maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Barry E.

    1988-01-01

    Expert Missile Maintenance Aid (EMMA) is a first attempt to enhance maintenance of the tactical munition at the field and depot level by using artificial intelligence (AI) techniques. The ultimate goal of EMMA is to help a novice maintenance technician isolate and diagnose electronic, electromechanical, and mechanical equipment faults to the board/chassis level more quickly and consistently than the best human expert using the best currently available automatic test equipment (ATE). To this end, EMMA augments existing ATE with an expert system that captures the knowledge of design and maintenance experts. The EMMA program is described, including the evaluation of field-level expert system prototypes, the description of several study tasks performed during EMMA, and future plans for a follow-on program. This paper will briefly address several study tasks performed during EMMA. The paper concludes with a discussion of future plans for a follow-on program and other areas of concern.

  17. Insight into magnetorheological shock absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Gołdasz, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    This book deals with magnetorheological fluid theory, modeling and applications of automotive magnetorheological dampers. On the theoretical side a review of MR fluid compositions and key factors affecting the characteristics of these fluids is followed by a description of existing applications in the area of vibration isolation and flow-mode shock absorbers in particular. As a majority of existing magnetorheological devices operates in a so-called flow mode a critical review is carried out in that regard. Specifically, the authors highlight common configurations of flow-mode magnetorheological shock absorbers, or so-called MR dampers that have been considered by the automotive industry for controlled chassis applications. The authors focus on single-tube dampers utilizing a piston assembly with one coil or multiple coils and at least one annular flow channel in the piston.

  18. YAMS: a stepper motor controller for the FERMI-Elettra free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New projects, like FERMI-Elettra, demand for the standardization of the systems in order to cut development and maintenance costs. The various motion control applications foreseen in this project required a specific controller able to flexibly adapt to any need while maintaining a common interface to the control system to minimize software development efforts. These reasons led us to design and build 'Yet Another Motor Sub-rack', (YAMS), a 3U chassis containing a commercial stepper motor controller, up to eight motor drivers and all the necessary auxiliary systems. The motors can be controlled locally by means of an operator panel or remotely through an Ethernet interface and a dedicated Tango device server. The paper describes the details of the project and the deployment issues

  19. A Review of Active Yaw Control System for Vehicle Handling and Stability Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Aripin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Yaw stability control system plays a significant role in vehicle lateral dynamics in order to improve the vehicle handling and stability performances. However, not many researches have been focused on the transient performances improvement of vehicle yaw rate and sideslip tracking control. This paper reviews the vital elements for control system design of an active yaw stability control system; the vehicle dynamic models, control objectives, active chassis control, and control strategies with the focus on identifying suitable criteria for improved transient performances. Each element is discussed and compared in terms of their underlying theory, strengths, weaknesses, and applicability. Based on this, we conclude that the sliding mode control with nonlinear sliding surface based on composite nonlinear feedback is a potential control strategy for improving the transient performances of yaw rate and sideslip tracking control.

  20. Mutagenicity of diesel exhaust particle extracts: influence of driving cycle and environmental temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C R; Dutcher, J S; Brooks, A L; McClellan, R O; Marshall, W F; Naman, T M

    1982-01-01

    General Motors and Volkswagen diesel passenger cars (1980 and 1981 model year) were operated on a climate controlled chassis dynomometer and the particulate portion of the exhaust was collected on high volume filters. Dichloromethane extracts of the exhaust particles (soot) collected while the cars were operated under simulated highway, urban and congested urban driving cycles were assayed for mutagenicity in Salmonella strains TA-98 and TA-100. Driving pattern did not significantly influence the mutagenic potency of the exhaust particle extracts or estimates of the amount of mutagenicity emitted from the exhaust despite large differences in particle emission rates and extractable fraction of the particles. Mutagenicity of extracts of exhaust particles collected while the vehicles were operated at test chamber temperatures of 25, 50, 75 and 100 degrees F were also very similar. The results suggest that driving pattern and environmental temperature do not significantly alter the emission of genotoxic combustion products from the exhaust. PMID:6193022

  1. Synthetic redesign of plant lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Richard P; Sayanova, Olga; Kim, Hae Jin; Cahoon, Edgar B; Napier, Johnathan A

    2016-07-01

    Plant seed lipid metabolism is an area of intensive research, including many examples of transgenic events in which oil composition has been modified. In the selected examples described in this review, progress towards the predictive manipulation of metabolism and the reconstitution of desired traits in a non-native host is considered. The advantages of a particular oilseed crop, Camelina sativa, as a flexible and utilitarian chassis for advanced metabolic engineering and applied synthetic biology are considered, as are the issues that still represent gaps in our ability to predictably alter plant lipid biosynthesis. Opportunities to deliver useful bio-based products via transgenic plants are described, some of which represent the most complex genetic engineering in plants to date. Future prospects are considered, with a focus on the desire to transition to more (computationally) directed manipulations of metabolism. PMID:27483205

  2. HERMIES-3: A step toward autonomous mobility, manipulation, and perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbin, C. R.; Burks, B. L.; Einstein, J. R.; Feezell, R. R.; Manges, W. W.; Thompson, D. H.

    1989-01-01

    HERMIES-III is an autonomous robot comprised of a seven degree-of-freedom (DOF) manipulator designed for human scale tasks, a laser range finder, a sonar array, an omni-directional wheel-driven chassis, multiple cameras, and a dual computer system containing a 16-node hypercube expandable to 128 nodes. The current experimental program involves performance of human-scale tasks (e.g., valve manipulation, use of tools), integration of a dexterous manipulator and platform motion in geometrically complex environments, and effective use of multiple cooperating robots (HERMIES-IIB and HERMIES-III). The environment in which the robots operate has been designed to include multiple valves, pipes, meters, obstacles on the floor, valves occluded from view, and multiple paths of differing navigation complexity. The ongoing research program supports the development of autonomous capability for HERMIES-IIB and III to perform complex navigation and manipulation under time constraints, while dealing with imprecise sensory information.

  3. [Metabolomics analysis of taxadiene producing yeasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Huifang; Ding, Mingzhu; Yuan, Yingjin

    2014-02-01

    In order to study the inherent difference among terpenes producing yeasts from the point of metabolomics, we selected taxadiene producing yeasts as the model system. The changes of cellular metabolites during fermentation log phase of artificial functional yeasts were determined using metabolomics methods. The results represented that compared to W303-1A as a blank control, the metabolites in glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) cycle and several amino acids were influenced. And due to the changes of metabolites, the growth of cells was inhibited to a certain extent. Among the metabolites identified, citric acid content in taxadiene producing yeasts changed the most, the decreasing amplitude reached 90% or more. Therefore, citric acid can be a marker metabolite for the future study of artificial functional yeasts. The metabolomics analysis of taxadiene producing yeasts can provide more information in further studies on optimization of terpenes production in heterologous chassis.

  4. FedEx Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck Evaluation: 6-Month Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnitt, R.

    2010-05-01

    This interim report presents partial (six months) results for a technology evaluation of gasoline hybrid electric parcel delivery trucks operated by FedEx in and around Los Angeles, CA. A 12 month in-use technology evaluation comparing in-use fuel economy and maintenance costs of GHEVs and comparative diesel parcel delivery trucks was started in April 2009. Comparison data was collected and analyzed for in-use fuel economy and fuel costs, maintenance costs, total operating costs, and vehicle uptime. In addition, this interim report presents results of parcel delivery drive cycle collection and analysis activities as well as emissions and fuel economy results of chassis dynamometer testing of a gHEV and a comparative diesel truck at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) ReFUEL laboratory. A final report will be issued when 12 months of in-use data have been collected and analyzed.

  5. System Design and Implementation of Smart Dashboard for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Sheng Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the development of automobile focuses on the chassis structure and motion control. However, due to the concept of smart and safe vehicle, the integrated dashboard becomes a necessary issue. The proposed system can not only represent the conventional dashboard in a digital form but also endow the system with an intelligent guidance. The statuses such as speed, battery SOC, braking, mileage, and the activation of TCS and ABS can be seen and monitored in all driving scenarios. For example, the current modern electric vehicles face the danger of self-ignition problem when the over load problem is consisted. Basically, these severe conditions can be eliminated by a guard of smart interface. Consequently, under a proper design, the presented system can assist the driver to maintain the energy efficiency, steering stability, and so on. Then the operation procedure can be simplified and hence driver can concentrate more on steering.

  6. A Review of the Fatigue Analysis of Heavy Duty Truck Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad O. Moaaz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Heavy duty vehicle plays a more important role in highway transportation. The major focus in the truck manufacturing industries is design of truck chassis with more pay load capacity and possible less weight. An important aspect of chassis’ design and analysis is the stress distribution and fatigue life of prediction process. Fatigue is one of the most important parameters to consider when designing truck components. The components are typically subjected to dynamic loads when in service. In this paper, an effort is made to review the investigations that have been made on the different fatigue analysis techniques of heavy duty truck frames. A number of analytical and numerical techniques are available for the fatigue analysis of the heavy duty truck frames has been reported in literature.

  7. Fuel optimal control of parallel hybrid electric vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinhuan PU; Chenliang YIN; Jianwu ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    A mathematical model for fuel optimal control and its corresponding dynamic programming (DP) recurs-ive equation were established for an existing parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). Two augmented cost func-tions for gear shifting and engine stop-starting were designed to limit their frequency. To overcome the prob-lem of numerical DP dimensionality, an algorithm to restrict the exploring region was proposed. The algorithm significantly reduced the computational complexity. The system model was converted into real-time simulation code by using MATLAB/RTW to improve computation efficiency. Comparison between the results of a chassis dynamometer test, simulation, and DP proves that the proposed method can compute the performance limita-tion of the HEV within an acceptable time period and can be used to evaluate and optimize the control strategy.

  8. Design, development and performance of a disk plow combined with rotary blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disk plow combined with rotary blades, defined as comboplow, is used for soil preparation for planting. The comboplow includes four units: Chassis, concave disk, transmission system and rotary blades. A multiple tillage operation is reduced in a single pass resulting in a potential reduction of soil compaction, labor, fuel cost and saving in time. The comboplow was tested at University Putra Malaysia Research Park, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia, on three different plots of 675 m2 in the year 2010/2011. The treatments were three types of blade [(straight (S),curved (c) and L-shaped)] and three rotary speeds (130,147and 165 rpm). The parameters were Mean Weight Diameter Dry Basis (MWDd), Mean weight Diameter Wet Basis (MWDW), Aggregate Stability Index (SI) and Instability Index (II).

  9. Engineering cell-cell signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagovic, Katarina; Gong, Emily S; Milano, Daniel F; Natividad, Robert J; Asthagiri, Anand R

    2013-10-01

    Juxtacrine cell-cell signaling mediated by the direct interaction of adjoining mammalian cells is arguably the mode of cell communication that is most recalcitrant to engineering. Overcoming this challenge is crucial for progress in biomedical applications, such as tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, immune system engineering and therapeutic design. Here, we describe the significant advances that have been made in developing synthetic platforms (materials and devices) and synthetic cells (cell surface engineering and synthetic gene circuits) to modulate juxtacrine cell-cell signaling. In addition, significant progress has been made in elucidating design rules and strategies to modulate juxtacrine signaling on the basis of quantitative, engineering analysis of the mechanical and regulatory role of juxtacrine signals in the context of other cues and physical constraints in the microenvironment. These advances in engineering juxtacrine signaling lay a strong foundation for an integrative approach to utilize synthetic cells, advanced 'chassis' and predictive modeling to engineer the form and function of living tissues.

  10. Integrated System for Performance Monitoring of the ATLAS TDAQ Network

    CERN Document Server

    Savu, DO; The ATLAS collaboration; Martin, B; Sjoen, R; Batraneanu, SM; Stancu, S

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS TDAQ Network consists of three separate networks spanning four levels of the experimental building. Over 200 edge switches and 5 multi-blade chassis routers are used to interconnect 2000 processors, adding up to more than 7000 high speed interfaces. In order to substantially speed-up ad-hoc and post mortem analysis, a scalable, yet flexible, integrated system for monitoring both network statistics and environmental conditions, processor parameters and data taking characteristics was required. For successful up-to-the-minute monitoring, information from many SNMP compliant devices, independent databases and custom APIs was gathered, stored and displayed in an optimal way. Easy navigation and compact aggregation of multiple data sources were the main requirements; characteristics not found in any of the tested products, either open-source or commercial. This paper describes how performance, scalability and display issues were addressed and what challenges the project faced during development and deplo...

  11. Integrated System for Performance Monitoring of ATLAS TDAQ Network

    CERN Document Server

    Savu, D; The ATLAS collaboration; Martin, B; Sjoen, R; Batraneanu, S; Stancu, S

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS TDAQ Network consists of three separate networks spanning four levels of the experimental building. Over 200 edge switches and 5 multi-blade chassis routers are used to interconnect 2000 processors, adding up to more than 7000 high speed interfaces. In order to substantially speed-up ad-hoc and post mortem analysis, a scalable, yet flexible, integrated system for monitoring both network statistics and environmental conditions, processor parameters and data taking characteristics was required. For successful up-to-the-minute monitoring, information from many SNMP compliant devices, independent databases and custom APIs was gathered, stored and displayed in an optimal way. Easy navigation and compact aggregation of multiple data sources were the main requirements; characteristics not found in any of the tested products, either open-source or commercial. This paper describes how performance, scalability and display issues were addressed and what challenges the project faced during development and deplo...

  12. Implementation of quality control program in radiodiagnostic services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This monograph is the first version of the implementation of the quality control programme in radiology diagnostic services. Here all information related to diagnostic quality to better radiation protection to patients and personnel was collected. The programme was implemented on the X-ray equipment at three hospitals (named hospital A, hospital B and hospital C) and included the evaluation of technical parameters such as kilovolts, exposition time, filtration, fields. In addition, dark room, chassis and image intensifiers were also evaluated. The procedures to carry out the quality control and the manner in which the observations, conclusions and recommendations should be formulated are based on documents issued by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (I.C.R.P.), International Atomic Energy Agency (I.A.E.A.) and World Health Organization (W.H.O.)

  13. Real time capable infrared thermography for ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieglin, B.; Faitsch, M.; Herrmann, A.; Brucker, B.; Eich, T.; Kammerloher, L.; Martinov, S.

    2015-11-01

    Infrared (IR) thermography is widely used in fusion research to study power exhaust and incident heat load onto the plasma facing components. Due to the short pulse duration of today's fusion experiments, IR systems have mostly been designed for off-line data analysis. For future long pulse devices (e.g., Wendelstein 7-X, ITER), a real time evaluation of the target temperature and heat flux is mandatory. This paper shows the development of a real time capable IR system for ASDEX Upgrade. A compact IR camera has been designed incorporating the necessary magnetic and electric shielding for the detector, cooler assembly. The camera communication is based on the Camera Link industry standard. The data acquisition hardware is based on National Instruments hardware, consisting of a PXIe chassis inside and a fibre optical connected industry computer outside the torus hall. Image processing and data evaluation are performed using real time LabVIEW.

  14. EPICS : input / output controller (IOC) application developer's guide. EPICS release 3.12 specific documentation.[Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System]; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the core software that resides in an Input/Output Controller (IOC), one of the major components of EPICS. EPICS consists of a set of software components and tools that Application Developers use to create a control system. The basic components are: OPI-Operator Interface. This is a UNIX based workstation which can run various EPICS tools; IOC-Input/Output Controller. This is a VME/VXI based chassis containing a processor, various I/O modules and VME modules that provide access to other I/O buses such as GPIB; and LAN-Local Area Network. This is the communication network which allows the IOCs and OPIs to communicate. EPICS provides a software component, Channel Access, which provides network transparent communication between a Channel Access client and an arbitrary number of Channel Access servers. This report is intended for anyone developing EPICS IOC databases and/or new record/device/driver support

  15. EPICS Input/Output Controller (IOC) application developer's guide. APS Release 3.12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the core software that resides in an Input/Output Controller (IOC), one of the major components of EPICS. The basic components are: (OPI) Operator Interface; this is a UNIX based workstation which can run various EPICS tools; (IOC) Input/Output Controller; this is a VME/VXI based chassis containing a Motorola 68xxx processor, various I/O modules, and VME modules that provide access to other I/O buses such as GPIB, (LAN), Local Area Network; and this is the communication network which allows the IOCs and OPIs to communicate. Epics provides a software component, Channel Access, which provides network transparent communication between a Channel Access client and an arbitrary number of Channel Access servers

  16. Graceful Labeling Based Active Appearance Model for Biometric Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathiamoorthy G

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a new model for reading face images and image sequences using Graceful Labeling Active Appearance Model (GLAAM. The GLAAM contains a statistical, photo-realistic model of the chassis and grey-level appearance of faces. This paper demonstrates the use of the GLAAM’s efficient iterative matching scheme for image interpretation. We use the GLAAM as a basis for face identification, obtain good results for difficult images. We show how the GLAAM framework allows identity information to be decoupled from other variation, allowing evidence of identity to be integrated over a sequence. The GLAAM approach makes optimal use of the evidence from either a single image or image sequence. Since we derive a complete description of a given image our method can be used as the basis for a range of face image interpretation tasks.

  17. A Simulink simulation framework of a MagLev model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudall, H.; Williams, R.D.; Giras, T.C. [University of Virginia, Charlottesville (United States). School of Enegineering and Applied Science

    2003-09-01

    This paper presents a three-degree-of-freedom model of a section of the magnetically levitated train Maglev. The Maglev system dealt with in this article utilizes electromagnetic levitation. Each MagLev vehicle section is viewed as two separate parts, namely a body and a chassis, coupled by a set of springs and dampers. The MagLev model includes the propulsion, the guidance and the levitation systems. The equations of motion are developed. A Simulink simulation framework is implemented in order to study the interaction between the different systems and the dynamics of a MagLev vehicle. The simulation framework will eventually serve as a tool to assist the design and development of the Maglev system in the United States of America. (author)

  18. An Implementation of Real-Time Phased Array Radar Fundamental Functions on a DSP-Focused, High-Performance, Embedded Computing Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xining Yu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the feasibility of a backend design for real-time, multiple-channel processing digital phased array system, particularly for high-performance embedded computing platforms constructed of general purpose digital signal processors. First, we obtained the lab-scale backend performance benchmark from simulating beamforming, pulse compression, and Doppler filtering based on a Micro Telecom Computing Architecture (MTCA chassis using the Serial RapidIO protocol in backplane communication. Next, a field-scale demonstrator of a multifunctional phased array radar is emulated by using the similar configuration. Interestingly, the performance of a barebones design is compared to that of emerging tools that systematically take advantage of parallelism and multicore capabilities, including the Open Computing Language.

  19. INTEGRATED VEHICLE PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION MONITORING SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OCHIENGWY; NORTHRJ; QUDDUSM; NOLANDRB; POLAKJW

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses a vehicle performance and emission monitoring system (VPEMS) capable of interfacing with either a vehicle engine management system (EMS) or a sensor array fitted to the vehicle. It also describes the procedures used to validate the data generated by both diesel and petrol powered vehicles. These include the results of bench and field experiments using two instrumented vehicles and of experiments on a chassis dynamometer emissions test facility. The prototype VPEMS attains the specified performance levels for each of the subsystems, with aggregate mass emissions agreeing with the reference to within 11.5%, 8.1% and 17.7% for CO, CO2 and NO, respectively. The collation of these data to produce coherent spatially and temporally referenced databases of vehicle performance and the emission is demonstrated.

  20. EPICS: Allen-Bradley hardware reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual covers the following hardware: Allen-Bradley 6008 -- SV VMEbus I/O scanner; Allen-Bradley universal I/O chassis 1771-A1B, -A2B, -A3B, and -A4B; Allen-Bradley power supply module 1771-P4S; Allen-Bradley 1771-ASB remote I/O adapter module; Allen-Bradley 1771-IFE analog input module; Allen-Bradley 1771-OFE analog output module; Allen-Bradley 1771-IG(D) TTL input module; Allen-Bradley 1771-OG(d) TTL output; Allen-Bradley 1771-IQ DC selectable input module; Allen-Bradley 1771-OW contact output module; Allen-Bradley 1771-IBD DC (10--30V) input module; Allen-Bradley 1771-OBD DC (10--60V) output module; Allen-Bradley 1771-IXE thermocouple/millivolt input module; and the Allen-Bradley 2705 RediPANEL push button module

  1. Study on antilock brake system with elastic membrane vibration generated by controlled solenoid excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Zakaria, Lambang, Lullus; Triyono, Muhayat, Nurul

    2016-03-01

    The most effective chassis control system for improving vehicle safety during severe braking is anti-lock braking system (ABS). Antilock effect can be gained by vibrate the pad brake at 7 to 20 cycle per second. The aim of this study is to design a new method of antilock braking system with membrane elastic vibrated by solenoid. The influence of the pressure fluctuations of brake fluid is investigated. Vibration data is collected using a small portable accelerometer-slam stick. The experiment results that the vibration of brake pad caused by controlled solenoid excitation at 10 Hz is obtained by our new method. The result of measurements can be altered by varying brake fluid pressure.

  2. Vacuum compatible miniature CCD camera head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conder, Alan D.

    2000-01-01

    A charge-coupled device (CCD) camera head which can replace film for digital imaging of visible light, ultraviolet radiation, and soft to penetrating x-rays, such as within a target chamber where laser produced plasmas are studied. The camera head is small, capable of operating both in and out of a vacuum environment, and is versatile. The CCD camera head uses PC boards with an internal heat sink connected to the chassis for heat dissipation, which allows for close(0.04" for example) stacking of the PC boards. Integration of this CCD camera head into existing instrumentation provides a substantial enhancement of diagnostic capabilities for studying high energy density plasmas, for a variety of military industrial, and medical imaging applications.

  3. Printed circuit board for a CCD camera head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conder, Alan D.

    2002-01-01

    A charge-coupled device (CCD) camera head which can replace film for digital imaging of visible light, ultraviolet radiation, and soft to penetrating x-rays, such as within a target chamber where laser produced plasmas are studied. The camera head is small, capable of operating both in and out of a vacuum environment, and is versatile. The CCD camera head uses PC boards with an internal heat sink connected to the chassis for heat dissipation, which allows for close (0.04" for example) stacking of the PC boards. Integration of this CCD camera head into existing instrumentation provides a substantial enhancement of diagnostic capabilities for studying high energy density plasmas, for a variety of military industrial, and medical imaging applications.

  4. Power Tillers for Demining: Blast Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Elisa Cepolina

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Power tillers are very simple and versatile machines with large scale diffusion in developing countries, where they are commonly used both for agriculture and for transportation purposes. A new integrated participatory approach that makes use of and improves local end-users knowledge has been used to design a new robotic system for humanitarian demining applications in Sri Lanka, using power tiller as core module. A demining machine composed by a tractor unit, a ground processing tool and a vegetation cutting tool is here presented together with results obtained from the first blast test on the preliminary version of tractor unit armouring. Different breakable connections between wheels and axle have been designed to cause physical detachment and interrupt the transmission of the shock wave released by the explosion of a mine under one wheel. Effects of explosions on different types of wheels and on the chassis have been recorded and commented.

  5. Mutagenicity of diesel exhaust particle extracts: influence of driving cycle and environmental temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C R; Dutcher, J S; Brooks, A L; McClellan, R O; Marshall, W F; Naman, T M

    1982-01-01

    General Motors and Volkswagen diesel passenger cars (1980 and 1981 model year) were operated on a climate controlled chassis dynomometer and the particulate portion of the exhaust was collected on high volume filters. Dichloromethane extracts of the exhaust particles (soot) collected while the cars were operated under simulated highway, urban and congested urban driving cycles were assayed for mutagenicity in Salmonella strains TA-98 and TA-100. Driving pattern did not significantly influence the mutagenic potency of the exhaust particle extracts or estimates of the amount of mutagenicity emitted from the exhaust despite large differences in particle emission rates and extractable fraction of the particles. Mutagenicity of extracts of exhaust particles collected while the vehicles were operated at test chamber temperatures of 25, 50, 75 and 100 degrees F were also very similar. The results suggest that driving pattern and environmental temperature do not significantly alter the emission of genotoxic combustion products from the exhaust.

  6. Emprego da análise ergonômica do trabalho em atividade com máquina agrícola motorizada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Kozoroski Veiga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to verify the constraints faced by farm workers who operate motorized agricultural machinery, an Ergonomic Workplace Analysis (EWA was performed in a federal school. The Pattern Nordic Questionnaire was applied to evaluate the physical conditions of the operator. The Moore and Garg Strain Index and the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA survey were used as observation protocols. The study was assisted by a number of computer programs: Ergolândia® (for the application of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health – NIOSH – equation, Antroprojeto® (estimated lengths of body parts, and Kinovea® (video editing for biomechanical analysis. After the application of the protocols, it was found that the activities of driving a power tiller, lifting chassis lids, and starting the engine manually demand immediate ergonomic intervention.

  7. Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direction Injection (GTDI) Engine Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Terrance [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States)

    2015-12-31

    This program was undertaken in response to US Department of Energy Solicitation DE-FOA-0000079, resulting in a cooperative agreement with Ford and MTU to demonstrate improvement of fuel efficiency in a vehicle equipped with an advanced GTDI engine. Ford Motor Company has invested significantly in GTDI engine technology as a cost effective, high volume, fuel economy solution, marketed globally as EcoBoost technology. Ford envisions additional fuel economy improvement in the medium and long term by further advancing EcoBoost technology. The approach for the project was to engineer a comprehensive suite of gasoline engine systems technologies to achieve the project objectives, and to progressively demonstrate the objectives via concept analysis / computer modeling, single-cylinder and multi-cylinder engine testing on engine dynamometer, and vehicle level testing on chassis rolls.

  8. The next step in biology: A periodic table?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pawan K Dhar

    2007-08-01

    Systems biology is an approach to explain the behaviour of a system in relation to its individual components. Synthetic biology uses key hierarchical and modular concepts of systems biology to engineer novel biological systems. In my opinion the next step in biology is to use molecule-to-phenotype data using these approaches and integrate them in the form a periodic table. A periodic table in biology would provide chassis to classify, systematize and compare diversity of component properties vis-a-vis system behaviour. Using periodic table it could be possible to compute higher-level interactions from component properties. This paper examines the concept of building a bio-periodic table using protein fold as the fundamental unit.

  9. Design and Testing of an Agricultural Implement for Underground Application of Rodenticide Bait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Malón

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An agricultural implement for underground application of rodenticide bait to control the Mediterranean pocket gopher (Microtus Duodecimcostatus in fruit orchards has been designed and tested. The main objective of this research was to design and test the implement by using the finite element method (FEM and considering a range of loads generated on most commonly used furrow openers in agricultural implements. As a second step, the prototype was tested in the field by analysing the effects of forward speed and application depth on the mechanical behaviour of the implement structure. The FEM was used in the design phase and a prototype was manufactured. The structural strains on the prototype chassis under working conditions were tested by using strain gauges to validate the design phase. Three forward speeds (4.5, 5.5, and 7.0 km/h, three application depths (0.12, 0.15, and 0.17 m, and two types of soil (clayey-silty-loam and clayey-silty-sandy were considered. The prototype was validated successfully by analysing the information obtained from the strain gauges. The Von Mises stresses indicated a safety coefficient of 1.9 for the most critical load case. Although both forward speed and application depth had a significant effect on the stresses generated on the chassis, the latter parameter critically affected the structural behaviour of the implement. The effects of the application depth on the strains were linear such that strains increased with depth. In contrast, strains remained roughly constant regardless of variation in the forward speed.

  10. Lightweight rovers for Mars science exploration and sample return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Paul S.; Sword, Lee F.; Ganino, A. J.; Bickler, Donald B.; Hickey, G. S.; Brown, D. K.; Baumgartner, Eric T.; Matthies, Larry H.; Wilcox, Brian H.; Balch, T.; Aghazarian, H.; Garrett, M. S.

    1997-09-01

    We report on the development of new mobile robots for Mars exploration missions. These 'lightweight survivable rover (LSR)' systems are of potential interest to both space and terrestrial applications, and are distinguished from more conventional designs by their use of new composite materials, collapsible running gear, integrated thermal-structural chassis, and other mechanical features enabling improved mobility and environmental robustness at reduced mass, volume, and power. Our first demonstrated such rover architecture, LSR-1, introduces running gear based on 2D composite struts and 3D machined composite joints, a novel collapsible hybrid composite-aluminum wheel design, a unit-body structural- thermal chassis with improved internal temperature isolation and stabilization, and a spot-pushbroom laser/CCD sensor enabling accurate, fast hazard detection and terrain mapping. LSR-1 is an approximately .7 $MIL 1.0 meter(Lambda) 2(W X L) footprint six-wheel (20 cm dia.) rocker-bogie geometry vehicle of approximately 30 cm ground clearance, weighing only 7 kilograms with an onboard .3 kilogram multi-spectral imager and spectroscopic photometer. By comparison, NASA/JPL's recently flown Mars Pathfinder rover Sojourner is an 11+ kilogram flight experiment (carrying a 1 kg APXS instrument) having approximately .45 X .6 meter(Lambda) 2(WXL) footprint and 15 cm ground clearance, and about half the warm electronics enclosure (WEE) volume with twice the diurnal temperature swing (-40 to +40 degrees Celsius) of LSR- 1 in nominal Mars environments. We are also developing a new, smaller 5 kilogram class LSR-type vehicle for Mars sample return -- the travel to, localization of, pick-up, and transport back to an Earth return ascent vehicle of a sample cache collected by earlier science missions. This sample retrieval rover R&D prototype has a completely collapsible mobility system enabling rover stowage to approximately 25% operational volume, as well an actively articulated axle

  11. Hydraulic Hybrid Parcel Delivery Truck Deployment, Testing & Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallo, Jean-Baptiste [Calstart Incorporated, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2014-03-07

    Although hydraulic hybrid systems have shown promise over the last few years, commercial deployment of these systems has primarily been limited to Class 8 refuse trucks. In 2005, the Hybrid Truck Users Forum initiated the Parcel Delivery Working Group including the largest parcel delivery fleets in North America. The goal of the working group was to evaluate and accelerate commercialization of hydraulic hybrid technology for parcel delivery vehicles. FedEx Ground, Purolator and United Parcel Service (UPS) took delivery of the world’s first commercially available hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery trucks in early 2012. The vehicle chassis includes a Parker Hannifin hydraulic hybrid drive system, integrated and assembled by Freightliner Custom Chassis Corp., with a body installed by Morgan Olson. With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, CALSTART and its project partners assessed the performance, reliability, maintainability and fleet acceptance of three pre-production Class 6 hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery vehicles using information and data from in-use data collection and on-road testing. This document reports on the deployment of these vehicles operated by FedEx Ground, Purolator and UPS. The results presented provide a comprehensive overview of the performance of commercial hydraulic hybrid vehicles in parcel delivery applications. This project also informs fleets and manufacturers on the overall performance of hydraulic hybrid vehicles, provides insights on how the technology can be both improved and more effectively used. The key findings and recommendations of this project fall into four major categories: -Performance, -Fleet deployment, -Maintenance, -Business case. Hydraulic hybrid technology is relatively new to the market, as commercial vehicles have been introduced only in the past few years in refuse and parcel delivery applications. Successful demonstration could pave the way for additional purchases of hydraulic hybrid vehicles throughout the

  12. The BMW Z8. Pt. 1. Concept body, safety, electrical/electronic systems; Der BMW Z8. T. 1. Konzept, Karosserie, Sicherheit, Elektrik/Elektronik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, C. [Bayerische Motoren Werke AG (BMW), Muenchen (Germany)

    2000-06-01

    As the new kid on the block among the super sports cars, the Z8 is aimed at a small group of customers who have very high demands and wish to combine 'the ultimate driving machine and the ultimate design with exclusivity, safety, reliability and quality. The latest engineering, such as the aluminium structure and aluminium exterior skin, the high performance power train and the sophisticated sports chassis, the stability control system, the high performance braking system and the tyres with emergency features go together to make the Z8 an extraordinary sports car. A full range of equipment with a hardtop, telephone, audio and navigation system, attention to detail and lots of aluminium in the interior combined with high quality leather underline the exclusivity of the Z8. Part 2 follows in issue of the ATZ: Engine, powertrain, chassis, acoustics, quality and repair procedures. (orig.) [German] Als Neuling im Kreis der Supersportwagen ist der Z8 fuer einen kleinen Kreis von Kunden bestimmt, die hoechste Ansprueche stellen, die 'Freude am Fahren, Freude an der Form mit Exklusivitaet, Sicherheit, Zuverlaessigkeit und Qualitaet' verbinden wollen. Modernste Technik wie die Aluminiumstruktur und Aluminiumaussenhaut, das Hochleistungstriebwerk in Verbindung mit dem aufwendigen Sportfahrwerk, den Stabilitaetsregelsystemen, der Hochleistungsbremsanlage und den Reifen mit Notlaufeigenschaften machen den Z8 zu einem aussergewoehnlichen Sportwagen. Vollausstattung mit Hardtop, Telefon, Audio-, Navigationssystem, Liebe zum Detail in Verbindung mit viel Aluminium im Innenraum und hochwertigem Leder unterstreichen die Exklusivitaet des Z8. Teil 2 folgt in der naechsten ATZ mit den Themen Motor, Antrieb, Fahrwerk, Akustik, Qualitaet und Reparaturverfahren. (orig.)

  13. Flight Hardware Packaging Design for Stringent EMC Radiated Emission Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lortz, Charlene L.; Huang, Chi-Chien N.; Ravich, Joshua A.; Steiner, Carl N.

    2013-01-01

    This packaging design approach can help heritage hardware meet a flight project's stringent EMC radiated emissions requirement. The approach requires only minor modifications to a hardware's chassis and mainly concentrates on its connector interfaces. The solution is to raise the surface area where the connector is mounted by a few millimeters using a pedestal, and then wrapping with conductive tape from the cable backshell down to the surface-mounted connector. This design approach has been applied to JPL flight project subsystems. The EMC radiated emissions requirements for flight projects can vary from benign to mission critical. If the project's EMC requirements are stringent, the best approach to meet EMC requirements would be to design an EMC control program for the project early on and implement EMC design techniques starting with the circuit board layout. This is the ideal scenario for hardware that is built from scratch. Implementation of EMC radiated emissions mitigation techniques can mature as the design progresses, with minimal impact to the design cycle. The real challenge exists for hardware that is planned to be flown following a built-to-print approach, in which heritage hardware from a past project with a different set of requirements is expected to perform satisfactorily for a new project. With acceptance of heritage, the design would already be established (circuit board layout and components have already been pre-determined), and hence any radiated emissions mitigation techniques would only be applicable at the packaging level. The key is to take a heritage design with its known radiated emissions spectrum and repackage, or modify its chassis design so that it would have a better chance of meeting the new project s radiated emissions requirements.

  14. Total dynamic response of a PSS vehicle negotiating asymmetric road excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian Jun; Khajepour, Amir; Esmailzadeh, Ebrahim

    2012-12-01

    A planar suspension system (PSS) is a novel automobile suspension system in which an individual spring-damper strut is implemented in both the vertical and longitudinal directions, respectively. The wheels in a vehicle with such a suspension system can move back and forth relative to the chassis. When a PSS vehicle experiences asymmetric road excitations, the relative longitudinal motion of wheels with respect to the chassis in two sides of the same axle are not identical, and thus the two wheels at one axle will not be aligned in the same axis. The total dynamic responses, including those of the bounce, pitch and the roll of the PSS vehicle, to the asymmetric road excitation may exhibit different characteristics from those of a conventional vehicle. This paper presents an investigation into the comprehensive dynamic behaviour of a vehicle with the PSS, in such a road condition, on both the straight and curved roads. The study was carried out using an 18 DOF full-car model incorporating a radial-spring tyre-ground contact model and a 2D tyre-ground dynamic friction model. Results demonstrate that the total dynamic behaviour of a PSS vehicle is generally comparable with that of the conventional vehicle, while PSS exhibits significant improvement in absorbing the impact forces along the longitudinal direction when compared to the conventional suspension system. The PSS vehicle is found to be more stable than the conventional vehicle in terms of the directional performance against the disturbance of the road potholes on a straight line manoeuvre, while exhibiting a very similar handling performance on a curved line.

  15. Design Concept for a Nuclear Reactor-Powered Mars Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, John O.; Lipinski, Ronald J.; Poston, David I.

    2003-01-01

    A study was recently carried out by a team from JPL and the DOE to investigate the utility of a DOE-developed 3 kWe surface fission power system for Mars missions. The team was originally tasked to perform a study to evaluate the usefulness and feasibility of incorporation of such a power system into a landed mission. In the course of the study it became clear that the application of such a power system was enabling to a wide variety of potential missions. Of these, two missions were developed, one for a stationary lander and one for a reactor-powered rover. This paper discusses the design of the rover mission, which was developed around the concept of incorporating the fission power system directly into a large rover chassis to provide high power, long range traverse capability. The rover design is based on a minimum extrapolation of technology, and adapts existing concepts developed at JPL for the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, lander and EDL systems. The small size of the reactor allowed its incorporation directly into an existing large MSL rover chassis design, allowing direct use of MSL aeroshell and pallet lander elements, beefed up to support the significantly greater mass involved in the nuclear power system and its associated shielding. This paper describes the unique design challenges encountered in the development of this mission architecture and incorporation of the fission power system in the rover, and presents a detailed description of the final design of this innovative concept for providing long range, long duration mobility on Mars.

  16. Evaluation of duty cycles for heavy-duty urban vehicles : final report of IEA AMF Annex 29

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nylund, N.O.; Erkkila, K. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Clark, N. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Rideout, G. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Environmental Technology Centre, Emissions Research and Measurement Div

    2007-07-01

    Heavy-duty vehicles in Europe and North America will require incylinder measures or exhaust gas after-treatment technology to control emissions and meet ever stringent emission requirements. Alternatively, manufacturers can choose clean burning alternative fuels such as natural gas. Although there are no international standards for heavy-duty vehicle chassis dynamometer testing at present, the IEA Implementing Agreements offer excellent platforms for international collaborative research. Harmonization of test methods for vehicles and fuels is one important task. This paper reported on the work of 3 laboratories that have produced emission results for complete heavy-duty vehicles. VTT Technical Research of Finland, Environment Canada and West Virginia University measured standard size urban buses driving various duty cycles on chassis dynamometers. The number of transient test cycles per laboratory varied from 6 to 16. European and North American diesel and natural gas vehicles were included in the vehicle matrix. The objective was to demonstrate how the driving cycle affects the emission performance of conventional and advanced urban buses. Several driving cycles were run on urban buses to better understand the characteristics of different duty cycles; produce a key for cross-interpretation of emission results generated with different cycles; and study the interaction between vehicle, exhaust after-treatment and fuel technologies and test procedures. Fuel consumption and exhaust emissions were measured. The results varied significantly not only by test cycle, but also by vehicle technology. In general, vehicles emissions were directly proportioned to the amount of fuel consumed, with the exception of NOx-emissions from SCR-vehicles. There was a clear difference in the emission profiles of European and North American vehicles. In Europe, fuel efficiency was emphasized, while in North America, more focus was given to regulated exhaust emissions, especially low

  17. Automatic Differential Principle and Control Strategy for 4WID-EV%4WID-EV的自动差速原理及控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何竞松; 陈世元

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on the limitation of the research on differential driving of four wheels independent drive electric vehicle (4WID-EV), which always takes power wheels as research object and neglects the effect of internal force adjustment of vehicle chassis, this paper establishes a vehicle longitudinal dynamics mathematical model with chassis internal force and tire lateral force. Automatic differential principle for 4WID-EV is studied through detailed analysis of the forces imposed on each wheel in the model and the control strategy of "suboptimal torque combination" is formulated. The virtual sample of the vehicle is constructed in Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems (ADAMS) and its mathematical model, differential and control performance are verified through simulation. Results show that the mathematical model is accurate and able to improve the automatic differential and control performance of the vehicle.%针对研究四轮独立驱动电动汽车差速行驶问题时仅以动力轮为研究对象而忽略车架内力调节作用的局限性.建立含有车架内力和车轮侧向力的汽车纵向动力学数学模型.通过对模型中各车轮的受力细分,研究四轮独立驱动电动汽车的自动差速原理,并制定“次最优转矩组合”的控制策略.在ADAMS中构建该车辆虚拟样机并对其数学模型、差速性能、控制性能进行仿真验证.结果表明,数学模型准确,车辆的自动差速性能和控制性能更佳.

  18. Modeling Heavy/Medium-Duty Fuel Consumption Based on Drive Cycle Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijuan; Duran, Adam; Gonder, Jeffrey; Kelly, Kenneth

    2015-10-13

    This paper presents multiple methods for predicting heavy/medium-duty vehicle fuel consumption based on driving cycle information. A polynomial model, a black box artificial neural net model, a polynomial neural network model, and a multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) model were developed and verified using data collected from chassis testing performed on a parcel delivery diesel truck operating over the Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT), City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle (CSHVC), New York Composite Cycle (NYCC), and hydraulic hybrid vehicle (HHV) drive cycles. Each model was trained using one of four drive cycles as a training cycle and the other three as testing cycles. By comparing the training and testing results, a representative training cycle was chosen and used to further tune each method. HHDDT as the training cycle gave the best predictive results, because HHDDT contains a variety of drive characteristics, such as high speed, acceleration, idling, and deceleration. Among the four model approaches, MARS gave the best predictive performance, with an average absolute percent error of -1.84% over the four chassis dynamometer drive cycles. To further evaluate the accuracy of the predictive models, the approaches were first applied to real-world data. MARS outperformed the other three approaches, providing an average absolute percent error of -2.2% of four real-world road segments. The MARS model performance was then compared to HHDDT, CSHVC, NYCC, and HHV drive cycles with the performance from Future Automotive System Technology Simulator (FASTSim). The results indicated that the MARS method achieved a comparative predictive performance with FASTSim.

  19. Design of a Mobile Radiation Detection System for Seaports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed a mobile radiation detection system for the U.S. Customs department. Based on the radiation detection instruments currently in use at many border crossings, the mobile radiation portal monitor (mRPM) consists of two Ludlum 4500-3000 detector panels, a package of sensors and a sensor integration module mounted to a medium duty truck chassis. The sensor package detects the presence of scanning targets (containers) and uses this to control operation of the detectors. The mRPM is designed to scan containerized cargo at seaports. A single mRPM can be driven past grounded or chassis-mounted containers (both sides of the container must be scanned for complete coverage), or a pair of mRPM systems can be parked opposite one another to form a relocatable portal. This rapidly reconfigurable system has proven to be very useful for targeted scanning of containers at multiple seaports. Since seaports are frequently space-constrained and contain few chokepoints, mobile systems that can be easily relocated allow customs operators to effectively scan cargo with minimal interference with the flow of commerce. Operators previously trained in the use of the stationary radiation portal monitors require minimal additional training to use the mRPM systems. The medium duty trucks employed are similar to one-ton crew cab pickup trucks, and a commercial driver's license is not required to operate them. In addition to successful deployments at seaports, the mRPM units have proven useful in other applications, such as preliminary characterization of rail cargo and targeted scanning at special events (political conventions)

  20. 农用车底盘偏置转向轴驱动轮运动与动力特性试验%Experiment on movement and dynamic property of driving wheel with offset steering shaft for agricultural vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋树杰; 瞿济伟; 李翊宁; 郭康权; 周伟

    2015-01-01

    A flexible chassis is a four-wheel-independent-drive and four-wheel-independent-steer electric vehicle chassis with 4 driving wheels. It can make omnidirectional motions and every driving wheel has an offset steering shaft, which means the rotating surface of the wheel is not coplanar with the steering axis, so that the chassis can make a turn using the force of the wheel. This paper presented a new type of test bench, which was built based on the working characteristics of the driving wheel, in order to resolve some key issues about the dynamics of the driving wheel based on offset steering shaft. The feature of this bench was that steering center of the offset shaft shared the same axis with the center of horizontal turntable below the wheel to simulate its moving on the ground. And a force sensor was connected between the forks of the wheel and the frame of the bench. The force analysis showed the traction force and the power for the steering of the offset shaft. And a record and display software was designed for the bench based on Visual Basic 6.0. First, we completed the whole structure design and analyzed the working principle of the device. Horizontal rotary table drove by the same driving wheel was installed, and its rotary center was the same axis with the steering shaft of the driving wheel which was connected to the frame through the bracket;the sensor was used to test the traction force of the driving wheel moving on the horizontal turntable, and keeping its levelness was supported by 4 small wheels connected to the frame. Second, a test system based on Visual Basic 6.0 was developed to show and record the data of the rotation speed, current and force. And according to the working characteristics of this bench, we analyzed the forces for the driving wheel and its fork, and a model was built and the simulation was carried out based on MATLAB/SIMULINK to make a comparison with the test data. Finally, by testing the bench, we recorded variables, such as

  1. Evaluation of using ferrofluid as an interface material for a field-reversible thermal connector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Ahmed S.

    The electrical functionality of an avionics chassis is limited due to heat dissipation limits. The limits arise due to the fact that components in an avionic computer boxes are packed very compactly, with the components mounted onto plug-in cards, and the harsh environment experienced by the chassis limits how heat can be dissipated from the cards. Convective and radiative heat transfer to the ambient are generally not possible. Therefore it is necessary to have heat transferred from the components conducted to the edge of the plug-in cards. The heat then needs to conduct from the card edge to a cold block that not only holds the card in place, but also removes the generated heat by some heat transfer fluid that is circulated through the cold block. The interface between the plug-in card and the cold block typically has a high thermal resistance since it is necessary for the card to have the capability to be re-workable, meaning that the card can be removed and then returned to the chassis. Reducing the thermal resistance of the interface is the objective of the current study and the topic of this thesis. The current design uses a pressure interface between the card and cold block. The contact pressure is increased through the addition of a wedgelock, which is a field-reversible mechanical connector. To use a wedgelock, the cold block has channels milled on the surface with widths that are larger than the thickness of the plug-in card and the un-expanded wedgelock. The card edge is placed in the channel and placed against one of the channel walls. A wedgelock is then placed between the card and the other channel wall. The wedgelock is then expanded by using either a screw or a lever. As the wedgelock expands it fills in the remaining channel gap and bears against the other face of the plug-in card. The majority of heat generated by the components on the plug-in card is forced to conduct from the card into the wall of the cold block, effectively a single sided, dry

  2. Advanced Electric Systems and Aerodynamics for Efficiency Improvements in Heavy Duty Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Slone; Jeffrey Birkel

    2007-10-31

    The Advanced Electric Systems and Aerodynamics for Efficiency Improvements in Heavy Duty Trucks program (DE-FC26-04NT42189), commonly referred to as the AES program, focused on areas that will primarily benefit fuel economy and improve heat rejection while driving over the road. The AES program objectives were to: (1) Analyze, design, build, and test a cooling system that provided a minimum of 10 percent greater heat rejection in the same frontal area with no increase in parasitic fan load. (2) Realize fuel savings with advanced power management and acceleration assist by utilizing an integrated starter/generator (ISG) and energy storage devices. (3) Quantify the effect of aerodynamic drag due to the frontal shape mandated by the area required for the cooling system. The program effort consisted of modeling and designing components for optimum fuel efficiency, completing fabrication of necessary components, integrating these components into the chassis test bed, completing controls programming, and performance testing the system both on a chassis dynamometer and on the road. Emission control measures for heavy-duty engines have resulted in increased engine heat loads, thus introducing added parasitic engine cooling loads. Truck electrification, in the form of thermal management, offers technological solutions to mitigate or even neutralize the effects of this trend. Thermal control offers opportunities to avoid increases in cooling system frontal area and forestall reduced fuel economy brought about by additional aerodynamic vehicle drag. This project explored such thermal concepts by installing a 2007 engine that is compliant with current regulations and bears additional heat rejection associated with meeting these regulations. This newer engine replaced the 2002 engine from a previous project that generated less heat rejection. Advanced power management, utilizing a continuously optimized and controlled power flow between electric components, can offer additional

  3. Mitigation Emission Strategy Based on Resonances from a Power Inverter System in Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Large dv/dt and di/dt outputs of power devices in the DC-fed motor power inverter can generate conducted and/or radiated emissions through parasitics that interfere with low voltage electric systems in electric vehicles (EVs and nearby vehicles. The electromagnetic interference (EMI filters, ferrite chokes, and shielding added in the product process based on the “black box” approach can reduce the emission levels in a specific frequency range. However, these countermeasures may also introduce an unexpected increase in EMI noises in other frequency ranges due to added capacitances and inductances in filters resonating with elements of the power inverter, and even increase the weight and dimension of the power inverter system in EVs with limited space. In order to predict the interaction between the mitigation techniques and power inverter geometry, an accurate model of the system is needed. A power inverter system was modeled based on series of two-port network measurements to study the impact of EMI generated by power devices on radiated emission of AC cables. Parallel resonances within the circuit can cause peaks in the S21 (transmission coefficient between the phase-node-to-chassis voltage and the center-conductor-to-shield voltage of the AC cable connecting to the motor and Z11 (input impedance at Port 1 between the Insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT phase node and chassis at those resonance frequencies and result in enlarged noise voltage peaks at Port 1. The magnitude of S21 between two ports was reduced to decrease the amount of energy coupled from the noise source between the phase node and chassis to the end of the AC cable by lowering the corresponding quality factor. The equivalent circuits were built by analyzing current-following paths at three critical resonance frequencies. Interference voltage peaks can be suppressed by mitigating the resonances. The capacitances and inductances generating the parallel resonances and

  4. Transportable Heavy Duty Emissions Testing Laboratory and Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Lyons

    2008-03-31

    The objective of this program was to quantify the emissions from heavy-duty vehicles operating on alternative fuels or advanced fuel blends, often with novel engine technology or aftertreatment. In the first year of the program West Virginia University (WVU) researchers determined that a transportable chassis dynamometer emissions measurement approach was required so that fleets of trucks and buses did not need to be ferried across the nation to a fixed facility. A Transportable Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emissions Testing Laboratory (Translab) was designed, constructed and verified. This laboratory consisted of a chassis dynamometer semi-trailer and an analytic trailer housing a full scale exhaust dilution tunnel and sampling system which mimicked closely the system described in the Code of Federal Regulations for engine certification. The Translab was first used to quantify emissions from natural gas and methanol fueled transit buses, and a second Translab unit was constructed to satisfy research demand. Subsequent emissions measurement was performed on trucks and buses using ethanol, Fischer-Tropsch fuel, and biodiesel. A medium-duty chassis dynamometer was also designed and constructed to facilitate research on delivery vehicles in the 10,000 to 20,000lb range. The Translab participated in major programs to evaluate low-sulfur diesel in conjunction with passively regenerating exhaust particulate filtration technology, and substantial reductions in particulate matter were recorded. The researchers also participated in programs to evaluate emissions from advanced natural gas engines with closed loop feedback control. These natural gas engines showed substantially reduced levels of oxides of nitrogen. For all of the trucks and buses characterized, the levels of carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide and particulate matter were quantified, and in many cases non-regulated species such as aldehydes were also sampled. Particle size was also

  5. Design of the Automatic Four-wheel Driving and Four-wheel Steering Chassis’ s Electric Control System%四轮驱动四轮转向自动驾驶底盘的电控系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玫瑾; 魏新华

    2016-01-01

    为了提高植保机械作业精度、降低驾驶员操作难度,设计了一种高地隙全液压四轮驱动四轮转向自动驾驶底盘。本文介绍了底盘的整体结构,重点阐述了电控系统的结构与工作原理。该电控系统以EPCS-8980为上位机、DSP56F805信号控制器为核心、基于CAN 总线进行通讯,行车状态参数采集器接收各传感器采集的行车参数信息,并通过 CAN 总线发送到车载电脑和行车控制器,行车控制器根据车载电脑指令和各传感器参数,按照行车控制模型生成控制指令,并通过各电磁阀独立控制4个液压马达和4个转向油缸,实现底盘的行车控制。同时,对电控系统进行了测试,测试结果表明:该电控系统实现了对液压元器件的控制,保证了其运行的可靠性,可满足实际作业要求,同时该电控系统也可用于通用自主移动平台上。%In order to improve the accuracy of plant protection machinery operations , and reduce the difficulty of driver ’ s operations, this paper presents a high clearance full hydraulic and automatic four-wheel driving and four-wheel steer-ing chassis .The overall structure of the chassis was produced , and also the electric control system was mainly presented . The electric control system was designed with its vehicular computer EPCS-8980,core part DSP56F805, communication via CAN-bus.The driving parameters were collected by each sensor , and each sensor signals collected by the driving da-ta collector transmitted to the vehicular computer and the driving controller via CAN-bus.According to instructions of the vehicular computer and the parameters of the sensors , the driving controller generated the controlling instruction under the traffic controlling model , the four hydraulic motors and the four steering cylinders were controlled by each electromagnetic valve , and thus the chassis could be controlled to drive and steer .The tests of the

  6. Methods for driveability improvement in Formula 1 engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinelli, P.; Bollini, M. [Ferrari Gestione Sportiva, Maranello (Italy); Schoeggl, P.; Mundorff, F. [AVL List GmbH, Graz (Austria)

    2001-07-01

    Driveability is a very important criterion for the success of Formula 1 engines, in addition to engine performance, fuel consumption, reliability, weight, size and stiffness. Driving on the limit of the car is very demanding for both the driver and all the components of a race car, ranging from aerodynamics, chassis, tyres, brakes and suspension to the engine. Beside of the gear position, the driver has only two means of control for holding his vehicle as close as possible to the limit, namely the steering wheel and the accelerator pedal. A good relationship between pedal position and the engine torque, which is foreseeable and even over a wide range of torque and load for all transient conditions, is a very important requirement for the engine. It enables the reduction of lap time, fuel consumption and tyre wear. Due to the engine design for highest specific power, this places the highest demands on the development and optimisation of Formula 1 engines. This paper illustrates the behaviour of a racing car on the limit, requirements for the engine, criteria relevant for driveability, the boundary conditions determined by regulations and ways for optimising engine behaviour. For the work presented here, a procedure for the analysis/objective assessment/improvement of subjective driving perception was applied, which was originally conceived for series production. Hence the paper describes an example of successful technology transfer from series production to racing. (orig.) [German] Eine gute Fahrbarkeit bildet neben Motorleistung, Kraftstoffverbrauch, Zuverlaessigkeit, Gewicht, Groesse und Steifigkeit ein wesentliches Kriterium fuer den Erfolg von Formel 1 Motoren. Das optimale Fahren im Grenzbereich des Fahrzeuges als Erfolgsfaktor der F1, stellt hohe Anforderungen an den Fahrer und an alle Komponenten eines Rennfahrzeuges, von der Aerodynamik, Chassis, Reifen, Bremsen und Radaufhaengung, bis hin zum Motor. Der Fahrer hat, neben der Wahl des Ganges, nur zwei

  7. The design of the Comet streamliner: An electric land speed record motorcycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Ethan Alexander

    The development of the land speed record electric motorcycle streamliner, the Comet, is discussed herein. Its design process includes a detailed literary review of past and current motorcycle streamliners in an effort to highlight the main components of such a vehicle's design, while providing baseline data for performance comparisons. A new approach to balancing a streamliner at low speeds is also addressed, a system henceforth referred to as landing gear, which has proven an effective means for allowing the driver to control the low speed instabilities of the vehicle with relative ease compared to tradition designs. This is accompanied by a dynamic stability analysis conducted on a test chassis that was developed for the primary purpose of understanding the handling dynamics of streamliners, while also providing a test bed for the implementation of the landing gear system and a means to familiarize the driver to the operation and handling of such a vehicle. Data gathered through the use of GPS based velocity tracking, accelerometers, and a linear potentiometer provided a means to validate a dynamic stability analysis of the weave and wobble modes of the vehicle through linearization of a streamliner model developed in the BikeSIM software suite. Results indicate agreement between the experimental data and the simulation, indicating that the conventional recumbent design of a streamliner chassis is in fact highly stable throughout the performance envelope beyond extremely low speeds. A computational fluid dynamics study was also performed, utilized in the development of the body of the Comet to which a series of tests were conducted in order to develop a shape that was both practical to transport and highly efficient. By creating a hybrid airfoil from a NACA 0018 and NACA 66-018, a drag coefficient of 0.1 and frontal area of 0.44 m2 has been found for the final design. Utilizing a performance model based on the proposed vehicle's motor, its rolling resistance, and

  8. Impacto de um programa de avaliação da qualidade da imagem nos serviços de mamografia do Distrito Federal Impact of a program of diagnostic imaging quality control in mammography centers of the Federal District, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela da Silveira Corrêa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Esta pesquisa visou a avaliar a qualidade dos serviços de mamografia do Distrito Federal e o impacto de uma intervenção de inspeção e capacitação. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 41 serviços de mamografia no Distrito Federal no período de 2000 a 2002. A intervenção consistiu na inspeção inicial seguida de um treinamento e notificação oficial da Vigilância Sanitária. Os resultados de qualidade da imagem foram comparados "antes" e "depois" da intervenção. RESULTADOS: O estudo demonstrou que dos 36 serviços que completaram a pesquisa, nenhum estava acima de 90% de conformidade antes da intervenção. Após a intervenção, dez unidades atingiram mais de 90%. As principais melhorias foram em relação aos chassis, compressão da mama e visualização de microcalcificações. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar de o Distrito Federal dispor de muitos serviços, na sua maioria não eram de qualidade. A intervenção foi eficaz para a melhoria da qualidade, porém, torna-se necessária uma ação continuada para resolver os problemas restantes e aumentar o impacto.OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed at evaluating the quality and the impact of an intervention involving inspection and education in mammography centers of the Federal District, Brazil. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty one mammography centers in the Federal District were studied in the period between 2000 and 2002. The intervention involved an initial inspection followed by a training activity and notification of mammography centers by the Federal District Sanitary Vigilance authority. The imaging quality was compared before and after the intervention. RESULTS: None of the 36 centers which completed the study reached more than 90% compliance with the standard imaging quality prior to the interventions, whereas ten were above 90% afterwards. Major improvements were observed in chassis maintenance, breast compression and visualization of microcalcifications. CONCLUSION

  9. Test bed for real-time image acquisition and processing systems based on FlexRIO, CameraLink, and EPICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, E., E-mail: eduardo.barrera@upm.es [Grupo de Investigación en Instrumentación y Acústica Aplicada, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM) (Spain); Ruiz, M.; Sanz, D. [Grupo de Investigación en Instrumentación y Acústica Aplicada, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM) (Spain); Vega, J.; Castro, R. [Asociación EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusión, Madrid (Spain); Juárez, E.; Salvador, R. [Centro de Investigación en Tecnologías Software y Sistemas Multimedia para la Sostenibilidad, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM) (Spain)

    2014-05-15

    Highlights: • The test bed allows for the validation of real-time image processing techniques. • Offers FPGA (FlexRIO) image processing that does not require CPU intervention. • Is fully compatible with the architecture of the ITER Fast Controllers. • Provides flexibility and easy integration in distributed experiments based on EPICS. - Abstract: Image diagnostics are becoming standard ones in nuclear fusion. At present, images are typically analyzed off-line. However, real-time processing is occasionally required (for instance, hot-spot detection or pattern recognition tasks), which will be the objective for the next generation of fusion devices. In this paper, a test bed for image generation, acquisition, and real-time processing is presented. The proposed solution is built using a Camera Link simulator, a Camera Link frame-grabber, a PXIe chassis, and offers software interface with EPICS. The Camera Link simulator (PCIe card PCIe8 DVa C-Link from Engineering Design Team) generates simulated image data (for example, from video-movies stored in fusion databases) using a Camera Link interface to mimic the frame sequences produced with diagnostic cameras. The Camera Link frame-grabber (FlexRIO Solution from National Instruments) includes a field programmable gate array (FPGA) for image acquisition using a Camera Link interface; the FPGA allows for the codification of ad-hoc image processing algorithms using LabVIEW/FPGA software. The frame grabber is integrated in a PXIe chassis with system architecture similar to that of the ITER Fast Controllers, and the frame grabber provides a software interface with EPICS to program all of its functionalities, capture the images, and perform the required image processing. The use of these four elements allows for the implementation of a test bed system that permits the development and validation of real-time image processing techniques in an architecture that is fully compatible with that of the ITER Fast Controllers

  10. Impact of an evaluation quality program of mammography service of Distrito Federal - Brasil; Impacto de um programa de avaliacao da qualidade dos servicos de mamografia do Distrito Federal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Rosangela da Silveira

    2002-07-01

    Cancer is the second cause of death for Brazilian women and breast cancer is the most common neoplasm amongst women. Mammography is an essential tool for diagnosis and early detection of this disease. In order to be effective, the mammography must be of good quality. This study sought to evaluate the quality of these services in the Federal District and the impact of an intervention involving inspection and education. The universe of 41 mammography services in the Federal District was studied between June and August 2001. Two instruments were used 1) a proposed evaluation protocol of the National Agency for Health Surveillance (ANVISA) and 2) a protocol for evaluation of image quality and care. The intervention included the initial inspection, a training activity, and a formal notification by the health authorities of the Federal District. Image quality was compared before and after the intervention. The existing infrastructure in the DF is of good quality, but the services have low productivity, they do not treat patients sent by the public health system, they have an inadequate geographic distribution with most in the central neighborhood, and the low income female population has restricted access to early detection of cancer. Of the 36 services who completed the study, none was above 90% conformity in image quality before the interventions, whereas 10 were above 90% afterwards. The greatest improvements were in chassis maintenance (services without chassis with defects went from 10 to 25), breast compression (services in conformity went from 7 to 20) and visualization of micro calcifications (32 services in conformity before and 35 afterwards). The results of the ANVISA protocol bore no relation to final image quality, a central issue for early cancer detection. In spite of the existence of many services, most were not of quality and population access was restricted. The intervention under study was shown to be effective for improving quality, nevertheless

  11. ArgusE: Design and Development of a Micro-Spectrometer used for Remote Earth and Atmospheric Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsouvaltsidis, C.; Bernari, G.; Salem, N.; Quine, B.; Lee, R.

    In this paper we will discuss the design and development of the ArgusE. The ArgusE is a micro-spectrometer which has been developed for Earth and atmospheric monitoring purposes. The project is primarily focused on using the ArgusE micro-spectrometer in order to ascertain whether it is possible to obtain surface soil moisture content measurements from space using its short-wave infrared detector. The secondary objective of the project is to quantify greenhouse gases that could be studied within new spectral range. The ArgusE is built on Argus 1000 micro-spectrometer design and spaceflight heritage. Currently, on the CanX-2 mission launched in 2008, the Argus 1000 micro-spectrometer observes the infrared solar radiation reflected by Earth surface targets as small as 1.5 km2 and the atmosphere (aerosols, clouds, and constituents). Over the past five years that Argus 1000 has been in operation, we have accumulated more than 200 observations from a series of land and ocean targets. It was followed by the SRMSAT, launched in 2011 (India). Currently all space-based Argus 1000s are collecting Earth and atmospheric observation data within the 0.9-1.7 micrometers spectral range, with special focus on CO2 and other greenhouse gases, and cloud and coastline detection. GENSPECT, a line-by-line radiative Matlab-based toolbox is used to calculate gas absorption and emissivity for a custom grouping of atmospheric gases. Given gas types and amounts, temperature, pressure, path length and frequency range for an atmosphere or laboratory cell, GENSPECT computes the spectral characteristics of the gas mixture. The resulting models used to discover the potential monitoring of atmospheric greenhouse gases and topical soil moisture content will be discussed and displayed graphically. In addition, this paper will showcase the chassis redesign and change of electronics which allow the ArgusE to now showcase the spectral region of 1.7 to 2.2 micrometers. It will also discuss the laboratory

  12. Converting Carbon Dioxide to Butyrate with an Engineered Strain of Clostridium ljungdahlii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueki, T; Nevin, KP; Woodard, TL; Lovley, DR

    2014-08-26

    Microbial conversion of carbon dioxide to organic commodities via syngas metabolism or microbial electrosynthesis is an attractive option for production of renewable biocommodities. The recent development of an initial genetic toolbox for the acetogen Clostridium ljungdahlii has suggested that C. ljungdahlii may be an effective chassis for such conversions. This possibility was evaluated by engineering a strain to produce butyrate, a valuable commodity that is not a natural product of C. ljungdahlii metabolism. Heterologous genes required for butyrate production from acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) were identified and introduced initially on plasmids and in subsequent strain designs integrated into the C. ljungdahlii chromosome. Iterative strain designs involved increasing translation of a key enzyme by modifying a ribosome binding site, inactivating the gene encoding the first step in the conversion of acetyl-CoA to acetate, disrupting the gene which encodes the primary bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase for ethanol production, and interrupting the gene for a CoA transferase that potentially represented an alternative route for the production of acetate. These modifications yielded a strain in which ca. 50 or 70% of the carbon and electron flow was diverted to the production of butyrate with H-2 or CO as the electron donor, respectively. These results demonstrate the possibility of producing high-value commodities from carbon dioxide with C. ljungdahlii as the catalyst. IMPORTANCE The development of a microbial chassis for efficient conversion of carbon dioxide directly to desired organic products would greatly advance the environmentally sustainable production of biofuels and other commodities. Clostridium ljungdahlii is an effective catalyst for microbial electrosynthesis, a technology in which electricity generated with renewable technologies, such as solar or wind, powers the conversion of carbon dioxide and water to organic products. Other electron donors

  13. Exhaust emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, n-alkanes and phenols from vehicles coming within different European classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Maria Grazia; Carbone, Claudio; Faedo, Davide; Ferrero, Luca; Maggioni, Angela; Sangiorgi, Giorgia; Bolzacchini, Ezio

    2014-01-01

    EU emission standards for vehicles do not include many particulate (PM) and gaseous species, despite their considerable impact on air pollution and health. Emission factors (EFs) were measured for unregulated species, i.e. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and n-alkanes (ALKs) in the particle phase, and, for the first time, EFs for phenols in both particle and gas phases. Exhaust samples were collected under controlled operating conditions (chassis dynamometer tests) for in-service vehicles (private cars, PCs and light duty vehicles, LDVs) from different EURO classes. EFs of trace organics were highest for the old EURO 1 vehicles (the tested EURO 1 vehicles were without emission-control devices), and lowest for the more recent EURO 3 and 4 vehicles. ALKs (C20-C32) were the most abundant trace organic compounds found in PM vehicle exhaust, and their EF ranged between 2034 and 101 μg km-1 (Euro 1-4 LDVs). PM-phased phenols EFs were in the range 0.42-2.50 μg km-1, and 4-nitrophenol was the most abundant one. The highest EFs were measured for phenols in the gas phase (dominated by the presence of phenol) for gasoline EURO 1 (43.16 ± 9.99 μg km-1). Emissions of PAHs changed depending on the fuel used. The PAH EFs of diesel-driven PCs were 4-5 times higher than those of gasoline vehicles, with PAHs diesel exhaust being mainly enriched in low 4-ring PAHs (85%), while 5-6 ring PAHs were prevalent (55%) in gasoline vehicles. Results of source profiles from chassis dynamometer tests were compared with ambient data, and the traffic PAH source profile derived from a tunnel study (Milan) agreed with the estimated emissions from a mix of diesel and gasoline vehicles circulating in the same area. Moreover, the impact of EURO regulatory changes on exhaust emissions was calculated, and this made it possible to estimate the downward trend of PAH emissions in the Province of Milan in the period 2005-2020.

  14. Impact of an evaluation quality program of mammography service of Distrito Federal - Brasil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer is the second cause of death for Brazilian women and breast cancer is the most common neoplasm amongst women. Mammography is an essential tool for diagnosis and early detection of this disease. In order to be effective, the mammography must be of good quality. This study sought to evaluate the quality of these services in the Federal District and the impact of an intervention involving inspection and education. The universe of 41 mammography services in the Federal District was studied between June and August 2001. Two instruments were used 1) a proposed evaluation protocol of the National Agency for Health Surveillance (ANVISA) and 2) a protocol for evaluation of image quality and care. The intervention included the initial inspection, a training activity, and a formal notification by the health authorities of the Federal District. Image quality was compared before and after the intervention. The existing infrastructure in the DF is of good quality, but the services have low productivity, they do not treat patients sent by the public health system, they have an inadequate geographic distribution with most in the central neighborhood, and the low income female population has restricted access to early detection of cancer. Of the 36 services who completed the study, none was above 90% conformity in image quality before the interventions, whereas 10 were above 90% afterwards. The greatest improvements were in chassis maintenance (services without chassis with defects went from 10 to 25), breast compression (services in conformity went from 7 to 20) and visualization of micro calcifications (32 services in conformity before and 35 afterwards). The results of the ANVISA protocol bore no relation to final image quality, a central issue for early cancer detection. In spite of the existence of many services, most were not of quality and population access was restricted. The intervention under study was shown to be effective for improving quality, nevertheless

  15. Desenvolvimento e testes de uma semeadora-adubadora modular para pequenas propriedades rurais Development and test of a modular seeder - fertilizer for small countryside properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Arend

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho apresenta o desenvolvimento e testes de campo de equipamento agrícola modular. Para o desenvolvimento do equipamento, foi utilizada metodologia de projeto para sistemas modulares. O objetivo principal foi desenvolver um sistema modular que contribuísse para melhorar o atual quadro de mecanização agrícola da pequena propriedade rural, enfocando alguns dos equipamentos destinados às atividades conservacionistas de cultivo. Por ser modular, o equipamento atende às funções de semear-adubar, escarificar e sulcar o solo. Para a função semear-adubar, podem ser usados cinzéis e disco duplo para a semeadura; já para as funções de escarificação e sulcagem, podem ser usadas ferramentas específicas, facilmente intercambiadas em um chassi tubular principal. Os resultados para solo argiloso (Typic Oxisols, com umidade em torno de 20,5% e massa seca de 11,5 t ha-1 para a variante semeadora-adubadora com duplo cinzel, foram satisfatórios com relação aos parâmetros de patinagem das rodas motoras, regularidade de distribuição em profundidade, cobertura das sementes, distribuição longitudinal das sementes e emergência de plantas.This work presents the development and field tests of a modular agricultural implement. A Modular Design Product methodology was used for the implement development, and the main objective was the development of a modular system to improve the actual situation of mechanization on small countryside properties. The development focus was kept on some implements for conservative cultivation. For its modularity, the implement developed attained the functions of seeding - fertilizing, scarification and furrowing the soil. For the function of seeding-fertilizing can be used either narrow chisels or double disc, for the furrowing function a specific tool can be used. The main tubular chassis allowed an easily interchangeability between both functions (seed-season and furrow-season. The results for Typical

  16. Test bed for real-time image acquisition and processing systems based on FlexRIO, CameraLink, and EPICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The test bed allows for the validation of real-time image processing techniques. • Offers FPGA (FlexRIO) image processing that does not require CPU intervention. • Is fully compatible with the architecture of the ITER Fast Controllers. • Provides flexibility and easy integration in distributed experiments based on EPICS. - Abstract: Image diagnostics are becoming standard ones in nuclear fusion. At present, images are typically analyzed off-line. However, real-time processing is occasionally required (for instance, hot-spot detection or pattern recognition tasks), which will be the objective for the next generation of fusion devices. In this paper, a test bed for image generation, acquisition, and real-time processing is presented. The proposed solution is built using a Camera Link simulator, a Camera Link frame-grabber, a PXIe chassis, and offers software interface with EPICS. The Camera Link simulator (PCIe card PCIe8 DVa C-Link from Engineering Design Team) generates simulated image data (for example, from video-movies stored in fusion databases) using a Camera Link interface to mimic the frame sequences produced with diagnostic cameras. The Camera Link frame-grabber (FlexRIO Solution from National Instruments) includes a field programmable gate array (FPGA) for image acquisition using a Camera Link interface; the FPGA allows for the codification of ad-hoc image processing algorithms using LabVIEW/FPGA software. The frame grabber is integrated in a PXIe chassis with system architecture similar to that of the ITER Fast Controllers, and the frame grabber provides a software interface with EPICS to program all of its functionalities, capture the images, and perform the required image processing. The use of these four elements allows for the implementation of a test bed system that permits the development and validation of real-time image processing techniques in an architecture that is fully compatible with that of the ITER Fast Controllers

  17. Analysis of vehicle exhaust waste heat recovery potential using a Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluates the vehicle exhaust WHR (waste heat recovery) potential using a RC (Rankine cycle ). To this end, both a RC thermodynamic model and a heat exchanger model have been developed. Both models use as input, experimental data obtained from a vehicle tested on a chassis dynamometer. The thermodynamic analysis was performed for water, R123 and R245fa and revealed the advantage of using water as the working fluid in applications of thermal recovery from exhaust gases of vehicles equipped with a spark-ignition engine. Moreover, the heat exchanger effectiveness for the organic working fluids R123 and R245fa is higher than that for the water and, consequently, they can also be considered appropriate for use in vehicle WHR applications through RCs when the exhaust gas temperatures are relatively low. For an ideal heat exchanger, the simulations revealed increases in the internal combustion engine thermal and vehicle mechanical efficiencies of 1.4%–3.52% and 10.16%–15.95%, respectively, while for a shell and tube heat exchanger, the simulations showed an increase of 0.85%–1.2% in the thermal efficiency and an increase of 2.64%–6.96% in the mechanical efficiency for an evaporating pressure of 2 MPa. The results confirm the advantages of using the thermal energy contained in the vehicle exhaust gases through RCs. Furthermore, the present analysis demonstrates that improved evaporator designs and appropriate expander devices allowing for higher evaporating pressures are required to obtain the maximum WHR potential from vehicle RC systems. -- Highlights: ► This study evaluates the vehicle exhaust waste heat recovery potential using Rankine cycle systems. ► A thermodynamic model and a heat exchanger model were developed. ► Experimental data obtained in a vehicle tested on a chassis dynamometer was used as models input. ► Thermodynamic analysis was performed for water, R123 and R245fa. ► Results confirm advantages of using the thermal energy

  18. Reviving a medical wearable computer for teaching purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenger, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In 1978 the author constructed a medical wearable computer using an early CMOS microprocessor and support chips. This device was targeted for use by health-conscious consumers and other early adopters. Its expandable functions included weight management, blood pressure control, diabetes care, medication reminders, smoking cessation, pediatric growth and development, simple medical database, digital communication with a doctor’s office and emergency alert system. Various physiological sensors could be plugged-into the calculator-sized chassis. The device was shown to investor groups but funding was not obtained; by 1992 the author ceased pursuing it. The Computing and Mathematics Chair at a local University, a NASA acquaintance, approached the author to mentor a CS capstone course for Summer 2012. With the author’s guidance, five students proceeded to convert this medical wearable computer design to an iPhone-based implementation using the Apple Xcode Developer Kit and other utilities. The final student device contained a body mass index (BMI) calculator, an emergency alert for 911 or other first responders, a medication reminder, a Doctor’s appointment feature, a medical database, medical Internet links, and a pediatric growth & development guide. The students’ final imple-mentation was successfully demonstrated on an actual iPhone 4 at the CS capstone meeting in mid-Summer. PMID:25405429

  19. HERMES travels by CAN bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Lewis G.; Shortridge, Keith; Farrell, Tony J.; Vuong, Minh; Muller, Rolf; Sheinis, Andrew I.

    2014-07-01

    The new HERMES spectrograph represents the first foray by AAO into the use of commercial off-the-shelf industrial field bus technology for instrument control, and we regard the final system, with its relatively simple wiring requirements, as a great success. However, both software and hardware teams had to work together to solve a number of problems integrating the chosen CANopen/CAN bus system into our normal observing systems. A Linux system running in an industrial PC chassis ran the HERMES control software, using a PCI CAN bus interface connected to a number of distributed CANopen/CAN bus I/O devices and servo amplifiers. In the main, the servo amplifiers performed impressively, although some experimentation with homing algorithms was required, and we hit a significant hurdle when we discovered that we needed to disable some of the encoders used during observations; we learned a lot about how servo amplifiers respond when their encoders are turned off, and about how encoders react to losing power. The software was based around a commercial CANopen library from Copley Controls. Early worries about how this heavily multithreaded library would work with our standard data acquisition system led to the development of a very low-level CANopen software simulator to verify the design. This also enabled the software group to develop and test almost all the control software well in advance of the construction of the hardware. In the end, the instrument went from initial installation at the telescope to successful commissioning remarkably smoothly.

  20. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COMPOSITION AND TOXICITY OF ENGINE EMISSION SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    (1)Mauderly, J; Seagrave, J; McDonald; J (2)Eide,I (3)Zielinska, B (4)Lawson, D

    2003-08-24

    Differences in the lung toxicity and bacterial mutagenicity of seven samples from gasoline and diesel vehicle emissions were reported previously [1]. Filter and vapor-phase semivolatile organic samples were collected from normal and high-emitter gasoline and diesel vehicles operated on chassis dynamometers on the Unified Driving Cycle, and the compositions of the samples were measured in detail. The two fractions of each sample were combined in their original mass collection ratios, and the toxicity of the seven samples was compared by measuring inflammation and tissue damage in rat lungs and mutagenicity in bacteria. There was good agreement among the toxicity response variables in ranking the samples and demonstrating a five-fold range of toxicity. The relationship between chemical composition and toxicity was analyzed by a combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares regression (PLS, also known as projection to latent surfaces). The PCA /PLS analysis revealed the chemical constituents co-varying most strongly with toxicity and produced models predicting the relative toxicity of the samples with good accuracy. The results demonstrated the utility of the PCA/PLS approach, which is now being applied to additional samples, and it also provided a starting point for confirming the compounds that actually cause the effects.

  1. Regulated and nonregulated diesel and gasoline cold start emissions at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weilenmann, Martin; Soltic, Patrik; Saxer, Christian; Forss, Anna-Maria; Heeb, Norbert

    The emissions of modern cars are usually reduced in warm engine conditions by catalysts. Consequently emissions are significantly higher during the cold start, i.e. the warm-up phase of the car. The duration of this period and the emissions produced during it depend on the ambient temperature as well as on the initial temperature of the car's systems. The cold start emissions of Euro-3 gasoline cars, Euro-2 diesel cars and old pre-Euro-1 gasoline cars were investigated at cold ambient temperatures. Since the goal was to get real-world emissions, the measurements were done with cars belonging to private owners taken straight from the road with no maintenance. The chassis dynamometer tests were carried out at +23, -7 and -20 °C. The test cycle employed is a representative urban ride from a real-world driving behaviour study. Besides the regulated pollutants, methane, benzene and toluene were also measured online by chemical ionisation mass spectrometry.

  2. Effect of organometallic fuel additives on nanoparticle emissions from a gasoline passenger car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidney, Jeremy T; Twigg, Martyn V; Kittelson, David B

    2010-04-01

    Particle size measurements were performed on the exhaust of a car operating on a chassis dynamometer fueled with standard gasoline and gasoline containing low levels of Pb, Fe, and Mn organometallic additives. When additives were present there was a distinct nucleation mode consisting primarily of sub-10 nm nanoparticles. At equal molar dosing Mn and Fe gave similar nanoparticle concentrations at the tailpipe, whereas Pb gave a considerably lower concentration. A catalytic stripper was used to remove the organic component of these particles and revealed that they were mainly solid and, because of their association with inorganic additives, presumably inorganic. Solid nucleation mode nanoparticles of similar size and concentration to those observed here from a gasoline engine with Mn and Fe additives have also been observed from modern heavy-duty diesel engines without aftertreatment at idle, but these solid particles are a small fraction of the primarily volatile nucleation mode particles emitted. The solid nucleation mode particles emitted by the diesel engines are likely derived from metal compounds in the lubrication oil, although carbonaceous particles cannot be ruled out. Significantly, most of these solid nanoparticles emitted by both engine types fall below the 23 nm cutoff of the PMP number regulation.

  3. Effects of low concentration biodiesel blends application on modern passenger cars. Part 3: impact on PAH, nitro-PAH, and oxy-PAH emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavalakis, Georgios; Fontaras, Georgios; Ampatzoglou, Dimitrios; Kousoulidou, Marina; Stournas, Stamoulis; Samaras, Zissis; Bakeas, Evangelos

    2010-05-01

    This study explores the impact of five different types of methyl esters on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), nitrated-PAH and oxygenated PAH emissions. The measurements were conducted on a chassis dynamometer, according to the European regulation. Each of the five different biodiesels was blended with EN590 diesel at a proportion of 10-90% v/v (10% biodiesel concentration). The vehicle was a Euro 3 compliant common-rail diesel passenger car. Emission measurements were performed over the NEDC and compared with those of the real traffic-based Artemis driving cycles. The experimental results showed that the addition of biodiesel led to some important increases in low molecular-weight PAHs (phenanthrene and anthracene) and to both increases and reductions in large PAHs which are characterised by their carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. Nitro-PAHs were found to reduce with biodiesel whereas oxy-PAH emissions presented important increases with the biodiesel blends. The impact of biodiesel source material was particularly clear on the formation of PAH compounds. It was found that most PAH emissions decreased as the average load and speed of the driving cycle increased. Cold-start conditions negatively influenced the formation of most PAH compounds. A similar trend was observed with particulate alkane emissions.

  4. A simple approach to a vision-guided unmanned vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Christopher; Millar, Evan; Anderson, Jon D.; Archibald, James K.; Lee, Dah-Jye

    2005-10-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a vision-guided autonomous vehicle that represented BYU in the 2005 Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC), in which autonomous vehicles navigate a course marked with white lines while avoiding obstacles consisting of orange construction barrels, white buckets and potholes. Our project began in the context of a senior capstone course in which multi-disciplinary teams of five students were responsible for the design, construction, and programming of their own robots. Each team received a computer motherboard, a camera, and a small budget for the purchase of additional hardware, including a chassis and motors. The resource constraints resulted in a simple vision-based design that processes the sequence of images from the single camera to determine motor controls. Color segmentation separates white and orange from each image, and then the segmented image is examined using a 10x10 grid system, effectively creating a low resolution picture for each of the two colors. Depending on its position, each filled grid square influences the selection of an appropriate turn magnitude. Motor commands determined from the white and orange images are then combined to yield the final motion command for video frame. We describe the complete algorithm and the robot hardware and we present results that show the overall effectiveness of our control approach.

  5. Effect of B20 and Low Aromatic Diesel on Transit Bus NOx Emissions Over Driving Cycles with a Range of Kinetic Intensity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, M. P.; McCormick, R. L.; Sindler, P.; Williams, A.

    2012-10-01

    Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions for transit buses for up to five different fuels and three standard transit duty cycles were compared to establish whether there is a real-world biodiesel NOx increase for transit bus duty cycles and engine calibrations. Six buses representing the majority of the current national transit fleet and including hybrid and selective catalyst reduction systems were tested on a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer with certification diesel, certification B20 blend, low aromatic (California Air Resources Board) diesel, low aromatic B20 blend, and B100 fuels over the Manhattan, Orange County and UDDS test cycles. Engine emissions certification level had the dominant effect on NOx; kinetic intensity was the secondary driving factor. The biodiesel effect on NOx emissions was not statistically significant for most buses and duty cycles for blends with certification diesel, except for a 2008 model year bus. CARB fuel had many more instances of a statistically significant effect of reducing NOx. SCR systems proved effective at reducing NOx to near the detection limit on all duty cycles and fuels, including B100. While offering a fuel economy benefit, a hybrid system significantly increased NOx emissions over a same year bus with a conventional drivetrain and the same engine.

  6. A Case Study: Designing for Sustainability and Reliability in an Automotive Seat Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celalettin Yuce

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, sustainability has been a growing concern for many industries and especially for the transportation sector due to it being the second largest energy consumer and largest contributor of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions within the European Union. New legal restrictions on the emission rates have forced the automotive sector to examine different fuel-efficient technologies. Vehicle weight reduction is one of the most important methods of improving fuel efficiency and reducing CO2 emissions. Accordingly, lighter, safer, more fuel efficient, and environmentally sustainable vehicles are a priority for European authorities. In the present work, the passenger seat structure was considered as the area for lightweighting due to its important role in the mass of commercial vehicles in terms of numbers per vehicle. In addition, seat structures presented the best opportunity for weight reduction using new materials and design techniques. Detailed (3D finite element models of passenger seats were developed for finite element analyses (FEA. To obtain a lightweight and safe seat structure, different materials and thicknesses of profiles were analyzed. Lightweight passenger seat prototypes were developed and an overall 20% weight reduction was achieved including the structural frame, chassis and pillar. In addition, the new passenger seat meets ECE R14 safety norms.

  7. Time Dependent Magnesium AZ31B Behavior: Experimental and Physically based Modeling Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, A. K.; Ayoub, G.; Kridli, G.; Zbib, H.

    The need to produce vehicles with improved fuel efficiency and reduced emissions has led the automotive industry to consider use of "lightweighting" materials in the construction of automotive body and chassis systems. For automotive body structures and closure panel applications, mostly made of sheet, aluminum alloys are being introduced due to their lower densities and relatively high specific strengths, as well as their compatibility with the traditional manufacturing process that are used with steel. However, interest has been increasingly focusing on the use of sheet magnesium in the manufacturing of panels and structural components, since its density is about 40% lower compared to aluminum. Accordingly, the objectives of this study are to investigate the evolution of microstructure during thermo-mechanical processing of twin-roll cast AZ31B alloys sheets, and to examine the mechanical properties of the alloy under superplastic conditions. The rate dependent crystal plasticity model have been used and integrated using an explicit model was coupled with the Taylor polycrystal model in the aim to capture the overall behavior of our studied material.

  8. Dissecting and engineering metabolic and regulatory networks of thermophilic bacteria for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lu; Xu, Jian

    2013-11-01

    Interest in thermophilic bacteria as live-cell catalysts in biofuel and biochemical industry has surged in recent years, due to their tolerance of high temperature and wide spectrum of carbon-sources that include cellulose. However their direct employment as microbial cellular factories in the highly demanding industrial conditions has been hindered by uncompetitive biofuel productivity, relatively low tolerance to solvent and osmic stresses, and limitation in genome engineering tools. In this work we review recent advances in dissecting and engineering the metabolic and regulatory networks of thermophilic bacteria for improving the traits of key interest in biofuel industry: cellulose degradation, pentose-hexose co-utilization, and tolerance of thermal, osmotic, and solvent stresses. Moreover, new technologies enabling more efficient genetic engineering of thermophiles were discussed, such as improved electroporation, ultrasound-mediated DNA delivery, as well as thermo-stable plasmids and functional selection systems. Expanded applications of such technological advancements in thermophilic microbes promise to substantiate a synthetic biology perspective, where functional parts, module, chassis, cells and consortia were modularly designed and rationally assembled for the many missions at industry and nature that demand the extraordinary talents of these extremophiles.

  9. Development of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 as a Phototrophic Cell Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuzhong Zhang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae play profound roles in ecology and biogeochemistry. One model cyanobacterial species is the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. This species is highly amenable to genetic modification. Its genome has been sequenced and many systems biology and molecular biology tools are available to study this bacterium. Recently, researchers have put significant efforts into understanding and engineering this bacterium to produce chemicals and biofuels from sunlight and CO2. To demonstrate our perspective on the application of this cyanobacterium as a photosynthesis-based chassis, we summarize the recent research on Synechocystis 6803 by focusing on five topics: rate-limiting factors for cell cultivation; molecular tools for genetic modifications; high-throughput system biology for genome wide analysis; metabolic modeling for physiological prediction and rational metabolic engineering; and applications in producing diverse chemicals. We also discuss the particular challenges for systems analysis and engineering applications of this microorganism, including precise characterization of versatile cell metabolism, improvement of product rates and titers, bioprocess scale-up, and product recovery. Although much progress has been achieved in the development of Synechocystis 6803 as a phototrophic cell factory, the biotechnology for “Compounds from Synechocystis” is still significantly lagging behind those for heterotrophic microbes (e.g., Escherichia coli.

  10. Geochemical markers and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in solvent extracts from diesel engine particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiańska, Monika; Kozielska, Barbara; Bielaczyc, Piotr; Woodburn, Joseph; Konieczyński, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Exhaust particulate from compression ignition (CI) engines running on engine and chassis dynamometers was studied. Particulate dichloromethane extracts were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and biomarkers by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). PAH group profiles were made and the PAH group shares according to the number of rings (2 or 3; 4; 5 or more) as well as diagnostic indices were calculated. Values of geochemical ratios of selected biomarkers and alkyl aromatic hydrocarbons were compared with literature values. A geochemical interpretation was carried out using these values and biomarker and alkyl aromatic hydrocarbon distributions. It has been shown that geochemical features are unequivocally connected to the emission of fossil fuels and biofuels burned in CI engines. The effect of the exothermic combustion process is limited to low-molecular-weight compounds, which shows that the applied methodology permits source identification of PAHs coexisting in the particulate emitted. PMID:26728284

  11. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Tropea and A. Gaddi

    2013-01-01

    One of the first activities of LS1 has been the refurbishment of the rack ventilation units in the USC55 counting rooms. These rack-mounted turbines have been in service since 2007 and they have largely passed the expected lifetime. Some 450 motor-fans units have been procured in Germany, via the CERN store, and shipped to CMS where a team of technicians has dismounted the old turbines, keeping only the bare chassis, and inserted the new fans. A metallic mesh has also been added to better protect personnel from possible injuries by spinning blades. A full test of several hours has validated the new units, prior to their installation inside the racks. The work, started soon after the beginning of LS1, has been successfully concluded last week. Figure 1: Drawing of the fan units recently refurbished in the USC55 counting room racks Image 1: New filter on the main rack water-cooling distribution line The cooling systems of CMS are gently coming out of their maintenance programme. All water circuits have...

  12. An environment-sensitive synthetic microbial ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Hu

    Full Text Available Microbial ecosystems have been widely used in industrial production, but the inter-relationships of organisms within them haven't been completely clarified due to complex composition and structure of natural microbial ecosystems. So it is challenging for ecologists to get deep insights on how ecosystems function and interplay with surrounding environments. But the recent progresses in synthetic biology show that construction of artificial ecosystems where relationships of species are comparatively clear could help us further uncover the meadow of those tiny societies. By using two quorum-sensing signal transduction circuits, this research designed, simulated and constructed a synthetic ecosystem where various population dynamics formed by changing environmental factors. Coherent experimental data and mathematical simulation in our study show that different antibiotics levels and initial cell densities can result in correlated population dynamics such as extinction, obligatory mutualism, facultative mutualism and commensalism. This synthetic ecosystem provides valuable information for addressing questions in ecology and may act as a chassis for construction of more complex microbial ecosystems.

  13. Design and Fabrication of Race Spec Go-Kart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simranjeet Singh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A go kart is a small four wheeled vehicle basically used of traditional kart racing and amusement purpose. We designed and fabricated a go kart for participation at the national go kart championship. The design includes applications of extensive engineering analysis, teamwork, project management, and development of conceptual ideas. These ideas have been then converted into viable concepts ready for fabrication. The main objective of the design is to make a car that is durable as well as reliable and will last through the endurance using parts that are cost effective and easily available in India. The kart has been designed using sound design principles. The principle of triangulation has been extensively used to make sure that the chassis is extremely rigid and provides a safe cocoon for the driver in case of an accident. The vehicle has been designed in such a way that the reliability is not compromised in the pursuit of speed. The wheel and suspension geometry have been designed taking into account the track layout and prevailing conditions.

  14. Comparisons of the nanoparticle emission characteristics between GDI and PFI vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jihwan [Graduate School of Hanyang University (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jongtae; Kim, Jeongsoo [National Institute of Environmental Research (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sungwook, E-mail: parks@hanyang.ac.kr [Hanyang University, School of Mechanical Engineering (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    To compare the particle emissions of gasoline direct injection (GDI) and port fuel injection (PFI) vehicles in this study, the particulate matter of exhaust emissions was sampled from a constant volume sampler tunnel and tailpipe using a chassis dynamometer. Using the gravimetric method and a condensation particle counter, the particulate matter mass (PM) and particle number (PN) of the particle size according to the current regulations were measured. Nanometer-sized particle emissions, which are smaller than regulated particle emissions, were measured by an engine exhaust particle sizer. Four test vehicles, which included two GDI vehicles and two PFI vehicles, were tested in various driving modes. The test results show that the particle emissions from the GDI vehicles were higher than the particle emissions from the PFI vehicles. In addition, the test vehicles had the highest emissions in cold start conditions. In the GDI vehicles, the PM and PN satisfied the current regulations but PN did not satisfy the EURO 6c regulations that will be implemented in 2017. In all driving modes, the particle size distribution show that the most common particle size was approximately 50 nm, and the results according to the driving patterns of each mode were confirmed.

  15. A computational analysis of stoichiometric constraints and trade-offs in cyanobacterial biofuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning eKnoop

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are a promising biological chassis for the synthesis of renewable fuels and chemical bulk commodities.Significant efforts have been devoted to improve the yields of cyanobacterial products. However, while the introduction and heterologous expression of product-forming pathways is often feasible, the interactions and incompatibilities of product synthesis with the host metabolism are still insufficiently understood.In this work, we investigate the stoichiometric properties and trade-offs that underlie cyanobacterial product formation using a computational reconstruction of cyanobacterial metabolism. First, we evaluate the synthesis requirements of a selection of cyanobacterial products of potential biotechnological interest. Second, the large-scale metabolic reconstruction allows us toperform in-silico experiments that mimic and predict the metabolic changes that must occur in the transition from a growth-only phenotype to a production-only phenotype. Applied to the synthesis of ethanol, ethylene, and propane, these in-silico transition experiments point to bottlenecks and potential modification targets in cyanobacterial metabolism.Our analysis reveals incompatibilities between biotechnological product synthesis and native host metabolism, such as shifts in ATP/NADPH demand and the requirement to reintegrate metabolic by-products. Similar strategies can be employed for a large class of cyanobacterial products to identify potential stoichiometric bottlenecks.

  16. Displacement and Force Control of a Quarter Car Using a Mixed Mode MR Mount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHV, vibration in dual-mode pump/motor units should be isolated from the chassis. A mixed mode magnetorheological (MR fluid mount was adopted to isolate this vibration and was evaluated in a quarter car model. The MR fluid mount was designed to be able to operate in flow mode and squeeze mode independently and simultaneously. For HHVs, it is desirable to control force and displacement transmissibility. These simulation results presented a basis for designing an effective algorithm to control both the displacement transmissibility and force transmissibility. Moreover, a hierarchical controller for minimizing the two requirements for transmissibility was also constructed. At last, a fuzzy logic controller was devised to closely reproduce the effect of the hierarchical controller. The experiments were set up to facilitate the hardware-in-the-loop evaluation of the mount. Results from the experiments showed that the mixed mode MR fluid mount was able to achieve desired dynamic stiffness profile to minimize the dual-transmissibility criterion.

  17. Simulation and Experimental Studies of a 2.45GHz Magnetron Source for an SRF Cavity with Field Amplitude and Phase Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haipeng [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Plawski, Tomasz E. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Rimmer, Robert A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Dudas, A. [Muons Inc., Batavia, IL (United States); Neubauer, M. L. [Muons Inc., Batavia, IL (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Phase lock to an SRF cavity by using injection signal through output waveguide of a magnetron has been demonstrated [1, 3]. Amplitude control using magnetic field trimming and anode voltage modulation has been studied using MATLAB/Simulink simulations [2]. Based on these, we are planning to use an FPGA based digital LLRF system, which allows applying various types of control algorithms in order to achieve the required accelerating field stability. Since the 1497 MHz magnetron is still in the design stage, the proof of principle measurements of a commercial 2450 MHz magnetron are carried out to characterize the anode I-V curve, output power (the tube electronic efficiency), frequency dependence on the anode current (frequency pushing) and the Rieke diagram (frequency pulling by the reactive load). Based on early Simulink simulation, experimental data and extension of the Adler equation governing injection phase stability by Chen’s model, the specification of the new LLRF control chassis for both 2450 and 1497MHz systems are presented in this paper.

  18. Control Information and Data Processing of Vehicle based on Global Position System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shupeng Zhao

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A testing system based on Data Stream function of vehicle electronic control system was developed to test the city bus driving cycle. A mufti-function Vehicle Traveling Data Recorder based on GPS which can realize the vehicles positioning and navigating was investigated. The system included data acquisition module, display module, print module, GPS module, communication module and so on. This system adopts the FRAM memory as the storing equipment in which the automobile realized the real-time data store. It could realize the real-time data transmission of automobile and remote controlling by M22 GPRS module which includes TCP/IP. Optimizing of Muti-Energy power train control strategy was the key technical of Hybrid Electric Vehicle. Three kind structure of HEV and their control strategy were investigated, Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle, Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle, and PSHEV. Considering about driving cycle of CYC_NEDC and CYC_HWFET, three control strategies such as Electric Assistant Control, Simulation and experiment evaluation for regenerative braking of hybrid electric vehicle was investigated. The test result shows that the regenerative current in the road test and dynamometer test had little difference. The result shows that fuel consumption value got by the chassis dynamometer test evaluation method was closer to the value got by outdoor road test method.

  19. 铝合金控制臂球头销旋铆工艺有限元分析%Simulation on the Ball Joint Sealing of Aluminum Control Arms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田浩彬; 李学磊; 刘晓航; 苑文婧; 鲁成伟

    2012-01-01

      汽车控制臂球头销封装是汽车底盘零件装配中的重要一环,其装配质量直接影响到汽车转向部件的寿命。采用有限元分析方法对铝合金控制臂球头销的旋铆封装技术进行了研究,对旋铆过程中铝合金控制臂的变形及受力情况进行了分析,并通过试验方法进行了验证,为汽车控制臂球头销的整体封装提供了有效的技术支持。%  Ball joint sealing of aluminum control arms is one of the key processes to the assembly of automobile chassis, which directly influents the life cycle of steering systems of automobiles. The revolving-reveting process for ball joint of control arms is studied by finite element method, and the deformation of housing is advanced and verified by experiments, which can provide technical support to the ball joint sealing of automobile control arms.

  20. 一种高导热三维铝基印制板制作方法的研究%The production method for PCB of 3D aluminum substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安金平; 张文晗; 郭贤贤; 郭金金

    2014-01-01

    铝基板是一种最常见的金属基覆铜板,因其具有良好的导热性、电气绝缘性和尺寸稳定性,目前已被广泛应用。文章通过对铝基印制后续装配机理及过程的分析,从提高散热性能及减少装配空间的角度出发,进行了大胆的尝试,将承载印制板的机箱与印制板合二为一,产品实现了线路板与机箱的高度集成,取得了散热效果良好,缩小产品体积的目的。%The aluminum substrate is one of the most common metal base copper clad. Because of its good thermal conductivity, electrical insulation and dimensional stability, it has been widely used. Based on aluminum printed subsequent assembly mechanism and analysis of the process, this article intended to improve the heat dissipation performance and reduce the assembly space angle. It carried on the bold attempt, combined bearing chassis of PCB and PCB, the circuit board and the case of a highly integrated product realization, and obtained the good heat dissipation effect, and reduced the size of our products.

  1. A systems-level approach for metabolic engineering of yeast cell factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Kwon; Roldão, António; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2012-03-01

    The generation of novel yeast cell factories for production of high-value industrial biotechnological products relies on three metabolic engineering principles: design, construction, and analysis. In the last two decades, strong efforts have been put on developing faster and more efficient strategies and/or technologies for each one of these principles. For design and construction, three major strategies are described in this review: (1) rational metabolic engineering; (2) inverse metabolic engineering; and (3) evolutionary strategies. Independent of the selected strategy, the process of designing yeast strains involves five decision points: (1) choice of product, (2) choice of chassis, (3) identification of target genes, (4) regulating the expression level of target genes, and (5) network balancing of the target genes. At the construction level, several molecular biology tools have been developed through the concept of synthetic biology and applied for the generation of novel, engineered yeast strains. For comprehensive and quantitative analysis of constructed strains, systems biology tools are commonly used and using a multi-omics approach. Key information about the biological system can be revealed, for example, identification of genetic regulatory mechanisms and competitive pathways, thereby assisting the in silico design of metabolic engineering strategies for improving strain performance. Examples on how systems and synthetic biology brought yeast metabolic engineering closer to industrial biotechnology are described in this review, and these examples should demonstrate the potential of a systems-level approach for fast and efficient generation of yeast cell factories. PMID:22188344

  2. Applicability of gasoline containing ethanol as Thailand's alternative fuel to curb toxic VOC pollutants from automobile emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Shing Tet; Muttamara, S.; Laortanakul, Preecha

    Emission rates of benzene, toluene, m-xylene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were measured in a fleet of 16 in-use vehicles. The test was performed on a chassis dynamometer incorporated with Bangkok Driving Cycle test mode. Three different test fuels: unleaded gasoline, gasoline blended with 10% ethanol (E10) and gasoline blended with 15% ethanol (E15) were used to determine the different compositions of exhaust emissions from various vehicles. The effects of ethanol content fuels on emissions were tested by three types of vehicles: cars with no catalytic converter installation, cars with three-way catalytic converter and cars with dual-bed catalytic converter. The test result showed wide variations in the average emission rates with different mileages, fuel types and catalytic converters (benzene: 3.33-56.48 mg/km, toluene: 8.62-124.66 mg/km, m-xylene: 2.97-51.65 mg/km, formaldehyde: 20.82-477.57 mg/km and acetaldehyde: 9.46-219.86 mg/km). There was a modest reduction in emission rate of benzene, toluene and m-xylene in cars using E10 and E15 fuels. Use of ethanol fuels, however, leads to increased formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emission rates. Our analysis revealed that alternative fuels and technologies give significant reduction in toxic VOC pollutants from automobile emission—particularly car with dual-bed catalytic converter using E10 fuel.

  3. Next-generation deformable mirror electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberio, Michael J.; Wagner, Karl

    2004-10-01

    Full-custom electronics have been designed to drive Xinetics deformable mirrors, for use with the PYRAMIR (Calar Alto) and LINC/NIRVANA (Large Binocular Telescope) AO instruments, under contract to the Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie (MPIA). Significant enhancements to the original 1998 design for ALFA (Calar Alto) have been incorporated, including an embedded 2.1 Gb/s fiber link, temperature-controlled bias voltage, and multiple tip-tilt control outputs. Each 7U chassis with integral power supplies can drive mirrors of up to 349 actuators, and may be cascaded to support larger mirrors. A customized 600 MHz 'C6415 DSP module was specified to minimize latency, with frame rates above 7.5 KHz demonstrated for the 349-actuator DM. Power op-amps with 0.38 W/channel quiescent dissipation were chosen to reduce heat load, while supporting full-power (60 Vpp) bandwidth to above 300 Hz. These subsystems were successfully integrated in Heidelberg during November, 2003. The engineering firm responsible for the design, Cambridge Innovations, has since been awarded two additional contracts for DM electronics, including a new full-custom design for AURA (Gemini Observatory) to drive multiple high-voltage CILAS piezo bimorph DMs.

  4. An Experimental Study on Particulate Matter Emissions from Cylinder Direct-injection Gasoline Vehicle%缸内直喷式汽油车颗粒物排放试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓亮

    2013-01-01

    对装用缸内直喷式汽油机的轻型汽车颗粒物质量排放和数量排放进行试验研究,试验按照国Ⅳ排放循环在底盘测功机上进行,测量了常温冷启动下排气中颗粒物的排放特性。结果表明:颗粒物排放控制成为排放控制重点,颗粒物排放主要在排放循环的冷启动阶段和加速过程中产生。%This article is on Pair-cylinder direct-injection gasoline engine with a light vehicle particulate mass emissions and quantity of emissions testing, testing in accordance with nationalⅣemission cycle on the chassis dynamometer, measured at room temperature under cold start exhaust emission characteristics of particulate matter. The results showed that:particulate emission control becomes the importance of emission control. Particulate matter emissions are mainly from cold start cycle phases and accelerating process.

  5. Capsular switching as a strategy to increase pneumococcal virulence in experimental otitis media model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabharwal, Vishakha; Stevenson, Abbie; Figueira, Marisol; Orthopoulos, George; Trzciński, Krzysztof; Pelton, Stephen I

    2014-04-01

    We hypothesized that capsular switch event, in which pneumococcus acquires a new capsule operon by horizontal gene transfer, may result in emergence of strains with increased virulence in acute otitis media. Using serotype 6A strain from a patient with invasive pneumococcal disease and clonally distant serotype 6C strain isolated from asymptomatic carrier we created 6A:6C (6A background with 6C capsule) capsular transformants and applied whole genome macro-restriction analysis to assess conservation of the 6A chassis. Next, we assessed complement (C3) and antibodies deposition on surface of pneumococcal cells and tested capsule recipient, capsule donor and two 6A:6C transformants for virulence in chinchilla experimental otitis media model. Both 6A:6C(1 or 2) transformants bound less C3 compared to 6C capsule-donor strain but more compared to serotype 6A capsule-recipient strain. Pneumococci were present in significantly higher proportion of ears among animals challenged with either of two 6A:6C(1 or 2) transformants compared to chinchillas infected with 6C capsule-donor strain [p < 0.001] whereas a significantly decreased proportion of ears were infected with 6A:6C(1 or 2) transformants as compared to 6A capsule-recipient strain. Our observations though limited to two serotypes demonstrate that capsular switch events can result in Streptococcus pneumoniae strains of enhanced virulence for respiratory tract infection.

  6. A comparison of exhaust emissions from vehicles fuelled with petrol, LPG and CNG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielaczyc, P.; Szczotka, A.; Woodburn, J.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents an analysis of THC, NMHC, CO, NOx and CO2 emissions during testing of two bi-fuel vehicles, fuelled with petrol and gaseous fuels, on a chassis dynamometer in the context of the Euro 6 emissions requirements. The analyses were performed on one Euro 5 bi-fuel vehicle (petrol/LPG) and one Euro 5 bi-fuel vehicle (petrol/CNG), both with SI engines equipped with MPI feeding systems operating in closed-loop control, typical three-way-catalysts and heated oxygen sensors. The vehicles had been adapted by their manufacturers for fuelling with LPG or CNG by using additional special equipment mounted onto the existing petrol fuelling system. The vehicles tested featured multipoint gas injection systems. The aim of this paper was an analysis of the impact of the gaseous fuels on the exhaust emission in comparison to the emission of the vehicles fuelled with petrol. The tests subject to the analyses presented here were performed in the Engine Research Department of BOSMAL Automotive Research and Development Institute Ltd in Bielsko-Biala, Poland, within a research programme investigating the influence of alternative fuels on exhaust emissions from light duty vehicle vehicles with spark-ignition and compression-ignition engines.

  7. MULTI-AXLE VEHICLE STABILITY BASED ON WHOLE VEHICLE MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xuebin; GAO Feng

    2007-01-01

    From the analysis of experiment data of the multi-axle vehicle chassis searching process, it is less accurate to predict multi-axle vehicle dynamic characteristic with simplified two-axle vehicle model. So it is important to find out a more effective modeling method in the study of multi-vehicle stability. In the development of heat transfer fluid(HTF) six-axle vehicle, a whole vehicle multi-body dynamic model is built through collaborate flowchart using Teamcenter Engineering, UG NX3 and MSC. Adams. The modeling method of connected hydragas spring suspension is validated by running test results. Based on this whole vehicle model, a kinematical analysis of suspension is implemented to achieve optimized suspension geometry parameters according to the stable requirement. Then, different handling simulations are carried out with regard to various tire characteristics, driving configurations, and equipments. According to the evaluation of whole vehicle handling characteristic, some design rules are summarized to improve the stability of multi-axle vehicle.

  8. The Dynamic Characteristic and Hysteresis Effect of an Air Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löcken, F.; Welsch, M.

    2015-02-01

    In many applications of vibration technology, especially in chassis, air springs present a common alternative to steel spring concepts. A design-independent and therefore universal approach is presented to describe the dynamic characteristic of such springs. Differential and constitutive equations based on energy balances of the enclosed volume and the mountings are given to describe the nonlinear and dynamic characteristics. Therefore all parameters can be estimated directly from physical and geometrical properties, without parameter fitting. The numerically solved equations fit very well to measurements of a passenger car air spring. In a second step a simplification of this model leads to a pure mechanical equation. While in principle the same parameters are used, just an empirical correction of the effective heat transfer coefficient is needed to handle some simplification on this topic. Finally, a linearization of this equation leads to an analogous mechanical model that can be assembled from two common spring- and one dashpot elements in a specific arrangement. This transfer into "mechanical language" enables a system description with a simple force-displacement law and a consideration of the nonobvious hysteresis and stiffness increase of an air spring from a mechanical point of view.

  9. Mid-sized omnidirectional robot with hydraulic drive and steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Carl G.; Perry, Trent; Cook, Douglas; Maxfield, Russell; Davidson, Morgan E.

    2003-09-01

    Through funding from the US Army-Tank-Automotive and Armaments Command's (TACOM) Intelligent Mobility Program, Utah State University's (USU) Center for Self-Organizing and Intelligent Systems (CSOIS) has developed the T-series of omni-directional robots based on the USU omni-directional vehicle (ODV) technology. The ODV provides independent computer control of steering and drive in a single wheel assembly. By putting multiple omni-directional (OD) wheels on a chassis, a vehicle is capable of uncoupled translational and rotational motion. Previous robots in the series, the T1, T2, T3, ODIS, ODIS-T, and ODIS-S have all used OD wheels based on electric motors. The T4 weighs approximately 1400 lbs and features a 4-wheel drive wheel configuration. Each wheel assembly consists of a hydraulic drive motor and a hydraulic steering motor. A gasoline engine is used to power both the hydraulic and electrical systems. The paper presents an overview of the mechanical design of the vehicle as well as potential uses of this technology in fielded systems.

  10. Influence of driving cycles on exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of gasoline passenger car in Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutramon, Tamsanya; Supachart, Chungpaibulpatana

    2009-01-01

    The influence of different driving cycles on their exhaust emissions and fuel consumption rate of gasoline passenger car was investigated in Bangkok based on the actual measurements obtained from a test vehicle driving on a standard chassis dynamometer. A newly established Bangkok driving cycle (BDC) and the European driving cycle (EDC) which is presently adopted as the legislative cycle for testing automobiles registered in Thailand were used. The newly developed BDC is constructed using the driving characteristic data obtained from the real on-road driving tests along selected traffic routes. A method for selecting appropriate road routes for real driving tests is also introduced. Variations of keyed driving parameters of BDC with different driving cycles were discussed. The results showed that the HC and CO emission factors of BDC are almost two and four times greater than those of EDC, respectively. Although the difference in the NOx emission factor is small, the value from BDC is still greater than that of EDC by 10%. Under BDC, the test vehicle consumes fuel about 25% more than it does under EDC. All these differences are mainly attributed to the greater proportion of idle periods and higher fluctuations of vehicle speed in the BDC cycle. This result indicated that the exhausted emissions and fuel consumption of vehicles obtained from tests under the legislative modal-type driving cycle (EDC) are significantly different from those actually produced under real traffic conditions especially during peak periods. PMID:20108661

  11. Power-Aware Routing and Network Design with Bundled Links: Solutions and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario G. Garroppo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deeply analyzes a novel network-wide power management problem, called Power-Aware Routing and Network Design with Bundled Links (PARND-BL, which is able to take into account both the relationship between the power consumption and the traffic throughput of the nodes and to power off both the chassis and even the single Physical Interface Card (PIC composing each link. The solutions of the PARND-BL model have been analyzed by taking into account different aspects associated with the actual applicability in real network scenarios: (i the time for obtaining the solution, (ii the deployed network topology and the resulting topology provided by the solution, (iii the power behavior of the network elements, (iv the traffic load, (v the QoS requirement, and (vi the number of paths to route each traffic demand. Among the most interesting and novel results, our analysis shows that the strategy of minimizing the number of powered-on network elements through the traffic consolidation does not always produce power savings, and the solution of this kind of problems, in some cases, can lead to spliting a single traffic demand into a high number of paths.

  12. Final report for the Advanced Natural Gas Vehicle Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Wozniak

    1999-02-16

    The project objective was to develop the technologies necessary to prototype a dedicated compressed natural gas (CNG) powered, mid-size automobile with operational capabilities comparable to gasoline automobiles. A system approach was used to design and develop the engine, gas storage system and vehicle packaging. The 2.4-liter DOHC engine was optimized for natural gas operation with high-compression pistons, hardened exhaust valves, a methane-specific catalytic converter and multi-point gaseous injection. The chassis was repackaging to increase space for fuel storage with a custom-designed, cast-aluminum, semi-trailing arm rear suspension system, a revised flat trunk sheet-metal floorpan and by equipping the car with run-flat tires. An Integrated Storage system (ISS) was developed using all-composite, small-diameter cylinders encapsulated within a high-strength fiberglass shell with impact-absorbing foam. The prototypes achieved the target goals of a city/highway driving range of 300 miles, ample trunk capacity, gasoline vehicle performance and ultra low exhaust emissions.

  13. Performance and fuel conversion efficiency of a spark ignition engine fueled with iso-butanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Iso-butanol use in a port injection spark ignition engine. ► Fuel conversion efficiency calculated based on chassis dynamometer measurements. ► Combined study of engine efficiency and air–fuel mixture temperature. ► Excellent running characteristics with minor fuel system modifications. ► Up to 11% relative drop in part load efficiency due to incomplete fuel vaporization. -- Abstract: Alcohols are increasingly used as fuels for spark ignition engines. While ethanol is most commonly used, long chain alcohols such as butanol feature several advantages like increased heating value and reduced corrosive action. This study investigated the effect of fueling a port injection engine with iso-butanol, as compared to gasoline operation. Performance levels were maintained within the same limits as with the fossil fuel without modifications to any engine component. An additional electronic module was used for increasing fuel flow by extending the injection time. Fuel conversion efficiency decreased when the engine was fueled with iso-butanol by up to 9% at full load and by up to 11% at part load, calculated as relative values. Incomplete fuel evaporation was identified as the factor most likely to cause the drop in engine efficiency.

  14. Advances in Methane Isotope Measurements via Direct Absorption Spectroscopy with Applications to Oil and Gas Source Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacovitch, T. I.; Herndon, S. C.; Roscioli, J. R.; Petron, G.; Shorter, J. H.; Jervis, D.; McManus, J. B.; Nelson, D. D.; Zahniser, M. S.; Kolb, C. E., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Instrumental developments in the measurement of multiple isotopes of methane (12CH4, 13CH4 and 12CH3D) are presented. A first generation 8-micron instrument quantifies 12CH4 and 13CH4 at a 1-second rate via tunable infrared direct absorption spectroscopy (TILDAS). A second generation instrument uses two 3-micron intraband cascade lasers in an Aerodyne dual laser chassis for simultaneous measurement of 12CH4, 13CH4 and 12CH3D. Sensitivity and noise performance improvements are examined. The isotopic signature of methane provides valuable information for emission source identification of this greenhouse gas. A first generation spectrometer has been deployed in the field on a mobile laboratory along with a sophisticated 4-tank calibration system. Calibrations are done on an agressive schedule, allowing for the correction of measured isotope ratios to an absolute isotope scale. Distinct isotopic signatures are found for a number of emission sources in the Denver-Julesburg Basin: oil and gas gathering stations, compressor stations and processing plants; a municipal landfill, and dairy/cattle operations. The isotopic signatures are compared with measured ethane/methane ratios. These direct absorption measurements have larger uncertainties than samples measured via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, but have several advantages over canister sampling methods: individual sources of short duration are easier to isolate; calibrated isotope ratio results are available immediately; replicate measurements on a single source are easily performed; and the number of sources sampled is not limited by canister availability and processing time.

  15. Exhaust and evaporative emissions from motorcycles fueled with ethanol gasoline blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lan; Ge, Yunshan; Wang, Mingda; Peng, Zihang; Song, Yanan; Zhang, Liwei; Yuan, Wanli

    2015-01-01

    The emission characteristics of motorcycles using gasoline and E10 (90% gasoline and 10% ethanol by volume) were investigated in this article. Exhaust and evaporative emissions of three motorcycles were investigated on the chassis dynamometer over the Urban Driving Cycle (UDC) and in the Sealed Housing for Evaporative Determination (SHED) including regulated and unregulated emissions. The regulated emissions were detected by an exhaust gas analyzer directly. The unregulated emissions including carbonyls and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were sampled through battery-operated air pumps using tubes coated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) and Tenax TA, respectively. The experimental results showed that the emission factors of total hydrocarbons (THC) and carbon monoxide (CO) from E10 fueling motorcycles decreased by 26%-45% and 63%-73%, while the emission factor of NOx increased by 36%-54% compared with those from gasoline fueling motorcycles. For unregulated emissions, the emission amount of VOCs from motorcycles fueled with E10 decreased by 18%-31% while total carbonyls were 2.6-4.5 times higher than those for gasoline. For evaporative emissions of THC and VOCs, for gasoline or E10, the diurnal breathing loss (DBL) was higher than hot soak loss (HSL). Using E10 as a fuel does not make much difference in the amount of evaporative THC, while resulted in a slightly growth of 14%-17% for evaporative BETX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene). PMID:25302450

  16. Effects of ethanol-blended gasoline on air pollutant emissions from motorcycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yung-Chen; Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2009-09-15

    The effect of ethanol-gasoline blends on criteria air pollutant emissions was investigated in a four-stroke motorcycle. The ethanol was blended with unleaded gasoline in four percentages (3, 10, 15, and 20% v/v) and controlled at a constant research octane number, RON (95), to accurately represent commercial gasoline. CO, THC, and NOx emissions were evaluated using the Economic Commission for Europe cycle on the chassis dynamometers. The results of the ethanol-gasoline blends were compared to those of commercial unleaded gasoline with methyl tert-butyl ether as the oxygenated additive. In general, the exhaust CO and NOx emissions decreased with increasing oxygen content in fuels. In contrast, ethanol added in the gasoline did not reduce the THC emissions for a constant RON gasoline. The 15% ethanol blend had the highest emission reductions relative to the reference fuel. The high ethanol-gasoline blend ratio (20%) resulted in a less emission reduction than those of low ratio blends (<15%). This may be attributed to the changes in the combustion conditions in the carburetor engine with 20% ethanol addition. Furthermore, the influence of ethanol-gasoline blends on the reduction of exhaust emissions was observed at different driving modes, especially at 15km/h cruising speed for CO and THC and acceleration stages for NOx. PMID:19595441

  17. Multiaxial motorcycle wheel load transducer; Mehrkomponenten-Motorradmessnabe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuchler, M.; Schrupp, R. [BMW AG, Muenchen (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Knowing the loads between road and wheel is one of the elementary inputs during the virtual CAE-based motorcycle design process and the real hardware test in the laboratory and on the track. Up to now, load measurements have been done by expensive strain gage applications on chassis components of the motorcycle, which forced extensive and time-wasting calibrations and calculations. The solution to that problem was the development of the worldwide unique multiaxial wheel load transducer for motorcycles, a joint project of the fatigue strength division and the motorcycle measuring division. (orig.) [German] Die Kenntnis der Kraefte zwischen Rad und Strasse ist eine der wesentlichen Eingangsgroessen sowohl fuer den CAE-gestuetzten virtuellen Produktentstehungsprozess als auch fuer die Versuche im Labor und auf der Teststrecke. In der Vergangenheit wurden die Lasten im Fahrbetrieb durch teuere Dehnungsmessstreifen-Applikationen an Fahrwerksbauteilen ermittelt, die umfangreiche und zeitaufwaendige Kalibrierungen und Signalverrechnungen erforderten. Die Loesung dieses Problems war die Entwicklung der weltweit ersten Mehrkomponenten-Motorradmessnabe, einem Gemeinschaftsprojekt der Abteilung Betriebsfestigkeit und der Motorradmesstechnik. (orig.)

  18. Motorcycle emissions and fuel consumption in urban and rural driving conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K S; Wang, W C; Chen, H M; Lin, C F; Hsu, H C; Kao, J H; Hu, M T

    2003-08-01

    This work reports sampling of motorcycle on-road driving cycles in actual urban and rural environments and the development of representative driving cycles using the principle of least total variance in individual regions. Based on the representative driving cycles in individual regions, emission factors for carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)=NO+NO(2)) and carbon dioxide (CO(2)), as well as fuel consumption, were determined using a chassis dynamometer. The measurement results show that the representative driving cycles are almost identical in the three largest cities in Taiwan, but they differ significantly from the rural driving cycle. Irrespective of driving conditions, emission factors differ insignificantly between the urban and rural regions at a 95% confidence level. However, the fuel consumption in urban centers is approximately 30% higher than in the rural regions, with driving conditions in the former usually poor compared to the latter. Two-stroke motorcycles generally have considerably higher HC emissions and quite lower NO(x) emissions than those of four-stroke motorcycles. Comparisons with other studies suggest that factors such as road characteristics, traffic volume, vehicle type, driving conditions and driver behavior may affect motorcycle emission levels in real traffic situations. PMID:12873404

  19. Methodology to design a vibration absorption footplate for motorcycle application: From phenomena investigation to prototype performance evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostoni, S.; Cheli, F.; Leo, E.; Pezzola, M.

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this research is to reduce driver vibration exposure by acting on the modal response of key contact structures. The footplate is one of the components with which the driver comes into contact while riding. For this reason, footplate geometry and structural properties were investigated with a view to re-designing this component in order to reduce driver exposure. Due to the massive chassis area on which the footplate is constrained, vibrations induced by engine unbalances easily propagate in quasi-steady conditions on all surrounding components, inducing a width frequency band of load excitation. Even though the footplate geometry allows for fairly high natural frequencies, these could occur in the excitation range. Therefore, the first step of the methodology proposed entails the use of a numerical and experimental (modal analysis) procedure to identify the local vibration modes of the original components to detect if/when/how the resonances of the above mentioned components are excited. Due to an awareness of the weakness of the original solution, structural modifications, using numerical models, were studied. The footplate geometry was modified to minimize nodal displacement of the footrest beam binding. All structural modifications were designed, developed and installed on the vehicle. Finally, in order to predict modification efficiency, both the new footplate and the original one were experimentally compared. The comparison was made by means of modal investigations and by positioning the reference vehicle on a suitable roller test bench in order to simulate real working conditions.

  20. Motorcycle emissions and fuel consumption in urban and rural driving conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, K.S.; Wang, W.C.; Chen, H.M.; Lin, C.F. [Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung (Taiwan); Hsu, H.C.; Kao, J.H.; Hu, M.T. [Bureau of Environmental Protection, Pingtung County (Taiwan)

    2003-08-01

    This work reports sampling of motorcycle on-road driving cycles in actual urban and rural environments and the development of representative driving cycles using the principle of least total variance in individual regions. Based on the representative driving cycles in individual regions, emission factors for carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}=NO+NO{sub 2}) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), as well as fuel consumption, were determined using a chassis dynamometer. The measurement results show that the representative driving cycles are almost identical in the three largest cities in Taiwan, but they differ significantly from the rural driving cycle. Irrespective of driving conditions, emission factors differ insignificantly between the urban and rural regions at a 95% confidence level. However, the fuel consumption in urban centers is approximately 30% higher than in the rural regions, with driving conditions in the former usually poor compared to the latter. Two-stroke motorcycles generally have considerably higher HC emissions and quite lower NO{sub x} emissions than those of four-stroke motorcycles. Comparisons with other studies suggest that factors such as road characteristics, traffic volume, vehicle type, driving conditions and driver behavior may affect motorcycle emission levels in real traffic situations.

  1. Study on the Test for Operating Range of Electric Motorcycle%电动摩托车续驶里程试验方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵素郑

    2012-01-01

    续驶里程试验方法高效、合理,可以用较低的试验成本得到较理想的可信度结果,试验仅需一段1500m的试验道路、几百元一台的GPS测速仪和几只标杆,非常方便电动车企业(特别是还没有装备底盘测功机的企业)自行组织试验,以获得第一手试验数据。%This paper introduces an efficient and reliable method to test the operating range of electric motorcycles. The test is conducted on a 1 500 m test road with a low-cost GPS and several poles. It can be easily conducted by motorcycle manufacturers, especially for those who have no chassis dynamometers.

  2. Influence of ethanol-gasoline blended fuel on emission characteristics from a four-stroke motorcycle engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Li-Wei; Shen, Mei-Qing; Wang, Jun; Lin, Man-Qun

    2005-08-31

    Emission characteristics from a four-stroke motorcycle engine using 10% (v/v) ethanol-gasoline blended fuel (E10) were investigated at different driving modes on the chassis dynamometers. The results indicate that CO and HC emissions in the engine exhaust are lower with the operation of E10 as compared to the use of unleaded gasoline, whereas the effect of ethanol on NO(X) emission is not significant. Furthermore, species of both unburned hydrocarbons and their ramifications were analyzed by the combination of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC/FID). This analysis shows that aromatic compounds (benzene, toluene, xylene isomers (o-xylene, m-xylene and p-xylene), ethyltoluene isomers (o-ethyltoluene, m-ethyltoluene and p-ethyltoluene) and trimethylbenzene isomers (1,2,3-trimethylbenzene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene)) and fatty group ones (ethylene, methane, acetaldehyde, ethanol, butene, pentane and hexane) are major compounds in motorcycle engine exhaust. It is found that the E10-fueled motorcycle engine produces more ethylene, acetaldehyde and ethanol emissions than unleaded gasoline engine does. The no significant reduction of aromatics is observed in the case of ethanol-gasoline blended fuel. The ethanol-gasoline blended fuel can somewhat improve emissions of the rest species. PMID:15923082

  3. The 3-litre car by Volkswagen: the Lupo 3L TDI. Pt. 2; Das Drei-Liter-Auto von Volkswagen - der Lupo 3L TDI. T. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winterkorn, M.; Bohne, P. [Volkswagenwerk AG, Wolfsburg (Germany)

    1999-08-01

    The Lupo TDI makes Volkswagen the first manufacturer in the world to offer a vehicle with a fuel consumption of less than three litres per 100 km (MVEG). The three-litre car is based on the Lupo, but important features make it a virtually new vehicle. In the first part, we presented the new 1.2-litre three-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine and the direct manual transmissions as well as the electrical system, body and interior fittings of the Lupo 3L TDI. This second part deals with things such as the chassis, draws up a balance sheet with regard to weight and environmental aspects and gives the consumption and driving performance data. (orig.) [German] Mit dem Lupo 3L TDI bietet Volkswagen als weltweit erster Hersteller ein Fahrzeug mit einem Kraftstoffverbrauch von weniger als drei Litern pro 100 km im MVEG-Zyklus an. Das Drei-Liter-Auto basiert auf dem Lupo, ist jedoch in wesentlichen Elementen ein neues Fahrzeug. Im ersten Teil wurden der neue 1,2-Liter Dreizylinder-Dieselmotor mit Direkteinspritzung und das Direktschaltgetriebe sowie Elektrik, Karosserie und Innenausstattung des Lupo 3L TDI vorgestellt. Der vorliegende zweite Teil behandelt unter anderem das Fahrwerk, erstellt eine Gewichts- und Umweltbilanz und nennt Verbrauchs- und Fahrleistungsdaten. (orig.)

  4. Analytics for metabolic engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Petzold

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Realizing the promise of metabolic engineering has been slowed by challenges related to moving beyond proof-of-concept examples to robust and economically viable systems. Key to advancing metabolic engineering beyond trial-and-error research is access to parts with well-defined performance metrics that can be readily applied in vastly different contexts with predictable effects. As the field now stands, research depends greatly on analytical tools that assay target molecules, transcripts, proteins, and metabolites across different hosts and pathways. Screening technologies yield specific information for many thousands of strain variants while deep omics analysis provide a systems-level view of the cell factory. Efforts focused on a combination of these analyses yield quantitative information of dynamic processes between parts and the host chassis that drive the next engineering steps. Overall, the data generated from these types of assays aid better decision-making at the design and strain construction stages to speed progress in metabolic engineering research.

  5. GATE Center of Excellence at UAB in Lightweight Materials for Automotive Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-07-31

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the UAB GATE Center of Excellence in Lightweight Materials for Automotive Applications. The first Phase of the UAB DOE GATE center spanned the period 2005-2011. The UAB GATE goals coordinated with the overall goals of DOE's FreedomCAR and Vehicles Technologies initiative and DOE GATE program. The FCVT goals are: (1) Development and validation of advanced materials and manufacturing technologies to significantly reduce automotive vehicle body and chassis weight without compromising other attributes such as safety, performance, recyclability, and cost; (2) To provide a new generation of engineers and scientists with knowledge and skills in advanced automotive technologies. The UAB GATE focused on both the FCVT and GATE goals in the following manner: (1) Train and produce graduates in lightweight automotive materials technologies; (2) Structure the engineering curricula to produce specialists in the automotive area; (3) Leverage automotive related industry in the State of Alabama; (4) Expose minority students to advanced technologies early in their career; (5) Develop innovative virtual classroom capabilities tied to real manufacturing operations; and (6) Integrate synergistic, multi-departmental activities to produce new product and manufacturing technologies for more damage tolerant, cost-effective, and lighter automotive structures.

  6. Development of Dual Fuel Single Cylinder Natural Gas Engine an Analysis and Experimental Investigation for Performance and Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Kaleemuddin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the experimental investigations carried and upgradation of 395 cc air cooled engine to dual fuel (CNG/Gasoline application. The original 395 cc direct injection naturally aspirated, air cooled diesel engine was first converted to run on Gasoline by addition of electronic ignition system and reduction in compression ratio to suit both gasoline and CNG application. CFX software has been employed to calculate and improve the cooling capacity of engine with the use of CNG. Materials of major engine components were reviewed to suit CNG application. The engine was subsequently tuned with dual multi-mapped ignition timing for bi-fuel stoichiometric operation on engine dynamometer and then fitted on a 3-Wheeler vehicle. The vehicle was optimized on a chassis dynamometer to meet the proposed Bharat Stage-III norms. The engine has passed current BS-II emission norms with 48% margin in CO emission and 76% margin in NMHC (Non-Methane Hydrocarbons and Extensive trials were conducted on engine and vehicle to optimize with CNG kit and minimum loaded three way cat-con to finally to met proposed BS-III norms.

  7. Emissions from nine heavy trucks fueled by diesel and biodiesel blend without engine modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodiesel, a fuel that can be made from renewable biological sources such as vegetable oils or animal fats, has been recognized recently as an environment friendly alternative fuel for diesel engines. In this paper, the authors describe a study that compared exhaust emissions from in-use heavy trucks fueled with a biodiesel blend with those from trucks fueled with petroleum diesel. The biodiesel blend tested is a mixture of 35% biodiesel and 65% petroleum diesel, a blend designated as B35. The study is based on the field test results from West Virginia University's Transportable Heavy Duty Chassis Dynamometer Emissions Testing Laboratory and sponsored by the US Department of Energy. The heavy trucks the authors tested performed well when the originally equipped compression-ignition engine (diesel engine) was fueled with B35 without any engine modifications. Fuel economy (in terms of gallon per mile) of the two fuels was about the same. The emissions test results have shown that the heavy trucks fueled by B35 emitted significantly lower particulate matter (PM) and moderately lower carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) than the same trucks fueled by no. 2 diesel (D2). Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions from B35 and D2, however, were generally in the same level. Emissions variations from two different engine models and two driving cycles were also observed. Although the authors recommend more tests for biodiesel vehicles, the data obtained in this study indicate that biodiesel has promise as an emissions-reducing alternative fuel for diesel engines

  8. A Computational approach in optimizing process parameters of GTAW for SA 106 Grade B steel pipes using Response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumesh, A.; Sai Ramnadh, L. V.; Manish, P.; Harnath, V.; Lakshman, V.

    2016-09-01

    Welding is one of the most common metal joining techniques used in industry for decades. As in the global manufacturing scenario the products should be more cost effective. Therefore the selection of right process with optimal parameters will help the industry in minimizing their cost of production. SA 106 Grade B steel has a wide application in Automobile chassis structure, Boiler tubes and pressure vessels industries. Employing central composite design the process parameters for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding was optimized. The input parameters chosen were weld current, peak current and frequency. The joint tensile strength was the response considered in this study. Analysis of variance was performed to determine the statistical significance of the parameters and a Regression analysis was performed to determine the effect of input parameters over the response. From the experiment the maximum tensile strength obtained was 95 KN reported for a weld current of 95 Amp, frequency of 50 Hz and peak current of 100 Amp. With an aim of maximizing the joint strength using Response optimizer a target value of 100 KN is selected and regression models were optimized. The output results are achievable with a Weld current of 62.6148 Amp, Frequency of 23.1821 Hz, and Peak current of 65.9104 Amp. Using Die penetration test the weld joints were also classified in to 2 categories as good weld and weld with defect. This will also help in getting a defect free joint when welding is performed using GTAW process.

  9. Simulation Research on Integrated Control of Vehicle Semi-active Suspension and Power Steering%车辆半主动悬架与助力转向集成控制的仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪少华; 陈龙; 袁传义

    2009-01-01

    For coordinating handling stability and ride comfort of vehicle, based on the principle of chassis system dynamics, a combined model for semi-active suspension (SAS) and electric power steering (EPS) is set up for imposing integrated control on the systems of SAS and EPS. Quadratic feedback and PID strategies are used to control the adjustable damping of suspension and the assistant power of EPS respectively. The simulation results show that with integrated control, the handling stability and ride comfort of vehicle are both superior to that with sep-arate control on suspension or steering.%为协调车辆操纵稳定性和行驶平顺性,基于底盘系统动力学原理,建立了半主动悬架和电动助力转向的综合模型,对半主动悬架和电动助力转向系统进行集成控制.运用二次反馈法和PID策略分别对悬架的可调阻尼和转向系统的助力进行控制.仿真结果表明,在集成控制情况下,车辆的操纵稳定性和平顺性均优于悬架或转向单独控制的效果.

  10. A digital long pulse integrator for EAST Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • This digital integrator is done in real time integration and data transmission. • Chopper technology and linear compensation is used for drift correction. • This integrator has achieved results of 411 s long pulse plasma discharge in 2012 EAST campaign. - Abstract: A digital integrator has been developed to be compatible with the long pulse plasma discharges on the Experimental Advanced Superconductor Tokamak (EAST), in which the induced signal is modulated by a chopper, and a field programmable gate array (FPGA) in the 16-bit digitizer is used to realize the digital integration in real time. After rectification and integration, the drift is almost linear and stable in controlled temperature, so a period of 50 s is used to determine the linear drift rate for drift compensation. The integration data can be directly transferred to the reflective memory (RFM) card, which is installed in the same PCI eXtensions for Instrumentation (PXI) chassis, so the data transmission can be also done in real time. The test results show that the real time data transmission rate is up to 10 kHz, the integration drift is typically less than 0.4 uVs/s and drift performance is a little worse in real long pulse discharge, which can be reduced further by using more precise data acquisition

  11. Polyplanar optical display electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSanto, L.; Biscardi, C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology

    1997-07-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. The prototype ten inch display is two inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. In order to achieve a long lifetime, the new display uses a 100 milliwatt green solid-state laser (10,000 hr. life) at 532 nm as its light source. To produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments. In order to use the solid-state laser as the light source and also fit within the constraints of the B-52 display, the Digital Micromirror Device (DMD{trademark}) circuit board is removed from the Texas Instruments DLP light engine assembly. Due to the compact architecture of the projection system within the display chassis, the DMD{trademark} chip is operated remotely from the Texas Instruments circuit board. The authors discuss the operation of the DMD{trademark} divorced from the light engine and the interfacing of the DMD{trademark} board with various video formats (CVBS, Y/C or S-video and RGB) including the format specific to the B-52 aircraft. A brief discussion of the electronics required to drive the laser is also presented.

  12. The TDAQ Baseline Architecture

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F J

    The Trigger-DAQ community is currently busy preparing material for the DAQ, HLT and DCS TDR. Over the last few weeks a very important step has been a series of meetings to complete agreement on the baseline architecture. An overview of the architecture indicating some of the main parameters is shown in figure 1. As reported at the ATLAS Plenary during the February ATLAS week, the main area where the baseline had not yet been agreed was around the Read-Out System (ROS) and details in the DataFlow. The agreed architecture has: Read-Out Links (ROLs) from the RODs using S-Link; Read-Out Buffers (ROB) sited near the RODs, mounted in a chassis - today assumed to be a PC, using PCI bus at least for configuration, control and monitoring. The baseline assumes data aggregation, in the ROB and/or at the output (which could either be over a bus or in the network). Optimization of the data aggregation will be made in the coming months, but the current model has each ROB card receiving input from 4 ROLs, and 3 such c...

  13. Concept and realization of unmanned aerial system with different modes of operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czyba, Roman; Szafrański, Grzegorz; Janusz, Wojciech; Niezabitowski, Michał; Czornik, Adam; Błachuta, Marian [Silesian University of Technology, Akademicka 2A, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland)

    2014-12-10

    In this paper we describe the development process of unmanned aerial system, its mechanical components, electronics and software solutions. During the stage of design, we have formulated some necessary requirements for the multirotor vehicle and ground control station in order to build an optimal system which can be used for the reconnaissance missions. Platform is controlled by use of the ground control station (GCS) and has possibility of accomplishing video based observation tasks. In order to fulfill this requirement the on-board payload consists of mechanically stabilized camera augmented with machine vision algorithms to enable object tracking tasks. Novelty of the system are four modes of flight, which give full functionality of the developed UAV system. Designed ground control station is consisted not only of the application itself, but also a built-in dedicated components located inside the chassis, which together creates an advanced UAV system supporting the control and management of the flight. Mechanical part of quadrotor is designed to ensure its robustness while meeting objectives of minimizing weight of the platform. Finally the designed electronics allows for implementation of control and estimation algorithms without the needs for their excessive computational optimization.

  14. Temperature Control and Noise Reduction in our Compact ADR System for TES Microcalorimeter Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hishi, U.; Fujimoto, R.; Kamiya, K.; Kotake, M.; Ito, H.; Kaido, T.; Tanaka, K.; Hattori, K.

    2016-08-01

    We have been developing a compact adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator, keeping ground application and future missions in mind. A salt pill fabricated in-house, a superconducting magnet with a passive magnetic shield around it, and a mechanical heat switch are mounted in a dedicated helium cryostat. The detector stage temperature is regulated by PID control of the magnet current, with a dI/dt term added to compensate the temperature rise due to parasitic heat. The temperature fluctuation of the detector stage is 1-2 \\upmu Krms, and the hold time was extended by about 15 % thanks to the dI/dt term. Bundle shields of the harnesses between the cryostat and the analog electronics boxes were connected to the chassis at both ends, and the analog electronics boxes were grounded to the cryostat through the bundle shields. This reduced the readout noise to 16 pA/√{Hz} in the 10-60 kHz range. Using this system, an energy resolution of 3.8 ± 0.2 eV (FWHM) was achieved at 5.9 keV.

  15. Study of Speed Measurement Scheme Based on MIMU%基于MIMU的车速测量方案研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉兰

    2013-01-01

      分析了车辆装备底盘性能测试对运动参数测量的特点和要求,提出了利用MIMU单独工作进行车速测量的方案,以MIMU(MEMS Inertial measurement unit)为主要单元,以小型蓄电池作为供电源,通过USB-RS422转换接头,从USB口连接到笔记本电脑,从而获得计算的基本数据。给出了车速测量系统的安装调整和速度及位移的计算思路,明确了实现工程化应用还需深入进行的工作。%Characteristics and requirements were analyzed about test requirements of motion parameters during equipment chassis performance testing. A scheme was proposed for speed measurement work alone using MIMU(MEMS Inertial measurement unit). The system core with IMU was composed with an IMU as main unit and a small storage battery as power source, connecting to notebook computer from USB port through USB-RS422 x-over, and the basic data could be obtained. Fitting and adjustment of the speed measurement system was given along with the calculation method of speed and displacement. Further work for engineering application was clear.

  16. Emissions from Medium-Duty Conventional and Diesel-Electric Hybrid Vehicles; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragatz, A.; Duran, A.; Thornton, M.; Walkowicz, K.

    2014-04-02

    This presentation discusses the results of emissions testing for medium-duty conventional and diesel-electric hybrid vehicles. Testing was based on a field evaluation approach that utilized the Fleet DNA drive cycle database and NREL’s Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory chassis dynamometer. Vehicles tested included parcel delivery (Class 6 step vans), beverage delivery (Class 8 tractors), and parcel delivery (Class 7 box trucks) vehicles, all with intended service class medium/heavy heavy-duty diesel (MHDD).
    Results for fuel economy and tailpipe NOx emissions included: diesel hybrid electric vehicles showed an average fuel economy advantage on identified test cycles: Class 6 Step Vans: 26%; Class 7 Box Trucks: 24.7%; Class 8 Tractors: 17.3%. Vehicle miles traveled is an important factor in determining total petroleum and CO2 displacement. Higher NOx emissions were observed over some test cycles: highly drive cycle dependent; engine-out differences may result from different engine operating point; and selective catalyst reduction temperature may play a role, but does not explain the whole story.

  17. Determination of VOC-components in the exhaust of gasoline and diesel passenger cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Thomas; Hassel, Dieter; Weber, Franz-Josef

    The composition of VOC emissions from in-use passenger cars with different engine types, i.e. cars with diesel engines, cars with petrol engines equipped with three-way-catalysts, and cars with petrol engines without catalysts was determined. Five cars of each engine type have been measured on a chassis dynamometer under conditions of the US FTP 75 test procedure and the "Autobahn" test developed by TÜV Rheinland. Measurements of C 2-C 10 hydrocarbons were made with a GC-FID system. In addition, samples on DNPH cartridges were taken and analysed by means of a HPLC-system for the determination of aldehydes and ketones.The influence of cold/warm-conditions on the VOC composition was determined. In the case of cars with diesel engines as well as for the petrol-driven cars without exhaust treatment, the effect caused by the cold start only led to minor changes in the VOC composition. A similar behaviour was observed for these car types at higher speeds. In contrast to the cars without catalysts, the cars with three-way-catalysts showed a great variability of the VOC composition. During the cold start phase the aromatic compounds and the alkenes yielded the main fraction of the VOC. During the warm phase the less reactive alkanes were predominant. With increasing mean velocities the VOC composition changed in favour of the more reactive compounds.

  18. Computer cooling using a two phase minichannel thermosyphon loop heated from horizontal and vertical sides and cooled from vertical side

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieliński, Henryk; Mikielewicz, Jarosław

    2010-10-01

    In the present paper it is proposed to consider the computer cooling capacity using the thermosyphon loop. A closed thermosyphon loop consists of combined two heaters and a cooler connected to each other by tubes. The first heater may be a CPU processor located on the motherboard of the personal computer. The second heater may be a chip of a graphic card placed perpendicular to the motherboard of personal computer. The cooler can be placed above the heaters on the computer chassis. The thermosyphon cooling system on the use of computer can be modeled using the rectangular thermosyphon loop with minichannels heated at the bottom horizontal side and the bottom vertical side and cooled at the upper vertical side. The riser and a downcomer connect these parts. A one-dimensional model of two-phase flow and heat transfer in a closed thermosyphon loop is based on mass, momentum, and energy balances in the evaporators, rising tube, condenser and the falling tube. The separate two-phase flow model is used in calculations. A numerical investigation for the analysis of the mass flux rate and heat transfer coefficient in the steady state has been accomplished.

  19. Kinematic and dynamic analysis of the McPherson suspension with a planar quarter-car model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurel, Jorge; Mandow, Anthony; García-Cerezo, Alfonso

    2013-09-01

    McPherson suspension modelling poses a challenging problem due to its nonlinear asymmetric behaviour. The paper proposes a planar quarter-car analytical model that not only considers vertical motion of the sprung mass (chassis) but also: (i) rotation and translation for the unsprung mass (wheel assembly), (ii) wheel mass and its inertia moment about the longitudinal axis, and (iii) tyre damping and lateral deflection. This kinematic-dynamic model offers a solution to two important shortcomings of the conventional quarter-car model: it accounts for geometry and for tyre modelling. The paper offers a systematic development of the planar model as well as the complete set of mathematical equations. This analytical model can be suitable for fast computation in hardware-in-the-loop applications. Furthermore, a reproducible Simulink implementation is given. The model has been compared with a realistic Adams/View simulation to analyse dynamic behaviour for the jounce and rebound motion of the wheel and two relevant kinematic parameters: camber angle and track width variation.

  20. Analysis of modal frequency optimization of railway vehicle car body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Sun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available High structural modal frequencies of car body are beneficial as they ensure better vibration control and enhance ride quality of railway vehicles. Modal sensitivity optimization and elastic suspension parameters used in the design of equipment beneath the chassis of the car body are proposed in order to improve the modal frequencies of car bodies under service conditions. Modal sensitivity optimization is based on sensitivity analysis theory which considers the thickness of the body frame at various positions as variables in order to achieve optimization. Equipment suspension design analyzes the influence of suspension parameters on the modal frequencies of the car body through the use of an equipment-car body coupled model. Results indicate that both methods can effectively improve the modal parameters of the car body. Modal sensitivity optimization increases vertical bending frequency from 9.70 to 10.60 Hz, while optimization of elastic suspension parameters increases the vertical bending frequency to 10.51 Hz. The suspension design can be used without alteration to the structure of the car body while ensuring better ride quality.