Sample records for chassis

  1. 5th International Munich Chassis Symposium 2014

    CERN Document Server


    The key drivers of innovation in the field of chassis systems are measures to improve vehicle dynamics and driving safety, efforts to reduce fuel consumption, and intelligent development methods. In addition, chassis development is focusing on enhancing ride comfort while also improving NVH characteristics. At the same time, modularization strategies, concepts for the electrification of the powertrain, and steps towards greater system connectivity are making increasingly complex demands on the chassis and its development. Developers are being called upon to respond to these challenges with a variety of solutions. Contents The chassis of the future.- Trends in chassis development.- New chassis systems.- Vehicle dynamics tuning.- Chassis functions.- Driving simulators and development methods.- Ride comfort.- Vehicle stability.- Innovative steering systems and redundancy.- Electronics and testing.- The future of the braking system.- Development methods.- New tire developments and virtual methods.- Tire pressure ...

  2. 7th International Munich Chassis Symposium 2016

    CERN Document Server


    In chassis development, the three aspects of safety, vehicle dynamics and ride comfort are at the top of the list of challenges to be faced. Addressing this triad of challenges becomes even more complex when the chassis is required to interact with assistance systems and other systems for fully automated driving. What is more, new demands are created by the introduction of modern electric and electronic architectures. All these requirements must be met by the chassis, together with its subsystems, the steering, brakes, tires and wheels. At the same time, all physical relationships and interactions have to be taken into account. Contents New chassis systems.- New chassis systems and methods.- Simulation.- Vehicle handling optimization and control.- Chassis architectures.- Simulators.- Highly automated driving.- Functional safety.- Brake development methods.- Future brake systems and technologies.- Tire technology and trends.- Components of the chassis.- Steering feel and steer-by-wire.- New requirements and so...

  3. 6th International Munich Chassis Symposium 2015

    CERN Document Server


    Connectivity has arrived in the vehicle - whether it is in-car internet or car-to-car communication. For the chassis too, the connected car is increasingly becoming a driver of innovation. Predictive and intelligent chassis systems and automated driving are just some of the topics being addressed. In addition to enhancing driving comfort and safety, interconnecting the powertrain with the chassis can also provide new functions, not only in cars but also in commercial vehicles. What is more, modularization, electrification of the powertrain, intelligent development methods and efforts to reduce fuel consumption are also driving innovations in chassis systems. Contents Consumer protection and methods.- New chassis systems.- Active chassis systems.- Energy efficiency, safety, and resources.- Driver assistance systems.- Development process.- Vehicle lateral dynamics.- Steering technology.- Test bench methods.- Environmental aspects and future technologies.- Control and simulation.- Road surface, tire, and wheel i...

  4. Information Processing of Chassis Dynamometer based on Controller Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shupeng Zhao


    Full Text Available The development of chassis dynamometer of hybrid vehicle based on CAN bus was studied. Chassis dynamometer of hybrid vehicle measurement methods and loading devices are analyzed, and laid the foundation for the resistance simulation of chassis dynamometer. Road resistance simulation on HEV chassis dynamometer is researched, getting electric quantity simulation type of chassis dynamometer driving resistance. The research and development of hybrid vehicle chassis dynamometer based on CAN Bus is conducive to enhance the level of whole hybrid vehicle and car assembly, establish the test procedures, test methods and test standards, provide a research platform and methods for test evaluation of HEV energy utilization. The chassis dynamometer system needs to be calibrated in order to ensure its accuracy .The drum Test bench surface traction can be measured from the motor casing tangential force using force sensor mounted on the motor casing. The design adopts bidirectional calibration arm, it can decrease the effect of extra torque to ensure the test precision of automobile chassis dynamometer surface traction. The method of hybrid vehicles fuel consumption experiment test is analyzed through experiment test on the HEV chassis dynamometer and actual road. We obtain some regularity of hybrid vehicles energy consumption and hybrid vehicles fuel consumption test method through studying lightweight hybrid vehicles fuel economy.

  5. Computational analysis on plug-in hybrid electric motorcycle chassis (United States)

    Teoh, S. J.; Bakar, R. A.; Gan, L. M.


    Plug-in hybrid electric motorcycle (PHEM) is an alternative to promote sustainability lower emissions. However, the PHEM overall system packaging is constrained by limited space in a motorcycle chassis. In this paper, a chassis applying the concept of a Chopper is analysed to apply in PHEM. The chassis 3dimensional (3D) modelling is built with CAD software. The PHEM power-train components and drive-train mechanisms are intergraded into the 3D modelling to ensure the chassis provides sufficient space. Besides that, a human dummy model is built into the 3D modelling to ensure the rider?s ergonomics and comfort. The chassis 3D model then undergoes stress-strain simulation. The simulation predicts the stress distribution, displacement and factor of safety (FOS). The data are used to identify the critical point, thus suggesting the chassis design is applicable or need to redesign/ modify to meet the require strength. Critical points mean highest stress which might cause the chassis to fail. This point occurs at the joints at triple tree and bracket rear absorber for a motorcycle chassis. As a conclusion, computational analysis predicts the stress distribution and guideline to develop a safe prototype chassis.

  6. Activities of the Boom and Chassis Group (United States)

    dell, Jason Scott; Meeks, Thomas Bayne; Merkel, Kelly; Nelson, Brent; Winchell, Tom

    Group One of the NASA Lunar Enabler Project has designed the primary chassis and boom structures for the lunar vehicle. Both components also feature V-clamps that were adapted to interface connections within the structure. The chassis features a front end, rear end section, middle cross-section, and face plate. The rear section contains an extra compartment for the engine, hydraulic pump, fuel bottles, and oil reservoir necessary for the wheel drives. Each section consists of tubular aluminum 6061-T6. The boom features four degrees of freedom system, where the minimum factor of safety of any part is 1.5 (but, normally much higher). It consists of a tapered upper boom, lower boom, and three elbows that complement the articulation joints. Each section of the boom has been constructed from aluminum 6061-T6. There are four joints and eight V-clamps in the boom assembly. The V-clamps feature support rings that prevent axial rotation. They provide easy adaptability and assembly.

  7. Cyanobacterial chassis engineering for enhancing production of biofuels and chemicals. (United States)

    Gao, Xinyan; Sun, Tao; Pei, Guangsheng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Weiwen


    To reduce dependence on fossil fuels and curb greenhouse effect, cyanobacteria have emerged as an important chassis candidate for producing biofuels and chemicals due to their capability to directly utilize sunlight and CO2 as the sole energy and carbon sources, respectively. Recent progresses in developing and applying various synthetic biology tools have led to the successful constructions of novel pathways of several dozen green fuels and chemicals utilizing cyanobacterial chassis. Meanwhile, it is increasingly recognized that in order to enhance productivity of the synthetic cyanobacterial systems, optimizing and engineering more robust and high-efficient cyanobacterial chassis should not be omitted. In recent years, numerous research studies have been conducted to enhance production of green fuels and chemicals through cyanobacterial chassis modifications involving photosynthesis, CO2 uptake and fixation, products exporting, tolerance, and cellular regulation. In this article, we critically reviewed recent progresses and universal strategies in cyanobacterial chassis engineering to make it more robust and effective for bio-chemicals production.

  8. Further advancement of chassis-dynamometer measurement and control technology; Kodoka suru chassis dinamo keisoku seigyo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Y. [Meidensha Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    A new chassis-dynamometer was developed and put into the practical use in 1992. Currently this chassis-dynamometer, in which rollers are mounted on the AC-dynamometer shaft end, is being used in the majority of passenger car testing application. This paper present bow the associated measurement and control technology was upgraded and discusses the future trend in this field. (author)

  9. Development of a Self-Stabilizing Robotic Chassis for Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryadchikov Igor


    Full Text Available Presented the description of the bipedal robotic chassis with the unique kinematic scheme which has the possibility to locomote in complicated multi-level environment. AnyWalker is equipped with the system of compensation of external impacts with motor-wheels which can self-stabilize the robotic system in 3 dimensions. Presented chassis suggests to have open software and hardware architecture in order to become the universal walking platform for service and industry robots.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Tajanowskij


    Full Text Available The paper considers a current scientific and technical problem pertaining to creation of multi-bridge wheeled chassis for highly efficient modular sugar beet harvesters of large cargo capacity and, in particular, to selection of main parameters of chassis and wheeled drive. Such machines are designed for operation under complicated soil and climatic conditions during sugar beet harvesting. Methodological rules and regulations have been developed for solution of problems pertaining to scientifically sunstantiated selection of a manufactured or developed wheeled chassis model, building-block parameters of a working device and a chassis, rational control algorithm of the unit running system while using a specified (domestic or foreign semi-mounted equipment for beet harvesting. While solving the problem theoretical provisions for wheeled vehicles regarding specific features of a wheeled chassis for modular sugar beet harvesters with extensive mechanical or hydrostatic wheel drive of a multi-bridge propulsion system have been developed in the paper. Calculated and theoretical expressions for determination of main parameters for a wheeled chassis have been obtained and they include physical quantities of operational conditions that explicitly determine its working process. Such approach has made it possible to realize the obtained expressions as a software application which is suitable for analysis of main parameters in respect of the investigated harvester chassis and rational parameters of a branch wheel drive and also for a complete set of tires in the case when a sugar beet harvester is designed on the basis of wheeled chassis according to the selected scheme. Investigations have theoretical significance and represent practical interest for development spesialists of new modular multi-bridge sugar beet harvesters.

  11. [Progress in developing and applying Streptomyces chassis - A review]. (United States)

    Xiao, Liping; Deng, Zixin; Liu, Tiangang


    Natural products and their derivatives play an important role in modern healthcare. Their diversity in bioactivity and chemical structure inspires scientists to discover new drug entities for clinical use. However, chemical synthesis of natural compounds has insurmountable difficulties in technology and cost. Also, many original-producing bacteria have disadvantages of needing harsh cultivation conditions, having low productivity and other shortcomings. In addition, some gene clusters responsible for secondary metabolite biosynthesis are silence in the original strains. Therefore, it is of great significance to exploit strategy for the heterologous expression of natural products guided by synthetic biology. Recently, researchers pay more attention on using actinomycetes that are the main source of many secondary metabolites, such as antibiotics, anticancer agents, and immunosuppressive drugs. Especially, with huge development of genome sequencing, abundant resources of natural product biosynthesis in Streptomyces have been discovered, which highlight the special advantages on developing Streptomyces as the heterologous expression chassis cells. This review begins with the significance of the development of Streptomyces chassis, focusing on the strategies and the status in developing Streptomyces chassis cells, followed by examples to illustrate the practical applications of a variety of Streptomyces chassis.

  12. Synthetic Biology with Cytochromes P450 Using Photosynthetic Chassis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnanasekaran, Thiyagarajan

    Synthetic biology is a rapidly growing engineering discipline in biology. It aims at building novel biological systems that do not exist in nature by selecting the interchangeable standardized biological parts that are already available in the nature, and assembling them in a specific order. Today......, this modern field of synthetic biology is completely dependent on the nature of the chassis - the host organisms - for its endeavor. Of all the chassis, photosynthetic organisms such as cyanobacteria and plants gains special attention due to the remarkable amount of sunlight that is striking the Earth......’s atmosphere and anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) increase in the atmosphere. Hence, tapping into photosynthesis for synthetic biology endeavor is very rational, and for future, it has a huge potential for the industrial production of fuels and high value bioactive compounds in a sustainable way. Most...

  13. Communication protocol in chassis detecting wireless transmission system based on WiFi (United States)

    In chassis detecting wireless transmission system, the wireless network communication protocol plays a key role in the information exchange and synchronization between the host and chassis PDA. This paper presents a wireless network transmission protocol based on TCP/IP which makes the rules of info...

  14. 26 CFR 48.4061(a)-5 - Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis. (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis. 48..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4061(a)-5 Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis. (a) Sale of completed vehicle. An automobile truck (as defined by §...

  15. Design of Electric Vehicle Racing Car Chassis using Topology Optimization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    bin Ab Razak Mohd Suffian


    Full Text Available The goal of this project is to improve the design of space frame chassis of electric vehicle which meet the rules and regulations of Formula Varsity (FV Malaysia. The chassis was designed using topology optimization method and analyzed for its structural performance using various loading analyses and RULA assessment.

  16. Finite Element Analysis of Fire Truck Chassis for Steel and Carbon Fiber Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvi Gauri Sanjay


    Full Text Available Chassis is the foremost component of an automobile that acts as the frame to support the vehicle body. Hence the frame ought to be very rigid and robust enough to resist shocks vibrations and stresses acting on a moving vehicle. Steel in its numerous forms is commonly used material for producing chassis and overtime alumimium has acquired its use. However, in this study traditional materials are replaced with ultra light weight carbon fiber materials. High strength and low weight of carbon fibers makes it ideal for manufacturing automotive chassis. This paper depicts the modal and static structural analysis of TATA 407 fire truck chassis frame for steel as well as carbon fibers. From the analyzed results, stress, strain and total deformation values were compared for both the materials. Since it is easy to analyze structural systems by finite element method, the chassis is modified using PRO-E and the Finite Element Analysis is performed on ANSYS workbench.

  17. Functional Virtual Prototyping in Vehicle Chassis Reform Analysis and Improvement Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The contribution of functional virtual prototyping to vehicle chassis development is presented. The different topics that we took into consideration were reform analysis and improvement design during the vehicle chassis development. A frame of coordinates based on the digital-model was established, the main CAE analysis methods, multi-body system dynamics and finite element analysis were applied to the digital-model build by CAD/CAM software. The method was applied in the vehicle chassis reform analysis and improvement design, all the analysis and design projects were implemented in the uniform digital-model, and the development was carried through effectively.

  18. Static Analysis, Design Modification and Modal Analysis of Structural Chassis Frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Ps


    Full Text Available The chassis frame is an important part in a truck and it carries the whole load acting on the truck as well as different parts of the automobile. So it must be strong enough to resist the shock, twist, vibration and other stresses. Maximum stress and maximum deflection are important criteria for design of the chassis. The objective of present is to determine the maximum stress, maximum deflection and to recognize critical regions under static loading condition. Static structural analysis of the chassis frame is carried out by FEA Method. The structural chassis frame is modeled using PRO-E wildfire 4.0 software. The Pre-processing has done with HYPERMESH software; then the problem has been solved through RADIOSS and the post processing was done by HYPERVIEW. The results obtained like maximum shear stress, Von-mises stress and maximum deflections are used for improving design modification. Modal analysis of the chassis frame done using ANSYS WORKBENCH. Through modal analysis, natural frequencies and corresponding vibration mode shapes of the structure are obtained.

  19. Clock and Trigger Synchronization between Several Chassis of Digital Data Acquisition Modules

    CERN Document Server

    Hennig, W; Walby, M; Grudberg, P; Fallu-Labruyere, A; Warburton, W K; Vaman, C; Starosta, K; Miller, D; 10.1016/j.nimb.2007.04.181


    In applications with segmented high purity Ge detectors or other detector arrays with tens or hundreds of channels, where the high development cost and limited flexibility of application specific integrated circuits outweigh their benefits of low power and small size, the readout electronics typically consist of multi-channel data acquisition modules in a common chassis for power, clock and trigger distribution, and data readout. As arrays become larger and reach several hundred channels, the readout electronics have to be divided over several chassis, but still must maintain precise synchronization of clocks and trigger signals across all channels. This division becomes necessary not only because of limits given by the instrumentation standards on module size and chassis slot numbers, but also because data readout times increase when more modules share the same data bus and because power requirements approach the limits of readily available power supplies. In this paper, we present a method for distributing ...

  20. Investigation of Diagonal Antenna-Chassis Mode in Mobile Terminal LTE MIMO Antennas for Bandwidth Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuai; Zhao, Kun; Ying, Zhinong


    A diagonal antenna-chassis mode is investigated in long-term evolution multiple-input-multiple-output (LTE MIMO) antennas. The MIMO bandwidth is defined in this paper as the overlap range of the low-envelope correlation coefficient, high total efficiency, and -6-dB impedance matching bandwidths...

  1. Enumerating metabolic pathways for the production of heterologous target chemicals in chassis organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carbonell Pablo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background We consider the possibility of engineering metabolic pathways in a chassis organism in order to synthesize novel target compounds that are heterologous to the chassis. For this purpose, we model metabolic networks through hypergraphs where reactions are represented by hyperarcs. Each hyperarc represents an enzyme-catalyzed reaction that transforms set of substrates compounds into product compounds. We follow a retrosynthetic approach in order to search in the metabolic space (hypergraphs for pathways (hyperpaths linking the target compounds to a source set of compounds. Results To select the best pathways to engineer, we have developed an objective function that computes the cost of inserting a heterologous pathway in a given chassis organism. In order to find minimum-cost pathways, we propose in this paper two methods based on steady state analysis and network topology that are to the best of our knowledge, the first to enumerate all possible heterologous pathways linking a target compounds to a source set of compounds. In the context of metabolic engineering, the source set is composed of all naturally produced chassis compounds (endogenuous chassis metabolites and the target set can be any compound of the chemical space. We also provide an algorithm for identifying precursors which can be supplied to the growth media in order to increase the number of ways to synthesize specific target compounds. Conclusions We find the topological approach to be faster by several orders of magnitude than the steady state approach. Yet both methods are generally scalable in time with the number of pathways in the metabolic network. Therefore this work provides a powerful tool for pathway enumeration with direct application to biosynthetic pathway design.

  2. Analysis of tables, murals, grids and chassis available for conventional diagnostic radiology; Analise de mesas, murais, grades e chassis disponiveis para radiologia diagnostica convencional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Wilson Otto; Navarro, Marcus Vinicius Teixeira [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica da Bahia (CEFET-BA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Nucleo de Tecnologia em Saude. Lab. de Fisica Radiologica], e-mail:, e-mail:; Ferreira, Mario de Jesus [Universidade do Estado da Bahia (UNEB), Alagoinhas, BA (Brazil)], e-mail:


    Tables, bucky, grids, chassis and their combinations produced by several industries have been analysed, verifying and quantifying the attenuation in order to confront the results with the national and international recommendations. The results have shown that some of those tables do not satisfy the national requirements and for that reason increasing the patient dose. As the dose measurements are performed on the table or bucky, the analysis normally is not considered for quality control verifications and have to be considered, as those parts are positioned among the patient and the image receptor (radiological film) influenced the skin dose.

  3. Failure of the chassis of roller skates for agonistic figure skating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Olmi


    Full Text Available The subject of this work was to investigate the early failure, which occurred in the chassis of a roller skate for figure skating. The paper deals with the preliminary analysis of the crack and with the integrated approach, which had to be followed to overcome the problem. Literature in the fields of physiology and biomechanics was studied to correctly simulate the load distribution on the chassis. Finite element simulation, experimental stress analysis and analytical modeling of impact phenomena had to be combined together to estimate the entity of dynamic loads and the corresponding state of stress. The analysis led to the determination of the primary cause of failure, bending fatigue, and to the suggestion of a simple solution to improve and optimize the project.

  4. Multi-criteria optimization of chassis parameters of Nissan 200 SX for drifting competitions (United States)

    Maniowski, M.


    The work objective is to increase performance of Nissan 200sx S13 prepared for a quasi-static state of drifting on a circular path with given constant radius (R=15 m) and tyre-road friction coefficient (μ = 0.9). First, a high fidelity “miMA” multibody model of the vehicle is formulated. Then, a multicriteria optimization problem is solved with one of the goals to maximize a stable drift angle (β) of the vehicle. The decision variables contain 11 parameters of the vehicle chassis (describing the wheel suspension stiffness and geometry) and 2 parameters responsible for a driver steering and accelerator actions, that control this extreme closed-loop manoeuvre. The optimized chassis setup results in the drift angle increase by 14% from 35 to 40 deg.

  5. Design of an Integrated Vehicle Chassis Control System with Driver Behavior Identification


    Bing Zhu; Yizhou Chen; Jian Zhao; Yunfu Su


    An integrated vehicle chassis control strategy with driver behavior identification is introduced in this paper. In order to identify the different types of driver behavior characteristics, a driver behavior signals acquisition system was established using the dSPACE real-time simulation platform, and the driver inputs of 30 test drivers were collected under the double lane change test condition. Then, driver behavior characteristics were analyzed and identified based on the preview optimal cu...

  6. Application of advanced high strength hot-rolled steels to automotive chassis parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Y.R.; Kim, H.G.; Chin, K.G. [Technical Research Lab., POSCO (Korea); Lee, W.S. [Advanced Technology Dept., Hyundai MOBIS, Yongin (Korea); Kwon, T.W. [Hwashin Co. Ltd., Yeongcheon (Korea)


    With social demand of automobiles that provide higher fuel efficiency, safety in collisions, the steel makers are tackling the needs of the auto industry by developing higher performance materials such as AHSS (advanced high strength steels). From this point of view, DP and FB (ferrite-bainite) steels have received considerable attention because of their good strength and formability relationship. The results of application with the AHSS on chassis parts were compared with the conventional steels of 370 or 440MPa grade steels. 590DP steel has good press formability due to higher n value and lower yield strength. Fatigue durability of chassis assembly was increased due to the strength and bake hardening effects in spite of thickness reduction. The damping capacity of chassis components increased more than 2 times comparing with conventional steels. With 540 and 590FB steels which have excellent stretch flangeability, the validity were proved by successful press forming and weight reduction of arms as well as increased fatigue durability. (orig.)

  7. Vehicle Chassis Integrated Control Based on Multimodel and Multilevel Hierarchical Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-en Zhao


    Full Text Available Aiming at the differences of vehicle chassis key subsystems influence on vehicle handling stability and effective acting regions, comprehensive considering of the nonlinear characteristic of the tires and the dynamic coupling among suspension, steering, and braking subsystems in vehicle chassis, the 14-DOF full vehicle model is built. Based on the control characteristic local optimum of each subsystem, multilevel hierarchical control theory is adopted and the vehicle stability coordinated control system including organization, coordination, and execution level is established. Using sliding mode control theory and the inverse tire model, the generalized target forces and moments from organization level are translated into the tire sideslip angle and slip ratio. And then, based on the principle of functional allocation, the control functions of each subsystem are coordinated and the function decoupling of vehicle chassis complex system is realized. The Matlab/Simulink platform is used and the full vehicle stability coordinated control system is simulated. The results show that the full vehicle coordinated control system based on multilevel hierarchical control theory can improve the vehicle stability preferably than the subsystem combined control and uncontrolled system.

  8. Technique for Calibration of Chassis components based on encoding marks and machine Vision metrology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Li-mei; ZHANG Chun-bo; WEI Yi-ying; CHEN Hua-wei


    @@ A novel technique for calibrating crucial parameters of chassis components is proposed, which utilizes the machine vision metrology to measure 3D coordinates of the center of a component's hole for assembling in the 3D world coordinate system.In the measurement, encoding marks with special patterns will be assembled on the chassis component associated with cross drone and staff gauge located near the chassis.The geometry and coordinates of the cross drone consist of two planes orthogonal to each other and the staff gauge is in 3D space with high precision.A few images are taken by a highresolution camera in different orientations and perspectives.The 3D coordinates of 5 key points on the encoding marks will be calculated by the machine vision technique and those of the center of the holes to be calibrated will be calculated by the deduced algorithm in this paper.Experimental results show that the algorithm and the technique can satisfy the precision requirement when the components are assembled, and the average measurement precision provided by the algorithm is 0.0174 mm.

  9. Stresses In Vehicle Chassis Joints - A Canparison Of SPATE With Other Analysis Techniques (United States)

    Loader, A. J.; Turner, W. B.; Harwood, N.


    Joints in ladder frame chassis have been studied as part of an SERC Teaching Company Schene. The joints between the cross members and side members are complex structures involving bolts, welds and/or rivets, as the cross member section can be tubular, box or C-section. It is therefore difficult to apply simple analytical methods to such joints. This paper compares the stresses obtained by brittle lacquer, strain gauge and SPATE measurements with those found from a finite elenent analysis of the joints.

  10. Broadband noise and vibration reduction for lightweight chassis design using smart structure technologies (United States)

    Messner, L.; Gusenbauer, M.; Rittenschober, T.


    Lightweight design is gaining more and more importance in the automotive industry. Engineers are trying hard to reduce the increased weight of chassis due to safety and comfort issues. This paper presents new achievements in the field of control design for smart structures, targeting at innovative lightweight, high-performance and low-noise engineering constructions with integrated embedded systems technology: The first part of the paper focuses on new developments in the field of low-cost, highly efficient smart structure power electronics for piezoelectric elements. These elements will be integrated into automotive chassis, which are able to measure any structure-borne disturbance such as vibrations. The second part of the paper presents frontier research in the design of a high-performance control concept for smart structure applications. This innovative control concept based on a nonlinear state observer design, targets at highly robust and broadband suppression of structure-borne noise in terms of fast changing frequencies. The controller performance is not only assessed with respect to stability and disturbance rejection but also with respect to technical feasibility and implementation issues (required sample rate, rounding errors due to inappropriate data formats, latency, etc.).

  11. Simulation Research on an Electric Vehicle Chassis System Based on a Collaborative Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenglian Feng


    Full Text Available This paper presents a collaborative control system for an electric vehicle chassis based on a centralized and hierarchical control architecture. The centralized controller was designed for the suspension and steering system, which is used for improving ride comfort and handling stability; the hierarchical controller was designed for the braking system, which is used for distributing the proportion of hydraulic braking and regenerative braking to improve braking performance. These two sub-controllers function at the same level of the vehicle chassis control system. In order to reduce the potential conflict between the two sub-controllers and realize a coordination optimization of electric vehicle performance, a collaborative controller was built, which serves as the upper controller to carry out an overall coordination analysis according to vehicle signals and revises the decisions of sub-controllers. A simulation experiment was carried out with the MATLAB/Simulink software. The simulation results show that the proposed collaborative control system can achieve an optimized vehicle handling stability and braking safety.

  12. In silico screening for candidate chassis strains of free fatty acid-producing cyanobacteria

    KAUST Repository

    Motwalli, Olaa Amin


    Background Finding a source from which high-energy-density biofuels can be derived at an industrial scale has become an urgent challenge for renewable energy production. Some microorganisms can produce free fatty acids (FFA) as precursors towards such high-energy-density biofuels. In particular, photosynthetic cyanobacteria are capable of directly converting carbon dioxide into FFA. However, current engineered strains need several rounds of engineering to reach the level of production of FFA to be commercially viable; thus new chassis strains that require less engineering are needed. Although more than 120 cyanobacterial genomes are sequenced, the natural potential of these strains for FFA production and excretion has not been systematically estimated. Results Here we present the FFA SC (FFASC), an in silico screening method that evaluates the potential for FFA production and excretion of cyanobacterial strains based on their proteomes. A literature search allowed for the compilation of 64 proteins, most of which influence FFA production and a few of which affect FFA excretion. The proteins are classified into 49 orthologous groups (OGs) that helped create rules used in the scoring/ranking of algorithms developed to estimate the potential for FFA production and excretion of an organism. Among 125 cyanobacterial strains, FFASC identified 20 candidate chassis strains that rank in their FFA producing and excreting potential above the specifically engineered reference strain, Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. We further show that the top ranked cyanobacterial strains are unicellular and primarily include Prochlorococcus (order Prochlorales) and marine Synechococcus (order Chroococcales) that cluster phylogenetically. Moreover, two principal categories of enzymes were shown to influence FFA production the most: those ensuring precursor availability for the biosynthesis of lipids, and those involved in handling the oxidative stress associated to FFA synthesis. Conclusion To

  13. Open source approaches to establishing Roseobacter clade bacteria as synthetic biology chassis for biogeoengineering. (United States)

    Borg, Yanika; Grigonyte, Aurelija Marija; Boeing, Philipp; Wolfenden, Bethan; Smith, Patrick; Beaufoy, William; Rose, Simon; Ratisai, Tonderai; Zaikin, Alexey; Nesbeth, Darren N


    Aim. The nascent field of bio-geoengineering stands to benefit from synthetic biologists' efforts to standardise, and in so doing democratise, biomolecular research methods. Roseobacter clade bacteria comprise 15-20% of oceanic bacterio-plankton communities, making them a prime candidate for establishment of synthetic biology chassis for bio-geoengineering activities such as bioremediation of oceanic waste plastic. Developments such as the increasing affordability of DNA synthesis and laboratory automation continue to foster the establishment of a global 'do-it-yourself' research community alongside the more traditional arenas of academe and industry. As a collaborative group of citizen, student and professional scientists we sought to test the following hypotheses: (i) that an incubator capable of cultivating bacterial cells can be constructed entirely from non-laboratory items, (ii) that marine bacteria from the Roseobacter clade can be established as a genetically tractable synthetic biology chassis using plasmids conforming to the BioBrick(TM) standard and finally, (iii) that identifying and subcloning genes from a Roseobacter clade species can readily by achieved by citizen scientists using open source cloning and bioinformatic tools. Method. We cultivated three Roseobacter species, Roseobacter denitrificans, Oceanobulbus indolifexand Dinoroseobacter shibae. For each species we measured chloramphenicol sensitivity, viability over 11 weeks of glycerol-based cryopreservation and tested the effectiveness of a series of electroporation and heat shock protocols for transformation using a variety of plasmid types. We also attempted construction of an incubator-shaker device using only publicly available components. Finally, a subgroup comprising citizen scientists designed and attempted a procedure for isolating the cold resistance anf1 gene from Oceanobulbus indolifexcells and subcloning it into a BioBrick(TM) formatted plasmid. Results. All species were stable

  14. Open source approaches to establishing Roseobacter clade bacteria as synthetic biology chassis for biogeoengineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanika Borg


    Full Text Available Aim. The nascent field of bio-geoengineering stands to benefit from synthetic biologists’ efforts to standardise, and in so doing democratise, biomolecular research methods. Roseobacter clade bacteria comprise 15–20% of oceanic bacterio-plankton communities, making them a prime candidate for establishment of synthetic biology chassis for bio-geoengineering activities such as bioremediation of oceanic waste plastic. Developments such as the increasing affordability of DNA synthesis and laboratory automation continue to foster the establishment of a global ‘do-it-yourself’ research community alongside the more traditional arenas of academe and industry. As a collaborative group of citizen, student and professional scientists we sought to test the following hypotheses: (i that an incubator capable of cultivating bacterial cells can be constructed entirely from non-laboratory items, (ii that marine bacteria from the Roseobacter clade can be established as a genetically tractable synthetic biology chassis using plasmids conforming to the BioBrickTM standard and finally, (iii that identifying and subcloning genes from a Roseobacter clade species can readily by achieved by citizen scientists using open source cloning and bioinformatic tools. Method. We cultivated three Roseobacter species, Roseobacter denitrificans, Oceanobulbus indolifexand Dinoroseobacter shibae. For each species we measured chloramphenicol sensitivity, viability over 11 weeks of glycerol-based cryopreservation and tested the effectiveness of a series of electroporation and heat shock protocols for transformation using a variety of plasmid types. We also attempted construction of an incubator-shaker device using only publicly available components. Finally, a subgroup comprising citizen scientists designed and attempted a procedure for isolating the cold resistance anf1 gene from Oceanobulbus indolifexcells and subcloning it into a BioBrickTM formatted plasmid. Results. All

  15. 沥青汽车底盘涂料的研制%The Preparation of Asphalt Chassis Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In the paper, the technology that prepares asphalt dispersion by protecting colloid dispersant (homemade) was improved. It was shown that the use of poisonous and serious irritant solvent was greatly reduced in the asphalt dispersion, improving the industry sanitary environment of manufacture and construction. It was found that the polyurethane prepared in the research, after asphalt chassis coating modification, had a longer period of valid and better performance to protect chassis. The comprehensive qualities of asphah chassis coating modified polyurethane was improved significantly.%文章采用保护胶体分散剂(自制)改进了沥青的制备工艺.利用沥青分散体的形式,大大降低了有毒、有严重刺激性溶剂的使用;提高生产、施工的工业卫生环境;使用合成的聚氨酯树脂,用于改进沥青型汽车底盘涂料,使聚氨酯改性沥青汽车底盘涂料具有较长的使用寿命,具有良好的护理底盘性能.聚氨酯改性沥青汽车底盘涂料综合性能有了显著的提高.

  16. Using of mathematical optimization methods for test specification development of simplified chassis components tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiesel, A.; Seise, M. (IAMT mbH, Lehmgrubenstrasse 5, 08538 Weischlitz); Schliebner, R.


    Testing the fatigue life time of chassis components is necessary during the development process and for quality supervision during the period of series production. In many cases a simplified test is done to reduce the complexity of the test. The development engineer has to develop the specification of those simplified tests. According to the task different approaches are possible: Looking for an adequate test load or for a simplified mounting ore both. This paper deals with several numerical methods for test specification development. Especially a numerical optimization routine is presented for detection of a significant load case. Also the iterative searching for a simplified mounting in combination with damage based selection of load channel is shown. Exemplary the application of the routines is demonstrated by Porsche PANAMERA wheel carrier and a suspension-strut receiving. The actual stage of development of the numerical routines is presented. In addition intended upgrades of the software are shown. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Engineering Pichia pastoris for improved NADH regeneration: A novel chassis strain for whole-cell catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Geier


    Full Text Available Many synthetically useful reactions are catalyzed by cofactor-dependent enzymes. As cofactors represent a major cost factor, methods for efficient cofactor regeneration are required especially for large-scale synthetic applications. In order to generate a novel and efficient host chassis for bioreductions, we engineered the methanol utilization pathway of Pichia pastoris for improved NADH regeneration. By deleting the genes coding for dihydroxyacetone synthase isoform 1 and 2 (DAS1 and DAS2, NADH regeneration via methanol oxidation (dissimilation was increased significantly. The resulting Δdas1 Δdas2 strain performed better in butanediol dehydrogenase (BDH1 based whole-cell conversions. While the BDH1 catalyzed acetoin reduction stopped after 2 h reaching ~50% substrate conversion when performed in the wild type strain, full conversion after 6 h was obtained by employing the knock-out strain. These results suggest that the P. pastoris Δdas1 Δdas2 strain is capable of supplying the actual biocatalyst with the cofactor over a longer reaction period without the over-expression of an additional cofactor regeneration system. Thus, focusing the intrinsic carbon flux of this methylotrophic yeast on methanol oxidation to CO2 represents an efficient and easy-to-use strategy for NADH-dependent whole-cell conversions. At the same time methanol serves as co-solvent, inductor for catalyst and cofactor regeneration pathway expression and source of energy.

  18. Experimental Study on the Ride Comfort of a Crawler Power Chassis Scale Model Based on the Similitude Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jianzhu; WANG Fengchen; YU Bin; TONG Pengcheng; CHEN Kuifu


    The ride comfort experimental assessment of crawler off-road vehicle is relatively overlooked, and is expensive and difficult to execute with higher and higher ride comfort performance requirements. To trade off between precise and cost, an experimental method based on the similitude theory is proposed. Under the guidance of the similitude theory, a 1:5 crawler power chassis scale model equipped with a kind of variable stiffness suspension system is used. The power spectrum density(PSD), the root mean square(RMS) of weighed acceleration, peak factor, average absorbed power(AAP) and vibration dose value(VDV) are selected as ride comfort evaluation indexes, and tests results are transformed via similarity indexes to predict the performance of full-scale power chassis. PSD shows that the low-order natural frequency of the vertical natural frequency(z axis) is 1.1 Hz, and the RMS, AAP and VDV values indicate the ride comfort performance of this kind of power chassis is between the“A little uncomfortable”and“Rather uncomfortable”. From the results, low-order vertical natural frequency, obtalned by PSD, validates that the similarity relationship between two models is satisfied, and 1:5 scale model used in experiment meets the similarity relationship with the full-scale model; consequently, the ride comfort prophase evaluation with the 1:5 scale model is feasible. The attempt of applying the similitude theory to crawler vehicle ride comfort test study decreases the cost and improves the test feasibility with sufficient test precise.

  19. From dirt to industrial applications: Pseudomonas putida as a Synthetic Biology chassis for hosting harsh biochemical reactions. (United States)

    Nikel, Pablo I; Chavarría, Max; Danchin, Antoine; de Lorenzo, Víctor


    The soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida is endowed with a central carbon metabolic network capable of fulfilling high demands of reducing power. This situation arises from a unique metabolic architecture that encompasses the partial recycling of triose phosphates to hexose phosphates-the so-called EDEMP cycle. In this article, the value of P. putida as a bacterial chassis of choice for contemporary, industrially-oriented metabolic engineering is addressed. The biochemical properties that make this bacterium adequate for hosting biotransformations involving redox reactions as well as toxic compounds and intermediates are discussed. Finally, novel developments and open questions in the continuous quest for an optimal microbial cell factory are presented at the light of current and future needs in the area of biocatalysis.

  20. 浅析采用多用型纵梁的车架设计%Brief Analysis of the Chassis Design for a multi-functional Longeron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    设计了一种兼顾1020两驱底盘与猎豹四驱底盘的车架多用型纵梁,依据此纵梁重新设计1020两驱底盘与猎豹四驱底盘的系列车架。通过建模、有限元分析以及实验验证,采用多用型纵梁的系列车架符合设计要求。%The paper designed a multi-functional longitudinal offset for both 1020 2-wheel drive and cheetah 4-wheel drive chassis.Based on this multi-functional longitudinal offset,to re-design the chassis for 1020 2-wheel drive and cheetah 4-wheel drive series.Thr

  1. 基于多设计团队协同的车辆底盘设计%Vehicle Chassis Design Based on Multi-design Teams Collaboration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐永忠; 张旭江


    本文介绍协同设计的定义,提出了多设计团队协同的汽车底盘开发方法,论述了设计过程中的多单元合作方式。通过重组多领域中的并行系统,将总体任务分解为一系列子系统任务,并建立了多设计团队协同底盘设计工作模型。%The definition of collaborative development was described in this paper, the method of chassis with design teams was proposed, and the corporation style of units in design process was discussed. The concurrent sys- tem was recombined, the general mission was disassembled into several small missions, and the model of chassis design was constructed.

  2. Integrated chassis control of active front steering and yaw stability control based on improved inverse nyquist array method. (United States)

    Zhu, Bing; Chen, Yizhou; Zhao, Jian


    An integrated chassis control (ICC) system with active front steering (AFS) and yaw stability control (YSC) is introduced in this paper. The proposed ICC algorithm uses the improved Inverse Nyquist Array (INA) method based on a 2-degree-of-freedom (DOF) planar vehicle reference model to decouple the plant dynamics under different frequency bands, and the change of velocity and cornering stiffness were considered to calculate the analytical solution in the precompensator design so that the INA based algorithm runs well and fast on the nonlinear vehicle system. The stability of the system is guaranteed by dynamic compensator together with a proposed PI feedback controller. After the response analysis of the system on frequency domain and time domain, simulations under step steering maneuver were carried out using a 2-DOF vehicle model and a 14-DOF vehicle model by Matlab/Simulink. The results show that the system is decoupled and the vehicle handling and stability performance are significantly improved by the proposed method.

  3. Chassis optimization as a cornerstone for the application of synthetic biology based strategies in microbial secondary metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago eBeites


    Full Text Available The increased number of bacterial genome sequencing projects has generated over the last years a large reservoir of genomic information. In silico analysis of this genomic data has renewed the interest in bacterial bioprospecting for bioactive compounds by unveiling novel biosynthetic gene clusters of unknown or uncharacterized metabolites. However only a small fraction of those metabolites is produced under laboratory-controlled conditions; the remaining clusters represent a pool of novel metabolites that are waiting to be awaken. Activation of the biosynthetic gene clusters that present reduced or no expression (known as cryptic or silent clusters by heterologous expression has emerged as a strategy for the identification and production of novel bioactive molecules.Synthetic biology, with engineering principles at its core, provides an excellent framework for the development of efficient heterologous systems for the expression of biosynthetic gene clusters. However, a common problem in its application is the host-interference problem, i.e. the unpredictable interactions between the device and the host that can hamper the desired output. Although an effort has been made to develop orthogonal devices, the most proficient way to overcome the host-interference problem is through genome simplification.In this review we present an overview on the strategies and tools used in the development of hosts/chassis for the heterologous expression of specialized metabolites biosynthetic gene clusters. Finally, we introduce the concept of specialized host as the next step of development of expression hosts.

  4. Soil compaction of various Central European forest soils caused by traffic of forestry machines with various chassis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Allman


    Full Text Available Aim of study: The primary objective of this paper was to compare the effects of different types of forestry machine chassis on the compaction of the top layers of soil and to define the soil moisture content level, at which machine traffic results in maximum compaction.Area of study: Measurements were conducted in eight forest stands located in Slovakia and the Czech Republic. The soil types in the stands subjected to the study were luvisols, stagnosols, cambisols, and rendzinas.Material and Methods: The measurements were focused on tracked and wheeled (equipped with low pressure tyres cut-to-length machines, and skidders equipped with wide and standard tyres. The bulk density of soil was determined from soil samples extracted from the ruts, the centre of the skid trail, and the undisturbed stand. To determine soil moisture content, at which the soil is the most susceptible to compaction, the Proctor standard test was employed.Main results: The moisture content for maximal compaction fluctuated from 12% to 34.06%. Wheeled machines compacted the soil to 1.24 – 1.36 (30.3 – 35.4 % compaction in dried state. Bulk density of soil in stands where tracked machine operated was lower, ranging from 1.02 to 1.06 (25.3 % compaction.Research highlights: All wheeled machines caused the same amount of soil compaction in the ruts, despite differences in tyres, machine weight, etc. Maximum compaction caused by forestry machines occurred at minimal moisture contents, easily achievable in European climatic conditions.  Keywords: soil compaction; bulk density; soil moisture content limits; cut-to-length machines; skidders.

  5. Data acquisition and command system for use with a microprocessor-based control chassis. [PIGMI-Pion Generation for Medical Irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halbig, J.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.; Martinez, V.A. Jr.


    The Pion Generation for Medical Irradiations (PIGMI) program at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is developing the technology to build smaller, less expensive, and more reliable proton linear accelerators for medical applications, and has designed a powerful, simple, inexpensive, and reliable control and data acquisition system that is central to the program development. The system is a NOVA-3D minicomputer interfaced to several outlying microprocessor-based controllers, which accomplish control and data acquisition through data I/O chasis. The equipment interface chassis, which can issue binary commands, read binary data, issue analog commands, and read timed and untimed analog data is described.

  6. 森林工程装备底盘研究综述%A Review on the Chassis of the Forest Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱阅; 阚江明; 徐道春; 刘晋浩


    随着我国林业的发展和劳动力日益紧张,森林工程作业机械化的重要性更加凸显。在我国山地、丘陵地区,森林工程装备底盘的性能决定了森林工程装备能否“上山入林”,影响森林工程机械化的进程。本文对近些年国内外装备底盘上的研究成果进行介绍,包括具有较强越野能力的装备底盘以及有助于改善底盘性能的关键机构(悬架、转向、车轮),分析各自的优缺点,基于我国典型林区立地条件的基础上提出适合我国山地、丘陵地区作业的森林工程装备底盘的性能要求。%With the development of forestry and increasingly tense labor force in China , the importance of mechanized operation of forest machine becomes more prominent .In the mountainous and hilly areas , the performance of chassis of forest machine can de-termine the possibility to “reach mountain and hill” for forest engineering equipment , which affects the process of mechanization of for-est machine .Some design principles and methods of chassis used in forestry equipment are introduced according to some references at home and abroad in recent years including strong off-road forestry chassises and several important parts that contribute to improve the performance of chassis(suspension, steering, and wheels).At the same time, the advantages and disadvantages are analyzed in de-tail.In the end, based on the analysis of typical forest areas in our country the performance requirments of chassis for forest machine that are suitable to work in the mountainous and hilly areas are put forward .

  7. 汽车底盘的保养与维修方法探讨%Discussion on maintenance and repair methods of automobile chassis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The chassis is an important part of the car,car driven mainly by the subject,strengthen the daily maintenance of the chassis and maintenance is to extend the service life of automobile is an important way,is also promoting China's automobile production and application to achieve further technology high quality development in an effective way,realize the modern means of science and technology in the automobile industry in the development of application and innovation and development.%汽车底盘是汽车车中的重要组成部分,是汽车驱动下主要受重主体,加强对汽车底盘的日常保养和维护是延长汽车寿命的重要途径,同时也是促进我国汽车生产、应用进一步实现技术高质量发展的有效途径,实现现代科学技术手段在汽车事业发展中的应用与创新发展。

  8. 前桥摆转式四轮底盘转向系统的转向机理研究%Research on the Steering Theory of Front Axle Swing Sowing Four-wheel Chassis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕莹; 张静; 李志伟


    四轮底盘在小地块水田作业时,减少地头空行转弯时间是提高作业时间利用率的重要环节。为实现四轮底盘小半径转弯,以提高水田播插底盘作业率为主要研究目标,对四轮底盘在90°、180°等不同转弯形式下进行分析,得出适合小地块水稻播插作业时以较小转弯半径的转弯方式;前桥摆转四轮底盘在转向时,通过控制前桥驱动轮的转动,使前驱动桥主动围绕着转向装置转动,可以带动底盘以任意角度转向。采用ADAMS软件对四轮底盘后轮轨迹进行模拟,在确保后轮完全不吃入已完成作业区的倒U转弯方式的情况下,提出设计前桥摆转式四轮底盘转向系统的可行性。%Four-wheel chassis when working in a small piece of paddy field, reduce blank line turning time is an important link in work utilization rate operation time. In this paper, in order to realize four-wheel chassis small turning radius, increase the paddy field on chassis operation efficiency as the main research target, 90°, 180° in the four-wheel chassis under different forms of turning modeling analysis, and concluded that suitable turning way of smaller turning radius for small plot rice sowing operations ; When the front axle Swing four-wheel chassis steering, By controlling the rotation of the front drive axle, to the front drive axle can rotate active around the steering device, and drive the chassis steering in an arbitrary Angle; Through ADAMS soft-ware for simulating four-wheel chassis rear wheel track, and ensuring the rear wheels do not enter that the as-signments section has been completed, put forward to design front axle pendulum type four-wheel chassis steer-ing system operability.

  9. 灵巧型电动底盘的设计与研究%Design and study of smart electric chassis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑坤; 李月辉; 吕琼莹


    灵巧型电动底盘采用四轮独立驱动和转向控制,主要由电动轮模块、平衡模块、控制模块组成.电动轮采用模块化设计理念,具有结构合理、行驶灵活、灵巧实用等特点.平衡模块使车辆无论在什么路况下行驶时始终保持底盘的水平平衡状态.同时,该底盘采用无刹车制动技术,可以通过调整各轮的转向角度控制驻停,使制动系统变得简单,安全性高.该底盘实现了四轮独立控制,简化了传动系统,减小了转弯半径,提高转弯速度,使底盘的机动灵活性更好,改善了操纵稳定性.%Smart electric chassis with four-wheel independent driving and steering control mainly consists of electric wheel module,balancing module, and control module.Modular design concept is adopted in electric wheel,which is characterized with its reasonable structure,flexible drive as well as smart and practical.The balancing module can ensure the balancing condition of the driving chassis no matter what driving path it is ,which can enhance the stability of the vehicle carrying system.By applying the technology without brake,through adjusting steering angle of each wheel,the parking of the vehicle is controlled, which makes the braking system become simple and the security is enhanced.The chassis can control the four-wheel independently,which simplify the transmission system,reduce the turning radius,improve the speed and turning maneuverability as well as improve the control stability.

  10. 铝合金矩形机箱工装设计及拼焊工艺%Welding Fixture Design and Assemble Welding Process for Aluminum Alloy Rectangle Chassis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐彬; 魏连峰; 王泽明; 王世忠; 俞德怀


    The problems which include difficulty in assembly,joint quality control,large distortion after welding exist in assembly welding process of heavy-thickness aluminum rectangle chassis.The corresponding fixture types were chosen for different type of structure plates.According to the characteristic of chassis type bodies deformation after welding,a fixture for the chassis was designed.Based on these works,electron beam welding is successfully used in the chassis assembly welding process.The chassis after welding meet the specifications of design requirement.The results show that the designed fixture and process is practical,and this research is advantageously used in solving these problems.%大厚度铝合金矩形机箱在拼焊生产过程中,存在组装难度大,焊缝质量不易保证,焊后变形大等问题.针对铝合金矩形机箱焊后马鞍型和螺旋型变形特点,选用表面定位方式,设计了多种类型的夹板,完成了箱体焊接工装的设计.在此基础上,采用真空电子束焊,通过严格的工艺措施完成了机箱的拼焊,获得了深宽比符合要求的焊缝,保证了机箱结构的完整性.经检测,矩形机箱满足设计要求.实践证明,此工装和工艺方案可行,对类似构件的制造有指导意义.

  11. 浅论铝合金真空钎焊机箱的应用和加工%Elementary Discussion on the Application and Processing of Vacuum Brazing Aluminum Alloy Chassis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王飚; 李卫民


    本文阐述了真空钎焊技术的优点及铝合金真空钎焊机箱的应用和加工的重要性,突出了机载装备中真空钎焊的必要性。其次,本文以某型号机箱为例,围绕着铝合金真空钎焊机箱加工的四个方面详细地加以介绍、描述和总结了加工工艺及要点。最后,本文指出了铝合金真空钎焊机箱能够提升航空电子系统的整体效能,只有通过提高工艺水平,规范生产流程,才能确保机载电子设备机箱的生产和质量稳定,提高生产效益。%Firstly, this paper expounded on the advantages of vacuum brazing technology and the importance of application and processing of vacuum brazing aluminum alloy chassis, with the emphasis on the necessity of vacuum brazing in airborne equipment. Secondly, taking a certain type of chassis as an example, this paper introduced, described and summarized the processing technology and key point of vacuum brazing process of aluminum alloy chassis in four aspects. Finally, it was pointed out that vacuum brazing aluminum alloy chassis was able to improve the overall effectiveness of avionics system, only by improving the technological level , and standardizing the production process, in order to ensure the production and quality of airborne electronic equipment chassis, and improve production efficiency.

  12. Chassis harness design for airport deicing vehicles%机场除冰车底盘部分线束设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李剑涛; 唐岚; 杨桃; 唐伟


    The electric performance level of airport deicing vehicle directly affects its fuel economy, emission, and safety and comfort performance level. However, the quality of whole vehicle electric performance depends on vehicle's harness design level. This given design sets about airport deicing vehicle's chassis harness, investigates vehicle's harness elements design and drawing methods, which reduces defects from unreasonable design. Also, it uses graphics software to adjust its harness arrangement more reasonable. The real vehicle tests verified that this design improved the chassis harness performance of original airport vehicles. And this design provides a reference method for relevant professional designers.%机场除冰车整车电气性能水平直接影响其燃油经济性能、排放性能、安全及舒适性能的高低,而整车电气性能的优劣取决于汽车线束设计水平.该文从机场除冰车底盘部分线束的实际设计着手,对汽车线束中各要素设计及绘制方法进行研究,减少由设计不合理产生的缺陷,并运用绘图软件将其线束布置更为合理.经实车验证,该设计方法提升了原有机场专用车底盘线束性能,同时为相关专业设计人员提供了可借鉴的方法.

  13. 紫杉二烯生物合成模块与不同底盘的适配%Fitness of Taxadiene Biosynthetic Modules with Different S. cerevisiae Chassis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张正伟; 丁明珠; 元英进


    以酿酒酵母BY4742及其单敲菌株作为底盘细胞,优化底盘细胞甲羟戊酸途径,上调并融合表达牻牛儿基牻牛儿基焦磷酸( GGPP)合成的相关基因,引入人工合成的外源GGPP合成酶基因与紫杉二烯合成酶基因,构建了多载体紫杉二烯生物合成模块;还利用酵母组装技术,通过对紫杉二烯合成路径相关基因进行模块化设计组装,构建了依托单一着丝粒( CEN)质粒的紫杉二烯生物合成模块.将构建的2个模块与不同底盘细胞进行适配,使紫杉二烯产量获得了数倍提升,最高产量可达74.84 mg/L.%In the research works of constructing taxadiene aritficaial synthetic cell, S. cerevisiae is a common-ly used chassis. The highest taxadiene yield in S. cerevisiae that has been reported was 8. 7 mg/L. In this work, the fitness of different taxadiene biosynthetic modules with different S. cerevisiae chassis was studied to elevate the taxadiene yield to a higher level. We chose the S. cerevisiae strains BY4742 and the single knoc-kout strains of BY4742 as chassis, constructed the multi-plasmids taxadiene biosynthetic module by optimizing the mevalonic acid( MVA) pathway with tHMGR, importing the synthetic genes GGPPSsa and tTS, up-regula-ting and co-expressing the genes BTS1 and ERG20 which are correlated with the synthesis of geranylgeranyl diphosphate(GGPP). Then we redesigned and reconstructed the module inserted into a single CEN plasmid by the method of DNA assembler. Through fitting the different modules with different chassis, we acquired strains with diffe-rent taxadiene yields, the highest yield was 74. 84 mg/L in the strain with the single-plasmid module and the chassis of YNL280C. The results indicated that the single-plasmid taxadiene biosynthetic module was more stable in the chassis than the multi-plasmids one, and the regulation of the pathways correlated with the MVA pathway will also influent the taxadiene yield.

  14. 大底盘双塔楼结构的自震周期及振型分析%Analysis on self vibration period and vibration mode of large chassis twin towers structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    采用Midas/Gen有限元分析软件,对不同间距、不同层数的大底盘双塔结构以及一栋带底盘裙房的单塔结构进行了分析,在此基础上总结了双塔结构的自振周期、振型的变化规律,以供参考。%Using the finite element analysis software Midas/Gen,this paper analyzed the large chassis twin towers structure of different spacing, different layers and the single tower structure of building with chassis podium,based on this summarized the self vibration period of twin towers structure,for reference.

  15. Nursing of patients with stoma chassis leakage and causes analysis%造口患者造口底盘渗漏的原因分析及护理对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温咏珊; 张惠芹


    目的:了解造口患者造口底盘渗漏发生的原因,并提出相应的护理措施。方法对20例在本院造口门诊就诊发生造口底盘渗漏患者的资料进行回顾性总结,分析发生造口底盘渗漏的原因。结果本组20例造口患者造口底盘渗漏的原因是:患者造口护理技能差、造口周围皮肤凹陷、造口底盘选用不当、体重增加及造口位置差、造口回缩。结论教会造口患者认识造口底盘渗漏的原因,重新选择造口底盘、或加猪油膏补片、或增高凸面底盘的高度,从而防止造口底盘渗漏的发生,提高患者生活质量。%Objective To investigate the cause of stoma chassis leakage (SCL) and summarize the nursing experience. Method The clinical data of 20 patients with SCL were retrospectively analyzed on the colostomy outpatients. Result The causes of SCL in those stoma patients included insufficient skills of stoma care, peridermal depression, poorly fitting stoma chassis, weight gain, poor positioning and retraction of the stoma. Conclusion Such nursing measures as enhanced awareness of SCL causes, careful reselection of a suitable stoma chassis, addition of ointment patches or heightening of the convex chassis can be effective in prevention of SCL leakage, enhancement of patient′s confidence and improvement of their quality of life.

  16. 10 kV手车式断路器底盘车检修专用工具的研制%Development of Special Device for Repairing Chassis of 10 kV Handcart Circuit Breaker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚先鹤; 曹辉; 易永利; 钱碧甫


    介绍了10 kV手车式断路器底盘车闭锁结构特点及原理,根据温州地区近些年来该类设备出现的故障问题,分析了相应的底盘车故障检修处理手段,针对检修过程中存在的问题,研制了10 kV断路器底盘车检修专用工具,以此来达到现场快速检修底盘车的目的,现场应用情况表明,该装置有效解决了原先需要返厂检修的难题,减少了停电时间,降低了检修成本。%Introduction was made to the structure features and principle of chassis interlock of 10 kV handcart circuit breakers. According to the faults of circuit breakers in recent years in Wenzhou district, this paper analyzed the corresponding faults overhaul methods in chassis of circuit breakers. In allusion to the existing problems in the overhaul process, this paper developed the special device for repairing chassis of 10 kV handcart circuit breakers to fast repair the chassis of circuit breakers onsite. The onsite application condition shows that the former returned overhaul problem is solved effectively and the outage time and overhaul cost are greatly reduced.

  17. Vertical Dynamics Analysis of Levitation Chassis on Middle and Low Speed Maglev Vehicle%中低速磁浮列车悬浮架垂向动力学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周益; 刘放; 李贤坤; 迟振华


    Based on the viberation of bouncing, pitching and rolling directions, the vertical dynamics model of levitation chassis was established, and the equations of motion of the model were derived. A simulation program was designed to simulate the vibration dynamic characteristics of the levitation chassis for a certain latest middle and low speed maglev vehicle. The structure decoupling function of levitation chassis was further studied, especially the influence of elastic constraints between the maglev vehicle specific left and right module, and evidences were provided for designing the restraint parameters of module rolling.%建立了考虑沉浮、点头、侧滚多方向振动的悬浮架垂向动力学模型,编制了系统动力学仿真程序,分析了某新型中低速磁浮悬浮架的振动动态特性;进一步研究了悬浮架结构解耦,特别是磁浮车辆特有的左右模块之间弹性约束的影响,为磁浮车辆抗侧滚悬挂参数设计提供依据.

  18. Characterizing the Dynamic Response of a Chassis Frame in a Heavy-Duty Dump Vehicle Based on an Improved Stochastic System Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Chen


    Full Text Available This paper presents an online method for the assessment of the dynamic performance of the chassis frame in a heavy-duty dump truck based on a novel stochastic subspace identification (SSI method. It introduces the use of an average correlation signal as the input data to conventional SSI methods in order to reduce the noisy and nonstationary contents in the vibration signals from the frame, allowing accurate modal properties to be attained for realistically assessing the dynamic behaviour of the frame when the vehicle travels on both bumped and unpaved roads under different operating conditions. The modal results show that the modal properties obtained online are significantly different from the offline ones in that the identifiable modes are less because of the integration of different vehicle systems onto the frame. Moreover, the modal shapes between 7 Hz and 40 Hz clearly indicate the weak section of the structure where earlier fatigues and unsafe operations may occur due to the high relative changes in the modal shapes. In addition, the loaded operations show more modes which cause high deformation on the weak section. These results have verified the performance of the proposed SSI method and provide reliable references for optimizing the construction of the frame.

  19. Research of replacement time of stoma chassis in patients with colon stoma during hospitalization period%结肠造口病人住院期间造口底盘更换时间的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘学英; 廖倩; 周华; 吴娟; 邓雪雁; 唐义英; 汪丽萍; 万雨莉; 胡鸽


    [目的]探讨结肠造口病人住院期间造口底盘更换的适宜时间。[方法]采取单纯随机抽样方法将156例结肠造口病人分为 A组、B 组、C 组,分别间隔3 d、5 d、7 d 更换1次造口底盘,观察其效果并比较造口周围皮肤状况、病人对造口的自我感受情况。[结果]B 组底盘浸渍宽度、渗漏、造口周围皮肤并发症及造口材料费用等均优于 C 组(P 0.05)。[结论]结肠造口病人住院期间造口底盘更换间隔时间以5 d 为宜;标准的造口护理流程和适宜的造口底盘更换时间,能减少造口周围皮肤并发症的发生,病人感觉更舒适。%Objective:To investigate the suitable replacement time of colostomy stoma chassis during hospitaliza-tion.Methods:A total of 156 cases of colostomy patients using simple random sampling method were divided in-to A,B,C three groups,with the stoma chassis replacement interval of three days,five days,seven days respec-tively.Observation and comparison were conducted on the skin condition around the periosteal wound,DET score and the feeling of patients.Results:According to the comparison of the width of impregnated chassis,con-dition of leakage,probability of skin complications,DET score and the material expenses of these three sample groups,results of group B is better than that of group C(P 0.05).Conclusion:Under the standardized nursing procedure,the interval of five days is the most appropriate time for colostomy stoma patient to replace stoma chassis.It can reduce the probability of skin complications around stoma and make patient feel more comfortable during treatment.

  20. The Bus Chassis Upgraded Based on Independent Suspension%基于独立悬架的客车底盘升级

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明; 向号; 向雨路


    Suspension is one of the important assembly about modern vehicle,which puts frame and axle join up Elastic flexibly.Its maintask is to transfer function of all the force and moment between the wheel and frame,and alleviate the impact load which transfers to frame from uneven pavement,all of which to ensure the normal operation of vehicle.And adopting independent suspension can reduce the spring load part weight greatly,reduced vibration load,So improved vehicle running smoothness. Before,the use of passenger car suspension generally adopt a dependent suspension.As people pay attention to ride comfort, control stability,running smoothness,the original suspension system already cannot satisfy the requirement of people.Faw bus (chengdu)company devotes to improve passenger car quality and increase passenger car products market share.Now this paper is upgrading chassis of CDL6606 model,changes the original plate spring suspension into that the front suspension adopts double wishbone type independent suspension and the rear suspension uses little leaf spring suspension.%悬架是现代汽车的重要组成之一,它把车架(或车身)与车轴(或车轮)弹性地连接起来。其主要任务是传递作用在车轮和车架之间的一切力和力矩,并且缓和由不平路面传给车架的冲击载荷,衰减由冲击载荷引起的承载系统的振动,以保证汽车的正常行驶。而采用独立悬架可大大减轻非簧载部分重量,减轻了振动载荷,所以改善了汽车的行驶平顺性。以往客车悬架的使用普遍都采用非独立悬架,随着人们对乘坐舒适性、操纵稳定性、行驶平顺性的重视,原有悬架系统已不能满足人们的要求,为满足市场需要,一汽客车(成都)公司致力于改善客车品质、增加产品市场占有率,本文对 CDL6606车型进行底盘升级,将原有前后钢板弹簧悬架改为,前悬架采用双横臂式独立悬架,后悬架采用少片簧悬架。

  1. 欧洲“火星快车”探测器自行底盘概念设计的启示%The concept design of the self-propelling chassis for European ExoMars rover

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    通过对月球车和火星车的跟踪调研,重点介绍了俄罗斯所承担的欧洲空间局“火星快车”项目中火星车自行底盘概念的设计思想和具体实施情况.结合火星表面的复杂环境,研制方探讨了几种底盘结构设计方案,通过对比分析确立了6×6×4+4Ⅲ方案为优化方案;根据该优化方案研制的比例模型样机通过行走试验验证,结果表明自行底盘概念设计思想正确,有助于提高行星车在复杂地形中的运动能力、稳定性和可靠性.最后针对我国深空探测项目实施的需求,提出了拟开展工作建议.%This paper describes the conceptual design of the self propelling chassis developed by Russia for the ESA project ExoMars. In the context of the complex environment on the surface of the Mars, several design plans of the Mars probe chassis are discussed, among which the optimized plan of 6×6×4+4 Ⅲ is identified, that means four steering drives and four stepped-driven wheels-stepping device and balanced suspension. The scale model prototype developed according to the optimized plan was tested in the test field. The results show that the conceptual design of the self propelling chassis is correct, and can increase the mobility, stability and reliability of the planet rover. In the end, some proposals are put forward in light of implementing China's deep space exploration projects.

  2. On Parametric Design of Computer Chassis Components Based on Pro/Toolkit%基于 Pro/Toolkit 的专用计算机机箱零部件参数化设计的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The author of this paper,who has conducted a parametric design of computer chassis components with Pro/Toolkit of Pro/E,describes the basic steps and key technologies involved, and demonstrate that the software development kit of three-dimensional design software can be employed for the parametric design of component parameters.%利用 Pro/E 的二次开发工具 Pro/Toolkit 对专用计算机机箱零部件进行了参数化设计,阐述了基本步骤和关键技术,说明基于三维设计软件的二次开发功能可以很好地实现产品零部件的参数化设计。

  3. 基于ADAMS的排土机底盘振动分析与结构改进%Vibration analysis and structural improvement of chassis of dumping spreader based on ADAMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖艳军; 于大海; 张晓光; 关玉明


    SolidWorks was applied to establish 3D model of the chassis of the dumping spreader,and then the model was imported into ADAMS.ADAMS/Vibration analysis module was used to simulate and analyze the vibration response of the model,so as to obtain the vibration characteristics of the system.Thus the resonance frequency of the system could be avoided,or the resonance frequency of the system was altered by optimizing the system parameters,which was applied to the design of the chassis of the crawler traveling mechanism of PA200-1600 dumping spreader.Finally,the vibration of the dumping spreader reduced,and its reliability and stability improved.%应用SolidWorks建立排土机底盘的三维模型,将模型导入ADAMS中,利用ADAMS/Vibration 振动分析模块对模型进行振动仿真分析,得到系统的振动特性,从而规避系统的共振频率,或者通过修改系统参数改变系统的共振频率,并将此分析应用到PA200-1600型排土机履带行走机构底盘的设计中,最终在减小整机振动方面取得了显著效果,改善了排土机运行的可靠性和稳定性.

  4. 履带机器人通用地面力学模型分析与底盘设计%A universal terramechanics model and the chassis design of a tracked robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雨潭; 朱华; 高志军; 程新景


    为了解决如何选取最优的履带机器人底盘相关参数的问题,创建一个包含履带底盘相关参数的通用履带机器人地面力学模型. 选取在软地面进行转弯的履带机器人作为物理模型进行数学建模,在建模过程中,考虑履带推土阻力与地面摩擦力,并引入打滑速度,最终得到了履带转弯过程中所受阻力矩的数学模型. 根据正在设计的履带机器人以及其工作环境路面的相关参数进行优化设计,得到了最优的履带宽度、接地长度与两条履带的间距. 最后,根据所得到的结果进行了样机的试制与试验,所得结果与理论计算结果相接近. 结果表明,所创建的履带机器人通用地面力学模型在进行机器人底盘设计时具有一定的理论指导意义.%In order to solve the problem of selecting the optimal parameters of the tracked robot chassis, a universal terramechanics model of tracked robot with related parameters was created.The tracked robot turning in the soft ground was used as the physical model of the mathematical modeling.In the process of modeling, considering the bulldozing resistance and the ground friction, by introducing the sliding speed, the resistance moment mathematical model of the turning process was obtained.According to the parameters of the tracked robot being designed and the corresponding pavement parameters, the optimal track width, the length of track on the ground and the distance be-tween two tracks of the coal mine rescue robot were got.Finally, a trial of the prototype was carried out, and the test results were close to the theoretical calculation.The result proves that the universal terramechanics model has certain theoretical guidance meaning in the design of the robot chassis.

  5. 履带机器人通用地面力学模型分析与底盘设计%A universal terramechanics model and the chassis design of a tracked robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雨潭; 朱华; 高志军; 程新景


    为了解决如何选取最优的履带机器人底盘相关参数的问题,创建一个包含履带底盘相关参数的通用履带机器人地面力学模型。选取在软地面进行转弯的履带机器人作为物理模型进行数学建模,在建模过程中,考虑履带推土阻力与地面摩擦力,并引入打滑速度,最终得到了履带转弯过程中所受阻力矩的数学模型。根据正在设计的履带机器人以及其工作环境路面的相关参数进行优化设计,得到了最优的履带宽度、接地长度与两条履带的间距。最后,根据所得到的结果进行了样机的试制与试验,所得结果与理论计算结果相接近。结果表明,所创建的履带机器人通用地面力学模型在进行机器人底盘设计时具有一定的理论指导意义。%In order to solve the problem of selecting the optimal parameters of the tracked robot chassis, a universal terramechanics model of tracked robot with related parameters was created. The tracked robot turning in the soft ground was used as the physical model of the mathematical modeling. In the process of modeling, considering the bulldozing resistance and the ground friction, by introducing the sliding speed, the resistance moment mathematical model of the turning process was obtained. According to the parameters of the tracked robot being designed and the corresponding pavement parameters, the optimal track width, the length of track on the ground and the distance be⁃tween two tracks of the coal mine rescue robot were got. Finally, a trial of the prototype was carried out, and the test results were close to the theoretical calculation. The result proves that the universal terramechanics model has certain theoretical guidance meaning in the design of the robot chassis.

  6. An SVM-Based Classifier for Estimating the State of Various Rotating Components in Agro-Industrial Machinery with a Vibration Signal Acquired from a Single Point on the Machine Chassis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Ruiz-Gonzalez


    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to assess the feasibility of estimating the state of various rotating components in agro-industrial machinery by employing just one vibration signal acquired from a single point on the machine chassis. To do so, a Support Vector Machine (SVM-based system is employed. Experimental tests evaluated this system by acquiring vibration data from a single point of an agricultural harvester, while varying several of its working conditions. The whole process included two major steps. Initially, the vibration data were preprocessed through twelve feature extraction algorithms, after which the Exhaustive Search method selected the most suitable features. Secondly, the SVM-based system accuracy was evaluated by using Leave-One-Out cross-validation, with the selected features as the input data. The results of this study provide evidence that (i accurate estimation of the status of various rotating components in agro-industrial machinery is possible by processing the vibration signal acquired from a single point on the machine structure; (ii the vibration signal can be acquired with a uniaxial accelerometer, the orientation of which does not significantly affect the classification accuracy; and, (iii when using an SVM classifier, an 85% mean cross-validation accuracy can be reached, which only requires a maximum of seven features as its input, and no significant improvements are noted between the use of either nonlinear or linear kernels.

  7. Real-time analysis of aromatics in combustion engine exhaust by resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOF-MS): a robust tool for chassis dynamometer testing. (United States)

    Adam, T W; Clairotte, M; Streibel, T; Elsasser, M; Pommeres, A; Manfredi, U; Carriero, M; Martini, G; Sklorz, M; Krasenbrink, A; Astorga, C; Zimmermann, R


    Resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOF-MS) is a robust method for real-time analysis of monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in complex emissions. A mobile system has been developed which enables direct analysis on site. In this paper, we utilize a multicomponent calibration scheme based on the analytes' photo-ionisation cross-sections relative to a calibrated species. This allows semi-quantification of a great number of components by only calibrating one compound of choice, here toluene. The cross-sections were determined by injecting nebulised solutions of aromatic compounds into the TOF-MS ion source with the help of a HPLC pump. Then, REMPI-TOF-MS was implemented at various chassis dynamometers and test cells and the exhaust of the following vehicles and engines investigated: a compression ignition light-duty (LD) passenger car, a compression ignition LD van, two spark ignition LD passenger cars, 2 two-stroke mopeds, and a two-stroke engine of a string gas trimmer. The quantitative time profiles of benzene are shown. The results indicate that two-stroke engines are a significant source for toxic and cancerogenic compounds. Air pollution and health effects caused by gardening equipment might still be underestimated.

  8. Modal Analysis for Corn Combine Harvester Chassis Frame Based on FEM%基于有限元的玉米联合收获机底盘车架模态分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡东方; 王想到


    In order to study a corn combine harvester chassis frame dynamic characteristics , modal analysis was carried out by finite element analysis software , and the top eight natural frequencies and Vibration mode features were gained . Then the modal analysis result was compared with the excitation frequencies of the harvester suffered ,and the frame was confirmed to be safe and reliable , it was of great importance and provided a reference for subsequent dynamic analysis and optimization design .%为研究某玉米联合收获机底盘车架的振动特性,应用大型有限元软件 ANSYS 对其进行模态分析,得到了前8阶模态特性的固有频率以及振型特征。同时,将模态分析所得结果与收获机受到的激励频率进行对比,确定了该车架结构的安全性和可靠性,为后续的其它动力学分析奠定了基础,具有一定的现实意义。

  9. 基于STM32的FSAE赛车底盘数据采集系统设计%Design of data acquisition system of FSAE racing car chassis based on STM32

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淼林; 戴海燕; 徐杰龙; 欧阳奕涛; 陈晓楷


    本文基于STM32设计了一套高精度、大容量、多通道、廉价的数据采集系统,包括硬件设计和软件设计,使其应用于校内FSAE赛车的底盘调校,实现准确的数据分析与调试。该系统选用STM32F103ZET6作为微处理器,以SD卡作为存储器,实现了多通道信号的同步、连续采集和存储,具有性能稳定、实时性强、扩展灵活等特点。%In this paper, a high precision, large capacity, multi channel, cheap data acquisition system based on the STM32 is designed, including hardware design and software design, which is applied to the FSAE racing car chassis calibration. It can realize accurate data analysis and debugging. The system uses STM32F103ZET6 as the microprocessor, uses SD as memory card, realizes multi channel signals synchronization, continuous acquisition and storage, has the characteristics of stable performance, strong real-time, flexible expansion, etc.

  10. Real-time analysis of aromatics in combustion engine exhaust by resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOF-MS): a robust tool for chassis dynamometer testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, T.W. [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Transport and Air Quality Unit, Ispra, VA (Italy); Clairotte, M.; Manfredi, U.; Carriero, M.; Martini, G.; Krasenbrink, A.; Astorga, C. [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Transport and Air Quality Unit, Ispra, VA (Italy); European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy and Transport, Sustainable Transport Unit, Ispra, Varese (Italy); Streibel, T.; Pommeres, A.; Sklorz, M. [University of Rostock, Analytical Chemistry/Joint Mass Spectrometry Centre, Institute of Chemistry, Rostock (Germany); Elsasser, M.; Zimmermann, R. [Cooperation Group Complex Molecular Systems (CMA)/Joint Mass Spectrometry Centre (JMSC), Neuherberg (Germany); University of Rostock, Analytical Chemistry/Joint Mass Spectrometry Centre, Institute of Chemistry, Rostock (Germany)


    Resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOF-MS) is a robust method for real-time analysis of monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in complex emissions. A mobile system has been developed which enables direct analysis on site. In this paper, we utilize a multicomponent calibration scheme based on the analytes' photo-ionisation cross-sections relative to a calibrated species. This allows semi-quantification of a great number of components by only calibrating one compound of choice, here toluene. The cross-sections were determined by injecting nebulised solutions of aromatic compounds into the TOF-MS ion source with the help of a HPLC pump. Then, REMPI-TOF-MS was implemented at various chassis dynamometers and test cells and the exhaust of the following vehicles and engines investigated: a compression ignition light-duty (LD) passenger car, a compression ignition LD van, two spark ignition LD passenger cars, 2 two-stroke mopeds, and a two-stroke engine of a string gas trimmer. The quantitative time profiles of benzene are shown. The results indicate that two-stroke engines are a significant source for toxic and cancerogenic compounds. Air pollution and health effects caused by gardening equipment might still be underestimated. (orig.)

  11. 基于微粒群算法的汽车底盘控制系统集成优化%Simultaneous optimization design of vehicle chassis integrated control system based on particle swarm optimization algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘显贵; 陈无畏; 罗善明; 钟铭恩


    interferences between the mechanical structure and control system of vehicle chassis system and to further enhance the overall performance of vehicle, the method of simultaneous optimization of mechanical structure and controller parameters of vehicle chassis system based on Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm is presented in this paper. According to the fundamental principle of vehicle dynamics, a half car mode of active suspension system and anti-lock braking systems established at first. Then the linear quadratic gauss controller of the active suspension system and sliding mode controller of anti-lock braking system are designed. Taking controllers designed for active suspension system and anti-lock braking system as bottom controllers, the upper coordinated control logic of the systems is put forward and the upper PID coordinated controller is designed on the basis of analyzing the coupling conflict between active suspension system and anti-lock braking system. Finally, a Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm was adopted for simultaneous optimization of mechanical structure and controller parameters of vehicle chassis integrated control system, because the traditional design method of a vehicle system is always to design control parameters following structure parameters and it can not obtain the global optimal performances for the system. In order to verify the effectiveness of the algorithm, the simultaneous optimization program is developed based on Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm in MATLAB environment while the mechanical structure and control parameters of chassis control system are set as optimization variables and the overall vehicle dynamics performance is set as objective function. Simulation result shows that the pitching angular acceleration of vehicle is reduced and vehicle riding comfort performance is improved after optimized. Braking distance and dynamic load of front and rear wheels of vehicle are also reduced significantly which indicating vehicle

  12. Design and engineering structure analysis on paddy-field chassis steering drive axle with standard all-wheel-drive%标准四驱水田自走底盘转向驱动桥设计与工程结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宏新; 郑利双; 徐高伟; 王晨


    In the main grain crop production in China, comprehensive mechanization level for paddy field is the lowest. At the same time, there exists the“bottleneck”problem of“bottleneck”problem such as rice planting mechanization. In the case of transplanter, although we have grasped the core technology of key components, overall machinery can not be popularized and applied due to lack of the support of cost-effective chassis. At present, in Chinese market, most of chassis are imported from Japan and South Korea, which widely use hydraulic transmission and variable speed technology. Because paddy planting operation has the characteristics of stable load and constant speed, using hydraulic transmission and continuous variable device causes low efficiency and has no much practical significance, and meanwhile, the demand for the power increases from 9 to 13 and even 15 kw. Northeast Agricultural University has designed a standard all-wheel drive light paddy self-propelled chassis with diesel-power and mechanical transmission for this situation, whose most prominent shape feature is that four wheels have same size and the front axle is different from any existing paddy field chassis structure. The chassis has the advantages of high transmission efficiency, large torque reserve, anti-sink capacity, dynamic stabilization, and good performance of crossing the earth bank between the paddy fields. As a transmission part, steering drive axle not only is a carrier installed, but also needs to bear the weight of chassis and the effect of impulsive load, and have the function of deflection wheel, and hence its structure is more complex than the traditional shell. The operating environment of paddy field chassis is harsher than general vehicle, which has stricter requirement of sludge, subsidence, bank and over load on axle. So, engineering analysis of structural design process is particularly important, however, conventional theoretical analysis and calculation method can not

  13. Chassis Number and Engine Number of Inspection and Emerging Technologies%车架号及发动机号的检验与显现技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯炳昌; 张凯


    Due to the robbery of motor vehicle has a professional and strong, strong liquidity,crime a short time, fled the scene and the characteristics of rapid, with the public security organs to from field collected valuable evidence or clues, stolen goods is difficult, low detection rate, leading to the crime of motor vehicle theft and robbery in such cases soon become high incidence of criminal cases in new and criminals increasingly rampant, serious harm to people and property safety and social stability. This paper based on the summary of the author's work experience,the inspection of the vehicle frame number and engine number and display methods are classified,from tampering vehicle chassis number,engine number recognition to display technology are discussed, to effectively combat vehicle theft and robbery crime has certain practical value.%由于盗抢机动车犯罪具有专业性强、流动性大、作案时间短、逃离现场快等特点,再加上公安机关难以从现场收集有价值的证据或线索,追赃难,破案率低,导致此类案件很快成为新型的刑事高发案件,且犯罪分子日益猖獗,严重危害人们的财产安全及社会稳定。笔者根据多年工作经验,对机动车车架号及发动机号的检验及显现方法进行大致分类,从被篡改机动车车架号、发动机号的识别到显现技术进行探讨,对有效打击盗抢机动车犯罪具有一定借鉴意义。

  14. Vehicle path tracking by integrated chassis control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saman Salehpour; Yaghoub Pourasad; Seyyed Hadi Taheri


    The control problem of trajectory based path following for passenger vehicles is studied. Comprehensive nonlinear vehicle model is utilized for simulation vehicle response during various maneuvers in MATLAB/Simulink. In order to follow desired path, a driver model is developed to enhance closed loop driver/vehicle model. Then, linear quadratic regulator (LQR) controller is developed which regulates direct yaw moment and corrective steering angle on wheels. Particle swam optimization (PSO) method is utilized to optimize the LQR controller for various dynamic conditions. Simulation results indicate that, over various maneuvers, side slip angle and lateral acceleration can be reduced by 10%and 15%, respectively, which sustain the vehicle stable. Also, anti-lock brake system is designed for longitudinal dynamics of vehicle to achieve desired slip during braking and accelerating. Proposed comprehensive controller demonstrates that vehicle steerability can increase by about 15% during severe braking by preventing wheel from locking and reducing stopping distance.

  15. 轮式车载火炮火力与底盘系统匹配性能评估方法研究%Research on the Evaluation of the Matching Performance of the Fire and the Chassis System of the Wheeled Vehicle Gun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘川; 薛德庆; 贾长治


    Aimed at the limitation of the gun and vehicle matching used in the tank gun,the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method is applied to the evaluation of the matching performance of the chas-sis and the fire system of the truck-mounted artillery. Through an analysis of the matching evaluation factors,the corresponding evaluation system is established. AHP method is used to calculate the weight coefficient of each evaluation factor with the evaluation model established based on the fuzzy compre-hensive evaluation method,and with the expert experience taken into account to confirm the member-ship function of each evaluation factor so as to achieve the qualitative evaluation of matching perfor-mance of the chassis and the fire system of the truck-mounted artillery. The result of the example indi-cates the feasibility of the evaluation of the matching performance of the chassis and the fire system of the truck-mounted artillery.%针对轮式车载火炮火力与底盘系统匹配性能评估难的问题,将模糊综合评判法引入到火炮火力与底盘系统匹配性能评估中。通过分析车载火炮火力与底盘系统的匹配评价因素,建立了相应的匹配评价体系。应用 AHP法获得各评价因素权重系数,基于模糊综合评判法建立评估模型,综合专家经验确定各评价因素的隶属度函数,实现了对车载火炮火力与底盘系统匹配性能的定量化评估。计算结果表明了车载火炮火力与底盘系统匹配性能评估的可行性。

  16. 高真空压铸铝合金轿车底盘部件的压射工艺试验及优化%Experiment and Optimization of Shot Parameters of High Vacuum Die Casting for Aluminum Alloy Car Chassis Part

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林海; 万里; 刘后尧; 张寓朝; 吴湛方; 杨林方; 李高; 吴树森


    采用自主研发的高真空压铸控制系统,以某铝合金轿车底盘部件为对象,研究了高真空压铸工艺参数如真空度、抽真空时间、压射速度及高速切换点等对铸件内部质量及力学性能的影响.试验结果表明:该铝合金轿车底盘关键部件的最佳高真空压铸工艺参数:抽真空启动位置110 mm,抽真空停止位置700 mm;冲头慢压射速度0.19 m/s,快压射速度5.8 m/s;慢/快速转换点即高速切换点240 mm;型腔真空度91 kPa以上.高真空压铸的底盘部件本体试样抗拉强度达到281.56 MPa,屈服强度达到155.44 MPa、伸长率达到7.34%,完全满足该铸件的技术要求.经过严格的产品检测,该铝合金轿车底盘部件已成功用于某国产自主品牌轿车.%Based on innovative high vacuum control system, effects of shot parameters including vacuum level, venting time, shot velocity and switch position of fast velocity on casting quality and mechanical properties were investigated for the high vacuum die-cast car chassis part in this paper.The results show that optimal process parameters are as follows: the vacuumed startup and stop position are 110 mm and 700 mm respectively, and the vacuum level of cavity is up to 91 kPa;meanwhile the slow and fast velocity of the injection punch are 0.19 and 5.8 m/s, and switch position of fast velocity is 240 mm.The round car chassis part can be achieved under above parameters,whose tensile strength is 281.56 MPa, yield strength 155.44 MPa and elongation up to7.34%.The chassis part was successfully employed in a domestic own-brand car.

  17. 一种滑移式升降可调通用底盘结构设计与关键技术研究%Design and key technology research on one kind of slip-type lifting adjustable general chassis structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴红雷; 弋景刚; 孔德刚; 袁永伟


    目前设施农业机械多以内燃机为动力源,与电动机驱动比较,存在污染严重、操作不灵活等问题。故,提出了一种前、中、后均可悬挂农机具的滑移式升降可调通用底盘设计思想,搭建了通用底盘的结构模型;为满足底盘平面倾斜升降调节要求,设计了一种液压滑轨升降调节机构。采用体积小、比功率大、传动效率高的电动轮毂作为四轮独立驱动系统的行走轮,建立了电动轮毂加速过程的受力平衡方程。为增加连续作业时间,采用串联式混合动力结构;分析了四轮独立驱动在滑移转向工况下,内外两侧电动轮毂转速与转弯半径的运动关系,为滑移式升降可调通用底盘的样机试制和控制策略及算法的设计奠定理论基础。%Internal combustion engine is used to most facility agricultural machinery as its pow‐er supply ,w hich has some serious problems such as pollution ,inconvenience ,and poor gener‐ality compared with themotordrive today .So ,a design idea of a kind of slip‐type lifting adjust‐able general chassis which can be hang implements at the front ,middle and the back of it , w hich sets up the chassis structure model to satisfy the requirement of the of chassis plane tilt‐ing and lifting regulation through as kind of hydraulic sliding rail lifting adjusting mechanism is put forward in the paper .It uses the motor wheel chair hub with small size ,big specific power and high drive efficiency as the walking wheel of four‐wheel independent driving sys‐tem .And it also builds the force balance equation of motor wheel chair hub in acceleration process ,and serial hybrid electric power train system is adopted in order to increase working hours .Furtherly ,the motion relation is analyzed between the inside and outside of motor wheel chair hub’s rotate speed and turning radius under slid‐turning conditions ,and it also lays a theoretical foundation for

  18. Cyanobacteria as Chassis for Industrial Biotechnology: Progress and Prospects (United States)

    Al-Haj, Lamya; Lui, Yuen Tin; Abed, Raeid M.M.; Gomaa, Mohamed A.; Purton, Saul


    Cyanobacteria hold significant potential as industrial biotechnology (IB) platforms for the production of a wide variety of bio-products ranging from biofuels such as hydrogen, alcohols and isoprenoids, to high-value bioactive and recombinant proteins. Underpinning this technology, are the recent advances in cyanobacterial “omics” research, the development of improved genetic engineering tools for key species, and the emerging field of cyanobacterial synthetic biology. These approaches enabled the development of elaborate metabolic engineering programs aimed at creating designer strains tailored for different IB applications. In this review, we provide an overview of the current status of the fields of cyanobacterial omics and genetic engineering with specific focus on the current molecular tools and technologies that have been developed in the past five years. The paper concludes by giving insights on future commercial applications of cyanobacteria and highlights the challenges that need to be addressed in order to make cyanobacterial industrial biotechnology more feasible in the near future. PMID:27916886

  19. Design and Optimisation of Sae Mini Baja Chassis



    The objective is to design and develop the roll cage for All - Terrain Vehicle accordance with the rulebook of BAJA 2014 given by SAE. The frame of the SAE Baja vehicle needs to be lightweight and structurally sound to be competitive but still protect the driver. The vehicle needs to traverse all types of off-road conditions including large rocks, downed logs, mud holes, steep inclines, jumps and off camber turns. During the competition events there is significant risk of roll...

  20. Design and Optimisation of Sae Mini Baja Chassis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Anjani Devi


    Full Text Available The objective is to design and develop the roll cage for All - Terrain Vehicle accordance with the rulebook of BAJA 2014 given by SAE. The frame of the SAE Baja vehicle needs to be lightweight and structurally sound to be competitive but still protect the driver. The vehicle needs to traverse all types of off-road conditions including large rocks, downed logs, mud holes, steep inclines, jumps and off camber turns. During the competition events there is significant risk of rollovers, falling from steep ledges, collisions with stationary objects, or impacts from other vehicles. Material for the roll cage is selected based on strength and availability. A software model is prepared in Pro-engineer. Later the design is tested against all modes of failure by conducting various simulations and stress analysis with the aid of ANSYS 13. Based on the result obtained from these tests the design is modified accordingly. A target of 2 is set for Yield Factor of Safety.

  1. Welded railway bogie frames lightening; L'allegement des chassis de bogies mecanosoudes des TGV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimbaud, M. [GEC Alsthom/ACR, 71 - Le Creusot (France); Tourrade, J.C.; Lallet, P. [SNCF, Societe Nationale des Chemins de Fer Francais, (France)


    The article describes the bogie frame dimensioning methodology, base on three necessary and complementary means which are calculations, tests and operation survey. Then it describes several ways to save weight in welded frames, and the determination of new design criteria. (authors)

  2. 75 FR 35123 - Notice of Buy America Waiver for Minivans and Minivan Chassis (United States)


    ... Toyota has not responded to public procurements.\\1\\ \\1\\ Contrary to Chrysler's assertion that Toyota has not responded to public procurements, in May 2010 FTA learned that Toyota may have certified... to communicate with Toyota by letter, e-mail, and telephone to determine whether Toyota is...

  3. The Next Generation of Synthetic Biology Chassis: Moving Synthetic Biology from the Laboratory to the Field (United States)


    Bryn L Adams 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) US Army Research...and molecular biology as scientific fields. It is therefore not surprising that synthetic biology (SB) was built upon E. coli and continues to...dominate the field. However, scientific capabilities have advanced from simple gene mutations to the insertion of rationally designed, complex synthetic

  4. Desempenho de um veículo flex em bancada dinamométrica de chassi


    Laranja, Gil Colona


    Os veículos flex são equipados com um motor de combustão interna do ciclo Otto e têm como característica a capacidade de funcionar com mais de um tipo de combustível, misturados no mesmo tanque e queimados na câmara de combustão simultaneamente. Este tipo de motorização é uma tendência mundial devido à escassez do petróleo, a comercialização de vários tipos de combustíveis, aos avanços tecnológicos dos sistemas de gerenciamento eletrônico de combustível e às restrições as emiss...

  5. Hierarchical video surveillance architecture: a chassis for video big data analytics and exploration (United States)

    Ajiboye, Sola O.; Birch, Philip; Chatwin, Christopher; Young, Rupert


    There is increasing reliance on video surveillance systems for systematic derivation, analysis and interpretation of the data needed for predicting, planning, evaluating and implementing public safety. This is evident from the massive number of surveillance cameras deployed across public locations. For example, in July 2013, the British Security Industry Association (BSIA) reported that over 4 million CCTV cameras had been installed in Britain alone. The BSIA also reveal that only 1.5% of these are state owned. In this paper, we propose a framework that allows access to data from privately owned cameras, with the aim of increasing the efficiency and accuracy of public safety planning, security activities, and decision support systems that are based on video integrated surveillance systems. The accuracy of results obtained from government-owned public safety infrastructure would improve greatly if privately owned surveillance systems `expose' relevant video-generated metadata events, such as triggered alerts and also permit query of a metadata repository. Subsequently, a police officer, for example, with an appropriate level of system permission can query unified video systems across a large geographical area such as a city or a country to predict the location of an interesting entity, such as a pedestrian or a vehicle. This becomes possible with our proposed novel hierarchical architecture, the Fused Video Surveillance Architecture (FVSA). At the high level, FVSA comprises of a hardware framework that is supported by a multi-layer abstraction software interface. It presents video surveillance systems as an adapted computational grid of intelligent services, which is integration-enabled to communicate with other compatible systems in the Internet of Things (IoT).

  6. TNO ADVANCE: a modular simulation tool for combined chassis and powertrain analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillaart, E. van den; Mourad, S.; Lupker, H.


    In this paper TNO-Advance is presented. It is built in a modular way, therefore allowing quick assembling of specific vehicle configurations and easy integration of new component models and future evolutions of existing models. Its entensive library is built in Matlab/Simulink, taking advantage of i

  7. 77 FR 71673 - Decision To Rescind Buy America Waiver for Minivans and Minivan Chassis (United States)


    ... Protection Agency (EPA) to regulate safety and control emissions. However, NHTSA's classifications do not... Union, United Automobile, Aerospace, and Agricultural Implement Workers of America (UAW), Amalgamated UAW Local 5, the Ford Motor Company, and many other VPG suppliers submitted comments in favor...

  8. Biofuels from E. Coli: Engineering E. coli as an Electrofuels Chassis for Isooctane Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Electrofuels Project: Ginkgo Bioworks is bypassing photosynthesis and engineering E. coli to directly use carbon dioxide (CO2) to produce biofuels. E. coli doesn’t naturally metabolize CO2, but Ginkgo Bioworks is manipulating and incorporating the genes responsible for CO2 metabolism into the microorganism. By genetically modifying E. coli, Ginkgo Bioworks will enhance its rate of CO2 consumption and liquid fuel production. Ginkgo Bioworks is delivering CO2 to E. coli as formic acid, a simple industrial chemical that provides energy and CO2 to the bacterial system.

  9. Engineering C4 photosynthesis into C3 chassis in the synthetic biology age. (United States)

    Schuler, Mara L; Mantegazza, Otho; Weber, Andreas P M


    C4 photosynthetic plants outperform C3 plants in hot and arid climates. By concentrating carbon dioxide around Rubisco C4 plants drastically reduce photorespiration. The frequency with which plants evolved C4 photosynthesis independently challenges researchers to unravel the genetic mechanisms underlying this convergent evolutionary switch. The conversion of C3 crops, such as rice, towards C4 photosynthesis is a long-standing goal. Nevertheless, at the present time, in the age of synthetic biology, this still remains a monumental task, partially because the C4 carbon-concentrating biochemical cycle spans two cell types and thus requires specialized anatomy. Here we review the advances in understanding the molecular basis and the evolution of the C4 trait, advances in the last decades that were driven by systems biology methods. In this review we emphasise essential genetic engineering tools needed to translate our theoretical knowledge into engineering approaches. With our current molecular understanding of the biochemical C4 pathway, we propose a simplified rational engineering model exclusively built with known C4 metabolic components. Moreover, we discuss an alternative approach to the progressing international engineering attempts that would combine targeted mutagenesis and directed evolution.

  10. ARIMA based time variation model for beneath the chassis UWB channel


    Ergen, Sinem Çöleri; Demir, Utku


    Intra-vehicular wireless sensor network (ivwsn) enables the integration of the wireless sensor network technology into the vehicle architecture through either eliminating the wires between the existing sensors and the corresponding electronic controller units (ecus) or empowering new sensor technologies that are not currently implemented due to technical limitations. Ultra-wideband (uwb) has been determined to be the most appropriate technology for ivwsns since it provides energy efficiency t...

  11. Reduced evolvability of Escherichia coli MDS42, an IS-less cellular chassis for molecular and synthetic biology applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blattner Frederick R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolvability is an intrinsic feature of all living cells. However, newly emerging, evolved features can be undesirable when genetic circuits, designed and fabricated by rational, synthetic biological approaches, are installed in the cell. Streamlined-genome E. coli MDS42 is free of mutation-generating IS elements, and can serve as a host with reduced evolutionary potential. Results We analyze an extreme case of toxic plasmid clone instability, and show that random host IS element hopping, causing inactivation of the toxic cloned sequences, followed by automatic selection of the fast-growing mutants, can prevent the maintenance of a clone developed for vaccine production. Analyzing the molecular details, we identify a hydrophobic protein as the toxic byproduct of the clone, and show that IS elements spontaneously landing in the cloned fragment relieve the cell from the stress by blocking transcription of the toxic gene. Bioinformatics analysis of sequence reads from early shotgun genome sequencing projects, where clone libraries were constructed and maintained in E. coli, suggests that such IS-mediated inactivation of ectopic genes inhibiting the growth of the E. coli cloning host might happen more frequently than generally anticipated, leading to genomic instability and selection of altered clones. Conclusions Delayed genetic adaptation of clean-genome, IS-free MDS42 host improves maintenance of unstable genetic constructs, and is suggested to be beneficial in both laboratory and industrial settings.

  12. Study on Vehicle Chassis Integrated Control%车辆底盘集成控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李刚; 宗长富; 张泽星; 段明序; 梁赫奇; 洪伟


    基于模型预测控制理论,从提高车辆极限工况稳定性角度,研究车辆纵向和侧向运动的水平集成控制及纵向、侧向和垂向的全局集成控制.确定了分层集成控制结构,设计了转向/制动模型预测控制器和主动悬架控制器.采用单轮规则制动分配法,实现了车辆底盘转向/制动的水平集成控制和转向/制动/悬架的全局集成控制,并通过仿真实验对算法进行验证.结果表明:集成控制能有效提高车辆极限工况的稳定性和主动安全性.%For enhancing the vehicle stability in the extreme conditions, the vehicle horizontal integrated control of longitudinal and lateral movement ant the overall integrated control of longitudinal, lateral and vertical improvement were studied based on the model predictive control theory. The hierarchical integrat- ed control structure was determined. The steering/braking model predictive controller and active suspen- sion controller were disigned. The single-wheel braking force allocation method was used. It achieves the steering/braking horizontal integrated control and the steering/braking/suspension overall integrated con- trol. The simulation test was used to verify the algorithm. The result shows that the integrated control can enhance the vehicle stability and active safety effectively in the extreme conditions .

  13. Presentation of CAE system for motor sports vehicle chassis development; Motor sports sharyo no shassis kaihatsuyo CAE system no shokai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokunaga, N.; Ueda, E. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    In the recent motor sports vehicle development introduction of a new model in a short cycle to secure high competition ability shortens the period from its completion to the race. And application of embedded controls makes development process more complicated. In this circumstance, predictive development style becomes more important in order to achieve the performance at high level when the new car is at shakedown. In this paper, summary and the application examples are presented with regard to three important CAE tools such as lap time simulation, vehicle dynamics simulation and suspension kinematics simulation which are developed to realize the said development style. (author)

  14. 底盘企业的市场战略思考%Reflection of Marketing Strategy for Chassis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  15. A Genetic System for Clostridium ljungdahlii: a Chassis for Autotrophic Production of Biocommodities and a Model Homoacetogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leang, C; Ueki, T; Nevin, KP; Lovley, DR


    Methods for genetic manipulation of Clostridium ljungdahlii are of interest because of the potential for production of fuels and other biocommodities from carbon dioxide via microbial electrosynthesis or more traditional modes of autotrophy with hydrogen or carbon monoxide as the electron donor. Furthermore, acetogenesis plays an important role in the global carbon cycle. Gene deletion strategies required for physiological studies of C. ljungdahlii have not previously been demonstrated. An electroporation procedure for introducing plasmids was optimized, and four different replicative origins for plasmid propagation in C. ljungdahlii were identified. Chromosomal gene deletion via double-crossover homologous recombination with a suicide vector was demonstrated initially with deletion of the gene for FliA, a putative sigma factor involved in flagellar biogenesis and motility in C. ljungdahlii. Deletion of fliA yielded a strain that lacked flagella and was not motile. To evaluate the potential utility of gene deletions for functional genomic studies and to redirect carbon and electron flow, the genes for the putative bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenases, adhE1 and adhE2, were deleted individually or together. Deletion of adhE1, but not adhE2, diminished ethanol production with a corresponding carbon recovery in acetate. The double deletion mutant had a phenotype similar to that of the adhE1-deficient strain. Expression of adhE1 in trans partially restored the capacity for ethanol production. These results demonstrate the feasibility of genetic investigations of acetogen physiology and the potential for genetic manipulation of C. ljungdahlii to optimize autotrophic biocommodity production.

  16. 宝斯通客车底盘悬架设计%Suspension design of BEST bus chassis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    文章以宝斯通客车底盘为例,对双横臂独立悬架刚度、横向稳定杆的刚度和前、后悬架的刚度阻尼匹配进行了计算;对影响操纵稳定性、制动性的参数,如侧倾中心、纵倾中心进行了分析%Taking BEST bus as an example, it calculates the rigidity of front suspension, the transverse stabilizer rod, the damping match of front and rear suspension, and analyses the effect of operational stability, brake parameter, such as the roll center and pitch center.

  17. Development trend of automotive chassis comfort%汽车底盘舒适性发展概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  18. 田口方法在汽车底盘设计领域应用%Applying Taguchi Method to Designing Chassis of Automobile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李九灵; 吴德旭; 蒋雪文



  19. 电子设备机箱电磁屏蔽分析和设计%Electronic Equipment Chassis Electromagnetic Shielding Analysis and Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    On the analysis of the electronic equipment working environment,and on the basis of the electronic equipment of external clear main interference source,and shielding effectiveness analysis.For improving Electronic Equipments' resist-disturbance capability,contraposing outside interference source,advance shielding filtering and ground and otherwise resist-disturbance design method,to insure Electronic Equipments can be working up to snuff in the condition of complex execrable war field EME.%在分析了电子设备工作环境的基础上,明确了电子设备外部的主要干扰源,并进行了屏蔽效能分析。为提高电子设备抗干扰性能,针对外部干扰源提出了屏蔽、滤波和接地等抗干扰设计方案,确保电子设备能在复杂恶劣的环境下正常工作。

  20. Vehicle Component Benchmarking Using a Chassis Dynamometer: Using a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu and a 2013 Mercedes E350 (SAE Paper 2015-01-0589) (United States)

    Light-duty vehicle greenhouse gas (GHG) and fuel economy (FE) standards for MYs 2012 -2025 are requiring vehicle powertrains to become much more efficient. The EPA is using a full vehicle simulation model, called the Advanced Light-duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA), to ...

  1. Comparative study of two die-casting technological processes for aluminum alloy chassis%铝合金底盘压铸工艺的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    来亚敏; 胡成亮; 刘全坤



  2. Design on Welding Technology of Aluminum Alloy Chassis%铝合金机箱的焊接工艺设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  3. 机箱铝横梁端面钻夹具设计%Design of Fixture for Aluminum Cross Beam Surface of Chassis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  4. Application of Self-piercing Riveting in Production of Chassis Cabinets%自冲铆接在机箱机柜生产中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付林霄; 尹东海; 黄莹瑛; 李亮



  5. Market Contention Warfare of Medium and High-Grade Special Purpose Chassis Starts%中高端专用底盘市场争夺战打响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  6. Reflection of Marketing Strategy for Chassis%运输类专用车未来的发展趋势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  7. Lightweight design of chassis frame for motor boom sprayer%机动式喷杆喷雾机机架的轻量化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩红阳; 陈树人; 邵景世; 姚勇; 陈刚


      为了解决机动式喷杆喷雾机机架质量过重、燃油消耗率和碳排放量过高等问题,以机动式喷杆喷雾机机架为研究对象,建立了机架的有限元模型.对机架进行了试验模态分析,将仿真结果与模态试验数据进行了对比.利用有限元分析软件 Radioss 对机架进行了静态分析,计算了机架在水平弯曲和极限扭转工况下的应力分布及变形.根据有限元分析结果,对机架进行了轻量化设计并对机架进行了结构改进.研究结果显示:模态试验结果与有限元仿真结果基本接近,验证了有限元模型的准确性;经过尺寸优化,机架的质量降幅为40.4%,实现了轻量化目标;根据轻量化结果对机架进行了结构改进,改进后弯曲工况和扭转工况的安全系数为分别提高了9.7%和7.8%.该文的相关研究可以为企业研发机动式喷杆喷雾机提供一定的参考.%Traditional optimization design ignores the effect of noise and design variables, which would make the objective function out of range, and excessive reliance on safety factor can also cause redundancy optimal design. Therefore, it is particularly important to set up design parameters properly in frame structure design stage, which can ensure the robustness of structure. With the development of computer technology and finite element theory, computer aided engineering technology is widely used in industries such as aerospace, automotive, and a large number of results have been achieved. The method which using advanced finite element software to analysis vehicle structure and integrating theoretical analysis and experimental results to perform optimal design for vehicle is becoming an important part for product development. YTT-1000 type of motor boom sprayer is a new type of boom sprayer, which is mainly used for orchard spraying and plant protection. In order to solve current problems that frame of motor boom sprayer are too heavy and fuel consumption ratio are exactly high, carbon emissions are too much and so on. A type of motor boom sprayer frame was studied in the paper, and the mesh generation software Hypermesh was used for its finite element modeling. Then the model was imported to Finite Element Analysis (short for FEA) software Radioss to do free modal analysis, the experimental modal analysis of frame were also carried out. Through modal analysis, natural frequency and mode of the frame was calculated, all these calculated results then were compared with experimental data, and the correctness of modal was verified. To calculate stress distribution and deformation of frame under bending condition and limited torsion condition, static analysis of frame were performed. The static analysis results showed that the max von mises stress under these two conditions were 182.5 and 204.5 MPa, which were still less than the specified value 235 MPa; the max displacement value were 2.97 and 4.42 mm, which were still less than the specified value 10 mm. Based on the results of FEA, a frame model of optimal design was established, and one more reasonable lightweight design proposal was made by calculating. The results showed that through the optimization, the weight of frame decreased 40.4% from 116kg to 69.1kg, and the lightweight objective was met basically. Besides, through the structure improvement, safety factor under bending condition increased 9.7% from 1.29 to 1.41, safety factor under limited torsion condition increased 7.8% from 1.15 to 1.24, and the max von mises stress under bending condition and limited torsion condition decreased by 8.9%(from 182.5 to 166.3 MPa) and 7.2%(from 204.5 to 189.7 MPa), respectively. The max displacement under these two conditions increased 9.8% and 5.2%, respectively. Although the max displacement was increased, these values still less than the specified value 10 mm. Given the complicated operating conditions of motor boom sprayer, and most of the frame structure damage was caused by fatigue failure. Therefore, a series of fatigue testing under random loading and fatigue failure analysis of frame will be carried out in the future. This study may provide a reference for enterprise to do research on motor boom sprayer.

  8. Epsilon算法在汽车结构设计分析中的应用%Epsilon-algorithm in design analysis of chassis structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓明; 陈塑寰; 黄志东



  9. Design of the chassis for a wheeled forest combined harvester%轮式林木联合采伐机底盘的设计与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏占国; 刘晋浩


    针对我国林业机械研制的落后现状,采用SolidWorks软件为平台设计了我国首台林木联合采伐机底盘,完成了底盘的设计、制造和调试.所研制的CFJ-301林木联合采伐机的基本参数为:整车全长6740mm,全宽2800 mm,全高3639 mm(可调整),最大高度(带臂行驶)4200 mm(可调整),轴距3520 mm,轮距2200 mm,整车重量18000 kg,最大行驶速度25 km/h,最大作业距离10 m,采伐径级200~500 am,对比美国John Deer公司生产的轮式联合采伐机,该型林木联合采伐机与国外同类产品基本性能相当.

  10. Vehicle Chassis Simulation and Suspension System Performance Optimization Based on ADAMS%基于ADAMS的汽车底盘仿真及悬架系统性能优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖力军; 李仁发



  11. 2. symposium: Tires and chassis. Report of the Institute of Engine and Motor Car Engineering of Vienna Technical University (IVK); 2. Symposium Reifen und Fahrwerk. Bericht des Instituts fuer Verbrennungskraftmaschinen und Kraftfahrzeugbau der Technischen Universitaet Wien (IVK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlinger, B.; Stumpf, H. (eds.)


    This proceedings volume contains all papers presented at the symposium. The focus was on new technical developments, and on a holistic approach integrating the driver, road neighbours, the environment, and traffic and transportation policy. (orig.) [German] Alle Vortraege des am 27. September 2004 in Wien gehaltenen 2. Symposiums Reifen und Fahrwerk finden sich in diesem Band. Ein zentrales Thema dieses Symposiums sind die technischen Verbesserungen an Fahrwerk, Reifen und Fahrbahn. Neben diesen wird kuenftig eine holistische Betrachtungsweise erforderlich sein, die auch den Fahrer, den Anrainer, die Umwelt und die Verkehrspolitik mit einschliesst. (orig.)

  12. Golden Dragon COASTER Bus Competition Equation: No Corrosion Blind Spot Bus Body × HYUNDAI Chassis%金旅考斯特客车竞争方程式:无锈蚀盲点车身×现代底盘

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ 最近,连接厦门金旅海沧厂区和湖里厂区的道路上多了一道独特的风景线,一台台载运考斯特车身的货车在这条路上流动着,去海沧还是银白金属本色的车身,回湖里时却变成了青灰色的电泳漆.

  13. 可调地隙采摘式菠萝运输车底盘的设计与研究%Design and Research of Chassis of Pineapple Transporter with Plucking and Adjustable Ground Clearance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴伟斌; 冯运琳; 罗阔; 詹潇智; 曾伟鹏; 廖劲威; 卢迪豪; 黄涛; 洪添胜


    At present, the harvest and transportation of pineapple in China are mainly depengding on artificial labor, which lacks mechanization, leading to the low production efficiency and the high labor cost.In order to promote the de-velopment of Chinese pineapple industry, realize the mechanization of the pineapple planting industry, improve the effi-ciency of pineapple transportation as well as reduce the orchardist ' s laboring intensity, our team designed a type of pine-apple transporter with plucking and adjustable to gap.Based on the field investigation data, we designed a kind of new frame and new carriage structure to make the transporter meet the need of pineapple planting industry.With SolidWorks 3 d modeling and motion simulation, using SolidWorks Simulation software to study the car beam, frame and lifting mech-anism by finite element stress method,we check the rationality of the design and optimize organization structure of the de-sign.The pivotal technology is using hydraulic scissor lift structure to meet the need of adjustable ground clearance of pin -eapple transporter, and using gasoline-electric hybrid provides driving force in order to simplify the transmission and re-duce the fuel consumption.%目前,我国的菠萝的采收与运输主要以人工为主,缺乏机械化,生产效率低,人工成本较高.为此,研制了一款可调地隙采摘式菠萝运输车,并基于实地调研资料,设计了新式的车架与车厢结构,使运输车适应于菠萝种植业作业需求.采用SolidWorks进行三维建模,并进行运动仿真,利用SolidWorks Simulation软件对车横梁、车架、升降机构等进行有限元受力分析,校核设计机构的合理性,优化设计结构.本产品关键技术为采用了剪叉式液压升降结构,可满足离地间隙可调的性能要求,并采用汽油发电机混合动力提供行驶动力,简化了传动机构且降低了油耗.

  14. 坦克底盘角振动对火炮射击精度影响机理研究%Study on Influence Mechanism on Gun Firing Accuracy Resulted from Angular Vibration of Target Chassis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪国胜; 肖洁; 赵韬硕; 魏来生


    In real vehicle test,it was founded that hitting probability would decrease greatly while tank chassis’running speed got to a certain value. Aiming at this question,its influencing mathematical model is established to calculate firing error caused by tank chassis’angular vibration. Basing on the data from real vehicle test,the firing errors resulte from tank chassis’angular vibration during firing delay time is analyzed comprehensively. Research based on test data showed that both tank chassis’ angular velocity and its attitude angle variation would increase with the increasing of firing delay time under the same tank running velocity. Within the same shooting delay time,tank chassis’angular velocity,attitude angle variation and shooting error will rise with the tank’s running speed increasing too. Shooting error in the target distance caused by shooting angle deviation is 3-5 times which caused by the projectile’s lateral velocity. Therefore firing angle deviation,which will rise with the rising of tank chassis’running speed,is the main reason for limiting to tank’s moving shooting speed.%实车试验表明,在行进间射击试验时,当车辆超过一定车速(行进间射击车速)时,射击精度或射击命中率会发生大幅度的下降。针对这个问题,建立了坦克底盘角振动导致的射击偏差的数学模型;并结合实车试验数据,对射击延迟时间内底盘角振动造成的火炮射击偏差进行了全面分析。分析研究表明:在相同的行驶车速条件下,车辆底盘角速度、姿态角变化量随着射击延迟时间的增大而增大;在相同的射击延迟时间内,车辆底盘角速度、姿态角变化量与射角偏差随着行驶车速的增大而增大;其中射角偏差引起的目标距离偏差是弹丸横向速度导致的目标距离偏差的3倍~5倍。因此,随着行驶车速增加而增加的射角偏差增大是行进间射击车速受限的主要原因。

  15. Modeling and Analysis of the Chassis of Hydraulic Tire Curing Press based on ANSYS Parametric Design Language%基于ANSYS的下压式轮胎硫化机底座参数化的建模与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  16. Design and Test on Tracked Chassis of Sugarcane Billet Harvester%切段式甘蔗联合收割机履带底盘设计与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁宇达; 邹小平; 胡圣荣; 刘庆庭


    本文设计了一种适合HN4GDL-132型切段式甘蔗联合收割机作业使用的履带底盘,依据行走系统所承受的行驶阻力,经负载分析,确定履带底盘主要性能指标,确定液压传动系统相关参数选取液压元件,并制造样机进行田间试验,测试收割机液压系统参数在前进工作、后退和空车3种工况下的变化。试验结果表明,收割机匀速作业时,行走系统流量和压力稳定,行驶速度约为0.507 m/s,消耗功率小于10 kW,小于预定值,行走系统能满足收割机的工作要求,试验结果为履带式甘蔗收割机行走系统的使用和改进提供参考。%The technology mechanized harvesting is a key of cane industrial growth. Development of self-propelled sugarcane harvester is a new way to solve disadvantages by direct mounted harvester. However, the driving system must be meet requirements of other parts in harvester, and it must be low speed, high torque, less power and it running stable. The performance of driving system has some effect on efficiency of harvester directly. Therefore, design the driving system for harvest is meaningfulness on the development of sugarcane harvester. This article made field test of sugarcane harvester. Measurement of hydraulic parameters when the harvester forward work and backed off and empty ran in test. The test result is close to theoretical analysis, so the state-space model of driving system is corrected. When harvester works at driving speed of 0.507 m/s, the flow and pressure of hydraulic system is stable. Therefore, the drive system is appropriated for sugarcane harvester.

  17. D38型钳夹车大底架优化选型模拟试验研究%Simulation Test Research on Optimum Selection of Big Chassis on Type D38 Schnabel Csr

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田葆栓; 于连友



  18. 基于光纤传感器的汽车底盘质量测试与控制%Control and Test of the Auto Chassis with Fibre Optical Sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  19. FOTON'S Chassis For Light-Duty Special Purpose Vehicle Has Getin to Suizhou Market for the First Time%福田轻型专用车底盘首次"登陆"随州市场

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ 4月27日,福田大客户公司销售公司在湖北随州举行新品上市活动,隆重推出以奥铃品牌为主的轻型专用车底盘,来自随州市专用汽车企业代表和部分经销商共100人参加了这次活动.

  20. Application of austempered ductile iron for lightening the automotive chassis%高性能球墨铸铁在汽车底盘轻量化中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴华锋; 张金根


    Development and excellent performance of austempered ductile iron were introduced. Application trends and conditions of austempered ductile iron for the auto classis were analyzed in order, to lighten its weight. And finally, the austempered ductile iron application in practical production were introduced.%介绍了高性能球墨铸铁的发展现状及优异性能,并结合汽车轻量化需求,分析了等温淬火球墨铸铁材料在汽车底盘上的应用趋势,最后介绍了等温淬火球墨铸铁在实际生产中的应用。

  1. Climbing Performance Simulation of Hilly Farmland Information Collection Vehicle Chassis%丘陵山区农田信息采集车底盘爬坡性能仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于龙飞; 潘冠廷; 刘虹玉; 杨福增


    A new design of the divided no-till wheat planter has been accomplished by China agricultural University aimed to solve the extremely important problem of the double cropping area in North China , where the planter can easily be walled up by standing maize stubble when sowing the winter wheat .The combine anti-blocking mechanism composed of strip-rotary tillage and the planting unit of single-disc opener .The machine can finish the operation of stubble chop-ping , furrow opening , seeds and fertilizer placement in one pass .The main structures include fertilizer application system , connecting rod system and planting system .Field test shows that the machine works well when plant in standing maize stubble field and the soil disturbance is about 25%to 30%.The working quality satisfies the requirement of agronomy and the design of structure is completely in reason , which provides technology support for direct planting in standing maize stubble field in double cropping area in North China .%针对丘陵山区精细农作时农田信息数据采集困难的现状,设计了一种新型的丘陵山区农田信息采集车底盘。为了提高该底盘的爬坡性能,运用多体动力学仿真软件 RecurDyn 中的低速履带模块( Track-LM ),建立了该底盘的虚拟样机模型,并对其纵向和横向爬坡性能进行仿真研究,分析了不同坡角和路面对该底盘行驶速度、俯仰角、侧倾角及侧履带压力的影响。此研究可为改善该底盘爬坡性能提供理论依据。

  2. The Steering Control System Design of Flexible Chassis for Conservatory Work Based on Bridge Circuit%基于电桥电路的温室作业柔性底盘转向控制系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨露; 郭康权; 丁新民



  3. Use Professional Quality to Set Efficient Benchmarking——Interview of JIANGHUAI Bus and Coach Chassis Marketing Company%用专业品质树立高效标杆——访江淮客车底盘营销公司

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ 今年头两个月,客车底盘市场一改去年的颓势,行业整体增幅30%左右.其中,江淮底盘的销量更是高达2516台,较去年同期增长86.1%,增幅高出行业平均水平近2倍.

  4. 自主品牌结硕果华菱汽车欲主导重卡和重型专用车底盘市场%Independent Brand be Success VALIN Would like to Lead Heavy Truck and Heavy SPV Chassis Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ 2月28日,"华菱汽车2006年度商务大会暨新产品发布会"在安徽省马鞍山市隆重召开.来自全国各地400余名华菱重卡经销商、改装厂和配套商代表济济一堂,回顾过去,展望未来.

  5. 南方丘陵地区CFJ20H 8W采伐机底盘初步结构确立%Establishment of the CFJ20H 8W Tree Harvester Chassis Preliminary Structure in the Southern Hilly Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小珍; 沈嵘枫; 林曙; 周新年; 许浩


    采伐机底盘是采伐机的重要组成部分,直接关系到采伐机的工作效率.根据南方丘陵地区的自然环境情况,提出对采伐机底盘的性能要求,采用八只轮子的措施,可以提高采伐机在南方丘陵地区的行驶性能.通过收集国外厂商生产的八只轮子采伐机的参数和结构形式,总结出国外采伐机底盘特点.对比国内采伐机的机型结构,最终确定以铰接式底盘为设计蓝本,以John Deere 1270G 8W采伐机尺寸参数和结构为参考模型,确定出CFJ20H 8W采伐机底盘的尺寸参数,建立采伐机初步模型.通过HyperWorks软件对采伐机初步车架进行静力学分析,验证结构的可靠性.

  6. Podvozky osobních automobilů



    The content of this thesis is the analysis and distribution of selected functional groups chassis of motor vehicles. Thesis describes the design and highlights their advantages and disadvantages. It concentrates on suspension, imposition of a suspension bikes. End of chapter elements of chassis geometry, along with their properties while driving.

  7. 76 FR 51033 - Notice of Agreement Filed (United States)


    .... Synopsis: The amendment provides authority for the corporate restructuring of Consolidated Chassis... inland carriers to participate in pool governances; and authorizes pools formed under the Agreement, upon... carriers, shippers and others and to develop terms of use and charges for such interchanged chassis....

  8. Effects of reconfiguration on the performance of mobile navigation robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Yili; Xu He; Li Han; Wang Shuguo; Ma Yuliu


    An innovative mobile robot that has reconfigurable locomotion chassis and reconfigurable bionic wheels has been developed to meet the needs of different payload and different terrain. Several prototypes have been achieved by the reconfiguration. By modeling relative comparison coefficients, these prototypes are analyzed in terms of geometrical parameter of trafficability, static stability and maneuverability. The effects of reconfiguration on these indices of robot performance can be compared, i.e. the variable height of chassis h has the biggest effect, the variable length of chassis l is the second, then is the camber angleβ and the caster angle α. Some principles for reconfiguration are proposed.

  9. Rewiring host activities for synthetic circuit production: a translation view. (United States)

    Avcilar-Kucukgoze, Irem; Ignatova, Zoya


    The expression of synthetic circuits in host organisms, or chassis, is a key aspect of synthetic biology. Design adjustments made for maximal production may negatively affect the central metabolism and biosynthetic activities of the chassis host. Here, we review recent attempts to modulate synthetic circuit design for optimal production and present models that precisely capture the trade-off between circuit production and chassis growth. We also present emerging concepts for full orthogonalization of synthetic productivity and its decoupling from the endogenous biosynthetic activities of the cell, opening new routes towards robust synthetic circuit expression.

  10. Characteristics Study of Portable Hand-Held Phone Antenna by MoM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉莹; 徐晓文


    The characteristics of one kind of handset antenna are analyzed by the method of moments. By using the Pocklington equation and the Galerkin method, the current distribution on the handset antenna is calculated, the input impedance and radiation patterns are obtained. In addition, the characteristics of monopoles mounted on conducting chassis box with different sizes are analyzed. The results show that the size of the conducting chassis box has significant effect on the performance of the handset antenna. Therefore, appropriately changing the size of the conducting chassis box may improve the performance of the handset antenna.

  11. 现代汽车与厦门金旅经典合作辉煌再续记品质飞跃、动力无限的厦门金旅现代底盘考斯特%Classics Cooperation of Hyundai and Xiamen Golden Dragon to Continue Gloriou——Unlimited Motional Chassis COAST of Xiamen Golden Dragon and Hyumdai has Leaped for Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ 历史铸就经典,品质创造永恒,"考斯特"对很多人不会陌生它在中巴的市场上独领风骚数十年,已成为经典中型客车的代名词,有着超强的市场生命力.2009年的中国客车市场,厦门金旅现代底盘考斯特车型的重磅推出,一石激起千层浪,引起了业界和媒体的广泛关注.

  12. 49 CFR 325.33 - Site characteristics; highway operations. (United States)


    ... free of large sound-reflecting objects. However, the following objects may be within the test site... irregular tire, body, or chassis impact noise; and (2) Loose material, such as gravel or sand. (f)...

  13. 75 FR 17590 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Roof Crush Resistance (United States)


    ... passenger car or sport utility vehicle. Instead, one manufacturer produces an ``incomplete vehicle'' which... therefore subject to FMVSS No. 216. This chassis-cab is based on the Chevrolet Colorado/GMC Canyon....

  14. NIOSH Mobile Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Work Environment Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NIOSH Mobile Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Work Environment Laboratory is a 2005 Wheeled Coach Type III ambulance mounted on a Ford E-450 cut-away van chassis....

  15. Effects of Cold Temperature and Ethanol Content on VOC Emissions from Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Supporting information Table S6 provides emission rates in g/km of volatile organic compounds measured from gasoline vehicle exhaust during chassis dynamometer...

  16. 49 CFR 393.5 - Definitions. (United States)


    ... the road trailer. Converter dolly. A motor vehicle consisting of a chassis equipped with one or more... truck tractor or similar towing vehicle (e.g., converter dolly) which interfaces with and couples to...

  17. Streamlining genomes: toward the generation of simplified and stabilized microbial systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leprince, A.; Passel, van M.W.J.; Martins Dos Santos, V.A.P.


    At the junction between systems and synthetic biology, genome streamlining provides a solid foundation both for increased understanding of cellular circuitry, and for the tailoring of microbial chassis towards innovative biotechnological applications. Iterative genomic deletions (targeted and random

  18. Track guided self-driven container wagon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, I.A.


    The linear motor consists of a series of stator coils (2) located along the Track guided self-driven container wagon Track guided self-driven container wagon track and a reaction rail (3) fitted under the wagon chassis (4).

  19. Synthesis of action variable for motor controllers of a mobile system with special wheels for movement on stairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Krys


    Full Text Available The article presents a procedure of obtaining waveform of angular velocities for special segmented wheels required for smooth movement of a stair-climbing chassis on stairs. The waveform was determined for a specified velocity of the chassis using a dynamic contact analysis in the CAD system SolidWorks. The main part of the work was to verify whether real motors on a testing chassis are capable of producing the required angular velocity with its significant step changes. The values of angular velocities were sent to drive control units from a software control system of the chassis. The chassis was recorded during the movement on stairs on a video camera and the resulting video was then analyzed by a special single-purpose image processing algorithm, which detected key points in individual frames. Outcome of the algorithm are tables with positions and velocities of individual key points during time. Tests proved that with lower velocities it is possible to achieve very good results with the chassis moving almost steadily.

  20. Whip antenna design for portable rf systems (United States)

    Ponnapalli, Saila; Canora, Frank J.


    Whip type antennas are probably the most commonly used antennas in portable rf systems, such as cordless and cellular phones, rf enabled laptop computers, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and handheld computers. Whip antennas are almost always mounted on the chassis which contains the radio and other electronics. The chassis is usually a molded plastic which is coated with a conducting paint for EMI purposes. The chassis which appears as a lossy conductor to the antenna, has several effects -- detuning, altering the gain of the antenna, and shadowing its radiation pattern. Extensive modeling and measurements must be performed in order to fully characterize the affects of the chassis on the whip antenna, and to optimize antenna type, orientation and position. In many instances, modeling plays a more important role in prediction of the performance of whip antennas, since measurements become difficult due to the presence of common mode current on feed cables. In this paper models and measurements are used to discuss the optimum choice of whip antennas and the impact of the chassis on radiation characteristics. A modeling tool which has been previously described and has been successfully used to predict radiated field patterns is used for simulations, and measured and modeled results are shown.

  1. Narrow-track wheeled agricultural tractor parameter variation. (United States)

    Guzzomi, A; Rondelli, V


    Despite a general consensus among farmers, manufacturers, and researchers that wheeled agricultural tractor design has changed over time, there is little published evidence. There is debate as to whether the standardized rollover protective structure (ROPS) energy and force requirements, based on a tractor reference mass and pertaining to studies conducted more than 40 years ago, are appropriate for modern tractors. This article investigated the physical parameters of 326 modern narrow-track tractors, measured according to OECD Code 6 over 16 years (1993 to 2008 inclusive): 252 (-77%) were fixed-chassis tractors and 74 (-23%) were articulated. To understand the significance of design changes, the data were analyzed with respect to time and as a function of tractor mass. Articulated and fixed-chassis data were treated separately. The time data allowed qualitative analysis, while the mass data allowed quantitative analysis. The parameters show some changes over time and clearly indicate differences between articulated and fixed-chassis types. The parameter changes, along with the differences between types, may have important safety ramifications for ROPS energy absorption requirements, and these aspects are discussed. Regression lines with R2 values were fitted to the mass-related data for fixed-chassis and articulated tractors to determine the suitability of fit. The mass relations also displayed differences between fixed-chassis and articulated tractors. Thus, the most significant recommendation from this study is that the standardized testing procedure for narrow-track wheeled agricultural tractor category should be split into two groups: fixed-chassis and articulated.

  2. Thermal computations for electronics conductive, radiative, and convective air cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Ellison, Gordon


    IntroductionPrimary mechanisms of heat flowConductionApplication example: Silicon chip resistance calculationConvectionApplication example: Chassis panel cooled by natural convectionRadiationApplication example: Chassis panel cooled only by radiation 7Illustrative example: Simple thermal network model for a heat sinked power transistorIllustrative example: Thermal network circuit for a printed circuit boardCompact component modelsIllustrative example: Pressure and thermal circuits for a forced air cooled enclosureIllustrative example: A single chip package on a printed circuit board-the proble

  3. Concentrating photovoltaic solar panel (United States)

    Cashion, Steven A; Bowser, Michael R; Farrelly, Mark B; Hines, Braden E; Holmes, Howard C; Johnson, Jr., Richard L; Russell, Richard J; Turk, Michael F


    The present invention relates to photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic concentrator modules, and related methods. In particular, the present invention features concentrator modules having interior points of attachment for an articulating mechanism and/or an articulating mechanism that has a unique arrangement of chassis members so as to isolate bending, etc. from being transferred among the chassis members. The present invention also features adjustable solar panel mounting features and/or mounting features with two or more degrees of freedom. The present invention also features a mechanical fastener for secondary optics in a concentrator module.

  4. 40 CFR 86.447-2006 - What provisions apply to motorcycle engines below 50 cc that are certified under the Small SI... (United States)


    ... 40 CFR part 90 or 1051 for the appropriate model year. If you comply with all the provisions of this section, we consider the certificate issued under 40 CFR part 90 or 1051 for each engine or vehicle to... that apply to vehicles that are certified to chassis-based standards under 40 CFR part 1051....

  5. Solar fuel generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Nathan S.; West, William C.


    The disclosure provides conductive membranes for water splitting and solar fuel generation. The membranes comprise an embedded semiconductive/photoactive material and an oxygen or hydrogen evolution catalyst. Also provided are chassis and cassettes containing the membranes for use in fuel generation.

  6. Materials Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Roadmap identifying the efforts of the Materials Technical Team (MTT) to focus primarily on reducing the mass of structural systems such as the body and chassis in light-duty vehicles (including passenger cars and light trucks) which enables improved vehicle efficiency regardless of the vehicle size or propulsion system employed.

  7. 78 FR 24373 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Amendments to Vehicle... (United States)


    ... IRON, LLC 241006370 12/31/08 53.50 31.29 DELPHI ENERGY & CHASSIS SYSTEMS 241045750 06/10/10 0.76 19.73... ``anonymous access'' system, which means EPA will not know your identity or contact information unless you... vehicle's computerized second generation on-board diagnostic (OBDII) systems. EPA fully approved...

  8. Cold Temperature and Biodiesel Fuel Effects on Speciated Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds from Diesel Trucks (United States)

    Speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured in diesel exhaust from three medium heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern aftertreatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted on a chassis dynamometer at two ambient temperatures (-6.7°C and 21.7°C) operating on ...

  9. 78 FR 11728 - Pilot Project on NAFTA Trucking Provisions (United States)


    ... inspection report (DVIR) form that listed the bumper; engine; cabin floor; fuel tank; cab; tires; drive shaft; muffler; chassis; rear door; air tanks; trailer; 5th wheel; and seal/tiedowns, but did not list service... not provide adequate documentation of required alcohol testing. Grupo Behr addressed this issue in...

  10. Analýza změn datových matic elektronických regulátorů na výstupní parametry spalovacích motorů


    Richtárik, Luboš


    The aim of this work is to identify real changes the output parameters of the combustion motor software modification data fields in the control unit. Description of individual electronic engine control systems. The analysis of changes is performed mainly by measuring signals OBD-II, as well as power and torque on the chassis dynamometer machine 4VDM E120-D.

  11. 78 FR 44030 - Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Final Listing of 2014 Light Duty Truck Lines... (United States)


    ..., Maserati Quattroporte, Mercedes-Benz New Generation Compact Car (NGCC) Line Chassis/CLA-Class, Mitsubishi.... S550. S600. S55. S63 AMG. S65 AMG. CL55. CL65. CL500. CL550. CL600. NGCC/CLA- Class\\1\\ (the...

  12. Carbonaceous Aerosols Emitted from Light-Duty Vehicles Operating on Gasoline and Ethanol Fuel Blends (United States)

    This study examines the chemical properties of carbonaceous aerosols emitted from three light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDVs) operating on gasoline (e0) and ethanol-gasoline fuel blends (e10 and e85). Vehicle road load simulations were performed on a chassis dynamometer using the t...

  13. Cold temperature effects on speciated MSAT emissions from light duty vehicles operating on gasoline and ethanol blends (United States)

    Emissions of speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including mobile source air toxics (MSATs), were measured in vehicle exhaust from three light-duty gasoline vehicles. Vehicle testing was conducted using a three phase LA92 driving cycle on a temperature controlled chassis...

  14. Bacillus subtilis Biosensor Engineered To Assess Meat Spoilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daszczuk, Alicja; Dessalegne, Yonathan; Drenth, Ismael; Hendriks, Elbrich; Jo, Emeraldo; van Lente, Tom; Oldebesten, Arjan; Parrish, Jonathon; Poljakova, Wlada; Purwanto, Annisa A.; van Raaphorst, Renske; Boonstra, Mirjam; van Heel, Auke; Herber, Martijn; van der Meulen, Sjoerd; Siebring, Jeroen; Sorg, Robin A.; Heinemann, Matthias; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Veening, Jan-Willem


    Here, we developed a cell-based biosensor that can assess meat freshness using the Gram-positive model bacterium Bacillus subtilis as a chassis. Using transcriptome analysis, we identified promoters that are specifically activated by volatiles released from spoiled meat. The most strongly activated

  15. Reverberant Microwave Propagation (United States)


    Other cracks and seams in the aircraft skin for luggage compartments or landing gear stowage are not considered here; thus, this analysis is not...mounted in a chassis assembly requiring approximately 4 inches of rack space. As depicted in Figure A–7, the two sweepers, the real-time signal

  16. 49 CFR 393.201 - Frames. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frames. 393.201 Section 393.201 Transportation... SAFE OPERATION Frames, Cab and Body Components, Wheels, Steering, and Suspension Systems § 393.201 Frames. (a) The frame or chassis of each commercial motor vehicle shall not be cracked, loose, sagging...

  17. Benchmarking and Hardware-In-The-Loop Operation of a 2014 MAZDA SkyActiv (SAE 2016-01-1007) (United States)

    Engine Performance evaluation in support of LD MTE. EPA used elements of its ALPHA model to apply hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) controls to the SKYACTIV engine test setup to better understand how the engine would operate in a chassis test after combined with future leading edge tech...

  18. Neighborhood Electric Vehicle Market Test Development Project: Sacramento Electric Transportation Consortium RA 93-23 Program (United States)


    Through standardization, the accuracy and efficiency of vehicle recall campaigns is intended to be improved and the incidence of accidents decreased...components are protected by the Body Chassis. There is sufficient space for airbag incorporation at a later date. SMUD, Steve Rutter, 30 September, 1995

  19. 26 CFR 48.6412-3 - Amount of tax paid on each article. (United States)


    ... during a representative period may be used. For example, truck chassis of the same model that are sold by...(a) for transportation, delivery, insurance, installation, etc., for a reasonable category of... identified by a common stock or class number or which are of the same model, class, or line. For the...

  20. State estimation for integrated vehicle dynamics control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, J.; Bremmer, P.


    This paper discusses a vehicle controller and a state estimator that was implemented and tested in a vehicle equipped with a combined braking and chassis control system to improve handling. The vehicle dynamics controller consists of a feed forward body roll compensation and a feedback stability con

  1. Application of a Biodegradable Lubricant in a Diesel Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Jesper


    The IEA Advanced Motor Fuels Agreement has initiated this project concerning the application of biodegradable lubricants to diesel and gasoline type vehicles. Emission measurements on a chassis dynamometer were carried out. The purpose of these measurements was to compare the emissions of CO, CO2...

  2. 煤气机

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Caterpillar G3520C first of new gas gen-set line;Characteristic Analysis of an Efficient Hybrid Air Conditioning System (lst Report, Performance Analysis of Compression and Absorption Hybrid Cycle);Chassis dynamometer emission measurements from refuse trucks using Dual-Fuel Natural gas engine;Combustion Characteristics of a Prechamber Lean-Burn Gas Engine……

  3. 26 CFR 148.1-5 - Constructive sale price. (United States)


    ... at less than the fair market price, see paragraphs (a) and (d) of § 316.15 of Regulations 46 (26 CFR... for cooking, warming, or keeping warm food or beverages for consumption on the premises; (c) Taxable... industries: (a) Taxable automobile trucks (consisting of automobile truck bodies and chassis); (b)...

  4. 49 CFR 543.4 - Definitions. (United States)


    ...) Statutory terms. All terms defined in sections 2, 601, and 605 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost...) of this section. (b) Other definitions. Line or car line means a name which a manufacturer applies to a group of motor vehicles of the same make which have the same body or chassis, or otherwise...

  5. 78 FR 4195 - Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Mercedes-Benz (United States)


    ...-Benz USA, LLC (MBUSA) petition for an exemption of the New Generation Compact Car (NGCC) Line Chassis... standard equipment is likely to be as effective in reducing and deterring motor vehicle theft as compliance... deterring motor vehicle theft as compliance with the parts-marking requirements of the Theft...

  6. Jefferson Lab's Distributed Data Acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trent Allison; Thomas Powers


    Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) occasionally experiences fast intermittent beam instabilities that are difficult to isolate and result in downtime. The Distributed Data Acquisition (Dist DAQ) system is being developed to detect and quickly locate such instabilities. It will consist of multiple Ethernet based data acquisition chassis distributed throughout the seven-eights of a mile CEBAF site. Each chassis will monitor various control system signals that are only available locally and/or monitored by systems with small bandwidths that cannot identify fast transients. The chassis will collect data at rates up to 40 Msps in circular buffers that can be frozen and unrolled after an event trigger. These triggers will be derived from signals such as periodic timers or accelerator faults and be distributed via a custom fiber optic event trigger network. This triggering scheme will allow all the data acquisition chassis to be triggered simultaneously and provide a snapshot of relevant CEBAF control signals. The data will then be automatically analyzed for frequency content and transients to determine if and where instabilities exist.

  7. Lumped Parameter Modeling for Rapid Vibration Response Prototyping and Test Correlation for Electronic Units (United States)

    Van Dyke, Michael B.


    Present preliminary work using lumped parameter models to approximate dynamic response of electronic units to random vibration; Derive a general N-DOF model for application to electronic units; Illustrate parametric influence of model parameters; Implication of coupled dynamics for unit/board design; Demonstrate use of model to infer printed wiring board (PWB) dynamics from external chassis test measurement.

  8. 24 CFR 3280.608 - Hangers and supports. (United States)


    ..., plastic drainage piping shall be supported at intervals not to exceed 4 feet and plastic water piping... provide protection against motion, vibration, road shock, or torque in the chassis. (3) Hangers and straps supporting plastic pipe shall not compress, distort, cut or abrade the piping and shall allow free...

  9. Solar Fuel Generator (United States)

    Lewis, Nathan S. (Inventor); West, William C. (Inventor)


    The disclosure provides conductive membranes for water splitting and solar fuel generation. The membranes comprise an embedded semiconductive/photoactive material and an oxygen or hydrogen evolution catalyst. Also provided are chassis and cassettes containing the membranes for use in fuel generation.

  10. Mission-Adaptable Chemical Sensor (MACS) (United States)


    CKD GFVB55 & CKD GFVB25)......................................................... 129 Heaters...chassis, a required sensitivity of better than 100 PPT, and an 18 month development cycle. These somewhat mutually exclusive requirements caused the team...transfer valve is opened. Heat is applied to the sorbent to cause trapped analytes to be released into the sample cell. 5. Pressure in the sample

  11. 78 FR 57871 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning Nec Microwave Radios (United States)


    ... chassis and fans are manufactured in India. The Indian components are assembled with the Japanese-origin... parts lose their identity and become an integral part of the new article. Belcrest Linens v. United... radios, are of Japanese origin. . . .'' The TRX carries the microwave signal, which is the essence of...

  12. A Planar Switchable 3D-Coverage Phased Array Antenna and Its User Effects for 28 GHz Mobile Terminal Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuai; Chen, Xiaoming; Syrytsin, Igor A.


    effects on the switchable array are also studied in both data mode and talk mode (voice) at 28 GHz. In talk mode, good directivity and beam switching can be realized by placing the switchable array at the top of the chassis (close to the index finger). And the user shadowing can be significantly reduced...

  13. Six axis force feedback input device (United States)

    Ohm, Timothy (Inventor)


    The present invention is a low friction, low inertia, six-axis force feedback input device comprising an arm with double-jointed, tendon-driven revolute joints, a decoupled tendon-driven wrist, and a base with encoders and motors. The input device functions as a master robot manipulator of a microsurgical teleoperated robot system including a slave robot manipulator coupled to an amplifier chassis, which is coupled to a control chassis, which is coupled to a workstation with a graphical user interface. The amplifier chassis is coupled to the motors of the master robot manipulator and the control chassis is coupled to the encoders of the master robot manipulator. A force feedback can be applied to the input device and can be generated from the slave robot to enable a user to operate the slave robot via the input device without physically viewing the slave robot. Also, the force feedback can be generated from the workstation to represent fictitious forces to constrain the input device's control of the slave robot to be within imaginary predetermined boundaries.

  14. Suppression of chaotic vibrations in a nonlinear half-car model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tusset, Ângelo Marcelo, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:; Piccirillo, Vinícius, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:; Janzen, Frederic Conrad, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:; Lenz, Wagner Barth, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [UTFPR- PONTA GROSSA, PR (Brazil); Balthazar, José Manoel, E-mail: [UNESP-BAURU, SP (Brazil); Fonseca Brasil, Reyolando M. L. R. da, E-mail: [UFABC-SANTO ANDRE, SP (Brazil)


    The present work investigates the nonlinear response of a half-car model. The disturbances of the road are assumed to be sinusoidal. After constructing the bifurcation diagram, we using the 0-1 test for identify the chaotic motion. The principal objective of this study is to eliminate the chaotic behaviour of the chassis and reduce its vibration, and for this reason a control system for semi-active vehicle suspension with magnetorheological damper is proposed. The control mechanism is designed based on SDRE technique, where the control parameter is the voltage applied to the coil of the damper. Numerical results show that the proposed control method is effective in significantly reducing of the chassis vibration, increasing therefore, passenger comfort.

  15. Research on Optimal Control for the Vehicle Suspension Based on the Simulated Annealing Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Meng


    Full Text Available A method is designed to optimize the weight matrix of the LQR controller by using the simulated annealing algorithm. This method utilizes the random searching characteristics of the algorithm to optimize the weight matrices with the target function of suspension performance indexes. This method improves the design efficiency and control performance of the LQR control, and solves the problem of the LQR controller when defining the weight matrices. And a simulation is provided for vehicle active chassis control. The result shows that the active suspension using LQR optimized by the genetic algorithm compared to the chassis controlled by the normal LQR and the passive one, shows better performance. Meanwhile, the problem of defining the weight matrices is greatly solved.

  16. Aids to School Bus Design (United States)


    Navistar International Transportation Corporation, Chicago, IL, used three separate NASA-developed technologies in the design and testing of their 3000 Series Bus Chassis which was developed expressly for school bus applications. For structural analysis, they used the MSC/NASTRAN program which mathematically analyzes a design and predicts how it will hold up under stress. They also used the SPATE 9000 system for non-contact measurement of stress, load transfer mechanisms, detection of hidden flaws, and monitoring structural changes during fatigue testing. SPATE 9000 was based on infrared stress measurement technology developed by Langley Research Center. They also employed the Wyle Ride Quality Meter, which was developed by Langley to aid in passenger aircraft design by providing an accurate measurement of ride vibration and sound level. These numbers translate into a subjective discomfort level index. These technologies contribute to the company's 45-48 percent share of the school bus chassis market.

  17. Driving and engine cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Giakoumis, Evangelos G


    This book presents in detail the most important driving and engine cycles used for the certification and testing of new vehicles and engines around the world. It covers chassis and engine-dynamometer cycles for passenger cars, light-duty vans, heavy-duty engines, non-road engines and motorcycles, offering detailed historical information and critical review. The book also provides detailed examples from SI and diesel engines and vehicles operating during various cycles, with a focus on how the engine behaves during transients and how this is reflected in emitted pollutants, CO2 and after-treatment systems operation. It describes the measurement methods for the testing of new vehicles and essential information on the procedure for creating a driving cycle. Lastly, it presents detailed technical specifications on the most important chassis-dynamometer cycles around the world, together with a direct comparison of those cycles.

  18. The Ways of Fuzzy Control Algorithms Using for Harvesting Machines Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Tóth


    Full Text Available This contribution is oriented to ways of a fuzzy regulation using for machine tracking of the harvest machines. The main aim of this work was to practice verify and evaluate of functionality of control fuzzy algorithms for an Ackerman’s chassis which are generally used in agriculture machines for the crops harvesting. Design of the fuzzy control algorithm was focused to the wall following algorithm and obstacle avoidance. To achieve of the reliable results was made the real model of vehicle with Ackerman’s chassis type, which was controlled by PC with using development board Stellaris LM3S8962 based on ARM processor. Fuzzy control algorithms were developed in LabView application. Deviations were up to 0.2 m, which can be reduced to 0.1 m by hardware changing.

  19. Coil Springs Layer Used to Support a Car Vertical Dynamics Simulator and to Reduce the Maximum Actuation Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan N. Dumitriu


    Full Text Available A Danaher Thomson linear actuator with ball screw drive and a realtime control system are used here to induce vertical displacements under the driver/user seat of an in-house dynamic car simulator. In order to better support the car simulator and to dynamically protect the actuator’s ball screw drive, a layer of coil springs is used to support the whole simulator chassis. More precisely, one coil spring is placed vertically under each corner of the rectangular chassis. The paper presents the choice of the appropriate coil springs, so that to minimize as much as possible the ball screw drive task of generating linear motions, corresponding to the vertical displacements and accelerations encountered by a driver during a real ride. For this application, coil springs with lower spring constant are more suited to reduce the forces in the ball screw drive and thus to increase the ball screw drive life expectancy.

  20. Considerations on Configurable Multi-Standard Antennas for Mobile Terminals Realized in LTCC Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arnold


    Full Text Available This paper is an extended version of a paper presented at the EuCAP 2009 conference [1]. We present part of a long term research project that aims on designing a (re-configurable multi-standard antenna element for 4G (4th Generation mobile terminals based on LTCC (Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic technology. The antenna itself is a coupling element [2] that efficiently excites the chassis of the mobile terminal to radiate as an entire antenna. Coupling is optimized by a reactive tuning circuit. Several of these tuning circuits are realized in a single LTCC component and can be multiplexed to the antenna by a SPnT (Single Pole n Thru antenna switch integrated into the LTCC component. The coils and capacitor in the LTCC component are configurable on the top-layer of the component. Thus, the component is configurable according to different mobile terminal chassis configurations and multiple bands.

  1. Power module assembly (United States)

    Campbell, Jeremy B [Torrance, CA; Newson, Steve [Redondo Beach, CA


    A power module assembly of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicular power inverter, wherein the power inverter has a grounded chassis, is provided. The power module assembly comprises a conductive base layer electrically coupled to the chassis, an insulating layer disposed on the conductive base layer, a first conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, a second conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, wherein the first and second conductive nodes are electrically isolated from each other. The power module assembly also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the first conductive node, and further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the second conductive node.

  2. Mechanical Engineering Design Project report: Enabler control systems (United States)

    Cullen, Christian; Delvecchio, Dave; Scarborough, Alan; Havics, Andrew A.


    The Controls Group was assigned the responsibility for designing the Enabler's control system. The requirement for the design was that the control system must provide a simple user interface to control the boom articulation joints, chassis articulation joints, and the wheel drive. The system required controlling hydraulic motors on the Enabler by implementing 8-bit microprocessor boards. In addition, feedback to evaluate positions and velocities must be interfaced to provide the operator with confirmation as well as control.

  3. Modelingflywheel-Speed Variations Based on Cylinder Pressure


    Nilsson, Magnus


    Combustion supervision by evaluating flywheel speed variations is a common approach in the automotive industry. This often involves preliminary measurements. An adequate model for simulating flywheel speed can assist to avoid some of these preliminary measurements. A physical nonlinear model for simulating flywheel speed based on cylinder pressure information is investigated in this work. Measurements were conducted at Scania in a test bed and on a chassis dynamometer. The model was implemen...

  4. Five Ministries Jointly Regulates the Order of Auto Export

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Flive Ministries including the Ministry of Commerce, the National Development and Reform Commission(NDRC), China Customs, General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine, National Certification and Accreditation Administration jointly promulgated a notice on November 31, 2006, announcing that from March 1, 2007,to conduct the license administration on the export of autos (including passenger cars, commercial cars, chassis and full set of auto parts).

  5. Tracking Human Faces in Infrared Video (United States)


    environments, but allow for warm items such as computers in the background, without significant distraction from clutter. Such an ability to differentiate...images show the (posterior) probability-of- skin images without and with adaptation. Note how some background objects such as the warm chassis of a...June 1998. [5] M. Isard and J. MacCormick, “Bramble: A bayesian multiple- blob tracker,” in Proc. 8th Int. Conf. Com- puter Vision, 2001. [6] L. Wolff, D

  6. The Goods Upstairs Car Innovative Design (United States)

    Wang, Feng-Lan; Zhang, Bo; Gao, Bo; Liu, Yan-Xin; Gao, Bo


    The design is a new kind of cars used for loading goods when you upstairs. The cars -- ones are very safe and convenient --consist of body, chassis, bottom, round, object, stage, upstairs, train wheels, handles, storage tank, security fence etc. The design, composed of combination of each structure, achieves the purpose of loading goods and even some large potted plants when you go upstairs or downstairs very flatly.

  7. Vibration strength of squeeze cast aluminium components with and without fibre reinforcement. Pt. 1. Schwingfestigkeit von fluessiggepressten Aluminiumbauteilen mit und ohne Faserverstaerkung. T. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuler, P. (Industrieanlagen-Betriebsgesellschaft mbH (IABG), Ottobrunn (Germany))


    The essentials of squeeze casting and spects of light metal reinforcement with ceramic fibres are described. A vehicle chassis component and disks cast separately for material sampling are used to discuss strength properties of squeeze cast components with and without fibre reinforcement. It was shown that for technological reasons it is not possible to assume that strength properties of a material sample apply to the component as well. (orig.).

  8. Two-Mode Operation Engine Mount Design for Automotive Applications


    Reza Tikani; Nader Vahdati; Saeed Ziaei-Rad


    Hydraulic engine mounts are applied to the automotive applications to isolate the chassis from the high frequency noise and vibration generated by the engine as well as to limit the engine shake motions resulting at low frequencies. In this paper, a new hydraulic engine mount with a controllable inertia track profile is proposed and its dynamic behavior is investigated. The profile of the inertia track is varied by applying a controlled force to a cylindrical rubber disk, placed in the inerti...

  9. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Foreign Military Review, No. 1, January 1987 (United States)


    vehicles built on its chassis. Along with these are used the FOX wheeled armored cars (about 200) and old FERRETs and SALADINs . The principal means...British Army. For reconnaissance, communications and training, the FERRET and SALADIN armored cars, built in the early 50s, are still in use. Also, the...foreign press notes, at present only a few of the obsolete SALADIN armored cars remain in service since they have been replaced by the SCORPION. In

  10. A Planar Quasi-Static Constraint Mode Tire Model (United States)


    a Alexander A. Reidb David Gorsichb a Vehicle Terrain Performance Laboratory, Virginia Tech Mechanical Engineering Department b US Army Tank ...simultaneous pressure to improve energy efficiency, there are ever increasing demands on vehicle engineers. In particular, chassis engineers are faced...static flat-plate test results that were within 10- 15% of the experimental results (depending on tire pressure ). Also of note is that the nonlinearity

  11. Across Australia by sunpower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tholstrup, H.; Perkins, L.


    A solar powered (720 solar cells) vehicle carried the authors 4130 km (2566 mi) in 20 d, cruising at 25 km/h (15 mph) and performing better than expected. Called the Quiet Achiever, the noisy, no-strings vehicle weathered gusty winds and negotiated rough roads and steep grades. Its bicycle tires and spokes needed frequent replacement, and this was easily accomplished by lifting the chassis out of the fiberglass body. Reassembly took 5 minutes.

  12. Survey and Analysis of Environmental Requirements for Shipboard Electronic Equipment Applications. Appendix A. Volume 2. (United States)



  13. Evaluation of the National Seismic Station (United States)


    microcomputer with MULTIBUS* external bus format and card cage. An 8-slot chassis contains 2 custom circuit boards and an off-the-shelf Z-80 single board computer with...processing. A control signal then is sent to the Z-80 single board computer where final formatting is -37- . t CE D F-BS-L11. icC. WC caU co z W6 I

  14. Investigation of estimating accuracy for aerodynamic characteristics of a scaled supersonic experimental airplane using IMU data based on flight simulation



    This paper describes a pre-flight estimation method for aerodynamic characteristics and investigates the accuracy of the estimated aerodynamic characteristics of the scaled supersonic experimental airplane, using IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit) data obtained in a flight simulation. The results demonstrate that the required accuracy is not achieved and that the main sources of error are in the estimation of dynamic pressure, misalignment between the body axis and IMU chassis axis, and IMU disc...

  15. Simulation on Dual-stream Transmission System of Unmanned Tracked Armored Vehicle Using ADAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Wei


    Full Text Available For the dual-stream transmission system of unmanned tracked armored vehicle, simulation analysis is carried out. Using SolidWorks to establish three-dimensional model of its chassis, the result of the simulation is processed in AdAMS/Solver. The simulation results are showed in lines. Comparative analysis for each simulation lines is conducted, and it verifies the feasibility of the dual-stream transmission system.

  16. Study of Vehicle Exhaust Variation with Test Modes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Nowadays harmful gas in vehicle exhaust has pollute d air heavily. To prevent the environment from polluting, the request of emissions control legislation becomes more stringent. New legislation prescribes not only the emissions limitation of vehicles, but also testing instruments and methods. Test car must be operated on the chassis dynamometer and data must be collect ed and analyzed with prescriptive exhaust analysis system as well. The mass of harmful exhaust gas, containing the concentration an...

  17. Dynamic design of automotive systems: Engine mounts and structural joints

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Singh


    Dynamic design and vibro-acoustic modelling issues for automotive structures are illustrated via two case studies. The first case examines the role performance of passive and adaptive hydraulic engine mounts. In the second, the importance of welded joints and adhesives in vehicle bodies and chassis structures is highlighted via generic 'T' and 'L' beams assemblies. In each case, analytical and experimental results are presented. Unresolved research issues are briefly discussed.

  18. Microbial electrosynthesis: understanding and strengthening microbe-electrode interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Höglund, Daniel; Ammam, Fariza;


    Powering microbes with electrical energy to produce valuable chemicals such as biofuels has recently gained traction as a biosustainable production strategy for the reduction of our dependence to oil. Microbial electrosynthesis (MES) is one of the few bioelectrochemical approaches developed......, and a general lack of knowledge about electron transfer mechanisms have been the main obstacles to MES commercialization todate. Developing genetic systems for known electroautotrophs, screening for better MES chassis organisms and superior electrochemical hardware, establishing alternative MES processes...

  19. Ultra Wideband (UWB) Synchronous Impulse Reconstruction (SIRE) Radar Upgrade Assessment Field Experiment (United States)


    various orientations : forward- looking at 0°, left and right side-looking at angles of ±45° and ±90°. The RF electronic switch was incorporated to...receive channels housed in a Versa Module Europa (VME) eight-slot, 6U form factor chassis. Four receive channels are located on a single circuit...a) verifying proper placement (location and orientation ) of targets, (b) monitoring GPS surveys, and (c) verifying digital documentation of targets

  20. Capabilities of the Large-Scale Sediment Transport Facility (United States)


    experiments in wave/current environments. INTRODUCTION : The LSTF (Figure 1) is a large-scale laboratory facility capable of simulating conditions...into a cDAQ-9184 CompactDAQ Chassis via a 16- channel NI 9220. The four offshore wave gauge signals are broadcasted wirelessly via a National...Instrument 9201 paired with a cDAQ-9191. A wireless router then moves this data onto the local area network. A Cisco SG 200 switch is used to manage the

  1. Low Floor Americans with Disabilities Compliant Alternate Fuel Vehicle Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Bartel


    This project developed a low emission, cost effective, fuel efficient, medium-duty community/transit shuttle bus that meets American's with Disabilities Act (ADA) requirements and meets National Energy Policy Act requirements (uses alternative fuel). The Low Profile chassis, which is the basis of this vehicle is configured to be fuel neutral to accommodate various alternative fuels. Demonstration of the vehicle in Yellowstone Park in summer (wheeled operation) and winter (track operation) demonstrated the feasibility and flexibility for this vehicle to provide year around operation throughout the Parks system as well as normal transit operation. The unique configuration of the chassis which provides ADA access with a simple ramp and a flat floor throughout the passenger compartment, provides maximum access for all passengers as well as maximum flexibility to configure the vehicle for each application. Because this product is derived from an existing medium duty truck chassis, the completed bus is 40-50% less expensive than existing low floor transit buses, with the reliability and durability of OEM a medium duty truck.

  2. Active vibration control on a quarter-car for cancellation of road noise disturbance (United States)

    Belgacem, Walid; Berry, Alain; Masson, Patrice


    In this paper, a methodology is presented for the cancellation of road noise, from the analysis of vibration transmission paths for an automotive suspension to the design of an active control system using inertial actuators on a suspension to reduce the vibrations transmitted to the chassis. First, experiments were conducted on a Chevrolet Epica LS automobile on a concrete test track to measure accelerations induced on the suspension by the road. These measurements were combined with experimental Frequency Response Functions (FRFs) measured on a quarter-car test bench to reconstruct an equivalent three dimensional force applied on the wheel hub. Second, FRFs measured on the test bench between the three-dimensional driving force and forces at each suspension/chassis linkage were used to characterize the different transmission paths of vibration energy to the chassis. Third, an experimental model of the suspension was constructed to simulate the configuration of the active control system, using the primary (disturbance) FRFs and secondary (control) FRFs also measured on the test bench. This model was used to optimize the configuration of the control actuators and to evaluate the required forces. Finally, a prototype of an active suspension was implemented and measurements were performed in order to assess the performance of the control approach. A 4.6 dB attenuation on transmitted forces was obtained in the 50-250 Hz range.

  3. 随车起重运输车底盘设计要点浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Compared with ordinary flat truck, the main characteristics of truck with loading crane are: In the installation of crane frame parts, local large bearing;large bearing axle and suspension;because the crane and the rear legs arranged,it effects of chassis system layout and so on, so in the design of the chassis to fully consider these factors, these are reasonable matching performance configuration and spatial arrangement of the system of the frame chassis, effectively strengthen, to maximize the truck refit requirements.%与普通平板车相比随车起重运输车的主要特点有:在安装起重机的部位,车架局部承载较大;前桥及前悬架承载较大;由于起重机及其后支腿的布置影响底盘其它系统的布置等,因此在进行底盘的设计时要充分考虑这些因素,对底盘各系统的性能配置及空间布置进行合理的匹配,对车架进行有效的加强,以最大限度地满足随车起重运输车改装要求。

  4. Dynamic Vibration Analysis of Heavy Vehicle Truck Transmission Gearbox Housing Using FEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwani Kumar


    Full Text Available The main objective of this original research article is to study the loose fixture mounting affect of heavy vehicle transmission gearbox housing. The studies were completed in three phases. In first phase the aim was to find the actual suitable boundary condition. After finding the boundary condition in second phase the fixture bolts were loosened to monitor the affect of looseness and in third phase the positional looseness based study were completed. The looseness of transmission housing causes heavy vibration and noise. In order to prevent this noise and vibration the transmission housing is tightly mounted on the chassis frame using bolts. In our design transmission housing is constraint on chassis frame using 37 bolts. Truck transmission system determines the level of noise together with the chassis, engine and bodywork. Vehicle transmissions under torsional vibration condition caused rattling and clattering noises. Reciprocity Principle was used to determine the failure frequencies for transmission housing. In reciprocity principle gear and shafts are suppressed and all the forces transmitted through the bearings are applied on the empty housing. FEA based ANSYS 14.5 has been used as analysis tool. The free vibration frequency for zero displacement condition varies from 1669 Hz to 2865 Hz and for loose transmission casing frequency varies from 1311 Hz to 3110 Hz. The analysis have theoretical and practical aspects and useful for transmission housing structure optimization.

  5. Fast SCR Thyratron Driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, M.N.; /SLAC


    As part of an improvement project on the linear accelerator at SLAC, it was necessary to replace the original thyratron trigger generator, which consisted of two chassis, two vacuum tubes, and a small thyratron. All solid-state, fast rise, and high voltage thyratron drivers, therefore, have been developed and built for the 244 klystron modulators. The rack mounted, single chassis driver employs a unique way to control and generate pulses through the use of an asymmetric SCR, a PFN, a fast pulse transformer, and a saturable reactor. The resulting output pulse is 2 kV peak into 50 {Omega} load with pulse duration of 1.5 {mu}s FWHM at 180 Hz. The pulse risetime is less than 40 ns with less than 1 ns jitter. Various techniques are used to protect the SCR from being damaged by high voltage and current transients due to thyratron breakdowns. The end-of-line clipper (EOLC) detection circuit is also integrated into this chassis to interrupt the modulator triggering in the event a high percentage of line reflections occurred.

  6. Integration of Research for an Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator and the Outer Flow Field of a Car (United States)

    Jiang, T.; Su, C. Q.; Deng, Y. D.; Wang, Y. P.


    The exhaust thermoelectric generator (TEG) can generate electric power from a car engine's waste heat. It is important to maintain a sufficient temperature difference across the thermoelectric modules. The radiator is connected to the cooling units of the thermoelectric modules and used to take away the heat from the TEG system. This paper focuses on the research for the integration of a TEG radiator and the flow field of the car chassis, aiming to cool the radiator by the high speed flow around the chassis. What is more, the TEG radiator is designed as a spoiler to optimize the flow field around the car chassis and even reduce the aerodynamic drag. Concentrating on the flow pressure of the radiator and the aerodynamic drag force, a sedan model with eight different schemes of radiator configurations are studied by computational fluid dynamics simulation. Finally, the simulation results indicate that a reasonable radiator configuration can not only generate high flow pressure to improve the cooling performance, which provides a better support for the TEG system, but also acts as a spoiler to reduce the aerodynamic drag force.

  7. Analysis of connection element classes and locations and of some structural requirements for the mounting of different superstructure types on transport vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Đ. Majkić


    Full Text Available The paper presents the basic requirements for transport vehicles. A special request regarding the adaptation of transport vehicles for the transport of various types of cargo was taken into consideration. Superstructures and the situation arising after mounting superstructures on wheeled transport vehicles were analyzed and the following was described: console coupling, stirrups, simplex elastic coupling, two-way elastic and rigid connection elements. Vehicle torsional elasticity is provided by a proper choice of the type of connection between the superstructure and the vehicle chassis. Applying the instructions of vehicle manufacturers for using appropriate connections between the truck superstructure and the vehicle chassis provides positive torsional elasticity of the vehicle. The paper gives the general recommendations of the Volvo, Mercedes and Renault transport vehicle producers for the use of particular connection types of locations as well as structural requirements for the mounting of concrete mixers, tippers and truck tanks on their vehicles. Introduction Achieving a high level of transport effectiveness depends on a number of factors. One of the most important ones is the possibility to increase the payload share in the gross vehicle weight. This share depends on the net vehicle weight, a method of coupling the truck superstructure with the chassis frame as well as on the truck superstructure construction. Realization of this requirement is of significant importance, particularly for large business systems since it results in the reduction of number of necessary vehicles, more economic fleet maintenance and the fleet capacity increase. It is also relatively easy to adapt the vehicle for the transportation of other loads, depending on user's current needs. The adaptation is correctly performed if manufacturer's recommendations are followed during the mounting of the superstructure on the chassis. This paper gives the analysis of the

  8. Thermal Simulation and Optimization Design for a NovelA TCA Cha ssis%某新型 ATCA 插箱热学仿真分析及优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐计元; 江波; 孙帆; 肖克齐; 李东来


    With the rapid increase of integration density and heat flux of the new electronic equipment with ATCA standard, great pressure has been placed on its cooling.In this paper, the thermal simulation for a no-vel ATCA chassis ( The PCB power is 300 W) at module level and chassis level are performed based on FLO-THERM.The effect of the plate-fin parameters on the cooling of electronic chips is firstly researched and then the effect of wind path design and fan selection on the cooling of ATCA chassis is studied.Finally optimization suggestions on the structure design of ATCA modules and chassis are provided.The thermal simulation and op-timization methods introduced in this paper can be used as reference for the air cooling chassis design of the new electronic equipment.%采用ATCA技术标准的新一代电子设备集成密度和功率密度更高,由此带来的散热要求也相应增加。文中以某新型ATCA插箱(单板功率高达300 W)为例,利用FLOTHERM软件分别进行了模块级与插箱级热学仿真分析。文中研究了ATCA 刀片式板卡的冷板结构参数对芯片散热性能的影响,在此基础上进一步研究了风道设计及风机选型对ATCA插箱散热性能的影响,并根据热学仿真分析结果为ATCA刀片式板卡及其插箱的结构设计提出了优化建议。文中所介绍的热学仿真分析思路及优化方法可为新型电子设备风冷插箱的散热设计提供参考。

  9. 10例造口底盘医疗器械相关性压疮的原因分析及对策%Cause analysis and interventions of 10 cases in Medical Device Related Pressure Ulcer of colostomy stoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐洪莲; 郝建玲; 陈静; 吕桂芬; 邱群


    目的:分析发生在造口底盘下压疮的原因,并采用针对性护理措施。方法:对2014年4月至2015年12月造口护理门诊就诊的10例造口底盘下压疮患者进行原因分析,并制定护理对策,观察创面恢复情况。结果:10例均使用腰带和二件式底盘;6例底盘下缘卷边;4例凸面底盘突出部造成压力;4例造口位置欠佳(3例位置过低、1例位于右上腹肋缘下);4例合并其他并发症;2例合并糖尿病。10例患者经护理后创面愈合,愈合时间5~67d,平均时间24.8d。结论:造口底盘下压疮与佩戴腰带有关,要加强评估底盘佩戴的时间、腰带的松紧度;加强底盘下缘固定,防止卷边;调整底盘型号避免皮肤受压;位置欠佳者偏心圆裁剪底盘。同时根据压疮的分期和面积,选择合适的敷料处理创面,促进创面愈合。%Objective: To evaluate the causes of medical device related pressure ulcer under the Colostomy Stoma and implement interventions accordingly. Methods: Investigate the possible reasons of 10 patients with medical device related pressure ulcer between April 2014 and December 2015, and making nursing plans accordingly, then observe the effects. Results: The reasons for the 10 patients with pressure ulcer were as follows: all of them using belt and two-piece chassis; six patients using convex chassis for stoma retraction; and for another four patients whose stomas were in poor position, one patient's stoma was under the right upper quadrant costal margin, while the other three's were too low; four patients had comorbidities; and two patients had diabetes. After the intervention according to the pressure ulcer guidelines, all pressure ulcers were healed, with healing time of 5-67 d, and the average time was 24.8 d. Conclusions: Pressure ulcer under stoma chassis was related to belt. We should assess chassis conditions and belt wearing time as well as tightness. And we can

  10. TEM Cell Testing of Cable Noise Reduction Techniques From 2 MHz to 200 MHz - Part 1 (United States)

    Bradley, Arthur T.; Evans, William C.; Reed, Joshua L.; Shimp, Samuel K.; Fitzpatrick, Fred D.


    This paper presents empirical results of cable noise reduction techniques as demonstrated in a TEM cell operating with radiated fields from 2 - 200 MHz. It is the first part of a two-paper series. This first paper discusses cable types and shield connections. In the second paper, the effects of load and source resistances and chassis connections are examined. For each topic, well established theories are compared to data from a real-world physical system. Finally, recommendations for minimizing cable susceptibility (and thus cable emissions) are presented. There are numerous papers and textbooks that present theoretical analyses of cable noise reduction techniques. However, empirical data is often targeted to low frequencies (e.g. 100 MHz). Additionally, a comprehensive study showing the relative effects of various noise reduction techniques is needed. These include the use of dedicated return wires, twisted wiring, cable shielding, shield connections, changing load or source impedances, and implementing load- or source-to-chassis isolation. We have created an experimental setup that emulates a real-world electrical system, while still allowing us to independently vary a host of parameters. The goal of the experiment was to determine the relative effectiveness of various noise reduction techniques when the cable is in the presence of radiated emissions from 2 MHz to 200 MHz. The electronic system (Fig. 1) consisted of two Hammond shielded electrical enclosures, one containing the source resistance, and the other containing the load resistance. The boxes were mounted on a large aluminium plate acting as the chassis. Cables connecting the two boxes measured 81 cm in length and were attached to the boxes using standard D38999 military-style connectors. The test setup is shown in Fig. 2. Electromagnetic fields were created using an HP8657B signal generator, MiniCircuits ZHL-42W-SMA amplifier, and an EMCO 5103 TEM cell. Measurements were taken using an Agilent E4401B

  11. Registrations and vehicle miles of travel of light duty vehicles, 1985--1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, P.S.; Davis, S.C.; Schmoyer, R.L.


    To obtain vehicle registration data that consistently and accurately reflect the distinction between automobiles and light-duty trucks, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was asked by FHWA to estimate the current and historical vehicle registration numbers of automobiles and of other two-axle four-tire vehicles (i.e., light-duty trucks), and their associated travel. The term automobile is synonymous with passenger car. Passenger cars are defined as all sedans, coupes, and station wagons manufactured primarily for the purpose of carrying passengers. This includes taxicabs, rental cars, and ambulances and hearses on an automobile chassis. Light-duty trucks refer to all two-axle four-tire vehicles other than passenger cars. They include pickup trucks, panel trucks, delivery and passenger vans, and other vehicles such as campers, motor homes, ambulances on a truck chassis, hearses on a truck chassis, and carryalls. In this study, light-duty trucks include four major types: (1) pickup truck, (2) van, (3) sport utility vehicle, and (4) other 2-axle 4-tire truck. Specifically, this project re-estimates statistics that appeared in Tables MV-1 and MV-9 of the 1995 Highway Statistics. Given the complexity of the approach developed in this effort and the incompleteness and inconsistency of the state-submitted data, it is recommended that alternatives be considered by FHWA to obtain vehicle registration data. One alternative is the Polk`s NVPP data (via the US Department of Transportation`s annual subscription to Polk). The second alternative is to obtain raw registration files from individual states` Departments of Motor Vehicles and to decode individual VINs.

  12. FootSpring: A Compliance Model for the ATHLETE Family of Robots (United States)

    Wheeler, Dawn Deborah; Chavez-Clemente, Daniel; Sunspiral, Vytas K.


    This paper describes and evaluates one method of modeling compliance in a wheel-on-leg walking robot. This method assumes that all of the robot s compliance takes place at the ground contact points, specifically the tires and legs, and that the rest of the robot is rigid. Optimization is used to solve for the displacement of the feet and of the center of gravity. This method was tested on both robots of the ATHLETE family, which have different compliance. For both robots, the model predicts the sag of points on the robot chassis with an average error of about one percent of the height of the robot.

  13. 纵向控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    [ 篇名 ] Evolutionary optimisation of a model reference adaptive control system,[ 篇名 ] Longitudinal Control Design and Experiment for Heavy-Duty Trucks,[ 篇名 ] On-line Approximation Based Aircraft Longitudinal Control, [ 篇名 ]Real-time estimation and compensation of road slip for longitudinal control,[篇名 ] Test bed for vehicle longitudinal control using chassis dynamometer and virtual reality: an application to adaptive cruise control,[ 篇名] The comfort highway copilot - an advanced driving assistance system,[ 篇名 ] Understanding and Modeling the Human Driver,[篇名 ] Vehicle Control Algorithms for Cooperative Driving With Automated Vehicles and Intervehicle Communications。

  14. Testing Digital Electronic Protection Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gabourin, S


    This paper outlines the core concepts and realisation of the Safe Machine Parameters Controller (SMPC) testbench, based on a VME crate and LabVIEW program. Its main goal is to ensure the correct function of the SMPC for the protection of the CERN accelerator complex. To achieve this, the tester has been built to replicate the machine environment and operation, in order to ensure that the chassis under test is completely exercised. The complexity of the task increases with the number of input combinations. This paper also outlines the benefits and weaknesses of developing a test suite independently of the hardware being tested, using the “V” approach.

  15. Portable Automated Test Station: Using Engineering-Design Partnerships to Replace Obsolete Test Systems (United States)


    assemblies are the PXI card cage, and the Power Board circuit card assembly (CCA). The Power Board provides all required PXI chassis power rails as provided by the PATS-70A include: 1. PATS-70A System Calibration 2. PATS-70A System Self-Test 3. Digital Data Processing Unit (DDPU) 4. Dual Rail ...Adaptor (DRA) 5. DRA w/ Launcher Unit (LAU)105’s attached 6. Electronic Gun Control Unit (EGCU) 7. Electrical Test Panel (ETP) 8. LAU-105/A Guided

  16. A Million Cancer Genome Warehouse (United States)


    PB. For the compute server, we selected the Intel v2.0 motherboard , which uses 2 Intel® Xeon® E5-2600 processors, has 16 DIMM slots per board...and 4 PCIe slots (from x16 to x4). In 2014 we could build 192 GB per board and 10 cores per processor. Two motherboards fit in a chassis, with three...processor), we get $5K per server. Adding the price for motherboard and rounding it up we get $6K per server. Thus, each rack has 360 cores, 1.08PB, and

  17. Electronics box having internal circuit cards interconnected to external connectors sans motherboard (United States)

    Hockett, John E. (Inventor)


    An electronics chassis box includes a pair of opposing sidewalls, a pair of opposing end walls, a bottom surface, a top cover, and ring connectors assemblies mounted in selective ones of the walls of the electronic box. Boss members extend from the bottom surface at different heights upon which circuit cards are mounted in spatial relationship to each other. A flex interconnect substantially reduces and generally eliminates the need of a motherboard by interconnecting the circuit cards to one another and to external connectors mounted within the ring connector assemblies.

  18. An analysis on China’s segmented truck market in 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>The truck market in 2007 maintained the rapid growth trend formed in 2006. The year saw a total of 2.1145 million trucks sold, a year on year growth of 22.46 percent. Detailed figures: finished truck: 1.5164 million units, a year on year growth of 15.11 percent; truck chassis: 450,400 units, a year on year growth of 31.98 percent; semi-trailer: 177,800 units, a year on year growth of 91.86 percent.

  19. Bioinformatics for the synthetic biology of natural products: integrating across the Design–Build–Test cycle (United States)

    Currin, Andrew; Jervis, Adrian J.; Rattray, Nicholas J. W.; Swainston, Neil; Yan, Cunyu; Breitling, Rainer


    Covering: 2000 to 2016 Progress in synthetic biology is enabled by powerful bioinformatics tools allowing the integration of the design, build and test stages of the biological engineering cycle. In this review we illustrate how this integration can be achieved, with a particular focus on natural products discovery and production. Bioinformatics tools for the DESIGN and BUILD stages include tools for the selection, synthesis, assembly and optimization of parts (enzymes and regulatory elements), devices (pathways) and systems (chassis). TEST tools include those for screening, identification and quantification of metabolites for rapid prototyping. The main advantages and limitations of these tools as well as their interoperability capabilities are highlighted. PMID:27185383

  20. Report on the ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) (United States)


    8217,orconncction dio.grar.;, F?.-6-301, shows tho ppsition- of tho various circuits and the. following tabla gives the nuabcrs of somo of tho portincmt...rcsion of failur", then by pulse tim;s. ,_ ... v- 2 Tabla 5,2 CHASSIS DRA’:/IHGS 1...folt thc.t th~ uforomontionvd Dottings ur~ re~sona.blo, XII - 1 ~===~It=e=m==-=·==-~::~;::;;-o~~T;~s=:~:=:=:y=ip=rn~,.e=l>=t-·" _ -=~=.--Re=~;-ks

  1. The design of the center hole punch%关于中心打孔机的设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂荣臻; 曹建中


    The utility model relates to a center punch, including chassis, motor, rail, and two compressive bar inside the casing has stated push block, the top of the chassis with a nut, one end of the screw nut, through the top of the chassis and blocks are linked together, motor guide rail and the casing is fixed, the motor seat by machine guide rail and slide casing connection, motor seat is, the output of the motor connection power head; As described in the lower end of the block with a roller, block in the middle of the bilateral symmetry runs up two chute, each one end of the push rod is equipped with guide wheel, guide wheel sliding inside the chute, each lever through back to resellers and chassis rotation connection, in the middle of each lever and on the other side of the roller. Center punching machine of the utility model not only can fast clamping workpiece, three fast clamping, automatic centering, the purpose of realizing automatic centering.%本实用新型涉及一种中心打孔机,包括机壳、电机座、电机导轨和两个压杆,所述机壳内具有推块,机壳的顶部具有螺母,螺杆的一端通过螺母穿过机壳的顶部与推块相连,电机导轨与机壳固定连接,电机座通过电机导轨与机壳滑动连接,电机座内具有电机,电机的输出端连接有动力头;所述推块的下端具有滚轮,推块的中部两侧对称开有向上的两个斜槽,每个压杆的一端装有导向轮,导向轮在斜槽内滑动,每个压杆的中部通过回转销与机壳转动连接,每个压杆的另一端也均装有滚轮。本实用新型的中心打孔机,不仅能快速的夹紧工件,三点快速夹紧,自动定心,实现自动打中心孔的目的。

  2. Applications and research in frame longeron of hydroforming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Hao; Jiao Mengwang; Wei Yuansheng; Du Huijun; Li Shuli; Yang Hongxin; Yang Jie


    The application feasibility of hydroforming in frame longeron large parts is verified for the first time at home. The result of the research on the structure design and process analysis for frame longeron shows that hydroforming can he fully realized. With stiffness is comparison, collision test simulation and cross section force with traditional drawing- assembly welding techniques, it has been found that hydroforming combining has multiple advantages such as light- weight, high stiffness, reduction in the number of parts, high precision, hence reduction the associated machining and welding and so on. It is especially suitable for forming various lightweight components used for the chassis parts in automotive.

  3. Utilization of Durability Criterion to Develop Automotive Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricardo, Luiz Carlos Hernandes


    Today the automotive companies must reduce the time to development of new products with improvement in performance, durability and low cost reductions where possible. To achieve this goal the carmakers need to improve the design criterion of car systems like body, chassis and suspension components....... This paper will present a review of the techniques used in the automotive industry regarding durability before mentioned systems. The paper will present the procedures to obtain the spectrum loading to use in finite element analysis and the validation in laboratory and proving grounds....

  4. A Mobile Robot for Small Object Handling (United States)

    Fišer, Ondřej; Szűcsová, Hana; Grimmer, Vladimír; Popelka, Jan; Vonásek, Vojtěch; Krajník, Tomáš; Chudoba, Jan

    The aim of this paper is to present an intelligent autonomous robot capable of small object manipulation. The design of the robot is influenced mainly by the rules of EUROBOT 09 competition. In this challenge, two robots pick up objects scattered on a planar rectangular playfield and use these elements to build models of Hellenistic temples. This paper describes the robot hardware, i.e. electro-mechanics of the drive, chassis and manipulator, as well as the software, i.e. localization, collision avoidance, motion control and planning algorithms.

  5. Improvement of vehicle stability in cornering on uneven road; Akuro senkaiji ni okeru sharyo no anzensei kojo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobimatsu, K.; Harada, M.; Harada, H. [National Defense Academy, Kanagawa (Japan)


    The active control of vehicle suspensions and rear wheel steering systems in turning on uneven roads is analyzed by means of LQR control theory, assuming that cornering forces depend on tire normal loads in addition to tire slip angles. The authors quantitatively investigated the effectiveness of the integrated control of the active suspension and the rear wheel steering, comparing the contributions of each individual system. Furthermore, in this paper, the role of the chassis control and driver control are studied in order to improve the stability of vehicle motion disturbed by the road surface. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  6. Design and development of an automotive propulsion system utilizing a Rankine cycle engine (water based fluid). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demler, R.L.


    Under EPA and ERDA sponsorship, SES successfully designed, fabricated and tested the first federally sponsored steam powered automobile. The automobile - referred to as the simulator - is a 1975 Dodge Monaco standard size passenger car with the SES preprototype Rankine cycle automotive propulsion system mounted in the engine compartment. In the latter half of 1975, the simulator successfully underwent test operations at the facilities of SES in Watertown, Massachusetts and demonstrated emission levels below those of the stringent federally established automotive requirements originally set for implementation by 1976. The demonstration was accomplished during testing over the Federal Driving Cycle on a Clayton chassis dynamometer. The design and performance of the vehicle are described.

  7. Engineering Review of ANCAUS/AVATAR: An Enabling Technology for the Autonomous Land Systems Program? (United States)


    Navigation Module • The MUX/Xmtr Pan/Tilt Module All modules on the vehicle are linked via a custom fibre optic loop. The VPC router uses the fibre ...4 RS232 and 2 CAN Ports • Fibre Optic data link • 8 (5 Amp) PWM drivers • 24 (0.5 Amp) relay drivers • 4 12 Bit D/A converters • 15 chassis A/D, 8 PWM...servers are available through open source channels. 3. Fibre Optic Link - Intravehicle communications is via nonstandard fibre optic token ring. Since the

  8. Hydrogen powered sports car series (internal combustion engine and fuel cells)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotthold, J.P. [American Hydrogen Association, Sunnyvale, CA (United States)


    The electric hybrid vehicle can solve the problems which today make the pure electric car limited in its acceptance. The primary limitations are excess weight and short range due to a heavy battery pack of limited energy density. Our basic vehicular design makes use of three power technologies in a balanced way. The chassis is the standard Volkswagen Beetle type which carried many millions of the {open_quotes}beetles{close_quotes} across all the Earth`s continents. The body is a fiberfab replica of a 1970s design sports car which provides three compartments from it`s original mid engine design and a classic aerodynamic shape.

  9. On-Road Validation of a Simplified Model for Estimating Real-World Fuel Economy: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Eric; Gonder, Jeff; Jehlik, Forrest


    On-road fuel economy is known to vary significantly between individual trips in real-world driving conditions. This work introduces a methodology for rapidly simulating a specific vehicle's fuel economy over the wide range of real-world conditions experienced across the country. On-road test data collected using a highly instrumented vehicle is used to refine and validate this modeling approach. Model accuracy relative to on-road data collection is relevant to the estimation of 'off-cycle credits' that compensate for real-world fuel economy benefits that are not observed during certification testing on a chassis dynamometer.

  10. Edge determination algorithm of game road for intelligent automobile based on plane array CCD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhi-kun; WANG Fu-bin; PAN Xiao-di; LIU Jie; HUANG Chang-fa


    The contribution factor of automobile movement stability on the structure feature of seek road intelligent automobile chassis was analyzed. The kinematic model of linear two-degree freedom for intelligent automobile was established. The noise influence to the image of game road on the image rebuilding of different acquisition data of game road was analyzed. The threshold for image division was determined by the statistical analysis to grey histogram of game road image. This method indicates its adaption to CCD image of low distinguish ability.

  11. Advanced computer graphic techniques for laser range finder (LRF) simulation (United States)

    Bedkowski, Janusz; Jankowski, Stanislaw


    This paper show an advanced computer graphic techniques for laser range finder (LRF) simulation. The LRF is the common sensor for unmanned ground vehicle, autonomous mobile robot and security applications. The cost of the measurement system is extremely high, therefore the simulation tool is designed. The simulation gives an opportunity to execute algorithm such as the obstacle avoidance[1], slam for robot localization[2], detection of vegetation and water obstacles in surroundings of the robot chassis[3], LRF measurement in crowd of people[1]. The Axis Aligned Bounding Box (AABB) and alternative technique based on CUDA (NVIDIA Compute Unified Device Architecture) is presented.

  12. Considering the edge-crack sensitivity of a hot-rolled steel in forming simulation (United States)

    Gläsner, T.; Schneider, M.; Troitzsch, M.; Westhäuser, S.


    The formability of sheet metal materials is locally reduced by shear cutting operations, and as a result the risk of a crack during further processing is increased at the edge. Materials particularly susceptible to this are described as sensitive to edge-cracking. A procedure for quantitatively determining edge-crack sensitivity and for applying corresponding characteristic values has not been previously established. Below, two test methods and an approach for using the results in an extended forming limit diagram are presented. The producibility of a collar drawn test component as well as a chassis component is reevaluated using this extended forming limit diagram.

  13. Dueco Plug-In Hybrid Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillip Eidler


    Dueco, a final stage manufacture of utility trucks, was awarded a congressionally directed cost shared contract to develop, test, validate, and deploy several PHEV utility trucks. Odyne will be the primary subcontractor responsible for all aspects of the hybrid system including its design and installation on a truck chassis. Key objectives in this program include developing a better understanding of the storage device and system capability; improve aspects of the existing design, optimization of system and power train components, and prototype evaluation. This two year project will culminate in the delivery of at least five vehicles for field evaluation.

  14. Human-Robot Interaction (United States)

    Sandor, Aniko; Cross, E. Vincent, II; Chang, Mai Lee


    Human-robot interaction (HRI) is a discipline investigating the factors affecting the interactions between humans and robots. It is important to evaluate how the design of interfaces affect the human's ability to perform tasks effectively and efficiently when working with a robot. By understanding the effects of interface design on human performance, workload, and situation awareness, interfaces can be developed to appropriately support the human in performing tasks with minimal errors and with appropriate interaction time and effort. Thus, the results of research on human-robot interfaces have direct implications for the design of robotic systems. For efficient and effective remote navigation of a rover, a human operator needs to be aware of the robot's environment. However, during teleoperation, operators may get information about the environment only through a robot's front-mounted camera causing a keyhole effect. The keyhole effect reduces situation awareness which may manifest in navigation issues such as higher number of collisions, missing critical aspects of the environment, or reduced speed. One way to compensate for the keyhole effect and the ambiguities operators experience when they teleoperate a robot is adding multiple cameras and including the robot chassis in the camera view. Augmented reality, such as overlays, can also enhance the way a person sees objects in the environment or in camera views by making them more visible. Scenes can be augmented with integrated telemetry, procedures, or map information. Furthermore, the addition of an exocentric (i.e., third-person) field of view from a camera placed in the robot's environment may provide operators with the additional information needed to gain spatial awareness of the robot. Two research studies investigated possible mitigation approaches to address the keyhole effect: 1) combining the inclusion of the robot chassis in the camera view with augmented reality overlays, and 2) modifying the camera

  15. Exploratory Analysis of Supply Chains in the Defense Industrial Base (United States)


    a specific example of a Global Hawk system affected by DMS issues in the EO/IR system. The EO/IR Receiver Unit ( ERU ) consists of a visible EO and an...into the platform by NG. The ERU optics and chassis are a unique Raytheon design. The EO camera and the IR detector assembly are COTS items. The EO...replacement cameras suggested by Basler and given the design constraints present in the Global Hawk ERU , it is clear that they are mechanically and

  16. The influence of engine operating parameters on aldehyde emissions from an ethanol-fuelled vehicle; Influencia de parametros de operacao do motor nas emissoes de aldeidos por um veiculo a etanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, Rinaldo Antunes [FIAT Automoveis S.A., Betim, MG (Brazil). Engenharia de Motores]. E-mail:; Sodre, Jose Ricardo [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail:


    This work presents results and analysis of experiments on aldehyde emissions and on the regulated pollutants (CO, HC and NO{sub X}) emissions, with varying engine operational parameters in an ethanol-fuelled vehicle during a standard urban test cycle. The test cycle was carried out with the vehicle in a chassis dynamometer, and simulates an average urban trip of approximately 5,8 km, under steady state conditions. The varied parameters were fuel/air equivalence ratio, dash pot function, cut off function and gear change speed. The results found showed lower aldehyde emissions for gear change at lower speeds and for richer mixtures. (author)

  17. DC source assemblies (United States)

    Campbell, Jeremy B; Newson, Steve


    Embodiments of DC source assemblies of power inverter systems of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicle having an electrically grounded chassis are provided. An embodiment of a DC source assembly comprises a housing, a DC source disposed within the housing, a first terminal, and a second terminal. The DC source also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the first terminal. The DC source assembly further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the second terminal.

  18. JPRS Report. Soviet Union Foreign Military Review, No. 2, February 1989. (United States)


    34 750/42 1,200/59 720/50 Mk 3 chassis FV434 Samson 17.7/4 8.7/3 2.79/5.7x2.84 2.25/4.78x2.4 240/47 190/72 FRG Standart 39.8/4 2.69...commander’s cupola. In the FRG the firm of Porsche created the Standart ARV based on the Leopard 1 tank. Its series production was accomplished by the...the Italian firm of OTO Melara. Foreign experts note that the Standart ARV is character- ized by the presence of powerful special equipment and is

  19. Algorithms for skiascopy measurement automatization (United States)

    Fomins, Sergejs; Trukša, Renārs; KrūmiĆa, Gunta


    Automatic dynamic infrared retinoscope was developed, which allows to run procedure at a much higher rate. Our system uses a USB image sensor with up to 180 Hz refresh rate equipped with a long focus objective and 850 nm infrared light emitting diode as light source. Two servo motors driven by microprocessor control the rotation of semitransparent mirror and motion of retinoscope chassis. Image of eye pupil reflex is captured via software and analyzed along the horizontal plane. Algorithm for automatic accommodative state analysis is developed based on the intensity changes of the fundus reflex.

  20. Fuel economy and exhaust emissions characteristics of diesel vehicles: Test results of a prototype Chrysler Volare, 225 CID (3.7-liter) automobile (United States)

    Walter, R. A.


    The results obtained from fuel economy and emission tests conducted on a prototype Chrysler Volare diesel vehicle are documented. The vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer over selected drive cycles and steady-state conditions. The fuel used, was a DOE/BETC referee fuel. Particulate emission rates were calculated from dilution tunnel measurements and large volume particulate samples were collected for biological and chemical analysis. The vehicle obtained 32.7 mpg for the FTP urban cycle and 48.8 mpg for the highway cycle. The emissions rates were 0.42/1.58/1.17/0.28 g/mile of HC, CO, NOx and particulates respectively.

  1. Fuel economy and exhaust emissions characteristics of diesel vehicles: Test results of a prototype fiat 131TC 2.4 liter automobile (United States)

    Quayle, S. S.


    The results obtained from fuel economy and emission tests conducted on a prototype Fiat 131 turbocharged diesel vehicle are presented. The vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer over selected drive cycles and steady-state conditions. Two fuels were used, a United States number 2 diesel and a European diesel fuel. Particulate emission rates were calculated from dilution tunnel measurements and large volume particulate samples were collected for biological and chemical analysis. It was determined that turbocharging accompanied by complementary modifications results in small but substantial improvements in regulated emissions, fuel economy, and performance. Notably, particulate levels were reduced by 30 percent.

  2. Advances in yeast genome engineering. (United States)

    David, Florian; Siewers, Verena


    Genome engineering based on homologous recombination has been applied to yeast for many years. However, the growing importance of yeast as a cell factory in metabolic engineering and chassis in synthetic biology demands methods for fast and efficient introduction of multiple targeted changes such as gene knockouts and introduction of multistep metabolic pathways. In this review, we summarize recent improvements of existing genome engineering methods, the development of novel techniques, for example for advanced genome redesign and evolution, and the importance of endonucleases as genome engineering tools.

  3. 传统轿车搭载混合动力系统整车技术%Entire Car Technology of Traditional Car with Hybrid Power System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余才光; 包寿红; 马智涛; 张彤


    结合混合动力车工作原理,从动力系统、底盘、整车电子电器等方面,详细说明传统轿车改制成混合动力车所涉及到的整车技术。%Based on the working principle of hybrid EV, the entire car technology in remaking traditional car to hybrid car has been described in details from the aspects of power system, chassis and electronic apparatus.

  4. Coupling element antenna with slot tuning for handheld devices at LTE frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrio, Samantha Caporal Del; Pelosi, Mauro; Franek, Ondrej


    Tunable antennas are a promising way to overcome bandwidth limitations for the new communication standards. Since it is the chassis that resonates in the low frequencies, its tuning is pertinent and allows for more compact size designs. This paper proposes a coupling element based antenna....... A reconfigurable slot is inserted in the ground plane in order to lower its resonance frequency. The tuning is done by a capacitor across the slot. It is shown that covering all frequencies between the 900-GSM band and the 700-LTE band can be achieved. The radiating structure also presents a resonance in the high...

  5. Blast resistant vehicle seat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripley, Edward B


    Disclosed are various seats for vehicles particularly military vehicles that are susceptible to attack by road-bed explosive devices such as land mines or improvised explosive devices. The seats often have rigid seat shells and may include rigid bracing for rigidly securing the seat to the chassis of the vehicle. Typically embodiments include channels and particulate media such as sand disposed in the channels. A gas distribution system is generally employed to pump a gas through the channels and in some embodiments the gas is provided at a pressure sufficient to fluidize the particulate media when an occupant is sitting on the seat.

  6. Concept Study of Multi Sensor Detection Imaging and Explosive Confirmation of Mines (United States)


    procedure similar to loading a flashlight The power center enclosure is a permanent extension of the upper chassis and serves as the counter- balance weight...for the counter- balance weight adjustment. The connectors are of the MIL-C-38999 series III type, and consist of an 11-shell size, 0.750- diameter...quadrupole moment will become aligned in the local mli- crocopic electric field at each lattice site in a crystalline B. = 1.4 x 10-1 T. (4) materia

  7. Desempenho de um microtrator utilizando-se motores com diferentes alternativas energéticas = Performance of a microtractor using engines with different energetic alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denílson Eduardo Rodrigues


    Full Text Available Neste trabalho avaliou-se o desempenho de um microtrator equipado com três diferentes tipos de acionamento. Um mesmo chassi de um microtrator foi instalado, alternadamente, com um motor elétrico trifásico (MCA, um motor elétrico de corrente contínua (MCC e com um motor de combustão interna (MCI. Os ensaios do microtrator com cada um dos motores permitiram a determinação da força de tração máxima, da velocidade de deslocamento, do consumo de combustível e a patinagem dos rodados. O MCC desenvolveu maior força de tração, sendo 22% superior aos demais. O consumo específico de energia para os microtratores decresceu com o aumento da patinagem. This study evaluated the performance of a microtractor implemented in three different operational types. A microtractor chassis was alternately operated with a three-phase electric engine (MCA, a direct-current electric engine (MCC and an internal combustion engine (MCI. The rehearsals of the microtractor implemented in each one of the engines allowed determinations of the maximum tractive force, the forward speed and the fuel consumption in wheel skiddings. The MCC developed greater snatch force, being 22% superior to the others. The specific consumption on energy for the microtractors decreased as the skiddings increased.

  8. Combined control effects of brake and active suspension control on the global safety of a full-car nonlinear model (United States)

    Tchamna, Rodrigue; Youn, Edward; Youn, Iljoong


    This paper focuses on the active safety of a full-vehicle nonlinear model during cornering. At first, a previously developed electronic stability controller (ESC) based on vehicle simplified model is applied to the full-car nonlinear model in order to control the vehicle yaw rate and side-slip angle. The ESC system was shown beneficial not only in tracking the vehicle path as close as possible, but it also helped in reducing the vehicle roll angle and influences ride comfort and road-holding capability; to tackle that issue and also to have better attitude motion, making use of optimal control theory the active suspension control gain is developed from a vehicle linear model and used to compute the active suspension control force of the vehicle nonlinear model. The active suspension control algorithm used in this paper includes the integral action of the suspension deflection in order to make zero the suspension deflection steady state and keep the vehicle chassis flat. Keeping the chassis flat reduces the vehicle load transfer and that is helpful for road holding and yaw rate tracking. The effects of the two controllers when they work together are analysed using various computer simulations with different steering wheel manoeuvres.

  9. MRE: a web tool to suggest foreign enzymes for the biosynthesis pathway design with competing endogenous reactions in mind

    KAUST Repository

    Kuwahara, Hiroyuki


    To rationally design a productive heterologous biosynthesis system, it is essential to consider the suitability of foreign reactions for the specific endogenous metabolic infrastructure of a host. We developed a novel web server, called MRE, which, for a given pair of starting and desired compounds in a given chassis organism, ranks biosynthesis routes from the perspective of the integration of new reactions into the endogenous metabolic system. For each promising heterologous biosynthesis pathway, MRE suggests actual enzymes for foreign metabolic reactions and generates information on competing endogenous reactions for the consumption of metabolites. These unique, chassis-centered features distinguish MRE from existing pathway design tools and allow synthetic biologists to evaluate the design of their biosynthesis systems from a different angle. By using biosynthesis of a range of high-value natural products as a case study, we show that MRE is an effective tool to guide the design and optimization of heterologous biosynthesis pathways. The URL of MRE is

  10. The Design and Manufacture of Seeing-Eye Robot Using Photoelectric Sensor%光电传感导盲机器人的设计与制作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁兰菊; 杨秀成; 李峰


    采用履带式底盘作为主体,通过GPS,电子罗盘定位,通过超声波距离传感器和光电传感对行进方向的障碍检测,最后经DSP对各个模块反馈的数据进行综合分析处理后控制履带底盘以预设目的地为终点行进,实现无人操控,自助导引安全到达目的地。%The crawler chassis as the main body,through the GPS,electronic compass positioning,on the direction of the ob-stacle detection by ultrasonic distance sensor and photoelectric sensor,finally by DSP was analyzed for each module,feedback data control to a preset destination chassis for the end of March,to achieve unmanned,self-help guide safe arrival at the des-tination.

  11. Eddy-Current Sensors with Asymmetrical Point Spread Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Gajda


    Full Text Available This paper concerns a special type of eddy-current sensor in the form of inductive loops. Such sensors are applied in the measuring systems classifying road vehicles. They usually have a rectangular shape with dimensions of 1 × 2 m, and are installed under the surface of the traffic lane. The wide Point Spread Function (PSF of such sensors causes the information on chassis geometry, contained in the measurement signal, to be strongly averaged. This significantly limits the effectiveness of the vehicle classification. Restoration of the chassis shape, by solving the inverse problem (deconvolution, is also difficult due to the fact that it is ill-conditioned. An original approach to solving this problem is presented in this paper. It is a hardware-based solution and involves the use of inductive loops with an asymmetrical PSF. Laboratory experiments and simulation tests, conducted with models of an inductive loop, confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed solution. In this case, the principle applies that the higher the level of sensor spatial asymmetry, the greater the effectiveness of the deconvolution algorithm.

  12. Doppler Lidar System Design via Interdisciplinary Design Concept at NASA Langley Research Center - Part I (United States)

    Boyer, Charles M.; Jackson, Trevor P.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Petway, Larry B.


    Optimized designs of the Navigation Doppler Lidar (NDL) instrument for Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) were accomplished via Interdisciplinary Design Concept (IDEC) at NASA Langley Research Center during the summer of 2013. Three branches in the Engineering Directorate and three students were involved in this joint task through the NASA Langley Aerospace Research Summer Scholars (LARSS) Program. The Laser Remote Sensing Branch (LRSB), Mechanical Systems Branch (MSB), and Structural and Thermal Systems Branch (STSB) were engaged to achieve optimal designs through iterative and interactive collaborative design processes. A preliminary design iteration was able to reduce the power consumption, mass, and footprint by removing redundant components and replacing inefficient components with more efficient ones. A second design iteration reduced volume and mass by replacing bulky components with excessive performance with smaller components custom-designed for the power system. Mechanical placement collaboration reduced potential electromagnetic interference (EMI). Through application of newly selected electrical components and thermal analysis data, a total electronic chassis redesign was accomplished. Use of an innovative forced convection tunnel heat sink was employed to meet and exceed project requirements for cooling, mass reduction, and volume reduction. Functionality was a key concern to make efficient use of airflow, and accessibility was also imperative to allow for servicing of chassis internals. The collaborative process provided for accelerated design maturation with substantiated function.

  13. TEM Cell Testing of Cable Noise Reduction Techniques from 2 MHz to 200 MHz -- Part 2 (United States)

    Bradley, Arthur T.; Evans, William C.; Reed, Joshua L.; Shimp, Samuel K., III; Fitzpatrick, Fred D.


    This paper presents empirical results of cable noise reduction techniques as demonstrated in a TEM cell operating with radiated fields from 2 - 200 MHz. It is the second part of a two-paper series. The first paper discussed cable types and shield connections. In this second paper, the effects of load and source resistances and chassis connections are examined. For each topic, well established theories are compared to data from a real-world physical system. Finally, recommendations for minimizing cable susceptibility (and thus cable emissions) are presented. There are numerous papers and textbooks that present theoretical analyses of cable noise reduction techniques. However, empirical data is often targeted to low frequencies (e.g. 100 MHz). Additionally, a comprehensive study showing the relative effects of various noise reduction techniques is needed. These include the use of dedicated return wires, twisted wiring, cable shielding, shield connections, changing load or source impedances, and implementing load- or source-to-chassis isolation. We have created an experimental setup that emulates a real-world electrical system, while still allowing us to independently vary a host of parameters. The goal of the experiment was to determine the relative effectiveness of various noise reduction techniques when the cable is in the presence of radiated emissions from 2 MHz to 200 MHz.

  14. Thermal Analysis of Lithium - ion Power Battery Chasis Based on CFD%基于CFD的锂离子动力电池箱散热分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费朝辉; 王学林; 凌玲; 胡于进


    建立了锂离子电池的热特性模型,将电池内部复杂的层状结构当作一种均质的各向异性材料,求得电池的平均热特性参数.利用ANSYSICEPAK计算流体动力学软件对强迫风冷电池箱内的流场和温度场进行了仿真分析,并且对通风冷却方案进行了优化.同时研究了放电倍率、风扇风量和风道尺寸等因素时电池箱温度场的影响.%A lithium - ion battery thermal model was established. The complicated layered structure within the battery was considered as a homogeneous and anisotropic material, and the average thermal characteristics were calculated. The fluid field and temperature field in the battery chassis cooled by forced air were simulated numerically by using the CFD software ANSYS ICEPAK, and then the ventilation cooling system was optimized. The paper also demostrated the effect of battery discharge rate,fan flow rate and duck dimension on the temperature distribution in the chassis.

  15. Evaluation of Exhaust Emissions from Three Diesel-Hybrid Cars and Simulation of After-Treatment Systems for Ultralow Real-World NOx Emissions. (United States)

    Franco, Vicente; Zacharopoulou, Theodora; Hammer, Jan; Schmidt, Helge; Mock, Peter; Weiss, Martin; Samaras, Zissis


    Hybridization offers great potential for decreasing pollutant and carbon dioxide emissions of diesel cars. However, an assessment of the real-world emissions performance of modern diesel hybrids is missing. Here, we test three diesel-hybrid cars on the road and benchmark our findings with two cars against tests on the chassis dynamometer and model simulations. The pollutant emissions of the two cars tested on the chassis dynamometer were in compliance with the relevant Euro standards over the New European Driving Cycle and Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedure. On the road, all three diesel-hybrids exceeded the regulatory NOx limits (average exceedance for all trips: +150% for the Volvo, +510% for the Peugeot, and +550% for the Mercedes-Benz) and also showed elevated on-road CO2 emissions (average exceedance of certification values: +178, +77, and +52%, respectively). These findings point to a wide discrepancy between certified and on-road CO2 and suggest that hybridization alone is insufficient to achieve low-NOx emissions of diesel powertrains. Instead, our simulation suggests that properly calibrated selective catalytic reduction filter and lean-NOx trap after-treatment technologies can reduce the on-road NOx emissions to 0.023 and 0.068 g/km on average, respectively, well below the Euro 6 limit (0.080 g/km).

  16. A 96 channel receiver for the ILCTA LLRF system at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavric, Uros; Chase, Brian; Branlard, Julien; Cullerton, Ed; Klepec, Dan; /Fermilab


    The present configuration of an ILC main LINAC RF station has 26 nine cell cavities driven from one klystron. With the addition of waveguide power coupler monitors, 96 RF signals will be down-converted and processed. A down-converter chassis is being developed that contains 12 eight channel analog modules and a single upconverter module. This chassis will first be deployed for testing a cryomodule composed of eight cavities located at New Muon Laboratory (NML) - Fermilab. Critical parts of the design for LLRF applications are identified and a detailed description of the circuit with various characteristic measurements is presented. The board is composed of an input band-pass filter centered at 1.3GHz, followed by a mixer, which down-converts the cavity probe signal to a proposed 13 MHz intermediate frequency. Cables with 8 channels per connector and good isolation between channels are being used to interconnect each down-converter module with a digital board. As mixers, amplifiers and power splitters are the most sensitive parts for noise, nonlinearities and crosstalk issues, special attention is given to these parts in the design of the LO port multiplication and distribution.

  17. An Inverse Look at the Center of M15

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, D


    The observed radial and transverse velocities of individual stars in M15 are implemented as inputs to a fully non-parametric code (CHASSIS) in order to estimate the equilibrium stellar distribution function and the three-dimensional mass density profile. In particular, the paper explores the possibility of the existence of a central black hole in M15 via several runs that utilize the radial velocity data set which offers kinematic measurements closer to the centre of the cluster than the proper motion data. These runs are distinguished from each other in the choice of the initial seed for the cluster characteristics; however, the profiles identified by the algorithm at the end of each run concur with each other, within error bars, thus confirming the robustness of CHASSIS. The recovered density profiles are noted to exhibit unequivocal flattening, inner to about 0.0525pc. Also, the enclosed mass profile is very close to being a power-law function of radius inside 0.1pc and is not horizontal. Simplistically sp...

  18. 铝合金铸造副车架开发%Development of Aluminum Alloy Casting Sub-frame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈磊; 程稳正; 孙珏; 王仕伟; 陈志刚; 侯杰


    以铝合金材料代替传统钢材是乘用车底盘结构件轻量化设计的有效方式之一,尤其在高端乘用车上应用更为广泛。介绍了铝合金副车架的设计开发过程。开发实践表明,采用铝合金材料及挤压铸造工艺,通过合理的结构设计及系统的工艺开发,可达到底盘系统对于结构件强度及耐久性的严格要求,提高整车的轻量化水平。%The substitution of traditional steel with aluminum alloy is an effective approach of lightweight design of passenger car chassis structural parts, especially in high-end passenger car. This article introduces the development process of aluminum alloy sub-frame. The development practice shows that, with the application of aluminum alloy and extrusion casting technology, with the aid of rational design of structure and systemic development of technology, the strict requirements on strength and durability of chassis structural component can be satisfied, and the lightweight level of vehicle is improved.

  19. Designing Omni-Directional Mobile Robot with Mecanum Wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefri E.M. Salih


    Full Text Available This study presents the processes undertaken in the design and development of an intelligent omni-directional mobile robot using four custom-made mecanum wheels. The mecanum wheel developed consists of nine rollers made from delrin. All mecanum wheels are independently powered using four units of precisian gear DC motors and the wheel/motor assemblies were mounted directly to the robot chassis made using an aluminum frame. A four channel high power H-bridge using 2 units of LMD 18200 motor drivers IC circuit was design, built and interfaced to a BasicStamp (BS2 microcontroller board. Basic mobility algorithm using BasicStamp software was developed to test the basic mobility capabilities and test the qualitative view of the system's mobility performance. An experiment was set-up to analyze the motion characteristic of the mobile robot motion in Y-axis, X-axis and rotary motion. Data from the experiment will be used for mathematically model for mobile robot platform and speed controller modeling and design. Mecanum wheel mobile robot provides a convenient platform for further development in the mobile platform. The combination of mechanical design on the wheel and chassis, motion control and multiple input/output sensors allow the exploration of large number of control algorithm and software to be implemented to the robot for practical applications.

  20. Study and Development of a Screener Test for Fuel Economy Passenger Car Motor Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroshi Watanabe; Nobuo Ushioda; Yasuhiro Ogasawara


    Fuel economy regulations have been issued in many countries to save energy,and it is one of the most essential performance requirements for Passenger Car Motor Oil(PCMO) this decade.The performance is also important to reduce green house gas(GHG) emissions.Automotive,Oil and Additive industries have been developing fuel economy tests in fired engine for PCMO.The ASTM 5 Car test was started in 1982 and ASTM Sequence Ⅵ series test was also developed by the industries as one of fuel economy tests after the 5 Car test.However,the fired engine(combustion) test condition is more complicated and the combustion mode in engine introduce high variability into a fuel economy measurement.Screening by bench testing is complicated by the difficulty to reproduce friction conditions of all of engine parts.Based on the background,a motored engine friction torque test(MEFT) was developed as one of the solutions for fuel economy screening test.Using a newly developed MEFT,key additive chemistries were evaluated and compared in the test,and it distinguished the differences in additive chemistries,in addition to those in viscosity and friction modifiers.The Sequence Ⅵ-D FEI 1(Seq.Ⅵ-D FEI 1) and chassis dynamometer vehicle tests were also conducted in this study,and the test data has shown an excellent correlation among MEFT,Seq.Ⅵ-D FEI 1 and chassis dynamometer vehicle tests.

  1. Neonatal head and torso vibration exposure during inter-hospital transfer (United States)

    Blaxter, Laurence; Yeo, Mildrid; McNally, Donal; Crowe, John; Henry, Caroline; Hill, Sarah; Mansfield, Neil; Leslie, Andrew; Sharkey, Don


    Inter-hospital transport of premature infants is increasingly common, given the centralisation of neonatal intensive care. However, it is known to be associated with anomalously increased morbidity, most notably brain injury, and with increased mortality from multifactorial causes. Surprisingly, there have been relatively few previous studies investigating the levels of mechanical shock and vibration hazard present during this vehicular transport pathway. Using a custom inertial datalogger, and analysis software, we quantify vibration and linear head acceleration. Mounting multiple inertial sensing units on the forehead and torso of neonatal patients and a preterm manikin, and on the chassis of transport incubators over the duration of inter-site transfers, we find that the resonant frequency of the mattress and harness system currently used to secure neonates inside incubators is ~9Hz. This couples to vehicle chassis vibration, increasing vibration exposure to the neonate. The vibration exposure per journey (A(8) using the ISO 2631 standard) was at least 20% of the action point value of current European Union regulations over all 12 neonatal transports studied, reaching 70% in two cases. Direct injury risk from linear head acceleration (HIC15) was negligible. Although the overall hazard was similar, vibration isolation differed substantially between sponge and air mattresses, with a manikin. Using a Global Positioning System datalogger alongside inertial sensors, vibration increased with vehicle speed only above 60 km/h. These preliminary findings suggest there is scope to engineer better systems for transferring sick infants, thus potentially improving their outcomes. PMID:28056712

  2. FSAE竞赛车车架有限元静力学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐益强; 周冠男; 李涵武


    The paper based on Chinese Formula Student car contest rules, design FSAE race car chassis, frame matching to achieve me-chanical properties, with sufficient strength stiffness, and taking into account the requirements of lightweight race cars. To frame strength and stiffness analysis of structural improvements checked, the text of the frame the finite element static analysis, through the analysis, we verified the design of race car chassis stiffness to meet the strength requirements.%  文中依据中国大学生方程式汽车大赛规则,设计FSAE竞赛车车架,车架实现力学性能的匹配、具有足够的强度刚度,并且兼顾竞赛车轻量化的要求。为了车架强度刚度校核分析和结构改进,文中对车架进行了有限元静力学分析,通过分析计算,验证了所设计的竞赛车车架满足强度刚度要求。

  3. Impedance measurement set-up based on off-the-shelf PXI modules (United States)

    Pettersen, F. J.; Martinsen, Ø. G.; Grimnes, S.; Høgetveit, J. O.


    As bioimpedance measurements are being done in an increasing variety of measurands and environments, measurement equipment must be flexible in use and easy to handle for the researcher. Measurement equipment used today is excellent for a range of uses, but it is often bulky, heavy, and not very flexible. A new compact and flexible measurement set-up based on off-the-shelf modules is described. The system is based on commercially available PXI-modules, one module that may be custom made, and custom software. The basis of the system is a PXI chassis with a power supply unit. The chassis is equipped with a controller module running software controlling the system, a signal generator, and a multichannel digitizer. All of this is commercially available. Both a custom made and a commercially available impedance interfaces were used. A LabVIEW program is controlling the measurement system, and provides a user interface. The LabVIEW program handles necessary signal conditioning and calibration. The measurement system is capable of doing frequency response measurements at frequencies up to 15 MHz. In addition to the two normal voltage pick-up electrodes used in four-electrode measurements, this system has the possibility to use 5 extra voltage pick-up electrodes. This simplifies exploration of segmental impedance, anisotropy, reciprocity, etc.

  4. Electric vehicle test report, Cutler-Hammer Corvette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The work described was part of the effort to characterize vehicles for the state-of-the-art assessment of electric vehicles. The vehicle evaluated was a Chevrolet Corvette converted to electric operation. The vehicle was based on a standard production 1967 chassis and body. The original internal combustion engine was replaced by an electric traction motor. Eighteen batteries supplied the electrical energy. A controller, an onboard battery charger, and several dashboard instruments completed the conversion. The remainder of the vehicle, and in particular the remainder of the drive-train (clutch, driveshaft, and differential), was stock, except for the transmission. The overall objective of the tests was to develop performance data at the system and subsystem level. The emphasis was on the electrical portion of the drive train, although some analysis and discussion of the mechanical elements are included. There was no evaluation of other aspects of the vehicle such as braking, ride, handling, passenger accomodations, etc. Included are a description of the vehicle, the tests performed and a discussion of the results. Tests were conducted both on the road (actually a mile long runway) and in a chassis dynamometer equipped laboratory. The majority of the tests performed were according to SAE Procedure J227a and included maximum effort accelerations, constant-speed range, and cyclic range. Some tests that are not a part of the SAE Procedure J227a are described and the analysis of the data from all tests is discussed. (LCL)

  5. Synthesis and single-molecule imaging of highly mobile adamantane-wheeled nanocars. (United States)

    Chu, Pin-Lei E; Wang, Lin-Yung; Khatua, Saumyakanti; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B; Link, Stephan; Tour, James M


    The synthesis and single-molecule imaging of two inherently fluorescent nanocars equipped with adamantane wheels is reported. The nanocars were imaged using 4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene (BODIPY) as the chromophore, which was rigidly incorporated into the nanocar chassis via Sonogashira cross-coupling chemistry that permitted the synthesis of nanocars having different geometries. In particular, studied here were four- and three-wheeled nanocars with adamantane wheels. It was found that, for the four-wheeled nanocar, the percentage of moving nanocars and the diffusion constant show a significant improvement over p-carborane-wheeled nanocars with the same chassis. The three-wheeled nanocar showed only limited mobility due to its geometry. These results are consistent with a requisite wheel-like rolling motion. We furthermore developed a model that relates the percentage of moving nanocars in single-molecule experiments with the diffusion constant. The excellent agreement between the model and the new results presented here as well as previous single-molecule studies of fluorescent nanocars yields an improved understanding of motion in these molecular machines.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Kaleemuddin


    Full Text Available Fluctuating fuel prices and associated pollution problems of largely exploited petroleum liquid fuel has stimulated the research on abundantly available gaseous fuels to keep the mobility industry intact. In the present work an air cooled diesel engine was modified suitably into a spark ignition engine incorporating electronic ignition and variable speed dependant spark timing to accommodate both LPG and CNG as fuels. Engine was optimized for stoichiometric operation on engine dynamometer. Materials of a few intricate engine components were replaced to suit LPG and CNG application. Ignition timing was mapped to work with gaseous fuels for different speeds. Compensation was done for recovering volumetric efficiency when operated with CNG by introducing more volume of air through resonator. Ignition timing was observed to be the pertinent parameter in achieving good performance with gaseous fuels under consideration. Performance and emission tests were carried out on engine dynamometer and chassis dynamometer. Under wide open throttle and at rated speed condition, it was observed that the peak pressure with LPG was lying between diesel fuel and CNG fuel operation due to slow burning nature of gaseous fuels. As compression ratio was maintained same for LPG and CNG fuel operation, low CO emissions were observed with LPG where as HC + NOx emissions were lower with CNG fuel operation. Chassis dynamometer based emission tests yielded lower CO2 levels with CNG operation.

  7. CEBAF Distributed Data Acquisition System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trent Allison; Thomas Powers


    There are thousands of signals distributed throughout Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) that are useful for troubleshooting and identifying instabilities. Many of these signals are only available locally or monitored by systems with small bandwidths that cannot identify fast transients. The Distributed Data Acquisition (Dist DAQ) system will sample and record these signals simultaneously at rates up to 40 Msps. Its primary function will be to provide waveform records from signals throughout CEBAF to the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). The waveforms will be collected after the occurrence of an event trigger. These triggers will be derived from signals such as periodic timers or accelerator faults. The waveform data can then be processed to quickly identify beam transport issues, thus reducing down time and increasing CEBAF performance. The Dist DAQ system will be comprised of multiple standalone chassis distributed throughout CEBAF. They will be interconnected via a fiber optic network to facilitate the global triggering of events. All of the chassis will also be connected directly to the CEBAF Ethernet and run EPICS locally. This allows for more flexibility than the typical configuration of a single board computer and other custom printed circuit boards (PCB) installed in a card cage.

  8. On-road particle number measurements using a portable emission measurement system (PEMS) (United States)

    Gallus, Jens; Kirchner, Ulf; Vogt, Rainer; Börensen, Christoph; Benter, Thorsten


    In this study the on-road particle number (PN) performance of a Euro-5 direct-injection (DI) gasoline passenger car was investigated. PN emissions were measured using the prototype of a portable emission measurement system (PEMS). PN PEMS correlations with chassis dynamometer tests show a good agreement with a chassis dynamometer set-up down to emissions in the range of 1·1010 #/km. Parallel on-line soot measurements by a photo acoustic soot sensor (PASS) were applied as independent measurement technique and indicate a good on-road performance for the PN-PEMS. PN-to-soot ratios were 1.3·1012 #/mg, which was comparable for both test cell and on-road measurements. During on-road trips different driving styles as well as different road types were investigated. Comparisons to the world harmonized light-duty test cycle (WLTC) 5.3 and to European field operational test (euroFOT) data indicate the PEMS trips to be representative for normal driving. Driving situations in varying traffic seem to be a major contributor to a high test-to-test variability of PN emissions. However, there is a trend to increasing PN emissions with more severe driving styles. A cold start effect is clearly visible for PN, especially at low ambient temperatures down to 8 °C.

  9. 清障拖车总体设计%Complete Design of Towing Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡瑞; 耿海建; 陈松林


    The heavy duly truck 4 × 2 chassis was integrated for being reformed to be towing vehicle which met the rated lifting quality of 7T and should guarantee the distribution of front and rear axle loading to be reasonable for meeting the requirement of vehicle performance. The mode designing was done based on showing the lifting requirement, introducing the method of reforming chassis, general arrangement and calculating the working structure, assembly reasonable. The CAE strength analysis was done and then the wrecker was successful of trail.%将4×2重卡底盘改制成额定托举质量为7t的清障拖车,介绍了底盘的改制方法、总布置和工作结构计算,并在配重合理布置的基础上完成了建模设计,通过CAE强度分析,校核了前后桥的轴荷分配,证明了改制方案能够满足整车性能要求。

  10. Architectural Design Study for a 10Gb/s Ethernet Switch

    CERN Document Server

    Oltean, Alexandra Dana


    The demand for 10Gb/s switches at this early stage in the market is primarily for modular solutions that can grow as do the bandwidth requirements. This indicates a requirement for chassis based solutions where individual line cards can be added to a chassis infrastructure and have to communicate across a 10Gb/s switching backplane. The present study is provides an architectural design solution for a passive copper backplane used for moving data between the line cards of a 10Gb/s Ethernet switch system. The ability to pass multi-gigabit data rates through a backplane system requires great attention to details previously thought to be irrelevant at lower frequencies. The trace dimensions, the via holes diameters, the backplane materials and choice of connectors, all play a crucial role in determining the success of the system. At high-speed even a subtle change in any of these elements can drastically affect the end-to-end system performance. In this context, the study presents the modeling and simulation work...

  11. Engineering modular ester fermentative pathways in Escherichia coli. (United States)

    Layton, Donovan S; Trinh, Cong T


    Sensation profiles are observed all around us and are made up of many different molecules, such as esters. These profiles can be mimicked in everyday items for their uses in foods, beverages, cosmetics, perfumes, solvents, and biofuels. Here, we developed a systematic 'natural' way to derive these products via fermentative biosynthesis. Each ester fermentative pathway was designed as an exchangeable ester production module for generating two precursors- alcohols and acyl-CoAs that were condensed by an alcohol acyltransferase to produce a combinatorial library of unique esters. As a proof-of-principle, we coupled these ester modules with an engineered, modular, Escherichia coli chassis in a plug-and-play fashion to create microbial cell factories for enhanced anaerobic production of a butyrate ester library. We demonstrated tight coupling between the modular chassis and ester modules for enhanced product biosynthesis, an engineered phenotype useful for directed metabolic pathway evolution. Compared to the wildtype, the engineered cell factories yielded up to 48 fold increase in butyrate ester production from glucose.

  12. The logarithmic beam position monitor (United States)

    Medvedko, Evgeny A.; Smith, Stephen R.


    Modern logarithmic amplifiers offer wide dynamic range, high bandwidth, good logarithmic conformance, and low cost making them attractive for beam position measurements. A log-ratio beam position monitor has been designed and built at SLAC for use at the PEP-II B-Factory. An integrated circuit logarithmic amplifier from Analog Devices, the AD8307, recovers the envelope of the 476 MHz harmonic of the beam signal. A log BPM board with two logarithmic and one differential amplifier performs the basic function of forming an output voltage proportional to the difference of the logarithms of the signal amplitudes on opposite electrodes. This voltage is approximately linear with beam position. For this application, we have limited the video bandwidth of the log amps to 50 kHz in order to remove fill pattern dependence. The log BPM board has an interface for testing and simulating beam offsets. The log BPMs were developed for a PEP-II ring protection chassis. Here the log BPMs function to identify dangerous orbit excursions. These excursions are signaled to a system, which can dump the beam. Two such chassis serve to protect the PEP-II rings.

  13. Influence of forest machine function on operator exposure to whole-body vibration in a cut-to-length timber harvester. (United States)

    Sherwin, L M; Owende, P M O; Kanali, C L; Lyons, J; Ward, S M


    The influence of machine function (tree felling and processing, and machine movement over the terrain) on operator exposure to whole-body vibration in a cut-to-length (CTL) timber harvester was evaluated. Vibrations were measured on the seat and the cabin chassis in three orthogonal (x, y, z) axes for the tree felling and processing, and during motion on a test track. It was found that the level of vibration transmitted to the operator during felling and processing was mainly affected by the tree size (diameter). For tree diameter at breast height (dbh) range of 0.25-0.35 m that was investigated, the vertical (z-axis) vibration component during processing increased by up to 300%, and increased by 50% during felling. However, the associated vibration levels were not sufficient to pose any serious health risks to the operator for an exposure limit of 8 h. Vibration at the operator seat and cabin chassis was predominant in the lateral (y-axis) and vertical (z-axis) respectively, during vehicle motion over the standard test track. Vibration peaks of approximately 0.20 and 0.17 ms(-2) occurred at 5 and 3.2 Hz respectively.

  14. MRE: a web tool to suggest foreign enzymes for the biosynthesis pathway design with competing endogenous reactions in mind. (United States)

    Kuwahara, Hiroyuki; Alazmi, Meshari; Cui, Xuefeng; Gao, Xin


    To rationally design a productive heterologous biosynthesis system, it is essential to consider the suitability of foreign reactions for the specific endogenous metabolic infrastructure of a host. We developed a novel web server, called MRE, which, for a given pair of starting and desired compounds in a given chassis organism, ranks biosynthesis routes from the perspective of the integration of new reactions into the endogenous metabolic system. For each promising heterologous biosynthesis pathway, MRE suggests actual enzymes for foreign metabolic reactions and generates information on competing endogenous reactions for the consumption of metabolites. These unique, chassis-centered features distinguish MRE from existing pathway design tools and allow synthetic biologists to evaluate the design of their biosynthesis systems from a different angle. By using biosynthesis of a range of high-value natural products as a case study, we show that MRE is an effective tool to guide the design and optimization of heterologous biosynthesis pathways. The URL of MRE is

  15. R-Gator: an unmanned utility vehicle (United States)

    Moorehead, Stewart J.; Wellington, Carl K.; Paulino, Heidi; Reid, John F.


    The R-Gator is an unmanned ground vehicle built on the John Deere 6x4 M-Gator utility vehicle chassis. The vehicle is capable of operating in urban and off-road terrain and has a large payload to carry supplies, wounded, or a marsupial robot. The R-Gator has 6 modes of operation: manual driving, teleoperation, waypoint, direction drive, playback and silent sentry. In direction drive the user specifies a direction for the robot. It will continue in that direction, avoiding obstacles, until given a new direction. Playback allows previously recorded paths, from any other mode including manual, to be played back and repeated. Silent sentry allows the engine to be turned off remotely while cameras, computers and comms remain powered by batteries. In this mode the vehicle stays quiet and stationary, collecting valuable surveillance information. The user interface consists of a wearable computer, monocle and standard video game controller. All functions of the R-Gator can be controlled by the handheld game controller, using at most 2 button presses. This easy to use user interface allows even untrained users to control the vehicle. This paper details the systems developed for the R-Gator, focusing on the novel user interface and the obstacle detection system, which supports safeguarded teleoperation as well as full autonomous operation in off-road terrain. The design for a new 4-wheel, independent suspension chassis version of the R-Gator is also presented.

  16. Spatial organization of heterologous metabolic system in vivo based on TALE. (United States)

    Zhu, Ling-Yun; Qiu, Xin-Yuan; Zhu, Ling-Yun; Wu, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Yuan; Zhu, Qian-Hui; Fan, Dong-Yu; Zhu, Chu-Shu; Zhang, Dong-Yi


    For years, prokaryotic hosts have been widely applied in bio-engineering. However, the confined in vivo enzyme clustering of heterologous metabolic pathways in these organisms often results in low local concentrations of enzymes and substrates, leading to a low productive efficacy. We developed a new method to accelerate a heterologous metabolic system by integrating a transcription activator-like effector (TALE)-based scaffold system into an Escherichia coli chassis. The binding abilities of the TALEs to the artificial DNA scaffold were measured through ChIP-PCR. The effect of the system was determined through a split GFP study and validated through the heterologous production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) by incorporating TALE-fused IAA biosynthetic enzymes in E. coli. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to use the TALE system as a scaffold for the spatial organization of bacterial metabolism. This technique might be used to establish multi-enzymatic reaction programs in a prokaryotic chassis for various applications.

  17. Desenvolvimento e avaliação de um descaroçador e prensa enfardadeira itinerantes para o beneficiamento do algodão Development of a mobile gin and baler press for cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeane F. Jerônimo


    Full Text Available Novas tecnologias vêm sendo incorporadas ao sistema produtivo da cotonicultura brasileira, visando verticalizar a produção por meio do beneficiamento do algodão em caroço possibilitando, aos produtores ou associações, a agregação de valor à sua produção. Objetivou-se então, com o presente trabalho, desenvolver e avaliar um equipamento de beneficiamento composto de descaroçador e prensa enfardadeira itinerantes. O descaroçador se compõe de: limpador, cilindro de serras, cilindro de escovas, condensador e rolo. A prensa enfardadeira é constituída de chapas de prensagem, cilindros hidráulicos, bomba hidráulica, válvula de controle de acionamento, dispositivos de filtragem do óleo hidráulico e manômetro. Esses equipamentos são montados sobre um reboque composto por chassi de cantoneiras em U, quatro rodas de aro 13, pontas de eixo, dois feixes de cinco molas, lastro em chapa de ferro e sistema de frenagem. Na avaliação e validação do conjunto pelos cotonicultores, este conjunto recebeu o conceito "muito bom" quanto ao rendimento do descaroçador, o peso do fardo e em relação à qualidade da fibra obtida. A qualidade da fibra obtida com o conjunto descaroçador e prensa enfardadeira atendeu aos padrões da indústria têxtil.New technologies have been incorporated into the Brazilian cotton production system, in order to verticalize the production through processing, allowing the producers or associations to add value to their production. Thus, the present study aimed to develop and evaluate processing equipment composed of mobile gin and baler press. The ginner consists of cleaner, saw cylinder, cylinder brushes, condenser and coil. The baler press is constituted of pressing sheets, hydraulic cylinders, hydraulic pump, control valve actuation, devices for filtering hydraulic oil and manometer. These devices are mounted on a trailer chassis composed of U-shaped angle iron chassis, four wheels (rim 13, shaft ends, two

  18. Design and Application of 1U ~ 5U General Industrial Case%1U~5U 通用工业机箱的设计与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    为降低产品成本,提高产品质量,提出了通用化、模块化和标准化的工业机箱设计理念。分析了目前1U~5U 通用工业机箱的需求特点和不同种类之间的区别,确定了产品总体设计方案,阐述了产品造型设计和结构分件方案。为了统一机箱尺寸,对机箱内部空间进行了功能分区,简化了设计、制造和装配流程。介绍了机箱零部件设计的若干关键问题,阐述了提高零部件的工艺性和产品的可靠性的相应措施。实际产品应用情况表明,通用工业机箱设计具有结构简单、性价比高、可靠性好和通用性强的优点。%In order to reduce the product costs and improve product quality,a design concept of industrial chassis that is generalized,modularized and standardized was proposed.The demand characteristics of present 1U ~ 5U general industrial case and the difference of kinds of cases were analyzed,the overall product design program was determined,product model-ing design and structure separate program were expounded.For the case of unifying the size of different cases,the case in-ternal space was separated according to the function of related modules,which making the process of the design,manufac-ture and assemble simplified.The key problems of chassis parts design which can improve the technological property of structure and product reliability were introduced.The application situation of product showed that the general industrial chassis has the advantages of simple structure,high cost performance,the good reliability,and high universality.

  19. Crash protection of stock car racing drivers--application of biomechanical analysis of Indy car crash research. (United States)

    Melvin, John W; Begeman, Paul C; Faller, Ronald K; Sicking, Dean L; McClellan, Scott B; Maynard, Edwin; Donegan, Michael W; Mallott, Annette M; Gideon, Thomas W


    Biomechanical analysis of Indy car crashes using on-board impact recorders (Melvin et al. 1998, Melvin et al. 2001) indicates that Indy car driver protection in high-energy crashes can be achieved in frontal, side, and rear crashes with severities in the range of 100 to 135 G peak deceleration and velocity changes in the range of 50 to 70 mph. These crashes were predominantly single-car impacts with the rigid concrete walls of oval tracks. This impressive level of protection was found to be due to the unique combination of a very supportive and tight-fitting cockpit-seating package, a six-point belt restraint system, and effective head padding with an extremely strong chassis that defines the seat and cockpit of a modern Indy car. In 2000 and 2001, a series of fatal crashes in stock car racing created great concern for improving the crash protection for drivers in those racecars. Unlike the Indy car, the typical racing stock car features a more spacious driver cockpit due to its resemblance to the shape of a passenger car. The typical racing seat used in stock cars did not have the same configuration or support characteristics of the Indy car seat, and five-point belt restraints were used. The tubular steel space frame chassis of a stock car also differs from an Indy car's composite chassis structure in both form and mechanical behavior. This paper describes the application of results of the biomechanical analysis of the Indy car crash studies to the unique requirements of stock car racing driver crash protection. Sled test and full-scale crash test data using both Hybrid III frontal crash anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) and BioSID side crash ATDs for the purpose of evaluating countermeasures involving restraint systems, seats and head/neck restraints has been instrumental in guiding these developments. In addition, the development of deformable walls for oval tracks (the SAFER Barrier) is described as an adjunct to improved occupant restraint through control

  20. Evaluation of the micro-carburetor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, M.F.; Hall, R.A.; Mazor, S.D.


    A prototype sonic, variable-venturi automotive carburetor, developed by Micro Carburetor Corporation, was evaluated for its effects on vehicle performance, fuel economy, and exhaust emissions. A 350 CID Chevrolet Impala vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer over the 1975 Federal Test Procedure, urban driving cycle. The Micro-carburetor was tested and compared with stock and modified-stock engine configurations. Subsequently, the test vehicle's performance characteristics were examined with the stock carburetor and again with the Micro-carburetor in a series of on-road driveability tests. The test engine was then removed from the vehicle and installed on an engine dynamometer. Engine tests were conducted to compare the fuel economy, thermal efficiency, and cylinder-to-cylinder mixture distribution of the Micro-carburetor to that of the stock configuration. Test results show increases in thermal efficiency and improvements in fuel economy at all test conditions.

  1. 影响轻型汽车排放测试结果因素分析及对策研究%Factors Analysis of Affecting Light Duty Vehicle Emission Test Results and Countermeasures Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Analyze the factors which influence the exhaust gas emission measurement results accuracy of light duty vehicle and study the corresponding countermeasures. Analyze mainly these fac-tors in terms of testing environment, light duty vehicle, testing sys-tem airtightness, chassis dynamometer, cooling fan and ultra-low emission testing system and point out solid solution.%对影响轻型汽车排放测试结果的因素进行了分析,并研究了相关应对策略。主要从测试环境,车辆,测试系统密封性,测功机,冷却风机及超低排放测试系统方面进行了研究分析,并给出了具体的解决方法。

  2. Real time capable infrared thermography for ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sieglin, B., E-mail:; Faitsch, M.; Herrmann, A.; Brucker, B.; Eich, T.; Kammerloher, L.; Martinov, S. [Max-Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)


    Infrared (IR) thermography is widely used in fusion research to study power exhaust and incident heat load onto the plasma facing components. Due to the short pulse duration of today’s fusion experiments, IR systems have mostly been designed for off-line data analysis. For future long pulse devices (e.g., Wendelstein 7-X, ITER), a real time evaluation of the target temperature and heat flux is mandatory. This paper shows the development of a real time capable IR system for ASDEX Upgrade. A compact IR camera has been designed incorporating the necessary magnetic and electric shielding for the detector, cooler assembly. The camera communication is based on the Camera Link industry standard. The data acquisition hardware is based on National Instruments hardware, consisting of a PXIe chassis inside and a fibre optical connected industry computer outside the torus hall. Image processing and data evaluation are performed using real time LabVIEW.

  3. An assessment of consistence of exhaust gas emission test results obtained under controlled NEDC conditions (United States)

    Balawender, K.; Jaworski, A.; Kuszewski, H.; Lejda, K.; Ustrzycki, A.


    Measurements concerning emissions of pollutants contained in automobile combustion engine exhaust gases is of primary importance in view of their harmful impact on the natural environment. This paper presents results of tests aimed at determining exhaust gas pollutant emissions from a passenger car engine obtained under repeatable conditions on a chassis dynamometer. The test set-up was installed in a controlled climate chamber allowing to maintain the temperature conditions within the range from -20°C to +30°C. The analysis covered emissions of such components as CO, CO2, NOx, CH4, THC, and NMHC. The purpose of the study was to assess repeatability of results obtained in a number of tests performed as per NEDC test plan. The study is an introductory stage of a wider research project concerning the effect of climate conditions and fuel type on emission of pollutants contained in exhaust gases generated by automotive vehicles.

  4. A new active variable stiffness suspension system using a nonlinear energy sink-based controller (United States)

    Anubi, Olugbenga Moses; Crane, Carl D.


    This paper presents the active case of a variable stiffness suspension system. The central concept is based on a recently designed variable stiffness mechanism which consists of a horizontal control strut and a vertical strut. The horizontal strut is used to vary the load transfer ratio by actively controlling the location of the point of attachment of the vertical strut to the car body. The control algorithm, effected by a hydraulic actuator, uses the concept of nonlinear energy sink (NES) to effectively transfer the vibrational energy in the sprung mass to a control mass, thereby reducing the transfer of energy from road disturbance to the car body at a relatively lower cost compared to the traditional active suspension using the skyhook concept. The analyses and simulation results show that a better performance can be achieved by subjecting the point of attachment of a suspension system, to the chassis, to the influence of a horizontal NES system.

  5. Emissions from Diesel and Gasoline Vehicles Fuelled by Fischer-Tropsch Fuels and Similar Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ulrik; Lundorff, Peter; Ivarsson, Anders


    The described investigation was carried out under the umbrella of IEA Advanced Motor Fuels Agreement. The purpose was to evaluate the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from...... vehicles fuelled by Fischer Tropsch (FT) based diesel and gasoline fuel, compared to the emissions from ordinary diesel and gasoline. The comparison for diesel fuels was based on a literature review, whereas the gasoline comparison had to be based on our own experiments, since almost no references were...... found in this field. In this context measurement according to the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) were carried out on a chassis dynamometer with a directly injected gasoline vehicle. Experiments were carried out with a reference fuel, a fuel based 70% on FT...

  6. Environmental sensing of heavy metals through whole cell microbial biosensors: a synthetic biology approach. (United States)

    Bereza-Malcolm, Lara Tess; Mann, Gülay; Franks, Ashley Edwin


    Whole cell microbial biosensors are offering an alternative means for rapid, on-site heavy metal detection. Based in microorganisms, biosensing constructs are designed and constructed to produce both qualitative and quantitative outputs in response to heavy metal ions. Previous microbial biosensors designs are focused on single-input constructs; however, development of multiplexed systems is resulting in more flexible designs. The movement of microbial biosensors from laboratory based designs toward on-site, functioning heavy metal detectors has been hindered by the toxic nature of heavy metals, along with the lack of specificity of heavy metals promoter elements. Applying a synthetic biology approach with alternative microbial chassis may increase the robustness of microbial biosensors and mitigate these issues. Before full applications are achieved, further consideration has to be made regarding the risk and regulations of whole cell microbial biosensor use in the environment. To this end, a standard framework for future whole cell microbial biosensor design and use is proposed.

  7. A Simulink simulation framework of a MagLev model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudall, H.; Williams, R.D.; Giras, T.C. [University of Virginia, Charlottesville (United States). School of Enegineering and Applied Science


    This paper presents a three-degree-of-freedom model of a section of the magnetically levitated train Maglev. The Maglev system dealt with in this article utilizes electromagnetic levitation. Each MagLev vehicle section is viewed as two separate parts, namely a body and a chassis, coupled by a set of springs and dampers. The MagLev model includes the propulsion, the guidance and the levitation systems. The equations of motion are developed. A Simulink simulation framework is implemented in order to study the interaction between the different systems and the dynamics of a MagLev vehicle. The simulation framework will eventually serve as a tool to assist the design and development of the Maglev system in the United States of America. (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Jouhten


    Full Text Available Cell factories are commonly microbial organisms utilized for bioconversion of renewable resources to bulk or high value chemicals. Introduction of novel production pathways in chassis strains is the core of the development of cell factories by synthetic biology. Synthetic biology aims to create novel biological functions and systems not found in nature by combining biology with engineering. The workflow of the development of novel cell factories with synthetic biology is ideally linear which will be attainable with the quantitative engineering approach, high-quality predictive models, and libraries of well-characterized parts. Different types of metabolic models, mathematical representations of metabolism and its components, enzymes and metabolites, are useful in particular phases of the synthetic biology workflow. In this minireview, the role of metabolic modelling in synthetic biology will be discussed with a review of current status of compatible methods and models for the in silico design and quantitative evaluation of a cell factory.

  9. Identificación de estados resonantes en una estructura portante y soluciones para su eliminación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Cabrera-Gómez


    Full Text Available Se ha realizado un estudio de los niveles vibratorios y del comportamiento modal de la estructura portante de un equipo para labores agrícolas en la cual se sospecha la existencia de estados resonantes. Una vez que se ha identificado la causa del problema, se simularon modificaciones de parámetros físicos sobre el modelo modal obtenido, proponiéndose la solución más apropiada para su solución.A vibrating and modal behaviour study on the chassis of an agricultural equipment under suspect of resonant states was made. After trouble-shooting, modifications of spatial parameters over the modal model were done and the most appropriate solution was proposed.

  10. Distributed vehicle dynamics control with time-triggered architecture by means of the Bosch concept VDM; Verteilte Fahrdynamikregelung mit zeitgesteuerter Architektur am Beispiel des Bosch-Konzeptes VDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, A.; Traechtler, A. [Robert Bosch GmbH, Schwieberdingen (Germany)


    By means of the Bosch concept 'vehicle dynamics management' (VDM), which coordinates vehicle dynamics functions by control of active chassis systems, a study is carried out towards the migration from an event-triggered (CAN) to a time-triggered (TTCAN and FlexRay) communication. The main targets of the study are the illustration of a possible migration concept on the one hand, and the investigation of the impacts of time-triggered architectures with regard to the time behaviour, the development process, the operating system, the functional software and the control design on the other hand. The article presents first results and some thoughts on problems which arise from a holistic view on the design of time-triggered architectures. (orig.)

  11. Renewable Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This fact sheet describes the Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory at the U.S. Department of Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a state-of-the-art research and testing facility for advanced fuels and vehicles. Research and development aims to improve vehicle efficiency and overcome barriers to the increased use of renewable diesel and other nonpetroleum-based fuels, such as biodiesel and synthetic diesel derived from biomass. The ReFUEL Laboratory features a chassis dynamometer for vehicle performance and emissions research, two engine dynamometer test cells for advanced fuels research, and precise emissions analysis equipment. As a complement to these capabilities, detailed studies of fuel properties, with a focus on ignition quality, are performed at NREL's Fuel Chemistry Laboratory.

  12. Insight into magnetorheological shock absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Gołdasz, Janusz


    This book deals with magnetorheological fluid theory, modeling and applications of automotive magnetorheological dampers. On the theoretical side a review of MR fluid compositions and key factors affecting the characteristics of these fluids is followed by a description of existing applications in the area of vibration isolation and flow-mode shock absorbers in particular. As a majority of existing magnetorheological devices operates in a so-called flow mode a critical review is carried out in that regard. Specifically, the authors highlight common configurations of flow-mode magnetorheological shock absorbers, or so-called MR dampers that have been considered by the automotive industry for controlled chassis applications. The authors focus on single-tube dampers utilizing a piston assembly with one coil or multiple coils and at least one annular flow channel in the piston.

  13. Digital Optical Control System (United States)

    Jordan, David H.; Tipton, Charles A.; Christmann, Charles E.; Hochhausler, Nils P.


    We describe the digital optical control system (DOGS), a state-of-the-art controller for electrical feedback in an optical system. The need for a versatile optical controller arose from a number of unique experiments being performed by the Air Force Weapons Laboratory. These experiments use similar detectors and actuator-controlled mirrors, but the control requirements vary greatly. The experiments have in common a requirement for parallel control systems. The DOGS satisfies these needs by allowing several control systems to occupy a single chassis with one master controller. The architecture was designed to allow upward compatibility with future configurations. Combinations of off-the-shelf and custom boards are configured to meet the requirements of each experiment. The configuration described here was used to control piston error to X/80 at a wavelength of 0.51 Am. A peak sample rate of 8 kHz, yielding a closed loop bandwidth of 800 Hz, was achieved.

  14. HERMIES-3: A step toward autonomous mobility, manipulation, and perception (United States)

    Weisbin, C. R.; Burks, B. L.; Einstein, J. R.; Feezell, R. R.; Manges, W. W.; Thompson, D. H.


    HERMIES-III is an autonomous robot comprised of a seven degree-of-freedom (DOF) manipulator designed for human scale tasks, a laser range finder, a sonar array, an omni-directional wheel-driven chassis, multiple cameras, and a dual computer system containing a 16-node hypercube expandable to 128 nodes. The current experimental program involves performance of human-scale tasks (e.g., valve manipulation, use of tools), integration of a dexterous manipulator and platform motion in geometrically complex environments, and effective use of multiple cooperating robots (HERMIES-IIB and HERMIES-III). The environment in which the robots operate has been designed to include multiple valves, pipes, meters, obstacles on the floor, valves occluded from view, and multiple paths of differing navigation complexity. The ongoing research program supports the development of autonomous capability for HERMIES-IIB and III to perform complex navigation and manipulation under time constraints, while dealing with imprecise sensory information.

  15. Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direction Injection (GTDI) Engine Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Terrance [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States)


    This program was undertaken in response to US Department of Energy Solicitation DE-FOA-0000079, resulting in a cooperative agreement with Ford and MTU to demonstrate improvement of fuel efficiency in a vehicle equipped with an advanced GTDI engine. Ford Motor Company has invested significantly in GTDI engine technology as a cost effective, high volume, fuel economy solution, marketed globally as EcoBoost technology. Ford envisions additional fuel economy improvement in the medium and long term by further advancing EcoBoost technology. The approach for the project was to engineer a comprehensive suite of gasoline engine systems technologies to achieve the project objectives, and to progressively demonstrate the objectives via concept analysis / computer modeling, single-cylinder and multi-cylinder engine testing on engine dynamometer, and vehicle level testing on chassis rolls.

  16. Polymerase Chain Reaction on a Viral Nanoparticle. (United States)

    Carr-Smith, James; Pacheco-Gómez, Raúl; Little, Haydn A; Hicks, Matthew R; Sandhu, Sandeep; Steinke, Nadja; Smith, David J; Rodger, Alison; Goodchild, Sarah A; Lukaszewski, Roman A; Tucker, James H R; Dafforn, Timothy R


    The field of synthetic biology includes studies that aim to develop new materials and devices from biomolecules. In recent years, much work has been carried out using a range of biomolecular chassis including α-helical coiled coils, β-sheet amyloids and even viral particles. In this work, we show how hybrid bionanoparticles can be produced from a viral M13 bacteriophage scaffold through conjugation with DNA primers that can template a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This unprecedented example of a PCR on a virus particle has been studied by flow aligned linear dichroism spectroscopy, which gives information on the structure of the product as well as a new protototype methodology for DNA detection. We propose that this demonstration of PCR on the surface of a bionanoparticle is a useful addition to ways in which hybrid assemblies may be constructed using synthetic biology.

  17. FedEx Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck Evaluation: 6-Month Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnitt, R.


    This interim report presents partial (six months) results for a technology evaluation of gasoline hybrid electric parcel delivery trucks operated by FedEx in and around Los Angeles, CA. A 12 month in-use technology evaluation comparing in-use fuel economy and maintenance costs of GHEVs and comparative diesel parcel delivery trucks was started in April 2009. Comparison data was collected and analyzed for in-use fuel economy and fuel costs, maintenance costs, total operating costs, and vehicle uptime. In addition, this interim report presents results of parcel delivery drive cycle collection and analysis activities as well as emissions and fuel economy results of chassis dynamometer testing of a gHEV and a comparative diesel truck at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) ReFUEL laboratory. A final report will be issued when 12 months of in-use data have been collected and analyzed.

  18. System Design and Implementation of Smart Dashboard for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Sheng Hu


    Full Text Available Recently, the development of automobile focuses on the chassis structure and motion control. However, due to the concept of smart and safe vehicle, the integrated dashboard becomes a necessary issue. The proposed system can not only represent the conventional dashboard in a digital form but also endow the system with an intelligent guidance. The statuses such as speed, battery SOC, braking, mileage, and the activation of TCS and ABS can be seen and monitored in all driving scenarios. For example, the current modern electric vehicles face the danger of self-ignition problem when the over load problem is consisted. Basically, these severe conditions can be eliminated by a guard of smart interface. Consequently, under a proper design, the presented system can assist the driver to maintain the energy efficiency, steering stability, and so on. Then the operation procedure can be simplified and hence driver can concentrate more on steering.

  19. Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garetson, Thomas [The Clarity Group, Incorporated, Chicago, IL (United States)


    The objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOEs) Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation (AVTE) project was to provide test and evaluation services for advanced technology vehicles, to establish a performance baseline, to determine vehicle reliability, and to evaluate vehicle operating costs in fleet operations.Vehicles tested include light and medium-duty vehicles in conventional, hybrid, and all-electric configurations using conventional and alternative fuels, including hydrogen in internal combustion engines. Vehicles were tested on closed tracks and chassis dynamometers, as well as operated on public roads, in fleet operations, and over prescribed routes. All testing was controlled by procedures developed specifically to support such testing.

  20. Retropath: automated pipeline for embedded metabolic circuits. (United States)

    Carbonell, Pablo; Parutto, Pierre; Baudier, Claire; Junot, Christophe; Faulon, Jean-Loup


    Metabolic circuits are a promising alternative to other conventional genetic circuits as modular parts implementing functionalities required for synthetic biology applications. To date, metabolic design has been mainly focused on production circuits. Emergent applications such as smart therapeutics, however, require circuits that enable sensing and regulation. Here, we present RetroPath, an automated pipeline for embedded metabolic circuits that explores the circuit design space from a given set of specifications and selects the best circuits to implement based on desired constraints. Synthetic biology circuits embedded in a chassis organism that are capable of controlling the production, processing, sensing, and the release of specific molecules were enumerated in the metabolic space through a standard procedure. In that way, design and implementation of applications such as therapeutic circuits that autonomously diagnose and treat disease, are enabled, and their optimization is streamlined.

  1. Ride quality evaluation of a vehicle with a planar suspension system (United States)

    Zhu, Jian Jun; Khajepour, Amir; Esmailzadeh, Ebrahim; Kasaiezadeh, Alireza


    The longitudinal connection between a chassis and a wheel in a conventional vehicle suspension system is commonly very stiff than the vertical connection. Such a mechanism can efficiently isolate vibrations and absorb shocks in the vertical direction but cannot sufficiently attenuate the impact in the longitudinal direction. In order to overcome such a limitation, a planar suspension system (PSS) with spring-damper struts in both the longitudinal and vertical directions is proposed so that the vibration along any direction in the wheel rotation plane can be isolated. In this paper, the dynamic responses of a vehicle with PSS due to a single bump and random road unevenness are investigated. The ride quality of the vehicle with PSS is evaluated in accordance with ISO 2631. A comparison with that of a similar conventional vehicle is conducted to demonstrate the promising potentials of the PSS in improving the vehicle ride quality.

  2. The next step in biology: A periodic table?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pawan K Dhar


    Systems biology is an approach to explain the behaviour of a system in relation to its individual components. Synthetic biology uses key hierarchical and modular concepts of systems biology to engineer novel biological systems. In my opinion the next step in biology is to use molecule-to-phenotype data using these approaches and integrate them in the form a periodic table. A periodic table in biology would provide chassis to classify, systematize and compare diversity of component properties vis-a-vis system behaviour. Using periodic table it could be possible to compute higher-level interactions from component properties. This paper examines the concept of building a bio-periodic table using protein fold as the fundamental unit.

  3. Power Tillers for Demining: Blast Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Elisa Cepolina


    Full Text Available Power tillers are very simple and versatile machines with large scale diffusion in developing countries, where they are commonly used both for agriculture and for transportation purposes. A new integrated participatory approach that makes use of and improves local end-users knowledge has been used to design a new robotic system for humanitarian demining applications in Sri Lanka, using power tiller as core module. A demining machine composed by a tractor unit, a ground processing tool and a vegetation cutting tool is here presented together with results obtained from the first blast test on the preliminary version of tractor unit armouring. Different breakable connections between wheels and axle have been designed to cause physical detachment and interrupt the transmission of the shock wave released by the explosion of a mine under one wheel. Effects of explosions on different types of wheels and on the chassis have been recorded and commented.

  4. Engineering antibiotic production and overcoming bacterial resistance. (United States)

    Planson, Anne-Gaëlle; Carbonell, Pablo; Grigoras, Ioana; Faulon, Jean-Loup


    Progress in DNA technology, analytical methods and computational tools is leading to new developments in synthetic biology and metabolic engineering, enabling new ways to produce molecules of industrial and therapeutic interest. Here, we review recent progress in both antibiotic production and strategies to counteract bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Advances in sequencing and cloning are increasingly enabling the characterization of antibiotic biosynthesis pathways, and new systematic methods for de novo biosynthetic pathway prediction are allowing the exploration of the metabolic chemical space beyond metabolic engineering. Moreover, we survey the computer-assisted design of modular assembly lines in polyketide synthases and non-ribosomal peptide synthases for the development of tailor-made antibiotics. Nowadays, production of novel antibiotic can be tranferred into any chosen chassis by optimizing a host factory through specific strain modifications. These advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology are leading to novel strategies for engineering antimicrobial agents with desired specificities.

  5. Lunokhod 2 - A retrospective Glance after 30 Years (United States)

    Gromov, V.; Kemurdjian, A.; Bogatchev, A.; Koutcherenko, V.; Malenkov, M.; Matrossov, S.; Vladykin, S.; Petriga, V.; Khakhanov, Y.


    30 years have passed since the second Soviet research Lunokhod-2 rover landed on the Moon on January 16, 1973 within the framework of the Luna-21 mission. Scientific explorations of the lunar surface and space, begun with the Lunokhod-1 rover (1970-1971), were continued with Lunokhod-2. Creation of Lunokhod-1 and Lunokhod-2 marked realization of direction on study of planets using mobile self-propelled robots. Other direction connected with using planetary rovers to transport astronauts, scientific equipment and weights was realized as a result of creation of the American LRV lunar rover. Astronauts during Apollo-15 (1971), Apollo-15 (1972) and Apollo-15 (1972) missions used it. Programs of operation for Lunokhod-1,-2 on the Moon envisaged investigations of topographic and morphological peculiarities of the terrain, determination of the chemical composition and physical and mechanical properties of soil, experiments on the laser detection and ranging of the Moon and, etc. Successful fulfilment of programs was ensured, to a considerable extent, with the self-propelled chassis developed at VNIITRANSMASH to order of the Lavochkin Scientific and Production Association (NPOL). The chassis, on the one hand, ensured necessary cross-country ability for Lunokhod-1,-2, on the other hand, it was as the independent scientific instrument, which provided investigation as temperature measurement of the lunar surface, surface topography and craters distribution, physical and mechanical properties of soil with the special PROP instrument equipped with the penetrometer, chassis traction-cohesive characteristics, upper surface layer by a character its deformation by the mover, etc. A number of improvements of Lunokhod-2 improving its operating characteristics were performed on the basis of results of Lunokhod-1 operation. Lunokhod-1,-2 operation confirmed that automatic mobile robots can be used as effective means for studying planets and their satellites. At the same time, an

  6. Control Design Taking Coordinates Car Based on AVR Microcontroller%基于AVR单片机的走坐标小车控制设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文方; 梅江为


    This papers designs the intelligent vehicle control system coordinates car based on AVR microcontroller. In the design it u-ses AT90S8S3S MCU as a host CPU to drive DC motors. The chassis sets up 10 pairs of photoelectric sensors,to achieve car exact coordinates according to program settings and obtain walking and positioning functions.%设计了一种基于AVR单片机的走坐标智能小车控制系统.该系统采用AT90S8535型单片机作为主控CPU,直流电动机作驱动,底盘设置10对光电传感器,实现小车按编程设置、精确地在坐标纸上行走及定位功能.

  7. Design And Development Of Roll Cage For An All-Terrain Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khelan Chaudhari


    Full Text Available The study aims to design, develop and fabricate a roll cage for an All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV in accordance with the rulebook of BAJA 2013 given by SAE. A roll cage is a skeleton of an ATV. The roll cage not only forms the structural base but also a 3-D shell surrounding the occupant which protects the occupant in case of impact and roll over incidents. The roll cage also adds to the aesthetics of a vehicle. The design and development comprises of material selection, chassis and frame design, cross section determination, determining strength requirements of roll cage, stress analysis and simulations to test the ATV against failure. Finally the roll cage is fabricated as per the tools and techniques available in the workshop.

  8. New microalloyed steels for heavy duty forgings in cars and trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arndt, J. [CDP Bharat Forge GmbH, Ennepetal (Germany)


    CDP Bharat Forge has carried out a substantial alloy and process development on microalloyed steels for controlled cooling. The main focus was put on the introduction of this development into series production of parts that were 100% heat treated before. The R+D-activities resulted in the new grades cdpSo38 and cdpSo40. For the grade cdpSo38 an impact energy of >25J (RT) and an elongation of >14% can be guaranteed for the series production of safety critical chassis parts at a yield strength of >600MPa. For the cdpSo40 a yield strength of >700MPa at 10% elongation can be guaranteed in series production. Two of the biggest truck manufacturers in the world have already changed their steering knuckles from heat treated steels 42CrMo4 and 30MnB5 to the new cdpBF-grades. (orig.)

  9. The Actinobacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum, an Industrial Workhorse. (United States)

    Lee, Joo-Young; Na, Yoon-Ah; Kim, Eungsoo; Lee, Heung-Shick; Kim, Pil


    Starting as a glutamate producer, Corynebacterium glutamicum has played a variety of roles in the industrial production of amino acids, one of the most important areas of white biotechnology. From shortly after its genome information became available, C. glutamicum has been applied in various production processes for value-added chemicals, fuels, and polymers, as a key organism in industrial biotechnology alongside the surprising progress in systems biology and metabolic engineering. In addition, recent studies have suggested another potential for C. glutamicum as a synthetic biology platform chassis that could move the new era of industrial microbial biotechnology beyond the classical field. Here, we review the recent progress and perspectives in relation to C. glutamicum, which demonstrate it as one of the most promising and valuable workhorses in the field of industrial biotechnology.

  10. Development of light metals automotive structural subsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, A.A.; Sachdev, A.K. [General Motors Research and Development Center, Warren, MI (United States)


    Key technological developments in aluminum and magnesium alloys were reviewed in relation to the manufacturing processes that enable lightweight automotive structural subsystems. Examples included the materials and processes evolution of lightweight body structures, chassis systems, and instrument panel beams. New aluminum and magnesium alloys and manufacturing technologies used to reduce mass and improve performance in vehicle cradle structures were discussed. Hydroforming processes used to enable the use of lightweight aluminum alloy tubes in automotive body structures were also reviewed, in addition to body architectures enabled by different materials and manufacturing processes. The review noted that magnesium instrument panels are now being designed to provide significant performance improvement, reduced vibration, and enhanced crashworthiness in new automobiles. It was concluded that vehicles will incorporate more lightweight materials such as nanocomposites and aluminum and magnesium sheets. 9 refs., 10 figs.

  11. Reduction of Temperature in Concentrator Photovoltaic Module Using Coating with High Thermal Emissivity and Conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Satoshi


    Full Text Available The temperature of solar cells considerably increases under light-concentrating operations, and the conversion efficiency of solar cells decreases with increasing temperature. It is very important to reduce the cell temperature in concentrator photovoltaic modules. The thermal radiation layers with high thermal emissivity and thermal conductivity was coated on the aluminum samples which is used for the chassis of concentrator photovoltaic and the effect was evaluated under the conditions with wind. The temperature of sample with coating showed lower temperature than that without coating. In the condition with wind, the coated sample with high thermal emissivity and high thermal conductivity showed the lowest temperature due to the effect of thermal radiation and thermal conduction.

  12. Advanced casting technologies for lightweight automotive applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan A. Luo


    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of alloy and process developments in aluminum and magnesium castings for lightweight automotive applications. Wear-resistant aluminum alloys, creep-resistant and high strength/ductility magnesium alloys have been developed for automotive applications. On the process front, vacuum-assisted die casting and high vacuum die casting technologies have been developed for high-integrity body and chassis applications. Thin-wall and hollow casting components are being produced by low-pressure die casting processes for structural applications. Overcasting technology is gaining traction and has enabled mixed material designs for automotive sub-systems such as engine cradles and instrument panel beams. Simulation tools developed to predict the interfacial interactions of the dissimilar components and the structural integrity of the overcast systems are being validated in the casting trials.

  13. [Metabolomics analysis of taxadiene producing yeasts]. (United States)

    Yan, Huifang; Ding, Mingzhu; Yuan, Yingjin


    In order to study the inherent difference among terpenes producing yeasts from the point of metabolomics, we selected taxadiene producing yeasts as the model system. The changes of cellular metabolites during fermentation log phase of artificial functional yeasts were determined using metabolomics methods. The results represented that compared to W303-1A as a blank control, the metabolites in glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) cycle and several amino acids were influenced. And due to the changes of metabolites, the growth of cells was inhibited to a certain extent. Among the metabolites identified, citric acid content in taxadiene producing yeasts changed the most, the decreasing amplitude reached 90% or more. Therefore, citric acid can be a marker metabolite for the future study of artificial functional yeasts. The metabolomics analysis of taxadiene producing yeasts can provide more information in further studies on optimization of terpenes production in heterologous chassis.

  14. From noise to synthetic nucleoli: can synthetic biology achieve new insights? (United States)

    Ciechonska, Marta; Grob, Alice; Isalan, Mark


    Synthetic biology aims to re-organise and control biological components to make functional devices. Along the way, the iterative process of designing and testing gene circuits has the potential to yield many insights into the functioning of the underlying chassis of cells. Thus, synthetic biology is converging with disciplines such as systems biology and even classical cell biology, to give a new level of predictability to gene expression, cell metabolism and cellular signalling networks. This review gives an overview of the contributions that synthetic biology has made in understanding gene expression, in terms of cell heterogeneity (noise), the coupling of growth and energy usage to expression, and spatiotemporal considerations. We mainly compare progress in bacterial and mammalian systems, which have some of the most-developed engineering frameworks. Overall, one view of synthetic biology can be neatly summarised as "creating in order to understand."

  15. Preprint of the Fall 1997 JSAE (Japan Society of Automotive Engineers) Meeting Science Lecture. No. 974; Jidosha gijutsukai 1997 nen shuki taikai gakujutsu koenkai maezurishu. 974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This is a comprehensive compilation of 66 papers made public in the Fall 1997 JSAE Meeting, including the following by field: 13 papers on engine combustion; 4 on analysis of chassis structure; 12 on travel of vehicles; 6 on improvement of exhaust gas from diesel engines; 9 on basic study of combustion characteristics using fuels such as methanol, natural gas and hydrogen; 3 on study of heat flux on the piston face of internal engines; others on processing technology, noise, etc. Among these, the following were paid attention to as studies aiming at reducing NOx and smoke of diesel engines for pollution prevention: Emission and combustion characteristics of multiple stage diesel combustion, and Study on homogeneous charge diesel combustion engine. As studies on the use of petroleum substituting fuels, Visualizing ignition and combustion of methanol mixtures in a diesel engine, Improving performance and emissions in a diesel engine dual-fueled with natural gas, and Fundamental combustion characteristics of lean hydrogen mixtures

  16. An Implementation of Real-Time Phased Array Radar Fundamental Functions on a DSP-Focused, High-Performance, Embedded Computing Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xining Yu


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the feasibility of a backend design for real-time, multiple-channel processing digital phased array system, particularly for high-performance embedded computing platforms constructed of general purpose digital signal processors. First, we obtained the lab-scale backend performance benchmark from simulating beamforming, pulse compression, and Doppler filtering based on a Micro Telecom Computing Architecture (MTCA chassis using the Serial RapidIO protocol in backplane communication. Next, a field-scale demonstrator of a multifunctional phased array radar is emulated by using the similar configuration. Interestingly, the performance of a barebones design is compared to that of emerging tools that systematically take advantage of parallelism and multicore capabilities, including the Open Computing Language.

  17. An Implementation of real-time phased array radar fundamental functions on DSP-focused, high performance embedded computing platform (United States)

    Yu, Xining; Zhang, Yan; Patel, Ankit; Zahrai, Allen; Weber, Mark


    This paper investigates the feasibility of real-time, multiple channel processing of a digital phased array system backend design, with focus on high-performance embedded computing (HPEC) platforms constructed based on general purpose digital signal processor (DSP). Serial RapidIO (SRIO) is used as inter-chip connection backend protocol to support the inter-core communications and parallelisms. Performance benchmark was obtained based on a SRIO system chassis and emulated configuration similar to a field scale demonstrator of Multi-functional Phased Array Radar (MPAR). An interesting aspect of this work is comparison between "raw and low-level" DSP processing and emerging tools that systematically take advantages of the parallelism and multi-core capability, such as OpenCL and OpenMP. Comparisons with other backend HPEC solutions, such as FPGA and GPU, are also provided through analysis and experiments.

  18. Integrated Communications System for the Remote Operation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Kurek


    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present the concept of the integrated system dedicated for communication and remote operation of the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV. In the paper the concept and realization of this kind of wireless communications system is presented. The system consists of two integrated solutions – unidirectional broadcast transmission of video, audio and data from UAV to the operators within the mobile command centre and two-way communication with the telemetry and control subsystem. The systems are integrated within the single chassis and placed on the UAV to ensure proper operation of the flying robot. The specific elements of the system are presented as well as main requirements and connected with them development methods are also discussed in the paper.

  19. A Design of Product Collaborative Online Configuration Model (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoguo; Zheng, Jin; Zeng, Qian

    According to the actual needs of mass customization, the personalization of product and its collaborative design, the paper analyzes and studies the working mechanism of modular-based product configuration technology and puts forward an information model of modular product family. Combined with case-based reasoning techniques (CBR) and the constraint satisfaction problem solving techniques (CSP), we design and study the algorithm for product configuration, and analyze its time complexity. A car chassis is made as the application object, we provide a prototype system of online configuration. Taking advantage of this system, designers can make appropriate changes on the existing programs in accordance with the demand. This will accelerate all aspects of product development and shorten the product cycle. Also the system will provide a strong technical support for enterprises to improve their market competitiveness.

  20. 车身

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    [ 篇名 ] A hybrid method for vehicle axle noise simulation with experimental validation,[ 篇名 ] A linearized turbulent production in the k- ε model for engineering applications,[ 篇名 ] A Method for Estimating Axle Weights of In-motion Vehicles and Its Evaluation,[ 篇名 ] A new concept for occupant deceleration control in a crash - part 2,[ 篇名 ] A new experimental methodology to estimate chassis force transmissibility and applications to road NVH improvement,[ 篇名 ] A SMART ECOBIKE WITH RIM-MOTOR,[ 篇名 ] A study on optimum design for thin-walled beam structures of vehicles,[ 篇名 ] A study on the distortion characteristic due to spot welding of body structure assembly for passenger car,[ 篇名 ] A VIBRO-ACOUSTICAL INVESTIGATION FOR CAR ROLLING NOISE CHARACTERIZATION AND OPTIMIZATION,[ 篇名 ] 780 N/mm{sup }2 grade hot-rolled high-strength steel sheet for automotive suspension system。

  1. Analytics for Metabolic Engineering. (United States)

    Petzold, Christopher J; Chan, Leanne Jade G; Nhan, Melissa; Adams, Paul D


    Realizing the promise of metabolic engineering has been slowed by challenges related to moving beyond proof-of-concept examples to robust and economically viable systems. Key to advancing metabolic engineering beyond trial-and-error research is access to parts with well-defined performance metrics that can be readily applied in vastly different contexts with predictable effects. As the field now stands, research depends greatly on analytical tools that assay target molecules, transcripts, proteins, and metabolites across different hosts and pathways. Screening technologies yield specific information for many thousands of strain variants, while deep omics analysis provides a systems-level view of the cell factory. Efforts focused on a combination of these analyses yield quantitative information of dynamic processes between parts and the host chassis that drive the next engineering steps. Overall, the data generated from these types of assays aid better decision-making at the design and strain construction stages to speed progress in metabolic engineering research.

  2. Identificación de estados resonantes en una estructura portante y soluciones para su eliminación // Identification of resonances in a supporting structure and solutions to eliminate them.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Cabrera-Gómez


    Full Text Available ResumenSe ha realizado un estudio de los niveles vibratorios y del comportamiento modal de la estructuraportante de un equipo para labores agrícolas en la cual se sospecha la existencia de estadosresonantes. Una vez que se ha identificado la causa del problema, se simularon modificaciones deparámetros físicos sobre el modelo modal obtenido, proponiéndose la solución más apropiada parasu solución.Palabras claves: resonancia mecánica, análisis modal, comportamiento dinámico.______________________________________________________________AbstractA vibrating and modal behaviour study on the chassis of an agricultural equipment under suspect ofresonant states was made. After trouble-shooting, modifications of spatial parameters over themodal model were done and the most appropriate solution was proposed.Key words: mechanical resonance, modal analysis, dynamic behaviour.

  3. Design of Engine Mount Bracket for a FSAE Car Using Finite Element Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasvir Singh Dhillon


    Full Text Available Engine mounts have an important function of containing firmly the power-train components of a vehicle. Correct geometry and positioning of the mount brackets on the chassis ensures a good ride quality and performance. As an FSAE car intends to be a high performance vehicle, the brackets on the frame that support the engine undergo high static and dynamic stresses as well as huge amount of vibrations. Hence, dissipating the vibrational energy and keeping the stresses under a pre-determined level of safety should be achieved by careful designing and analysis of the mount brackets. Keeping this in mind the current paper discusses the modeling, Finite Element Analysis, Modal analysis and mass optimization of engine mount brackets for a FSAE car. As the brackets tend to undergo continuous vibrations and varying stresses, the fatigue strength and durability calculations also have been done to ensure engine safety.

  4. The next step in biology: a periodic table? (United States)

    Dhar, Pawan K


    Systems biology is an approach to explain the behaviour of a system in relation to its individual components. Synthetic biology uses key hierarchical and modular concepts of systems biology to engineer novel biological systems. In my opinion the next step in biology is to use molecule-to-phenotype data using these approaches and integrate them in the form a periodic table. A periodic table in biology would provide chassis to classify, systematize and compare diversity of component properties vis-a-vis system behaviour. Using periodic table it could be possible to compute higher- level interactions from component properties. This paper examines the concept of building a bio-periodic table using protein fold as the fundamental unit.

  5. 某客车底盘行驶平顺性和侧倾稳定性分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左管军; 郭延辉


    The major factor which affects the driving comfort and roll stability is discussed in this paper, and checking method is afforded. The scientific reference is educed to the improved coordination of both.Then, the driving comfort and roll stability of some bus chassis is evaluated correspondingly.%本文讨论了影响汽车行驶平顺性和侧倾稳定性的主要因素,给出了相应的评定和校核方法,为两者的协调改进提供一定的科学参考依据,并以某10米客车底盘为例进行了平顺性和侧倾稳定性分析校核。

  6. EPICS Input/Output Controller (IOC) application developer`s guide. APS Release 3.12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraimer, M.R.


    This document describes the core software that resides in an Input/Output Controller (IOC), one of the major components of EPICS. The basic components are: (OPI) Operator Interface; this is a UNIX based workstation which can run various EPICS tools; (IOC) Input/Output Controller; this is a VME/VXI based chassis containing a Motorola 68xxx processor, various I/O modules, and VME modules that provide access to other I/O buses such as GPIB, (LAN), Local Area Network; and this is the communication network which allows the IOCs and OPIs to communicate. Epics provides a software component, Channel Access, which provides network transparent communication between a Channel Access client and an arbitrary number of Channel Access servers.

  7. Two-Mode Operation Engine Mount Design for Automotive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Tikani


    Full Text Available Hydraulic engine mounts are applied to the automotive applications to isolate the chassis from the high frequency noise and vibration generated by the engine as well as to limit the engine shake motions resulting at low frequencies. In this paper, a new hydraulic engine mount with a controllable inertia track profile is proposed and its dynamic behavior is investigated. The profile of the inertia track is varied by applying a controlled force to a cylindrical rubber disk, placed in the inertia track. This design provides a hydraulic engine mount design with an adjustable notch frequency location and also damping characteristics in shake motions. By using a simple control strategy, the efficiency of the proposed hydraulic engine mount in two-mode operation meaning isolating mode in the highway driving condition and damping mode in the shock motions, is investigated.

  8. Engineering cell-cell signaling. (United States)

    Blagovic, Katarina; Gong, Emily S; Milano, Daniel F; Natividad, Robert J; Asthagiri, Anand R


    Juxtacrine cell-cell signaling mediated by the direct interaction of adjoining mammalian cells is arguably the mode of cell communication that is most recalcitrant to engineering. Overcoming this challenge is crucial for progress in biomedical applications, such as tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, immune system engineering and therapeutic design. Here, we describe the significant advances that have been made in developing synthetic platforms (materials and devices) and synthetic cells (cell surface engineering and synthetic gene circuits) to modulate juxtacrine cell-cell signaling. In addition, significant progress has been made in elucidating design rules and strategies to modulate juxtacrine signaling on the basis of quantitative, engineering analysis of the mechanical and regulatory role of juxtacrine signals in the context of other cues and physical constraints in the microenvironment. These advances in engineering juxtacrine signaling lay a strong foundation for an integrative approach to utilize synthetic cells, advanced 'chassis' and predictive modeling to engineer the form and function of living tissues.

  9. 1st International ATZ Conference 2016

    CERN Document Server


    The UN Climate Change Conference in Paris, with its key topics of global warming and deteriorating air quality, will speed up the advance of electric mobility. CO2-neutral and zero-emission mobility require electricity to be generated from regenerative sources of energy. Power generation from wind and solar energy, however is dependent on the weather and is therefore not stable. The irregularities that occur in nature can result in unacceptable voltage fluctuations in the power grid. For that reason, the availability of highly flexible loads and storage systems is becoming particularly important. Electric vehicles, with their grid-relevant properties as controllable power consumers and electricity storage systems, could help to stabilize future power grids. Contents Markets.- Traffic and energy systems.- Local energy systems.- Information and communication technology.- System behavior.- Overall energy systems II. Target audiences Automotive engineers and chassis specialists as well as students looking for sta...

  10. Laser alignment measurement model with double beam (United States)

    Mo, Changtao; Zhang, Lili; Hou, Xianglin; Wang, Ming; Lv, Jia; Du, Xin; He, Ping


    Double LD-Double PSD schedule.employ a symmetric structure and there are a laser and a PSD receiver on each axis. The Double LD-Double PSD is used, and the rectangular coordinate system is set up by use of the relationship of arbitrary two points coordinates, and then the parameter formula is deduced by the knowledge of solid geometry. Using the data acquisition system and the data processing model of laser alignment meter with double laser beam and two detector , basing on the installation parameter of the computer, we can have the state parameter between the two shafts by more complicated calculation and correction. The correcting data of the four under chassis of the adjusted apparatus moving on the level and the vertical plane can be calculated using the computer. This will instruct us to move the apparatus to align the shafts.

  11. Laser shaft alignment measurement model (United States)

    Mo, Chang-tao; Chen, Changzheng; Hou, Xiang-lin; Zhang, Guoyu


    Laser beam's track which is on photosensitive surface of the a receiver will be closed curve, when driving shaft and the driven shaft rotate with same angular velocity and rotation direction. The coordinate of arbitrary point which is on the curve is decided by the relative position of two shafts. Basing on the viewpoint, a mathematic model of laser alignment is set up. By using a data acquisition system and a data processing model of laser alignment meter with single laser beam and a detector, and basing on the installation parameter of computer, the state parameter between two shafts can be obtained by more complicated calculation and correction. The correcting data of the four under chassis of the adjusted apparatus moving on the level and the vertical plane can be calculated. This will instruct us to move the apparatus to align the shafts.

  12. An Increase in Estimation Accuracy Position Determination of Inertial Measurement Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beran Ladislav


    Full Text Available This paper deals with an increase in measurement accuracy of the Inertial Measurement Units (IMU. In the Inertial Navigation Systems (INS a fusion of gyroscopes, accelerometers and in some cases magnetometers are typically used. The typical problem of cheap IMU is non-stationary offset and high level of noise. The next problem of IMU is a problem with a bumpy floor. For this case it is necessary to a have high quality chassis to eliminate additional noise. Also, it is possible to eliminate this noise by using some algorithm, but results are still poor. These properties lead to the inaccurate position estimation in the integration process. Even a small offset error leads to a big mistake in position determination and grows quickly with a time. This research is focused on the elimination of these poor properties and increase of accuracy of position estimation using Kalman Filtration.

  13. Transfer of the cytochrome P450-dependent dhurrin pathway from Sorghum bicolor into Nicotiana tabacum chloroplasts for light-driven synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnanasekaran, Thiyagarajan; Karcher, Daniel; Nielsen, Agnieszka Janina Zygadlo;


    Plant chloroplasts are light-driven cell factories that have great potential to act as a chassis for metabolic engineering applications. Using plant chloroplasts, we demonstrate how photosynthetic reducing power can drive a metabolic pathway to synthesise a bio-active natural product....... For this purpose, we stably engineered the dhurrin pathway from Sorghum bicolor into the chloroplasts of Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco). Dhurrin is a cyanogenic glucoside and its synthesis from the amino acid tyrosine is catalysed by two membrane-bound cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP79A1 and CYP71E1) and a soluble...... glucosyltransferase (UGT85B1), and is dependent on electron transfer from a P450 oxidoreductase. The entire pathway was introduced into the chloroplast by integrating CYP79A1, CYP71E1, and UGT85B1 into a neutral site of the N. tabacum chloroplast genome. The two P450s and the UGT85B1 were functional when expressed...

  14. 17. Aachen colloquium automobile and engine technology. Proceedings; 17. Aachener Kolloquium Fahrzeug- und Motorentechnik. Kolloquiumsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Proceedings of the '17th Aachener Colloquium - Automobile and Engine Tecnology', held 6. - 8.October 2008 in Aachen/Germany, contains effectively 104 papers. These contributions deal with the following main subjects:new diesel engines I and II; hybrids I and II; CAE-methods; friction estimation by sensor fusion; ADAS for increased traffic safety I and II; new spark ignition engines I-III; exhausat aftertreatment diesel engines; FVV-project reports; integrated chassis control systems; driver assistance in commercial vehicles; si engines with alternative fuels; engine acoustics; steering systems I and II; detection traffic environment for ADAS; combustion concepts EGR and VVT; engine mechanics; development of safe vehicle systems; supercharging - downsizing; emission concepts diesel engines I and II; automotive strategy concepts; suspension systems; vehicle development; integrated safety;chasis systems. (org.)

  15. CEBAF Distributed Data Acquisition System

    CERN Document Server

    Allison, Trent


    There are thousands of signals distributed throughout Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) that are useful for troubleshooting and identifying instabilities. Many of these signals are only available locally or monitored by systems with small bandwidths that cannot identify fast transients. The Distributed Data Acquisition (Dist DAQ) system will sample and record these signals simultaneously at rates up to 40 Msps. Its primary function will be to provide waveform records from signals throughout CEBAF to the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). The waveforms will be collected after the occurrence of an event trigger. These triggers will be derived from signals such as periodic timers or accelerator faults. The waveform data can then be processed to quickly identify beam transport issues, thus reducing down time and increasing CEBAF performance. The Dist DAQ system will be comprised of multiple standalone chassis distributed throughout CEBAF. They will be i...

  16. Compressed gas fuel storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wozniak, John J. (Columbia, MD); Tiller, Dale B. (Lincoln, NE); Wienhold, Paul D. (Baltimore, MD); Hildebrand, Richard J. (Edgemere, MD)


    A compressed gas vehicle fuel storage system comprised of a plurality of compressed gas pressure cells supported by shock-absorbing foam positioned within a shape-conforming container. The container is dimensioned relative to the compressed gas pressure cells whereby a radial air gap surrounds each compressed gas pressure cell. The radial air gap allows pressure-induced expansion of the pressure cells without resulting in the application of pressure to adjacent pressure cells or physical pressure to the container. The pressure cells are interconnected by a gas control assembly including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and means for connecting the fuel storage system to a vehicle power source and a refueling adapter. The gas control assembly is enclosed by a protective cover attached to the container. The system is attached to the vehicle with straps to enable the chassis to deform as intended in a high-speed collision.

  17. First demonstration of a vehicle mounted 250GHz real time passive imager (United States)

    Mann, Chris


    This paper describes the design and performance of a ruggedized passive Terahertz imager, the frequency of operation is a 40GHz band centred around 250GHz. This system has been specifically targeted at vehicle mounted operation, outdoors in extreme environments. The unit incorporates temperature stabilization along with an anti-vibration chassis and is sealed to allow it to be used in a dusty environment. Within the system, a 250GHz heterodyne detector array is mated with optics and scanner to allow real time imaging out to 100 meters. First applications are envisaged to be stand-off, person borne IED detection to 30 meters but the unique properties in this frequency band present other potential uses such as seeing through smoke and fog. The possibility for use as a landing aid is discussed. A detailed description of the system design and video examples of typical imaging output will be presented.

  18. Electric car design. Interim summary report, Phase I: deliverable item 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The work included in this Interim Summary Report is part of the Electric Car Program, the goal of which is to develop by 1979 a totally new electric car with substantially improved performance over those electric cars available in 1976. The rationale used in designing a four-passenger electric car for use in an urban environment is presented. The approach taken was to design an electric car utilizing current technology. On the basis of tradeoff analyses, upgrading improvements were identified which would permit the electric car to more nearly meet all of the ERDA near-term goals. The electric car design, including the chassis, drive train, major components, and the control are summarized. The Phase I electric car design will meet many of the ERDA near-term goals. Upgrading development programs are identified which, when incorporated in Phase II vehicle development, will result in upgraded performance, which essentially meets ERDA's near-term goals.

  19. The Influence of Semi-active Dampers on the Vibration Behaviour of Passenger Cars (United States)

    Schneider, Sebastian; Brechter, Daniel; Janßen, Andreas; Mauch, Heiko

    The number of mechatronic components in modern car suspensions is increasing continuously to solve conflicts concerning design goals. Thus, changes in the vibration behaviour of the vehicle are caused. It needs to be ascertained whether this influence has to be taken into account when determining the fatigue life of a car and its components. Therefore, changes of the loads are studied in measurements and multi-body simulations of a passenger car with semi-active dampers. The evaluation of the forces at the wheel centre and at the shock absorber tower shows that different settings of semi-active dampers have an influence on fatigue life of the chassis and the car body. It is concluded that these effects need to be taken into account when determining fatigue life. Furthermore, multi-body simulations have been successfully applied to study the influence of semi-active dampers on the loads.

  20. Fuel optimal control of parallel hybrid electric vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinhuan PU; Chenliang YIN; Jianwu ZHANG


    A mathematical model for fuel optimal control and its corresponding dynamic programming (DP) recurs-ive equation were established for an existing parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). Two augmented cost func-tions for gear shifting and engine stop-starting were designed to limit their frequency. To overcome the prob-lem of numerical DP dimensionality, an algorithm to restrict the exploring region was proposed. The algorithm significantly reduced the computational complexity. The system model was converted into real-time simulation code by using MATLAB/RTW to improve computation efficiency. Comparison between the results of a chassis dynamometer test, simulation, and DP proves that the proposed method can compute the performance limita-tion of the HEV within an acceptable time period and can be used to evaluate and optimize the control strategy.

  1. Antifragility and Tinkering in Biology (and in Business Flexibility Provides an Efficient Epigenetic Way to Manage Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe M. Binder


    Full Text Available The notion of antifragility, an attribute of systems that makes them thrive under variable conditions, has recently been proposed by Nassim Taleb in a business context. This idea requires the ability of such systems to ‘tinker’, i.e., to creatively respond to changes in their environment. A fairly obvious example of this is natural selection-driven evolution. In this ubiquitous process, an original entity, challenged by an ever-changing environment, creates variants that evolve into novel entities. Analyzing functions that are essential during stationary-state life yield examples of entities that may be antifragile. One such example is proteins with flexible regions that can undergo functional alteration of their side residues or backbone and thus implement the tinkering that leads to antifragility. This in-built property of the cell chassis must be taken into account when considering construction of cell factories driven by engineering principles.

  2. Towards Microscale Flight: Fabrication, Stability Analysis, and Initial Flight Experiments for 300 μm × 300 μm × 1.5 μm Sized Untethered MEMS Microfliers. (United States)

    Ward, Spencer; Foroutan, Vahid; Majumdar, Ratul; Mahdavipour, Omid; Hussain, Syed A; Paprotny, Igor


    This paper presents modeling, designs, and initial experimental results demonstrating successful untethered microscale flight of stress-engineered microscale structures propelled by thermal forces. These MEMS Microfliers are 300 μm×300 μm×1.5 μm in size and are fabricated out of polycrystalline silicon using a surface micromachining process. A concave chassis, created using a novel in-situ masked post-release stress-engineering process, promotes static in-flight stability. High-speed optical micrography was used to capture image sequences of their flight, and this imagery was subsequently used to analyze their mid-flight performance. Our analysis, combined with finite element modeling (FEM) confirms stable flight of the microfliers within the thermal gradient above the heaters. This novel microscale flying platform presented in this paper may pave the way for new types of aerial microrobots.

  3. Fabrication of solvent extraction apparatus for {sup 99m}Tc production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ul Jae; Han, H. S.; Cho, U. G.; Kim, S. D.; Jung, Y. J.; Shin, H. Y.; Hong, S. B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)


    To automatic extraction apparatus for {sup 99M}Tc separation from {sup 99}Mo formed by (n,r) nuclear reaction was developed. This system can be mainly divided into the operation part and the control part. The operation part consists of the follow instruments, such as lead shield unit, which contains a mixing vessel for extraction and phases separation, 3 glass bottles for supplying of different liquids, cation resin column for impurities removal, alumina column for {sup 99M}Tc absorption, membrane filter for purification, etc. The control part consists of the aluminum chassis, industrial computer systems with monitor, control board, user-defined operations panel, etc. The system can be operated automatically or manually. This technical report described overall aspects of the elements and operating method for the apparatus, and will be helpful for the system maintenance and troubleshooting. 28 figs. (Author)

  4. Fuel economy and exhaust emissions characteristics of diesel vehicles: Test results of a prototype Fiat 131 NA 2.4 liter automobile (United States)

    Quayle, S. S.; Davis, M. M.; Walter, R. A.


    The vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer over selected drive cycles and steady-state conditions. Two fuels were used, a U.S. no. 2 diesel and a European diesel fuel. The vehicle was tested with retarded timing and with and without an oxidation catalyst. Particulate emission rates were calculated from dilution tunnel measurements and large volume particulate samples were collected for biological and chemical analysis. It was determined that while the catalyst was generally effective in reducing hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide levels, it was also a factor in increasing particulate emissions. Increased particulate emission rates were particularly evident when the vehicle was operated on the European fuel which has a high sulfur content.

  5. Real time capable infrared thermography for ASDEX Upgrade (United States)

    Sieglin, B.; Faitsch, M.; Herrmann, A.; Brucker, B.; Eich, T.; Kammerloher, L.; Martinov, S.


    Infrared (IR) thermography is widely used in fusion research to study power exhaust and incident heat load onto the plasma facing components. Due to the short pulse duration of today's fusion experiments, IR systems have mostly been designed for off-line data analysis. For future long pulse devices (e.g., Wendelstein 7-X, ITER), a real time evaluation of the target temperature and heat flux is mandatory. This paper shows the development of a real time capable IR system for ASDEX Upgrade. A compact IR camera has been designed incorporating the necessary magnetic and electric shielding for the detector, cooler assembly. The camera communication is based on the Camera Link industry standard. The data acquisition hardware is based on National Instruments hardware, consisting of a PXIe chassis inside and a fibre optical connected industry computer outside the torus hall. Image processing and data evaluation are performed using real time LabVIEW.

  6. Pathway transfer in fungi (United States)

    van der Straat, Laura; de Graaff, Leo H


    Itaconic acid is an important building block for the chemical industry. Currently, Aspergillus terreus is the main organism used for itaconic acid production. Due to the enormous citric acid production capacity of Aspergillus niger, this host is investigated as a potential itaconic acid production host. Several strategies have been tried so far: fermentation optimization, expression of cis-aconitate decarboxylase (cadA) alone and in combination with aconitase targeted to the same compartment, chassis optimization, and the heterologous expression of two transporters flanking the cadA gene. We showed that the heterologous expression of these two transporters were key to improving itaconic acid production in an A. niger strain that was unable to produce oxalic acid and gluconic acid. The expression of transporters has increased the production levels of other industrially relevant processes as well, such as β-lactam antibiotics and bioethanol. Thus far, the role of transporters in production process optimization is a bit overlooked. PMID:25482236

  7. 10th Schaeffler Symposium

    CERN Document Server


    Every four years, Schaeffler provides an insight into its latest developments and technologies from the engine, transmission and chassis as well as hybridization and electric mobility sectors. In 2014 the Schaeffler Symposium with the motto “Solving the Powertrain Puzzle” took place from 3th to 4th of April in Baden-Baden. Mobility for tomorrow is the central theme of this proceeding. The authors are discussing the different requirements, which are placed on mobility in different regions of the world. In addition to the company's work in research and development, a comprehensive in-house mobility study also provides a reliable basis for the discussion. The authors are convinced that there will be a paradigm shift in the automotive industry. Issues such as increasing efficiency and advancing electrification of the powertrain, automatic and semi-automatic driving, as well as integration in information networks will define the automotive future. In addition, the variety of solutions available worldwide will ...

  8. A Review of Active Yaw Control System for Vehicle Handling and Stability Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Aripin


    Full Text Available Yaw stability control system plays a significant role in vehicle lateral dynamics in order to improve the vehicle handling and stability performances. However, not many researches have been focused on the transient performances improvement of vehicle yaw rate and sideslip tracking control. This paper reviews the vital elements for control system design of an active yaw stability control system; the vehicle dynamic models, control objectives, active chassis control, and control strategies with the focus on identifying suitable criteria for improved transient performances. Each element is discussed and compared in terms of their underlying theory, strengths, weaknesses, and applicability. Based on this, we conclude that the sliding mode control with nonlinear sliding surface based on composite nonlinear feedback is a potential control strategy for improving the transient performances of yaw rate and sideslip tracking control.

  9. Nonlinear Cascade Strategy for Longitudinal Control of Electric Vehicle. (United States)

    El Majdoub, K; Giri, F; Ouadi, H; Chaoui, F Z


    The problem of controlling the longitudinal motion of front-wheels electric vehicle (EV) is considered making the focus on the case where a single dc motor is used for both front wheels. Chassis dynamics are modelled applying relevant fundamental laws taking into account the aerodynamic effects and the road slope variation. The longitudinal slip, resulting from tire deformation, is captured through Kiencke's model. Despite its highly nonlinear nature the complete model proves to be utilizable in longitudinal control design. The control objective is to achieve a satisfactory vehicle speed regulation in acceleration/deceleration stages, despite wind speed and other parameters uncertainty. An adaptive controller is developed using the backstepping design technique. The obtained adaptive controller is shown to meet its objectives in presence of the changing aerodynamics efforts and road slope.

  10. Vacuum compatible miniature CCD camera head (United States)

    Conder, Alan D.


    A charge-coupled device (CCD) camera head which can replace film for digital imaging of visible light, ultraviolet radiation, and soft to penetrating x-rays, such as within a target chamber where laser produced plasmas are studied. The camera head is small, capable of operating both in and out of a vacuum environment, and is versatile. The CCD camera head uses PC boards with an internal heat sink connected to the chassis for heat dissipation, which allows for close(0.04" for example) stacking of the PC boards. Integration of this CCD camera head into existing instrumentation provides a substantial enhancement of diagnostic capabilities for studying high energy density plasmas, for a variety of military industrial, and medical imaging applications.

  11. Printed circuit board for a CCD camera head (United States)

    Conder, Alan D.


    A charge-coupled device (CCD) camera head which can replace film for digital imaging of visible light, ultraviolet radiation, and soft to penetrating x-rays, such as within a target chamber where laser produced plasmas are studied. The camera head is small, capable of operating both in and out of a vacuum environment, and is versatile. The CCD camera head uses PC boards with an internal heat sink connected to the chassis for heat dissipation, which allows for close (0.04" for example) stacking of the PC boards. Integration of this CCD camera head into existing instrumentation provides a substantial enhancement of diagnostic capabilities for studying high energy density plasmas, for a variety of military industrial, and medical imaging applications.

  12. Mutagenicity of diesel exhaust particle extracts: influence of driving cycle and environmental temperature. (United States)

    Clark, C R; Dutcher, J S; Brooks, A L; McClellan, R O; Marshall, W F; Naman, T M


    General Motors and Volkswagen diesel passenger cars (1980 and 1981 model year) were operated on a climate controlled chassis dynomometer and the particulate portion of the exhaust was collected on high volume filters. Dichloromethane extracts of the exhaust particles (soot) collected while the cars were operated under simulated highway, urban and congested urban driving cycles were assayed for mutagenicity in Salmonella strains TA-98 and TA-100. Driving pattern did not significantly influence the mutagenic potency of the exhaust particle extracts or estimates of the amount of mutagenicity emitted from the exhaust despite large differences in particle emission rates and extractable fraction of the particles. Mutagenicity of extracts of exhaust particles collected while the vehicles were operated at test chamber temperatures of 25, 50, 75 and 100 degrees F were also very similar. The results suggest that driving pattern and environmental temperature do not significantly alter the emission of genotoxic combustion products from the exhaust.

  13. Method for the multi-criteria optimization of car wheel suspension mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Alexandru


    Full Text Available The paper deals with a general method for the multi-criteria optimization of the rear wheels suspension mechanisms in terms of kinematic behavior. The suspension mechanism is decomposed in basic binary links, and the kinematic synthesis is separately performed for each of them. The design variables are the global coordinates of the joint locations on the car body (chassis. The disposing of the joints on the wheel carrier were exclusively established by constructive criteria. The design objectives relate to kinematic position parameters of the wheel (displacements of the wheel centre along longitudinal and transversal directions, and modifications of the wheel axis direction, the optimization goal being to minimize these variations during the wheel travel. A computer program for the kinematic study was developed in C++. The application was performed for the wheel suspension mechanism of a race car.

  14. Laws of biology: why so few? (United States)

    Dhar, Pawan K; Giuliani, Alessandro


    Finding fundamental organizing principles is the current intellectual front end of systems biology. From a hydrogen atom to the whole cell level, organisms manage massively parallel and massively interactive processes over several orders of magnitude of size. To manage this scale of informational complexity it is natural to expect organizing principles that determine higher order behavior. Currently, there are only hints of such organizing principles but no absolute evidences. Here, we present an approach as old as Mendel that could help uncover fundamental organizing principles in biology. Our approach essentially consists of identifying constants at various levels and weaving them into a hierarchical chassis. As we identify and organize constants, from pair-wise interactions to networks, our understanding of the fundamental principles in biology will improve, leading to a theory in biology.

  15. Total dynamic response of a PSS vehicle negotiating asymmetric road excitations (United States)

    Zhu, Jian Jun; Khajepour, Amir; Esmailzadeh, Ebrahim


    A planar suspension system (PSS) is a novel automobile suspension system in which an individual spring-damper strut is implemented in both the vertical and longitudinal directions, respectively. The wheels in a vehicle with such a suspension system can move back and forth relative to the chassis. When a PSS vehicle experiences asymmetric road excitations, the relative longitudinal motion of wheels with respect to the chassis in two sides of the same axle are not identical, and thus the two wheels at one axle will not be aligned in the same axis. The total dynamic responses, including those of the bounce, pitch and the roll of the PSS vehicle, to the asymmetric road excitation may exhibit different characteristics from those of a conventional vehicle. This paper presents an investigation into the comprehensive dynamic behaviour of a vehicle with the PSS, in such a road condition, on both the straight and curved roads. The study was carried out using an 18 DOF full-car model incorporating a radial-spring tyre-ground contact model and a 2D tyre-ground dynamic friction model. Results demonstrate that the total dynamic behaviour of a PSS vehicle is generally comparable with that of the conventional vehicle, while PSS exhibits significant improvement in absorbing the impact forces along the longitudinal direction when compared to the conventional suspension system. The PSS vehicle is found to be more stable than the conventional vehicle in terms of the directional performance against the disturbance of the road potholes on a straight line manoeuvre, while exhibiting a very similar handling performance on a curved line.

  16. Hydraulic Hybrid Parcel Delivery Truck Deployment, Testing & Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallo, Jean-Baptiste [Calstart Incorporated, Pasadena, CA (United States)


    Although hydraulic hybrid systems have shown promise over the last few years, commercial deployment of these systems has primarily been limited to Class 8 refuse trucks. In 2005, the Hybrid Truck Users Forum initiated the Parcel Delivery Working Group including the largest parcel delivery fleets in North America. The goal of the working group was to evaluate and accelerate commercialization of hydraulic hybrid technology for parcel delivery vehicles. FedEx Ground, Purolator and United Parcel Service (UPS) took delivery of the world’s first commercially available hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery trucks in early 2012. The vehicle chassis includes a Parker Hannifin hydraulic hybrid drive system, integrated and assembled by Freightliner Custom Chassis Corp., with a body installed by Morgan Olson. With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, CALSTART and its project partners assessed the performance, reliability, maintainability and fleet acceptance of three pre-production Class 6 hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery vehicles using information and data from in-use data collection and on-road testing. This document reports on the deployment of these vehicles operated by FedEx Ground, Purolator and UPS. The results presented provide a comprehensive overview of the performance of commercial hydraulic hybrid vehicles in parcel delivery applications. This project also informs fleets and manufacturers on the overall performance of hydraulic hybrid vehicles, provides insights on how the technology can be both improved and more effectively used. The key findings and recommendations of this project fall into four major categories: -Performance, -Fleet deployment, -Maintenance, -Business case. Hydraulic hybrid technology is relatively new to the market, as commercial vehicles have been introduced only in the past few years in refuse and parcel delivery applications. Successful demonstration could pave the way for additional purchases of hydraulic hybrid vehicles throughout the

  17. Flight Hardware Packaging Design for Stringent EMC Radiated Emission Requirements (United States)

    Lortz, Charlene L.; Huang, Chi-Chien N.; Ravich, Joshua A.; Steiner, Carl N.


    This packaging design approach can help heritage hardware meet a flight project's stringent EMC radiated emissions requirement. The approach requires only minor modifications to a hardware's chassis and mainly concentrates on its connector interfaces. The solution is to raise the surface area where the connector is mounted by a few millimeters using a pedestal, and then wrapping with conductive tape from the cable backshell down to the surface-mounted connector. This design approach has been applied to JPL flight project subsystems. The EMC radiated emissions requirements for flight projects can vary from benign to mission critical. If the project's EMC requirements are stringent, the best approach to meet EMC requirements would be to design an EMC control program for the project early on and implement EMC design techniques starting with the circuit board layout. This is the ideal scenario for hardware that is built from scratch. Implementation of EMC radiated emissions mitigation techniques can mature as the design progresses, with minimal impact to the design cycle. The real challenge exists for hardware that is planned to be flown following a built-to-print approach, in which heritage hardware from a past project with a different set of requirements is expected to perform satisfactorily for a new project. With acceptance of heritage, the design would already be established (circuit board layout and components have already been pre-determined), and hence any radiated emissions mitigation techniques would only be applicable at the packaging level. The key is to take a heritage design with its known radiated emissions spectrum and repackage, or modify its chassis design so that it would have a better chance of meeting the new project s radiated emissions requirements.

  18. Automatic Differential Principle and Control Strategy for 4WID-EV%4WID-EV的自动差速原理及控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何竞松; 陈世元


    Focusing on the limitation of the research on differential driving of four wheels independent drive electric vehicle (4WID-EV), which always takes power wheels as research object and neglects the effect of internal force adjustment of vehicle chassis, this paper establishes a vehicle longitudinal dynamics mathematical model with chassis internal force and tire lateral force. Automatic differential principle for 4WID-EV is studied through detailed analysis of the forces imposed on each wheel in the model and the control strategy of "suboptimal torque combination" is formulated. The virtual sample of the vehicle is constructed in Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems (ADAMS) and its mathematical model, differential and control performance are verified through simulation. Results show that the mathematical model is accurate and able to improve the automatic differential and control performance of the vehicle.%针对研究四轮独立驱动电动汽车差速行驶问题时仅以动力轮为研究对象而忽略车架内力调节作用的局限性.建立含有车架内力和车轮侧向力的汽车纵向动力学数学模型.通过对模型中各车轮的受力细分,研究四轮独立驱动电动汽车的自动差速原理,并制定“次最优转矩组合”的控制策略.在ADAMS中构建该车辆虚拟样机并对其数学模型、差速性能、控制性能进行仿真验证.结果表明,数学模型准确,车辆的自动差速性能和控制性能更佳.

  19. Modeling Heavy/Medium-Duty Fuel Consumption Based on Drive Cycle Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijuan; Duran, Adam; Gonder, Jeffrey; Kelly, Kenneth


    This paper presents multiple methods for predicting heavy/medium-duty vehicle fuel consumption based on driving cycle information. A polynomial model, a black box artificial neural net model, a polynomial neural network model, and a multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) model were developed and verified using data collected from chassis testing performed on a parcel delivery diesel truck operating over the Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT), City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle (CSHVC), New York Composite Cycle (NYCC), and hydraulic hybrid vehicle (HHV) drive cycles. Each model was trained using one of four drive cycles as a training cycle and the other three as testing cycles. By comparing the training and testing results, a representative training cycle was chosen and used to further tune each method. HHDDT as the training cycle gave the best predictive results, because HHDDT contains a variety of drive characteristics, such as high speed, acceleration, idling, and deceleration. Among the four model approaches, MARS gave the best predictive performance, with an average absolute percent error of -1.84% over the four chassis dynamometer drive cycles. To further evaluate the accuracy of the predictive models, the approaches were first applied to real-world data. MARS outperformed the other three approaches, providing an average absolute percent error of -2.2% of four real-world road segments. The MARS model performance was then compared to HHDDT, CSHVC, NYCC, and HHV drive cycles with the performance from Future Automotive System Technology Simulator (FASTSim). The results indicated that the MARS method achieved a comparative predictive performance with FASTSim.

  20. Design and Testing of an Agricultural Implement for Underground Application of Rodenticide Bait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Malón


    Full Text Available An agricultural implement for underground application of rodenticide bait to control the Mediterranean pocket gopher (Microtus Duodecimcostatus in fruit orchards has been designed and tested. The main objective of this research was to design and test the implement by using the finite element method (FEM and considering a range of loads generated on most commonly used furrow openers in agricultural implements. As a second step, the prototype was tested in the field by analysing the effects of forward speed and application depth on the mechanical behaviour of the implement structure. The FEM was used in the design phase and a prototype was manufactured. The structural strains on the prototype chassis under working conditions were tested by using strain gauges to validate the design phase. Three forward speeds (4.5, 5.5, and 7.0 km/h, three application depths (0.12, 0.15, and 0.17 m, and two types of soil (clayey-silty-loam and clayey-silty-sandy were considered. The prototype was validated successfully by analysing the information obtained from the strain gauges. The Von Mises stresses indicated a safety coefficient of 1.9 for the most critical load case. Although both forward speed and application depth had a significant effect on the stresses generated on the chassis, the latter parameter critically affected the structural behaviour of the implement. The effects of the application depth on the strains were linear such that strains increased with depth. In contrast, strains remained roughly constant regardless of variation in the forward speed.

  1. Advanced Electric Systems and Aerodynamics for Efficiency Improvements in Heavy Duty Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Slone; Jeffrey Birkel


    The Advanced Electric Systems and Aerodynamics for Efficiency Improvements in Heavy Duty Trucks program (DE-FC26-04NT42189), commonly referred to as the AES program, focused on areas that will primarily benefit fuel economy and improve heat rejection while driving over the road. The AES program objectives were to: (1) Analyze, design, build, and test a cooling system that provided a minimum of 10 percent greater heat rejection in the same frontal area with no increase in parasitic fan load. (2) Realize fuel savings with advanced power management and acceleration assist by utilizing an integrated starter/generator (ISG) and energy storage devices. (3) Quantify the effect of aerodynamic drag due to the frontal shape mandated by the area required for the cooling system. The program effort consisted of modeling and designing components for optimum fuel efficiency, completing fabrication of necessary components, integrating these components into the chassis test bed, completing controls programming, and performance testing the system both on a chassis dynamometer and on the road. Emission control measures for heavy-duty engines have resulted in increased engine heat loads, thus introducing added parasitic engine cooling loads. Truck electrification, in the form of thermal management, offers technological solutions to mitigate or even neutralize the effects of this trend. Thermal control offers opportunities to avoid increases in cooling system frontal area and forestall reduced fuel economy brought about by additional aerodynamic vehicle drag. This project explored such thermal concepts by installing a 2007 engine that is compliant with current regulations and bears additional heat rejection associated with meeting these regulations. This newer engine replaced the 2002 engine from a previous project that generated less heat rejection. Advanced power management, utilizing a continuously optimized and controlled power flow between electric components, can offer additional

  2. Evaluation of using ferrofluid as an interface material for a field-reversible thermal connector (United States)

    Yousif, Ahmed S.

    The electrical functionality of an avionics chassis is limited due to heat dissipation limits. The limits arise due to the fact that components in an avionic computer boxes are packed very compactly, with the components mounted onto plug-in cards, and the harsh environment experienced by the chassis limits how heat can be dissipated from the cards. Convective and radiative heat transfer to the ambient are generally not possible. Therefore it is necessary to have heat transferred from the components conducted to the edge of the plug-in cards. The heat then needs to conduct from the card edge to a cold block that not only holds the card in place, but also removes the generated heat by some heat transfer fluid that is circulated through the cold block. The interface between the plug-in card and the cold block typically has a high thermal resistance since it is necessary for the card to have the capability to be re-workable, meaning that the card can be removed and then returned to the chassis. Reducing the thermal resistance of the interface is the objective of the current study and the topic of this thesis. The current design uses a pressure interface between the card and cold block. The contact pressure is increased through the addition of a wedgelock, which is a field-reversible mechanical connector. To use a wedgelock, the cold block has channels milled on the surface with widths that are larger than the thickness of the plug-in card and the un-expanded wedgelock. The card edge is placed in the channel and placed against one of the channel walls. A wedgelock is then placed between the card and the other channel wall. The wedgelock is then expanded by using either a screw or a lever. As the wedgelock expands it fills in the remaining channel gap and bears against the other face of the plug-in card. The majority of heat generated by the components on the plug-in card is forced to conduct from the card into the wall of the cold block, effectively a single sided, dry

  3. Transportable Heavy Duty Emissions Testing Laboratory and Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Lyons


    The objective of this program was to quantify the emissions from heavy-duty vehicles operating on alternative fuels or advanced fuel blends, often with novel engine technology or aftertreatment. In the first year of the program West Virginia University (WVU) researchers determined that a transportable chassis dynamometer emissions measurement approach was required so that fleets of trucks and buses did not need to be ferried across the nation to a fixed facility. A Transportable Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emissions Testing Laboratory (Translab) was designed, constructed and verified. This laboratory consisted of a chassis dynamometer semi-trailer and an analytic trailer housing a full scale exhaust dilution tunnel and sampling system which mimicked closely the system described in the Code of Federal Regulations for engine certification. The Translab was first used to quantify emissions from natural gas and methanol fueled transit buses, and a second Translab unit was constructed to satisfy research demand. Subsequent emissions measurement was performed on trucks and buses using ethanol, Fischer-Tropsch fuel, and biodiesel. A medium-duty chassis dynamometer was also designed and constructed to facilitate research on delivery vehicles in the 10,000 to 20,000lb range. The Translab participated in major programs to evaluate low-sulfur diesel in conjunction with passively regenerating exhaust particulate filtration technology, and substantial reductions in particulate matter were recorded. The researchers also participated in programs to evaluate emissions from advanced natural gas engines with closed loop feedback control. These natural gas engines showed substantially reduced levels of oxides of nitrogen. For all of the trucks and buses characterized, the levels of carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide and particulate matter were quantified, and in many cases non-regulated species such as aldehydes were also sampled. Particle size was also

  4. Development of the LG380/60 Coiled Tubing Unit(CTU)%LG380/60连续管作业机的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The LG380/60 coiled tubing unit (CTU) is developed specially for the severe natural environment and operating condi-tions based on the designed LG230 CTU. The CTU adopts the twin truck-mounted self-propelled scheme. It consists of the hydraulically lifted control room, sinking quickly replaceable CT reel, three hose reels, blowout prevention system, injector head and hydraulic gooseneck. The chassis of the overall unit has a strong cross-country capacity. The beam of the chassis with variable cross section is customized. So a sinking chassis design is adopted to increase the capacity of the CT reel. The hydraulic system which is of structural simplicity and high reliability can realize the linkage control of the injector head and CT reel. The control system has functions of human-computer interaction and CAN communication. In addition the unit is equipped with the wellhead anti-collision device to reduce the risk. It has such strengths as strong lifting capacity, large reel capacity, desirable transportability, and extensive applicability. The field application shows that the low gear of the unit reaches the maximum CT tripping speed of 25 m/min in operation. The lowering depth is 3 134 m. The operation and control of the equipment are normal,reaching the design standard.%针对国内油田复杂的作业环境及实际作业需求,在成功研制的LG230连续管作业机的基础上,开发了LG380/60大直径连续管作业机。该作业机主要包括可升降操作室、可升降油管滚筒、软管滚筒工作组、井口防喷装置、大提升力注入头以及动力鹅颈管等部件。该作业机底盘采用变截面大梁结构,油管滚筒能够下沉安装,满足滚筒大容量的要求;液压系统组成简单、可靠性高,提高了注入头与油管滚筒联动性;自动控制系统具有CAN通信和人机交互功能。同时,还配备井口防碰装置,降低作业风险。整机提升能力强,适应管径大,滚筒容

  5. 汽车装配作业工人肌肉骨骼损伤的流行病学调查研究%The epidemiologicai study of work-related musculoskeletal disorders and related factors among automobile assembly workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠旭; 姜海强; 秦汝莉; 李玉珍; 张雪艳; 贾宁; 张秋玲; 李刚; 赵杰; 李焕焕


    Objective To investigate the work-related musculoskeletal disorders among automobile assembly workers, to discusses the related risk factors and their relationship.Method The selected 1508 automobile assembly workers from a north car manufacturing company were regarded as the study object.The hazard zone jobs checklist, Nordic musculoskeletal symptom questionnaire ( NMQ ) and pain questionnaire were used to perform the epidemiological cross-sectional and retrospective survey and study for the General status,awkward ergonomics factors and related influencing factors, and musculoskeletal disorders of workers.Results The predominant body sites of occurring WMSDs among automobile assembly workers were mainly low back,wrist, neck and shoulders, the predominant workshop section of occurring WMSDs were mostly concentrated in engine compartment, interior ornament, door cover, chassis and debugging section.The predominant body site of WMSDs among engine compartment and chassis section workers was low back, interior ornament workers were low back and wrist, door cover workers was wrist, chassis workers was low back, debugging workers were neck and low back.Neck musculoskeletal disorders had the trend with the increase of a body height; Smoking may increase the occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders.Conclusion The WMSDs appears to be a serious ergonomic problem among automobile assembly workers, predominant occurring site of WMSDs is with different workshop section, its characteristics is quite obvious, probably related to its existing awkward work position or activities.The worker height and smoking habits may be important factors which affect musculoskeletal disorders happen.%目的 调查汽车装配作业工人肌肉骨骼疾患的发生情况,探讨可能的相关影响因素.方法 选择北方某汽车制造公司1508名装配作业工人作为调查对象,采用区域工种检查表、北欧标准化肌肉骨骼症状调查表(NMQ)与疼痛问卷,对调查对象的

  6. Mitigation Emission Strategy Based on Resonances from a Power Inverter System in Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhai


    Full Text Available Large dv/dt and di/dt outputs of power devices in the DC-fed motor power inverter can generate conducted and/or radiated emissions through parasitics that interfere with low voltage electric systems in electric vehicles (EVs and nearby vehicles. The electromagnetic interference (EMI filters, ferrite chokes, and shielding added in the product process based on the “black box” approach can reduce the emission levels in a specific frequency range. However, these countermeasures may also introduce an unexpected increase in EMI noises in other frequency ranges due to added capacitances and inductances in filters resonating with elements of the power inverter, and even increase the weight and dimension of the power inverter system in EVs with limited space. In order to predict the interaction between the mitigation techniques and power inverter geometry, an accurate model of the system is needed. A power inverter system was modeled based on series of two-port network measurements to study the impact of EMI generated by power devices on radiated emission of AC cables. Parallel resonances within the circuit can cause peaks in the S21 (transmission coefficient between the phase-node-to-chassis voltage and the center-conductor-to-shield voltage of the AC cable connecting to the motor and Z11 (input impedance at Port 1 between the Insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT phase node and chassis at those resonance frequencies and result in enlarged noise voltage peaks at Port 1. The magnitude of S21 between two ports was reduced to decrease the amount of energy coupled from the noise source between the phase node and chassis to the end of the AC cable by lowering the corresponding quality factor. The equivalent circuits were built by analyzing current-following paths at three critical resonance frequencies. Interference voltage peaks can be suppressed by mitigating the resonances. The capacitances and inductances generating the parallel resonances and

  7. Design of the Automatic Four-wheel Driving and Four-wheel Steering Chassis’ s Electric Control System%四轮驱动四轮转向自动驾驶底盘的电控系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玫瑾; 魏新华


    为了提高植保机械作业精度、降低驾驶员操作难度,设计了一种高地隙全液压四轮驱动四轮转向自动驾驶底盘。本文介绍了底盘的整体结构,重点阐述了电控系统的结构与工作原理。该电控系统以EPCS-8980为上位机、DSP56F805信号控制器为核心、基于CAN 总线进行通讯,行车状态参数采集器接收各传感器采集的行车参数信息,并通过 CAN 总线发送到车载电脑和行车控制器,行车控制器根据车载电脑指令和各传感器参数,按照行车控制模型生成控制指令,并通过各电磁阀独立控制4个液压马达和4个转向油缸,实现底盘的行车控制。同时,对电控系统进行了测试,测试结果表明:该电控系统实现了对液压元器件的控制,保证了其运行的可靠性,可满足实际作业要求,同时该电控系统也可用于通用自主移动平台上。%In order to improve the accuracy of plant protection machinery operations , and reduce the difficulty of driver ’ s operations, this paper presents a high clearance full hydraulic and automatic four-wheel driving and four-wheel steer-ing chassis .The overall structure of the chassis was produced , and also the electric control system was mainly presented . The electric control system was designed with its vehicular computer EPCS-8980,core part DSP56F805, communication via CAN-bus.The driving parameters were collected by each sensor , and each sensor signals collected by the driving da-ta collector transmitted to the vehicular computer and the driving controller via CAN-bus.According to instructions of the vehicular computer and the parameters of the sensors , the driving controller generated the controlling instruction under the traffic controlling model , the four hydraulic motors and the four steering cylinders were controlled by each electromagnetic valve , and thus the chassis could be controlled to drive and steer .The tests of the

  8. The design of the Comet streamliner: An electric land speed record motorcycle (United States)

    McMillan, Ethan Alexander

    The development of the land speed record electric motorcycle streamliner, the Comet, is discussed herein. Its design process includes a detailed literary review of past and current motorcycle streamliners in an effort to highlight the main components of such a vehicle's design, while providing baseline data for performance comparisons. A new approach to balancing a streamliner at low speeds is also addressed, a system henceforth referred to as landing gear, which has proven an effective means for allowing the driver to control the low speed instabilities of the vehicle with relative ease compared to tradition designs. This is accompanied by a dynamic stability analysis conducted on a test chassis that was developed for the primary purpose of understanding the handling dynamics of streamliners, while also providing a test bed for the implementation of the landing gear system and a means to familiarize the driver to the operation and handling of such a vehicle. Data gathered through the use of GPS based velocity tracking, accelerometers, and a linear potentiometer provided a means to validate a dynamic stability analysis of the weave and wobble modes of the vehicle through linearization of a streamliner model developed in the BikeSIM software suite. Results indicate agreement between the experimental data and the simulation, indicating that the conventional recumbent design of a streamliner chassis is in fact highly stable throughout the performance envelope beyond extremely low speeds. A computational fluid dynamics study was also performed, utilized in the development of the body of the Comet to which a series of tests were conducted in order to develop a shape that was both practical to transport and highly efficient. By creating a hybrid airfoil from a NACA 0018 and NACA 66-018, a drag coefficient of 0.1 and frontal area of 0.44 m2 has been found for the final design. Utilizing a performance model based on the proposed vehicle's motor, its rolling resistance, and

  9. Converting carbon dioxide to butyrate with an engineered strain of Clostridium ljungdahlii. (United States)

    Ueki, Toshiyuki; Nevin, Kelly P; Woodard, Trevor L; Lovley, Derek R


    Microbial conversion of carbon dioxide to organic commodities via syngas metabolism or microbial electrosynthesis is an attractive option for production of renewable biocommodities. The recent development of an initial genetic toolbox for the acetogen Clostridium ljungdahlii has suggested that C. ljungdahlii may be an effective chassis for such conversions. This possibility was evaluated by engineering a strain to produce butyrate, a valuable commodity that is not a natural product of C. ljungdahlii metabolism. Heterologous genes required for butyrate production from acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) were identified and introduced initially on plasmids and in subsequent strain designs integrated into the C. ljungdahlii chromosome. Iterative strain designs involved increasing translation of a key enzyme by modifying a ribosome binding site, inactivating the gene encoding the first step in the conversion of acetyl-CoA to acetate, disrupting the gene which encodes the primary bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase for ethanol production, and interrupting the gene for a CoA transferase that potentially represented an alternative route for the production of acetate. These modifications yielded a strain in which ca. 50 or 70% of the carbon and electron flow was diverted to the production of butyrate with H2 or CO as the electron donor, respectively. These results demonstrate the possibility of producing high-value commodities from carbon dioxide with C. ljungdahlii as the catalyst. Importance: The development of a microbial chassis for efficient conversion of carbon dioxide directly to desired organic products would greatly advance the environmentally sustainable production of biofuels and other commodities. Clostridium ljungdahlii is an effective catalyst for microbial electrosynthesis, a technology in which electricity generated with renewable technologies, such as solar or wind, powers the conversion of carbon dioxide and water to organic products. Other electron donors

  10. Methods for driveability improvement in Formula 1 engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinelli, P.; Bollini, M. [Ferrari Gestione Sportiva, Maranello (Italy); Schoeggl, P.; Mundorff, F. [AVL List GmbH, Graz (Austria)


    Driveability is a very important criterion for the success of Formula 1 engines, in addition to engine performance, fuel consumption, reliability, weight, size and stiffness. Driving on the limit of the car is very demanding for both the driver and all the components of a race car, ranging from aerodynamics, chassis, tyres, brakes and suspension to the engine. Beside of the gear position, the driver has only two means of control for holding his vehicle as close as possible to the limit, namely the steering wheel and the accelerator pedal. A good relationship between pedal position and the engine torque, which is foreseeable and even over a wide range of torque and load for all transient conditions, is a very important requirement for the engine. It enables the reduction of lap time, fuel consumption and tyre wear. Due to the engine design for highest specific power, this places the highest demands on the development and optimisation of Formula 1 engines. This paper illustrates the behaviour of a racing car on the limit, requirements for the engine, criteria relevant for driveability, the boundary conditions determined by regulations and ways for optimising engine behaviour. For the work presented here, a procedure for the analysis/objective assessment/improvement of subjective driving perception was applied, which was originally conceived for series production. Hence the paper describes an example of successful technology transfer from series production to racing. (orig.) [German] Eine gute Fahrbarkeit bildet neben Motorleistung, Kraftstoffverbrauch, Zuverlaessigkeit, Gewicht, Groesse und Steifigkeit ein wesentliches Kriterium fuer den Erfolg von Formel 1 Motoren. Das optimale Fahren im Grenzbereich des Fahrzeuges als Erfolgsfaktor der F1, stellt hohe Anforderungen an den Fahrer und an alle Komponenten eines Rennfahrzeuges, von der Aerodynamik, Chassis, Reifen, Bremsen und Radaufhaengung, bis hin zum Motor. Der Fahrer hat, neben der Wahl des Ganges, nur zwei

  11. 基于模拟退火法的某履带式急救车减振系统等效物理参数辨识%Equivalent Physical Parameters Identification of Tracked Emergency Ambulance's Damping System Using Simulated Annealing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨猛; 徐新喜; 白松; 苏琛; 刘孝辉; 谭树林


    Objective To identify the equivalent physical parameters of the tracked emergency ambulance's damping system. Methods According to the function and physical characteristics of the tracked emergency ambulance's damping system between carriage and coach chassis, the model for the damping system was reasonably simplified. Taking coach chassis longitudinal beam's motion as the system inputs, a 1 DOF vibration model for sprung mass was set up and the frequency response function for the acceleration of sprung mass was derived. Using the test data of proving ground, data fitting was conducted by a Matlab program written based on Simulated Annealing, and the equivalent physical parameters (stiffness and damping) of damping system under different road conditions were obtained. Results The verification of equivalent physical parameters was conducted through a kinematics differential equation built in Simulink of Matlab. The result showed that equivalent physical parameters were rather reliable. Conclusion The equivalent physical parameters identification of the tracked emergency ambulance's damping system is well done by simulated annealing. The Equivalent Physical Parameters can be used as the basis for vibration damping system optimization and have a high engineering practical significance.%目的:辨识某履带式急救车减振系统的等效物理参数.方法:针对某履带式急救车大板车箱与底盘之间减振系统的功能及物理特性,对减振系统进行了合理简化.以底盘纵梁的运动为系统输入,建立了簧载质量的单自由度模型,推导了簧载质量的加速度频响函数;利用汽车试验场道路试验数据,通过模拟退火法编写Matlab程序进行数据拟合,得到了减振系统在不同路面情况下的等效物理参数.结果:通过Matlab的Simulink模块建立减振系统运动微分方程模型对等效物理参数进行验证,结果表明等效物理参数具有较高可信度.结论:模拟退火法可以很

  12. Research on surface traction calibration method of drum test-bed system%汽车转鼓试验台表面牵引力标定方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宁; 赵树朋; 牛博英; 刘丹


    为了确保转鼓试验台系统的精度,需要对其系统进行标定.标定的主要问题是如何对确定量进行测量,并通过何种调节手段,达到显示值与实际值之间的偏差符合精度要求的目的.汽车转鼓试验台转鼓主轴与转鼓电机主轴是重合的,转鼓通过电机主轴将其表面上牵引力传递给电机转子,依靠转子和定子的相互作用,牵引力将被传至与定子固定连接的电机外壳上.因此在电机外壳上安装测力传感器测量电机外壳切线方向上的力实现对转鼓试验台表面牵引力的测量.设计采用双向标定臂可以减小额外扭矩的影响,确保了汽车转鼓试验台表面牵引力的测试精度要求.%The drum test-bed system needs to be calibrated in order to ensure its accuracy, The main problem of calibration is how to measure the determination of quantity so that deviation between the display and actual values can meet the accuracy requirements by some adjustment means, Drum shaft of automobile chassis dynamometer is coincident with the drum motor shaft, the traction of drum surface is transmitted to the motor rotor through the motor shaft, Eventually the traction is transmitted to the motor casing connected with the stator relying on the rotor and stator interaction. Therefore the drum test bench surface traction can be measured from the motor casing tangential force using force sensor mounted on the motor casing. The design adopts bidirectional calibration arm, it can decrease the effect of extra torque to ensure the test precision of automobile chassis dynamometer surface traction

  13. Test bed for real-time image acquisition and processing systems based on FlexRIO, CameraLink, and EPICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, E., E-mail: [Grupo de Investigación en Instrumentación y Acústica Aplicada, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM) (Spain); Ruiz, M.; Sanz, D. [Grupo de Investigación en Instrumentación y Acústica Aplicada, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM) (Spain); Vega, J.; Castro, R. [Asociación EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusión, Madrid (Spain); Juárez, E.; Salvador, R. [Centro de Investigación en Tecnologías Software y Sistemas Multimedia para la Sostenibilidad, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM) (Spain)


    Highlights: • The test bed allows for the validation of real-time image processing techniques. • Offers FPGA (FlexRIO) image processing that does not require CPU intervention. • Is fully compatible with the architecture of the ITER Fast Controllers. • Provides flexibility and easy integration in distributed experiments based on EPICS. - Abstract: Image diagnostics are becoming standard ones in nuclear fusion. At present, images are typically analyzed off-line. However, real-time processing is occasionally required (for instance, hot-spot detection or pattern recognition tasks), which will be the objective for the next generation of fusion devices. In this paper, a test bed for image generation, acquisition, and real-time processing is presented. The proposed solution is built using a Camera Link simulator, a Camera Link frame-grabber, a PXIe chassis, and offers software interface with EPICS. The Camera Link simulator (PCIe card PCIe8 DVa C-Link from Engineering Design Team) generates simulated image data (for example, from video-movies stored in fusion databases) using a Camera Link interface to mimic the frame sequences produced with diagnostic cameras. The Camera Link frame-grabber (FlexRIO Solution from National Instruments) includes a field programmable gate array (FPGA) for image acquisition using a Camera Link interface; the FPGA allows for the codification of ad-hoc image processing algorithms using LabVIEW/FPGA software. The frame grabber is integrated in a PXIe chassis with system architecture similar to that of the ITER Fast Controllers, and the frame grabber provides a software interface with EPICS to program all of its functionalities, capture the images, and perform the required image processing. The use of these four elements allows for the implementation of a test bed system that permits the development and validation of real-time image processing techniques in an architecture that is fully compatible with that of the ITER Fast Controllers

  14. Converting Carbon Dioxide to Butyrate with an Engineered Strain of Clostridium ljungdahlii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueki, T; Nevin, KP; Woodard, TL; Lovley, DR


    Microbial conversion of carbon dioxide to organic commodities via syngas metabolism or microbial electrosynthesis is an attractive option for production of renewable biocommodities. The recent development of an initial genetic toolbox for the acetogen Clostridium ljungdahlii has suggested that C. ljungdahlii may be an effective chassis for such conversions. This possibility was evaluated by engineering a strain to produce butyrate, a valuable commodity that is not a natural product of C. ljungdahlii metabolism. Heterologous genes required for butyrate production from acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) were identified and introduced initially on plasmids and in subsequent strain designs integrated into the C. ljungdahlii chromosome. Iterative strain designs involved increasing translation of a key enzyme by modifying a ribosome binding site, inactivating the gene encoding the first step in the conversion of acetyl-CoA to acetate, disrupting the gene which encodes the primary bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase for ethanol production, and interrupting the gene for a CoA transferase that potentially represented an alternative route for the production of acetate. These modifications yielded a strain in which ca. 50 or 70% of the carbon and electron flow was diverted to the production of butyrate with H-2 or CO as the electron donor, respectively. These results demonstrate the possibility of producing high-value commodities from carbon dioxide with C. ljungdahlii as the catalyst. IMPORTANCE The development of a microbial chassis for efficient conversion of carbon dioxide directly to desired organic products would greatly advance the environmentally sustainable production of biofuels and other commodities. Clostridium ljungdahlii is an effective catalyst for microbial electrosynthesis, a technology in which electricity generated with renewable technologies, such as solar or wind, powers the conversion of carbon dioxide and water to organic products. Other electron donors

  15. Impact of an evaluation quality program of mammography service of Distrito Federal - Brasil; Impacto de um programa de avaliacao da qualidade dos servicos de mamografia do Distrito Federal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Rosangela da Silveira


    Cancer is the second cause of death for Brazilian women and breast cancer is the most common neoplasm amongst women. Mammography is an essential tool for diagnosis and early detection of this disease. In order to be effective, the mammography must be of good quality. This study sought to evaluate the quality of these services in the Federal District and the impact of an intervention involving inspection and education. The universe of 41 mammography services in the Federal District was studied between June and August 2001. Two instruments were used 1) a proposed evaluation protocol of the National Agency for Health Surveillance (ANVISA) and 2) a protocol for evaluation of image quality and care. The intervention included the initial inspection, a training activity, and a formal notification by the health authorities of the Federal District. Image quality was compared before and after the intervention. The existing infrastructure in the DF is of good quality, but the services have low productivity, they do not treat patients sent by the public health system, they have an inadequate geographic distribution with most in the central neighborhood, and the low income female population has restricted access to early detection of cancer. Of the 36 services who completed the study, none was above 90% conformity in image quality before the interventions, whereas 10 were above 90% afterwards. The greatest improvements were in chassis maintenance (services without chassis with defects went from 10 to 25), breast compression (services in conformity went from 7 to 20) and visualization of micro calcifications (32 services in conformity before and 35 afterwards). The results of the ANVISA protocol bore no relation to final image quality, a central issue for early cancer detection. In spite of the existence of many services, most were not of quality and population access was restricted. The intervention under study was shown to be effective for improving quality, nevertheless

  16. Desenvolvimento e testes de uma semeadora-adubadora modular para pequenas propriedades rurais Development and test of a modular seeder - fertilizer for small countryside properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Arend


    Full Text Available O trabalho apresenta o desenvolvimento e testes de campo de equipamento agrícola modular. Para o desenvolvimento do equipamento, foi utilizada metodologia de projeto para sistemas modulares. O objetivo principal foi desenvolver um sistema modular que contribuísse para melhorar o atual quadro de mecanização agrícola da pequena propriedade rural, enfocando alguns dos equipamentos destinados às atividades conservacionistas de cultivo. Por ser modular, o equipamento atende às funções de semear-adubar, escarificar e sulcar o solo. Para a função semear-adubar, podem ser usados cinzéis e disco duplo para a semeadura; já para as funções de escarificação e sulcagem, podem ser usadas ferramentas específicas, facilmente intercambiadas em um chassi tubular principal. Os resultados para solo argiloso (Typic Oxisols, com umidade em torno de 20,5% e massa seca de 11,5 t ha-1 para a variante semeadora-adubadora com duplo cinzel, foram satisfatórios com relação aos parâmetros de patinagem das rodas motoras, regularidade de distribuição em profundidade, cobertura das sementes, distribuição longitudinal das sementes e emergência de plantas.This work presents the development and field tests of a modular agricultural implement. A Modular Design Product methodology was used for the implement development, and the main objective was the development of a modular system to improve the actual situation of mechanization on small countryside properties. The development focus was kept on some implements for conservative cultivation. For its modularity, the implement developed attained the functions of seeding - fertilizing, scarification and furrowing the soil. For the function of seeding-fertilizing can be used either narrow chisels or double disc, for the furrowing function a specific tool can be used. The main tubular chassis allowed an easily interchangeability between both functions (seed-season and furrow-season. The results for Typical

  17. LG360/60F车橇式连续管作业机的研制%Development of the LG360/60F Truck-skid CTU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹和平; 谭多鸿; 刘寿军; 张志海; 周忠城; 吴大飞


    The LG360/60F truck-skid coiled tubing unit (CTU) is developed specially for the severe natural environment and operating conditions in Qinghai Oilfield. The chassis of the overall unit has a strong cross-country capacity. The unit adopts a sinking chassis design and low center of gravity with smooth running and high reliabili- ty. It consists of one truck and one skid. The hydraulically lifted control room, sinking quickly replaceable CT reel, power and hydraulic source system and three hose reels are installed on the truck. The fixed injector head, groose- neck, blowout prevention system and auxiliary parts are installed in the top lifting skid in transportation. It can work continuously in the dry environment and wind-sand weather conditions. The field application shows that the low gear of the unit reaches the maximum CT tripping speed of 22 m/rain in operation. The lowering depth is 1 452 m. The operation and control of the equipment are normal, reaching the design standard.%LG360/60F车橇式连续管作业机是针对青海油田恶劣的自然环境和作业工况而专门研制的,整机底盘车越野能力强,采取不沉式底盘设计,重心较低,运行平稳,可靠性高。车上安装有可液压升降的控制室、下沉式可快换的连续管滚筒、动力及液压源系统及3个软管滚筒;顶吊式隧座,在运输时安装固定注入头、导向器、防喷系统及辅件等部件。它能够在干燥环境和风沙气候条件下连续作业。现场应用情况表明,该作业机在作业中,低速挡最大走管速度达到22m/min,下井深度1452m,设备运行与控制正常,达到了设计标准。

  18. Recombinant jacalin-like plant lectins are produced at high levels in Nicotiana benthamiana and retain agglutination activity and sugar specificity. (United States)

    Fernandez-del-Carmen, Asun; Juárez, Paloma; Presa, Silvia; Granell, Antonio; Orzáez, Diego


    The plant kingdom is an underexplored source of valuable proteins which, like plant lectins, display unique interacting specificities. Furthermore, plant protein diversity remains under-exploited due to the low availability and heterogeneity of native sources. All these hurdles could be overcome with recombinant production. A narrow phylogenetic gap between the native source and the recombinant platform is likely to facilitate proper protein processing and stability; therefore, the plant cell chassis should be specially suited for the recombinant production of many plant native proteins. This is illustrated herein with the recombinant production of two representatives of the plant jacalin-related lectin (JRLs) protein family in Nicotiana benthamiana using state-of-the-art magnICON technology. Mannose-specific Banlec JRL was produced at very high levels in leaves, reaching 1.0mg of purified protein per gram of fresh weight and showing strong agglutination activity. Galactose-specific jacalin JRL, with its complicated processing requirements, was also successfully produced in N. benthamiana at levels of 0.25 mg of purified protein per gram of fresh weight. Recombinant Jacalin (rJacalin) proved efficient in the purification of human IgA1, and was able to discriminate between plant-made and native IgA1 due to their differential glycosylation status. Together, these results show that the plant cell factory should be considered a primary option in the recombinant production of valuable plant proteins.

  19. Construction of a Special Mobile Robot that Uses a Special Travelling Wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brabec Pavel


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the engineering design of a solution of a mobile robot that uses a special travelling wheel for transmission of motive power onto a surface. It further explains the principle of a vehicle travelling wheel that – according to an actual situation of the surface – changes the way of the wheel movement on the surface. The work content in our workplace is the engineering design of the solution of a mobile robot frame which uses a special travelling wheel pursuant to our patent to transfer the driving force onto the surface. This travelling wheel is able to transform and adapt to the driving conditions. Since it is an unmanned ground robot, not so common technical solutions can be used. Because it is also meant to be used in a rough terrain, the concept of four-wheel drive has been chosen and a four-wheel chassis has been designed to make it more simple. In terms of need of excellent handling and movement fluency, all four wheels will be directionally steered (4WS and will be placed as much in the frame corners as possible in order to have a space for 90° steer angle.

  20. A profile design based on curvature parameters optimization for omni-direction wheel rollers%运用曲率参数优化的全向轮滚子廓形设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈骏; 周建军


    Introduced the structure of omni-direction wheel which is current used in the mobile robot field,and analyzed the reason which caused the bumpy of the mobile robot chassis. Based on the wheels and ground contact condition,present a way to modify the curved surface of rollers. Some local modification on the curvature radius of the rollers by means of using parabolic curve instead of the circular arc, and realized the height between the ODW axis and ground nearly unchanged. The Hertz contact theory and finite element method verified the result of the computation.%介绍了目前应用于移动机器人领域的全向轮结构,分析了由于全向轮自身结构而引起机器人移动底盘颠簸的原因,依据轮子与地面的接触状况,提出了一种对全向轮滚子外廓进行曲面修形的方法.用抛物线代替滚子廓形的圆弧曲线,对廓形曲率半径做局部修改,实现全向轮整体与地面接触高度基本不变.采用Hertz接触理论和有限元方法,验证了修形的理论计算结果正确.

  1. Kinematic and dynamic analysis of the McPherson suspension with a planar quarter-car model (United States)

    Hurel, Jorge; Mandow, Anthony; García-Cerezo, Alfonso


    McPherson suspension modelling poses a challenging problem due to its nonlinear asymmetric behaviour. The paper proposes a planar quarter-car analytical model that not only considers vertical motion of the sprung mass (chassis) but also: (i) rotation and translation for the unsprung mass (wheel assembly), (ii) wheel mass and its inertia moment about the longitudinal axis, and (iii) tyre damping and lateral deflection. This kinematic-dynamic model offers a solution to two important shortcomings of the conventional quarter-car model: it accounts for geometry and for tyre modelling. The paper offers a systematic development of the planar model as well as the complete set of mathematical equations. This analytical model can be suitable for fast computation in hardware-in-the-loop applications. Furthermore, a reproducible Simulink implementation is given. The model has been compared with a realistic Adams/View simulation to analyse dynamic behaviour for the jounce and rebound motion of the wheel and two relevant kinematic parameters: camber angle and track width variation.

  2. [The treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms by use of endovascular prosthesis and classic vascular prosthesis]. (United States)

    Pupka, Artur; Szyber, Przemysław P; Janczak, Dariusz; Pawłowski, Stanisław; Szyber, Piotr


    The abdominal aortic aneurysm is a dilatation of infrarenal part of aorta. Its ethiology is still unknown. An infection and congenital disorders of conjunctive tissue are regarded as the main risc factors. Other factors could be a perimural thrombus and elastin and colagen degradation. It's not proved that atheromatosis is a risc factor. The disease concerns mainly the old males. Not treated aneurysm grows until rupture. The aneurysms are usually asympthomatic. Majority of them are found incidentally. Ultrasonography and computed tomography are used to extended diagnosis. The open surgery or endovascular surgery are only possible ways of treatment. The aneurysm with diameter over 55 milimeters, sympthomatic or rupted is an indication for surgery. The aim of the open surgery is implantation of the vascular prosthesis into retroperitoneal space. Endovascular method consist in placement of stent-graft in the lumen of aneurysm through small incision in a peripherial vessel. Stent-graft consists of metal chassis covered by classic vascular prosthesis. This method still requires the long-term assessment.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darlan Almeida Barroso


    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo o estudo do balancim, um dispositivo da suspensão do veículo Fórmula SAE que recebe os esforços oriundos do movimento de rolagem do veículo e os transmite para a estrutura do chassi de uma forma minimizada por uma relação de momento e suavizada pelo conjunto mola – amortecedor. Realiza-se uma revisão sobre parâmetros usados em dinâmica veicular e uma análise geométrica das forças e dos esforços provocados por tais. Em seguida, faz-se a análise pelo método dos elementos finitos, que utiliza a teoria de discretização de sistemas e analisa a resistência do componente baseado na energia de distorção, determinando a tensão máxima sofrida pelo componente e a região de maior solicitação e o fator de segurança para um carregamento estático

  4. Poređenje odziva piezoelektričnih i induktivnih davača ubrzanja na mehaničke udare i postprocesno dobijanje pomeranja / The comparison of the response of piezoelectric and inductive acceleration gauges on mechanical impacts and the postprocesual obtaining of displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snežana Jovanović


    Full Text Available U ovom radu razmatrano je merenje ubrzanja nastalih usled mehaničkih udara i post-procesno izračunavanje pomaka. Rezultati i zapažanja iz realnih opita eksperimentalno su provereni na etalonskim mašinama za vibracije i potrese. Na osnovu upoređenja zaključeno je daje za merenje ubrzanja (na konstrukciji borbenog vozila usled mehaničkih udara bolje koristiti induktivne davače i da izračunavanje pomaka iz izrazito aperiodičnih signala ubrzanja nije relevantno. / This paper presents measuring the acceleration of mechanical impacts and the postprocesual calculating of displacement. The results and observations of the tests have been evaluated on machines for vibrations and quakes. The following conclusions were drawn out of comparisons: it is better to use inductive transducers for the acceleration measurement of combat vehicles chassis because of mechanical impacts; the displacement calculation from high aperiodical acceleration signals is not relevant.

  5. 鲁辽滚装船甩挂运输的业务流程设计%Design of Business Process of Ro-ro Drop & Pull Transportation in Shandong-Liaoning Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In this paper, on the basis of the basic theory concerning the ro-ro drop & pull transportation, and the practice of this transportation mode both in China and abroad, we discussed the characteristics and prerequisite for its implementation in the Shandong-Liaoning region, presented the operational process for different vehicles under this mode, and at the end presented the ro-ro container shipping process of low-chassis trucks used specially at terminals.%在阐述滚装船甩挂运输的基本理论和国内外滚装运输的基础上,针对鲁辽滚装船开展甩挂运输的特点,论述了开展滚装船甩挂运输的前提条件。分析了厢式、敞式、仓栅式、平板半挂车和罐式半挂车的滚装船甩挂运输流程,提出了采用专用码头低底盘车装载集装箱进行滚装船运输的流程。

  6. Suit Port Aft Bulkhead Mockup Test Results and Lessons Learned (United States)

    Romig, Barbara A.; Allton, Charles


    The Small Pressurized Rover (SPR) is currently being carried as an integral part of the current Lunar Surface Architectures under consideration in the Constellation program. One element of the SPR is the suit port, the means by which the crew performs Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). Two suit port deliverables were produced in fiscal year 2008: an aft bulkhead mockup for functional integrated testing with the 1-G SPR mockup and a functional and pressurizable engineering unit. This paper focuses on the test results and lessons learned on the aft bulkhead mockup. The suit port aft bulkhead mockup was integrated with the mockup of the SPR cabin and chassis. It is located on the aft bulkhead of the SPR cabin structure and includes hatches, a locking mechanism, seals, interior and exterior suit don/doff aids, and exterior platforms to accommodate different crewmember heights. A lightweight mockup of the Mark III suit was tested with the suit port aft bulkhead mockup. There are several limitations to the suit port and mockup suits, and results of the suit port evaluation are presented and interpreted within the context of the limitations.

  7. Suit Port Aft Bulkhead Mockup 2008 Test Results (United States)

    Romig, Barbara A.; Allton, Charles S.; Litaker, Harry L.


    The Lunar Electric Rover (LER), formerly called the Small Pressurized Rover (SPR), is currently being carried as an integral part of the current Lunar Surface Architectures under consideration in the Constellation program. One element of the LER is the suit port, the means by which the crew performs Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). Two suit port deliverables were produced in fiscal year 2008: an aft bulkhead mockup for functional integrated testing with the 1-G LER mockup and a functional and pressurizable Engineering Unit (EU). This paper focuses on the aft bulkhead mockup test results from Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS) October 2008 testing at Black Point Lava Flow (BPLF), Arizona. Refer to 39th International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES) for test results of the EU. The suit port aft bulkhead mockup was integrated with the mockup of the LER cabin and chassis. It is located on the aft bulkhead of the LER cabin structure and includes hatches, a locking mechanism, seals, interior and exterior suit don/doff aids, and exterior platforms to accommodate different crewmember heights. A lightweight mockup of the Mark III suit was tested with the suit port aft bulkhead mockup. There are several limitations to the suit port and mockup suits, and results of the suit port evaluation are presented and interpreted within the context of the limitations.

  8. Application of neural models as controllers in mobile robot velocity control loop (United States)

    Cerkala, Jakub; Jadlovska, Anna


    This paper presents the application of an inverse neural models used as controllers in comparison to classical PI controllers for velocity tracking control task used in two-wheel, differentially driven mobile robot. The PI controller synthesis is based on linear approximation of actuators with equivalent load. In order to obtain relevant datasets for training of feed-forward multi-layer perceptron based neural network used as neural model, the mathematical model of mobile robot, that combines its kinematic and dynamic properties such as chassis dimensions, center of gravity offset, friction and actuator parameters is used. Neural models are trained off-line to act as an inverse dynamics of DC motors with particular load using data collected in simulation experiment for motor input voltage step changes within bounded operating area. The performances of PI controllers versus inverse neural models in mobile robot internal velocity control loops are demonstrated and compared in simulation experiment of navigation control task for line segment motion in plane.

  9. Effects of Air Conditioner Use on Real-World Fuel Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, Shean P [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL


    Vehicle data were acquired on-road and on a chassis dynamometer to assess fuel consumption under several steady cruise conditions and at idle. Data were gathered for various air conditioner (A/C) settings and with the A/C off and the windows open. Two vehicles were used in the comparisonstudy: a 2009 Ford Explorer and a 2009 Toyota Corolla. At steady speeds between 64.4 and 112.7 kph (40 and 70 mph), both vehicles consumed more fuel with the A/C on at maximum cooling load (compressor at 100% duty cycle) than when driving with the windows down. The Explorer maintained this trend beyond 112.7 kph (70 mph), while the Corolla fuel consumption with the windows down matched that of running the A/C at 120.7 kph (75 mph), and exceeded it at 128.7 kph (80 mph). The largest incremental fuel consumption rate penalty due to air conditioner use occurred was nearly constant with a weakslight trend of increasing consumption with increasing compressor (and vehicle) speed. Lower consumption is seenobserved at idle for both vehicles, likely due to the low compressor speed at this operating point

  10. Cloning-free genome engineering in Sinorhizobium meliloti advances applications of Cre/loxP site-specific recombination. (United States)

    Döhlemann, Johannes; Brennecke, Meike; Becker, Anke


    The soil-dwelling α-proteobacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti serves as model for studies of symbiotic nitrogen fixation, a highly important process in sustainable agriculture. Here, we report advancements of the genetic toolbox accelerating genome editing in S. meliloti. The hsdMSR operon encodes a type-I restriction-modification (R-M) system. Transformation of S. meliloti is counteracted by the restriction endonuclease HsdR degrading DNA which lacks the appropriate methylation pattern. We provide a stable S. meliloti hsdR deletion mutant showing enhanced transformation with Escherichia coli-derived plasmid DNA and demonstrate that using an E. coli plasmid donor, expressing S. meliloti methyl transferase genes, is an alternative strategy of increasing the transformation efficiency of S. meliloti. Furthermore, we devise a novel cloning-free genome editing (CFGE) method for S. meliloti, Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Xanthomonas campestris, and demonstrate the applicability of this method for intricate applications of the Cre/lox recombination system in S. meliloti. An enhanced Cre/lox system, allowing for serial deletions of large genomic regions, was established. An assay of lox spacer mutants identified a set of lox sites mediating specific recombination. The availability of several non-promiscuous Cre recognition sites enables simultaneous specific Cre/lox recombination events. CFGE combined with Cre/lox recombination is put forward as powerful approach for targeted genome editing, involving serial steps of manipulation to expedite the genetic accessibility of S. meliloti as chassis.

  11. Use of a vehicle-modelling tool for predicting CO 2 emissions in the framework of European regulations for light goods vehicles (United States)

    Fontaras, Georgios; Kouridis, Hariton; Samaras, Zissis; Elst, Daniel; Gense, Raymond

    The reduction of CO 2 emissions and fuel consumption from road transportation constitutes an important pillar of the EU commitment for implementing the Kyoto Protocol. Efforts to monitor and limit CO 2 emissions from vehicles can effectively be supported by the use of vehicle modelling tools. This paper presents the application of such a tool for predicting CO 2 emissions of vehicles under different operating conditions and shows how the results from simulations can be used for supporting policy analysis and design aiming at further reductions of the CO 2 emissions. For this purpose, the case of light duty goods (N1 category) vehicle CO 2 emissions control measures adopted by the EU is analysed. In order to understand how certain design and operating aspects affect fuel consumption, a number of N1 vehicles were simulated with ADVISOR for various operating conditions and the numerical results were validated against chassis dynamometer tests. The model was then employed for analysing and evaluating the new EU legislative framework that addresses CO 2 emissions from this vehicle class. The results of this analysis have shown the weaknesses of the current regulations and revealed new potential in CO 2 emissions control. Finally the TREMOVE model was used for simulating a possible scenario for reducing CO 2 emissions at fleet level.

  12. Modeling and Simulation of integrated steering and braking control for vehicle active safety system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beibei Zhang


    Full Text Available Active chassis systems like braking, steering, suspension and propulsion systems are increasingly entering the market. In addition to their basic functions, these systems may be used for functions of integrated vehicle dynamics control. An experimental platform which aims to study the integration control of steering and braking is designed due to the research requirement of vehicle active safety control strategy in this paper. A test vehicle which is equipped with the systems of steer-by-wire and brake-bywire is provided and the Autobox, combined with Matlab/simulink and MSCCarsim, is used to fulfill the RCP (Rapid Control Prototyping and HIL (Hardware-in-loop. The seven-freedom vehicle model is constructed first and the approach of vehicle parameters estimation based on the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF is proposed. Testing the vehicle state through the sensor has its own disadvantage that the cost is high and easily affected by environment outside. To find a actual method of receiving the vehicle state using the ready-made sensors in vehicle, the researchers put forward various estimation method, of which have advantages and disadvantages. Based on the above, this paper applies the EKF to estimate the vehicle state, making the actual estimation come true. The primary control methods and controller designment is carried out to prove the validation of the platform.

  13. Targeted Enhancement of H2 and CO2 Uptake for Autotrophic Production of Biodiesel in the Lithoautotrophic Bacterium Ralsonia Eutropha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert, C. A.; Sullivan, R.; Johnson, C.; Yu, J.; Maness, P. C.


    CO2 and H2 are promising feedstocks for production of valuable biocompounds. Ralstonia eutropha utilizes these feedstocks to generate energy (ATP) and reductant (NAD(P)H) via oxidation of H2 by a membrane-bound (MBH) and a soluble hydrogenase (SH) for CO2 fixation by the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle. Increased expression of the enzyme that fixes CO2 (RubisCO) resulted in 6-fold activity improvement in vitro, while increased expression of the MBH operon or the SH operon plus MBH operon maturation factors necessary for activity resulted in a 10-fold enhancement. Current research involves genetic manipulation of two endogenous cbb operons for increased expression, analysis of expression and activity of CBB/MBH/SH, cofactor ratios, and downstream products during autotrophic growth in control versus enhanced strains, and development of strategies for long-term, optimal overexpression. These studies will improve our understanding of autotrophic metabolism and provide a chassis strain for autotrophic production of biodiesel and other valuable carbon biocompounds.

  14. Determination of alternative fuels combustion products: Phase 3 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitney, K.A. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)


    This report describes the laboratory efforts to characterize particulate and gaseous exhaust emissions from a passenger vehicle operating on alternative fuels. Tests were conducted at room temperature (nominally 72 F) and 20 F utilizing the chassis dynamometer portion of the FTP for light-duty vehicles. Fuels evaluated include Federal RFG, LPG meeting HD-5 specifications, a national average blend of CNG, E85, and M85. Exhaust particulate generated at room temperature was further characterized to determine polynuclear aromatic content, trace element content, and trace organic constituents. For all fuels except M85, the room temperature particulate emission rate from this vehicle was about 2 to 3 mg/mile. On M85, the particulate emission rate was more than 6 mg/mile. In addition, elemental analysis of particulate revealed an order of magnitude more sulfur and calcium from M85 than any other fuel. The sulfur and calcium indicate that these higher emissions might be due to engine lubricating oil in the exhaust. For RFG, particulate emissions at 20 F were more than six times higher than at room temperature. For alcohol fuels, particulate emissions at 20 F were two to three times higher than at room temperature. For CNG and LPG, particulate emissions were virtually the same at 72 F and 20 F. However, PAH emissions from CNG and LPG were higher than expected. Both gaseous fuels had larger amounts of pyrene, 1-nitropyrene, and benzo(g,h,i)perylene in their emissions than the other fuels.

  15. 浅谈新一代三核处理器AURIX的应用%On the Application of A New Generation of Triple-core Processor AURIX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张薇; 王维志


    Nowadays, from the application level, the core control unit of automotive electronics (ECU) has not only control the active or passive mobile security equipment, engine or generator management, chassis, engine and body control, but gradually developed in car multimedia, entertainment, video and communications systems, etc.. So the paper introduces an electronic chip (AURIX) by the Infineon Corporation promoted in the China.%当今汽车电子的核心控制单元也就是ECU从应用层面来看已经不单单控制主(被)动式安全设备、发动(电)机管理、底盘、引擎与车身控制,而是逐渐开发车载式的多媒体、娱乐、影音与通讯系统等附加功能.这里介绍由英飞凌公司在国内开始推广的一款电子芯片——AURIX.

  16. Final report for the Advanced Natural Gas Vehicle Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Wozniak


    The project objective was to develop the technologies necessary to prototype a dedicated compressed natural gas (CNG) powered, mid-size automobile with operational capabilities comparable to gasoline automobiles. A system approach was used to design and develop the engine, gas storage system and vehicle packaging. The 2.4-liter DOHC engine was optimized for natural gas operation with high-compression pistons, hardened exhaust valves, a methane-specific catalytic converter and multi-point gaseous injection. The chassis was repackaging to increase space for fuel storage with a custom-designed, cast-aluminum, semi-trailing arm rear suspension system, a revised flat trunk sheet-metal floorpan and by equipping the car with run-flat tires. An Integrated Storage system (ISS) was developed using all-composite, small-diameter cylinders encapsulated within a high-strength fiberglass shell with impact-absorbing foam. The prototypes achieved the target goals of a city/highway driving range of 300 miles, ample trunk capacity, gasoline vehicle performance and ultra low exhaust emissions.

  17. Computer cooling using a two phase minichannel thermosyphon loop heated from horizontal and vertical sides and cooled from vertical side (United States)

    Bieliński, Henryk; Mikielewicz, Jarosław


    In the present paper it is proposed to consider the computer cooling capacity using the thermosyphon loop. A closed thermosyphon loop consists of combined two heaters and a cooler connected to each other by tubes. The first heater may be a CPU processor located on the motherboard of the personal computer. The second heater may be a chip of a graphic card placed perpendicular to the motherboard of personal computer. The cooler can be placed above the heaters on the computer chassis. The thermosyphon cooling system on the use of computer can be modeled using the rectangular thermosyphon loop with minichannels heated at the bottom horizontal side and the bottom vertical side and cooled at the upper vertical side. The riser and a downcomer connect these parts. A one-dimensional model of two-phase flow and heat transfer in a closed thermosyphon loop is based on mass, momentum, and energy balances in the evaporators, rising tube, condenser and the falling tube. The separate two-phase flow model is used in calculations. A numerical investigation for the analysis of the mass flux rate and heat transfer coefficient in the steady state has been accomplished.

  18. The fire brigade renovates

    CERN Multimedia


    The new fire engine at CERN's Fire Station. A shiny brand-new fire engine is now attracting all the attention of the members of CERN's fire brigade. Since the beginning of last week this engine has taken over from an 18-year-old one, which has now been 'retired' from service. This modern vehicle, built in Brescia, Italy, is much lighter and more powerful than the old one and is equipped to allow the fire service to tackle most call-outs without the support of at least one other vehicle, as is currently necessary. The new fire engine is designed to transport six fire-fighters, 2000 litres of water, and is equipped not only for fire fighting actions but also to respond initially to any other kind of call-out, such as traffic accidents, chemical incidents, pollution, lightning, etc. It goes almost without saying that it is provided with the most modern safety measures, a low centre of gravity, as well as a special chassis and a combination pump (low and high pressure), which improve the safety and performance ...

  19. Semi-active engine mount design using auxiliary magneto-rheological fluid compliance chamber (United States)

    Mansour, H.; Arzanpour, S.; Golnaraghi, M. F.; Parameswaran, A. M.


    Engine mounts are used in the automotive industry to isolate engine and chassis by reducing the noise and vibration imposed from one to the other. This paper describes modelling, simulation and design of a semi-active engine mount that is designed specifically to address the complicated vibration pattern of variable displacement engines (VDE). The ideal isolation for VDE requires the stiffness to be switchable upon cylinder activation/deactivation operating modes. In order to have a modular design, the same hydraulic engine mount components are maintained and a novel auxiliary magneto-rheological (MR) fluid chamber is developed and retrofitted inside the pumping chamber. The new compliance chamber is a controllable pressure regulator, which can effectively alter the dynamic performance of the mount. Switching between different modes happens by turning the electrical current to the MR chamber magnetic coil on and off. A model has been developed for the passive hydraulic mount and then it is extended to include the MR auxiliary chamber as well. A proof-of-concept prototype of the design has been fabricated which validates the mathematical model. The results demonstrate unique capability of the developed semi-active mount to be used for VDE application.

  20. 基于Benchmarking技术的汽车侧面碰撞建模与仿真试验%Modeling and Simulation Test of Car Side Impact Based on Benchmarking Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐中明; 张亮; 范体强; 赵清江


    介绍了Benchmarking技术的概念和基本工作流程,并根据某车型所进行的Benchmarking数据,建立了包括车身结构、发动机和底盘系统在内的整车有限元分析模型.根据ECE R95法规进行了整车侧面碰撞仿真试验,通过对比仿真试验的结果与实车侧面碰撞试验的结果,验证了模型的有效性.本文的研究方法为Benchmarking技术在汽车碰撞安全分析上的应用提供了参考.%The concept and working process of benchmarking technology are introduced. According to a car benchmarking data,the finite element analysis model of a full-scale passenger car is developed, including body structure, engine and chassis system. Subsequently, the simulation test of the car side impact is conducted according to ECE R95 regulation. And the model is verified by comparing the results of simulation and test, reference of using benchmarking technology in the car crash safety analysis is provided by this research method.

  1. Articulated navigation testbed (ANT): an example of adaptable intrinsic mobility (United States)

    Brosinsky, Chris A.; Hanna, Doug M.; Penzes, Steven G.


    An important but oft overlooked aspect of any robotic system is the synergistic benefit of designing the chassis to have high intrinsic mobility which complements rather than limits, its system capabilities. This novel concept continues to be investigated by the Defence Research Establishment Suffield (DRES) with the Articulated Navigation Testbed (ANT) Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV). The ANT demonstrates high mobility through the combination of articulated steering and a hybrid locomotion scheme which utilizes individually powered wheels on the edge of rigid legs; legs which are capable of approximately 450 degrees of rotation. The configuration can be minimally configured as a 4x4 and modularly expanded to 6x6, 8x8, and so on. This enhanced mobility configuration permits pose control and novel maneuvers such as stepping, bridging, crawling, etc. Resultant mobility improvements, particularly in unstructured and off-road environments, will reduce the resolution with which the UGV sensor systems must perceive its surroundings and decreases the computational requirements of the UGV's perception systems1 for successful semi-autonomous or autonomous terrain negotiation. This paper reviews critical vehicle developments leading up to the ANT concept, describes the basis for its configuration and speculates on the impact of the intrinsic mobility concept for UGV effectiveness.

  2. Off-road perception testbed vehicle design and evaluation (United States)

    Spofford, John R.; Herron, Jennifer B.; Anhalt, David J.; Morgenthaler, Matthew K.; DeHerrera, Clinton


    Off-road robotics efforts such as DARPA"s PerceptOR program have motivated the development of testbed vehicles capable of sustained operation in a variety of terrain and environments. This paper describes the retrofitting of a minimally-modified ATV chassis into such a testbed which has been used by multiple programs for autonomous mobility development and sensor characterization. Modular mechanical interfaces for sensors and equipment enclosures enabled integration of multiple payload configurations. The electric power subsystem was capable of short-term operation on batteries with refueled generation for continuous operation. Processing subsystems were mounted in sealed, shock-dampened enclosures with heat exchangers for internal cooling to protect against external dust and moisture. The computational architecture was divided into a real-time vehicle control layer and an expandable high level processing and perception layer. The navigation subsystem integrated real time kinematic GPS with a three-axis IMU for accurate vehicle localization and sensor registration. The vehicle software system was based on the MarsScape architecture developed under DARPA"s MARS program. Vehicle mobility software capabilities included route planning, waypoint navigation, teleoperation, and obstacle detection and avoidance. The paper describes the vehicle design in detail and summarizes its performance during field testing.

  3. Chemical and toxicological properties of emissions from CNG transit buses equipped with three-way catalysts compared to lean-burn engines and oxidation catalyst technologies (United States)

    Yoon, Seungju; Hu, Shaohua; Kado, Norman Y.; Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Collins, John F.; Gautam, Mridul; Herner, Jorn D.; Ayala, Alberto


    Chemical and toxicological properties of emissions from compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled transit buses with stoichiometric combustion engines and three-way catalyst (TWC) exhaust control systems were measured using a chassis dynamometer testing facility and compared to the data from earlier CNG engine and exhaust control technologies. Gaseous and particulate matter emissions from buses with stoichiometric engines and TWC were significantly lower than the emissions from buses with lean-burn engines. Carbonyls and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from buses with stoichiometric engines and TWC were lower by more than 99% compared to buses with lean-burn engines. Elemental and organic carbons (EC and OC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and trace elements from buses with stoichiometric engines and TWC were effectively controlled and significantly lower than the emissions from buses with lean-burn engines. Potential mutagenicity measured using a microsuspension modification of the Salmonella/microsome assay was lower by more than 99% for buses with stoichiometric engines and TWC, compared to buses with lean-burn engines and OxC.

  4. Mars Science Laboratory Rover System Thermal Test (United States)

    Novak, Keith S.; Kempenaar, Joshua E.; Liu, Yuanming; Bhandari, Pradeep; Dudik, Brenda A.


    On November 26, 2011, NASA launched a large (900 kg) rover as part of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission to Mars. The MSL rover is scheduled to land on Mars on August 5, 2012. Prior to launch, the Rover was successfully operated in simulated mission extreme environments during a 16-day long Rover System Thermal Test (STT). This paper describes the MSL Rover STT, test planning, test execution, test results, thermal model correlation and flight predictions. The rover was tested in the JPL 25-Foot Diameter Space Simulator Facility at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The Rover operated in simulated Cruise (vacuum) and Mars Surface environments (8 Torr nitrogen gas) with mission extreme hot and cold boundary conditions. A Xenon lamp solar simulator was used to impose simulated solar loads on the rover during a bounding hot case and during a simulated Mars diurnal test case. All thermal hardware was exercised and performed nominally. The Rover Heat Rejection System, a liquid-phase fluid loop used to transport heat in and out of the electronics boxes inside the rover chassis, performed better than predicted. Steady state and transient data were collected to allow correlation of analytical thermal models. These thermal models were subsequently used to predict rover thermal performance for the MSL Gale Crater landing site. Models predict that critical hardware temperatures will be maintained within allowable flight limits over the entire 669 Sol surface mission.

  5. Landmark Finding Algorithms for Indoor Autonomous Mobile Robot Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Tóth


    Full Text Available This contribution is oriented to ways of computer vision algorithms for mobile robot localization in internal and external agricultural environment. The main aim of this work was to design, create, verify and evaluate speed and functionality of computer vision localization algorithm. An input colour camera data and depth data were captured by MS® Kinect sensor that was mounted on 6-wheel-drive mobile robot chassis. The design of the localization algorithm was focused to the most significant blobs and points (landmarks on the colour picture. Actual coordinates of autonomous mobile robot were calculated out from measured distances (depth sensor and calculated angles (RGB camera with respect to landmark points. Time measurement script was used to compare the speed of landmark finding algorithm for localization in case of one and more landmarks on picture. The main source code was written in MS Visual studio C# programming language with Microsoft.Kinect.1.7.dll on Windows based PC. Algorithms described in this article were created for a future development of an autonomous agronomical m obile robot localization and control.

  6. Geochemical markers and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in solvent extracts from diesel engine particulate matter. (United States)

    Fabiańska, Monika; Kozielska, Barbara; Bielaczyc, Piotr; Woodburn, Joseph; Konieczyński, Jan


    Exhaust particulate from compression ignition (CI) engines running on engine and chassis dynamometers was studied. Particulate dichloromethane extracts were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and biomarkers by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). PAH group profiles were made and the PAH group shares according to the number of rings (2 or 3; 4; 5 or more) as well as diagnostic indices were calculated. Values of geochemical ratios of selected biomarkers and alkyl aromatic hydrocarbons were compared with literature values. A geochemical interpretation was carried out using these values and biomarker and alkyl aromatic hydrocarbon distributions. It has been shown that geochemical features are unequivocally connected to the emission of fossil fuels and biofuels burned in CI engines. The effect of the exothermic combustion process is limited to low-molecular-weight compounds, which shows that the applied methodology permits source identification of PAHs coexisting in the particulate emitted.

  7. Real-time black carbon emission factor measurements from light duty vehicles. (United States)

    Forestieri, Sara D; Collier, Sonya; Kuwayama, Toshihiro; Zhang, Qi; Kleeman, Michael J; Cappa, Christopher D


    Eight light-duty gasoline low emission vehicles (LEV I) were tested on a Chassis dynamometer using the California Unified Cycle (UC) at the Haagen-Smit vehicle test facility at the California Air Resources Board in El Monte, CA during September 2011. The UC includes a cold start phase followed by a hot stabilized running phase. In addition, a light-duty gasoline LEV vehicle and ultralow emission vehicle (ULEV), and a light-duty diesel passenger vehicle and gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicle were tested on a constant velocity driving cycle. A variety of instruments with response times ≥0.1 Hz were used to characterize how the emissions of the major particulate matter components varied for the LEVs during a typical driving cycle. This study focuses primarily on emissions of black carbon (BC). These measurements allowed for the determination of BC emission factors throughout the driving cycle, providing insights into the temporal variability of BC emission factors during different phases of a typical driving cycle.

  8. Estimation of CO2 reduction by parallel hard-type power hybridization for gasoline and diesel vehicles. (United States)

    Oh, Yunjung; Park, Junhong; Lee, Jong Tae; Seo, Jigu; Park, Sungwook


    The purpose of this study is to investigate possible improvements in ICEVs by implementing fuzzy logic-based parallel hard-type power hybrid systems. Two types of conventional ICEVs (gasoline and diesel) and two types of HEVs (gasoline-electric, diesel electric) were generated using vehicle and powertrain simulation tools and a Matlab-Simulink application programming interface. For gasoline and gasoline-electric HEV vehicles, the prediction accuracy for four types of LDV models was validated by conducting comparative analysis with the chassis dynamometer and OBD test data. The predicted results show strong correlation with the test data. The operating points of internal combustion engines and electric motors are well controlled in the high efficiency region and battery SOC was well controlled within ±1.6%. However, for diesel vehicles, we generated virtual diesel-electric HEV vehicle because there is no available vehicles with similar engine and vehicle specifications with ICE vehicle. Using a fuzzy logic-based parallel hybrid system in conventional ICEVs demonstrated that HEVs showed superior performance in terms of fuel consumption and CO2 emission in most driving modes.

  9. Influence of Suspended Equipment on the Carbody Vertical Vibration Behaviour of High-Speed Railway Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitriu Mădălina


    Full Text Available The equipment mounted on the carbody chassis of the railway vehicles is a critical component of the vehicle in terms of ride comfort. The reason for that is their large mass, able to visibly influence the vibrations mode of the carbody. The paper examines the influence of the equipment upon the mode of vertical vibrations of the carbody in the high-speed vehicles, reached on the basis of the frequency response functions of the acceleration in three carbody reference points - at the centre and above the bogies. These functions are derived from the numerical simulations developed on a rigid-flexible coupled model, with seven degrees of freedom. As a rule, the results herein prove the influence of the equipment mounting mode (rigid or elastic, along with the speed regime, upon the level of vibrations in the carbody reference points, at the resonance frequency of the symmetrical bending mode. Similarly, it is also demonstrated how the equipment mass and the damping degree of the suspension system affect the level of the vibrations in the carbody.

  10. High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, Robert; McConnell, Elizabeth


    Machining methods across many industries generally require multiple operations to machine and process advanced materials, features with micron precision, and complex shapes. The resulting multiple machining platforms can significantly affect manufacturing cycle time and the precision of the final parts, with a resultant increase in cost and energy consumption. Ultrafast lasers represent a transformative and disruptive technology that removes material with micron precision and in a single step manufacturing process. Such precision results from athermal ablation without modification or damage to the remaining material which is the key differentiator between ultrafast laser technologies and traditional laser technologies or mechanical processes. Athermal ablation without modification or damage to the material eliminates post-processing or multiple manufacturing steps. Combined with the appropriate technology to control the motion of the work piece, ultrafast lasers are excellent candidates to provide breakthrough machining capability for difficult-to-machine materials. At the project onset in early 2012, the project team recognized that substantial effort was necessary to improve the application of ultrafast laser and precise motion control technologies (for micromachining difficult-to-machine materials) to further the aggregate throughput and yield improvements over conventional machining methods. The project described in this report advanced these leading-edge technologies thru the development and verification of two platforms: a hybrid enhanced laser chassis and a multi-application testbed.

  11. A comparison of two adaptive algorithms for the control of active engine mounts (United States)

    Hillis, A. J.; Harrison, A. J. L.; Stoten, D. P.


    This paper describes work conducted in order to control automotive active engine mounts, consisting of a conventional passive mount and an internal electromagnetic actuator. Active engine mounts seek to cancel the oscillatory forces generated by the rotation of out-of-balance masses within the engine. The actuator generates a force dependent on a control signal from an algorithm implemented with a real-time DSP. The filtered-x least-mean-square (FXLMS) adaptive filter is used as a benchmark for comparison with a new implementation of the error-driven minimal controller synthesis (Er-MCSI) adaptive controller. Both algorithms are applied to an active mount fitted to a saloon car equipped with a four-cylinder turbo-diesel engine, and have no a priori knowledge of the system dynamics. The steady-state and transient performance of the two algorithms are compared and the relative merits of the two approaches are discussed. The Er-MCSI strategy offers significant computational advantages as it requires no cancellation path modelling. The Er-MCSI controller is found to perform in a fashion similar to the FXLMS filter—typically reducing chassis vibration by 50-90% under normal driving conditions.

  12. Evaluation of the Benefits Attributable to Automotive Lighweight Materials Program Research and Development Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S.


    The purpose of this project is to identify and test methods appropriate for estimating the benefits attributable to research and development (R and D) projects funded by the Automotive Lightweight Materials (ALM) Program of the Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies (OAAT) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The program focuses on the development and validation of advanced lightweight materials technologies to significantly reduce automotive vehicle body and chassis weight without compromising other attributes such as safety, performance, recyclability, and cost. The work supports the goals of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Up to thirty percent of the improvement required to meet the PNGV goal of tripling vehicle fuel economy and much of its cost, safety, and recyclability goal depend on the lightweight materials. Funded projects range from basic materials science research to applied research in production environments. Collaborators on these projects include national laboratories, universities, and private sector firms, such as leading automobile manufacturers and their suppliers.

  13. Reconstruction and comparison of the metabolic potential of cyanobacteria Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. (United States)

    Saha, Rajib; Verseput, Alex T; Berla, Bertram M; Mueller, Thomas J; Pakrasi, Himadri B; Maranas, Costas D


    Cyanobacteria are an important group of photoautotrophic organisms that can synthesize valuable bio-products by harnessing solar energy. They are endowed with high photosynthetic efficiencies and diverse metabolic capabilities that confer the ability to convert solar energy into a variety of biofuels and their precursors. However, less well studied are the similarities and differences in metabolism of different species of cyanobacteria as they pertain to their suitability as microbial production chassis. Here we assemble, update and compare genome-scale models (iCyt773 and iSyn731) for two phylogenetically related cyanobacterial species, namely Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. All reactions are elementally and charge balanced and localized into four different intracellular compartments (i.e., periplasm, cytosol, carboxysome and thylakoid lumen) and biomass descriptions are derived based on experimental measurements. Newly added reactions absent in earlier models (266 and 322, respectively) span most metabolic pathways with an emphasis on lipid biosynthesis. All thermodynamically infeasible loops are identified and eliminated from both models. Comparisons of model predictions against gene essentiality data reveal a specificity of 0.94 (94/100) and a sensitivity of 1 (19/19) for the Synechocystis iSyn731 model. The diurnal rhythm of Cyanothece 51142 metabolism is modeled by constructing separate (light/dark) biomass equations and introducing regulatory restrictions over light and dark phases. Specific metabolic pathway differences between the two cyanobacteria alluding to different bio-production potentials are reflected in both models.

  14. Finite Element Analysis based Optimization of Magnetic Adhesion Module for Concrete Wall Climbing Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MD Omar faruq Howlader


    Full Text Available Wall climbing robot can provide easier accessibility to tall structures for Non Destructive Testing (NDT and improve working environments of human operators. However, existing adhesion mechanism for climbing robots such as vortex, electromagnet etc. are still at development stage and offer no feasible adhesion mechanism. As a result, few practical products have been developed for reinforced concrete surfaces, though wall-climbing robots have been researched for many years. This paper proposes a novel magnetic adhesion mechanism for wall-climbing robot for reinforced concrete surface. Mechanical design parameters such as distance between magnets, the yoke thickness, and magnet arrangements have been investigated by Finite Element Analysis (FEA. The adhesion module can be attached under the chassis of a prototype robot. The magnetic flux can penetrate maximum concrete cover of 30 mm and attain adhesion force of 121.26 N. The prototype provides high Force-to-Weight ratio compared to other reported permanent magnet based robotic systems. Both experiment and simulation results prove that the magnetic adhesion mechanism can generate efficient adhesion force for the climbing robot to operate on vertical reinforced concrete structures.

  15. Exhaust and evaporative emissions from motorcycles fueled with ethanol gasoline blends. (United States)

    Li, Lan; Ge, Yunshan; Wang, Mingda; Peng, Zihang; Song, Yanan; Zhang, Liwei; Yuan, Wanli


    The emission characteristics of motorcycles using gasoline and E10 (90% gasoline and 10% ethanol by volume) were investigated in this article. Exhaust and evaporative emissions of three motorcycles were investigated on the chassis dynamometer over the Urban Driving Cycle (UDC) and in the Sealed Housing for Evaporative Determination (SHED) including regulated and unregulated emissions. The regulated emissions were detected by an exhaust gas analyzer directly. The unregulated emissions including carbonyls and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were sampled through battery-operated air pumps using tubes coated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) and Tenax TA, respectively. The experimental results showed that the emission factors of total hydrocarbons (THC) and carbon monoxide (CO) from E10 fueling motorcycles decreased by 26%-45% and 63%-73%, while the emission factor of NOx increased by 36%-54% compared with those from gasoline fueling motorcycles. For unregulated emissions, the emission amount of VOCs from motorcycles fueled with E10 decreased by 18%-31% while total carbonyls were 2.6-4.5 times higher than those for gasoline. For evaporative emissions of THC and VOCs, for gasoline or E10, the diurnal breathing loss (DBL) was higher than hot soak loss (HSL). Using E10 as a fuel does not make much difference in the amount of evaporative THC, while resulted in a slightly growth of 14%-17% for evaporative BETX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene).

  16. Effects of ethanol-blended gasoline on air pollutant emissions from motorcycle. (United States)

    Yao, Yung-Chen; Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Chiang, Hung-Lung


    The effect of ethanol-gasoline blends on criteria air pollutant emissions was investigated in a four-stroke motorcycle. The ethanol was blended with unleaded gasoline in four percentages (3, 10, 15, and 20% v/v) and controlled at a constant research octane number, RON (95), to accurately represent commercial gasoline. CO, THC, and NOx emissions were evaluated using the Economic Commission for Europe cycle on the chassis dynamometers. The results of the ethanol-gasoline blends were compared to those of commercial unleaded gasoline with methyl tert-butyl ether as the oxygenated additive. In general, the exhaust CO and NOx emissions decreased with increasing oxygen content in fuels. In contrast, ethanol added in the gasoline did not reduce the THC emissions for a constant RON gasoline. The 15% ethanol blend had the highest emission reductions relative to the reference fuel. The high ethanol-gasoline blend ratio (20%) resulted in a less emission reduction than those of low ratio blends (ethanol addition. Furthermore, the influence of ethanol-gasoline blends on the reduction of exhaust emissions was observed at different driving modes, especially at 15km/h cruising speed for CO and THC and acceleration stages for NOx.

  17. Electromechanical imitator of antilock braking modes of wheels with pneumatic tire and its application for the runways friction coefficient measurement (United States)

    Putov, A. V.; Kopichev, M. M.; Ignatiev, K. V.; Putov, V. V.; Stotckaia, A. D.


    In this paper it is considered a discussion of the technique that realizes a brand new method of runway friction coefficient measurement based upon the proposed principle of measuring wheel braking control for the imitation of antilock braking modes that are close to the real braking modes of the aircraft chassis while landing that are realized by the aircraft anti-skid systems. Also here is the description of the model of towed measuring device that realizes a new technique of runway friction coefficient measuring, based upon the measuring wheel braking control principle. For increasing the repeatability accuracy of electromechanical braking imitation system the sideslip (brake) adaptive control system is proposed. Based upon the Burkhard model and additive random processes several mathematical models were created that describes the friction coefficient arrangement along the airstrip with different qualitative adjectives. Computer models of friction coefficient measuring were designed and first in the world the research of correlation between the friction coefficient measuring results and shape variations, intensity and cycle frequency of the measuring wheel antilock braking modes. The sketch engineering documentation was designed and prototype of the latest generation measuring device is ready to use. The measuring device was tested on the autonomous electromechanical examination laboratory treadmill bench. The experiments approved effectiveness of method of imitation the antilock braking modes for solving the problem of correlation of the runway friction coefficient measuring.

  18. Maneuverability Strategy for Assistive Maneuverability Strategy for Assistive Vehicles Navigating within Confined Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Auat Cheein


    Full Text Available In this work, a path planning strategy for both a car-like and a unicycle type assistive vehicles is presented. The assistive vehicles are confined to restricted environments. The path planning strategy uses the environment information to generate a kinematically plausible path to be followed by the vehicle. The environment information is provided by a SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping algorithm implemented on the vehicles. The map generated by the SLAM algorithm compensates the lack of sensor at the back of the vehicles' chassis. A Monte Carlo-based technique is used to find the optimum path given the SLAM information. A visual and user-friendly interface enhances the user-vehicle communication allowing him/her to select a desired position and orientation (pose that the vehicle should reach within the mapped environment. A trajectory controller drives the vehicle until it reaches a neighborhood of the desired pose. Several real-time experimental results within real environments are also shown herein.

  19. Follow up of the evolution of a soil-plant system using the neutrongraphic technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontes, L.; Crispim, V.R.; Lima, C.T.S., E-mail:, E-mail: clima@con.ufrj.b, E-mail: verginia@con.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Ferreira, F.J., E-mail: [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    In the Brazilian northeast region, where semiarid climate prevails the soil low humidity, restricts the growth of the roots in the soil most superficial layer. A soil-plant system consisting of aluminum pots filled with soil similar to that found in the semiarid regions was designed to follow the growth of corn and soy roots. There, the seeds are planted together with artificial seeds of hydrogel and agave, which store part of the water from irrigation and later release it in conformity with the search of the roots. Nondestructive tests through the Thermal Neutron Radiography technique were conducted, exposing for 90 minutes the soilplant system, to the neutron flux from the J-9 irradiation channel of the Argonauta/IEN/CNEN reactor. An Industrex M radiographic film from Kodak and a gadolinium sheet converter, in close contact inside an aluminum chassis, were used to obtain the neutron radiography image. Lead plates, 1 mm thick, or aluminum plates, 1 cm thick, were placed to shield the gamma radiation of the neutron beam and thus allow a better visualization of the roots inside the soil. After expositions, the radiographic films were developed and the neutron radiographic images were digitalized with a Coolpix 995 Nikon camera. The neutron radiographic images were also digitally processed using the Image Pro Plus program, version 6.2. the use of lead and aluminum filters and with the use of digital processing techniques, allowed the visualization of the main and secondary roots, even when hidden by 10 mm thick humid soil. (author)

  20. Emerging engineering principles for yield improvement in microbial cell design. (United States)

    Comba, Santiago; Arabolaza, Ana; Gramajo, Hugo


    Metabolic Engineering has undertaken a rapid transformation in the last ten years making real progress towards the production of a wide range of molecules and fine chemicals using a designed cellular host. However, the maximization of product yields through pathway optimization is a constant and central challenge of this field. Traditional methods used to improve the production of target compounds from engineered biosynthetic pathways in non-native hosts include: codon usage optimization, elimination of the accumulation of toxic intermediates or byproducts, enhanced production of rate-limiting enzymes, selection of appropriate promoter and ribosome binding sites, application of directed evolution of enzymes, and chassis re-circuit. Overall, these approaches tend to be specific for each engineering project rather than a systematic practice based on a more generalizable strategy. In this mini-review, we highlight some novel and extensive approaches and tools intended to address the improvement of a target product formation, founded in sophisticated principles such as dynamic control, pathway genes modularization, and flux modeling.

  1. Advances in Methane Isotope Measurements via Direct Absorption Spectroscopy with Applications to Oil and Gas Source Characterization (United States)

    Yacovitch, T. I.; Herndon, S. C.; Roscioli, J. R.; Petron, G.; Shorter, J. H.; Jervis, D.; McManus, J. B.; Nelson, D. D.; Zahniser, M. S.; Kolb, C. E., Jr.


    Instrumental developments in the measurement of multiple isotopes of methane (12CH4, 13CH4 and 12CH3D) are presented. A first generation 8-micron instrument quantifies 12CH4 and 13CH4 at a 1-second rate via tunable infrared direct absorption spectroscopy (TILDAS). A second generation instrument uses two 3-micron intraband cascade lasers in an Aerodyne dual laser chassis for simultaneous measurement of 12CH4, 13CH4 and 12CH3D. Sensitivity and noise performance improvements are examined. The isotopic signature of methane provides valuable information for emission source identification of this greenhouse gas. A first generation spectrometer has been deployed in the field on a mobile laboratory along with a sophisticated 4-tank calibration system. Calibrations are done on an agressive schedule, allowing for the correction of measured isotope ratios to an absolute isotope scale. Distinct isotopic signatures are found for a number of emission sources in the Denver-Julesburg Basin: oil and gas gathering stations, compressor stations and processing plants; a municipal landfill, and dairy/cattle operations. The isotopic signatures are compared with measured ethane/methane ratios. These direct absorption measurements have larger uncertainties than samples measured via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, but have several advantages over canister sampling methods: individual sources of short duration are easier to isolate; calibrated isotope ratio results are available immediately; replicate measurements on a single source are easily performed; and the number of sources sampled is not limited by canister availability and processing time.

  2. Single Pass Multi-component Harvester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed Hoskinson; J. Richard Hess


    Abstract. In order to meet the U. S. government’s goal of supplementing the energy available from petroleum by increasing the production of energy from renewable resources, increased production of bioenergy has become one of the new goals of the United States government and our society. U.S. Executive Orders and new Federal Legislation have mandated changes in government procedures and caused reorganizations within the government to support these goals. The Biomass Research and Development Initiative is a multi-agency effort to coordinate and accelerate all U.S. Federal biobased products and bioenergy research and development. The Initiative is managed by the National Biomass Coordination Office, which is staffed by both the DOE and the USDA. One of the most readily available sources of biomass from which to produce bioenergy is an agricultural crop residue, of which straw from small grains is the most feasible residue with which to start. For the straw residue to be used its collection must be energy efficient and its removal must not impact the sustainability of the growing environment. In addition, its collection must be economically advantageous to the producer. To do all that, a single pass multi-component harvester system is most desirable. Results from our first prototype suggest that current combines probably do adequate threshing and that a separate chassis can be developed that does additional separation and that is economically feasible.

  3. A BioBrick compatible strategy for genetic modification of plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyle Patrick M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant biotechnology can be leveraged to produce food, fuel, medicine, and materials. Standardized methods advocated by the synthetic biology community can accelerate the plant design cycle, ultimately making plant engineering more widely accessible to bioengineers who can contribute diverse creative input to the design process. Results This paper presents work done largely by undergraduate students participating in the 2010 International Genetically Engineered Machines (iGEM competition. Described here is a framework for engineering the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana with standardized, BioBrick compatible vectors and parts available through the Registry of Standard Biological Parts ( This system was used to engineer a proof-of-concept plant that exogenously expresses the taste-inverting protein miraculin. Conclusions Our work is intended to encourage future iGEM teams and other synthetic biologists to use plants as a genetic chassis. Our workflow simplifies the use of standardized parts in plant systems, allowing the construction and expression of heterologous genes in plants within the timeframe allotted for typical iGEM projects.

  4. A Computational approach in optimizing process parameters of GTAW for SA 106 Grade B steel pipes using Response surface methodology (United States)

    Sumesh, A.; Sai Ramnadh, L. V.; Manish, P.; Harnath, V.; Lakshman, V.


    Welding is one of the most common metal joining techniques used in industry for decades. As in the global manufacturing scenario the products should be more cost effective. Therefore the selection of right process with optimal parameters will help the industry in minimizing their cost of production. SA 106 Grade B steel has a wide application in Automobile chassis structure, Boiler tubes and pressure vessels industries. Employing central composite design the process parameters for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding was optimized. The input parameters chosen were weld current, peak current and frequency. The joint tensile strength was the response considered in this study. Analysis of variance was performed to determine the statistical significance of the parameters and a Regression analysis was performed to determine the effect of input parameters over the response. From the experiment the maximum tensile strength obtained was 95 KN reported for a weld current of 95 Amp, frequency of 50 Hz and peak current of 100 Amp. With an aim of maximizing the joint strength using Response optimizer a target value of 100 KN is selected and regression models were optimized. The output results are achievable with a Weld current of 62.6148 Amp, Frequency of 23.1821 Hz, and Peak current of 65.9104 Amp. Using Die penetration test the weld joints were also classified in to 2 categories as good weld and weld with defect. This will also help in getting a defect free joint when welding is performed using GTAW process.

  5. Design and Fabrication of Race Spec Go-Kart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simranjeet Singh


    Full Text Available A go kart is a small four wheeled vehicle basically used of traditional kart racing and amusement purpose. We designed and fabricated a go kart for participation at the national go kart championship. The design includes applications of extensive engineering analysis, teamwork, project management, and development of conceptual ideas. These ideas have been then converted into viable concepts ready for fabrication. The main objective of the design is to make a car that is durable as well as reliable and will last through the endurance using parts that are cost effective and easily available in India. The kart has been designed using sound design principles. The principle of triangulation has been extensively used to make sure that the chassis is extremely rigid and provides a safe cocoon for the driver in case of an accident. The vehicle has been designed in such a way that the reliability is not compromised in the pursuit of speed. The wheel and suspension geometry have been designed taking into account the track layout and prevailing conditions.

  6. Enhancement of submarine pressure hull steel ultrasonic inspection using imaging and artificial intelligence (United States)

    Hay, D. Robert; Brassard, Michel; Matthews, James R.; Garneau, Stephane; Morchat, Richard


    The convergence of a number of contemporary technologies with increasing demands for improvements in inspection capabilities in maritime applications has created new opportunities for ultrasonic inspection. An automated ultrasonic inspection and data collection system APHIUS (automated pressure hull intelligent ultrasonic system), incorporates hardware and software developments to meet specific requirements for the maritime vessels, in particular, submarines in the Canadian Navy. Housed within a hardened portable computer chassis, instrumentation for digital ultrasonic data acquisition and transducer position measurement provide new capabilities that meet more demanding requirements for inspection of the aging submarine fleet. Digital data acquisition enables a number of new important capabilites including archiving of the complete inspection session, interpretation assistance through imaging, and automated interpretation using artificial intelligence methods. With this new reliable inspection system, in conjunction with a complementary study of the significance of real defect type and location, comprehensive new criteria can be generated which will eliminate unnecessary defect removal. As a consequence, cost savings will be realized through shortened submarine refit schedules.

  7. A simple approach to a vision-guided unmanned vehicle (United States)

    Archibald, Christopher; Millar, Evan; Anderson, Jon D.; Archibald, James K.; Lee, Dah-Jye


    This paper describes the design and implementation of a vision-guided autonomous vehicle that represented BYU in the 2005 Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC), in which autonomous vehicles navigate a course marked with white lines while avoiding obstacles consisting of orange construction barrels, white buckets and potholes. Our project began in the context of a senior capstone course in which multi-disciplinary teams of five students were responsible for the design, construction, and programming of their own robots. Each team received a computer motherboard, a camera, and a small budget for the purchase of additional hardware, including a chassis and motors. The resource constraints resulted in a simple vision-based design that processes the sequence of images from the single camera to determine motor controls. Color segmentation separates white and orange from each image, and then the segmented image is examined using a 10x10 grid system, effectively creating a low resolution picture for each of the two colors. Depending on its position, each filled grid square influences the selection of an appropriate turn magnitude. Motor commands determined from the white and orange images are then combined to yield the final motion command for video frame. We describe the complete algorithm and the robot hardware and we present results that show the overall effectiveness of our control approach.

  8. Impact of Fuel Metal Impurities on the Durability of a Light-Duty Diesel Aftertreatment System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.; Burton, J.; McCormick, R. L.; Toops, T.; Wereszczak, A. A.; Fox, E. E.; Lance, M. J.; Cavataio, G.; Dobson, D.; Warner, J.; Brezny, R.; Nguyen, K.; Brookshear, D. W.


    Alkali and alkaline earth metal impurities found in diesel fuels are potential poisons for diesel exhaust catalysts. A set of diesel engine production exhaust systems was aged to 150,000 miles. These exhaust systems included a diesel oxidation catalyst, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst, and diesel particulate filter (DPF). Four separate exhaust systems were aged, each with a different fuel: ultralow sulfur diesel containing no measureable metals, B20 (a common biodiesel blend) containing sodium, B20 containing potassium, and B20 containing calcium, which were selected to simulate the maximum allowable levels in B100 according to ASTM D6751. Analysis included Federal Test Procedure emissions testing, bench-flow reactor testing of catalyst cores, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), and measurement of thermo-mechanical properties of the DPFs. EPMA imaging found that the sodium and potassium penetrated into the washcoat, while calcium remained on the surface. Bench-flow reactor experiments were used to measure the standard nitrogen oxide (NOx) conversion, ammonia storage, and ammonia oxidation for each of the aged SCR catalysts. Vehicle emissions tests were conducted with each of the aged catalyst systems using a chassis dynamometer. The vehicle successfully passed the 0.2 gram/mile NOx emission standard with each of the four aged exhaust systems.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Comba


    Full Text Available Metabolic Engineering has undertaken a rapid transformation in the last ten years making real progress towards the production of a wide range of molecules and fine chemicals using a designed cellular host. However, the maximization of product yields through pathway optimization is a constant and central challenge of this field. Traditional methods used to improve the production of target compounds from engineered biosynthetic pathways in non-native hosts include: codon usage optimization, elimination of the accumulation of toxic intermediates or byproducts, enhanced production of rate-limiting enzymes, selection of appropriate promoter and ribosome binding sites, application of directed evolution of enzymes, and chassis re-circuit. Overall, these approaches tend to be specific for each engineering project rather than a systematic practice based on a more generalizable strategy. In this mini-review, we highlight some novel and extensive approaches and tools intended to address the improvement of a target product formation, founded in sophisticated principles such as dynamic control, pathway genes modularization, and flux modeling.

  10. Static load test performance of a telescoping structure for an automatically deployable ROPS. (United States)

    Etherton, J R; Cutlip, R G; Harris, J R; Ronaghi, M; Means, K H; Gillispie, A


    The automatically deployable ROPS was developed as part of an innovative project to provide passive protection against overturn fatality to operators of new tractors used in both low-clearance and unrestricted-clearance tasks. The primary objective of this phase of the research was to build a telescoping structure that would prove that a ROPS can be built that will (1) reliably deploy on signal, (2) rise in a sufficiently short amount of time, (3) firmly latch in its deployed position, and (4) satisfy SAE J2194 testing requirements. The two-post structure had previously been found to meet deployment time criteria, and design analyses indicated that neither the slip-fit joint nor the latch pins would fail at test loading. Four directions of static loading were applied to the structure to satisfy SAE requirements. For the series of static loading tests, the raised structure was found to maintain a protective clearance zone after all loads were applied. The structure is overly stiff and should be redesigned to increase its ability to absorb ground-impact energy. Results of dynamic tests and field upset tests are reported in companion articles. The next phase of development is to optimize the structure so that it will plastically deform and absorb energy that would otherwise be transferred to the tractor chassis.

  11. Reviving a medical wearable computer for teaching purposes. (United States)

    Frenger, Paul


    In 1978 the author constructed a medical wearable computer using an early CMOS microprocessor and support chips. This device was targeted for use by health-conscious consumers and other early adopters. Its expandable functions included weight management, blood pressure control, diabetes care, medication reminders, smoking cessation, pediatric growth and development, simple medical database, digital communication with a doctor’s office and emergency alert system. Various physiological sensors could be plugged-into the calculator-sized chassis. The device was shown to investor groups but funding was not obtained; by 1992 the author ceased pursuing it. The Computing and Mathematics Chair at a local University, a NASA acquaintance, approached the author to mentor a CS capstone course for Summer 2012. With the author’s guidance, five students proceeded to convert this medical wearable computer design to an iPhone-based implementation using the Apple Xcode Developer Kit and other utilities. The final student device contained a body mass index (BMI) calculator, an emergency alert for 911 or other first responders, a medication reminder, a Doctor’s appointment feature, a medical database, medical Internet links, and a pediatric growth & development guide. The students’ final imple-mentation was successfully demonstrated on an actual iPhone 4 at the CS capstone meeting in mid-Summer.

  12. Development of the on-demand fuel injection system for a light truck using the hydrogen enriched compressed natural gas (HCNG fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarawoot Watechagit


    Full Text Available The use of hydrogen as a fuel by mixing with a commercial fuel has recently been investigated continuously in order to solve the energy crisis and global warming. This article presents the results of the design and experimentation for the use of the hydrogen enriched compressed natural gas or HCNG as a fuel. The prototype vehicle a light truck equipped with a 1809 cc. gasoline engine. The proposed system is a mixing system where the compressed natural gas and the hydrogen are stored on-board and controlled separately. They are mixed as they are injected into the intake manifold right before the intake-port (Port Injection. The hydrogen supply system used in this investigation is adopted from the common system used for compressed natural gas system. The mixing ratio (%H in the total volume of HCNG ranges from 5% to 20% by volume. The performance testing is done through the Chassis Dynamometer. The results show that the power and the torque of the engine drops when using either CNG or HCNG as compared to the gasoline fuel. However, when compared to the case when using the CNG, the 10% addition of hydrogen can increase the performance by 1%. The performance, on the other hands, is reduced for other amount of hydrogen additions.

  13. Operation and Performance of a new microTCA-based CMS Calorimeter Trigger in LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Klabbers, Pamela Renee


    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is currently increasing the instantaneous luminosity for p-p collisions. In LHC Run 2, the center-of-mass energy has gone from 8 to 13 TeV and the instantaneous luminosity will approximately double for proton collisions. This will make it even more challenging to trigger on interesting events since the number of interactions per crossing (pileup) and the overall trigger rate will be significantly larger than in LHC Run 1. The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment has installed the second stage of a two-stage upgrade to the Calorimeter Trigger to ensure that the trigger rates can be controlled and the thresholds kept low, so that physics data will not be compromised. The stage-1, which replaced the original CMS Global Calorimeter Trigger, operated successfully in 2015. The completely new stage-2 has replaced the entire calorimeter trigger in 2016 with AMC form-factor boards and optical links operating in a microTCA chassis. It required that updates to the calorimet...


    CERN Multimedia

    P. Tropea and A. Gaddi


    One of the first activities of LS1 has been the refurbishment of the rack ventilation units in the USC55 counting rooms. These rack-mounted turbines have been in service since 2007 and they have largely passed the expected lifetime. Some 450 motor-fans units have been procured in Germany, via the CERN store, and shipped to CMS where a team of technicians has dismounted the old turbines, keeping only the bare chassis, and inserted the new fans. A metallic mesh has also been added to better protect personnel from possible injuries by spinning blades. A full test of several hours has validated the new units, prior to their installation inside the racks. The work, started soon after the beginning of LS1, has been successfully concluded last week. Figure 1: Drawing of the fan units recently refurbished in the USC55 counting room racks Image 1: New filter on the main rack water-cooling distribution line The cooling systems of CMS are gently coming out of their maintenance programme. All water circuits have...

  15. 轿车前副车架焊接制造工艺分析%Analysis of Front Subframe Welding and Manufacturing Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  16. Induced sensitivity of Bacillus subtilis colony morphology to mechanical media compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica K. Polka


    Full Text Available Bacteria from several taxa, including Kurthia zopfii, Myxococcus xanthus, and Bacillus mycoides, have been reported to align growth of their colonies to small features on the surface of solid media, including anisotropies created by compression. While the function of this phenomenon is unclear, it may help organisms navigate on solid phases, such as soil. The origin of this behavior is also unknown: it may be biological (that is, dependent on components that sense the environment and regulate growth accordingly or merely physical.Here we show that B. subtilis, an organism that typically does not respond to media compression, can be induced to do so with two simple and synergistic perturbations: a mutation that maintains cells in the swarming (chained state, and the addition of EDTA to the growth media, which further increases chain length. EDTA apparently increases chain length by inducing defects in cell separation, as the treatment has only marginal effects on the length of individual cells.These results lead us to three conclusions. First, the wealth of genetic tools available to B. subtilis will provide a new, tractable chassis for engineering compression sensitive organisms. Second, the sensitivity of colony morphology to media compression in Bacillus can be modulated by altering a simple physical property of rod-shaped cells. And third, colony morphology under compression holds promise as a rapid, simple, and low-cost way to screen for changes in the length of rod-shaped cells or chains thereof.

  17. Analytics for Metabolic Engineering (United States)

    Petzold, Christopher J.; Chan, Leanne Jade G.; Nhan, Melissa; Adams, Paul D.


    Realizing the promise of metabolic engineering has been slowed by challenges related to moving beyond proof-of-concept examples to robust and economically viable systems. Key to advancing metabolic engineering beyond trial-and-error research is access to parts with well-defined performance metrics that can be readily applied in vastly different contexts with predictable effects. As the field now stands, research depends greatly on analytical tools that assay target molecules, transcripts, proteins, and metabolites across different hosts and pathways. Screening technologies yield specific information for many thousands of strain variants, while deep omics analysis provides a systems-level view of the cell factory. Efforts focused on a combination of these analyses yield quantitative information of dynamic processes between parts and the host chassis that drive the next engineering steps. Overall, the data generated from these types of assays aid better decision-making at the design and strain construction stages to speed progress in metabolic engineering research. PMID:26442249

  18. Statistical Characterization of School Bus Drive Cycles Collected via Onboard Logging Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, A.; Walkowicz, K.


    In an effort to characterize the dynamics typical of school bus operation, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers set out to gather in-use duty cycle data from school bus fleets operating across the country. Employing a combination of Isaac Instruments GPS/CAN data loggers in conjunction with existing onboard telemetric systems resulted in the capture of operating information for more than 200 individual vehicles in three geographically unique domestic locations. In total, over 1,500 individual operational route shifts from Washington, New York, and Colorado were collected. Upon completing the collection of in-use field data using either NREL-installed data acquisition devices or existing onboard telemetry systems, large-scale duty-cycle statistical analyses were performed to examine underlying vehicle dynamics trends within the data and to explore vehicle operation variations between fleet locations. Based on the results of these analyses, high, low, and average vehicle dynamics requirements were determined, resulting in the selection of representative standard chassis dynamometer test cycles for each condition. In this paper, the methodology and accompanying results of the large-scale duty-cycle statistical analysis are presented, including graphical and tabular representations of a number of relationships between key duty-cycle metrics observed within the larger data set. In addition to presenting the results of this analysis, conclusions are drawn and presented regarding potential applications of advanced vehicle technology as it relates specifically to school buses.

  19. 铝合金控制臂球头销旋铆工艺有限元分析%Simulation on the Ball Joint Sealing of Aluminum Control Arms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田浩彬; 李学磊; 刘晓航; 苑文婧; 鲁成伟


      汽车控制臂球头销封装是汽车底盘零件装配中的重要一环,其装配质量直接影响到汽车转向部件的寿命。采用有限元分析方法对铝合金控制臂球头销的旋铆封装技术进行了研究,对旋铆过程中铝合金控制臂的变形及受力情况进行了分析,并通过试验方法进行了验证,为汽车控制臂球头销的整体封装提供了有效的技术支持。%  Ball joint sealing of aluminum control arms is one of the key processes to the assembly of automobile chassis, which directly influents the life cycle of steering systems of automobiles. The revolving-reveting process for ball joint of control arms is studied by finite element method, and the deformation of housing is advanced and verified by experiments, which can provide technical support to the ball joint sealing of automobile control arms.

  20. 一种高导热三维铝基印制板制作方法的研究%The production method for PCB of 3D aluminum substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安金平; 张文晗; 郭贤贤; 郭金金


    铝基板是一种最常见的金属基覆铜板,因其具有良好的导热性、电气绝缘性和尺寸稳定性,目前已被广泛应用。文章通过对铝基印制后续装配机理及过程的分析,从提高散热性能及减少装配空间的角度出发,进行了大胆的尝试,将承载印制板的机箱与印制板合二为一,产品实现了线路板与机箱的高度集成,取得了散热效果良好,缩小产品体积的目的。%The aluminum substrate is one of the most common metal base copper clad. Because of its good thermal conductivity, electrical insulation and dimensional stability, it has been widely used. Based on aluminum printed subsequent assembly mechanism and analysis of the process, this article intended to improve the heat dissipation performance and reduce the assembly space angle. It carried on the bold attempt, combined bearing chassis of PCB and PCB, the circuit board and the case of a highly integrated product realization, and obtained the good heat dissipation effect, and reduced the size of our products.

  1. Pengembangan Sistem Kontrol Traksi Mobil Elektrik Berbasis Rekonstruksi Keadaan Kecepatan Model Roda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratikto Pratikto


    Full Text Available In  this  paper  the  development  of  electric  vehicle  traction  control  based  on  state  of  speed  reconstruction  of vehicle model that has the same acceleration condition between tire and chassis is studied. Vehicle is accelerated if the friction force takes place between tire and road. However, the traction force decreases even tends to zero on slippery road and torque input produces a large slip. Evidently, tire slip can be reduced by decreasing the applied torque to the tire. So the basic principle of the proposed method here compares the real vehicle tire speed condition with the model to determine the torque in order to reduce the slip. Tire speed is controlled in order to follow the reference value that is calculated from the model. Tire torque input then can be controlled by applying the feedback that is obtained from the difference value of speed between model and real tire. Implementation of this method on a real vehicle shows that the control method effectively controls the tire speed of vehicle to follow the reference and reducing the slip. From the experiment the control  system performance in reducing slip has the result  of 9.8% for maximum overshoot, 3.1 second for rise time, and 8 second for settling time. 

  2. The Dynamic Characteristic and Hysteresis Effect of an Air Spring (United States)

    Löcken, F.; Welsch, M.


    In many applications of vibration technology, especially in chassis, air springs present a common alternative to steel spring concepts. A design-independent and therefore universal approach is presented to describe the dynamic characteristic of such springs. Differential and constitutive equations based on energy balances of the enclosed volume and the mountings are given to describe the nonlinear and dynamic characteristics. Therefore all parameters can be estimated directly from physical and geometrical properties, without parameter fitting. The numerically solved equations fit very well to measurements of a passenger car air spring. In a second step a simplification of this model leads to a pure mechanical equation. While in principle the same parameters are used, just an empirical correction of the effective heat transfer coefficient is needed to handle some simplification on this topic. Finally, a linearization of this equation leads to an analogous mechanical model that can be assembled from two common spring- and one dashpot elements in a specific arrangement. This transfer into "mechanical language" enables a system description with a simple force-displacement law and a consideration of the nonobvious hysteresis and stiffness increase of an air spring from a mechanical point of view.

  3. Simulation and Experimental Studies of a 2.45GHz Magnetron Source for an SRF Cavity with Field Amplitude and Phase Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haipeng [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Plawski, Tomasz E. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Rimmer, Robert A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Dudas, A. [Muons Inc., Batavia, IL (United States); Neubauer, M. L. [Muons Inc., Batavia, IL (United States)


    Phase lock to an SRF cavity by using injection signal through output waveguide of a magnetron has been demonstrated [1, 3]. Amplitude control using magnetic field trimming and anode voltage modulation has been studied using MATLAB/Simulink simulations [2]. Based on these, we are planning to use an FPGA based digital LLRF system, which allows applying various types of control algorithms in order to achieve the required accelerating field stability. Since the 1497 MHz magnetron is still in the design stage, the proof of principle measurements of a commercial 2450 MHz magnetron are carried out to characterize the anode I-V curve, output power (the tube electronic efficiency), frequency dependence on the anode current (frequency pushing) and the Rieke diagram (frequency pulling by the reactive load). Based on early Simulink simulation, experimental data and extension of the Adler equation governing injection phase stability by Chen’s model, the specification of the new LLRF control chassis for both 2450 and 1497MHz systems are presented in this paper.

  4. Capsular switching as a strategy to increase pneumococcal virulence in experimental otitis media model. (United States)

    Sabharwal, Vishakha; Stevenson, Abbie; Figueira, Marisol; Orthopoulos, George; Trzciński, Krzysztof; Pelton, Stephen I


    We hypothesized that capsular switch event, in which pneumococcus acquires a new capsule operon by horizontal gene transfer, may result in emergence of strains with increased virulence in acute otitis media. Using serotype 6A strain from a patient with invasive pneumococcal disease and clonally distant serotype 6C strain isolated from asymptomatic carrier we created 6A:6C (6A background with 6C capsule) capsular transformants and applied whole genome macro-restriction analysis to assess conservation of the 6A chassis. Next, we assessed complement (C3) and antibodies deposition on surface of pneumococcal cells and tested capsule recipient, capsule donor and two 6A:6C transformants for virulence in chinchilla experimental otitis media model. Both 6A:6C(1 or 2) transformants bound less C3 compared to 6C capsule-donor strain but more compared to serotype 6A capsule-recipient strain. Pneumococci were present in significantly higher proportion of ears among animals challenged with either of two 6A:6C(1 or 2) transformants compared to chinchillas infected with 6C capsule-donor strain [p < 0.001] whereas a significantly decreased proportion of ears were infected with 6A:6C(1 or 2) transformants as compared to 6A capsule-recipient strain. Our observations though limited to two serotypes demonstrate that capsular switch events can result in Streptococcus pneumoniae strains of enhanced virulence for respiratory tract infection.

  5. Concept and realization of unmanned aerial system with different modes of operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czyba, Roman; Szafrański, Grzegorz; Janusz, Wojciech; Niezabitowski, Michał; Czornik, Adam; Błachuta, Marian [Silesian University of Technology, Akademicka 2A, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland)


    In this paper we describe the development process of unmanned aerial system, its mechanical components, electronics and software solutions. During the stage of design, we have formulated some necessary requirements for the multirotor vehicle and ground control station in order to build an optimal system which can be used for the reconnaissance missions. Platform is controlled by use of the ground control station (GCS) and has possibility of accomplishing video based observation tasks. In order to fulfill this requirement the on-board payload consists of mechanically stabilized camera augmented with machine vision algorithms to enable object tracking tasks. Novelty of the system are four modes of flight, which give full functionality of the developed UAV system. Designed ground control station is consisted not only of the application itself, but also a built-in dedicated components located inside the chassis, which together creates an advanced UAV system supporting the control and management of the flight. Mechanical part of quadrotor is designed to ensure its robustness while meeting objectives of minimizing weight of the platform. Finally the designed electronics allows for implementation of control and estimation algorithms without the needs for their excessive computational optimization.

  6. Development of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 as a Phototrophic Cell Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuzhong Zhang


    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae play profound roles in ecology and biogeochemistry. One model cyanobacterial species is the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. This species is highly amenable to genetic modification. Its genome has been sequenced and many systems biology and molecular biology tools are available to study this bacterium. Recently, researchers have put significant efforts into understanding and engineering this bacterium to produce chemicals and biofuels from sunlight and CO2. To demonstrate our perspective on the application of this cyanobacterium as a photosynthesis-based chassis, we summarize the recent research on Synechocystis 6803 by focusing on five topics: rate-limiting factors for cell cultivation; molecular tools for genetic modifications; high-throughput system biology for genome wide analysis; metabolic modeling for physiological prediction and rational metabolic engineering; and applications in producing diverse chemicals. We also discuss the particular challenges for systems analysis and engineering applications of this microorganism, including precise characterization of versatile cell metabolism, improvement of product rates and titers, bioprocess scale-up, and product recovery. Although much progress has been achieved in the development of Synechocystis 6803 as a phototrophic cell factory, the biotechnology for “Compounds from Synechocystis” is still significantly lagging behind those for heterotrophic microbes (e.g., Escherichia coli.

  7. Towards a metabolic engineering strain "commons": an Escherichia coli platform strain for ethanol production. (United States)

    Woodruff, Lauren B A; May, Brian L; Warner, Joseph R; Gill, Ryan T


    In the genome-engineering era, it is increasingly important that researchers have access to a common set of platform strains that can serve as debugged production chassis and the basis for applying new metabolic engineering strategies for modeling and characterizing flux, engineering complex traits, and optimizing overall performance. Here, we describe such a platform strain of E. coli engineered for ethanol production. Starting with a fully characterized host strain (BW25113), we site-specifically integrated the genes required for homoethanol production under the control of a strong inducible promoter into the genome and deleted the genes encoding four enzymes from competing pathways. This strain is capable of producing >30 g/L of ethanol in minimal media with production or tolerance was lost when grown under production conditions. Thus, our findings reinforce the need for a metabolic engineering "commons" that could provide a set of platform strains for use in more sophisticated genome-engineering strategies. Towards this end, we have made this production strain available to the scientific community.

  8. Efficient diterpene production in yeast by engineering Erg20p into a geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase. (United States)

    Ignea, Codruta; Trikka, Fotini A; Nikolaidis, Alexandros K; Georgantea, Panagiota; Ioannou, Efstathia; Loupassaki, Sofia; Kefalas, Panagiotis; Kanellis, Angelos K; Roussis, Vassilios; Makris, Antonios M; Kampranis, Sotirios C


    Terpenes have numerous applications, ranging from pharmaceuticals to fragrances and biofuels. With increasing interest in producing terpenes sustainably and economically, there has been significant progress in recent years in developing methods for their production in microorganisms. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, production of the 20-carbon diterpenes has so far proven to be significantly less efficient than production of their 15-carbon sesquiterpene counterparts. In this report, we identify the modular structure of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthesis in yeast to be a major limitation in diterpene yields, and we engineer the yeast farnesyl diphosphate synthase Erg20p to produce geranylgeranyl diphosphate. Using a combination of protein and genetic engineering, we achieve significant improvements in the production of sclareol and several other isoprenoids, including cis-abienol, abietadiene and β-carotene. We also report the development of yeast strains carrying the engineered Erg20p, which support efficient isoprenoid production and can be used as a dedicated chassis for diterpene production or biosynthetic pathway elucidation. The design developed here can be applied to the production of any GGPP-derived isoprenoid and is compatible with other yeast terpene production platforms.

  9. Improving heterologous polyketide production in Escherichia coli by transporter engineering. (United States)

    Yang, Jingya; Xiong, Zhi-Qiang; Song, Shu-Jie; Wang, Jian-Feng; Lv, Hua-Jun; Wang, Yong


    Expelling heterologous compounds out of hosts by transporters is a potential strategy to enhance product titers in microbial cell factories. In this work, to increase heterologous polyketide 6-deoxyerythronolide B (6dEB, erythromycin precursor) production, tripartite multidrug efflux pumps MacAB-TolC, AcrAB-TolC, MdtEF-TolC, and MexAB-OprM were modulated in a 6dEB production strain. Compared with the control, overexpression of a single component of efflux pumps (except oprM) repressed 6dEB production, but modulation of two components MacA and MacB or the complete pumps MacAB-TolC and MdtEF-TolC significantly improved 6dEB titer by 100 ± 11, 118 ± 54, and 98 ± 12 %, respectively. In addition, to avoid the challenging fine-tuning components of pumps, the transcriptional regulators of efflux pumps were modulated to improve the 6dEB production. Overexpression of RpoH (activator of MdtEF-TolC) and EvgA (activator of EmrKY-TolC and AcrAD-TolC) strongly increased 6dEB titer by 152 ± 54 and 142 ± 85 %, respectively. This is the first report of transporter engineering for improving heterologous polyketide production in Escherichia coli. Our results provide an effective strategy for improving the yield of the heterologous products in chassis cell.

  10. The Thermal Simulation Analysis of the Hydraulic Torque Converter based on the MTALAB%基于MATlAB的液力变矩器的热仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴新; 连晋毅


    针对液力机械传动中液力变矩器发热量过大的问题,简述了液力变矩器的发热机理.在所构建的热计算模型的基础上,以某型推土机的液力变矩器为实例,运用MATLAB编程并得出了发动机与液力变矩器共同工作时发热量与传动比的关系曲线,并应用Simulink软件对不同传动比下的油温进行了仿真,仿真结果反映了油温的动态变化趋势.可为底盘油冷系统的分析和优化提供一定的技术参考.%According to the excessive heat of hydraulic mechanical transmission, heating mechanism on torque converter is explained. With a certain type of torque converter in bulldozers, the relationship between heat production and transmission ratio is described by Matlab programing, which on the basis of thermal analysis model. Meanwhile, the oil temperature on different ratio can be simulated by simulink, the result reflects the dynamic changing trend of hydraulic oil temperature. It will provide some technical reference for the analysis of chassis oil cooling system.

  11. Mars Science Laboratory Engineering Cameras (United States)

    Maki, Justin N.; Thiessen, David L.; Pourangi, Ali M.; Kobzeff, Peter A.; Lee, Steven W.; Dingizian, Arsham; Schwochert, Mark A.


    NASA's Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover, which launched to Mars in 2011, is equipped with a set of 12 engineering cameras. These cameras are build-to-print copies of the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) cameras, which were sent to Mars in 2003. The engineering cameras weigh less than 300 grams each and use less than 3 W of power. Images returned from the engineering cameras are used to navigate the rover on the Martian surface, deploy the rover robotic arm, and ingest samples into the rover sample processing system. The navigation cameras (Navcams) are mounted to a pan/tilt mast and have a 45-degree square field of view (FOV) with a pixel scale of 0.82 mrad/pixel. The hazard avoidance cameras (Haz - cams) are body-mounted to the rover chassis in the front and rear of the vehicle and have a 124-degree square FOV with a pixel scale of 2.1 mrad/pixel. All of the cameras utilize a frame-transfer CCD (charge-coupled device) with a 1024x1024 imaging region and red/near IR bandpass filters centered at 650 nm. The MSL engineering cameras are grouped into two sets of six: one set of cameras is connected to rover computer A and the other set is connected to rover computer B. The MSL rover carries 8 Hazcams and 4 Navcams.

  12. Carbonyl Emissions from Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Destaillats, Hugo; Jakober, Chris A.; Robert, Michael A.; Riddle, Sarah G.; Destaillats, Hugo; Charles, M. Judith; Green, Peter G.; Kleeman, Michael J.


    Carbonyls from gasoline powered light-duty vehicles (LDVs) and heavy-duty diesel powered vehicles (HDDVs) operated on chassis dynamometers were measured using an annular denuder-quartz filter-polyurethane foam sampler with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine derivatization and chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. Two internal standards were utilized based on carbonyl recovery, 4-fluorobenzaldehyde for_C8 compounds. Gas- and particle-phase emissions for 39 aliphatic and 20 aromatic carbonyls ranged from 0.1 ? 2000 ?g/L fuel for LDVs and 1.8 - 27000 mu g/L fuel for HDDVs. Gas-phase species accounted for 81-95percent of the total carbonyls from LDVs and 86-88percent from HDDVs. Particulate carbonyls emitted from a HDDV under realistic driving conditions were similar to concentrations measured in a diesel particulate matter (PM) standard reference material. Carbonyls accounted for 19percent of particulate organic carbon (POC) emissions from low-emission LDVs and 37percent of POC emissions from three-way catalyst equipped LDVs. This identifies carbonyls as one of the largest classes of compounds in LDV PM emissions. The carbonyl fraction of HDDV POC was lower, 3.3-3.9percent depending upon operational conditions. Partitioning analysis indicates the carbonyls had not achieved equilibrium between the gas- and particle-phase under the dilution factors of 126-584 used in the current study.

  13. Transportable Emissions Testing Laboratory for Alternative Vehicles Emissions Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Nigel


    The overall objective of this project was to perform research to quantify and improve the energy efficiency and the exhaust emissions reduction from advanced technology vehicles using clean, renewable and alternative fuels. Advanced vehicle and alternative fuel fleets were to be identified, and selected vehicles characterized for emissions and efficiency. Target vehicles were to include transit buses, school buses, vocational trucks, delivery trucks, and tractor-trailers. Gaseous species measured were to include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. An objective was to characterize particulate matter more deeply than by mass. Accurate characterization of efficiency and emissions was to be accomplished using a state-of-the-art portable emissions measurement system and an accompanying chassis dynamometer available at West Virginia University. These two units, combined, are termed the Transportable Laboratory. An objective was to load the vehicles in a real-world fashion, using coast down data to establish rolling resistance and wind drag, and to apply the coast down data to the dynamometer control. Test schedules created from actual vehicle operation were to be employed, and a specific objective of the research was to assess the effect of choosing a test schedule which the subject vehicle either cannot follow or can substantially outperform. In addition the vehicle loading objective was to be met better with an improved flywheel system.

  14. Analytics for metabolic engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Petzold


    Full Text Available Realizing the promise of metabolic engineering has been slowed by challenges related to moving beyond proof-of-concept examples to robust and economically viable systems. Key to advancing metabolic engineering beyond trial-and-error research is access to parts with well-defined performance metrics that can be readily applied in vastly different contexts with predictable effects. As the field now stands, research depends greatly on analytical tools that assay target molecules, transcripts, proteins, and metabolites across different hosts and pathways. Screening technologies yield specific information for many thousands of strain variants while deep omics analysis provide a systems-level view of the cell factory. Efforts focused on a combination of these analyses yield quantitative information of dynamic processes between parts and the host chassis that drive the next engineering steps. Overall, the data generated from these types of assays aid better decision-making at the design and strain construction stages to speed progress in metabolic engineering research.

  15. Modular Robotic Vehicle (United States)

    Borroni-Bird, Christopher E. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Junkin, Lucien Q. (Inventor); Lutz, Jonathan J. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Lapp, Anthony Joseph (Inventor); Ridley, Justin S. (Inventor)


    A modular robotic vehicle includes a chassis, driver input devices, an energy storage system (ESS), a power electronics module (PEM), modular electronic assemblies (eModules) connected to the ESS via the PEM, one or more master controllers, and various embedded controllers. Each eModule includes a drive wheel containing a propulsion-braking module, and a housing containing propulsion and braking control assemblies with respective embedded propulsion and brake controllers, and a mounting bracket covering a steering control assembly with embedded steering controllers. The master controller, which is in communication with each eModule and with the driver input devices, communicates with and independently controls each eModule, by-wire, via the embedded controllers to establish a desired operating mode. Modes may include a two-wheel, four-wheel, diamond, and omni-directional steering modes as well as a park mode. A bumper may enable docking with another vehicle, with shared control over the eModules of the vehicles.

  16. Numerical analysis of a pedestrian to car collision: Effect of variations in walk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špička J.


    Full Text Available This work is focused on the modelling of car to pedestrian crash scenario. Virtual hybrid human body model VIRTHUMAN as well as a simplified model of car chassis is modelled under Virtual Performance Solution software. The main idea of the work is the investigation and sensitivity analysis of various initial conditions of the pedestrian during frontal car crash scenario, such as position of the extremities due to different step phases or turning of the pedestrian around his own axis. The experimental data of human gait measurement are used so that one human step is divided into 9 phases to capture the effect of walk when the pedestrian crosses a road. Consequently, the influence of different initial conditions on the kinematics, dynamics of the collision together with injury prediction of pedestrian is discussed. Moreover, the effect of walk is taken into account within translational velocities of the full human body and rotational velocities of the extremities. The trend of the injury prediction for varying initial conditions is monitored. The configurations with zero and non-zero initial velocities are compared with each other, in order to study the effect of walking speed of the pedestrian. Note that only the average walking speed is considered. On the basis of the achieved results, the importance or redundancy of modelling the walking motion and the consideration of different step phases in the car-pedestrian accident can be examined.

  17. Design of lightweight insulation packages for sports cars, component design, material selection and adoption of surrounding properties during the development of the new porsche Carrera Coupe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, C. [Porsche (F.) AG, Weissach (Germany)


    Creating a proper insulation package for sports cars means to take into account not only an effective reduction of noise, but also weight optimisation, most possible reduction of package volume and to apply a suitable filter function to create sound. The Carrera's predecessor is a class leading vehicle concerning the weight of the damping and insulation package. Is it possible to improve its performance and shift targets positively? Is it time to exchange existing isolation components by absorption systems? The task for the new development was to style a lightweight trim package which offers a weight and a cost reduction at the same time. The layout considers the special requirements of a high performance sports car and combines the demand for long term rides with a very sporty response behaviour when driving at physical limits. The decision process of material selection is also strongly influenced by realised and expected changes in the design of the power train, chassis, body structure and interior trim components. The question arises if it is possible to regard all the changing noise components in the interior noise sound layout and wait for a final validation of the insulation and trim package until the very end of the development period. (orig.)

  18. The new S-Class by Mercedes-Benz; Die neue S-Klasse von Mercedes-Benz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basshuysen, R. van (ed.)


    The progress we have made with the new top-of-the-line Mercedes started from a high baseline. Around a dozen technical innovations are used in series production for the first time in the new S-Class - from the Brake Assist Plus with radar sensors to the seat with extended massage function, from the Night View Assist with modern infrared technology to the advanced Comand system, from the preventive Pre-Safe occupant protection with additional functions to the Park Assist. Safety and comfort were the main areas where we wanted to achieve further outstanding results. We have gone way beyond this goal. The new S-Class also fulfills its role as a trendsetter for passenger car development in other disciplines. It is the first car in the world with an official environmental certificate, and again sets records for exhaust emissions, fuel consumption and conservation of resources; it attains an even higher power output and torque level with newly developed engines and, with an improved Airmatic chassis, provides significant gains in terms of dynamic handling and driving pleasure, making every kilometer an experience. Bound by tradition - the new S-Class fulfills this commitment and continues a glittering chapter of German automobile tradition on the basis of experience and innovation. (orig.)

  19. A gene network engineering platform for lactic acid bacteria. (United States)

    Kong, Wentao; Kapuganti, Venkata S; Lu, Ting


    Recent developments in synthetic biology have positioned lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as a major class of cellular chassis for applications. To achieve the full potential of LAB, one fundamental prerequisite is the capacity for rapid engineering of complex gene networks, such as natural biosynthetic pathways and multicomponent synthetic circuits, into which cellular functions are encoded. Here, we present a synthetic biology platform for rapid construction and optimization of large-scale gene networks in LAB. The platform involves a copy-controlled shuttle for hosting target networks and two associated strategies that enable efficient genetic editing and phenotypic validation. By using a nisin biosynthesis pathway and its variants as examples, we demonstrated multiplex, continuous editing of small DNA parts, such as ribosome-binding sites, as well as efficient manipulation of large building blocks such as genes and operons. To showcase the platform, we applied it to expand the phenotypic diversity of the nisin pathway by quickly generating a library of 63 pathway variants. We further demonstrated its utility by altering the regulatory topology of the nisin pathway for constitutive bacteriocin biosynthesis. This work demonstrates the feasibility of rapid and advanced engineering of gene networks in LAB, fostering their applications in biomedicine and other areas.

  20. Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli essential genes and minimal cell factories after one decade of genome engineering. (United States)

    Juhas, Mario; Reuß, Daniel R; Zhu, Bingyao; Commichau, Fabian M


    Investigation of essential genes, besides contributing to understanding the fundamental principles of life, has numerous practical applications. Essential genes can be exploited as building blocks of a tightly controlled cell 'chassis'. Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli K-12 are both well-characterized model bacteria used as hosts for a plethora of biotechnological applications. Determination of the essential genes that constitute the B. subtilis and E. coli minimal genomes is therefore of the highest importance. Recent advances have led to the modification of the original B. subtilis and E. coli essential gene sets identified 10 years ago. Furthermore, significant progress has been made in the area of genome minimization of both model bacteria. This review provides an update, with particular emphasis on the current essential gene sets and their comparison with the original gene sets identified 10 years ago. Special attention is focused on the genome reduction analyses in B. subtilis and E. coli and the construction of minimal cell factories for industrial applications.

  1. De novo production of the flavonoid naringenin in engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koopman Frank


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flavonoids comprise a large family of secondary plant metabolic intermediates that exhibit a wide variety of antioxidant and human health-related properties. Plant production of flavonoids is limited by the low productivity and the complexity of the recovered flavonoids. Thus to overcome these limitations, metabolic engineering of specific pathway in microbial systems have been envisaged to produce high quantity of a single molecules. Result Saccharomyces cerevisiae was engineered to produce the key intermediate flavonoid, naringenin, solely from glucose. For this, specific naringenin biosynthesis genes from Arabidopsis thaliana were selected by comparative expression profiling and introduced in S. cerevisiae. The sole expression of these A. thaliana genes yielded low extracellular naringenin concentrations ( Conclusion The results reported in this study demonstrate that S. cerevisiae is capable of de novo production of naringenin by coexpressing the naringenin production genes from A. thaliana and optimization of the flux towards the naringenin pathway. The engineered yeast naringenin production host provides a metabolic chassis for production of a wide range of flavonoids and exploration of their biological functions.

  2. Dissecting and engineering metabolic and regulatory networks of thermophilic bacteria for biofuel production. (United States)

    Lin, Lu; Xu, Jian


    Interest in thermophilic bacteria as live-cell catalysts in biofuel and biochemical industry has surged in recent years, due to their tolerance of high temperature and wide spectrum of carbon-sources that include cellulose. However their direct employment as microbial cellular factories in the highly demanding industrial conditions has been hindered by uncompetitive biofuel productivity, relatively low tolerance to solvent and osmic stresses, and limitation in genome engineering tools. In this work we review recent advances in dissecting and engineering the metabolic and regulatory networks of thermophilic bacteria for improving the traits of key interest in biofuel industry: cellulose degradation, pentose-hexose co-utilization, and tolerance of thermal, osmotic, and solvent stresses. Moreover, new technologies enabling more efficient genetic engineering of thermophiles were discussed, such as improved electroporation, ultrasound-mediated DNA delivery, as well as thermo-stable plasmids and functional selection systems. Expanded applications of such technological advancements in thermophilic microbes promise to substantiate a synthetic biology perspective, where functional parts, module, chassis, cells and consortia were modularly designed and rationally assembled for the many missions at industry and nature that demand the extraordinary talents of these extremophiles.

  3. Methods of characterizing the distribution of exhaust emissions from light-duty, gasoline-powered motor vehicles in the U.S. fleet. (United States)

    Fulper, Carl R; Kishan, Sandeep; Baldauf, Richard W; Sabisch, Michael; Warila, Jim; Fujit, Eric M; Scarbro, Carl; Crews, William S; Snow, Richard; Gabele, Peter; Santos, Robert; Tierney, Eugene; Cantrell, Bruce


    Mobile sources significantly contribute to ambient concentrations of airborne particulate matter (PM). Source apportionment studies for PM10 (PM fleet to provide data for PM inventory and emissions modeling. The vehicle recruitment design produced a sample that could represent the regional fleet, and by extension, the national fleet. All vehicles were recruited from a stratified sample on the basis of vehicle class (car, truck) and model-year group. The pool of available vehicles was drawn primarily from a sample of vehicle owners designed to represent the selected demographic and geographic characteristics of the Kansas City population. Emissions testing utilized a portable, light-duty chassis dynamometer with vehicles tested using the LA-92 driving cycle, on-board emissions measurement systems, and remote sensing devices. Particulate mass emissions were the focus of the study, with continuous and integrated samples collected. In addition, sample analyses included criteria gases (carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitric oxide/nitrogen dioxide, hydrocarbons), air toxics (speciated volatile organic compounds), and PM constituents (elemental/organic carbon, metals, semi-volatile organic compounds). Results indicated that PM emissions from the in-use fleet varied by up to 3 orders of magnitude, with emissions generally increasing for older model-year vehicles. The study also identified a strong influence of ambient temperature on vehicle PM mass emissions, with rates increasing with decreasing temperatures.

  4. Exploring the potential of metallic nanoparticles within synthetic biology. (United States)

    Edmundson, Matthew C; Capeness, Michael; Horsfall, Louise


    The fields of metallic nanoparticle study and synthetic biology have a great deal to offer one another. Metallic nanoparticles as a class of material have many useful properties. Their small size allows for more points of contact than would be the case with a similar bulk compound, making nanoparticles excellent candidates for catalysts or for when increased levels of binding are required. Some nanoparticles have unique optical qualities, making them well suited as sensors, while others display para-magnetism, useful in medical imaging, especially by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Many of these metallic nanoparticles could be used in creating tools for synthetic biology, and conversely the use of synthetic biology could itself be utilised to create nanoparticle tools. Examples given here include the potential use of quantum dots (QDs) and gold nanoparticles as sensing mechanisms in synthetic biology, and the use of synthetic biology to create nanoparticle-sensing devices based on current methods of detecting metals and metalloids such as arsenate. There are a number of organisms which are able to produce a range of metallic nanoparticles naturally, such as species of the fungus Phoma which produces anti-microbial silver nanoparticles. The biological synthesis of nanoparticles may have many advantages over their more traditional industrial synthesis. If the proteins involved in biological nanoparticle synthesis can be put into a suitable bacterial chassis then they might be manipulated and the pathways engineered in order to produce more valuable nanoparticles.

  5. The TDAQ Baseline Architecture

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F J

    The Trigger-DAQ community is currently busy preparing material for the DAQ, HLT and DCS TDR. Over the last few weeks a very important step has been a series of meetings to complete agreement on the baseline architecture. An overview of the architecture indicating some of the main parameters is shown in figure 1. As reported at the ATLAS Plenary during the February ATLAS week, the main area where the baseline had not yet been agreed was around the Read-Out System (ROS) and details in the DataFlow. The agreed architecture has: Read-Out Links (ROLs) from the RODs using S-Link; Read-Out Buffers (ROB) sited near the RODs, mounted in a chassis - today assumed to be a PC, using PCI bus at least for configuration, control and monitoring. The baseline assumes data aggregation, in the ROB and/or at the output (which could either be over a bus or in the network). Optimization of the data aggregation will be made in the coming months, but the current model has each ROB card receiving input from 4 ROLs, and 3 such c...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xuebin; GAO Feng


    From the analysis of experiment data of the multi-axle vehicle chassis searching process, it is less accurate to predict multi-axle vehicle dynamic characteristic with simplified two-axle vehicle model. So it is important to find out a more effective modeling method in the study of multi-vehicle stability. In the development of heat transfer fluid(HTF) six-axle vehicle, a whole vehicle multi-body dynamic model is built through collaborate flowchart using Teamcenter Engineering, UG NX3 and MSC. Adams. The modeling method of connected hydragas spring suspension is validated by running test results. Based on this whole vehicle model, a kinematical analysis of suspension is implemented to achieve optimized suspension geometry parameters according to the stable requirement. Then, different handling simulations are carried out with regard to various tire characteristics, driving configurations, and equipments. According to the evaluation of whole vehicle handling characteristic, some design rules are summarized to improve the stability of multi-axle vehicle.

  7. Evolution of Standard and Key Technologies of Commercial Vehicle Electronic Stability Control System%商用车电子稳定性控制系统的标准发展及关键技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗文发; 吴光强; 郑松林


    介绍了商用车电子稳定性控制系统(ESC)的基本原理及其技术背景,阐述了系统标准的发展现状,并从系统功能定义、系统评价、系统的试验方法及仿真方法等方面,分析了标准的核心内容.简述了系统控制策略、车辆状态估计、执行器设计开发、系统评价体系、底盘综合控制等关键技术.%This article describes the commercial vehicle electronic stability control (ESC) system principles, technical background and development status of system standard, analyzes the core content of the standards in system function definition, system evaluation, system test method and simulation method. And system control strategy, vehicle status estimate, design and development of actuator, system appraisal system, key technologies, i.e. chassis control, are briefly introduced in the paper.

  8. Measurement of airborne concentrations of tire and road wear particles in urban and rural areas of France, Japan, and the United States (United States)

    Panko, Julie M.; Chu, Jennifer; Kreider, Marisa L.; Unice, Ken M.


    In addition to industrial facilities, fuel combustion, forest fires and dust erosion, exhaust and non-exhaust vehicle emissions are an important source of ambient air respirable particulate matter (PM10). Non-exhaust vehicle emissions are formed from wear particles of vehicle components such as brakes, clutches, chassis and tires. Although the non-exhaust particles are relatively minor contributors to the overall ambient air particulate load, reliable exposure estimates are few. In this study, a global sampling program was conducted to quantify tire and road wear particles (TRWP) in the ambient air in order to understand potential human exposures and the overall contribution of these particles to the PM10. The sampling was conducted in Europe, the United States and Japan and the sampling locations were selected to represent a variety of settings including both rural and urban core; and within each residential, commercial and recreational receptors. The air samples were analyzed using validated chemical markers for rubber polymer based on a pyrolysis technique. Results indicated that TRWP concentrations in the PM10 fraction were low with averages ranging from 0.05 to 0.70 μg m-3, representing an average PM10 contribution of 0.84%. The TRWP concentration in air was associated with traffic load and population density, but the trend was not statistically significant. Further, significant differences across days were not observed. This study provides a robust dataset to understand potential human exposures to airborne TRWP.

  9. A comparison of exhaust emissions from vehicles fuelled with petrol, LPG and CNG (United States)

    Bielaczyc, P.; Szczotka, A.; Woodburn, J.


    This paper presents an analysis of THC, NMHC, CO, NOx and CO2 emissions during testing of two bi-fuel vehicles, fuelled with petrol and gaseous fuels, on a chassis dynamometer in the context of the Euro 6 emissions requirements. The analyses were performed on one Euro 5 bi-fuel vehicle (petrol/LPG) and one Euro 5 bi-fuel vehicle (petrol/CNG), both with SI engines equipped with MPI feeding systems operating in closed-loop control, typical three-way-catalysts and heated oxygen sensors. The vehicles had been adapted by their manufacturers for fuelling with LPG or CNG by using additional special equipment mounted onto the existing petrol fuelling system. The vehicles tested featured multipoint gas injection systems. The aim of this paper was an analysis of the impact of the gaseous fuels on the exhaust emission in comparison to the emission of the vehicles fuelled with petrol. The tests subject to the analyses presented here were performed in the Engine Research Department of BOSMAL Automotive Research and Development Institute Ltd in Bielsko-Biala, Poland, within a research programme investigating the influence of alternative fuels on exhaust emissions from light duty vehicle vehicles with spark-ignition and compression-ignition engines.

  10. Vibration Transfer Path Analysis and Path Ranking for NVH Optimization of a Vehicle Interior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sakhaei


    Full Text Available By new advancements in vehicle manufacturing, evaluation of vehicle quality assurance has got a more critical issue. Today noise and vibration generated inside and outside the vehicles are more important factors for customers than before. So far several researchers have focused on interior noise transfer path analysis and the results have been published in related papers but each method has its own limitations. In present work, the vibration transfer path analysis and vibration path ranking of a car interior have been performed. As interior vibration is a source of structural borne noise problem, thus, the results of this research can be used to present the structural borne noise state in a vehicle. The proposed method in this paper does not need to disassemble the powertrain from the chassis. The procedure shows a good ability of vibration path ranking in a vehicle and is an effective tool to diagnose the vibration problem inside the vehicle. The simulated vibration spectrums in different speeds of the engine have a good compliance with the tested results; however, some incompatibilities exist and have been discussed in detail. The simulated results show the strength of the method in engine mount optimization.

  11. Optimization of new magnetorheological fluid mount for vibration control of start/stop engine mode (United States)

    Chung, Jye Ung; Phu, Do Xuan; Choi, Seung-Bok


    The technologies related to saving energy/or green vehicles are actively researched. In this tendency, the problem for reducing exhausted gas is in development with various ways. Those efforts are directly related to the operation of engine which emits exhausted gas. The auto start/stop of vehicle engine when a vehicle stop at road is currently as a main stream of vehicle industry resulting in reducing exhausted gas. However, this technology automatically turns on and off engine frequently. This motion induces vehicle engine to transmit vibration of engine which has large displacement, and torsional impact to chassis. These vibrations causing uncomfortable feeling to passengers are transmitted through the steering wheel and the gear knob. In this work, in order to resolve this vibration issue, a new proposed magnetorheological (MR) fluid based engine mount (MR mount in short) is presented. The proposed MR mount is designed to satisfy large damping force in various frequency ranges. It is shown that the proposed mount can have large damping force and large force ratio which is enough to control unwanted vibrations of engine start/stop mode.

  12. A novel design of semi-active hydraulic mount with wide-band tunable notch frequency (United States)

    Wang, Min; Yao, Guo-feng; Zhao, Jing-zhou; Qin, Min


    Hydraulic engine mount is advanced vibration isolator with superior performance to reduce vibration transferred from engine to chassis. As the stiffness at notch frequency is small, some semi-active or active hydraulic mounts tune some parameters to let notch frequency coincide with exciting frequency for better vibration isolation performance. It is discovered the current semi-active mounts can tune the notch frequency in narrow frequency band when only one parameter is tuned. A novel semi-active hydraulic engine mount design which introduces screw thread is proposed and researched in the paper. This hydraulic mount can control both cross section area and the length of inertia track and the theoretical tunable notch frequency band is [0, ∞). Theoretical work is carried out to uncover the capability for the proposed design to tune notch frequency. Simulation work is performed to understand its high vibration isolation performance. For the purpose of energy conservation, the friction self-locking is introduced. This denotes once the mount is tuned at optimal condition, the energy can be cut off and the optimal condition will never change. We also determine the best time to tune the parameters of the proposed mount in order to decrease the acting force. The proposed semi-active mount has capability to obtain wide band tunable notch frequency and has merit of energy conservation.

  13. The Dynamic Characteristic and Hysteresis Effect of an Air Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Löcken F.


    Full Text Available In many applications of vibration technology, especially in chassis, air springs present a common alternative to steel spring concepts. A design-independent and therefore universal approach is presented to describe the dynamic characteristic of such springs. Differential and constitutive equations based on energy balances of the enclosed volume and the mountings are given to describe the nonlinear and dynamic characteristics. Therefore all parameters can be estimated directly from physical and geometrical properties, without parameter fitting. The numerically solved equations fit very well to measurements of a passenger car air spring. In a second step a simplification of this model leads to a pure mechanical equation. While in principle the same parameters are used, just an empirical correction of the effective heat transfer coefficient is needed to handle some simplification on this topic. Finally, a linearization of this equation leads to an analogous mechanical model that can be assembled from two common spring- and one dashpot elements in a specific arrangement. This transfer into ”mechanical language” enables a system description with a simple force-displacement law and a consideration of the nonobvious hysteresis and stiffness increase of an air spring from a mechanical point of view.

  14. Versatility of hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria. (United States)

    Xie, Min; Wang, Weihua; Zhang, Weiwen; Chen, Lei; Lu, Xuefeng


    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms using solar energy, H2O, and CO2 as the primary inputs. Compared to plants and eukaryotic microalgae, cyanobacteria are easier to be genetically engineered and possess higher growth rate. Extensive genomic information and well-established genetic platform make cyanobacteria good candidates to build efficient biosynthetic pathways for biofuels and chemicals by genetic engineering. Hydrocarbons are a family of compounds consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon. Structural diversity of the hydrocarbon family is enabled by variation in chain length, degree of saturation, and rearrangements of the carbon skeleton. The diversified hydrocarbons can be used as valuable chemicals in the field of food, fuels, pharmaceuticals, nutrition, and cosmetics. Hydrocarbon biosynthesis is ubiquitous in bacteria, yeasts, fungi, plants, and insects. A wide variety of pathways for the hydrocarbon biosynthesis have been identified in recent years. Cyanobacteria may be superior chassis for hydrocabon production in a photosynthetic manner. A diversity of hydrocarbons including ethylene, alkanes, alkenes, and terpenes can be produced by cyanobacteria. Metabolic engineering and synthetic biology strategies can be employed to improve hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria. This review mainly summarizes versatility and perspectives of hydrocarbon production in cyanobacteria.

  15. Measurement of VOCs in vehicle exhaust by extractive FTIR spectroscopy (United States)

    Lechner, Bernhard; Paar, H.; Sturm, Peter J.


    12 The detection of benzene and other organic compounds in vehicle exhaust by FT-IR-spectroscopy is seriously limited by the strong interference of carbon dioxide and the rather weak absorption coefficient of the gases. Therefore, a measurement device was developed which separates the components of interest (mostly VOCs) from carbon dioxide, water and nitric oxide. In addition the VOCs have to be pre- concentrated. To avoid condensation of VOCs the measurements have to take place at higher temperatures. The vehicle exhaust was led through an activated charcoal tube where the organic compounds were adsorbed. Afterwards, the charcoal tube was heated in a furnace, the VOCs were desorbed thermically and were carried by (heated) nitrogen into a gas cell with a path-length of 10 m where the concentration of the different species was measured. With the help of this measurement device a lot of VOC- components like benzene, toluene, and xylene were detected successfully. Measurements were performed on an engine test bed and a chassis dynamometer for heavy duty vehicles. The detection limit of most of the VOCs was about 2 to 3 ppb for a sampling time of 20 min. Calibration measurements showed an accuracy of 15%.

  16. Active tuned mass damper in vehicles. Integrated mass and energy balance; Mechatronische Schwingungstilger in Fahrzeugen. Ganzheitliche Massen- und Energiebilanz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granzow, Sebastian


    The number of mechatronic automotive applications is growing rapidly and becoming more and more important. On the other hand, the automotive industry is faced with the ambitious challenge to significantly reduce CO{sub 2}-emissions. The vehicle mass is as a part of the driving resistance is a starting point. New innovative approaches are required for lightweight constructions. Taking the two aspects together, this leads inevitably to the question: Is it possible to support automotive lightweight construction by using mechatronic systems? The Mechatronic vibration absorber is a combination of a mechanical oscillating system with an electronically controllable force component. This allows a broadband and situation-dependent influence of vehicle vibration behavior. Mechatronic vibration absorbers are suitable to compensate a loss of riding comfort due to a reduction of the body mass. Essential for this is a multidisciplinary simulation environment. The mechatronic vibration absorber, including appropriate control systems, the nonlinear chassis and the elastic body characteristics, inclusive of mutual interactions are mapped in the simulation environment Matlab. In addition to the representation of the oscillating vehicle the determination of the total energy requirements is necessary. To achieve a CO{sub 2}-reduction target, the overall energy balance of lightweight and the electrical vibration absorber energy, which is offered by the vehicle, is required. The question of the real vibration absorber energy needs to be discussed in the context of the individual driving behavior. Ultimately, the overall energy balance is inherently dependent of the individual driving behavior.

  17. Evaluating Green Performance of Suppliers via Analytic Network Process and TOPSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşen Akman


    Full Text Available Developments in environmental issues in the last few years have been forcing manufacturing companies to improve their environmental performances. Many firms developed integrated relationships with their suppliers to increase their environmental performance and to decrease their hazardous effects on the environment. Then, selecting suitable and green suppliers in the supply chain has become a key strategic consideration. A performance evaluation system for green suppliers is necessary to determine the suitability of suppliers to cooperate with the firm. Therefore, in this study, a model for evaluating green performance of suppliers is proposed, and a hybrid multicriteria decision making model is developed in order to evaluate green performance of the suppliers. The analytical network process technique is applied to handle the relationships and dependence of selection criteria and subcriteria and determine weights of the criteria. The technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution is used to sequence the suppliers for ideal solution of the suppliers’ green performance evaluation problem. After a comprehensive literature survey, evaluation criteria of green performance for suppliers are determined. Finally, green performance of 18 suppliers of an automobile company was evaluated by this model. These 18 suppliers manufacture chassis and its components.

  18. Method for in-use measurement and evaluation of the activity, fuel use, electricity use, and emissions of a plug-in hybrid diesel-electric school bus. (United States)

    Choi, Hyung-Wook; Frey, H Christopher


    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate a methodology for characterizing at high resolution the energy use and emissions of a plug-in parallel-hybrid diesel-electric school bus (PHSB) to support assessments of sensitivity to driving cycles and comparisons to a conventional diesel school bus (CDSB). Data were collected using onboard instruments for a first-of-a-kind prototype PHSB and a CDSB of the same chassis and engine, operated on actual school bus routes. The engine load was estimated on the basis of vehicle specific power (VSP) and an empirically derived relationship between VSP and engine manifold absolute pressure (MAP). VSP depends on speed, acceleration, and road grade. For the PHSB, the observed electrical discharge or recharge to the traction motor battery was characterized on the basis of VSP. The energy use and emission rates of the PHSB from tailpipe and electricity use were estimated for five real-world driving cycles and compared to the engine fuel use and emissions of the CDSB. The PHSB had the greatest advantage on arterial routes and less advantage on highway or local routes. The coupled VSP-MAP modeling approach enables assessment of a wide variety of driving conditions and comparisons of vehicles with different propulsion technologies.

  19. Monitoring individual traffic flows within the ATLAS TDAQ network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoen, R; Batraneanu, S M; Leahu, L; Martin, B; Al-Shabibi, A [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Stancu, S; Ciobotaru, M, E-mail: rune.velle.sjoen@cern.c [' Politehnica' University of Bucharest (Romania)


    The ATLAS data acquisition system consists of four different networks interconnecting up to 2000 processors using up to 200 edge switches and five multi-blade chassis devices. The architecture of the system has been described in [1] and its operational model in [2]. Classical, SNMP-based, network monitoring provides statistics on aggregate traffic, but for performance monitoring and troubleshooting purposes there was an imperative need to identify and quantify single traffic flows. sFlow [3] is an industry standard based on statistical sampling which attempts to provide a solution to this. Due to the size of the ATLAS network, the collection and analysis of the sFlow data from all devices generates a data handling problem of its own. This paper describes how this problem is addressed by making it possible to collect and store data either centrally or distributed according to need. The methods used to present the results in a relevant fashion for system analysts are discussed and we explore the possibilities and limitations of this diagnostic tool, giving an example of its use in solving system problems that arise during the ATLAS data taking.

  20. The Electronic Wedge Brake - EWB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, L.M.; Roberts, R.P.; Hartmann, H.; Gombert, B. [Siemens VDO Automotive (Germany)


    Future driver assistance systems will not only monitor the current traffic situation, but actively assist the driver in the day to day driving routines and as well in emergency situations. Autonomous intervention in the vehicle behavior will help to keep the vehicle under control, even in hazardous situations. A fast and smart braking system is one of the basics for the next generation of driver assistance systems. Siemens VDO sees its electronic wedge brake (EWB) brake-by-wire technology as the answer to future vehicle chassis safety, weight, reliability and space requirements. Particularly in the automobile sector, there is an increasing trend towards replacing existing hydraulic or pneumatic brake systems with drive 'by-wire' solutions. While mechatronics, i.e. intelligent, controllable electromechanical actuators, are already in use in many automotive and non automotive areas, there are particularly strict requirements for purely electromechanical braking systems which require complex development processes. These are highly safety critical systems, which must provide both excellent control quality and sophisticated fail-safe behavior. The challenge is to achieve a high power density in the wheel brake actuators. (orig.)

  1. Temperature Control and Noise Reduction in our Compact ADR System for TES Microcalorimeter Operation (United States)

    Hishi, U.; Fujimoto, R.; Kamiya, K.; Kotake, M.; Ito, H.; Kaido, T.; Tanaka, K.; Hattori, K.


    We have been developing a compact adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator, keeping ground application and future missions in mind. A salt pill fabricated in-house, a superconducting magnet with a passive magnetic shield around it, and a mechanical heat switch are mounted in a dedicated helium cryostat. The detector stage temperature is regulated by PID control of the magnet current, with a dI/dt term added to compensate the temperature rise due to parasitic heat. The temperature fluctuation of the detector stage is 1-2 \\upmu Krms, and the hold time was extended by about 15 % thanks to the dI/dt term. Bundle shields of the harnesses between the cryostat and the analog electronics boxes were connected to the chassis at both ends, and the analog electronics boxes were grounded to the cryostat through the bundle shields. This reduced the readout noise to 16 pA/√{Hz} in the 10-60 kHz range. Using this system, an energy resolution of 3.8 ± 0.2 eV (FWHM) was achieved at 5.9 keV.

  2. Emissions from Medium-Duty Conventional and Diesel-Electric Hybrid Vehicles; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragatz, A.; Duran, A.; Thornton, M.; Walkowicz, K.


    This presentation discusses the results of emissions testing for medium-duty conventional and diesel-electric hybrid vehicles. Testing was based on a field evaluation approach that utilized the Fleet DNA drive cycle database and NREL’s Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory chassis dynamometer. Vehicles tested included parcel delivery (Class 6 step vans), beverage delivery (Class 8 tractors), and parcel delivery (Class 7 box trucks) vehicles, all with intended service class medium/heavy heavy-duty diesel (MHDD).
    Results for fuel economy and tailpipe NOx emissions included: diesel hybrid electric vehicles showed an average fuel economy advantage on identified test cycles: Class 6 Step Vans: 26%; Class 7 Box Trucks: 24.7%; Class 8 Tractors: 17.3%. Vehicle miles traveled is an important factor in determining total petroleum and CO2 displacement. Higher NOx emissions were observed over some test cycles: highly drive cycle dependent; engine-out differences may result from different engine operating point; and selective catalyst reduction temperature may play a role, but does not explain the whole story.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    (1)Mauderly, J; Seagrave, J; McDonald; J (2)Eide,I (3)Zielinska, B (4)Lawson, D


    Differences in the lung toxicity and bacterial mutagenicity of seven samples from gasoline and diesel vehicle emissions were reported previously [1]. Filter and vapor-phase semivolatile organic samples were collected from normal and high-emitter gasoline and diesel vehicles operated on chassis dynamometers on the Unified Driving Cycle, and the compositions of the samples were measured in detail. The two fractions of each sample were combined in their original mass collection ratios, and the toxicity of the seven samples was compared by measuring inflammation and tissue damage in rat lungs and mutagenicity in bacteria. There was good agreement among the toxicity response variables in ranking the samples and demonstrating a five-fold range of toxicity. The relationship between chemical composition and toxicity was analyzed by a combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares regression (PLS, also known as projection to latent surfaces). The PCA /PLS analysis revealed the chemical constituents co-varying most strongly with toxicity and produced models predicting the relative toxicity of the samples with good accuracy. The results demonstrated the utility of the PCA/PLS approach, which is now being applied to additional samples, and it also provided a starting point for confirming the compounds that actually cause the effects.

  4. Regulated and nonregulated diesel and gasoline cold start emissions at different temperatures (United States)

    Weilenmann, Martin; Soltic, Patrik; Saxer, Christian; Forss, Anna-Maria; Heeb, Norbert

    The emissions of modern cars are usually reduced in warm engine conditions by catalysts. Consequently emissions are significantly higher during the cold start, i.e. the warm-up phase of the car. The duration of this period and the emissions produced during it depend on the ambient temperature as well as on the initial temperature of the car's systems. The cold start emissions of Euro-3 gasoline cars, Euro-2 diesel cars and old pre-Euro-1 gasoline cars were investigated at cold ambient temperatures. Since the goal was to get real-world emissions, the measurements were done with cars belonging to private owners taken straight from the road with no maintenance. The chassis dynamometer tests were carried out at +23, -7 and -20 °C. The test cycle employed is a representative urban ride from a real-world driving behaviour study. Besides the regulated pollutants, methane, benzene and toluene were also measured online by chemical ionisation mass spectrometry.

  5. Effect of organometallic fuel additives on nanoparticle emissions from a gasoline passenger car. (United States)

    Gidney, Jeremy T; Twigg, Martyn V; Kittelson, David B


    Particle size measurements were performed on the exhaust of a car operating on a chassis dynamometer fueled with standard gasoline and gasoline containing low levels of Pb, Fe, and Mn organometallic additives. When additives were present there was a distinct nucleation mode consisting primarily of sub-10 nm nanoparticles. At equal molar dosing Mn and Fe gave similar nanoparticle concentrations at the tailpipe, whereas Pb gave a considerably lower concentration. A catalytic stripper was used to remove the organic component of these particles and revealed that they were mainly solid and, because of their association with inorganic additives, presumably inorganic. Solid nucleation mode nanoparticles of similar size and concentration to those observed here from a gasoline engine with Mn and Fe additives have also been observed from modern heavy-duty diesel engines without aftertreatment at idle, but these solid particles are a small fraction of the primarily volatile nucleation mode particles emitted. The solid nucleation mode particles emitted by the diesel engines are likely derived from metal compounds in the lubrication oil, although carbonaceous particles cannot be ruled out. Significantly, most of these solid nanoparticles emitted by both engine types fall below the 23 nm cutoff of the PMP number regulation.

  6. Effects of low concentration biodiesel blends application on modern passenger cars. Part 3: impact on PAH, nitro-PAH, and oxy-PAH emissions. (United States)

    Karavalakis, Georgios; Fontaras, Georgios; Ampatzoglou, Dimitrios; Kousoulidou, Marina; Stournas, Stamoulis; Samaras, Zissis; Bakeas, Evangelos


    This study explores the impact of five different types of methyl esters on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), nitrated-PAH and oxygenated PAH emissions. The measurements were conducted on a chassis dynamometer, according to the European regulation. Each of the five different biodiesels was blended with EN590 diesel at a proportion of 10-90% v/v (10% biodiesel concentration). The vehicle was a Euro 3 compliant common-rail diesel passenger car. Emission measurements were performed over the NEDC and compared with those of the real traffic-based Artemis driving cycles. The experimental results showed that the addition of biodiesel led to some important increases in low molecular-weight PAHs (phenanthrene and anthracene) and to both increases and reductions in large PAHs which are characterised by their carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. Nitro-PAHs were found to reduce with biodiesel whereas oxy-PAH emissions presented important increases with the biodiesel blends. The impact of biodiesel source material was particularly clear on the formation of PAH compounds. It was found that most PAH emissions decreased as the average load and speed of the driving cycle increased. Cold-start conditions negatively influenced the formation of most PAH compounds. A similar trend was observed with particulate alkane emissions.

  7. Reconstruction and comparison of the metabolic potential of cyanobacteria Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajib Saha

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are an important group of photoautotrophic organisms that can synthesize valuable bio-products by harnessing solar energy. They are endowed with high photosynthetic efficiencies and diverse metabolic capabilities that confer the ability to convert solar energy into a variety of biofuels and their precursors. However, less well studied are the similarities and differences in metabolism of different species of cyanobacteria as they pertain to their suitability as microbial production chassis. Here we assemble, update and compare genome-scale models (iCyt773 and iSyn731 for two phylogenetically related cyanobacterial species, namely Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. All reactions are elementally and charge balanced and localized into four different intracellular compartments (i.e., periplasm, cytosol, carboxysome and thylakoid lumen and biomass descriptions are derived based on experimental measurements. Newly added reactions absent in earlier models (266 and 322, respectively span most metabolic pathways with an emphasis on lipid biosynthesis. All thermodynamically infeasible loops are identified and eliminated from both models. Comparisons of model predictions against gene essentiality data reveal a specificity of 0.94 (94/100 and a sensitivity of 1 (19/19 for the Synechocystis iSyn731 model. The diurnal rhythm of Cyanothece 51142 metabolism is modeled by constructing separate (light/dark biomass equations and introducing regulatory restrictions over light and dark phases. Specific metabolic pathway differences between the two cyanobacteria alluding to different bio-production potentials are reflected in both models.

  8. Study on the possibility of application of a compact roll over protective structure for agricultural wheeled narrow track tractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Monarca


    Full Text Available Since occupational accidents often occur in farm tractor drivers, it is extremely important to focus the attention on specific devices in order to avoid risks from tractor overturning. This phenomenon is actually considered as the leading cause of deaths or injuries related to agricultural work. The system adopted to reduce the above-mentioned risk consists of passive protection devices aimed at preventing the hazardous event which may affect workers’ health. More precisely, the tractor chassis (i.e. ROPS and the proper seat belt define a “safety volume” around the worker. The aim of the present research is to carry out tests on narrow-track wheeled tractors with fixed roll over protective structures in those areas – such as hazel and olive groves and vineyards - where problems related to under–tree activities occur. This is to implement planting layout and/or cultivation techniques which can be considered suitable for tractors with roll over protective structures. According to that, their project parameters – i.e. safety volume, seat position and typology, test methods - can be successfully modified and improved. The results show that nowadays only a few agricultural vehicles are provided with specific fixed devices able to work under tree without damaging orchards.

  9. 前桥摆转转向式四驱底盘驱动方式研究%Research on the Influence of Four-wheel Chassis’ Working Stroke Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕莹; 符耀明; 吴潇; 李志伟


    Research on the front axle swing type of all-wheel-drive chassis when turning, angular velocity of the road round’ change regulation.and design a suitable driving mode can provide reference for the application of the chassis de-sign.ADAMS software can analysis walking wheel angular velocity under the different length-width ratio, it is concluded that the smaller the length-width ratio, the greater the change trend between both inner side and outside of the chassis af-ter walking wheel angular velocity.In order to satisfy the chassis’ requirements when turning process, analysis and com-parison the mechanical, electric, hydraulic drive mode, chooses the hydraulic drive mode.Hydraulic drive system driven by four hydraulic motors, each motor drive a walking wheel, the fifth motor is to be power output shaft .Hydraulic drive system adopt a shaft of two hydraulic oil pump which driven respectively four wheel motor and power output shaft, System driven increase power output shaft and the walking speed parameters matching.Two front wheel in the form of series hy-draulic motor and hydraulic motor with two rear wheels connected in parallel.When turning process, By controlling the former inside of the hydraulic motor stalling, the behind inside of the hydraulic motor follow-up.implements the front ax-le pendulum turning and satisfy the inside of the walking wheel the angular velocity and angular velocity direction will change when By physical prototype test, front axle swing chassis with hydraulic drive system can achieve good walk straight and arbitrary Angle place turning.%研究前桥摆转转向式四驱底盘的行走轮在转向过程中角速度的变化规律,设计出合适的驱动方式可为该类底盘的应用设计提供参考。通过ADAMS软件对不同长宽比下行走轮角速度变化分析,得出长宽比越小,底盘后内外两侧行走轮之间的角速度变化趋势越大。为了满足底盘在转向过程中各行走轮的驱动要求

  10. Design and Development of Independent Front Air Suspension for 7 m Coach%7m客车用独立前空气悬架的设计开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秋芳; 何文彪; 冯春华; 吴纪刚


    介绍一种双横臂式独立前空气悬架的设计开发,用于7m左右的中小型客车。可解决其在发动机前置时,底盘空间狭小、布置独立悬架及转向系统困难的技术问题。此独立前悬采用支撑臂上匹配气囊减振器的结构,目前在国内中小型客车上尚无此类产品。%The authors describe the design and development of double wishbone independent front air suspension for 7 m coaches. This can solve the technique problems that the chassis space is narrow, the arrangement of independent suspension and steering system are difficult. This independent front suspension uses a structure of air spring and shock absorber mounted on the support arm, which is presently rare to be found in middle and small-sized coaches.

  11. Cosmo Cassette: A Microfluidic Microgravity Microbial System For Synthetic Biology Unit Tests and Satellite Missions (United States)

    Berliner, Aaron J.


    Although methods in the design-build-test life cycle of the synthetic biology field have grown rapidly, the expansion has been non-uniform. The design and build stages in development have seen innovations in the form of biological CAD and more efficient means for building DNA, RNA, and other biological constructs. The testing phase of the cycle remains in need of innovation. Presented will be both a theoretical abstraction of biological measurement and a practical demonstration of a microfluidics-based platform for characterizing synthetic biological phenomena. Such a platform demonstrates a design of additive manufacturing (3D printing) for construction of a microbial fuel cell (MFC) to be used in experiments carried out in space. First, the biocompatibility of the polypropylene chassis will be demonstrated. The novel MFCs will be cheaper, and faster to make and iterate through designs. The novel design will contain a manifold switchingdistribution system and an integrated in-chip set of reagent reservoirs fabricated via 3D printing. The automated nature of the 3D printing yields itself to higher resolution switching valves and leads to smaller sized payloads, lower cost, reduced power and a standardized platform for synthetic biology unit tests on Earth and in space. It will be demonstrated that the application of unit testing in synthetic biology will lead to the automatic construction and validation of desired constructs. Unit testing methodologies offer benefits of preemptive problem identification, change of facility, simplicity of integration, ease of documentation, and separation of interface from implementation, and automated design.

  12. Control of fast-pulsed Power Converters at CERN using a function generator controller

    CERN Document Server

    Murillo Garcia, Raul; Magrans De Abril, Marc


    The electrical power converter group at CERN is responsible for the design of fast-pulsed power converters. These generate a flat-top pulse of the order of a few milliseconds. Control of these power converters is orchestrated by an embedded computer, known as the Function Generator/Controller (FGC). The FGC is the main component in the so-called RegFGC3 chassis, which also houses a variety of purpose-built cards. Ensuring the generation of the pulse at a precise moment, typically when the beam passes, is paramount to the correct behaviour of the accelerator. To that end, the timing distribution and posterior handling by the FGC must be well defined. Also important is the ability to provide operational feedback, and to configure the FGC, the converter, and the pulse characteristics. This paper presents an overview of the system architecture as well as the results obtained during the commissioning of this control solution in CERN’s new Linac4.

  13. Bioethanol/gasoline blends for fuelling conventional and hybrid scooter. Regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions (United States)

    Costagliola, Maria Antonietta; Prati, Maria Vittoria; Murena, Fabio


    The aim of this experimental activity was to evaluate the influence of ethanol fuel on the pollutant emissions measured at the exhaust of a conventional and a hybrid scooter. Both scooters are 4-stroke, 125 cm3 of engine capacity and Euro 3 compliant. They were tested on chassis dynamometer for measuring gaseous emissions of CO, HC, NOx, CO2 and some toxic micro organic pollutants, such as benzene, 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. The fuel consumption was estimated throughout a carbon balance on the exhaust species. Moreover, total particles number with diameter between 20 nm up to 1 μm was measured. Worldwide and European test cycles were carried out with both scooters fuelled with gasoline and ethanol/gasoline blends (10/90, 20/80 and 30/70% vol). According to the experimental results relative to both scooter technologies, the addiction of ethanol in gasoline reduces CO and particles number emissions. The combustion of conventional scooter becomes unstable when a percentage of 30%v of bioethanol is fed; as consequence a strong increasing of hydrocarbon is monitored, including carcinogenic species. The negative effects of ethanol fuel are related to the increasing of fuel consumption due to the less carbon content for volume unit and to the increasing of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde due to the higher oxygen availability. Almost 70% of Ozone Formation Potential is covered by alkenes and aromatics.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Mirbagheri, M. Salehi M


    Full Text Available The waste of motor vehicle industries is mainly the result of washing, coloring and various stages of chassis manufacturing, which include oil, grease, dyestuff, chromium, phosphate and other pollutants. In the present research, extended aeration activated sludge biological treatment plant is being considered and evaluated, for the removal of heavy metals and pollution load from industrial wastes and sanitary wastewaters, and on the pilot scale for optimization of waste treatment method for motor vehicle industries. To accomplish the pilot experiments, the natural waste of Bahman motor vehicle factory is used. Effective factors on efficient removal of heavy metals and pollution load such as concentration of biological mass (MLVSS, COD, BOD, pH in the extended aeration activated sludge biological treatment system, in different ratios of the mixing of industrial waste to sanitary wastewater have been experimented and evaluated. The performance of the above system, in the best of conditions, removes about 90% of pollution load and 65% of heavy metals existing in the industrial wastes. After analyzing the experiments, it is concluded that the removal of heavy metals through biological methods is possible and moreover it is feasible to biologically treat the mixing of motor vehicle industries effluent and sanitary wastewater up to the ratio of one to one, if guided exactly and scientifically.

  15. Particle and carbon dioxide emissions from passenger vehicles operating on unleaded petrol and LPG fuel. (United States)

    Ristovski, Z D; Jayaratne, E R; Morawska, L; Ayoko, G A; Lim, M


    A comprehensive study of the particle and carbon dioxide emissions from a fleet of six dedicated liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) powered and five unleaded petrol (ULP) powered new Ford Falcon Forte passenger vehicles was carried out on a chassis dynamometer at four different vehicle speeds--0 (idle), 40, 60, 80 and 100 km h(-1). Emission factors and their relative values between the two fuel types together with a statistical significance for any difference were estimated for each parameter. In general, LPG was found to be a 'cleaner' fuel, although in most cases, the differences were not statistically significant owing to the large variations between emissions from different vehicles. The particle number emission factors ranged from 10(11) to 10(13) km(-1) and was over 70% less with LPG compared to ULP. Corresponding differences in particle mass emission factor between the two fuels were small and ranged from the order of 10 microg km(-1) at 40 to about 1000 microg km(-1) at 100 km h(-1). The count median particle diameter (CMD) ranged from 20 to 35 nm and was larger with LPG than with ULP in all modes except the idle mode. Carbon dioxide emission factors ranged from about 300 to 400 g km(-1) at 40 km h(-1), falling with increasing speed to about 200 g km(-1) at 100 km h(-1). At all speeds, the values were 10% to 18% greater with ULP than with LPG.

  16. Influence of fuel composition on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from a fleet of in-service passenger cars (United States)

    Lim, McKenzie C. H.; Ayoko, Godwin A.; Morawska, Lidia.; Ristovski, Zoran D.; Jayaratne, E. Rohan

    The composition of exhaust emissions from eight in-service passenger cars powered by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and unleaded petrol (ULP) were measured on a chassis dynamometer at two driving speeds (60 and 80 km h -1) with the aims of evaluating their polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contents and investigating the effects of the type of fuel on vehicle performance, ambient air quality and associated health risks. Naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, pyrene, chrysene, benzo(a)anthracene and benzo(b)fluoranthene were the most prominent PAHs emitted by both ULP and LPG powered cars. The total emission factors of PAHs from LPG cars were generally lower than (but statistically comparable with) those of ULP cars. Similarly, the total BAP eq of the PAHs emitted by LPG cars were lower than those from ULP cars. Multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) methods showed that cars powered by LPG fuel performed better than those powered by ULP fuel in term of PAH levels. The implications of these observations on the advantages and disadvantages of using ULP and LPG fuels are discussed.

  17. Influence of ethanol-gasoline blended fuel on emission characteristics from a four-stroke motorcycle engine. (United States)

    Jia, Li-Wei; Shen, Mei-Qing; Wang, Jun; Lin, Man-Qun


    Emission characteristics from a four-stroke motorcycle engine using 10% (v/v) ethanol-gasoline blended fuel (E10) were investigated at different driving modes on the chassis dynamometers. The results indicate that CO and HC emissions in the engine exhaust are lower with the operation of E10 as compared to the use of unleaded gasoline, whereas the effect of ethanol on NO(X) emission is not significant. Furthermore, species of both unburned hydrocarbons and their ramifications were analyzed by the combination of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC/FID). This analysis shows that aromatic compounds (benzene, toluene, xylene isomers (o-xylene, m-xylene and p-xylene), ethyltoluene isomers (o-ethyltoluene, m-ethyltoluene and p-ethyltoluene) and trimethylbenzene isomers (1,2,3-trimethylbenzene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene)) and fatty group ones (ethylene, methane, acetaldehyde, ethanol, butene, pentane and hexane) are major compounds in motorcycle engine exhaust. It is found that the E10-fueled motorcycle engine produces more ethylene, acetaldehyde and ethanol emissions than unleaded gasoline engine does. The no significant reduction of aromatics is observed in the case of ethanol-gasoline blended fuel. The ethanol-gasoline blended fuel can somewhat improve emissions of the rest species.

  18. Emission Performance of Motorcycles in Real-Road Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    WMTC, which means a worldwide motorcycle testing cycle, is now regarded as the most possible choice for the global motorcycle emission testing cycle, but whether or not it can be used in China is still unknown. In this study, a large number of data on the speed-time trace of motorcycles were sampled from various kinds of roads in 5 cities in China. Based on a series of criterion numbers defined, the driving character of motorcycles in the real-road conditions of China was obtained. With the aid of a specially designed program, an emission testing cycle that can indicate the driving characteristics of motorcycle in the real-road conditions was synthesized, and the exhaust emission tests of 20 motorcycles under the synchronized cycle and WMTC were carried out based on a CVS system and a motorcycle chassis dynamometer. The results show that although there do exist differences in some criterion numbers between the real-road condition and WMTC, such as proportion of idling mode, mean speed, mean running speed and the average acceleration and deceleration rates, the driving behaviors are similar. The results of exhaust emission tests indicate that the emission values of motorcycles under the synchronized cycle and WMTC have a relatively strong correlation. This means that WMTC can be introduced as a standard motorcycle emission test regulation into China.

  19. Influence of driving cycles on exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of gasoline passenger car in Bangkok

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NUTRAMON Tamsanya; SUPACHART Chungpaibulpatana


    The influence of different driving cycles on their exhaust emissions and fuel consumption rate of gasoline passenger car was investigated in Bangkok based on the actual measurements obtained from a test vehicle driving on a standard chassis dynamometer. A newly established Bangkok driving cycle (BDC) and the European driving cycle (EDC) which is presently adopted as the legislative cycle for testing automobiles registered in Thailand were used. The newly developed BDC is constructed using the driving characteristic data obtained from the real on-road driving tests along selected traffic routes. A method for selecting appropriate road routes for real driving tests is also introduced. Variations of keyed driving parameters of BDC with different driving cycles were discussed. The results showed that the HC and CO emission factors of BDC are almost two and four times greater than those of EDC, respectively. Although the difference in the NOx emission factor is small, the value from BDC is still greater than that of EDC by 10%. Under BDC, the test vehicle consumes fuel about 25% more than it does under EDC. All these differences are mainly attributed to the greater proportion of idle periods and higher fluctuations of vehicle speed in the BDC cycle. This result indicated that the exhausted emissions and fuel consumption of vehicles obtained from tests under the legislative modal-type driving cycle (EDC) are significantly different from those actually produced under real traffic conditions especially during peak periods.

  20. Performance test results for the Eaton dc development power train in an electric test bed vehicle (United States)

    Crumley, R. L.; Donaldson, M. R.


    This report presents the results of the tests performed on a direct current (dc) power train in a test bed vehicle developed by the Eaton Corporation for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The tests were performed by EG and G Idaho, Inc. at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The purpose of the INEL testing was to provide test results from which an evaluation of the performance capabilities of the Eaton dc power train could be made and compared with other vehicle propulsion systems. The planned tests were primarily oriented toward road testing, chassis dynamometer testing, and associated dynamometer coastdown tests for road loss determination. Range tests of the Eaton dc test bed vehicle using an ALCO 2200 lead acid battery pack, produced ranges of 97 km at 56 km/h (60 miles at 35 mph), 79 km at 72 km/h (49 miles at 45 mph), and 47 km at 88 km/h (29 miles at 55 mph). The corresponding net dc energy consumptions are 135 Wh/km (217 Wh/mile), 145 Wh/km (233 Wh/mile), and 178 Wh/km (287 Wh/mile). The energy consumption for the D-cycle test was 241 Wh/km (387 Wh/mile).