WorldWideScience

Sample records for chassis

  1. 5th International Munich Chassis Symposium 2014

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The key drivers of innovation in the field of chassis systems are measures to improve vehicle dynamics and driving safety, efforts to reduce fuel consumption, and intelligent development methods. In addition, chassis development is focusing on enhancing ride comfort while also improving NVH characteristics. At the same time, modularization strategies, concepts for the electrification of the powertrain, and steps towards greater system connectivity are making increasingly complex demands on the chassis and its development. Developers are being called upon to respond to these challenges with a variety of solutions. Contents The chassis of the future.- Trends in chassis development.- New chassis systems.- Vehicle dynamics tuning.- Chassis functions.- Driving simulators and development methods.- Ride comfort.- Vehicle stability.- Innovative steering systems and redundancy.- Electronics and testing.- The future of the braking system.- Development methods.- New tire developments and virtual methods.- Tire pressure ...

  2. 6th International Munich Chassis Symposium 2015

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Connectivity has arrived in the vehicle - whether it is in-car internet or car-to-car communication. For the chassis too, the connected car is increasingly becoming a driver of innovation. Predictive and intelligent chassis systems and automated driving are just some of the topics being addressed. In addition to enhancing driving comfort and safety, interconnecting the powertrain with the chassis can also provide new functions, not only in cars but also in commercial vehicles. What is more, modularization, electrification of the powertrain, intelligent development methods and efforts to reduce fuel consumption are also driving innovations in chassis systems. Contents Consumer protection and methods.- New chassis systems.- Active chassis systems.- Energy efficiency, safety, and resources.- Driver assistance systems.- Development process.- Vehicle lateral dynamics.- Steering technology.- Test bench methods.- Environmental aspects and future technologies.- Control and simulation.- Road surface, tire, and wheel i...

  3. FPS camera sync and reset chassis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sync and reset chassis provides all the circuitry required to synchronize an event to be studied, a remote free-running focus projection and scanning (FPS) data-acquisition TV camera, and a video signal recording system. The functions, design, and operation of this chassis are described in detail

  4. 46 CFR 340.5 - Containers and chassis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Containers and chassis. 340.5 Section 340.5 Shipping... ALLOCATION OF SHIPPING SERVICES, CONTAINERS AND CHASSIS, AND PORT FACILITIES AND SERVICES FOR NATIONAL SECURITY AND NATIONAL DEFENSE RELATED OPERATIONS § 340.5 Containers and chassis. (a) When a defense...

  5. Bulkhead Interface Chassis for optical fiber patching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, M.

    1985-06-01

    An optical fiber patch panel was designed to meet the changing needs of optical fiber communication link installations. This paper deals with the specification and construction details of the Bulkhead Interface Chassis patch panel. Included is ordering information for the commercial parts needed and shop drawings of the pieces to be machined.

  6. Bulkhead interface chassis for optical fiber patching

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, M.

    1985-06-01

    An optical fiber patch panel was designed to meet the changing needs of optical fiber communication link installations. This paper deals with the specification and construction details of the Bulkhead Interface Chassis patch panel. Included is ordering information for the commercial parts needed and shop drawings of the pieces to be machined.

  7. Trends in chassis and automobile electronics components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackenberg, Ulrich [Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The rapidly-growing importance of electronics in automobile construction is in part determined by the debate on sustainability and the clear trend towards electric power trains. Another factor, however, is the decisive impact of electronics on the further development of components, e.g. for chassis. Apart from environmental protection, key motivators for component development include comfort, safety, infotainment and driver assistance. (orig.)

  8. Chassis Control based on Fuzzy Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Vivas Lopez, Carlos Albertos; Morales-Menendez, Ruben; Ramirez-Mendoza, Ricardo,; Sename, Olivier; Dugard, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Based on a Global Chassis Control system with three-layers architecture (decision, control, and physical layers) a Fuzzy Logic (FL) approach is exploited. The FL based decision layer identifies the current driving condition of the vehicle and decides the control strategy to take care of this driving condition. A confusion matrix validates the classification results. The control strategy is implemented through the subsystems (suspension, steering, and braking) at the FL based control layer. Th...

  9. Static Analysis of Loader Backhoe Chassis 770 Model.

    OpenAIRE

    Anand Thorat; G.V.R Seshagiri Rao

    2013-01-01

    Construction industry is undoubtedly the backbone and propelling force behind our progress. In response to booming construction industry, utilization of earth moving equipment has increased considerably leading to high rate of failure. Backhoe Loader chassis is the skeleton of a commercial vehicles. The main function of the truck chassis is to support the different components like engine, cabin, transmission, front axle and rear axle. So it is necessary to analyze chassis to avoid failure whi...

  10. Information Processing of Chassis Dynamometer based on Controller Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shupeng Zhao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of chassis dynamometer of hybrid vehicle based on CAN bus was studied. Chassis dynamometer of hybrid vehicle measurement methods and loading devices are analyzed, and laid the foundation for the resistance simulation of chassis dynamometer. Road resistance simulation on HEV chassis dynamometer is researched, getting electric quantity simulation type of chassis dynamometer driving resistance. The research and development of hybrid vehicle chassis dynamometer based on CAN Bus is conducive to enhance the level of whole hybrid vehicle and car assembly, establish the test procedures, test methods and test standards, provide a research platform and methods for test evaluation of HEV energy utilization. The chassis dynamometer system needs to be calibrated in order to ensure its accuracy .The drum Test bench surface traction can be measured from the motor casing tangential force using force sensor mounted on the motor casing. The design adopts bidirectional calibration arm, it can decrease the effect of extra torque to ensure the test precision of automobile chassis dynamometer surface traction. The method of hybrid vehicles fuel consumption experiment test is analyzed through experiment test on the HEV chassis dynamometer and actual road. We obtain some regularity of hybrid vehicles energy consumption and hybrid vehicles fuel consumption test method through studying lightweight hybrid vehicles fuel economy.

  11. Computational analysis on plug-in hybrid electric motorcycle chassis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, S. J.; Bakar, R. A.; Gan, L. M.

    2013-12-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric motorcycle (PHEM) is an alternative to promote sustainability lower emissions. However, the PHEM overall system packaging is constrained by limited space in a motorcycle chassis. In this paper, a chassis applying the concept of a Chopper is analysed to apply in PHEM. The chassis 3dimensional (3D) modelling is built with CAD software. The PHEM power-train components and drive-train mechanisms are intergraded into the 3D modelling to ensure the chassis provides sufficient space. Besides that, a human dummy model is built into the 3D modelling to ensure the rider?s ergonomics and comfort. The chassis 3D model then undergoes stress-strain simulation. The simulation predicts the stress distribution, displacement and factor of safety (FOS). The data are used to identify the critical point, thus suggesting the chassis design is applicable or need to redesign/ modify to meet the require strength. Critical points mean highest stress which might cause the chassis to fail. This point occurs at the joints at triple tree and bracket rear absorber for a motorcycle chassis. As a conclusion, computational analysis predicts the stress distribution and guideline to develop a safe prototype chassis.

  12. Static Analysis of Loader Backhoe Chassis 770 Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Thorat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Construction industry is undoubtedly the backbone and propelling force behind our progress. In response to booming construction industry, utilization of earth moving equipment has increased considerably leading to high rate of failure. Backhoe Loader chassis is the skeleton of a commercial vehicles. The main function of the truck chassis is to support the different components like engine, cabin, transmission, front axle and rear axle. So it is necessary to analyze chassis to avoid failure while it is in working condition. Computer simulation techniques provides a great leverage in design optimization for weight reduction, better material utilization, shorter design cycles and elimination of major part of prototype testing. Static analysis of the chassis shows the equivalent stress and deformation contour when Backhoe Loader is in working condition. From static analysis, high stress area can be found out when Backhoe Loader is in different load condition. Also by providing some design changes, stress can be minimized.

  13. Design and Optimization of Carbon-Fiber Chassis Panels

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Eric Carlton

    2014-01-01

    Each year, the Virginia Tech (VT) Formula SAE (FSAE) team creates a high performance car to compete against 120 teams from around the world in a series of dynamic events evaluating acceleration, maneuverability, and handling. In an effort to improve upon the VT 2013 car, the torsional stiffness of the chassis was increased. Increasing the torsional stiffness of the chassis allows the suspension to be more precisely tuned, resulting in a better overall performance. An investigation was cond...

  14. Motor drive chassis for the plutonium protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A motor drive chassis has been developed for use in the Plutonium Protection System. Rotation of the desired carrousel in a secure storage module is controlled by this chassis which supplies the power and drive pulses required by the carrousel motor. This work was sponsored by the Department of Energy/Office of Safeguards and Security (DOE/OSS) as part of the overall Sandia Fixed Physical Protection Program

  15. Cyanobacterial chassis engineering for enhancing production of biofuels and chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xinyan; Sun, Tao; Pei, Guangsheng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Weiwen

    2016-04-01

    To reduce dependence on fossil fuels and curb greenhouse effect, cyanobacteria have emerged as an important chassis candidate for producing biofuels and chemicals due to their capability to directly utilize sunlight and CO2 as the sole energy and carbon sources, respectively. Recent progresses in developing and applying various synthetic biology tools have led to the successful constructions of novel pathways of several dozen green fuels and chemicals utilizing cyanobacterial chassis. Meanwhile, it is increasingly recognized that in order to enhance productivity of the synthetic cyanobacterial systems, optimizing and engineering more robust and high-efficient cyanobacterial chassis should not be omitted. In recent years, numerous research studies have been conducted to enhance production of green fuels and chemicals through cyanobacterial chassis modifications involving photosynthesis, CO2 uptake and fixation, products exporting, tolerance, and cellular regulation. In this article, we critically reviewed recent progresses and universal strategies in cyanobacterial chassis engineering to make it more robust and effective for bio-chemicals production. PMID:26883347

  16. Yeast metabolic chassis designs for diverse biotechnological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouhten, Paula; Boruta, Tomasz; Andrejev, Sergej; Pereira, Filipa; Rocha, Isabel; Patil, Kiran Raosaheb

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of industrially important molecules for which microbial production routes have been experimentally demonstrated is rapidly increasing. The development of economically viable producer cells is, however, lagging behind, as it requires substantial engineering of the host metabolism. A chassis strain suitable for production of a range of molecules is therefore highly sought after but remains elusive. Here, we propose a genome-scale metabolic modeling approach to design chassis strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae - a widely used microbial cell factory. For a group of 29 products covering a broad range of biochemistry and applications, we identified modular metabolic engineering strategies for re-routing carbon flux towards the desired product. We find distinct product families with shared targets forming the basis for the corresponding chassis cells. The design strategies include overexpression targets that group products by similarity in precursor and cofactor requirements, as well as gene deletion strategies for growth-product coupling that lead to non-intuitive product groups. Our results reveal the extent and the nature of flux re-routing necessary for producing a diverse range of products in a widely used cell factory and provide blueprints for constructing pre-optimized chassis strains. PMID:27430744

  17. Identification of Dynamics Modal Parameter for Car Chassis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sani, M S M; Rahman, M M; Noor, M M; Kadirgama, K; Izham, M H N [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, 26600 UMP, Pekan, Pahang (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    This paper explores and investigates the dynamic characteristics of car chassis structure by using experimental modal analysis (EMA) method and modal testing. Dynamic characteristics are divided into three parameters include natural frequency, damping factor and mode shape. In this study, modal testing was performed on the car chassis including the impact hammer and shaker test. Data analyzer was used to convert the response signal from the sensor, which was in the time domain to frequency domain. Result obtained from both methods, is compared on each axis (X, Y and Z axis). However, small discrepancy was observed in terms of natural frequency, which is within the range of 5%. Based on the results, interpretation and comparison were made for both methods.

  18. Installation of Dual Reductant Tanks on a Truck Chassis

    OpenAIRE

    Saleeb, Markos

    2013-01-01

    Exhaust after treatment technology based on a reductant (urea) injection into the silencer, has been set up to be a very efficient tool to reduce the emission of the Engines especially NOx. The reductant is stored in a tank positioned on the truck chassis. The reductant tank volume of today is required to be increased to meet the requirements of the market and that is motivated by Euro VI regulations which aim to a higher reduction of the emission of the NOx of the trucks. In this thesis the ...

  19. Using Adequate Ball Bearings in RC Car Chassis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Fridrik

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the usage and misusage of ball bearings in rc car chassis technology of today . As this area is under massive development and could have a great impact in real cars it is important for new researchers to understand the importance of using the correct parts in constructing new devices and technologies based on the current one. As problems in economy are increasing it is important for new discovery’s to be tested in small scale models rather than full scale.

  20. Communication protocol in chassis detecting wireless transmission system based on WiFi

    Science.gov (United States)

    In chassis detecting wireless transmission system, the wireless network communication protocol plays a key role in the information exchange and synchronization between the host and chassis PDA. This paper presents a wireless network transmission protocol based on TCP/IP which makes the rules of info...

  1. 77 FR 71673 - Decision To Rescind Buy America Waiver for Minivans and Minivan Chassis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... technical documentation were full size vans and/or pickup trucks, and not minivans. Braun also alleged that... 21, 2010 (75 FR 35123). The waiver exempted minivans and minivan chassis from the Buy America final..., FTA waived its Buy America final assembly requirement for minivans and minivan chassis. 75 FR...

  2. 26 CFR 48.4061(a)-5 - Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis. 48..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4061(a)-5 Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis. (a) Sale of completed vehicle. An automobile truck (as defined by §...

  3. Finite Element Analysis of Fire Truck Chassis for Steel and Carbon Fiber Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvi Gauri Sanjay

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chassis is the foremost component of an automobile that acts as the frame to support the vehicle body. Hence the frame ought to be very rigid and robust enough to resist shocks vibrations and stresses acting on a moving vehicle. Steel in its numerous forms is commonly used material for producing chassis and overtime alumimium has acquired its use. However, in this study traditional materials are replaced with ultra light weight carbon fiber materials. High strength and low weight of carbon fibers makes it ideal for manufacturing automotive chassis. This paper depicts the modal and static structural analysis of TATA 407 fire truck chassis frame for steel as well as carbon fibers. From the analyzed results, stress, strain and total deformation values were compared for both the materials. Since it is easy to analyze structural systems by finite element method, the chassis is modified using PRO-E and the Finite Element Analysis is performed on ANSYS workbench.

  4. Energy absorption in aluminum extrusions for a spaceframe chassis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, R.W.; Perfect, S.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Parkinson, R.D. [Kaiser Aluminum & Chemical Corporation, Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    1994-09-19

    This work describes the design, finite-element analysis, and verifications performed by LLNL and Kaiser Aluminum for the prototype design of the CALSTART Running Chassis purpose-built electric vehicle. Component level studies, along with our previous experimental and finite-element works, provided the confidence to study the crashworthiness of a complete aluminum spaceframe. Effects of rail geometry, size, and thickness were studied in order to achieve a controlled crush of the front end structure. These included the performance of the spaceframe itself, and the additive effects of the powertrain cradle and powertrain (motor/controller in this case) as well as suspension. Various design iterations for frontal impact at moderate and high speed are explored.

  5. General-purpose microprocessor-based control chassis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the Pion Generation for Medical Irradiations (PIGMI) program at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is to develop the technology to build smaller, less expensive, and more reliable proton linear accelerators for medical applications. For this program, a powerful, simple, inexpensive, and reliable control and data acquisition system was developed. The system has a NOVA 3D computer with a real time disk-operating system (RDOS) that communicates with distributed microprocessor-based controllers which directly control data input/output chassis. At the heart of the controller is a microprocessor crate which was conceived at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. This idea was applied to the design of the hardware and software of the controller

  6. Functional Virtual Prototyping in Vehicle Chassis Reform Analysis and Improvement Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The contribution of functional virtual prototyping to vehicle chassis development is presented. The different topics that we took into consideration were reform analysis and improvement design during the vehicle chassis development. A frame of coordinates based on the digital-model was established, the main CAE analysis methods, multi-body system dynamics and finite element analysis were applied to the digital-model build by CAD/CAM software. The method was applied in the vehicle chassis reform analysis and improvement design, all the analysis and design projects were implemented in the uniform digital-model, and the development was carried through effectively.

  7. Networked simulation for the design of an integrated chassis control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Bum; Lee, Jaecheon; Park, Byeong-Ryul; Jeong, Gu-Min; Ahn, Hyun-Sik

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents a networked simulation for an integrated chassis control system of AFS (Active Front Steering) and ITD (Intelligent Torque Distribution). Integration of each chassis control system is used to overcome the limit of performance when each chassis controller is used individually. We show an integration method AFS and ITD under the supervisory controller which determines the operation modes based on vehicle variables. The experimental set-up for the networked simulation of the integrated chassis control consists of four microcontroller boards, a steering wheel sensor and a data acquisition board where all the microcontrollers and a sensor are communicated using the CAN protocol. It is shown by experimental results that the integrated control system can achieve better performance than simply combined individual controllers in the sense of energy consumption.

  8. Developments in chassis engineering; Entwicklungen im Karosseriebau. Tagung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Competent experts of the motor car industry, supply industry and universities presented 22 papers on the status and trends in chassis engineering. Subjects: Lightweight construction, safety, special vehicles and development projects. [German] Kompetente Fachleute von Fahrzeugherstellern, Zulieferfirmen und Hochschulen berichten in 22 Referaten ueber den technischen Stand und die Trends im Karosseriebau. Eine Fachausstellung, Pausengespraeche und ein Empfang am ersten Abend des Kongresses bieten ausfuehrlich Gelegenheit zu fachlichen und geschaeftlichen Gespraechen. Mit dem Themenschwerpunkt Konzept und Design wurde die Tagung eroeffnet. Mit einem Rundblick von der Karosserie des kleinen Stadtfahrzeugs hin zur Karosserie der grossen Luxuslimousine wurde sie beendet. Besonders umfangreich wurde in dieser Tagung das Thema Leichtbau abgehandelt. An konkreten Beispielen wurde aufgezeigt, auf welchen Wegen - verschiedenen Wegen - Gewichtsoptimierung erzielt wird, wobei die Anforderungen an Steifigkeit, Crashverhalten, Ergonomie und Komfort nicht nur erhalten sondern teilweise noch erhoeht werden. Einzelne Komponenten, Module, Rohkarosserien und Gesamtfahrzeuge wurden nebst Problemstellungen und Problemloesungen veranschaulicht. Neben dem zentralen Thema Leichtbau in der Tagung wurde in kuerzeren Vortragsbloecken ueber Fortschritte in der passiven Sicherheit, ueber spezielle Fahrzeugkonzepte und ueber zeitzonenversetztes Arbeiten in Entwicklungsprojekten berichtet. (orig./AKF)

  9. Clock and trigger synchronization between several chassis of digital data acquisition modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In applications with segmented high purity Ge detectors or other detector arrays with tens or hundreds of channels, the high development cost and limited flexibility of application specific integrated circuits outweigh their benefits of low power and small size. The readout electronics typically consist of multi-channel data acquisition modules in a common chassis for power, clock and trigger distribution, and data readout. As arrays become larger and reach several hundred channels, the readout electronics have to be divided over several chassis, but still must maintain precise synchronization of clocks and trigger signals across all channels. This division becomes necessary not only because of limits given by the instrumentation standards on module size and chassis slot numbers, but also because data readout times increase when more modules share the same data bus and because power requirements approach the limits of readily available power supplies. In this paper, we present a method for distributing clocks and triggers between 4 PXI chassis containing DGF Pixie-16 modules with up to 226 acquisition channels per chassis. The data acquisition system is intended to instrument the over 600 channels of the SeGA detector array at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory. Our solution is designed to achieve synchronous acquisition of detector waveforms from all channels with a jitter of less than 1 ns, and can be extended to a larger number of chassis if desired

  10. Static Analysis, Design Modification and Modal Analysis of Structural Chassis Frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Ps

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The chassis frame is an important part in a truck and it carries the whole load acting on the truck as well as different parts of the automobile. So it must be strong enough to resist the shock, twist, vibration and other stresses. Maximum stress and maximum deflection are important criteria for design of the chassis. The objective of present is to determine the maximum stress, maximum deflection and to recognize critical regions under static loading condition. Static structural analysis of the chassis frame is carried out by FEA Method. The structural chassis frame is modeled using PRO-E wildfire 4.0 software. The Pre-processing has done with HYPERMESH software; then the problem has been solved through RADIOSS and the post processing was done by HYPERVIEW. The results obtained like maximum shear stress, Von-mises stress and maximum deflections are used for improving design modification. Modal analysis of the chassis frame done using ANSYS WORKBENCH. Through modal analysis, natural frequencies and corresponding vibration mode shapes of the structure are obtained.

  11. Clock and Trigger Synchronization between Several Chassis of Digital Data Acquisition Modules

    CERN Document Server

    Hennig, W; Walby, M; Grudberg, P; Fallu-Labruyere, A; Warburton, W K; Vaman, C; Starosta, K; Miller, D; 10.1016/j.nimb.2007.04.181

    2009-01-01

    In applications with segmented high purity Ge detectors or other detector arrays with tens or hundreds of channels, where the high development cost and limited flexibility of application specific integrated circuits outweigh their benefits of low power and small size, the readout electronics typically consist of multi-channel data acquisition modules in a common chassis for power, clock and trigger distribution, and data readout. As arrays become larger and reach several hundred channels, the readout electronics have to be divided over several chassis, but still must maintain precise synchronization of clocks and trigger signals across all channels. This division becomes necessary not only because of limits given by the instrumentation standards on module size and chassis slot numbers, but also because data readout times increase when more modules share the same data bus and because power requirements approach the limits of readily available power supplies. In this paper, we present a method for distributing ...

  12. Self-propelled automatic chassis of Lunokhod-1: History of creation in episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malenkov, Mikhail

    2016-03-01

    This report reviews the most important episodes in the history of designing the self-propelled automatic chassis of the first mobile extraterrestrial vehicle in the world, Lunokhod-1. The review considers the issues in designing moon rovers, their essential features, and the particular construction properties of their systems, mechanisms, units, and assemblies. It presents the results of exploiting the chassis of Lunokhod-1 and Lunokhod-2. Analysis of the approaches utilized and engineering solutions reveals their value as well as the consequences of certain defects.

  13. Electric vehicle chassis dynamometer test methods at JPL and their correlation to track tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marte, J.; Bryant, J.

    1983-01-01

    Early in its electric vehicle (EV) test program, JPL recognized that EV test procedures were too vague and too loosely defined to permit much meaningful data to be obtained from the testing. Therefore, JPL adopted more stringent test procedures and chose the chassis dynamometer rather than the track as its principal test technique. Through the years, test procedures continued to evolve towards a methodology based on chassis dynamometers which would exhibit good correlation with track testing. Based on comparative dynamometer and track test results on the ETV-1 vehicle, the test methods discussed in this report demonstrate a means by which excellent track-to-dynamometer correlation can be obtained.

  14. Failure of the chassis of roller skates for agonistic figure skating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Olmi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this work was to investigate the early failure, which occurred in the chassis of a roller skate for figure skating. The paper deals with the preliminary analysis of the crack and with the integrated approach, which had to be followed to overcome the problem. Literature in the fields of physiology and biomechanics was studied to correctly simulate the load distribution on the chassis. Finite element simulation, experimental stress analysis and analytical modeling of impact phenomena had to be combined together to estimate the entity of dynamic loads and the corresponding state of stress. The analysis led to the determination of the primary cause of failure, bending fatigue, and to the suggestion of a simple solution to improve and optimize the project.

  15. Dimensjonering, analyse og testing av inserts i karbonfiber kompositt sandwich chassis

    OpenAIRE

    Haugum, Henrik; Pløen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    I arbeidet med denne avhandlingen har det blitt utført et omfattende arbeid på ulike aspekter ved utviklingen av et monocoque chassis designet for å konkurrere i Formula Student. Analyse, dimensjonering og produksjon er hovedtema i denne oppgaven. Fokuset har ligget i å beskrive den tilnærmingen som brukes i designfasen, analyse og testing av lokaliserte laster på sandwichpaneler, samt utvikle en produksjonsprosess for chassiset. Alt av dimensjonering, analyse og...

  16. Design of an Integrated Vehicle Chassis Control System with Driver Behavior Identification

    OpenAIRE

    Bing Zhu; Yizhou Chen; Jian Zhao; Yunfu Su

    2015-01-01

    An integrated vehicle chassis control strategy with driver behavior identification is introduced in this paper. In order to identify the different types of driver behavior characteristics, a driver behavior signals acquisition system was established using the dSPACE real-time simulation platform, and the driver inputs of 30 test drivers were collected under the double lane change test condition. Then, driver behavior characteristics were analyzed and identified based on the preview optimal cu...

  17. The influence of compliant chassis components on motorcycle dynamics: an historical overview and the potential future impact of carbon fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Kelvin; Thomas, Richard; Williams, Owen

    2012-07-01

    This paper details the influence of compliant chassis components on motorcycle dynamics. Initially, research which has previously been carried out in terms of motorcycle dynamics and in particular the impact of compliant chassis components on motorcycle dynamics is discussed. This paper then considers the consequences of these findings with regard to the use of modern materials such as carbon fibre reinforced plastics and the impact they will potentially have on motorcycle dynamics and its simulation.

  18. Technique for Calibration of Chassis components based on encoding marks and machine Vision metrology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Li-mei; ZHANG Chun-bo; WEI Yi-ying; CHEN Hua-wei

    2011-01-01

    @@ A novel technique for calibrating crucial parameters of chassis components is proposed, which utilizes the machine vision metrology to measure 3D coordinates of the center of a component's hole for assembling in the 3D world coordinate system.In the measurement, encoding marks with special patterns will be assembled on the chassis component associated with cross drone and staff gauge located near the chassis.The geometry and coordinates of the cross drone consist of two planes orthogonal to each other and the staff gauge is in 3D space with high precision.A few images are taken by a highresolution camera in different orientations and perspectives.The 3D coordinates of 5 key points on the encoding marks will be calculated by the machine vision technique and those of the center of the holes to be calibrated will be calculated by the deduced algorithm in this paper.Experimental results show that the algorithm and the technique can satisfy the precision requirement when the components are assembled, and the average measurement precision provided by the algorithm is 0.0174 mm.

  19. Multi-functional Chassis-based Antennas Using Characteristic Mode Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishor, Krishna Kumar

    Designing antennas for handheld devices is quite challenging primarily due to the limited real-estate available, and the fact that internal antennas occupy a large volume. With the need to support a variety of radio systems such as GSM, LTE and WiFi that operate in a wide range of frequency bands, multi-band, wideband and frequency reconfigurable antenna designs have been explored in the literature. Moreover, to support higher data rates, the Long Term Evolution Advanced (LTE-A) standard has been introduced, which requires supporting multiple input multiple output (MIMO) antenna technology and carrier aggregation (CA) on a handheld device. Both of these benefit from the use of multiple antennas or multi-port antennas, but with the limited space available, adding more internal antennas may not be easily possible. Additionally, to realize the benefits of these technologies the multiple antenna ports have to be well isolated from each other. This thesis explores the utilization of the ground plane (or chassis) of a handheld device as an antenna to meet some of these challenges. To achieve this, the theory of characteristic modes (TCM) for conducting bodies is relied upon, to determine the eigen-currents supported on the chassis. The orthogonality properties of these eigencurrents, and their corresponding far-field eigenfields (electric and magnetic) makes TCM a good tool to design multiple antennas with high isolation. This is demonstrated in this thesis via the design of four chassis-based antennas that have different functionalities. The first design is a two port MIMO antenna utilizing a combination of eigenmodes to achieve port isolation. The second design is a pattern reconfigurable MIMO antenna that can operate in two states at 2.28 GHz. The third design is a four port antenna that operates in three frequency bands, with two bands below 1 GHz for CA and the remaining two ports for MIMO communication. The final design is a five port antenna that supports MIMO

  20. Data acquisition and command system for use with a microprocessor-based control chassis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pion Generation for Medical Irradiations (PIGMI) program at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is developing the technology to build smaller, less expensive, and more reliable proton linear accelerators for medical applications, and has designed a powerful, simple, inexpensive, and reliable control and data acquisition system that is central to the program development. The system is a NOVA-3D minicomputer interfaced to several outlying microprocessor-based controllers, which accomplish control and data acquisition through data I/O chasis. The equipment interface chassis, which can issue binary commands, read binary data, issue analog commands, and read timed and untimed analog data is described

  1. Design of an Integrated Vehicle Chassis Control System with Driver Behavior Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An integrated vehicle chassis control strategy with driver behavior identification is introduced in this paper. In order to identify the different types of driver behavior characteristics, a driver behavior signals acquisition system was established using the dSPACE real-time simulation platform, and the driver inputs of 30 test drivers were collected under the double lane change test condition. Then, driver behavior characteristics were analyzed and identified based on the preview optimal curvature model through genetic algorithm and neural network method. Using it as a base, an integrated chassis control strategy with active front steering (AFS and direct yaw moment control (DYC considering driver characteristics was established by model predictive control (MPC method. Finally, simulations were carried out to verify the control strategy by CarSim and MATLAB/Simulink. The results show that the proposed method enables the control system to adjust its parameters according to the driver behavior identification results and the vehicle handling and stability performance are significantly improved.

  2. Optimal design of rear chassis components for lightweight automobile using design of experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.H.; Kim, S.K. [Department of Mechatronics Engineering, College of Engineering, Tongmyong University, Busan (Korea); Choi, B.I.; Lee, H.J. [Nano Mechanics Team, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Taejon (Korea); Lee, Y.H.; Kim, J.S. [CAE Team, Ssang Yong Motor Company, Gyeong-gi-do (Korea); Kim, K.J. [Department of Automobile Engineering, Seojeong College, Gyeong-gi-do (Korea)

    2010-05-15

    With growing public concerns on the rising price of fossil fuel and the greenhouse gas emissions, the automotive industry is once again faced with the increased demand to develop more fuel-efficient vehicles. Savings in weight using lightweight materials such as aluminum can lead to increased fuel economy and reduction in pollution. Aluminum material has a weak point compared to the steel material in strength for life cycle. In this study, to design a lighter and more reliable chassis component using aluminum material as compared with existing steel chassis components, a new link shape was suggested by adding vertical ribs to an existing I-beam type link and to investigate how each design parameter makes an effect on the reliability and component weight. The design of experiment (DOE) was performed with six design parameters and two levels. Through the analysis of variance, three parameters which were the most influential on weight were selected. And then the response surface analysis was performed with two levels to find out the optimal dimensions. The weight of the aluminum link was 64% that of the steel link. The stiffness of the optimized aluminum link under all loads was more than 100% that of the steel link. The maximum von Mises stresses of the optimized aluminum link under all loads was equal or less than 20% of the ultimate tensile strength (58 MPa). (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  3. Simulation Research on an Electric Vehicle Chassis System Based on a Collaborative Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenglian Feng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a collaborative control system for an electric vehicle chassis based on a centralized and hierarchical control architecture. The centralized controller was designed for the suspension and steering system, which is used for improving ride comfort and handling stability; the hierarchical controller was designed for the braking system, which is used for distributing the proportion of hydraulic braking and regenerative braking to improve braking performance. These two sub-controllers function at the same level of the vehicle chassis control system. In order to reduce the potential conflict between the two sub-controllers and realize a coordination optimization of electric vehicle performance, a collaborative controller was built, which serves as the upper controller to carry out an overall coordination analysis according to vehicle signals and revises the decisions of sub-controllers. A simulation experiment was carried out with the MATLAB/Simulink software. The simulation results show that the proposed collaborative control system can achieve an optimized vehicle handling stability and braking safety.

  4. Balance of XYL1 and XYL2 expression in different yeast chassis for improved xylose fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian eZha

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Reducing xylitol formation is an important step in engineering xylose reductase/xylitol dehydrogenase pathway for ethanol production from xylose in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, to balance the expression of XYL1 and mutant XYL2 encoding xylose reductase and NADP+-preferring xylitol dehydrogenase for reduced xylitol production, we utilized a strategy combining chassis selection and direct fine-tuning of XYL1 and XYL2 expression. A XYL1 gene under control of various promoters of ADH1, truncated ADH1 and PGK1, and a mutated XYL2 with different copy numbers were constructed into different xylose-utilizing modules, which were then expressed in two yeast chassis W303a and L2612. The strategy enabled us to achieve an improved L2612-derived recombinant strain with XYL1 controlled by promoter PGK1 and with two copies of XYL2. The strain exhibited 21.3% lower xylitol yield and 40.0% higher ethanol yield. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the combinatorial strategy for construction of efficient xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  5. Battery Usage and Thermal Performance of the Toyota Prius and Honda Insight for Various Chassis Dynamometer Test Procedures: Preprint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study describes the results from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) chassis dynamometer testing of a 2000 model year Honda Insight and 2001 model year Toyota Prius. The tests were conducted for the purpose of evaluating the battery thermal performance, assessing the impact of air conditioning on fuel economy and emissions, and providing information for NREL's Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR)

  6. Modal Correlation Based Analysis on Dynamic Characters of a Commercial Semi-Trailer's Chassis Frames

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Hui-hua; ZUO Zheng-xing; LIAO Ri-dong; LONG Kai

    2007-01-01

    In order to evaluate two different schemes' structural dynamic characters, dynamic response analysis of a commercial truck's main chassis frames is carried out.On the basis of correlation study between the tested and calculated modal results, the assembled frames' finite element analysis (FEA) models with sufficient precision are built up.Random response analysis in frequency domain is carried out with these FEA models, RMS values of von Mises and main principle stresses of these two frames are obtained.It shows that the analysis results of the distributing tendency and concrete value ranges are coincident very well with test results.And from the results, it could be concluded that frames of scheme A endures relative better loading conditions and should be adopted as the final scheme.

  7. An Integration Framework Tool for ATCA Chassis in the ATLAS Detector Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Robert Graham

    2015-10-01

    The Large Hadron Collider at CERN is scheduled to undergo a major upgrade in 2022. The ATLAS collaboration will do major modifications to the detector to account for the increased luminosity. More specifically, a large proportion of the current front-end electronics, on the Tile Calorimeter sub-detector, will be upgraded and relocated to the backend. A Demonstrator program has been established as a proof of principle. A new system will be required to house, manage and connect this new hardware. The proposed solution will be an Advanced Telecommunication Computing Architecture (ATCA) which will not only house but also allow advanced management features and control at a hardware level by integrating the ATCA chassis into the Detector Control System.

  8. Open source approaches to establishing Roseobacter clade bacteria as synthetic biology chassis for biogeoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeing, Philipp; Wolfenden, Bethan; Smith, Patrick; Beaufoy, William; Rose, Simon; Ratisai, Tonderai; Zaikin, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The nascent field of bio-geoengineering stands to benefit from synthetic biologists’ efforts to standardise, and in so doing democratise, biomolecular research methods. Roseobacter clade bacteria comprise 15–20% of oceanic bacterio-plankton communities, making them a prime candidate for establishment of synthetic biology chassis for bio-geoengineering activities such as bioremediation of oceanic waste plastic. Developments such as the increasing affordability of DNA synthesis and laboratory automation continue to foster the establishment of a global ‘do-it-yourself’ research community alongside the more traditional arenas of academe and industry. As a collaborative group of citizen, student and professional scientists we sought to test the following hypotheses: (i) that an incubator capable of cultivating bacterial cells can be constructed entirely from non-laboratory items, (ii) that marine bacteria from the Roseobacter clade can be established as a genetically tractable synthetic biology chassis using plasmids conforming to the BioBrickTM standard and finally, (iii) that identifying and subcloning genes from a Roseobacter clade species can readily by achieved by citizen scientists using open source cloning and bioinformatic tools. Method. We cultivated three Roseobacter species, Roseobacter denitrificans, Oceanobulbus indolifexand Dinoroseobacter shibae. For each species we measured chloramphenicol sensitivity, viability over 11 weeks of glycerol-based cryopreservation and tested the effectiveness of a series of electroporation and heat shock protocols for transformation using a variety of plasmid types. We also attempted construction of an incubator-shaker device using only publicly available components. Finally, a subgroup comprising citizen scientists designed and attempted a procedure for isolating the cold resistance anf1 gene from Oceanobulbus indolifexcells and subcloning it into a BioBrickTM formatted plasmid. Results. All species were stable

  9. Open source approaches to establishing Roseobacter clade bacteria as synthetic biology chassis for biogeoengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Yanika; Grigonyte, Aurelija Marija; Boeing, Philipp; Wolfenden, Bethan; Smith, Patrick; Beaufoy, William; Rose, Simon; Ratisai, Tonderai; Zaikin, Alexey; Nesbeth, Darren N

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The nascent field of bio-geoengineering stands to benefit from synthetic biologists' efforts to standardise, and in so doing democratise, biomolecular research methods. Roseobacter clade bacteria comprise 15-20% of oceanic bacterio-plankton communities, making them a prime candidate for establishment of synthetic biology chassis for bio-geoengineering activities such as bioremediation of oceanic waste plastic. Developments such as the increasing affordability of DNA synthesis and laboratory automation continue to foster the establishment of a global 'do-it-yourself' research community alongside the more traditional arenas of academe and industry. As a collaborative group of citizen, student and professional scientists we sought to test the following hypotheses: (i) that an incubator capable of cultivating bacterial cells can be constructed entirely from non-laboratory items, (ii) that marine bacteria from the Roseobacter clade can be established as a genetically tractable synthetic biology chassis using plasmids conforming to the BioBrick(TM) standard and finally, (iii) that identifying and subcloning genes from a Roseobacter clade species can readily by achieved by citizen scientists using open source cloning and bioinformatic tools. Method. We cultivated three Roseobacter species, Roseobacter denitrificans, Oceanobulbus indolifexand Dinoroseobacter shibae. For each species we measured chloramphenicol sensitivity, viability over 11 weeks of glycerol-based cryopreservation and tested the effectiveness of a series of electroporation and heat shock protocols for transformation using a variety of plasmid types. We also attempted construction of an incubator-shaker device using only publicly available components. Finally, a subgroup comprising citizen scientists designed and attempted a procedure for isolating the cold resistance anf1 gene from Oceanobulbus indolifexcells and subcloning it into a BioBrick(TM) formatted plasmid. Results. All species were stable

  10. Integrated Chassis Control System with Fail Safety Using Optimum Yaw Moment Distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an integrated chassis control system with fail safety using optimum yaw moment distribution for a vehicle with steer-by-wire and brake-by-wire devices. The proposed system has two-level structure: upper- and lower-level controllers. In the upper-level controller, the control yaw moment is computed with sliding mode control theory. In the lower-level controller, the control yaw moment is distributed into the tire forces of active front steering(AFS) and electronic stability control(ESC) with the weighted pseudo-inverse based control allocation(WPCA) method. By setting the variable weights in WPCA, it is possible to take the sensor/actuator failure into account. In this framework, it is necessary to optimize the variables weights in order to enhance the yaw moment distribution. For this purpose, simulation-based tuning is proposed. To show the effectiveness of the proposed method, simulations are conducted on a vehicle simulation package, CarSim

  11. Engineering Pichia pastoris for improved NADH regeneration: A novel chassis strain for whole-cell catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, Martina; Brandner, Christoph; Strohmeier, Gernot A; Hall, Mélanie; Hartner, Franz S; Glieder, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Many synthetically useful reactions are catalyzed by cofactor-dependent enzymes. As cofactors represent a major cost factor, methods for efficient cofactor regeneration are required especially for large-scale synthetic applications. In order to generate a novel and efficient host chassis for bioreductions, we engineered the methanol utilization pathway of Pichia pastoris for improved NADH regeneration. By deleting the genes coding for dihydroxyacetone synthase isoform 1 and 2 (DAS1 and DAS2), NADH regeneration via methanol oxidation (dissimilation) was increased significantly. The resulting Δdas1 Δdas2 strain performed better in butanediol dehydrogenase (BDH1) based whole-cell conversions. While the BDH1 catalyzed acetoin reduction stopped after 2 h reaching ~50% substrate conversion when performed in the wild type strain, full conversion after 6 h was obtained by employing the knock-out strain. These results suggest that the P. pastoris Δdas1 Δdas2 strain is capable of supplying the actual biocatalyst with the cofactor over a longer reaction period without the over-expression of an additional cofactor regeneration system. Thus, focusing the intrinsic carbon flux of this methylotrophic yeast on methanol oxidation to CO2 represents an efficient and easy-to-use strategy for NADH-dependent whole-cell conversions. At the same time methanol serves as co-solvent, inductor for catalyst and cofactor regeneration pathway expression and source of energy. PMID:26664594

  12. Experimental Study on the Ride Comfort of a Crawler Power Chassis Scale Model Based on the Similitude Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jianzhu; WANG Fengchen; YU Bin; TONG Pengcheng; CHEN Kuifu

    2015-01-01

    The ride comfort experimental assessment of crawler off-road vehicle is relatively overlooked, and is expensive and difficult to execute with higher and higher ride comfort performance requirements. To trade off between precise and cost, an experimental method based on the similitude theory is proposed. Under the guidance of the similitude theory, a 1:5 crawler power chassis scale model equipped with a kind of variable stiffness suspension system is used. The power spectrum density(PSD), the root mean square(RMS) of weighed acceleration, peak factor, average absorbed power(AAP) and vibration dose value(VDV) are selected as ride comfort evaluation indexes, and tests results are transformed via similarity indexes to predict the performance of full-scale power chassis. PSD shows that the low-order natural frequency of the vertical natural frequency(z axis) is 1.1 Hz, and the RMS, AAP and VDV values indicate the ride comfort performance of this kind of power chassis is between the“A little uncomfortable”and“Rather uncomfortable”. From the results, low-order vertical natural frequency, obtalned by PSD, validates that the similarity relationship between two models is satisfied, and 1:5 scale model used in experiment meets the similarity relationship with the full-scale model; consequently, the ride comfort prophase evaluation with the 1:5 scale model is feasible. The attempt of applying the similitude theory to crawler vehicle ride comfort test study decreases the cost and improves the test feasibility with sufficient test precise.

  13. KHARKIV PLANT OF SELF-PROPELLED CHASSIS THE PRODUCER OF UNIQUE NON-CLASSIC LAYOUT TRACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Kryvokon, A.

    2015-01-01

    Стаття присвячена історії Харківського заводу транспортних самохідних шасі, виробника тракторів нетрадиційної компоновки так званих самохідних шасі. Подано інформацію про технічні характеристики тракторів, а також їх моделі. Висвітлюються факти про створення, проектування і модифікації самохідних шасі, їх використання в різних спеціальних сферахThe article is about the history of Kharkiv Plant of Self-propelled Chassis, producer of unconventional layout tractors so-called self-propelled chass...

  14. CHASSIS - Une Plate-forme pour la Construction de Systèmes d'Information Ouverts

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantas, Dimitri; Nierstrasz, Oscar; Dittrich, Klaus; Jonscher, Dirk

    1993-01-01

    Les systèmes d'information d'aujourd'hui ont de plus en plus la nécessité d'être ouverts. Ceci implique qu'ils doivent répondre aux besoins de réseaux ouverts, de logiciel et de matériel hétérogènes et “interopérables,” et, surtout, à des besoins évolutifs et changeants. Le projet CHASSIS vise le développement d'un cadre informatique et méthodologique pour la conception et la construction de systèmes d'information hétérogènes, sûrs et fiables à partir de composants de logiciel et bases de don...

  15. DLR@UniST - Synergies emerging from integrating four individual electric drives in a lightweight chassis controlled by intelligent driving strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Höfer, Andreas; Friedrich, Horst E.; Wiesebrock, Andreas; Bosch, Volker; Schumann, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    In the context of future electric vehicles, new requirements and restrictions but also larger degrees of freedom have been revealed for vehicle concepts. To meet the revised factors, new approaches are necessary as well as an integral view of the vehicle and its subsystems. As a consequence the Institute for Vehicle Concepts at DLR e.V. is developing an innovative electrically driven chassis system along with the Institute for Internal Combustion Engines and Automotive Engineering of the Univ...

  16. Design, Mathematical Modelling, Construction and Testing of Synthetic Gene Network Oscillators to Establish Roseobacter Clade Bacteria and the Protozoan Trypanosoma brucei as Synthetic Biology Chassis.

    OpenAIRE

    Borg, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this project is to establish Roseobacter marine bacteria and Trypanosoma brucei (T. brucei) protozoa as synthetic biology chassis. This work addresses the gap within synthetic biology resulting from the limited choice of host cells available for use in practice. This was done by developing synthetic bacterial and trypanosomal genetic regulatory networks (GRNs) which function as an oscillator as well as by developing the necessary protocols and set-ups to allow for the analysis of G...

  17. Integrated Chassis Control of Active Front Steering and Yaw Stability Control Based on Improved Inverse Nyquist Array Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An integrated chassis control (ICC system with active front steering (AFS and yaw stability control (YSC is introduced in this paper. The proposed ICC algorithm uses the improved Inverse Nyquist Array (INA method based on a 2-degree-of-freedom (DOF planar vehicle reference model to decouple the plant dynamics under different frequency bands, and the change of velocity and cornering stiffness were considered to calculate the analytical solution in the precompensator design so that the INA based algorithm runs well and fast on the nonlinear vehicle system. The stability of the system is guaranteed by dynamic compensator together with a proposed PI feedback controller. After the response analysis of the system on frequency domain and time domain, simulations under step steering maneuver were carried out using a 2-DOF vehicle model and a 14-DOF vehicle model by Matlab/Simulink. The results show that the system is decoupled and the vehicle handling and stability performance are significantly improved by the proposed method.

  18. Soil compaction of various Central European forest soils caused by traffic of forestry machines with various chassis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Allman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The primary objective of this paper was to compare the effects of different types of forestry machine chassis on the compaction of the top layers of soil and to define the soil moisture content level, at which machine traffic results in maximum compaction.Area of study: Measurements were conducted in eight forest stands located in Slovakia and the Czech Republic. The soil types in the stands subjected to the study were luvisols, stagnosols, cambisols, and rendzinas.Material and Methods: The measurements were focused on tracked and wheeled (equipped with low pressure tyres cut-to-length machines, and skidders equipped with wide and standard tyres. The bulk density of soil was determined from soil samples extracted from the ruts, the centre of the skid trail, and the undisturbed stand. To determine soil moisture content, at which the soil is the most susceptible to compaction, the Proctor standard test was employed.Main results: The moisture content for maximal compaction fluctuated from 12% to 34.06%. Wheeled machines compacted the soil to 1.24 – 1.36 g.cm-3 (30.3 – 35.4 % compaction in dried state. Bulk density of soil in stands where tracked machine operated was lower, ranging from 1.02 to 1.06 g.cm-3 (25.3 % compaction.Research highlights: All wheeled machines caused the same amount of soil compaction in the ruts, despite differences in tyres, machine weight, etc. Maximum compaction caused by forestry machines occurred at minimal moisture contents, easily achievable in European climatic conditions.  Keywords: soil compaction; bulk density; soil moisture content limits; cut-to-length machines; skidders.

  19. 应用合成生物学策略优化光合蓝细菌底盘%Engineering photosynthetic cyanobacterial chassis: a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巫琴; 陈磊; 王江新; 张卫文

    2013-01-01

    Photosynthetic cyanobacteria possess a series of good properties,such as their abilities to capture solar energy for CO2 fixation,low nutritional requirements for growth,high growth rate,and relatively simple genetic background.Due to the high oil price and increased concern of the global warming in recent years,cyanobacteria have attracted widespread attention because they can serve as an 'autotrophic microbial factory' for producing renewable biofuels and fine chemicals directly from CO2.Particularly,significant progress has been made in applying synthetic biology techniques and strategies to construct and optimize cyanobacteria chassis.In this article,we critically summarized recent advances in developing new methods to optimize cyanobacteria chassis,improving cyanobacteria photosynthetic efficiency,and in constructing cyanobacteria chassis tolerant to products or environmental stresses.In addition,various industrial applications of cyanobacteria chassis are also discussed.%光合蓝细菌具有一系列良好的特质,包括利用太阳能固定CO2、营养需求低、生长迅速以及遗传背景简单等.近年来,光合蓝细菌作为生产可再生燃料和精细化学制品的“自养型人工细胞工厂”引起了社会的广泛关注,促进了相关研究的升温.目前在应用合成生物学的技术和研究策略来优化光合蓝细菌作为底盘生物等方面已取得了一些令人鼓舞的进展.文中综述了近年来在光合蓝细菌底盘优化的方法、光合效率的提高以及各种耐受性蓝细菌底盘的构建方面的进展,并对光合蓝细菌底盘构建的工业应用价值进行了讨论.

  20. 紫杉二烯生物合成模块与不同底盘的适配%Fitness of Taxadiene Biosynthetic Modules with Different S. cerevisiae Chassis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张正伟; 丁明珠; 元英进

    2014-01-01

    以酿酒酵母BY4742及其单敲菌株作为底盘细胞,优化底盘细胞甲羟戊酸途径,上调并融合表达牻牛儿基牻牛儿基焦磷酸( GGPP)合成的相关基因,引入人工合成的外源GGPP合成酶基因与紫杉二烯合成酶基因,构建了多载体紫杉二烯生物合成模块;还利用酵母组装技术,通过对紫杉二烯合成路径相关基因进行模块化设计组装,构建了依托单一着丝粒( CEN)质粒的紫杉二烯生物合成模块.将构建的2个模块与不同底盘细胞进行适配,使紫杉二烯产量获得了数倍提升,最高产量可达74.84 mg/L.%In the research works of constructing taxadiene aritficaial synthetic cell, S. cerevisiae is a common-ly used chassis. The highest taxadiene yield in S. cerevisiae that has been reported was 8. 7 mg/L. In this work, the fitness of different taxadiene biosynthetic modules with different S. cerevisiae chassis was studied to elevate the taxadiene yield to a higher level. We chose the S. cerevisiae strains BY4742 and the single knoc-kout strains of BY4742 as chassis, constructed the multi-plasmids taxadiene biosynthetic module by optimizing the mevalonic acid( MVA) pathway with tHMGR, importing the synthetic genes GGPPSsa and tTS, up-regula-ting and co-expressing the genes BTS1 and ERG20 which are correlated with the synthesis of geranylgeranyl diphosphate(GGPP). Then we redesigned and reconstructed the module inserted into a single CEN plasmid by the method of DNA assembler. Through fitting the different modules with different chassis, we acquired strains with diffe-rent taxadiene yields, the highest yield was 74. 84 mg/L in the strain with the single-plasmid module and the chassis of YNL280C. The results indicated that the single-plasmid taxadiene biosynthetic module was more stable in the chassis than the multi-plasmids one, and the regulation of the pathways correlated with the MVA pathway will also influent the taxadiene yield.

  1. HTF5980A底盘悬架系统动态特性研究%Study on Dynamic Characteristics of Suspension System for HTF5980A Chassis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨波; 赵焱明; 高炬; 刘懿敏

    2013-01-01

    The structure and working principle of the connected Hydro-pneumatic suspension for HTF5980A chassis were presented. And then, an Amesim model of the connected hydro-pneumatic suspension for multi-axle vehicle was built, a method on modeling the hydro-pneumatic suspension was discussed. The dynamic characteristic of it was studied by simulation, and the result was compared with the result from bench test. It was indicated that the Amesim model could exactly describe the connected Hydro-pneumatic suspension system. The Adams model of the HTF5980A chassis and the Amesim model of the whole vehicle suspension system were established, the ride comfort was studied by co-simulation. The result provided a basis for both the optimal design of connected hydro-pneumatic suspension and the dynamic analysis of vehicle system.%阐述 HTF5980A底盘油气悬架的结构、工作原理,基于 Amesim平台,详细讨论油气悬架各个部位的建模方法,建立其仿真模型,计算连通式油气悬架的动态特性,并与台架试验结果进行对比。试验结果表明:所建立的模型能够正确描述连通式油气悬架的动态特性。基于Adams平台建立HTF5980A整车动力学模型,基于Amesim建立整车悬架系统液压部分模型,完成整车平顺性联合仿真。研究结果不仅为连通式油气悬架优化设计提供了依据,而且为整车动力学及疲劳分析奠定了基础。

  2. Matching and Optimization for Chassis System of Wheeled Self-propelled Guns%轮式自行火炮底盘匹配与优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗中峰; 徐诚; 徐亚栋

    2015-01-01

    In order to deal with the optimum design for the chassis system(CS)of wheeled self-propelled guns,the way of MDO was introduced for analyzing the complicated system.Taking opti-mum design for a 8 by 8 wheeled self-propelled gun for instance,the optimization model was estab-lished,then was partitioned into several subsystems.In accordance with the requests for the chassis matching with the fire system the respective computation models were provided.Subsequently the coupling relationships among subsystems were analyzed in a manner of MDO.Finally,the instrumen-tal variables were introduced to decouple subsystems from each other by the individual disciplinary feasible strategy.A combinatorial optimization algorithm of non-dominated sorting genetic algorithmⅡ and sequential quadratic programming was selected to optimize the resulting problem and the calcu-lation example was verified the validity of this design pattern.%为解决轮式自行火炮底盘匹配问题,以某8×8轮式自行火炮为例提供了一套匹配优化方案。该方案采用多学科设计优化的思想,首先依据匹配要求将轮式自行火炮底盘匹配模型分解,规定各个子模型相应的功能,并建立优化模型;然后将单学科可行法优化策略引入辅助设计变量,选用由第二代非劣排序遗传算法和序列二次规划法构成的组合算法进行求解;最后通过计算实例验证了方案的合理性。

  3. Nursing of patients with stoma chassis leakage and causes analysis%造口患者造口底盘渗漏的原因分析及护理对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温咏珊; 张惠芹

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解造口患者造口底盘渗漏发生的原因,并提出相应的护理措施。方法对20例在本院造口门诊就诊发生造口底盘渗漏患者的资料进行回顾性总结,分析发生造口底盘渗漏的原因。结果本组20例造口患者造口底盘渗漏的原因是:患者造口护理技能差、造口周围皮肤凹陷、造口底盘选用不当、体重增加及造口位置差、造口回缩。结论教会造口患者认识造口底盘渗漏的原因,重新选择造口底盘、或加猪油膏补片、或增高凸面底盘的高度,从而防止造口底盘渗漏的发生,提高患者生活质量。%Objective To investigate the cause of stoma chassis leakage (SCL) and summarize the nursing experience. Method The clinical data of 20 patients with SCL were retrospectively analyzed on the colostomy outpatients. Result The causes of SCL in those stoma patients included insufficient skills of stoma care, peridermal depression, poorly fitting stoma chassis, weight gain, poor positioning and retraction of the stoma. Conclusion Such nursing measures as enhanced awareness of SCL causes, careful reselection of a suitable stoma chassis, addition of ointment patches or heightening of the convex chassis can be effective in prevention of SCL leakage, enhancement of patient′s confidence and improvement of their quality of life.

  4. An SVM-Based Classifier for Estimating the State of Various Rotating Components in Agro-Industrial Machinery with a Vibration Signal Acquired from a Single Point on the Machine Chassis

    OpenAIRE

    Ruben Ruiz-Gonzalez; Jaime Gomez-Gil; Francisco Javier Gomez-Gil; Víctor Martínez-Martínez

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this article is to assess the feasibility of estimating the state of various rotating components in agro-industrial machinery by employing just one vibration signal acquired from a single point on the machine chassis. To do so, a Support Vector Machine (SVM)-based system is employed. Experimental tests evaluated this system by acquiring vibration data from a single point of an agricultural harvester, while varying several of its working conditions. The whole process included two m...

  5. 结肠造口病人住院期间造口底盘更换时间的研究%Research of replacement time of stoma chassis in patients with colon stoma during hospitalization period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘学英; 廖倩; 周华; 吴娟; 邓雪雁; 唐义英; 汪丽萍; 万雨莉; 胡鸽

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the suitable replacement time of colostomy stoma chassis during hospitaliza-tion.Methods:A total of 156 cases of colostomy patients using simple random sampling method were divided in-to A,B,C three groups,with the stoma chassis replacement interval of three days,five days,seven days respec-tively.Observation and comparison were conducted on the skin condition around the periosteal wound,DET score and the feeling of patients.Results:According to the comparison of the width of impregnated chassis,con-dition of leakage,probability of skin complications,DET score and the material expenses of these three sample groups,results of group B is better than that of group C(P 0.05).Conclusion:Under the standardized nursing procedure,the interval of five days is the most appropriate time for colostomy stoma patient to replace stoma chassis.It can reduce the probability of skin complications around stoma and make patient feel more comfortable during treatment.%[目的]探讨结肠造口病人住院期间造口底盘更换的适宜时间。[方法]采取单纯随机抽样方法将156例结肠造口病人分为 A组、B 组、C 组,分别间隔3 d、5 d、7 d 更换1次造口底盘,观察其效果并比较造口周围皮肤状况、病人对造口的自我感受情况。[结果]B 组底盘浸渍宽度、渗漏、造口周围皮肤并发症及造口材料费用等均优于 C 组(P 0.05)。[结论]结肠造口病人住院期间造口底盘更换间隔时间以5 d 为宜;标准的造口护理流程和适宜的造口底盘更换时间,能减少造口周围皮肤并发症的发生,病人感觉更舒适。

  6. 玉米收获机底盘车架疲劳寿命研究%Study on fatigue life of frame for corn combine chassis machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志; 周林; 赵博; 梁学修

    2015-01-01

    提出一种玉米收获机底盘车架疲劳寿命预测方法.利用ANSYS软件对玉米收获机底盘车架进行有限元分析,得到最大模态变形位置和静应力分析条件下的应力分布;在有限元分析数据基础上,粘贴应变片,组建应力测量系统,实测田间及道路条件下的应变时间历程;对采集的应变数据开展预处理,初步分析其受力情况及动载荷特征,采用nCode软件完成疲劳寿命预测.试验结果表明,车身横梁疲劳寿命为24.1万h、支撑部件寿命为16 500万h,满足使用要求,但支撑部件强度设计过剩,采用workbench的shape optimization对该部件开展轻量化设计,在满足疲劳可靠性条件下,减少了该部件质量24%.%The chassis frame is the installed base of the corn combine harvester, which bears a lot of force from the longitudinal bending, torsion, lateral bending, horizontal rhombic and their combined loads. The frame has obvious dynamic load characteristics, therefore the static strength check is not enough and research on the fatigue life is needed. As the lack of basic research, the key data accumulation is insufficient, the tradition design method is relatively limited, many Chinese products lack the necessary fatigue strength in design, and the reliability is poor. Experience in the automotive industry has proved that the combination of fatigue load spectrum and CAE technology can greatly improve the forecasting ability. Fatigue strength study of the corn combine harvester is the foundation of improving the reliability and an important method to reduce the structural mass. In order to reduce the structural weight and improve the fatigue reliability of the corn combine harvester, this paper studies a method to evaluate fatigue life of the main frame. Firstly, using ANSYS software, the stress distribution of the corn harvester chassis frame was analyzed, and the stress distribution of the maximum modal deformation position and under static stress

  7. 欧洲“火星快车”探测器自行底盘概念设计的启示%The concept design of the self-propelling chassis for European ExoMars rover

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇燕

    2013-01-01

    通过对月球车和火星车的跟踪调研,重点介绍了俄罗斯所承担的欧洲空间局“火星快车”项目中火星车自行底盘概念的设计思想和具体实施情况.结合火星表面的复杂环境,研制方探讨了几种底盘结构设计方案,通过对比分析确立了6×6×4+4Ⅲ方案为优化方案;根据该优化方案研制的比例模型样机通过行走试验验证,结果表明自行底盘概念设计思想正确,有助于提高行星车在复杂地形中的运动能力、稳定性和可靠性.最后针对我国深空探测项目实施的需求,提出了拟开展工作建议.%This paper describes the conceptual design of the self propelling chassis developed by Russia for the ESA project ExoMars. In the context of the complex environment on the surface of the Mars, several design plans of the Mars probe chassis are discussed, among which the optimized plan of 6×6×4+4 Ⅲ is identified, that means four steering drives and four stepped-driven wheels-stepping device and balanced suspension. The scale model prototype developed according to the optimized plan was tested in the test field. The results show that the conceptual design of the self propelling chassis is correct, and can increase the mobility, stability and reliability of the planet rover. In the end, some proposals are put forward in light of implementing China's deep space exploration projects.

  8. Adult Competency Education Kit. Basic Skills in Speaking, Math, and Reading for Employment. Part P: ACE Competency Based Job Descriptions: #77--Secretary; #78--Keypunch Operator; Assembly Worker Core Job Description; #82--Electronics Assembler; #83--Printed Circuit Assembler; #84--Micro Electronics Assembler; #85--Chassis Assembler; #87--Machinist Apprentice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Mateo County Office of Education, Redwood City, CA. Career Preparation Centers.

    This thirteenth of fifteen sets of Adult Competency Education (ACE) Competency Based Job Descriptions in the ACE kit contains job descriptions for Secretary, Keypunch Operator, Electronics Assembler, Printed Circuit Assembler, Micro Electronincs Assembler, Chassis Assembler, and Machinist Apprentice. Each begins with a fact sheet that includes…

  9. An SVM-Based Classifier for Estimating the State of Various Rotating Components in Agro-Industrial Machinery with a Vibration Signal Acquired from a Single Point on the Machine Chassis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Ruiz-Gonzalez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to assess the feasibility of estimating the state of various rotating components in agro-industrial machinery by employing just one vibration signal acquired from a single point on the machine chassis. To do so, a Support Vector Machine (SVM-based system is employed. Experimental tests evaluated this system by acquiring vibration data from a single point of an agricultural harvester, while varying several of its working conditions. The whole process included two major steps. Initially, the vibration data were preprocessed through twelve feature extraction algorithms, after which the Exhaustive Search method selected the most suitable features. Secondly, the SVM-based system accuracy was evaluated by using Leave-One-Out cross-validation, with the selected features as the input data. The results of this study provide evidence that (i accurate estimation of the status of various rotating components in agro-industrial machinery is possible by processing the vibration signal acquired from a single point on the machine structure; (ii the vibration signal can be acquired with a uniaxial accelerometer, the orientation of which does not significantly affect the classification accuracy; and, (iii when using an SVM classifier, an 85% mean cross-validation accuracy can be reached, which only requires a maximum of seven features as its input, and no significant improvements are noted between the use of either nonlinear or linear kernels.

  10. Real-time analysis of aromatics in combustion engine exhaust by resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOF-MS): a robust tool for chassis dynamometer testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, T.W. [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Transport and Air Quality Unit, Ispra, VA (Italy); Clairotte, M.; Manfredi, U.; Carriero, M.; Martini, G.; Krasenbrink, A.; Astorga, C. [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Transport and Air Quality Unit, Ispra, VA (Italy); European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy and Transport, Sustainable Transport Unit, Ispra, Varese (Italy); Streibel, T.; Pommeres, A.; Sklorz, M. [University of Rostock, Analytical Chemistry/Joint Mass Spectrometry Centre, Institute of Chemistry, Rostock (Germany); Elsasser, M.; Zimmermann, R. [Cooperation Group Complex Molecular Systems (CMA)/Joint Mass Spectrometry Centre (JMSC), Neuherberg (Germany); University of Rostock, Analytical Chemistry/Joint Mass Spectrometry Centre, Institute of Chemistry, Rostock (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    Resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOF-MS) is a robust method for real-time analysis of monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in complex emissions. A mobile system has been developed which enables direct analysis on site. In this paper, we utilize a multicomponent calibration scheme based on the analytes' photo-ionisation cross-sections relative to a calibrated species. This allows semi-quantification of a great number of components by only calibrating one compound of choice, here toluene. The cross-sections were determined by injecting nebulised solutions of aromatic compounds into the TOF-MS ion source with the help of a HPLC pump. Then, REMPI-TOF-MS was implemented at various chassis dynamometers and test cells and the exhaust of the following vehicles and engines investigated: a compression ignition light-duty (LD) passenger car, a compression ignition LD van, two spark ignition LD passenger cars, 2 two-stroke mopeds, and a two-stroke engine of a string gas trimmer. The quantitative time profiles of benzene are shown. The results indicate that two-stroke engines are a significant source for toxic and cancerogenic compounds. Air pollution and health effects caused by gardening equipment might still be underestimated. (orig.)

  11. An SVM-based classifier for estimating the state of various rotating components in agro-industrial machinery with a vibration signal acquired from a single point on the machine chassis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Gonzalez, Ruben; Gomez-Gil, Jaime; Gomez-Gil, Francisco Javier; Martínez-Martínez, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this article is to assess the feasibility of estimating the state of various rotating components in agro-industrial machinery by employing just one vibration signal acquired from a single point on the machine chassis. To do so, a Support Vector Machine (SVM)-based system is employed. Experimental tests evaluated this system by acquiring vibration data from a single point of an agricultural harvester, while varying several of its working conditions. The whole process included two major steps. Initially, the vibration data were preprocessed through twelve feature extraction algorithms, after which the Exhaustive Search method selected the most suitable features. Secondly, the SVM-based system accuracy was evaluated by using Leave-One-Out cross-validation, with the selected features as the input data. The results of this study provide evidence that (i) accurate estimation of the status of various rotating components in agro-industrial machinery is possible by processing the vibration signal acquired from a single point on the machine structure; (ii) the vibration signal can be acquired with a uniaxial accelerometer, the orientation of which does not significantly affect the classification accuracy; and, (iii) when using an SVM classifier, an 85% mean cross-validation accuracy can be reached, which only requires a maximum of seven features as its input, and no significant improvements are noted between the use of either nonlinear or linear kernels. PMID:25372618

  12. Chassis Number and Engine Number of Inspection and Emerging Technologies%车架号及发动机号的检验与显现技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯炳昌; 张凯

    2015-01-01

    Due to the robbery of motor vehicle has a professional and strong, strong liquidity,crime a short time, fled the scene and the characteristics of rapid, with the public security organs to from field collected valuable evidence or clues, stolen goods is difficult, low detection rate, leading to the crime of motor vehicle theft and robbery in such cases soon become high incidence of criminal cases in new and criminals increasingly rampant, serious harm to people and property safety and social stability. This paper based on the summary of the author's work experience,the inspection of the vehicle frame number and engine number and display methods are classified,from tampering vehicle chassis number,engine number recognition to display technology are discussed, to effectively combat vehicle theft and robbery crime has certain practical value.%由于盗抢机动车犯罪具有专业性强、流动性大、作案时间短、逃离现场快等特点,再加上公安机关难以从现场收集有价值的证据或线索,追赃难,破案率低,导致此类案件很快成为新型的刑事高发案件,且犯罪分子日益猖獗,严重危害人们的财产安全及社会稳定。笔者根据多年工作经验,对机动车车架号及发动机号的检验及显现方法进行大致分类,从被篡改机动车车架号、发动机号的识别到显现技术进行探讨,对有效打击盗抢机动车犯罪具有一定借鉴意义。

  13. Vehicle path tracking by integrated chassis control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saman Salehpour; Yaghoub Pourasad; Seyyed Hadi Taheri

    2015-01-01

    The control problem of trajectory based path following for passenger vehicles is studied. Comprehensive nonlinear vehicle model is utilized for simulation vehicle response during various maneuvers in MATLAB/Simulink. In order to follow desired path, a driver model is developed to enhance closed loop driver/vehicle model. Then, linear quadratic regulator (LQR) controller is developed which regulates direct yaw moment and corrective steering angle on wheels. Particle swam optimization (PSO) method is utilized to optimize the LQR controller for various dynamic conditions. Simulation results indicate that, over various maneuvers, side slip angle and lateral acceleration can be reduced by 10%and 15%, respectively, which sustain the vehicle stable. Also, anti-lock brake system is designed for longitudinal dynamics of vehicle to achieve desired slip during braking and accelerating. Proposed comprehensive controller demonstrates that vehicle steerability can increase by about 15% during severe braking by preventing wheel from locking and reducing stopping distance.

  14. 一种滑移式升降可调通用底盘结构设计与关键技术研究%Design and key technology research on one kind of slip-type lifting adjustable general chassis structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴红雷; 弋景刚; 孔德刚; 袁永伟

    2015-01-01

    目前设施农业机械多以内燃机为动力源,与电动机驱动比较,存在污染严重、操作不灵活等问题。故,提出了一种前、中、后均可悬挂农机具的滑移式升降可调通用底盘设计思想,搭建了通用底盘的结构模型;为满足底盘平面倾斜升降调节要求,设计了一种液压滑轨升降调节机构。采用体积小、比功率大、传动效率高的电动轮毂作为四轮独立驱动系统的行走轮,建立了电动轮毂加速过程的受力平衡方程。为增加连续作业时间,采用串联式混合动力结构;分析了四轮独立驱动在滑移转向工况下,内外两侧电动轮毂转速与转弯半径的运动关系,为滑移式升降可调通用底盘的样机试制和控制策略及算法的设计奠定理论基础。%Internal combustion engine is used to most facility agricultural machinery as its pow‐er supply ,w hich has some serious problems such as pollution ,inconvenience ,and poor gener‐ality compared with themotordrive today .So ,a design idea of a kind of slip‐type lifting adjust‐able general chassis which can be hang implements at the front ,middle and the back of it , w hich sets up the chassis structure model to satisfy the requirement of the of chassis plane tilt‐ing and lifting regulation through as kind of hydraulic sliding rail lifting adjusting mechanism is put forward in the paper .It uses the motor wheel chair hub with small size ,big specific power and high drive efficiency as the walking wheel of four‐wheel independent driving sys‐tem .And it also builds the force balance equation of motor wheel chair hub in acceleration process ,and serial hybrid electric power train system is adopted in order to increase working hours .Furtherly ,the motion relation is analyzed between the inside and outside of motor wheel chair hub’s rotate speed and turning radius under slid‐turning conditions ,and it also lays a theoretical foundation for

  15. 基于某商务电动汽车操纵稳定性仿真分析的底盘布置化%Chassis Disposal Project Optimization Based on the Handing and Stability Simulation Analysis of the Commercial Electric Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄菊花; 闫雪

    2012-01-01

    针对某项目研发的传统商务用车,为了满足研发后电动汽车的操纵稳定性要求,运用ADAMS/Car软件建立电动汽车整车虚拟样机仿真模型,建立钢板弹簧非独立后悬架模型是建模一大难点,在多体动力学模型的基础上研究电机总成和车用动力锂离子电池组等的分布对汽车操纵稳定性的影响,提出底盘布置优化方案,根据汽车行业评定标准进行评分,结果显示底盘优化后电动汽车的操纵稳定性试验各项指标均符合要求.%In accordance with certain traditional commercial vehicle in research and development in a project, in order to meet the handing and stability need of the electric vehicle developed. The full virtual simulation model is build with ADAMS/Car software firstly and build leaf spring rear independent suspension model. Secondly research the effect of the disposal of electrical machine and dynamic battery on vehicles handing and stability based on the multibody dynamics model and a chassis disposal project t optimization is proposed. Finally rating vehicles handing and stability according to the auto industry standard and the results showed that stability test indexes of the vehicle improved comply with the requirements.

  16. Global Chassis Control and Braking Control using Tyre Forces Measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerard, M.P.

    2011-01-01

    Mobility and traffic safety is a major concern in the society today. Many accidents take place because the vehicle is not following the trajectory that the driver desires. To avoid such accidents, an increasing number of active safety systems are introduced in modern vehicles. Still, most of the ti

  17. Synthetic Biology with Cytochromes P450 Using Photosynthetic Chassis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnanasekaran, Thiyagarajan

    these commercially important high value bioactive compounds are plant derived, and in plants, some of the key enzymes that catalyze the production of these compounds are cytochromes P450 (P450s). This thesis focuses on three subprojects in which we expressed plant metabolic pathways involving P450...

  18. TNO ADVANCE: a modular simulation tool for combined chassis and powertrain analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillaart, E. van den; Mourad, S.; Lupker, H.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper TNO-Advance is presented. It is built in a modular way, therefore allowing quick assembling of specific vehicle configurations and easy integration of new component models and future evolutions of existing models. Its entensive library is built in Matlab/Simulink, taking advantage of i

  19. Semitrailer chassis design against fatigue on the basis of field test data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauwelussen, Joop; Horn, L.; Alderliesten, R.; Ham, G. ten; Rhee, D. van; Klink, M. van

    2012-01-01

    During the previous HVTT conference in Melbourne, results have been presented of a project FORWARD, including eleven different trailer manufacturers, involving testing and modeling activities to establish a practical basis for realistic fatigue assessment as a step towards an improved light-weight t

  20. Hierarchical video surveillance architecture: a chassis for video big data analytics and exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiboye, Sola O.; Birch, Philip; Chatwin, Christopher; Young, Rupert

    2015-03-01

    There is increasing reliance on video surveillance systems for systematic derivation, analysis and interpretation of the data needed for predicting, planning, evaluating and implementing public safety. This is evident from the massive number of surveillance cameras deployed across public locations. For example, in July 2013, the British Security Industry Association (BSIA) reported that over 4 million CCTV cameras had been installed in Britain alone. The BSIA also reveal that only 1.5% of these are state owned. In this paper, we propose a framework that allows access to data from privately owned cameras, with the aim of increasing the efficiency and accuracy of public safety planning, security activities, and decision support systems that are based on video integrated surveillance systems. The accuracy of results obtained from government-owned public safety infrastructure would improve greatly if privately owned surveillance systems `expose' relevant video-generated metadata events, such as triggered alerts and also permit query of a metadata repository. Subsequently, a police officer, for example, with an appropriate level of system permission can query unified video systems across a large geographical area such as a city or a country to predict the location of an interesting entity, such as a pedestrian or a vehicle. This becomes possible with our proposed novel hierarchical architecture, the Fused Video Surveillance Architecture (FVSA). At the high level, FVSA comprises of a hardware framework that is supported by a multi-layer abstraction software interface. It presents video surveillance systems as an adapted computational grid of intelligent services, which is integration-enabled to communicate with other compatible systems in the Internet of Things (IoT).

  1. Yarrowia lipolytica as a biotechnological chassis to produce usual and unusual fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Nicaud, Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    One of the most promising alternatives to petroleum for the production of fuels and chemicals is bio-oil based chemistry. Microbial oils are gaining importance because they can be engineered to accumulate lipids enriched in desired fatty acids. These specific lipids are closer to the commercialized product, therefore reducing pollutants and costly chemical steps. Yarrowia lipolytica is the most widely studied and engineered oleaginous yeast. Different molecular and bioinformatics tools permit systems metabolic engineering strategies in this yeast, which can produce usual and unusual fatty acids. Usual fatty acids, those usually found in triacylglycerol, accumulate through the action of several pathways, such as fatty acid/triacylglycerol synthesis, transport and degradation. Unusual fatty acids are enzymatic modifications of usual fatty acids to produce compounds that are not naturally synthetized in the host. Recently, the metabolic engineering of microorganisms has produced different unusual fatty acids, such as building block ricinoleic acid and nutraceuticals such as conjugated linoleic acid or polyunsaturated fatty acids. Additionally, microbial sources are preferred hosts for the production of fatty acid-derived compounds such as γ-decalactone, hexanal and dicarboxylic acids. The variety of lipids produced by oleaginous microorganisms is expected to rise in the coming years to cope with the increasing demand. PMID:26703186

  2. Engineering C4 photosynthesis into C3 chassis in the synthetic biology age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Mara L; Mantegazza, Otho; Weber, Andreas P M

    2016-07-01

    C4 photosynthetic plants outperform C3 plants in hot and arid climates. By concentrating carbon dioxide around Rubisco C4 plants drastically reduce photorespiration. The frequency with which plants evolved C4 photosynthesis independently challenges researchers to unravel the genetic mechanisms underlying this convergent evolutionary switch. The conversion of C3 crops, such as rice, towards C4 photosynthesis is a long-standing goal. Nevertheless, at the present time, in the age of synthetic biology, this still remains a monumental task, partially because the C4 carbon-concentrating biochemical cycle spans two cell types and thus requires specialized anatomy. Here we review the advances in understanding the molecular basis and the evolution of the C4 trait, advances in the last decades that were driven by systems biology methods. In this review we emphasise essential genetic engineering tools needed to translate our theoretical knowledge into engineering approaches. With our current molecular understanding of the biochemical C4 pathway, we propose a simplified rational engineering model exclusively built with known C4 metabolic components. Moreover, we discuss an alternative approach to the progressing international engineering attempts that would combine targeted mutagenesis and directed evolution. PMID:26945781

  3. Welded railway bogie frames lightening; L'allegement des chassis de bogies mecanosoudes des TGV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimbaud, M. [GEC Alsthom/ACR, 71 - Le Creusot (France); Tourrade, J.C.; Lallet, P. [SNCF, Societe Nationale des Chemins de Fer Francais, (France)

    1998-03-01

    The article describes the bogie frame dimensioning methodology, base on three necessary and complementary means which are calculations, tests and operation survey. Then it describes several ways to save weight in welded frames, and the determination of new design criteria. (authors)

  4. 75 FR 35123 - Notice of Buy America Waiver for Minivans and Minivan Chassis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... Toyota has not responded to public procurements.\\1\\ \\1\\ Contrary to Chrysler's assertion that Toyota has not responded to public procurements, in May 2010 FTA learned that Toyota may have certified... to communicate with Toyota by letter, e-mail, and telephone to determine whether Toyota is...

  5. Hierarchical video surveillance architecture - a chassis for video big data analytics and exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Ajiboye, Sola O; Birch, Philip; Chatwin, Chris; Young, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing reliance on video surveillance systems for systematic derivation, analysis and interpretation of the data needed for predicting, planning, evaluating and implementing public safety. This is evident from the massive number of surveillance cameras deployed across public locations. For example, in July 2013, the British Security Industry Association (BSIA) reported that over 4 million CCTV cameras had been installed in Britain alone. The BSIA also reveal that only 1.5% of the...

  6. A Genetic System for Clostridium ljungdahlii: a Chassis for Autotrophic Production of Biocommodities and a Model Homoacetogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leang, C; Ueki, T; Nevin, KP; Lovley, DR

    2013-02-04

    Methods for genetic manipulation of Clostridium ljungdahlii are of interest because of the potential for production of fuels and other biocommodities from carbon dioxide via microbial electrosynthesis or more traditional modes of autotrophy with hydrogen or carbon monoxide as the electron donor. Furthermore, acetogenesis plays an important role in the global carbon cycle. Gene deletion strategies required for physiological studies of C. ljungdahlii have not previously been demonstrated. An electroporation procedure for introducing plasmids was optimized, and four different replicative origins for plasmid propagation in C. ljungdahlii were identified. Chromosomal gene deletion via double-crossover homologous recombination with a suicide vector was demonstrated initially with deletion of the gene for FliA, a putative sigma factor involved in flagellar biogenesis and motility in C. ljungdahlii. Deletion of fliA yielded a strain that lacked flagella and was not motile. To evaluate the potential utility of gene deletions for functional genomic studies and to redirect carbon and electron flow, the genes for the putative bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenases, adhE1 and adhE2, were deleted individually or together. Deletion of adhE1, but not adhE2, diminished ethanol production with a corresponding carbon recovery in acetate. The double deletion mutant had a phenotype similar to that of the adhE1-deficient strain. Expression of adhE1 in trans partially restored the capacity for ethanol production. These results demonstrate the feasibility of genetic investigations of acetogen physiology and the potential for genetic manipulation of C. ljungdahlii to optimize autotrophic biocommodity production.

  7. Vehicle Component Benchmarking Using a Chassis Dynamometer: Using a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu and a 2013 Mercedes E350 (SAE Paper 2015-01-0589)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light-duty vehicle greenhouse gas (GHG) and fuel economy (FE) standards for MYs 2012 -2025 are requiring vehicle powertrains to become much more efficient. The EPA is using a full vehicle simulation model, called the Advanced Light-duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA), to ...

  8. Plastics in car production. Pt. 1. Chassis, body and engine; Einsatz von Kunststoffen in der Automobilproduktion. T. 1. Fahrwerk, Karosserie und Motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guhr, U.; Grefenstein, A.; Hauck, C.; Reinelt, D. [BASF AG, Ludwigshafen am Rhein (Germany)

    2000-04-01

    Both the car and plastics are innovative fields of technology. Due to their extraordinary versatility, plastics offer a wide range of applications for automotive engineering. The driving force behind the use of plastics is above all their potential for saving weight and enabling cost-effective processing, as well as allowing a great degree of design freedom. Today, a modern mid-range car contains about 130 kg of thermoplastic materials, making up about 10% of the car's overall weight. (orig.) [German] Das Automobil und die Kunststoffe gehoeren zu den innovativen Technologiegebieten. Aufgrund ihrer Leistungsvielfalt bieten Kunststoffe dem Automobilbau vielfaeltige Einsatzmoeglichkeiten. Treibende Kraefte fuer die Verwendung von Kunststoffen sind vor allem deren Potenzial hinsichtlich Gewichtseinsparung und kostenguenstiger Verarbeitung, verbunden mit einer grossen Gestaltungsfreiheit. Ein modernes Mittelklassefahrzeug enthaelt heute etwa 130 kg thermoplastische Kunststoffe, das sind etwa 10% des Gesamtfahrzeug-Gewichts. (orig.)

  9. Technical Analysis of VW Tiguan Ⅱ Powertrain & Chassis System%大众途观技术解析之二动力总成及底盘系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱正德

    2010-01-01

    @@ 相比目前在国内市场占据优势的自主品牌和日系品牌,德系SUV"途观"动力强劲、安全完善且操控性及地形掌控能力更为出色. 根据所采用的发动机(2.0TSl或1.8TSl)、变速器(6档手自一体或6档手动)、主流采用四轮驱动模式,以及不同的配置,途观(Tiguan)有从最低的1.8TSl手动都会版(前驱)直至2.0TSl手自一体旗舰版(四驱)等多种选型.

  10. Study of Appraisement Platform for the Matching of Tank Chassis With Cannon%坦克底盘与火炮匹配性评价平台研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费丽博; 毛保全

    2005-01-01

    建立了坦克底盘与火炮匹配性评价的理论模型,应用虚拟样机技术和动力学软件ADAMS分析了坦克底盘与火炮参数化动力学模型,得出匹配性评价动态参数.以获得的评价参数为基础,使用SQLSERVER作为数据库开发平台,通过建立完整的火炮和坦克底盘的数据库结构,以VC++.NET作为编程工具,在平台内实现了匹配性评价的数学模型.

  11. 微客车架结构抗撞性能的分析与优化研究%Crashworthiness analysis and optimization for chassis frame structure of mini-bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵婷婷; 王军杰

    2011-01-01

    通过有限元分析软件LS-DYNA 进行碰撞仿真分析,研究了某新开发的微型客车的100%正面碰撞性能.根据相应的国家正碰法规CMVDR294和GB 11551-2003对仿真结果进行评价,发现正碰仿真中车架变形量、车门框变形量以及前壁板入侵量过大,不满足设计要求.针对上述问题,结合车身具体结构特性提出了车架结构优化方案.采用仿真技术进行优化方案的筛选和验证.验证结果表明优化方案有效地提高了车身、车架结构的抗撞性能.为此类微型客车正面碰撞性能的分析与优化提供方法和理论基础.%The front crash simulation based on LS-DYNA software is built to analyze the structural crashworthiness of mini-bus, which result evaluated according to the national frontal crash standard CMVDR294 and GB l1551-2003,indicates that the deformation of the frame, doorframe and front panel are too excessive in the simulation to meet the design requirements. In order to improve the crashworthiness of the bus, the optimization plans about the frame structure are proposed based on the structure characteristics of the body, which are selected and verified by simulation that the crashworthiness of the frame is enhanced efficiently. It provides approach and theoretical reference for crashworthiness analysis and design optimization of the mini-bus structure.

  12. A New Design of Hydro-pneumatic Suspension Chassis of All-terrance Crane Truck%某新型全路面起重机底盘油气悬架系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡文俊

    2010-01-01

    介绍了某新型多轴全路面起重机底盘左右连通式自动调高油气悬架系统的组成和设计方法.包括油气弹簧的设计、蓄能器的选型、双横臂和调高系统的设计,并介绍了该新型油气悬架的特点,为其他专用汽车底盘设计提供了参考.

  13. 泵车底盘后轴空气悬架气囊压力控制的研究%Study on Pressure Control of Air Suspensions for Concrete Pump Chassis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康为科; 赵亮; 胡颖

    2014-01-01

    针对目前三一自制泵车底盘空气悬架下支撑板变形损坏的问题,对进口泵车底盘空气悬架气囊气压控制原理进行了对比分析研究,提出了自制泵车底盘的空气悬架气囊压力的控制方案.改进后空气悬架气囊的压力控制简单、可靠、成本低廉,解决了空气悬架下支撑板变形损坏的问题.

  14. 78 FR 10686 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming Long-Wheel Base 2005 Mercedes-Benz...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... Nonconforming Long-Wheel Base 2005 Mercedes-Benz G-Class (463 Chassis) Multi-Purpose Passenger Vehicles Are... (NHTSA) of a petition for a decision that 2005 Long-Wheel Base (LWB) Mercedes-Benz G-class (463 chassis....S.- certified version of the 2005 LWB Mercedes-Benz G-class (463 chassis) MPV) and they are...

  15. 41 CFR 101-26.501-2 - Standardized buying programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and 6×4 cab-chassis, stake, van, dump, and truck-tractor; 19,000 to 60,000 pounds GVWR. (ii) 4×4 and 6×4 cab-chassis, stake, dump, and truck-tractor; 26,000 to 52,000 pounds GVWR. (iii) 1,200 and 2,000... Federal Specification No. KKK-A-1822): Type I, modular body on cab-chassis; Type II, van body with...

  16. Stress analysis of jacks, frame and bearing connections, and drill rod for core sampler truck No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This analysis evaluates the structural design adequacy of several components and connections for the rotary mode core sampler truck (RMCST) No. 2. This analysis was requested by the Characterization Equipment Group (WHC 1994a). The components addressed in this report are listed below: front jack assembly and connection to the truck chassis; rear jack assembly and connection to the truck chassis; center outrigger jacks and connection to the truck chassis; lower frame assembly and connection to the truck chassis; bolt connections for bearing plate assembly (for path of maximum load); traverse slide brackets and mounting of the traverse jack cylinders; and drill rod (failure loads)

  17. Automatic-Control Challenges in Future Urban Vehicles: A Blend of Chassis, Energy and Networking Management Les défis de la commande automatique dans les futurs véhicules urbains : un mélange de gestion de châssis, d’énergie et du réseau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savaresi S.M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this paper is the discussion of new challenges that the scientific field of automatic-control will face in the next decades, in the area of vehicles control. The focus is on urban vehicles for personal mobility, since this type of vehicles will be subject to the biggest changes in the next decades. The paper is articulated in three sections – in a top-down framework – briefly addressing and discussing the following items: the main drivers, which will force a change in urban personal mobility; the main types of vehicles, which are expected to address at best such drivers; the main automatic-control challenges on such type of vehicles. The scope of this paper is purposely non-technical. Its aim is mainly to discuss the emerging new challenges from the perspective of the automatic-control scientists and practitioners. The goal of the paper is to establish a discussion framework on the problems and opportunities, which will arise in this field, in the near future. Le sujet du présent article est une discussion sur les nouveaux défis auxquels le domaine scientifique de la commande automatique des véhicules va faire face dans les prochaines décennies. L’accent est mis sur les véhicules urbains destinés à une mobilité individuelle, puisque c’est ce type de véhicules qui va faire l’objet des plus grands changements dans les prochaines décennies. Le présent article s’articule, selon une démarche descendante, en trois sections abordant et discutant brièvement les éléments suivants : les principaux moteurs qui vont imposer un changement en matière de mobilité individuelle; les principaux types de véhicules qui sont attendus pour répondre au mieux à de tels moteurs et les principaux défis de la commande automatique sur un tel type de véhicules. À dessein, la portée du présent article est non technique. Son but est principalement de discuter les nouveaux défis émergeants, à partir de perspectives des milieux scientifiques et professionnels de la commande automatique. L’objectif du présent article consiste à établir un canevas de discussion sur les problèmes et opportunités qui verront le jour en ce domaine dans un proche avenir.

  18. Main line pressure detection system of centralized grease lubrication equipment for vehicle chassis based on virtual instrument%基于虚拟仪器的底盘集中润滑装置主油路压力检测系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏俞涌; 盛奎川; 余有芳

    2009-01-01

    为了精确检测车辆底盘自动集中润滑系统工作性能参数,研发了基于虚拟仪器的集中润滑装置主油路压力检测系统,该压力检测系统主要由压力和温度传感器、信号调理器、数据采集卡和计算机等硬件组成;并应用LabVIEW开发了系统检测平台;实现了润滑系统工作时主油路的动态压力波形采集与显示.实践结果证明,该检测系统具有较高的测量精度和良好的实用性.

  19. 自主品牌结硕果华菱汽车欲主导重卡和重型专用车底盘市场%Independent Brand be Success VALIN Would like to Lead Heavy Truck and Heavy SPV Chassis Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左伏桃

    2006-01-01

    @@ 2月28日,"华菱汽车2006年度商务大会暨新产品发布会"在安徽省马鞍山市隆重召开.来自全国各地400余名华菱重卡经销商、改装厂和配套商代表济济一堂,回顾过去,展望未来.

  20. 40 CFR 86.127-00 - Test procedures; overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... compliance with composite SFTP standards. Paragraphs (f) and (g) of this section discuss the additional test... operation on a chassis dynamometer through a specified driving schedule (see paragraph (a), EPA Urban... vehicle operation on a chassis dynamometer through a specified driving cycle (see paragraph (g),...

  1. 26 CFR 48.4041-8 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...” includes any road (whether a Federal highway, State highway, city street, rural road, or otherwise) in the... definition, a vehicle consists of a chassis, or a chassis and a body if the vehicle has a body, but does not..., if applicable, unequivocally resolve an issue involving the definition of a highway vehicle...

  2. 76 FR 4713 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning the Engenio 7900 Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... a chassis function test, chassis stress test, input/output test, extended manufacturing stability... of the 7900 System begins with the receipt and inspection of hardware components that are chosen... the hardware has been assembled, the U.S.-origin EOS software is downloaded to the 7900...

  3. 77 FR 65444 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 1991 Mercedes-Benz G-Class (463...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... Nonconforming 1991 Mercedes-Benz G-Class (463 Chassis) Multi-Purpose Passenger Vehicles Are Eligible for... petition for a decision that 1991 Mercedes-Benz G-class (463 chassis) multi-purpose passenger vehicles... complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). How...

  4. Effects of reconfiguration on the performance of mobile navigation robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Yili; Xu He; Li Han; Wang Shuguo; Ma Yuliu

    2006-01-01

    An innovative mobile robot that has reconfigurable locomotion chassis and reconfigurable bionic wheels has been developed to meet the needs of different payload and different terrain. Several prototypes have been achieved by the reconfiguration. By modeling relative comparison coefficients, these prototypes are analyzed in terms of geometrical parameter of trafficability, static stability and maneuverability. The effects of reconfiguration on these indices of robot performance can be compared, i.e. the variable height of chassis h has the biggest effect, the variable length of chassis l is the second, then is the camber angleβ and the caster angle α. Some principles for reconfiguration are proposed.

  5. Characteristics Study of Portable Hand-Held Phone Antenna by MoM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉莹; 徐晓文

    2003-01-01

    The characteristics of one kind of handset antenna are analyzed by the method of moments. By using the Pocklington equation and the Galerkin method, the current distribution on the handset antenna is calculated, the input impedance and radiation patterns are obtained. In addition, the characteristics of monopoles mounted on conducting chassis box with different sizes are analyzed. The results show that the size of the conducting chassis box has significant effect on the performance of the handset antenna. Therefore, appropriately changing the size of the conducting chassis box may improve the performance of the handset antenna.

  6. 现代汽车与厦门金旅经典合作辉煌再续记品质飞跃、动力无限的厦门金旅现代底盘考斯特%Classics Cooperation of Hyundai and Xiamen Golden Dragon to Continue Gloriou——Unlimited Motional Chassis COAST of Xiamen Golden Dragon and Hyumdai has Leaped for Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    适存

    2009-01-01

    @@ 历史铸就经典,品质创造永恒,"考斯特"对很多人不会陌生它在中巴的市场上独领风骚数十年,已成为经典中型客车的代名词,有着超强的市场生命力.2009年的中国客车市场,厦门金旅现代底盘考斯特车型的重磅推出,一石激起千层浪,引起了业界和媒体的广泛关注.

  7. Track guided self-driven container wagon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, I.A.

    1999-01-01

    The linear motor consists of a series of stator coils (2) located along the Track guided self-driven container wagon Track guided self-driven container wagon track and a reaction rail (3) fitted under the wagon chassis (4).

  8. 40 CFR 86.090-2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in future model year certification programs as permitted by regulation. Composite particulate... vehicle built for a light-duty truck chassis, van trucks, multi-stop vans, recreational vehicles, and...

  9. 40 CFR 86.085-2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... miles in a 30 day period immediately prior to conducting a particulate emissions test. Composite... light-duty truck chassis, van trucks, multi-stop vans, recreational vehicles, and some single...

  10. Effects of Cold Temperature and Ethanol Content on VOC Emissions from Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Supporting information Table S6 provides emission rates in g/km of volatile organic compounds measured from gasoline vehicle exhaust during chassis dynamometer...

  11. Simulating Dynamic Vehicle Maneuvers Using Finite Elements For Use In Design Of Integrated Composite Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Angelini, Nicholas Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Formula SAE (FSAE) chassis systems are increasing being manufactured with integrated composite structures in an effort to increase the performance of the system while decreasing weight. The increased use of composite structures requires more details of the loading conditions and evaluation metrics than the mild steel structures they are replacing. The prototypical FSAE steel space frame chassis designs are heavily structured around the mandated safety rules that doubled as mostly satisfactory...

  12. A new tool for economic nondestructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique introduced here works with relatively low digitalisation rates. An increase in accuracy is achieved by mathematical interpolation of the digitalised curves in the areas of interest. The equipment is built up modularly and uses standardised chassis systems on the basis of the VXI bus. It has one transmitter/pre-amplifier unit per module, which can be accommodated either in the chassis housing or near the test head in a local housing. (orig.)

  13. Universal drive unit

    OpenAIRE

    Sehnálek, Lubomír

    2011-01-01

    This document deal with design of universal driving unit. For the final solution is required driving unit which will be controled with help of sensory unit placed on the chassis of driving unit. In theoretical part of this labour are examined possibilities of a power, electric motor operation by PWM, kind of chassis and odometry which could be taken into account. From this section is finally chosen concrete configuration which is then described in chapter concerned oneself with driving unit d...

  14. Road Roughness Etimation Using Available Vehicle Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Lundström, Johan

    2009-01-01

    Road conditions affect fuel efficiency and vehicle fatigue when driving heavy trucks. Information about traveled road conditions enable optimization of chassis configuration when driving, and logging of vehicle stress. Previous work on this topic focus mainly on tuning of active suspension parameters in the car industry. One conceivable application for heavy trucks is implementation of active chassis level control based on road conditions, with possible improvements in driving economy as resu...

  15. Combination of an Improved FRF-Based Substructure Synthesis and Power Flow Method with Application to Vehicle Axle Noise Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, C Q

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, an improved FRF-based substructure synthesis method combined with power flow analysis is presented and is used for performing a vehicle axle noise analysis. The major transfer paths of axle noise transmitted from chassis to vehicle body are identified and ranked based on power flows transmitted through bushings between the chassis and body. To calculate the power flows, it is necessary to know the reaction forces and the vibrations at the bushing locations on the body side. To ...

  16. Whip antenna design for portable rf systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnapalli, Saila; Canora, Frank J.

    1995-12-01

    Whip type antennas are probably the most commonly used antennas in portable rf systems, such as cordless and cellular phones, rf enabled laptop computers, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and handheld computers. Whip antennas are almost always mounted on the chassis which contains the radio and other electronics. The chassis is usually a molded plastic which is coated with a conducting paint for EMI purposes. The chassis which appears as a lossy conductor to the antenna, has several effects -- detuning, altering the gain of the antenna, and shadowing its radiation pattern. Extensive modeling and measurements must be performed in order to fully characterize the affects of the chassis on the whip antenna, and to optimize antenna type, orientation and position. In many instances, modeling plays a more important role in prediction of the performance of whip antennas, since measurements become difficult due to the presence of common mode current on feed cables. In this paper models and measurements are used to discuss the optimum choice of whip antennas and the impact of the chassis on radiation characteristics. A modeling tool which has been previously described and has been successfully used to predict radiated field patterns is used for simulations, and measured and modeled results are shown.

  17. Reactor protection system with automatic self-testing and diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reactor protection system is disclosed having four divisions, with quad redundant sensors for each scram parameter providing input to four independent microprocessor-based electronic chassis. Each electronic chassis acquires the scram parameter data from its own sensor, digitizes the information, and then transmits the sensor reading to the other three electronic chassis via optical fibers. To increase system availability and reduce false scrams, the reactor protection system employs two levels of voting on a need for reactor scram. The electronic chassis perform software divisional data processing, vote 2/3 with spare based upon information from all four sensors, and send the divisional scram signals to the hardware logic panel, which performs a 2/4 division vote on whether or not to initiate a reactor scram. Each chassis makes a divisional scram decision based on data from all sensors. Automatic detection and discrimination against failed sensors allows the reactor protection system to automatically enter a known state when sensor failures occur. Cross communication of sensor readings allows comparison of four theoretically ''identical'' values. This permits identification of sensor errors such as drift or malfunction. A diagnostic request for service is issued for errant sensor data. Automated self test and diagnostic monitoring, sensor input through output relay logic, virtually eliminate the need for manual surveillance testing. This provides an ability for each division to cross-check all divisions and to sense failures of the hardware logic. 16 figs

  18. 反倾销对底盘行业造成升级压力——专访天津大学机械学院副教授天津惠德汽车进气系统有限公司总经理兼总工程师刘德新%Anti-dumping causes pressure for upgrade for chassis industry——An special interview to the associate professor of Tianiin University, the General Manager & Chief Engineer of Tianiin HuiDe Air Intake Manifold Co., Ltd, Dexin Liu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯吉瑜

    2009-01-01

    @@ 9月11日,美国总统奥巴马决定,对从中国进口的所有小轿车和轻型卡车轮胎实施为期三年的惩罚性关税.白宫发言人罗伯特·吉布斯说,对从中国进口轮胎实施的惩罚性关税税率第一年为35%,第二年为30%,第三年为25%.

  19. Narrow-track wheeled agricultural tractor parameter variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzomi, A; Rondelli, V

    2013-10-01

    Despite a general consensus among farmers, manufacturers, and researchers that wheeled agricultural tractor design has changed over time, there is little published evidence. There is debate as to whether the standardized rollover protective structure (ROPS) energy and force requirements, based on a tractor reference mass and pertaining to studies conducted more than 40 years ago, are appropriate for modern tractors. This article investigated the physical parameters of 326 modern narrow-track tractors, measured according to OECD Code 6 over 16 years (1993 to 2008 inclusive): 252 (-77%) were fixed-chassis tractors and 74 (-23%) were articulated. To understand the significance of design changes, the data were analyzed with respect to time and as a function of tractor mass. Articulated and fixed-chassis data were treated separately. The time data allowed qualitative analysis, while the mass data allowed quantitative analysis. The parameters show some changes over time and clearly indicate differences between articulated and fixed-chassis types. The parameter changes, along with the differences between types, may have important safety ramifications for ROPS energy absorption requirements, and these aspects are discussed. Regression lines with R2 values were fitted to the mass-related data for fixed-chassis and articulated tractors to determine the suitability of fit. The mass relations also displayed differences between fixed-chassis and articulated tractors. Thus, the most significant recommendation from this study is that the standardized testing procedure for narrow-track wheeled agricultural tractor category should be split into two groups: fixed-chassis and articulated. PMID:24673034

  20. Biosynthesis of Taxadiene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae : selection of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase directed by a computer-aided docking strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Zhu Ding

    Full Text Available Identification of efficient key enzymes in biosynthesis pathway and optimization of the fitness between functional modules and chassis are important for improving the production of target compounds. In this study, the taxadiene biosynthesis pathway was firstly constructed in yeast by transforming ts gene and overexpressing erg20 and thmgr. Then, the catalytic capabilities of six different geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthases (GGPPS, the key enzyme in mevalonic acid (MVA pathway catalyzing famesyl diphosphate (FPP to geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP, were predicted using enzyme-substrate docking strategy. GGPPSs from Taxus baccata x Taxus cuspidate (GGPPSbc, Erwinia herbicola (GGPPSeh, and S. cerevisiae (GGPPSsc which ranked 1st, 4th and 6th in docking with FPP were selected for construction. The experimental results were consistent with the computer prediction that the engineered yeast with GGPPSbc exhibited the highest production. In addition, two chassis YSG50 and W303-1A were chosen, and the titer of taxadiene reached 72.8 mg/L in chassis YSG50 with GGPPSbc. Metabolomic study revealed that the contents of tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA intermediates and their precursor amino acids in chassis YSG50 was lower than those in W303-1A, indicating less carbon flux was divided into TCA cycle. Furthermore, the levels of TCA intermediates in the taxadiene producing yeasts were lower than those in chassis YSG50. Thus, it may result in more carbon flux in MVA pathway in chassis YSG50, which suggested that YSG50 was more suitable for engineering the taxadiene producing yeast. These results indicated that computer-aided protein modeling directed isoenzyme selection strategy and metabolomic study could guide the rational design of terpenes biosynthetic cells.

  1. Biosynthesis of Taxadiene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae : selection of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase directed by a computer-aided docking strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ming-Zhu; Yan, Hui-Fang; Li, Lin-Feng; Zhai, Fang; Shang, Lu-Qing; Yin, Zheng; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Identification of efficient key enzymes in biosynthesis pathway and optimization of the fitness between functional modules and chassis are important for improving the production of target compounds. In this study, the taxadiene biosynthesis pathway was firstly constructed in yeast by transforming ts gene and overexpressing erg20 and thmgr. Then, the catalytic capabilities of six different geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthases (GGPPS), the key enzyme in mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway catalyzing famesyl diphosphate (FPP) to geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP), were predicted using enzyme-substrate docking strategy. GGPPSs from Taxus baccata x Taxus cuspidate (GGPPSbc), Erwinia herbicola (GGPPSeh), and S. cerevisiae (GGPPSsc) which ranked 1st, 4th and 6th in docking with FPP were selected for construction. The experimental results were consistent with the computer prediction that the engineered yeast with GGPPSbc exhibited the highest production. In addition, two chassis YSG50 and W303-1A were chosen, and the titer of taxadiene reached 72.8 mg/L in chassis YSG50 with GGPPSbc. Metabolomic study revealed that the contents of tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) intermediates and their precursor amino acids in chassis YSG50 was lower than those in W303-1A, indicating less carbon flux was divided into TCA cycle. Furthermore, the levels of TCA intermediates in the taxadiene producing yeasts were lower than those in chassis YSG50. Thus, it may result in more carbon flux in MVA pathway in chassis YSG50, which suggested that YSG50 was more suitable for engineering the taxadiene producing yeast. These results indicated that computer-aided protein modeling directed isoenzyme selection strategy and metabolomic study could guide the rational design of terpenes biosynthetic cells. PMID:25295588

  2. Concentrating photovoltaic solar panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashion, Steven A; Bowser, Michael R; Farrelly, Mark B; Hines, Braden E; Holmes, Howard C; Johnson, Jr., Richard L; Russell, Richard J; Turk, Michael F

    2014-04-15

    The present invention relates to photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic concentrator modules, and related methods. In particular, the present invention features concentrator modules having interior points of attachment for an articulating mechanism and/or an articulating mechanism that has a unique arrangement of chassis members so as to isolate bending, etc. from being transferred among the chassis members. The present invention also features adjustable solar panel mounting features and/or mounting features with two or more degrees of freedom. The present invention also features a mechanical fastener for secondary optics in a concentrator module.

  3. Anteater Racing AR8 “Savage” 2015 FSAE Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Baggs, Dean; Yu , Ting Hung; Haley, Bret; Benny Chiang, Benny; Chau , Natalie; Wu, Jimmy; Sanchez , Esau; To, Aldrich; Min, Bryant; Anthony Humme, Anthony; Lee, Dong Hyun; Justin Kennedy, Justin; Miller, Matthew; Pratti, Christopher; Lin, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Goal: To build the highest performing car possible while adhering to the FSAE Guidelines.  This year, we are designing and building a race car for the 2015 FSAE competition in Lincoln, Nebraska.  We have two different to analyze two different strategies.  The first is a superlight design carbon fiber and steel chassis coupled with a minimalistic suspension package, and powered by a light yet powerful dirt bike engine.  The second is a traditional steel tube chassis, proving superior manufactu...

  4. Size, weight, and power in electronic payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haislet, Donald A.; Wilson, Larry

    A Tactical SIGINT System Hardware program developed by ESL, a subsidiary of TRW Avionics and Surveillance Group, is discussed. The program studied the parts of typical systems that have the greatest size, weight, and power leverage, namely, the chassis, circuit-card assemblies, thermal management techniques, and interconnections. Mechanical weight savings were achieved in both chassis and modules due to replacement of aluminum with metal matrix composites. Circuit miniaturization based on multichip modules made it possible to reduce a key digital circuit by 8:1.

  5. The Opel Speedster; Der Opel Speedster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, R.

    2001-04-01

    The Opel Speedster is a medium-range sports car with an aluminium chassis and a GFRP body. It is based on the Lotus Elise and was developed to maturity in the course of two years. The emphasis was on good dynamic characteristics. [German] Der Opel Speedster ist ein Mittelmotor-Sportwagen mit Aluminium-Chassis und einer Karosserie aus glasfaserverstaerktem Kunststoff. Entwicklungs-Schwerpunkt war eine exzellente Fahrdynamik, die hohen Fahrspass gewaehrleisten soll. Der Opel Speedster wurde auf Basis des Lotus Elise in rund zwei Jahren zur Serienreife entwickelt. (orig.)

  6. Coil Springs Layer Used to Support a Car Vertical Dynamics Simulator and to Reduce the Maximum Actuation Force

    OpenAIRE

    Dan N. DUMITRIU; Cornel Lala

    2015-01-01

    A Danaher Thomson linear actuator with ball screw drive and a realtime control system are used here to induce vertical displacements under the driver/user seat of an in-house dynamic car simulator. In order to better support the car simulator and to dynamically protect the actuator’s ball screw drive, a layer of coil springs is used to support the whole simulator chassis. More precisely, one coil spring is placed vertically under each corner of the rectangular chassis. The p...

  7. Reduced vehicle model for optimizing the Body In White (BIW) with respect to vehicle dynamics and handling; Reduziertes Berechnungsmodell fuer ein Kraftfahrzeug zur Auslegung der Karosserie hinsichtlich fahrdynamischer Zielgroessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolk, O. [Bayerische Motoren Werke AG (BMW), Muenchen (Germany). Karosserieentwicklung Anbauteile/Technologiekonzepte

    2005-07-01

    The author's investigations showed that the meeting of dynamic criteria for car body and chassis will not necessary serve to optimize car dynamics in general. The study describe the identification of secondary stiffness criteria and supplementary load cases with which the general dynamics of the car can be calculated and predicted. For fast and automatic motor vehicle assessment and optimization, a reduced calculation model is introduced in which the chassis is replaced by intersecting loads on the car body and the loads on the car body is modelled as a quasistatic load at a given moment of the driving process. (orig.)

  8. Thermal computations for electronics conductive, radiative, and convective air cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Ellison, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    IntroductionPrimary mechanisms of heat flowConductionApplication example: Silicon chip resistance calculationConvectionApplication example: Chassis panel cooled by natural convectionRadiationApplication example: Chassis panel cooled only by radiation 7Illustrative example: Simple thermal network model for a heat sinked power transistorIllustrative example: Thermal network circuit for a printed circuit boardCompact component modelsIllustrative example: Pressure and thermal circuits for a forced air cooled enclosureIllustrative example: A single chip package on a printed circuit board-the proble

  9. Analysis of Links Positions in Landing Gear Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewczyński, D.; Tora, G.

    2014-08-01

    This article contains a kinematic analysis of an aircraft chassis mechanism in a range of positions. The mechanism of the chassis is made up of several smaller subsystems with different functions. The first mechanism is used to eject the chassis before landing (touchdown) and fold it to hatchway after the lift off. The second mechanism is designed to perform rotation of the crossover with the wheel, in order to adjust the position of the wheel to fit it in the limited space in the hold. The third mechanism allows movement of the chassis resulting from the change in length of the damper. To determine the position of the following links of the mechanism calculus of vectors was applied in which unit vectors were used to represent the angular position of the links. The aim of the analysis is to determine the angle of convergence and the angle of heel wheels as a function of the variable length of hydraulic cylinder, length of the shock absorber, length of the regulations rods

  10. 47 CFR 95.671 - Serial number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Serial number. 95.671 Section 95.671 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO... number. The serial number of each CB transmitter must be engraved on the transmitter chassis....

  11. Testing of the Eagle-Picher nickel-iron, the Globe ISOA lead-acid, and the Westinghouse nickel-iron battery subsystems in an electric-vehicle environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, R.; Bryant, J.

    1982-01-01

    Three full size developmental batteries were tested with electric vehicles; two nickel-iron batteries and a lead-acid battery. Constant speed and driving schedule tests were done on a chassis dynamometer. Several aspects of battery performance were evaluated for capacity, recharge efficiency, voltage response, and self discharge. Each of these three batteries exhibited some strengths and some weaknesses.

  12. HOTLink Rack Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Franck, A R; Kasley, P A; Shea, M F

    2001-01-01

    A remote data acquisition chassis, called a HOTLink Rack Monitor, HRM, has been developed for use in the Fermilab control system. This chassis provides for 64 analog input channels, 8 analog output channels, and 8 bytes of digital I/O. The interface to the host VMEbus crate is by way of a 320 MHz HOTLink serial connection to a PMC mezzanine module. With no processor intervention, all data sources in the remote chassis are read at 100 microsec intervals, timestamped, and stored in a 2 MB circular buffer on the PMC module. In operation, the memory always contains the most recent 16k samples of 10 kHz data from all 64 analog input channels. An expansion module that resides in the HRM chassis records snapshot data for 8 analog channels, each channel consisting of up to 16k readings, digitized at rates up to 10 MHz. Snapshot data is also returned and stored in buffers on the PMC module. Because the HRM presents a memory-mapped interface to the host, it is independent of the operating system and may be used in any ...

  13. 24 CFR 3280.608 - Hangers and supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., plastic drainage piping shall be supported at intervals not to exceed 4 feet and plastic water piping... provide protection against motion, vibration, road shock, or torque in the chassis. (3) Hangers and straps supporting plastic pipe shall not compress, distort, cut or abrade the piping and shall allow free...

  14. Materials Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-08-01

    Roadmap identifying the efforts of the Materials Technical Team (MTT) to focus primarily on reducing the mass of structural systems such as the body and chassis in light-duty vehicles (including passenger cars and light trucks) which enables improved vehicle efficiency regardless of the vehicle size or propulsion system employed.

  15. 49 CFR 571.221 - Standard No. 221; School bus body joint strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... homogeneous material or from a single piece of composite material such as plywood. Body panel means a body... component, including but not limited to floor panels, and body panels made of composite materials such as... that encloses the bus occupant space, including the floor, but excluding the bumpers and chassis...

  16. 78 FR 19393 - Designation of Product Categories for Federal Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... published, on December 5, 2012, a proposed rule in the Federal Register (FR) for the purpose of designating... this FR notice as the ``preferred procurement program''). This proposed rule can be found at 77 FR...: countertops to the composite panels category; and wheel bearing and chassis grease to the greases...

  17. 76 FR 42067 - Inspection and Weighing of Grain in Combined and Single Lots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... occurred in 1980 (45 FR 15810) when grain was not typically exported in large reusable containers but was... definitions of composite and average grades, limit the number of such containers that could be averaged or... containers are usually a metal truck/trailer body that can be detached from the chassis for loading into...

  18. HOTLink rack monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A remote data acquisition chassis, called a HOTLink Rack Monitor, HRM, has been developed for use in the Fermilab control system. This chassis provides for 64 analog input channels, 8 analog output channels, and 8 bytes of digital I/O. The interface to the host VMEbus crate is by way of a 320 MHz HOTLink serial connection to a PMC mezzanine module. With no processor intervention, all data sources in the remote chassis are read at 100 sec intervals, time stamped, and stored in a 2 MB circular buffer on the PMC module. In operation, the memory always contains the most recent 16 k samples of 10 kHz data from all 64 analog input channels. An expansion module that resides in the HRM chassis records snapshot data for 8 analog channels, each channel consisting of up to 16 k readings, digitized at rates up to 10 MHz. Snapshot data is also returned and stored in buffers on the PMC module. Because the HRM presents a memory-mapped interface to the host, it is independent of the operating system and may be used in any system that supports PMC mezzanine modules

  19. UPS CNG Truck Fleet Start Up Experience: Alternative Fuel Truck Evaluation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UPS operates 140 Freightliner Custom Chassis compressed natural gas (CNG)-powered vehicles with Cummins B5.9G engines. Fifteen are participating in the Alternative Fuel Truck Evaluation Project being funded by DOE's Office of Transportation Technologies and the Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies

  20. 49 CFR 393.5 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... files a certification pursuant to 24 CFR 3282.13 and complies with the standards set forth in 24 CFR... fuel tank with the exception of the filler cap. g. The acceleration due to gravity, 32.2 ft/sec2 (9.81..., not described by paragraph (1) of this definition, having a chassis which extends behind the...

  1. A deterministic, gigabit serial timing, synchronization and data link for the RHIC LLRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A critical capability of the new RHIC low level rf (LLRF) system is the ability to synchronize signals across multiple locations. The 'Update Link' provides this functionality. The 'Update Link' is a deterministic serial data link based on the Xilinx RocketIO protocol that is broadcast over fiber optic cable at 1 gigabit per second (Gbps). The link provides timing events and data packets as well as time stamp information for synchronizing diagnostic data from multiple sources. The new RHIC LLRF was designed to be a flexible, modular system. The system is constructed of numerous independent RF Controller chassis. To provide synchronization among all of these chassis, the Update Link system was designed. The Update Link system provides a low latency, deterministic data path to broadcast information to all receivers in the system. The Update Link system is based on a central hub, the Update Link Master (ULM), which generates the data stream that is distributed via fiber optic links. Downstream chassis have non-deterministic connections back to the ULM that allow any chassis to provide data that is broadcast globally.

  2. Analysis of Links Positions in Landing Gear Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brewczyński D.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article contains a kinematic analysis of an aircraft chassis mechanism in a range of positions. The mechanism of the chassis is made up of several smaller subsystems with different functions. The first mechanism is used to eject the chassis before landing (touchdown and fold it to hatchway after the lift off. The second mechanism is designed to perform rotation of the crossover with the wheel, in order to adjust the position of the wheel to fit it in the limited space in the hold. The third mechanism allows movement of the chassis resulting from the change in length of the damper. To determine the position of the following links of the mechanism calculus of vectors was applied in which unit vectors were used to represent the angular position of the links. The aim of the analysis is to determine the angle of convergence and the angle of heel wheels as a function of the variable length of hydraulic cylinder, length of the shock absorber, length of the regulations rods

  3. Carbonaceous Aerosols Emitted from Light-Duty Vehicles Operating on Gasoline and Ethanol Fuel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examines the chemical properties of carbonaceous aerosols emitted from three light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDVs) operating on gasoline (e0) and ethanol-gasoline fuel blends (e10 and e85). Vehicle road load simulations were performed on a chassis dynamometer using the t...

  4. Lubrication fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is organized under the following headings: lubricating oils; lubricating greases; synthetic lubricants; machine elements; lubricant application; internal combustion engines; stationary gas turbines; steam turbines; hydraulic turbines; nuclear power plants; automotive chassis components; automotive power transmissions; compressors; handling, storing, and dispensing lubricants, in-plant handling for lubricant conservation

  5. A deterministic, gigabit serial timing, synchronization and data link for the RHIC LLRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, T.; Smith, K.S.; Severino, F.

    2011-03-28

    A critical capability of the new RHIC low level rf (LLRF) system is the ability to synchronize signals across multiple locations. The 'Update Link' provides this functionality. The 'Update Link' is a deterministic serial data link based on the Xilinx RocketIO protocol that is broadcast over fiber optic cable at 1 gigabit per second (Gbps). The link provides timing events and data packets as well as time stamp information for synchronizing diagnostic data from multiple sources. The new RHIC LLRF was designed to be a flexible, modular system. The system is constructed of numerous independent RF Controller chassis. To provide synchronization among all of these chassis, the Update Link system was designed. The Update Link system provides a low latency, deterministic data path to broadcast information to all receivers in the system. The Update Link system is based on a central hub, the Update Link Master (ULM), which generates the data stream that is distributed via fiber optic links. Downstream chassis have non-deterministic connections back to the ULM that allow any chassis to provide data that is broadcast globally.

  6. Coupling element antenna with slot tuning for handheld devices at LTE frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrio, Samantha Caporal Del; Pelosi, Mauro; Franek, Ondrej; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2012-01-01

    Tunable antennas are a promising way to overcome bandwidth limitations for the new communication standards. Since it is the chassis that resonates in the low frequencies, its tuning is pertinent and allows for more compact size designs. This paper proposes a coupling element based antenna. A reco...

  7. 21 CFR 1002.11 - Supplemental reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supplemental reports. 1002.11 Section 1002.11 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... model or chassis family of a product listed in table 1 of § 1002.1 for which a report under § 1002.10...

  8. An active structural acoustic control approach for the reduction of the structure-borne road noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douville, Hugo; Berry, Alain; Masson, Patrice

    2002-11-01

    The reduction of the structure-borne road noise generated inside the cabin of an automobile is investigated using an Active Structural Acoustic Control (ASAC) approach. First, a laboratory test bench consisting of a wheel/suspension/lower suspension A-arm assembly has been developed in order to identify the vibroacoustic transfer paths (up to 250 Hz) for realistic road noise excitation of the wheel. Frequency Response Function (FRF) measurements between the excitation/control actuators and each suspension/chassis linkage are used to characterize the different transfer paths that transmit energy through the chassis of the car. Second, a FE/BE model (Finite/Boundary Elements) was developed to simulate the acoustic field of an automobile cab interior. This model is used to predict the acoustic field inside the cabin as a response to the measured forces applied on the suspension/chassis linkages. Finally, an experimental implementation of ASAC is presented. The control approach relies on the use of inertial actuators to modify the vibration behavior of the suspension and the automotive chassis such that its noise radiation efficiency is decreased. The implemented algorithm consists of a MIMO (Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output) feedforward configuration with a filtered-X LMS algorithm using an advanced reference signal (width FIR filters) using the Simulink/Dspace environment for control prototyping.

  9. Gas heat treatment plants for the aluminium industry; Gasbeheizte Waermebehandlungsanlagen fuer die Aluminium-Industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olberts, P.; Hanus, A. [LOI Thermprocess GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2004-09-01

    LOI Thermoprocess has developed new, flexible, innovative furnace designs for heat treatment of aluminium in general (car industry) and particularly for cylinder heads, engine units, chassis components, textured components, wheels, rolled sheet and extrusions. The furnaces are heated by means of radiant tubes (recuperators) and by the more usual open gas heating system (flue gas recirculation). (orig.)

  10. DAPS for Pegasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This is a photo of a flight electronics package enclosure designed for use in a rugged, High G environment. The electronics sub-chassis is additionally mounted on vibration isolators (shock mounts), thereby enabling use in a variety of High G applications

  11. 49 CFR 665.5 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... vehicles manufactured on a third-party chassis, a change in frame structure, material or configuration, or... conformance with the OEM's modifications guidelines. New bus model means a bus model that— (1) Has not been... requirement for bus testing. Bus means a rubber-tired automotive vehicle used for the provision of...

  12. 46 CFR 340.4 - Shipping services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping services. 340.4 Section 340.4 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY PRIORITY USE AND ALLOCATION OF SHIPPING SERVICES, CONTAINERS AND CHASSIS, AND PORT FACILITIES AND SERVICES FOR NATIONAL SECURITY...

  13. Cold Temperature and Biodiesel Fuel Effects on Speciated Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds from Diesel Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured in diesel exhaust from three medium heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern aftertreatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted on a chassis dynamometer at two ambient temperatures (-6.7°C and 21.7°C) operating on ...

  14. What's Happening on the School Bus Performance Front?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Hanford L.

    The most urgent order of business in the national scene is to complete the development of a series of new performance tests for school bus bodies and chassis to establish a benchmark for safe construction that can be verified by independent testing agencies. Such performance tests should incorporate the new Federal Joint Strength Efficiency…

  15. 40 CFR 60.671 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Capacity means the cumulative rated capacity of all initial crushers that are part of the plant. Capture... chassis or skids and may be moved by the application of a lifting or pulling force. In addition, there... be removed prior to the application of a lifting or pulling force for the purpose of transporting...

  16. 76 FR 31354 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning the Transit Connect Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... vacuum pump, a Swiss charger, a Japanese AC compressor, and a Japanese DC-DC converter. Station 3... recreational vehicles. In that case, the chassis, plastic body parts, and various miscellaneous pieces of plastic trim were imported into the U.S. from China and assembled with U.S.- origin battery packs,...

  17. 49 CFR 393.201 - Frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frames. 393.201 Section 393.201 Transportation... SAFE OPERATION Frames, Cab and Body Components, Wheels, Steering, and Suspension Systems § 393.201 Frames. (a) The frame or chassis of each commercial motor vehicle shall not be cracked, loose, sagging...

  18. Benchmarking and Hardware-In-The-Loop Operation of a 2014 MAZDA SkyActiv

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engine Performance evaluation in support of LD MTE. EPA used elements of its ALPHA model to apply hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) controls to the SKYACTIV engine test setup to better understand how the engine would operate in a chassis test after combined with future leading edge tech...

  19. Equipment Operator 3 and 2. NAVTRA 10640-G. Rate Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    A guide for advancement and training in the Equipment Operator 3 and 2 ratings for Navy personnel is provided in this manual. The chapters outline the duties and responsibilities of the equipment operators involved with engines, fuels, lubricants, pollution control, automotive power trains and chassis, automotive vehicles, materials-handling…

  20. Cold temperature effects on speciated MSAT emissions from light duty vehicles operating on gasoline and ethanol blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions of speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including mobile source air toxics (MSATs), were measured in vehicle exhaust from three light-duty gasoline vehicles. Vehicle testing was conducted using a three phase LA92 driving cycle on a temperature controlled chassis...

  1. A prototype Lab Box with DSK 'C6711/13 for rapid DSP algorithm development

    OpenAIRE

    Bertini, Graziano

    2007-01-01

    Nel lavoro si descrive un sistema basato su DSK TMS320C6711, contenuto in un apposito chassis progettato per la sperimentazione di algoritmi complessi di DSP. Sono descritte le risorse offerte da MATLab per il Rapid Prototyping in una specifica applicazione di "Virtual Dubbing" su speech deteriorato e alcune considerazioni sull'utilit? del loro impiego.

  2. The new S-Class by Mercedes-Benz; Die neue S-Klasse von Mercedes-Benz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebl, Johannes; Siebenpfeiffer, Wolfgang (eds.)

    2013-07-15

    The brochure under consideration reports on the new Mercedes S-Class and consists of contributions to aspects like: historical aspects, vehicle concept, project management, digital-mock-up-process and packaging, design, car body, interior equipment, electrical systems/electronics, drives assistance systems, chassis, safety aspects, power train, noise, vibration, harshness, aerodynamics consumption, emission, testing, production.

  3. 75 FR 19461 - Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 2006 and 2007 Mercedes Benz G-Class Long...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... 2007 Mercedes Benz G-Class Long-Wheelbase MPVs Are Eligible for Importation AGENCY: National Highway... Safety Administration (NHTSA) has received a petition to decide that 2006 and 2007 Mercedes Benz G-Class... safety standards (the U.S.-certified 2006 and 2007 Mercedes Benz G-Class (463 chassis) LWB MPV), and...

  4. 78 FR 44030 - Federal Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Final Listing of 2014 Light Duty Truck Lines...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ..., Maserati Quattroporte, Mercedes-Benz New Generation Compact Car (NGCC) Line Chassis/CLA-Class, Mitsubishi... Volvo S60. Subsequent to publishing the June 4, 2012 final rule (See 77 FR 32903), the agency also..., ``Regulatory Planning and Review'' (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993), provides for making determinations whether...

  5. 一种电子机箱的结构设计研究%The Structural Design of an Electronic Chasssi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋尚; 张利清; 卢阳

    2016-01-01

    With the development of military electronic technology , electronic equipment chassis is widely used in the field of aviation and aerospace .The job of the military electronic equipment development must pay at-tention to ensure function ,also ensure the reliability of the electronic chassis products in order to ensure that the case can adapt to various flight conditions .The paper combines with the actual demand to design a kind of military electronic equipment chassis structure .Compared with the traditional plug type chassis , the chassis has some features such as large internal connections reliability an high stiffness , light weight , good manufac-turability , convenient bugging , heat conduction , etc.Through the whole machine by overall fixation by bolt , the chassis with structure stiffness big , can adapt to harsh environment of space flight , improving the working reliability of the electronic equipment and adaptability .Through the phase change heat sink thermal control device as a case , the chassis arrives good heat dissipation effect .%随着军用电子技术的发展,电子设备机箱在航空、航天等领域应用非常的广泛。为了保证机箱能够适应各种飞行条件,研制一种既要保证功能,又要保证可靠性的电子机箱产品是军用电子设备研制必须重视的工作。文中针对实际需求,研究了一种军用电子设备机箱的结构设计。与传统的插板式机箱相比,这种机箱具有刚度大、内部连接可靠性高、重量轻、工艺性好、调试方便、导热能力强等优点。整机通过贯穿的螺栓实现整体固定,其结构刚度大,能够适应严酷航天飞行环境,提高电子设备工作的可靠性和适应性,另外,通过相变热控装置作为整个机箱热沉,达到良好的散热效果。

  6. The Ways of Fuzzy Control Algorithms Using for Harvesting Machines Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Tóth

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This contribution is oriented to ways of a fuzzy regulation using for machine tracking of the harvest machines. The main aim of this work was to practice verify and evaluate of functionality of control fuzzy algorithms for an Ackerman’s chassis which are generally used in agriculture machines for the crops harvesting. Design of the fuzzy control algorithm was focused to the wall following algorithm and obstacle avoidance. To achieve of the reliable results was made the real model of vehicle with Ackerman’s chassis type, which was controlled by PC with using development board Stellaris LM3S8962 based on ARM processor. Fuzzy control algorithms were developed in LabView application. Deviations were up to 0.2 m, which can be reduced to 0.1 m by hardware changing.

  7. Mechanism analysis and evaluation methodology of regenerative braking contribution to energy efficiency improvement of electrified vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The energy flow of an electric vehicle with regenerative brake is analyzed. • Methodology for measuring the regen brake contribution is discussed. • Evaluation parameters of regen brake contribution are proposed. • Vehicle tests are carried out on chassis dynamometer. • Test results verify the evaluation method and parameters proposed. - Abstract: This article discusses the mechanism and evaluation methods of contribution brought by regenerative braking to electric vehicle’s energy efficiency improvement. The energy flow of an electric vehicle considering the braking energy regeneration was analyzed. Then, methodologies for measuring the contribution made by regenerative brake to vehicle energy efficiency improvement were introduced. Based on the energy flow analyzed, two different evaluation parameters were proposed. Vehicle tests were carried out on chassis dynamometer under typical driving cycles with three different control strategies. The experimental results the difference between the proposed two evaluation parameters, and demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the evaluation methodologies proposed

  8. Reduction of the particulate and nitric oxide from the diesel engine using a plasma chemical hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new plasma/catalyst continuously regenerative hybrid system (PCRHS) is introduced to reduce diesel particulate matter (DPM), NOx, CO, etc., contained in diesel exhaust gas. The catalyst temperature, plasma energy density, and exhaust gas characteristics were investigated with a passenger diesel car (2500cc) at the dynamometer test bed and chassis dynamometer with CVS-75 test mode. It was reported that the smoke removal efficiency was around 70% at the dynamometer test bed with 80 W energy consumption, and that PM removal efficiency was 68% at the chassis dynamometer. The NOx was reduced up to 20% according to the electrode types and temperature, respectively. The hybrid system test shows that DPM and CO were almost removed and NOx reduced to 30% simultaneously by the system. Considering these results, PCRHS could be a promising method to regenerate diesel particulate

  9. Suppression of chaotic vibrations in a nonlinear half-car model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work investigates the nonlinear response of a half-car model. The disturbances of the road are assumed to be sinusoidal. After constructing the bifurcation diagram, we using the 0-1 test for identify the chaotic motion. The principal objective of this study is to eliminate the chaotic behaviour of the chassis and reduce its vibration, and for this reason a control system for semi-active vehicle suspension with magnetorheological damper is proposed. The control mechanism is designed based on SDRE technique, where the control parameter is the voltage applied to the coil of the damper. Numerical results show that the proposed control method is effective in significantly reducing of the chassis vibration, increasing therefore, passenger comfort

  10. Development of an ultra-safe, ultra-low emissions natural gas-fueled bus. Phase 1: Systems design -- Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubesh, J. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) contracted with Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) to develop an ultra-safe, ultra-low emissions natural gas-fueled school bus. To develop the bus, SwRI teamed with Blue Bird, Incorporated, a school bus manufacturer, Deere Power Systems Group, an engine manufacturer, and CNG Cylinder Company, a supplier of compressed natural gas storage and handling systems. The primary focus of work for Phase 1 was the design of the component systems, i.e. vehicle, engine, and fuel storage systems. The bus chassis prototype is expected to be completed by the middle of July, 1995. A complete prototype vehicle body and chassis should be delivered to SwRI by the beginning of December, 1995. This prototype vehicle will include the new compressed natural gas cylinders and associated fuel storage system hardware which has been designed by CNG Cylinder Company.

  11. Coil Springs Layer Used to Support a Car Vertical Dynamics Simulator and to Reduce the Maximum Actuation Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan N. Dumitriu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A Danaher Thomson linear actuator with ball screw drive and a realtime control system are used here to induce vertical displacements under the driver/user seat of an in-house dynamic car simulator. In order to better support the car simulator and to dynamically protect the actuator’s ball screw drive, a layer of coil springs is used to support the whole simulator chassis. More precisely, one coil spring is placed vertically under each corner of the rectangular chassis. The paper presents the choice of the appropriate coil springs, so that to minimize as much as possible the ball screw drive task of generating linear motions, corresponding to the vertical displacements and accelerations encountered by a driver during a real ride. For this application, coil springs with lower spring constant are more suited to reduce the forces in the ball screw drive and thus to increase the ball screw drive life expectancy.

  12. Suppression of chaotic vibrations in a nonlinear half-car model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tusset, Ângelo Marcelo, E-mail: tusset@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: piccirillo@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: fcjanzen@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: wagner-barth@hotmail.com; Piccirillo, Vinícius, E-mail: tusset@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: piccirillo@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: fcjanzen@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: wagner-barth@hotmail.com; Janzen, Frederic Conrad, E-mail: tusset@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: piccirillo@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: fcjanzen@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: wagner-barth@hotmail.com; Lenz, Wagner Barth, E-mail: tusset@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: piccirillo@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: fcjanzen@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: wagner-barth@hotmail.com [UTFPR- PONTA GROSSA, PR (Brazil); Balthazar, José Manoel, E-mail: jmbaltha@rc.unesp.br [UNESP-BAURU, SP (Brazil); Fonseca Brasil, Reyolando M. L. R. da, E-mail: reyolando.brasil@ufabc.edu.br [UFABC-SANTO ANDRE, SP (Brazil)

    2014-12-10

    The present work investigates the nonlinear response of a half-car model. The disturbances of the road are assumed to be sinusoidal. After constructing the bifurcation diagram, we using the 0-1 test for identify the chaotic motion. The principal objective of this study is to eliminate the chaotic behaviour of the chassis and reduce its vibration, and for this reason a control system for semi-active vehicle suspension with magnetorheological damper is proposed. The control mechanism is designed based on SDRE technique, where the control parameter is the voltage applied to the coil of the damper. Numerical results show that the proposed control method is effective in significantly reducing of the chassis vibration, increasing therefore, passenger comfort.

  13. EVALUATION OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF IN EURO V IN BUS COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAFAEL MARTINS

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pollutant emission caused by motor vehicles is a major concern for humanity. In Brazil, the National Council of Environment (CONAMA created the Program for Controlling Air Pollution caused by Motor Vehicles (PROCONVE, which aims at controlling the emission of polluting gases caused by vehicles. The program is already in its 7th phase, and aims at the development of chassis technology with Euro V. The introduction of this new type of chassis on the market can cause impacts on bus companies and in society in general. In this context, the aim of this study was to analyze qualitatively how a large bus company went through the deployment phase of Euro V. As any new deployment has its problems and difficulties, the implementation in Brazil would be no different, but after this phase, the main objective of the standard was fulfilled with the reduction of toxic gases into the atmosphere, ensuring sustainability and tranquility to future generations.

  14. Tank-automotive robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Gerald R.

    1999-07-01

    To provide an overview of Tank-Automotive Robotics. The briefing will contain program overviews & inter-relationships and technology challenges of TARDEC managed unmanned and robotic ground vehicle programs. Specific emphasis will focus on technology developments/approaches to achieve semi- autonomous operation and inherent chassis mobility features. Programs to be discussed include: DemoIII Experimental Unmanned Vehicle (XUV), Tactical Mobile Robotics (TMR), Intelligent Mobility, Commanders Driver Testbed, Collision Avoidance, International Ground Robotics Competition (ICGRC). Specifically, the paper will discuss unique exterior/outdoor challenges facing the IGRC competing teams and the synergy created between the IGRC and ongoing DoD semi-autonomous Unmanned Ground Vehicle and DoT Intelligent Transportation System programs. Sensor and chassis approaches to meet the IGRC challenges and obstacles will be shown and discussed. Shortfalls in performance to meet the IGRC challenges will be identified.

  15. Determination of alternative fuels combustion products: Phase 2 final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitney, K.A.

    1997-06-01

    This report describes the laboratory efforts to accomplish four independent tasks: (1) speciation of hydrocarbon exhaust emissions from a light-duty vehicle operated over the chassis dynamometer portion of the light-duty FTP after modifications for operation on butane and butane blends; (2) evaluation of NREL`s Variable Conductance Vacuum Insulated Catalytic Converter Test Article 4 for the reduction of cold-start FTP exhaust emissions after extended soak periods for a Ford FFV Taurus operating on E85; (3) support of UDRI in an attempt to define correlations between engine-out combustion products identified by SwRI during chassis dynamometer testing, and those found during flow tube reactor experiments conducted by UDRI; and (4) characterization of small-diameter particulate matter from a Ford Taurus FFV operating in a simulated fuel-rich failure mode on CNG, LPG, M85, E85, and reformulated gasoline. 22 refs., 18 figs., 17 tabs.

  16. An overview of pathway prediction tools for synthetic design of microbial chemical factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir Sajo Mienda

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing need for the bio-based industrial production of compounds via microbial cell factories leads to a demand for computational pathway prediction tools. A variety of algorithms have been developed that can be used to identify possible metabolic pathways and their corresponding enzymatic parts. These prediction tools play a central role in metabolic pathway design and microbial chassis selection for industrial chemical production. Here, we briefly discuss how the development of some key computational tools, which are currently available for pathway construction, could facilitate the synthetic redesign of microbial chassis. Special emphasis is given to the characteristics and drawback(s of some of the computational tools used in pathway prediction, and a generalized workflow for the design of microbial chemical factories is provided. Perspectives, challenges and future trends are briefly highlighted.

  17. Power module assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jeremy B.; Newson, Steve

    2011-11-15

    A power module assembly of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicular power inverter, wherein the power inverter has a grounded chassis, is provided. The power module assembly comprises a conductive base layer electrically coupled to the chassis, an insulating layer disposed on the conductive base layer, a first conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, a second conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, wherein the first and second conductive nodes are electrically isolated from each other. The power module assembly also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the first conductive node, and further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the second conductive node.

  18. Operation manual for Sandia MA165 neutron generator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sandia MA165 Neutron Generator System was designed for use in the Sandia Safeguards Unattended Equipment/Material Pass-Through. As this neutron generator system design evolved, it became simpler to use while it also became more versatile. Two operations which were previously controlled manually by the operator were automated in the new design. Its stand alone characteristic has allowed it to become a versatile laboratory tool. Los Alamos National Scientific Laboratory and Brookhaven National Laboratory are both currently using versions of the MA165 system for their research. Aside from power supplies, the system consists of a neutron generator package and an electronic control chassis. This manual describes, in detail, the neutron generator package, the theory of operation of the electronic control chassis, and instructions for using the MA165 system

  19. Stavba soutěžního vozu pro automobilové závody v Rally

    OpenAIRE

    Mandík, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals about the conditions and requirements that must be aply for the construction of the race car. It summarizes the important technical regulations, that development must follow. The second half of the work describes construction of car, which started from bare bodywork. Construction began preparing the body, its safety equipment and installation of necessary components. Then is described the chassis installation in and finally drive assembly.

  20. A Computational Analysis of Stoichiometric Constraints and Trade-Offs in Cyanobacterial Biofuel Production

    OpenAIRE

    Knoop, Henning; Steuer, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are a promising biological chassis for the synthesis of renewable fuels and chemical bulk commodities. Significant efforts have been devoted to improve the yields of cyanobacterial products. However, while the introduction and heterologous expression of product-forming pathways is often feasible, the interactions and incompatibilities of product synthesis with the host metabolism are still insufficiently understood. In this work, we investigate the stoichiometric properties and ...

  1. High-Throughput Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assays for Quantitative Analysis of Molecular Binding Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Yuchen; Duncombe, Todd A.; Kellenberger, Colleen A.; Hammond, Ming C.; Herr, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a platform for high-throughput electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) for identification and characterization of molecular binding reactions. A photopatterned free-standing polyacrylamide gel array comprised of 8 mm-scale polyacrylamide gel strips acts as a chassis for 96 concurrent EMSAs. The high-throughput EMSAs was employed to assess binding of the Vc2 cyclic-di-GMP riboswitch to its ligand. In optimizing the riboswitch EMSAs on the free-standing polyacrylamide gel arra...

  2. Effect of measurement protocol on organic aerosol measurements of exhaust emissions from gasoline and diesel vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Youngseob; Sartelet, Karine; SEIGNEUR, Christian; CHARRON, Aurélie; Besombes, Jean-Luc; Jaffrezo, Jean-Luc; Marchand, Nicolas; POLO, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    Exhaust emissions of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) from passenger vehicles are usually estimated only for the particle phase via the total particulate matter measurements. However, they also need to be estimated for the gas phase, as they are semi-volatile. To better estimate SVOC emission factors of passenger vehicles, a measurement campaign using a chassis dynamometer was conducted with different instruments: (1) a constant volume sampling (CVS) system in which emissions were dilut...

  3. Composite embedded fiber optic data links in Standard Electronic Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, S. L.; Jones, K. J.; Morgan, R. E.; Hixson, Jay

    1990-12-01

    The goal of this project is to fabricate a chassis/circuit card demonstration entirely 'wired' with embedded and interconnected optical fibers. Graphite/epoxy Standard Electronic Module E (SEM-E) configured panels have been successfully fabricated. Fiber-embedded SEM-E configured panels have been subjected to simultaneous signal transmission and vibration testing. Packaging constraints will require tapping composite-embedded optical fibers at right angles to the direction of optical transmission.

  4. Viktoptimering av ett kompositchassi till en multimodal lättviktsfarkost

    OpenAIRE

    Sundberg, Erik

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the master thesis project “Weight Optimization of a Composite Chassis for a Multimodal Lightweight Vehicle” which is a part of the Master program in Naval Architecture and a part of a research project at the Centre for Naval Architecture, KTH. Demands on smart and energy efficient transport solutions are continuously increasing. In the Stockholm region the citizens are expected to increase with 25% and the road vehicles with 80% until 2030, putting high demands on the tr...

  5. A Review of Active Yaw Control System for Vehicle Handling and Stability Enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    M. K. Aripin; Yahaya Md Sam; Danapalasingam, Kumeresan A.; Kemao Peng; N. Hamzah; Ismail, M. F.

    2014-01-01

    Yaw stability control system plays a significant role in vehicle lateral dynamics in order to improve the vehicle handling and stability performances. However, not many researches have been focused on the transient performances improvement of vehicle yaw rate and sideslip tracking control. This paper reviews the vital elements for control system design of an active yaw stability control system; the vehicle dynamic models, control objectives, active chassis control, and control strategies with...

  6. DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF A LOW SPEED IMPACT TESTER

    OpenAIRE

    M Navarrete; F. A. Godínez; F. Serrania

    2004-01-01

    The impact response of sandwich panels with an improved structure to increase their impact resistance isinvestigated. In order to compare the impact performance of sandwich structures, a specific and instrumenteddrop-weight impact tester was designed and developed. The experimental part of this work is an evaluation oncomposite sandwich panels behavior used in the manufacturing of the UNAM Electrobús chassis. Two differentsandwich structures are analyzed: the first type is a structure compose...

  7. FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG BERHUBUNGAN DENGAN DERMATITIS KONTAK PADA PEKERJA DI PT INTI PANTJA PRESS INDUSTRI

    OpenAIRE

    Hari Suryo Utomo; Fatma Lestari

    2007-01-01

    Factors Related to Contact Dermatitis on Workers at PT Inti Pantja Press Industri. PT Inti Pantja Press Industri (IPPI) is an automotive manufacturing industry for car pressing body and car chassis. In the manufacturing process, its uses a variety of chemicals which may cause contact dermatitis for workers. There are other factors which may cause the contact dermatitis to workers worsen including indirect causes. The objective of this research is to investigate factors related to contact derm...

  8. Overview of Soot Emission Measurements Instrumentation: From Smoke and Filter Mass to Particle Number

    OpenAIRE

    GIECHASKIEL Barouch; SCHIEFER Erich; SCHINDLER Wolfgang; AXMANN Harald; DARDIOTIS CHRISTOS

    2013-01-01

    Particulate emissions cause adverse health effects and for this reason they are regulated since the 80s. Vehicle regulations cover particulate emission measurements of a model before its sale, known as type approval or homologation. For heavy-duty engines the emissions are measured on an engine dynamometer with steady state points and transient cycles. For light-duty vehicles (i.e. the full power train) the particulate emissions are assessed on a chassis dynamometer. The measurement of partic...

  9. Force Feedback Control of a Semi-Active Shock Absorber

    OpenAIRE

    Svennerbrandt, Per

    2014-01-01

    Semi-active suspension systems promise to significantly reduce the necessary trade-off be-tween handling and passenger comfort present in conventional suspension systems by enabling active chassis and wheel control. Öhlins Racing AB have developed a semi-active suspension technology known as CES, Continuously controlled Electronic Suspension, based on solenoid control valves which are integrated into specially designed hydraulic dampers, and are currently developing control and estimation sys...

  10. Mathematical modeling and parameters estimation of car crash using eigensystem realization algorithm and curve-fitting approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Munyazikwiye, Bernard B.; Karimi, Hamid Reza; Robbersmyr, Kjell G.

    2013-01-01

    An eigensystem realization algorithm (ERA) approach for estimating the structural system matrices is proposed in this paper using the measurements of acceleration data available from the real crash test. A mathematical model that represents the real vehicle frontal crash scenario is presented. The model's structure is a double-spring-mass-damper system, whereby the front mass represents the vehicle-chassis and the rear mass represents the passenger compartment. The physical parameters of the ...

  11. Mathematical Modeling and Parameters Estimation of Car Crash Using Eigensystem Realization Algorithm and Curve-Fitting Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Munyazikwiye, Bernard B.; Karimi, Hamid Reza; Robbersmyr, Kjell Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    An eigensystem realization algorithm (ERA) approach for estimating the structural system matrices is proposed in this paper using the measurements of acceleration data available from the real crash test. A mathematical model that represents the real vehicle frontal crash scenario is presented. The model’s structure is a double-spring-mass-damper system, whereby the front mass represents the vehicle-chassis and the rear mass represents the passenger compartment. The physical parameters of the ...

  12. Analýza sortimentu firmy Elit CZ spol. s r. o.

    OpenAIRE

    Bartuňková, Alena

    2009-01-01

    The author of this thesis is using the theory of marketing environment, marketing mix and product assortment of trade company for subsequent application to the analysis assortment of ELIT company. This company operates in the Czech Republic in the aftermarket as a distributor of spare parts for cars, trucks and motorcycles. In more details are analyzed chassis parts. In the thesis are also listed the most important competitors and in the conclusion are derived recommendations for the company ...

  13. Preliminary design data package, appendix C. [hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The data and documentation required to define the preliminary design of a near term hybrid vehicle and to quantify its operational characteristics are presented together with the assumptions and rationale behind the design decisions. Aspects discussed include development requirements for the propulsion system, the chassis system, the body, and the vehicle systems. Particular emphasis is given to the controls, the heat engine, and the batteries.

  14. Real-world driving speciated VOC hot start missions of the 2001 French passenger car fleet

    OpenAIRE

    FLANDRIN, Y; Vidon, R; Cazier, F.; Hue, S.; DECHAUX, JC; Nollet, V.

    2001-01-01

    A 25 passenger cars sample was selected on the basis of a 2001 year French fleet prediction. Various types of vehicle technologies, i.e. diesel and petrol cars both equipped with or without catalyst, were tested on a chassis dynamometer with constant volume sampling for regulated emissions and individual Volatile Organic Compounds determination. A particular emphasis has been placed on toxic and/or photochemically reactive compounds such as benzene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and 1,3-b...

  15. Conceptual Design and Simulation of a Multibody Passive-Legged Crawling Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Stulce, John R.

    2002-01-01

    Rugged terrains, including much of the earthâ s surface, other planets, and many man-made structures, are inaccessible to wheeled and tracked vehicles. This has inspired research into legged vehicles. Prior to the research described here, virtually all legged vehicle designs relied on the concept of mounting actuated leg-type mechanisms onto a single rigid frame or chassis. This dissertation research explores and advances a novel vehicle concept that uses passive legs attached to an actu...

  16. Tomogram forming apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention concerns nuclear medicine and, in particular, a tomogram forming apparatus which permits, with great efficiency, the very sensitive quantitative determination and the accurate spatial localization of the radioactivity of a body section of a patient to whom a substance labelled with radioactive isotopes has been administered. The scanner is characterized by its chassis carrying highly inwardly focused collimators around a scanning field and by several collimator rigs and translation and rotational drive systems

  17. System Design and Implementation of Smart Dashboard for Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Jia-Sheng Hu; Chien-Chu Yeh

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the development of automobile focuses on the chassis structure and motion control. However, due to the concept of smart and safe vehicle, the integrated dashboard becomes a necessary issue. The proposed system can not only represent the conventional dashboard in a digital form but also endow the system with an intelligent guidance. The statuses such as speed, battery SOC, braking, mileage, and the activation of TCS and ABS can be seen and monitored in all driving scenarios. For exam...

  18. ANALYSIS OF VIBRATION ON MULTI-LEAF SPRING IN AN AUTOMOBILE UNDER LOADING USING FEM TOOL ANSYS

    OpenAIRE

    Kiran Jadhav*, Rahul Joshi, Dr Pradip Kumar Patil

    2016-01-01

    The leaf springs are widely used in suspension system of railway carriages and automobiles. But the form in which it is normally seen is laminated leaf spring.To assure proper spring life, the maintenance and inspection process must include the entire suspension system of springs and chassis parts. The motoring public has learned that proper maintenance on their vehicles is essential to obtain longer life and economical service in this age of rising equipment and fuel costs. In most norma...

  19. Exploiting robots in arc welded fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book explores the use of robots for industrial arc welding applications. A number of important issues, such as safety and economics are addressed. A wide range of industrial installation applications are described including production line chassis welding with multiple robots. The use of vision based sensor systems is explained to provide data on joint location and joint volume. Other areas covered include flexible manufacturing systems, computer integrated manufacture and design problems. The book concludes with a review of future trends. (UK)

  20. Metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum for production of glutamate derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Vold Korgaard Jensen, Jaide

    2016-01-01

    The identification of Corynebacterium glutamicum as a glutamate producer in the 1950’s was the start of its career as an amino acid producer. C. glutamicum has now been employed as cell factory for industrial amino acid production for over five decades and has a market size to reach $20 billion by 2020. As C. glutamicum was isolated for its natural ability to produce glutamate it makes it an excellent chassis for engineering it to produce its derivatives ornithine, proline, put...

  1. Robotizacija proizvodnje - robotsko sestavljanje: Robotization of manufacture yield - constructing with robot:

    OpenAIRE

    Curk, Boris; Klampfer, Saša

    2008-01-01

    Robotics is fast growing area, which achieves full bloom in last teen years. Now days, manipulators are indispensable part in industry. We use them for weld chassis, for steel and wood cultivation, for disperse coloring, steel cutting and so on. Since 1992, for each year, number of robots rapidly increases. Reason for that is their universality, but because of that property, people start initiates them into farms, agricultures, green houses, warehouses, into electronics production for composi...

  2. Dynamic design of automotive systems: Engine mounts and structural joints

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Singh

    2000-06-01

    Dynamic design and vibro-acoustic modelling issues for automotive structures are illustrated via two case studies. The first case examines the role performance of passive and adaptive hydraulic engine mounts. In the second, the importance of welded joints and adhesives in vehicle bodies and chassis structures is highlighted via generic 'T' and 'L' beams assemblies. In each case, analytical and experimental results are presented. Unresolved research issues are briefly discussed.

  3. Mechanical Engineering Design Project report: Enabler control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Christian; Delvecchio, Dave; Scarborough, Alan; Havics, Andrew A.

    1992-01-01

    The Controls Group was assigned the responsibility for designing the Enabler's control system. The requirement for the design was that the control system must provide a simple user interface to control the boom articulation joints, chassis articulation joints, and the wheel drive. The system required controlling hydraulic motors on the Enabler by implementing 8-bit microprocessor boards. In addition, feedback to evaluate positions and velocities must be interfaced to provide the operator with confirmation as well as control.

  4. Investigation On Vehicle Using Gasoline-Bioethanol Blended Fuels / Benzin-Biyoetanol Yakıt Karışımlarının Taşıt Üzerine Araştırılması

    OpenAIRE

    Ciniviz, Murat; ÖRS, ilker

    2012-01-01

    The effects of gasoline-bioethanol blended fuels (E50, E85, E100) on vehicle performance (wheel power, fuel consumption) and exhaust emissions (CO, CO2, HC, NOx) of vehicle with spark ignition (SI) engine which is a new generation fuel injection system and electronic ignition system were studied. The tests were performed on a chassis dynamometer while running the vehicle at two different gear (third gear and forth gear), and six different vehicle speeds for both gear. The results obtained fro...

  5. Biosynthesis of Taxadiene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae : Selection of Geranylgeranyl Diphosphate Synthase Directed by a Computer-Aided Docking Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Ming-Zhu; Yan, Hui-fang; Li, Lin-Feng; Zhai, Fang; Shang, Lu-Qing; Yin, Zheng; Yuan, Ying-jin

    2014-01-01

    Identification of efficient key enzymes in biosynthesis pathway and optimization of the fitness between functional modules and chassis are important for improving the production of target compounds. In this study, the taxadiene biosynthesis pathway was firstly constructed in yeast by transforming ts gene and overexpressing erg20 and thmgr. Then, the catalytic capabilities of six different geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthases (GGPPS), the key enzyme in mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway catalyzing f...

  6. Development and review of Euro 5 passenger car emission factors based on experimental results over various driving cycles

    OpenAIRE

    FONTARAS GEORGIOS; FRANCO GARCIA Vicente; Dilara, Panagiota; MARTINI Giorgio; MANFREDI Urbano

    2013-01-01

    The mass emissions of CO2 and regulated pollutants (NOX, HC, CO, PM) of thirteen Euro 5 compliant passenger cars (seven gasoline, six Diesel) were measured on a chassis dynamometer. The vehicles were driven repeatedly over the European type-approval driving cycle (NEDC) and the more dynamic WMTC and CADC driving cycles. Distance-specific emission factors were derived for each pollutant and sub-cycle which were subsequently compared to the corresponding emission factors provided by the referen...

  7. Porovnání traktorů výkonové třídy nad 300 kW

    OpenAIRE

    Klimešová, Radka

    2012-01-01

    This thesis aims to compare the performance class of tractors above 300 kW according to technical parameters and Exploitation, propose suitable machinery for the tractor trains and lines. The initialport of the thesis is devoted to the technical parameters of tractors, especially the engine, transmission system, chassis, cab, electro-hydraulic system and electronic equipment. In the conclusion, the individual tractors are compared and evaluated according to the selected method.

  8. Effect of Biodiesel Origin on the Regulated and PAH Emissions from a Modern Passenger Car

    OpenAIRE

    KARAVALAKIS George; FONTARAS GEORGIOS; BAKEAS Evangelos; STOURNAS Stamos

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of low concentration biodiesel blends on the regulated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions from a modern passenger vehicle. The vehicle was Euro 4 compliant fitted with a direct injection common-rail diesel engine and a diesel oxidation catalyst. Emission and fuel consumption measurements were performed on a chassis dynamometer using constant volume sampling (CVS) technique, following the European regulations. All measurements were conducted ...

  9. Simulerings- och optimeringsmodell för vibrationsdämpande förarhyttupphängning

    OpenAIRE

    Hansson, Per-Anders

    1991-01-01

    A time domain simulation model for the dynamic system chassi-suspension-cab is described and used. The validation showed good agreement between model and experimental results. The influence of different suspension parameters on vibration damping capacity and the requirement for free space in the construction were investigated. Particular emphasis was placed on the effects of passive non-linear suspension elements. An optimization model has been developed and used to optimize suspension parame...

  10. Vliv huštění pneumatik na tahové vlastnosti traktorů

    OpenAIRE

    Mizséri, Ádám

    2015-01-01

    The thesis describes the bearing between the chassis and the land, and current trends used of tires. Are listed and described the different types of tire construction. The main objective of this thesis is to describe a methodology for the experimental measurement of the drawbar properties of the tractor and analyze changes in drawbar performance due changes in inflation pressure of the tires. Measured and calculated data are processed by regression analysis.

  11. Reduction of Temperature in Concentrator Photovoltaic Module Using Coating with High Thermal Emissivity and Conductivity

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura Satoshi; Sakamoto Kazumasa; Nishioka Kensuke

    2016-01-01

    The temperature of solar cells considerably increases under light-concentrating operations, and the conversion efficiency of solar cells decreases with increasing temperature. It is very important to reduce the cell temperature in concentrator photovoltaic modules. The thermal radiation layers with high thermal emissivity and thermal conductivity was coated on the aluminum samples which is used for the chassis of concentrator photovoltaic and the effect was evaluated under the conditions with...

  12. Simulation on Dual-stream Transmission System of Unmanned Tracked Armored Vehicle Using ADAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the dual-stream transmission system of unmanned tracked armored vehicle, simulation analysis is carried out. Using SolidWorks to establish three-dimensional model of its chassis, the result of the simulation is processed in AdAMS/Solver. The simulation results are showed in lines. Comparative analysis for each simulation lines is conducted, and it verifies the feasibility of the dual-stream transmission system.

  13. An anti-backlash designed planetary gear mechanism: description of general planar motion using matrix methods

    OpenAIRE

    Vojtěch Klouček; Stanislav Prýl; Veronika Šulcová

    2015-01-01

    Design of the integrated gear mechanism so arranged that to the three-phase asynchronous motor chassis with a squirrel cage is integrated gear mechanism with internal teeth. In order to eliminate all the backlashes in the gearing and bearings, is branched into two identical gears, between which is inserted the flexible component.The kinematics of bodies, which held general planar motion, are solved by matrix methods of investigation of constrained multibody systems.

  14. WAY OF FORECASTING OF WEIGHT OF A WING OF THE PLANE OF A TRANSPORT CATEGORY IN THE CONDITIONS OF DESIGN UNCERTAINTY

    OpenAIRE

    Бондар, Юрій Іванович; Сухов, Віталій Віталійович

    2014-01-01

    Identify the relationship between the aerodynamic loads , weight of the wing structure and its deformations is an important issue in the early stages of the design of transport category aircraft.Existing methods of the weight analysis allow to estimate weight of basic elements of the plane (a wing, a fuselage, plumage, the chassis, wing mechanisation), but forecasting of distribution of these weights along their basic axes is a special problem.The work purpose is working out of a way of forec...

  15. High-Performance Micro-Rover for Planetary Surface Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y.; Chen, X.

    2009-04-01

    Planetary robotic missions rely on rovers to produce surface mobility for multiple sites sampling and exploration. For example, the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) have been extremely successful in the exploring a wide area of the Martian surface in the past four years. Each of the MER has the size of a golf car and weights ~170 kg. They both result in a massive launch of nearly 1100 kg. Small rovers (5-30 kg) can help to provide moderate surface traverse and greatly reduce cost of the mission, e.g. the Sojourner rover of the Mars Pathfinder mission. There is a growing interest in the micro-rover design and how to maximize performance of a miniaturized system. For example, the rover traversability and locomotion capability will be compromised if the objective is to reduce the size of the vehicle. Undoubtedly, this affects the rover performance in terms of mobility and usefulness to the mission. We propose to overcome this problem by investigating a new generation of rover chassis design to maximize its terrian capability. This paper presents a chassis concept suited for a micro-rover system and negotiating with different planetary terrains such as the Moon and Mars. The proposed tracked-wheel is motivated by bringing together advantages of wheels and tracks, in the same time keeping the design simple and easy to implement. The chassis is built based on four tracked-wheels and offers 10 DOF for the vehicle. Analysis based on Bekker theories suggests this design can generate larger tractive effort (drawbar pull) compared to the wheeled design for the same rover dimensions. As a result, a more effective and efficent chassis can be achieved and leave a large design margin for the science payload.

  16. The new Mercedes-Benz AROCS; Der neue AROCS von Mercedes-Benz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuern, Joerg; Mierisch, Uwe; Mueller-Finkeldei, Rainer; Koellermeyer, Albrecht [Daimler AG, Stuttgart (Germany). Mercedes-Benz Trucks

    2013-03-15

    The requirements placed on modern construction vehicles are very diverse. In quarries and mines, extreme load-carrying capacity and durability are required, whereas transporting concrete demands lightweight construction. From two to four axles, all-wheel configurations must be covered. Vehicle applications include semitrailers and customized chassis frames for dump truck, concrete moving, and special-purpose body designs. The new Mercedes-Benz Arocs satisfies these properties. (orig.)

  17. Stair-climbing capabilities of USU's T3 ODV mobile robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D. Reed; Wood, Carl G.

    2001-09-01

    A six-wheeled autonomous omni-directional vehicle (ODV) called T3 has been developed at Utah State University's (USU) Center for Self-Organizing and Intelligent Systems (CSOIS). This paper focuses on T3's ability to climb stairs using its unique configuration of 6 independently driven and steered wheels and active suspension height control. The ability of T3, or any similar vehicle, to climb stairs is greatly dependent on the chassis orientation relative to the stairs. Stability criteria is developed for any vehicle dimensions and orientation, on any staircase. All possible yaw and pitch angles on various staircases are evaluated to find vehicle orientations that will allow T3 to climb with the largest margin of stability. Different controller types are investigated for controlling vertical wheel movement with the objective of keeping all wheels in contact with the stairs, providing smooth load transfer between loaded and unloaded wheels, and maintaining optimum chassis pitch and roll angles. A controller is presented that uses feedback from wheel loading, vertical wheel position, and chassis orientation sensors. The implementation of the controller is described, and T3's stair climbing performance is presented and evaluated.

  18. Lunar Lander Offloading Operations Using a Heavy-Lift Lunar Surface Manipulator System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Sharon A.; Doggett, William R.; Chrone, Jonathan; Angster, Scott; Dorsey, John T.; Jones, Thomas C.; Haddad, Michael E.; Helton, David A.; Caldwell, Darrell L., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of using a heavy-lift variant of the Lunar Surface Manipulator System (LSMS-H) to lift and handle a 12 metric ton payload. Design challenges and requirements particular to handling heavy cargo were examined. Differences between the previously developed first-generation LSMS and the heavy-lift version are highlighted. An in-depth evaluation of the tip-over risk during LSMS-H operations has been conducted using the Synergistic Engineering Environment and potential methods to mitigate that risk are identified. The study investigated three specific offloading scenarios pertinent to current Lunar Campaign studies. The first involved offloading a large element, such as a habitat or logistics module, onto a mobility chassis with a lander-mounted LSMS-H and offloading that payload from the chassis onto the lunar surface with a surface-mounted LSMS-H. The second scenario involved offloading small pressurized rovers with a lander-mounted LSMS-H. The third scenario involved offloading cargo from a third-party lander, such as the proposed ESA cargo lander, with a chassis-mounted LSMS-H. In all cases, the analyses show that the LSMS-H can perform the required operations safely. However, Chariot-mounted operations require the addition of stabilizing outriggers, and when operating from the Lunar surface, LSMS-H functionality is enhanced by adding a simple ground anchoring system.

  19. Fast SCR Thyratron Driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of an improvement project on the linear accelerator at SLAC, it was necessary to replace the original thyratron trigger generator, which consisted of two chassis, two vacuum tubes, and a small thyratron. All solid-state, fast rise, and high voltage thyratron drivers, therefore, have been developed and built for the 244 klystron modulators. The rack mounted, single chassis driver employs a unique way to control and generate pulses through the use of an asymmetric SCR, a PFN, a fast pulse transformer, and a saturable reactor. The resulting output pulse is 2 kV peak into 50 (Omega) load with pulse duration of 1.5 μs FWHM at 180 Hz. The pulse risetime is less than 40 ns with less than 1 ns jitter. Various techniques are used to protect the SCR from being damaged by high voltage and current transients due to thyratron breakdowns. The end-of-line clipper (EOLC) detection circuit is also integrated into this chassis to interrupt the modulator triggering in the event a high percentage of line reflections occurred

  20. Low Floor Americans with Disabilities Compliant Alternate Fuel Vehicle Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Bartel

    2004-11-26

    This project developed a low emission, cost effective, fuel efficient, medium-duty community/transit shuttle bus that meets American's with Disabilities Act (ADA) requirements and meets National Energy Policy Act requirements (uses alternative fuel). The Low Profile chassis, which is the basis of this vehicle is configured to be fuel neutral to accommodate various alternative fuels. Demonstration of the vehicle in Yellowstone Park in summer (wheeled operation) and winter (track operation) demonstrated the feasibility and flexibility for this vehicle to provide year around operation throughout the Parks system as well as normal transit operation. The unique configuration of the chassis which provides ADA access with a simple ramp and a flat floor throughout the passenger compartment, provides maximum access for all passengers as well as maximum flexibility to configure the vehicle for each application. Because this product is derived from an existing medium duty truck chassis, the completed bus is 40-50% less expensive than existing low floor transit buses, with the reliability and durability of OEM a medium duty truck.

  1. Active vibration control on a quarter-car for cancellation of road noise disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgacem, Walid; Berry, Alain; Masson, Patrice

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, a methodology is presented for the cancellation of road noise, from the analysis of vibration transmission paths for an automotive suspension to the design of an active control system using inertial actuators on a suspension to reduce the vibrations transmitted to the chassis. First, experiments were conducted on a Chevrolet Epica LS automobile on a concrete test track to measure accelerations induced on the suspension by the road. These measurements were combined with experimental Frequency Response Functions (FRFs) measured on a quarter-car test bench to reconstruct an equivalent three dimensional force applied on the wheel hub. Second, FRFs measured on the test bench between the three-dimensional driving force and forces at each suspension/chassis linkage were used to characterize the different transmission paths of vibration energy to the chassis. Third, an experimental model of the suspension was constructed to simulate the configuration of the active control system, using the primary (disturbance) FRFs and secondary (control) FRFs also measured on the test bench. This model was used to optimize the configuration of the control actuators and to evaluate the required forces. Finally, a prototype of an active suspension was implemented and measurements were performed in order to assess the performance of the control approach. A 4.6 dB attenuation on transmitted forces was obtained in the 50-250 Hz range.

  2. ELECTRONICS UPGRADE OF HIGH RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcintosh, J; Joe Cordaro, J

    2008-03-10

    High resolution mass spectrometers are specialized systems that allow researchers to determine the exact mass of samples to four significant digits by using magnetic and electronic sector mass analyzers. Many of the systems in use today at research laboratories and universities were designed and built more than two decades ago. The manufacturers of these systems have abandoned the support for some of the mass spectrometers and parts to power and control them have become scarce or obsolete. The Savannah River National Laboratory has been involved in the upgrade of the electronics and software for these legacy machines. The Electronics Upgrade of High Resolution Mass Spectrometers consists of assembling high-end commercial instrumentation from reputable manufacturers with a minimal amount of customization to replace the electronics for the older systems. By taking advantage of advances in instrumentation, precise magnet control can be achieved using high resolution current sources and continuous feedback from a high resolution hall-effect probe. The custom equipment include a precision voltage divider/summing amplifier chassis, high voltage power supply chassis and a chassis for controlling the voltage emission for the mass spectrometer source tube. The upgrade package is versatile enough to interface with valve control, vacuum and other instrumentation. Instrument communication is via a combination of Ethernet and traditional IEEE-488 GPIB protocols. The system software upgrades include precision control, feedback and spectral waveform analysis tools.

  3. Analysis of connection element classes and locations and of some structural requirements for the mounting of different superstructure types on transport vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Đ. Majkić

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the basic requirements for transport vehicles. A special request regarding the adaptation of transport vehicles for the transport of various types of cargo was taken into consideration. Superstructures and the situation arising after mounting superstructures on wheeled transport vehicles were analyzed and the following was described: console coupling, stirrups, simplex elastic coupling, two-way elastic and rigid connection elements. Vehicle torsional elasticity is provided by a proper choice of the type of connection between the superstructure and the vehicle chassis. Applying the instructions of vehicle manufacturers for using appropriate connections between the truck superstructure and the vehicle chassis provides positive torsional elasticity of the vehicle. The paper gives the general recommendations of the Volvo, Mercedes and Renault transport vehicle producers for the use of particular connection types of locations as well as structural requirements for the mounting of concrete mixers, tippers and truck tanks on their vehicles. Introduction Achieving a high level of transport effectiveness depends on a number of factors. One of the most important ones is the possibility to increase the payload share in the gross vehicle weight. This share depends on the net vehicle weight, a method of coupling the truck superstructure with the chassis frame as well as on the truck superstructure construction. Realization of this requirement is of significant importance, particularly for large business systems since it results in the reduction of number of necessary vehicles, more economic fleet maintenance and the fleet capacity increase. It is also relatively easy to adapt the vehicle for the transportation of other loads, depending on user's current needs. The adaptation is correctly performed if manufacturer's recommendations are followed during the mounting of the superstructure on the chassis. This paper gives the analysis of the

  4. EMI investigation and modeling of a flat panel display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Satyajeet

    It is often important to carry out EMI analysis in the design phase of an electronic product to predict the radiated emissions. An EMI analysis is important to predict if the product complies with the FCC regulations as well as to gain an understanding of the noise coupling and radiation mechanisms. EMI analysis and prediction of radiated emissions in electronic products that have an electrically large chassis, pose a challenge due to the presence of multiple resonant structures and noise-coupling mechanisms. The study focusses on the investigation of the main noise coupling mechanisms, the approach and methods used for the modeling of a flat panel display. Full-wave simulation models are a powerful tool for the prediction of radiated emissions and the visualization of coupling paths within the product. The first part deals with the measurement of radiated emissions from the display under standard test conditions and the identification of the main noise sources using near-field scanning. The contribution of the chassis components - frame, back cover and the back panel, to the radiated emission is analyzed using shielding measurements. Noise coupling from the main board, flex cables, display driver boards and the display is analyzed from measurements. The second part deals with the full-wave modeling of the components - main board, flex cables, chassis and the display driver boards. The modeling approach is demonstrated by highlighting some of the challenges in modeling larger structures having many details. The simulation model contains the main components of the TV that contribute to far-field radiation. The full-wave modeling is done using the CST Microwave Studio. Two sets of simulation models are described - the common mode models and the complete models. The use of the common mode models for the identification of the resonant structures is demonstrated. The far-field radiated emissions along with the coupling mechanism within the flat panel display can be

  5. 汽车底盘螺纹连接设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宗琪

    2014-01-01

    简要分析了螺纹连接在汽车结构中的作用和松动的原因,指出在预紧力变形和受轴向、横向动静载荷作用下,螺纹连接会发生松动。%a brief analysis of the causes of the threaded connection looseness, points out that in the pre tightening force deformation and axial, transverse static dynamic loading, thread connection looseness. And briefly discussed the chassis design application.

  6. Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Flek, O.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to design and produce a robot based on a four wheel chassis equipped with a robotic arm capable of manipulating small objects. The robot should be able to operate in an autonomous mode controlled by a microcontroller and in a mode controlled wirelessly by an operator in real time. Precision and accuracy of the robotic arm should be sufficient for the collection of small objects, such as syringes and needles. The entire robot should be easy to operate user-friend...

  7. On the structural behaviour of variable-geometry oval-trajectory Darrieus wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otero, A.D. [College of Engineering, University of Buenos Aires, Paseo Colon 850, Buenos Aires C1063ACV (Argentina); Ponta, F.L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering - Engineering Mechanics, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Drive, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    We developed a computational model based on a finite-element mixed formulation with quadratic isoparametric beam elements. We applied this model to the analysis of a blade-wagon: a novel structure characteristic of an innovative concept in wind-power called VGOT Darrieus turbine. We studied the structural behaviour of its main components: chassis, suspension and blade, using combinations of beam/bar elements in an appropriate assembling. We defined a set of parameters to characterize the structural behaviour which help to understand the contribution of the different components and assist the process of redesign. (author)

  8. Backhoe loaders as base machines in logging operations.

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Jerry

    1995-01-01

    Time studies and an ergonomic assessment were carried out in logging operations for three logging machines based on backhoe loader chassis. The time studies were completed with a follow-up study of one backhoe loader-based single-grip harvester. The studies indicated a productivity at the same level as that of specialized Nordic logging machines. Ergonomics also proved to be good. Mean ground pressure exerted by the backhoe loader-based logging machines was a little higher than for some of th...

  9. Bioinformatics for the synthetic biology of natural products: integrating across the Design-Build-Test cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, Pablo; Currin, Andrew; Jervis, Adrian J; Rattray, Nicholas J W; Swainston, Neil; Yan, Cunyu; Takano, Eriko; Breitling, Rainer

    2016-08-27

    Covering: 2000 to 2016Progress in synthetic biology is enabled by powerful bioinformatics tools allowing the integration of the design, build and test stages of the biological engineering cycle. In this review we illustrate how this integration can be achieved, with a particular focus on natural products discovery and production. Bioinformatics tools for the DESIGN and BUILD stages include tools for the selection, synthesis, assembly and optimization of parts (enzymes and regulatory elements), devices (pathways) and systems (chassis). TEST tools include those for screening, identification and quantification of metabolites for rapid prototyping. The main advantages and limitations of these tools as well as their interoperability capabilities are highlighted. PMID:27185383

  10. 传统轿车搭载混合动力系统整车技术%Entire Car Technology of Traditional Car with Hybrid Power System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余才光; 包寿红; 马智涛; 张彤

    2012-01-01

    结合混合动力车工作原理,从动力系统、底盘、整车电子电器等方面,详细说明传统轿车改制成混合动力车所涉及到的整车技术。%Based on the working principle of hybrid EV, the entire car technology in remaking traditional car to hybrid car has been described in details from the aspects of power system, chassis and electronic apparatus.

  11. Advanced light source master oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Master Oscillator of the Advanced Light Source operates at a frequency of 499.654 MHz which is the 328th harmonic of the storage ring. The oscillator is capable of providing up to a maximum of ± 500 KHz frequency deviation for various experimental purposes. Provisions for external signal injection as well as using an external signal source have been designed into the unit. A power distribution system has also been included to provide signals for various parts of the ALS machine and user requirements. The Master Oscillator is made up with modules housed in a Euro chassis. 4 refs., 7 figs

  12. The Enabler: A concept for a lunar work vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazell, James W.; Campbell, Craig; Kaser, Ken; Austin, James A.; Beard, Clark; Ceniza, Glenn; Hamby, Thomas; Robinson, Anne; Wooters, Dana

    The Enabler is an earthbound prototype designed to model an actual lunar work vehicle and is able to perform many of the tasks that might be expected of a lunar work vehicle. The vehicle will be constructed entirely from parts made by students and from standard stock parts. The design utilizes only four distinct chassis pieces and sixteen moving parts. The Enabler has non-orthogonal articulating joints that give the vehicle a wide range of mobility and reduce the total number of parts. Composite wheels provide the primary suspension system for the vehicle.

  13. Mobile unit for the conditioning of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unit for the conditioning of radioactive waste by means of encapsulation comprises a casing machine, which consists, on the one hand, of a shielded and aerated tunnel; the tunnel itself is furnished with a fixed production station for the casing, a fixed control station and a fixed sealing station; the casing machine consists, on the other hand of an inactive zone and a shielded container; the conditioning unit consists of a chassis platform and a girder in the rear and also of a detachable gooseneck. (orig.)

  14. Durability evaluation in the automotive engineering - from theory to product; Betriebsfestigkeit in der Fahrzeugentwicklung - von der Theorie zum Produkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, T.; Liu, J.; Maescher, G.; Mauch, H.; Stolze, F.J. [Volkswagen AG, Abt. Betriebsfestigkeit, Brieffach 17 12, 38436 Wolfsburg (Germany)

    2003-09-01

    The procedures for durability evaluation in the automotive engineering are represented, especially the methods, load assumption, fatigue testing and the regulations for the release and quality control. By practical examples of the vehicle development from chassis, aggregate and body the procedure is described, in particular the used experimental and virtual simulation methods (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Dargestellt wird die prinzipielle Vorgehensweise beim Nachweis der Betriebsfestigkeit in der Fahrzeugentwicklung: die Methoden, Lastannahme, Festigkeitspruefung und die Vorschriften fuer die Freigabe und Qualitaetssicherung. An praktischen Beispielen der Fahrzeugentwicklung aus Fahrwerk, Aggregat und Karosserie werden die Vorgehensweise und die verwendeten experimentellen und rechnerischen Simulationsmethoden erlaeutert. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  15. Plastics in car production. Pt. 2. Coating and surface treatment; Einsatz von Kunststoffen in der Automobilproduktion. T. 2. Lackierung und Folienbeschichtung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guhr, U.; Grefenstein, A.; Hauck, C.; Reinelt, D. [BASF AG, Ludwigshafen am Rhein (Germany)

    2000-05-01

    Because of their extraordinary versatility, plastics offer many applications in automotive design. In the first part of the article, in the March edition of ATZ, the use of plastic materials in car production was described from the point of view of chassis, body and engine components. In this second part, the surface treatment of plastic body components is discussed. (orig.) [German] Aufgrund ihrer Leistungsvielfalt bieten Kunststoffe dem Automobilbau vielfaeltige Einsatzmoeglichkeiten. In der Maerz-Ausgabe der ATZ wurde der Einsatz dieser Werkstoffe in der Automobilproduktion in Fahrwerks-, Karosserie- und Motorkomponenten beschrieben. Der vorliegende zweite Teil widmet sich der Thematik der Oberflaechenbehandlung mit Kunststoffen. (orig.)

  16. Development of modern reactor instrumentation systems based on personal computer hardware architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes, development of modular card cage, housing passive 8 slots ISA backplane which will be mounted in standard 19 inch, 4U bin. This modular chassis consists of a passive ISA backplane, latest Intel processor based single board computer and other various system specific boards being developed and designed in house. The paper discusses the methodology followed, embedded real time operating system selected for networking these systems to the supervisory nodes which in turn will also be networked to plant bus through a gateway. (author). 1 fig

  17. Precision, 32 channel power supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A modular, multichannel current regulator system has been developed to power the low current correction and focusing magnets used for beam transport. The basic module consists of a relay rack housing four card crates with eight regulators per crate. The rack also contains a utility chassis and common power supplies. Each regulator card includes a communications microprocessor and a temperature controlled analog circuit block containing precision reference, serial DAC, shunt resistor and error amplifier. The regulators are linear, bipolar units capable of furnishing up to 10 amps at 20 volts with less than 0.01% ripple and drift

  18. Particles Emission from Gasoline Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun-fang; GE Yun-shan; TAN Jian-wei; HE Chao; YOU Ke-wei; YOU Qiu-wen

    2009-01-01

    Number concentration and size distribution from gasoline cars are investigated at transient modes on the chassis dynamometers,which are measured using electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI) for the ECE15 and EUDC cycles.Results indicate that,during cold start,particle number emission is higher than that under hot start.It is found that the number of particles increases with the vehicle speeds.Furthermore,particles with diameter smaller than 200 nm constitute the predominant part of total emission in the entire cycle.In addition,the tentative information about composition of emitted particles is also discussed.

  19. Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, Aniko; Cross, E. Vincent, II; Chang, Mai Lee

    2015-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) is a discipline investigating the factors affecting the interactions between humans and robots. It is important to evaluate how the design of interfaces affect the human's ability to perform tasks effectively and efficiently when working with a robot. By understanding the effects of interface design on human performance, workload, and situation awareness, interfaces can be developed to appropriately support the human in performing tasks with minimal errors and with appropriate interaction time and effort. Thus, the results of research on human-robot interfaces have direct implications for the design of robotic systems. For efficient and effective remote navigation of a rover, a human operator needs to be aware of the robot's environment. However, during teleoperation, operators may get information about the environment only through a robot's front-mounted camera causing a keyhole effect. The keyhole effect reduces situation awareness which may manifest in navigation issues such as higher number of collisions, missing critical aspects of the environment, or reduced speed. One way to compensate for the keyhole effect and the ambiguities operators experience when they teleoperate a robot is adding multiple cameras and including the robot chassis in the camera view. Augmented reality, such as overlays, can also enhance the way a person sees objects in the environment or in camera views by making them more visible. Scenes can be augmented with integrated telemetry, procedures, or map information. Furthermore, the addition of an exocentric (i.e., third-person) field of view from a camera placed in the robot's environment may provide operators with the additional information needed to gain spatial awareness of the robot. Two research studies investigated possible mitigation approaches to address the keyhole effect: 1) combining the inclusion of the robot chassis in the camera view with augmented reality overlays, and 2) modifying the camera

  20. DC source assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Jeremy B; Newson, Steve

    2013-02-26

    Embodiments of DC source assemblies of power inverter systems of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicle having an electrically grounded chassis are provided. An embodiment of a DC source assembly comprises a housing, a DC source disposed within the housing, a first terminal, and a second terminal. The DC source also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the first terminal. The DC source assembly further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the second terminal.

  1. KSC-05PD-1586

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. On the table is a refurbished, spare orbiter point sensor chassis and a motherboard. Components are being tested to determine why one of the four liquid hydrogen tank low-level fuel cut-off sensors failed in a routine prelaunch check during the launch countdown July 13. The failure caused mission managers to scrub Discovery's first launch attempt. The sensor protects the Shuttle's main engines by triggering their shutdown in the event fuel runs unexpectedly low. The sensor is one of four inside the liquid hydrogen section of the External Tank (ET).

  2. Electronics box having internal circuit cards interconnected to external connectors sans motherboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockett, John E. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An electronics chassis box includes a pair of opposing sidewalls, a pair of opposing end walls, a bottom surface, a top cover, and ring connectors assemblies mounted in selective ones of the walls of the electronic box. Boss members extend from the bottom surface at different heights upon which circuit cards are mounted in spatial relationship to each other. A flex interconnect substantially reduces and generally eliminates the need of a motherboard by interconnecting the circuit cards to one another and to external connectors mounted within the ring connector assemblies.

  3. Optimização de uma estrutura para absorção de energia de impacto

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, Tiago Daniel Heliodoro

    2008-01-01

    A partir de um modelo automóvel proposto por um designer foram modeladas, em software CAD comercial, estruturas compatíveis para o chassis e para a carroçaria, seguindo algumas das práticas usadas na indústria automóvel. A estrutura modelada foi sujeita a testes de simulação numérica, usando o ABAQUS, um software comercial que usa o Método dos Elementos Finitos. Foram usados dois materiais, um aço e um alumínio, de modo a poder tomar uma decisão sobre o material mais apropri...

  4. Composite Sandwich Design for Formula SAE Monocoque

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez, Christopher Medina

    2013-01-01

    This paper is an approach in how to design a composite sandwich laminate, that is to be used for an open wheeled race car with a monocoque chassis. The composite sandwich design of the monocoque must be in accordance with the 2013 Formula SAE regulations. The composite sandwich laminate is to be used in a preliminary monocoque design based on the Revolve NTNU’s 2013 student race car, the KA Aquilo R. The composite materials for the monocoque’s sandwich structure are HexPly 6376 and Rohacel...

  5. Light duty vehicle driveability investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toulmin, H.A. Jr.

    1978-12-01

    This report describes the results of an automobile driveability, emission, fuel economy and performance testing program conducted for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A total of twenty-two 1977 and 1978 model vehicles were subjected to a series of tests when adjusted to the manufacturers' recommended settings and when adjusted to simulate maladjustments found on in-use vehicles in an earlier EPA Restorative Maintenance Evaluation Project. The CRC driveability tests were performed on a weather controlled large roll chassis dynamometer at 16C and the emissions and fuel economy tests were conducted according to the 1975 Federal Test Procedure, except that evaporative emissions tests were not conducted.

  6. Innovative stair climber using associated wheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modak, Girish Sudhir; Bhoomkar, Manmohan Manikrao

    2016-03-01

    The study proposes an innovative and completely new but low-cost configuration of a platform that can easily climb stairs. This platform serves the purpose of a chassis. Different versions, such as staircase-climbing wheelchair or staircase-climbing trolley for material transferring, can be derived depending on the structure built on the platform. The driving wheels have a shape that completely matches with the profile of the steps. Complex components are eliminated. Thus, this platform is conveniently applicable in the configurations useful for climbing staircases.

  7. The Challenges of Governance Structure, Trade Disputes and Natural Environment to China's Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Wing Thye Woo

    2007-01-01

    Viewing the Chinese economy as a speeding car, there are three types of development that could crash the car: (1) a hardware failure, which is the breakdown of an economic mechanism (analogous to the collapse of the chassis of the car), for example, a banking crisis; (2) a software failure, which is a flaw in governance that creates social disorders (analogous to a fight among the people inside the car), for example, the state not being able to meet the rising social expectations about its pe...

  8. System control for the modulated 252Cf source ''Shuffler''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design and theory of operation of the control chassis for a 252Cf nondestructive assay system are described. This system repetitively transfers a 252Cf source from the irradiation region to a shielded position before measuring the delayed neutrons. The design criteria for the system were: rapid movement and precise positioning of the 252Cf source, precise positioning of the sample, and very accurate timing of the irradiate and count cycles. To achieve these results crystal oscillators were used for timing, and stepping motors were used to position the sample and the source. (U.S.)

  9. Bulk Current Injection Testing of Cable Noise Reduction Techniques, 50 kHz to 400 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Arthur T.; Hare, Richard J.; Singh, Manisha

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents empirical results of cable noise reduction techniques as demonstrated using bulk current injection (BCI) techniques with radiated fields from 50 kHz - 400 MHz. It is a follow up to the two-part paper series presented at the Asia Pacific EMC Conference that focused on TEM cell signal injection. This paper discusses the effects of cable types, shield connections, and chassis connections on cable noise. For each topic, well established theories are compared with data from a real-world physical system.

  10. Frictional couplings of wheel with a rail in a brake control system of rail vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Baier, A; A. Niedworok

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Discussion on use of frictional coupling of wheel with a rail for detection of surface condition of track ways in coal mine undergrounds is the paper objective.Design/methodology/approach: The method for detection of surface condition of track ways is based on using of dedicated converter installed on the locomotive chassis with active part in a form of “tracking wheel” that moves on the rail surface together with the locomotive. The converter is equipped with a system for torque loa...

  11. A VME RISC processor farm for third level triggering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for very fast, compact, VME based farms of processors exists in many areas of experimental physics. Reported in this paper, is a development for such a farm targeted at the requirements of the online and trigger system of the CERN experiment PS195 (CPLEAR). The system is characterized as being VME based, and requiring small events (around 1KByte) to be processed at high rate (greater than 1KHz). The development was for a single chassis system, using the MIPS R3000 chip mounted on a commercially available board

  12. Testing Digital Electronic Protection Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gabourin, S

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines the core concepts and realisation of the Safe Machine Parameters Controller (SMPC) testbench, based on a VME crate and LabVIEW program. Its main goal is to ensure the correct function of the SMPC for the protection of the CERN accelerator complex. To achieve this, the tester has been built to replicate the machine environment and operation, in order to ensure that the chassis under test is completely exercised. The complexity of the task increases with the number of input combinations. This paper also outlines the benefits and weaknesses of developing a test suite independently of the hardware being tested, using the “V” approach.

  13. An analysis on China’s segmented truck market in 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The truck market in 2007 maintained the rapid growth trend formed in 2006. The year saw a total of 2.1145 million trucks sold, a year on year growth of 22.46 percent. Detailed figures: finished truck: 1.5164 million units, a year on year growth of 15.11 percent; truck chassis: 450,400 units, a year on year growth of 31.98 percent; semi-trailer: 177,800 units, a year on year growth of 91.86 percent.

  14. Applications and research in frame longeron of hydroforming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Hao; Jiao Mengwang; Wei Yuansheng; Du Huijun; Li Shuli; Yang Hongxin; Yang Jie

    2012-01-01

    The application feasibility of hydroforming in frame longeron large parts is verified for the first time at home. The result of the research on the structure design and process analysis for frame longeron shows that hydroforming can he fully realized. With stiffness is comparison, collision test simulation and cross section force with traditional drawing- assembly welding techniques, it has been found that hydroforming combining has multiple advantages such as light- weight, high stiffness, reduction in the number of parts, high precision, hence reduction the associated machining and welding and so on. It is especially suitable for forming various lightweight components used for the chassis parts in automotive.

  15. Computer-aided design of a coffee-dragging device

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus Vinicuis Morais de Oliveira; Mauri Martins Teixeira; Haroldo Carlos Fernandes; Daniel Marçal de Queiroz; Raphael Magalhães Gomes Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Dragging is the most costly and time-consuming stage of the coffee harvest. Therefore, its mechanization is important. The objectives of this study were to design, build, and evaluate the dynamics of a coffee-dragging device in a laboratory setting. The prototype consists of a dragging device with rods mounted on a metal plate and a chassis. Computer-aided design (CAD) software was used to generate a solid second-order tetrahedral mesh for use in finite element analyses of the device and its ...

  16. EMI suppression of klystron pulse power supply for XFEL/SPring-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The klystron modulator power source of XFEL/SPring-8 is requested the low electro-magnetic interference (EMI), in order to realize the high stable beam by the feedback loops of high-precision beam monitors. We suppressed the EMI-noise by monocoque structure of the solid iron chassis, the eliminating the DC core bias circuit for the pulse transformer, and the co-axial pare noise filter. To estimate the effect of the noise filter, we measured the conducted noise on the heater power line. The thyratron noise was suppressed to about 10Vpk-pk, and would not interfere to the beam monitor. (author)

  17. Improvement of vehicle stability in cornering on uneven road; Akuro senkaiji ni okeru sharyo no anzensei kojo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobimatsu, K.; Harada, M.; Harada, H. [National Defense Academy, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The active control of vehicle suspensions and rear wheel steering systems in turning on uneven roads is analyzed by means of LQR control theory, assuming that cornering forces depend on tire normal loads in addition to tire slip angles. The authors quantitatively investigated the effectiveness of the integrated control of the active suspension and the rear wheel steering, comparing the contributions of each individual system. Furthermore, in this paper, the role of the chassis control and driver control are studied in order to improve the stability of vehicle motion disturbed by the road surface. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  18. Utilization of Durability Criterion to Develop Automotive Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricardo, Luiz Carlos Hernandes

    2010-01-01

    Today the automotive companies must reduce the time to development of new products with improvement in performance, durability and low cost reductions where possible. To achieve this goal the carmakers need to improve the design criterion of car systems like body, chassis and suspension components....... This paper will present a review of the techniques used in the automotive industry regarding durability before mentioned systems. The paper will present the procedures to obtain the spectrum loading to use in finite element analysis and the validation in laboratory and proving grounds....

  19. An artist's tools [Using XRF, art restorers see beyond surface beauty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The XRF (X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy) is a powerful tool to determine the chemical composition of works of art in a non-destructive way. Sometimes it is even possible to learn about the authenticity of works of art. Its best feature is that the invisible rays do not destroy or harm the treasured art. Another is its portability. Since any movement to a work of art is potentially catastrophic, the goal of art restorers is to minimize any disturbance. And XRF about the size of an overhead projector mounted on a moveable chassis can be brought right to the source. A perfect device to unlock the secrets of art works

  20. ANALYSIS OF TOWING HOOKS OF CARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Turgut YÜKSEL

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Towing hooks generally are assembled to vehicles as accessory. They are used to tow caravans and trailers having no engine, which provide accommodation and haulage of loads, respectively. So, the transport capacity of cars is increased safely. Towing hooks require different constructive structures due to different chassis or monocoque body of each car type; hence they are to be manufactured and assembled in small- or middle-size factories as per order. In this study, three different constructions of towing hook are modelled and structurally analysed. The results obtained are compared with each other to improve the structural strength.

  1. Measurements of Gun Tube Motion and Muzzle Pointing Error of Main Battle Tanks

    OpenAIRE

    McCall, Peter L.

    2001-01-01

    Beginning in 1990, the US Army Aberdeen Test Center (ATC) began testing a prototype cannon mounted in a non-armored turret fitted to an M1A1 Abrams tank chassis. The cannon design incorporated a longer gun tube as a means to increase projectile velocity. A significant increase in projectile impact dispersion was measured early in the test program. Through investigative efforts, the cause of the error was linked to the increased dynamic bending or flexure of the longer tube observed while the ...

  2. Modeling and control of an off-road truck using electrorheological dampers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with the mathematical modeling and control of the semi-active suspension of an MAN off-road truck with a payload of 5 tons which comprises electrorheological dampers. Thereby, a cascaded control structure with four controllers for the control of a quarter-car in the inner control loop and a superimposed control strategy for the overall vehicle is used. The main goal of the control strategy is to reduce the motion of the chassis (especially roll, pitch and vertical movement) while increasing driving stability. The capability of the overall control strategy is demonstrated by means of simulation studies and measurement results.

  3. Design and development of an automotive propulsion system utilizing a Rankine cycle engine (water based fluid). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demler, R.L.

    1977-09-01

    Under EPA and ERDA sponsorship, SES successfully designed, fabricated and tested the first federally sponsored steam powered automobile. The automobile - referred to as the simulator - is a 1975 Dodge Monaco standard size passenger car with the SES preprototype Rankine cycle automotive propulsion system mounted in the engine compartment. In the latter half of 1975, the simulator successfully underwent test operations at the facilities of SES in Watertown, Massachusetts and demonstrated emission levels below those of the stringent federally established automotive requirements originally set for implementation by 1976. The demonstration was accomplished during testing over the Federal Driving Cycle on a Clayton chassis dynamometer. The design and performance of the vehicle are described.

  4. Robust levitation control for maglev systems with guaranteed bounded airgap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinquan; Chen, Ye-Hwa; Guo, Hong

    2015-11-01

    The robust control design problem for the levitation control of a nonlinear uncertain maglev system is considered. The uncertainty is (possibly) fast time-varying. The system has magnitude limitation on the airgap between the suspended chassis and the guideway in order to prevent undesirable contact. Furthermore, the (global) matching condition is not satisfied. After a three-step state transformation, a robust control scheme for the maglev vehicle is proposed, which is able to guarantee the uniform boundedness and uniform ultimate boundedness of the system, regardless of the uncertainty. The magnitude limitation of the airgap is guaranteed, regardless of the uncertainty. PMID:26524957

  5. D.E.C. turbochannel to CAMC executive crate interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardware and software interfaces have been developed for Digital Equipment Corporation's (DEC) TURBOchannel IO bus to CAMAC. The TURBOchannel bus is currently supported on many of DEC'S workstations which include DECstations using MIPS chips, Alpha AXPs and VAXstations. The hardware includes two interface cards, one which connects to the TURBOchannel in the workstation chassis and the other which is located in the CAMAC executive crate. The software has been developed for the OpenVMS VAX environment of the VAXstations and will be ported to OpenVMS AXP. This paper describes the hardware and software designs, performance and configuration details. (authors)

  6. Lead casting process of shielding container for transporting nuclear assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main radiation shielding of transporting container for the reactor coolant pump hydraulic assembly is a lead casting Layer. The authors investigate in detail the lead casting process. In order to assure casting quality, the different technical design for different parts is adopted. The shielding case is completed on its first cast by bottom casting, sequential solidify etc. But the lead layer of chassis base is cast at first, then pressed, followed by machining to the right size. Casting system assure the realization of technical design. Two parts cast finally prove that the performance is in accord with requirement through NDT

  7. Performance testing of the Ford/GE Second Generation Single-Shaft Electric Propulsion (ETX-II) System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDowall, R.D.; Burke, A.F.

    1993-06-01

    System-level-operational testing of the ETX-II test-bed electric vehicle is described and the results discussed. Because the traction battery is a major factor in the performance of an electric vehicle, previously reported work on the sodium-sulfur battery designed for use with the ETX-II is reviewed in detail. Chassis dynamometer performance of the test-bed vehicle met or exceeded design goals and compared reasonably well with SIMPLEV computer modeling results. Areas are identified wherein further work is needed to establish a firmer basis for comparison of the simulation and the observed results.

  8. Shock and vibration protection of submerged jet impingement cooling systems: Theory and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the recent years, advances in high power density electronics and computing systems have pushed towards more advanced thermal management technologies and higher-capacity cooling systems. Among different types of cooling systems, jet impingement technology has gained attention and been widely used in different industries for its adaptability, cooling uniformity, large heat capacity, and ease of its localization. However, these cooling systems may not function properly in dynamically harsh environment inherent in many applications such as land, sea and air transportation. In this research article, a novel double-chamber jet impingement cooling system is fabricated and its performance is studied in harsh environment. Using the authors' previous studies, isolators with optimum properties are selected to ruggedize the chassis containing the cooling chamber against shock and random vibration. Experiments are conducted on both hard-mounted and isolated chassis and the cooling performance of the system is assessed using the inlet, and impingement surface temperatures of the cooling chamber. The experimental results show the isolation system prevents any failure that otherwise would occur, and also does not compromise the thermal performance of the system. - Highlights: • A novel double-chamber jet impingement cooling system was designed and fabricated. • Comprehensive set of random vibration and shock tests are conducted. • The isolation system proved to protect the cooling system properly against mechanical failure. • Cooling system performance was not significantly affected by the input random vibration and shock

  9. MRE: a web tool to suggest foreign enzymes for the biosynthesis pathway design with competing endogenous reactions in mind

    KAUST Repository

    Kuwahara, Hiroyuki

    2016-04-29

    To rationally design a productive heterologous biosynthesis system, it is essential to consider the suitability of foreign reactions for the specific endogenous metabolic infrastructure of a host. We developed a novel web server, called MRE, which, for a given pair of starting and desired compounds in a given chassis organism, ranks biosynthesis routes from the perspective of the integration of new reactions into the endogenous metabolic system. For each promising heterologous biosynthesis pathway, MRE suggests actual enzymes for foreign metabolic reactions and generates information on competing endogenous reactions for the consumption of metabolites. These unique, chassis-centered features distinguish MRE from existing pathway design tools and allow synthetic biologists to evaluate the design of their biosynthesis systems from a different angle. By using biosynthesis of a range of high-value natural products as a case study, we show that MRE is an effective tool to guide the design and optimization of heterologous biosynthesis pathways. The URL of MRE is http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/mre/.

  10. Spatial organization of heterologous metabolic system in vivo based on TALE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ling-Yun; Qiu, Xin-Yuan; Zhu, Ling-Yun; Wu, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Yuan; Zhu, Qian-Hui; Fan, Dong-Yu; Zhu, Chu-Shu; Zhang, Dong-Yi

    2016-01-01

    For years, prokaryotic hosts have been widely applied in bio-engineering. However, the confined in vivo enzyme clustering of heterologous metabolic pathways in these organisms often results in low local concentrations of enzymes and substrates, leading to a low productive efficacy. We developed a new method to accelerate a heterologous metabolic system by integrating a transcription activator-like effector (TALE)-based scaffold system into an Escherichia coli chassis. The binding abilities of the TALEs to the artificial DNA scaffold were measured through ChIP-PCR. The effect of the system was determined through a split GFP study and validated through the heterologous production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) by incorporating TALE-fused IAA biosynthetic enzymes in E. coli. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to use the TALE system as a scaffold for the spatial organization of bacterial metabolism. This technique might be used to establish multi-enzymatic reaction programs in a prokaryotic chassis for various applications. PMID:27184291

  11. Combined control effects of brake and active suspension control on the global safety of a full-car nonlinear model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchamna, Rodrigue; Youn, Edward; Youn, Iljoong

    2014-05-01

    This paper focuses on the active safety of a full-vehicle nonlinear model during cornering. At first, a previously developed electronic stability controller (ESC) based on vehicle simplified model is applied to the full-car nonlinear model in order to control the vehicle yaw rate and side-slip angle. The ESC system was shown beneficial not only in tracking the vehicle path as close as possible, but it also helped in reducing the vehicle roll angle and influences ride comfort and road-holding capability; to tackle that issue and also to have better attitude motion, making use of optimal control theory the active suspension control gain is developed from a vehicle linear model and used to compute the active suspension control force of the vehicle nonlinear model. The active suspension control algorithm used in this paper includes the integral action of the suspension deflection in order to make zero the suspension deflection steady state and keep the vehicle chassis flat. Keeping the chassis flat reduces the vehicle load transfer and that is helpful for road holding and yaw rate tracking. The effects of the two controllers when they work together are analysed using various computer simulations with different steering wheel manoeuvres.

  12. Doppler Lidar System Design via Interdisciplinary Design Concept at NASA Langley Research Center - Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Charles M.; Jackson, Trevor P.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Petway, Larry B.

    2013-01-01

    Optimized designs of the Navigation Doppler Lidar (NDL) instrument for Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) were accomplished via Interdisciplinary Design Concept (IDEC) at NASA Langley Research Center during the summer of 2013. Three branches in the Engineering Directorate and three students were involved in this joint task through the NASA Langley Aerospace Research Summer Scholars (LARSS) Program. The Laser Remote Sensing Branch (LRSB), Mechanical Systems Branch (MSB), and Structural and Thermal Systems Branch (STSB) were engaged to achieve optimal designs through iterative and interactive collaborative design processes. A preliminary design iteration was able to reduce the power consumption, mass, and footprint by removing redundant components and replacing inefficient components with more efficient ones. A second design iteration reduced volume and mass by replacing bulky components with excessive performance with smaller components custom-designed for the power system. Mechanical placement collaboration reduced potential electromagnetic interference (EMI). Through application of newly selected electrical components and thermal analysis data, a total electronic chassis redesign was accomplished. Use of an innovative forced convection tunnel heat sink was employed to meet and exceed project requirements for cooling, mass reduction, and volume reduction. Functionality was a key concern to make efficient use of airflow, and accessibility was also imperative to allow for servicing of chassis internals. The collaborative process provided for accelerated design maturation with substantiated function.

  13. Design and Analysis of 40 Tonne Trailer Used in Heavy Commercial Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durvesh V. Dandekar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The trailer is main part of a full scale vehicle model. This mainly consists of wheel and axle assembly, landing gears and the most important is frame structure. This trailer frame consists of two main I-sections & endchannel sections, connected by cross members of channel sections. Geometry of various parts has to be modified in consultation with customer to avoid interference. In this study, the purpose of the vehicle is to carry the heavy load of about 40T. Herein the state of trailer will be static or stable. This study addresses the problem of a different kind of trailer frame. This has to sustain and carry a heavy load of 40T. Calculating the behavior of these loads at static, dynamic conditions on the frame is a challenging task. Therefore, study of static and dynamic calculation of chassis frame is very important from the structural point of view. To achieve this, detailed static and dynamics analysis is carried out on the frame structure of chassis and to understand the characters of the frame at those loads.

  14. Architectural Design Study for a 10Gb/s Ethernet Switch

    CERN Document Server

    Oltean, Alexandra Dana

    2004-01-01

    The demand for 10Gb/s switches at this early stage in the market is primarily for modular solutions that can grow as do the bandwidth requirements. This indicates a requirement for chassis based solutions where individual line cards can be added to a chassis infrastructure and have to communicate across a 10Gb/s switching backplane. The present study is provides an architectural design solution for a passive copper backplane used for moving data between the line cards of a 10Gb/s Ethernet switch system. The ability to pass multi-gigabit data rates through a backplane system requires great attention to details previously thought to be irrelevant at lower frequencies. The trace dimensions, the via holes diameters, the backplane materials and choice of connectors, all play a crucial role in determining the success of the system. At high-speed even a subtle change in any of these elements can drastically affect the end-to-end system performance. In this context, the study presents the modeling and simulation work...

  15. Front and Back Movement Analysis of a Triangle-Structured Three-Wheeled Omnidirectional Mobile Robot by Varying the Angles between Two Selected Wheels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanraj, A P; Elango, A; Reddy, Mutra Chanakya

    2016-01-01

    Omnidirectional robots can move in all directions without steering their wheels and it can rotate clockwise and counterclockwise with reference to their axis. In this paper, we focused only on front and back movement, to analyse the square- and triangle-structured omnidirectional robot movements. An omnidirectional mobile robot shows different performances with the different number of wheels and the omnidirectional mobile robot's chassis design. Research is going on in this field to improve the accurate movement capability of omnidirectional mobile robots. This paper presents a design of a unique device of Angle Variable Chassis (AVC) for linear movement analysis of a three-wheeled omnidirectional mobile robot (TWOMR), at various angles (θ) between the wheels. Basic mobility algorithm is developed by varying the angles between the two selected omnidirectional wheels in TWOMR. The experiment is carried out by varying the angles (θ = 30°, 45°, 60°, 90°, and 120°) between the two selected omniwheels and analysing the movement of TWOMR in forward direction and reverse direction on a smooth cement surface. Respectively, it is compared to itself for various angles (θ), to get its advantages and weaknesses. The conclusion of the paper provides effective movement of TWOMR at a particular angle (θ) and also the application of TWOMR in different situations. PMID:26981585

  16. Impedance measurement set-up based on off-the-shelf PXI modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersen, F. J.; Martinsen, Ø. G.; Grimnes, S.; Høgetveit, J. O.

    2010-04-01

    As bioimpedance measurements are being done in an increasing variety of measurands and environments, measurement equipment must be flexible in use and easy to handle for the researcher. Measurement equipment used today is excellent for a range of uses, but it is often bulky, heavy, and not very flexible. A new compact and flexible measurement set-up based on off-the-shelf modules is described. The system is based on commercially available PXI-modules, one module that may be custom made, and custom software. The basis of the system is a PXI chassis with a power supply unit. The chassis is equipped with a controller module running software controlling the system, a signal generator, and a multichannel digitizer. All of this is commercially available. Both a custom made and a commercially available impedance interfaces were used. A LabVIEW program is controlling the measurement system, and provides a user interface. The LabVIEW program handles necessary signal conditioning and calibration. The measurement system is capable of doing frequency response measurements at frequencies up to 15 MHz. In addition to the two normal voltage pick-up electrodes used in four-electrode measurements, this system has the possibility to use 5 extra voltage pick-up electrodes. This simplifies exploration of segmental impedance, anisotropy, reciprocity, etc.

  17. Power-conditioning system for the Advanced Test Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) is a pulsed, linear induction, electron accelerator currently under construction and nearing completion at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Site 300 near Livermore, California. The ATA is a 50 MeV, 10 kA machine capable of generating electron beam pulses at a 1 kHz rate in a 10 pulse burst, 5 pps average, with a pulse width of 70 ns FWHM. Ten 18 kV power supplies are used to charge 25 capacitor banks with a total energy storage of 8 megajoules. Energy is transferred from the capacitor banks in 500 microsecond pulses through 25 Command Resonant Charge units (CRC) to 233 Thyratron Switch Chassis. Each Thyratron Switch Chassis contains a 2.5 microfarad capacitor and is charged to 25 kV (780 joules) with voltage regulation of +- .05%. These capacitors are switched into 10:1 step-up resonant transformers to charge 233 Blumleins to 250 kV in 20 microseconds. A magnetic modulator is used instead of a Blumlein to drive the grid of the injector

  18. Study and Development of a Screener Test for Fuel Economy Passenger Car Motor Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroshi Watanabe; Nobuo Ushioda; Yasuhiro Ogasawara

    2012-01-01

    Fuel economy regulations have been issued in many countries to save energy,and it is one of the most essential performance requirements for Passenger Car Motor Oil(PCMO) this decade.The performance is also important to reduce green house gas(GHG) emissions.Automotive,Oil and Additive industries have been developing fuel economy tests in fired engine for PCMO.The ASTM 5 Car test was started in 1982 and ASTM Sequence Ⅵ series test was also developed by the industries as one of fuel economy tests after the 5 Car test.However,the fired engine(combustion) test condition is more complicated and the combustion mode in engine introduce high variability into a fuel economy measurement.Screening by bench testing is complicated by the difficulty to reproduce friction conditions of all of engine parts.Based on the background,a motored engine friction torque test(MEFT) was developed as one of the solutions for fuel economy screening test.Using a newly developed MEFT,key additive chemistries were evaluated and compared in the test,and it distinguished the differences in additive chemistries,in addition to those in viscosity and friction modifiers.The Sequence Ⅵ-D FEI 1(Seq.Ⅵ-D FEI 1) and chassis dynamometer vehicle tests were also conducted in this study,and the test data has shown an excellent correlation among MEFT,Seq.Ⅵ-D FEI 1 and chassis dynamometer vehicle tests.

  19. Future Armoured Troop Carrying Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Balos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Present-day reliance on wheeled and tracked armour personnel carriers (APCs and infantry fighting vehicles (IFVs, may be changed in the future. Shaped charge grenades and impovised explosive devices (IEDsrepresent a considerable threat, even to well protected main battle tanks (MBTs. Paradoxically, the crew of wheeled and tracked troop-carrying vehicles is numerically three to four times larger than that of MBTs, however, their protection in all aspects is significantly lower. Therefore, heavier vehicles may get more attention in the future, where sharing the chassis and a number of components with MBTs could provide significant reductions in procurement costs and maintenance, as well as a simplified logistics in relation to the latest tracked. Obviously, the IFVs mobility of heavy vehicles would be lower than that of lighter vehicles. However, by applying various degrees of modular armour protection, a significant rise in strategic, operational, and tactical mobility could be achieved. Such heavy tracked vehicles, built on a common chassis as MBTs, may equip the future heavy brigades, which will be in contrast to the lighter wheeled vehicles included in rapid deployment brigades. As a result, tracked personnel carrying vehicles may extinct in the future.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(5, pp.483-490, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.60.550

  20. Desempenho de um microtrator utilizando-se motores com diferentes alternativas energéticas = Performance of a microtractor using engines with different energetic alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denílson Eduardo Rodrigues

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho avaliou-se o desempenho de um microtrator equipado com três diferentes tipos de acionamento. Um mesmo chassi de um microtrator foi instalado, alternadamente, com um motor elétrico trifásico (MCA, um motor elétrico de corrente contínua (MCC e com um motor de combustão interna (MCI. Os ensaios do microtrator com cada um dos motores permitiram a determinação da força de tração máxima, da velocidade de deslocamento, do consumo de combustível e a patinagem dos rodados. O MCC desenvolveu maior força de tração, sendo 22% superior aos demais. O consumo específico de energia para os microtratores decresceu com o aumento da patinagem. This study evaluated the performance of a microtractor implemented in three different operational types. A microtractor chassis was alternately operated with a three-phase electric engine (MCA, a direct-current electric engine (MCC and an internal combustion engine (MCI. The rehearsals of the microtractor implemented in each one of the engines allowed determinations of the maximum tractive force, the forward speed and the fuel consumption in wheel skiddings. The MCC developed greater snatch force, being 22% superior to the others. The specific consumption on energy for the microtractors decreased as the skiddings increased.

  1. A divide-down RF source generation system for the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A divide-down rf source system has been designed and built at Argonne National Laboratory to provide harmonically-related and phase-locked rf source signals between the APS 352-MHz storage ring and booster synchrotron rf systems and the 9.77-MHz and 117-MHz positron accumulator ring rf systems. The design provides rapid switching capability back to individual rf synthesizers for each one. The system also contains a digital bucket phase shifter for injection bucket selection. Input 352-MHz rf from a master synthesizer is supplied to a VXI-based ECL divider board which produces 117-MHz and 9.77-MHz square-wave outputs. These outputs are passed through low-pass filters to produce pure signals at the required fundamental frequencies. These signals, plus signals at the same frequencies from independent synthesizers, are fed to an interface chassis where source selection is made via local/remote control of coaxial relays. This chassis also produces buffered outputs at each frequency for monitoring and synchronization of ancillary equipment

  2. Flow analysis and validation of numerical modelling for a thin walled high pressure die casting using SPH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Paul W.; Savage, Gary; Ha, Joseph; Prakash, Mahesh

    2014-09-01

    High pressure die casting (HPDC) is an important process for high throughput manufacturing of complex shaped metallic components. The flow involves significant fragmentation and spray formation as the high pressure liquid jets into the die from the gate system. An important class of die cast components is one with large areas of thin walls. An example of this is the chassis of the laptop computer. Computational modelling provides an opportunity to both better understand the filling process and to optimize the runner, gates, flash overs and venting systems for the die. SPH has previously been found to be very suitable for predicting HPDC for bulkier automotive components. The modelling challenges arising from the very thin sections and the many flow paths in a laptop chassis require careful validation. A water analogue experiment is used to validate the predictions of the SPH model for this representative thin walled casting. SPH predictions are used to understand and characterise the filling process. Finally, comparison of flow lines visible in an etched finished casting with the high speed flow paths in the final filled SPH model show very strong agreement. Together these demonstrate that such an SPH model is able to capture substantial detail from both the water analogue system and the actual casting process and is very suitable for simulating these types of complex thin walled castings.

  3. Ultra-Wideband Channel Modeling for Intravehicle Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talty Timothy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With its fine immunity to multipath fading, ultra-wideband (UWB is considered to be a potential technique in constructing intravehicle wireless sensor networks. In the UWB literature, extensive measuring and modeling work have been done for indoor or outdoor propagation, but very few measurements were performed in intravehicle environments. This paper reports our effort in measuring and modeling the UWB propagation channel in commercial vehicle environment. In our experiment, channel sounding is performed in time domain for two environments. In one environment, the transmitting and the receiving antennas are put beneath the chassis. In another environment, both antennas are located inside the engine compartment. It is observed that paths arrive in clusters in the latter environment but such clustering phenomenon does not exist in the former case. Different multipath models are used to describe the two different propagation channels. For the engine compartment environment, we describe the multipath propagation with the classical S-V model. And for the chassis environment, the channel impulse response is just represented as the sum of multiple paths. Observation reveals that the power delay profile (PDP in this environment does not start with a sharp maximum but has a rising edge. A modified S-V PDP model is used to account for this rising edge. Based on the analysis of the measured data, channel model parameters are extracted for both environments.

  4. Ultra-Wideband Channel Modeling for Intravehicle Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihong Niu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available With its fine immunity to multipath fading, ultra-wideband (UWB is considered to be a potential technique in constructing intravehicle wireless sensor networks. In the UWB literature, extensive measuring and modeling work have been done for indoor or outdoor propagation, but very few measurements were performed in intravehicle environments. This paper reports our effort in measuring and modeling the UWB propagation channel in commercial vehicle environment. In our experiment, channel sounding is performed in time domain for two environments. In one environment, the transmitting and the receiving antennas are put beneath the chassis. In another environment, both antennas are located inside the engine compartment. It is observed that paths arrive in clusters in the latter environment but such clustering phenomenon does not exist in the former case. Different multipath models are used to describe the two different propagation channels. For the engine compartment environment, we describe the multipath propagation with the classical S-V model. And for the chassis environment, the channel impulse response is just represented as the sum of multiple paths. Observation reveals that the power delay profile (PDP in this environment does not start with a sharp maximum but has a rising edge. A modified S-V PDP model is used to account for this rising edge. Based on the analysis of the measured data, channel model parameters are extracted for both environments.

  5. MRE: a web tool to suggest foreign enzymes for the biosynthesis pathway design with competing endogenous reactions in mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Hiroyuki; Alazmi, Meshari; Cui, Xuefeng; Gao, Xin

    2016-07-01

    To rationally design a productive heterologous biosynthesis system, it is essential to consider the suitability of foreign reactions for the specific endogenous metabolic infrastructure of a host. We developed a novel web server, called MRE, which, for a given pair of starting and desired compounds in a given chassis organism, ranks biosynthesis routes from the perspective of the integration of new reactions into the endogenous metabolic system. For each promising heterologous biosynthesis pathway, MRE suggests actual enzymes for foreign metabolic reactions and generates information on competing endogenous reactions for the consumption of metabolites. These unique, chassis-centered features distinguish MRE from existing pathway design tools and allow synthetic biologists to evaluate the design of their biosynthesis systems from a different angle. By using biosynthesis of a range of high-value natural products as a case study, we show that MRE is an effective tool to guide the design and optimization of heterologous biosynthesis pathways. The URL of MRE is http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/mre/. PMID:27131375

  6. Doppler lidar system design via interdisciplinary design concept at NASA Langley Research Center: Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Charles M.; Jackson, Trevor P.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Petway, Larry B.

    2014-06-01

    Optimized designs of the Navigation Doppler Lidar (NDL) instrument for Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) were accomplished via Interdisciplinary Design Concept (IDEC) at NASA Langley Research Center during the summer of 2013. Three branches in the Engineering Directorate and three students were involved in this joint task through the NASA Langley Aerospace Research Summer Scholars (LARSS) Program. The Laser Remote Sensing Branch (LRSB), Mechanical Systems Branch (MSB), and Structural and Thermal Systems Branch (STSB) were engaged to achieve optimal designs through iterative and interactive collaborative design processes. A preliminary design iteration was able to reduce the power consumption, mass, and footprint by removing redundant components and replacing inefficient components with more efficient ones. A second design iteration reduced volume and mass by replacing bulky components with excessive performance with smaller components custom-designed for the power system. Mechanical placement collaboration reduced potential electromagnetic interference (EMI). Through application of newly selected electrical components and thermal analysis data, a total electronic chassis redesign was accomplished. Use of an innovative forced convection tunnel heat sink was employed to meet and exceed project requirements for cooling, mass reduction, and volume reduction. Functionality was a key concern to make efficient use of airflow, and accessibility was also imperative to allow for servicing of chassis internals. The collaborative process provided for accelerated design maturation with substantiated function.

  7. Evolutionary algorithm for vehicle driving cycle generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perhinschi, Mario G; Marlowe, Christopher; Tamayo, Sergio; Tu, Jun; Wayne, W Scott

    2011-09-01

    Modeling transit bus emissions and fuel economy requires a large amount of experimental data over wide ranges of operational conditions. Chassis dynamometer tests are typically performed using representative driving cycles defined based on vehicle instantaneous speed as sequences of "microtrips", which are intervals between consecutive vehicle stops. Overall significant parameters of the driving cycle, such as average speed, stops per mile, kinetic intensity, and others, are used as independent variables in the modeling process. Performing tests at all the necessary combinations of parameters is expensive and time consuming. In this paper, a methodology is proposed for building driving cycles at prescribed independent variable values using experimental data through the concatenation of "microtrips" isolated from a limited number of standard chassis dynamometer test cycles. The selection of the adequate "microtrips" is achieved through a customized evolutionary algorithm. The genetic representation uses microtrip definitions as genes. Specific mutation, crossover, and karyotype alteration operators have been defined. The Roulette-Wheel selection technique with elitist strategy drives the optimization process, which consists of minimizing the errors to desired overall cycle parameters. This utility is part of the Integrated Bus Information System developed at West Virginia University. PMID:22010377

  8. Crash protection of stock car racing drivers--application of biomechanical analysis of Indy car crash research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, John W; Begeman, Paul C; Faller, Ronald K; Sicking, Dean L; McClellan, Scott B; Maynard, Edwin; Donegan, Michael W; Mallott, Annette M; Gideon, Thomas W

    2006-11-01

    Biomechanical analysis of Indy car crashes using on-board impact recorders (Melvin et al. 1998, Melvin et al. 2001) indicates that Indy car driver protection in high-energy crashes can be achieved in frontal, side, and rear crashes with severities in the range of 100 to 135 G peak deceleration and velocity changes in the range of 50 to 70 mph. These crashes were predominantly single-car impacts with the rigid concrete walls of oval tracks. This impressive level of protection was found to be due to the unique combination of a very supportive and tight-fitting cockpit-seating package, a six-point belt restraint system, and effective head padding with an extremely strong chassis that defines the seat and cockpit of a modern Indy car. In 2000 and 2001, a series of fatal crashes in stock car racing created great concern for improving the crash protection for drivers in those racecars. Unlike the Indy car, the typical racing stock car features a more spacious driver cockpit due to its resemblance to the shape of a passenger car. The typical racing seat used in stock cars did not have the same configuration or support characteristics of the Indy car seat, and five-point belt restraints were used. The tubular steel space frame chassis of a stock car also differs from an Indy car's composite chassis structure in both form and mechanical behavior. This paper describes the application of results of the biomechanical analysis of the Indy car crash studies to the unique requirements of stock car racing driver crash protection. Sled test and full-scale crash test data using both Hybrid III frontal crash anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) and BioSID side crash ATDs for the purpose of evaluating countermeasures involving restraint systems, seats and head/neck restraints has been instrumental in guiding these developments. In addition, the development of deformable walls for oval tracks (the SAFER Barrier) is described as an adjunct to improved occupant restraint through control

  9. Desenvolvimento e avaliação de um descaroçador e prensa enfardadeira itinerantes para o beneficiamento do algodão Development of a mobile gin and baler press for cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeane F. Jerônimo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Novas tecnologias vêm sendo incorporadas ao sistema produtivo da cotonicultura brasileira, visando verticalizar a produção por meio do beneficiamento do algodão em caroço possibilitando, aos produtores ou associações, a agregação de valor à sua produção. Objetivou-se então, com o presente trabalho, desenvolver e avaliar um equipamento de beneficiamento composto de descaroçador e prensa enfardadeira itinerantes. O descaroçador se compõe de: limpador, cilindro de serras, cilindro de escovas, condensador e rolo. A prensa enfardadeira é constituída de chapas de prensagem, cilindros hidráulicos, bomba hidráulica, válvula de controle de acionamento, dispositivos de filtragem do óleo hidráulico e manômetro. Esses equipamentos são montados sobre um reboque composto por chassi de cantoneiras em U, quatro rodas de aro 13, pontas de eixo, dois feixes de cinco molas, lastro em chapa de ferro e sistema de frenagem. Na avaliação e validação do conjunto pelos cotonicultores, este conjunto recebeu o conceito "muito bom" quanto ao rendimento do descaroçador, o peso do fardo e em relação à qualidade da fibra obtida. A qualidade da fibra obtida com o conjunto descaroçador e prensa enfardadeira atendeu aos padrões da indústria têxtil.New technologies have been incorporated into the Brazilian cotton production system, in order to verticalize the production through processing, allowing the producers or associations to add value to their production. Thus, the present study aimed to develop and evaluate processing equipment composed of mobile gin and baler press. The ginner consists of cleaner, saw cylinder, cylinder brushes, condenser and coil. The baler press is constituted of pressing sheets, hydraulic cylinders, hydraulic pump, control valve actuation, devices for filtering hydraulic oil and manometer. These devices are mounted on a trailer chassis composed of U-shaped angle iron chassis, four wheels (rim 13, shaft ends, two

  10. Minimum-time manoeuvring in electric vehicles with four wheel-individual-motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Ricardo; Tanelli, Mara; Esteves Araújo, Rui; Savaresi, Sergio M.

    2014-06-01

    The coordinated control of vehicle actuators is gaining more and more importance as new platforms are becoming available, with chassis endowed with many different actuators that may help controlling the vehicle motion. Furthermore, wheel individual motors allow using a single system to apply both positive and negative torques at the wheels, which can be actuated independently one from the other. In electric vehicles (EVs), moreover, such a freedom in the actuation mechanisms opens the way to the combined optimisation of performance and energy consumption issues. In this paper, the problem of minimum-time manoeuvring in EVs is addressed, and the proposed strategy is compared against a benchmark, a-causal optimal solution showing that only a negligible loss of performance is experienced.

  11. Emissions characterization from EURO 5 diesel/biodiesel passenger car operating under the new European driving cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, M.; Serrano, L.; Ribeiro, I.; Cascão, P.; Pires, N.; Rafael, S.; Tarelho, L.; Monteiro, A.; Nunes, T.; Evtyugina, M.; Nielsen, O. J.; Gameiro da Silva, M.; Miranda, A. I.; Borrego, C.

    2014-02-01

    The increasing demand of petroleum based fuels and their use in internal combustion engines have adverse effect on air quality and climate change. Production of biofuels promises substantial improvement in air quality through reducing emission from biofuel operated vehicles. In this study the influence of the fuel mixture on EURO 5 vehicle exhaust emissions operating under the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and in hot operating conditions was analysed. Distinct diesel/biodiesel ratios (B0 (100%/0%), B7 (93%/7%) and B20 (80%/20%), volume basis) were considered. Experiments were conducted on a chassis dynamometer examining several pollutants, namely: carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2), particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) and total volatile organic compounds (VOC). Moreover, a VOC speciation analysis by gas chromatography was performed to explore the emission variations regarding a set of seventeen VOC.

  12. EPICS Input/Output Controller (IOC) application developer`s guide. APS Release 3.12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraimer, M.R.

    1994-11-01

    This document describes the core software that resides in an Input/Output Controller (IOC), one of the major components of EPICS. The basic components are: (OPI) Operator Interface; this is a UNIX based workstation which can run various EPICS tools; (IOC) Input/Output Controller; this is a VME/VXI based chassis containing a Motorola 68xxx processor, various I/O modules, and VME modules that provide access to other I/O buses such as GPIB, (LAN), Local Area Network; and this is the communication network which allows the IOCs and OPIs to communicate. Epics provides a software component, Channel Access, which provides network transparent communication between a Channel Access client and an arbitrary number of Channel Access servers.

  13. Hardware enhancements to the laboratory data collection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The core of the laboratory data collection system consists of 12 commercial Tracor Northern 200 MHz ADC's interfaced to a DEC PDP 11/60 computer. The operation of this system has been described in detail in earlier annual reports but is summarized. Enhancement of this data collection hardware consisted of redesigning and constructing a new chassis for the ADC computer interface. This was done to: (1) increase reliability of the system, (2) incorporate all the changes that have occurred over the past four years, (3) provide a system that would allow in-rack diagnosis and board swap repairs, and (4) provide extra room and connector and mode switch capacity for future expansion

  14. System Design and Implementation of Smart Dashboard for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Sheng Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the development of automobile focuses on the chassis structure and motion control. However, due to the concept of smart and safe vehicle, the integrated dashboard becomes a necessary issue. The proposed system can not only represent the conventional dashboard in a digital form but also endow the system with an intelligent guidance. The statuses such as speed, battery SOC, braking, mileage, and the activation of TCS and ABS can be seen and monitored in all driving scenarios. For example, the current modern electric vehicles face the danger of self-ignition problem when the over load problem is consisted. Basically, these severe conditions can be eliminated by a guard of smart interface. Consequently, under a proper design, the presented system can assist the driver to maintain the energy efficiency, steering stability, and so on. Then the operation procedure can be simplified and hence driver can concentrate more on steering.

  15. A Multi-axis Control Board Implemented via an FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Domenico; Muscato, Giovanni

    Most of robotic applications rely on the use of DC motors with quadrature encoder feedback. Typical applications are legged robots or articulated chassis multi-wheeled robots. In these applications system designer must implement multi-axis control systems able to handle an high number of quadrature encoder signals and to generate the same number of PWM signals. Moreover the adopted CPU must be able to execute the same number of control loop algorithms in a time slot of about ten milliseconds. Very few commercial SoC (System on Chip) can handle up to six channels. In this work the implementation of a SoC on FPGA able to handle up to 20 channels within a time slot of 20 ms and up to 100 channels within a time slot of 100 ms is described. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the design, the board was used to control a small six wheels outdoor robot.

  16. Multiprocessor shared-memory information exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In distributed microprocessor-based instrumentation and control systems, the inter-and intra-subsystem communication requirements ultimately form the basis for the overall system architecture. This paper describes a software protocol which addresses the intra-subsystem communications problem. Specifically the protocol allows for multiple processors to exchange information via a shared-memory interface. The authors primary goal is to provide a reliable means for information to be exchanged between central application processor boards (masters) and dedicated function processor boards (slaves) in a single computer chassis. The resultant Multiprocessor Shared-Memory Information Exchange (MSMIE) protocol, a standard master-slave shared-memory interface suitable for use in nuclear safety systems, is designed to pass unidirectional buffers of information between the processors while providing a minimum, deterministic cycle time for this data exchange

  17. Carnosic acid biosynthesis elucidated by a synthetic biology platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignea, Codruta; Athanasakoglou, Anastasia; Ioannou, Efstathia; Georgantea, Panagiota; Trikka, Fotini A; Loupassaki, Sofia; Roussis, Vassilios; Makris, Antonios M; Kampranis, Sotirios C

    2016-03-29

    Synthetic biology approaches achieving the reconstruction of specific plant natural product biosynthetic pathways in dedicated microbial "chassis" have provided access to important industrial compounds (e.g., artemisinin, resveratrol, vanillin). However, the potential of such production systems to facilitate elucidation of plant biosynthetic pathways has been underexplored. Here we report on the application of a modular terpene production platform in the characterization of the biosynthetic pathway leading to the potent antioxidant carnosic acid and related diterpenes in Salvia pomifera and Rosmarinus officinalis.Four cytochrome P450 enzymes are identified (CYP76AH24, CYP71BE52, CYP76AK6, and CYP76AK8), the combined activities of which account for all of the oxidation events leading to the biosynthesis of the major diterpenes produced in these plants. This approach develops yeast as an efficient tool to harness the biotechnological potential of the numerous sequencing datasets that are increasingly becoming available through transcriptomic or genomic studies. PMID:26976595

  18. Real time capable infrared thermography for ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieglin, B.; Faitsch, M.; Herrmann, A.; Brucker, B.; Eich, T.; Kammerloher, L.; Martinov, S.

    2015-11-01

    Infrared (IR) thermography is widely used in fusion research to study power exhaust and incident heat load onto the plasma facing components. Due to the short pulse duration of today's fusion experiments, IR systems have mostly been designed for off-line data analysis. For future long pulse devices (e.g., Wendelstein 7-X, ITER), a real time evaluation of the target temperature and heat flux is mandatory. This paper shows the development of a real time capable IR system for ASDEX Upgrade. A compact IR camera has been designed incorporating the necessary magnetic and electric shielding for the detector, cooler assembly. The camera communication is based on the Camera Link industry standard. The data acquisition hardware is based on National Instruments hardware, consisting of a PXIe chassis inside and a fibre optical connected industry computer outside the torus hall. Image processing and data evaluation are performed using real time LabVIEW.

  19. Tuning Mazda B6 Engine for Sports Competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukács, E.; Polóni, M.

    2011-12-01

    Improving output parameters of the Mazda B6 combustion engine from the vehicle Mazda 323 for amateur "hill climb" and "rally" competitions has been analysed. Tuning of such an engine for sport competitions means the optimisation of its parameters at the lowest possible economic costs, within the revolution range 4000 - 6000 min-1, where the engine during competition works most often. With the help of the program Lotus Engine Simulations, the construction of the exhaust manifold has been optimised, together with valve timing and other adjustments, listed in the work, on output parameters of the engine. The optimum combinations of parameters were experimentally verified on a chassis dynamometer. Final adaptations have led within the previously specified range of revolutions to an improvement between 5 and 22% in power and torque.

  20. The Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels Program Evaluation of EC-Diesel and Diesel Particulate Filters in Southern California Vehicle Fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EC-Diesel and particulate filter combination greatly reduced the particulate matter, hydrocarbon, and carbon monoxide emissions of all vehicles tested in the program to date. Particulate matter reductions greater than 98% were achieved. For several vehicles tested, the PM and HC emissions were less than background levels. Based on preliminary statistical analysis, there is 95%+ confidence that EC-D and particulate filters reduced emissions from three different types of vehicles. A fuel consumption penalty was not detectable using the current test procedures and chassis dynamometer laboratory. Test vehicles equipped with the CRT and DPX particulate filters and fueled with EC-Diesel fuel have operated reliably during the program start-up period

  1. Vibration analysis for electronic equipment (2nd edition)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Dave S.

    This book describes methods for designing electronic equipment that must work with a high degree of reliability in severe vibration and shock environments. It explains how to design and predict the operational life of electronic equipment based upon the type of electronic components used and the type of vibration and shock exposure. The book begins with a review of the dynamics of nonuniform sections and composite construction methods for electronic assemblies, followed by a discussion of methods for mounting electronic components and determining electrical lead wire and solder joint stresses and fatigue life. Printed circuit boards and chassis assemblies are examined in detail, with methods for determining natural frequency, dynamic coupling transmissibility, and fatigue life. The design and analysis of electronic components, circuit boards, electrical lead wires, and solder joints for sinusoidal and random vibrations, acoustics, shock, and pyrotechnic shock are addressed.

  2. Metal-matrix composites in the automotive industry: Opportunities and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, John E.; Cole, Gerald S.

    1993-01-01

    Metal-matrix composites offer considerable promise to help automotive engineers meet the challenges of current and future demands for recyclable, fuel-efficient, safe, and low-emission vehicles. These materials can be engineered to match the design requirements of automotive power-train or chassis components. Technological and infrastructural barriers tend to limit the implementation of these materials, but it is believed these barriers can be overcome and that metal-matrix composites can be applied in high-volume vehicle production. Reducing these barriers will require much effort by engineers and scientists, managers and planners at automotive manufacturers, and their suppliers. The result will be the gradual introduction of metal-matrix composites in high-volume vehicle production to satisfy customer desires while meeting regulatory requirements and competitive pressures.

  3. THERMAL ANALYSIS OF CPU WITH COMPOSITE PIN FIN HEAT SINKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Mohan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes about pin fin and slot parallel plate heat sinks with copper and carbon carbon composite(CCC base plate material mounted on CPU’s. The parameters such as fin geometry, base plate material, base plate thickness, number of fins, fin thickness are considered and primarily in this paper fin geometry, base platethicknesses, base plate materials are optimized for improving the thermal performance of a heat sink in the next generation. In this research work, the thermal model of the computer system with various fin geometry heat sink design has been selected and the fluid flow, thermal flow characteristics of heat sinks have been studied. The plate, pin and Elliptical fin geometry heat sinks have been used with base plate to enhance the heat dissipation. In this study a complete computer chassis with different heat sinks are investigated and the performances of the heat sinks are compared.

  4. HERMIES-3: A step toward autonomous mobility, manipulation, and perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbin, C. R.; Burks, B. L.; Einstein, J. R.; Feezell, R. R.; Manges, W. W.; Thompson, D. H.

    1989-01-01

    HERMIES-III is an autonomous robot comprised of a seven degree-of-freedom (DOF) manipulator designed for human scale tasks, a laser range finder, a sonar array, an omni-directional wheel-driven chassis, multiple cameras, and a dual computer system containing a 16-node hypercube expandable to 128 nodes. The current experimental program involves performance of human-scale tasks (e.g., valve manipulation, use of tools), integration of a dexterous manipulator and platform motion in geometrically complex environments, and effective use of multiple cooperating robots (HERMIES-IIB and HERMIES-III). The environment in which the robots operate has been designed to include multiple valves, pipes, meters, obstacles on the floor, valves occluded from view, and multiple paths of differing navigation complexity. The ongoing research program supports the development of autonomous capability for HERMIES-IIB and III to perform complex navigation and manipulation under time constraints, while dealing with imprecise sensory information.

  5. Synthetic redesign of plant lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Richard P; Sayanova, Olga; Kim, Hae Jin; Cahoon, Edgar B; Napier, Johnathan A

    2016-07-01

    Plant seed lipid metabolism is an area of intensive research, including many examples of transgenic events in which oil composition has been modified. In the selected examples described in this review, progress towards the predictive manipulation of metabolism and the reconstitution of desired traits in a non-native host is considered. The advantages of a particular oilseed crop, Camelina sativa, as a flexible and utilitarian chassis for advanced metabolic engineering and applied synthetic biology are considered, as are the issues that still represent gaps in our ability to predictably alter plant lipid biosynthesis. Opportunities to deliver useful bio-based products via transgenic plants are described, some of which represent the most complex genetic engineering in plants to date. Future prospects are considered, with a focus on the desire to transition to more (computationally) directed manipulations of metabolism. PMID:27483205

  6. DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF A LOW SPEED IMPACT TESTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Navarrete

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact response of sandwich panels with an improved structure to increase their impact resistance isinvestigated. In order to compare the impact performance of sandwich structures, a specific and instrumenteddrop-weight impact tester was designed and developed. The experimental part of this work is an evaluation oncomposite sandwich panels behavior used in the manufacturing of the UNAM Electrobús chassis. Two differentsandwich structures are analyzed: the first type is a structure composed by a glass fiber-polyester matrix compositefacesheets and a polyethylene honeycomb core. The second one consists of facesheets made from a glass fiberepoxymatrix composite laminate and core formed by internal phenolic honeycomb structure. The first structurewas specifically designed to improve crashworthiness for transport applications. The main results of this study areevaluated from the absorbed energy performance of the sandwich structures subjected to a single impact, and thedevelopment of useful criteria for materials selection.

  7. 全承载客车生产厂区技术要求与布置设计%Technical Requirements and Layout Design of Bearing Structure Bus/Coach Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴志兆

    2014-01-01

    The author introduces the technical requirements and layout design of the third stage bearing structure Suzhou Higer bus plant with the capacity of 5 000 busses/coaches per year. He emphasizes on the production pro-cesses and equipments layout of welding, painting, chassis parts assembling and total assembly workshop.%介绍苏州海格第三期年产5000辆全承载大客车生产厂区的技术要求及布置设计;重点阐述焊装、涂装、底盘件装配及总装的生产工艺和设备情况。

  8. Real time capable infrared thermography for ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sieglin, B., E-mail: Bernhard.Sieglin@ipp.mpg.de; Faitsch, M.; Herrmann, A.; Brucker, B.; Eich, T.; Kammerloher, L.; Martinov, S. [Max-Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    Infrared (IR) thermography is widely used in fusion research to study power exhaust and incident heat load onto the plasma facing components. Due to the short pulse duration of today’s fusion experiments, IR systems have mostly been designed for off-line data analysis. For future long pulse devices (e.g., Wendelstein 7-X, ITER), a real time evaluation of the target temperature and heat flux is mandatory. This paper shows the development of a real time capable IR system for ASDEX Upgrade. A compact IR camera has been designed incorporating the necessary magnetic and electric shielding for the detector, cooler assembly. The camera communication is based on the Camera Link industry standard. The data acquisition hardware is based on National Instruments hardware, consisting of a PXIe chassis inside and a fibre optical connected industry computer outside the torus hall. Image processing and data evaluation are performed using real time LabVIEW.

  9. Electric car design. Interim summary report, Phase I: deliverable item 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-05-09

    The work included in this Interim Summary Report is part of the Electric Car Program, the goal of which is to develop by 1979 a totally new electric car with substantially improved performance over those electric cars available in 1976. The rationale used in designing a four-passenger electric car for use in an urban environment is presented. The approach taken was to design an electric car utilizing current technology. On the basis of tradeoff analyses, upgrading improvements were identified which would permit the electric car to more nearly meet all of the ERDA near-term goals. The electric car design, including the chassis, drive train, major components, and the control are summarized. The Phase I electric car design will meet many of the ERDA near-term goals. Upgrading development programs are identified which, when incorporated in Phase II vehicle development, will result in upgraded performance, which essentially meets ERDA's near-term goals.

  10. Design, development and performance of a disk plow combined with rotary blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disk plow combined with rotary blades, defined as comboplow, is used for soil preparation for planting. The comboplow includes four units: Chassis, concave disk, transmission system and rotary blades. A multiple tillage operation is reduced in a single pass resulting in a potential reduction of soil compaction, labor, fuel cost and saving in time. The comboplow was tested at University Putra Malaysia Research Park, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia, on three different plots of 675 m2 in the year 2010/2011. The treatments were three types of blade [(straight (S),curved (c) and L-shaped)] and three rotary speeds (130,147and 165 rpm). The parameters were Mean Weight Diameter Dry Basis (MWDd), Mean weight Diameter Wet Basis (MWDW), Aggregate Stability Index (SI) and Instability Index (II).

  11. Method for the multi-criteria optimization of car wheel suspension mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Alexandru

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a general method for the multi-criteria optimization of the rear wheels suspension mechanisms in terms of kinematic behavior. The suspension mechanism is decomposed in basic binary links, and the kinematic synthesis is separately performed for each of them. The design variables are the global coordinates of the joint locations on the car body (chassis. The disposing of the joints on the wheel carrier were exclusively established by constructive criteria. The design objectives relate to kinematic position parameters of the wheel (displacements of the wheel centre along longitudinal and transversal directions, and modifications of the wheel axis direction, the optimization goal being to minimize these variations during the wheel travel. A computer program for the kinematic study was developed in C++. The application was performed for the wheel suspension mechanism of a race car.

  12. The next step in biology: A periodic table?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pawan K Dhar

    2007-08-01

    Systems biology is an approach to explain the behaviour of a system in relation to its individual components. Synthetic biology uses key hierarchical and modular concepts of systems biology to engineer novel biological systems. In my opinion the next step in biology is to use molecule-to-phenotype data using these approaches and integrate them in the form a periodic table. A periodic table in biology would provide chassis to classify, systematize and compare diversity of component properties vis-a-vis system behaviour. Using periodic table it could be possible to compute higher-level interactions from component properties. This paper examines the concept of building a bio-periodic table using protein fold as the fundamental unit.

  13. Time Triggered Protocol (TTP) for Integration Modular Avionics (IMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwaltney, David A.; Bauer, Guenther; Jakovljevic, Mirko; Gagea,Leonard; Motzet, Guenter

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation is a review of the Time Triggered Protocol, designed to work with NASA's Integrated Safety-Critical Advanced Avionics Communication and Control (ISAACC) system. ISAACC is the product of the Propulsion High-Impact Avionics Technologies (PHIAT) project at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) during FY03 to the end of FY05. The goal is an avionics architecture suitable for control and monitoring of safety critical systems of manned spacecraft. It must be scalable to allow its use in robotic vehicles or launch pad and propulsion test stand monitoring and control systems. The developed IMA should have: a common power supply and rugged chassis for a set of modules, many upgradeable software functions on one module (i.e. processing unit Reduced weight, straightforward update and system integration. It is also important that it have Partitioning and a Memory Management Unit (MMU)

  14. Reduction of Temperature in Concentrator Photovoltaic Module Using Coating with High Thermal Emissivity and Conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperature of solar cells considerably increases under light-concentrating operations, and the conversion efficiency of solar cells decreases with increasing temperature. It is very important to reduce the cell temperature in concentrator photovoltaic modules. The thermal radiation layers with high thermal emissivity and thermal conductivity was coated on the aluminum samples which is used for the chassis of concentrator photovoltaic and the effect was evaluated under the conditions with wind. The temperature of sample with coating showed lower temperature than that without coating. In the condition with wind, the coated sample with high thermal emissivity and high thermal conductivity showed the lowest temperature due to the effect of thermal radiation and thermal conduction.

  15. 车身

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    [ 篇名 ] A hybrid method for vehicle axle noise simulation with experimental validation,[ 篇名 ] A linearized turbulent production in the k- ε model for engineering applications,[ 篇名 ] A Method for Estimating Axle Weights of In-motion Vehicles and Its Evaluation,[ 篇名 ] A new concept for occupant deceleration control in a crash - part 2,[ 篇名 ] A new experimental methodology to estimate chassis force transmissibility and applications to road NVH improvement,[ 篇名 ] A SMART ECOBIKE WITH RIM-MOTOR,[ 篇名 ] A study on optimum design for thin-walled beam structures of vehicles,[ 篇名 ] A study on the distortion characteristic due to spot welding of body structure assembly for passenger car,[ 篇名 ] A VIBRO-ACOUSTICAL INVESTIGATION FOR CAR ROLLING NOISE CHARACTERIZATION AND OPTIMIZATION,[ 篇名 ] 780 N/mm{sup }2 grade hot-rolled high-strength steel sheet for automotive suspension system。

  16. Research Regarding Drilling Masts Reliability under the Combined Action of the Wind and the Hook Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Popa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Portable masts are parts of mobile servicing rigs designed to work at drilling or extraction wells and are made of three sections: fixed section, lower section and upper section. During transportation, the mast is placed in a horizontal position on a truck chassis, with the upper section nested inside the lower section. Before putting into service the mobile servicing rig, the lower and upper sections are erected as a unit, in a slightly inclined position. In this paper, the authors present the results of a research regarding the safety in functioning for such a mast which is under the action of the wind with high velocities. The wind’s action direction with respect to the mast is analyzed in two cases: front-back and lateral, with stress and strain values that occur.

  17. A wall-crawling robot for reactor vessel inspection in advanced reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A consortium of four universities and the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has designed a prototype wall-crawling robot to perform weld inspection in advanced nuclear reactors. Design efforts for the reactor vessel inspection robot (RVIR) concentrated on the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor because it presents the most demanding environment in which such a robot must operate. The RVIR consists of a chassis containing two sets of suction cups that can alternately grasp the side of the vessel being inspected, providing both locomotion and steering functions. Sensors include three CCD cameras and a weld inspection device based on new shear-wave technology. The restrictions of the inspection environment presented major challenges to the team. These challenges were met in the prototype, which has been tested in a non-radiation, room-temperature mockup of the robot work environment and shown to perform as expected. (author)

  18. A wall-crawling robot for reactor vessel inspection in advanced reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A consortium of four universities and the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has designed a prototype wall-crawling robot to perform weld inspection in advanced nuclear reactors. Design efforts for the reactor vessel inspection robot (RVIR) concentrated on the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor because it presents the most demanding environment in which such a robot must operate. The RVIR consists of a chassis containing two sets of suction cups that can alternately grasp the side of the vessel being inspected, providing both locomotion and steering functions. Sensors include three CCD cameras and a weld inspection device based on new shear-wave technology. The restrictions of the inspection environment presented major challenges to the team. These challenges were met in the prototype, which has been tested in a non-radiation, room-temperature mockup of the robot work environment and shown to perform as expected

  19. 10th Schaeffler Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Every four years, Schaeffler provides an insight into its latest developments and technologies from the engine, transmission and chassis as well as hybridization and electric mobility sectors. In 2014 the Schaeffler Symposium with the motto “Solving the Powertrain Puzzle” took place from 3th to 4th of April in Baden-Baden. Mobility for tomorrow is the central theme of this proceeding. The authors are discussing the different requirements, which are placed on mobility in different regions of the world. In addition to the company's work in research and development, a comprehensive in-house mobility study also provides a reliable basis for the discussion. The authors are convinced that there will be a paradigm shift in the automotive industry. Issues such as increasing efficiency and advancing electrification of the powertrain, automatic and semi-automatic driving, as well as integration in information networks will define the automotive future. In addition, the variety of solutions available worldwide will ...

  20. Utveckling av CPU-hållare och Kabelkanal för sitta/stå skrivbord

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Charlotte; Henrysson, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Examensarbetet har utförts i samarbete med ROL Ergo i Hovslätt som tillverkar höj- och sänkbara bordsstativ. ROL Ergo monterar och säljer endast bordsstativet, inte bordsskivan. Problemet är att de flesta CPU-hållare och kabelkanaler fästs i bordsskivan. En CPU-hållare bär upp datorns chassi och en kabelkanal används för att samla ihop kablarna. Användandet av en CPU-hållare och kabelkanal ger ett mer städat och välkomnande intryck vid kontorsarbetsplatsen. Målet med arbetet är att ta fram et...

  1. FedEx Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck Evaluation: 6-Month Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnitt, R.

    2010-05-01

    This interim report presents partial (six months) results for a technology evaluation of gasoline hybrid electric parcel delivery trucks operated by FedEx in and around Los Angeles, CA. A 12 month in-use technology evaluation comparing in-use fuel economy and maintenance costs of GHEVs and comparative diesel parcel delivery trucks was started in April 2009. Comparison data was collected and analyzed for in-use fuel economy and fuel costs, maintenance costs, total operating costs, and vehicle uptime. In addition, this interim report presents results of parcel delivery drive cycle collection and analysis activities as well as emissions and fuel economy results of chassis dynamometer testing of a gHEV and a comparative diesel truck at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) ReFUEL laboratory. A final report will be issued when 12 months of in-use data have been collected and analyzed.

  2. Sliding Mode Variable Structure Control and Real-Time Optimization of Dry Dual Clutch Transmission during the Vehicle’s Launch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiguo Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reflect driving intention adequately and improve the launch performance of vehicle equipped with five-speed dry dual clutch transmission (DCT, the issue of coordinating control between engine and clutch is researched, which is based on the DCT and prototype car developed independently. Four-degree-of-freedom (DOF launch dynamics equations are established. Taking advantage of predictive control and genetic algorithm, target tracing curves of engine speed and vehicle velocity are optimally specified. Sliding mode variable structure (SMVS control strategy is designed to track these curves. The rapid prototyping experiment and test are, respectively, conducted on the DCT test bench and in the chassis dynamometer. Results show that the designed SMVS control strategy not only effectively embodies the driver’s intention but also has strong robustness to the vehicle parameter’s variations.

  3. A model for developing job rotation schedules that eliminate sequential high workloads and minimize between-worker variability in cumulative daily workloads: Application to automotive assembly lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sang-Young; Ko, Jeonghan; Jung, Myung-Chul

    2016-07-01

    The aim of study is to suggest a job rotation schedule by developing a mathematical model in order to reduce cumulative workload from the successive use of the same body region. Workload assessment using rapid entire body assessment (REBA) was performed for the model in three automotive assembly lines of chassis, trim, and finishing to identify which body part exposed to relatively high workloads at workstations. The workloads were incorporated to the model to develop a job rotation schedule. The proposed schedules prevent the exposure to high workloads successively on the same body region and minimized between-worker variance in cumulative daily workload. Whereas some of workers were successively assigned to high workload workstation under no job rotation and serial job rotation. This model would help to reduce the potential for work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) without additional cost for engineering work, although it may need more computational time and relative complex job rotation sequences. PMID:26995031

  4. The IMO-1 mobile irradiation unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IMO-I is made up by a gamma irradiation bucket and a fixed source, mounted on a trailer specially designed. This equipment has been completed with a radiocomunication device. The irradiator unit consist of two fixed and one movable body. The irradiation bucket has a volume of 30 x 40 x 30 cm and is moved through an hydraulic system with allows its vertical movement between the upper or charging position and the bottom or irradiation position. The telecontrol device has been installed in the room contiguous to the irradiator. The conventional industrial sources of Co60, are vertically located in stainless steel source holders at the botton fixed body and they can be changed according with the desired geometry. The trailer has been built over a plain chassis assembled structure with a double axle at the rear. It consists of two rooms, one for the irradiator machine and the other one for the telecontrol device and the radiocomunication facility. (author)

  5. Evaluation of the micro-carburetor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, M.F.; Hall, R.A.; Mazor, S.D.

    1981-08-01

    A prototype sonic, variable-venturi automotive carburetor, developed by Micro Carburetor Corporation, was evaluated for its effects on vehicle performance, fuel economy, and exhaust emissions. A 350 CID Chevrolet Impala vehicle was tested on a chassis dynamometer over the 1975 Federal Test Procedure, urban driving cycle. The Micro-carburetor was tested and compared with stock and modified-stock engine configurations. Subsequently, the test vehicle's performance characteristics were examined with the stock carburetor and again with the Micro-carburetor in a series of on-road driveability tests. The test engine was then removed from the vehicle and installed on an engine dynamometer. Engine tests were conducted to compare the fuel economy, thermal efficiency, and cylinder-to-cylinder mixture distribution of the Micro-carburetor to that of the stock configuration. Test results show increases in thermal efficiency and improvements in fuel economy at all test conditions.

  6. CEBAF Distributed Data Acquisition System

    CERN Document Server

    Allison, Trent

    2005-01-01

    There are thousands of signals distributed throughout Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) that are useful for troubleshooting and identifying instabilities. Many of these signals are only available locally or monitored by systems with small bandwidths that cannot identify fast transients. The Distributed Data Acquisition (Dist DAQ) system will sample and record these signals simultaneously at rates up to 40 Msps. Its primary function will be to provide waveform records from signals throughout CEBAF to the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). The waveforms will be collected after the occurrence of an event trigger. These triggers will be derived from signals such as periodic timers or accelerator faults. The waveform data can then be processed to quickly identify beam transport issues, thus reducing down time and increasing CEBAF performance. The Dist DAQ system will be comprised of multiple standalone chassis distributed throughout CEBAF. They will be i...

  7. YAMS: a stepper motor controller for the FERMI-Elettra free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New projects, like FERMI-Elettra, demand for the standardization of the systems in order to cut development and maintenance costs. The various motion control applications foreseen in this project required a specific controller able to flexibly adapt to any need while maintaining a common interface to the control system to minimize software development efforts. These reasons led us to design and build 'Yet Another Motor Sub-rack', (YAMS), a 3U chassis containing a commercial stepper motor controller, up to eight motor drivers and all the necessary auxiliary systems. The motors can be controlled locally by means of an operator panel or remotely through an Ethernet interface and a dedicated Tango device server. The paper describes the details of the project and the deployment issues

  8. A Review of Active Yaw Control System for Vehicle Handling and Stability Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Aripin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Yaw stability control system plays a significant role in vehicle lateral dynamics in order to improve the vehicle handling and stability performances. However, not many researches have been focused on the transient performances improvement of vehicle yaw rate and sideslip tracking control. This paper reviews the vital elements for control system design of an active yaw stability control system; the vehicle dynamic models, control objectives, active chassis control, and control strategies with the focus on identifying suitable criteria for improved transient performances. Each element is discussed and compared in terms of their underlying theory, strengths, weaknesses, and applicability. Based on this, we conclude that the sliding mode control with nonlinear sliding surface based on composite nonlinear feedback is a potential control strategy for improving the transient performances of yaw rate and sideslip tracking control.

  9. Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direction Injection (GTDI) Engine Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Terrance [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States)

    2015-12-31

    This program was undertaken in response to US Department of Energy Solicitation DE-FOA-0000079, resulting in a cooperative agreement with Ford and MTU to demonstrate improvement of fuel efficiency in a vehicle equipped with an advanced GTDI engine. Ford Motor Company has invested significantly in GTDI engine technology as a cost effective, high volume, fuel economy solution, marketed globally as EcoBoost technology. Ford envisions additional fuel economy improvement in the medium and long term by further advancing EcoBoost technology. The approach for the project was to engineer a comprehensive suite of gasoline engine systems technologies to achieve the project objectives, and to progressively demonstrate the objectives via concept analysis / computer modeling, single-cylinder and multi-cylinder engine testing on engine dynamometer, and vehicle level testing on chassis rolls.

  10. Study of the use of metallic foam in a vehicle for an energy-economy racing circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, E.; Oliveira, B.F. [Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul - UFRGS, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2010-05-15

    The emphasis of this work is on the use of metal foams in automotive design for weight reduction with the purpose of studying the mechanical behaviour and possible project alternatives, through the modelling and subsequent computer simulation according to the case study - chassis of the ''Sabia 5''. The ''Sabias'' are hyper-economic vehicles created to compete in an energy-economy racing circuit (Shell Eco-marathon). For the structural analysis, the finite element software Abaqus/CAE is used. The tests performed are static and dynamic tests simulating the vehicle passing across a rough track and crash test. According to the results of the computational tests, metal foams demonstrated to be a good choice for the studied application, presenting the necessary weight reduction with the expected structural performance. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. Velocity and normal tyre force estimation for heavy trucks based on vehicle dynamic simulation considering the road slope angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zeyu; Zhang, Yunqing; Yang, James

    2016-02-01

    A precise estimation of vehicle velocities can be valuable for improving the performance of the vehicle dynamics control (VDC) system and this estimation relies heavily upon the accuracy of longitudinal and lateral tyre force calculation governed by the prediction of normal tyre forces. This paper presents a computational method based on the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) method to estimate both longitudinal and lateral velocities and develops a novel quasi-stationary method to predict normal tyre forces of heavy trucks on a sloping road. The vehicle dynamic model is constructed with a planar dynamic model combined with the Pacejka tyre model. The novel quasi-stationary method for predicting normal tyre forces is able to characterise the typical chassis configuration of the heavy trucks. The validation is conducted through comparing the predicted results with those simulated by the TruckSim and it has a good agreement between these results without compromising the convergence speed and stability.

  12. INTEGRATED VEHICLE PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION MONITORING SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OCHIENGWY; NORTHRJ; QUDDUSM; NOLANDRB; POLAKJW

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses a vehicle performance and emission monitoring system (VPEMS) capable of interfacing with either a vehicle engine management system (EMS) or a sensor array fitted to the vehicle. It also describes the procedures used to validate the data generated by both diesel and petrol powered vehicles. These include the results of bench and field experiments using two instrumented vehicles and of experiments on a chassis dynamometer emissions test facility. The prototype VPEMS attains the specified performance levels for each of the subsystems, with aggregate mass emissions agreeing with the reference to within 11.5%, 8.1% and 17.7% for CO, CO2 and NO, respectively. The collation of these data to produce coherent spatially and temporally referenced databases of vehicle performance and the emission is demonstrated.

  13. Emissions from Diesel and Gasoline Vehicles Fuelled by Fischer-Tropsch Fuels and Similar Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ulrik; Lundorff, Peter; Ivarsson, Anders;

    2007-01-01

    vehicles fuelled by Fischer Tropsch (FT) based diesel and gasoline fuel, compared to the emissions from ordinary diesel and gasoline. The comparison for diesel fuels was based on a literature review, whereas the gasoline comparison had to be based on our own experiments, since almost no references were...... found in this field. In this context measurement according to the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) were carried out on a chassis dynamometer with a directly injected gasoline vehicle. Experiments were carried out with a reference fuel, a fuel based 70% on FT and an...... alkylate fuel (Aspen), which was taken to be the ultimate formula of FT gasoline. FT based diesel generally showed good emission performance, whereas the FT based gasoline not necessary lead to lower emissions. On the other hand, the Aspen fuel did show many advantages for the emissions from the gasoline...

  14. Real time capable infrared thermography for ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infrared (IR) thermography is widely used in fusion research to study power exhaust and incident heat load onto the plasma facing components. Due to the short pulse duration of today’s fusion experiments, IR systems have mostly been designed for off-line data analysis. For future long pulse devices (e.g., Wendelstein 7-X, ITER), a real time evaluation of the target temperature and heat flux is mandatory. This paper shows the development of a real time capable IR system for ASDEX Upgrade. A compact IR camera has been designed incorporating the necessary magnetic and electric shielding for the detector, cooler assembly. The camera communication is based on the Camera Link industry standard. The data acquisition hardware is based on National Instruments hardware, consisting of a PXIe chassis inside and a fibre optical connected industry computer outside the torus hall. Image processing and data evaluation are performed using real time LabVIEW

  15. EPICS : input / output controller (IOC) application developer's guide. EPICS release 3.12 specific documentation.[Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System]; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the core software that resides in an Input/Output Controller (IOC), one of the major components of EPICS. EPICS consists of a set of software components and tools that Application Developers use to create a control system. The basic components are: OPI-Operator Interface. This is a UNIX based workstation which can run various EPICS tools; IOC-Input/Output Controller. This is a VME/VXI based chassis containing a processor, various I/O modules and VME modules that provide access to other I/O buses such as GPIB; and LAN-Local Area Network. This is the communication network which allows the IOCs and OPIs to communicate. EPICS provides a software component, Channel Access, which provides network transparent communication between a Channel Access client and an arbitrary number of Channel Access servers. This report is intended for anyone developing EPICS IOC databases and/or new record/device/driver support

  16. EPICS Input/Output Controller (IOC) application developer's guide. APS Release 3.12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the core software that resides in an Input/Output Controller (IOC), one of the major components of EPICS. The basic components are: (OPI) Operator Interface; this is a UNIX based workstation which can run various EPICS tools; (IOC) Input/Output Controller; this is a VME/VXI based chassis containing a Motorola 68xxx processor, various I/O modules, and VME modules that provide access to other I/O buses such as GPIB, (LAN), Local Area Network; and this is the communication network which allows the IOCs and OPIs to communicate. Epics provides a software component, Channel Access, which provides network transparent communication between a Channel Access client and an arbitrary number of Channel Access servers

  17. Type C investigation of electrical fabrication projects in ICF Kaiser shops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Type C Investigation Board was convened to investigate an electrical miswiring problem found during the operation of the electrical distribution trailer for the TWRS Rotary Mode Core Sampling Truck number-sign 2. The trailer was designed by WHC and fabricated ICF KH on site for use in the Characterization Program. This problem resulted in a serious safety hazard since the support truck frame/chassis became electrically energized. This final report provides results of the ''Type C Investigation, Electrical Fabrication Projects in ICF KH Shops, June, 1995.'' It contains the investigation scope, executive summary, relevant facts, analysis, conclusions and corrective actions. DOE Order 5484.1, ''Environmental Protection, Safety and Health Protection Information Reporting Requirements,'' was followed in preparation of this report. Because the incident was electrical in nature and involved both Westinghouse Hanford Company and ICF Kaiser Hanford organizations, the board included members from both contractors and members with considerable electrical expertise

  18. Metabolic modelling in the development of cell factories by synthetic biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Tuulia Jouhten

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cell factories are commonly microbial organisms utilized for bioconversion of renewable resources to bulk or high value chemicals. Introduction of novel production pathways in chassis strains is the core of the development of cell factories by synthetic biology. Synthetic biology aims to create novel biological functions and systems not found in nature by combining biology with engineering. The workflow of the development of novel cell factories with synthetic biology is ideally linear which will be attainable with the quantitative engineering approach, high-quality predictive models, and libraries of well-characterized parts. Different types of metabolic models, mathematical representations of metabolism and its components, enzymes and metabolites, are useful in particular phases of the synthetic biology workflow. In this minireview, the role of metabolic modelling in synthetic biology will be discussed with a review of current status of compatible methods and models for the in silico design and quantitative evaluation of a cell factory.

  19. The VW Tuareg; Der VW Touareg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basshuysen, Richard van; Siebenpfeiffer, Wolfgang (eds.)

    2010-03-15

    The brochure under consideration reports on the new VW Tuareg constructed by Volkswagen AG (Wolfsburg, Federal Republic of Germany) and consists of the following contributions: (a) The new Touareg (Jochen Boehle); (b) Package and ergonomics (Martin Wiel); (c) 'La Semplicitr' - The design of the new Touareg (Klaus Bischoff); (d) The new Touareg - A SUV of the modern times (Ralph Nieraese, Volker Rathje); (e) The drive (Henning Nissel); (f) The new Tuareg hybrid (Jochen Boehle, Bernd Stiebels); (g) The chassis (Sven Albrecht); (h) Car body electronics and infotainment (Thomas Kiesewetter); (i) Driver assistance systems (Reiner Katzwinkel, Stephan Kopischke); (j) Safety of the car - Integral safety (Peter Hennig); (k) The car body (Susann Mussehl); (l) the interieur (Babette Stange).

  20. The Actinobacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum, an Industrial Workhorse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo-Young; Na, Yoon-Ah; Kim, Eungsoo; Lee, Heung-Shick; Kim, Pil

    2016-05-28

    Starting as a glutamate producer, Corynebacterium glutamicum has played a variety of roles in the industrial production of amino acids, one of the most important areas of white biotechnology. From shortly after its genome information became available, C. glutamicum has been applied in various production processes for value-added chemicals, fuels, and polymers, as a key organism in industrial biotechnology alongside the surprising progress in systems biology and metabolic engineering. In addition, recent studies have suggested another potential for C. glutamicum as a synthetic biology platform chassis that could move the new era of industrial microbial biotechnology beyond the classical field. Here, we review the recent progress and perspectives in relation to C. glutamicum, which demonstrate it as one of the most promising and valuable workhorses in the field of industrial biotechnology. PMID:26838341

  1. EPICS: Allen-Bradley hardware reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual covers the following hardware: Allen-Bradley 6008 -- SV VMEbus I/O scanner; Allen-Bradley universal I/O chassis 1771-A1B, -A2B, -A3B, and -A4B; Allen-Bradley power supply module 1771-P4S; Allen-Bradley 1771-ASB remote I/O adapter module; Allen-Bradley 1771-IFE analog input module; Allen-Bradley 1771-OFE analog output module; Allen-Bradley 1771-IG(D) TTL input module; Allen-Bradley 1771-OG(d) TTL output; Allen-Bradley 1771-IQ DC selectable input module; Allen-Bradley 1771-OW contact output module; Allen-Bradley 1771-IBD DC (10--30V) input module; Allen-Bradley 1771-OBD DC (10--60V) output module; Allen-Bradley 1771-IXE thermocouple/millivolt input module; and the Allen-Bradley 2705 RediPANEL push button module

  2. Study on antilock brake system with elastic membrane vibration generated by controlled solenoid excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Zakaria, Lambang, Lullus; Triyono, Muhayat, Nurul

    2016-03-01

    The most effective chassis control system for improving vehicle safety during severe braking is anti-lock braking system (ABS). Antilock effect can be gained by vibrate the pad brake at 7 to 20 cycle per second. The aim of this study is to design a new method of antilock braking system with membrane elastic vibrated by solenoid. The influence of the pressure fluctuations of brake fluid is investigated. Vibration data is collected using a small portable accelerometer-slam stick. The experiment results that the vibration of brake pad caused by controlled solenoid excitation at 10 Hz is obtained by our new method. The result of measurements can be altered by varying brake fluid pressure.

  3. Preprint of the Fall 1997 JSAE (Japan Society of Automotive Engineers) Meeting Science Lecture. No. 974; Jidosha gijutsukai 1997 nen shuki taikai gakujutsu koenkai maezurishu. 974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    This is a comprehensive compilation of 66 papers made public in the Fall 1997 JSAE Meeting, including the following by field: 13 papers on engine combustion; 4 on analysis of chassis structure; 12 on travel of vehicles; 6 on improvement of exhaust gas from diesel engines; 9 on basic study of combustion characteristics using fuels such as methanol, natural gas and hydrogen; 3 on study of heat flux on the piston face of internal engines; others on processing technology, noise, etc. Among these, the following were paid attention to as studies aiming at reducing NOx and smoke of diesel engines for pollution prevention: Emission and combustion characteristics of multiple stage diesel combustion, and Study on homogeneous charge diesel combustion engine. As studies on the use of petroleum substituting fuels, Visualizing ignition and combustion of methanol mixtures in a diesel engine, Improving performance and emissions in a diesel engine dual-fueled with natural gas, and Fundamental combustion characteristics of lean hydrogen mixtures

  4. Towards Microscale Flight: Fabrication, Stability Analysis, and Initial Flight Experiments for 300 μm × 300 μm × 1.5 μm Sized Untethered MEMS Microfliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Spencer; Foroutan, Vahid; Majumdar, Ratul; Mahdavipour, Omid; Hussain, Syed A; Paprotny, Igor

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents modeling, designs, and initial experimental results demonstrating successful untethered microscale flight of stress-engineered microscale structures propelled by thermal forces. These MEMS Microfliers are 300 μm×300 μm×1.5 μm in size and are fabricated out of polycrystalline silicon using a surface micromachining process. A concave chassis, created using a novel in-situ masked post-release stress-engineering process, promotes static in-flight stability. High-speed optical micrography was used to capture image sequences of their flight, and this imagery was subsequently used to analyze their mid-flight performance. Our analysis, combined with finite element modeling (FEM) confirms stable flight of the microfliers within the thermal gradient above the heaters. This novel microscale flying platform presented in this paper may pave the way for new types of aerial microrobots. PMID:25955992

  5. The Influence of Semi-active Dampers on the Vibration Behaviour of Passenger Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Sebastian; Brechter, Daniel; Janßen, Andreas; Mauch, Heiko

    The number of mechatronic components in modern car suspensions is increasing continuously to solve conflicts concerning design goals. Thus, changes in the vibration behaviour of the vehicle are caused. It needs to be ascertained whether this influence has to be taken into account when determining the fatigue life of a car and its components. Therefore, changes of the loads are studied in measurements and multi-body simulations of a passenger car with semi-active dampers. The evaluation of the forces at the wheel centre and at the shock absorber tower shows that different settings of semi-active dampers have an influence on fatigue life of the chassis and the car body. It is concluded that these effects need to be taken into account when determining fatigue life. Furthermore, multi-body simulations have been successfully applied to study the influence of semi-active dampers on the loads.

  6. Optical interconnect technologies for high-bandwidth ICT systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chujo, Norio; Takai, Toshiaki; Mizushima, Akiko; Arimoto, Hideo; Matsuoka, Yasunobu; Yamashita, Hiroki; Matsushima, Naoki

    2016-03-01

    The bandwidth of information and communication technology (ICT) systems is increasing and is predicted to reach more than 10 Tb/s. However, an electrical interconnect cannot achieve such bandwidth because of its density limits. To solve this problem, we propose two types of high-density optical fiber wiring for backplanes and circuit boards such as interface boards and switch boards. One type uses routed ribbon fiber in a circuit board because it has the ability to be formed into complex shapes to avoid interfering with the LSI and electrical components on the board. The backplane is required to exhibit high density and flexibility, so the second type uses loose fiber. We developed a 9.6-Tb/s optical interconnect demonstration system using embedded optical modules, optical backplane, and optical connector in a network apparatus chassis. We achieved 25-Gb/s transmission between FPGAs via the optical backplane.

  7. EMMA: The expert system for munition maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Barry E.

    1988-01-01

    Expert Missile Maintenance Aid (EMMA) is a first attempt to enhance maintenance of the tactical munition at the field and depot level by using artificial intelligence (AI) techniques. The ultimate goal of EMMA is to help a novice maintenance technician isolate and diagnose electronic, electromechanical, and mechanical equipment faults to the board/chassis level more quickly and consistently than the best human expert using the best currently available automatic test equipment (ATE). To this end, EMMA augments existing ATE with an expert system that captures the knowledge of design and maintenance experts. The EMMA program is described, including the evaluation of field-level expert system prototypes, the description of several study tasks performed during EMMA, and future plans for a follow-on program. This paper will briefly address several study tasks performed during EMMA. The paper concludes with a discussion of future plans for a follow-on program and other areas of concern.

  8. Electric vehicle test report Cutler-Hammer Corvette

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Vehicles were characterized for the state of the art assessment of electric vehicles. The vehicle evaluated was a Chevrolet Corvette converted to electric operation. The original internal combustion engine was replaced by an electric traction motor. Eighteen batteries supplied the electrical energy. A controller, an onboard battery charger, and several dashboard instruments completed the conversion. The emphasis was on the electrical portion of the drive train, although some analysis and discussion of the mechanical elements are included. Tests were conducted both on the road (actually a mile long runway) and in a chassis dynamometer equipped laboratory. The majority of the tests performed were according to SAE Procedure J227a and included maximum effort accelerations, constant speed range, and cyclic range. Some tests that are not a part of the SAE Procedure J227a are described and the analysis of the data from all tests is discussed.

  9. Insight into magnetorheological shock absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Gołdasz, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    This book deals with magnetorheological fluid theory, modeling and applications of automotive magnetorheological dampers. On the theoretical side a review of MR fluid compositions and key factors affecting the characteristics of these fluids is followed by a description of existing applications in the area of vibration isolation and flow-mode shock absorbers in particular. As a majority of existing magnetorheological devices operates in a so-called flow mode a critical review is carried out in that regard. Specifically, the authors highlight common configurations of flow-mode magnetorheological shock absorbers, or so-called MR dampers that have been considered by the automotive industry for controlled chassis applications. The authors focus on single-tube dampers utilizing a piston assembly with one coil or multiple coils and at least one annular flow channel in the piston.

  10. Implementation of quality control program in radiodiagnostic services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This monograph is the first version of the implementation of the quality control programme in radiology diagnostic services. Here all information related to diagnostic quality to better radiation protection to patients and personnel was collected. The programme was implemented on the X-ray equipment at three hospitals (named hospital A, hospital B and hospital C) and included the evaluation of technical parameters such as kilovolts, exposition time, filtration, fields. In addition, dark room, chassis and image intensifiers were also evaluated. The procedures to carry out the quality control and the manner in which the observations, conclusions and recommendations should be formulated are based on documents issued by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (I.C.R.P.), International Atomic Energy Agency (I.A.E.A.) and World Health Organization (W.H.O.)

  11. Integrated System for Performance Monitoring of the ATLAS TDAQ Network

    CERN Document Server

    Savu, DO; The ATLAS collaboration; Martin, B; Sjoen, R; Batraneanu, SM; Stancu, S

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS TDAQ Network consists of three separate networks spanning four levels of the experimental building. Over 200 edge switches and 5 multi-blade chassis routers are used to interconnect 2000 processors, adding up to more than 7000 high speed interfaces. In order to substantially speed-up ad-hoc and post mortem analysis, a scalable, yet flexible, integrated system for monitoring both network statistics and environmental conditions, processor parameters and data taking characteristics was required. For successful up-to-the-minute monitoring, information from many SNMP compliant devices, independent databases and custom APIs was gathered, stored and displayed in an optimal way. Easy navigation and compact aggregation of multiple data sources were the main requirements; characteristics not found in any of the tested products, either open-source or commercial. This paper describes how performance, scalability and display issues were addressed and what challenges the project faced during development and deplo...

  12. Integrated System for Performance Monitoring of ATLAS TDAQ Network

    CERN Document Server

    Savu, D; The ATLAS collaboration; Martin, B; Sjoen, R; Batraneanu, S; Stancu, S

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS TDAQ Network consists of three separate networks spanning four levels of the experimental building. Over 200 edge switches and 5 multi-blade chassis routers are used to interconnect 2000 processors, adding up to more than 7000 high speed interfaces. In order to substantially speed-up ad-hoc and post mortem analysis, a scalable, yet flexible, integrated system for monitoring both network statistics and environmental conditions, processor parameters and data taking characteristics was required. For successful up-to-the-minute monitoring, information from many SNMP compliant devices, independent databases and custom APIs was gathered, stored and displayed in an optimal way. Easy navigation and compact aggregation of multiple data sources were the main requirements; characteristics not found in any of the tested products, either open-source or commercial. This paper describes how performance, scalability and display issues were addressed and what challenges the project faced during development and deplo...

  13. 17. Aachen colloquium automobile and engine technology. Proceedings; 17. Aachener Kolloquium Fahrzeug- und Motorentechnik. Kolloquiumsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The Proceedings of the '17th Aachener Colloquium - Automobile and Engine Tecnology', held 6. - 8.October 2008 in Aachen/Germany, contains effectively 104 papers. These contributions deal with the following main subjects:new diesel engines I and II; hybrids I and II; CAE-methods; friction estimation by sensor fusion; ADAS for increased traffic safety I and II; new spark ignition engines I-III; exhausat aftertreatment diesel engines; FVV-project reports; integrated chassis control systems; driver assistance in commercial vehicles; si engines with alternative fuels; engine acoustics; steering systems I and II; detection traffic environment for ADAS; combustion concepts EGR and VVT; engine mechanics; development of safe vehicle systems; supercharging - downsizing; emission concepts diesel engines I and II; automotive strategy concepts; suspension systems; vehicle development; integrated safety;chasis systems. (org.)

  14. Mutagenicity of diesel exhaust particle extracts: influence of driving cycle and environmental temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C R; Dutcher, J S; Brooks, A L; McClellan, R O; Marshall, W F; Naman, T M

    1982-01-01

    General Motors and Volkswagen diesel passenger cars (1980 and 1981 model year) were operated on a climate controlled chassis dynomometer and the particulate portion of the exhaust was collected on high volume filters. Dichloromethane extracts of the exhaust particles (soot) collected while the cars were operated under simulated highway, urban and congested urban driving cycles were assayed for mutagenicity in Salmonella strains TA-98 and TA-100. Driving pattern did not significantly influence the mutagenic potency of the exhaust particle extracts or estimates of the amount of mutagenicity emitted from the exhaust despite large differences in particle emission rates and extractable fraction of the particles. Mutagenicity of extracts of exhaust particles collected while the vehicles were operated at test chamber temperatures of 25, 50, 75 and 100 degrees F were also very similar. The results suggest that driving pattern and environmental temperature do not significantly alter the emission of genotoxic combustion products from the exhaust. PMID:6193022

  15. Fuel optimal control of parallel hybrid electric vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinhuan PU; Chenliang YIN; Jianwu ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    A mathematical model for fuel optimal control and its corresponding dynamic programming (DP) recurs-ive equation were established for an existing parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). Two augmented cost func-tions for gear shifting and engine stop-starting were designed to limit their frequency. To overcome the prob-lem of numerical DP dimensionality, an algorithm to restrict the exploring region was proposed. The algorithm significantly reduced the computational complexity. The system model was converted into real-time simulation code by using MATLAB/RTW to improve computation efficiency. Comparison between the results of a chassis dynamometer test, simulation, and DP proves that the proposed method can compute the performance limita-tion of the HEV within an acceptable time period and can be used to evaluate and optimize the control strategy.

  16. Driving cycles for measuring passenger car emissions on roads with traffic calming measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although local authorities in the UK need to be aware of any air quality impacts resulting from their traffic calming operations, there is little information relating to the effects of different traffic calming measures. The effects on air quality on this scale are complex, and so TRL is providing guidance by developing performance indices for different measures based on their effects on vehicle emissions. The emissions indices for passenger cars are based on tests conducted on a chassis dynamometer, and this paper describes the development of the methodology for constructing the driving cycles to be used. The technique involves the measurement of the speed profiles of a large number of vehicles using a roadside LIDAR system, and the determination of typical gear selections using three-instrumented cars

  17. Driving cycles for measuring passenger car emissions on roads with traffic calming measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutler; Latham; Ainge

    1999-09-01

    Although local authorities in the UK need to be aware of any air quality impacts resulting from their traffic calming operations, there is little information relating to the effects of different traffic calming measures. The effects on air quality on this scale are complex, and so TRL is providing guidance by developing performance indices for different measures based on their effects on vehicle emissions. The emissions indices for passenger cars are based on tests conducted on a chassis dynamometer, and this paper describes the development of the methodology for constructing the driving cycles to be used. The technique involves the measurement of the speed profiles of a large number of vehicles using a roadside LIDAR system, and the determination of typical gear selections using three-instrumented cars. PMID:10535109

  18. Power Tillers for Demining: Blast Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Elisa Cepolina

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Power tillers are very simple and versatile machines with large scale diffusion in developing countries, where they are commonly used both for agriculture and for transportation purposes. A new integrated participatory approach that makes use of and improves local end-users knowledge has been used to design a new robotic system for humanitarian demining applications in Sri Lanka, using power tiller as core module. A demining machine composed by a tractor unit, a ground processing tool and a vegetation cutting tool is here presented together with results obtained from the first blast test on the preliminary version of tractor unit armouring. Different breakable connections between wheels and axle have been designed to cause physical detachment and interrupt the transmission of the shock wave released by the explosion of a mine under one wheel. Effects of explosions on different types of wheels and on the chassis have been recorded and commented.

  19. Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garetson, Thomas [The Clarity Group, Incorporated, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-03-31

    The objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOEs) Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation (AVTE) project was to provide test and evaluation services for advanced technology vehicles, to establish a performance baseline, to determine vehicle reliability, and to evaluate vehicle operating costs in fleet operations.Vehicles tested include light and medium-duty vehicles in conventional, hybrid, and all-electric configurations using conventional and alternative fuels, including hydrogen in internal combustion engines. Vehicles were tested on closed tracks and chassis dynamometers, as well as operated on public roads, in fleet operations, and over prescribed routes. All testing was controlled by procedures developed specifically to support such testing.

  20. A dual far-infrared laser diagnostic of magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dual far-infrared laser has been constructed and its properties have been exploited to probe tokamak-like discharges in the CDX toroidal device. Thermal variation of the difference frequency between the two far-infrared cavities is slow, though the cavities lack thermal stabilization, simply because their assembly on the same chassis exposes them to virtually identical temperature changes. The optical arrangement beyond the laser permits conversion within minutes between interferometry and density fluctuation observation, and within an hour between different operating wavelengths. Line-average densities of 2 /times/ 1013 cm-3 and coherent fluctuations in the neighborhood of 20 kHz have been measured with this diagnostic. 15 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Modeling the dynamic crush of impact mitigating materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crushable materials are commonly utilized in the design of structural components to absorb energy and mitigate shock during the dynamic impact of a complex structure, such as an automobile chassis or drum-type shipping container. The development and application of several finite-element material models which have been developed at various times at LLNL for DYNA3D will be discussed. Between the models, they are able to account for several of the predominant mechanisms which typically influence the dynamic mechanical behavior of crushable materials. One issue we addressed was that no single existing model would account for the entire gambit of constitutive features which are important for crushable materials. Thus, we describe the implementation and use of an additional material model which attempts to provide a more comprehensive model of the mechanics of crushable material behavior. This model combines features of the pre-existing DYNA models and incorporates some new features as well in an invariant large-strain formulation. In addition to examining the behavior of a unit cell in uniaxial compression, two cases were chosen to evaluate the capabilities and accuracy of the various material models in DYNA. In the first case, a model for foam filled box beams was developed and compared to test data from a 4-point bend test. The model was subsequently used to study its effectiveness in energy absorption in an aluminum extrusion, spaceframe, vehicle chassis. The second case examined the response of the AT-400A shipping container and the performance of the overpack material during accident environments selected from 10CFR71 and IAEA regulations

  2. The BMW Z8. Pt. 1. Concept body, safety, electrical/electronic systems; Der BMW Z8. T. 1. Konzept, Karosserie, Sicherheit, Elektrik/Elektronik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, C. [Bayerische Motoren Werke AG (BMW), Muenchen (Germany)

    2000-06-01

    As the new kid on the block among the super sports cars, the Z8 is aimed at a small group of customers who have very high demands and wish to combine 'the ultimate driving machine and the ultimate design with exclusivity, safety, reliability and quality. The latest engineering, such as the aluminium structure and aluminium exterior skin, the high performance power train and the sophisticated sports chassis, the stability control system, the high performance braking system and the tyres with emergency features go together to make the Z8 an extraordinary sports car. A full range of equipment with a hardtop, telephone, audio and navigation system, attention to detail and lots of aluminium in the interior combined with high quality leather underline the exclusivity of the Z8. Part 2 follows in issue of the ATZ: Engine, powertrain, chassis, acoustics, quality and repair procedures. (orig.) [German] Als Neuling im Kreis der Supersportwagen ist der Z8 fuer einen kleinen Kreis von Kunden bestimmt, die hoechste Ansprueche stellen, die 'Freude am Fahren, Freude an der Form mit Exklusivitaet, Sicherheit, Zuverlaessigkeit und Qualitaet' verbinden wollen. Modernste Technik wie die Aluminiumstruktur und Aluminiumaussenhaut, das Hochleistungstriebwerk in Verbindung mit dem aufwendigen Sportfahrwerk, den Stabilitaetsregelsystemen, der Hochleistungsbremsanlage und den Reifen mit Notlaufeigenschaften machen den Z8 zu einem aussergewoehnlichen Sportwagen. Vollausstattung mit Hardtop, Telefon, Audio-, Navigationssystem, Liebe zum Detail in Verbindung mit viel Aluminium im Innenraum und hochwertigem Leder unterstreichen die Exklusivitaet des Z8. Teil 2 folgt in der naechsten ATZ mit den Themen Motor, Antrieb, Fahrwerk, Akustik, Qualitaet und Reparaturverfahren. (orig.)

  3. Design Concept for a Nuclear Reactor-Powered Mars Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, John O.; Lipinski, Ronald J.; Poston, David I.

    2003-01-01

    A study was recently carried out by a team from JPL and the DOE to investigate the utility of a DOE-developed 3 kWe surface fission power system for Mars missions. The team was originally tasked to perform a study to evaluate the usefulness and feasibility of incorporation of such a power system into a landed mission. In the course of the study it became clear that the application of such a power system was enabling to a wide variety of potential missions. Of these, two missions were developed, one for a stationary lander and one for a reactor-powered rover. This paper discusses the design of the rover mission, which was developed around the concept of incorporating the fission power system directly into a large rover chassis to provide high power, long range traverse capability. The rover design is based on a minimum extrapolation of technology, and adapts existing concepts developed at JPL for the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, lander and EDL systems. The small size of the reactor allowed its incorporation directly into an existing large MSL rover chassis design, allowing direct use of MSL aeroshell and pallet lander elements, beefed up to support the significantly greater mass involved in the nuclear power system and its associated shielding. This paper describes the unique design challenges encountered in the development of this mission architecture and incorporation of the fission power system in the rover, and presents a detailed description of the final design of this innovative concept for providing long range, long duration mobility on Mars.

  4. Design and Testing of an Agricultural Implement for Underground Application of Rodenticide Bait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Malón

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An agricultural implement for underground application of rodenticide bait to control the Mediterranean pocket gopher (Microtus Duodecimcostatus in fruit orchards has been designed and tested. The main objective of this research was to design and test the implement by using the finite element method (FEM and considering a range of loads generated on most commonly used furrow openers in agricultural implements. As a second step, the prototype was tested in the field by analysing the effects of forward speed and application depth on the mechanical behaviour of the implement structure. The FEM was used in the design phase and a prototype was manufactured. The structural strains on the prototype chassis under working conditions were tested by using strain gauges to validate the design phase. Three forward speeds (4.5, 5.5, and 7.0 km/h, three application depths (0.12, 0.15, and 0.17 m, and two types of soil (clayey-silty-loam and clayey-silty-sandy were considered. The prototype was validated successfully by analysing the information obtained from the strain gauges. The Von Mises stresses indicated a safety coefficient of 1.9 for the most critical load case. Although both forward speed and application depth had a significant effect on the stresses generated on the chassis, the latter parameter critically affected the structural behaviour of the implement. The effects of the application depth on the strains were linear such that strains increased with depth. In contrast, strains remained roughly constant regardless of variation in the forward speed.

  5. Lightweight rovers for Mars science exploration and sample return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Paul S.; Sword, Lee F.; Ganino, A. J.; Bickler, Donald B.; Hickey, G. S.; Brown, D. K.; Baumgartner, Eric T.; Matthies, Larry H.; Wilcox, Brian H.; Balch, T.; Aghazarian, H.; Garrett, M. S.

    1997-09-01

    We report on the development of new mobile robots for Mars exploration missions. These 'lightweight survivable rover (LSR)' systems are of potential interest to both space and terrestrial applications, and are distinguished from more conventional designs by their use of new composite materials, collapsible running gear, integrated thermal-structural chassis, and other mechanical features enabling improved mobility and environmental robustness at reduced mass, volume, and power. Our first demonstrated such rover architecture, LSR-1, introduces running gear based on 2D composite struts and 3D machined composite joints, a novel collapsible hybrid composite-aluminum wheel design, a unit-body structural- thermal chassis with improved internal temperature isolation and stabilization, and a spot-pushbroom laser/CCD sensor enabling accurate, fast hazard detection and terrain mapping. LSR-1 is an approximately .7 $MIL 1.0 meter(Lambda) 2(W X L) footprint six-wheel (20 cm dia.) rocker-bogie geometry vehicle of approximately 30 cm ground clearance, weighing only 7 kilograms with an onboard .3 kilogram multi-spectral imager and spectroscopic photometer. By comparison, NASA/JPL's recently flown Mars Pathfinder rover Sojourner is an 11+ kilogram flight experiment (carrying a 1 kg APXS instrument) having approximately .45 X .6 meter(Lambda) 2(WXL) footprint and 15 cm ground clearance, and about half the warm electronics enclosure (WEE) volume with twice the diurnal temperature swing (-40 to +40 degrees Celsius) of LSR- 1 in nominal Mars environments. We are also developing a new, smaller 5 kilogram class LSR-type vehicle for Mars sample return -- the travel to, localization of, pick-up, and transport back to an Earth return ascent vehicle of a sample cache collected by earlier science missions. This sample retrieval rover R&D prototype has a completely collapsible mobility system enabling rover stowage to approximately 25% operational volume, as well an actively articulated axle

  6. IEEE 1588 clock distribution for FlexRIO devices in PXIe platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We explain briefly the synchronization process of the IEEE 1588 PTP. • Problems using PTP for integrate timestamp in PXIe ITER Fast Controllers prototype. • Integrate synchronized clock with PTP, into every FlexRIO device using PXIe bus. • Integrate solution with NIRIO EPICS Device Support for CODAC CORE System. • Synchronization accuracy obtained under 100 ns. - Abstract: In nuclear fusion environments, hundreds of thousands of data acquisition channels can be used. The time synchronization of these channels is crucial to obtaining a proper temporal correlation among the samples of all of the channels. Timestamping is the typical method used to provide a time reference to the samples. At present, the most accurate way to synchronize distributed data acquisition systems is to use the Precision Time Protocol (PTP) IEEE 1588 2008 standard, or its enhanced version, White Rabbit. The main problems related to this solution arise when the system controller in a chassis with more than one data acquisition (DAQ) device has to assign (a) timestamps to the concrete waveform samples acquired by each DAQ or has to (b) timestamp events generated by each DAQ under special conditions. One of the solutions adopted by ITER to implement the Fast Controller prototype consists of a controller device connected to a PXIe chassis with the NI-6682 timing card as the Timestamp generator and the FlexRIO devices as the DAQs. To solve this problem, a solution has been designed that distributes the clock from the IEEE 1588 timing card to all FlexRIO devices. Each DAQ device with its own clock is synchronized at every moment with the IEEE 1588 protocol, which has the capacity to assign timestamps to every sample acquired and to register events by hardware in a deterministic way. This solution increases the functionality of the NIRIO EPICS Device Support and can be included with the nominal device support that is a generic EPICS driver for every device type in the CODAC

  7. Hydraulic Hybrid Parcel Delivery Truck Deployment, Testing & Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallo, Jean-Baptiste [Calstart Incorporated, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2014-03-07

    Although hydraulic hybrid systems have shown promise over the last few years, commercial deployment of these systems has primarily been limited to Class 8 refuse trucks. In 2005, the Hybrid Truck Users Forum initiated the Parcel Delivery Working Group including the largest parcel delivery fleets in North America. The goal of the working group was to evaluate and accelerate commercialization of hydraulic hybrid technology for parcel delivery vehicles. FedEx Ground, Purolator and United Parcel Service (UPS) took delivery of the world’s first commercially available hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery trucks in early 2012. The vehicle chassis includes a Parker Hannifin hydraulic hybrid drive system, integrated and assembled by Freightliner Custom Chassis Corp., with a body installed by Morgan Olson. With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, CALSTART and its project partners assessed the performance, reliability, maintainability and fleet acceptance of three pre-production Class 6 hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery vehicles using information and data from in-use data collection and on-road testing. This document reports on the deployment of these vehicles operated by FedEx Ground, Purolator and UPS. The results presented provide a comprehensive overview of the performance of commercial hydraulic hybrid vehicles in parcel delivery applications. This project also informs fleets and manufacturers on the overall performance of hydraulic hybrid vehicles, provides insights on how the technology can be both improved and more effectively used. The key findings and recommendations of this project fall into four major categories: -Performance, -Fleet deployment, -Maintenance, -Business case. Hydraulic hybrid technology is relatively new to the market, as commercial vehicles have been introduced only in the past few years in refuse and parcel delivery applications. Successful demonstration could pave the way for additional purchases of hydraulic hybrid vehicles throughout the

  8. Design of a Mobile Radiation Detection System for Seaports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed a mobile radiation detection system for the U.S. Customs department. Based on the radiation detection instruments currently in use at many border crossings, the mobile radiation portal monitor (mRPM) consists of two Ludlum 4500-3000 detector panels, a package of sensors and a sensor integration module mounted to a medium duty truck chassis. The sensor package detects the presence of scanning targets (containers) and uses this to control operation of the detectors. The mRPM is designed to scan containerized cargo at seaports. A single mRPM can be driven past grounded or chassis-mounted containers (both sides of the container must be scanned for complete coverage), or a pair of mRPM systems can be parked opposite one another to form a relocatable portal. This rapidly reconfigurable system has proven to be very useful for targeted scanning of containers at multiple seaports. Since seaports are frequently space-constrained and contain few chokepoints, mobile systems that can be easily relocated allow customs operators to effectively scan cargo with minimal interference with the flow of commerce. Operators previously trained in the use of the stationary radiation portal monitors require minimal additional training to use the mRPM systems. The medium duty trucks employed are similar to one-ton crew cab pickup trucks, and a commercial driver's license is not required to operate them. In addition to successful deployments at seaports, the mRPM units have proven useful in other applications, such as preliminary characterization of rail cargo and targeted scanning at special events (political conventions)

  9. Flight Hardware Packaging Design for Stringent EMC Radiated Emission Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lortz, Charlene L.; Huang, Chi-Chien N.; Ravich, Joshua A.; Steiner, Carl N.

    2013-01-01

    This packaging design approach can help heritage hardware meet a flight project's stringent EMC radiated emissions requirement. The approach requires only minor modifications to a hardware's chassis and mainly concentrates on its connector interfaces. The solution is to raise the surface area where the connector is mounted by a few millimeters using a pedestal, and then wrapping with conductive tape from the cable backshell down to the surface-mounted connector. This design approach has been applied to JPL flight project subsystems. The EMC radiated emissions requirements for flight projects can vary from benign to mission critical. If the project's EMC requirements are stringent, the best approach to meet EMC requirements would be to design an EMC control program for the project early on and implement EMC design techniques starting with the circuit board layout. This is the ideal scenario for hardware that is built from scratch. Implementation of EMC radiated emissions mitigation techniques can mature as the design progresses, with minimal impact to the design cycle. The real challenge exists for hardware that is planned to be flown following a built-to-print approach, in which heritage hardware from a past project with a different set of requirements is expected to perform satisfactorily for a new project. With acceptance of heritage, the design would already be established (circuit board layout and components have already been pre-determined), and hence any radiated emissions mitigation techniques would only be applicable at the packaging level. The key is to take a heritage design with its known radiated emissions spectrum and repackage, or modify its chassis design so that it would have a better chance of meeting the new project s radiated emissions requirements.

  10. Evaluation of duty cycles for heavy-duty urban vehicles : final report of IEA AMF Annex 29

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nylund, N.O.; Erkkila, K. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Clark, N. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Rideout, G. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Environmental Technology Centre, Emissions Research and Measurement Div

    2007-07-01

    Heavy-duty vehicles in Europe and North America will require incylinder measures or exhaust gas after-treatment technology to control emissions and meet ever stringent emission requirements. Alternatively, manufacturers can choose clean burning alternative fuels such as natural gas. Although there are no international standards for heavy-duty vehicle chassis dynamometer testing at present, the IEA Implementing Agreements offer excellent platforms for international collaborative research. Harmonization of test methods for vehicles and fuels is one important task. This paper reported on the work of 3 laboratories that have produced emission results for complete heavy-duty vehicles. VTT Technical Research of Finland, Environment Canada and West Virginia University measured standard size urban buses driving various duty cycles on chassis dynamometers. The number of transient test cycles per laboratory varied from 6 to 16. European and North American diesel and natural gas vehicles were included in the vehicle matrix. The objective was to demonstrate how the driving cycle affects the emission performance of conventional and advanced urban buses. Several driving cycles were run on urban buses to better understand the characteristics of different duty cycles; produce a key for cross-interpretation of emission results generated with different cycles; and study the interaction between vehicle, exhaust after-treatment and fuel technologies and test procedures. Fuel consumption and exhaust emissions were measured. The results varied significantly not only by test cycle, but also by vehicle technology. In general, vehicles emissions were directly proportioned to the amount of fuel consumed, with the exception of NOx-emissions from SCR-vehicles. There was a clear difference in the emission profiles of European and North American vehicles. In Europe, fuel efficiency was emphasized, while in North America, more focus was given to regulated exhaust emissions, especially low

  11. Modeling Heavy/Medium-Duty Fuel Consumption Based on Drive Cycle Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijuan; Duran, Adam; Gonder, Jeffrey; Kelly, Kenneth

    2015-10-13

    This paper presents multiple methods for predicting heavy/medium-duty vehicle fuel consumption based on driving cycle information. A polynomial model, a black box artificial neural net model, a polynomial neural network model, and a multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) model were developed and verified using data collected from chassis testing performed on a parcel delivery diesel truck operating over the Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT), City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle (CSHVC), New York Composite Cycle (NYCC), and hydraulic hybrid vehicle (HHV) drive cycles. Each model was trained using one of four drive cycles as a training cycle and the other three as testing cycles. By comparing the training and testing results, a representative training cycle was chosen and used to further tune each method. HHDDT as the training cycle gave the best predictive results, because HHDDT contains a variety of drive characteristics, such as high speed, acceleration, idling, and deceleration. Among the four model approaches, MARS gave the best predictive performance, with an average absolute percent error of -1.84% over the four chassis dynamometer drive cycles. To further evaluate the accuracy of the predictive models, the approaches were first applied to real-world data. MARS outperformed the other three approaches, providing an average absolute percent error of -2.2% of four real-world road segments. The MARS model performance was then compared to HHDDT, CSHVC, NYCC, and HHV drive cycles with the performance from Future Automotive System Technology Simulator (FASTSim). The results indicated that the MARS method achieved a comparative predictive performance with FASTSim.

  12. Evaluation of using ferrofluid as an interface material for a field-reversible thermal connector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Ahmed S.

    The electrical functionality of an avionics chassis is limited due to heat dissipation limits. The limits arise due to the fact that components in an avionic computer boxes are packed very compactly, with the components mounted onto plug-in cards, and the harsh environment experienced by the chassis limits how heat can be dissipated from the cards. Convective and radiative heat transfer to the ambient are generally not possible. Therefore it is necessary to have heat transferred from the components conducted to the edge of the plug-in cards. The heat then needs to conduct from the card edge to a cold block that not only holds the card in place, but also removes the generated heat by some heat transfer fluid that is circulated through the cold block. The interface between the plug-in card and the cold block typically has a high thermal resistance since it is necessary for the card to have the capability to be re-workable, meaning that the card can be removed and then returned to the chassis. Reducing the thermal resistance of the interface is the objective of the current study and the topic of this thesis. The current design uses a pressure interface between the card and cold block. The contact pressure is increased through the addition of a wedgelock, which is a field-reversible mechanical connector. To use a wedgelock, the cold block has channels milled on the surface with widths that are larger than the thickness of the plug-in card and the un-expanded wedgelock. The card edge is placed in the channel and placed against one of the channel walls. A wedgelock is then placed between the card and the other channel wall. The wedgelock is then expanded by using either a screw or a lever. As the wedgelock expands it fills in the remaining channel gap and bears against the other face of the plug-in card. The majority of heat generated by the components on the plug-in card is forced to conduct from the card into the wall of the cold block, effectively a single sided, dry

  13. An Experiment Support Computer for Externally-Based ISS Payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, S. W.; Chen, S. E.

    2002-01-01

    The Experiment Support Facility - External (ESF-X) is a computer designed for general experiment use aboard the International Space Station (ISS) Truss Site locations. The ESF-X design is highly modular and uses commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components wherever possible to allow for maximum reconfigurability to meet the needs of almost any payload. The ESF-X design has been developed with the EXPRESS Pallet as the target location and the University of Colorado's Micron Accuracy Deployment Experiment (MADE) as the anticipated first payload and capability driver. Thus the design presented here is configured for structural dynamics and control as well as optics experiments. The ESF-X is a small (58.4 x 48.3 x 17.8") steel and copper enclosure which houses a 14 slot VME card chassis and power supply. All power and data connections are made through a single panel on the enclosure so that only one side of the enclosure must be accessed for nominal operation and servicing activities. This feature also allows convenient access during integration and checkout activities. Because it utilizes a standard VME backplane, ESF-X can make use of the many commercial boards already in production for this standard. Since the VME standard is also heavily used in industrial and military applications, many ruggedized components are readily available. The baseline design includes commercial processors, Ethernet, MIL-STD-1553, and mass storage devices. The main processor board contains four TI 6701 DSPs with a PowerPC based controller. Other standard functions, such as analog-to-digital, digital-to-analog, motor driver, temperature readings, etc., are handled on industry-standard IP modules. Carrier cards, which hold 4 IP modules each, are placed in slots in the VME backplane. A unique, custom IP carrier board with radiation event detectors allows non RAD-hard components to be used in an extended exposure environment. Thermal control is maintained by conductive cooling through the copper

  14. Transportable Heavy Duty Emissions Testing Laboratory and Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Lyons

    2008-03-31

    The objective of this program was to quantify the emissions from heavy-duty vehicles operating on alternative fuels or advanced fuel blends, often with novel engine technology or aftertreatment. In the first year of the program West Virginia University (WVU) researchers determined that a transportable chassis dynamometer emissions measurement approach was required so that fleets of trucks and buses did not need to be ferried across the nation to a fixed facility. A Transportable Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emissions Testing Laboratory (Translab) was designed, constructed and verified. This laboratory consisted of a chassis dynamometer semi-trailer and an analytic trailer housing a full scale exhaust dilution tunnel and sampling system which mimicked closely the system described in the Code of Federal Regulations for engine certification. The Translab was first used to quantify emissions from natural gas and methanol fueled transit buses, and a second Translab unit was constructed to satisfy research demand. Subsequent emissions measurement was performed on trucks and buses using ethanol, Fischer-Tropsch fuel, and biodiesel. A medium-duty chassis dynamometer was also designed and constructed to facilitate research on delivery vehicles in the 10,000 to 20,000lb range. The Translab participated in major programs to evaluate low-sulfur diesel in conjunction with passively regenerating exhaust particulate filtration technology, and substantial reductions in particulate matter were recorded. The researchers also participated in programs to evaluate emissions from advanced natural gas engines with closed loop feedback control. These natural gas engines showed substantially reduced levels of oxides of nitrogen. For all of the trucks and buses characterized, the levels of carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide and particulate matter were quantified, and in many cases non-regulated species such as aldehydes were also sampled. Particle size was also

  15. Mitigation Emission Strategy Based on Resonances from a Power Inverter System in Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Large dv/dt and di/dt outputs of power devices in the DC-fed motor power inverter can generate conducted and/or radiated emissions through parasitics that interfere with low voltage electric systems in electric vehicles (EVs and nearby vehicles. The electromagnetic interference (EMI filters, ferrite chokes, and shielding added in the product process based on the “black box” approach can reduce the emission levels in a specific frequency range. However, these countermeasures may also introduce an unexpected increase in EMI noises in other frequency ranges due to added capacitances and inductances in filters resonating with elements of the power inverter, and even increase the weight and dimension of the power inverter system in EVs with limited space. In order to predict the interaction between the mitigation techniques and power inverter geometry, an accurate model of the system is needed. A power inverter system was modeled based on series of two-port network measurements to study the impact of EMI generated by power devices on radiated emission of AC cables. Parallel resonances within the circuit can cause peaks in the S21 (transmission coefficient between the phase-node-to-chassis voltage and the center-conductor-to-shield voltage of the AC cable connecting to the motor and Z11 (input impedance at Port 1 between the Insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT phase node and chassis at those resonance frequencies and result in enlarged noise voltage peaks at Port 1. The magnitude of S21 between two ports was reduced to decrease the amount of energy coupled from the noise source between the phase node and chassis to the end of the AC cable by lowering the corresponding quality factor. The equivalent circuits were built by analyzing current-following paths at three critical resonance frequencies. Interference voltage peaks can be suppressed by mitigating the resonances. The capacitances and inductances generating the parallel resonances and

  16. Converting Carbon Dioxide to Butyrate with an Engineered Strain of Clostridium ljungdahlii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueki, T; Nevin, KP; Woodard, TL; Lovley, DR

    2014-08-26

    Microbial conversion of carbon dioxide to organic commodities via syngas metabolism or microbial electrosynthesis is an attractive option for production of renewable biocommodities. The recent development of an initial genetic toolbox for the acetogen Clostridium ljungdahlii has suggested that C. ljungdahlii may be an effective chassis for such conversions. This possibility was evaluated by engineering a strain to produce butyrate, a valuable commodity that is not a natural product of C. ljungdahlii metabolism. Heterologous genes required for butyrate production from acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) were identified and introduced initially on plasmids and in subsequent strain designs integrated into the C. ljungdahlii chromosome. Iterative strain designs involved increasing translation of a key enzyme by modifying a ribosome binding site, inactivating the gene encoding the first step in the conversion of acetyl-CoA to acetate, disrupting the gene which encodes the primary bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase for ethanol production, and interrupting the gene for a CoA transferase that potentially represented an alternative route for the production of acetate. These modifications yielded a strain in which ca. 50 or 70% of the carbon and electron flow was diverted to the production of butyrate with H-2 or CO as the electron donor, respectively. These results demonstrate the possibility of producing high-value commodities from carbon dioxide with C. ljungdahlii as the catalyst. IMPORTANCE The development of a microbial chassis for efficient conversion of carbon dioxide directly to desired organic products would greatly advance the environmentally sustainable production of biofuels and other commodities. Clostridium ljungdahlii is an effective catalyst for microbial electrosynthesis, a technology in which electricity generated with renewable technologies, such as solar or wind, powers the conversion of carbon dioxide and water to organic products. Other electron donors

  17. Impact of an evaluation quality program of mammography service of Distrito Federal - Brasil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer is the second cause of death for Brazilian women and breast cancer is the most common neoplasm amongst women. Mammography is an essential tool for diagnosis and early detection of this disease. In order to be effective, the mammography must be of good quality. This study sought to evaluate the quality of these services in the Federal District and the impact of an intervention involving inspection and education. The universe of 41 mammography services in the Federal District was studied between June and August 2001. Two instruments were used 1) a proposed evaluation protocol of the National Agency for Health Surveillance (ANVISA) and 2) a protocol for evaluation of image quality and care. The intervention included the initial inspection, a training activity, and a formal notification by the health authorities of the Federal District. Image quality was compared before and after the intervention. The existing infrastructure in the DF is of good quality, but the services have low productivity, they do not treat patients sent by the public health system, they have an inadequate geographic distribution with most in the central neighborhood, and the low income female population has restricted access to early detection of cancer. Of the 36 services who completed the study, none was above 90% conformity in image quality before the interventions, whereas 10 were above 90% afterwards. The greatest improvements were in chassis maintenance (services without chassis with defects went from 10 to 25), breast compression (services in conformity went from 7 to 20) and visualization of micro calcifications (32 services in conformity before and 35 afterwards). The results of the ANVISA protocol bore no relation to final image quality, a central issue for early cancer detection. In spite of the existence of many services, most were not of quality and population access was restricted. The intervention under study was shown to be effective for improving quality, nevertheless

  18. Impacto de um programa de avaliação da qualidade da imagem nos serviços de mamografia do Distrito Federal Impact of a program of diagnostic imaging quality control in mammography centers of the Federal District, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela da Silveira Corrêa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Esta pesquisa visou a avaliar a qualidade dos serviços de mamografia do Distrito Federal e o impacto de uma intervenção de inspeção e capacitação. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 41 serviços de mamografia no Distrito Federal no período de 2000 a 2002. A intervenção consistiu na inspeção inicial seguida de um treinamento e notificação oficial da Vigilância Sanitária. Os resultados de qualidade da imagem foram comparados "antes" e "depois" da intervenção. RESULTADOS: O estudo demonstrou que dos 36 serviços que completaram a pesquisa, nenhum estava acima de 90% de conformidade antes da intervenção. Após a intervenção, dez unidades atingiram mais de 90%. As principais melhorias foram em relação aos chassis, compressão da mama e visualização de microcalcificações. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar de o Distrito Federal dispor de muitos serviços, na sua maioria não eram de qualidade. A intervenção foi eficaz para a melhoria da qualidade, porém, torna-se necessária uma ação continuada para resolver os problemas restantes e aumentar o impacto.OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed at evaluating the quality and the impact of an intervention involving inspection and education in mammography centers of the Federal District, Brazil. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty one mammography centers in the Federal District were studied in the period between 2000 and 2002. The intervention involved an initial inspection followed by a training activity and notification of mammography centers by the Federal District Sanitary Vigilance authority. The imaging quality was compared before and after the intervention. RESULTS: None of the 36 centers which completed the study reached more than 90% compliance with the standard imaging quality prior to the interventions, whereas ten were above 90% afterwards. Major improvements were observed in chassis maintenance, breast compression and visualization of microcalcifications. CONCLUSION

  19. ArgusE: Design and Development of a Micro-Spectrometer used for Remote Earth and Atmospheric Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsouvaltsidis, C.; Bernari, G.; Salem, N.; Quine, B.; Lee, R.

    In this paper we will discuss the design and development of the ArgusE. The ArgusE is a micro-spectrometer which has been developed for Earth and atmospheric monitoring purposes. The project is primarily focused on using the ArgusE micro-spectrometer in order to ascertain whether it is possible to obtain surface soil moisture content measurements from space using its short-wave infrared detector. The secondary objective of the project is to quantify greenhouse gases that could be studied within new spectral range. The ArgusE is built on Argus 1000 micro-spectrometer design and spaceflight heritage. Currently, on the CanX-2 mission launched in 2008, the Argus 1000 micro-spectrometer observes the infrared solar radiation reflected by Earth surface targets as small as 1.5 km2 and the atmosphere (aerosols, clouds, and constituents). Over the past five years that Argus 1000 has been in operation, we have accumulated more than 200 observations from a series of land and ocean targets. It was followed by the SRMSAT, launched in 2011 (India). Currently all space-based Argus 1000s are collecting Earth and atmospheric observation data within the 0.9-1.7 micrometers spectral range, with special focus on CO2 and other greenhouse gases, and cloud and coastline detection. GENSPECT, a line-by-line radiative Matlab-based toolbox is used to calculate gas absorption and emissivity for a custom grouping of atmospheric gases. Given gas types and amounts, temperature, pressure, path length and frequency range for an atmosphere or laboratory cell, GENSPECT computes the spectral characteristics of the gas mixture. The resulting models used to discover the potential monitoring of atmospheric greenhouse gases and topical soil moisture content will be discussed and displayed graphically. In addition, this paper will showcase the chassis redesign and change of electronics which allow the ArgusE to now showcase the spectral region of 1.7 to 2.2 micrometers. It will also discuss the laboratory

  20. The design of the Comet streamliner: An electric land speed record motorcycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Ethan Alexander

    The development of the land speed record electric motorcycle streamliner, the Comet, is discussed herein. Its design process includes a detailed literary review of past and current motorcycle streamliners in an effort to highlight the main components of such a vehicle's design, while providing baseline data for performance comparisons. A new approach to balancing a streamliner at low speeds is also addressed, a system henceforth referred to as landing gear, which has proven an effective means for allowing the driver to control the low speed instabilities of the vehicle with relative ease compared to tradition designs. This is accompanied by a dynamic stability analysis conducted on a test chassis that was developed for the primary purpose of understanding the handling dynamics of streamliners, while also providing a test bed for the implementation of the landing gear system and a means to familiarize the driver to the operation and handling of such a vehicle. Data gathered through the use of GPS based velocity tracking, accelerometers, and a linear potentiometer provided a means to validate a dynamic stability analysis of the weave and wobble modes of the vehicle through linearization of a streamliner model developed in the BikeSIM software suite. Results indicate agreement between the experimental data and the simulation, indicating that the conventional recumbent design of a streamliner chassis is in fact highly stable throughout the performance envelope beyond extremely low speeds. A computational fluid dynamics study was also performed, utilized in the development of the body of the Comet to which a series of tests were conducted in order to develop a shape that was both practical to transport and highly efficient. By creating a hybrid airfoil from a NACA 0018 and NACA 66-018, a drag coefficient of 0.1 and frontal area of 0.44 m2 has been found for the final design. Utilizing a performance model based on the proposed vehicle's motor, its rolling resistance, and

  1. Exhaust emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, n-alkanes and phenols from vehicles coming within different European classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Maria Grazia; Carbone, Claudio; Faedo, Davide; Ferrero, Luca; Maggioni, Angela; Sangiorgi, Giorgia; Bolzacchini, Ezio

    2014-01-01

    EU emission standards for vehicles do not include many particulate (PM) and gaseous species, despite their considerable impact on air pollution and health. Emission factors (EFs) were measured for unregulated species, i.e. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and n-alkanes (ALKs) in the particle phase, and, for the first time, EFs for phenols in both particle and gas phases. Exhaust samples were collected under controlled operating conditions (chassis dynamometer tests) for in-service vehicles (private cars, PCs and light duty vehicles, LDVs) from different EURO classes. EFs of trace organics were highest for the old EURO 1 vehicles (the tested EURO 1 vehicles were without emission-control devices), and lowest for the more recent EURO 3 and 4 vehicles. ALKs (C20-C32) were the most abundant trace organic compounds found in PM vehicle exhaust, and their EF ranged between 2034 and 101 μg km-1 (Euro 1-4 LDVs). PM-phased phenols EFs were in the range 0.42-2.50 μg km-1, and 4-nitrophenol was the most abundant one. The highest EFs were measured for phenols in the gas phase (dominated by the presence of phenol) for gasoline EURO 1 (43.16 ± 9.99 μg km-1). Emissions of PAHs changed depending on the fuel used. The PAH EFs of diesel-driven PCs were 4-5 times higher than those of gasoline vehicles, with PAHs diesel exhaust being mainly enriched in low 4-ring PAHs (85%), while 5-6 ring PAHs were prevalent (55%) in gasoline vehicles. Results of source profiles from chassis dynamometer tests were compared with ambient data, and the traffic PAH source profile derived from a tunnel study (Milan) agreed with the estimated emissions from a mix of diesel and gasoline vehicles circulating in the same area. Moreover, the impact of EURO regulatory changes on exhaust emissions was calculated, and this made it possible to estimate the downward trend of PAH emissions in the Province of Milan in the period 2005-2020.

  2. Converting carbon dioxide to butyrate with an engineered strain of Clostridium ljungdahlii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Toshiyuki; Nevin, Kelly P; Woodard, Trevor L; Lovley, Derek R

    2014-01-01

    Microbial conversion of carbon dioxide to organic commodities via syngas metabolism or microbial electrosynthesis is an attractive option for production of renewable biocommodities. The recent development of an initial genetic toolbox for the acetogen Clostridium ljungdahlii has suggested that C. ljungdahlii may be an effective chassis for such conversions. This possibility was evaluated by engineering a strain to produce butyrate, a valuable commodity that is not a natural product of C. ljungdahlii metabolism. Heterologous genes required for butyrate production from acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) were identified and introduced initially on plasmids and in subsequent strain designs integrated into the C. ljungdahlii chromosome. Iterative strain designs involved increasing translation of a key enzyme by modifying a ribosome binding site, inactivating the gene encoding the first step in the conversion of acetyl-CoA to acetate, disrupting the gene which encodes the primary bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase for ethanol production, and interrupting the gene for a CoA transferase that potentially represented an alternative route for the production of acetate. These modifications yielded a strain in which ca. 50 or 70% of the carbon and electron flow was diverted to the production of butyrate with H2 or CO as the electron donor, respectively. These results demonstrate the possibility of producing high-value commodities from carbon dioxide with C. ljungdahlii as the catalyst. Importance: The development of a microbial chassis for efficient conversion of carbon dioxide directly to desired organic products would greatly advance the environmentally sustainable production of biofuels and other commodities. Clostridium ljungdahlii is an effective catalyst for microbial electrosynthesis, a technology in which electricity generated with renewable technologies, such as solar or wind, powers the conversion of carbon dioxide and water to organic products. Other electron donors

  3. Test bed for real-time image acquisition and processing systems based on FlexRIO, CameraLink, and EPICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The test bed allows for the validation of real-time image processing techniques. • Offers FPGA (FlexRIO) image processing that does not require CPU intervention. • Is fully compatible with the architecture of the ITER Fast Controllers. • Provides flexibility and easy integration in distributed experiments based on EPICS. - Abstract: Image diagnostics are becoming standard ones in nuclear fusion. At present, images are typically analyzed off-line. However, real-time processing is occasionally required (for instance, hot-spot detection or pattern recognition tasks), which will be the objective for the next generation of fusion devices. In this paper, a test bed for image generation, acquisition, and real-time processing is presented. The proposed solution is built using a Camera Link simulator, a Camera Link frame-grabber, a PXIe chassis, and offers software interface with EPICS. The Camera Link simulator (PCIe card PCIe8 DVa C-Link from Engineering Design Team) generates simulated image data (for example, from video-movies stored in fusion databases) using a Camera Link interface to mimic the frame sequences produced with diagnostic cameras. The Camera Link frame-grabber (FlexRIO Solution from National Instruments) includes a field programmable gate array (FPGA) for image acquisition using a Camera Link interface; the FPGA allows for the codification of ad-hoc image processing algorithms using LabVIEW/FPGA software. The frame grabber is integrated in a PXIe chassis with system architecture similar to that of the ITER Fast Controllers, and the frame grabber provides a software interface with EPICS to program all of its functionalities, capture the images, and perform the required image processing. The use of these four elements allows for the implementation of a test bed system that permits the development and validation of real-time image processing techniques in an architecture that is fully compatible with that of the ITER Fast Controllers

  4. Impact of an evaluation quality program of mammography service of Distrito Federal - Brasil; Impacto de um programa de avaliacao da qualidade dos servicos de mamografia do Distrito Federal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Rosangela da Silveira

    2002-07-01

    Cancer is the second cause of death for Brazilian women and breast cancer is the most common neoplasm amongst women. Mammography is an essential tool for diagnosis and early detection of this disease. In order to be effective, the mammography must be of good quality. This study sought to evaluate the quality of these services in the Federal District and the impact of an intervention involving inspection and education. The universe of 41 mammography services in the Federal District was studied between June and August 2001. Two instruments were used 1) a proposed evaluation protocol of the National Agency for Health Surveillance (ANVISA) and 2) a protocol for evaluation of image quality and care. The intervention included the initial inspection, a training activity, and a formal notification by the health authorities of the Federal District. Image quality was compared before and after the intervention. The existing infrastructure in the DF is of good quality, but the services have low productivity, they do not treat patients sent by the public health system, they have an inadequate geographic distribution with most in the central neighborhood, and the low income female population has restricted access to early detection of cancer. Of the 36 services who completed the study, none was above 90% conformity in image quality before the interventions, whereas 10 were above 90% afterwards. The greatest improvements were in chassis maintenance (services without chassis with defects went from 10 to 25), breast compression (services in conformity went from 7 to 20) and visualization of micro calcifications (32 services in conformity before and 35 afterwards). The results of the ANVISA protocol bore no relation to final image quality, a central issue for early cancer detection. In spite of the existence of many services, most were not of quality and population access was restricted. The intervention under study was shown to be effective for improving quality, nevertheless

  5. Test bed for real-time image acquisition and processing systems based on FlexRIO, CameraLink, and EPICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, E., E-mail: eduardo.barrera@upm.es [Grupo de Investigación en Instrumentación y Acústica Aplicada, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM) (Spain); Ruiz, M.; Sanz, D. [Grupo de Investigación en Instrumentación y Acústica Aplicada, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM) (Spain); Vega, J.; Castro, R. [Asociación EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusión, Madrid (Spain); Juárez, E.; Salvador, R. [Centro de Investigación en Tecnologías Software y Sistemas Multimedia para la Sostenibilidad, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM) (Spain)

    2014-05-15

    Highlights: • The test bed allows for the validation of real-time image processing techniques. • Offers FPGA (FlexRIO) image processing that does not require CPU intervention. • Is fully compatible with the architecture of the ITER Fast Controllers. • Provides flexibility and easy integration in distributed experiments based on EPICS. - Abstract: Image diagnostics are becoming standard ones in nuclear fusion. At present, images are typically analyzed off-line. However, real-time processing is occasionally required (for instance, hot-spot detection or pattern recognition tasks), which will be the objective for the next generation of fusion devices. In this paper, a test bed for image generation, acquisition, and real-time processing is presented. The proposed solution is built using a Camera Link simulator, a Camera Link frame-grabber, a PXIe chassis, and offers software interface with EPICS. The Camera Link simulator (PCIe card PCIe8 DVa C-Link from Engineering Design Team) generates simulated image data (for example, from video-movies stored in fusion databases) using a Camera Link interface to mimic the frame sequences produced with diagnostic cameras. The Camera Link frame-grabber (FlexRIO Solution from National Instruments) includes a field programmable gate array (FPGA) for image acquisition using a Camera Link interface; the FPGA allows for the codification of ad-hoc image processing algorithms using LabVIEW/FPGA software. The frame grabber is integrated in a PXIe chassis with system architecture similar to that of the ITER Fast Controllers, and the frame grabber provides a software interface with EPICS to program all of its functionalities, capture the images, and perform the required image processing. The use of these four elements allows for the implementation of a test bed system that permits the development and validation of real-time image processing techniques in an architecture that is fully compatible with that of the ITER Fast Controllers

  6. Analysis of vehicle exhaust waste heat recovery potential using a Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluates the vehicle exhaust WHR (waste heat recovery) potential using a RC (Rankine cycle ). To this end, both a RC thermodynamic model and a heat exchanger model have been developed. Both models use as input, experimental data obtained from a vehicle tested on a chassis dynamometer. The thermodynamic analysis was performed for water, R123 and R245fa and revealed the advantage of using water as the working fluid in applications of thermal recovery from exhaust gases of vehicles equipped with a spark-ignition engine. Moreover, the heat exchanger effectiveness for the organic working fluids R123 and R245fa is higher than that for the water and, consequently, they can also be considered appropriate for use in vehicle WHR applications through RCs when the exhaust gas temperatures are relatively low. For an ideal heat exchanger, the simulations revealed increases in the internal combustion engine thermal and vehicle mechanical efficiencies of 1.4%–3.52% and 10.16%–15.95%, respectively, while for a shell and tube heat exchanger, the simulations showed an increase of 0.85%–1.2% in the thermal efficiency and an increase of 2.64%–6.96% in the mechanical efficiency for an evaporating pressure of 2 MPa. The results confirm the advantages of using the thermal energy contained in the vehicle exhaust gases through RCs. Furthermore, the present analysis demonstrates that improved evaporator designs and appropriate expander devices allowing for higher evaporating pressures are required to obtain the maximum WHR potential from vehicle RC systems. -- Highlights: ► This study evaluates the vehicle exhaust waste heat recovery potential using Rankine cycle systems. ► A thermodynamic model and a heat exchanger model were developed. ► Experimental data obtained in a vehicle tested on a chassis dynamometer was used as models input. ► Thermodynamic analysis was performed for water, R123 and R245fa. ► Results confirm advantages of using the thermal energy

  7. Carbonyl emissions from gasoline and diesel motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakober, Chris A; Robert, Michael A; Riddle, Sarah G; Destaillats, Hugo; Charles, M Judith; Green, Peter G; Kleeman, Michael J

    2008-07-01

    Carbonyls from gasoline-powered light-duty vehicles (LDVs) and heavy-duty diesel-powered vehicles (HDDVs) operated on chassis dynamometers were measured by use of an annular denuder-quartz filter-polyurethane foam sampler with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine derivatization and chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. Two internal standards were utilized based on carbonyl recovery: 4-fluorobenzaldehyde for or = C8 compounds. Gas- and particle-phase emissions for 39 aliphatic and 20 aromatic carbonyls ranged from 0.1 to 2000 microg/L of fuel for LDVs and from 1.8 to 27 000 microg/L of fuel for HDDVs. Gas-phase species accounted for 81-95% of the total carbonyls from LDVs and 86-88% from HDDVs. Particulate carbonyls emitted from a HDDV under realistic driving conditions were similar to concentrations measured in a diesel particulate matter (PM) standard reference material. Carbonyls accounted for 19% of particulate organic carbon (POC) emissions from low-emission LDVs and 37% of POC emissions from three-way catalyst-equipped LDVs. This identifies carbonyls as one of the largest classes of compounds in LDV PM emissions. The carbonyl fraction of HDDV POC was lower, 3.3-3.9% depending upon operational conditions. Partitioning analysis indicates the carbonyls had not achieved equilibrium between the gas and particle phases under the dilution factors of 126-584 used in the present study. PMID:18677993

  8. Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter Performance in a Light-Duty Vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Light-duty chassis dynamometer driving cycle tests were conducted on a Mercedes A170 diesel vehicle with various sulfur-level fuels and exhaust emission control systems. Triplicate runs of a modified light-duty federal test procedure (FTP), US06 cycle, and SCO3 cycle were conducted with each exhaust configuration and fuel. Ultra-low sulfur (3-ppm) diesel fuel was doped to 30- and 150-ppm sulfur so that all other fuel properties remained the same. The fuels used in these experiments met the specifications of the fuels from the DECSE (Diesel Emission Control Sulfur Effects) program. Although the Mercedes A170 vehicle is not available in the US, its emissions in the as tested condition fell within the U.S. Tier 1 full useful life standards with the OEM catalysts installed. Tests with the OEM catalysts removed showed that the OEM catalysts reduced PM emissions from the engine-out condition by 30-40% but had negligible effects on NOx emissions. Fuel sulfur level had very little effect on th e OEM catalyst performance. A prototype catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CDPF) mounted in an underfloor configuration reduced particulate matter emissions by more than 90% compared to the factory emissions control system. The results show that the CDPF did not promote any significant amounts of SO(sub 2)-to-sulfate conversion during these light-duty drive cycles

  9. An Unique On-line Method to Infer Black Carbonaceous contributions to Water-Insoluble Aerosol Compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asa-Awuku, A. A.; Short, D.

    2013-12-01

    Particle number, size, and composition information is important for constraining aerosol effects on air quality, climate, and health. The composition of particles, especially from vehicular sources, may contain insoluble material that may modify particle nucleating properties. Changes in fuel properties are known to modify criteria pollutants and particulate matter mass, size, and number. In this work we summarize findings as they pertain to the water-soluble and insoluble composition of particles. In field measuremnts and controlled laboratory studies, a water-based condensation particle counter (CPC) and a butanol-based CPC measure particle number concentration. Both instruments were coupled with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and particle number and size data were recorded. Real time particle insoluble mass fractions are estimated with the SMPS data sets; theoretical soluble fractions are calculated from ideal hygroscopicty single parameter values. This is the first time that this experimental method has been employed and used to infer online insoluble fractions. The results show that near-roadway emissions contain water insoluble and black carbon components. We will discuss the contributions of the organic component to the water-insoluble nature. Time permitting, the emissions of different ethanol and butanol gasoline blends are also explored for light-duty vehicles on a light-duty dynaometer chassis. Laboratory results indicate that soluble vehicular components are strongly correlated with vehicle driving conditions.

  10. ALS Control System IP I/O Module Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Control System for the Advanced Light Source uses in-house designed IndustryPack (IP) I/O Modules in compact PCI (cPCI) chassis to control instrumentation. Each module consists of digital I/O ports and 16-bit analog I/O interfaced to instrumentation via a cPCI rear I/O card. During the past few years of installed operation, several factors have prompted investigation into the design of a new IP I/O Module. The ADC channels have significant offset drift over periods of days of initial installed operation. An in-situ calibration procedure was developed to address this problem, but it lacks speed and is inconvenient to perform. Digital I/O port limitations have led to increasing amounts of wasted I/O. Fast orbit feedback requires faster ADC sampling and better filtering than the current IP Module offers. This paper discusses the issues related to the current IP I/O Module and the design of a new Double-size IP I/O Module

  11. ALS control system IP I/O module upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Control System for the Advanced Light Source uses in-house designed IndustryPack (IP) I/O Modules in compact PCI (cPCI) chassis to control instrumentation. Each module consists of digital I/O ports and 16-bit analog I/O interfaced to instrumentation via a cPCI rear I/O card. During the past few years of installed operation, several factors have prompted investigation into the design of a new IP I/O Module. The ADC channels have significant offset drift over periods of days of initial installed operation. An in-situ calibration procedure was developed to address this problem, but it lacks speed and is inconvenient to perform. Digital I/O port limitations have led to increasing amounts of wasted I/O. Fast orbit feedback requires faster ADC sampling and better filtering than the current IP module offers. This paper discusses the issues related to the current IP I/O Module and the design of a new Double-size IP I/O Module

  12. Control Information and Data Processing of Vehicle based on Global Position System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shupeng Zhao

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A testing system based on Data Stream function of vehicle electronic control system was developed to test the city bus driving cycle. A mufti-function Vehicle Traveling Data Recorder based on GPS which can realize the vehicles positioning and navigating was investigated. The system included data acquisition module, display module, print module, GPS module, communication module and so on. This system adopts the FRAM memory as the storing equipment in which the automobile realized the real-time data store. It could realize the real-time data transmission of automobile and remote controlling by M22 GPRS module which includes TCP/IP. Optimizing of Muti-Energy power train control strategy was the key technical of Hybrid Electric Vehicle. Three kind structure of HEV and their control strategy were investigated, Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle, Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle, and PSHEV. Considering about driving cycle of CYC_NEDC and CYC_HWFET, three control strategies such as Electric Assistant Control, Simulation and experiment evaluation for regenerative braking of hybrid electric vehicle was investigated. The test result shows that the regenerative current in the road test and dynamometer test had little difference. The result shows that fuel consumption value got by the chassis dynamometer test evaluation method was closer to the value got by outdoor road test method.

  13. Method for in-use measurement and evaluation of the activity, fuel use, electricity use, and emissions of a plug-in hybrid diesel-electric school bus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyung-Wook; Frey, H Christopher

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate a methodology for characterizing at high resolution the energy use and emissions of a plug-in parallel-hybrid diesel-electric school bus (PHSB) to support assessments of sensitivity to driving cycles and comparisons to a conventional diesel school bus (CDSB). Data were collected using onboard instruments for a first-of-a-kind prototype PHSB and a CDSB of the same chassis and engine, operated on actual school bus routes. The engine load was estimated on the basis of vehicle specific power (VSP) and an empirically derived relationship between VSP and engine manifold absolute pressure (MAP). VSP depends on speed, acceleration, and road grade. For the PHSB, the observed electrical discharge or recharge to the traction motor battery was characterized on the basis of VSP. The energy use and emission rates of the PHSB from tailpipe and electricity use were estimated for five real-world driving cycles and compared to the engine fuel use and emissions of the CDSB. The PHSB had the greatest advantage on arterial routes and less advantage on highway or local routes. The coupled VSP-MAP modeling approach enables assessment of a wide variety of driving conditions and comparisons of vehicles with different propulsion technologies. PMID:20380435

  14. Influence of driving cycles on exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of gasoline passenger car in Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutramon, Tamsanya; Supachart, Chungpaibulpatana

    2009-01-01

    The influence of different driving cycles on their exhaust emissions and fuel consumption rate of gasoline passenger car was investigated in Bangkok based on the actual measurements obtained from a test vehicle driving on a standard chassis dynamometer. A newly established Bangkok driving cycle (BDC) and the European driving cycle (EDC) which is presently adopted as the legislative cycle for testing automobiles registered in Thailand were used. The newly developed BDC is constructed using the driving characteristic data obtained from the real on-road driving tests along selected traffic routes. A method for selecting appropriate road routes for real driving tests is also introduced. Variations of keyed driving parameters of BDC with different driving cycles were discussed. The results showed that the HC and CO emission factors of BDC are almost two and four times greater than those of EDC, respectively. Although the difference in the NOx emission factor is small, the value from BDC is still greater than that of EDC by 10%. Under BDC, the test vehicle consumes fuel about 25% more than it does under EDC. All these differences are mainly attributed to the greater proportion of idle periods and higher fluctuations of vehicle speed in the BDC cycle. This result indicated that the exhausted emissions and fuel consumption of vehicles obtained from tests under the legislative modal-type driving cycle (EDC) are significantly different from those actually produced under real traffic conditions especially during peak periods. PMID:20108661

  15. Influence of driving cycles on exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of gasoline passenger car in Bangkok

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NUTRAMON Tamsanya; SUPACHART Chungpaibulpatana

    2009-01-01

    The influence of different driving cycles on their exhaust emissions and fuel consumption rate of gasoline passenger car was investigated in Bangkok based on the actual measurements obtained from a test vehicle driving on a standard chassis dynamometer. A newly established Bangkok driving cycle (BDC) and the European driving cycle (EDC) which is presently adopted as the legislative cycle for testing automobiles registered in Thailand were used. The newly developed BDC is constructed using the driving characteristic data obtained from the real on-road driving tests along selected traffic routes. A method for selecting appropriate road routes for real driving tests is also introduced. Variations of keyed driving parameters of BDC with different driving cycles were discussed. The results showed that the HC and CO emission factors of BDC are almost two and four times greater than those of EDC, respectively. Although the difference in the NOx emission factor is small, the value from BDC is still greater than that of EDC by 10%. Under BDC, the test vehicle consumes fuel about 25% more than it does under EDC. All these differences are mainly attributed to the greater proportion of idle periods and higher fluctuations of vehicle speed in the BDC cycle. This result indicated that the exhausted emissions and fuel consumption of vehicles obtained from tests under the legislative modal-type driving cycle (EDC) are significantly different from those actually produced under real traffic conditions especially during peak periods.

  16. Double-probe potential measurements near the Spacelab 2 electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Spacelab 2 mission the plasma diagnostics package (PDP) was released from the shuttle as a free-flying satellite. The PDP carried a quasi-static electric field instrument which made differential voltage measurements between two floating probes. At various times during the free flight, an electron beam was ejected from the shuttle. Large differential voltages between the double probes were recorded in association with the electron beam. However, analysis indicates that these large signals are probably not caused by ambient electric fields. Instead, they can be explained by considering three effects: shadowing of the probes from streaming electrons by the PDP chassis, crossing of the PDP wake by the probes, and spatial gradients in the fluxes of energetic electrons reaching the probes. Plasma measurements on the PDP show that energetic electrons exist in a region 20 m wide and up to at least 170 m downstream from the electron beam. At 80 or more meters downstream from the beam, the double probe measurements show that the energetic electron flux is opposite to the injection direction, as would be expected for a secondary returning electron beam produced by scattering of the primary electron beam

  17. Contribution of vehicle exhaust to the global N2O budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessment of the impact of vehicle emissions on the global environment requires accurate data concerning nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. We report herein 'real world' N2O emissions from road vehicles in a tunnel in Wuppertal, Germany, together with 'laboratory' emission measurements conducted at the Ford Motor Company using a chassis dynamometer with a standard driving cycle for 26 different cars and trucks. Consistent results were obtained from both approaches suggesting that a good approximation of the average emission factor (g N2O/g CO2)=(4±2) x 10-5. This corresponds to an emission rate of 11-5 mg N2O/km for vehicles with fuel economies of 12-6 1/100 km (20-40 miles/US gallon). N2O emissions from vehicles have a global warming impact, which is 1-2% of that of the CO2 emissions from vehicles. We estimate an annual emission of (0.12±0.06) Tg yr-1 of N2O (0.08±0.04 Tg N yr -1) from the global vehicle fleet which represents 1-4% of the atmospheric growth rate of this species. These results update and supersede our previous study of N2O emissions from vehicles. (author)

  18. Emissions from Road Vehicles Fuelled by Fischer Tropsch Based Diesel and Gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, U.; Lundorf, P.; Ivarsson, A.; Schramm, J. [Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Rehnlund, B. [Atrax Energi AB (Sweden); Blinge, M. [The Swedish Transport Institute (Sweden)

    2006-11-15

    The described results were carried out under the umbrella of IEA Advanced Motor Fuels Agreement. The purpose was to evaluate the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from vehicles fuelled by Fischer Tropsch (FT) based diesel and gasoline fuel, compared to the emissions from ordinary diesel and gasoline. The comparison for diesel fuels was based on a literature review, whereas the gasoline comparison had to be based on our own experiments, since almost no references were found in this field. In this context measurement according to the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) were carried out on a chassis dynamometer with a directly injected gasoline vehicle. Experiments were carried out with a reference fuel, a fuel based 70% on FT and an alkylate fuel (Aspen), which was supposed to be very similar, in many ways, to FT fuel. FT based diesel generally showed good emission performance, whereas the FT based gasoline not necessary lead to lower emissions. On the other hand, the Aspen fuel did show many advantages for the emissions from the gasoline vehicle.

  19. Mid-sized omnidirectional robot with hydraulic drive and steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Carl G.; Perry, Trent; Cook, Douglas; Maxfield, Russell; Davidson, Morgan E.

    2003-09-01

    Through funding from the US Army-Tank-Automotive and Armaments Command's (TACOM) Intelligent Mobility Program, Utah State University's (USU) Center for Self-Organizing and Intelligent Systems (CSOIS) has developed the T-series of omni-directional robots based on the USU omni-directional vehicle (ODV) technology. The ODV provides independent computer control of steering and drive in a single wheel assembly. By putting multiple omni-directional (OD) wheels on a chassis, a vehicle is capable of uncoupled translational and rotational motion. Previous robots in the series, the T1, T2, T3, ODIS, ODIS-T, and ODIS-S have all used OD wheels based on electric motors. The T4 weighs approximately 1400 lbs and features a 4-wheel drive wheel configuration. Each wheel assembly consists of a hydraulic drive motor and a hydraulic steering motor. A gasoline engine is used to power both the hydraulic and electrical systems. The paper presents an overview of the mechanical design of the vehicle as well as potential uses of this technology in fielded systems.

  20. Impact of Fuel Metal Impurities on the Durability of a Light-Duty Diesel Aftertreatment System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.; Burton, J.; McCormick, R. L.; Toops, T.; Wereszczak, A. A.; Fox, E. E.; Lance, M. J.; Cavataio, G.; Dobson, D.; Warner, J.; Brezny, R.; Nguyen, K.; Brookshear, D. W.

    2013-04-01

    Alkali and alkaline earth metal impurities found in diesel fuels are potential poisons for diesel exhaust catalysts. A set of diesel engine production exhaust systems was aged to 150,000 miles. These exhaust systems included a diesel oxidation catalyst, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst, and diesel particulate filter (DPF). Four separate exhaust systems were aged, each with a different fuel: ultralow sulfur diesel containing no measureable metals, B20 (a common biodiesel blend) containing sodium, B20 containing potassium, and B20 containing calcium, which were selected to simulate the maximum allowable levels in B100 according to ASTM D6751. Analysis included Federal Test Procedure emissions testing, bench-flow reactor testing of catalyst cores, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), and measurement of thermo-mechanical properties of the DPFs. EPMA imaging found that the sodium and potassium penetrated into the washcoat, while calcium remained on the surface. Bench-flow reactor experiments were used to measure the standard nitrogen oxide (NOx) conversion, ammonia storage, and ammonia oxidation for each of the aged SCR catalysts. Vehicle emissions tests were conducted with each of the aged catalyst systems using a chassis dynamometer. The vehicle successfully passed the 0.2 gram/mile NOx emission standard with each of the four aged exhaust systems.

  1. Design and Development of Synthetic Microbial Platform Cells for Bioenergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Jun eLee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The finite reservation of fossil fuels accelerates the necessity of development of renewable energy sources. Recent advances in synthetic biology encompassing systems biology and metabolic engineering enable us to engineer and/or create tailor made microorganisms to produce alternative biofuels for the future bio-era. For the efficient transformation of biomass to bioenergy, microbial cells need to be designed and engineered to maximize the performance of cellular metabolisms for the production of biofuels during energy flow. Toward this end, two different conceptual approaches have been applied for the development of platform cell factories: forward minimization and reverse engineering. From the context of naturally minimized genomes, non-essential energy-consuming pathways and/or related gene clusters could be progressively deleted to optimize cellular energy status for bioenergy production. Alternatively, incorporation of non-indigenous parts and/or modules including biomass degrading enzymes, carbon uptake transporters, photosynthesis, CO2 fixation, and etc. into chassis microorganisms allows the platform cells to gain novel metabolic functions for bioenergy. This review focuses on the current progress in synthetic biology-aided pathway engineering in microbial cells and discusses its impact on the production of sustainable bioenergy.

  2. Augmented reality user interface for mobile ground robots with manipulator arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozar, Steven; Tilbury, Dawn M.

    2011-01-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) is a technology in which real-world visual data is combined with an overlay of computer graphics, enhancing the original feed. AR is an attractive tool for teleoperated UGV UIs as it can improve communication between robots and users via an intuitive spatial and visual dialogue, thereby increasing operator situational awareness. The successful operation of UGVs often relies upon both chassis navigation and manipulator arm control, and since existing literature usually focuses on one task or the other, there is a gap in mobile robot UIs that take advantage of AR for both applications. This work describes the development and analysis of an AR UI system for a UGV with an attached manipulator arm. The system supplements a video feed shown to an operator with information about geometric relationships within the robot task space to improve the operator's situational awareness. Previous studies on AR systems and preliminary analyses indicate that such an implementation of AR for a mobile robot with a manipulator arm is anticipated to improve operator performance. A full user-study can determine if this hypothesis is supported by performing an analysis of variance on common test metrics associated with UGV teleoperation.

  3. Measurements of Gun Tube Motion and Muzzle Pointing Error of Main Battle Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter L. McCall

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Beginning in 1990, the US Army Aberdeen Test Center (ATC began testing a prototype cannon mounted in a non-armored turret fitted to an M1A1 Abrams tank chassis. The cannon design incorporated a longer gun tube as a means to increase projectile velocity. A significant increase in projectile impact dispersion was measured early in the test program. Through investigative efforts, the cause of the error was linked to the increased dynamic bending or flexure of the longer tube observed while the vehicle was moving. Research and investigative work was conducted through a collaborative effort with the US Army Research Laboratory, Benet Laboratory, Project Manager – Tank Main Armament Systems, US Army Research and Engineering Center, and Cadillac Gage Textron Inc. New test methods, instrumentation, data analysis procedures, and stabilization control design resulted through this series of investigations into the dynamic tube flexure error source. Through this joint research, improvements in tank fire control design have been developed to improve delivery accuracy. This paper discusses the instrumentation implemented, methods applied, and analysis procedures used to characterize the tube flexure during dynamic tests of a main battle tank and the relationship between gun pointing error and muzzle pointing error.

  4. In silico model-driven cofactor engineering strategies for improving the overall NADP(H) turnover in microbial cell factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmanan, Meiyappan; Yu, Kai; Koduru, Lokanand; Lee, Dong-Yup

    2015-10-01

    Optimizing the overall NADPH turnover is one of the key challenges in various value-added biochemical syntheses. In this work, we first analyzed the NADPH regeneration potentials of common cell factories, including Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Bacillus subtilis, and Pichia pastoris across multiple environmental conditions and determined E. coli and glycerol as the best microbial chassis and most suitable carbon source, respectively. In addition, we identified optimal cofactor specificity engineering (CSE) enzyme targets, whose cofactors when switched from NAD(H) to NADP(H) improve the overall NADP(H) turnover. Among several enzyme targets, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase was recognized as a global candidate since its CSE improved the NADP(H) regeneration under most of the conditions examined. Finally, by analyzing the protein structures of all CSE enzyme targets via homology modeling, we established that the replacement of conserved glutamate or aspartate with serine in the loop region could change the cofactor dependence from NAD(H) to NADP(H). PMID:26254041

  5. Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli essential genes and minimal cell factories after one decade of genome engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhas, Mario; Reuß, Daniel R; Zhu, Bingyao; Commichau, Fabian M

    2014-11-01

    Investigation of essential genes, besides contributing to understanding the fundamental principles of life, has numerous practical applications. Essential genes can be exploited as building blocks of a tightly controlled cell 'chassis'. Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli K-12 are both well-characterized model bacteria used as hosts for a plethora of biotechnological applications. Determination of the essential genes that constitute the B. subtilis and E. coli minimal genomes is therefore of the highest importance. Recent advances have led to the modification of the original B. subtilis and E. coli essential gene sets identified 10 years ago. Furthermore, significant progress has been made in the area of genome minimization of both model bacteria. This review provides an update, with particular emphasis on the current essential gene sets and their comparison with the original gene sets identified 10 years ago. Special attention is focused on the genome reduction analyses in B. subtilis and E. coli and the construction of minimal cell factories for industrial applications. PMID:25092907

  6. H ∞ control of a suspension with a magnetorheological damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix-Herrán, L. C.; Mehdi, D.; Rodríguez-Ortiz, J. de J.; Soto, R.; Ramírez-Mendoza, R.

    2012-08-01

    This research work presents an H ∞ controller based on a Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model for a two-degrees-of-freedom (2-DOF) one-quarter-vehicle semi-active suspension with a magnetorheological damper where the actuator dynamics are included in the control synthesis. These dynamics enclose nonlinear damper phenomena, avoided in many other studies, and that can improve the suspension system by means of a more accurate model. The objective is to obtain a semi-active suspension that considerably improves the passive suspension efficiency based on some frequency domain performance criteria. The advantage of having the T-S system as a reference is that each piecewise linear system can be exposed to the well-known control theory. Besides, the proposed solution is compared with the recent reported work to highlight its advantages. A case of study is included and simulation work supports the results. The methodology applied herein can be extended to a half-vehicle model, and to the four wheels to have a global chassis control in order to maximise passenger comfort and vehicle stability.

  7. An underwater robot controls water tanks in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The enterprises Newton Research Labs and IHI Southwest Technologies have developed a robot equipped with sensors to inspect the inside walls (partially) and bottom of water tanks without being obliged to empty them. The robot called 'Inspector' is made up of 4 main components: a chassis with 4 independent steering wheels, a camera video system able to provide a 360 degree view, various non-destructive testing devices such as underwater laser scanners, automated ultra-sound or Foucault current probes and an operation system for both driving the robot and controlling the testing. The Inspector robot has been used to inspect the inside bottom of an operating condensate tank at the Palo Verde nuclear station. The robot was able to check all the welds joining the bottom plates and the welds between the walls and the bottom. The robot is also able to come back to the exact place where a defect was detected during a previous inspection. (A.C.)

  8. Monitoring individual traffic flows within the ATLAS TDAQ network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ATLAS data acquisition system consists of four different networks interconnecting up to 2000 processors using up to 200 edge switches and five multi-blade chassis devices. The architecture of the system has been described in [1] and its operational model in [2]. Classical, SNMP-based, network monitoring provides statistics on aggregate traffic, but for performance monitoring and troubleshooting purposes there was an imperative need to identify and quantify single traffic flows. sFlow [3] is an industry standard based on statistical sampling which attempts to provide a solution to this. Due to the size of the ATLAS network, the collection and analysis of the sFlow data from all devices generates a data handling problem of its own. This paper describes how this problem is addressed by making it possible to collect and store data either centrally or distributed according to need. The methods used to present the results in a relevant fashion for system analysts are discussed and we explore the possibilities and limitations of this diagnostic tool, giving an example of its use in solving system problems that arise during the ATLAS data taking.

  9. Performance and fuel conversion efficiency of a spark ignition engine fueled with iso-butanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Iso-butanol use in a port injection spark ignition engine. ► Fuel conversion efficiency calculated based on chassis dynamometer measurements. ► Combined study of engine efficiency and air–fuel mixture temperature. ► Excellent running characteristics with minor fuel system modifications. ► Up to 11% relative drop in part load efficiency due to incomplete fuel vaporization. -- Abstract: Alcohols are increasingly used as fuels for spark ignition engines. While ethanol is most commonly used, long chain alcohols such as butanol feature several advantages like increased heating value and reduced corrosive action. This study investigated the effect of fueling a port injection engine with iso-butanol, as compared to gasoline operation. Performance levels were maintained within the same limits as with the fossil fuel without modifications to any engine component. An additional electronic module was used for increasing fuel flow by extending the injection time. Fuel conversion efficiency decreased when the engine was fueled with iso-butanol by up to 9% at full load and by up to 11% at part load, calculated as relative values. Incomplete fuel evaporation was identified as the factor most likely to cause the drop in engine efficiency.

  10. Finite Element Analysis based Optimization of Magnetic Adhesion Module for Concrete Wall Climbing Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MD Omar faruq Howlader

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Wall climbing robot can provide easier accessibility to tall structures for Non Destructive Testing (NDT and improve working environments of human operators. However, existing adhesion mechanism for climbing robots such as vortex, electromagnet etc. are still at development stage and offer no feasible adhesion mechanism. As a result, few practical products have been developed for reinforced concrete surfaces, though wall-climbing robots have been researched for many years. This paper proposes a novel magnetic adhesion mechanism for wall-climbing robot for reinforced concrete surface. Mechanical design parameters such as distance between magnets, the yoke thickness, and magnet arrangements have been investigated by Finite Element Analysis (FEA. The adhesion module can be attached under the chassis of a prototype robot. The magnetic flux can penetrate maximum concrete cover of 30 mm and attain adhesion force of 121.26 N. The prototype provides high Force-to-Weight ratio compared to other reported permanent magnet based robotic systems. Both experiment and simulation results prove that the magnetic adhesion mechanism can generate efficient adhesion force for the climbing robot to operate on vertical reinforced concrete structures.

  11. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Tropea and A. Gaddi

    2013-01-01

    One of the first activities of LS1 has been the refurbishment of the rack ventilation units in the USC55 counting rooms. These rack-mounted turbines have been in service since 2007 and they have largely passed the expected lifetime. Some 450 motor-fans units have been procured in Germany, via the CERN store, and shipped to CMS where a team of technicians has dismounted the old turbines, keeping only the bare chassis, and inserted the new fans. A metallic mesh has also been added to better protect personnel from possible injuries by spinning blades. A full test of several hours has validated the new units, prior to their installation inside the racks. The work, started soon after the beginning of LS1, has been successfully concluded last week. Figure 1: Drawing of the fan units recently refurbished in the USC55 counting room racks Image 1: New filter on the main rack water-cooling distribution line The cooling systems of CMS are gently coming out of their maintenance programme. All water circuits have...

  12. Mapping the patent landscape of synthetic biology for fine chemical production pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, Pablo; Gök, Abdullah; Shapira, Philip; Faulon, Jean-Loup

    2016-09-01

    A goal of synthetic biology bio-foundries is to innovate through an iterative design/build/test/learn pipeline. In assessing the value of new chemical production routes, the intellectual property (IP) novelty of the pathway is important. Exploratory studies can be carried using knowledge of the patent/IP landscape for synthetic biology and metabolic engineering. In this paper, we perform an assessment of pathways as potential targets for chemical production across the full catalogue of reachable chemicals in the extended metabolic space of chassis organisms, as computed by the retrosynthesis-based algorithm RetroPath. Our database for reactions processed by sequences in heterologous pathways was screened against the PatSeq database, a comprehensive collection of more than 150M sequences present in patent grants and applications. We also examine related patent families using Derwent Innovations. This large-scale computational study provides useful insights into the IP landscape of synthetic biology for fine and specialty chemicals production. PMID:27489206

  13. Suit Port Aft Bulkhead Mockup 2008 Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romig, Barbara A.; Allton, Charles S.; Litaker, Harry L.

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Electric Rover (LER), formerly called the Small Pressurized Rover (SPR), is currently being carried as an integral part of the current Lunar Surface Architectures under consideration in the Constellation program. One element of the LER is the suit port, the means by which the crew performs Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). Two suit port deliverables were produced in fiscal year 2008: an aft bulkhead mockup for functional integrated testing with the 1-G LER mockup and a functional and pressurizable Engineering Unit (EU). This paper focuses on the aft bulkhead mockup test results from Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS) October 2008 testing at Black Point Lava Flow (BPLF), Arizona. Refer to 39th International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES) for test results of the EU. The suit port aft bulkhead mockup was integrated with the mockup of the LER cabin and chassis. It is located on the aft bulkhead of the LER cabin structure and includes hatches, a locking mechanism, seals, interior and exterior suit don/doff aids, and exterior platforms to accommodate different crewmember heights. A lightweight mockup of the Mark III suit was tested with the suit port aft bulkhead mockup. There are several limitations to the suit port and mockup suits, and results of the suit port evaluation are presented and interpreted within the context of the limitations.

  14. Suit Port Aft Bulkhead Mockup Test Results and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romig, Barbara A.; Allton, Charles

    2009-01-01

    The Small Pressurized Rover (SPR) is currently being carried as an integral part of the current Lunar Surface Architectures under consideration in the Constellation program. One element of the SPR is the suit port, the means by which the crew performs Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). Two suit port deliverables were produced in fiscal year 2008: an aft bulkhead mockup for functional integrated testing with the 1-G SPR mockup and a functional and pressurizable engineering unit. This paper focuses on the test results and lessons learned on the aft bulkhead mockup. The suit port aft bulkhead mockup was integrated with the mockup of the SPR cabin and chassis. It is located on the aft bulkhead of the SPR cabin structure and includes hatches, a locking mechanism, seals, interior and exterior suit don/doff aids, and exterior platforms to accommodate different crewmember heights. A lightweight mockup of the Mark III suit was tested with the suit port aft bulkhead mockup. There are several limitations to the suit port and mockup suits, and results of the suit port evaluation are presented and interpreted within the context of the limitations.

  15. Design of a composite monocoque frame racing wheelchair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeish, M S; Cooper, R A; Harralson, J; Ster, J F

    1993-01-01

    Design of present-day racing wheelchairs developed out of necessity and common sense. The chairs first used in racing were everyday chairs; through years of trial and modification the racing chairs of today evolved. Very little advanced engineering has been applied to the design of racing chairs. The Finite Element Analysis model executed on a computer provided insight into structural problem areas in the design of unibody frame racing chairs. Slight modifications to the model can be used to investigate new shapes, loads, or materials without investing large amounts of time and money. Wind tunnel testing with scale models provided perspectives on different improvements to reduce drag. Shape improvements may play an important role in reducing the racer's time during competition. Shape may help to decrease drag for the user in either the upright or down position. Considering that the frontal area increases around 30% in the up position with current strut and chassis frames, monocoque shapes should excel. Finite element analysis and air drag analysis are important to the design of a composite racing wheelchair. Composite materials may promote more efficient and ergonomic racing wheelchairs. PMID:8035352

  16. Tribological performance of resin impregnated gunny (RIG) and resin reinforced honeycomb (RRH) material composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Gunny and honeycomb composites were fabricated using hand-lay-up and cold-press techniques. ► Wear rate and frictional response was studied using pin-on-disk machine. ► Wear endurance (around 0.35 mg/N) is better performed in RRH. ► Minimum friction was 0.01 for both RIG and RRH. ► RRH deformation is due to cracking and fatigue failure. - Abstract: Temptation to recycle gunny fiber and honeycomb chassis as part of tribo-composite has been realized for body shell application. In this exploration, tribological performance of resin impregnated gunny (RIG) and resin reinforced honeycomb (RRH) material composites have been studied in response to wear and frictional coefficient on dry sliding against steel counter-face using pin-on-disk (POD) influenced by applied loads (5–25 N) and sliding velocities (1.12–22.56 m/s). The specific wear rate (from weight loss) for RIG is lower approximately around 0.35 mg/N and comparable at increasing velocity at approximately 0.16 mg/N. Friction was minimized at 0.01. Compression result shows RIG has more than 8 N. The average maximum displacement is highest for RRH at 1.8 cm. Finally, the worn surface morphology was studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM) for its wear mechanisms

  17. Nitrous oxide emissions from light duty vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Lisa A.; Belisle, Sheri L.; Rieger, Paul

    Nitrous oxide (N 2O) emissions measurements were made on light duty gasoline and light duty diesel vehicles during chassis dynamometer testing conducted at the Environment Canada and California Air Resources Board vehicle emissions laboratories between 2001 and 2007. Per phase and composite FTP emission rates were measured. A subset of vehicles was also tested using other driving cycles to characterize emissions as a function of different driving conditions. Vehicles were both new (composite N 2O emission factors for gasoline vehicles meeting emission standards more stringent than Tier 1 are substantially lower than those currently used by both Canada and the US for the 2005 inventories. N 2O emission factors from test cycles other than the FTP illustrate the variability of emission factors as a function of driving conditions. N 2O emission factors are shown to strongly correlate with NMHC/NMOG emission standards and less strongly with NO X and CO emission standards. A review of several published reports on the effect of gasoline sulfur content on N 2O emissions suggests that additional research is needed to adequately quantify the increase in N 2O emissions as a function of fuel sulfur.

  18. LANSCE-R WIRE-SCANNER ANALOG FRONT-END ELECTRONICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new AFE is being developed for the new LANSCE-R wire-scanner systems. The new AFE is implemented in a National Instruments Compact RIO (cRIO) module installed a BiRa 4U BiRIO cRIO chassis specifically designed to accommodate the cRIO crate and all the wire-scanner interface, control and motor-drive electronics. A single AFE module provides interface to both X and Y wire sensors using true DC coupled transimpedance amplifiers providing collection of the wire charge signals, real-time wire integrity verification using the normal dataacquisition system, and wire bias of 0V to +/-50V. The AFE system is designed to accommodate comparatively long macropulses (>1ms) with high PRF (>120Hz) without the need to provide timing signals. The basic AFE bandwidth is flat from true DC to 50kHz with a true first-order pole at 50kHz. Numeric integration in the cRIO FPGA provides real-time pulse-to-pulse numeric integration of the AFE signal to compute the total charge collected in each macropulse. This method of charge collection eliminates the need to provide synchronization signals to the wire-scanner AFE while providing the capability to accurately record the charge from long macropulses at high PRF.

  19. Active tuned mass damper in vehicles. Integrated mass and energy balance; Mechatronische Schwingungstilger in Fahrzeugen. Ganzheitliche Massen- und Energiebilanz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granzow, Sebastian

    2012-04-02

    The number of mechatronic automotive applications is growing rapidly and becoming more and more important. On the other hand, the automotive industry is faced with the ambitious challenge to significantly reduce CO{sub 2}-emissions. The vehicle mass is as a part of the driving resistance is a starting point. New innovative approaches are required for lightweight constructions. Taking the two aspects together, this leads inevitably to the question: Is it possible to support automotive lightweight construction by using mechatronic systems? The Mechatronic vibration absorber is a combination of a mechanical oscillating system with an electronically controllable force component. This allows a broadband and situation-dependent influence of vehicle vibration behavior. Mechatronic vibration absorbers are suitable to compensate a loss of riding comfort due to a reduction of the body mass. Essential for this is a multidisciplinary simulation environment. The mechatronic vibration absorber, including appropriate control systems, the nonlinear chassis and the elastic body characteristics, inclusive of mutual interactions are mapped in the simulation environment Matlab. In addition to the representation of the oscillating vehicle the determination of the total energy requirements is necessary. To achieve a CO{sub 2}-reduction target, the overall energy balance of lightweight and the electrical vibration absorber energy, which is offered by the vehicle, is required. The question of the real vibration absorber energy needs to be discussed in the context of the individual driving behavior. Ultimately, the overall energy balance is inherently dependent of the individual driving behavior.

  20. GATE Center of Excellence at UAB in Lightweight Materials for Automotive Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-07-31

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the UAB GATE Center of Excellence in Lightweight Materials for Automotive Applications. The first Phase of the UAB DOE GATE center spanned the period 2005-2011. The UAB GATE goals coordinated with the overall goals of DOE's FreedomCAR and Vehicles Technologies initiative and DOE GATE program. The FCVT goals are: (1) Development and validation of advanced materials and manufacturing technologies to significantly reduce automotive vehicle body and chassis weight without compromising other attributes such as safety, performance, recyclability, and cost; (2) To provide a new generation of engineers and scientists with knowledge and skills in advanced automotive technologies. The UAB GATE focused on both the FCVT and GATE goals in the following manner: (1) Train and produce graduates in lightweight automotive materials technologies; (2) Structure the engineering curricula to produce specialists in the automotive area; (3) Leverage automotive related industry in the State of Alabama; (4) Expose minority students to advanced technologies early in their career; (5) Develop innovative virtual classroom capabilities tied to real manufacturing operations; and (6) Integrate synergistic, multi-departmental activities to produce new product and manufacturing technologies for more damage tolerant, cost-effective, and lighter automotive structures.

  1. Modeling and Simulation of integrated steering and braking control for vehicle active safety system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beibei Zhang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Active chassis systems like braking, steering, suspension and propulsion systems are increasingly entering the market. In addition to their basic functions, these systems may be used for functions of integrated vehicle dynamics control. An experimental platform which aims to study the integration control of steering and braking is designed due to the research requirement of vehicle active safety control strategy in this paper. A test vehicle which is equipped with the systems of steer-by-wire and brake-bywire is provided and the Autobox, combined with Matlab/simulink and MSCCarsim, is used to fulfill the RCP (Rapid Control Prototyping and HIL (Hardware-in-loop. The seven-freedom vehicle model is constructed first and the approach of vehicle parameters estimation based on the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF is proposed. Testing the vehicle state through the sensor has its own disadvantage that the cost is high and easily affected by environment outside. To find a actual method of receiving the vehicle state using the ready-made sensors in vehicle, the researchers put forward various estimation method, of which have advantages and disadvantages. Based on the above, this paper applies the EKF to estimate the vehicle state, making the actual estimation come true. The primary control methods and controller designment is carried out to prove the validation of the platform.

  2. Optimization of new magnetorheological fluid mount for vibration control of start/stop engine mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jye Ung; Phu, Do Xuan; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2015-04-01

    The technologies related to saving energy/or green vehicles are actively researched. In this tendency, the problem for reducing exhausted gas is in development with various ways. Those efforts are directly related to the operation of engine which emits exhausted gas. The auto start/stop of vehicle engine when a vehicle stop at road is currently as a main stream of vehicle industry resulting in reducing exhausted gas. However, this technology automatically turns on and off engine frequently. This motion induces vehicle engine to transmit vibration of engine which has large displacement, and torsional impact to chassis. These vibrations causing uncomfortable feeling to passengers are transmitted through the steering wheel and the gear knob. In this work, in order to resolve this vibration issue, a new proposed magnetorheological (MR) fluid based engine mount (MR mount in short) is presented. The proposed MR mount is designed to satisfy large damping force in various frequency ranges. It is shown that the proposed mount can have large damping force and large force ratio which is enough to control unwanted vibrations of engine start/stop mode.

  3. The 3-litre car by Volkswagen: the Lupo 3L TDI. Pt. 2; Das Drei-Liter-Auto von Volkswagen - der Lupo 3L TDI. T. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winterkorn, M.; Bohne, P. [Volkswagenwerk AG, Wolfsburg (Germany)

    1999-08-01

    The Lupo TDI makes Volkswagen the first manufacturer in the world to offer a vehicle with a fuel consumption of less than three litres per 100 km (MVEG). The three-litre car is based on the Lupo, but important features make it a virtually new vehicle. In the first part, we presented the new 1.2-litre three-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine and the direct manual transmissions as well as the electrical system, body and interior fittings of the Lupo 3L TDI. This second part deals with things such as the chassis, draws up a balance sheet with regard to weight and environmental aspects and gives the consumption and driving performance data. (orig.) [German] Mit dem Lupo 3L TDI bietet Volkswagen als weltweit erster Hersteller ein Fahrzeug mit einem Kraftstoffverbrauch von weniger als drei Litern pro 100 km im MVEG-Zyklus an. Das Drei-Liter-Auto basiert auf dem Lupo, ist jedoch in wesentlichen Elementen ein neues Fahrzeug. Im ersten Teil wurden der neue 1,2-Liter Dreizylinder-Dieselmotor mit Direkteinspritzung und das Direktschaltgetriebe sowie Elektrik, Karosserie und Innenausstattung des Lupo 3L TDI vorgestellt. Der vorliegende zweite Teil behandelt unter anderem das Fahrwerk, erstellt eine Gewichts- und Umweltbilanz und nennt Verbrauchs- und Fahrleistungsdaten. (orig.)

  4. Experimental Fault Diagnosis in Systems Containing Finite Elements of Plate of Kirchoff by Using State Observers Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegre, D. M.; Koroishi, E. H.; Melo, G. P.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a methodology for detection and localization of faults by using state observers. State Observers can rebuild the states not measured or values from points of difficult access in the system. So faults can be detected in these points without the knowledge of its measures, and can be track by the reconstructions of their states. In this paper this methodology will be applied in a system which represents a simplified model of a vehicle. In this model the chassis of the car was represented by a flat plate, which was divided in finite elements of plate (plate of Kirchoff), in addition, was considered the car suspension (springs and dampers). A test rig was built and the developed methodology was used to detect and locate faults on this system. In analyses done, the idea is to use a system with a specific fault, and then use the state observers to locate it, checking on a quantitative variation of the parameter of the system which caused this crash. For the computational simulations the software MATLAB was used.

  5. The motor car past, present and future

    CERN Document Server

    Genta, Giancarlo; Cavallino, Francesco; Filtri, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    This book is an introduction to automotive engineering, to give freshmen ideas about this technology. The text is subdivided in parts that cover all facets of the automobile, including legal and economic aspects related to industry and products, product configuration and fabrication processes, historic evolution and future developments. The first part describes how motor vehicles were invented and evolved into the present product in more than 100 years of development. The purpose is not only to supply an historical perspective, but also to introduce and discuss the many solutions that were applied (and could be applied again) to solve the same basic problems of vehicle engineering. This part also briefly describes  the evolution of automotive technologies and market, including production and development processes. The second part deals with the description and function analysis of all car subsystems, such as: ·         vehicle body, ·         chassis, including wheels, suspensions, brakes a...

  6. Emission Performance of Motorcycles in Real-Road Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    WMTC, which means a worldwide motorcycle testing cycle, is now regarded as the most possible choice for the global motorcycle emission testing cycle, but whether or not it can be used in China is still unknown. In this study, a large number of data on the speed-time trace of motorcycles were sampled from various kinds of roads in 5 cities in China. Based on a series of criterion numbers defined, the driving character of motorcycles in the real-road conditions of China was obtained. With the aid of a specially designed program, an emission testing cycle that can indicate the driving characteristics of motorcycle in the real-road conditions was synthesized, and the exhaust emission tests of 20 motorcycles under the synchronized cycle and WMTC were carried out based on a CVS system and a motorcycle chassis dynamometer. The results show that although there do exist differences in some criterion numbers between the real-road condition and WMTC, such as proportion of idling mode, mean speed, mean running speed and the average acceleration and deceleration rates, the driving behaviors are similar. The results of exhaust emission tests indicate that the emission values of motorcycles under the synchronized cycle and WMTC have a relatively strong correlation. This means that WMTC can be introduced as a standard motorcycle emission test regulation into China.

  7. Follow up of the evolution of a soil-plant system using the neutrongraphic technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontes, L.; Crispim, V.R.; Lima, C.T.S., E-mail: luciano_rural@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: clima@con.ufrj.b, E-mail: verginia@con.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Ferreira, F.J., E-mail: fferreira@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In the Brazilian northeast region, where semiarid climate prevails the soil low humidity, restricts the growth of the roots in the soil most superficial layer. A soil-plant system consisting of aluminum pots filled with soil similar to that found in the semiarid regions was designed to follow the growth of corn and soy roots. There, the seeds are planted together with artificial seeds of hydrogel and agave, which store part of the water from irrigation and later release it in conformity with the search of the roots. Nondestructive tests through the Thermal Neutron Radiography technique were conducted, exposing for 90 minutes the soilplant system, to the neutron flux from the J-9 irradiation channel of the Argonauta/IEN/CNEN reactor. An Industrex M radiographic film from Kodak and a gadolinium sheet converter, in close contact inside an aluminum chassis, were used to obtain the neutron radiography image. Lead plates, 1 mm thick, or aluminum plates, 1 cm thick, were placed to shield the gamma radiation of the neutron beam and thus allow a better visualization of the roots inside the soil. After expositions, the radiographic films were developed and the neutron radiographic images were digitalized with a Coolpix 995 Nikon camera. The neutron radiographic images were also digitally processed using the Image Pro Plus program, version 6.2. the use of lead and aluminum filters and with the use of digital processing techniques, allowed the visualization of the main and secondary roots, even when hidden by 10 mm thick humid soil. (author)

  8. Replacement and upgrade of nuclear instrumentation at the Zorita Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the replacement of the original nuclear instrumentation system at the Zorita Nuclear Power Plant. The reasons for upgrading were reliability, availability, and problems in maintaining the original instrumentation due to a lack of qualified spare parts. In replacing the system, the plant had to address the current regulatory, design, and technical specification requirements, including changes in equipment qualification, new physical separation requirements, and adding signal isolation to analog signal outputs. The number of Source Range and Intermediate Range channels increased from two to four, adding 2 out of 4 coincidence logic to the Source Range and Intermediate Range trip outputs. The testing method for the coincidence logic changed, adding test permissive logic to prevent testing from generating a trip or causing a violation of technical specification requirements, and to allow testing in bypass mode (2 out of 3 logic) or in trip mode (1 out of 3 logic). The new designs included built-in calibration standards, and the design eliminated the need to disconnect cables and to rack-out the chassis assemblies in order to perform routine equipment testing. Fitting a new system into the relatively small space available presented several challenges. This paper discusses the motivation for the system's replacement the challenges to the plant engineers and to the equipment designers, and the manner in which the new design met the challenges

  9. OPTIMIZATION OF MOTOR VEHICLE INDUSTRIES WASTEWATER TREATMENT METHODS WITH THE AIM OF HEAVY METALS REMOVAL AND WATER REUSE IN PILOT SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Mirbagheri, M. Salehi M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The waste of motor vehicle industries is mainly the result of washing, coloring and various stages of chassis manufacturing, which include oil, grease, dyestuff, chromium, phosphate and other pollutants. In the present research, extended aeration activated sludge biological treatment plant is being considered and evaluated, for the removal of heavy metals and pollution load from industrial wastes and sanitary wastewaters, and on the pilot scale for optimization of waste treatment method for motor vehicle industries. To accomplish the pilot experiments, the natural waste of Bahman motor vehicle factory is used. Effective factors on efficient removal of heavy metals and pollution load such as concentration of biological mass (MLVSS, COD, BOD, pH in the extended aeration activated sludge biological treatment system, in different ratios of the mixing of industrial waste to sanitary wastewater have been experimented and evaluated. The performance of the above system, in the best of conditions, removes about 90% of pollution load and 65% of heavy metals existing in the industrial wastes. After analyzing the experiments, it is concluded that the removal of heavy metals through biological methods is possible and moreover it is feasible to biologically treat the mixing of motor vehicle industries effluent and sanitary wastewater up to the ratio of one to one, if guided exactly and scientifically.

  10. A Case Study: Designing for Sustainability and Reliability in an Automotive Seat Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celalettin Yuce

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, sustainability has been a growing concern for many industries and especially for the transportation sector due to it being the second largest energy consumer and largest contributor of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions within the European Union. New legal restrictions on the emission rates have forced the automotive sector to examine different fuel-efficient technologies. Vehicle weight reduction is one of the most important methods of improving fuel efficiency and reducing CO2 emissions. Accordingly, lighter, safer, more fuel efficient, and environmentally sustainable vehicles are a priority for European authorities. In the present work, the passenger seat structure was considered as the area for lightweighting due to its important role in the mass of commercial vehicles in terms of numbers per vehicle. In addition, seat structures presented the best opportunity for weight reduction using new materials and design techniques. Detailed (3D finite element models of passenger seats were developed for finite element analyses (FEA. To obtain a lightweight and safe seat structure, different materials and thicknesses of profiles were analyzed. Lightweight passenger seat prototypes were developed and an overall 20% weight reduction was achieved including the structural frame, chassis and pillar. In addition, the new passenger seat meets ECE R14 safety norms.

  11. Time Dependent Magnesium AZ31B Behavior: Experimental and Physically based Modeling Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, A. K.; Ayoub, G.; Kridli, G.; Zbib, H.

    The need to produce vehicles with improved fuel efficiency and reduced emissions has led the automotive industry to consider use of "lightweighting" materials in the construction of automotive body and chassis systems. For automotive body structures and closure panel applications, mostly made of sheet, aluminum alloys are being introduced due to their lower densities and relatively high specific strengths, as well as their compatibility with the traditional manufacturing process that are used with steel. However, interest has been increasingly focusing on the use of sheet magnesium in the manufacturing of panels and structural components, since its density is about 40% lower compared to aluminum. Accordingly, the objectives of this study are to investigate the evolution of microstructure during thermo-mechanical processing of twin-roll cast AZ31B alloys sheets, and to examine the mechanical properties of the alloy under superplastic conditions. The rate dependent crystal plasticity model have been used and integrated using an explicit model was coupled with the Taylor polycrystal model in the aim to capture the overall behavior of our studied material.

  12. Supply of Paludi biomass for energetic utilization; Bereitstellung von Paludibiomasse zur energetischen Verwertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dettmann, Sebastian; Kanswohl, Norbert [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Professur fuer Tierhaltung

    2013-10-01

    The increased use of biomass for energy purposes, leads to an increasing demand. Additionally there is a competition for land between food, feed and energy production. This does not apply to Paludicultures (biomass of fens and wet areas). These regions could be used for agricultural management. For an economical management of Paludibiomasses powerful harvest chains must be established. The establishment of an effective harvest chain of Paludicultures faces a minimization of the ground pressure and a reduction in the number of crossings by the harvesters. The reduction of the weight of the harvesters and the enlargement of the contact surface (use of special chassis: caterpillar based or balloon tire based technology) are methods to adapt the technology to the area. The aim of this study is to show the development of harvest chains for Paludibiomasses using special technology. The harvest methods can be divided into bales-, chaff- and bundle lines. The focus of the analysis is the harvesting of biomass using special technology and making it available in chopped form. (orig.)

  13. Data Acquisition System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Data Acquisition System (DAS) is comprised of a Hewlett-Packard (HP) model 9816, Series 200 Computer System with the appropriate software to acquire, control, and archive data from a Data Acquisition/Control Unit, models HP3497A and HP3498A. The primary storage medium is an HP9153 16-megabyte hard disc. The data is backed-up on three floppy discs. One floppy disc drive is contained in the HP9153 chassis; the other two comprise an HP9122 dual disc drive. An HP82906A line printer supplies hard copy backup. A block diagram of the hardware setup is shown. The HP3497A/3498A Data Acquisition/Control Units read each input channel and transmit the raw voltage reading to the HP9816 CPU via the HPIB bus. The HP9816 converts this voltage to the appropriate engineering units using the calibration curves for the sensor being read. The HP9816 archives both the raw and processed data along with the time and the readings were taken to hard and floppy discs. The processed values and reading time are printed on the line printer. This system is designed to accommodate several types of sensors; each type is discussed in the following sections

  14. High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, Robert; McConnell, Elizabeth

    2016-06-29

    Machining methods across many industries generally require multiple operations to machine and process advanced materials, features with micron precision, and complex shapes. The resulting multiple machining platforms can significantly affect manufacturing cycle time and the precision of the final parts, with a resultant increase in cost and energy consumption. Ultrafast lasers represent a transformative and disruptive technology that removes material with micron precision and in a single step manufacturing process. Such precision results from athermal ablation without modification or damage to the remaining material which is the key differentiator between ultrafast laser technologies and traditional laser technologies or mechanical processes. Athermal ablation without modification or damage to the material eliminates post-processing or multiple manufacturing steps. Combined with the appropriate technology to control the motion of the work piece, ultrafast lasers are excellent candidates to provide breakthrough machining capability for difficult-to-machine materials. At the project onset in early 2012, the project team recognized that substantial effort was necessary to improve the application of ultrafast laser and precise motion control technologies (for micromachining difficult-to-machine materials) to further the aggregate throughput and yield improvements over conventional machining methods. The project described in this report advanced these leading-edge technologies thru the development and verification of two platforms: a hybrid enhanced laser chassis and a multi-application testbed.

  15. 主动前轮转向控制技术研究现状与展望%Status Quo and Prospect of the Research on Active Front Steering Control Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李强; 施国标; 林逸; 赵万忠

    2009-01-01

    主动前轮转向系统提供的独立于驾驶员的转向干预可以提高车辆的操纵稳定性.文中介绍了横摆角速度反馈和横摆角速度与侧偏角联合反馈的稳定性控制算法;阐述了主动前轮转向系统分别与几种动力学控制系统实行集成控制的方法.最后在结论中指出底盘一体化控制将是主动转向技术未来的发展方向.%The steering intervention provided by active front steering (AFS) and being independent to driver's action can improve the handling and stability of vehicle. In this paper, two stability control algorithms based on yaw rate feedback and combined feedback of yaw rate and slip angle respectively are presented. And some inte-grated controls of Ales with each of several dynamics control systems are expounded. Finally it's pointed out in con-clusion that the integrated chassis control will be the development trend of AFS technology in the future.

  16. Simulation Research on Integrated Control of Vehicle Semi-active Suspension and Power Steering%车辆半主动悬架与助力转向集成控制的仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪少华; 陈龙; 袁传义

    2009-01-01

    For coordinating handling stability and ride comfort of vehicle, based on the principle of chassis system dynamics, a combined model for semi-active suspension (SAS) and electric power steering (EPS) is set up for imposing integrated control on the systems of SAS and EPS. Quadratic feedback and PID strategies are used to control the adjustable damping of suspension and the assistant power of EPS respectively. The simulation results show that with integrated control, the handling stability and ride comfort of vehicle are both superior to that with sep-arate control on suspension or steering.%为协调车辆操纵稳定性和行驶平顺性,基于底盘系统动力学原理,建立了半主动悬架和电动助力转向的综合模型,对半主动悬架和电动助力转向系统进行集成控制.运用二次反馈法和PID策略分别对悬架的可调阻尼和转向系统的助力进行控制.仿真结果表明,在集成控制情况下,车辆的操纵稳定性和平顺性均优于悬架或转向单独控制的效果.

  17. How synthetic biology will reconsider natural bioluminescence and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Benjamin; Sanderson, Theo; Ellis, Tom; Freemont, Paul

    2014-01-01

    As our understanding of natural biological systems grows, so too does our ability to alter and rebuild them. Synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to biology in order to design and construct novel biological systems for specific applications. Bioluminescent organisms offer a treasure trove of light-emitting enzymes that may have applications in many areas of bioengineering, from biosensors to lighting. A few select bioluminescent organisms have been well researched and the molecular and genetic basis of their luminescent abilities elucidated, with work underway to understand the basis of luminescence in many others. Synthetic biology will aim to package these light-emitting systems as self-contained biological modules, characterize their properties, and then optimize them for use in other chassis organisms. As this catalog of biological parts grows, synthetic biologists will be able to engineer complex biological systems with the ability to emit light. These may use luminescence for an array of disparate functions, from providing illumination to conveying information or allowing communication between organisms. PMID:25216951

  18. Effects of Cold Temperature and Ethanol Content on VOC Emissions from Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Ingrid J; Hays, Michael D; Herrington, Jason S; Preston, William; Snow, Richard; Faircloth, James; George, Barbara Jane; Long, Thomas; Baldauf, Richard W

    2015-11-01

    Emissions of speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including mobile source air toxics (MSATs), were measured in vehicle exhaust from three light-duty spark ignition vehicles operating on summer and winter grade gasoline (E0) and ethanol blended (E10 and E85) fuels. Vehicle testing was conducted using a three-phase LA92 driving cycle in a temperature-controlled chassis dynamometer at two ambient temperatures (-7 and 24 °C). The cold start driving phase and cold ambient temperature increased VOC and MSAT emissions up to several orders of magnitude compared to emissions during other vehicle operation phases and warm ambient temperature testing, respectively. As a result, calculated ozone formation potentials (OFPs) were 7 to 21 times greater for the cold starts during cold temperature tests than comparable warm temperature tests. The use of E85 fuel generally led to substantial reductions in hydrocarbons and increases in oxygenates such as ethanol and acetaldehyde compared to E0 and E10 fuels. However, at the same ambient temperature, the VOC emissions from the E0 and E10 fuels and OFPs from all fuels were not significantly different. Cold temperature effects on cold start MSAT emissions varied by individual MSAT compound, but were consistent over a range of modern spark ignition vehicles. PMID:26444830

  19. Determination of VOC-components in the exhaust of gasoline and diesel passenger cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Thomas; Hassel, Dieter; Weber, Franz-Josef

    The composition of VOC emissions from in-use passenger cars with different engine types, i.e. cars with diesel engines, cars with petrol engines equipped with three-way-catalysts, and cars with petrol engines without catalysts was determined. Five cars of each engine type have been measured on a chassis dynamometer under conditions of the US FTP 75 test procedure and the "Autobahn" test developed by TÜV Rheinland. Measurements of C 2-C 10 hydrocarbons were made with a GC-FID system. In addition, samples on DNPH cartridges were taken and analysed by means of a HPLC-system for the determination of aldehydes and ketones.The influence of cold/warm-conditions on the VOC composition was determined. In the case of cars with diesel engines as well as for the petrol-driven cars without exhaust treatment, the effect caused by the cold start only led to minor changes in the VOC composition. A similar behaviour was observed for these car types at higher speeds. In contrast to the cars without catalysts, the cars with three-way-catalysts showed a great variability of the VOC composition. During the cold start phase the aromatic compounds and the alkenes yielded the main fraction of the VOC. During the warm phase the less reactive alkanes were predominant. With increasing mean velocities the VOC composition changed in favour of the more reactive compounds.

  20. A simple approach to a vision-guided unmanned vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Christopher; Millar, Evan; Anderson, Jon D.; Archibald, James K.; Lee, Dah-Jye

    2005-10-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a vision-guided autonomous vehicle that represented BYU in the 2005 Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC), in which autonomous vehicles navigate a course marked with white lines while avoiding obstacles consisting of orange construction barrels, white buckets and potholes. Our project began in the context of a senior capstone course in which multi-disciplinary teams of five students were responsible for the design, construction, and programming of their own robots. Each team received a computer motherboard, a camera, and a small budget for the purchase of additional hardware, including a chassis and motors. The resource constraints resulted in a simple vision-based design that processes the sequence of images from the single camera to determine motor controls. Color segmentation separates white and orange from each image, and then the segmented image is examined using a 10x10 grid system, effectively creating a low resolution picture for each of the two colors. Depending on its position, each filled grid square influences the selection of an appropriate turn magnitude. Motor commands determined from the white and orange images are then combined to yield the final motion command for video frame. We describe the complete algorithm and the robot hardware and we present results that show the overall effectiveness of our control approach.

  1. Computer cooling using a two phase minichannel thermosyphon loop heated from horizontal and vertical sides and cooled from vertical side

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieliński, Henryk; Mikielewicz, Jarosław

    2010-10-01

    In the present paper it is proposed to consider the computer cooling capacity using the thermosyphon loop. A closed thermosyphon loop consists of combined two heaters and a cooler connected to each other by tubes. The first heater may be a CPU processor located on the motherboard of the personal computer. The second heater may be a chip of a graphic card placed perpendicular to the motherboard of personal computer. The cooler can be placed above the heaters on the computer chassis. The thermosyphon cooling system on the use of computer can be modeled using the rectangular thermosyphon loop with minichannels heated at the bottom horizontal side and the bottom vertical side and cooled at the upper vertical side. The riser and a downcomer connect these parts. A one-dimensional model of two-phase flow and heat transfer in a closed thermosyphon loop is based on mass, momentum, and energy balances in the evaporators, rising tube, condenser and the falling tube. The separate two-phase flow model is used in calculations. A numerical investigation for the analysis of the mass flux rate and heat transfer coefficient in the steady state has been accomplished.

  2. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COMPOSITION AND TOXICITY OF ENGINE EMISSION SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    (1)Mauderly, J; Seagrave, J; McDonald; J (2)Eide,I (3)Zielinska, B (4)Lawson, D

    2003-08-24

    Differences in the lung toxicity and bacterial mutagenicity of seven samples from gasoline and diesel vehicle emissions were reported previously [1]. Filter and vapor-phase semivolatile organic samples were collected from normal and high-emitter gasoline and diesel vehicles operated on chassis dynamometers on the Unified Driving Cycle, and the compositions of the samples were measured in detail. The two fractions of each sample were combined in their original mass collection ratios, and the toxicity of the seven samples was compared by measuring inflammation and tissue damage in rat lungs and mutagenicity in bacteria. There was good agreement among the toxicity response variables in ranking the samples and demonstrating a five-fold range of toxicity. The relationship between chemical composition and toxicity was analyzed by a combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares regression (PLS, also known as projection to latent surfaces). The PCA /PLS analysis revealed the chemical constituents co-varying most strongly with toxicity and produced models predicting the relative toxicity of the samples with good accuracy. The results demonstrated the utility of the PCA/PLS approach, which is now being applied to additional samples, and it also provided a starting point for confirming the compounds that actually cause the effects.

  3. Induced sensitivity of Bacillus subtilis colony morphology to mechanical media compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica K. Polka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria from several taxa, including Kurthia zopfii, Myxococcus xanthus, and Bacillus mycoides, have been reported to align growth of their colonies to small features on the surface of solid media, including anisotropies created by compression. While the function of this phenomenon is unclear, it may help organisms navigate on solid phases, such as soil. The origin of this behavior is also unknown: it may be biological (that is, dependent on components that sense the environment and regulate growth accordingly or merely physical. Here we show that B. subtilis, an organism that typically does not respond to media compression, can be induced to do so with two simple and synergistic perturbations: a mutation that maintains cells in the swarming (chained state, and the addition of EDTA to the growth media, which further increases chain length. EDTA apparently increases chain length by inducing defects in cell separation, as the treatment has only marginal effects on the length of individual cells. These results lead us to three conclusions. First, the wealth of genetic tools available to B. subtilis will provide a new, tractable chassis for engineering compression sensitive organisms. Second, the sensitivity of colony morphology to media compression in Bacillus can be modulated by altering a simple physical property of rod-shaped cells. And third, colony morphology under compression holds promise as a rapid, simple, and low-cost way to screen for changes in the length of rod-shaped cells or chains thereof.

  4. A Comparative study on VOCs and aldehyde-ketone emissions from a spark Ignition vehicle fuelled on compressed natural gas and gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, an experimental study was conducted on a spark ignition (SI) vehicle fuelled on compressed natural gas (CNG), and gasoline to compare the unregulated emissions such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and aldehyde-ketones or carbonyls. In the meantime, ozone forming potential (OFP) of pollutants was also calculated on the basis of their specific reactivity (SR). The vehicle was run on a chassis dynamometer following the Chinese National Standards test scheduled for light duty vehicle (LDV) emissions. According to the results, total aldehyde-ketones were increased by 39.4% due to the substantial increase in formaldehyde and acrolein + acetone emissions, while VOCs and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene) reduced by 85.2 and 86% respectively, in case of CNG fuelled vehicle as compared to gasoline vehicle. Although total aldehyde-ketones were higher with CNG relative to gasoline, their SR was lower due decrease in acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, crotonaldehyde, and methacrolein species having higher maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) values. The SR of VOCs and aldehyde-ketones emitted from CNG fuelled vehicle was decreased by above 10% and 32% respectively, owing to better physicochemical properties and more complete burning of CNG as compared to gasoline. (author)

  5. In-situ FPGA debug driven by on-board microcontroller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Zachary Kent [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Often we are faced with the situation that the behavior of a circuit changes in an unpredictable way when chassis cover is attached or the system is not easily accessible. For instance, in a deployed environment, such as space, hardware can malfunction in unpredictable ways. What can a designer do to ascertain the cause of the problem? Register interrogations only go so far, and sometimes the problem being debugged is register transactions themselves, or the problem lies in FPGA programming. This work provides a solution to this; namely, the ability to drive a JTAG chain via an on-board microcontroller and use a simple clone of the Xilinx Chipscope core without a Xilinx JTAG cable or any external interfaces required. We have demonstrated the functionality of the prototype system using a Xilinx Spartan 3E FPGA and a Microchip PIC18j2550 microcontroller. This paper will discuss the implementation details as well as present case studies describing how the tools have aided satellite hardware development.

  6. Multiaxial motorcycle wheel load transducer; Mehrkomponenten-Motorradmessnabe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuchler, M.; Schrupp, R. [BMW AG, Muenchen (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Knowing the loads between road and wheel is one of the elementary inputs during the virtual CAE-based motorcycle design process and the real hardware test in the laboratory and on the track. Up to now, load measurements have been done by expensive strain gage applications on chassis components of the motorcycle, which forced extensive and time-wasting calibrations and calculations. The solution to that problem was the development of the worldwide unique multiaxial wheel load transducer for motorcycles, a joint project of the fatigue strength division and the motorcycle measuring division. (orig.) [German] Die Kenntnis der Kraefte zwischen Rad und Strasse ist eine der wesentlichen Eingangsgroessen sowohl fuer den CAE-gestuetzten virtuellen Produktentstehungsprozess als auch fuer die Versuche im Labor und auf der Teststrecke. In der Vergangenheit wurden die Lasten im Fahrbetrieb durch teuere Dehnungsmessstreifen-Applikationen an Fahrwerksbauteilen ermittelt, die umfangreiche und zeitaufwaendige Kalibrierungen und Signalverrechnungen erforderten. Die Loesung dieses Problems war die Entwicklung der weltweit ersten Mehrkomponenten-Motorradmessnabe, einem Gemeinschaftsprojekt der Abteilung Betriebsfestigkeit und der Motorradmesstechnik. (orig.)

  7. Crash simulation of UNS electric vehicle under frontal front impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilo, D. D.; Lukamana, N. I.; Budiana, E. P.; Tjahjana, D. D. D. P.

    2016-03-01

    Sebelas Maret University has been developing an Electric Vehicle namely SmarT-EV UNS. The main structure of the car are chasis and body. The chasis is made from steel and the body is made from fiberglass composite. To ensure the safety of the car, both static and dynamic tests were carried out to these structures, including their materials, like: tensile test, bending test, and impact test. Another test needed by this vehicle is crashworthiness test. To perform the test, it is needed complex equipments and it is quite expensive. Another way to obtain vehicle crashworthiness behaviour is by simulate it. The purpose of this study was to simulate the response of the Smart-EV UNS electric vehicle main structure when crashing rigid barrier from the front. The crash simulation was done in according to the NHTSA (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration) within the speed of the vehicle of 35 mph. The UNS Electric Vehicle was modelled using SolidWorks software, and the simulation process was done by finite element method using ANSYS software. The simulation result showed that the most internal impact energy was absorbed by chassis part. It absorbed 76.2% of impact energy, then the base absorbed 11.3 %, while the front body absorbed 2.5 %, and the rest was absorbed by fender, hood, and other parts.

  8. A computational analysis of stoichiometric constraints and trade-offs in cyanobacterial biofuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning eKnoop

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are a promising biological chassis for the synthesis of renewable fuels and chemical bulk commodities.Significant efforts have been devoted to improve the yields of cyanobacterial products. However, while the introduction and heterologous expression of product-forming pathways is often feasible, the interactions and incompatibilities of product synthesis with the host metabolism are still insufficiently understood.In this work, we investigate the stoichiometric properties and trade-offs that underlie cyanobacterial product formation using a computational reconstruction of cyanobacterial metabolism. First, we evaluate the synthesis requirements of a selection of cyanobacterial products of potential biotechnological interest. Second, the large-scale metabolic reconstruction allows us toperform in-silico experiments that mimic and predict the metabolic changes that must occur in the transition from a growth-only phenotype to a production-only phenotype. Applied to the synthesis of ethanol, ethylene, and propane, these in-silico transition experiments point to bottlenecks and potential modification targets in cyanobacterial metabolism.Our analysis reveals incompatibilities between biotechnological product synthesis and native host metabolism, such as shifts in ATP/NADPH demand and the requirement to reintegrate metabolic by-products. Similar strategies can be employed for a large class of cyanobacterial products to identify potential stoichiometric bottlenecks.

  9. Comparisons of the nanoparticle emission characteristics between GDI and PFI vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jihwan [Graduate School of Hanyang University (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jongtae; Kim, Jeongsoo [National Institute of Environmental Research (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sungwook, E-mail: parks@hanyang.ac.kr [Hanyang University, School of Mechanical Engineering (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    To compare the particle emissions of gasoline direct injection (GDI) and port fuel injection (PFI) vehicles in this study, the particulate matter of exhaust emissions was sampled from a constant volume sampler tunnel and tailpipe using a chassis dynamometer. Using the gravimetric method and a condensation particle counter, the particulate matter mass (PM) and particle number (PN) of the particle size according to the current regulations were measured. Nanometer-sized particle emissions, which are smaller than regulated particle emissions, were measured by an engine exhaust particle sizer. Four test vehicles, which included two GDI vehicles and two PFI vehicles, were tested in various driving modes. The test results show that the particle emissions from the GDI vehicles were higher than the particle emissions from the PFI vehicles. In addition, the test vehicles had the highest emissions in cold start conditions. In the GDI vehicles, the PM and PN satisfied the current regulations but PN did not satisfy the EURO 6c regulations that will be implemented in 2017. In all driving modes, the particle size distribution show that the most common particle size was approximately 50 nm, and the results according to the driving patterns of each mode were confirmed.

  10. Bioethanol/gasoline blends for fuelling conventional and hybrid scooter. Regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costagliola, Maria Antonietta; Prati, Maria Vittoria; Murena, Fabio

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this experimental activity was to evaluate the influence of ethanol fuel on the pollutant emissions measured at the exhaust of a conventional and a hybrid scooter. Both scooters are 4-stroke, 125 cm3 of engine capacity and Euro 3 compliant. They were tested on chassis dynamometer for measuring gaseous emissions of CO, HC, NOx, CO2 and some toxic micro organic pollutants, such as benzene, 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. The fuel consumption was estimated throughout a carbon balance on the exhaust species. Moreover, total particles number with diameter between 20 nm up to 1 μm was measured. Worldwide and European test cycles were carried out with both scooters fuelled with gasoline and ethanol/gasoline blends (10/90, 20/80 and 30/70% vol). According to the experimental results relative to both scooter technologies, the addiction of ethanol in gasoline reduces CO and particles number emissions. The combustion of conventional scooter becomes unstable when a percentage of 30%v of bioethanol is fed; as consequence a strong increasing of hydrocarbon is monitored, including carcinogenic species. The negative effects of ethanol fuel are related to the increasing of fuel consumption due to the less carbon content for volume unit and to the increasing of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde due to the higher oxygen availability. Almost 70% of Ozone Formation Potential is covered by alkenes and aromatics.

  11. Displacement and Force Control of a Quarter Car Using a Mixed Mode MR Mount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHV, vibration in dual-mode pump/motor units should be isolated from the chassis. A mixed mode magnetorheological (MR fluid mount was adopted to isolate this vibration and was evaluated in a quarter car model. The MR fluid mount was designed to be able to operate in flow mode and squeeze mode independently and simultaneously. For HHVs, it is desirable to control force and displacement transmissibility. These simulation results presented a basis for designing an effective algorithm to control both the displacement transmissibility and force transmissibility. Moreover, a hierarchical controller for minimizing the two requirements for transmissibility was also constructed. At last, a fuzzy logic controller was devised to closely reproduce the effect of the hierarchical controller. The experiments were set up to facilitate the hardware-in-the-loop evaluation of the mount. Results from the experiments showed that the mixed mode MR fluid mount was able to achieve desired dynamic stiffness profile to minimize the dual-transmissibility criterion.

  12. Cosmo Cassette: A Microfluidic Microgravity Microbial System For Synthetic Biology Unit Tests and Satellite Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berliner, Aaron J.

    2013-01-01

    Although methods in the design-build-test life cycle of the synthetic biology field have grown rapidly, the expansion has been non-uniform. The design and build stages in development have seen innovations in the form of biological CAD and more efficient means for building DNA, RNA, and other biological constructs. The testing phase of the cycle remains in need of innovation. Presented will be both a theoretical abstraction of biological measurement and a practical demonstration of a microfluidics-based platform for characterizing synthetic biological phenomena. Such a platform demonstrates a design of additive manufacturing (3D printing) for construction of a microbial fuel cell (MFC) to be used in experiments carried out in space. First, the biocompatibility of the polypropylene chassis will be demonstrated. The novel MFCs will be cheaper, and faster to make and iterate through designs. The novel design will contain a manifold switchingdistribution system and an integrated in-chip set of reagent reservoirs fabricated via 3D printing. The automated nature of the 3D printing yields itself to higher resolution switching valves and leads to smaller sized payloads, lower cost, reduced power and a standardized platform for synthetic biology unit tests on Earth and in space. It will be demonstrated that the application of unit testing in synthetic biology will lead to the automatic construction and validation of desired constructs. Unit testing methodologies offer benefits of preemptive problem identification, change of facility, simplicity of integration, ease of documentation, and separation of interface from implementation, and automated design.

  13. Dissecting and engineering metabolic and regulatory networks of thermophilic bacteria for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lu; Xu, Jian

    2013-11-01

    Interest in thermophilic bacteria as live-cell catalysts in biofuel and biochemical industry has surged in recent years, due to their tolerance of high temperature and wide spectrum of carbon-sources that include cellulose. However their direct employment as microbial cellular factories in the highly demanding industrial conditions has been hindered by uncompetitive biofuel productivity, relatively low tolerance to solvent and osmic stresses, and limitation in genome engineering tools. In this work we review recent advances in dissecting and engineering the metabolic and regulatory networks of thermophilic bacteria for improving the traits of key interest in biofuel industry: cellulose degradation, pentose-hexose co-utilization, and tolerance of thermal, osmotic, and solvent stresses. Moreover, new technologies enabling more efficient genetic engineering of thermophiles were discussed, such as improved electroporation, ultrasound-mediated DNA delivery, as well as thermo-stable plasmids and functional selection systems. Expanded applications of such technological advancements in thermophilic microbes promise to substantiate a synthetic biology perspective, where functional parts, module, chassis, cells and consortia were modularly designed and rationally assembled for the many missions at industry and nature that demand the extraordinary talents of these extremophiles. PMID:23510903

  14. Model-Based Analysis of Electric Drive Options for Medium-Duty Parcel Delivery Vehicles: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnitt, R. A.; Brooker, A. D.; Ramroth, L.

    2010-12-01

    Medium-duty vehicles are used in a broad array of fleet applications, including parcel delivery. These vehicles are excellent candidates for electric drive applications due to their transient-intensive duty cycles, operation in densely populated areas, and relatively high fuel consumption and emissions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted a robust assessment of parcel delivery routes and completed a model-based techno-economic analysis of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle configurations. First, NREL characterized parcel delivery vehicle usage patterns, most notably daily distance driven and drive cycle intensity. Second, drive-cycle analysis results framed the selection of drive cycles used to test a parcel delivery HEV on a chassis dynamometer. Next, measured fuel consumption results were used to validate simulated fuel consumption values derived from a dynamic model of the parcel delivery vehicle. Finally, NREL swept a matrix of 120 component size, usage, and cost combinations to assess impacts on fuel consumption and vehicle cost. The results illustrated the dependency of component sizing on drive-cycle intensity and daily distance driven and may allow parcel delivery fleets to match the most appropriate electric drive vehicle to their fleet usage profile.

  15. Old look, new technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thibert, R. [Canada Post, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2002-05-01

    Canada Post Corporation is committed to developing and implementing alternate fuel vehicles in its fleet. This presentation provides an update on what Canada Post has done with hybrid electric-powered vehicles. Approximately 1500 step vans will receive new chassis over the next 5 years under a new project currently underway in Edmonton, Alberta. Azure Dynamics Inc. has been contracted to re-power 30 of the units with a hybrid electric power train. The conversion will start in 2002 and will be completed by mid 2003. The conversion is expected to reduce fuel consumption and gas emissions. Canada Post is using hybrid electric technology as a viable substitute to alternate fuelled vehicles in order to meet the government's commitment under the Alternate Fuel Act. Preliminary feedback indicates that next generation vehicles must have improved acceleration, easier steering at low speed and during tight maneuvering, and the crawl speed will have to be reduced to maintain the low speed limit areas without applying the brakes. Preliminary results also indicate that the 50 per cent target fuel savings is attainable. Targeted emission reductions are 90 per cent. As the concept of developing an open market for trading greenhouse gas credits is gaining momentum, this commodity approach could mean potential revenue for Canada Post. tabs., figs.

  16. Computer-aided design of a coffee-dragging device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicuis Morais de Oliveira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dragging is the most costly and time-consuming stage of the coffee harvest. Therefore, its mechanization is important. The objectives of this study were to design, build, and evaluate the dynamics of a coffee-dragging device in a laboratory setting. The prototype consists of a dragging device with rods mounted on a metal plate and a chassis. Computer-aided design (CAD software was used to generate a solid second-order tetrahedral mesh for use in finite element analyses of the device and its parts. It was possible to simulate and display the device’s errors and failures and generate data on part deformities, Von Mises tension, and equivalent efforts. Equations based on the Denavit–Hartenberg theory were developed to describe the dragging device kinematics, and the results obtained with these equations were compared to those for the design developed using the software program. A preliminary drawing analysis identified a lever-type system as the best configuration for the device, based on its simple construction and its ability to balance the weight of the project parts. The safety factor achieved was greater than 28. Adjustment of the vibration amplitude of the rods is possible using the eccentric shaft of the connecting rod drive. Finite element analyses was used to analyze the connecting rod and predict the likely failure points.

  17. The effects of the catalytic converter and fuel sulfur level on motor vehicle particulate matter emissions: gasoline vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maricq, M Matti; Chase, Richard E; Xu, Ning; Podsiadlik, Diane H

    2002-01-15

    Scanning mobility and electrical low-pressure impactor particle size measurements conducted during chassis dynamometer testing reveal that neither the catalytic converter nor the fuel sulfur content has a significant effect on gasoline vehicle tailpipe particulate matter (PM) emissions. For current technology, port fuel injection, gasoline engines, particle number emissions are < or = 2 times higher from vehicles equipped with blank monoliths as compared to active catalysts, insignificant in contrast to the 90+% removal of hydrocarbons. PM mass emission rates derived from the size distributions are equal within the experimental uncertainty of 50-100%. Gravimetric measurements exhibit a 3-10-fold PM mass increase when the active catalyst is omitted, which is attributed to gaseous hydrocarbons adsorbing onto the filter medium. Both particle number and gravimetric measurements show that gasoline vehicle tailpipe PM emissions are independent (within 2 mg/mi) of fuel sulfur content over the 30-990 ppm concentration range. Nuclei mode sulfate aerosol is not observed in either test cell measurements or during wind tunnel testing. For three-way catalyst equipped vehicles, the principal sulfur emission is SO2; however a sulfur balance is not obtained over the drive cycle. Instead, sulfur is stored on the catalyst during moderate driving and then partially removed during high speed/load operation. PMID:11827063

  18. Determination of alternative fuels combustion products: Phase 3 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitney, K.A. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1997-12-01

    This report describes the laboratory efforts to characterize particulate and gaseous exhaust emissions from a passenger vehicle operating on alternative fuels. Tests were conducted at room temperature (nominally 72 F) and 20 F utilizing the chassis dynamometer portion of the FTP for light-duty vehicles. Fuels evaluated include Federal RFG, LPG meeting HD-5 specifications, a national average blend of CNG, E85, and M85. Exhaust particulate generated at room temperature was further characterized to determine polynuclear aromatic content, trace element content, and trace organic constituents. For all fuels except M85, the room temperature particulate emission rate from this vehicle was about 2 to 3 mg/mile. On M85, the particulate emission rate was more than 6 mg/mile. In addition, elemental analysis of particulate revealed an order of magnitude more sulfur and calcium from M85 than any other fuel. The sulfur and calcium indicate that these higher emissions might be due to engine lubricating oil in the exhaust. For RFG, particulate emissions at 20 F were more than six times higher than at room temperature. For alcohol fuels, particulate emissions at 20 F were two to three times higher than at room temperature. For CNG and LPG, particulate emissions were virtually the same at 72 F and 20 F. However, PAH emissions from CNG and LPG were higher than expected. Both gaseous fuels had larger amounts of pyrene, 1-nitropyrene, and benzo(g,h,i)perylene in their emissions than the other fuels.

  19. Effect of B20 and Low Aromatic Diesel on Transit Bus NOx Emissions Over Driving Cycles with a Range of Kinetic Intensity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, M. P.; McCormick, R. L.; Sindler, P.; Williams, A.

    2012-10-01

    Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions for transit buses for up to five different fuels and three standard transit duty cycles were compared to establish whether there is a real-world biodiesel NOx increase for transit bus duty cycles and engine calibrations. Six buses representing the majority of the current national transit fleet and including hybrid and selective catalyst reduction systems were tested on a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer with certification diesel, certification B20 blend, low aromatic (California Air Resources Board) diesel, low aromatic B20 blend, and B100 fuels over the Manhattan, Orange County and UDDS test cycles. Engine emissions certification level had the dominant effect on NOx; kinetic intensity was the secondary driving factor. The biodiesel effect on NOx emissions was not statistically significant for most buses and duty cycles for blends with certification diesel, except for a 2008 model year bus. CARB fuel had many more instances of a statistically significant effect of reducing NOx. SCR systems proved effective at reducing NOx to near the detection limit on all duty cycles and fuels, including B100. While offering a fuel economy benefit, a hybrid system significantly increased NOx emissions over a same year bus with a conventional drivetrain and the same engine.

  20. Conversion of a gasoline internal combustion engine to operate on hydrogen fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study deals with the conversion of a gasoline spark ignition internal combustion engine to operate on hydrogen fuel while producing similar power, economy and reliability as gasoline. The conversion engine will have the fuel system redesigned and ignition and fuel timing changed. Engine construction material is of great importance due to the low ignition energy of hydrogen, making aluminum a desirable material in the intake manifold and combustion chamber. The engine selected to convert is a 3400 SFI dual over head cam General Motors engine. Hydrogen reacts with metals causing hydrogen embrittlement which leads to failure due to cracking. There are standards published by American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) to avoid such a problem. Tuning of the hydrogen engine proved to be challenging due to the basic tuning tools of a gasoline engine such as a wide band oxygen sensor that could not measure the 34:1 fuel air mixture needed for the hydrogen engine. Once the conversion was complete the engine was tested on a chassis dynamometer to compare the hydrogen horsepower and torque produced to that of a gasoline engine. Results showed that the engine is not operating correctly. The engine is not getting the proper amount of fuel needed for complete combustion when operated in a loaded state over 3000 rpm. The problem was found to be the use of the stock injector driver that could not deliver enough power for the proper operation of the larger CM4980 injectors. (author)

  1. STEREO Model Rheometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulupa, M.; Bale, S. D.

    2006-12-01

    The SWAVES instrument on STEREO consists of three orthogonal six meter monopole antennae mounted on each spacecraft. The environment of a spacecraft-borne antenna contains many parasitic conductors, such as the spacecraft chassis, solar panels, and other instruments. The presence of these conductors results in an effective electrical antenna length that is different in magnitude and direction from that of the physical antenna. In order to determine the true effective length of the SWAVES antennae, it is necessary to make independent measurements of measured voltages using known electric fields. The scale model rheometry method as used by Rucker et al. for the Cassini RPWS instrument offers a means of measuring effective antennae vectors. The antenna measurements are made on a model spacecraft suspended in an electrolytic tank, and then scaled up to the full size spacecraft. We have constructed both a rheometry apparatus and a 1:20 scale model of the STEREO spacecraft, which was gold plated to ensure good surface conductivity. We will demonstrate the validity of the procedure and present the results of the STEREO model measurements.

  2. Solar power for an Antarctic rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lever, J. H.; Ray, L. R.; Streeter, A.; Price, A.

    2006-03-01

    Sensors mounted on mobile robots could serve a variety of science missions in Antarctica. Although weather conditions can be harsh, Antarctic snowfields offer unique conditions to facilitate long-distance robot deployment: the absence of obstacles, firm snow with high albedo, and 24 h sunlight during the summer. We have developed a four-wheel-drive, solar-powered rover that capitalizes on these advantages. Analyses and field measurements confirm that solar power reflected from Antarctic snow contributes 30-40% of the power available to a robot consisting of a five-side box of solar panels. Mobility analyses indicate that the 80 kg rover can move at 0.8 m s-1 during clear sky conditions on firm snow into a 5 m s-1 headwind, twice the speed needed to achieve the design target of 500 km in 2 weeks. Local winter tests of the chassis demonstrated good grade-climbing ability and lower than predicted rolling resistance. Tests of the completed robot occurred in Greenland in 2005.

  3. Monitoring individual traffic flows within the ATLAS TDAQ network

    CERN Document Server

    Sjoen, R; Ciobotaru, M; Batraneanu, S M; Leahu, L; Martin, B; Al-Shabibi, A

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS data acquisition system consists of four different networks interconnecting up to 2000 processors using up to 200 edge switches and five multi-blade chassis devices. The architecture of the system has been described in [1] and its operational model in [2]. Classical, SNMP-based, network monitoring provides statistics on aggregate traffic, but for performance monitoring and troubleshooting purposes there was an imperative need to identify and quantify single traffic flows. sFlow [3] is an industry standard based on statistical sampling which attempts to provide a solution to this. Due to the size of the ATLAS network, the collection and analysis of the sFlow data from all devices generates a data handling problem of its own. This paper describes how this problem is addressed by making it possible to collect and store data either centrally or distributed according to need. The methods used to present the results in a relevant fashion for system analysts are discussed and we explore the possibilities a...

  4. Monitoring individual traffic flows within the ATLAS TDAQ network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoen, R; Batraneanu, S M; Leahu, L; Martin, B; Al-Shabibi, A [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Stancu, S; Ciobotaru, M, E-mail: rune.velle.sjoen@cern.c [' Politehnica' University of Bucharest (Romania)

    2010-04-01

    The ATLAS data acquisition system consists of four different networks interconnecting up to 2000 processors using up to 200 edge switches and five multi-blade chassis devices. The architecture of the system has been described in [1] and its operational model in [2]. Classical, SNMP-based, network monitoring provides statistics on aggregate traffic, but for performance monitoring and troubleshooting purposes there was an imperative need to identify and quantify single traffic flows. sFlow [3] is an industry standard based on statistical sampling which attempts to provide a solution to this. Due to the size of the ATLAS network, the collection and analysis of the sFlow data from all devices generates a data handling problem of its own. This paper describes how this problem is addressed by making it possible to collect and store data either centrally or distributed according to need. The methods used to present the results in a relevant fashion for system analysts are discussed and we explore the possibilities and limitations of this diagnostic tool, giving an example of its use in solving system problems that arise during the ATLAS data taking.

  5. HERMES travels by CAN bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Lewis G.; Shortridge, Keith; Farrell, Tony J.; Vuong, Minh; Muller, Rolf; Sheinis, Andrew I.

    2014-07-01

    The new HERMES spectrograph represents the first foray by AAO into the use of commercial off-the-shelf industrial field bus technology for instrument control, and we regard the final system, with its relatively simple wiring requirements, as a great success. However, both software and hardware teams had to work together to solve a number of problems integrating the chosen CANopen/CAN bus system into our normal observing systems. A Linux system running in an industrial PC chassis ran the HERMES control software, using a PCI CAN bus interface connected to a number of distributed CANopen/CAN bus I/O devices and servo amplifiers. In the main, the servo amplifiers performed impressively, although some experimentation with homing algorithms was required, and we hit a significant hurdle when we discovered that we needed to disable some of the encoders used during observations; we learned a lot about how servo amplifiers respond when their encoders are turned off, and about how encoders react to losing power. The software was based around a commercial CANopen library from Copley Controls. Early worries about how this heavily multithreaded library would work with our standard data acquisition system led to the development of a very low-level CANopen software simulator to verify the design. This also enabled the software group to develop and test almost all the control software well in advance of the construction of the hardware. In the end, the instrument went from initial installation at the telescope to successful commissioning remarkably smoothly.

  6. Control of fast-pulsed Power Converters at CERN using a function generator controller

    CERN Document Server

    Murillo Garcia, Raul; Magrans De Abril, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The electrical power converter group at CERN is responsible for the design of fast-pulsed power converters. These generate a flat-top pulse of the order of a few milliseconds. Control of these power converters is orchestrated by an embedded computer, known as the Function Generator/Controller (FGC). The FGC is the main component in the so-called RegFGC3 chassis, which also houses a variety of purpose-built cards. Ensuring the generation of the pulse at a precise moment, typically when the beam passes, is paramount to the correct behaviour of the accelerator. To that end, the timing distribution and posterior handling by the FGC must be well defined. Also important is the ability to provide operational feedback, and to configure the FGC, the converter, and the pulse characteristics. This paper presents an overview of the system architecture as well as the results obtained during the commissioning of this control solution in CERN’s new Linac4.

  7. Fine-Tuning of Photoautotrophic Protein Production by Combining Promoters and Neutral Sites in the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Andrew H; Berla, Bertram M; Pakrasi, Himadri B

    2015-10-01

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic cell factories that use solar energy to convert CO2 into useful products. Despite this attractive feature, the development of tools for engineering cyanobacterial chassis has lagged behind that for heterotrophs such as Escherichia coli or Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Heterologous genes in cyanobacteria are often integrated at presumptively "neutral" chromosomal sites, with unknown effects. We used transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) data for the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 to identify neutral sites from which no transcripts are expressed. We characterized the two largest such sites on the chromosome, a site on an endogenous plasmid, and a shuttle vector by integrating an enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP) expression cassette expressed from either the Pcpc560 or the Ptrc1O promoter into each locus. Expression from the endogenous plasmid was as much as 14-fold higher than that from the chromosome, with intermediate expression from the shuttle vector. The expression characteristics of each locus correlated predictably with the promoters used. These findings provide novel, characterized tools for synthetic biology and metabolic engineering in cyanobacteria. PMID:26209663

  8. Concept and realization of unmanned aerial system with different modes of operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czyba, Roman; Szafrański, Grzegorz; Janusz, Wojciech; Niezabitowski, Michał; Czornik, Adam; Błachuta, Marian [Silesian University of Technology, Akademicka 2A, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland)

    2014-12-10

    In this paper we describe the development process of unmanned aerial system, its mechanical components, electronics and software solutions. During the stage of design, we have formulated some necessary requirements for the multirotor vehicle and ground control station in order to build an optimal system which can be used for the reconnaissance missions. Platform is controlled by use of the ground control station (GCS) and has possibility of accomplishing video based observation tasks. In order to fulfill this requirement the on-board payload consists of mechanically stabilized camera augmented with machine vision algorithms to enable object tracking tasks. Novelty of the system are four modes of flight, which give full functionality of the developed UAV system. Designed ground control station is consisted not only of the application itself, but also a built-in dedicated components located inside the chassis, which together creates an advanced UAV system supporting the control and management of the flight. Mechanical part of quadrotor is designed to ensure its robustness while meeting objectives of minimizing weight of the platform. Finally the designed electronics allows for implementation of control and estimation algorithms without the needs for their excessive computational optimization.

  9. Landmark Finding Algorithms for Indoor Autonomous Mobile Robot Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Tóth

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution is oriented to ways of computer vision algorithms for mobile robot localization in internal and external agricultural environment. The main aim of this work was to design, create, verify and evaluate speed and functionality of computer vision localization algorithm. An input colour camera data and depth data were captured by MS® Kinect sensor that was mounted on 6-wheel-drive mobile robot chassis. The design of the localization algorithm was focused to the most significant blobs and points (landmarks on the colour picture. Actual coordinates of autonomous mobile robot were calculated out from measured distances (depth sensor and calculated angles (RGB camera with respect to landmark points. Time measurement script was used to compare the speed of landmark finding algorithm for localization in case of one and more landmarks on picture. The main source code was written in MS Visual studio C# programming language with Microsoft.Kinect.1.7.dll on Windows based PC. Algorithms described in this article were created for a future development of an autonomous agronomical m obile robot localization and control.

  10. A versatile motion control system for astronomical instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Karl; Alter, Matthias; Bideaux, André; Klein, Ralf; Lehmitz, Michael; Mohr, Lars; Ramos, José Ricardo

    2010-07-01

    With steadily increasing telescope sizes and the growing complexity of scientific instruments, there is an ever-growing demand for improved electronics, controlling all the different optical parts on moving mechanisms. Among competing requirements are, on one hand, the increasing number of actuators, with high-precision positioning in closed and open loop, and on the other hand, smaller sizes, low power and restricted heat emission. A specific challenge is accommodating mechanisms that operate in infrared instrumentation at cryogenic temperatures down to 60 Kelvin. In this area piezo motors offer promising solutions. To fulfill these different demands a competitive motion control system has been developed at the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA) in Heidelberg, Germany. A modular chassis with standardized boards provides best solutions for extensive tasks. High and low power DC servo motors, brushless DC servo motors, stepper motors and piezo motors with different technologies are supported. Diversity position feedback capabilities, like incremental and absolute encoders for non cryogenic and capacitive sensors and resolvers for cryogenic applications, are provided.

  11. High efficiency novel window air conditioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Use of novel refrigerant mixture of R32/R125 (85/15% molar conc.) to reduce global warming and improve energy efficiency. • Use of novel features such as electronically commuted motor (ECM) fan motor, slinger and sub-merged sub-cooler. • Energy savings of up to 0.1 Quads per year in USA and much more in Asia/Middle East where WACs are used in large numbers. • Payback period of only 1.4 years of the novel efficient WAC. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of an experimental and analytical evaluation of measures to raise the efficiency of window air conditioners (WAC). In order to achieve a higher energy efficiency ratio (EER), the original capacity of a baseline R410A unit was reduced by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity but higher EER compressor, while all heat exchangers and the chassis from the original unit were retained. Subsequent major modifications included – replacing the alternating current fan motor with a brushless high efficiency electronically commutated motor (ECM) motor, replacing the capillary tube with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and replacing R410A with a ‘drop-in’ lower global warming potential (GWP) binary mixture of R32/R125 (85/15% molar concentration). All these modifications resulted in significant enhancement in the EER of the baseline WAC. Further, an economic analysis of the new WAC revealed an encouraging payback period

  12. Deciphering the streamlined genome of Streptomyces xiamenensis 318 as the producer of the anti-fibrotic drug candidate xiamenmycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min-Juan; Wang, Jia-Hua; Bu, Xu-Liang; Yu, He-Lin; Li, Peng; Ou, Hong-Yu; He, Ying; Xu, Fang-Di; Hu, Xiao-Yan; Zhu, Xiao-Mei; Ao, Ping; Xu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Streptomyces xiamenensis 318, a moderate halophile isolated from a mangrove sediment, produces the anti-fibrotic compound xiamenmycin. The whole genome sequence of strain 318 was obtained through long-read single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing, high-throughput Illumina HiSeq and 454 pyrosequencing technologies. The assembled genome comprises a linear chromosome as a single contig of 5,961,401-bp, which is considerably smaller than other reported complete genomes of the genus Streptomyces. Based on the antiSMASH pipeline, a total of 21 gene clusters were predicted to be involved in secondary metabolism. The gene cluster responsible for the biosynthesis of xiamenmycin resides in a strain-specific 61,387-bp genomic island belonging to the left-arm region. A core metabolic network consisting of 104 reactions that supports xiamenmycin biosynthesis was constructed to illustrate the necessary precursors derived from the central metabolic pathway. In accordance with the finding of a putative ikarugamycin gene cluster in the genome, the targeted chemical profiling of polycyclic tetramate macrolactams (PTMs) resulted in the identification of ikarugamycin. A successful genome mining for bioactive molecules with different skeletons suggests that the naturally minimized genome of S. xiamenensis 318 could be used as a blueprint for constructing a chassis cell with versatile biosynthetic capabilities for the production of secondary metabolites. PMID:26744183

  13. Uncertainties of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon and carbonyl measurements in heavy-duty diesel emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabilia, Rosanna; Cecinato, Angelo; Guerriero, Ettore; Possanzini, Massimiliano

    2006-02-01

    In this note we describe the speciated particle-phase PM2.5 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and gas-phase carbonyl emissions as collected from a heavy-duty diesel bus outfitted with an oxidation catalyst for exhaust after-treatment. The vehicle was run on a chassis dynamometer during a transient cycle test reproducing a typical city bus route (Azienda Tramviaria Municipalizzata cycle). The diluted tailpipe emissions were sampled for PAH using a 2.5 microm cut size cyclone glass fiber filter assembly, while carbonyls were absorbed onto dinitrophenyl hydrazine-coated silica cartridges. The former compounds were analysed by CGC-MS, the latter by HPLC-UV. Combining the two sets of speciation data resulting from 15 identical dynamometer tests provided a profile of both unregulated organic emissions. PAH emission rates decreased with the number of benzene fused rings. Fluoranthene and pyrene amounted to 90% of total PAHs quantified; six-ring PAHs accounted only for 0.5%. Similarly, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde accounted for approximately 80% of the total carbonyl emissions. Uncertainties of the method in the determination of individual emission factors were calculated. Statistical data processing revealed that all the measurements were quite unaffected by systematic errors and repeatability percentages did not exceed 50% for the majority of components of both groups. PMID:16524107

  14. Performance standards for urban search and rescue robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Elena; Jacoff, Adam

    2006-05-01

    In this paper, we describe work in performance standards for urban search and rescue (USAR) robots begun in 2004 by the Department of Homeland Security. This program is being coordinated by the National Institute of Standards and Technology and will result in consensus standards developed through ASTM International, under the Operational Equipment Subcommittee of their Homeland Security Committee. The first phase of the program involved definition of requirements by subject matter experts. Responders participated in a series of workshops to identify deployment categories for robots, performance categories, and ranges of acceptable or target performance in the various categories. Over one hundred individual requirements were identified, within main categories such as Human-System Interaction, Logistics, Operating Environment, and System (which includes Chassis, Communications, Mobility, Payload, Power, and Sensing). To ensure that the robot developers and eventual end users work closely together, "responders meet robots" events at situationally relevant sites are being held to refine and extend the performance requirements and develop standard test methods. The results of these standard performance tests will be captured in a compendium of existing and developmental robots with classifications and descriptors to differentiate particular robotic capabilities. This, along with ongoing efforts to categorize situational USAR constraints such as building collapse types or the presence of hazardous materials, will help responders match particular robotic capabilities to response needs. In general, these efforts will enable responders to effectively use robotic tools to enhance their effectiveness while reducing risk to personnel during disasters.

  15. Modular Robotic Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroni-Bird, Christopher E. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Junkin, Lucien Q. (Inventor); Lutz, Jonathan J. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Lapp, Anthony Joseph (Inventor); Ridley, Justin S. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A modular robotic vehicle includes a chassis, driver input devices, an energy storage system (ESS), a power electronics module (PEM), modular electronic assemblies (eModules) connected to the ESS via the PEM, one or more master controllers, and various embedded controllers. Each eModule includes a drive wheel containing a propulsion-braking module, and a housing containing propulsion and braking control assemblies with respective embedded propulsion and brake controllers, and a mounting bracket covering a steering control assembly with embedded steering controllers. The master controller, which is in communication with each eModule and with the driver input devices, communicates with and independently controls each eModule, by-wire, via the embedded controllers to establish a desired operating mode. Modes may include a two-wheel, four-wheel, diamond, and omni-directional steering modes as well as a park mode. A bumper may enable docking with another vehicle, with shared control over the eModules of the vehicles.

  16. New trends in robotics for agriculture: integration and assessment of a real fleet of robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmi, Luis; Gonzalez-de-Soto, Mariano; Pajares, Gonzalo; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Computer-based sensors and actuators such as global positioning systems, machine vision, and laser-based sensors have progressively been incorporated into mobile robots with the aim of configuring autonomous systems capable of shifting operator activities in agricultural tasks. However, the incorporation of many electronic systems into a robot impairs its reliability and increases its cost. Hardware minimization, as well as software minimization and ease of integration, is essential to obtain feasible robotic systems. A step forward in the application of automatic equipment in agriculture is the use of fleets of robots, in which a number of specialized robots collaborate to accomplish one or several agricultural tasks. This paper strives to develop a system architecture for both individual robots and robots working in fleets to improve reliability, decrease complexity and costs, and permit the integration of software from different developers. Several solutions are studied, from a fully distributed to a whole integrated architecture in which a central computer runs all processes. This work also studies diverse topologies for controlling fleets of robots and advances other prospective topologies. The architecture presented in this paper is being successfully applied in the RHEA fleet, which comprises three ground mobile units based on a commercial tractor chassis. PMID:25143976

  17. New Trends in Robotics for Agriculture: Integration and Assessment of a Real Fleet of Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Emmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer-based sensors and actuators such as global positioning systems, machine vision, and laser-based sensors have progressively been incorporated into mobile robots with the aim of configuring autonomous systems capable of shifting operator activities in agricultural tasks. However, the incorporation of many electronic systems into a robot impairs its reliability and increases its cost. Hardware minimization, as well as software minimization and ease of integration, is essential to obtain feasible robotic systems. A step forward in the application of automatic equipment in agriculture is the use of fleets of robots, in which a number of specialized robots collaborate to accomplish one or several agricultural tasks. This paper strives to develop a system architecture for both individual robots and robots working in fleets to improve reliability, decrease complexity and costs, and permit the integration of software from different developers. Several solutions are studied, from a fully distributed to a whole integrated architecture in which a central computer runs all processes. This work also studies diverse topologies for controlling fleets of robots and advances other prospective topologies. The architecture presented in this paper is being successfully applied in the RHEA fleet, which comprises three ground mobile units based on a commercial tractor chassis.

  18. The hydrocarbon composition of exhaust emitted from gasoline fuelled vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, P. F.; Quigley, S. M.

    The non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) compositions of the exhausts from 67 vehicles in 'on the road' condition and driven through an urban driving cycle on a chassis dynamometer, have been determined. The major components were ethylene (11.2% w/w of NMHC), toluene (10.2%), acetylene (8.7%), m, p-Xylenes(6.5%), benzene (5.0%), propylene (5.0%) and i-pentane(4.8%). These compounds have also been reported as significant components in the exhausts from two similar populations of American vehicles. The NMHC compositions were found to be insensitive to the mass emission rates of hydrocarbons from the vehicles, except for the combustion-derived olefins, ethylene and propylene, which were affected by engine modifications introduced to satisfy emission control requirements. A close relationship was found between petrol composition and exhaust composition but this did not correspond simply to emissions of unburnt petrol. The aromatics are enriched relative to the alkanes in exhaust when compared with their proportions in the petrol.

  19. Two-Element PIFA Array Structure for Polarization Diversity in UMTS Mobile Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hamouz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate the possibility to strongly modify the radiated fields of a UMTS handset by using a phased two-element PIFA array. The structure is composed of a 100x40 mm2 metallic ground plane acting as the Printed Circuit Board (PCB of the mobile phone. Two UMTS PIFAs are located at the top edge of this PCB. They are fed by a double Quasi-Lumped Coupler able to provide a 360 phase difference between its two outputs. By properly choosing the DC bias of the double QuasiLumped Coupler, we can set a specific phase difference between the two PIFAs. In this way the two-element array is able to radiate different electromagnetic fields. Simulated and measured radiation patterns in the two main planes of the chassis are presented for different phase differences. It is especially revealed that the novel twoantenna structure is able to radiate vertically-polarized electric fields in the azimuthal plane of the phone and horizontally-polarized electric fields in the same plane when changing the phase shift between the antennas from 0 to 180. Potential applications are polarization-diversity techniques and Specific Absorption Rate reduction for handsets.

  20. Design and development of embedded control system for high power RF test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design and development of an embedded control system for the control, interlock and operation of 1MW, 352.2 MHz TH2089 klystron based RF test facility. The key components of the control system are NI compact Re configurable Input Output (cRIO) system and Windows based PC. The cRIO system's rugged hardware architecture includes a 1.06 GHz Dual-Core embedded controller with Real Time (RT) Operating System, a reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chassis for custom I/O timing, control and processing; and I/O modules. Windows based Graphical User Interface (GUI) has been developed to guide the user through start-up procedure, to set the operating parameters and also to display the status information of all the signals. The application software for data logging and publishing of the acquired data namely set, read back and status signals of auxiliary power supplies and machine safety interlocks has been developed in LabVIEW RT module and is running on embedded controller. Machine safety interlock logic has been implemented in FPGA to meet the time criticality. (author)

  1. MXIbus data throughput tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of tests were conducted to evaluate data transfer rates using the MXIbus architecture. The tests were conducted by the DAQ group in the Physics Research Division. The MXIbus from National Instruments provides a multisystem extension interface bus. It allows multiple VME chassis to be networked. Other bus architectures that can participate in the network include VXIbus, IBM PC-AT bus, Sun Sbus, Mac NuBus and stand-alone instruments with the appropriate MXIbus adapter cards. From a functional standpoint the MXIbus provides the capability to enlarge the address space in a fashion that is transparent to the software application. The tests were designed to measure data throughput when using the MSIbus with other industry off-the-shelf hardware. This report contains discussions on: MXIbus architecture and general guidelines; the commercial hardware and software used in each set of tests; and a brief description of each set of tests, observations and guidelines; the commercial hardware and software used in each set of tests; and a brief description of each set of tests, observations and conclusions

  2. Integrated control of lateral and vertical vehicle dynamics based on multi-agent system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen; Chen, Long; Yun, Chaochun; Jiang, Haobin; Chen, Yuexia

    2014-03-01

    The existing research of the integrated chassis control mainly focuses on the different evaluation indexes and control strategy. Among the different evaluation indexes, the comprehensive properties are usually not considered based on the non-linear superposition principle. But, the control strategy has some shortages on tyre model with side-slip angle, road adhesion coefficient, vertical load and velocity. In this paper, based on belief, desire and intention(BDI)-agent model framework, the TYRE agent, electric power steering(EPS) agent and active suspension system(ASS) agent are proposed. In the system(SYS) agent, the coordination mechanism is employed to manage interdependences and conflicts among other agents, so as to improve the flexibility, adaptability, and robustness of the global control system. Due to the existence of the simulation demand of dynamic performance, the vehicle multi-body dynamics model is established by SIMPACK. And then the co-simulation analysis is conducted to evaluate the proposed multi-agent system(MAS) controller. The simulation results demonstrate that the MAS has good effect on the performance of EPS and ASS. Meantime, the better road feeling for the driver is provided considering the multiple and complex driving traffic. Finally, the MAS rapid control prototyping is built to conduct the real vehicle test. The test results are consistent to the simulation results, which verifies the correctness of simulation. The proposed research ensures the driving safety, enhances the handling stability, and improves the ride comfort.

  3. Multi-dimensional selectors with magnetic memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Societe Intertechnique, in collaboration with the Commissariat a l'energie atomique, has studied different standard memory units having 1024 and 4096 channels. These information storage units can be included as a memory element in a measurement chain or, with certain accessories, can serve as complete multi-dimensional selectors. The 1024-channel unit, which was designed more especially for the read-back of information stored on a multi-track magnetic tape, has been generally enlarged and expanded into a 4096-channel selector. This type of memory unit, coupled to a 128 or 256 channel digital analogue converter for example, becomes a selector with 32 x 128 or 16 x 256 channels which can be used to study the spectrum of a nuclear reaction involving 16 or 32 parameters. These instruments have been specially designed to embody the following features: easy maintenance (printed panels mounted on movable chassis), size and shape resembling those of an oscillograph, versatility (numerous accessories and various modes of operation). (author)

  4. The design of the scissor hydraulic lifting platform%剪叉式液压升降台的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鸿鹄; 郭莲; 王宇恒

    2014-01-01

    为了满足升降高度精确、承载能力大的工况需求,设计了一种可在水平面内自由移动的剪叉式升降台,通过液压驱动三层底板可在平面内自由移动,升降功能由内置倾斜液压缸驱动的剪叉装置实现。以液压缸最大推力为前提,对薄弱的剪叉机构以及滑移底盘进行了仿真分析,结果满足设计要求,验证了该模型的合理性。%In order to improve the height accuracy and carrying capacity of the lift platform, it introduces a scissor lift that can freely move in the horizontal plane.Through the freely movement of the hydraulically driven three-bottom within the plane, it realizes the landing capabilities with built-in tilt scissor cylinder.It proposes the scissors for weak institutions and slip chassis based on maximum thrust of hydraulic cylinder, shows that the sim-ulation working condition meets the design requirements, validates the rationality of the model.

  5. Evaluation of the Benefits Attributable to Automotive Lighweight Materials Program Research and Development Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S.

    2002-01-11

    The purpose of this project is to identify and test methods appropriate for estimating the benefits attributable to research and development (R and D) projects funded by the Automotive Lightweight Materials (ALM) Program of the Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies (OAAT) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The program focuses on the development and validation of advanced lightweight materials technologies to significantly reduce automotive vehicle body and chassis weight without compromising other attributes such as safety, performance, recyclability, and cost. The work supports the goals of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Up to thirty percent of the improvement required to meet the PNGV goal of tripling vehicle fuel economy and much of its cost, safety, and recyclability goal depend on the lightweight materials. Funded projects range from basic materials science research to applied research in production environments. Collaborators on these projects include national laboratories, universities, and private sector firms, such as leading automobile manufacturers and their suppliers.

  6. A review of metabolic and enzymatic engineering strategies for designing and optimizing performance of microbial cell factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda K. Fisher

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Microbial cell factories (MCFs are of considerable interest to convert low value renewable substrates to biofuels and high value chemicals. This review highlights the progress of computational models for the rational design of an MCF to produce a target bio-commodity. In particular, the rational design of an MCF involves: (i product selection, (ii de novo biosynthetic pathway identification (i.e., rational, heterologous, or artificial, (iii MCF chassis selection, (iv enzyme engineering of promiscuity to enable the formation of new products, and (v metabolic engineering to ensure optimal use of the pathway by the MCF host. Computational tools such as (i de novo biosynthetic pathway builders, (ii docking, (iii molecular dynamics (MD and steered MD (SMD, and (iv genome-scale metabolic flux modeling all play critical roles in the rational design of an MCF. Genome-scale metabolic flux models are of considerable use to the design process since they can reveal metabolic capabilities of MCF hosts. These can be used for host selection as well as optimizing precursors and cofactors of artificial de novo biosynthetic pathways. In addition, recent advances in genome-scale modeling have enabled the derivation of metabolic engineering strategies, which can be implemented using the genomic tools reviewed here as well.

  7. Effects of Blank Curvature and Tool Conditions on the Spring Back of Thin Sheet Panel Formed through Local Embossing and Edge L-Bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Keecheol; Park, Jongyoun; Nam, Jaebok

    2011-08-01

    Due to the application of thinner sheet steels, the stamped panels in the forming process, generally, are severely distorted. The wavy shape of embossed panel finally converted to residual stress embedded in the panel at final forming (edge L-bending) and it is known as the cause of twisting and oil canning of spring backed panel. Another important source of stamped shape deviation is the curvature of blank. The effects of blank curvature on the shape defects (panel curvature and twisting) after stamping were investigated from defective panel analysis, model experiment and stamping simulation. And the effect of tool conditions (BHF and bead height change) on spring backed shape of real TV bottom chassis were studied. The initial curvature of blank was remained in the flat area of stamped panels as width directional curvature. It converted from length direction curvature of blank. The curvature of initial blank reduced the wavy shape after local emboss forming, but twisting after edge L-bending was increased at large blank curvature cases. The effects of emboss forming conditions, the forming heights and blank holding force were studied and it was found that the wavy shape of stamped sheet was rapidly changed although the forming conditions altered very small amount.

  8. An environment-sensitive synthetic microbial ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Hu

    Full Text Available Microbial ecosystems have been widely used in industrial production, but the inter-relationships of organisms within them haven't been completely clarified due to complex composition and structure of natural microbial ecosystems. So it is challenging for ecologists to get deep insights on how ecosystems function and interplay with surrounding environments. But the recent progresses in synthetic biology show that construction of artificial ecosystems where relationships of species are comparatively clear could help us further uncover the meadow of those tiny societies. By using two quorum-sensing signal transduction circuits, this research designed, simulated and constructed a synthetic ecosystem where various population dynamics formed by changing environmental factors. Coherent experimental data and mathematical simulation in our study show that different antibiotics levels and initial cell densities can result in correlated population dynamics such as extinction, obligatory mutualism, facultative mutualism and commensalism. This synthetic ecosystem provides valuable information for addressing questions in ecology and may act as a chassis for construction of more complex microbial ecosystems.

  9. High Performance Gigabit Ethernet Switches for DAQ Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Barczyk, Artur

    2005-01-01

    Commercially available high performance Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) switches are optimized mostly for Internet and standard LAN application traffic. DAQ systems on the other hand usually make use of very specific traffic patterns, with e.g. deterministic arrival times. Industry's accepted loss-less limit of 99.999% may be still unacceptably high for DAQ purposes, as e.g. in the case of the LHCb readout system. In addition, even switches passing this criteria under random traffic can show significantly higher loss rates if subject to our traffic pattern, mainly due to buffer memory limitations. We have evaluated the performance of several switches, ranging from "pizza-box" devices with 24 or 48 ports up to chassis based core switches in a test-bed capable to emulate realistic traffic patterns as expected in the readout system of our experiment. The results obtained in our tests have been used to refine and parametrize our packet level simulation of the complete LHCb readout network. In this paper we report on the...

  10. Simulation and Experimental Studies of a 2.45GHz Magnetron Source for an SRF Cavity with Field Amplitude and Phase Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haipeng [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Plawski, Tomasz E. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Rimmer, Robert A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Dudas, A. [Muons Inc., Batavia, IL (United States); Neubauer, M. L. [Muons Inc., Batavia, IL (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Phase lock to an SRF cavity by using injection signal through output waveguide of a magnetron has been demonstrated [1, 3]. Amplitude control using magnetic field trimming and anode voltage modulation has been studied using MATLAB/Simulink simulations [2]. Based on these, we are planning to use an FPGA based digital LLRF system, which allows applying various types of control algorithms in order to achieve the required accelerating field stability. Since the 1497 MHz magnetron is still in the design stage, the proof of principle measurements of a commercial 2450 MHz magnetron are carried out to characterize the anode I-V curve, output power (the tube electronic efficiency), frequency dependence on the anode current (frequency pushing) and the Rieke diagram (frequency pulling by the reactive load). Based on early Simulink simulation, experimental data and extension of the Adler equation governing injection phase stability by Chen’s model, the specification of the new LLRF control chassis for both 2450 and 1497MHz systems are presented in this paper.

  11. EasyClone-MarkerFree: A vector toolkit for marker-less integration of genes into Saccharomyces cerevisiae via CRISPR-Cas9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessop-Fabre, Mathew M; Jakočiūnas, Tadas; Stovicek, Vratislav; Dai, Zongjie; Jensen, Michael K; Keasling, Jay D; Borodina, Irina

    2016-08-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an established industrial host for production of recombinant proteins, fuels and chemicals. To enable stable integration of multiple marker-free overexpression cassettes in the genome of S. cerevisiae, we have developed a vector toolkit EasyClone-MarkerFree. The integration of linearized expression cassettes into defined genomic loci is facilitated by CRISPR/Cas9. Cas9 is recruited to the chromosomal location by specific guide RNAs (gRNAs) expressed from a set of gRNA helper vectors. Using our genome engineering vector suite, single and triple insertions are obtained with 90-100% and 60-70% targeting efficiency, respectively. We demonstrate application of the vector toolkit by constructing a haploid laboratory strain (CEN.PK113-7D) and a diploid industrial strain (Ethanol Red) for production of 3-hydroxypropionic acid, where we tested three different acetyl-CoA supply strategies, requiring overexpression of three to six genes each. Among the tested strategies was a bacterial cytosolic pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, which was integrated into the genome in a single transformation. The publicly available EasyClone-MarkerFree vector suite allows for facile and highly standardized genome engineering, and should be of particular interest to researchers working on yeast chassis with limited markers available. PMID:27166612

  12. Application of embedded EPICS to LLRF control system for SuperKEKB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toward SuperKEKB project, a new digital low-level RF system was implemented and is now under evaluation. The control system of the new low-level RF system features embedded computers running Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System for local control on-site as well as remote control from the central control room. The frontend part of the control system comprises a Programmable Logic Controller and Advanced Mezzanine Cards in a micro-TCA chassis, which serve as Input / Output Controller of EPICS in place of an existing VME-computer and a CAMAC interface crate. The user interface for local control also relies on embedded computers serving as Operator Interface of EPICS-based control system. The adoption of embedded EPICS allowed us to make full use of existing software modules supported by EPICS community. This paper describes the design, implementation and present status of evaluation of the embedded EPICS-based control of the new low-level RF system. (author)

  13. Transportable Emissions Testing Laboratory for Alternative Vehicles Emissions Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Nigel

    2012-01-31

    The overall objective of this project was to perform research to quantify and improve the energy efficiency and the exhaust emissions reduction from advanced technology vehicles using clean, renewable and alternative fuels. Advanced vehicle and alternative fuel fleets were to be identified, and selected vehicles characterized for emissions and efficiency. Target vehicles were to include transit buses, school buses, vocational trucks, delivery trucks, and tractor-trailers. Gaseous species measured were to include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. An objective was to characterize particulate matter more deeply than by mass. Accurate characterization of efficiency and emissions was to be accomplished using a state-of-the-art portable emissions measurement system and an accompanying chassis dynamometer available at West Virginia University. These two units, combined, are termed the Transportable Laboratory. An objective was to load the vehicles in a real-world fashion, using coast down data to establish rolling resistance and wind drag, and to apply the coast down data to the dynamometer control. Test schedules created from actual vehicle operation were to be employed, and a specific objective of the research was to assess the effect of choosing a test schedule which the subject vehicle either cannot follow or can substantially outperform. In addition the vehicle loading objective was to be met better with an improved flywheel system.

  14. Study on the improvement effect of nursing metho d for urinary stoma%泌尿造口护理方法的改进效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆星尘; 邬凌峰; 张惠萍; 刘学英; 何屹

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨泌尿造口护理方法改进与成效。方法选择泌尿造口患者40例,按入院时间随机分为观察组20例和对照组20例。对照组术后首次更换造口底盘时采用常规方法,观察组术后首次更换造口底盘时,在常规方法基础上应用多爱肤超薄敷料、防漏膏、造口粉、纱布、3 M高强度胶带及腰带进行造口护理,比较两组患者造口周围皮肤受损情况、腹部切口被尿液渗湿情况、造口底盘使用时间及费用情况。结果观察组患者造口周围皮肤受损发生率为5.0%,低于对照组的35.0%,差异有统计学意义(χ2=3.906,P<0.05);观察组患者腹部切口尿液渗漏率为25.0%,低于对照组的60.0%,差异有统计学意义(χ2=5.013,P<0.05);观察组造口底盘使用时间平均为(4.2±1.9) d,高于对照组的(2.9±1.7)d,差异有统计学意义( t =2.279,P<0.05);两组患者日平均费用比较,差异无统计学意义(t =-0.747,P>0.05)。结论泌尿造口术后应用多爱肤超薄敷料保护切口,防漏膏防渗漏,造口粉保护皮肤,纱布引流,3 M高强度胶带及佩戴腰带固定底盘,可以减少并发症发生,延长造口底盘使用时间,减少医疗费用。%Objective To investigate the improvement and effectiveness of nursing method for urinary stoma.Methods According to hospital admission time , 40 patients with urinary ostomy were selected and randomly divided into observation group and control group , with 20 patients in each group.When replacing chassis for the first time after urinary ostomy, the patients in the control group were given the conventional nursing method for urinary stoma, and the patients in the observation group were given the combination nursing method of DuoDERM Extra Thin dressing , leak-proof cream, stoma powder, gauze, 3M high strength belt and lumbar belt, as well as the conventional method .The

  15. Statistical Characterization of School Bus Drive Cycles Collected via Onboard Logging Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, A.; Walkowicz, K.

    2013-10-01

    In an effort to characterize the dynamics typical of school bus operation, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers set out to gather in-use duty cycle data from school bus fleets operating across the country. Employing a combination of Isaac Instruments GPS/CAN data loggers in conjunction with existing onboard telemetric systems resulted in the capture of operating information for more than 200 individual vehicles in three geographically unique domestic locations. In total, over 1,500 individual operational route shifts from Washington, New York, and Colorado were collected. Upon completing the collection of in-use field data using either NREL-installed data acquisition devices or existing onboard telemetry systems, large-scale duty-cycle statistical analyses were performed to examine underlying vehicle dynamics trends within the data and to explore vehicle operation variations between fleet locations. Based on the results of these analyses, high, low, and average vehicle dynamics requirements were determined, resulting in the selection of representative standard chassis dynamometer test cycles for each condition. In this paper, the methodology and accompanying results of the large-scale duty-cycle statistical analysis are presented, including graphical and tabular representations of a number of relationships between key duty-cycle metrics observed within the larger data set. In addition to presenting the results of this analysis, conclusions are drawn and presented regarding potential applications of advanced vehicle technology as it relates specifically to school buses.

  16. Final report for the Advanced Natural Gas Vehicle Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Wozniak

    1999-02-16

    The project objective was to develop the technologies necessary to prototype a dedicated compressed natural gas (CNG) powered, mid-size automobile with operational capabilities comparable to gasoline automobiles. A system approach was used to design and develop the engine, gas storage system and vehicle packaging. The 2.4-liter DOHC engine was optimized for natural gas operation with high-compression pistons, hardened exhaust valves, a methane-specific catalytic converter and multi-point gaseous injection. The chassis was repackaging to increase space for fuel storage with a custom-designed, cast-aluminum, semi-trailing arm rear suspension system, a revised flat trunk sheet-metal floorpan and by equipping the car with run-flat tires. An Integrated Storage system (ISS) was developed using all-composite, small-diameter cylinders encapsulated within a high-strength fiberglass shell with impact-absorbing foam. The prototypes achieved the target goals of a city/highway driving range of 300 miles, ample trunk capacity, gasoline vehicle performance and ultra low exhaust emissions.

  17. Emissions from Medium-Duty Conventional and Diesel-Electric Hybrid Vehicles; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragatz, A.; Duran, A.; Thornton, M.; Walkowicz, K.

    2014-04-02

    This presentation discusses the results of emissions testing for medium-duty conventional and diesel-electric hybrid vehicles. Testing was based on a field evaluation approach that utilized the Fleet DNA drive cycle database and NREL’s Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory chassis dynamometer. Vehicles tested included parcel delivery (Class 6 step vans), beverage delivery (Class 8 tractors), and parcel delivery (Class 7 box trucks) vehicles, all with intended service class medium/heavy heavy-duty diesel (MHDD).
    Results for fuel economy and tailpipe NOx emissions included: diesel hybrid electric vehicles showed an average fuel economy advantage on identified test cycles: Class 6 Step Vans: 26%; Class 7 Box Trucks: 24.7%; Class 8 Tractors: 17.3%. Vehicle miles traveled is an important factor in determining total petroleum and CO2 displacement. Higher NOx emissions were observed over some test cycles: highly drive cycle dependent; engine-out differences may result from different engine operating point; and selective catalyst reduction temperature may play a role, but does not explain the whole story.

  18. Temperature Control and Noise Reduction in our Compact ADR System for TES Microcalorimeter Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hishi, U.; Fujimoto, R.; Kamiya, K.; Kotake, M.; Ito, H.; Kaido, T.; Tanaka, K.; Hattori, K.

    2016-03-01

    We have been developing a compact adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator, keeping ground application and future missions in mind. A salt pill fabricated in-house, a superconducting magnet with a passive magnetic shield around it, and a mechanical heat switch are mounted in a dedicated helium cryostat. The detector stage temperature is regulated by PID control of the magnet current, with a dI/dt term added to compensate the temperature rise due to parasitic heat. The temperature fluctuation of the detector stage is 1-2 \\upmu Krms, and the hold time was extended by about 15 % thanks to the dI/dt term. Bundle shields of the harnesses between the cryostat and the analog electronics boxes were connected to the chassis at both ends, and the analog electronics boxes were grounded to the cryostat through the bundle shields. This reduced the readout noise to 16 pA/√{Hz} in the 10-60 kHz range. Using this system, an energy resolution of 3.8 ± 0.2 eV (FWHM) was achieved at 5.9 keV.

  19. Emissions from nine heavy trucks fueled by diesel and biodiesel blend without engine modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodiesel, a fuel that can be made from renewable biological sources such as vegetable oils or animal fats, has been recognized recently as an environment friendly alternative fuel for diesel engines. In this paper, the authors describe a study that compared exhaust emissions from in-use heavy trucks fueled with a biodiesel blend with those from trucks fueled with petroleum diesel. The biodiesel blend tested is a mixture of 35% biodiesel and 65% petroleum diesel, a blend designated as B35. The study is based on the field test results from West Virginia University's Transportable Heavy Duty Chassis Dynamometer Emissions Testing Laboratory and sponsored by the US Department of Energy. The heavy trucks the authors tested performed well when the originally equipped compression-ignition engine (diesel engine) was fueled with B35 without any engine modifications. Fuel economy (in terms of gallon per mile) of the two fuels was about the same. The emissions test results have shown that the heavy trucks fueled by B35 emitted significantly lower particulate matter (PM) and moderately lower carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) than the same trucks fueled by no. 2 diesel (D2). Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions from B35 and D2, however, were generally in the same level. Emissions variations from two different engine models and two driving cycles were also observed. Although the authors recommend more tests for biodiesel vehicles, the data obtained in this study indicate that biodiesel has promise as an emissions-reducing alternative fuel for diesel engines

  20. Effects of low concentration biodiesel blends application on modern passenger cars. Part 3: Impact on PAH, nitro-PAH, and oxy-PAH emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study explores the impact of five different types of methyl esters on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), nitrated-PAH and oxygenated PAH emissions. The measurements were conducted on a chassis dynamometer, according to the European regulation. Each of the five different biodiesels was blended with EN590 diesel at a proportion of 10-90% v/v (10% biodiesel concentration). The vehicle was a Euro 3 compliant common-rail diesel passenger car. Emission measurements were performed over the NEDC and compared with those of the real traffic-based Artemis driving cycles. The experimental results showed that the addition of biodiesel led to some important increases in low molecular-weight PAHs (phenanthrene and anthracene) and to both increases and reductions in large PAHs which are characterised by their carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. Nitro-PAHs were found to reduce with biodiesel whereas oxy-PAH emissions presented important increases with the biodiesel blends. The impact of biodiesel source material was particularly clear on the formation of PAH compounds. It was found that most PAH emissions decreased as the average load and speed of the driving cycle increased. Cold-start conditions negatively influenced the formation of most PAH compounds. A similar trend was observed with particulate alkane emissions. - This investigation is a contribution to the understanding the impact of different biodiesels on the formation of PAHs, nitro-PAHs and oxy-PAHs over different driving conditions.