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Sample records for charpy test

  1. Charpy Impact Test on Polymeric Molded Parts

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Raicu

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the Charpy impact tests on the AcrylonitrileButadiene-Styrene (ABS) polymeric material parts. The Charpy impact test, also known as the Charpy V-notch test, is a standardized strain rate test which determines the amount of energy absorbed by a material during fracture. This is a typical method described in ASTM Standard D 6110. We use for testing an Instron - Dynatup equipment which have a fully integrated hardware and software package that let us capture ...

  2. Charpy Impact Test on Polymeric Molded Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Raicu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the Charpy impact tests on the AcrylonitrileButadiene-Styrene (ABS polymeric material parts. The Charpy impact test, also known as the Charpy V-notch test, is a standardized strain rate test which determines the amount of energy absorbed by a material during fracture. This is a typical method described in ASTM Standard D 6110. We use for testing an Instron - Dynatup equipment which have a fully integrated hardware and software package that let us capture load information at very high speed from the impact tests.

  3. Microstructural characterization of Charpy-impact-tested nanostructured bainite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, a possible cause of the extraordinary low impact toughness of nanostructured bainite has been investigated. The microstructure of nanostructured bainite consisted chiefly of carbide-free bainitic ferrite with retained austenite films. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) measurement indicated that no retained austenite existed in the fractured surface of the Charpy-impact-tested specimens. Fractographs showed that cracks propagated mainly along bainitic ferrite platelet boundaries. The change in microstructure after impact loading was verified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations, confirming that retained austenite was completely transformed to strain-induced martensite during the Charpy impact test. However, the zone affected by strained-induced martensite was found to be extremely shallow, only to a depth of several micrometers from the fracture surface. It is appropriately concluded that upon impact, as the crack forms and propagates, strain-induced martensitic transformation immediately occurs ahead of the advancing crack tip. The successive martensitic transformation profoundly facilitates the crack propagation, resulting in the extremely low impact toughness of nanostructured bainite. Retained austenite, in contrast to its well-known beneficial role, has a deteriorating effect on toughness during the course of Charpy impact. - Highlights: • The microstructure of nanostructured bainite consisted of nano-sized bainitic ferrite subunits with retained austenite films. • Special sample preparations for SEM, XRD and TEM were made, and the strain-affected structures have been explored. • Retained austenite films were found to transform into martensite after impact loading, as evidenced by XRD and TEM results. • The zone of strain-induced martensite was found to extend to only several micrometers from the fracture surface. • The poor Charpy impact toughness is associated with the fracture of martensite at a high strain rate during

  4. Microstructural characterization of Charpy-impact-tested nanostructured bainite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Y.T.; Chang, H.T.; Huang, B.M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, C.Y. [Iron and Steel R& D Department, China Steel Corporation, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yang, J.R., E-mail: jryang@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2015-09-15

    In this work, a possible cause of the extraordinary low impact toughness of nanostructured bainite has been investigated. The microstructure of nanostructured bainite consisted chiefly of carbide-free bainitic ferrite with retained austenite films. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) measurement indicated that no retained austenite existed in the fractured surface of the Charpy-impact-tested specimens. Fractographs showed that cracks propagated mainly along bainitic ferrite platelet boundaries. The change in microstructure after impact loading was verified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations, confirming that retained austenite was completely transformed to strain-induced martensite during the Charpy impact test. However, the zone affected by strained-induced martensite was found to be extremely shallow, only to a depth of several micrometers from the fracture surface. It is appropriately concluded that upon impact, as the crack forms and propagates, strain-induced martensitic transformation immediately occurs ahead of the advancing crack tip. The successive martensitic transformation profoundly facilitates the crack propagation, resulting in the extremely low impact toughness of nanostructured bainite. Retained austenite, in contrast to its well-known beneficial role, has a deteriorating effect on toughness during the course of Charpy impact. - Highlights: • The microstructure of nanostructured bainite consisted of nano-sized bainitic ferrite subunits with retained austenite films. • Special sample preparations for SEM, XRD and TEM were made, and the strain-affected structures have been explored. • Retained austenite films were found to transform into martensite after impact loading, as evidenced by XRD and TEM results. • The zone of strain-induced martensite was found to extend to only several micrometers from the fracture surface. • The poor Charpy impact toughness is associated with the fracture of martensite at a high strain rate during

  5. A report on the instrumented Charpy impact test for metallic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An instrumented testing method has been developed for Charpy impact test for steels, aluminum alloys and other materials. Using the instrumented Charpy testing machine developed, it is clearly estimated that the method is good enough to give us detailed information about the impact properties of these metallic materials. (author)

  6. Evaluation of hydrogen embrittlement and temper embrittlement by key curve method in instrumented Charpy test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makita A.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Instrumented Charpy test was conducted on small sized specimen of 21/4Cr-1Mo steel. In the test the single specimen key curve method was applied to determine the value of fracture toughness for the initiation of crack extension with hydrogen free, KIC, and for hydrogen embrittlement cracking, KIH. Also the tearing modulus as a parameter for resistance to crack extension was determined. The role of these parameters was discussed at an upper shelf temperature and at a transition temperature. Then the key curve method combined with instrumented Charpy test was proven to be used to evaluate not only temper embrittlement but also hydrogen embrittlement.

  7. Irradiation programme MANITU: Results of pre-examinations and Charpy tests with unirradiated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiation project MANITU was planned in the frame of the European Long-term Fusion Materials Development Programme. The results of MANITU will have a lasting influence on the future actions within the materials development programme. The problem of the irradiation induced embrittlement of possible martensitic alloy candidates is still unsolved. But after the evaluation of sub-size Charpy tests with the unirradiated refrence specimens of MANITU a first tendency is recognizable. The Charpy properties of the newly developed low activation 7-10% Cr-WVTa alloys are clearly better compared with the modified commerical 10-11% Cr-NiMoVNb steels. In the present report the pre-examinations are documented and the Charpy test results with unirradiated reference specimens are analysed and assessed. (orig.)

  8. Magnetic system for the quality control of specimens for Charpy impact test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R. V.; Castanho, M. A. P.

    2015-10-01

    It was developed a non-destructive testing system based on magnetic methods for characterization of steel specimens, used in calibration of Charpy impact testing machines. The magnetic properties saturation, remanence, coercivity, and the hysteresis curves were used to create a "magnetic signature" of reference to ensure the value of energy absorbed by these standard specimens.

  9. Charpy impact test of cloth reinforced epoxide resin at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpy impact tests are made on commercial epoxide resin, glass cloth reinforced epoxide and carbon cloth reinforced epoxide at liquid nitrogen temperature and RT. The samples are described, the tests and results presented and illustrated with relevant halftones. The effects of impact velocity and of off-axis angle on the samples are presented. Four conclusions are formulated

  10. Laser weld reconstitution of conventional Charpy and Miniaturized Notch Test (MNT) specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As nuclear power plants approach end-of-license (EOL) and consideration is given to license renewal, there is an ever increasing need to expand the amount of data obtainable from the original surveillance specimens. A laser welding technique to reconstitute broken Charpy specimens is being developed to produce both conventional and miniaturized Charpy specimens. This paper reports on early laser welding development efforts and summarizes previous proof-of-principle experiments on a 1/16 scale miniaturized Charpy test. In order to benchmark the laser welding procedure, the laser-reconstituted specimen data have been compared with the original specimen data. In addition, the microstructure after welding has been examined to ensure that the material in the vicinity of the notch is essentially unchanged after the welding process. Data which characterize the thermal transient during welding are obtained by attaching thermocouples to the specimens. Other important considerations include perturbation of the stress field near the notch, dynamic stress waves, and contact of the weld region with the tup. Precise control of welding parameters has been demonstrated, heat-affected zones as small as 0.25 mm can be achieved, and sufficient penetration depth can be obtained to enable welding thick sections (1T or greater) to yield conventional Charpy specimens or fracture toughness specimens and thin sections (∼5 mm) to yield Miniaturized Notch Test (MNT) specimens

  11. Evaluation of hydrogen embrittlement and temper embrittlement by key curve method in instrumented Charpy test

    OpenAIRE

    Makita A.; Shindo Y.; Ohtsuka N.

    2010-01-01

    Instrumented Charpy test was conducted on small sized specimen of 21/4Cr-1Mo steel. In the test the single specimen key curve method was applied to determine the value of fracture toughness for the initiation of crack extension with hydrogen free, KIC, and for hydrogen embrittlement cracking, KIH. Also the tearing modulus as a parameter for resistance to crack extension was determined. The role of these parameters was discussed at an upper shelf temperature and at a transition temperat...

  12. Tensile testing and scanning electron microscope examination of Charpy impact specimens from the HFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Materials Technology Group of the Department of Nuclear Energy (DNE) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has performed a fractographic examination of neutron irradiated and unirradiated Charpy ''V'' notch specimens which have been deformed to failure in a tensile testing apparatus. The evaluation was carried out using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to evaluate the fracture mode. Photomicrographs were then evaluated to determine if ductile areas were present on the fracture surfaces of the specimens. The irradiated tensile tests (Charpy ''V'' notch configuration) showed minimum notch tensile strengths of 37.2 Ksi before failure. The unirradiated 6061 T-6 material exhibited a minimum notch tensile strength of 41.9 Ksi. 2 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab

  13. Identification of neutron irradiation induced strain rate sensitivity change using inverse FEM analysis of Charpy test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple methodology how to obtain additional information about the mechanical behaviour of neutron-irradiated WWER 440 reactor pressure vessel steel was developed. Using inverse identification, the instrumented Charpy test data records were compared with the finite element computations in order to estimate the strain rate sensitivity of 15Ch2MFA steel irradiated with different neutron fluences. The results are interpreted in terms of activation volume change

  14. Charpy impact test results of ferritic alloys from the HFIR-MFE-RB2 test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miniature Charpy specimens of HT-9 in base metal, weld metal and heat affected zone (HAZ) metal conditions, and 9Cr-1Mo in base metal and weld metal conditions have been tested following irradiation in HFIR-MFE-RB2 at 550C to ≅10 dpa. All specimen conditions have degraded properties (both DBTT and USE) in comparison with specimens irradiated to lower dose. 9Cr-Mo degraded more than HT-9 and weld metal performed worse than base metal which performed worse than HAZ material. Property degradation was approximately linear as a function of dose, indicating that degradation response had not saturated by 10 dpa. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  15. The production of calibration specimens for impact testing of subsize Charpy specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calibration specimens have been manufactured for checking the performance of a pendulum impact testing machine that has been configured for testing subsize specimens, both half-size (5.0 x 5.0 x 25.4 mm) and third-size (3.33 x 3.33 x 25.4 mm). Specimens were fabricated from quenched-and-tempered 4340 steel heat treated to produce different microstructures that would result in either high or low absorbed energy levels on testing. A large group of both half- and third-size specimens were tested at -40 degrees C. The results of the tests were analyzed for average value and standard deviation, and these values were used to establish calibration limits for the Charpy impact machine when testing subsize specimens. These average values plus or minus two standard deviations were set as the acceptable limits for the average of five tests for calibration of the impact testing machine

  16. Charpy impact test of cloth reinforced epoxide resin at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter attempts to establish a method for obtaining dynamic toughness and to provide basic data for design, using the Charpy impact test at cryogenic temperatures and an epoxide and FRP with epoxide matrix as samples. Examines the failure mechanism and the potential problems associated with the use of these materials in practical applications in superconducting magnets. Concludes that impact strength at room temperature (RT) has larger values than those at liquid nitrogen temperature irrespective of impact velocity; impact strength can be improved by reinforcement using glass or carbon cloths; impact strength of reinforced plastics shows a dependence on off-axis angle and the dependence varies with the type of reinforcement, matrix and specimens shape; and impact strength of glass reinforced plastic (GRP) is larger than that of GRP when the specimen shape is identical

  17. Charpy impact test results of ferritic alloys from the HFIR[High Flux Isotope Reactor]-MFE-RB2 test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miniature Charpy specimens of HT-9 in base metal, weld metal and heat affected zone (HAZ) metal conditions, and 9Cr-1Mo in base metal and weld metal conditions have been tested following irradiation in HFIR-MFE-RB2 at 550C to ≅10 dpa. All specimen conditions have degraded properties (both DBTT and USE) in comparison with specimens irradiated to lower dose. 9Cr-Mo degraded more than HT-9 and weld metal performed worse than base metal which performed worse than HAZ material. Property degradation was approximately linear as a function of dose, indicating that degradation response had not saturated by 10 dpa

  18. Comparison between instrumented precracked Charpy and compact specimen tests of carbon steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The General Atomic Company High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) is housed within a prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV). Various carbon steel structural members serve as closures at penetrations in the vessel. A program of testing and evaluation is underway to determine the need for reference fracture toughness (K/sub IR/) and indexing procedures for these materials as described in Appendix G to Section III, ASME Code for light water reactor steels. The materials of interest are carbon steel forgings (SA508, Class 1) and plates (SA537, Classes 1 and 2) as well as weldments of these steels. The fracture toughness behavior is characterized with instrumented precracked Charpy V-votch specimens (PCVN) - slow-bend and dynamic - and compact specimens (10-mm and 25-mm thicknesses) using both linear elastic (ASTM E399) and elastic-plastic (equivalent Energy and J-Integral) analytical procedures. For the dynamic PCVN tests, force-time traces are analyzed according to the procedures of the Pressure Vessel Research Council (PVRC)/Metal Properties Council (MPC). Testing and analytical procedures are discussed and PCVN results are compared to those obtained with compact specimens

  19. Use of forces from instrumented Charpy V-notch testing to determine crack-arrest toughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this investigation is an estimation of the crack-arrest toughness, particularly of irradiated materials, from voltage versus time output of an instrumented setup during a test on a Charpy V-notch (CVN) specimen. This voltage versus time trace (which can be converted to force versus displacement) displays events during fracture of the specimen. Various stages of the fracture process can be identified on the trace, including an arrest point indicating arrest of brittle fracture. The force at arrest, Fa, versus test temperature, T, relationship is examined to explore possible relationships to other experimental measures of crack-arrest toughness such as the drop-weight nil-ductility temperature (NDT), or crack-arrest toughness, Ka. For a wide range of weld and plate materials, the temperature at which Fa = 2.45 kN correlates with NDT with a standard deviation, sigma, of about 11 K. Excluding the so-called low upper-shelf energy (USE) welds from the analysis resulted in Fa = 4.12 kN and σ = 6.6 K. The estimates of the correlation of the temperature for Fa = 7.4 kN with the temperature at 100-MPa√m level for a mean American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) type KIa curve through crack-arrest toughness values show that prediction of conservative values of Ka are possible

  20. Effects of V-notch dimensions on charpy impact test results for differently sized miniature specimens of ferritic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to develop the small specimen technology in Charpy impact testing, the effects of V-notch dimensions on the test results were investigated for miniaturized specimens of a ferritic steel, Japanese Ferrite/Martensite Dual Phase Steel (JFMS). The miniaturized Charpy specimens had four different square cross-sections of 3.3, 2, 1.5 and 1 mm, and each of them had a variety of V-notch dimensions (notch depth, notch root radius and notch angle). All of the specimens were subjected to Charpy impact tests between 93 and 373 K using a specially instrumented impact machine. The fracture surfaces of all tested specimens were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The main results obtained are as follows: (1) The ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) varied noticeably depending upon the notch dimensions, some of the DBTTs exceeding that of the full size specimens. (2) The DBTTs for the miniaturized specimens were uniquely defined by the elastic stress concentration factor, Kt, leading to an important aspect that the DBTT for the full size specimens can be directly obtained from the DBTT of the miniaturized specimens with a V-notch giving a suitable value of Kt. (3) The upper shelf energy (USE) was dependent only on notch depth or ligament size, indicating that the notch geometry was practically unimportant. When all of the measured USEs were normalized by Bb2 or (Bb)3/2 (B is the specimen thickness, b the ligament size), the normalized USEs of the miniaturized specimens agreed with that of the full size specimens within the range of ±15% except for one specimen whose notch root radius was as large as 0.25 mm. (4) The observed characteristics of fracture surface were essentially the same as those of the full size specimens. The measurement of lateral expansion, or ductility, was more useful in estimating the impact property of JFMS than that of fracture appearance (fibrous fracture). (author)

  1. Dynamic Toughness Testing of Pre-Cracked Charpy V-Notch Specimens. Convention ELECTRABEL - SCK-CEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the experimental and analytical procedures which have been adopted at the laboratories of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN for performing dynamic toughness tests on pre-cracked Charpy-V specimens. Such procedures were chosen on the basis of the existing literature on the subject, with several updates in the data analysis stages which reflect more recent developments in fracture toughness testing. Qualification tests have been carried out on PCCv specimens of JRQ steel, in order to assess the reliability of the results obtained; straightforward comparisons with reference data have been performed, as well as more advanced analyses using the Master Curve approach. Aspects related to machine compliance and dynamic tup calibration have also been addressed

  2. Fractographic examination of Charpy impact specimens from the HFIR-MFE-RB2 test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is to determine the effect of low temperature irradiation in HFIR on the properties of ferritic stainless steels in order to determine the applicability of these alloys as first wall materials. Selected fracture surfaces of miniature Charpy specimens of HT-9 in base metal, weld metal and heat affected zone (HAZ) metal conditions, and 9Cr-1Mo in base metal and weld metal conditions have been examined by scanning electron microscopy following irradiation in High Flux Isotope Reactor-Magnetic Fusion Energy-RB2 at 550C to 10 dpa. Hardness measurements have also been made. Comparison of results with results on specimens irradiated to low dose demonstrates only minor changes in fracture behavior, but continued increases in hardness due to irradiation. Therefore, the mechanism controlling the degradation of impact properties does not affect the fracture path but does affect strength. A mechanism is proposed to explain the behavior based on microchemical segregation of carbide forming elements. 5 references, 10 figures, 1 table

  3. Proceedings of a C.S.N.I. specialist meeting on instrumented pre-cracked Charpy testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the status of the testing and data analysis procedures for the instrumented pre-cracked Charpy test with emphasis on the application of the test technique to the nuclear industry. The report (Proceedings) consist of invited technical papers by specialists in the field and a synopsis of the comments, conclusions, and recommendations reached in a workshop session. The CSNl-sponsored and EPRI-hosted meeting confirmed both the popularity of the test technique in the nuclear industry and the problems associated with the test technique due to the lack of a national or international consensus standard. Major emphasis in the meeting was devoted to evaluating the existing industry testing procedure (EPRI procedure) and proposed national standards (ASTM, ASK). The EPRI procedures were considered adequate by specialists concerned with engineering applications, but too restrictive by specialists concerned with research applications. As a result of the conference, a compilation of state-of-the-art papers is now available to code and standard committees. Specific comments concerning test and data analysis procedures, applications in the nuclear industry, and future research areas are also contained in the proceedings

  4. Effect of Local Crystallographic Texture on the Fissure Formation During Charpy Impact Testing of Low-Carbon Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Abhijit; Patra, Sudipta; Chatterjee, Arya; Chakrabarti, Debalay

    2016-03-01

    The severity of the formation of fissures (also known as splitting or delamination) on the fracture surface of Charpy impact-tested samples of a low-carbon steel has been found to increase with the decrease in finish rolling temperature [1093 K to 923 K (820 °C to 650 °C)]. Combined scanning electron microscopy and electron back-scattered diffraction study revealed that crystallographic texture was the prime factor responsible for the fissure formation. Through-thickness texture band composed of cube [Normal Direction (ND)║] and gamma [ND║] orientations developed during the inter-critical rolling treatment. Strain incompatibility between these two texture bands causes fissure cracking on the main fracture plane. A new approach based on the angle between {001} planes of neighboring crystals has been employed in order to estimate the `effective grain size,' which is used to determine the cleavage fracture stress on different planes of a sample. The severity of fissure formation was found to be directly related to the difference in cleavage fracture stress between the `main fracture plane' and `fissure plane.' Clustering of ferrite grains having cube texture promoted the fissure crack propagation along the transverse `fissure plane,' by increasing the `effective grain size' and decreasing the cleavage fracture stress on that plane.

  5. Effect of Local Crystallographic Texture on the Fissure Formation During Charpy Impact Testing of Low-Carbon Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Abhijit; Patra, Sudipta; Chatterjee, Arya; Chakrabarti, Debalay

    2016-06-01

    The severity of the formation of fissures (also known as splitting or delamination) on the fracture surface of Charpy impact-tested samples of a low-carbon steel has been found to increase with the decrease in finish rolling temperature [1093 K to 923 K (820 °C to 650 °C)]. Combined scanning electron microscopy and electron back-scattered diffraction study revealed that crystallographic texture was the prime factor responsible for the fissure formation. Through-thickness texture band composed of cube [Normal Direction (ND)║] and gamma [ND║] orientations developed during the inter-critical rolling treatment. Strain incompatibility between these two texture bands causes fissure cracking on the main fracture plane. A new approach based on the angle between {001} planes of neighboring crystals has been employed in order to estimate the `effective grain size,' which is used to determine the cleavage fracture stress on different planes of a sample. The severity of fissure formation was found to be directly related to the difference in cleavage fracture stress between the `main fracture plane' and `fissure plane.' Clustering of ferrite grains having cube texture promoted the fissure crack propagation along the transverse `fissure plane,' by increasing the `effective grain size' and decreasing the cleavage fracture stress on that plane.

  6. Characterization by notched and precracked Charpy tests of the in-service degradation of RPV steel fracture toughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current engineering and regulatory practice to estimate fracture toughness safety margins for nuclear reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) relies heavily on the CVN impact test. Techniques to estimate in-service toughness degradation directly using a variety of precracked specimens are under development worldwide. Emphasis is on their miniaturization. In the nuclear context, it is essential to address many issues such as representativity of the surveillance programs with respect to the vessel in terms of materials and environment, transferability of test results to the structure (constraint and size effects), lower bound toughness certification, creadibility relative to trends of exising databases. An enhanced RPV surveillance strategy in under development in Belgium. It combines state-of-the-art micromechanical and damage modelling to the evaluation of CVN load-deflection signals, tensile stress-strain curves and slow-bend tests of reconstituted precracked Charpy specimens. A probabilistic micromechanical model has been established for static and dynamic transgranular cleavage initiation fracture toughness in the ductile-brittle transition temperature range. This model allows to project toughness bounds for any steel embrittlement condition from the corresponding CVN and static tensile properties, using a single scaling factor defined by imposing agreement with toughness tests in a single condition. The outstanding finding incorporated by this toughness transfer model is that the microcleavage fracture stress is affected by temperature in the ductile-brittle transition and that this influence is strongly correlated to the flow stress: this explains the shape of the KIcn KId temperature curves as well as the actual magnitude of the strain rate and irradiation effects. Furthermore, CVN crack arrest loads and fracture appearance are also taken advantage of in order to estimate KIa degradation. Finally, the CVN-tensile load-temperature diagram provides substantial

  7. Characterization by notched and precracked Charpy tests of the in-service degradation of RPV steel fracture toughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabry, A.

    1997-01-01

    The current engineering and regulatory practice to estimate fracture toughness safety margins for nuclear reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) relies heavily on the CVN impact test. Techniques to estimate in-service toughness degradation directly using a variety of precracked specimens are under development worldwide. Emphasis is on their miniaturization. In the nuclear context, it is essential to address many issues such as representativity of the surveillance programs with respect to the vessel in terms of materials and environment, transferability of test results to the structure (constraint and size effects), lower bound toughness certification, creadibility relative to trends of exising databases. An enhanced RPV surveillance strategy in under development in Belgium. It combines state-of-the-art micromechanical and damage modelling to the evaluation of CVN load-deflection signals, tensile stress-strain curves and slow-bend tests of reconstituted precracked Charpy specimens. A probabilistic micromechanical model has been established for static and dynamic transgranular cleavage initiation fracture toughness in the ductile-brittle transition temperature range. This model allows to project toughness bounds for any steel embrittlement condition from the corresponding CVN and static tensile properties, using a single scaling factor defined by imposing agreement with toughness tests in a single condition. The outstanding finding incorporated by this toughness transfer model is that the microcleavage fracture stress is affected by temperature in the ductile-brittle transition and that this influence is strongly correlated to the flow stress: this explains the shape of the K{sub Ic}n K{sub Id} temperature curves as well as the actual magnitude of the strain rate and irradiation effects. Furthermore, CVN crack arrest loads and fracture appearance are also taken advantage of in order to estimate K{sub Ia} degradation. Finally, the CVN-tensile load-temperature diagram

  8. Charpy impact test results for low activation ferritic alloys irradiated to 30 dpa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, L.E.; Hamilton, M.L.; Gelles, D.S. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Miniature specimens of six low activation ferritic alloys have been impact field tested following irradiation at 370{degrees}C to 30 dpa. Comparison of the results with those of control specimens and specimens irradiated to 10 dpa indicates that degradation in the impact behavior appears to have saturated by {approx}10 dpa in at least four of these alloys. The 7.5Cr-2W alloy referred to as GA3X appears most promising for further consideration as a candidate structural material in fusion reactor applications, although the 9Cr-1V alloy may also warrant further investigation.

  9. Visual interface for the automation of the instrumented pendulum of Charpy tests used in the surveillance program of reactors vessel of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inside the Programs of Surveillance of the nuclear power stations periodic information is required on the state that keep the materials with those that builds the vessel of the reactor. This information is obtained through some samples or test tubes that are introduced inside the core of the reactor and it is observed if its physical characteristics remain after having been subjected to the radiation changes and temperature. The rehearsal with the instrumented Charpy pendulum offers information on the behavior of fracture dynamics of a material. In the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) it has an instrumented Charpy pendulum. The operation of this instrument is manual, having inconveniences to carry out rehearsals with radioactive material, handling of high and low temperatures, to fulfill the normative ones for the realization of the rehearsals, etc. In this work the development of a computational program is presented (virtual instrument), for the automation of the instrumented pendulum. The system has modules like: Card of data acquisition, signal processing, positioning system, tempered system, pneumatic system, compute programs like it is the visual interface for the operation of the instrumented Charpy pendulum and the acquisition of impact signals. This system shows that given the characteristics of the nuclear industry with radioactive environments, the virtual instrumentation and the automation of processes can contribute to diminish the risks to the personnel occupationally exposed. (Author)

  10. Definition of the minimum longitude of insert in the rebuilding of Charpy test tubes for surveillance and life extension of vessels in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the National Institute of Nuclear Research (Mexico) a welding system for the rebuilding of Charpy test tubes has been developed, automated, qualified and used for the surveillance of the mechanical properties (mainly embrittlement) of the vessel. This system uses the halves of the rehearsed Charpy test tubes of the surveillance capsules extracted of the reactors, to obtain, of a rehearsed test tube, two reconstituted test tubes. This rebuilding process is used so much in the surveillance program like in the potential extension of the operation license of the vessel. To the halves of Charpy test tubes that have been removed the deformed part by machine are called -insert- and in a very general way the rebuilding consists in weld with the welding process -Stud Welding- two metallic implants in the ends of the insert, to obtain a reconstituted test tube. The main characteristic of this welding are the achieved small dimensions, so much of the areas welded as of the areas affected by the heat. The applicable normative settles down that the minim longitude of the insert for the welding process by Stud Welding it should be of 18 mm, however according to the same normative this longitude can diminish if is demonstrated analytic or experimentally that the central volume of 1 cm3 in the insert is not affected. In this work the measurement of the temperature profiles to different distances of the welding interface is presented, defining an equation for the maximum temperatures reached in function of the distance, on the other hand the real longitude affected in the test tube by means of metallography is determined and this way the minimum longitude of the insert for this developed rebuilding system was determined. (Author)

  11. Numerical simulation of a Charpy test and correlation of fracture toughness with fracture energy. Vessel steel and duplex stainless steel of the primary loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis methods used to evaluate the harmlessness of defects in the components of the primary coolant circuit of pressurized water reactor are based on the knowledge of the failure properties of concerned materials. The toughness is used to be measured through tests performed on normalized samples. But in some cases, especially for the vessel steel submitted to irradiation effects or for cast components in duplex stainless steel sensitive to thermal ageing, these measurements are not available on the material aged in operation. Therefore, fracture resistance has been evaluated through Charpy tests. Toughness is thus obtained on the basis of an empirical correlation. To improve these predictions, a modeling of the Charpy test in the framework of the local approach to fracture has been performed, for both materials. For the vessel steel, a complete evaluation of toughness has been achieved on the basis of a bidimensional viscoplastic modeling under large strain assumptions and a post-treatment with a Weibull model (cleavage fracture). The main hypothesis (partition between plain stress and plain strain areas in the bidimensional modeling) was corrected after a three dimensional calculations with the finite element program Code-Aster. The fracture analysis put into evidence that damage considerations like cavity nucleation and growth have to be introduced in the model in order to improve the description of physical phenomena. Two ways of progress have been suggested and are in course of being investigated, one in the framework of local approach to failure, the other with the help of micro-macro relationship. With regard to the duplex steel, the description of a Charpy (U) test allowed to clearly discriminate between crack initiation and propagation phases. A modeling through an equivalent homogenous material with a damage law based on a modified Gurson potential enables to describe quantitatively both phases of fracture. It clearly appears that a reliable

  12. Charpy V, an application in Mat lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The obtained results with the system Charpy VV1 designed in Mat lab for the estimate of parameters of three mathematical models are shown. The adjustment of data is used to determine the fracture energy, the lateral expansion and the percentage of ductility of steels coming from the reactor vessels of Laguna Verde, Veracruz. The data come from test tubes type Charpy V of irradiated material and not irradiated. To verify our results they were compared with those obtained by General Electric of data coming from the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant. (Author)

  13. Visual interface for the automation of the instrumented pendulum of Charpy tests used in the surveillance program of reactors vessel of nuclear power plants; Interfase visual para la automatizacion del pendulo instrumentado de pruebas Charpy utilizado en el programa de vigilancia de la vasija de reactores de centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas S, A.S.; Sainz M, E.; Ruiz E, J.A. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca Km.36.5, Mpio. de Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: asrs@nuclear.inin.mx; esm@nuclear.inin.mx; jare@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-07-01

    Inside the Programs of Surveillance of the nuclear power stations periodic information is required on the state that keep the materials with those that builds the vessel of the reactor. This information is obtained through some samples or test tubes that are introduced inside the core of the reactor and it is observed if its physical characteristics remain after having been subjected to the radiation changes and temperature. The rehearsal with the instrumented Charpy pendulum offers information on the behavior of fracture dynamics of a material. In the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) it has an instrumented Charpy pendulum. The operation of this instrument is manual, having inconveniences to carry out rehearsals with radioactive material, handling of high and low temperatures, to fulfill the normative ones for the realization of the rehearsals, etc. In this work the development of a computational program is presented (virtual instrument), for the automation of the instrumented pendulum. The system has modules like: Card of data acquisition, signal processing, positioning system, tempered system, pneumatic system, compute programs like it is the visual interface for the operation of the instrumented Charpy pendulum and the acquisition of impact signals. This system shows that given the characteristics of the nuclear industry with radioactive environments, the virtual instrumentation and the automation of processes can contribute to diminish the risks to the personnel occupationally exposed. (Author)

  14. Application of Instrumented Charpy Method in Characterisation of Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Alar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Testing of absorbed impact energy according to the Charpy method is carried out to determine the behaviour of a material under the impact load. Instrumented Charpy method allows getting the force displacement curve through the entire test, That curve can be related to force-displacement curve which is obtained by the static tensile test. The purpose of this study was to compare the results of forces obtained by the static tensile test with the forces obtained by the instrumented Charpy method. Experimental part of the work contains testing of the mechanical properties of S275J0 steel by the static tensile test and Impact test on instrumented Charpy pendulum.

  15. Definition of the minimum longitude of insert in the rebuilding of Charpy test tubes for surveillance and life extension of vessels in Mexico; Definicion de la longitud minima de inserto en la reconstitucion de probetas Charpy para vigilancia y extension de vida de vasijas en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero C, J.; Hernandez C, R.; Rocamontes A, M., E-mail: jesus.romero@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    In the National Institute of Nuclear Research (Mexico) a welding system for the rebuilding of Charpy test tubes has been developed, automated, qualified and used for the surveillance of the mechanical properties (mainly embrittlement) of the vessel. This system uses the halves of the rehearsed Charpy test tubes of the surveillance capsules extracted of the reactors, to obtain, of a rehearsed test tube, two reconstituted test tubes. This rebuilding process is used so much in the surveillance program like in the potential extension of the operation license of the vessel. To the halves of Charpy test tubes that have been removed the deformed part by machine are called -insert- and in a very general way the rebuilding consists in weld with the welding process -Stud Welding- two metallic implants in the ends of the insert, to obtain a reconstituted test tube. The main characteristic of this welding are the achieved small dimensions, so much of the areas welded as of the areas affected by the heat. The applicable normative settles down that the minim longitude of the insert for the welding process by Stud Welding it should be of 18 mm, however according to the same normative this longitude can diminish if is demonstrated analytic or experimentally that the central volume of 1 cm{sup 3} in the insert is not affected. In this work the measurement of the temperature profiles to different distances of the welding interface is presented, defining an equation for the maximum temperatures reached in function of the distance, on the other hand the real longitude affected in the test tube by means of metallography is determined and this way the minimum longitude of the insert for this developed rebuilding system was determined. (Author)

  16. Charpy V, an application in Mat lab; Charpy V, una aplicacion en Matlab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo M, J.A.; Torres V, M. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The obtained results with the system Charpy V{sub V}1 designed in Mat lab for the estimate of parameters of three mathematical models are shown. The adjustment of data is used to determine the fracture energy, the lateral expansion and the percentage of ductility of steels coming from the reactor vessels of Laguna Verde, Veracruz. The data come from test tubes type Charpy V of irradiated material and not irradiated. To verify our results they were compared with those obtained by General Electric of data coming from the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant. (Author)

  17. Charpy impact test results of four low activation ferritic alloys irradiated at 370 degrees C to 15 DPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miniature CVN specimens of four low activation ferritic alloys have been impact tested following irradiation at 370 degrees C to 15 dpa. Comparison of the results with those of control specimens indicates that degradation in the impact behavior occurs in each of these four alloys. The 9Cr-2W alloy referred to as GA3X and the similar alloy F82H with 7.8Cr-2W appear most promising for further consideration as candidate structural materials in fusion energy system applications. These two alloys exhibit a small DBTT shift to higher temperatures but show increased absorbed energy on the upper shelf

  18. Charpy impact test results of four low activation ferritic alloys irradiated at 370{degrees}C to 15 DPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, L.E.; Hamilton, M.L.; Gelles, D.S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Miniature CVN specimens of four low activation ferritic alloys have been impact tested following irradiation at 370{degrees}C to 15 dpa. Comparison of the results with those of control specimens indicates that degradation in the impact behavior occurs in each of these four alloys. The 9Cr-2W alloy referred to as GA3X and the similar alloy F82H with 7.8Cr-2W appear most promising for further consideration as candidate structural materials in fusion energy system applications. These two alloys exhibit a small DBTT shift to higher temperatures but show increased absorbed energy on the upper shelf.

  19. Reconstitution technology of Charpy surveillance specimens with short insert length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As for the shortage of the surveillance specimens to monitor the effect of the irradiation embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels (RPV) materials in case of longer-term operation than present surveillance program of nuclear power plants, the reconstitution of them is considered to be the promising measures. Although the length of the specimen insert is required not less than 18 mm in ASTM E1253-99 which is the technical standard to reconstitute Charpy specimens, the minimum length of the specimen insert required should be 10 mm when L-T direction Charpy specimens that have been applied to the early domestic nuclear power plants are reconstituted into T-L direction specimens in order to test the upper shelf absorbed energy of T-L direction specimens. This paper presents the current status of the research consigned by Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) in Japan on the applicability of the reconstituted Charpy specimens with short length of the specimen insert. The length of the specimen insert to preserve the absorbed energy of the Charpy specimen is correlated to the absorbed energy of its material. The significant part of upper shelf energy is attributed to the energy for the plastic deformation zone near V-notch in the Charpy specimen. To preserve the absorbed energy, the anticipated plastically deformed zone shall not be affected by the reconstitution procedure. In order to clarify the condition for preserving the absorbed energy in the case of reconstitution, the preliminary data has been obtained using un-irradiated and irradiated Charpy specimens, and the following results have been obtained by the tests carried out in this research. 1) The plastic deformation widths have been estimated by measuring the hardness distribution near the V-notch of the un-irradiated Charpy impact tested specimens, correlated to the absorbed energy. 2) The absorbed energy shifts of reconstituted, un-irradiated Charpy specimens with various length of the specimen

  20. Confocal microscopy-fracture reconstruction and finite element modeling characterization of local cleavage toughness in a ferritic/martensitic steel in subsized Charpy V-notch impact tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The confocal microscopy (CM)-fracture reconstruction (FR) method, coupled with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) fractography, was used to measure the critical notch deformation conditions at cleavage initiation for two subsized Charpy V-notch (CVN) specimen geometries of Japan ferritic/martensitic steel (JFMS). A new method was developed to permit FR of notched specimens. Three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA) simulations of the notch and specimen deformation were used to estimate values of critical micro-cleavage fracture stress, σ*, and critical stressed area, A*. Since σ*-A* is independent of size and geometry, it provides a fundamental local measure of cleavage toughness

  1. Enhancement of Charpy impact value by electron beam irradiation of carbon fiber reinforced polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Influences of electron beam irradiation on Charpy impact value of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) have been investigated. The irradiation, which is one of short-time treatments, enhanced the Charpy impact value of CFRP. Furthermore, strengthening of carbon fiber, ductility enhancement of polymer and interface effects on impact test explains the impact value enhancement of CFRP. (author)

  2. Numerical modelling of Charpy-V notch test by local approach to fracture. Application to an A508 steel in the ductile-brittle transition range; Modelisation de l'essai Charpy par l'approche locale de la rupture. Application au cas de l'acier 16MND5 dans le domaine de transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanguy, B

    2001-07-15

    Ferritic steels present a transition of the rupture mode which goes progressively of a brittle rupture (cleavage) to a ductile rupture when the temperature increases. The following of the difference of the transition temperature of the PWR vessel steel by the establishment of toughness curves makes of the Charpy test an integrating part of the monitoring of the French PWR reactors. In spite of the advantages which are adapted to it in particular its cost, the Charpy test does not allow to obtain directly a variable which characterizes a crack propagation resistance as for instance the toughness used for qualifying the mechanical integrity of a structure. This work deals with the establishment of the through impact strength-toughness in the transition range of the vessel steel: 16MND5 from a non-empirical approach based on the local approach of the rupture. The brittle rupture is described by the Beremin model (1983), which allows to describe the dispersion inherent in this rupture mode. The description of the brittle fissure is carried out by the GTN model (1984) and by the Rousselier model (1986). This last model has been modified in order to obtain a realistic description of the brittle damage in the case of fast solicitations and of local heating. The method proposed to determine the parameters of the damage models depends only of tests on notched specimens and of the inclusion data of the material. The behaviour is described by an original formulation parametrized in temperature which allows to describe all the tests carried out in this study. Before using this methodology, an experimental study of the behaviour and of the rupture modes of the steel 16MND5 has been carried out. From the toughness tests carried out in quasi-static and dynamical conditions, it has been revealed that this steel does not present important unwedging of its toughness curve due to the velocity effect. In the transition range, local heating of about 150 C have been measured in the root

  3. Failure mechanics of fiber composite notched charpy specimens. [stress analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1976-01-01

    A finite element stress analysis was performed to determine the stress variation in the vicinity of the notch and far field of fiber composites Charpy specimens (ASTM Standard). NASTRAN was used for the finite element analysis assuming linear behavior and equivalent static load. The unidirectional composites investigated ranged from Thornel 75 Epoxy to S-Glass/Epoxy with the fiber direction parallel to the long dimension of the specimen. The results indicate a biaxial stress state exists in (1) the notch vicinity which is dominated by transverse tensile and interlaminar shear and (2) near the load application point which is dominated by transverse compression and interlaminar shear. The results also lead to the postulation of hypotheses for the predominant failure modes, the fracture initiation, and the fracture process. Finally, the results indicate that the notched Charpy test specimen is not suitable for assessing the impact resistance of nonmetallic fiber composites directly.

  4. Assessment of Ductile-to-Brittle Transition Behavior of Localized Microstructural Regions in a Friction-Stir Welded X80 Pipeline Steel with Miniaturized Charpy V-Notch Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Julian A.; Lucon, Enrico; Sowards, Jeffrey; Mei, Paulo Roberto; Ramirez, Antonio J.

    2016-06-01

    Friction-stir welding (FSW) is an alternative welding process for pipelines. This technology offers sound welds, good repeatability, and excellent mechanical properties. However, it is of paramount importance to determine the toughness of the welds at low temperatures in order to establish the limits of this technology. Ductile-to-brittle transition curves were generated in the present study by using a small-scale instrumented Charpy machine and miniaturized V-notch specimens (Kleinstprobe, KLST); notches were located in base metal, heat-affected, stirred, and hard zones within a FSW joint of API-5L X80 Pipeline Steel. Specimens were tested at temperatures between 77 K (-196 °C) and 298 K (25 °C). Based on the results obtained, the transition temperatures for the base material and heat-affected zone were below 173 K (-100 °C); conversely, for the stirred and hard zones, it was located around 213 K (-60 °C). Fracture surfaces were characterized and showed a ductile fracture mechanism at high impact energies and a mixture of ductile and brittle mechanisms at low impact energies.

  5. 系列冲击试验转变温度的意义及其局限性%Significance and limitations of transition temperature based on series Charpy impact tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马伟; 姜自强; 姜安婕

    2011-01-01

    文章采用双曲正切函数模型,对夏比冲击试验转变温度曲线的数学特征和各种定义的转变温度的物理意义进行了分析探讨,明确了以转变温度曲线比较材料低温韧性的2个基本原则,提出指标转变温度的相对性概念和相对指标转变温度定义的严重缺陷,在重要场合,应以2种以上类型的转变温度予以验证,ASTME185给出的方法值得借鉴.%Mathematical characteristics of transition temperature curve and physical significance of several definitions of transition temperature based on Charpy impact tests are analyzed by using the hyperbolic tangent function model. Two principles in comparing low temperature toughness of materials in light of transition temperature curve are proposed. The relativity of temperature transition indexes is discussed and the limitations of the definition of the relative temperature transition indexes is pointed out. In some important situations, verification should be carried out based on two or more types of transition temperature and the method given by ASTM E185 is useful.

  6. Results of charpy V-notch impact testing of structural steel specimens irradiated at ∼30 degrees C to 1 x 1016 neutrons/cm2 in a commercial reactor cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A capsule containing Charpy V-notch (CVN) and mini-tensile specimens was irradiated at ∼ 30 degrees C (∼ 85 degrees F) in the cavity of a commercial nuclear power plant to a fluence of 1 x 1016 neutrons/cm2 (> 1MeV). The capsule included six CVN impact specimens of archival High Flux Isotope Reactor A212 grade B ferritic steel and five CVN impact specimens of a well-studied A36 structural steel. This irradiation was part of the ongoing study of neutron-induced damage effects at the low temperature and flux experienced by reactor supports. The plant operators shut down the plant before the planned exposure was reached. The exposure of these specimens produced no significant irradiation-induced embrittlement. Of interest were the data on unirradiated specimens in the L-T orientation machined from a single plate of A36 structural steel, which is the same specification for the structural steel used in some reactor supports. The average CVN energy of five unirradiated specimens obtained from one region of the plate and tested at room temperature was ∼ 99 J, while the energy of 11 unirradiated specimens from other locations of the same plate was 45 J, a difference of ∼ 220%. The CVN impact energies for all 18 specimens ranged from a low of 32 J to a high of 111 J. Moreover, it appears that the University of Kansas CVN impact energy data of the unirradiated specimens at the 100-J level are shifted toward higher temperatures by about 20 K. The results were an example of the extent of scatter possible in CVN impact testing. Generic values for the CVN impact energy of A36 should be used with caution in critical applications

  7. The Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman model calibration from sub-size test specimens by size corresponding to the half of Charpy specimen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stratil, Luděk; Šiška, Filip; Hadraba, Hynek; Dlouhý, Ivo

    Ostrava : Ocelot s.r.o, 2014 - (Matocha, K.; Hurst, R.; Sun, W.), s. 368-381 ISBN 978-80-260-6722-1. [SSTT 2014 - International Conference Determination of Mechanical Properties of Materials by Small Punch and Other Miniature Testing Techniques /3./. Seggau (AT), 23.09.2014-25.09.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0197 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : GTN model * miniaturized specimens * fractography analysis * ductile damage Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  8. Study of crack propagation mechanisms during Charpy impact toughness tests on both equiaxed and lamellar microstructures of Ti–6Al–4V titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact toughness of two highly textured rolled plates of Ti–6Al–4V alloy with an α equiaxed and an α lamellar microstructures has been investigated. The results show a strong anisotropy of the fracture energy for both materials and underline that a coincidence of the prismatic planes with the shear bands at the notch tip is favorable for higher fracture energies. Moreover, it is pointed out, as it was already done by previous studies, that the α lamellar microstructure presents higher fracture energy than the α equiaxed one. Thanks to electron back scattering diffraction, and tensile tests, local microstructure heterogeneities, called macrozones, have been observed and characterized. Their size depends on microstructure element and is larger for α lamellar microstructure than for the α equiaxed. High strain is localized on the macrozones favorably oriented for prismatic slip with respect to the direction of impact and leads to a particular dimple free zone on the fracture surface. The contribution of these macrozones in the fracture behavior, and more precisely on the crack propagation rate was evaluated; thus the effects of the macroscopic texture and of the microstructure element on the impact toughness are discussed separately

  9. Numerical simulation of a Charpy test and correlation of fracture toughness with fracture energy. Vessel steel and duplex stainless steel of the primary loop; Simulation numerique d`un essai de resilience et correlation entre resilience et proprites de tenacite. Acier de cuve et acier austenoferritique du circuit primaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breban, P; Eripret, C. [Departement MTC, Service RNE, Direction des Etudes et Recherches, Electricite de France (EDF), 92 - Clamart (France)

    1995-12-31

    The analysis methods used to evaluate the harmlessness of defects in the components of the primary coolant circuit of pressurized water reactor are based on the knowledge of the failure properties of concerned materials. The toughness is used to be measured through tests performed on normalized samples. But in some cases, especially for the vessel steel submitted to irradiation effects or for cast components in duplex stainless steel sensitive to thermal ageing, these measurements are not available on the material aged in operation. Therefore, fracture resistance has been evaluated through Charpy tests. Toughness is thus obtained on the basis of an empirical correlation. To improve these predictions, a modeling of the Charpy test in the framework of the local approach to fracture has been performed, for both materials. For the vessel steel, a complete evaluation of toughness has been achieved on the basis of a bidimensional viscoplastic modeling under large strain assumptions and a post-treatment with a Weibull model (cleavage fracture). The main hypothesis (partition between plain stress and plain strain areas in the bidimensional modeling) was corrected after a three dimensional calculations with the finite element program Code-Aster. The fracture analysis put into evidence that damage considerations like cavity nucleation and growth have to be introduced in the model in order to improve the description of physical phenomena. Two ways of progress have been suggested and are in course of being investigated, one in the framework of local approach to failure, the other with the help of micro-macro relationship. With regard to the duplex steel, the description of a Charpy (U) test allowed to clearly discriminate between crack initiation and propagation phases. A modeling through an equivalent homogenous material with a damage law based on a modified Gurson potential enables to describe quantitatively both phases of fracture. It clearly appears that a reliable

  10. Tensile and charpy impact properties of irradiated reduced-activation ferritic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klueh, R.L.; Alexander, D.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Tensile tests were conducted on eight reduced-activation Cr-W steels after irradiation to 15-17 and 26-29 dpa, and Charpy impact tests were conducted on the steels irradiated to 26-29 dpa. Irradiation was in the Fast Flux Test Facility at 365{degrees}C on steels containing 2.25-12% Cr, varying amounts of W, V, and Ta, and 0.1%C. Previously, tensile specimens were irradiated to 6-8 dpa and Charpy specimens to 6-8, 15-17, and 20-24 dpa. Tensile and Charpy specimens were also thermally aged to 20000 h at 365{degrees}C. Thermal aging had little effect on the tensile behavior or the ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT), but several steels showed a slight increase in the upper-shelf energy (USE). After {approx}7 dpa, the strength of the steels increased and then remained relatively unchanged through 26-29 dpa (i.e., the strength saturated with fluence). Post-irradiation Charpy impact tests after 26-29 dpa showed that the loss of impact toughness, as measured by an increase in DBTT and a decrease in the USE, remained relatively unchanged from the values after 20-24 dpa, which had been relatively unchanged from the earlier irradiations. As before, the two 9Cr steels were the most irradiation resistant.

  11. Use of precracked Charpy and smaller specimens to establish the master curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current provisions used in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations for the determination of the fracture toughness of reactor pressure vessel steels employs an assumption that there is a direct correlation between KIc lower-bound toughness and the Charpy V-notch transition curve. Such correlations are subject to scatter from both approaches which weakens the reliability of fracture mechanics-based analyses. In this study, precracked Charpy and smaller size specimens are used in three-point static bend testing to develop fracture mechanics based Kk values. The testing is performed under carefully controlled conditions such that the values can be used to predict the fracture toughness performance of large specimens. The concept of a universal transition curve (master curve) is applied. Data scatter that is characteristic of commercial grade steels and their weldments is handled by Weibull statistical modeling. The master curve is developed to describe the median KJc fracture toughness for 1T size compact specimens. Size effects are modeled using weakest-link theory and are studied for different specimen geometries. It is shown that precracked Charpy specimens when tested within their confined validity limits follow the weakest-link size-adjustment trend and predict the fracture toughness of larger specimens. Specimens of smaller than Charpy sizes (5 mm thick) exhibit some disparities in results relative to weakest-link size adjustment prediction suggesting that application of such adjustment to very small specimens may have some limitations

  12. Estimation of Charpy notch toughness for thermal aging specimens of cast duplex stainless steel using thermalelectric power measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The material properties of cast duplex stainless steel, which is used for main coolant pipes of PWR (pressurized water reactor) type nuclear power plants, change due to thermal aging. Therefore it is advisable to evaluate these changes of material properties non-destructively for maintenance of the plant component. In order to establish a non-destructive evaluation procedure for the degree of thermal aging of cast duplex stainless steel, thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements were carried out with a newly made TEP meter for thermal aging specimens, with different ferrite contents, aging temperatures and aging periods. Then the relationship between TEP and notch toughness obtained by Charpy impact test was investigated. As the results: (1) TEP increases due to thermal aging. The higher ferrite content, the higher TEP. The higher aging temperature, the more rapidly TEP increases. (2) Because of the decrease of Charpy notch toughness and the increase of TEP due to the fluctuation of Cr concentration caused by the phase separation of the ferrite phase, TEP increases by thermal aging as the Charpy notch toughness decreases. (3) Regardless of the aging temperature, the specimens with the same ferrite content have the same relationship between Charpy notch toughness and TEP. (4) It is possible to estimate Charpy notch toughness with an error of 100 J/cm2 by TEP in the beginning of aging. Therefore, it can be concluded that we can estimate Charpy notch toughness for cast duplex stainless steel by TEP depending on the ferrite content regardless of the aging temperature. (author)

  13. Electron beam welding reconstitution technology of Charpy-V specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports results connected with the reconstitution of the Cv-type specimens by electron beam welding technology. The experiments were carried out using a 15 kW Leybold Heraus welding unit in a range of power between 1.5 and 3.5 kW, and welding speed from 0.5cm/s to 1.5 cm/s. Material which used in this study is 15Kh2NMFA reactor pressure vessel steel. Weldability of pressure vessel steel by electron beam was investigated in accordance EN ISO 13919-1 1996. Charpy impact tests show good agreement between original and electron beam reconstituted specimens. (author)

  14. Evaluation of Charpy impact properties and fracture toughness for irradiated ferritic steels (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate the radiation-induced shift of fracture toughness from Charpy impact test results for miniaturized specimens, all of the Charpy impact data on high-strength ferritic steels developed by JNC were examined on the basis of the recent progress on the Charpy impact and fracture toughness test methods. Main results obtained are as follows. 1. The radiation-induced shift of fracture toughness is characterized by the shift of the reference fracture toughness temperature, ΔT100, where T100 is the temperature at which the fracture toughness value is 100MPa√ m. ΔT100 is approximately equal to the radiation-induced shift of Charpy DBTT at 41J (ΔT41). Therefore, ΔT100 can be estimated by determining ΔT41 from miniaturized Charpy specimen data. 2. The value of T41 for miniaturized specimens, T41M, can be determined as the test temperature where the absorbed energy is equal to 41/αx[(Bb)3/2F/(Bb)3/2M]. Here, B is the specimen thickness, b is the ligament size and αx[(Bb)3/2F/(Bb)3/2M] is the normalization factor to get the upper shelf energy of full size specimens, USEF, from the mini-size USEM. The values of α is larger than 0.65, depending on the USE of the material. It is also shown that the fracture volume of (Bb)3/2 is more valid than that of Bb2. 3. The following relationship appears to hold between T41F and T41M. T41F - T41M=M=98 - 15.1xln(Bb)3/2, where M is the specimen size correction factor. M also depends on notch geometry and its dependence becomes large with decreasing specimen size. This indicates that the value of T41F can be estimated from T41M by choosing suitable notch geometry. 4. The radiation-induced shift of T41F, ΔT41F, is approximately equal to ΔT41M. This indicates that the estimate of ΔT100 can be made from ΔT41M. 5. For all of the miniaturized Charpy specimen data on high-strength ferritic steels that were irradiated in JOYO and tested at Tohoku University, the values of USEF, T41F, ΔT41F and ΔT100 were successfully

  15. Comparison of transition temperature criteria applied for KLST and ISO-V type Charpy specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A great deal of test data have been obtained on reactor pressure vessel steels using the standard Charpy-V test. Although more advanced test methods, based on elastic-plastic fracture mechanics, are both recommendable and already in use in the surveillance programmes of some nuclear power plants (NPPs), Charpy tests are still required, e.g., by regulatory guides. Besides the normal-size (ISO-V) Charpy specimen (10 x10 x 55 mm3), various types of sub-size specimens have been introduced. One standardised sub-size specimen being in use is the so-called KLST specimen, the size of which is 3 x 4 x 27 mm3 with 1 mm central notch (DIN50 115). So far the test data published for the KLST specimen, as well as sub-size specimens in general, is still limited. The results from small specimen testing are typically used for evaluating the fracture behaviour of the ISO-V Charpy specimen and if there are no test results available for the correlation, as there usually is not, a general correlation has to be applied to evaluate the fracture behaviour of the ISO-V specimen. The availability of a sub-size specimen depends therefore significantly on how reliably this relationship has been established. Impact test data measured with different specimens have been correlated using some appropriate criterion (or criteria) and since a total transition curve is normally measured, there are several ones available. The criterion can be a fixed energy or lateral expansion level describing the transition temperature or the level can be derived from the upper-shelf energy (USE). In general, the proposed criterion can be divided into two groups: those derived from the dimensions of the specimens and those derived empirically from experimental data. Test data measured with ISO-V and KLST-type Charpy specimens are discussed and the validity of two proposed, basically different transition temperature criteria and the resulting differences in the temperatures, that are inevitable because of the

  16. Relation between Charpy impact properties and magnetism in thermally aged Fe-Cu model alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study demonstrates the possibility of applying magnetic methods to pressure vessel surveillance for irradiation embrittlement at nuclear power plants. Charpy impact test and magnetic hesteresis measurement were preformed on thermally aged Fe-1.0wt%Cu model alloys with and without pre-deformation. DBTT increased with increasing aging time. However, magnetic hysteresis parameters showed nonmonotonical changes. The phenomena are discussed in terms of Cu precipitation behavior and dislocation structure. (author)

  17. Correlation of microstructure and charpy impact properties in API X70 and X80 line-pipe steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims at correlating microstructure and Charpy impact properties in high-toughness API X70 and X80 line-pipe steels. Three kinds of steels were fabricated by varying alloying elements and hot rolling conditions, and their microstructures and Charpy impact properties were investigated. In addition, their effective grain sizes were characterized by the electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis. The Charpy impact test results indicated that the steels rolled in the single phase region had the higher upper shelf energy (USE) than the steel rolled in the two phase region because their microstructures were composed of acicular ferrites. In the X80 steel rolled in the single phase region, the decreased energy transition temperature (ETT) could be explained by the decrease in the overall effective grain size due to the presence of acicular ferrite having smaller effective grain size. Thus, it had excellent mechanical properties in yield and tensile strengths, absorbed energy, and transition temperature, except in ductility

  18. Correlations between Standard and Miniaturised Charpy-V Specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucon, E.; Van Walle, E.; Fabry, A.; Puzzolante, J.-L.; Verstrepen, A.; Vosch, R.; Van de Velde, L

    1998-12-01

    A total of 565 instrumented impact tests (232 performed on full-size and 333 on sub-size Charpy-V specimens) have been analysed in order to derive meaningful assumptions on the correlations existing between test results obtained on specimens of different size. Nine materials (pressure vessel steels) have been considered, in both as-received and irradiated state, for a total of 19 conditions examined. For the analysis of data, conventional as well novel approaches have been investigated; former ones, based on a review of the existing literature, include predictions of USE values by the use of normalization factors (NF), shifts of index temperatures related to energy/lateral expansion/shear fracture levels, and a combination of both approaches (scaling and shifting of energy curves). More original and recent proposals have also been verified, available in the literature but also proposed by SCK-CEN in the frame of enhanced surveillance of nuclear reactor pressure vessels. Conclusions have been drawn regarding the applicability and reliability of these methodologies, and recommendations have been given for future developments of the activities on this topic.

  19. Correlations between Standard and Miniaturised Charpy-V Specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 565 instrumented impact tests (232 performed on full-size and 333 on sub-size Charpy-V specimens) have been analysed in order to derive meaningful assumptions on the correlations existing between test results obtained on specimens of different size. Nine materials (pressure vessel steels) have been considered, in both as-received and irradiated state, for a total of 19 conditions examined. For the analysis of data, conventional as well novel approaches have been investigated; former ones, based on a review of the existing literature, include predictions of USE values by the use of normalization factors (NF), shifts of index temperatures related to energy/lateral expansion/shear fracture levels, and a combination of both approaches (scaling and shifting of energy curves). More original and recent proposals have also been verified, available in the literature but also proposed by SCK-CEN in the frame of enhanced surveillance of nuclear reactor pressure vessels. Conclusions have been drawn regarding the applicability and reliability of these methodologies, and recommendations have been given for future developments of the activities on this topic

  20. Application of Charpy Impact Absorbed Energy to the Safety Assessment Based on SINTAP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The European Structural Integrity Assessment Procedure(SINTAP) was applied to the assessment of welded joints of the APl 5L X65 pipeline steel with an assumed embedded flaw and surface flaw at the weld toe. At default level( level 0), the assessment point was established by estimating fracture toughness value KIc conservatively from Charpy energy test data. At the same time, the analysis level 1 (basic level)was applied based on the fracture toughness CTOD. Then the two assessment levels were compared. The assessment results show that all assessment points are located within the failure lines of analysis levels 0 and 1. So the welded joint of the pipeline is safe. It can be concluded that the assessment based on Charpy absorbed energy is practicable when other fracture toughness data are not available, or cannot be easily obtained. The results are conservative.

  1. On the Effectiveness of the Dynamic Force Adjustment for Reducing the Scatter of Instrumented Charpy Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucon, E.

    2008-09-15

    One of the key factors for obtaining reliable instrumented Charpy results is the calibration of the instrumented striker. An interesting alternative to the conventional static calibration recommended by the standards is the Dynamic Force Adjustment (DFA), in which forces and displacements are iteratively adjusted until equality is achieved between absorbed energies calculated under the test record (Wt) and measured by the machine encoder (KV). In this study, this procedure has been applied to the instrumented data obtained by 10 international laboratories using notched and precracked Charpy specimens, in the framework of a Coordinated Research Project (CRP8) of IAEA. DFA is extremely effective in reducing the between-laboratory scatter for both general yield and maximum forces. The effect is less significant for dynamic reference temperatures measured from precracked Charpy specimens using the Master Curve procedure, but a moderate reduction of the standard deviation is anyway observed. It is shown that striker calibration is a prominent contribution to the interlaboratory variability of instrumented impact forces, particularly in the case of maximum forces.

  2. Influence of Striking Edge Radius (2 mm versus 8 mm) on Instrumented Charpy Data and Absorbed Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most commonly used test standards for performing Charpy impact tests (ISO 148 and ASTM E 23) envisage the use of strikers having different radii of the striking edge, i.e. 2 mm (ISO) and 8 mm (ASTM). The effect of striker geometry on Charpy results was extensively studied in the past in terms of absorbed energy measured by the machine encoder, but few investigations are available on the influence of striker configuration on the results of instrumented Charpy tests (characteristic forces, displacements and integrated energy). In this paper, these effects are investigated based on the analysis of published results from three interlaboratory studies and some unpublished Charpy data obtained at SCK-CEN. The instrumented variables which are the most sensitive to the radius of the striking edge are the maximum force and its corresponding displacement, with 8mm-strikers providing systematically higher values. Absorbed energies, obtained both from the instrumented trace and from the pendulum encoder, are almost insensitive to the type of striker up to 200 J. For higher energy levels, the values obtained from 8mm strikers become progressively larger. Data scatter is generally higher for 2mm-strikers.

  3. Influence of Striking Edge Radius (2 mm versus 8 mm) on Instrumented Charpy Data and Absorbed Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucon, E.

    2008-08-15

    The most commonly used test standards for performing Charpy impact tests (ISO 148 and ASTM E 23) envisage the use of strikers having different radii of the striking edge, i.e. 2 mm (ISO) and 8 mm (ASTM). The effect of striker geometry on Charpy results was extensively studied in the past in terms of absorbed energy measured by the machine encoder, but few investigations are available on the influence of striker configuration on the results of instrumented Charpy tests (characteristic forces, displacements and integrated energy). In this paper, these effects are investigated based on the analysis of published results from three interlaboratory studies and some unpublished Charpy data obtained at SCK-CEN. The instrumented variables which are the most sensitive to the radius of the striking edge are the maximum force and its corresponding displacement, with 8mm-strikers providing systematically higher values. Absorbed energies, obtained both from the instrumented trace and from the pendulum encoder, are almost insensitive to the type of striker up to 200 J. For higher energy levels, the values obtained from 8mm strikers become progressively larger. Data scatter is generally higher for 2mm-strikers.

  4. Charpy V-notch properties and microstructures of narrow gap ferritic welds of a quenched and tempered steel plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, G.L.F.; Herfurth, G. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Woodville (Australia)

    1998-11-01

    Multipass welds of quenched and tempered 50-mm-thick steel plate have been deposited by a single wire narrow gap process using both gas metal arc welding (GMAW) and submerged arc welding (SAW). Of the five welds, two reported much lower Charpy V-notch (CVN) values when tested at {minus} 20 C. The CVN toughness did not correlate with either the welding process or whether the power source was pulsed or nonpulsed. The only difference in the ferritic microstructure between the two welds of low Charpy values and the three of high values was the percentage of acicular ferrite. There was no effect of the percentage of as-deposited reheated zones intersected by the Charpy notch or the microhardness of the intercellular-dendritic regions. In all welds, austenite was the microconstituent between the ferrite laths. The percentage of acicular ferrite correlated with the presence of MnO, TiO{sub 2}, {gamma} Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, or MnO. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as the predominant crystalline compound in the oxide inclusions. In turn, the crystalline compound depended on the aluminum-to-titanium ratio in both the weld deposits and the oxide inclusions. In addition to the presence of less acicular ferrite, the two welds that showed lower Charpy values also reported more oxide inclusions greater than 1 {micro}m in diameter. The combination of more oxide inclusions greater than 1 {micro}m and less acicular ferrite is considered to be the explanation for the lower Charpy values.

  5. Residual stress study by neutron diffraction in the Charpy specimens reconstructed by various welding methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation of welding residual stress is very important for nuclear industry since it can considerably affect the structural integrity of various components and products and their lifetime. In order to evaluate the applicability of various welding methods the residual stress in test Charpy specimens welded by various techniques were analysed using high resolution neutron diffraction. The experiments show that the level of residual stress in welds can be quite high and this fact should be considered when choosing an appropriate welding technique. Key words: neutron diffraction, residual stress, welding

  6. Validation Study of Unnotched Charpy and Taylor-Anvil Impact Experiments using Kayenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamojjala, Krishna [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lacy, Jeffrey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Chu, Henry S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Brannon, Rebecca [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Validation of a single computational model with multiple available strain-to-failure fracture theories is presented through experimental tests and numerical simulations of the standardized unnotched Charpy and Taylor-anvil impact tests, both run using the same material model (Kayenta). Unnotched Charpy tests are performed on rolled homogeneous armor steel. The fracture patterns using Kayenta’s various failure options that include aleatory uncertainty and scale effects are compared against the experiments. Other quantities of interest include the average value of the absorbed energy and bend angle of the specimen. Taylor-anvil impact tests are performed on Ti6Al4V titanium alloy. The impact speeds of the specimen are 321 m/s and 393 m/s. The goal of the numerical work is to reproduce the damage patterns observed in the laboratory. For the numerical study, the Johnson-Cook failure model is used as the ductile fracture criterion, and aleatory uncertainty is applied to rate-dependence parameters to explore its effect on the fracture patterns.

  7. Extended analysis of WWER-1000 Charpy test data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to study the embrittlement rate of WWER-1000 RPV weld metal with high Ni content and to determine influence of neutron irradiation on partial energies of ductile crack initiation, stable and unstable crack propagation and post crack arrest. (author)

  8. Experimental Investigation of Charpy Impact Tests on Metallic SLM parts

    OpenAIRE

    Yasa, Evren; Deckers, Jan; Kruth, Jean-Pierre; Rombouts, Marleen; Luyten, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is a layer-additive manufacturing technology making it possible to create fully functional parts directly from standard metal powders without using any intermediate binders or any additional post-processing steps. During the process, a laser source selectively scans a powder bed according to the CAD data of the part to be produced and powder particles are completely molten by a high intensity laser beam. SLM is capable of producing near full density metallic part...

  9. Instrumentation of a Charpy-pendulum. Additional data obtained from it and its application to nuclear reactor pressure vessels surveillance programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpy test gives information about a material dynamic fracture behavior. In a plain Charpy test, this information is the absorbed energy during fracture of the specimen, lateral deformation and the percentage of ductile fracture of the specimen. These parameters can then be used for the determination of the material response to a dynamic applied load, and are used at present to determine the brittle-ductile transition temperature of a material. However, there is a lot of additional information that can be obtained from a Charpy test, which is vital for the case of surveillance programs of nuclear power plants, where it is necessary to get the most available information from the specimens to be tested, because each one of them was irradiated for many years under temperature and neutronic flux conditions similar to that of the internal surface of the reactor pressure vessel, which converts these specimens in unique and very expensive ones. This additional information can be obtained from the curve that determines the evolution of the applied force to the specimen throughout the time involved in its fracture. It was possible to instrument a Charpy pendulum at a fraction of the cost necessary to buy an instrumentation package like the ones available in the market, and since the instrumentation equipment obtained is easy to transport. It has the additional advantage that can be used to instrument any other pendulum replacing only the hammer of the pendulum with a instrumented one for that pendulum. (author)

  10. Charpy impact properties of stainless steel weldment in liquefied natural gas pipelines: Effect of low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Low-temperature impact properties of welded stainless steel pipe were investigated. • Microstructure and impact properties of FCC and BCC structured steels were compared. • Microstructural investigation was performed under varying temperature conditions. • Relatively higher absorbed energy in the welded zone was observed and discussed. - Abstract: In this study, an austenitic stainless steel pipe for the transportation of liquefied natural gas (LNG) was gas tungsten arc welded with a wall thickness of 15.1 mm. Low-temperature Charpy V-notch (CVN) impact tests were performed to investigate the effect of low temperatures on the fracture toughness of the welded zone (WZ), heat-affected zone (HAZ), and base metal (BM) of the LNG pipe. For design and safety reasons, it is necessary to investigate the low-temperature impact properties of weld metals, because weld metals have higher susceptibility to embrittlement than their counterpart base metals. In addition, the effects of cubic crystal structures on the CVN impact response were examined to compare the absorbed energy and fracture surfaces of the materials. Charpy impact tests were performed on mild steels with body-centered cubic (BCC) crystal structures for comparison with the test results of welded austenitic stainless steels with face-centered cubic (FCC) crystal structures. The applicable temperatures were examined, and a scanning electron microscope was used to examine the fracture surface morphology of V-notched specimens tested under various temperature conditions. The results revealed that the absorbed energy of the WZ was slightly higher than that of the BM and HAZ in the FCC-crystal-structured welded pipe specimens. In addition, the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature of the BCC-crystal-structured mild steels was examined

  11. On the Use of the Master Curve based on the Precracked Charpy Specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, worldwide interest has been demonstrated in the evaluation of the use of the Master Curve approach to characterize fracture toughness of ferritic steels in the transition regime. This was acknowledged by the recent release of the ASTM Standard Test Method for Determination of Reference Temperature, T0, for Ferritic Steels in the Transition Range (E1921). The present work aims to investigate the use of the Charpy specimen along with the Master Curve approach to derive the fracture toughness behaviour of reactor pressure vessel steels. Therefore, four well characterized and documented reactor pressure vessel steels were selected. A large experimental program to measure fracture toughness with Charpy size specimens was carried out. Four important aspects were investigated: (1) the T0 determination as a function of test temperature; (2) the E1921 specimen size requirement (factor M=30); (3) the censoring procedure for specimens not satisfying the E1921 size requirements; (4) the estimation of the fracture toughness lower bound, and its comparison to the ASME KIC curve. It is found that within the experimental and statistical uncertainties, the reference temperature T0 is not affected by the test temperature, even when data are not valid according to E1921 requirements. By application of the censoring procedure, the determination of the reference temperature may lead to non conservative results. Comparison to larger specimen size suggests the use of M=60 rather than 30 to limit the loss of constraint, in agreement with finite element calculations. Nevertheless, the differences are not large enough to be statistically significant. The lower bound based on the Master Curve is very close to the experimental lower bound, while the ASME KIC curve trends to be over conservative. Replacing RTNDT by the new index, RTTo, in the ASME KIC equation reduces this over conservatism

  12. Charpy notch toughness and hardness of reheated martensite and lower bainite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Vodopivec

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A high strength low alloyed (HSLA V-Nb steel was heat treated to martensite and lower bainite with different grain size, reheated for 3 seconds at 750 °C and air cooled. Charpy notch tests were performed from -100 °C to 60 °C and the hardness assessed at room temperature. For as delivered steel and lower bainite, the upper shelf toughness was above 200 J and the transition temperature low, while, for martensite the upper shelf toughness threshold was aproximateky at 0 °C. After reheating, notch toughness was decreased moderatly for martensite and strongly for lower bainite. Independently on grain size, lower bainite was more propensive than martensite to embritlement after short reheating in the (α + β range. For martensite, the change of notch toughness was not related to change of hardness, as by lower hardness lower, also toughness was lower.

  13. Fractographic examination of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel charpy specimens irradiated to 30 dpa at 370{degrees}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelles, D.S.; Hamilton, M.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Schubert, L.E. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Fractographic examinations are reported for a series of reduced activation ferritic/Martensitic steel Charpy impact specimens tested following irradiation to 30 dpa at 370{degrees}C in FFTF. One-third size specimens of six low activation steels developed for potential application as structural materials in fusion reactors were examined. A shift in brittle fracture appearance from cleavage to grain boundary failure was noted with increasing manganese content. The results are interpreted in light of transmutation induced composition changes in a fusion environment.

  14. Analysis of Charpy V-notch impact toughness of irradiated A533-B class 1 plate and four submerged-arc welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of the effects of neutron irradiation on Charpy V-notch impact properties of steels have, in general, included a minimum number of tests for each combination of material and irradiation parameters. The present study attempts to apply statistical analyses with multiple testing at selected temperatures to assess the accuracy and reliability of results. Charpy V-notch impact test specimens were irradiated in the Bulk Shielding Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2880C to target neutron fluences of 2 X 1023 neutrons (n)/m2 (>1 MeV). The materials were ASTM A533-B Class 1 plate (HeavySection Steel Technology Plate 02) and four submerged-arc welds representing current nuclear pressure vessel fabrication practice. Both unirradiated and irradiated specimens were tested by two separate groups and multiple tests were conducted at several selected temperatures. Statistical analyses permitted determination of material and test variability and an interlaboratory comparison. Several Charpy curve-fitting methods were used and results are compared with predictions from several ''trend curve'' expressions

  15. Tensile and Charpy impact behavior of an irradiated three-wire series-arc stainless steel cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential for stainless steel cladding to improve the fracture behavior of an operating nuclear reactor pressure vessel, particularly during certain overcooling transients, may depend greatly on the properties of the irradiated cladding. Therefore, three-wire stainless steel cladding irradiated at temperatures and to fluences relevant to power reactor operation was examined. Postirradiation testing results show that, in the test temperature range from -125 to 288 degrees C, the yield strength increased by 8 to 30%, and ductility insignificantly increased, while there was almost no change in the ultimate tensile strength. All cladding exhibited ductile-to-brittle transition behavior during Charpy impact testing, owing to the dominance of delta-ferrite failures at low temperatures. On the upper shelf, the energy was reduced (owing to irradiation exposure) 15 to 20%, while the lateral expansion was reduced 43 and 41% at 2 and 5 - 1019 n/cm2 (E > 1 MeV), respectively. In addition, radiation damage resulted in 13 and 28 degrees C shifts of the Charpy impact transition temperature at the 41-J level for the low and high fluences, respectively

  16. Evaluation of Charpy impact properties and fracture toughness for irradiated ferritic steels. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The instrumented Charpy impact test was performed for two PMC-FM steels, 61FK and 61FS, irradiated at 723 K to 9.0 x 1026 n/m2 (E > 0.1 MeV) in SMIR-10, and the other two steels, ASTM A213T9 and NSCR9, irradiated at 723 K to 3.6 x 1026 n/m2 in SMIR-10. The test was also conducted for unirradiated 61FK. The absorbed energy, dynamic yield load, dynamic maximum load and brittle fracture load were measured as a function of test temperature and the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) and the upper shelf energy (USE) were evaluated. The DBTT was determined in three different ways; the temperature at which the total absorbed energy was one half of USE (DBTT1), the temperature at which the dynamic yield and maximum loads were equal (DBTT2), and the temperature at which the total absorbed energy was equal to 2 J which corresponds to 10 J for full size specimens (DBTT3). For the test, Charpy V-notch specimens, JIS-4, were used which had the dimensions of 10 x 2 x 55 mm and the V-notch geometry of notch root radius of 0.25 mm, notch depth of 2 mm and notch angle of 45 degrees. Main results obtained are as follows. 1) The DBTT showed that DBTT1>DBTT2>DBTT3 for 61FK, 61FS and NSCR9. 2) For unirradiated 61FK the DBTT1 was 202 K and the USE was 16.9 J, while for irradiated 61FK the DBTT1 was 249 K and the USE was 10.8 J. Therefore, the irradiation caused the DBTT1 to increase by 47 K and the USE to decrease by 6.1 J. 3) For irradiated 61FS the DBTT1 was 207 K and the USE was 17.0 J. Since the DBTT1 and USE of unirradiated 61FS were 160 K and 20 J, respectively, it followed that the irradiation caused the DBTT1 to increase by 47 K and the USE to decrease by 3 J. 4) For irradiated F9S the DBTT1 was 166 K and the USE was 21.4 J. 5) For irradiated NSCR9 the DBTT1 was 208 K and the USE was 16.2 J. Since the DBTT1 and USE of unirradiated NSCR9 were 185 K and 16 J, respectively, it followed that the irradiation caused the DBTT1 to increase by 23 K but no decrease in USE. (J.P.N.)

  17. Evaluation of Charpy impact properties and fracture toughness for irradiated ferritic steels (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four kinds of ferritic steels, 61FK, 61FS, ASTM A213T9 (F9S) and NSCR9, were irradiated in SMIR-10 at 823 K to (3.2-9.0)x1026 n/m2 (E > 0.1 MeV) and subjected to instrumented Charpy impact tests. The absorbed energy, dynamic yield and maximum loads, brittle fracture load and the deflection to brittle fracture were measured as a function of test temperature and the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) and the upper shelf energy (USE) were evaluated. For the test, Charpy V-notch specimens, JIS-4, were used which had the dimensions of 10x2x55 mm and the V-notch geometry of notch root radius of 0.25 mm, notch of 2 mm and notch angle of 45 degrees. Main results obtained are as follows. 1) The DBTT was less dependent on neutron dose. The DBTT for the higher dose of (8.8-9.0)-1026 n/m2 increased in the order of 61FK, NSCR9, 61FS and F9S. 2) As the neutron dose increased, the USE decreased for 61FK, while it stayed almost constant for 61GS and increased for F9S. The USE for the higher dose decreased in the order of 61FK, NSCR9, 61FS and F9S, which was the same as the increasing order of DBTT. 3) The DBTT shifts, ΔDBTT, due to irradiation with the higher dose level increased in the order of 61FK, 61FS and NSCR9, except for F9S, where the DBTT in the unirradiated state is not available. 4) The change in USE, ΔUSE, due to irradiation with the higher dose increased in the order of 61FS, 61FK and NSCR9, except for F9S. 5) Comparison of the present results with the previous ones irradiated at 723K in SMIR-10 showed that 823K irradiation caused considerably larger embrittlement than 723K irradiation, especially for F9S and 61FK. (author)

  18. Re-utilization by '' Stud Welding'' of capsules charpy-V belonged to surveillance programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The perspectives of nuclear plants life extension that are approximating to their end of design life compels to make new surveillance programs. The re-utilization of specimens belonging to surveillance capsules already tested in these new surveillance programs seems be a solution worldwide accepted. The two possible re-utilization processes of this irradiated material are: Subsized specimens and Reconstitution. While the first alternative (Subsized specimens) outlines serious problems for apply the results, the reconstitution eliminates this problem, since the resulting specimens after of the reconstruction procedure would be of the same dimensions that the original. The reconstruction process involves welds, and therefore it has associated the specific problems of this type of joints. Furthermore, by be tried to material irradiated with certain degree of internal damage, that is the variable to evaluate, requires that the heat contribution to the piece not originate local thermal treatments that alter its mechanical qualities. In this work has been followed the evolution by the variables of the weld process and their influence on the quality by the union from metallographic al point of view as well as mechanical for a weld procedure by Stud Welding. The principal objective is to optimize said parameters to assure a good mechanical continuity, without detriment of the microstructural characteristics of the original material. To verify this last have been accomplished with metallographical tests, temperature profile, hardness and will be carried out also Charpy tests. (Author)

  19. A reassessment of the effects of helium on Charpy impact properties of ferritic/martensitic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelles, D.S.; Hamilton, M.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Hankin, G.L. [Loughborough Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1998-03-01

    To test the effect of helium on Charpy impact properties of ferritic/martensitic steels, two approaches are reviewed: quantification of results of tests performed on specimens irradiated in reactors with very different neutron spectra, and isotopic tailoring experiments. Data analysis can show that if the differences in reactor response are indeed due to helium effects, then irradiation in a fusion machine at 400 C to 100 dpa and 1000 appm He will result in a ductile to brittle transition temperature shift of over 500 C. However, the response as a function of dose and helium level is unlikely to be simply due to helium based on physical reasoning. Shear punch tests and microstructural examinations also support this conclusion based on irradiated samples of a series of alloys made by adding various isotopes of nickel in order to vary the production of helium during irradiation in HFIR. The addition of nickel at any isotopic balance to the Fe-12Cr base alloy significantly increased the shear yield and maximum strengths of the alloys. However, helium itself, up to 75 appm at over 7 dpa appears to have little effect on the mechanical properties of the alloys. This behavior is instead understood to result from complex precipitation response. The database for effects of helium on embrittlement based on nickel additions is therefore probably misleading and experiments should be redesigned to avoid nickel precipitation.

  20. Applicability of smaller than Charpy specimens for fracture toughness characterization with the VTT method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term fracture toughness usually refers to the linear elastic fracture resistance parameter KIC. In the case of structural steels, the estimation of KIC is limited to the lower shelf of toughness or require extremely large specimens. This specimen size requirement has been one major obstacle for applying fracture mechanics in structural integrity assessment outside aviation, nuclear and off-shore industries. During the last decade, a statistical data treatment methodology, based on a micro-mechanistic cleavage fracture model, combined with elastic plastic finite element analysis has enabled the fracture toughness to be characterized with small specimens in the ductile-to-brittle transition region. The methodology is known as the VTT method or the Master Curve procedure. The development has led to a new testing standard for fracture toughness testing of ferritic steels in the transition range. Here, the premises for the methodology are described and its validity range is discussed. Presently the methodology has been validated for as small as 10.10 mm2 bend specimens, but the use of even smaller specimens is under investigation. Specifically, results obtained with three different sub-Charpy specimen configurations are presented and discussed. (author)

  1. Statistical Analysis of Charpy Transition Temperature Shift in Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels: Application of Nuclear Materials Database(MatDB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MDPortal contains various technical documents on the degradation and development of nuclear materials. Additionally, the nuclear materials database (MatDB) is also launched in KAERI recently. The MatDB covers the mechanical properties of various nuclear structural materials used as the components: a reactor pressure vessel, steam generator, and primary and secondary piping. In this study, we introduced MatDB briefly, and analyzed the Charpy transition temperature shift in reactor pressure vessel steels of Korean nuclear power plants retrieved from MatDB. It can show an application of the MatDB to the real case of material degradations in NPPs. The MatDB includes the tensile results, Charpy results, fatigue results and J-R curve results at present. In the future other properties such as creep, fracture toughness, and SCC degradations are going to be added consistently. The data from MatDB were successfully applied to estimate the TTS analysis of Korean RPV steels in surveillance tests

  2. Effects of Oxides on Tensile and Charpy Impact Properties and Fracture Toughness in Heat Affected Zones of Oxide-Containing API X80 Linepipe Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Hyo Kyung; Sohn, Seok Su; Shin, Sang Yong; Oh, Kyung Shik; Lee, Sunghak

    2014-06-01

    This study is concerned with effects of complex oxides on acicular ferrite (AF) formation, tensile and Charpy impact properties, and fracture toughness in heat affected zones (HAZs) of oxide-containing API X80 linepipe steels. Three steels were fabricated by adding Mg and O2 to form oxides, and various HAZ microstructures were obtained by conducting HAZ simulation tests under different heat inputs. The no. of oxides increased with increasing amount of Mg and O2, while the volume fraction of AF present in the steel HAZs increased with increasing the no. of oxides. The strengths of the HAZ specimens were generally higher than those of the base metals because of the formation of hard microstructures of bainitic ferrite and granular bainite. When the total Charpy absorbed energy was divided into the fracture initiation and propagation energies, the fracture initiation energy was maintained constant at about 75 J at room temperature, irrespective of volume fraction of AF. The fracture propagation energy rapidly increased from 75 to 150 J and saturated when the volume fraction of AF exceeded 30 pct. At 253 K (-20 °C), the total absorbed energy increased with increasing volume fraction of AF, as the cleavage fracture was changed to the ductile fracture when the volume fraction of AF exceeded 45 pct. Thus, 45 vol pct of AF at least was needed to improve the Charpy impact energy, which could be achieved by forming a no. of oxides. The fracture toughness increased with increasing the no. of oxides because of the increased volume fraction of AF formed around oxides. The fracture toughness did not show a visible correlation with the Charpy absorbed energy at room temperature, because toughness properties obtained from these two toughness testing methods had different significations in view of fracture mechanics.

  3. Response of unirradiated and neutron-irradiated vanadium alloys to Charpy-impact loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) was determined by Charpy-impact impact tests for dehydrogenated (<30 appm H) and hydrogenated (400--1200 appm H) V-7.2Cr-14.5Ti, V-9.9Cr-9.2Ti, V-13.5Cr-5.2Ti, V-17.7Ti, V-9.2Cr-4.9Ti, V-9.0Cr-3.2Fe-1.2Zr, V-3.1Ti-0.5Si, V-4.1Cr-4.3Ti, V-4.6Ti, and V-2.5Ti-1.0Si alloys. The DBTT was also determined for the V-13.5Cr-5.2Ti, V-9.2Cr-4.9Ti, V-7.2Cr-14.5Ti, and V-17.7Ti alloys after neutron irradiation at 420 and 600 degrees C to 41--44 atom displacements per atom. The DBTTs determined for these vanadium alloys show that a vanadium alloy containing Cr and/or Ti and Si alloying additions to be used as a structural material in a fusion reactor should contain 3--11 wt % total alloying addition for maximum resistance to hydrogen- and/or irradiation-induced embrittlement. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Prediction of the brittle fracture toughness value of a RPV steel from the analysis of a limited set of Charpy results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our objective is to establish a method to be able to determine fracture toughness of a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) by using the small number of Charpy specimens used in the reactor surveillance program. Previous studies have shown that it is possible to determine fracture toughness from Charpy tests. Another point is to determine if statistical effects are compatible with a restricted number of specimens, this paper deals with this point and presents a methodology that is applicable to the case of irradiated materials from the surveillance program. Several conclusions can be drawn from this study: -) When determining failure parameters, we gain most accuracy by increasing the number of samples from 3 to about 6; -) it is possible to evaluate brittle fracture toughness using local approach, either by using Beremin or Renevey model; -) The effect of using a small number of Charpy specimens to determine fracture toughness in brittle fracture is evaluated. The error in the evaluation of fracture toughness is much smaller than the experimental dispersion itself. (A.C.)

  5. Effect of mechanical alloying atmosphere on the microstructure and Charpy impact properties of an ODS ferritic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two types of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels, with the composition of Fe-14Cr-2W-0.3Ti-0.3Y2O3 (in weight percent), have been produced by mechanically alloying elemental powders of Fe, Cr, W, and Ti with Y2O3 particles either in argon atmosphere or in hydrogen atmosphere, degassing at various temperatures, and compacting the mechanically alloyed powders by hot isostatic pressing. It was found in particular that mechanical alloying in hydrogen yields a significant reduction in oxygen content in the materials, a lower dislocation density, and a strong improvement in the fast fracture properties of the ODS ferritic steels, as measured by Charpy impact tests.

  6. Charpy impact energy evolution, with sensitization treatments, in absence and presence of internal hydrogen in austenitic 304 L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpy impact energy measurement is a sensitive method, specially at low temperature (-180+-50C), to evaluate the sensitization treatments on austenitic 304 L, in presence or absence of cathodic hydrogen

  7. Miniature Precracked Charpy Specimens for Measuring the Master Curve Reference Temperature of RPV Steels at Impact Loading Rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the 2006 Convention, we investigated the applicability of fatigue precracked miniature Charpy specimens of KLST type (MPCC - B = 3 mm, W = 4 mm and L = 27 mm) for impact toughness measurements, using the well-characterized JRQ RPV steel. In the ductile to-brittle transition region, MPCC tests analyzed using the Master Curve approach and compared to data previously obtained from PCC specimens had shown a more ductile behavior and therefore un conservative results. In the investigation presented in this report, two additional RPV steels have been used to compare the performance of impact-tested MPCC and PCC specimens in the transition regime: the low-toughness JSPS steel and the high-toughness 20MnMoNi55 steel. The results obtained (excellent agreement for 20MnMoNi55 and considerable differences between T0 values for JSPS) are contradictory and do not presently allow qualifying the MPCC specimens as a reliable alternative to PCC samples for impact toughness measurements.

  8. Effects of nonstandard heat treatment temperatures on tensile and Charpy impact properties of carbon-steel casting repair welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses carbon steel castings which are used for a number of different components in nuclear power plants, including valve bodies and bonnets. Components are often repaired by welding processes, and both welded components and the repair welds are subjected to a variety of postweld heat treatments (PWHT) with temperatures as high as 899 degrees C (1650 degrees F), well above the normal 593 to 677 degrees C (1100 to 1250 degrees F) temperature range. The temperatures noted are above the A1 transformation temperature for the materials used for these components. A test program was conducted to investigate the potential effects of such ''nonstandard'' PWHTs on mechanical properties of carbon steel casting welds. Four weldments were fabricated, two each with the shielded-metal-arc (SMA) and flux-cored-arc (FCA) processes,with a high-carbon and low-carbon filler metal in each case. All four welds were sectioned and given simulated PWHTs at temperatures from 621 to 899 degrees C (1150 to 1650 degrees F) in increments of 56 degrees C (100 degrees F) and for times of 5, 10, 20, and 40 h at each temperature. Hardness, tensile, and Charpy V-notch (CVN) impact tests were conducted for the as-welded and heat-treated conditions

  9. A New Analytical Expression for the Relationship Between the Charpy Impact Energy and Notch Tip Position for Functionally Graded Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.Samareh Salavati Pour; F.Berto; Y.Alizadeh

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the distance between the notch tip and the position of the middle phase in the FGSs on the Charpy impact energy is investigated in the present paper.The results show that when the notch apex is close to the middle layer,the Charpy impact energy reaches its maximum value.This is due to the increment of the absorbed energy by plastic deformation ahead of the notch tip.On the other hand,when the notch tip is far from the middle layer,the Charpy impact energy strongly decreases.Another fundamental motivation of the present work is that for crack arrester configuration,no accurate mathematical or analytical modelling is available up to now.By considering the relationship between the Charpy impact energy and the plastic volume size,a new theoretical model has been developed to link the Charpy impact energy with the distance from the notch apex to the middle phase.This model is a simplified one and the effect of different shapes of the layers and the effect of microstructure on the mechanical properties and plastic region size will be considered in further investigation.The results of the new developed closed form expression show a sound agreement with some recent experimental results taken from the literature.

  10. Crack lengths calculation by the unloading compliance technique for Charpy size specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems with the crack length determination by the unloading compliance method are well known for Charpy size specimens. The final crack lengths calculated for bent specimens do not fulfil ASTM 1820 accuracy requirements. Therefore some investigations have been performed to resolve this problem. In those studies it was considered that the measured compliance should be corrected for various factors, but satisfying results were not obtained. In the presented work the problem was attacked from the other side, the measured specimen compliance was taken as a correct value and what had to be adjusted was the calculation procedure. On the basis of experimentally obtained compliances of bent specimens and optically measured crack lengths the investigation was carried out. Finally, a calculation procedure enabling accurate crack length calculation up to 5 mm of plastic deflection was developed. Applying the new procedure, out of investigated 238 measured crack lengths, more than 80% of the values fulfilled the ASTM 1820 accuracy requirements, while presently used procedure provided only about 30% of valid results. The newly proposed procedure can be also prospectively used in modified form for specimens of a size different than Charpy size. (orig.)

  11. Instrumented Charpy Impact Property and Analysis of Fracture Surface of Hot Work Tool Steel; Netukan kogu ko no keisoka sharupi shogeki tokusei to hamen kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoi, D.; Tsujii, N. [Sanyo Special Steel Co. Ltd., Hyogo (Japan); Fukaura, K.; Sunada, H. [Himeji Inst.of Tech., Hyogo (Japan)

    1997-06-15

    The effects of hardness and prior austenite grain size on the impact property of hot work tool steel JIS-SKD6 at room temperature were investigated by the analyses of impact fracture surface and of load-deflection diagrams obtained from instrumented Charpy impact test. In order to vary hardness and the grain size, the specimens of SKD6 produced by ingot and powder metallurgy were quenched from different temperatures, i.e., 1303K and 1403K, and then tempered twice at 873K. It was found that most of impact energy was exhausted in crack initiation for every material and the impact fracture modes were divided into three groups. Although the impact energy tended to decrease with increasing hardness, fine-grained structure suppressed the reduction in impact energy due to the enhancement of the resistance to the crack initiation. 2 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Effects of oxidation on the impact energy of Hastelloy S and Hastelloy C-4 Charpy V-notch specimens heated in air at 6000 to 8000C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 90SrF2 heat source being developed at PNL utilizes a Hastelloy S or Hastelloy C-4 outer capsule having a 0.5-in.-thick wall to contain the Hastelloy C-276 inner capsule. The primary objective of the study was to demonstrate that the air oxidation of the outer capsule that could occur during heat-source service would not degrade the ductility and Charpy impact strength of the capsule below the licensing requirements given in Section 1.1. The 90SrF2 heat source under development is intended for general-purpose use. Compatibility considerations limit the interface temperature between the 90SrF2 and Hastelloy C-276 inner capsule to a maximum of 8000C. The outer capsule surface temperature will be somewhat less than 8000C, and depending on the service, may be substantially lower. The oxidation tests were therefore carried out at 6000 to 8000C for exposures up to 10,000h to cover the range of temperature the outer capsule might expect to encounter in service. The results showed that the oxidation of Hastelloy S and Hastelloy C-4 in air at 6000 to 8000C is very slow, and both alloys form adherent oxide layers that serve to protect the underlying metal. Subsurface attack of Hastelloy S and Hastelloy C-4 due to oxidation was greater than expected, considering the slow oxidation rates of the two alloys at 6000 to 8000C. Estimates of subsurface attack, determined from micrographs of the oxidized specimens, showed erratic results and it was impossible to assign any type of rate equation to the subsurface attack. A conservative estimate of long-term effects can be made using a linear extrapolation of the test results. There were no significant differences between the room-temperature Charpy impact energy of Hastelloy S and Hastelloy C-4 specimens oxidized in air at 6000 to 8000C and control specimens heated in vacuum

  13. An overview of the principles of modeling Charpy impact energy data using statistical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integrity assessments of Magnox nuclear reactors with steel pressure vessels quantify the temperature margins between the operating temperature of the plant, at any given location, and the onset of upper-shelf temperature. The onset of upper-shelf temperature can be estimated from the fracture toughness properties of each material used in the construction of the pressure vessels. Although start-of-life fracture toughness properties of the materials have been measured, such properties are not available for the neutron-irradiated and thermally aged condition. One of the main effects of neutron irradiation and temperature experienced during service is to increase the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT), which can be represented in terms of temperature shifts. In the irradiation surveillance schemes for the Magnox reactors, these temperature shifts can be inferred from Charpy impact energy data which have been measured regularly during the service life. Since Charpy impact energy data are inherently scattered, it is necessary to optimize the interpretation of the data by statistical processing. A recent analysis undertaken by Moskovic et al. concluded that Bayesian analyses are best suited to address the problem. In this overview, the authors consider the requirements of such analyses and the various options available. They then consider the method proposed by Moskovic et al. with respect to the requirements of the inputs to the integrity assessment and the validity of this approach. In this method of analysis, the distribution of all possible values of model coefficients is established by judging the various possible combinations of these model coefficients in relation to the likelihood of the observed data. Analysis of artificially generated data has been used to compare the effectiveness of Bayesian analyses with those used traditionally

  14. Comparison of impact test results on small and ISO-V type Charpy specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ductile-to-brittle transition temperatures were calculated from the impact energies measured on ISO-V and KLST specimens for some non-irradiated, irradiated and both irradiated and annealed quenched and tempered pressure vessel steels at the proposed energy levels 68 J/41 J and 3.1 J/1.9 J, or 28 J and 3.15 J. At the energy levels derived from the mean upper shelf energy (USE) ratio (3.1 J/1.9 J) the transition temperatures were on the average 64 deg. C lower as compared with those measured on the ISO-V specimen. At the energy level 3.15 J derived from the ligament area the transition temperature was on the average 36 deg. C lower than that measured on the ISO-V specimen. For both criteria the standard deviation of the correlation was about 15 deg. C. A procedure was also proposed for calculating the USE of ISO-V specimen from the value measured on the KLST specimen. The transition temperature shifts measured for the irradiated materials on the KLST specimen were up to 30 - 40 deg. C lower than those measured on the ISO-V specimens when the shifts were measured at the levels below 75% USE. The degrees of recovery measured on the KLST specimens were of the same order of magnitude or lower than those measured on the ISO-V specimens. (author). 6 refs, 6 figs

  15. Constraint effects on fracture toughness of impact-loaded, precracked Charpy specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impact-loaded, precracked Charpy specimens often play a crucial role in irradiation surveillance programs for nuclear power plants. However, the small specimen size B=W=10 mm limits the maximum value of cleavage fracture toughness Jc that can be measured under elastic-plastic conditions without loss of crack tip constraint. In this investigation, plane strain impact analyses provide detailed resolution of crack tip fields for impact-loaded specimens. Crack tip stress fields are characterized in terms of J-Q trajectories and the toughness-scaling model which is applicable for a cleavage fracture mechanism. Results of the analyses suggest deformation limits at fracture in the form of b>MJc/σ0, where M approaches 25-30 for a strongly rate-sensitive material at impact velocities of 3-6 m s-1. Based on direct comparison of the static and dynamic J values computed using a domain integral formulation, a new proposal emerges for the transition time, the time after impact at which interial effects diminish sufficiently for simple evaluation of J using the plastic η factor approach. (orig.)

  16. Behavior of Aramid Fiber/Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene Fiber Hybrid Composites under Charpy Impact and Ballistic Impact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The aramid fiber/UHMWPE (ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene) fiber hybrid composites (AF/DF) were manufactured. By Charpy impact, the low velocity impact behavior of AF/DF composite was studied. And the high velocity impact behavior under ballistic impact was also investigated. The influence of hybrid ratio on the performances of low and high velocity impact was analyzed, and hybrid structures with good impact properties under low velocity impact and high velocity were optimized. For Charpy impact, the maximal impact load increased with the accretion of the AF layers for AF/DF hybrid composites. The total impact power was reduced with the decrease of DF layers and the delamination can result in the increase of total impact power. For ballistic impact, the DF ballistic performance was better than that of the AF and the hybrid ratio had a crucial influence. The failure morphology of AF/DF hybrid composite under Charpy impact and ballistic impact was analyzed. The AF/DF hybrid composites in suitable hybrid ratio could attain better performance than AF or DF composites.

  17. Comparison of microstructural properties and Charpy impact behaviour between different plates of the Eurofer97 steel and effect of isothermal ageing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratil, Ludek [Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Zizkova 22, 616 62 Brno (Czech Republic); Hadraba, Hynek, E-mail: hadraba@ipm.cz [Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Zizkova 22, 616 62 Brno (Czech Republic); Bursik, Jiri; Dlouhy, Ivo [Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Zizkova 22, 616 62 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2011-09-30

    Highlights: > Two plates of Eurofer97 steel were tested in thermally unaffected and aged state. > The two plates of Eurofer97 differ significantly in mean prior austenite grain size. > The different grain size lead to different transition temperature between the plates. > Thermal ageing applied lead to slight microstructural changes of the Eurofer97. > The microstructural changes caused small shift of transition temperature. - Abstract: The microstructure and fracture properties of the Eurofer97 steel plates of thickness 14 mm and 25 mm were investigated in as-received state and in state after long-term thermal ageing (550 deg. C/5000 h). Detailed microstructure studies were carried out by means of optical light, electron and quantitative electron microscopy. Mechanical properties were evaluated by means of Charpy impact testing and hardness testing and fracture surfaces were fractographically analysed in macro and microscales. The microstructure of the Eurofer97 consisted of tempered martensite with M{sub 23}C{sub 6} and MX precipitates. Microstructure of 14 mm plate was more homogenous and fine grained than 25 mm plate. Due to different microstructure the t{sub DBTT} of thicker plate was on +10 deg. C higher than for 14 mm plate for which reached -60 deg. C. Slight microstructural changes on the level of subgrain consisting of their partial recrystallization and slight carbide coarsening were observed after applied ageing. The isothermal ageing caused evident shift in t{sub DBTT} about +5 deg. C, which was most likely caused by recrystallization of subgrains.

  18. Effects of thermal aging on fracture toughness and Charpy-impact strength of stainless steel pipe welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degradation of fracture toughness, tensile, and Charpy-impact properties of Type 304 and 304/308 SS pipe welds due to thermal aging was studied at room temperature and 290 C. Thermal aging of SS welds results in moderate decreases in charpy-impact strength and fracture toughness. Upper-shelf energy decreased by 50-80 J/cm2. Decrease in fracture toughness J-R curve or JIC is relatively small. Thermal aging had no or little effect on tensile strength of the welds. Fracture properties of SS welds are controlled by the distribution and morphology of second-phase particles. Failure occurs by formation and growth of microvoids near hard inclusions; such processes are relatively insensitive to thermal aging. The ferrite phase has little or no effect on fracture properties of the welds. Differences in fracture resistance of the welds arise from differences in the density and size of inclusions. Mechanical-property data from the present study are consistent with results from other investigations. The existing data have been used to establish minimum expected fracture properties for SS welds

  19. Effects of thermal aging on fracture toughness and Charpy-impact strength of stainless steel pipe welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavenda, D.J.; Michaud, W.F.; Galvin, T.M.; Burke, W.F.; Chopra, O.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Degradation of fracture toughness, tensile, and Charpy-impact properties of Type 304 and 304/308 SS pipe welds due to thermal aging was studied at room temperature and 290 C. Thermal aging of SS welds results in moderate decreases in charpy-impact strength and fracture toughness. Upper-shelf energy decreased by 50-80 J/cm{sup 2}. Decrease in fracture toughness J-R curve or J{sub IC} is relatively small. Thermal aging had no or little effect on tensile strength of the welds. Fracture properties of SS welds are controlled by the distribution and morphology of second-phase particles. Failure occurs by formation and growth of microvoids near hard inclusions; such processes are relatively insensitive to thermal aging. The ferrite phase has little or no effect on fracture properties of the welds. Differences in fracture resistance of the welds arise from differences in the density and size of inclusions. Mechanical-property data from the present study are consistent with results from other investigations. The existing data have been used to establish minimum expected fracture properties for SS welds.

  20. Effects of thermal aging on fracture toughness and charpy-impact strength of stainless steel pipe welds.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavenda, D. J.; Michaud, W. F.; Galvin, T. M.; Burke, W. F.; Chopra, O. K.; Energy Technology

    1996-06-05

    The degradation of fracture toughness, tensile, and Charpy-impact properties of Type 308 stainless steel (SS) pipe welds due to thermal aging has been characterized at room temperature and 290 C. Thermal aging of SS welds results in moderate decreases in Charpy-impact strength and fracture toughness. For the various welds in this study, upper-shelf energy decreased by 50-80 J/cm{sup 2}. The decrease in fracture toughness J-R curve or JIC is relatively small. Thermal aging had little or no effect on the tensile strength of the welds. Fracture properties of SS welds are controlled by the distribution and morphology of second-phase particles. Failure occurs by the formation and growth of microvoids near hard inclusions; such processes are relatively insensitive to thermal aging. The ferrite phase has little or no effect on the fracture properties of the welds. Differences in fracture resistance of the welds arise from differences in the density and size of inclusions. Mechanical-property data from the present study are consistent with results from other investigations. The existing data have been used to establish minimum expected fracture properties for SS welds.

  1. Clean Cast Steel Technology: Effect of Micro-porosity on Tensile and Charpy Properties of Four Cast Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, John, A.; Bates, Charles, E.

    2005-09-19

    The effect of these large shrink cavities on mechanical properties could be easily calculated using well established engineering formulas. Over the years, increases in computational and metallurgical resources have allowed the modeler to improve accuracy and increase the complexity of numerical predictors. An accurate prediction of micro-porosity, not observable using conventional radiographic techniques, and an engineering understanding of the effect on mechanical properties would give a designer confidence in using a more efficient casting design and a lower safety factor. This will give castings an additional design advantage. The goal of this project is to provide current and future modelers/designers with a tensile and Charpy property dataset for validation of micro-porosity predictors. The response of ultimate strength, elongation, and reduction in area to micro-porosity was very similar in all four alloys. Ultimate strength was largely unaffected by tensile fracture surface porosity until values of about 25% were reached and decreased linearly with increasing values. Elongation and reduction in area decreased sharply after less than 5% fracture surface porosity. Niyama values of about 0.7 were produced sound material and acceptable tensile properties. Ultrasonic velocities of 0.233 in/usec and higher produced acceptable tensile properties. Metallographic examination revealed a ratio of 4-6 to 1 in fracture surface porosity to metallographic porosity. Charpy impact properties were largely unaffected by the microporosity concentrations examined in this study and did not correlate to either Niyama values, fracture surface porosity, or metallographic porosity.

  2. Tensile and Charpy impact properties of an ODS ferritic/martensitic steel 9Cr–1.8W–0.5Ti–0.35Y2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The tensile property and Charpy impact were tested. • Both strength and plasticity in LT direction are better than that of TL direction. • The LSE was more than 65% of the USE from absorbed energy curve. • The initiation and propagation energy at different temperatures were calculated. • High LSE and dimples on the fracture surface indicated good toughness at −60 °C. - Abstract: A 9Cr-ODS ferritic/martensitic steel with a composition of 9Cr–1.8W–0.5Ti–0.35Y2O3 was fabricated by mechanical alloying and hot isostatic pressing, followed by hot rolling. Tensile properties were measured at room temperature (23 °C) and 700 °C in the rolling direction (LT) and the transverse direction (TL). The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of the as-rolled samples in both directions reached 990 MPa at 23 °C, and still maintained at 260 MPa at 700 °C. The tensile strength and elongation of the rolling direction was greater than that of the transverse direction. The Charpy impact was tested from −100 to 100 °C in the LT direction. The lower shelf energy (LSE) was more than 65% of the upper shelf energy (USE). The total absorbed energy was separated into the energies for crack initiation and propagation. The propagation energy was always higher than the initiation energy in the range of temperatures tested. The ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) of the rolled 9Cr ODS evaluated by an absorbed energy curve was about 0 °C. However, the high LSE and the fracture surface that still contained dimples at lower shelf indicated good toughness of the as-rolled 9Cr ODS steels at temperature of −60 °C

  3. Tensile and Charpy impact properties of an ODS ferritic/martensitic steel 9Cr–1.8W–0.5Ti–0.35Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guangming; Zhou, Zhangjian, E-mail: zhouzhj@mater.ustb.edu.cn; Wang, Man; Li, Shaofu; Zou, Lei; Zhang, Liwei

    2014-04-15

    Highlights: • The tensile property and Charpy impact were tested. • Both strength and plasticity in LT direction are better than that of TL direction. • The LSE was more than 65% of the USE from absorbed energy curve. • The initiation and propagation energy at different temperatures were calculated. • High LSE and dimples on the fracture surface indicated good toughness at −60 °C. - Abstract: A 9Cr-ODS ferritic/martensitic steel with a composition of 9Cr–1.8W–0.5Ti–0.35Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} was fabricated by mechanical alloying and hot isostatic pressing, followed by hot rolling. Tensile properties were measured at room temperature (23 °C) and 700 °C in the rolling direction (LT) and the transverse direction (TL). The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of the as-rolled samples in both directions reached 990 MPa at 23 °C, and still maintained at 260 MPa at 700 °C. The tensile strength and elongation of the rolling direction was greater than that of the transverse direction. The Charpy impact was tested from −100 to 100 °C in the LT direction. The lower shelf energy (LSE) was more than 65% of the upper shelf energy (USE). The total absorbed energy was separated into the energies for crack initiation and propagation. The propagation energy was always higher than the initiation energy in the range of temperatures tested. The ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) of the rolled 9Cr ODS evaluated by an absorbed energy curve was about 0 °C. However, the high LSE and the fracture surface that still contained dimples at lower shelf indicated good toughness of the as-rolled 9Cr ODS steels at temperature of −60 °C.

  4. Transverse and z-Direction CVN Impact Tests of X65 Line Pipe Steels of Two Centerline Segregation Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lihong; Li, Huijun; Lu, Cheng; Li, Jintao; Fletcher, Leigh; Simpson, Ian; Barbaro, Frank; Zheng, Lei; Bai, Mingzhuo; Shen, Jianlan; Qu, Xianyong

    2016-08-01

    Centerline segregation occurs as a positive concentration of alloying elements in the mid-thickness region of continuously cast slab. Depending upon its severity, it may affect mechanical properties and potentially downstream processing such as weldability, particularly for high-strength line pipe. The segregation fraction in continuously cast slabs and corresponding hot-rolled strips was assessed on API 5L grade X65 line pipe steels with different levels of segregation, rated as Mannesmann 2.0 and 1.4. The results showed that the segregation fraction in hot-rolled strip samples was in accordance with that assessed in the cast slabs, and the segregated regions in hot-rolled strip samples were found to be discontinuous. Transverse and z-direction CVN impact tests were conducted on the two strips and the results showed that centerline segregation does have an influence on the Charpy impact properties of line pipe steel. Specimens located at segregated regions exhibited lower Charpy impact toughness and strips rolled from slabs with higher segregation levels are more likely to exhibit greater variability in Charpy impact toughness. The influence of centerline segregation on z-direction Charpy impact toughness is more severe than on transverse Charpy impact toughness. Lower Charpy impact toughness and brittle fracture surface with cleavage facets along with rod-shaped MnS inclusions were observed for the strip rolled from slab with 2.0 segregation rating if the Charpy specimens were located at segregated regions. The influence on Charpy impact toughness can be associated with the pearlite structure at the centerline and level of MnS inclusions.

  5. Transverse and z-Direction CVN Impact Tests of X65 Line Pipe Steels of Two Centerline Segregation Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lihong; Li, Huijun; Lu, Cheng; Li, Jintao; Fletcher, Leigh; Simpson, Ian; Barbaro, Frank; Zheng, Lei; Bai, Mingzhuo; Shen, Jianlan; Qu, Xianyong

    2016-06-01

    Centerline segregation occurs as a positive concentration of alloying elements in the mid-thickness region of continuously cast slab. Depending upon its severity, it may affect mechanical properties and potentially downstream processing such as weldability, particularly for high-strength line pipe. The segregation fraction in continuously cast slabs and corresponding hot-rolled strips was assessed on API 5L grade X65 line pipe steels with different levels of segregation, rated as Mannesmann 2.0 and 1.4. The results showed that the segregation fraction in hot-rolled strip samples was in accordance with that assessed in the cast slabs, and the segregated regions in hot-rolled strip samples were found to be discontinuous. Transverse and z-direction CVN impact tests were conducted on the two strips and the results showed that centerline segregation does have an influence on the Charpy impact properties of line pipe steel. Specimens located at segregated regions exhibited lower Charpy impact toughness and strips rolled from slabs with higher segregation levels are more likely to exhibit greater variability in Charpy impact toughness. The influence of centerline segregation on z-direction Charpy impact toughness is more severe than on transverse Charpy impact toughness. Lower Charpy impact toughness and brittle fracture surface with cleavage facets along with rod-shaped MnS inclusions were observed for the strip rolled from slab with 2.0 segregation rating if the Charpy specimens were located at segregated regions. The influence on Charpy impact toughness can be associated with the pearlite structure at the centerline and level of MnS inclusions.

  6. Standard test method for instrumented impact testing of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This standard establishes the requirements for performing instrumented Charpy V-Notch (CVN) and instrumented Miniaturized Charpy V-Notch (MCVN) impact tests on metallic materials. This method, which is based on experience developed testing steels, provides further information (in addition to the total absorbed energy) on the fracture behavior of the tested materials. Minimum requirements are given for measurement and recording equipment such that similar sensitivity and comparable total absorbed energy measurements to those obtained in Test Methods E 23 and E 2248 are achieved. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  7. 46 CFR 154.605 - Toughness test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Toughness test. 154.605 Section 154.605 Shipping COAST....605 Toughness test. (a) Each toughness test under §§ 154.610 through 154.625 must meet Subpart 54.05 of this chapter. (b) If subsize test specimens are used for the Charpy V-notch toughness test,...

  8. Dynamic finite element method modeling of the upper shelf energy of precracked Charpy specimens of neutron irradiated weld metal 72W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamic finite element modeling of the fracture behavior of fatigue-precracked Charpy specimens in both unirradiated and irradiated conditions was performed using a computer code, ABAQUS Explicit, to predict the upper shelf energy of precracked specimens of a given size from experimental data obtained for a different size. A tensile fracture-strain based method for modeling crack extension and propagation was used. It was found that the predicted upper shelf energies of full and half size precracked specimens based on third size data were in reasonable agreement with their respective experimental values. Similar success was achieved for predicting the upper shelf energy of subsize precracked specimens based on full size data

  9. Experiment HFIR-MFE-T3 for low-temperature irradiation of miniaturized Charpy V-notch specimens of nickel-doped ferritic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The HFIR-MFE-T3 experimental capsule is described. This experiment consists of miniature Charpy V-notch specimens of 12 Cr-1 MoVW and 12 Cr-1 MoVW-2 Ni alloys. The different levels of nickel will result in different helium levels generated during irradiation, and thus will allow for an evaluation of the effect of helium on impact properties. Irradiation of the capsule has started with projected fluence at midplane that will produce 10 dpa expected by January 1982

  10. Standard test methods for notched bar impact testing of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 These test methods describe notched-bar impact testing of metallic materials by the Charpy (simple-beam) test and the Izod (cantilever-beam) test. They give the requirements for: test specimens, test procedures, test reports, test machines (see Annex A1) verifying Charpy impact machines (see Annex A2), optional test specimen configurations (see Annex A3), precracking Charpy V-notch specimens (see Annex A4), designation of test specimen orientation (see Annex A5), and determining the percent of shear fracture on the surface of broken impact specimens (see Annex A6). In addition, information is provided on the significance of notched-bar impact testing (see Appendix X2), methods of measuring the center of strike (see Appendix X2). 1.2 These test methods do not address the problems associated with impact testing at temperatures below -196 C (-320 F, 77 K). 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. Inch-pound units are provided for information only. This standard does not purpor...

  11. Effects of Cooling Conditions on Microstructure, Tensile Properties, and Charpy Impact Toughness of Low-Carbon High-Strength Bainitic Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Hyo Kyung; Shin, Sang Yong; Hwang, Byoungchul; Lee, Chang Gil; Lee, Sunghak

    2013-01-01

    In this study, four low-carbon high-strength bainitic steel specimens were fabricated by varying finish cooling temperatures and cooling rates, and their tensile and Charpy impact properties were investigated. All the bainitic steel specimens consisted of acicular ferrite, granular bainite, bainitic ferrite, and martensite-austenite constituents. The specimens fabricated with higher finish cooling temperature had a lower volume fraction of martensite-austenite constituent than the specimens fabricated with lower finish cooling temperature. The fast-cooled specimens had twice the volume fraction of bainitic ferrite and consequently higher yield and tensile strengths than the slow-cooled specimens. The energy transition temperature tended to increase with increasing effective grain size or with increasing volume fraction of granular bainite. The fast-cooled specimen fabricated with high finish cooling temperature and fast cooling rate showed the lowest energy transition temperature among the four specimens because of the lowest content of coarse granular bainite. These findings indicated that Charpy impact properties as well as strength could be improved by suppressing the formation of granular bainite, despite the presence of some hard microstructural constituents such as bainitic ferrite and martensite-austenite.

  12. Low-cost dynamic tensile testing

    OpenAIRE

    Schindler, H.; Veidt, M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports on the development and first application of a low-cost tensile test method utilizing an instrumented Charpy pendulum. It allows for simple tensile testing at increased loading rates up to 600 s-1 at various temperatures. The stress-strain curve is determined from the measured force history using kinematical and kinetic relations. The first results show that the new technique is very promising to determine the influence of loading rate and temperature on the mechanical prope...

  13. Fractographic and microstructural aspects of fracture toughness testing in irradiated 304 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fracture toughness and Charpy impact test results on 304 stainless steel baseplate, weld and heat-affected zone (HAZ) tested at 250C and 1250C are correlated with the microstructural and fractographic features observed in these materials. Specimens were collected from several sections of 12.7 mm (0.5 in.) wall thickness piping removed from a process system, and were characterized by different material chemistries and thermomechanical histories. As a result, mechanical properties vary over a considerable range from one pipe section to another. The presence of delta ferrite in some of the samples caused significant degradations in the toughness properties for certain crack orientations. Decreases in Charpy impact energies occur in the same material for different crack orientations. Materials irradiated showed 40% decreases in Charpy impact energy, but little change in fracture morphology. An increase in the test temperature resulted in an expected increase in Charpy energies for all materials. Fractographic features did not change appreciably with respect to the 1000C increase in test temperature. In unirradiated specimens, a test temperature increase caused lower J/sub Ic/ and J-R curve values with tearing modules values increased. The latter is due to the large decreases in tensile strength with increasing test temperature. The weld metals tend to have the highest tearing resistance, while the HAZ's tend to have the lowest. 30 figs., 3 tabs

  14. A study on the structural integrity evaluation of the dual purpose casks for the spent fuel storage and transport with HANARO irradiation impact tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is conducted in order to evaluate structural integrity of the dual propose casks for the spent fuel storage and transport after 30 years storage. Charpy impact specimen was manufactured and material irradiation test was performed using the HANARO. For the irradiated and unirradiated Charpy impact specimen with v-notch, the impact test was conducted, then the impact test results were applied in the impact analysis of the dual propose casks for the spent fuel storage and transport. From the impact analysis results, we confirmed that the structural integrity of the dual propose cask was maintained under original and irradiation conditions

  15. 46 CFR 54.05-10 - Certification of material toughness tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 54.05-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING... rolling. (b) Pipe or tube material. (1) The manufacturer of pipe, tube, or welded fittings formed from pipe or tube may certify such material by reporting the results of tests of one set of Charpy...

  16. Conclusions regarding fracture mechanics testing and evaluation of small specimens - As evidenced by the finnish contribution to the IAEA CRP3 programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extensive mechanical property evaluation has been carried out on various specimens (a Japanese steel plate (JRQ), a French forging material (FFA) and a Japanese forging material (JFL)) in the as-received and irradiated conditions. The mechanical properties measured at different temperatures include Charpy-V notch and instrumented pre-cracked Charpy data and static and dynamic elastic-plastic fracture toughness based on the J-integral, with various specimen size and geometry. Test analysis lead to conclusions regarding the use of small specimen fracture mechanical tests for investigating irradiation effects: CVNpc and RCT type specimens are suitable for determining the materials fracture toughness even in the ductile/brittle transition region provided the elastic-plastic parameter KJC is applied together with a statistical size correction. These two specimen types yield equivalent results for the fracture toughness transition shift. Charpy-V appears not to be suitable for estimating the static fracture toughness transition shift. 8 refs., 11 figs

  17. Development of a sealing process of capsules for surveillance test tubes of the vessel in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The surveillance capsule is composed by the support, three capsules for impact test tubes, five capsules for tension test tubes and one porta dosemeters. The capsules for test tubes are of two types: rectangular capsule for Charpy test tubes and cylindrical capsule for tension test tubes. This work describes the development of the welding system to seal the capsules for test tubes that should contain helium of ultra high purity to a pressure of 1 atmosphere. (Author)

  18. Instrumented impact testing machine with reduced specimen oscillation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owing to small and inexpensive specimens the Charpy impact test is widely used in quality control and alloy development. Limitations in power reactor survellance capsules it is also widely used for safety analysis purposes. Instrumenting the tup and computerizing data acquisition, makes dynamic fracture mechanics data measurement possible and convenient. However, the dynamic effects (inertia forces, specimen oscillations) in the impact test cause inaccuracies in the recorded load-time diagram and hence diminish the reliability of the calculated dynamic fracture mechanics parameters. To decrease inaccuracies a new pendulum type of instrumented impact test apparatus has been developed and constructed in the Metals Laboratory of the Technical Research Centre of Finland. This tester is based on a new principle involving inverted test geometry. The purpose of the geometry inversion is to reduce inertia load and specimen oscillation effects. Further, the new impact tester has some other novel features: e.g. the available initia impact energy is about double compared to the conventional standard (300 J) impact tester allowing the use of larger (10 x 20 x 110 mm) bend specimens than normal Charpy specimens. Also, the rotation asix in the three point bending is nearly stationary making COD-measurements possible. An experimental test series is described in which the inertia effects and specimen oscillations are compared in the conventional and new impact tester utilizing Charpy V-notch specimens. Comparison of the two test geometries is also made with the aid of an analytical model using finite element method (FEM) analysis. (author)

  19. Mechanical properties of medieval bloomery iron materials - comparative tensile and charpy-tests on bloomery iron samples and S235JRG2

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Thiele, Á.; Hošek, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 1 (2015), s. 35-38. ISSN 0324-6051 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP405/12/2289 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : bloomery iron * phosphoric iron * mechanical properties * archaeometallurgy Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  20. Development of dissimilar welding technique between PNC-FMS wrapper tube and SUS316 steel. 1. Investigation of δ ferrite formation and evaluation of Charpy impact property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferritic/Martensitic steel (PNC-FMS) with superior resistance to swelling is being developed as wrapper tube for the long-life core of large-scale fast breeder reactor. If the δ ferrite phase would be formed at heat affected zone (HAZ) in welding between PNC-FMS wrapper tube and SUS316 steel, and thus toughness degradation would be suspected due to δ ferrite formation. In this study, the formation of the δ ferrite in applying TIG welding and EB welding are investigated using base metal of 3 types, which are Nieq max./Creq min., Nieq min./Creq max. and the center of chemical composition in the specification. The effect of the amount of the δ ferrite formation and characteristics of toughness change with thermal aging were evaluated. The results are summarized as follows. 1. The δ ferrite generation can be suppressed in the combination of welding process and chemical composition. (1) In case of specification center, the δ ferrite formation can be suppressed about 1% by EB welding. (2) In case of Nieq max./Creq min. in the specification, the δ ferrite formation can be perfectly suppressed even in TIG welding or EB welding. 2. The relationship between δ ferrite content and Charpy impact value was investigated using 3 types of chemical composition in the specification. (1) Ductile Brittle Transition Temperature (DBTT) increased, when δ ferrite content increases. (2) DBTT shift by aging is within about 23degC. (3) DBTT is influenced by grain size and it is lower as the fine grain (grain no.11). (4) Upper Shelf Energy (USE) is not dependent on the δ ferrite content. (author)

  1. The Influence of Instrumented Striker Configuration on the Results of Dynamic Toughness Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucon, E.

    2008-09-15

    Several studies are available on the influence of the edge radius of instrumented strikers (ASTM - 8 mm or ISO - 2 mm) on the results of both non instrumented and instrumented Charpy tests. This paper investigates the effect of using either a 2 mm or a 8 mm striker when performing dynamic toughness tests at impact loading rates on precracked Charpy specimens. Existing data from tests run in the ductile-to-brittle region (dynamic Master Curve reference temperature) and in the upper shelf regime (ductile initiation fracture toughness and crack resistance curves) have been analyzed. The results show that 2 mm strikers tend to yield lower cleavage fracture toughness in the transition region (although the effect cannot be considered statistically significant), whereas the influence of striker configuration is negligible in the upper shelf regime when data are generated using the low-blow multiple-specimen technique.

  2. Development of a sealing process of capsules for surveillance test tubes of the vessel in nuclear power plants; Desarrollo de proceso de sellado de capsulas para probetas de vigilancia de la vasija en nucleoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero C, J.; Fernandez T, F.; Perez R, N.; Rocamontes A, M.; Garcia R, R. [ININ, Km 36.5 Carretera Mexico-Toluca, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    The surveillance capsule is composed by the support, three capsules for impact test tubes, five capsules for tension test tubes and one porta dosemeters. The capsules for test tubes are of two types: rectangular capsule for Charpy test tubes and cylindrical capsule for tension test tubes. This work describes the development of the welding system to seal the capsules for test tubes that should contain helium of ultra high purity to a pressure of 1 atmosphere. (Author)

  3. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  4. Development for advanced materials and testing techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hishinuma, Akimichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Recent studies using a JMTR and research reactors of JRR-2 and JRR-3 are briefly summarized. Small specimen testing techniques (SSTT) required for an effective use of irradiation volume and also irradiated specimens have been developed focussing on tensile test, fatigue test, Charpy test and small punch test. By using the small specimens of 0.1 - several mm in size, similar values of tensile and fatigue properties to those by standard size specimens can be taken, although the ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) depends strongly on Charpy specimen size. As for advanced material development, R and D about low activation ferritic steels have been done to investigate irradiation response. The low activation ferritic steel, so-called F82H jointly-developed by JAERI and NKK for fusion, has been confirmed to have good irradiation resistance within a limited dose and now selected as a standard material in the fusion material community. It is also found that TiAi intermetallic compounds, which never been considered for nuclear application in the past, have an excellent irradiation resistance under an irradiation condition. Such knowledge can bring about a large expectation for developing advanced nuclear materials. (author)

  5. Integration of fracture mechanics tests into quality management and quality assurance systems for fine-grained structural steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fracture toughness reference data were to be established by fracture mechanics tests. The weldable, fine-grained structural steel E StE 355 was tested for this purpose by a variety of methods. The qualitative toughness properties were determined by conventional Charpy impact tests. The shelf energy values of toughness and the transition temperatures were derived from the temperature-dependent curves of the parameters of impact energy, lateral spreading, and crystalline fraction. The quantitative characterisation of the toughness properties required fracture mechanics data, which were obtained using the instrumented precracked Charpy test. Upon assignment of the measured dynamic fracture toughness data to the relevant transition temperatures defined in the qualification requirements, and upon determination of the link between crack initation toughness and notch impact shelf energy data, the advantage and necessity of an evaluation of the material's toughness from the fracture-mechanical point of view became very clear. It was recognized that the requirements for qualification and quality assurance of fine-grained structural steels have to be reviewed taking into account the criteria of fracture mechanics. The paper explains a newly designed quality management and quality assurance system incorporating fracture mechanics data derived from Charpy impact tests. (orig.)

  6. Test and evaluation of pressure vessel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have prepared a method for analyzing the Charpy impact test data, which is deduced from ''the standard anelastic solid equation''. The theoretical expression for the absorbed energy is in a form of W=Wsub(U)+(Wsub(R)-Wsub(U))/ [1+(ωtau)2] showing the Debye characteristics and where tau is given by the Arrhenius equation; tau=tau0 exp(ΔH/ksub(B)T). Four measurable parameters, at the present stage, can characterize the dynamic hehavior of cracking (Charpy impact result). They are the upper shelf energy(Wsub(R), the lower shelf energy (Wsub(U)), the activation energy of crack (ΔH, and wtau(0) where w tau(0) are the resonance frequency of the specimen and the jumping pre-exponential factor of propagating crack respectively. However the states of R (relaxed) and U (un-relaxed) should be defined from reasonable physical conditions in the future and it is possible that Wsub(U) is small enough to be taken as zero. The effects of irradiation, alloying elements, and heat treatment on the impact results should be interpreted as changes in the above characteristic parameters. The present method has been applied for weld metal of SA 508-2 irradiated up to a fluence of 4x1018n/cm2, E>1.0Mev, resulting in about 29% decrease in Wsub(R), negligible change in Wsub(U), 5.6 times increase in ωtau0, and no change in ΔH. This seems to indicate that irradiation degrades an average value of YOUNG's modulus so that cracks propagate more easily and it does not effect on breaking the lattice bond. However much more systematic analyses should be necessary for correct judgment. It is concluded that the present method is quite adequate for analyzing the Charpy impact data even though plastic deformation in the specimen was not considered separately so that the method should be applied for various cases in order to evaluate the proper trend of effects of irradiation, alloying elements, and heat treatment on the Charpy impact results. (Author)

  7. Development of the plant life management technology for RPV steels [ - Current status of surveillance test specimen reconstitution program -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to develop the reconstitution technology to standardize surveillance test specimen reconstitution practices to deal with the extended service life of reactor pressure vessels, the Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corporation (JAPEIC) has been carried out the project entrusted by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI). We focus on a correlation between the reduction of absorbed energy and the interaction of the heat affected zone (HAZ) and the plastic zone, to establish applicable reconstitution conditions for Charpy specimens. The relationship between the plastic zone width and the absorbed energy has been obtained by estimating the plastic zone width from the hardness distribution of the Charpy specimens. Impact tests of reconstituted specimens with 10 mm-length insert using the surface activated joining method were performed and the test results were compared to those obtained by the standard specimens. By comparing the length of insert material to the sum of HAZ width and plastic zone width, it is clear that the interaction causes the reduction of the absorbed energy. Hence, the applicable conditions of reconstituted Charpy specimens could be assessed by comparing the insert length to the sum of HAZ width and plastic zone width. Moreover the effects of the possible deviations from the standard shape and size specimens for the reconstituted specimens were studied. (authors)

  8. Non-destructive indication of irradiation embrittlement of ferromagnetic steel by the method of magnetic adaptive testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomas, I. [Inst. of Physics, ASCS, Prague (Czech Republic); Vertesy, G. [Research Inst. for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Budapest (Hungary); Kocik, J. [Nuclear Research Inst. Rez plc and Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic)

    2007-07-01

    Method of magnetic adaptive testing is suggested as a highly promising non-destructive alternative of destructive Charpy impact tests for monitoring irradiation embrittlement of surveillance samples in pressure vessels of nuclear reactors. Magnetic adaptive testing is a non-destructive method, it is technically very simple, it offers much higher sensitivity than the traditional magnetic approaches and it is ideally suited even for in-situ tests inside the hot nuclear pressure vessels. The method is described and its efficiency and sensitivity is illustrated on an example of mechanically embrittled series of round robin samples tested in a number of laboratories by different magnetic methods. (orig.)

  9. LOTION 3. Dynamic fracture toughness tests of AISI 316L, TIG and electron beam weld specimens irradiated at 315K. Final report PSM 2-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In he framework of the CEC-DGXII-Fusion NET Technology Programme, AISI 316L base material and TIG metal deposit and electron beam specimens have been irradiated at a temperature of about 350K, up to 5 dpa. Instrumented Charpy tests have been performed on irradiated and unirradiated specimens at room temperature.The fracture toughness has been calculated and irradiation hardening is observed. The TIG metal deposit and the electron beam weld show lower fracture toughness values

  10. Testing of materials and scale models for impact limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aluminum Honeycomb and Polyurethane foam specimens were tested to obtain experimental data on the material's behavior under different loading conditions. This paper reports the dynamic tests conducted on the materials and on the design and testing of scale models made out of these open-quotes Impact Limiters,close quotes as they are used in the design of transportation casks. Dynamic tests were conducted on a modified Charpy Impact machine with associated instrumentation, and compared with static test results. A scale model testing setup was designed and used for preliminary tests on models being used by current designers of transportation casks. The paper presents preliminary results of the program. Additional information will be available and reported at the time of presentation of the paper

  11. Test of 6-inch-thick pressure vessels. Series 2. Intermediate test vessels V-3, V-4, and V-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The second series of intermediate vessel tests were crack initiation fracture tests of 6-in.-thick 39-in.-OD steel vessels with sharp surface flaws approximately 21/2 in. deep by 8 in. long in the longitudinal weld seams of the test cylinders. Fracture was initiated by means of hydraulic pressurization. One vessel was tested at each of three temperatures: 75, 130, and 1900F. Pretest analyses were made to predict the failure pressures and strains. Fracture toughness data obtained by equivalent-energy analysis of precracked Charpy-V tests and compact-tension specimen tests were used in the fracture analyses. The vessels behaved generally as had been expected. Posttest fracture analyses were also performed for each vessel. Detailed discussions of the fracture analysis methods developed in support of the vessel tests described are included. 34 references

  12. Procedure of crack resistance estimation for steels from results of standard tensile and impact bend tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dependences binding minimal level of the static crack resistance, yield point and reduced test temperature Ttest-TB50 are plotted according to the results obtained from test of various structural steels. The given dependences permit suggesting a simple method to calculate static crack resistance by the yield point of steel and critical temperature, corresponding to 50 % viscous component in the fracture of standard impact specimens of the Charpy type. This method has been used to calculate temperature dependences of crack resistance and choice of optimal composition for cold-resistant cast steel

  13. Test of 6-in. -thick pressure vessels. Series 3: intermediate test vessel V-7. [PWR and BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkle, J.G.; Robinson, G.C.; Holz, P.P.; Smith, J.E.; Bryan, R.H.

    1976-08-01

    The test of intermediate test vessel V-7 was a crack-initiation fracture test of a 152-mm-thick (6-in.), 990-mm-OD (39-in.) vessel of ASTM A533, grade B, class 1 steel plate with a sharp outside surface flaw 457 mm (18 in.) long and about 135 mm (5.3 in.) deep. The vessel was heated to 91/sup 0/C (196/sup 0/F) and pressurized hydraulically until leakage through the flaw terminated the test at a peak pressure of 147 MPa (21,350 psi). Fracture toughness data obtained by testing precracked Charpy-V and compact-tension specimens machined from a prolongation of the cylindrical test shell were used in pretest analyses of the flawed vessel. The vessel, as expected, did not burst. Upon depressurization, the ruptured ligament closed so as to maintain static pressure without leakage at about 129 MPa (18,700 psi).

  14. PVRC/MPC Round Robin Tests for the Low Toughness High-Copper 72W Weld Using Master Curve Methodology of PCVN Specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the results obtained from the Korean contribution the PVRC/MPC cooperative program on Round Robin Tests for Low Toughness High-Copper 72W Weld Using Master Curve Methodology of PCVN Specimens. The mandatory part of this program is to perform fracture toughness (Kjc) tests on the low toughness 72W weld at three different temperatures using pre-cracked Charpy specimens. The purpose of the tests is to verify the specimen size requirements in the ASTM E 1921, 'Standard test method for determination of reference temperature, To, for ferritic steels in the transition range'

  15. Pneumatic burst test under 'upper shelf conditions' of a pressure vessel containing an axial defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a programme of burst tests carried out in the 1960's on model steel pressure vessels with through thickness axial cracks, pressurised with water, some vessels when tested at temperatures in the upper part of the Charpy transition range underwent intermittent crack propagation. Each jump in crack length was accompanied by a drop in pressure, followed by a further crack extension on again raising the pressure. This behavior became more pronounced at higher temperatures and crack lengths and was suspected to be due to the low compressibility of the pressurising water and bulging of the pressure vessel shell local to the crack. Consequently, Test V15T1 was carried out using gas as the pressurising medium in order to demonstrate unambiguously that unstable crack propagation can continue if the loading is such as to give constant or increasing stress conditions as the crack propagates, even at temperatures corresponding to ''upper shelf'' Charpy values. Analyses of the test are given using two fracture assessment methods. (author)

  16. Welding techniques development of CLAM steel for Test Blanket Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrication techniques for Test Blanket Module (TBM) with CLAM are being under development. Effect of surface preparation on the HIP diffusion bonding joints was studied and good joints with Charpy impact absorbed energy close to that of base metal have been obtained. The mechanical properties test showed that effect of HIP process on the mechanical properties of base metal was little. Uniaxial diffusion bonding experiments were carried out to study the effect of temperature on microstructure and mechanical properties. And preliminary experiments on Electron Beam Welding (EBW), Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) Welding and Laser Beam Welding (LBW) were performed to find proper welding techniques to assemble the TBM. In addition, the thermal processes assessed with a Gleeble thermal-mechanical machine were carried out as well to assist the fusion welding research.

  17. Impact tests of the tungsten coated stainless steels prepared by using magnetron sputtering with ion beam mixing or electron beam alloying treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tungsten films were deposited on stainless steel (SS) with ion beam mixing (IBM) or electron beam alloying (EBA) treatment. The ductile–brittle transition behaviors of the specimens were investigated by means of instrumented Charpy impact test at a series of temperature, and SEM was used to observe the morphology of the cross section. Impact tests show that different treatment methods with W films do not have much influence on crack initiation, while EBA treatment with W films can more effectively prevent crack propagation, namely improve the impact toughness of SS than using IBM treatment. The reason that caused this difference was discussed

  18. Isothermal aging test results (up to 100 000 h) of NiCrMoV steels for low-pressure steam turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Yasuhiko; Azuma, Tsukasa; Yaegashi, Noriaki (Japan Steel Works Ltd., Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan). Muroran Plant)

    1994-01-01

    Isothermal aging test of NiCrMoV rotor steel was carried out up to 100 000h and change in the Charpy transition behavior was investigated. The test result revealed considerable embrittlement at 343[sup o]C and higher temperature enhanced embrittlement significantly. This behavior depends on the impurity of the materials and temper embrittlement parameter J factor or X characterize the temper embrittlement susceptibility. Based on these results, the amount of embrittlement can be estimated. A correlation between step cooling embrittlement and 100 000h embrittlement was also found. (author)

  19. Integrity assessment of TAPS reactor pressure vessel at extended EOL using surveillance test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integrity assessment of pressure vessels of nuclear reactors (RPV) primarily concentrates on the prevention of brittle failure and conditions are defined under which brittle failure can be excluded. Accordingly, two approaches based on Transition Temperature Concept and Fracture Mechanics Concept were adopted using the impact test results of three credible surveillance data sets obtained from the surveillance specimens of Tarapur Atomic Power Station. RTNDT data towards end of life (EOL) were estimated from the impact test results in accordance with the procedures of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.99, Rev. 2 and were used as primary input for assessment of the vessel integrity. SA302B (nickel modified) steel cladded with stainless steel is used as the pressure vessel material for the two 210 MWe boiling water reactors of the Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS). The reactors were commissioned during the year 1969. The chemical compositions of SA302B (modified) steel used in fabricating the vessel and the specified tensile property and the Charpy impact property requirements of the steel broadly meet ASME specified requirements. Therefore, the pressure temperature limit curves prescribed by General Electric (G.E.) were compared with those as obtained using procedures of ASME Section XII, Appendix G. The tensile and the Charpy impact properties at 60 EFPY of vessel operation as derived from the surveillance specimens even fulfilled the specified requirements for the virgin material of ASME. Integrity assessment carried out using the two approaches indicated the safety of the vessel for continued operation up to 60 EFPY. (author)

  20. Surveillance tests for light-water cooled nuclear power reactor vessels in IMEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The surveillance tests for light-water cooled nuclear power reactor vessels were established to monitor the radiation-induced changes in the mechanical properties of ferritic materials in the beltline according to US NRC 10 CFR 50 App. G, US NRC RG1.99-rev.2, ASTM E185-82 and E185-94 in Irradiated Materials Examination Facility(IMEF). The surveillance capsule was transported from NPPs pool sites to KAERI IMEF by using a shipping cask. The capsule was cut and dismantled by capsule cutting machine and milling machine in M2 hot cell. Charpy tests and tension tests were performed in M5a and M5b hot cells respectively. Especially the EPMA located at hot lab was used to analyze the Ni and Cu wt% composition of base metal and weld for predicting the adjusted reference temperature(ART). The established process and test results were summarized in this paper. (author)

  1. Small specimen fracture toughness tests of HT-9 steel irradiated with protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method to evaluate the fracture toughness, using the recrysatallization technique and a small punch test, has been developed on miniaturized specimens of ferritic/martensitic steel HT-9. The recrystallization technique, to measure the plastic strain region formed with crack extension in precracked disk-shaped compact tension (DCT) specimens, made it possible to drop and acoustic emission measurements were also applied to detect the crack extension together with load/displacement curves in DCT specimens. The small punch tests demonstrated a clear ductile-brittle fracture energy transition behavior and good ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) correlation with the Charpy V-notch tests results. The effect of proton irradiation and/or hydrogen charging on the fracture behavior of HT-9 was observed. (orig.)

  2. Effects of Dynamic Strain Hardening Exponent on Abnormal Cleavage Fracture Occurring During Drop Weight Tear Test of API X70 and X80 Linepipe Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Minju; Kim, Hyunmin; Lee, Sunghak; Shin, Sang Yong

    2014-02-01

    In this study, drop weight tear tests (DWTT) were conducted on API X70 and X80 linepipe steels fabricated with various compositions and rolling and cooling conditions in order to correlate the strain hardening with the abnormal cleavage fracture occurring in the hammer-impacted area. Area fractions of fracture modes were measured from fractured DWTT specimens, and the measured data were analyzed in relation to microstructures, Charpy impact energy, and strain hardening. All the steels consisted of fine acicular ferrite, together with some bainitic ferrite, granular bainite, and martensite-austenite constituent. As the volume fraction of acicular ferrite increased, the area fraction of DWTT abnormal cleavage fracture decreased because the toughness of acicular ferrite was higher than other microstructures. The area fraction of abnormal cleavage fracture was weakly related with strain hardening exponents obtained from the quasi-static tensile and compressive tests, but showed better correlation with those obtained from the dynamic compressive test. This tendency could be more clearly observed when steels having similar Charpy impact energy levels were grouped. Since the DWTT was performed under a dynamic loading condition, thus, the abnormal cleavage fracture behavior should be related with the strain hardening analyzed under a dynamic loading condition.

  3. Standard Test Method for Application and Analysis of Helium Accumulation Fluence Monitors for Reactor Vessel Surveillance, E706 (IIIC)

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes the concept and use of helium accumulation for neutron fluence dosimetry for reactor vessel surveillance. Although this test method is directed toward applications in vessel surveillance, the concepts and techniques are equally applicable to the general field of neutron dosimetry. The various applications of this test method for reactor vessel surveillance are as follows: 1.1.1 Helium accumulation fluence monitor (HAFM) capsules, 1.1.2 Unencapsulated, or cadmium or gadolinium covered, radiometric monitors (RM) and HAFM wires for helium analysis, 1.1.3 Charpy test block samples for helium accumulation, and 1.1.4 Reactor vessel (RV) wall samples for helium accumulation. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  4. A METHOD TO QUANTIFY CRAZING DEFORMATION BY TENSILE TESTS FOR POLYSTYRENE/POLYOLEFIN ELASTOMER IMMISCIBLE BLENDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A method to quantify crazing deformations by tensile tests for polystyrene (PS) and polyolefin elastomer (POE) blends was investigated. The toughness of PS/POE blends, reflected by the Charpy impact strength, increased with the content of POE. SEM micrographs showed the poor compatibility between PS and POE. In simple tensile tests, it is very easy to achieve the ratio of crazing deformation, I.e. K by measuring the size changes of samples. The K values decreased with increasing the content of POE, and the deformations of PS/POE blends were dominated by crazing. The plots of the change of volume (△V) against longitudinal variation (△l) showed a linear relationship, and the slope of lines decreased with the content of POE. Measuring samples at the tensile velocities of 5 mm/min, 50 mm/min, and 500 mm/min respectively, the K values kept unchanged for each PS/POE blends.

  5. Estimation of fracture toughness of reactor pressure vessel steels using automated ball indentation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The automated ball indentation (ABI) test was utilized to develop a semi-nondestructive method for estimating the fracture toughness (KJC) in the transition temperature range. The key concept of the method is that the indentation deformation energy to the load at which the mean ball-specimen contact pressure reaches the fracture stress is related to the fracture energy of the material. ABI tests were performed for the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) base and weld metals at the temperatures of -150 .deg. C ∼ 0 .deg. C and the fracture toughness (estimated KJC) was calculated from the indentation load-depth data. For all steels the temperature dependence of the estimated fracture toughness was almost the same as that of the ASTM KJC master curve. The reference temperature (To) of the steels were determined from the estimated KJC versus temperature curves. The reference temperature was well correlated with the index temperature of 41J Charpy impact energy (T41J)

  6. Single specimen fracture toughness determination procedure using instrumented impact test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the study a new single specimen test method and testing facility for evaluating dynamic fracture toughness has been developed. The method is based on the application of a new pendulum type instrumented impact tester equipped with and optical crack mouth opening displacement (COD) extensometer. The fracture toughness measurement technique uses the Double Displacement Ratio (DDR) method, which is based on the assumption that the specimen is deformed as two rigid arms that rotate around an apparent centre of rotation. This apparent moves as the crack grows, and the ratio of COD versus specimen displacement changes. As a consequence the onset ductile crack initiation can be detected on the load-displacement curve. Thus, an energy-based fracture toughness can be calculated. In addition the testing apparatus can use specimens with the Double ligament size as compared with the standard Charpy specimen which makes the impact testing more appropriate from the fracture mechanics point of view. The novel features of the testing facility and the feasibility of the new DDR method has been verified by performing an extensive experimental and analytical study. (99 refs., 91 figs., 27 tabs.)

  7. Elastic-plastic analysis of fracture mechanics test speciments. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is an interim report of the research program 'Comparisons between computational and experimental elastic-plastic results' started at the Technical Research Centre of Finland in 1981. In the fist part of the program, a two dimensional linear elastic finite element analysis of specimen geometries (CT, RCT, ASTM-3P and Charpy) was performed. In the second part of the program, both testing and elastic-plastic analysis of specimen HGP 71 (1TCT, material A542) was performed. Additional elastic-plastic work on different materials and specimen geometries will be done in the future. The following comparisons are presented in the report: elastic compliances (computational, experimental and compliance functions), load vs. load line displacement curves, key curves, J-integral, crack opening displacement (COD), J vs. COD and the size of the plastic zone. To allow for the effects of ductile tearing three different crack lengths were used in the elastic-plastic analysis. (author)

  8. Testing and assessment of low alloy steel for marine application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is an account of the work carried out during the assessment of low alloy steel (WH-80) for marine application. The relevant acceptance criteria consulted during the process is DEFST AN 02-874 and a standard reference material. Assessment is based on the experimental results of the tests carried out for the steel. Testing comprised of mechanical (tensile, impact and hardness) tests, corrosion (immersion corrosion and stress corrosion cracking) tests, metallography test and weldability (weld joint strength, controlled thermal severity -CTS and Y -Groove) tests undertaken at various testing laboratories in Pakistan. The results obtained after testing have been compared with acceptance criteria (DEFSTAN 02-874 and standard reference material). Moreover results have been compared with contemporary steels used for marine applications. Results showed a reasonable agreement with results available in literature for other low alloy steels with respect to mechanical strength and weldability. Steel weldments qualified the weld joint strength tests and weldability tests. Toughness has been measured at various temperatures. Results revealed that the toughness of base metal is higher than heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld metal. In weldability tests, weld metal and HAZ were examined microscopically to investigate integrity of weld. No cracks have been observed in the weld which indicates complete diffusion in to the welding material. WH- 80 steel has exhibited comparatively high corrosion rate, reduction in tensile strength during SCC test and low Charpy energy values at -50 degree C. It is therefore concluded that the WH-80 steel is unsuitable for use in application at subzero (OC) temperatures and in highly corrosive environment. (author)

  9. Evaluation of plane strain fracture toughness of neutron-irradiated A533B steels in nuclear reactor vessel surveillance test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In structural integrity assessment for nuclear reactor technology, one of the most important subject is to develop an estimation procedure of the cleavage controlled fracture toughness K sub(IC) from standard Charpy V surveillance test data for neutron-irradiated pressure vessel steels. This paper proposes an empirical representation of K sub(IC) fracture toughness transition curve for both unirradiated and irradiated A533B steels. The fitting curves derived are written in forms such as, K sub(IC)(C sub(v))=138(C sub(v-us)/C sub(v)-1) sup(-0.45)+25(MNm sup(-3/2)), K sub(IC)(C sub(v)) <= 165MNm sup(-3/2), K sub(Id)(C sub(v))=44.7(C sub(v-us)/C sub(v)-1) sup(-0.33)+20(MNm sup(-3/2)), K sub(Id)(C sub(v)) <= 108MNm sup(-3/2), where K sub(IC)(C sub(v)) and K sub(Id)(C sub(v)) mean the plane strain fracture toughness parameters characterizing an onset of the cleavage instability under static and dynamic loading conditions respectively, C sub(v) is a value of standard Charpy V absorbed energy at a test temperature concerned and C sub(v-us) is a upper shelf energy for the unirradiated steel. It is here demonstrated that the estimated values of K sub(IC)(C sub(v)) and K sub(Id)(C sub(v)) show a good agreement with valid K sub(IC) and K sub(Id) determined experimentally for both unirradiated and irradiated steels. (author)

  10. A three-dimensional analysis of fracture mechanics test pieces of different geometries part 2 - Constraint and material variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the second stage of an extensive series of detailed three-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element analyses on the influence of fracture mechanics test specimen geometry and different material properties on constraint and triaxiality in the near crack tip region. The specimens studied were pre-cracked plain-sided and side-grooved Charpy sized specimens, plain-sided and side-grooved compact tension specimens of thickness B = 25 mm and plain-sided compact tension specimens of thickness B = 100 mm all with the ratio of the crack length to the specimen width a/W = 0.5. Stress–strain curves of materials of different yield strength and strain hardening behaviour spanning the range of practical interest for typical structural steels were implemented into the finite element models. The level of constraint in the specimens modelled has been characterised in terms of both the Q-stress parameter and the ratio of hydrostatic to the equivalent stress components. It has been established that in-plane constraint in the fracture toughness test pieces is significantly affected by the absolute ligament size of the specimen. It has also been shown that the strain hardening behaviour is one of the major material parameters defining constraint level in the fracture toughness specimen. - Highlights: ► 3D FE analyses on plain and side-grooved Charpy sized and CT specimens of two sizes. ► Crack tip constraint analysed for Q-stress and hydrostatic/equivalent stress ratio. ► In-plane constraint is significantly affected by the absolute ligament size. ► Constraint level is significantly affected by material strain hardening behaviour.

  11. Testing the Product Test

    OpenAIRE

    Brea, H.; Grifell-Tatjé, Emili; Lovell, C.A. Knox

    2010-01-01

    The product test asks the product of a quantity index number and a price index number to equal the corresponding value change. The literature treats the product test as being so important that it is used to identify acceptable index number pairs, and to construct implicit index numbers when an otherwise desirable pair fails the test. We treat the product test as a hypothesis to be tested, and we provide an empirical application.

  12. Chlamydia Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Amplification Test (NAAT); Chlamydia trachomatis Culture; Chlamydia trachomatis DNA Probe Related tests: Gonorrhea Testing , HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen , Syphilis Tests , Herpes Testing , HPV Test , Trichomonas Testing All content on Lab Tests Online has ...

  13. Syphilis Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gonorrhea Testing , Chlamydia Testing , Herpes Testing , HPV Test , Trichomonas Testing , CSF Analysis All content on Lab Tests ... testing ( polymerase chain reaction, PCR )--this test detects genetic material from the bacteria in the sample from ...

  14. MACHINING TEST SPECIMENS FROM HARVESTED ZION RPV SEGMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanstad, Randy K [ORNL; Rosseel, Thomas M [ORNL; Sokolov, Mikhail A [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The decommissioning of the Zion Nuclear Generating Station (NGS) in Zion, Illinois, presents a special and timely opportunity for developing a better understanding of materials degradation and other issues associated with extending the lifetime of existing nuclear power plants (NPPs) beyond 60 years of service. In support of extended service and current operations of the US nuclear reactor fleet, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), through the Department of Energy (DOE), Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, is coordinating and contracting with Zion Solutions, LLC, a subsidiary of Energy Solutions, an international nuclear services company, the selective procurement of materials, structures, components, and other items of interest from the decommissioned reactors. In this paper, we will discuss the acquisition of segments of the Zion Unit 2 Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV), cutting these segments into blocks from the beltline and upper vertical welds and plate material and machining those blocks into mechanical (Charpy, compact tension, and tensile) test specimens and coupons for microstructural (TEM, SEM, APT, SANS and nano indention) characterization. Access to service-irradiated RPV welds and plate sections will allow through wall attenuation studies to be performed, which will be used to assess current radiation damage models [1].

  15. Gonorrhea Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gonorrhoeae Culture; Neisseria gonorrhoeae Gram Stain; Neisseria gonorrhoeae DNA Probe Related tests: Chlamydia Testing , HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen , Syphilis Tests , Herpes Testing , HPV Test , Trichomonas Testing All content on Lab Tests Online has ...

  16. Torsion test technique for interfacial shear evaluation of F82H RAFM HIP-joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hot isostatic press (HIP) process is a key technology to fabricate a first wall with cooling channels of the blanket system utilizing a reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel such as F82H. A primary objective of this study is to characterize interfacial properties of HIPed F82H joints by torsion to identify the feasibility of this test method for the inspection of the HIPed F82H joints. It is apparent that the absorption energies of the HIP joints varied by the processing conditions, although the maximum shear strength was not much different. The fracture surface observation study indicated that the reduction of the absorption energy obtained in the torsion tests was primarily due to the oxide formed on the interface of the HIP joint. Of particular importance, these features were very consistent with the results of Charpy impact tests. Preliminary test results then suggest that the torsion test method with a miniature specimen has a potential to evaluate the shear properties of the HIPed joint interface.

  17. A theoretical model for determination of fracture toughness of reactor pressure vessel steels in the transition region from automated ball indentation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theoretical model is proposed to estimate the fracture toughness of ferritic steels in the transition region from ball indentation test data. The key concept of the model is that the indentation energy to a critical load is related to the fracture energy of the material. By applying the new model, the fracture parameters of reactor pressure vessel steel base and weld metals were estimated from the indentation load-depth curves. The estimated fracture stresses agreed well with those of the Wilshaw et al. model. The temperature dependence of the estimated KJC was almost the same as that of the ASTM KJC master curve. Also, the reference temperature obtained from the estimated KJC versus temperature curve correlated well with the index temperature of 41 J Charpy impact energy, T41J. Additionally, the ball indentation deformation was simulated by ABAQUS code to evaluate the stress state and the result was compared with that at the crack tip. (orig.)

  18. Tensile and impact testing of an HFBR [High Flux Beam Reactor] control rod follower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Materials Technology Group of the Department of Nuclear Energy (DNE) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) undertook a program to machine and test specimens from a control rod follower from the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR). Tensile and Charpy impact specimens were machined and tested from non-irradiated aluminum alloys in addition to irradiated 6061-T6 from the HFBR. The tensile test results on irradiated material showed a two-fold increase in tensile strength to a maximum of 100.6 ksi. The impact resistance of the irradiated material showed a six-fold decrease in values (3 in-lb average) compared to similar non-irradiated material. Fracture toughness (KI) specimens were tested on an unirradiated compositionally and dimensionally similar (to HFBR follower) 6061 T-6 material with Kmax values of 24.8 ± 1.0 Ksi√in (average) being obtained. The report concludes that the specimens produced during the program yielded reproducible and believable results and that proper quality assurance was provided throughout the program. 9 figs., 6 tabs

  19. Susceptibility Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page helpful? Also known as: Sensitivity Testing; Drug Resistance Testing; Culture and Sensitivity; C & S; Antimicrobial Susceptibility Formal name: Bacterial and Fungal Susceptibility Testing Related tests: Urine Culture ; ...

  20. Prenatal Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Close X Home > Pregnancy > Prenatal care > Prenatal tests Prenatal tests E-mail to a friend Please fill ... even if you’re feeling fine. What are prenatal tests? Prenatal tests are medical tests you get ...

  1. Trichomonas Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vaginalis by Direct Fluorescent Antibody (DFA) Related tests: Pap Smear , Chlamydia Testing , Gonorrhea Testing At a Glance Test ... during a routine gynecologic examination that includes a Pap smear . An FDA-cleared PCR test approved for detection ...

  2. Pinworm test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxyuriasis test; Enterobiasis test; Tape test ... diagnose this infection is to do a tape test. The best time to do this is in ... to determine if there are eggs. The tape test may need to be done on 3 separate ...

  3. Seismic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This lecture deals with: qualification methods for seismic testing; objectives of seismic testing; seismic testing standards including examples; main content of standard; testing means; and some important elements of seismic testing

  4. Test Under Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China’s national college entrance examination, regarded as a make-or-break test by many students, leaves much to be desired “We’ve bribed the exam supervisors, paying each one 20,000 yuan. They will make everything go smooth during the exams,” Li Feng, a teacher from No.2 High School in

  5. The evaluation of dynamic cracking resistance of chosen casting alloys in the aspect of the impact bending test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Sadowski

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The increase of quality and durability of produced casting alloys can be evaluated on the base of material tests performed on a high level. One of such modern test methods are tests of the dynamic damage process of materials and the evaluation on the base of obtained courses F(f, F(t of parameters of dynamic cracking resistance KId, JId, performed with the usage of instrumented Charpy pendulums. In the paper there was presented the evaluation of dynamic cracking resistance parameters of casting alloys such as: AK12 aluminum alloy, L20G cast steel and spheroid cast iron. The methodology of the evaluation of that parameters was described and their change as well, for the AK12 alloy with the cold work different level, L20G cast steel cooled from different temperatures in the range +20oC -60oC, and for the spheroid cast iron in different stages of treatment i.e. raw state, after normalization, spheroid annealing and graphitizing annealing.Obtained parameters of dynamic cracking resistance KId, JId of tested casting alloys enabled to define the critical value of the ad defect that can be tolerated by tested castings in different work conditions with impact loadings.

  6. Development and Optimization of High-Resolution Neutron Scattering Instruments Dedicated to Characterization and Testing of Materials of Relevance to Nuclear Energy Sector and Related Experiments in SANS, Residual Strain/Stress and Texture Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report we present the results we have received in the frame of participation in the CRP project. According to the plan of the project several experiments related namely to characterisation and testing of materials of relevance to nuclear sector were carried out. In this way two experimental methods were used: residual strain/stress measurements by neutron diffraction and small angle neutron scattering (SANS). A special attention has been paid to the following samples: Austenitic stainless steel plates with a longitudinal weld joint, Charpy-V notched specimen of low-alloy ferritic steel, 50 mm thick welds in feritic steel, austenitic single pass fillet steel welds, Ni-based CMSX4 superalloy. (author)

  7. Coombs test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direct antiglobulin test; Indirect antiglobulin test; Anemia - hemolytic ... No special preparation is necessary for this test. ... There are 2 types of the Coombs test: Direct Indirect The direct ... that are stuck to the surface of red blood cells. Many diseases ...

  8. Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Test Anxiety KidsHealth > For Teens > Test Anxiety Print A A ... with their concentration or performance. What Is Test Anxiety? Test anxiety is actually a type of performance ...

  9. Coombs test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direct antiglobulin test; Indirect antiglobulin test ... No special preparation is necessary for this test. ... There are two types of the Coombs test: Direct Indirect The ... that are stuck to the surface of red blood cells. Many diseases ...

  10. Estimation of RPV material embrittlement for Ukrainian NPP based on surveillance test data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The WWER-1000 RPV material embrittlement has been evaluated using the surveillance test data for the nuclear power plant which is under operation in Ukraine. The RPV materials after the neutron (E > 0,5 MeV) irradiation up to fluence of 22,9.1022 m-2 have been studied. Fracture toughness tests were performed using pre-cracked Charpy specimens for the beltline materials (base and weld metal). The maximum shift of T0 reference temperature is equal to 44oC. A radiation embrittlement rate, AF, for the RPV materials was estimated using the standard and reconstituted specimens. A comparison of the AF values has shown a good agreement between the specimen sets before and after reconstitution both for base and weld metal. Furthermore it has been revealed there is no nickel effect for the studied materials. In spite of the high nickel content the radiation embrittlement rate for weld metal is not higher than for base metal with low nickel content. Fracture toughness analysis has shown the Master curve shape describes well a temperature dependence of KJc values. However a higher scatter of KJc values is observed in comparison to 95 % tolerance bounds. (author)

  11. Elastic-plastic analysis of fracture mechanics test specimens. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is second part of the report of the research program 'Comparisons between computational and experimental elastic-plastic results' started at the Technical Research Centre of Finland in 1981. The first part of the research program was reported earlier and contained a two dimensional linear elastic finite element analysis of four specimen geometries (CT, RCT, ASTM-3P and Charpy-V) and testing and elastic-plastic analysis of the specimen (EGF71; 1TCT, material A 542). In this report the second part of the program containing the testing and 2-D elastic-plastic analyses of five specimens is described. The four specimen geometries mentioned above and two different materials (stainless steel AISI 304 and ferrite pressure vessel steel A533B) are considered. The following comparisons are presented in the report: load vs. load displacement curves, J-integral, crack opening displacement (COD), J vs. COD and the size of the plastic zone. The agreement between the computational and experimental results is quite good. Complete agreement can be achieved only with 3-dimensional calculation models. (author)

  12. Nuclear reactor pressure vessel integrity insurance by crack arrestability evaluation using load from CVN tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work is undertaken in the framework of nuclear reactor pressure vessel (RPV) surveillance and aims at revisiting the crack arrest approach to structural integrity insurance. This approach, performed under normal plant operation conditions, can also offer an attractive alternative to the crack initiation philosophy promoted for accidental analysis. To this end, an accidental conservative, cost effective and robust methodology is forwarded and demonstrated: it makes use of the crack arrest information contained in the instrumented Charpy V-notch impact test and/or in the shear fracture appearance of broken samples. Particular attention is paid to the appraisal of uncertainties and the related safety margin. The resulting capability is placed in perspective with the state-of-the-art crack initiation methodology based on the slow bend testing of recracked specimens, presently under standardization world-wide. The investigation leads to highlight three conceptual weaknesses of current enfgineering and regulatory practices. Improved crack arrestability evaluation emerges as an optimal approach to insure safe PWR operation up to design end-of-life and beyond

  13. Machining Test Specimens from Harvested Zion RPV Segments for Through Wall Attenuation Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosseel, Thomas M [ORNL; Sokolov, Mikhail A [ORNL; Nanstad, Randy K [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The decommissioning of the Zion Units 1 and 2 Nuclear Generating Station (NGS) in Zion, Illinois presents a special opportunity for developing a better understanding of materials degradation and other issues associated with extending the lifetime of existing Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) beyond 60 years of service. In support of extended service and current operations of the US nuclear reactor fleet, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), through the Department of Energy (DOE), Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, is coordinating and contracting with Zion Solutions, LLC, a subsidiary of Energy Solutions, the selective procurement of materials, structures, and components from the decommissioned reactors. In this paper, we will discuss the acquisition of segments of the Zion Unit 2 Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV), the cutting of these segments into sections and blocks from the beltline and upper vertical welds and plate material, the current status of machining those blocks into mechanical (Charpy, compact tension, and tensile) test specimens and coupons for chemical and microstructural (TEM, APT, SANS, and nano indention) characterization, as well as the current test plans and possible collaborative projects. Access to service-irradiated RPV welds and plate sections will allow through wall attenuation studies to be performed, which will be used to assess current radiation damage models (Rosseel et al. (2012) and Rosseel et al. (2015)).

  14. Toughness characterization by small specimen test technique for HIPed joints of F82H steel aiming at first wall fabrication in fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, H.; Ono, T.; Sakasegawa, H.; Tanigawa, H.; Kohno, Y.; Kohyama, A.

    2013-09-01

    Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels (RAFMs), such as F82H steels, have been developed as candidates of structural materials for fusion. In the design of a fusion reactor, cooling channels are built in the first wall of the blanket. One large issue is to determine how to join rectangular tubes to thin panels to fabricate the first wall. Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIPing) is a solution to solve the issue. Because of the thin HIPed walls of the channels, the specimen size for inspection of HIPed interface is limited. In the present research, Small Specimen Test Techniques (SSTT) are screened for the destructive toughness investigation technique of HIPed F82H joints. 1/3 size Charpy V-notch impact (1/3 CVN) and small punch (SP) tests are employed for the present research. The toughness of the HIPed joints is strongly affected by various surface finishing of specimens treated previous to the HIPing. In the present research, several kinds of HIPed joints were surface finished by different methods and investigated by 1/3 CVN impact test. The HIPed F82H joints had different toughness ranging from 20% to 70% of the toughness of the F82H base metal. The SP test is also available for the investigation of toughness change by the HIPing. The sensitivity of 1/3 CVN impact test against toughness change was better than the SP test, it revealed that the SP test has some limitations.

  15. The feasibility of small size specimens for testing of environmentally assisted cracking of irradiated materials and of materials under irradiation in reactor core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toivonen, A.; Moilanen, P.; Pyykkoenen, M.; Taehtinen, S.; Rintamaa, R.; Saario, T. [Valtion Teknillinen Tutkimuskeskus, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-11-01

    Environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) of core materials has become an increasingly important issue of downtime and maintenance costs in nuclear power plants. Small size specimens are necessary in stress corrosion testing of irradiated materials because of difficulties in handling high dose rate materials and because of restricted availability of the materials. The drawback of using small size specimens is that in some cases they do not fulfil the requirements of the relevant testing standards. Recently VTT has developed J-R testing with irradiated and non-irradiated sub size 3 PB specimens, both in inert and in LWR environments. Also, a new materials testing system which will enable simultaneous multiple specimen testing both in laboratory conditions and in operating reactor core is under development. The new testing system will utilize Charpy and sub size 3 PB specimens. The feasibility study of the system has been carried out using different materials. Fracture resistance curves of a Cu-Zr-Cr alloy are shown to be independent of the specimen geometry and size, to some extent. Results gained from tests in simulated boiling water reactor (BWR) water are presented for sensitized SIS 2333 stainless steel. The experimental results indicate that the size of the plastic zone or stress triaxiality must be further studied although no significant effect on the environmentally assisted crack growth rate was observed. (orig.)

  16. The feasibility of small size specimens for testing of environmentally assisted cracking of irradiated materials and of materials under irradiation in reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) of core materials has become an increasingly important issue of downtime and maintenance costs in nuclear power plants. Small size specimens are necessary in stress corrosion testing of irradiated materials because of difficulties in handling high dose rate materials and because of restricted availability of the materials. The drawback of using small size specimens is that in some cases they do not fulfil the requirements of the relevant testing standards. Recently VTT has developed J-R testing with irradiated and non-irradiated sub size 3 PB specimens, both in inert and in LWR environments. Also, a new materials testing system which will enable simultaneous multiple specimen testing both in laboratory conditions and in operating reactor core is under development. The new testing system will utilize Charpy and sub size 3 PB specimens. The feasibility study of the system has been carried out using different materials. Fracture resistance curves of a Cu-Zr-Cr alloy are shown to be independent of the specimen geometry and size, to some extent. Results gained from tests in simulated boiling water reactor (BWR) water are presented for sensitized SIS 2333 stainless steel. The experimental results indicate that the size of the plastic zone or stress triaxiality must be further studied although no significant effect on the environmentally assisted crack growth rate was observed. (orig.)

  17. Determination of the toughness of in-service steam turbine disks using small punch testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulds, J.; Viswanathan, R.

    2001-10-01

    Knowledge of the material toughness is crucial in assessing the integrity of heavy section steel components. Conventional tests to determine the toughness involve extraction of large blocks of materials and therefore are not practical on in-service components. On the other hand, conservative assumptions regarding toughness without regard to actual data can lead to expensive and premature replacement of the components. Previous EPRI studies have demonstrated the use of a relatively nondestructive technique termed the "small punch test" to estimate the fracture appearance transition temperature (FATT) and fracture toughness ( K Ic ) of high-temperature turbine rotor steels and nuclear reactor pressure vessel steels. This paper summarizes the results of research into the feasibility of extending the small punch test to characterize the toughness of the 3 to 3.5% NiCrMoV (3-3.5NiCrMoV) low alloy steel used for fossil and nuclear power plant low-pressure (LP) steam turbine disks. Results of the present study show that the small punch transition temperature, T sp , is linearly correlated with FATT, so that measurement of T sp permits estimation of the standard Charpy FATT through empirical use of the correlation. The statistical confidence prediction uncertainty bands for the correlation were found to be narrow enough to make the small punch- based FATT estimation practical for this alloy. Additionally, independent K Ic measurements made by PowerGen, UK, on some of the same test materials were in excellent agreement with measurements made here, indicating that the small punch K Ic measurement can be reproducible across laboratories. Limited testing for fracture initiation toughness showed, as has been demonstrated for other materials, that the small punch test-based initiation fracture toughness ( K Ic ) determination was within ±25% of the ASTM standard measurement of K Ic , suggesting that the test method can be used for direct determination of fracture initiation

  18. Evaluation of the same heat Hastelloy XR as the material used for high-temperature components of the High-Temperature Engineering Test Reactor, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of tension, Charpy impact and creep tests was carried out on two sorts of plate materials with 15 mm and 60 mm in thickness obtained from typical one of 30 heats of Hastelloy XR manufactured as the component material of the High-Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). Creep test temperatures were 850, 900, 950 and 1000degC, and the maximum creep test time was 3371.4 h. The results obtained are as follows: (1) Both of plate materials tested exhibit acceptable tensile strength and tensile ductility as the structural material of the high-temperature components of the HTTR. (2) The plate material with 15 mm in thickness exhibits enough toughness, while toughness of the plate material with 60 mm in thickness is inferior to that of the plate material with 15 mm in thickness. (3) Both of plate materials tested possess the creep rupture strength beyond not only the expected minimum stress-to-rupture values, SR, but also the expected mean stress-to-rupture values of the material strength standards of Hastelloy XR. The materials also possess enough creep rupture ductility. (author)

  19. Laboratory Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory tests check a sample of your blood, urine, or body tissues. A technician or your doctor ... compare your results to results from previous tests. Laboratory tests are often part of a routine checkup ...

  20. Laboratory Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ... or conditions. What are lab tests? Laboratory tests are medical procedures that involve testing samples of blood, urine, or other tissues or ...

  1. IQ testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    IQ (intelligence quotient) testing is a series of exams used to determine your general intelligence in relation ... Many IQ tests are used today. Whether they measure actual intelligence or simply certain abilities is controversial. IQ tests ...

  2. Randomization tests

    CERN Document Server

    Edgington, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Statistical Tests That Do Not Require Random Sampling Randomization Tests Numerical Examples Randomization Tests and Nonrandom Samples The Prevalence of Nonrandom Samples in Experiments The Irrelevance of Random Samples for the Typical Experiment Generalizing from Nonrandom Samples Intelligibility Respect for the Validity of Randomization Tests Versatility Practicality Precursors of Randomization Tests Other Applications of Permutation Tests Questions and Exercises Notes References Randomized Experiments Unique Benefits of Experiments Experimentation without Mani

  3. Mechanical tests on two batches of oxide dispersion strengthened RAFM steel (EUROFER97)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EUROFER97 is a 9CrWVTa reduced-activation ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) steel, modelled after the conventional T91 alloy (9Cr-1Mo-0.2V-0.08Nb); some of the elements in T91 that will transmute in a fusion neutron spectrum into high-energy radiation emitters with long-half life have been selectively replaced by other elements (W has replaced Mo and Ta has replaced Nb). Such replacements do not influence the mechanical properties but are beneficial from a reduced-activation point of view. The latest developments in the ferritic/martensitic steels for nuclear applications tend toward a fine microstructure with small prior austenite grains and a low number of inclusions, in order to achieve an optimal combination of toughness, strength and high-temperature properties. On the other hand, higher operating temperatures may translate into a better efficiency of power reactors; oxide dispersion strengthening (ODS) offers the potential of increasing the operating temperature of RAFM steels from 550 deg. C to about 625 deg. C, while retaining satisfactory mechanical properties. A mechanical characterisation of two ODS versions of EUROFER97 has been carried out at SCK-CEN by means of tensile and instrumented KLST Charpy tests. The two alloys, which contain different weight percentages of Y2O3 (0.3 and 0.5%), have been characterised in two orientations in the 'as-HIPped' state, that is without any post-HIPping heat treatment

  4. Performance tests.

    OpenAIRE

    Wetherell, A

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of psychological performance tests to assess the effects of environmental stressors. The large number and the variety of performance tests are illustrated, and the differences between performance tests and other psychological tests are described in terms of their design, construction, use, and purpose. The stressor emphasis is on the effects of drugs since that is where most performance tests have found their main application, although other stressors, e.g., fatig...

  5. Crack-arrest tests on two irradiated high-copper welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation Program Sixth Irradiation Series is to determine the effect of neutron irradiation on the shift and shape of the lower-bound curve to crack-arrest toughness data. Two submerged-arc welds with copper contents of 0.23 and 0.31 wt % were commercially fabricated in 220-mm-thick plate. Crack-arrest specimens fabricated from these welds were irradiated at a nominal temperature of 288 degrees C to an average fluence of 1.9 x 1019 neutrons/cm2 (>1 MeV). This is the second report giving the results of the tests on irradiated duplex-type crack-arrest specimens. A previous report gave results of tests on irradiated weld-embrittled-type specimens. Charpy V-notch (CVN) specimens irradiated in the same capsules as the crack-arrest specimens were also tested, and a 41-J transition temperature shift was determined from these specimens. open-quotes Mean close-quote curves of the same form as the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Kla curve were fit to the data with only the open-quotes reference temperatureclose quotes as a parameter. The shift between the mean curves agrees well with the 41-J transition temperature shift obtained from the CVN specimen tests. Moreover, the four data points resulting from tests on the duplex crack-arrest specimens of the present study did not make a significant change to mean curve fits to either the previously obtained data or all the data combined

  6. Tensile testing

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    A complete guide to the uniaxial tensile test, the cornerstone test for determining the mechanical properties of materials: Learn ways to predict material behavior through tensile testing. Learn how to test metals, alloys, composites, ceramics, and plastics to determine strength, ductility and elastic/plastic deformation. A must for laboratory managers, technicians, materials and design engineers, and students involved with uniaxial tensile testing. Tensile Testing , Second Edition begins with an introduction and overview of the test, with clear explanations of how materials properties are determined from test results. Subsequent sections illustrate how knowledge gained through tensile tests, such as tension properties to predict the behavior (including strength, ductility, elastic or plastic deformation, tensile and yield strengths) have resulted in improvements in materals applications. The Second Edition is completely revised and updated. It includes expanded coverage throughout the volume on a variety of ...

  7. Urine test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-08-23

    On August 6, 1996, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first urine test to detect HIV antibodies. The FDA states that the urine test, developed by Calypte Biomedical Corp. of Berkeley, CA, should not be used to screen donors at blood banks and should be used only as a supplemental diagnostic tool because it is not as accurate as the standard blood-based test. The test, for use only by health care professionals and insurance companies, will be marketed by Seradum Inc. of Indianapolis under the trade name Sentinel. The price will be $40 to $50, comparable to the recently approved saliva-based tests. Advocates of the urine test say it is safer, easier, and less intrusive than blood testing. Critics say the tests are too unreliable and fear that the urine samples used in drug testing in the workplace also could be used to screen out HIV-positive job applicants. PMID:11363733

  8. Objective Tests versus Subjective tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏福林

    2007-01-01

    objective test has only one correct answer, while subjective test has a range of possible answers. Because of this feature, reliability will not be difficult to achieve in the marking of the objective item, while the marking of the subjective items is reliable. On the whole, a good test must contain both subjective and objective test items.

  9. Detection and evaluation of material degradation of thermally aged duplex stainless steels: electrochemical polarization test and AFM surface analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal aging embrittlement of cast duplex stainless steels was evaluated by Charpy impact test and microhardness measurement. Also, for the purpose of the non-destructive evaluation of thermal aging embrittlement in cast duplex stainless steels, electrochemical polarization measurements for service exposed and laboratory aged materials were carried out in 0.1 M nitric acid solution and the depth of dissolution during the polarization measurement was measured with an atomic force microscope (AFM). In the polarization curves, the peak current densities of all specimens tested were appeared in the negative range of current and aged materials showed larger peak values than unaged ones. In the dissolved depth of austenite phase, no trend can be seen with aging time but those of ferrite phase were increased according to aging time, which has the same tendency as the polarization results. A good correlation between the dissolved depth measured by the AFM and the changes in mechanical properties of materials and, based on these results, an evaluation method for thermal aging embrittlement of duplex stainless steels was suggested. (orig.)

  10. Test quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document discusses inservice testing of safety-related components at nuclear power plants which is performed under the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code). Subsections IWP and IWV of Section XI of the Code state test method and frequency requirements for pumps and valves respectively. Tests vary greatly in quality and frequency. This paper explores the concept of test quality and its relationship with operational readiness and preventive maintenance. This paper also considers the frequencies of component testing. Test quality is related to a test's ability to detect degradation that can cause component failure. The quality of the test depends on several factors, including specific parameters measured, system or component conditions, and instrument accuracy. The quality of some currently required tests for check valves, motor-operated valves, and pumps is also discussed. Suggestions are made to improve test quality by measuring different parameters, testing valves under load, and testing positive displacement pumps at high pressure and centrifugal pumps at high flow rate conditions. These suggestions can help to improve the level of assurance of component operational readiness gained from testing

  11. Predictive Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is used to check for mutations linked to Huntington’s Disease. Predispositional Testing: Positive tests results show that you ... results. Twitter YouTube RSS Genetics and Health How Genes Work Genes, Lifestyle, & Environment Collecting Family Health History ...

  12. Triglycerides Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cholesterol ; LDL Cholesterol ; Direct LDL Cholesterol ; VLDL Cholesterol ; Lipid Profile ; Cardiac Risk Assessment All content on Lab Tests ... tests for triglycerides are usually part of a lipid profile used to identify the risk of developing heart ...

  13. Glucose Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Glucose Tests Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... the meaning of other test results. Fasting Blood Glucose Glucose Level Indication From 70 to 99 mg/ ...

  14. TSH test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... different samples. Talk to your provider about the meaning of your specific test results. If you are ... iodine in the body (due to receiving iodine contrast used during imaging tests, such as CT scan) ...

  15. Genetic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a photograph.) These are important tests because they characterize the extent to which the immune system is ... by males as well as females. Therefore, one person’s gene test doesn’t necessarily mean that the ...

  16. Nationale test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    Professor Sven Erik Nordenbo og centerleder Niels Egelund, begge DPU, i samtale om nationale test.......Professor Sven Erik Nordenbo og centerleder Niels Egelund, begge DPU, i samtale om nationale test....

  17. Toxoplasmosis Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Toxoplasmosis Testing Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... I should know? How is it used? A toxoplasmosis test is used to detect a current or ...

  18. Ferritin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Serum Ferritin Formal name: Ferritin, serum Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Hemoglobin , Hematocrit , Serum Iron , TIBC, UIBC and Transferrin , Iron Tests , Zinc Protoporphyrin , ...

  19. HHF test with 80x80x1 Be/Cu/SS Mock-ups for verifying the joining technology of the ITER blanket First Wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through the fabrication of the Cu/SS and Be/Cu joint specimens, fabrication procedure such as material preparation, canning, degassing, HIP (Hot Isostatic Pressing), PHHT (Post HIP heat treatment) was established. The HIP conditions (1050 .deg. C, 100 MPa 2 hr for Cu/SS, 580 .deg. C 100 MPa 2 hr for Be/Cu) were developed through the investigation on joint specimen fabricated with the various HIP conditions; the destructive tests of joint include the microstructure observation of the interface with the examination of the elemental distribution, tension test, bend test, Charpy impact test and fracture toughness test. However, since the joint should be tested under the High Heat Flux (HHF) conditions like the ITER operation for verifying its joint integrity, several HHF tests were performed like the previous HHF test with the Cu/SS, Be/Cu, Be/Cu/SS Mock-ups. In the present study, the HHF test with Be/Cu/SS Mock-ups, which have 80 mm x 80 mm single Be tile and each material depths were kept to be the same as the ITER blanket FW. The Mock-ups fabricated with three kinds of interlayers such as Cr/Ti/Cu, Ti/Cr/Cu, Ti/Cu, which were different from the developed interlayer (Cr/Cu), total 6 Mock-ups were fabricated. Preliminary analysis were performed to decide the test conditions; they were tested with up to 2.5 MW/m2 of heat fluxes and 20 cycles for each Mock-up in a given heat flux. They were tested with JUDITH-1 at FZJ in Germany. During tests, all Mock-ups showed delamination or full detachment of Be tile and it can be concluded that the joints with these interlayers have a bad joining but it can be used as a good data for developing the Be/Cu joint with HIP

  20. HHF test with 80x80x1 Be/Cu/SS Mock-ups for verifying the joining technology of the ITER blanket First Wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Won; Bae, Young Dug; Kim, Suk Kwon; Hong, Bong Guen; Jeong, Yong Hwan; Park, Jeong Yong; Choi, Byung Kwon; Jung, Hyun Kyu

    2008-11-15

    Through the fabrication of the Cu/SS and Be/Cu joint specimens, fabrication procedure such as material preparation, canning, degassing, HIP (Hot Isostatic Pressing), PHHT (Post HIP heat treatment) was established. The HIP conditions (1050 .deg. C, 100 MPa 2 hr for Cu/SS, 580 .deg. C 100 MPa 2 hr for Be/Cu) were developed through the investigation on joint specimen fabricated with the various HIP conditions; the destructive tests of joint include the microstructure observation of the interface with the examination of the elemental distribution, tension test, bend test, Charpy impact test and fracture toughness test. However, since the joint should be tested under the High Heat Flux (HHF) conditions like the ITER operation for verifying its joint integrity, several HHF tests were performed like the previous HHF test with the Cu/SS, Be/Cu, Be/Cu/SS Mock-ups. In the present study, the HHF test with Be/Cu/SS Mock-ups, which have 80 mm x 80 mm single Be tile and each material depths were kept to be the same as the ITER blanket FW. The Mock-ups fabricated with three kinds of interlayers such as Cr/Ti/Cu, Ti/Cr/Cu, Ti/Cu, which were different from the developed interlayer (Cr/Cu), total 6 Mock-ups were fabricated. Preliminary analysis were performed to decide the test conditions; they were tested with up to 2.5 MW/m2 of heat fluxes and 20 cycles for each Mock-up in a given heat flux. They were tested with JUDITH-1 at FZJ in Germany. During tests, all Mock-ups showed delamination or full detachment of Be tile and it can be concluded that the joints with these interlayers have a bad joining but it can be used as a good data for developing the Be/Cu joint with HIP.

  1. Nationale Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    Hvad er egentlig formålet med de nationale test? Bliver eleverne klogere af at blive testet? Og er der en sammenhæng mellem bandekrig og nationale test? Fysisk medie: dpu.dk/tv......Hvad er egentlig formålet med de nationale test? Bliver eleverne klogere af at blive testet? Og er der en sammenhæng mellem bandekrig og nationale test? Fysisk medie: dpu.dk/tv...

  2. HIV Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... All Collapse All Should I get tested for HIV? CDC recommends that everyone between the ages of ...

  3. Schilling test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin B12 absorption test ... This test may be done in four different stages to find the cause of a low vitamin B12 level. ... can absorb vitamin B12. Stage II of the test can tell whether a low vitamin B12 level ...

  4. Analytical testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannelly, W. G.; Fabunmi, J. A.; Nagy, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    Analytical methods for combining flight acceleration and strain data with shake test mobility data to predict the effects of structural changes on flight vibrations and strains are presented. This integration of structural dynamic analysis with flight performance is referred to as analytical testing. The objective of this methodology is to analytically estimate the results of flight testing contemplated structural changes with minimum flying and change trials. The category of changes to the aircraft includes mass, stiffness, absorbers, isolators, and active suppressors. Examples of applying the analytical testing methodology using flight test and shake test data measured on an AH-1G helicopter are included. The techniques and procedures for vibration testing and modal analysis are also described.

  5. Trace test

    OpenAIRE

    Leykin, Anton; Sottile, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We give a brief derivation of the trace test to verify completeness of a partial witness set of an irreducible variety in affine or projective space. We then consider the trace test for subvarieties of products of projective spaces working with multihomogeneous witness sets. We show how a dimension reduction based on Bertini's Theorem leads to a practical trace test in this case involving a curve in a small-dimensional affine space.

  6. Testing Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim T.; Henriksen, Mogens; Nilson, Jesper K.;

    1999-01-01

    the insulation and eventually cause breakdown.It is difficult to make a model of the real-life components that can be used to examine all of these phenomena. Some decisions have to be made on how to approach this problem, how to design a test cell and how the tests should be carried out. In this paper......, four suggestions on test cells are considered....

  7. Testing Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim T.; Henriksen, Mogens; Nilson, Jesper K.;

    1999-01-01

    , destroy the insulation and eventually cause breakdown. It is difficult to make a model of the real-life components that can be used to examine all of these phenomena. Some decisions have to be made on how to approach this problem, how to design a test cell and how the tests should be carried out. In this...... paper, four suggestions on test cells are considered....

  8. Software testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price-Whelan, Adrian M.

    2016-01-01

    Now more than ever, scientific results are dependent on sophisticated software and analysis. Why should we trust code written by others? How do you ensure your own code produces sensible results? How do you make sure it continues to do so as you update, modify, and add functionality? Software testing is an integral part of code validation and writing tests should be a requirement for any software project. I will talk about Python-based tools that make managing and running tests much easier and explore some statistics for projects hosted on GitHub that contain tests.

  9. Ultrasonic testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Sung Jin [Sungkwunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hyun Jo [Wonkwang Univ., Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    For the proper performance of ultrasonic testing of steel welded joints, and anisotropic material it is necessary to have sound understanding on the underlying physics. To provide such an understanding, it is beneficial to have simulation tools for ultrasonic testing. In order to address such a need, we develop effective approaches to simulate angle beam ultrasonic testing with a personal computer. The simulation is performed using ultrasonic measurement models based on the computationally efficient multi-Gaussian beams. This reach will describe the developed ultrasonic testing models together with the experimental verification of their accuracy.

  10. SCK-CEN participation to the IAEA CRP-8 - Area topic no. 2: ''Application of the master curve for dynamic testing''. Activity 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The latest IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP-8) focuses on the application of the Master Curve approach to monitor fracture toughness of reactor pressure vessels in nuclear power power plants. Three main work areas have been identified: (a) constraint and geometry effects on Master Curve To values; (b) loading rate effects up to impact conditions; (c) potential changes of Master Curve shape for highly embrittled materials. After the kick-off meeting in Vienna in October 2004, the first Research Coordination Meeting was held in May 2005, hosted by AEKI Budapest. The present document focuses on the participation and contribution of SCK-CEN to Topic Area no. 2 (Loading rate effects on Master Curve - Impact Loading), for which E. Lucon acts as co-task leader. A Round-Robin exercise is planned for early 2006, consisting in 10 tests per participant on precracked Charpy-V specimen of JRQ, tested dynamically using an instrumented pendulum; the results will be analysed using the Master Curve procedure (ASTM E1921-05) and compared to data obtained at other loading rates (quasi-static and/or dynamic). Guidelines and detailed specifications have been produced and circulated after the meeting in Budapest. SCK-CEN has also produced data reporting sheets in EXCEL97 form, which will be used for reporting all fracture toughness test results (at quasi-static, dynamic or impact loading rates) performed in the framework of the CRP-8. (author)

  11. Crack-arrest behavior in SEN wide plates of low-upper-shelf base metal tested under nonisothermal conditions: WP-2 series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory under the sponsorship of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission is conducting analytical and experimental studies aimed at understanding the circumstances that would initiate the growth of an existing crack in a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and the conditions leading to arrest of a propagating crack. Objectives of these studies are to determine (1) if the material will exhibit crack-arrest behavior when the driving force on a crack exceeds the ASME limit, (2) the relationship between KIa and temperature, and (3) the interaction of fracture modes (arrest, stable crack growth, unstable crack growth, and tensile instability) when arrest occurs at high temperatures. In meeting these objectives, crack-arrest data are being developed over an expanded temperature range through tests involving large thermally shocked cylinders, pressurized thermally shocked vessels, and wide-plate specimens. The wide-plate specimens provide the opportunity for a significant number of data points to be obtained at relatively affordable costs. These tests are designed to provide fracture-toughness measurements approaching or above the onset of the Charpy upper-shelf regime in a rising toughness region and with an increasing driving force. This document discusses test methodology and results. 23 refs., 92 figs., 25 tabs

  12. Fracture toughness testing of V-4Cr-4Ti at 25{degrees}C and -196{degrees}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H.X.; Kurtz, R.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Measurements of the fracture toughness of the production-scale heat (832665) of V-4Cr-4Ti have been performed at 25{degrees}C and {minus}196{degrees}C using compact tension (CT) specimens. Test specimens were vacuum annealed at either 1000{degrees}C for 1 hour (HT1) or 1050{degrees}C for two hours (HT2). Specimens given the HT1 treatment were annealed after final machining, whereas the HT2 specimens received the 1050{degrees}C anneal at Teledyne Wah Chang prior to final machining. Following machining HT2 specimens were then vacuum annealed at 180{degrees}C for two hours to remove hydrogen. Specimens treated using HT1 had a partially recrystallized microstructure and those treated using HT2 had a fully recrystallized microstructure. The fracture toughness at 25{degrees}C was determined by J-integral tests and at {minus}196{degrees}C by ASTM E 399 type tests. Toughness values obtained at {minus}196{degrees}C were converted to J-integral values for comparison to the 25{degrees}C data. The 25{degrees}C fracture toughness was very high with none of the specimens giving valid results per ASTM criteria. Specimens fractured by microvoid coalescence. The fracture toughness at {minus}196{degrees}C was much lower than that at 25{degrees}C and the fracture surface showed predominantly cleavage features. The present results show a transition from ductile to brittle behavior with decreasing test temperature which is not observed from one-third scale Charpy impact tests. The fracture toughness at {minus}196{degrees}C was still quite high, however, at about 75 kJ/m{sup 2}. Delaminations in planes normal to the thickness direction were seen at both test temperatures. Fracture surfaces inside the delaminations exhibited nearly 100% cleavage facets. The cause of the brittle delaminations was not determined, but will be a subject for further investigation.

  13. TORCH Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Epstein-Barr Virus Antibodies , Chickenpox and Shingles Tests , Parvovirus B19 All content on Lab Tests Online has been ... enterovirus, Epstein-Barr virus , varicella-zoster virus , and parvovirus B19 . ^ Back to top When is it ordered? The ...

  14. Malnutrition Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... indicate possible nutritional deficits, patients may be provided nutritional support prior to a surgery or procedure and be monitored regularly during recovery. Laboratory tests may include: For general screening and ... protein For nutritional status and deficiencies: Iron tests such as serum ...

  15. Penetration testing

    OpenAIRE

    Zemaníková, Martina

    2010-01-01

    This work focuses on the practical demonstration of design penetration testing. Testing is carried out based on the order of a particular entity/subject which is at their request anonymous. The work is divided into two parts, theoretical and practical. We will be made in first part familiarize with the process and techniques of testing, as is now used in ethical hacking, then we can find in the end appropriate recommendations 6 how to prevent and fight against it in order to protect the...

  16. Oedometer Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Grete

    1996-01-01

    The paper describes the results of oedometer tests carried out with samples from Eemian fresh-water deposits and the methods used to determine the preconsolidation pressure from the test results. The influence of creep in the material on the apparent preconsolidation pressure is estimated from a...... model set up by Moust Jacobsen in 1992. The test results do not show any significant difference in the determined values of the overconsolidation ratio (OCR) for the samples from Hollerup and Solsø, east and west of the main stationary line for the last ice sheet in Weichselian, respectively. The...

  17. PTT Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... when the person has a clinical history of bleeding, such as frequent or excessive nose bleeds and easy bruising, which may indicate the presence of a bleeding disorder ^ Back to top What does the test ...

  18. Fungal Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or Calcofluor white stain): in general, if fungal elements are seen, then a fungus is the likely the cause of symptoms. These tests, however, do not identify the fungus. Culture: care must be taken when interpreting culture results. ...

  19. Amylase Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Amylase Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Amy Formal name: Amylase Related tests: Lipase , Trypsin , Trypsinogen At a Glance ...

  20. Mono Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... white blood cells and reactive lymphocytes on a blood smear in the presence of symptoms associated with mono indicates a likely diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis. A negative mono test requires ...

  1. Sodium Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Sodium Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Na Formal name: Sodium Related tests: Chloride , Bicarbonate , Potassium , Electrolytes , Osmolality , Basic ...

  2. Bilirubin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bilirubin; Indirect Bilirubin; Unconjugated Bilirubin Formal name: Bilirubin - blood Related tests: Liver Panel ; GGT ; ALP ; AST ; ALT ; Hepatitis A ; Hepatitis B ; Hepatitis C ; Complete Blood Count ; Urinalysis ; Direct Antiglobulin ...

  3. Insulin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... especially as a result of taking non-human (animal or synthetic) insulin, these can interfere with insulin testing. In this case, a C-peptide may be performed as an alternative way to evaluate insulin production. Note also that ...

  4. Copper Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mean? Copper test results must be evaluated in context and are usually compared to ceruloplasmin levels . Abnormal ... Health Professionals ©2001 - by American Association for Clinical Chemistry • Contact Us | Terms of Use | Privacy We comply ...

  5. Knowledge Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Henning

    1998-01-01

    The knowledge test is about competing temporal and spatial expressions of the politics of technological development and national prosperity in contemporary society. The discussion is based on literature of national systems of innovation and industrial networks of various sorts. Similarities...

  6. Trypsinogen test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is broken) Considerations Other tests used to detect pancreas diseases may include: Serum amylase Serum lipase Alternative Names ... Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Cystic Fibrosis Pancreatic Cancer Pancreatic Diseases Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  7. Lipase test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the bowel (bowel obstruction) Celiac disease Duodenal ulcer Cancer of the pancreas Infection or swelling of the pancreas This test may also be done for familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency . Risks ... Update Date 2/4/2015 Updated ...

  8. Lipase Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Lipase Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: LPS Formal name: Lipase Related tests: Amylase , Trypsin , Trypsinogen At a Glance ...

  9. HPV Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type of HPV infection may benefit from the protection against other types included in the vaccine. ^ Back ... infection. These include having many children, long-term oral contraceptive ... having multiple sex partners, infrequent Pap tests , smoking, a history of ...

  10. Albumin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Albumin Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: ALB Formal name: Albumin, serum Related tests: Liver Panel , Comprehensive Metabolic Panel , ...

  11. VDRL test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... syphilis . The bacteria that cause syphilis is called Treponema pallidum. Your health care provider may order this test ... 59. Radolf JD, Tramont EC, Salazar JC. Syphilis ( Treponema pallidum ). In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. ...

  12. Magnesium Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Magnesium Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Mg; Mag Formal name: Magnesium Related tests: Calcium , Potassium , Phosphorus , PTH , Vitamin D ...

  13. Crack-arrest tests on two irradiated high-copper welds. Phase 2: Results of duplex-type experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iskander, S.K.; Corwin, W.R.; Nanstad, R.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-03-01

    The objective of the Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation Program Sixth Irradiation Series is to determine the effect of neutron irradiation on the shift and shape of the lower-bound curve to crack-arrest toughness data. Two submerged-arc welds with copper contents of 0.23 and 0.31 wt % were commercially fabricated in 220-mm-thick plate. Crack-arrest specimens fabricated from these welds were irradiated at a nominal temperature of 288{degrees}C to an average fluence of 1.9 {times} 10{sup 19} neutrons/cm{sup 2} (>1 MeV). This is the second report giving the results of the tests on irradiated duplex-type crack-arrest specimens. A previous report gave results of tests on irradiated weld-embrittled-type specimens. Charpy V-notch (CVN) specimens irradiated in the same capsules as the crack-arrest specimens were also tested, and a 41-J transition temperature shift was determined from these specimens. {open_quotes}Mean{close_quote} curves of the same form as the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) K{sub la} curve were fit to the data with only the {open_quotes}reference temperature{close_quotes} as a parameter. The shift between the mean curves agrees well with the 41-J transition temperature shift obtained from the CVN specimen tests. Moreover, the four data points resulting from tests on the duplex crack-arrest specimens of the present study did not make a significant change to mean curve fits to either the previously obtained data or all the data combined.

  14. SCK-CEN Contribution to the''Relation between different measures of exposure-induced shifts in ductile-brittle transition temperatures'' (REFEREE). Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between Charpy-V (CVN) impact, fracture toughness and tensile properties for selected reactor pressure -vessel steels in the transition temperature range are investigated. Data on the testing of unirradiated material are reported. The applied methods include chemical analysis, Charpy-V impact testing, tensile testing and fracture toughness determination

  15. Design, fabrication and test report on HANARO instrumented capsule (02M-02K) for the evaluation of fracture toughness of irradiated RPV(Reactor Pressure Vessel) materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the evaluation of fracture toughness of irradiated RPV(Reactor Pressure Vessel) materials, an instrumented capsule (02M-02K) was designed, fabricated and irradiated in HANARO. The basic structure of 02M-02K capsule was based on that of the 00M-02K and 01M-05U capsules successfully irradiated in HANARO. 02M-02K capsule was designed to have a standard 4-hole structure for the irradiation of RPV material at 290±10 .deg. C. The capsule is composed of 5 stages having many kinds of specimens and independent electric heater in each stage. During the irradiation test, the temperature of the specimens and the thermal/fast neutron fluences were measured by 14 thermocouples and 5 sets of Ni-Ti-Fe neutron fluence monitors installed in the capsule. Various types of specimens such as PCVN, Charpy, Hv, SP, ST, ABI, TEM, BN, UT, PA specimens were inserted in the capsule. The capsule was irradiated in the CT test hole of HANARO of 24MW thermal output at 290±10 .deg. C up to a fast neutron fluence of 0.64x1020(n/cm2) (E>1.0MeV). The irradiated specimens will be evaluated for the irradiation damage and the obtained results will also be very valuable for the improvement of irradiation damage evaluation technology of RPV materials

  16. Adaptive test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Lars Peter; Eriksen, Mette Rose

    2010-01-01

    Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale.......Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale....

  17. Fair Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Rensink, Arend; Vogler, W

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present a solution to the long-standing problem of characterising the coarsest liveness-preserving pre-congruence with respect to a full (TCSP-inspired) process algebra. In fact, we present two distinct characterisations, which give rise to the same relation: an operational one based on a De Nicola-Hennessy-like testing modality which we call should-testing, and a denotational one based on a refined notion of failures. One of the distinguishing characteristics of the should-t...

  18. DHEAS Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be ordered, along with other hormone tests, whenever excess (or, more rarely, deficient) androgen production is suspected and/or when a health ... level, in addition to other normal male hormone ( androgen ) levels, likely ... may indicate that excess DHEAS production is causing or contributing to the ...

  19. Diagnostic test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A diagnostic test is provided based on competitive binding in which a partition coefficient is established for the substance whose concentration is to be determined and for the radioactive labeled form of the substance between liquid and solid phases. 10 claims

  20. Stress Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our Nuclear Facilities have recently operated in a special regime. Since March until December they were scrutinised by a team verifying and drilling all possible scenarios in case of emergency situations, earthquake, floods or long-term power supply loss. Stress tests were the hard job but their findings are already now a great contribution. (author)

  1. Putting Tests To The Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽荣

    2005-01-01

    Tests are usually a big part of a teacher's life. They are part of the ritual of the classroom. Students expect them. Administrators, school boards and legislators require them. They are important to us in our work; we think about them often and have a lot to say about them.

  2. The Analysis on Fracture Toughness Test of X80 Steel Pipe Welding Joint%X80钢管焊接接头断裂韧性试验分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武战学; 党恩; 刘宏亮; 李继红; 张锦钢

    2011-01-01

    Through analysis on physical and chemical properties of X80 steel pipe for the imported drilling riser, its properties were obtained, and this will provide some reference data for developing the domestic riser; meanwhile, after research on CTOD test of X80 pipeline steel welding joints, it found that the fracture toughness was relative weak in HAZ; by comparing Charpy impact energy and CTOD test results, it showed that the fracture toughness assessment of CTOD test was reliable.%通过对进口钻井隔水管X80钢管进行理化性能分析,了解了国外钻井隔水管材料的性能水平,为隔水管国产化工作的开展提供了一些参考数据;通过对X80管线钢焊接接头的CTOD试验研究,发现焊接接头的断裂韧性在热影响区相对较弱;通过对比分析焊接接头的夏比冲击功和CTOD试验结果,表明CTOD试验对材料的断裂韧性评价是可靠的.

  3. Effects of crack starter bead preparation in drop-weight test of nil-ductility transition temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, M. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Yokohama (Japan). Production Engineering Dept.; Yamauchi, T. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan). Kobe Shipyard Machinery Works; Tanaka, Y. [Babcock-Hitachi Corp., Kure (Japan); Iida, K. [Univ. of Tokyo, Koshigaya (Japan)

    1999-05-01

    The procedure for making crack starter weld deposits on drop-weight test (DWT) specimens was altered from two passes to one pass in about 1990. The effects of some parameters of crack starter weld process on drop-weight test results were studied. Results of this study indicated that length of overlap of the second pass and height of crack starter beads were most effective on mil-ductility temperature (T{sub NDT}). When overlap length and bead height of two-pass deposit were small enough, T{sub NDT} obtained by two-pass deposit became lower than one-pass T{sub NDT}, the discrepancy being by as much as 25 C. T{sub NDT} values for 24 Japanese steels were determined using two different DWT methods, one-pass deposit and two-pass deposit having small overlap length and bead height. The difference of T{sub NDT} depending on DWT method could be seen only for high-toughness low-alloy steel base metals. For other materials (i.e., low-to-medium-toughness low-alloy steel base metals, weld metals, and high-toughness carbon steels), T{sub NDT}s by two-pass and one-pass deposits were essentially the same. For lower-toughness steels, T{sub NDT}s by two-pass and one-pass deposits were essentially the same. For lower-toughness steels, T{sub NDT} was frequently lower than the temperature of ({sub v}T{sub cv} {minus} 33 C), and thus, the reference nil-ductility temperature (RT{sub NDT}) was determined from Charpy impact test results. These results can be taken as a way of interpreting the past toughness evaluations made for operating plants using the two-pass T{sub NDT}.

  4. Effects of crack starter bead preparation in drop-weight test of nil-ductility transition temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The procedure for making crack starter weld deposits on drop-weight test (DWT) specimens was altered from two passes to one pass in about 1990. The effects of some parameters of crack starter weld process on drop-weight test results were studied. Results of this study indicated that length of overlap of the second pass and height of crack starter beads were most effective on mil-ductility temperature (TNDT). When overlap length and bead height of two-pass deposit were small enough, TNDT obtained by two-pass deposit became lower than one-pass TNDT, the discrepancy being by as much as 25 C. TNDT values for 24 Japanese steels were determined using two different DWT methods, one-pass deposit and two-pass deposit having small overlap length and bead height. The difference of TNDT depending on DWT method could be seen only for high-toughness low-alloy steel base metals. For other materials (i.e., low-to-medium-toughness low-alloy steel base metals, weld metals, and high-toughness carbon steels), TNDTs by two-pass and one-pass deposits were essentially the same. For lower-toughness steels, TNDTs by two-pass and one-pass deposits were essentially the same. For lower-toughness steels, TNDT was frequently lower than the temperature of (vTcv - 33 C), and thus, the reference nil-ductility temperature (RTNDT) was determined from Charpy impact test results. These results can be taken as a way of interpreting the past toughness evaluations made for operating plants using the two-pass TNDT

  5. Design, Fabrication and Test Report on HANARO Instrumented Capsule (04M-17U) for the Researches of Universities in 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of 2004 project for active utilization of HANARO, an instrumented capsule (04M-17U) was designed, fabricated and irradiated for the irradiation test of various nuclear materials under irradiation conditions requested by external researchers from universities. The basic structure of 04M-17U capsule was based on the 00M-01U, 01M-05U, 02M-05U and 03M-06U capsules successfully irradiated in HANARO as 2000, 2001, 2002 and 2003 projects. However, because of the limited number of specimens and budget of 4 universities, the remained space of the capsule was charged with various KAERI specimens for the researches of nuclear core material, fracture toughness and irradiation damage. Various types of specimens such as tensile, Charpy, TEM, SP(small punch) specimens made of Fe, Zr, Ti, Ni, Al and Cu were inserted in the capsule. The capsule is composed of 5 stages having many kinds of specimens and independent electric heater in each stage. During the irradiation test, the temperature of the specimens and the thermal/fast neutron fluences were measured by 14 thermocouples and 5 sets of Ni-Ti-Fe neutron fluence monitors installed in the capsule. The capsule was irradiated in the CT test hole of HANARO of 30MW thermal output at 260∼350 .deg. C up to a fast neutron fluence of 6.0x1020(n/cm2) (E>1.0MeV). The obtained results will be very valuable for the related researches of the users

  6. Nuclear stress test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Persantine stress test; Thallium stress test; Stress test - nuclear; Adenosine stress test; Regadenoson stress test; CAD - nuclear stress; Coronary artery disease - nuclear stress; Angina - nuclear ...

  7. Tests for Reproductive Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 888-220-5446 Test HSV (genital herpes) test Pap test (Pap smear) Syphilis test Urinalysis and urine culture Vaginal ... just because you had a pelvic exam or Pap test. A Pap test does not test for ...

  8. APU diaphragm testing. Test plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, Richard

    1992-01-01

    Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) fuel (hydrazine) tanks have had to be removed from the Columbia Shuttle (OV-102) because they have been in service for 11 years, which is the limit of their useful life. As part of an effort to determine whether the useful life of the fuel tanks can be extended, examination of the ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) diaphragm and the metal from one of the APU tanks is required. The JSC Propulsion and Power Division has requested White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) to examine the EPR diaphragm thoroughly and the metal casing generally from one tank. The objective is to examine the EPR diaphragm for signs of degradation that may limit the life of its function in the APU propellant tank. The metal casing will also be examined for signs of surface corrosion.

  9. Results of crack-arrest tests on irradiated a 508 class 3 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iskander, S.K.; Milella, P.P.; Pini, M.A.

    1998-02-01

    Ten crack-arrest toughness values for irradiated specimens of A 508 class 3 forging steel have been obtained. The tests were performed according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard Test Method for Determining Plane-Strain Crack-Arrest Fracture Toughness, K{sub la} of Ferritic Steels, E 1221-88. None of these values are strictly valid in all five ASTM E 1221-88 validity criteria. However, they are useful when compared to unirradiated crack-arrest specimen toughness values since they show the small (averaging approximately 10{degrees}C) shifts in the mean and lower-bound crack-arrest toughness curves. This confirms that a low copper content in ASTM A 508 class 3 forging material can be expected to result in small shifts of the transition toughness curve. The shifts due to neutron irradiation of the lower bound and mean toughness curves are approximately the same as the Charpy V-notch (CVN) 41-J temperature shift. The nine crack-arrest specimens were irradiated at temperatures varying from 243 to 280{degrees}C, and to a fluence varying from 1.7 to 2.7 x 10{sup 19} neutrons/cm{sup 2} (> 1 MeV). The test results were normalized to reference values that correspond to those of CVN specimens irradiated at 284{degrees}C to a fluence of 3.2 x 10{sup 19} neutrons/cm{sup 2} (> 1 MeV) in the same capsule as the crack-arrest specimens. This adjustment resulted in a shift to lower temperatures of all the data, and in particular moved two data points that appeared to lie close to or lower than the American Society of Mechanical Engineers K{sub la} curve to positions that seemed more reasonable with respect to the remaining data. A special fixture was designed, fabricated, and successfully used in the testing. For reasons explained in the text, special blocks to receive the Oak Ridge National Laboratory clip gage were designed, and greater-than-standard crack-mouth opening displacements measured were accounted for. 24 refs., 13 figs., 12 tabs.

  10. Allergy testing - skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patch tests - allergy; Scratch tests - allergy; Skin tests - allergy; RAST test ... There are three common methods of allergy skin testing. The skin prick test involves: Placing a small amount of substances that may be causing your symptoms on the skin, ...

  11. Mononucleosis spot test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monospot test; Heterophile antibody test; Heterophile agglutination test; Paul-Bunnell test; Forssman antibody test ... The mononucleosis spot test is done when symptoms of mononucleosis are ... Fatigue Fever Large spleen (possibly) Sore throat Tender ...

  12. A1C test

    Science.gov (United States)

    HbA1C test; Glycated hemoglobin test; Glycosylated hemoglobin test; Hemoglobin glycosylated test; Glycohemoglobin test ... have recently eaten does not affect the A1C test, so you do not need to fast to ...

  13. Weld investigations by 3D analyses of Charpy V-notch specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo; Needleman, Allan

    2005-01-01

    -viscoplastic constitutive relation for a porous plastic solid, accounting for adiabatic heating due to plastic dissipationfiand the resulting thermal softening. The onset of cleavage is taken to occur when the average of the maximum principal stress over a speci¯ed volume attains a critical value. Typically, the material...

  14. Effects of Microstructural Inhomogeneity on Charpy Impact Properties for Reactor Pressure Vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels are fabricated by vacuum carbon deoxidation (VCD), and then heat treatment of quenching and tempering is conducted after forging. The through-the-thickness variation of microstructure in RPV can occur due to the cooling rate gradient during quenching and inhomogeneous deformation during forging process. The variation of microstructure in RPV affects the mechanical properties, and inhomogeneity in mechanical properties can occur. The evaluation of mechanical properties of RPV is conducted at thickness of 1/4T. In order to evaluate the safety of RPV more correctly, the research about the through-the-thickness variation of microstructure and mechanical properties in RPV is need. 1. The fine low bainite (LB) is the dominant phase at the inner-surface (0T), but coarse upper bainite (UB) is the dominant phase at the center (1/2T). This is because cooling rate gradient from surface to center occurs during quenching. 2. Inter-lath carbides act as fracture initiation site, and it reduces impact toughness. 3. The upper shelf energy is low and the reference temperatures are high at the 1/4T. Impact properties are poor at 1/4T because of the formation of coarse upper bainite structure and coarse inter-lath carbides

  15. Effects of Microstructural Inhomogeneity on Charpy Impact Properties for Reactor Pressure Vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seokmin; Song, Jaemin; Kim, Min-Chul; Choi, Kwon-Jae; Lee, Bong-Sang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels are fabricated by vacuum carbon deoxidation (VCD), and then heat treatment of quenching and tempering is conducted after forging. The through-the-thickness variation of microstructure in RPV can occur due to the cooling rate gradient during quenching and inhomogeneous deformation during forging process. The variation of microstructure in RPV affects the mechanical properties, and inhomogeneity in mechanical properties can occur. The evaluation of mechanical properties of RPV is conducted at thickness of 1/4T. In order to evaluate the safety of RPV more correctly, the research about the through-the-thickness variation of microstructure and mechanical properties in RPV is need. 1. The fine low bainite (LB) is the dominant phase at the inner-surface (0T), but coarse upper bainite (UB) is the dominant phase at the center (1/2T). This is because cooling rate gradient from surface to center occurs during quenching. 2. Inter-lath carbides act as fracture initiation site, and it reduces impact toughness. 3. The upper shelf energy is low and the reference temperatures are high at the 1/4T. Impact properties are poor at 1/4T because of the formation of coarse upper bainite structure and coarse inter-lath carbides.

  16. Experimental tests of irradiation-anneal-reirradiation effects on mechanical properties of RPV plate and weld materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Charpy-V (CV) notch ductility and tension test properties of three reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel materials were determined for the 288 degree C (550 degree F) irradiated (I), 288 degree C (550 degree F) irradiated + 454 degree C (850 degree F)-168 h postirradiation annealed (IA), and 288 degree C (550 degree F) reirradiated (IAR) conditions. Total fluences of the I condition and the IAR condition were, respectively, 3.33 x 1019 n/cm2 and 4.18 x 1019 n/cm2, E > 1 MeV. The irradiation portion of the IAR condition represents an incremental fluence increase of 1. 05 x 1019 n/cm2, E > 1 MeV, over the I-condition fluence. The materials (specimens) were supplied by the Yankee Atomic Electric Company and represented high and low nickel content plates and a high nickel, high copper content weld deposit prototypical of the Yankee-Rowe reactor vessel. The promise of the IAR method for extending the fluence tolerance of radiation-sensitive steels and welds is clearly shown by the results. The annealing treatment produced full CV upper shelf recovery and full or nearly full recovery in the CV 41 J (30 ft-lb) transition temperature. The CV transition temperature increases produced by the reirradiation exposure were 22% to 43% of the increase produced by the first cycle irradiation exposure. A somewhat greater radiation embrittlement sensitivity and a somewhat greater reirradiation embrittlement sensitivity was exhibited by the low nickel content plate than the high nickel content plate. Its high phosphorus content is believed to be responsible. The IAR-condition properties of the surface vs. interior regions of the low nickel content plate are also compared

  17. Experimental tests of irradiation-anneal-reirradiation effects on mechanical properties of RPV plate and weld materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawthorne, J.R. [Materials Engineering Associates, Inc., Lanham, MD (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The Charpy-V (C{sub V}) notch ductility and tension test properties of three reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel materials were determined for the 288{degree}C (550{degree}F) irradiated (I), 288{degree}C (550{degree}F) irradiated + 454{degree}C (850{degree}F)-168 h postirradiation annealed (IA), and 288{degree}C (550{degree}F) reirradiated (IAR) conditions. Total fluences of the I condition and the IAR condition were, respectively, 3.33 {times} 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2} and 4.18 {times} 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2}, E > 1 MeV. The irradiation portion of the IAR condition represents an incremental fluence increase of 1. 05 {times} 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2}, E > 1 MeV, over the I-condition fluence. The materials (specimens) were supplied by the Yankee Atomic Electric Company and represented high and low nickel content plates and a high nickel, high copper content weld deposit prototypical of the Yankee-Rowe reactor vessel. The promise of the IAR method for extending the fluence tolerance of radiation-sensitive steels and welds is clearly shown by the results. The annealing treatment produced full C{sub V} upper shelf recovery and full or nearly full recovery in the C{sub V} 41 J (30 ft-lb) transition temperature. The C{sub V} transition temperature increases produced by the reirradiation exposure were 22% to 43% of the increase produced by the first cycle irradiation exposure. A somewhat greater radiation embrittlement sensitivity and a somewhat greater reirradiation embrittlement sensitivity was exhibited by the low nickel content plate than the high nickel content plate. Its high phosphorus content is believed to be responsible. The IAR-condition properties of the surface vs. interior regions of the low nickel content plate are also compared.

  18. Tests Related to Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to learn. Search form Search Tests related to pregnancy You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... to Genetic Counseling . What Are Tests Related to Pregnancy? Pregnancy related testing is done before or during ...

  19. Anthrax - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The best test for diagnosing anthrax is a culture of affected tissue or blood. Alternative Names Anthrax serology test; Antibody test for anthrax; Serologic test for B anthracis Images Blood test Bacillus anthracis References Hall GS, Woods GL. Medical bacteriology. ...

  20. Tests in contingency tables as regression tests

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislav Anatolyev; Grigory Kosenok

    2006-01-01

    Applied researchers often use tests based on contingency tables in preliminary data analysis and diagnostic testing. We show that many of such tests may be alternatively implemented by testing for coecient restrictions in linear regression systems (as a rule, employing the Wald test). This uni es the theories of regression analysis and contingency tables, sheds more light on intuitive contents of contingency table tests, and provides a more convenient and familiar tool for practitioners.

  1. Design, fabrication and irradiation test report on HANARO instrumented capsule (05M-07U) for the researches of universities in 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, K. N.; Kim, B. G.; Kang, Y. H.; Choi, M. H.; Cho, M. S.; Son, J. M.; Choi, M. H.; Shin, Y. T.; Park, S. J.

    2006-09-15

    As a part of the 2005 project for an active utilization of HANARO, an instrumented capsule (05M-07U) was designed, fabricated and irradiated for an irradiation test of various unclear materials under irradiation conditions which was requested by external researchers from universities. The basic structure of the 05M-07U capsule was based on the 00M-01U, 01M-05U, 02M-05U, 03M-06U and 04M-07U capsules which had been successfully irradiated in HANARO as part of the 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003 and 2004 projects. However, because of a limited number of specimens and the budget of one university, the remaining space in the capsule was filled with various KAERI specimens for researches on a nuclear core and SMART materials, and parts of a nuclear fuel assembly of KNFC. Various types of specimens such as tensile, Charpy, TEM, hardness, compression and growth specimens made of Zr 702, Ti and Ni alloys, Zirlo, Inconel, STS 316L and Cr-Mo alloys were placed in the capsule. Especially, this capsule was designed to evaluate the nuclear characteristics of the parts of a nuclear fuel assembly and the Ti tubes in HANARO. The capsule was composed of 5 stages having many kinds of specimens and an independent electric heater at each stage. During the irradiation test, the temperature of the specimens and the thermal/fast neutron fluences were measured by 14 thermocouples and 5 sets of Ni-Ti-Fe neutron fluence monitors installed in the capsule. The capsule was irradiated in the CT test hole of HANARO of a 30MW thermal output at 270 ∼ 400 .deg. C up to a fast neutron fluence of 5.7 x 10{sup 20} (n/cm{sup 2}) (E >1.0MeV). The obtained results will be very valuable for the related research of the users.

  2. Quality assurance of the reactor pressure vessel of nuclear power plants. Determination of the fracture toughness KIC above the ductile-brittle transition region on small test specimens by means of a conformal mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ''surveillance-programs'' for the determination of the mechanical properties of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) materials, as a function of the neutron dose, include impact and tensile tests for the boiling water reactor; while for pressurized water reactors additional wedge opening load specimens (WOL), for the measurement of the fracture toughness KIC at low temperatures, are utilized. While the Charpy impact toughness gives the total magnitude of energy, which indicates the change of the material state, e.g. the state of embrittlement, the fracture toughness, IIC, gives a base for mechanical calculations. This is of importance for components in which cracks or flaws are assumed. The mechanical analysis, and its relevance to safety assessments, depends on the knowledge of different parameters such as geometry of the structure and flaws, and load history of the structure. Fracture mechanical methods play an important role, if the leak-before-fracture problem is considered. Within the frame work of fracture mechanical methods, only the influence of assumed macroscopic cracks on the structural behaviour can be handled. Flaw formation processes in flaw-free structures, as well as the treatment of short flaws, can not currently be included. In the regime of low and intermediate temperatures (for ferritic and austenitic materials, normally below 400oC), the rules of linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) and elasto-plastic fracture mechanics (EPFM) are applied, some of which are already part of the code cases. (author) 5 figs., 32 refs

  3. TEST SUITE GENERATION PROCESS FOR AGENT TESTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOUHAMDI ZINA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Software agents are a promising technology for today's complex, distributed systems. Methodologies and techniques that address testing and reliability of multi agent systems are increasingly demanded, in particular to support automated test case generation and execution. In this paper, we introduce a novel approach for goal-oriented software agent testing. It specifies a testing process that complements the goal oriented methodology Tropos and reinforces the mutual relationship between goal analysis and testing. Furthermore, it defines a structured and comprehensive agent test suite generation process by providing a systematic way of deriving test cases from goal analysis.

  4. Design Driven Testing Test Smarter, Not Harder

    CERN Document Server

    Stephens, M

    2010-01-01

    The groundbreaking book Design Driven Testing brings sanity back to the software development process by flipping around the concept of Test Driven Development (TDD) - restoring the concept of using testing to verify a design instead of pretending that unit tests are a replacement for design. Anyone who feels that TDD is "Too Damn Difficult" will appreciate this book. Design Driven Testing shows that, by combining a forward-thinking development process with cutting-edge automation, testing can be a finely targeted, business-driven, rewarding effort. In other words, you'll learn how to test

  5. Learning software testing with Test Studio

    CERN Document Server

    Madi, Rawane

    2013-01-01

    Learning Software Testing with Test Studio is a practical, hands-on guide that will help you get started with Test Studio to design your automated solution and tests. All through the book, there are best practices and tips and tricks inside Test Studio which can be employed to improve your solution just like an experienced QA.If you are a beginner or a professional QA who is seeking a fast, clear, and direct to the point start in automated software testing inside Test Studio, this book is for you. You should be familiar with the .NET framework, mainly Visual Studio, C#, and SQL, as the book's

  6. Lactose tolerance tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogen breath test for lactose tolerance ... Two common methods include: Lactose tolerance blood test Hydrogen breath test The hydrogen breath test is the preferred method. It measures the amount of hydrogen ...

  7. Direct Antiglobulin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page helpful? Also known as: DAT; Direct Coombs Test; Direct Anti-human Globulin Test Formal name: ... antiglobulin test (DAT), also known as the direct Coombs test, is used primarily to help determine whether ...

  8. Ketones urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketone bodies - urine; Urine ketones; Ketoacidosis - urine ketones test; Diabetic ketoacidosis - urine ketones test ... Urine ketones are usually measured as a "spot test." This is available in a test kit that ...

  9. Sweat electrolytes test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweat test; Sweat chloride; Iontophoretic sweat test ... No special steps are needed before this test. ... The test is not painful. Some people have a tingling feeling at the site of the electrode. This feeling ...

  10. Lab and Imaging Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Treatment Lab and Imaging Tests Lab and Imaging Tests Lab and Imaging Tests SHARE: Print Glossary Doctors use several different lab and imaging tests to help detect (diagnose) a blood cancer ( ...

  11. Coccidioides precipitin test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccidioidomycosis antibody test ... There is no special preparation for the test. ... The precipitin test is one of several tests that can be done to determine if you are infected with the fungus ...

  12. Genetic Testing (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Genetic Testing KidsHealth > For Parents > Genetic Testing Print A A ... blood, skin, bone, or other tissue is needed. Genetic Testing During Pregnancy For genetic testing before birth, pregnant ...

  13. Genetic Testing for ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your area, please visit www.nsgc.org . Genetic Testing Genetic testing can help determine the cause of FALS ... couples planning on having children to pursue prenatal testing. Genetic testing does not: Currently change medical treatment. Diagnose ...

  14. Intelligent test integration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztipanovits, J.; Padalkar, S.; Rodriguez-Moscoso, J.; Kawamura, K.; Purves, B.; Williams, R.; Biglari, H.

    1988-01-01

    A new test technology is described which was developed for space system integration. The ultimate purpose of the system is to support the automatic generation of test systems in real time, distributed computing environments. The Intelligent Test Integration System (ITIS) is a knowledge based layer above the traditional test system components which can generate complex test configurations from the specification of test scenarios.

  15. To test or not to test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rochon, Justine; Gondan, Matthias; Kieser, Meinhard

    2012-01-01

    Background: Student's two-sample t test is generally used for comparing the means of two independent samples, for example, two treatment arms. Under the null hypothesis, the t test assumes that the two samples arise from the same normally distributed population with unknown variance. Adequate...... control of the Type I error requires that the normality assumption holds, which is often examined by means of a preliminary Shapiro-Wilk test. The following two-stage procedure is widely accepted: If the preliminary test for normality is not significant, the t test is used; if the preliminary test rejects...... the null hypothesis of normality, a nonparametric test is applied in the main analysis. Methods: Equally sized samples were drawn from exponential, uniform, and normal distributions. The two-sample t test was conducted if either both samples (Strategy I) or the collapsed set of residuals from both samples...

  16. CANFLEX fuel bundle strength tests (test report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Seok Kyu; Chung, C. H.; Kim, B. D.

    1997-08-01

    This document outlines the test results for the strength tests of the CANFLEX fuel bundle. Strength tests are performed to determine and verify the amount of the bundle shape distortion which is against the side-stops when the bundles are refuelling. There are two cases of strength test; one is the double side-stop test which simulates the normal bundle refuelling and the other is the single side-stop test which simulates the abnormal refuelling. the strength test specification requires that the fuel bundle against the side-stop(s) simulators for this test were fabricated and the flow rates were controlled to provide the required conservative hydraulic forces. The test rig conditions of 120 deg C, 11.2 MPa were retained for 15 minutes after the flow rate was controlled during the test in two cases, respectively. The bundle loading angles of number 13- number 15 among the 15 bundles were 67.5 deg CCW and others were loaded randomly. After the tests, the bundle shapes against the side-stops were measured and inspected carefully. The important test procedures and measurements were discussed as follows. (author). 5 refs., 22 tabs., 5 figs.

  17. CANFLEX fuel bundle strength tests (test report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document outlines the test results for the strength tests of the CANFLEX fuel bundle. Strength tests are performed to determine and verify the amount of the bundle shape distortion which is against the side-stops when the bundles are refuelling. There are two cases of strength test; one is the double side-stop test which simulates the normal bundle refuelling and the other is the single side-stop test which simulates the abnormal refuelling. the strength test specification requires that the fuel bundle against the side-stop(s) simulators for this test were fabricated and the flow rates were controlled to provide the required conservative hydraulic forces. The test rig conditions of 120 deg C, 11.2 MPa were retained for 15 minutes after the flow rate was controlled during the test in two cases, respectively. The bundle loading angles of number 13- number 15 among the 15 bundles were 67.5 deg CCW and others were loaded randomly. After the tests, the bundle shapes against the side-stops were measured and inspected carefully. The important test procedures and measurements were discussed as follows. (author). 5 refs., 22 tabs., 5 figs

  18. Web Security Testing Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Hope, Paco

    2008-01-01

    Among the tests you perform on web applications, security testing is perhaps the most important, yet it's often the most neglected. The recipes in the Web Security Testing Cookbook demonstrate how developers and testers can check for the most common web security issues, while conducting unit tests, regression tests, or exploratory tests. Unlike ad hoc security assessments, these recipes are repeatable, concise, and systematic-perfect for integrating into your regular test suite.

  19. Automated functional software testing

    OpenAIRE

    Jelnikar, Kristina

    2009-01-01

    The following work describes an approach to software test automation of functional testing. In the introductory part we are introducing what testing problems development companies are facing. The second chapter describes some testing methods, what role does testing have in software development, some approaches to software development and the meaning of testing environment. Chapter 3 is all about test automation. After a brief historical presentation, we are demonstrating through s...

  20. Get Tested for HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Home > HIV/AIDS > Get tested for HIV HIV/AIDS This information in Spanish ( en español ) Get tested for HIV When should I get tested for HIV? Types ... to top More information on Get tested for HIV Explore other publications and websites HIV Anonymous Testing, ...

  1. CO2 blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicarbonate test; HCO3-; Carbon dioxide test; TCO2; Total CO2; CO2 test - serum ... Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health care provider will tell you if you need to stop taking any medicines before you have this test. DO ...

  2. Growth hormone stimulation test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arginine test; Arginine-GHRH test ... of re-inserting the needle each time. The test takes between 2 to 5 hours. The procedure ... eat for 10 to 12 hours before the test. Eating food can change the test results. Some ...

  3. Vendor System Vulnerability Testing Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James R. Davidson

    2005-01-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) prepared this generic test plan to provide clients (vendors, end users, program sponsors, etc.) with a sense of the scope and depth of vulnerability testing performed at the INL’s Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Test Bed and to serve as an example of such a plan. Although this test plan specifically addresses vulnerability testing of systems applied to the energy sector (electric/power transmission and distribution and oil and gas systems), it is generic enough to be applied to control systems used in other critical infrastructures such as the transportation sector, water/waste water sector, or hazardous chemical production facilities. The SCADA Test Bed is established at the INL as a testing environment to evaluate the security vulnerabilities of SCADA systems, energy management systems (EMS), and distributed control systems. It now supports multiple programs sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, other government agencies, and private sector clients. This particular test plan applies to testing conducted on a SCADA/EMS provided by a vendor. Before performing detailed vulnerability testing of a SCADA/EMS, an as delivered baseline examination of the system is conducted, to establish a starting point for all-subsequent testing. The series of baseline tests document factory delivered defaults, system configuration, and potential configuration changes to aid in the development of a security plan for in depth vulnerability testing. The baseline test document is provided to the System Provider,a who evaluates the baseline report and provides recommendations to the system configuration to enhance the security profile of the baseline system. Vulnerability testing is then conducted at the SCADA Test Bed, which provides an in-depth security analysis of the Vendor’s system.b a. The term System Provider replaces the name of the company/organization providing the system

  4. Dynamic fracture behavior of nodular cast iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferritic nodular cast iron has been found to be a much tougher material than previously believed based on Charpy impact test results. As a result this material is being considered as a substitute for Stainless Steel in nuclear waste transport containers. We have determined Klc and Kld values for nodular cast iron with varying values of silicon and percentage of pearlite in the matrix. Regular V-notch charpy bars and fatigue precracked charpy bars have been tested to determine the initiation and propagation energy and the effect of notch acuity on transition temperature. (author)

  5. Campylobacter serology test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003530.htm Campylobacter serology test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Campylobacter serology test is a blood test to look ...

  6. Mark 1 Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Mark I Test Facility is a state-of-the-art space environment simulation test chamber for full-scale space systems testing. A $1.5M dollar upgrade in fiscal year...

  7. Structural Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Provides a wide variety of testing equipment, fixtures and facilities to perform both unique aviation component testing as well as common types of materials testing...

  8. Hepatitis A Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Hepatitis A Testing Share this page: Was this page ... HAV-Ab total; Anti-HAV Formal name: Viral Hepatitis A Antibody Related tests: Hepatitis B Testing ; Hepatitis ...

  9. CSF-VDRL test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venereal disease research laboratory slide test - CSF ... provider's instructions on how to prepare for this test. ... The CSF-VDRL test is done to diagnose syphilis in the brain or spinal cord. Brain and spinal cord involvement is often a ...

  10. Stomach acid test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastric acid secretion test ... The test is done after you have not eaten for a while so fluid is all that remains in ... injected into your body. This is done to test the ability of the cells in the stomach ...

  11. ALP isoenzyme test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme test ... anything for 10 to 12 hours before the test, unless your health care provider tells you to do so. Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health care provider will tell you ...

  12. PBG urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porphobilinogen test ... temporarily stop taking medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ... This test involves only normal urination, and there is no discomfort.

  13. Sickle cell test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickledex; Hgb S test ... This test is done to tell if a person has abnormal hemoglobin that causes sickle cell disease and sickle ... and no symptoms, or only mild ones. This test does not tell the difference between these two ...

  14. Breath alcohol test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  15. Vitamin A Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Vitamin A Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Comprehensive Metabolic Panel , Vitamin B12 and Folate , Vitamin D Tests , Iron Tests , ...

  16. Creatine phosphokinase test

    Science.gov (United States)

    CPK test ... vein. The procedure is called a venipuncture . This test may be repeated over 2 or 3 days ... helps determine which tissue has been damaged. This test may be used to: Diagnose heart attack Evaluate ...

  17. Bone mineral density test

    Science.gov (United States)

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis-BMD ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures. Peripheral DEXA ( ...

  18. Dexamethasone suppression test

    Science.gov (United States)

    DST; ACTH suppression test; Cortisol suppression test ... During this test, you will receive dexamethasone. This is a strong man-made (synthetic) glucocorticoid medication. Afterward, your blood is drawn ...

  19. Tests for Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms Next Topic Colorectal cancer stages Tests for colorectal cancer Colorectal cancer is often found after symptoms appear, ... of the cancer . Imaging tests to look for colorectal cancer Imaging tests use sound waves, x-rays, magnetic ...

  20. Estradiol blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    E2 test ... temporarily stop taking certain medicines that may affect test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ... helps prevent sperm from dying too early. This test may be ordered to check: How well your ...

  1. Service functional test automation

    OpenAIRE

    Hillah, Lom Messan; Maesano, Ariele-Paolo; Rosa, Fabio; Maesano, Libero; Lettere, Marco; Fontanelli, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the automation of the functional test of services (black-box testing) and services architectures (grey-box testing) that has been developed by the MIDAS project and is accessible on the MIDAS SaaS. In particular, the paper illustrates the solutions of tough functional test automation problems such as: (i) the configuration of the automated test execution system against large and complex services architectures, (ii) the constraint-based test input generation, (iii) the spec...

  2. Small test SDHW systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    1999-01-01

    Three small test SDHW systems was tested in a laboratory test facility.The three SDHW systems where all based on the low flow principe and a mantle tank but the design of the systems where different.......Three small test SDHW systems was tested in a laboratory test facility.The three SDHW systems where all based on the low flow principe and a mantle tank but the design of the systems where different....

  3. AUTOMATED API TESTING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUNIL L. BANGARE

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Software testing is an investigation conducted to provide stakeholders with information about the quality of the product or service under test. With the help of software testing we can verify or validate the software product. Normally testing will be done after development of software but we can perform the software testing at the time of development process also. This paper will give you a brief introduction about Automated API Testing Tool. This tool of testing will reduce lots of headache after the whole development of software. It saves time as well as money. Such type of testing is helpful in the Industries & Colleges also.

  4. Textiles Performance Testing Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Textiles Performance Testing Facilities has the capabilities to perform all physical wet and dry performance testing, and visual and instrumental color analysis...

  5. Electromagnetic Interface Testing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electromagnetic Interface Testing facilitysupports such testing asEmissions, Field Strength, Mode Stirring, EMP Pulser, 4 Probe Monitoring/Leveling System, and...

  6. Mobile Test Capabilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electrical Power Mobile Test capabilities are utilized to conduct electrical power quality testing on aircraft and helicopters. This capability allows that the...

  7. GPS Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Global Positioning System (GPS) Test Facility Instrumentation Suite (GPSIS) provides great flexibility in testing receivers by providing operational control of...

  8. Test Control Center (TCC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Test Control Center (TCC) provides a consolidated facility for planning, coordinating, controlling, monitoring, and analyzing distributed test events. ,The TCC...

  9. FOOD SAFETY TESTING LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory develops screening assays, tests and modifies biosensor equipment, and optimizes food safety testing protocols for the military and civilian sector...

  10. Investigation of Low Temperature Toughness and Crack Initiation In Welded Structural Steels

    OpenAIRE

    Vadholm, Therese

    2014-01-01

    A 420 MPa HSLA steel has been investigated. Instrumented Charpy impact tests and quasi-static CTOD tests have been performed on specimens of weld simulated Coarse Grained Heat Affected Zone (CGHAZ) and Intercritically Reheated Coarse Grained Heat Affected Zone (ICCGHAZ) microstructures. Charpy specimens with both a conventional V-notch and a sharp crack obtained by fatigue pre-cracking have been tested above and below the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature. The aim of the first two par...

  11. On the unloading compliance method for crack length measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unloading compliance tests have been performed on blunt notched Charpy specimens in order to quantify the extraneous displacements arising during unloading in a three point bend fracture toughness testing fixture. An expression is derived which quantifies the extraneous displacements and enables the unloading compliance to be accurately evaluated. Results are presented from tests on pre-cracked Charpy specimens which demonstrate close agreement between measured crack lengths and those predicted using the corrected unloading compliance. (author)

  12. Localizing Test Power Consumption for Scan Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Dong; LI Kai-wei

    2005-01-01

    A two stage scan architecture is proposed to do low powerand low test application cost scan testing. The first stage includes multiple scan chains, where each scan chain is driven by a primary input. Each scan flip-flop in the multiple scan chains drives a group of scan flip-flops. The scan flip-flop in the multiple scan chain and the scan flipflop driven by it are assigned the same values for all test vectors. Scan flip-flops in the multiple scan chains and those in the second stage use separate clock signals, but the design for testability technqiue needs only one clock. The proposed scan architecture localizes test power consumption to the multiple scan chains during test application. Test signals assigned to scan flip-flops in the multiple scan chains are applied to the scan flip-flops in the second stage after the test vector has been applied to the multiple scan chains. This technique can make test power consumption very small.

  13. Digface characterization test plan (remote testing)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croft, K.; Hyde, R.; Allen, S.

    1993-08-01

    The objective of the Digface Characterization (DFC) Remote Testing project is to remotely deploy a sensor head (Mini-Lab) across a digface to determine if it can characterize the contents below the surface. The purpose of this project is to provide a robotics technology that allows removal of workers from hazards, increases speed of operations, and reduces life cycle costs compared to alternate methods and technologies. The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is funding the demonstration, testing, and evaluation of DFC. This document describes the test plan for the DFC remote deployment demonstration for the BWID. The purposes of the test plan are to establish test parameters so that the demonstration results are deemed useful and usable and perform the demonstration in a safe manner and within all regulatory requirements.

  14. Test report for core drilling ignitability testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testing was carried out with the cooperation of Westinghouse Hanford Company and the United States Bureau of Mines at the Pittsburgh Research Center in Pennsylvania under the Memorandum of Agreement 14- 09-0050-3666. Several core drilling equipment items, specifically those which can come in contact with flammable gasses while drilling into some waste tanks, were tested under conditions similar to actual field sampling conditions. Rotary drilling against steel and rock as well as drop testing of several different pieces of equipment in a flammable gas environment were the specific items addressed. The test items completed either caused no ignition of the gas mixture, or, after having hardware changes or drilling parameters modified, produced no ignition in repeat testing

  15. Digface characterization test plan (remote testing)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the Digface Characterization (DFC) Remote Testing project is to remotely deploy a sensor head (Mini-Lab) across a digface to determine if it can characterize the contents below the surface. The purpose of this project is to provide a robotics technology that allows removal of workers from hazards, increases speed of operations, and reduces life cycle costs compared to alternate methods and technologies. The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is funding the demonstration, testing, and evaluation of DFC. This document describes the test plan for the DFC remote deployment demonstration for the BWID. The purposes of the test plan are to establish test parameters so that the demonstration results are deemed useful and usable and perform the demonstration in a safe manner and within all regulatory requirements

  16. Integrated Test and Evaluation Flight Test 3 Flight Test Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Michael Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    The desire and ability to fly Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) is of increasing urgency. The application of unmanned aircraft to perform national security, defense, scientific, and emergency management are driving the critical need for less restrictive access by UAS to the NAS. UAS represent a new capability that will provide a variety of services in the government (public) and commercial (civil) aviation sectors. The growth of this potential industry has not yet been realized due to the lack of a common understanding of what is required to safely operate UAS in the NAS. NASA's UAS Integration into the NAS Project is conducting research in the areas of Separation Assurance/Sense and Avoid Interoperability, Human Systems Integration (HSI), and Communication to support reducing the barriers of UAS access to the NAS. This research is broken into two research themes namely, UAS Integration and Test Infrastructure. UAS Integration focuses on airspace integration procedures and performance standards to enable UAS integration in the air transportation system, covering Sense and Avoid (SAA) performance standards, command and control performance standards, and human systems integration. The focus of Test Infrastructure is to enable development and validation of airspace integration procedures and performance standards, including the integrated test and evaluation. In support of the integrated test and evaluation efforts, the Project will develop an adaptable, scalable, and schedulable relevant test environment capable of evaluating concepts and technologies for unmanned aircraft systems to safely operate in the NAS. To accomplish this task, the Project will conduct a series of Human-in-the-Loop and Flight Test activities that integrate key concepts, technologies and/or procedures in a relevant air traffic environment. Each of the integrated events will build on the technical achievements, fidelity and complexity of the previous tests and

  17. Load testing circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A load testing circuit a circuit tests the load impedance of a load connected to an amplifier. The load impedance includes a first terminal and a second terminal, the load testing circuit comprising a signal generator providing a test signal of a defined bandwidth to the first terminal of the load...

  18. Nationale test i naturfag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Karen Egedal; Jensen, Lars Bang

    2015-01-01

    Kapitlet rummer en analyse og diskussion af test inden for naturfagsområdet og de fagforståelser de afspejler med fokus på de nationale test.......Kapitlet rummer en analyse og diskussion af test inden for naturfagsområdet og de fagforståelser de afspejler med fokus på de nationale test....

  19. Color vision test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eye test -- color; Vision test -- color; Ishihara color vision test ... lighting. The health care provider will explain the test to you. You will be shown several cards with colored dot patterns. These cards are called Ishihara plates. In the patterns, some of the dots ...

  20. Irradiation effects test series, test IE-5. Test results report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Test IE-5, conducted in the Power Burst Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, employed three 0.97-m long pressurized water reactor type fuel rods, fabricated from previously irradiated zircaloy-4 cladding and one similar rod fabricated from unirradiated cladding. The objectives of the test were to evaluate the influence of simulated fission products, cladding irradiation damage, and fuel rod internal pressure on pellet-cladding interaction during a power ramp and on fuel rod behavior during film boiling operation. The four rods were subjected to a preconditioning period, a power ramp to an average fuel rod peak power of 65 kW/m, and steady state operation for one hour at a coolant mass flux of 4880 kg/s-m2 for each rod. After a flow reduction to 1800 kg/s-m2, film boiling occurred on one rod. Additional flow reductions to 970 kg/s-m2 produced film boiling on the three remaining fuel rods. Maximum time in film boiling was 80s. The rod having the highest initial internal pressure (8.3 MPa) failed 10s after the onset of film boiling. A second rod failed about 90s after reactor shutdown. The report contains a description of the experiment, the test conduct, test results, and results from the preliminary postirradiation examination. Calculations using a transient fuel rod behavior code are compared with the test results

  1. Flight Test Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlock, Kate Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Although the scope of flight test engineering efforts may vary among organizations, all point to a common theme: flight test engineering is an interdisciplinary effort to test an asset in its operational flight environment. Upfront planning where design, implementation, and test efforts are clearly aligned with the flight test objective are keys to success. This chapter provides a top level perspective of flight test engineering for the non-expert. Additional research and reading on the topic is encouraged to develop a deeper understanding of specific considerations involved in each phase of flight test engineering.

  2. ITER test programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ITER has been designed to operate in two phases. The first phase which lasts for 6 years, is devoted to machine checkout and physics testing. The second phase lasts for 8 years and is devoted primarily to technology testing. This report describes the technology test program development for ITER, the ancillary equipment outside the torus necessary to support the test modules, the international collaboration aspects of conducting the test program on ITER, the requirements on the machine major parameters and the R and D program required to develop the test modules for testing in ITER. 15 refs, figs and tabs

  3. Numeracy Tests For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Beveridge, Colin

    2012-01-01

    The easy way to get practice and excel at numeracy tests Whether you're looking for a new job, applying to certain university courses, or attempting to join the military, you're increasingly likely to face a numeracy test as part of the screening process. And the only way to prepare for a numeracy test is practise. Numeracy Tests For Dummies is an accessible one-stop guide to pass these test. Featuring expert advice, instruction, review, and plenty of practise, Numeracy Tests For Dummies will help you succeed. Numeracy Tests For Dummies contains instruction and revision on:Basic mathematical k

  4. Dtest Testing Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Abhinandan; Cameron, Jonathan M.; Myint, Steven

    2013-01-01

    This software runs a suite of arbitrary software tests spanning various software languages and types of tests (unit level, system level, or file comparison tests). The dtest utility can be set to automate periodic testing of large suites of software, as well as running individual tests. It supports distributing multiple tests over multiple CPU cores, if available. The dtest tool is a utility program (written in Python) that scans through a directory (and its subdirectories) and finds all directories that match a certain pattern and then executes any tests in that directory as described in simple configuration files.

  5. Pancreatic exocrine function testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is important to understand which pancreatic function tests are available and how to interpret them when evaluating patients with malabsorption. Available direct tests are the secretin stimulation test, the Lundh test meal, and measurement of serum or fecal enzymes. Indirect tests assess pancreatic exocrine function by measuring the effect of pancreatic secretion on various nutrients. These include triglycerides labeled with carbon 14, cobalamin labeled with cobalt 57 and cobalt 58, and para-aminobenzoic acid bound to a dipeptide. Of all these tests the secretin stimulation test is the most accurate and reliable if done by experienced personnel. However, the indirect tests are simpler to do and appear to be comparable to the secretin test at detecting pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. These indirect tests are becoming clinically available and clinicians should familiarize themselves with the strengths and weaknesses of each

  6. Grimsel test site. Overview and test programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge of the host rock and surrounding rock strata is of fundamental importance for concepts which provide for final disposal of radioactive waste in geological formations. Taking the studies in the Stripa Rock Laboratory into account, the objectives of the Grimsel Test Site were defined as follows: checking the applicability of foreign research results to geological conditions in Switzerland; carrying out specific experiments which are necessary in the context of the Nagra disposal concepts; acquisition of know-how in planning, implementation and interpretation of underground tests in different experimental areas; acquisition of practical experience in development, testing and use of experimental apparatus and measurement methods. At Grimsel, experiments are to be carried out in the following fields: excavation tests; migration; rock stress measurements; neo-tectonics; geophysics; heat-induced processes; hydrogeology; laboratory experiments. Various tests are already under way. The Grimsel Test Site was established between April 1983 and May 1984. It lies at a depth of 450 m under the Juchlistock and is reached by an access tunnel. The Test Site is operated by Nagra. The experiments are carried out by Nagra and the following two German research establishments: the 'Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR)' and the 'Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung (GSF)', both under the auspices of the German 'Bundesministerium fuer Forschung und Technologie (BMFT)'. (author)

  7. RT Level Test Scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    J. Blatný; Z. Kotásek; J. Hlavička

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes a new model of exploiting parallelism in testing of VLSI circuits. A circuit at the register transfer level is denoted as an RTL circuit. The model utilizes the concept of TACG (Test Application Conflict Graph). For the testing process the resource utilization model is defined and used for the TACG construction.  Different conflicts that must be taken into account during an RTL circuit test scheduling are presented. The problem of concurrent test application is transf...

  8. POWER CONSCIOUS TESTING

    OpenAIRE

    BONHOMME Y.; Girard, P.; LANDRAULT C.; PRAVOSSOUDOVITCH S.

    2003-01-01

    Test power relates to the power consumed during test of integrated circuits or embedded cores. Test power is now a big concern in large System-on-Chip designs. In this paper, we propose to shortly review the state-of-the-art in this domain. We first survey the recent approaches proposed for minimizing test power. Next, we propose some interesting directions for the development of new low power testing techniques by enumerating the relevant criteria that have to be satisfied.

  9. Pancreatic Exocrine Function Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Goff, John S.

    1982-01-01

    It is important to understand which pancreatic function tests are available and how to interpret them when evaluating patients with malabsorption. Available direct tests are the secretin stimulation test, the Lundh test meal, and measurement of serum or fecal enzymes. Indirect tests assess pancreatic exocrine function by measuring the effect of pancreatic secretion on various nutrients. These include triglycerides labeled with carbon 14, cobalamin labeled with cobalt 57 and cobalt 58, and par...

  10. Irradiation Effects Test Series: Test IE-3. Test results report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the test reported were to: (a) determine the behavior of irradiated fuel rods subjected to a rapid power increase during which the possibility of a pellet-cladding mechanical interaction failure is enhanced and (b) determine the behavior of these fuel rods during film boiling following this rapid power increase. Test IE-3 used four 0.97-m long pressurized water reactor type fuel rods fabricated from previously irradiated fuel. The fuel rods were subjected to a preconditioning period, followed by a power ramp to 69 kW/m at a coolant mass flux of 4920 kg/s-m2. After a flow reduction to 2120 kg/s-m2, film boiling occurred on the fuel rods. One rod failed approximately 45 seconds after the reactor was shut down as a result of cladding embrittlement due to extensive cladding oxidation. Data are presented on the behavior of these irradiated fuel rods during steady-state operation, the power ramp, and film boiling operation. The effects of a power ramp and power ramp rates on pellet-cladding interaction are discussed. Test data are compared with FRAP-T3 computer model calculations and data from a previous Irradiation Effects test in which four irradiated fuel rods of a similar design were tested. Test IE-3 results indicate that the irradiated state of the fuel rods did not significantly affect fuel rod behavior during normal, abnormal (power ramp of 20 kW/m per minute), and accident (film boiling) conditions

  11. Teste de vasorreatividade pulmonar Testing pulmonary vasoreactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Clarindo Oliveira

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A hipertensão arterial pulmonar é classificada como idiopática ou secundária (associada a colagenoses, cardiopatias, hipertensão portal, tromboembolismo pulmonar e doenças da vasculatura pulmonar. O teste de vasorreatividade pulmonar é indicado para definir a melhor opção terapêutica. Muitas drogas têm sido utilizadas para a realização desse teste, sendo o óxido nítrico inalado a melhor opção, por apresentar ação específica pulmonar e meia vida muita curta (5-10 s. O resultado desse teste identifica candidatos à cirurgia cardíaca nas cardiopatias congênitas e candidatos ao uso de antagonista de cálcio nas outras formas de hipertensão pulmonar. A realização e interpretação do teste de vasorreatividade pulmonar exigem grande responsabilidade, e erros podem levar a decisões erradas e à ocorrência de óbitos.Pulmonary arterial hypertension is classified as idiopathic or secondary (associated with collagenoses, heart disease, portal hypertension, pulmonary thromboembolism, and pulmonary vascular diseases. Pulmonary vasoreactivity should be tested in order to define the best treatment option. Of the many drugs that have been used to test pulmonary vasoreactivity, inhaled nitric oxide is the best choice, due its specific pulmonary effect and very short half-life (5-10 s. The results of this test identify candidates for heart surgery among patients with congenital heart disease and candidates for the use of calcium antagonists among patients with other forms of pulmonary hypertension. Performing and interpreting the results of such tests are a great responsibility, since mistakes can lead to incorrect treatment decisions, resulting in the death of patients.

  12. Role of test motivation in intelligence testing

    OpenAIRE

    Duckworth, Angela Lee; Quinn, Patrick D.; Lynam, Donald R.; Loeber, Rolf; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    2011-01-01

    Intelligence tests are widely assumed to measure maximal intellectual performance, and predictive associations between intelligence quotient (IQ) scores and later-life outcomes are typically interpreted as unbiased estimates of the effect of intellectual ability on academic, professional, and social life outcomes. The current investigation critically examines these assumptions and finds evidence against both. First, we examined whether motivation is less than maximal on intelligence tests adm...

  13. The Danish National Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beuchert, Louise Voldby; Nandrup, Anne Brink

    In 2010, the Danish National Tests were implemented in the public compulsory schools as a mean of evaluating the performance of the public school system. The extensive test program consists of ten mandatory tests in six subjects in grades 2 through 8. In this paper, we share our insights from...... working with the first four rounds of the test data. We provide a brief introduction to adaptive testing, the available data and general data issues including missing data, test participation and data transformations. Additionally, we construct a standardized measure of the raw pupil ability estimate...... within each test and argue that this is often a more feasible measure for data analyses compared to the transformed test score presented to pupils and teachers. We provide the reader with preliminary analyses of the relation between pupils' national test results and a wide range of pupil background...

  14. Nondestructive testing of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NUKEM has transferred know-how from reactor technology to materials testing. The high and to a large extent new quality standards in the nuclear industry necessitate reliable measuring and testing equipment of the highest precision. Many of the tasks presented to us could not be solved with the equipment available on the market, for which reason we have developed our own measuring, testing and control systems. We have therefore acquired considerable experience in dealing with specific measuring, testing and control tasks and can handle even out-of-the-way problems that are submitted to us from a wide variety of fields. Our mechanical systems for the checking of close-tolerance gaps, the automatic determination of pellet dimensions and the measurement of absolute lengths and absolute velocities are in use in many different industrial fields. We have succeeded in solving unusual testing and sorting problems with the aid of automated surface testing equipment working on optical principles. Our main activities in the field of non-destructive testing have been concentrated on ultrasonic and eddy current testing and, of late, acoustic emission analysis. NUKEM ultrasonic systems are notable for their high defect detection rate and testing accuracy, combined with high testing speed. The equipment we supply includes ultrasonic rotary systems for the production testing of quality tubes, ultrasonic immersion systems for the final testing of reactor cladding tubes, weld testing equipment, and test equipment for the bonds in multi-layer plates. (orig./RW)

  15. Advanced test reactor. Testing capabilities and plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is one of the world's premier test reactors for providing the capability for studying the effects of intense neutron and gamma radiation on reactor materials and fuels. The physical configuration of the ATR, a 4-leaf clover shape, allows the reactor to be operated at different power levels in the corner 'lobes' to allow for different testing conditions for multiple simultaneous experiments. The combination of high flux (maximum thermal neutron fluxes of 1E15 neutrons per square centimeter per second and maximum fast [E>1.0 MeV] neutron fluxes of 5E14 neutrons per square centimeter per second) and large test volumes (up to 122 cm long and 12.7 cm diameter) provide unique testing opportunities. For future research, some ATR modifications and enhancements are currently planned. In 2007 the US Department of Energy designated the ATR as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) to facilitate greater access to the ATR for material testing research by a broader user community. This paper provides more details on some of the ATR capabilities, key design features, experiments, and plants for the NSUF. (author)

  16. Comparative Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

     This document includes a definition of the comparative test cases DSF200_3 and DSF200_4, which previously described in the comparative test case specification for the test cases DSF100_3 and DSF200_3 [Ref.1]....... This document includes a definition of the comparative test cases DSF200_3 and DSF200_4, which previously described in the comparative test case specification for the test cases DSF100_3 and DSF200_3 [Ref.1]....

  17. Materials Test Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Gail

    2012-01-01

    The Materials Test Branch resides at Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing laboratory and has a long history of supporting NASA programs from Mercury to the recently retired Space Shuttle. The Materials Test Branch supports its customers by supplying materials testing expertise in a wide range of applications. The Materials Test Branch is divided into three Teams, The Chemistry Team, The Tribology Team and the Mechanical Test Team. Our mission and goal is to provide world-class engineering excellence in materials testing with a special emphasis on customer service.

  18. On Reading Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙健

    2005-01-01

    There has been a long discussion over the construct validity of reading tests. In china's reading tests, multiple choice is the main test method in view of the4 long controversy over the validity of multiple choice, construct validation is called for to empirically test the hypothesized relationships between test scores and abilities. The national CET committee conducted a comprehensive validation study. As part of the project, the specialists studied the reading comprehension test's validity by qualitative means, namely "introspective verbal reports". The analysis revealed that an overwhelming majority of the questions items were handled through "expected reading operations".

  19. Rules for Optical Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2014-01-01

    Based on 30 years of optical testing experience, a lot of mistakes, a lot of learning and a lot of experience, I have defined seven guiding principles for optical testing - regardless of how small or how large the optical testing or metrology task: Fully Understand the Task, Develop an Error Budget, Continuous Metrology Coverage, Know where you are, Test like you fly, Independent Cross-Checks, Understand All Anomalies. These rules have been applied with great success to the inprocess optical testing and final specification compliance testing of the JWST mirrors.

  20. Testing (HIV). Quick test receives Singapore approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-04-22

    Hema-Strip HIV 1/2 is a rapid HIV antibody immunoassay developed by Saliva Diagnostic Systems, Inc. (SDS) which can be used by anyone who can read the product insert. The test kit is comprised of a small lancet for a finger stick, a cylindrical tube with a capillary tip and a SDS diagnostic strip inside, and a vial of buffer. Once blood is drawn by the lancet, the capillary tip is placed upon the blood droplet and the blood is automatically drawn into the tube. The tube is then inserted tip first into the vial of buffer. The buffer and blood migrate over the diagnostic strip inside, yielding stable results within 15 minutes. Studies have found Hema-Strip HIV 1/2 to have a sensitivity and specificity greater than 99.4%, as accurate as most conventional HIV tests which require the use of laboratory equipment and trained staff, and possibly hours to produce results. Moreover, the test kit requires neither refrigeration nor special storage. Hema-Strip HIV 1/2 has received a certificate of free sale from the Ministry of Health in Singapore and is now being submitted for regulatory approval in Brazil, China, Russia, India, Malaysia, Thailand, and the UK. SDS products in production include Sero-Strip HIV 1/2, a rapid serum-based HIV antibody test; Omni-SAL, a saliva collector which is the principal sample collection device used by British insurance companies for HIV testing with other confirmatory tests; Omni-Swab, a serrated swab which collects body fluids or cells; Saliva-Sampler, a saliva collection device used for general testing purposes; and Saliva Check, a test which checks the composition of saliva samples. SDS is in the final stages of developing Saliva-Strip HIV-1/2, a rapid saliva-based HIV antibody test. The company also intends to complete development in 1996 of a rapid blood-based antibody test for the Helicobacter pylori bacteria, a pathogen linked to 80% of peptic ulcers and gastric cancers. PMID:12290908

  1. Gas Test Loop Booster Fuel Hydraulic Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gas Test Loop Hydraulic Testing Staff

    2006-09-01

    The Gas Test Loop (GTL) project is for the design of an adaptation to the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to create a fast-flux test space where fuels and materials for advanced reactor concepts can undergo irradiation testing. Incident to that design, it was found necessary to make use of special booster fuel to enhance the neutron flux in the reactor lobe in which the Gas Test Loop will be installed. Because the booster fuel is of a different composition and configuration from standard ATR fuel, it is necessary to qualify the booster fuel for use in the ATR. Part of that qualification is the determination that required thermal hydraulic criteria will be met under routine operation and under selected accident scenarios. The Hydraulic Testing task in the GTL project facilitates that determination by measuring flow coefficients (pressure drops) over various regions of the booster fuel over a range of primary coolant flow rates. A high-fidelity model of the NW lobe of the ATR with associated flow baffle, in-pile-tube, and below-core flow channels was designed, constructed and located in the Idaho State University Thermal Fluids Laboratory. A circulation loop was designed and constructed by the university to provide reactor-relevant water flow rates to the test system. Models of the four booster fuel elements required for GTL operation were fabricated from aluminum (no uranium or means of heating) and placed in the flow channel. One of these was instrumented with Pitot tubes to measure flow velocities in the channels between the three booster fuel plates and between the innermost and outermost plates and the side walls of the flow annulus. Flow coefficients in the range of 4 to 6.5 were determined from the measurements made for the upper and middle parts of the booster fuel elements. The flow coefficient for the lower end of the booster fuel and the sub-core flow channel was lower at 2.3.

  2. Environmental Test Facility (ETF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Environmental Test Facility (ETF) provides non-isolated shock testing for stand-alone equipment and full size cabinets under MIL-S-901D specifications. The ETF...

  3. Directory of Medical Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... variety of illnesses or signs of infection. Blood chemistry test. Basic blood chemistry tests measure the levels ...

  4. The non destructive testings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the author after having indicated the methods used in nondestructive testing presents 4 of these methods - X-ray and gamma radiography - ultrasonic testing - eddy current - acoustic emission

  5. Test Your Asthma Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section Test Your Asthma Knowledge Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents For ... Asthma: A Chance to Heal / Test Your Asthma Knowledge Fall 2007 Issue: Volume 2 Number 4 Page ...

  6. Rapid Lead Screening Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Procedures In Vitro Diagnostics Lab Tests Rapid Lead Screening Test Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... reducing the need for a follow-up visit. Lead Risk Links Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( ...

  7. Variable Attitude Test Stand

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Variable Attitude Test Stand designed and built for testing of the V-22 tilt rotor aircraft propulsion system, is used to evaluate the effect of aircraft flight...

  8. Insensitive Munitions Testing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Insensitive Munitions Testing at RTC is conducted (IAW MILSTD-2105) at Test Area 4. Our engineers and technicians obtain data for hazards classification and safety...

  9. Get Tested for Glaucoma!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Glaucoma Get Tested for Glaucoma! Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of ... and why it is so important to get tested. To Find Out More MedlinePlus: www.medlineplus.gov ...

  10. Get Your Eyes Tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print This Topic En español Get Your Eyes Tested Browse Sections The Basics Overview Eye Exams Vision ... The Basics The Basics: Overview Have your eyes tested (examined) regularly to help find problems early, when ...

  11. HPV DNA test

    Science.gov (United States)

    The HPV DNA test is used to check for high-risk HPV infection in women. HPV infection around the genitals is ... warts spread when you have sex. The HPV-DNA test is generally not recommended for detecting low- ...

  12. Strep Throat Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this website will be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Strep Throat Test Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Throat Culture; Culture, Throat; Rapid Strep Test; Rapid Antigen Detection ...

  13. HIV Antibody Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: HIV Screening Tests; AIDS Test; AIDS Screen; HIV Serology; ...

  14. Atlantic Test Range (ATR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — ATR controls fully-instrumented and integrated test ranges that provide full-service support for cradle-to-grave testing. Airspace and surface target areas are used...

  15. Understanding Laboratory Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates the development and marketing of all laboratory tests that use test kits ... at the National Institutes of Health FOLLOW US Facebook Twitter Instagram YouTube Google+ LinkedIn GovDelivery RSS CONTACT ...

  16. CSD skin test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003385.htm CSD skin test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The cat scratch disease (CSD) skin test was once used to help ...

  17. Ultrasonic testing X gammagraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experience of 10 years for substituting gammagraphy tests by ultrasonic tests is related. A comparative evaluation of data obtained from both techniques applied to welded butt joints is presented. (author)

  18. Integrated Usability Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Ternauciuc

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is essential to regularly test the usability of a learning management system, in order to ensure a fast adoption by new users and rapidly shift the focus from the platform to the content and the learning experience. Quantitative testing yields the most reliable results due to the large number of data points acquired, but lacks the in-depth analysis of the qualitative research from a controlled testing setup. We are proposing in this paper an integrated usability testing tool, which can replace a certain type of laboratory testing, where the users’ actions on the real platform are measured and analyzed. We conducted tests with the tool and compared the results with a small scale laboratory test using the same scenarios. The results seem to confirm the proposed tool as a viable alternative to the laboratory test.

  19. [Hydrogen Breath Tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häussler, Ulrich; Götz, Martin

    2016-02-01

    In the field of gastroenterology hydrogen breath test are used for the diagnosis of carbohydrate malabsorption and small intestine bacterial overgrowth. This paper provides information on performing a hydrogen breath test and shows potential sources of error. PMID:26886040

  20. LDL Particle Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tests: HDL Cholesterol ; LDL Cholesterol ; Direct LDL Cholesterol ; Lipid Profile ; Cholesterol ; Apo A-I ; Apo B ; Lp(a) ; ... is typically done along with or following a lipid profile . While for many people, the LDL-C test ...

  1. Urine specific gravity test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration of all chemical particles in the urine. ... changes to will tell the provider the specific gravity of your urine. The dipstick test gives only ...

  2. Quadruple screen test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... defects of the spinal column and brain (called neural tube defects). This test is a screening test, so it ... Absence of part of the brain and skull (anencephaly) Defect in the baby's intestines or other nearby ...

  3. PHYSICAL SIMULATION & TEST

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Crew Station/Turret Motion Based Simulator (CS/TMBS) Test station simulates operational scenarios The CS/TMBS is a high-capacity six-degrees-of-freedom test device....

  4. Exams and Test Descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Exams and Tests for Cancer Learn about the tests ... and classify cancer may relieve some of your stress. It can also help you work with your ...

  5. Lyme Disease Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Lyme Disease Tests Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... else I should know? How is it used? Lyme disease tests are used to determine if a person ...

  6. Urine specific gravity test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003587.htm Urine specific gravity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration ...

  7. Quadruple screen test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... screen; Multiple marker screening; AFP plus; Triple screen test; AFP maternal; MSAFP; 4-marker screen ... This test is most often done between the 15th and 22nd weeks of the pregnancy. It is most accurate ...

  8. USA Hire Testing Platform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The USA Hire Testing Platform delivers tests used in hiring for positions in the Federal Government. To safeguard the integrity of the hiring processes and ensure...

  9. Testing for HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Home Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Safety & Availability (Biologics) HIV Home Test Kits Testing for HIV Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  10. Static Loads Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides the capability to perform large-scale structural loads testing on spacecraft and other structures. Results from these tests can be used to verify...

  11. Vitamin A blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003570.htm Vitamin A blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The vitamin A test measures the level of vitamin A ...

  12. Dexamethasone suppression test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be due to: Adrenal tumor that produces cortisol Pituitary tumor that produces ACTH Tumor in the body that ... test: no change Cushing syndrome caused by a pituitary tumor (Cushing disease) Low-dose test: no change High- ...

  13. Home blood sugar testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000324.htm Home blood sugar testing To use the sharing features on this ... with their nutrition and activity plans. Check Your Blood Sugar Often Usual times to test your blood sugar ...

  14. Growth hormone test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003706.htm Growth hormone test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone test measures the amount of growth hormone in ...

  15. Cholesterol testing and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000386.htm Cholesterol testing and results To use the sharing features ... can tell you what your goal should be. Cholesterol Tests Some cholesterol is considered good and some ...

  16. Lung diffusion testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003854.htm Lung diffusion testing To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lung diffusion testing measures how well the lungs exchange ...

  17. Myasthenia Gravis Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Myasthenia Gravis Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... Tests The goals with testing are to diagnose myasthenia gravis (MG), distinguish it from other conditions with ...

  18. Learning Python testing

    CERN Document Server

    Arbuckle, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This book is ideal if you want to learn about the testing disciplines and automated testing tools from a hands-on, conversational guide. You should already know Python and be comfortable with Python 3.

  19. Test i folkeskolen

    OpenAIRE

    Barnung, Kristine Krøyer; Danielsen, Mads Danker; Frich, Dorthea Holm; Hansen, Anja; Helms, Stine; Jessen, Ditte Strandbygaard

    2007-01-01

    Projektet omhandler et casestudie af en folkeskoleklasse, hvor test spiller en stor rolle i hverdagen. Interviews med klassens elever og lærere analyseres ud fra prblemstillingen: Hvilke betingelser skaber test for folkeskoleelevers motivation og læring?

  20. Screening Tests and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Us Text size | Print | Screening Tests and Vaccines This information in Spanish ( en español ) Getting important screening tests and vaccines can save your life. Check this section of ...

  1. Ballistic Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Ballistic Test Facility is comprised of two outdoor and one indoor test ranges, which are all instrumented for data acquisition and analysis. Full-size aircraft...

  2. Hepatitis B Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Hepatitis B Testing Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: HBV Tests; Hep B; anti-HBs; Hepatitis B Surface Antibody; HBsAg; Hepatitis ...

  3. HPV and HPV Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Close + - Text Size HPV and HPV Testing Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) What are viruses? Viruses are very ... does it mean? If you have cervical human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and an abnormal Pap test ...

  4. Sickle Cell Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Sickle Cell Tests Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... else I should know? How is it used? Sickle cell tests are used to identify the presence of ...

  5. Learning Android application testing

    CERN Document Server

    Blundell, Paul

    2015-01-01

    If you are an Android developer looking to test your applications or optimize your application development process, then this book is for you. No previous experience in application testing is required.

  6. Beyond the Turing Test

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus, Gary; New York University; Rossi, Francesca; University of Padova; Veloso, Manuela; Carnegie Mellon University

    2016-01-01

    The articles in this special issue of AI Magazine include those that propose specific tests, and those that look at the challenges inherent in building robust, valid, and reliable tests for advancing the state of the art in AI.

  7. Genetic Testing and PXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donate Search form Search You are here Home › Genetic Testing and PXE Shi Y, Terry SF, Terry ... LG, Gerard GF. Development of a rapid, reliable genetic test for pseudoxanthoma elasticum . J Mol Diagn . 2007 ...

  8. Proficiency Testing in Nondestructive Testing (NDT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Department of Standard Malaysia (DSM) launched myPTP programme on 31 December 2013 in accordance to ISO/IC 17043. The standard states the requirements for Proficiency Testing. The provider of these services is called Proficiency Testing Provider (PTP). The role of PTP is to compare the proficiency level between inspection bodies or laboratories. With the assistance of expert panel, the PTP will determine the assigned value as reference to be compared to the values obtained from the inspection bodies or laboratories. Quality wise, this services is important as participation will improve wuality of the inspection quality continuously and increase confidence level of client and improve safety level. Requirement of PT in NDT is mentioned in SC1.5- Specific Criteria for Accreditation of Mechanical Testing and Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) for MS ISO/IEC17025 and MTR2- MIBAS Technical Requirements for Accreditation of NDT. This paper explains and discusses the result of this proficiency test done on a number of NDT companies that participated. (author)

  9. Tests in Print II: An Index to Tests, Test Reviews, and the Literature on Specific Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buros, Oscar K., Ed.

    Tests in Print II is a comprehensive, annotated bibliography of all in-print tests published as separates for use with English-speaking subjects. The 1,155 two-column pages list 2,467 tests in print as of early 1974; 16,574 references through 1971 on specific tests; a reprinting of the 1974 APA-AERA-NCME Standards for Educational andPsychological…

  10. Serum bactericidal test.

    OpenAIRE

    Stratton, C W

    1988-01-01

    The serum bactericidal test represents one of the few in vitro tests performed in the clinical microbiology laboratory that combines the interaction of the pathogen, the antimicrobial agent, and the patient. Although the use of such a test antedates the antimicrobial era, its performance, results, and interpretation have been subject to question and controversy. Much of the confusion concerning the serum bactericidal test can be avoided by an understanding of the various factors which influen...

  11. Uniform Test Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, Dmitry I.

    2008-01-01

    In educational practice, a test assembly problem is formulated as a system of inequalities induced by test specifications. Each solution to the system is a test, represented by a 0-1 vector, where each element corresponds to an item included (1) or not included (0) into the test. Therefore, the size of a 0-1 vector equals the number of items "n"…

  12. Security Testing: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Felderer, M.; Büchlein, M.; Johns, M; Brucker, A.D.; Breu, R.; Pretschner, A.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying vulnerabilities and ensuring security functionality by security testing is a widely applied measure to evaluate and improve the security of software. Due to the openness of modern software-based systems, applying appropriate security testing techniques is of growing importance and essential to perform effective and efficient security testing. Therefore, an overview of actual security testing techniques is of high value both for researchers to evaluate and refine the techniques and...

  13. Automation of dissolution tests

    OpenAIRE

    Rolf Rolli

    2003-01-01

    Dissolution testing of drug formulations was introduced in the 1960s and accepted by health regulatory authorities in the 1970s. Since then, the importance of dissolution has grown rapidly as have the number of tests and demands in quality-control laboratories. Recent research works lead to the development of in-vitro dissolution tests as replacements for human and animal bioequivalence studies. For many years, a lot of time and effort has been invested in automation of dissolution tests. The...

  14. Blade Testing Trends (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desmond, M.

    2014-08-01

    As an invited guest speaker, Michael Desmond presented on NREL's NWTC structural testing methods and capabilities at the 2014 Sandia Blade Workshop held on August 26-28, 2014 in Albuquerque, NM. Although dynamometer and field testing capabilities were mentioned, the presentation focused primarily on wind turbine blade testing, including descriptions and capabilities for accredited certification testing, historical methodology and technology deployment, and current research and development activities.

  15. Tubing weld cracking test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A tubing weld cracking (TWC) test was developed for applications involving advanced austenitic alloys (such as modified 800H and 310HCbN). Compared to the Finger hot cracking test, the TWC test shows an enhanced ability to evaluate the crack sensitivity of tubing materials. The TWC test can evaluate the cracking tendency of base as well as filter materials. Thus, it is a useful tool for tubing suppliers, filler metal producers and fabricators

  16. Sperm function test

    OpenAIRE

    Pankaj Talwar; Suryakant Hayatnagarkar

    2015-01-01

    With absolute normal semen analysis parameters it may not be necessary to shift to specialized tests early but in cases with borderline parameters or with history of fertilization failure in past it becomes necessary to do a battery of tests to evaluate different parameters of spermatozoa. Various sperm function tests are proposed and endorsed by different researchers in addition to the routine evaluation of fertility. These tests detect function of a certain part of spermatozoon and give ins...

  17. T3RU test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your health care provider interpret the results of T3 and T4 blood tests. Because the free T4 blood test ... many different hormones, including thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), T3, and T4. This test helps see how much thyroxin binding ...

  18. Testing Java ME Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Paul POCATILU

    2008-01-01

    Today, mobile applications have a wide use and their development is growing fast. Testing mobile applications is an important aspect of their development, keeping in mind the importance of these applications and their specific characteristics. In this paper are shown the main aspects of testing the mobile applications, focusing on unit testing of Java ME applications.

  19. Testing Java ME Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul POCATILU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, mobile applications have a wide use and their development is growing fast. Testing mobile applications is an important aspect of their development, keeping in mind the importance of these applications and their specific characteristics. In this paper are shown the main aspects of testing the mobile applications, focusing on unit testing of Java ME applications.

  20. Blood Test: Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Blood Test: Glucose KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Glucose Print A A A Text Size What's in ... de sangre: glucosa What It Is A blood glucose test measures the amount of glucose (the main ...

  1. STRESS TESTING OF WOODSTOVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses stress testing of woodstoves. tress testing is a way to test the long- term durability of woodstove models in the laboratory in a 1 to 2 week time frame. (NOTE: Woodstove field studies have shown that new technology woodstoves designed to have low particulate ...

  2. Parvovirus B19 Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be done. Viral detection If a parvovirus B19 DNA test is positive, then the person is currently infected ... The PCR assay is used to detect viral DNA and is the optimal method for detecting chronic ... a reticulocyte test may be performed along with parvovirus B19 testing ...

  3. Testing Backbone.js

    CERN Document Server

    Roemer, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    This book is packed with the step by step tutorial and instructions in recipe format helping you setup test infrastructure and gradually advance your skills to plan, develop, and test your backbone applications.If you are a JavaScript developer looking for recipes to create and implement test support for your backbone application, then this book is ideal for you.

  4. About Instruction Sequence Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Bergstra

    2012-01-01

    Software testing is presented as a so-called theme within which different authors and groups have defined different subjects each of these subjects having a different focus on testing. A uniform concept of software testing is non-existent and the space of possible coherent perspectives on software t

  5. Test Reviewing in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemeister, Carmen; Kersting, Martin; Stemmler, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    In 2006, a (new) German standard for test reviewing was passed (Testkuratorium, 2006). There was already a European standard in place (European Federation of Psychologists' Associations, 2008). This article presents the German standard for test reviewing and explains how the German test review system was derived from demands in the German standard…

  6. Follow-Up Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follow-up Testing Follow-up testing is conducted to ensure that antibody levels are returning to normal, indicating that the intestine is healing on the ... has entered the diet. How often should follow-up testing occur? New celiacs should receive follow-up ...

  7. Testing Technology, June 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Getsch, B; Floyd, H L; Parrott, L; Van Arsdall, A

    1992-01-01

    This report highlights the following topics: Photon Correlation Spectroscopy--a new application in jet fuel analysis, Testing news in brief; Solar test facility supports space station research; Shock isolation technique developed for piezoresistive accelerometer; High-speed photography captures Distant Image measurements; and, Radiation effects test revised for CMOS electronics.

  8. Test Administration Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kirk A.; Bergstrom, Betty A.

    2013-01-01

    The need for increased exam security, improved test formats, more flexible scheduling, better measurement, and more efficient administrative processes has caused testing agencies to consider converting the administration of their exams from paper-and-pencil to computer-based testing (CBT). Many decisions must be made in order to provide an optimal…

  9. The Tyranny of Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    1989-01-01

    Standardized tests which measure a narrow span of intelligence unfairly penalize students whose strengths don't fall within that range. Three kinds of intelligence (analytical, creative, practical) are discussed. Sternberg's Triarchic Abilities Test, currently being test-piloted, assesses all three aspects of intelligence in contrast to current…

  10. Aldosterone and Renin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are used to treat high blood pressure. Stress, exercise, and pregnancy can also affect the test results. Coffee, tea or cola can affect the 24-hour urine sample test. Your doctor will tell you if you should change the amount of ... routine before aldosterone testing. Licorice may mimic aldosterone ...

  11. Evaluation and Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of these tests is to assess your neurological function, including your muscle strength, how your autonomic nerves are functioning, and ... causes for neuropathy. These include tests for: Vitamin B12 and folate levels Thyroid, liver and ... evaluation Oral glucose tolerance test Antibodies to ...

  12. Testing for autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J

    1984-01-01

    disease, and may be nonspecific. A number of recently developed quantifiable and reproducible autonomic nerve function tests are reviewed, with emphasis on the physiological basis of the tests and on practical applicability. Finally, diagnostic criteria, based on autonomic nerve function tests, are...

  13. Toroid magnet test facility

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Because of its exceptional size, it was not feasible to assemble and test the Barrel Toroid - made of eight coils - as an integrated toroid on the surface, prior to its final installation underground in LHC interaction point 1. It was therefore decided to test these eight coils individually in a dedicated test facility.

  14. 100 statistical tests

    CERN Document Server

    Kanji, Gopal K

    2006-01-01

    This expanded and updated Third Edition of Gopal K. Kanji's best-selling resource on statistical tests covers all the most commonly used tests with information on how to calculate and interpret results with simple datasets. Each entry begins with a short summary statement about the test's purpose, and contains details of the test objective, the limitations (or assumptions) involved, a brief outline of the method, a worked example, and the numerical calculation. 100 Statistical Tests, Third Edition is the one indispensable guide for users of statistical materials and consumers of statistical information at all levels and across all disciplines.

  15. TV-2 test borehole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new test borehole was drilled for testing logging radiometers for uranium surveying and for dimensioning logging cables. The borehole is 660 m deep and located in it are 4 artificial radioactivity anomalies. The uncased interval is 120 m long, it has significant differences in resistance (200 to 14 000 Ωm) and makes it possible to test all types of electric logging probes. The test borehole makes possible the control of logging instruments after repair in the field, the testing of new probes prior to their being put into operation, the quality and quick dimensioning of logging cables and the performing of developmental and methodological measurements. (A.K.)

  16. Effects of the neutronic irradiation on the impact tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The changes that the Charpy curves suffer when steel is exposed to neutronic fluence are studied. Three steels with different chemical composition were chosen, two of them (JPF and JPJ) being treated at only one neutronic fluence, while the last one (JRQ) was irradiated at three fluences. In this way, it was possible to compare the effect of increasing the neutronic dose, and to study the experimental results as a function of the steel chemical composition. Two characteristic facts have been observed: the displacement of the curve at higher temperatures, and decrease of the upper shelf energy (USE). The mechanical recovery of the materials after two different thermal treatments is also described, and a comparation between the experimental results obtained and the damage prediction formulas given by different regulatory international organisms in the nuclear field is established. Author. 11 refs

  17. Nondestructive testing of weldings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today the nondestructive testing of materials with transverse weldings would be often neglect. Because the production of this parts will get more expensive it is interesting to test the parts eg. cans with ultrasound. Within this research program we developed a testing device for automatically testing of materials with transverse weldings, e.g. tubes. Functional characteristics: after putting in the test tube in the testing device the transducer is adjusted automatically to the best adjustment. This takes place with three step motors. The mechanic of adjustments gets its information from an optimal computer. The optimal computer processes the signals, which it gets from the automatic evaluator during the adjustment and stores the optimal adjustment parameters. With an additional equipment on can identify the exact source of error, if the testing device turns out and the repairing of the part can take place very fast. With an appropiate mechanical science the devide is useable in a production line with high flow rate. (orig.)

  18. The LHC Injection Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Aberle, O; Aiba, M; Albert, M; Alemany-Fernandez, R; Arduini, Gianluigi; Assmann, Ralph Wolfgang; Bailey, R; Billen, R; Bottura, L; Brüning, Oliver Sim; Butterworth, A; Calaga, R; Carlier, E; Collier, P; Dehning, B; Deniau, L; Fartoukh, S; Follin, F; Forkel-Wirth, D; Fuchsberger, K; Giachino, R; Giovannozzi, M; Goddard, B; Gras, J J; Hatziangeli, E; Hagen, P; Jacquet, D; Jensen, L; Jones, R; Kain, V; Kozsar, I; Kramer, T; Kruk, G; Lamont, M; Lewis, J; Losito, R; MacPherson, A; Masi, A; Meddahi, M; Mertens, V; Misiowiec, M; Page, S; Ponce, L; Puccio, B; Redaelli, S; Roderick, C; Roesler, S; Roncarolo, F; Sapinski, M; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, R; Sliwinski, W; Steinhagen, R; Strzelczyk, M; Sun, Y; Todd, B; Todesco, E; Tomas Garcia, R; Uythoven, J; Venturini-Delsolaro, W; Vincke, H; Vincke, H; Veyrunes, E; Wenninger, J; Wolf, R; Zamantzas, C; Zimmermann, F

    2008-01-01

    A series of LHC injection tests was performed in August and September 2008. The first saw beam injected into sector 23; the second into sectors 78 and 23; the third into sectors 78-67 and sectors 23-34-45. The fourth, into sectors 23-34-45, was performed the evening before the extended injection test on the 10th September which saw both beams brought around the full circumference of the LHC. The tests enabled the testing and debugging of a number of critical control and hardware systems; testing and validation of instrumentation with beam for the first time; deployment, and validation of a number of measurement procedures. Beam based measurements revealed a number of machine configuration issues that were rapidly resolved. The tests were undoubtedly an essential precursor to the successful start of LHC beam commissioning. This paper provides an outline of preparation for the tests, the machine configuration and summarizes the measurements made and individual system performance.

  19. Testing of abrasion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of abrasion testing according to ASTM C 704-76 a is presented for steel fibre concrete mortar, fusion-cast basalt and a surface coating material and results of practical interest are mentioned. Due to the high technical demands on these materials and their specific fields of application, the very first test already supplied interesting findings. From the user's point of view, the method is an interesting alternative to the common test methods, e.g. according to DIN 52 108 (wheel test according to Boehme). In English-speaking countries, testing according to ASTM is often mandatory in the refractory industry in order to assure constant quality of refractory materials after setting. The method is characterized by good comparability and high accuracy of measurement. Only the test piece is exchanged while the test conditions remain constant, so that accurate information on the material studied is obtained. (orig.)

  20. Pendulum detector testing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detector testing device is described which provides consistent, cost-effective, repeatable results. The testing device is primarily constructed of PVC plastic and other non-metallic materials. Sensitivity of a walk-through detector system can be checked by: (1) providing a standard test object simulating the mass, size and material content of a weapon or other contraband, (2) suspending the test object in successive positions, such as head, waist and ankle levels, simulating where the contraband might be concealed on a person walking through the detector system; and (3) swinging the suspended object through each of the positions, while operating the detector system and observing its response. The test object is retained in a holder in which the orientation of the test device or target can be readily changed, to properly complete the testing requirements. 5 figs

  1. COLD TEST LOOP INTEGRATED TEST LOOP RESULTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A testing facility (Cold Test Loop) was constructed and operated to demonstrate the efficacy of the Accelerated Waste Retrieval (AWR) Project's planned sluicing approach to the remediation of Silos 1 and 2 at the Fernald Environmental Management Project near Cincinnati, Ohio. The two silos contain almost 10,000 tons of radium-bearing low-level waste, which consists primarily of solids of raffinates from processing performed on ores from the Democratic Republic of Congo (commonly referred to as ''Belgium Congo ores'') for the recovery of uranium. These silos are 80 ft in diameter, 36 ft high to the center of the dome, and 26.75 ft to the top of the vertical side walls. The test facility contained two test systems, each designed for a specific purpose. The first system, the Integrated Test Loop (ITL), a near-full-scale plant including the actual equipment to be installed at the Fernald Site, was designed to demonstrate the sluicing operation and confirm the selection of a slurry pump, the optimal sluicing nozzle operation, and the preliminary design material balance. The second system, the Component Test Loop (CTL), was designed to evaluate many of the key individual components of the waste retrieval system over an extended run. The major results of the initial testing performed during July and August 2002 confirmed that the AWR approach to sluicing was feasible. The ITL testing confirmed the following: (1) The selected slurry pump (Hazleton 3-20 type SHW) performed well and is suitable for AWR application. However, the pump's motor should be upgraded to a 200-hp model and be driven by a 150-hp variable-frequency drive (VFD). A 200-hp VFD is not much more expensive and would allow the pump to operate at full speed. (2) The best nozzle performance was achieved by using 15/16-in. nozzles operated alternately. This configuration appeared to most effectively mine the surrogate. (3) The Solartron densitometer, which was tested as an alternative mass flow measurement

  2. Elevated drum testing Phase 1 test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important part of the Hanford environmental mission is the packaging, transportation, and storage of solid radioactive wastes in metal drums. Presently storage drums are placed four to a wooden pallet with the drums banded to each other. Palletized drums are stacked three units high in pre-engineered steel structures in the 200 Area of the Hanford site. Permitted storage space is expensive to construct, maintain, and operate. Storage capacity is increased if additional drum can be stacked within existing facilities and a cost savings over new construction realized. The purpose of this plan is to outline the testing required to provide the safety criteria for elevated (i.e., tiers of four high) drum storage. The major safety concern with elevated drum storage is the danger of a significant fire in the storage facility. The major fire load within the storage facilities is combustible material contained in the drums. If a seismic event, fork lift accident, or other credible incident were to cause drum failure or lid separation, combustible material could be available for fuel. To increase the initial burn in the facilities, the drums must spill their combustible contents, making them free for ignition. If it can be shown that there is not sufficient damage to the drums to allow for release of their solid contents, then the data used for safety documentation will be re-examined. Preliminary tests conducted in the configurations detailed in this test plan have shown that drums maintain their integrity; that is the drum covers remain attached and the drums do not breach. These tests will be conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company, Equipment Development organization, who is the designated DOE Center of Excellence to conduct drop tests for Department of Transportation (DOT) certification of DOE designed packages and containers

  3. Sperm function test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwar, Pankaj; Hayatnagarkar, Suryakant

    2015-01-01

    With absolute normal semen analysis parameters it may not be necessary to shift to specialized tests early but in cases with borderline parameters or with history of fertilization failure in past it becomes necessary to do a battery of tests to evaluate different parameters of spermatozoa. Various sperm function tests are proposed and endorsed by different researchers in addition to the routine evaluation of fertility. These tests detect function of a certain part of spermatozoon and give insight on the events in fertilization of the oocyte. The sperms need to get nutrition from the seminal plasma in the form of fructose and citrate (this can be assessed by fructose qualitative and quantitative estimation, citrate estimation). They should be protected from the bad effects of pus cells and reactive oxygen species (ROS) (leukocyte detection test, ROS estimation). Their number should be in sufficient in terms of (count), structure normal to be able to fertilize eggs (semen morphology). Sperms should have intact and functioning membrane to survive harsh environment of vagina and uterine fluids (vitality and hypo-osmotic swelling test), should have good mitochondrial function to be able to provide energy (mitochondrial activity index test). They should also have satisfactory acrosome function to be able to burrow a hole in zona pellucida (acrosome intactness test, zona penetration test). Finally, they should have properly packed DNA in the nucleus to be able to transfer the male genes (nuclear chromatic decondensation test) to the oocyte during fertilization. PMID:26157295

  4. Sperm function test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Talwar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With absolute normal semen analysis parameters it may not be necessary to shift to specialized tests early but in cases with borderline parameters or with history of fertilization failure in past it becomes necessary to do a battery of tests to evaluate different parameters of spermatozoa. Various sperm function tests are proposed and endorsed by different researchers in addition to the routine evaluation of fertility. These tests detect function of a certain part of spermatozoon and give insight on the events in fertilization of the oocyte. The sperms need to get nutrition from the seminal plasma in the form of fructose and citrate (this can be assessed by fructose qualitative and quantitative estimation, citrate estimation. They should be protected from the bad effects of pus cells and reactive oxygen species (ROS (leukocyte detection test, ROS estimation. Their number should be in sufficient in terms of (count, structure normal to be able to fertilize eggs (semen morphology. Sperms should have intact and functioning membrane to survive harsh environment of vagina and uterine fluids (vitality and hypo-osmotic swelling test, should have good mitochondrial function to be able to provide energy (mitochondrial activity index test. They should also have satisfactory acrosome function to be able to burrow a hole in zona pellucida (acrosome intactness test, zona penetration test. Finally, they should have properly packed DNA in the nucleus to be able to transfer the male genes (nuclear chromatic decondensation test to the oocyte during fertilization.

  5. Nemesis Autonomous Test System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barltrop, Kevin J.; Lee, Cin-Young; Horvath, Gregory A,; Clement, Bradley J.

    2012-01-01

    A generalized framework has been developed for systems validation that can be applied to both traditional and autonomous systems. The framework consists of an automated test case generation and execution system called Nemesis that rapidly and thoroughly identifies flaws or vulnerabilities within a system. By applying genetic optimization and goal-seeking algorithms on the test equipment side, a "war game" is conducted between a system and its complementary nemesis. The end result of the war games is a collection of scenarios that reveals any undesirable behaviors of the system under test. The software provides a reusable framework to evolve test scenarios using genetic algorithms using an operation model of the system under test. It can automatically generate and execute test cases that reveal flaws in behaviorally complex systems. Genetic algorithms focus the exploration of tests on the set of test cases that most effectively reveals the flaws and vulnerabilities of the system under test. It leverages advances in state- and model-based engineering, which are essential in defining the behavior of autonomous systems. It also uses goal networks to describe test scenarios.

  6. GIRAFFE test results summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokobori, S.; Arai, K.; Oikawa, H. [Toshiba Corporation, Kawasaki (Japan)

    1996-03-01

    A passive system can provide engineered safety features enhancing safety system reliability and plant simplicity. Toshiba has conducted the test Program to demonstrate the feasibility of the SBWR passive safety system using a full-height, integral system test facility GIRAFFE. The test facility GIRAFFE models the SBWR in full height to correctly present the gravity driving head forces with a 1/400 volume scale. The GIRAFFE test Program includes the certification tests of the passive containment cooling system (PCCS) to remove the post-accident decay heat and the gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) to replenish the reactor coolant inventory during a LOCA. The test results have confirmed the PCCS and GDCS design and in addition, have demonstrated the operation of the pCCS with the presence of a lighter-than-steam noncondensable as well as with the presence of a heavier-than-steam, noncondensable. The GIRAFFE test Program has also provided the database to qualify a best estimate thermal-hydraulic computer code TRAC. The post test analysis results have shown that TRAC can accurately predict the PCCS heat removal Performance and the containment pressure response to a LOCA. This paper summarizes the GIRAFFE test results to investigate post-LOCA PCCS heat removal performance and post-test analysis using TRAC.

  7. Testing On Computers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Russell

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Russell and Haney (1997 reported that open-ended test items administered on paper may underestimate the achievement of students accustomed to writing on computers. This study builds on Russell and Haney's work by examining the effect of taking open-ended tests on computers and on paper for students with different levels of computer skill. Using items from the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS and the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP, this study focuses on language arts, science and math tests administered to eighth grade students. In addition, information on students' prior computer use and keyboarding speed was collected. Unlike the previous study that found large effects for open-ended writing and science items, this study reports mixed results. For the science test, performance on computers had a positive group effect. For the two language arts tests, an overall group effect was not found. However, for students whose keyboarding speed is at least 0.5 or one-half of a standard deviation above the mean, performing the language arts test on computer had a moderate positive effect. Conversely, for students whose keyboarding speed was 0.5 standard deviations below the mean, performing the tests on computer had a substantial negative effect. For the math test, performing the test on computer had an overall negative effect, but this effect became less pronounced as keyboarding speed increased. Implications are discussed in terms of testing policies and future research.

  8. Teacher Test Accountability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry H. Ludlow

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Given the high stakes of teacher testing, there is no doubt that every teacher test should meet the industry guidelines set forth in the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing. Unfortunately, however, there is no public or private business or governmental agency that serves to certify or in any other formal way declare that any teacher test does, in fact, meet the psychometric recommendations stipulated in the Standards. Consequently, there are no legislated penalties for faulty products (tests nor are there opportunities for test takers simply to raise questions about a test and to have their questions taken seriously by an impartial panel. The purpose of this article is to highlight some of the psychometric results reported by National Evaluation Systems (NES in their 1999 Massachusetts Educator Certification Test (MECT Technical Report, and more specifically, to identify those technical characteristics of the MECT that are inconsistent with the Standards. A second purpose of this article is to call for the establishment of a standing test auditing organization with investigation and sanctioning power. The significance of the present analysis is twofold: a psychometric results for the MECT are similar in nature to psychometric results presented as evidence of test development flaws in an Alabama class-action lawsuit dealing with teacher certification (an NES-designed testing system; and b there was no impartial enforcement agency to whom complaints about the Alabama tests could be brought, other than the court, nor is there any such agency to whom complaints about the Massachusetts tests can be brought. I begin by reviewing NES's role in Allen v. Alabama State Board of Education, 81-697-N. Next I explain the purpose and interpretation of standard item analysis procedures and statistics. Finally, I present results taken directly from the 1999 MECT Technical Report and compare them to procedures, results, and consequences of

  9. A Micro-Kernel Test Engine for Automatic Test System

    OpenAIRE

    Shuai Wang; Yindong Ji; Shiyuan Yang

    2011-01-01

    In traditional automatic test solutions, a test engine usually encompasses all functions in its kernel, including compiling test program, generating test event chain, scheduling test process and executing test events. This makes the engine tightly coupled with test language and the system under test, so that it is difficult to maintain, optimize and extend the test engine. In order to solve these problems, a micro-kernel test engine is designed and implemented based on the service oriented ar...

  10. Pilocarpine iontophoresis test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortskov, N; Jepsen, Leif; Nielsen, B;

    1995-01-01

    The pilocarpine iontophoresis test (P-test) is used as a predictor of the capacity to produce sweat. Therefore, we studied the reproducibility of this test in 12 normal subjects on 10 consecutive days. Furthermore, we determined whether the P-test reflects whole-body and regional sweat secretion...... during exercise in the heat. Finally, we determined whether the P-test stimulates the eccrine sweat glands to maximal sweat secretion. Six growth hormone-deficient (GHD) patients who are known to have decreased sweating, and 11 healthy control subjects were studied. To induce maximal sweat secretion......, the patients exercised on a bicycle ergometer at a workload corresponding to 40% of their maximal aerobic power (VO2max). The 11 healthy subjects exercised at a workload of 150 W. All subjects exercised for 60 min in ambient air at 35 degrees C, with 50% relative humidity. The P-test showed a mean day...

  11. Dismantling the Mantel tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillot, Gilles

    The simple and partial Mantel tests are routinely used in many areas of evolutionary biology to assess the significance of the association between two or more matrices of distances relative to the same pairs of individuals or demes. Partial Mantel tests rather than simple Mantel tests are widely...... used to assess the relationship between two variables displaying some form of structure. We show that contrarily to a widely shared belief, partial Mantel tests are not valid in this case, and their bias remains close to that of the simple Mantel test. We confirm that strong biases are expected under a...... sampling design and spatial correlation parameter drawn from an actual study. The Mantel tests should not be used in case auto-correlation is suspected in both variables compared under the null hypothesis. We outline alternative strategies. The R code used for our computer simulations is distributed as...

  12. Diagnostic test accuracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, Jared M.; Klugar, Miloslav; Ding, Sandrine; Carmody, Dennis P.; Håkonsen, Sasja Jul; Jadotte, Yuri T.; White, Sarahlouise; Munn, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    in providing methodological guidance for the conduct of systematic reviews and has developed methods and guidance for reviewers conducting systematic reviews of studies of diagnostic test accuracy. Diagnostic tests are used to identify the presence or absence of a condition for the purpose of...... developing an appropriate treatment plan. Owing to demands for improvements in speed, cost, ease of performance, patient safety, and accuracy, new diagnostic tests are continuously developed, and there are often several tests available for the diagnosis of a particular condition. In order to provide the...... evidence necessary for clinicians and other healthcare professionals to make informed decisions regarding the optimum test to use, primary studies need to be carried out on the accuracy of diagnostic tests and the results of these studies synthesized through systematic review. The Joanna Briggs Institute...

  13. Tests, testing, and tested - we need to critically evaluate the meaning of tests in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Douglas M

    2013-04-01

    This article describes clinical pitfalls in our concepts of what it means for an illness, diagnosis, or evaluation and treatment methods to say that they have been "tested". This articles begins with the problems encountered in newborn testing for Krabbe Disease of the nervous system in New York State over the last few years as an example of a test that did not live up to its promise to help the society. Next, the article gives 3 examples of testing in psychiatry, 1. Psychological testing to make treatment decisions in children with depression, 2. Patient's and parents who have been told, or believe, that they have Asperger's disorder, and 3. The conclusions made about the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy based on clinical studies. The article's conclusion sums up these examples as reasons why we need to have a more practical and scientific approach to our understanding and implementation of tests used in our field. PMID:23825862

  14. Standard environmental test methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafer, D R

    1983-12-01

    This guide to uniformity in testing is intended primarily as an aid to persons responsible for designing, developing, and performing environmental tests. It will also be of use to those concerned with production, evaluation, and quality control and assurance. Checklists for preparing the environmental testing portion of product specifications are included, as are copies of Process Standards covering the instrumentation, equipment, and methods for use in environmental testing of Sandia National Laboratories components. Techniques and equipment are constantly improving. This version of SC-4452 reflects current state-of-the-art and practice in environmental testing. Previously existing sections of the document have ben updated and new ones have been added, e.g., Transient Testing on Vibration Machines.

  15. Crowdsourcing for Usability Testing

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Di; Kuipers, Rebecca; Bias, Randolph

    2012-01-01

    While usability evaluation is critical to designing usable websites, traditional usability testing can be both expensive and time consuming. The advent of crowdsourcing platforms such as Amazon Mechanical Turk and CrowdFlower offer an intriguing new avenue for performing remote usability testing with potentially many users, quick turn-around, and significant cost savings. To investigate the potential of such crowdsourced usability testing, we conducted two similar (though not completely parallel) usability studies which evaluated a graduate school's website: one via a traditional usability lab setting, and the other using crowdsourcing. While we find crowdsourcing exhibits some notable limitations in comparison to the traditional lab environment, its applicability and value for usability testing is clearly evidenced. We discuss both methodological differences for crowdsourced usability testing, as well as empirical contrasts to results from more traditional, face-to-face usability testing.

  16. Dismantling the Mantel tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillot, Gilles; Rousset, François

    2012-01-01

    1. The simple and partialMantel tests are routinely used in many areas of evolutionary biology to assess the significance of the association between two ormorematrices of distances relative to the same pairs of individuals or demes. Partial Mantel tests rather than simple Mantel tests are widely...... used to assess the relationship between two variables displaying some form of structure. 2. We show that contrary to a widely shared belief, partialMantel tests are not valid in this case, and their bias remains close to that of the simpleMantel test. 3. We confirm that strong biases are expected under...... a sampling design and spatial correlation parameter drawn from an actual study. 4. TheMantel tests should not be used in case autocorrelation is suspected in both variables compared under the null hypothesis.We outline alternative strategies. The R code used for our computer simulations is...

  17. Standard Test Method for Sandwich Corrosion Test

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method defines the procedure for evaluating the corrosivity of aircraft maintenance chemicals, when present between faying surfaces (sandwich) of aluminum alloys commonly used for aircraft structures. This test method is intended to be used in the qualification and approval of compounds employed in aircraft maintenance operations. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information. 1.3 This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific hazard statements appear in Section 9.

  18. Testing Library Specifications by Verifying Conformance Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiniry, Joseph Roland; Zimmerman, Daniel; Hyland, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    Formal specifications of standard libraries are necessary when statically verifying software that uses those libraries. Library specifications must be both correct, accurately reflecting library behavior, and useful, describing library behavior in sufficient detail to allow static verification...... conformance test suites. Rather than executing the conformance tests, FCTD uses them to measure the correctness and utility of specifications through static verification. FCTD is beginning to see significant use within the JML community and is the cornerstone process of the JML Spec-a-thons, meetings...... that bring JML researchers and practitioners together for intensive specification writing sessions. This article describes the Formal CTD Process, its use in small case studies, and its broad application to the standard Java class library....

  19. Team Exploratory Testing Sessions

    OpenAIRE

    Soili Saukkoriipi; Ilkka Tervonen

    2012-01-01

    Exploratory testing (ET) is popular, especially among agile development teams. In this paper, we study the team aspect in the ET context and explore how to use ET in team sessions to complement other testing activities. The goal was to define a team exploratory testing (TET) session approach and to provide evidence that the approach is worth using. A TET session approach is defined by means of parameters, roles, and process. Also, instructions for using the approach are given. The team is the...

  20. Invalid Permutation Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Mikel Aickin

    2010-01-01

    Permutation tests are often presented in a rather casual manner, in both introductory and advanced statistics textbooks. The appeal of the cleverness of the procedure seems to replace the need for a rigorous argument that it produces valid hypothesis tests. The consequence of this educational failing has been a widespread belief in a “permutation principle”, which is supposed invariably to give tests that are valid by construction, under an absolute minimum of statistical assumpti...

  1. Nondestructive testing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nondestructive testing (NDT) is the use of physical and chemical methods for evaluating material integrity without impairing its intended usefulness or continuing service. Nondestructive tests are used by manufaturer's for the following reasons: 1) to ensure product reliability; 2) to prevent accidents and save human lives; 3) to aid in better product design; 4) to control manufacturing processes; and 5) to maintain a uniform quality level. Nondestructive testing is used extensively on power plants, oil and chemical refineries, offshore oil rigs and pipeline (NDT can even be conducted underwater), welds on tanks, boilers, pressure vessels and heat exchengers. NDT is now being used for testing concrete and composite materials. Because of the criticality of its application, NDT should be performed and the results evaluated by qualified personnel. There are five basic nondestructive examination methods: 1) liquid penetrant testing - method used for detecting surface flaws in materials. This method can be used for metallic and nonmetallic materials, portable and relatively inexpensive. 2) magnetic particle testing - method used to detect surface and subsurface flaws in ferromagnetic materials; 3) radiographic testing - method used to detect internal flaws and significant variation in material composition and thickness; 4) ultrasonic testing - method used to detect internal and external flaws in materials. This method uses ultrasonics to measure thickness of a material or to examine the internal structure for discontinuities. 5) eddy current testing - method used to detect surface and subsurface flaws in conductive materials. Not one nondestructive examination method can find all discontinuities in all of the materials capable of being tested. The most important consideration is for the specifier of the test to be familiar with the test method and its applicability to the type and geometry of the material and the flaws to be detected

  2. Accelerated cyclic corrosion tests

    OpenAIRE

    Prošek T.

    2016-01-01

    Accelerated corrosion testing is indispensable for material selection, quality control and both initial and residual life time prediction for bare and painted metallic, polymeric, adhesive and other materials in atmospheric exposure conditions. The best known Neutral Salt Spray (NSS) test provides unrealistic conditions and poor correlation to exposures in atmosphere. Modern cyclic accelerated corrosion tests include intermittent salt spray, wet and dry phases and eventually other technical p...

  3. Web Application Security Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Bukovský, Ondřej

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this bachelor's thesis is to present the topic of web applications security. The purpose of the first, theoretical part of this work is to introduce and describe fundamentals like web security or penetration testing. OWASP (Open Web Application Security Project) and their ten most critical web applications security risks are presented in the rest of the first part. Second, practical part describes tested web application and defines purpose and scope of penetration tests. Then t...

  4. Test bed concentrator mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argoud, M. J.

    1980-05-01

    The test bed concentrator (TBC) was des point focusing distributed receiver (PFDR) systems. The reflective surface of the concentrator was fabricated using mirror facet designs and techniques. The facets are made by bonding mirrored glass to spherically-conducted substrates. Several aspects of earlier work were reevaluated for application to the TBC: optimum glass block size, material selection, environmental test, optical characteristics, and reliability. A detailed explanation of tooling, substrate preparation, testing techniques, and mirror assembly is presented.

  5. Tests of Machine Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Legg, Shane

    2007-01-01

    Although the definition and measurement of intelligence is clearly of fundamental importance to the field of artificial intelligence, no general survey of definitions and tests of machine intelligence exists. Indeed few researchers are even aware of alternatives to the Turing test and its many derivatives. In this paper we fill this gap by providing a short survey of the many tests of machine intelligence that have been proposed.

  6. Crowdsourcing for Usability Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Di; Lease, Matthew; Kuipers, Rebecca; Bias, Randolph

    2012-01-01

    While usability evaluation is critical to designing usable websites, traditional usability testing can be both expensive and time consuming. The advent of crowdsourcing platforms such as Amazon Mechanical Turk and CrowdFlower offer an intriguing new avenue for performing remote usability testing with potentially many users, quick turn-around, and significant cost savings. To investigate the potential of such crowdsourced usability testing, we conducted two similar (though not completely paral...

  7. Automatic test suite evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Mirzaaghaei, Mehdi; Pezzè, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Software testing is one of the most common approaches to verify software systems. Despite of many automated techniques proposed in the literature, test cases are often generated manually. When a software system evolves during development and maintenance to accommodate requirement changes, bug fixes, or functionality extensions, test cases may become obsolete, and software developers need to evolve them to verify the new version of the software system. Due to time pressure and effort requir...

  8. Leak test fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, P.T.

    A hollow fitting for use in gas spectrometry leak testing of conduit joints is divided into two generally symmetrical halves along the axis of the conduit. A clip may quickly and easily fasten and unfasten the halves around the conduit joint under test. Each end of the fitting is sealable with a yieldable material, such as a piece of foam rubber. An orifice is provided in a wall of the fitting for the insertion or detection of helium during testing. One half of the fitting also may be employed to test joints mounted against a surface.

  9. Automatic Test Builder

    OpenAIRE

    Abbasi, Saad Zeb

    2012-01-01

    In Ericsson, the Automation Team automates test cases that are frequently rerun. This process involves copying data related to a particular Configured Test Case from a database and then pasting it into a java file created to run a test case. In one java file, there can be more than one Configured Test Cases. So information can vary. Then the tester has to add package name, necessary imports, member variables, preamble and post amble methods, help methods and main execution methods. A lot of t...

  10. GRE physics test

    CERN Document Server

    Fakhrudin, Hasan

    2010-01-01

    Designed for students and professionals looking to advance their careers, our test prep gives you everything you need to succeed. Focused chapter reviews cover all the information tested on the GRE Physics exam. Each review chapter contains examples to reinforce key concepts. The book includes four full-length practice tests based on the most recent GRE Physics exam. Each test contains every type of question that can be expected on the GRE so you can “practice for real” and boost your confidence before taking the exam.

  11. Test for mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Kheng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile application testing is a process by which application software developed for mobile devices is tested, in aspects as functionality, usability and consistency. These applications can be pre-installed or installed from distribution platforms for mobile software. Due mobile devices have witnessed of a phenomenal growth in recent years (a study by Yankee Group predicted to generate $ 4.2 billion in revenue for 2013 through 7000 million downloads of applications the U.S., it is necesary test engineers increasingly specialize. In this article are described the types of applications, the challenges of testing, and its automation.

  12. Reactor Simulator Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Michael P.; Webster, Kenny L.; Pearson, Boise J.

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Nuclear Systems Office Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) project, a reactor simulator test loop (RxSim) was design & built to perform integrated testing of the TDU components. In particular, the objectives of RxSim testing was to verify the operation of the core simulator, the instrumentation and control system, and the ground support gas and vacuum test equipment. In addition, it was decided to include a thermal test of a cold trap purification design and a pump performance test at pump voltages up to 150 V since the targeted mass flow rate of 1.75 kg/s was not obtained in the RxSim at the originally constrained voltage of 120 V. This paper summarizes RxSim testing. The gas and vacuum ground support test equipment performed effectively in NaK fill, loop pressurization, and NaK drain operations. The instrumentation and control system effectively controlled loop temperature and flow rates or pump voltage to targeted settings. The cold trap design was able to obtain the targeted cold temperature of 480 K. An outlet temperature of 636 K was obtained which was lower than the predicted 750 K but 156 K higher than the cold temperature indicating the design provided some heat regeneration. The annular linear induction pump (ALIP) tested was able to produce a maximum flow rate of 1.53 kg/s at 800 K when operated at 150 V and 53 Hz.

  13. Der Progress Test Medizin

    OpenAIRE

    Osterberg, K.; Kölbel, S; Brauns, K

    2006-01-01

    In 1999 a interdiciplinary, formative progress test for medical students has been established at the Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin. It contents of 200 MC-questions on a graduate level and is performed at the beginning of each semester since then.The ascertained test data is evaluated and reported back in a detailed written feedback to each participant.After initial problems in recruiting new item authors and an efficient administration of test items the progress test now is a well est...

  14. Tensile testing apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, L. B.; Ellingsworth, J. R. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    An improved mechanical extensometer is described for use with a constant load creep test machine. The dead weight of the extensometer is counterbalanced by two pairs of weights connected through a pulley system and to rod extension and leading into the furnace where the test sample is undergoing elevated temperature (above 500 F.) tensile testing. Novel gripper surfaces, conical tip and flat surface are provided in each sampling engaging platens to reduce the grip pressure normally required for attachment of the extensometer to the specimen and reduce initial specimen bending normally associated with foil-gage metal testing.

  15. Cable tray fire tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funds were authorized by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to provide data needed for confirmation of the suitability of current design standards and regulatory guides for fire protection and control in water reactor power plants. The activities of this program through August 1978 are summarized. A survey of industry to determine current design practices and a screening test to select two cable constructions which were used in small scale and full scale testing are described. Both small and full scale tests to assess the adequacy of fire retardant coatings and full scale tests on fire shields to determine their effectiveness are outlined

  16. LISA Optical Bench Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tröbs, M.; d'Arcio, L.; Barke, S.; Bogenstahl, J.; Diekmann, C.; Fitzsimons, E. D.; Gerberding, O.; Hennig, J.; Hey, F. G.; Hogenhuis, H.; Killow, C. J.; Lieser, M.; Lucarelli, S.; Nikolov, S.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Pijnenburg, J.; Robertson, D. I.; Sohmer, A.; Taylor, A.; Ward, H.; Weise, D.; Heinzel, G.; Danzmann, K.

    2013-01-01

    Each LISA satellite carries optical benches, one for each test mass, that measure the distance to the local test mass and to the remote optical bench on the distant satellite. Currently, an elegant bread board of the optical bench is developed for the European Space Agency (ESA) by EADS Astrium, TNO Science and Technology, University of Glasgow and the Albert Einstein Institute. To test the optical bench the two interferometers mentioned above must be completed by an external simulator, the test mass and telescope simulator. We give an overview of the simulator layout and performance predictions.

  17. Charcoal filter testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, J. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-08-01

    In this very brief, informal presentation, a representative of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission outlines some problems with charcoal filter testing procedures and actions being taken to correct the problems. Two primary concerns are addressed: (1) the process to find the test method is confusing, and (2) the requirements of the reference test procedures result in condensation on the charcoal and causes the test to fail. To address these problems, emergency technical specifications were processed for three nuclear plants. A generic or an administrative letter is proposed as a more permanent solution. 1 fig.

  18. PAT portable appliance testing

    CERN Document Server

    Scaddan, Brian

    2003-01-01

    This book details UK regulations on testing electrical equipment. The legal requirements for regular testing of all electrical equipment in work environments and public places have made testing a major growth area for electricians over recent years. Many staff without electrical training, such as maintenance staff and caretakers, are also being nominated by their employers to carry out electrical safety testing.This book is ideal for electricians administering PAT, and non-specialists following a City & Guilds course. It has been written specifically to meet the demands of the City & Guilds 23

  19. Improvement of Test Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Räsänen, Timo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose for this study was to find out how to ensure that the automated testing of MME in the Network Verification will continue smooth and reliable while using the in-house developed test automation framework. The goal of this thesis was to reveal the reasons of the currently challenging situation and to find the key elements to be improved in the MME testing carried by the test automation. Also a reason for the study was to get solutions as to how to change the current procedures and wa...

  20. Pleural Fluid Analysis Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leukemias , lung cancer , metastatic cancers Other conditions – idiopathic , cardiac bypass surgery, heart or lung transplantation, pancreatitis , or intra-abdominal abscesses Additional testing on ...

  1. Pavement Testing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Comprehensive Environmental and Structural Analyses The ERDC Pavement Testing Facility, located on the ERDC Vicksburg campus, was originally constructed to provide...

  2. Main Test Floor (MTF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The MTF is employed to validate advanced structural concepts and verify new analytical methodologies. Test articles range in size from subcomponent to full...

  3. Testing as social practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the author challenges the implicit assumptions of tests as a neutral tool for measuring the individual’s learning achievement. Instead, testing is explored as a social practice which becomes part of children’s conduct of everyday life. The theoretical foundation for the analysis is...... Danish-German Critical Psychology. This approach offers a dialectically developed set of concepts and hereby another basis for understanding school testing than the one implicit in the technology of testing. The analysis is primarily based on a case consisting of an observation conducted in a 2nd grade...

  4. Abstractions on test design techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Wendland, Marc-Florian

    2014-01-01

    Automated test design is an approach to test design in which automata are utilized for generating test artifacts such as test cases and test data from a formal test basis, most often called test model. A test generator operates on such a test model to meet a certain test coverage goal. In the plethora of the approaches, tools and standards for model-based test design, the test design techniques to be applied and test coverage goals to be met are not part of the test model, which may easily le...

  5. Dismantling the Mantel tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillot, Gilles

    used to assess the relationship between two variables displaying some form of structure. We show that contrarily to a widely shared belief, partial Mantel tests are not valid in this case, and their bias remains close to that of the simple Mantel test. We confirm that strong biases are expected under a...

  6. Preparing for CLIC tests

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    The Canon 5 undergoes first brazing for preparation in the CLIC study at the CLIC Test Facility 2 (CTF2). This will test injection for a proposed linear collider that will further explore discoveries made at the LHC. Electric fields in the canon will boost electrons into the acceleration fields of the collider.

  7. Magnetic adaptive testing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomáš, Ivan; Vértesy, G.

    Rijeka : INTECHWEB.ORG, 2012 - (Omar, M.), s. 145-184 ISBN 978-953-51-0108-6 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/1323 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : ferromagnetic materials * nondestructive testing * steel * cast iron * industrial degradation * Magnetic Adaptive Testing Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  8. Power transformer testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagrobelna, Magdalena; Wasilewski, Andrzej

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the method of oil-filled transformer monitoring by means of a fiber optic sensor. Our method can be extremely useful in case of prevent overheating and the winding failure. A special semiconductor technology plays an important role in such measurement. The tests were carried out by means of the developed test stand imitating a real power transformer.

  9. Dengue Fever Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the initial fever has passed. Antibody tests for dengue fever can be positive if a person is infected with another arbovirus such as West Nile virus . A health practitioner will consider a person's test results, medical history, and recent travel history in making a diagnosis. ...

  10. Math Sense: Placement Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003

    Math Sense consists of five books that develop from basic to more advanced math skills. This document contains a placement test used with Math Sense to help students and their teachers decide into which Math Sense book to begin working. The placement test is divided into six parts, each consisting of 10 to 22 problems, and is based on exit skill…

  11. Testing object Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grüner, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis we provide a unit testing approach for multi-purposes object-oriented programming languages in the style of Java and C#. Our approach includes the definition of a test specification language which results from extending the programming language with new designated specification constr

  12. Neonatal Screening Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigue, Charles L.

    1986-01-01

    Describes several laboratory experiments that are adaptations of clinical tests for certain genetic diseases in babies. Information and procedures are provided for tests for phenylketonuria (PKU), galactosemia, tyrosinemia, cystinuria, and mucopolysaccharidosis. Discusses the effects of each disease on the infants' development. (TW)

  13. CSF glucose test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glucose test - CSF; Cerebrospinal fluid glucose test ... The glucose level in the CSF should be 50 to 80 mg/100 mL (or greater than 2/3 of the blood sugar level). Note: Normal value ranges may vary slightly ...

  14. Environmental test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses environmental test facilities which are used to simulate an environment or combination of environments under laboratory controlled conditions that duplicate or exaggerate the effects found in actual service. They assist the engineer and scientist in exploring the effects of equipment and in developing equipment for resistance to the many environmental forces. The acceptance of and demand for environmental simulation facilities result form the following factors: parallel and reproducible tests can be made; equipment being tested can usually be observed and analyzed during testing; and supporting equipment requirements are reduced to a minimum. Field testing and product development costs are reduced, lead time required for completion of product development is shortened, and most desirable reliability features can be incorporated in the original manufacture of the product. Environmental equipment is used not only to determine the performance of mechanical and electrical equipment, but for certain tests on personnel as well. Personnel testing includes: checking protective equipment and clothing; altitude and space procedures indoctrination; and studying physiological and psychological effects on the human body and mind. Environmental testing is usually divided into two general classifications-climatic and dynamic

  15. PPD skin test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have been infected with the bacteria that cause TB. You may need treatment to lower the risk of the disease coming back (reactivation of the disease). A positive skin test does not mean that a person has active TB. More tests must be done to check whether ...

  16. Testing confectionary products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cream-filled cakes are tested by passing a #betta#-ray from a #betta#-particle source to a detector and checking the #betta#-particle count to indicate if the cakes have been correctly filled with cream. The presence of a cake to be tested is sensed by an optical detector and incorrectly filled cakes are removed by a plunger. (author)

  17. Routine DNA testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routine DNA testing. It’s done once you’ve Marker-Assisted Breeding Pipelined promising Qantitative Trait Loci within your own breeding program and thereby established the performance-predictive power of each DNA test for your germplasm under your conditions. By then you are ready to screen your par...

  18. Testing and Thoughtfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rexford

    1989-01-01

    The Policy and the Higher Literacies project reviewed state and local "thoughtfulness" mandates, interviewed appropriate administrators, and visited schools and classrooms boasting higher literacy activities. While most interviewees believed in commercial test validity, those engaged in higher literacy activities largely ignored such tests as…

  19. Solenoid Testing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Current Configuration: Accommodate a device under test up to 2.8 m diameter, 0.7 m height and 15,000 lbs. weight. Up to 10 g/s, 4.5 K helium flow. Up to 250 A test...

  20. Helicobacter pylori Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or bloody vomit or vomit that looks like coffee grounds. H. pylori testing may also be ordered when a person has completed a regimen of prescribed antibiotics to confirm that the H. pylori bacteria have been eliminated. A follow-up test is ...

  1. Test dig selv!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi; Nielsen, Gregers; Langstrup, Henriette;

    2011-01-01

    Teknologirådet omkring rapporten ”Test dig selv! – Vurderinger og anbefalinger vedrørende anvendelse medicinsk udstyr til selvtestning. Offentliggjort d. 25.10.11.......Teknologirådet omkring rapporten ”Test dig selv! – Vurderinger og anbefalinger vedrørende anvendelse medicinsk udstyr til selvtestning. Offentliggjort d. 25.10.11....

  2. Over the air test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    [1] This invention relates to over-the-air testing of a device in an anechoic chamber. In particular, the invention is suitable for simulating both uplink and downlink over-the-air communication with a device under test even when the anechoic chamber has different numbers of uplink and downlink...

  3. Test Reviewing in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz, Jose; Fernandez-Hermida, Jose R.; Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Campillo-Alvarez, Angela; Pena-Suarez, Elsa

    2012-01-01

    The proper use of psychological tests requires that the measurement instruments have adequate psychometric properties, such as reliability and validity, and that the professionals who use the instruments have the necessary expertise. In this article, we present the first review of tests published in Spain, carried out with an assessment model…

  4. A monostrain test apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helf, J. C.; Hill, W. L.; Pontius, H. L.

    1972-01-01

    Test apparatus is designed for determining tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, elongation, and thermal coefficient of contraction or expansion of uniformly shaped plastics, adhesives, and foam materials over temperature range of 700 to 90 K (800 to -300). Tests may be used in design quality control, and in evaluation of new adhesives and plastic materials.

  5. Platelet Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the clotting process in the body ( in vivo ). A person with normal platelet function test results may still experience excessive bleeding or inappropriate clotting during and after a surgery. Most samples for platelet function testing are only stable for a very short period ...

  6. Testing for Subcellular Randomness

    CERN Document Server

    Okunoye, Babatunde O

    2008-01-01

    Statistical tests were conducted on 1,000 numbers generated from the genome of Bacteriophage T4, obtained from GenBank with accession number AF158101.The numbers passed the non-parametric, distribution-free tests.Deoxyribonucleic acid was discovered to be a random number generator, existent in nature.

  7. Judgments in Language Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Charles Alderson

    2009-01-01

    Language testing is an area linguistics that combines the professional judgment and the nature of the of applied exercise of about language, learning, achievement of language learning with empirical data about students' performances and, by inference, their abilities. This paper addresses the relationship between judgments and empirical data in language testing by reporting on three studies.

  8. Automate functional testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Kalindri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, software engineers are increasingly turning to the option of automating functional tests, but not always have successful in this endeavor. Reasons range from low planning until over cost in the process. Some principles that can guide teams in automating these tests are described in this article.

  9. Testing and differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Kristine

    This presentation will explore how educational standardized testing becomes meaningful/not meaningful for children and teachers and at the same time how testing becomes part of everyday differentiation and categorization processes. The presentation is based on a 3 year long post doc project...... concerning the practice of standardized testing in the Danish primary and lower secondary school (Folkeskole). The empirical material consists of qualitative interviews of pupils and teachers and participative observations both in and outside test situations in 5 school classes. The theoretical basis...... standardized testing as a technology which is legitimized in different ways; both as a mean to control outcome in relation to national and international competition and as a mean to help those children who has not learned what they are supposed to learn and whom the teacher has not recognized as in need...

  10. LHC synchronization test successful

    CERN Multimedia

    The synchronization of the LHC's clockwise beam transfer system and the rest of CERN's accelerator chain was successfully achieved last weekend. Tests began on Friday 8 August when a single bunch of a few particles was taken down the transfer line from the SPS accelerator to the LHC. After a period of optimization, one bunch was kicked up from the transfer line into the LHC beam pipe and steered about 3 kilometres around the LHC itself on the first attempt. On Saturday, the test was repeated several times to optimize the transfer before the operations group handed the machine back for hardware commissioning to resume on Sunday. The anti-clockwise synchronization systems will be tested over the weekend of 22 August.Picture:http://lhc-injection-test.web.cern.ch/lhc-injection-test/

  11. Nanomechanical testing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vodnick, David James; Dwivedi, Arpit; Keranen, Lucas Paul; Okerlund, Michael David; Schmitz, Roger William; Warren, Oden Lee; Young, Christopher David

    2015-01-27

    An automated testing system includes systems and methods to facilitate inline production testing of samples at a micro (multiple microns) or less scale with a mechanical testing instrument. In an example, the system includes a probe changing assembly for coupling and decoupling a probe of the instrument. The probe changing assembly includes a probe change unit configured to grasp one of a plurality of probes in a probe magazine and couple one of the probes with an instrument probe receptacle. An actuator is coupled with the probe change unit, and the actuator is configured to move and align the probe change unit with the probe magazine and the instrument probe receptacle. In another example, the automated testing system includes a multiple degree of freedom stage for aligning a sample testing location with the instrument. The stage includes a sample stage and a stage actuator assembly including translational and rotational actuators.

  12. Nanomechanical testing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vodnick, David James; Dwivedi, Arpit; Keranen, Lucas Paul; Okerlund, Michael David; Schmitz, Roger William; Warren, Oden Lee; Young, Christopher David

    2015-02-24

    An automated testing system includes systems and methods to facilitate inline production testing of samples at a micro (multiple microns) or less scale with a mechanical testing instrument. In an example, the system includes a probe changing assembly for coupling and decoupling a probe of the instrument. The probe changing assembly includes a probe change unit configured to grasp one of a plurality of probes in a probe magazine and couple one of the probes with an instrument probe receptacle. An actuator is coupled with the probe change unit, and the actuator is configured to move and align the probe change unit with the probe magazine and the instrument probe receptacle. In another example, the automated testing system includes a multiple degree of freedom stage for aligning a sample testing location with the instrument. The stage includes a sample stage and a stage actuator assembly including translational and rotational actuators.

  13. Biocide patch tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Veien, Niels

    1985-01-01

    Routine patch testing with a series of 6 industrial biocides containing methylene-bis-thiocyanate (Cytox 3522), benzisothiazolin-3-one (BIT), chlorocresol (Preventol CMK), 2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (Kathon 893), polyhydroxymethylene monobenzylether (Preventol D2) or 1,3,5-tris (hydroxy......-ethyl) hexahydrotriazine (Grotan BK) was carried out in 6 Danish out-patient clinics to evaluate guinea pig allergy test results with the same compounds. A total of 1652 consecutive patients with dermatitis were tested. The usefulness of this patch test battery was limited. There were a few positive reactions to Cytox...... male patients and atopics, but significant differences in the frequencies of occupational cases, hand eczemas, and leg ulcers/stasis dermatitis, indicating possible variations in referral patterns, use of patch tests, and/or environmental factors....

  14. Equipment for hydraulic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydraulic testing in boreholes is one major task of the hydrogeological program in the Stripa Project. A new testing equipment for this purpose was constructed. It consists of a downhole part and a surface part. The downhole part consists of two packers enclosing two test-sections when inflated; one between the packers and one between the bottom packer and the bottom of the borehole. A probe for downhole electronics is also included in the downhole equipment together with electrical cable and nylon tubing. In order to perform shut-in and pulse tests with high accuracy a surface controlled downhole valve was constructed. The surface equipment consists of the data acquisition system, transducer amplifier and surface gauges. In the report detailed descriptions of each component in the whole testing equipment are given. (Auth.)

  15. Invalid Permutation Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikel Aickin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Permutation tests are often presented in a rather casual manner, in both introductory and advanced statistics textbooks. The appeal of the cleverness of the procedure seems to replace the need for a rigorous argument that it produces valid hypothesis tests. The consequence of this educational failing has been a widespread belief in a “permutation principle”, which is supposed invariably to give tests that are valid by construction, under an absolute minimum of statistical assumptions. Several lines of argument are presented here to show that the permutation principle itself can be invalid, concentrating on the Fisher-Pitman permutation test for two means. A simple counterfactual example illustrates the general problem, and a slightly more elaborate counterfactual argument is used to explain why the main mathematical proof of the validity of permutation tests is mistaken. Two modifications of the permutation test are suggested to be valid in a very modest simulation. In instances where simulation software is readily available, investigating the validity of a specific permutation test can be done easily, requiring only a minimum understanding of statistical technicalities.

  16. LISA Pathfinder ground testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Felipe; LISA Pathfinder Team

    2010-01-01

    The space-based gravitational wave observatory LISA is a joint NASA-ESA mission that requires challenging technology to ensure pure geodetic trajectories of test masses and the interferometric measurement of distance variations between them. The LISA Pathfinder mission is an ESA-launched technology demonstrator of key LISA subsystems such as spacecraft control with micronewton thrusters, test mass drag-free control, and precision laser interferometry between free-flying test masses. Ground testing of pre-flight hardware of the Gravitational Reference Sensor and Optical Metrology subsystems is currently ongoing. Studies have been carried out on very sensitive torsion pendulums that effectively reproduce a free-fall condition for the test mass within a horizontal plane in the lab, down to frequencies loop operation, demonstrating the required optical metrology sensitivity to test mass displacement. This poster presents the current status in the development and implementation of LISA Pathfinder pre-flight systems and latest results of the ongoing ground testing efforts.

  17. MXIbus data throughput tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of tests were conducted to evaluate data transfer rates using the MXIbus architecture. The tests were conducted by the DAQ group in the Physics Research Division. The MXIbus from National Instruments provides a multisystem extension interface bus. It allows multiple VME chassis to be networked. Other bus architectures that can participate in the network include VXIbus, IBM PC-AT bus, Sun Sbus, Mac NuBus and stand-alone instruments with the appropriate MXIbus adapter cards. From a functional standpoint the MXIbus provides the capability to enlarge the address space in a fashion that is transparent to the software application. The tests were designed to measure data throughput when using the MSIbus with other industry off-the-shelf hardware. This report contains discussions on: MXIbus architecture and general guidelines; the commercial hardware and software used in each set of tests; and a brief description of each set of tests, observations and guidelines; the commercial hardware and software used in each set of tests; and a brief description of each set of tests, observations and conclusions

  18. Cross cultural usability testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Goyal, Shivam

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results of a pilot study in Denmark of cross cultural effects on Think Aloud usability testing. We provide an overview of previous research on cross cultural usability evaluation with a special focus on the relationship between the evaluator and the test user. This r...... performed, in terms of number of think aloud events and number of usability problems found, when both the evaluators and the test users are local. These results are however limited to the Danish context and need to be investigated in other cultural settings.......In this paper, we present the results of a pilot study in Denmark of cross cultural effects on Think Aloud usability testing. We provide an overview of previous research on cross cultural usability evaluation with a special focus on the relationship between the evaluator and the test user. This...... hereby identify usability problems with the clipart application. Data on the evaluators' and test users' behaviour were recorded and analyzed by coding and summarizing statistics on these behavioural events. The results show that Think Aloud Usability Test of a localized application is most effectively...

  19. [Stroop test and schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapperon, J; Delage, M

    1999-01-01

    Utilization of the Stroop test with schizophrenic subjects is reviewed from 32 studies published since 1960. This test, in which subject has to name the color of color-words which are congruent or incongruent, is much used as a selective attention test. Its specific disturbance in schizophrenics would confirm the overload of consciousness with unsignificant non filtered information, probably due to lowering of frontal functions. Stroop effect is not always raised in these patients, especially when general slowing is taken into account. Technical differences modify the test power and can explain contradictory results. The thought disorder symptom seems the most correlated with the results of the test, and particular sensitiveness of paranoïd form has been argued. Neuroleptics do not seem to act on Stroop effect. Factors explaining the great variability of patients in this test are not fully put in light. One hypothesis, already raised, is that the test is linked to a particular attentional constitutional aptitude, and whose relations with the illness are to be explained. PMID:10205734

  20. 21 CFR 660.54 - Potency tests, specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. 660.54 Section 660.54 Food and Drugs..., specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. The...) Specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties....