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Sample records for charles darwin robert

  1. Charles Robert Darwin and Argentina's National Academy of Sciences Charles Robert Darwin y la Academia Nacional de Ciencias

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    Pedro José Depetris

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Over 175 years ago Charles Robert Darwin arrived in Argentina to find a bare and boundless plain, the brave centaur called "gaucho", Quaternary fossils everywhere, and a society strikingly strange and aggressive to the British eyes of the young traveller. Although the voyage aboard HMS Beagle was the indispensable way towards increasing his stature as a biologist, Lyell's work awakened an inquisitive geological mind which allowed him to wonder at the splendour of the Andes. Forty-two years after having concluded his voyage on the Beagle, the National Academy of Sciences of Argentina appointed him as an Honorary Member. This must be interpreted as an early gesture of recognition -in the context of those times- to the magnificence of his scientific work.Hace más de 175 años, Charles Robert Darwin llegaba a la Argentina para descubrir una llanura desprovista de límites y de árboles, el valeroso centauro que era el gaucho, fósiles cuaternarios por doquier y una sociedad sorprendentemente extraña y agresiva a los británicos ojos del joven viajero. Aunque el viaje a bordo del Beagle fue el camino indispensable para incrementar su estatura como biólogo, la obra de Lyell despertó una mente inquisitivamente geológica que le permitió maravillarse ante la magnificencia de los Andes. Cuarenta y dos años después de haber concluido su viaje en el Beagle, la Academia Nacional de Ciencias de Argentina lo designó Miembro Honorario, en lo que debe interpretarse como un temprano gesto de reconocimiento -en el contexto del momento- por la magnificencia de su obra científica.

  2. Maestros, ideas y lecturas que cambiaron el pensamiento de Charles Robert Darwin

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    Juan Carlos Priora

    Full Text Available This paper sets out to review Charles Darwin’s teachers, readings, and which ideas and other events had a definite impact on his mental framework, to the extent that they prompted him to dismiss some ideas while adopting others. When discussing Charles Darwin, we will devote to his ancestors, studies, teachers, friendships, readings, and the doubts that nagged him throughout his life. In short, we will refer tothe whole collection of the personal experiences that shaped and transformed his thought, to the point of prompting him to write a book that shook up the world.

  3. Charles Darwin i 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charles Darwin blev født d. 12. februar 1809. Hans mest berømte bog, 'Om arternes oprindelse', udkom d. 24. november 1859. Det gør 2009 til noget ganske særligt for både Darwin og evolutionsteorien. Det er nemlig i år både Darwins 200-års fødselsdag og 150-års jubilæet for en af de mest...

  4. Charles Darwin's Botanical Investigations

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    Harley, Suzanne M.

    2010-01-01

    Charles Darwin's botanical studies provide a way to expose students to his work that followed the publication of "On the Origin of Species." We can use stories from his plant investigations to illustrate key concepts in the life sciences and model how questions are asked and answered in science.

  5. Geolog Charles Darwin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cílek, Václav

    Plzeň : Západočeská univerzita, 2009 - (Daněk, T.; Hanzelín, M.), --- [Evoluce. Výjezdní interdisciplinární seminář /10./. Nečtiny (CZ), 19.01.2009-21.01.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Charles Darwin * evolution * geology Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  6. Charles Darwin's mitochondria.

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    Hayman, John

    2013-05-01

    Charles Darwin's long-term illness has been the subject of much speculation. His numerous symptoms have led to conclusions that his illness was essentially psychogenic in nature. These diagnoses have never been fully convincing, however, particularly in regard to the proposed underlying psychological background causes of the illness. Similarly, two proposed somatic causes of illness, Chagas disease and arsenic poisoning, lack credibility and appear inconsistent with the lifetime history of the illness. Other physical explanations are simply too incomplete to explain the range of symptoms. Here, a very different sort of explanation will be offered. We now know that mitochondrial mutations producing impaired mitochondrial function may result in a wide range of differing symptoms, including symptoms thought to be primarily psychological. Examination of Darwin's maternal family history supports the contention that his illness was mitochondrial in nature; his mother and one maternal uncle had strange illnesses and the youngest maternal sibling died of an infirmity with symptoms characteristic of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS syndrome), a condition rooted in mitochondrial dysfunction. Darwin's own symptoms are described here and are in accord with the hypothesis that he had the mtDNA mutation commonly associated with the MELAS syndrome. PMID:23633139

  7. Charles Darwin in the Andes

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    Bizzo, Nelio; Bizzo, Luis Eduardo Maestrelli

    2006-01-01

    Considering geological time as an important epistemological obstacle to the construction of ideas on biological evolution, a study was carried out on the so-called "Darwin Papers". The conclusion was that Charles Darwin's excursion in the Andes during March-April 1835 was a crucial step in this regard. An expedition was carried out in March-April…

  8. Charles Darwin as a Celebrity

    OpenAIRE

    Browne, Janet E

    2003-01-01

    Several recent works in sociology examine the manufacture of public identities through the notion of celebrity. This paper explores the imagery of Charles Darwin as a nineteenth-century scientific celebrity by comparing the public character deliberately manufactured by Darwin and his friends with images constructed by the public as represented here by caricatures in humorous magazines of the era. It is argued that Darwin’s outward persona drew on a subtle tension between public and private. T...

  9. Charles Darwin's earthquake reports

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    Galiev, Shamil

    2010-05-01

    As it is the 200th anniversary of Darwin's birth, 2009 has also been marked as 170 years since the publication of his book Journal of Researches. During the voyage Darwin landed at Valdivia and Concepcion, Chile, just before, during, and after a great earthquake, which demolished hundreds of buildings, killing and injuring many people. Land was waved, lifted, and cracked, volcanoes awoke and giant ocean waves attacked the coast. Darwin was the first geologist to observe and describe the effects of the great earthquake during and immediately after. These effects sometimes repeated during severe earthquakes; but great earthquakes, like Chile 1835, and giant earthquakes, like Chile 1960, are rare and remain completely unpredictable. This is one of the few areas of science, where experts remain largely in the dark. Darwin suggested that the effects were a result of ‘ …the rending of strata, at a point not very deep below the surface of the earth…' and ‘…when the crust yields to the tension, caused by its gradual elevation, there is a jar at the moment of rupture, and a greater movement...'. Darwin formulated big ideas about the earth evolution and its dynamics. These ideas set the tone for the tectonic plate theory to come. However, the plate tectonics does not completely explain why earthquakes occur within plates. Darwin emphasised that there are different kinds of earthquakes ‘...I confine the foregoing observations to the earthquakes on the coast of South America, or to similar ones, which seem generally to have been accompanied by elevation of the land. But, as we know that subsidence has gone on in other quarters of the world, fissures must there have been formed, and therefore earthquakes...' (we cite the Darwin's sentences following researchspace. auckland. ac. nz/handle/2292/4474). These thoughts agree with results of the last publications (see Nature 461, 870-872; 636-639 and 462, 42-43; 87-89). About 200 years ago Darwin gave oneself airs by the

  10. Charles Darwin and John Herschel

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    B. Warner

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of John Herschel on the philosophical thoughts
    of Charles Darwin, both through the former’s book, Natural
    Philosophy, and through their meeting in 1836 at the Cape of Good
    Hope, is discussed. With Herschel having himself speculated on
    evolution just a few months before he met Darwin, it is probable that
    he stimulated at least the beginnings of the latter’s lifelong work on
    the subject.

  11. Charles Darwin, beetles and phylogenetics

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    Beutel, Rolf G.; Friedrich, Frank; Leschen, Richard A. B.

    2009-11-01

    Here, we review Charles Darwin’s relation to beetles and developments in coleopteran systematics in the last two centuries. Darwin was an enthusiastic beetle collector. He used beetles to illustrate different evolutionary phenomena in his major works, and astonishingly, an entire sub-chapter is dedicated to beetles in “The Descent of Man”. During his voyage on the Beagle, Darwin was impressed by the high diversity of beetles in the tropics, and he remarked that, to his surprise, the majority of species were small and inconspicuous. However, despite his obvious interest in the group, he did not get involved in beetle taxonomy, and his theoretical work had little immediate impact on beetle classification. The development of taxonomy and classification in the late nineteenth and earlier twentieth century was mainly characterised by the exploration of new character systems (e.g. larval features and wing venation). In the mid-twentieth century, Hennig’s new methodology to group lineages by derived characters revolutionised systematics of Coleoptera and other organisms. As envisioned by Darwin and Ernst Haeckel, the new Hennigian approach enabled systematists to establish classifications truly reflecting evolution. Roy A. Crowson and Howard E. Hinton, who both made tremendous contributions to coleopterology, had an ambivalent attitude towards the Hennigian ideas. The Mickoleit school combined detailed anatomical work with a classical Hennigian character evaluation, with stepwise tree building, comparatively few characters and a priori polarity assessment without explicit use of the outgroup comparison method. The rise of cladistic methods in the 1970s had a strong impact on beetle systematics. Cladistic computer programs facilitated parsimony analyses of large data matrices, mostly morphological characters not requiring detailed anatomical investigations. Molecular studies on beetle phylogeny started in the 1990s with modest taxon sampling and limited DNA data

  12. Charles Robert Darwin (to the 200th Birthday and the 150th Anniversary of the publication of the book «On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life»

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    Vagin Yu. V.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Charles Robert Darwin (to the 200th Birthday and the 150th Anniversary of the publication of the book «On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life»

  13. Creative Work: The Case of Charles Darwin.

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    Gruber, Howard E.; Wallace, Doris B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the evolving systems approach (ESA) to creative work, which emerged from a case study of Charles Darwin. Explains how the ESA differs from other approaches and describes various facets of creative work (networks of enterprise, uniqueness, insight, pluralism, and evolving belief systems and ensembles of metaphor). Emphasizes the…

  14. Moral sense by Charles Darwin

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    Đurić Drago

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of this paper Darwin's approach to science will be presented. This will be illustrated with his own modality of his main claims and modesty he had shown in evaluating the worth of his theory. Than we shall present his four suppositions important for preservation and evolution of moral sense. After that we will consider the issue of relation between inherited and acquired moral properties and main characteristics which according to Darwin, make difference between social instinct in lower animals and moral sense in man. At the end some we shall present some arguments for thesis that in evolutionary scientific approach to ethics there is no room for unbridgeable gap between facts and values, 'ought' and 'is', and some arguments for thesis that from the point of view of the theory of evolution we can have descriptive ethics, but not any prescriptive or normative ethics except predictions that some moral beliefs and behaviors can be evolutionary successful.

  15. Charles Darwin: um observador do desenvolvimento humano

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    Eloisa Helena Rubello Valler Celeri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores traduzem, pela primeira vez para o português, o artigo de Charles Darwin "A Biographical Sketch of an Infant", publicado no periódico Mind em julho de 1877. Utilizando anotações de observações do desenvolvimento de seus filhos, especialmente de seu filho mais velho William Erasmus (Doddy, Darwin descreve e estuda, a partir de seu enfoque naturalista, o filhote humano, narrando os primeiros indicativos comportamentais de emoções tais como raiva e medo, curiosidade e senso moral, o brincar e o prazer envolvido nesta atividade, a capacidade de imitação e os primeiros indícios daquilo que hoje conhecemos como "teoria da mente". Colocando-se questões sobre as capacidades do bebê, como eles aprendem e como se comunicam e levantando hipóteses sobre possíveis significados de certos comportamentos, questões ainda hoje fundamentais para o estudo do desenvolvimento humano, Darwin mostra-se também um pioneiro no estudo do bebê e da criança pequena, numa época na qual as capacidades dos bebês eram extremamente subestimadas e desconsideradas.

  16. Scientific Cousins: The Relationship between Charles Darwin and Francis Galton

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    Fancher, Raymond E.

    2009-01-01

    This article traces the personal as well as the intellectual and scientific relationship between Charles Darwin and his younger half-cousin Francis Galton. Although they had been on friendly terms as young men, and Darwin had in some ways been a role model for Galton, the two did not share major scientific interests until after the publication of…

  17. Evolutionary plant physiology: Charles Darwin's forgotten synthesis

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    Kutschera, Ulrich; Niklas, Karl J.

    2009-11-01

    Charles Darwin dedicated more than 20 years of his life to a variety of investigations on higher plants (angiosperms). It has been implicitly assumed that these studies in the fields of descriptive botany and experimental plant physiology were carried out to corroborate his principle of descent with modification. However, Darwin’s son Francis, who was a professional plant biologist, pointed out that the interests of his father were both of a physiological and an evolutionary nature. In this article, we describe Darwin’s work on the physiology of higher plants from a modern perspective, with reference to the following topics: circumnutations, tropisms and the endogenous oscillator model; the evolutionary patterns of auxin action; the root-brain hypothesis; phloem structure and photosynthesis research; endosymbioses and growth-promoting bacteria; photomorphogenesis and phenotypic plasticity; basal metabolic rate, the Pfeffer-Kleiber relationship and metabolic optimality theory with respect to adaptive evolution; and developmental constraints versus functional equivalence in relationship to directional natural selection. Based on a review of these various fields of inquiry, we deduce the existence of a Darwinian (evolutionary) approach to plant physiology and define this emerging scientific discipline as the experimental study and theoretical analysis of the functions of green, sessile organisms from a phylogenetic perspective.

  18. What we learn and do not learn from Charles Darwin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poklopová, L.; Frouz, Jan

    České Budějovice : Institute of Soil Biology BC AS CR, 2009. s. 66. [Central European Workshop on Soil Zoology /10./. 21.04.2009-24.04.2009, České Budějovice] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : Charles Darwin * worms * soil formation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  19. Charles Darwin and the 1835 earthquake at Concepcion, Chile

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    Spall, H.

    1981-01-01

    On a stormy night in October 1836, H.M.S Beagle hove to and dropped anchor at Falmouth, a remote harbor in southwest England. Charles Darwin, the ship's naturalist, came ashore to take the mail coach to Shrewsbury. This was inauspicious end to an epic 5-year voyage around the coast of South America, the results of which were to have a tumultuous impact on scientific thought that has lasted to this day. 

  20. Conmemoración de Charles Darwin (1882

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    Paolo Mantegazza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tres semanas después de la muerte del biólogo y naturalista inglés, Paolo Mantegazza pronunció el 21 de mayo de 1882 su "Conmemoración de Charles Darwin celebrada en el Real Instituto de Estudios Superiores en Florencia". Traducción de Juan Pérez Andrés.

  1. Modelling of Charles Darwin's tsunami reports

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    Galiev, Shamil

    2010-05-01

    Darwin landed at Valdivia and Concepcion, Chile, just before, during, and after a great 1835 earthquake. He described his impressions and results of the earthquake-induced natural catastrophe in The Voyage of the Beagle. His description of the tsunami could easily be read as a report from Indonesia or Sri Lanka, after the catastrophic tsunami of 26 December 2004. In particular, Darwin emphasised the dependence of earthquake-induced waves on a form of the coast and the coastal depth: ‘… Talcuhano and Callao are situated at the head of great shoaling bays, and they have always suffered from this phenomenon; whereas, the town of Valparaiso, which is seated close on the border of a profound ocean... has never been overwhelmed by one of these terrific deluges…' . He reports also, that ‘… the whole body of the sea retires from the coast, and then returns in great waves of overwhelming force ...' (we cite the Darwin's sentences following researchspace. auckland. ac. nz/handle/2292/4474). The coastal evolution of a tsunami was analytically studied in many publications (see, for example, Synolakis, C.E., Bernard, E.N., 2006. Philos. Trans. R. Soc., Ser. A, 364, 2231-2265; Tinti, S., Tonini, R. 205. J.Fluid Mech., 535, 11-21). However, the Darwin's reports and the influence of the coastal depth on the formation and the evolution of the steep front and the profile of tsunami did not practically discuss. Recently, a mathematical theory of these phenomena was presented in researchspace. auckland. ac. nz/handle/2292/4474. The theory describes the waves which are excited due to nonlinear effects within a shallow coastal zone. The tsunami elevation is described by two components: . Here is the linear (prime) component. It describes the wave coming from the deep ocean. is the nonlinear component. This component may become very important near the coastal line. After that the theory of the shallow waves is used. This theory yields the linear equation for and the weakly

  2. Charles Darwin and the World He Changed——Celebrating Charles Darwin's Bicentenary%达尔文和他改变的世界纪念达尔文诞辰200周年

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙漫远; 陈振夏

    2009-01-01

    @@ 一 超越时空界限与学科藩篱 1809年2月12日,查尔斯·达尔文(Charles Robert Darwin)出生在英国什罗普郡的历史名城什鲁斯伯里(Shrewsbury).1859年11月24日,他的不朽名著出版,一时洛阳纸贵而影响历久不衰.

  3. CHARLES R. DARWIN Y EL DESARROLLO DE LA CREATIVIDAD (

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    Miranda Garnier Ximena

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Los 200 años del nacimiento de Charles R. Darwin y los 150 años de la publicación de su libro “El origen de las especies” recuerdan la importancia de la creatividad y de comprender cómo se desarrolla. En este ensayo, analizo la autobiografía de Charles Darwin y concluyo que la creatividad en su vida surgió por interacción entre cualidades personales y una serie de circunstancias. En el análisis, sobresalen elementos que incluyen curiosidad, crecer cerca de la naturaleza, gusto por la lectura y el aprendizaje autónomo, la presencia de buenos mentores, disciplina, experiencia en los métodos de trabajo científico, disposición para establecer una red de científicos, y pasión por lo que se hace. Estos fueron elementos clave para su impacto en biología, geología, psicología, filosofía e incluso en nuestra percepción general del mundo. Se hacen reflexiones para educadores con la intención de promover el desarrollo de la creatividad en nuestros niños, niñas y jóvenes.Abstract:The 200th anniversary of Charles R. Darwin´s birth and the 150th of the publication of his “Origin of Species” remind us of the importance of creativity, and of understanding its development. In this essay, I analyze the autobiography of Charles Darwin and conclude that his creativity resulted from a series of personal qualities and circumstances. The key elements I found include curiosity, growing near nature, passion for reading and for autonomous learning, the role of good mentors, discipline, a disposition to establish a network with other scientists, experience with scientific methods, and passion for what he did. The presence of these elements in his life resulted in his transforming biology, geology, psychology, philosophy, and even our general perception of the world. Reflections for educators are presented with the intention of promoting the development of creativity in our children and youth.

  4. Environmental Education in the Galapagos: 2007 Report to the Charles Darwin Foundation

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    Stepath, Carl M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: "Environmental education in the Galapagos: 2007 report to the Charles Darwin Foundation" is a report to the Charles Darwin Foundation (CDF) about the researchers observations about the status of environmental education in the Galapagos in 2006 and 2007. Purpose: This paper reports on environmental education in the Galapagos islands,…

  5. CHARLES R. DARWIN Y EL DESARROLLO DE LA CREATIVIDAD

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    Ximena Miranda Garnier

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los 200 años del nacimiento de Charles R. Darwin y los 150 años de la publicación de su libro "El origen de las especies" recuerdan la importancia de la creatividad y de comprender cómo se desarrolla. En este ensayo, analizo la autobiografía de Charles Darwin y concluyo que la creatividad en su vida surgió por interacción entre cualidades personales y una serie de circunstancias. En el análisis, sobresalen elementos que incluyen curiosidad, crecer cerca de la naturaleza, gusto por la lectura y el aprendizaje autónomo, la presencia de buenos mentores, disciplina, experiencia en los métodos de trabajo científico, disposición para establecer una red de científicos, y pasión por lo que se hace. Estos fueron elementos clave para su impacto en biología, geología, psicología, filosofía e incluso en nuestra percepción general del mundo. Se hacen reflexiones para educadores con la intención de promover el desarrollo de la creatividad en nuestros niños, niñas y jóvenes.

  6. Neuropsychology of the Emotions: The Charles Darwin contribution

    OpenAIRE

    Yuranny Helena Rojas Garzón; Andrey Velasquez

    2009-01-01

    Fragmento.....Charles Darwin es un gran teórico de la biología y referente inevitable de la “Teoría de la Evolución” expuesta en 1859 en su libro “El Origen de las Especies”, el cual revolucionó el campo científico de la mayoría de disciplinas de aquel entonces. Después de la publicación de su libro “El Origen de las Especies”, un año posterior publica otra obra titulada “Expresión de las Emociones en los Animales y en el Hombre”, libro que se abordará a partir de la elaboración de una reseña...

  7. Vom Milch trinkenden Sonnentau (Drosera spec.) zum schlafenden Wassersalat (Pistia spec.): Charles Darwin als Botaniker

    OpenAIRE

    Rutishauser, R

    2009-01-01

    Charles Darwin wird oft nur mit der Evolutionstheorie in Verbindung gebracht. Die vorliegende Arbeit betont Darwins Verdienste bei der Erforschung von Pflanzen. Seine Beobachtungsgabe verbunden mit experimentellem Geschick verhalfen Darwin zu botanischen Entdeckungen, für die wir ihn am 200. Geburtstag ebenso ehren sollten wie für seine mit natürlicher und sexueller Selektion verbundene Evolutionstheorie. Für die Pflanzenzüchtung und damit für die Evolution bedeutsa...

  8. Charles Darwin and Evolution: Illustrating Human Aspects of Science

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    Kampourakis, Kostas; McComas, William F.

    2010-06-01

    Recently, the nature of science (NOS) has become recognized as an important element within the K-12 science curriculum. Despite differences in the ultimate lists of recommended aspects, a consensus is emerging on what specific NOS elements should be the focus of science instruction and inform textbook writers and curriculum developers. In this article, we suggest a contextualized, explicit approach addressing one core NOS aspect: the human aspects of science that include the domains of creativity, social influences and subjectivity. To illustrate these ideas, we have focused on Charles Darwin, a scientist whose life, work and thought processes were particularly well recorded at the time and analyzed by scholars in the succeeding years. Historical facts are discussed and linked to core NOS ideas. Creativity is illustrated through the analogies between the struggle for existence in human societies and in nature, between artificial and natural selection, and between the division of labor in human societies and in nature. Social influences are represented by Darwin’s aversion of criticism of various kinds and by his response to the methodological requirements of the science of that time. Finally, subjectivity is discussed through Darwin’s development of a unique but incorrect source for the origin of variations within species.

  9. Mitochondrial disorder caused Charles Darwin's cyclic vomiting syndrome

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    Finsterer J

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Josef Finsterer,1 John Hayman21Krankenanstalt Rudolfstiftng, Vienna, Austria; 2Department of Pathology, University of Melbourne, Victoria, AustraliaBackground: Charles Darwin (CD, “father of modern biology,” suffered from multisystem illness from early adulthood. The most disabling manifestation was cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS. This study aims at finding the possible cause of CVS in CD.Methods: A literature search using the PubMed database was carried out, and CD's complaints, as reported in his personal writings and those of his relatives, friends, colleagues, biographers, were compared with various manifestations of mitochondrial disorders (MIDs, known to cause CVS, described in the literature.Results: Organ tissues involved in CD's disease were brain, nerves, muscles, vestibular apparatus, heart, gut, and skin. Cerebral manifestations included episodic headache, visual disturbance, episodic memory loss, periodic paralysis, hysterical crying, panic attacks, and episodes of depression. Manifestations of polyneuropathy included numbness, paresthesias, increased sweating, temperature sensitivity, and arterial hypotension. Muscular manifestations included periods of exhaustion, easy fatigability, myalgia, and muscle twitching. Cardiac manifestations included episodes of palpitations and chest pain. Gastrointestinal manifestations were CVS, dental problems, abnormal seasickness, eructation, belching, and flatulence. Dermatological manifestations included painful lips, dermatitis, eczema, and facial edema. Treatments with beneficial effects to his complaints were rest, relaxation, heat, and hydrotherapy.Conclusion: CVS in CD was most likely due to a multisystem, nonsyndromic MID. This diagnosis is based upon the multisystem nature of his disease, the fact that CVS is most frequently the manifestation of a MID, the family history, the variable phenotypic expression between affected family members, the fact that symptoms were triggered by stress

  10. Charles Darwin havde et nuanceret syn på dyreforsøg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen

    2015-01-01

    Jeg har i en tidligere blog været inde på, hvordan Charles Darwins evolutionsteori har haft betydning for vores valg af forsøgsdyr. Men hvordan så Charles Darwin egentlig selv på dyreforsøg og dyrevelfærd? Faktisk var det et emne, der optog ham dybt. Allerede i 1838, over tyve år før...... offentliggørelsen af Arternes Oprindelse, gjorde han sig et notat om, at mennesket i sin arrogance føler sig hævet over andre skabninger, men at det snarere bør opfatte sig som skabt ud fra dyrene. Disse tanker kom dog først for alvor frem, da Charles Darwin i 1871 offentliggjorde bogen Menneskets Afstamning...

  11. Zum Verhältnis Charles Darwins zu Alexander v. Humboldt und Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg

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    Petra Werner

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Article in German, Abstracts in English and German.While it is well known that Charles Darwin and Alexander von Humboldt appreciated each other's work, Humboldt's influence on Darwin has not yet been thoroughly examined. The following paper shows to what extent Darwin was inspired by Humboldt's publications while writing his Origin of Species.Darwin paid special attention to Humboldt's observations on plant migration and throughout his whole scientific career he used Humboldt's books as a major source of information. In fact, Darwin's last annotations in his copy of the Personal Narrative of travels to the Equinoctial Regions of the New continent during the Years 1799-1804 date back to the last weeks of his life.On the other hand, Darwin rejected many of Humboldt's scientific conclusions. The two authors differed in their assessment of Heinrich Bronn's biological research. Finally, Darwin was dissatisfied with Humboldtís last work Cosmos because it did not contain the information he expected. Darwinís collaboration with Humboldt's travel companion Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg proved to be similarly disappointing. Darwin sent 183 samples of infusoria to Berlin, but the results of Ehrenberg's analysis did not support Darwin's theory on evolution.

  12. Darwin's Other Bulldog: Charles Kingsley and the Popularisation of Evolution in Victorian England

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    Hale, Piers J.

    2012-01-01

    The nineteenth-century Anglican Priest Charles Kingsley (1819-1875) was a significant populariser of Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection. Kingsley was successful in this regard because he developed such diverse connections throughout his career. In the 1840s he associated with Chartists and radical journalists; in the 1850s and 1860s…

  13. Charles Darwin (1809-1882: His Legacy to Psychology

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    Germán Gutiérrez*

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Amidst the celebration of the bicentennial of Charles Darwin’s birth, a brief profile of his life is presented, along with a critical appraisal of his works and its long-lasting influence on Psychology

  14. Charles Darwin (1809-1882): His Legacy to Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Germán Gutiérrez

    2009-01-01

    Amidst the celebration of the bicentennial of Charles Darwin’s birth, a brief profile of his life is presented, along with a critical appraisal of his works and its long-lasting influence on Psychology

  15. Charles Darwin's 'Gorgonia' : a palaeontological mystery from the Falkland Islands resolved

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, Phil; Rushton, Adrian; Fearnhead, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    During the celebrated voyage of HMS Beagle, Charles Darwin visited the Falkland Islands twice, in March 1833 and March 1834. He thought the islands bleak and inhospitable, but was much excited during his first visit to discover fossils at Port Louis. These he recognised as brachiopods (a type of shellfish) and crinoids (often described descriptively as ‘sea-lilies’ but actually animals related to sea urchins); an example of the kind of fossils that he saw is shown in Figure 1.

  16. La creatividad científica de Charles Darwin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Valenzuela Garcés

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Un reverendo que había sido capellán de la reina Víctoria siente terroral leer a Darwin y, desde su posición en la Iglesia, no duda en combatirlo.Karl Marx, después de leer El origen de las especies (1859, sienteel impulso de dedicarle su ópera magna El capital, pero Darwin declinael honor y aconseja al prusiano rojo que piense en otro intelectual conmás méritos que él. Convencidos de sus tesis, gran cantidad de organizacionesdel movimiento obrero europeo, durante la segunda mitad delsiglo XIX, se doblega ante él y se convierte al darwinismo, no sin antesasumir el nuevo catecismo de la ciencia que su teoría ha traído al mundode los materialistas y desposeídos. Hoy, pasados ciento cincuenta añosde la publicación de su obra cumbre, las diversas comunidades científicasreconocen la importancia de su contribución en campos comola genética, etnobotánica, antropología, teología, biología, geografía,filosofía, neurología, psicoanálisis, psiquiatría o la lingüística.

  17. Charles Darwin's beagle voyage, fossil vertebrate succession, and "the gradual birth & death of species".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Paul D

    2010-01-01

    The prevailing view among historians of science holds that Charles Darwin became a convinced transmutationist only in the early spring of 1837, after his Beagle collections had been examined by expert British naturalists. With respect to the fossil vertebrate evidence, some historians believe that Darwin was incapable of seeing or understanding the transmutationist implications of his specimens without the help of Richard Owen. There is ample evidence, however, that he clearly recognized the similarities between several of the fossil vertebrates he collected and some of the extant fauna of South America before he returned to Britain. These comparisons, recorded in his correspondence, his diary and his notebooks during the voyage, were instances of a phenomenon that he later called the "law of the succession of types." Moreover, on the Beagle, he was following a geological research agenda outlined in the second volume of Charles Lyell's Principles of Geology, which implies that paleontological data alone could provide an insight into the laws which govern the appearance of new species. Since Darwin claims in On the Origin of Species that fossil vertebrate succession was one of the key lines of evidence that led him to question the fixity of species, it seems certain that he was seriously contemplating transmutation during the Beagle voyage. If so, historians of science need to reconsider both the role of Britain's expert naturalists and the importance of the fossil vertebrate evidence in the development of Darwin's ideas on transmutation. PMID:20665232

  18. Robert H. Frank, The Darwin Economy: Liberty, Competition, and the Common Good

    OpenAIRE

    Vromen, Jack

    2015-01-01

    In The Darwin Economy: Liberty, Competition, and the Common Good Robert H. Frank practices what he preaches. Starting with just a handful of simple basic principles, he is not only able to shed an interesting new light on some of society’s most pressing problems, but also to propose (at least to some) contrarian solutions for them. Frank arrives at his analyses and his solutions not by exploring the properties of mathematical models but by cogent informal reasoning. This approach is exactly ...

  19. Bartholomew Sulivan's geological observations in the Falkland Islands (1838 to 1845) as communicated to Charles Darwin

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, Phil

    2012-01-01

    When in 1846 Charles Darwin published the first account of the geology of the Falkland Islands, he made clear at the beginning that “My examination was confined to the eastern island; but I have received through the kindness of Captain Sulivan and Mr Kent, numerous specimens from the western island, together with copious notes, sufficient to show the almost perfect uniformity of the whole group.” A modern geological map (e.g. Aldiss and Edwards 1999) shows the oldest Falkland I...

  20. Charles Darwin, Bartholomew Sulivan and the geology of the Falkland Islands: unfinished business from an asymmetric partnership

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, P; Rushton, A.W.A.

    2013-01-01

    When in 1846 Charles Darwin published the first account of the geology of the Falkland Islands he drew on his experiences in 1833 and 1834 during the voyage of HMS Beagle, and on collections made at that time by the ship’s Assistant Surgeon, William Kent. Aboard HMS Beagle Darwin struck up a particular friendship with Lieutenant Bartholomew Sulivan who subsequently revisited the Falklands between 1838 and 1845 in command of HMS Arrow and HMS Philomel. The surviving letters t...

  1. Darwinian hydrology: can the methodology Charles Darwin pioneered help hydrologic science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, C.; Troch, P. A.

    2013-05-01

    There have been repeated calls for a Darwinian approach to hydrologic science or for a synthesis of Darwinian and Newtonian approaches, to deepen understanding the hydrologic system in the larger landscape context, and so develop a better basis for predictions now and in an uncertain future. But what exactly makes a Darwinian approach to hydrology "Darwinian"? While there have now been a number of discussions of Darwinian approaches, many referencing Harte (2002), the term is potentially a source of confusion while its connections to Darwin remain allusive rather than explicit. Here we discuss the methods that Charles Darwin pioneered to understand a variety of complex systems in terms of their historical processes of change. We suggest that the Darwinian approach to hydrology follows his lead by focusing attention on the patterns of variation in populations, seeking hypotheses that explain these patterns in terms of the mechanisms and conditions that determine their historical development, using deduction and modeling to derive consequent hypotheses that follow from a proposed explanation, and critically testing these hypotheses against new observations. It is not sufficient to catalogue the patterns or predict them statistically. Nor is it sufficient for the explanations to amount to a "just-so" story not subject to critical analysis. Darwin's theories linked present-day variation to mechanisms that operated over history, and could be independently test and falsified by comparing new observations to the predictions of corollary hypotheses they generated. With a Darwinian framework in mind it is easy to see that a great deal of hydrologic research has already been done that contributes to a Darwinian hydrology - whether deliberately or not. The various heuristic methods that Darwin used to develop explanatory theories - extrapolating mechanisms, space for time substitution, and looking for signatures of history - have direct application in hydrologic science. Some

  2. Darwinian hydrology: can the methodology Charles Darwin pioneered help hydrologic science?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Harman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available There have been repeated calls for a Darwinian approach to hydrologic science or for a synthesis of Darwinian and Newtonian approaches, to deepen understanding the hydrologic system in the larger landscape context, and so develop a better basis for predictions now and in an uncertain future. But what exactly makes a Darwinian approach to hydrology "Darwinian"? While there have now been a number of discussions of Darwinian approaches, many referencing Harte (2002, the term is potentially a source of confusion while its connections to Darwin remain allusive rather than explicit. Here we discuss the methods that Charles Darwin pioneered to understand a variety of complex systems in terms of their historical processes of change. We suggest that the Darwinian approach to hydrology follows his lead by focusing attention on the patterns of variation in populations, seeking hypotheses that explain these patterns in terms of the mechanisms and conditions that determine their historical development, using deduction and modeling to derive consequent hypotheses that follow from a proposed explanation, and critically testing these hypotheses against new observations. It is not sufficient to catalogue the patterns or predict them statistically. Nor is it sufficient for the explanations to amount to a "just-so" story not subject to critical analysis. Darwin's theories linked present-day variation to mechanisms that operated over history, and could be independently test and falsified by comparing new observations to the predictions of corollary hypotheses they generated. With a Darwinian framework in mind it is easy to see that a great deal of hydrologic research has already been done that contributes to a Darwinian hydrology – whether deliberately or not. The various heuristic methods that Darwin used to develop explanatory theories – extrapolating mechanisms, space for time substitution, and looking for signatures of history – have direct application in

  3. Cloud amount/frequency, NITRATE and other data from CHARLES DARWIN from 1987-11-13 to 1987-12-16 (NODC Accession 9000119)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Conductivity, Temperature and Depth (CTD) and other data were collected. R/V Charles Darwin was used to collect data. The data consisting of 111 casts was...

  4. CTD data from the Madeira and Iberian Abyssal Plains. CHARLES DARWIN cruises 3/85 and 9A/85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents lists and graphs of CTD data taken aboard RRS Charles Darwin on cruises 3 (May 1985) and 9A (November 1985). The majority of the lowerings were made in support of two experiments; the deployment of deep SOFAR floats and of deep moored current meters, the latter near 310 30'N 250W (GME site). All CTD data is compared with reversing thermometer observations, and with determinations of salinity and dissolved oxygen derived from samples. (author)

  5. The pedigree and influence of fossil collections from the Falkland Islands : from Charles Darwin to continental drift

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, Philip; Rushton, Adrian W.A.

    2012-01-01

    The Falkland Islands are typical of remote territories in that their early geological exploration was piecemeal and opportunistic. Whilst the resulting fossil collections (dominantly a Devonian fauna of the Malvinokaffric realm) remain the basis for modern interpretations, published accounts misrepresent their extent and provenance. Charles Darwin first discovered fossils during his 1833 visit aboard HMS Beagle, with subsequent British collections acquired in 1842 and 1876, respectively, by t...

  6. Charles Darwin and the firstscientific observations on the patagonian shingle formation (Rodados Patagónicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar A. Martínez

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available TheRodados Patagónicos is one of the most intriguing lithostratigraphic unitsin the Late Cenozoic of Patagonia. Charles Darwin named these gravels as the "PatagonianShingle Formation", when he discovered them during his trip toPatagonia on board HMS Beagle in 1832. According to the prevailing paradigm ofthe time, he assigned these deposits to a giant transgression during the GreatUniversal Déluge epoch, considering that their formation was related to waveaction along the beach in ancient times. The name of Rodados Patagónicos,as they are generally known in the Argentine geological literature, is usuallyconfusing since it has been applied to a wide number of geological units ofmultiple origin and age. Many authors have discussed the nature and origin ofthese gravels, considering them to have been formed by piedmont, alluvial,colluvial, glaciofluvial, and/or marine processes. Today, it is accepted thatthe term Rodados Patagónicos includes gravel deposits of varied nature and age,perhaps with a prevalence of piedmont genesis in northern Patagonia andglaciofluvial dynamics in southern Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego.

  7. Ciência e educação: a propósito do bicentenário do nascimento de Charles Darwin Science and education: about Charles Darwin's 200th birthday

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Pino

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo visa à evocação da memória do grande naturalista e cientista britânico Charles Darwin no bicentenário do seu nascimento. A melhor maneira de evocar sua memória é trazer à reflexão dos leitores as ideias de suas três obras maiores: A origem das espécies (1859, A descendência do homem (1871 e A expressão das emoções no homem e nos animais (1872. Após apresentar a importância e a oportunidade de Darwin no debate contemporâneo, o texto inicia com uma rápida referência aos antecedentes históricos da "teoria da evolução" e às reações que ela produz. Na sequência, a obra de Darwin é situada no contexto histórico da sua época. Apresenta-se também um breve histórico das três obras maiores e uma análise das suas principais ideias. Conclui-se o texto com uma indicação sumária de algumas questões que as ideias de Darwin colocam à ciência contemporânea e, em especial, à reflexão no campo da Educação.This paper evokes the memory of the British naturalist and scientist, Charles Darwin on his 200th birthday. The best way to do so is to invite our readers to reflect on some ideas of three books of his: The origin of species (1859, Descent of man (1871 and The expression of emotions in man and animals (1872. After presenting the importance and appropriateness of Darwin in the contemporaneous debate, the text rapidly explores the historical precedents of the so called "theory of evolution" and the reactions to it. It then situates Darwin's works in its historical context and presents a brief history of these three books and an analysis of their main ideas. As a conclusion, it summarizes how Darwin's ideas question contemporary science and, more particularly, the reflection in the field of education.

  8. The fossil mammals collected byCharles Darwin in South America during his travels on board the HMS Beagle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Fernicola

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Duringthe first two years of his voyage aboard HMS Beagle, Charles Darwin collected aconsiderable number of fossil mammals from various localities in Argentina andUruguay. Among these remains are those of large mammals that Darwin informallyassigned to Megatherium and Mastodon, the only large taxa thenknown for South America, and of small and mediumsized mammals that Darwinrecognized as representing at least two rodents and a horse. The study ofDarwin's collection was entrusted to Richard Owen, who described eleven taxabetween 1837 and 1845, including the six following ones: Toxodon platensis,Macrauchenia patachonica, Equus curvidens, Scelidotherium leptocephalum,Mylodon darwini and Glossotherium sp. This contribution provides asynthesis of Darwin's preliminary assignments and evaluates the reasons thatled him to recognize only megatheres and mastodonts for the large fossilremains. Also, it discusses the current taxonomic status of the taxa describedor erected by Owen between 1837 and 1845 and the influence that Owen'staxonomic and phylogenetic conclusions had on the development of Darwin's ideason evolution.

  9. Charles Darwin's Origin of Species, directional selection, and the evolutionary sciences today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschera, Ulrich

    2009-11-01

    The book On the Origin of Species, published in November 1859, is an “abstract” without references, compiled by Charles Darwin from a much longer manuscript entitled “Natural Selection.” Here, I summarize the five theories that can be extracted from Darwin’s monograph, explain the true meaning of the phrase “struggle for life” (i.e., competition and cooperation), and outline Darwin’s original concept of natural selection in populations of animals and plants. Since neither Darwin nor Alfred R. Wallace distinguished between stabilizing and directional natural selection, the popular argument that “selection only eliminates but is not creative” is still alive today. However, I document that August Weismann ( Die Bedeutung der sexuellen Fortpflanzung für die Selektions-Theorie. Gustav Fischer-Verlag, Jena, 1886) and Ivan Schmalhausen ( Factors of evolution. The theory of stabilizing selection. The Blackiston Company, Philadelphia, 1949) provided precise definitions for directional (dynamic) selection in nature and illustrate this “Weismann-Schmalhausen principle” with respect to the evolutionary development of novel phenotypes. Then, the modern (synthetic) theory of biological evolution that is based on the work of Theodosius Dobzhansky ( Genetics and the origin of species. Columbia University Press, New York, 1937) and others, and the expanded version of this system of theories, are outlined. Finally, I document that symbiogenesis (i.e., primary endosymbiosis, a process that gave rise to the first eukaryotic cells), ongoing directional natural selection, and the dynamic Earth (plate tectonics, i.e., geological events that both created and destroyed terrestrial and aquatic habitats) were the key processes responsible for the documented macroevolutionary patterns in all five kingdoms of life. Since the evolutionary development of the earliest archaic bacteria more than 3,500 mya, the biosphere of our dynamic planet has been dominated by

  10. El cambio climático global en la Patagonia desde el viaje de Charles Darwin hasta nuestros días The global climatic change in Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego since voyage of Charles Darwin until present times

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Rabassa

    2010-01-01

    El viaje del Beagle que trajo a Charles Darwin a América del Sur entre 1832 y 1835 AD y en particular, al territorio argentino, se desarrolló bajo condiciones climáticas muy desfavorables: frías, secas y ventosas, correspondientes a las condiciones predominantes en la última fase de la pequeña edad del hielo, un episodio frío global que caracterizó a los siglos XVII, XVIII y XIX. Esta fase es conocida como mínimo de Dalton, en referencia a la disminución relativa de la frecuencia de las manch...

  11. Explosive Volcanic Activity at Extreme Depths: Evidence from the Charles Darwin Volcanic Field, Cape Verdes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasnitschka, T.; Devey, C. W.; Hansteen, T. H.; Freundt, A.; Kutterolf, S.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions on the deep sea floor have traditionally been assumed to be non-explosive as the high-pressure environment should greatly inhibit steam-driven explosions. Nevertheless, occasional evidence both from (generally slow-) spreading axes and intraplate seamounts has hinted at explosive activity at large water depths. Here we present evidence from a submarine field of volcanic cones and pit craters called Charles Darwin Volcanic Field located at about 3600 m depth on the lower southwestern slope of the Cape Verdean Island of Santo Antão. We examined two of these submarine volcanic edifices (Tambor and Kolá), each featuring a pit crater of 1 km diameter, using photogrammetric reconstructions derived from ROV-based imaging followed by 3D quantification using a novel remote sensing workflow, aided by sampling. The measured and calculated parameters of physical volcanology derived from the 3D model allow us, for the first time, to make quantitative statements about volcanic processes on the deep seafloor similar to those generated from land-based field observations. Tambor cone, which is 2500 m wide and 250 m high, consists of dense, probably monogenetic medium to coarse-grained volcaniclastic and pyroclastic rocks that are highly fragmented, probably as a result of thermal and viscous granulation upon contact with seawater during several consecutive cycles of activity. Tangential joints in the outcrops indicate subsidence of the crater floor after primary emplacement. Kolá crater, which is 1000 m wide and 160 m deep, appears to have been excavated in the surrounding seafloor and shows stepwise sagging features interpreted as ring fractures on the inner flanks. Lithologically, it is made up of a complicated succession of highly fragmented deposits, including spheroidal juvenile lapilli, likely formed by spray granulation. It resembles a maar-type deposit found on land. The eruption apparently entrained blocks of MORB-type gabbroic country rocks with

  12. 3D-Reconstruction of recent volcanic activity from ROV-video, Charles Darwin Seamounts, Cape Verdes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasnitschka, T.; Hansteen, T. H.; Kutterolf, S.; Freundt, A.; Devey, C. W.

    2011-12-01

    As well as providing well-localized samples, Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) produce huge quantities of visual data whose potential for geological data mining has seldom if ever been fully realized. We present a new workflow to derive essential results of field geology such as quantitative stratigraphy and tectonic surveying from ROV-based photo and video material. We demonstrate the procedure on the Charles Darwin Seamounts, a field of small hot spot volcanoes recently identified at a depth of ca. 3500m southwest of the island of Santo Antao in the Cape Verdes. The Charles Darwin Seamounts feature a wide spectrum of volcanic edifices with forms suggestive of scoria cones, lava domes, tuff rings and maar-type depressions, all of comparable dimensions. These forms, coupled with the highly fragmented volcaniclastic samples recovered by dredging, motivated surveying parts of some edifices down to centimeter scale. ROV-based surveys yielded volcaniclastic samples of key structures linked by extensive coverage of stereoscopic photographs and high-resolution video. Based upon the latter, we present our workflow to derive three-dimensional models of outcrops from a single-camera video sequence, allowing quantitative measurements of fault orientation, bedding structure, grain size distribution and photo mosaicking within a geo-referenced framework. With this information we can identify episodes of repetitive eruptive activity at individual volcanic centers and see changes in eruptive style over time, which, despite their proximity to each other, is highly variable.

  13. Die ‘vergroening’ van die Christelike godsdiens: Charles Darwin, Pierre Teilhard de Chardin en Lloyd Geering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izak J.J. (Sakkie Spangenberg

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The greening of Christianity: Charles Darwin, Pierre Teilhard de Chardin and Lloyd Geering. Since the time of Charles Darwin, evolutionary biology challenged the metanarrative of Christianity which can be summarised as Fall-Redemption-Judgement. Pierre Teilhard de Chardin tried to circumvent these challenges by integrating the traditional Christian doctrines with evolutionary biology. However, he did not succeed since the Catholic Church, time and again, vetoed his theological publications. A number of Protestant theologians promoted his views but even they could not convince ordinary Christians to accept his views. These were too esoteric for Christians. Most of them were convinced that the acceptance of the theory of evolution will eventually undermine their faith. In recent years Lloyd Geering argued a case for the creation of a new narrative in which the Big Bang and the theory of evolution do play a role. He calls it the ‘Greening of Christianity’. This article discusses the metanarrative of Christianity and the challenges the theory of evolution presents before it assesses the views of Pierre Teilhard de Chardin and Lloyd Geering.

  14. Charles Darwin in Australia; or How To Introduce Some Local Colour to the Teaching of Evolution, Geology, Meteorology, and the Determination of Longitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Frank W.

    The background to Charles Darwin's little-known visit to Australia, and the account of his experiences while here, provide some invaluable historical material for teaching evolution, geology, meteorology, and the determination of longitude. Indeed, by using his Australian experiences as a foundation, it is possible to explain the theory of…

  15. The Darwin economy: liberty, competition and the common good

    OpenAIRE

    Sage, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Who was the greater economist — Adam Smith or Charles Darwin? The question seems absurd. Darwin, after all, was a naturalist, not an economist. But Robert Frank, «The New York Times’» economics columnist and best-selling author of «The Economic Naturalist», predicts that within the next century Darwin will unseat Smith as the intellectual founder of economics. The reason, Frank argues, is that Darwin's understanding of competition describes economic reality far more accurately than Smith's. A...

  16. There is grandeur in this view of Newton: Charles Darwin, Isaac Newton and Victorian conceptions of scientific virtue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellon, Richard

    2014-01-01

    For Victorian men of science, the scientific revolution of the seventeenth century represented a moral awakening. Great theoretical triumphs of inductive science flowed directly from a philosophical spirit that embraced the virtues of self-discipline, courage, patience and humility. Isaac Newton exemplified this union of moral and intellectual excellence. This, at least, was the story crafted by scientific leaders like David Brewster, Thomas Chalmers, John Herschel, Adam Sedgwick and William Whewell. Not everyone accepted this reading of history. Evangelicals who decried the 'materialism' of mainstream science assigned a different meaning to Newton's legacy on behalf of their 'scriptural' alternative. High-church critics of science like John Henry Newman, on the other hand, denied that Newton's secular achievements carried any moral significance at all. These debates over Newtonian standards of philosophical behavior had a decisive influence on Charles Darwin as he developed his theory of evolution by natural selection. PMID:25455541

  17. Cloud amount/frequency, NITRATE and other data from CHARLES DARWIN in the Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean from 1986-12-20 to 1987-08-14 (NODC Accession 9000045)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Conductivity, Temperature and Depth (CTD) data with oxygen was collected off of Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea using Charles Darwin ship as part of Monsoon And...

  18. Oceanographic profile, temperature, salinity, oxygen, and other measurements collected using bottle casts from the CHARLES DARWIN in the North Atlantic from 27 April 1991 to 6 June 1991 (NODC Accession 0000509)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, chemical, and nutrients data were collected from bottle casts in the North Atlantic from the CHARLES DARWIN from 27 April 1991 to 6 June 1991. Data were...

  19. El Legado Radical De Charles R. Darwin A Las Ciencias Sociales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel De La Luz Rodríguez.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay reflects on the theoretical repercussions that Charles Darwin’s The Origin of Species has for the Social Sciences. It contrasts Darwin’s epistemological legacy with his precursors in cultural evolutionary theory, mainly Herbert Spencer and Edward B. Tylor. It is argued that Darwin’s most important lessons for the Social Sciences are in his naturalist writings instead of his writings on human evolution per se.

  20. Charles Darwin meets Amoeba economicus: why natural selection cannot explain rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Elias L. Khalil

    2006-01-01

    Advocates of natural selection usually regard rationality as redundant, i.e., as a mere linguistic device to describe natural selection. But this “Redundancy Thesis” faces the anomaly that rationality differs from natural selection. One solution is to conceive rationality as a trait selected by the neo-Darwinian mechanism of natural selection as . But this “Rationality-qua-Trait Thesis” faces a problem as well: Following neo-Darwinism, one cannot classify one allele of, e.g., eyesight as bett...

  1. El cambio climático global en la Patagonia desde el viaje de Charles Darwin hasta nuestros días The global climatic change in Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego since voyage of Charles Darwin until present times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Rabassa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available El viaje del Beagle que trajo a Charles Darwin a América del Sur entre 1832 y 1835 AD y en particular, al territorio argentino, se desarrolló bajo condiciones climáticas muy desfavorables: frías, secas y ventosas, correspondientes a las condiciones predominantes en la última fase de la pequeña edad del hielo, un episodio frío global que caracterizó a los siglos XVII, XVIII y XIX. Esta fase es conocida como mínimo de Dalton, en referencia a la disminución relativa de la frecuencia de las manchas solares, lo cual redunda en una disminución de la radiación solar y como consecuencia, en menores temperaturas medias globales en ese período. Darwin fue perfectamente consciente de dichas condiciones climáticas, que se manifestaban fuertemente en Europa, en particular en los Alpes, y así lo transmite en sus escritos. Desde el viaje de Darwin a la Patagonia, las condiciones climáticas y ambientales cambiaron sustancialmente, especialmente luego de 1850 AD y, finalmente, después de mediados de la década de 1970 AD. Algunas de las más importantes consecuencias del cambio climático global son el aumento de la temperatura media anual o la temperatura estacional, la elevación o disminución de las precipitaciones al nivel regional, el continuo ascenso global del nivel del mar y un incremento significativo de la frecuencia de eventos meteorológicos extremos. El impacto de esos cambios ha sido observado en los glaciares de Patagonia y Tierra del Fuego, por lo menos desde 1978 AD, y particularmente en la última década del siglo XX. Los impactos más notables son la rápida recesión de las márgenes del hielo en los glaciares, el adelgazamiento de la cobertura glacial, la elevación de la línea de nieve regional y la reducción de las áreas andinas bajo condiciones de suelos permanentemente congelados (permafrost, como han demostrado estudios científicos recientes. A la tasa presente de recesión del hielo glacial, la mayoría, si no

  2. Responding to soil erosion in Spain: from Charles Darwin to John Thornes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During a discussion of the European Soil Framework Directive last year, John Thornes commented on the paradox that although there was much scientific progress in understanding desertification and erosion, relatively few scientists were responding to the opportunity of responding. Most scientists passively accept the situation of little effective soil and land governance in Europe John Thornes thought that one difficulty is that researchers work in isolation and assume someone else is caring about the big picture. those looking after the big picture are in fact managing soil and land from the perspectives of things such as rural poverty reduction and food security and interventions for farmer's. These are in themselves excellent points of view but they need to be balanced and limited by guidelines provided from the perspective of the requirements of medium and long term soil conservation and protection. There is an absolute need for a European Soil Conservation service as there is in the United States and china. As Darwin said when looking at the increase in population of animals in South America: There must be something limiting growth. Now the only thing limiting growth in many places might be erosion and desertification. (Author) 13 refs.

  3. Responding to soil erosion in Spain: from Charles Darwin to John Thornes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imeson, A.

    2009-07-01

    During a discussion of the European Soil Framework Directive last year, John Thornes commented on the paradox that although there was much scientific progress in understanding desertification and erosion, relatively few scientists were responding to the opportunity of responding. Most scientists passively accept the situation of little effective soil and land governance in Europe John Thornes thought that one difficulty is that researchers work in isolation and assume someone else is caring about the big picture. those looking after the big picture are in fact managing soil and land from the perspectives of things such as rural poverty reduction and food security and interventions for farmer's. These are in themselves excellent points of view but they need to be balanced and limited by guidelines provided from the perspective of the requirements of medium and long term soil conservation and protection. There is an absolute need for a European Soil Conservation service as there is in the United States and china. As Darwin said when looking at the increase in population of animals in South America: There must be something limiting growth. Now the only thing limiting growth in many places might be erosion and desertification. (Author) 13 refs.

  4. Darwin's legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Leonard

    2009-07-01

    Charles Darwin was no theoretical physicist, and I am no biologist. Yet, as a theoretical physicist, I have found much to think about in Darwin's legacy - and in that of his fellow naturalist Alfred Russell Wallace. Darwin's style of science is not usually thought of as theoretical and certainly not mathematical: he was a careful observer of nature, kept copious notes, contributed to zoological collections; and eventually from his vast repertoire of observation deduced the idea of natural selection as the origin of species. The value of theorizing is often dismissed in the biological sciences as less important than observation; and Darwin was the master observer.

  5. The fossil mammals collected byCharles Darwin in South America during his travels on board the HMS Beagle Los mamíferos fósiles colectados por Charles Darwin en América del Surdurante su viaje a bordo del HMS Beagle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Fernicola

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Duringthe first two years of his voyage aboard HMS Beagle, Charles Darwin collected aconsiderable number of fossil mammals from various localities in Argentina andUruguay. Among these remains are those of large mammals that Darwin informallyassigned to Megatherium and Mastodon, the only large taxa thenknown for South America, and of small and mediumsized mammals that Darwinrecognized as representing at least two rodents and a horse. The study ofDarwin's collection was entrusted to Richard Owen, who described eleven taxabetween 1837 and 1845, including the six following ones: Toxodon platensis,Macrauchenia patachonica, Equus curvidens, Scelidotherium leptocephalum,Mylodon darwini and Glossotherium sp. This contribution provides asynthesis of Darwin's preliminary assignments and evaluates the reasons thatled him to recognize only megatheres and mastodonts for the large fossilremains. Also, it discusses the current taxonomic status of the taxa describedor erected by Owen between 1837 and 1845 and the influence that Owen'staxonomic and phylogenetic conclusions had on the development of Darwin's ideason evolution.Durantelos dos primeros años de su viaje a bordo del HMS Beagle, Charles Darwincolectó en distintas localidades de Argentina y Uruguay un considerable númerode mamíferos fósiles. Entre estos se cuentan los grandes mamíferos queinformalmente Darwin asignó a Megatherium y Mastodon, únicosgrandes taxones conocidos hasta ese momento para América del sur y entre lospequeños y medianos mamíferos reconoció la presencia de al menos dos tipos deroedores y un caballo. El estudio posterior de todos los ejemplares colectadospor Darwin fue llevado a cabo Richard Owen, quien entre 1837 y 1845 describióonce taxones, entre los cuales, seis eran nuevos taxones: Toxodon platensis,Macrauchenia patachonica, Equus curvidens, Scelidotherium leptocephalum,Mylodon darwini y Glossotherium sp. En esta contribución se brindauna síntesis de las

  6. Comparative study on the growth of juvenile Galapagos giant tortoises (Geochelone nigra) at the Charles Darwin Research Station (Galapagos Islands, Ecuador) and Zoo Zurich (Zurich, Switzerland)

    OpenAIRE

    Furrer, S C; Hatt, J M; Snell, H; Marquez, C; Honegger, R E; A. Rübel

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the growth rates of a group of Galapagos giant tortoises raised in their natural habitat at the Charles Darwin Research Station (CDRS; Galapagos Islands, Ecuador) and a group of captive-bred specimens (Zoo Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland) were compared for the first time. A great discrepancy in growth rates was observed after the first year. When the animals were 4 years old, the carapace in the Zurich specimens was approximately twice as long as that in the CDRS tortoises, and t...

  7. El cambio climático global en la Patagonia desde el viaje de Charles Darwin hasta nuestros días

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    El viaje del Beagle que trajo a Charles Darwin a América del Sur entre 1832 y 1835 AD y en particular, al territorio argentino, se desarrolló bajo condiciones climáticas muy desfavorables: frías, secas y ventosas, correspondientes a las condiciones predominantes en la última fase de la pequeña edad del hielo, un episodio frío global que caracterizó a los siglos XVII, XVIII y XIX. Esta fase es conocida como mínimo de Dalton, en referencia a la disminución relativa de la frecuencia de las manch...

  8. Beagle I and II Voyages: Charles Darwin's rocks and the quest for Mars rock; the Open University's virtual microscope has both

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenzer, S. P.; Tindle, A. G.; Anand, M.; Gibson, E. K.; Pearson, V. K.; Pemberton, D.; Pillinger, C.; Smith, C. L.; Whalley, P.; Kelley, S. P.

    2011-12-01

    Exploration is in itself a fascinating subject, and a strong draw to engaging the public in understanding science. Nearly two hundred years ago Charles Darwin took part in an exploration of the Earth, and more recently we have begun to explore the solar system and in particular the surface of Mars. The engagement is made easier if an element of exploration is involved in the public engagement, using modern internet and even mobile technologies. The Open University combines all those aspects in a series of virtual microscopes for Earth science that are freely available on the web, installed in museums, or built into its teaching material. The basis of the virtual microscope is a mosaic of several hundred microscopic images of each thin section taken in plane polarised light, between crossed polars and in reflected light, which are then assembled into three high resolution images. Rotation movies for selected points in the thin section illustrate changing optical properties such as birefringence. The user is able to pan and zoom around to explore the section, studying the mineralogy and rock texture, and view the rotation movies linked to points in the section to see the changing birefringence colours. We have created several collections of terrestrial rocks, mainly for teaching purposes, and outreach directly linked to exploration: Charles Darwin returned from the Voyage of the Beagle with a large variety of rock samples, and although thin sections were not being made at that time, they were created from his rocks in the late 19th century. The historic material is part of the "Darwin the Geologist" exhibition at the Sedgwick Museum in Cambridge. Our Darwin virtual microscope includes hand specimen illustrations and thin sections together with documentation and an interactive map allow internet users and museum visitors alike to have a close look at Darwin's rocks and study the petrology of them. Charles Darwin explored distant horizons on Earth in the 19th century

  9. Charles Darwin, Imperium Britannicum a Evropa. K Darwinovu dvojitému výročí

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hermann, Tomáš; Stella, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 2 (2009), s. 103-111. ISSN 0300-4414 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB800630701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80630520 Keywords : Darwin ´s theory * history of biology * reception of Darwin ism Subject RIV: AB - History

  10. Charles Darwin's Observations on the Behaviour of Earthworms and the Evolutionary History of a Giant Endemic Species from Germany, Lumbricus badensis (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The British naturalist Charles Darwin (1809/1882) began and ended his almost 45-year-long career with observations, experiments, and theories related to earthworms. About six months before his death, Darwin published his book on The Formation of Vegetable Mould, through the Actions of Worms, With Observations on their Habits (1881). Here we describe the origin, content, and impact of Darwin's last publication on earthworms (subclass Oligochaeta, family Lumbricidae) and the role of these annelids as global ecosystem re workers (concept of bioturbation). In addition, we summarize our current knowledge on the reproductive behaviour of the common European species Lumbricus terrestris. In the second part of our account we describe the biology and evolution of the giant endemic species L. badensis from south western Germany with reference to the principle of niche construction. Bio geographic studies have shown that the last common ancestor of L. badensis, and the much smaller sister-taxon, the Atlantic-Mediterranean L. friendi, lived less than 10000 years ago. Allopatric speciation occurred via geographically isolated founder populations that were separated by the river Rhine so that today two earthworm species exist in different areas.

  11. MORFOLOGÍA FLORAL Y POLINIZACIÓN DE ORQUÍDEAS: EL SEGUNDO LIBRO DE CHARLES DARWIN Floral Morphology and Pollination in Orchidaceae: Charles Darwin s Second Book

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODRIGO B SINGER

    Full Text Available El segundo libro de Darwin fue íntegramente dedicado a la morfología floral y polinización de diversos grupos de orquídeas de regiones templadas y tropicales. Este libro fue publicado en 1862 y parece haber sido concebido como una fuente de pruebas o un complemento para ideas sugeridas en El origen de las especies, en especial la noción sobre las ventajas del cruzamiento entre individuos diferentes, aunque sean hermafroditas (como es el caso de las orquídeas. La gran diversidad de morfologías florales y las diversas estrategias reproductivas que promueven la polinización cruzada en Orchidaceae fascinaron a Darwin, quien utilizó a este grupo de plantas como modelo para apoyar sus ideas. Darwin describió por primera vez y de modo impecable estrategias reproductivas como la protandria en orquídeas terrestres y la producción de flores imperfectas (unisexuales en Catasetum, entre muchas otras contribuciones. Se analizan las ideas y propuestas de Darwin en este libro a la luz de nuestros conocimientos actuales y se muestran en gran parte correctas y vigentes.Darwin s second book was totally dedicated to the floral functional morphology and pollination of temperate and tropical orchids. This book was published in 1862 and was likely conceived as an assemblage of evidence supporting ideas that were proposed in -On The Origin of The Species-; namely, the advantages of the intercrossing between different coespecific individuals, even if they are hermaphrodite (like the orchids. The great floral diversity and the outstanding number of reproductive strategies that promote cross-pollination in Orchidaceae fascinated Darwin who, in turn, used this plant group as a model to support his ideas. Darwin described for the first time and in a very accurate way, orchid reproductive strategies that clearly promote cross-pollination, such as protandry in terrestrial orchids and the production of unisexual flowers in Catasetum, among many other important

  12. Charles Darwin and the oldestglacial events in Patagonia: the erratic blocks of the Río Santa Cruz valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Strelin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Althoughthe depositational environment assigned by Darwin to the large erratic blocksand gravels in the Río Santa Cruz valley has been reinterpreted, hisgeomorphological and stratigraphic observations are still in force. The largeerratic blocks he described as crowning the Condor Cliff terrace and spread atthe bottom of the valley just east of this locality (Sites 2 and 3, are nowinterpreted as indicators of the maximum glacial expansion in Patagonia.Similar blocks, though of a different lithology, accumulated over a lowerterrace located up-valley (Site 4, are now linked to moraines and glacifluvialterraces of the Penultimate Glaciation. Finally, in addition to the erraticblock discovered by Darwin in the lower Río Santa Cruz valley (Site 1, thereare others - recently discovered - which probably account for a catastrophicevent ascribed to a big glacier-lake outburst during the last interglacial.

  13. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the BELGICA, CHARLES DARWIN and others in the Bay of Biscay, English Channel and others from 1993-04-01 to 1995-11-01 (NODC Accession 0115608)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115608 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from BELGICA, CHARLES DARWIN, DISCOVERY, HEINCKE, MADORNINA, METEOR,...

  14. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the CHARLES DARWIN in the Indian Ocean from 2002-03-01 to 2002-04-15 (NODC Accession 0108226)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108226 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from CHARLES DARWIN in the Indian Ocean from 2002-03-01 to 2002-04-15...

  15. Alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the BELGICA, CHARLES DARWIN and METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1997-06-01 to 1999-09-01 (NODC Accession 0115763)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115763 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from BELGICA, CHARLES DARWIN and METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean...

  16. MORFOLOGÍA FLORAL Y POLINIZACIÓN DE ORQUÍDEAS: EL SEGUNDO LIBRO DE CHARLES DARWIN

    OpenAIRE

    Singer Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    RESUMEN El segundo libro de Darwin fue íntegramente dedicado a la morfología floral y polinización de diversos grupos de orquídeas de regiones templadas y tropicales. Este libro fue publicado en 1862 y parece haber sido concebido como una fuente de pruebas o un complemento para ideas sugeridas en El Origen de las Especies; en especial, la noción sobre las ventajas del cruzamiento entre individuos diferentes, aunque sean hermafroditas (como es el caso de las orquídeas). La gran dive...

  17. Darwin i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klassiske danske oversættelser af Charles Darwins skrifter, bl.a. Om Arternes Oprindelse, Menneskets Afstamning, Rejse om Jorden og Live og Breve. Indeholder også forskellige 1800-tals reaktioner til Darwin sammen med en række introduktioner, bibliografier og andre ressourcer for studerende og...

  18. Race, Racism, and Darwinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeynes, William H.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the views of Darwinist evolution on issues regarding race and how this contributed to the spread of racism in the United States. The writings of Charles Darwin and a myriad of his followers are examined, including Herbert Spencer, Francis Galton, and others. The influence of Darwinism in contributing to the growth of…

  19. Darwin and his publisher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClay, David

    2009-01-01

    Charles Darwin's publisher John Murray played an important, if often underrated, role in bringing his theories to the public. As their letters and publishing archives show they had a friendly, business like and successful relationship. This was despite fundamental scientific and religious differences between the men. In addition to publishing Darwin, Murray also published many of the critical and supportive works and reviews which Darwin's own works excited. PMID:19960865

  20. O show de Darwin

    OpenAIRE

    Steve Shapin

    2010-01-01

    As comemorações dos 200 anos de nascimento de Charles Darwin revelaram menos sobre a figura histórica do cientista vitoriano do que sobre o lugar da ciência e do cientista na cultura moderna. O artigo explora os eventos do "Dia de Darwin" e a produção recente sobre o "pai da teoria da evolução" com a intenção de ligá-los à recepção contemporânea da obra (e da figura) de Charles Darwin.The celebrations of the 200th anniversary of Charles Darwin's birth were less about the historical figure of ...

  1. El cambio climático global en la Patagonia desde el viaje de Charles Darwin hasta nuestros días

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Rabassa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available El viaje del Beagle que trajo a Charles Darwin a América del Sur entre 1832 y 1835 AD y en particular, al territorio argentino, se desarrolló bajo condiciones climáticas muy desfavorables: frías, secas y ventosas, correspondientes a las condiciones predominantes en la última fase de la pequeña edad del hielo, un episodio frío global que caracterizó a los siglos XVII, XVIII y XIX. Esta fase es conocida como mínimo de Dalton, en referencia a la disminución relativa de la frecuencia de las manchas solares, lo cual redunda en una disminución de la radiación solar y como consecuencia, en menores temperaturas medias globales en ese período. Darwin fue perfectamente consciente de dichas condiciones climáticas, que se manifestaban fuertemente en Europa, en particular en los Alpes, y así lo transmite en sus escritos. Desde el viaje de Darwin a la Patagonia, las condiciones climáticas y ambientales cambiaron sustancialmente, especialmente luego de 1850 AD y, finalmente, después de mediados de la década de 1970 AD. Algunas de las más importantes consecuencias del cambio climático global son el aumento de la temperatura media anual o la temperatura estacional, la elevación o disminución de las precipitaciones al nivel regional, el continuo ascenso global del nivel del mar y un incremento significativo de la frecuencia de eventos meteorológicos extremos. El impacto de esos cambios ha sido observado en los glaciares de Patagonia y Tierra del Fuego, por lo menos desde 1978 AD, y particularmente en la última década del siglo XX. Los impactos más notables son la rápida recesión de las márgenes del hielo en los glaciares, el adelgazamiento de la cobertura glacial, la elevación de la línea de nieve regional y la reducción de las áreas andinas bajo condiciones de suelos permanentemente congelados (permafrost, como han demostrado estudios científicos recientes. A la tasa presente de recesión del hielo glacial, la mayoría, si no

  2. Darwin hoy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avedis Aznavurian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En el siglo XXI, las ideas expresadas por Charles Darwin siguen provocando discusiones y polémicas que trascienden el ámbito de la ciencia y se enfrentan, dentro de las ciencias biológicas, a puntos de vista divergentes acerca de la ortodoxia darwiniana planteando hipótesis evolucionistas con fundamentos científicos; en este artículo se examinan también las posibilidades y los logros en este siglo, revisando las interpretaciones y la aplicación de las ideas básicas a problemas científicos actuales como la conciencia y la medicina darwiniana

  3. Presidential Address Commemorating Darwin

    OpenAIRE

    Browne, Janet E

    2005-01-01

    This text draws attention to former ideologies of the scientific hero in order to explore the leading features of Charles Darwin's fame, both during his lifetime and beyond. Emphasis is laid on the material record of celebrity, including popular mementoes, statues and visual images. Darwin's funeral in Westminster Abbey and the main commemorations and centenary celebrations, as well as the opening of Down House as a museum in 1929, are discussed and the changing agendas behind each event outl...

  4. O show de Darwin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Shapin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available As comemorações dos 200 anos de nascimento de Charles Darwin revelaram menos sobre a figura histórica do cientista vitoriano do que sobre o lugar da ciência e do cientista na cultura moderna. O artigo explora os eventos do "Dia de Darwin" e a produção recente sobre o "pai da teoria da evolução" com a intenção de ligá-los à recepção contemporânea da obra (e da figura de Charles Darwin.The celebrations of the 200th anniversary of Charles Darwin's birth were less about the historical figure of the Victorian scientist than about the place of science and the scientist in modern culture. The article explores the "Darwin Day" events and recent books on the "father of the theory of evolution" in order to relate them to the contemporary reception of Darwin's life and work.

  5. In praise of Darwin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Charles Darwin, who was born 200 years ago, is rightly being celebrated as the founding father of modern biology with a series of events around the world this year. Just as Einstein revolutionized physics, so Darwin changed our understanding of life. He came to realize that "natural selection" could account for the huge diversity of life, with more-efficient groups-arising from random variation-always replacing less-efficient groups in a particular environment as a result of competition. After publishing his seminal book On the Origin of Species in 1859-exactly 150 years ago-Darwin, like Einstein, became the most noted scientist of his time.

  6. Darwin's Perplexing Paradox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorvaldsen, Steinar; Øhrstrøm, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Today, many would assume that Charles Darwin absolutely rejected any claim of intelligent design in nature. However, review of his initial writings reveals that Darwin accepted some aspects of this view. His conceptualization of design was founded on both the cosmological and the teleological ideas...... from classical natural theology. When Darwin discovered the dynamic process of natural selection, he rejected the old teleological argument as formulated by William Paley. However, he was never able to ignore the powerful experience of the beauty and complexity of an intelligently designed universe...

  7. Diversidade de Scarabaeinae (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae coletados com armadilha de interceptação de vôo no Refúgio Ecológico Charles Darwin, Igarassu-PE, Brasil Diversity of Scarabaeinae (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae collected with flight intercept trap in the Charles Darwin Ecologic Refuge, Igarassu-PE, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Maria Queiroz da Costa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar riqueza, abundância, diversidade e equitabilidade das espécies de Scarabaeinae em dois ambientes no Refúgio Ecológico Charles Darwin (RECD, Pernambuco. As coletas foram realizadas com armadilha de interceptação de vôo entre os meses de Abril e Junho de 2007, totalizando seis coletas. Foram capturados 4576 escarabeíneos, pertencentes a 35 espécies, 15 gêneros e seis tribos. Sete novos registros de espécies foram feitos para Pernambuco, passando de 26 para 33 espécies. As tribos registradas foram Canthonini, Ateuchini, Coprini, Phanaeini, Eurystenini e Onthophagini. Os gêneros melhor representados foram: Dichotomius com 84,6% dos besouros coletados, seguido por Canthidium com 7,62% e Canthon com 2,48%. A espécie Dichotomius aff.sericeus foi a mais abundante com 3889 indivíduos. Em todo o estudo foram verificadas 17 espécies para a área aberta, sendo 11 restritas a esse ambiente, enquanto para mata foram registradas 24, sendo 18 espécies restritas. Grande parte dos indivíduos capturados na mata foi da espécie D. aff.sericeus, enquanto no ambiente aberto nenhum indivíduo desta espécie foi coletado. Os estimadores indicaram uma estimativa máxima de riqueza de 21 espécies para o ambiente aberto e 32 espécies para o ambiente de mata. A curva de acumulação de espécies baseada em valores de riqueza observada média para os dois ambientes do RECD, não apresentou tendência a assíntota.The objective of this work was to study richness, abundance, diversity and equitability of the species of Scarabaeinae, in two environments in the Charles Darwin Ecology Refuge (CDER, Pernambuco. Sampling was carried with flight intercept trap from April through June 2007, totaling six samples. 4576 scarabaeinaes, belonging to 35 species, 15 genera and six tribes were captured. Seven new species records were found for Pernambuco, whose known fauna increased from 26 to 33 species. The tribes recorded were

  8. Is neural Darwinism Darwinism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Belle, T

    1997-01-01

    Neural Darwinism is a theory of cognition developed by Gerald Edelman along with George Reeke and Olaf Sporns at Rockefeller University. As its name suggests, neural Darwinism is modeled after biological Darwinism, and its authors assert that the two processes are strongly analogous. both operate on variation in a population, amplifying the more adaptive individuals. However, from a computational perspective, neural Darwinism is quite different from other models of natural selection, such as genetic algorithms. The individuals of neural Darwinism do not replicate, thus robbing the process of the capacity to explore new solutions over time and ultimately reducing it to a random search. Because neural Darwinism does not have the computational power of a truly Darwinian process, it is misleading to label it as such. to illustrate this disparity in adaptive power, one of Edelman's early computer experiments, Darwin I, is revisited, and it is shown that adding replication greatly improves the adaptive power of the system. PMID:9090158

  9. Darwin and Emotion Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Ursula; Thibault, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    In his book "The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals," Charles Darwin (1872/1965) defended the argument that emotion expressions are evolved and adaptive (at least at some point in the past) and serve an important communicative function. The ideas he developed in his book had an important impact on the field and spawned rich domains of…

  10. The theory of Darwin

    CERN Multimedia

    Thuillier,P

    1984-01-01

    Biographie de Charles Darwin, naturaliste anglaise (1809 - 1882), qui demeurait fameux dans l'histoire des sciences, parce qu'il a inventé une théorie qui permet de rendre compte rationnellement en principe de la formation des diverses formes vivantes que nous voyons

  11. Dear Mr. Charles Darwin... Dear Mr. Fritz Müller: from the correspondence between the evolutionary and the naturalistic evidences to characterize the writing in science and in teaching science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Tomio

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Characterize the roles of writing in the production and dissemination of scientific knowledge from an analysis of the interlocution, by correspondence, between Charles Darwin and Fritz Müller, and with this, identify the evidences to problematize its exercise in science teaching at school was the aim in this research. For this, we did the reading; the examination of the letters content exchanged for the evolutionist and for the naturalist, during the years 1865-82, the selection of extracts and, based on categories by the epistemologist Polish Fleck, we discussed some relations among the writing practice by the scientist with the aims of this same practice for the apprehending, elaboration and communication of scientific knowledge by the student, in science teaching at school.

  12. Danes commemorating Darwin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjermitslev, Hans Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the Danish 1909 celebrations of the centenary of Charles Darwin's birth on 12 February 1809. I argue that the 1909 meetings, lectures and publications devoted to Darwin and his theory of evolution by natural selection can be characterised by ambivalence: On the one hand......, tribute to a great man of science who established a new view of nature and, on the other hand, scepticism towards the Darwinian mechanism of natural selection and the wider religious and political implications drawn from his theory. The article examines both professional and popular commemorative...... and cultural divisions of the periodical press. Moreover, my analysis of the popular press offers a solid basis for asserting that to most people Darwinism was associated with human evolution, primarily the relationship between man and apes, while more sophisticated discussions about the crisis of Darwinism...

  13. Darwin as a geologist in Africa – dispelling the myths and unravelling a confused knot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad Master

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Two myths persist concerning the role played by Charles Darwin as a geologist in Africa during his epic voyage around the world (1831–1836. The first myth is that Darwin was a completely self-taught geologist, with no formal training. The second myth is that it was Darwin who finally solved the problem of the granite–schist contact at the famous Sea Point coastal exposures in Cape Town, after deliberately setting out to prove his predecessors wrong. These myths are challenged by the now ample evidence that Darwin had excellent help in his geological education from the likes of Robert Jameson, John Henslow and Adam Sedgwick. The story of Darwin and his predecessors at the Sea Point granite contact has become confused, and even conflated, with previous descriptions by Basil Hall (1813 and Clark Abel (1818. Here, the historical record is unravelled and set straight, and it is shown from the evidence of his notebooks that Darwin was quite unaware of the outcrops in Cape Town. His erudite account of the contact was a result of the 8 years spent in writing and correspondence after his return to England and not because of his brilliant insights on the outcrop, as the myth would have it. While there has been little to indicate Darwin’s landfalls in Africa, a new plaque now explains the geology of the Sea Point Contact, and includes a drawing of Darwin’s ship, the Beagle, and quotes from his work.

  14. Los senderos de Darwin

    OpenAIRE

    Esparza Soria Martha Susana

    2011-01-01

    Hace 200 años nació uno de los personajes más importantes en la historia de la biología; tras diferentes caminos, muchas colectas, un viaje, años de reflexión y un innumerable registro de evidencias, Charles Darwin daría una nueva explicación a la evolución de los organismos, proponiendo como elemento principal la selección natural de variaciones favorables y heredables a través de procesos graduales en el tiempo. Para Darwin la enorme diversidad biológica era uno de los resultados de la evol...

  15. Editorial: Darwin and Kew anniversaries

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Colin

    2009-01-01

    Charles Darwin was born 200 years ago this year and his monumental work On the origin of species, laying the foundation of modern evolutionary theory driven by natural selection, was published 150 years ago. Earlier in 1759, The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, were established. This year's special issue of Bradleya celebrates these anniversaries with the principal theme of evolution of succulents. Bradleya 27 includes the following articles: •Editorial: Darwin and Kew anniversaries by Colin W...

  16. Darwin's Book: On the Origin of Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Jonathan

    2013-09-01

    This essay is an interpretation of Charles Darwin's Origin of Species. It focuses on the contents of the Origin as Darwin intended them to be understood and the background to the work, thus revealing the originality (or otherwise) of the work.

  17. The Evolution of Textbook Misconceptions about Darwin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Paul A.

    2007-01-01

    Textbooks for GCE Advanced Level Biology have provided over-simplified and inaccurate accounts of Charles Darwin's contribution to the study of evolution over a period of many decades. They have credited him with field skills and insight that he did not possess, and repeated several historical inaccuracies. Darwin's strength was as a synthesiser…

  18. Darwin's Legacy to Comparative Psychology and Ethology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghardt, Gordon M.

    2009-01-01

    Charles Darwin made numerous seminal contributions to the study of animal behavior over his long career. This essay places these contributions in the context of Darwin's life, showing his long-standing interest in psychological and behavioral issues encompassing all species, including humans. Ten areas are highlighted: natural history;…

  19. Nietzsche’s reception of Darwinism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, Pieter

    1979-01-01

    It has been generally assumed that the influence of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution on Friedrich Nietzsche (1844- 1900) is to be understood in terms of Nietzsche's concept """"Obermensch"""" (overman). Hardly any attention has been paid to the question of the status of Darwin's theory in Nietzs

  20. The Influence of Darwin on Evolutionary Algorithms from "Dinner with Darwin"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbye, David L.

    2009-01-01

    The "Dinner with Darwin" event held at the National Association of Biology Teachers Conference over several successive years represented an innovative forum for exploring the ways that the work of Charles Darwin has had an impact in fields quite far removed from biology. Through a wide-ranging discussion by panel participants, drawn from a number…

  1. Charles Darwin and the oldestglacial events in Patagonia: the erratic blocks of the Río Santa Cruz valley Charles Darwin y las glaciacionesmás antiguas de Patagonia: los bloques erráticos del alto valle del Río Santa Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Strelin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Althoughthe depositational environment assigned by Darwin to the large erratic blocksand gravels in the Río Santa Cruz valley has been reinterpreted, hisgeomorphological and stratigraphic observations are still in force. The largeerratic blocks he described as crowning the Condor Cliff terrace and spread atthe bottom of the valley just east of this locality (Sites 2 and 3, are nowinterpreted as indicators of the maximum glacial expansion in Patagonia.Similar blocks, though of a different lithology, accumulated over a lowerterrace located up-valley (Site 4, are now linked to moraines and glacifluvialterraces of the Penultimate Glaciation. Finally, in addition to the erraticblock discovered by Darwin in the lower Río Santa Cruz valley (Site 1, thereare others - recently discovered - which probably account for a catastrophicevent ascribed to a big glacier-lake outburst during the last interglacial.No obstante haber sidoreinterpretado el ambiente depositacional asignado por Darwin a los grandesbloques erráticos y rodados del valle del río Santa Cruz, siguen vigentes susobservaciones geomorfológicas y estratigráficas. Los grandes bloques erráticosque describe coronando la terraza de Condor Cliff y dispersos en el fondo delvalle inmediatamente al este de esta localidad (Sitios 2 y 3, soninterpretados ahora como indicadores de la máxima expansión glaciaria de la Patagonia. Bloques similares, aunque de dispar litología, acumulados sobre una terraza másbaja situada río arriba (Sitio 4, se vinculan actualmente a morenas y terrazasglacifluviales de la Penúltima Glaciación. Finalmente, al bloque erráticodescubierto por Darwin en el tramo inferior del valle del río Santa Cruz (Sitio1, se le suman otros -de reciente descubrimiento- que probablemente den cuentade un evento catastrófico atribuible al vaciamiento de un gran lago glaciardurante el último interglaciar.

  2. Darwins begejstring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    Ingen anden videnskabelig teori har som Darwins evolutionsteori skabt så megen debat uden for videnskabelige kredse. I år kan vi fejre både Darwins 200 års fødselsdag og 150-året for hans hovedværk Om Arternes Oprindelse. Artiklen kan læses på: http://www.aktuelnat.au.dk/fileadmin/an/nr-1/an1......darwins-bg.pdf....

  3. Darwin's Book: "On the Origin of Species"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    This essay is an interpretation of Charles Darwin's "Origin of Species". It focuses on the contents of the "Origin" as Darwin intended them to be understood and the background to the work, thus revealing the originality (or otherwise) of the work.

  4. Then & Now: Research Pays Off for All Americans Darwin, DNA, and The Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and genetics. 1809: Charles Darwin, the Father of Evolution, is born. 1859: Darwin Publishes On the Origin of Species Radical in ... with the virus. The Find Out More NIH Evolution Revolution—A Year-Long Celebration of Darwin's Work & Impact: www.science.education.nih.gov/evorevo " ...

  5. Darwin's Galápagos finches in modern biology

    OpenAIRE

    Abzhanov, Arhat

    2010-01-01

    One of the classic examples of adaptive radiation under natural selection is the evolution of 15 closely related species of Darwin's finches (Passeriformes), whose primary diversity lies in the size and shape of their beaks. Since Charles Darwin and other members of the Beagle expedition collected these birds on the Galápagos Islands in 1835 and introduced them to science, they have been the subjects of intense research. Many biology textbooks use Darwin's finches to illustrate a variety of t...

  6. Darwin in domineesland: een reconstructie van de wijze waarop geleerde Nederlanders Darwins evolutietheorie filosofisch beoordeelden, 1859-1877

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Leeuwenburgh (Bart)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIn zijn proefschrift Darwin in domineesland geeft Bart Leeuwenburgh een overzicht van het debat dat in Nederland ontstond over de evolutietheorie, na de publicatie van Charles Darwins On the Origin of Species in 1859. Hierbij trekt een bonte stoet voorbij van bedaarde wetenschappers, gen

  7. Asa Gray and Charles Darwin: Corresponding Naturalists

    OpenAIRE

    Browne, Janet E

    2010-01-01

    Recent work on the rise of science in the nineteenth century has encouraged historians to look again at the role of correspondence. Naturalists relied extensively on this form of contact and correspondence was a major element in generating a community of experts who agreed on what comprised valid knowledge. As a leading figure in the development of North American botany, Asa Gray found that letters with botanists and collectors all over the world greatly expanded his areas of influence. La...

  8. Quantum Darwinism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurek, Wojciech H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Quantum Darwinism - proliferation, in the environment, of multiple records of selected states of the system (its information-theoretic progeny) - explains how quantum fragility of individual state can lead to classical robustness of their multitude.

  9. Economic Darwinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Birgitte; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    We define an evolutionary process of "economic Darwinism" for playing the field, symmetric games. The process captures two forces. One is "economic selection": if current behavior leads to payoff differences, behavior yielding lowest payoff has strictly positive probability of being replaced by an...... literature. Using this result, we demonstrate that generally under positive (negative) externalities, economic Darwinism implies even more under- (over-)activity than does Nash equilibrium....

  10. Darwins aktualitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    - han får os til at diskutere os selv. Uddrag af PETER C. KJÆRGAARDs tale ved åbningen af Darwin-udstillingen på Statens Naturhistoriske Museum d. 4. februar. Udgivelsesdato: Marts......- han får os til at diskutere os selv. Uddrag af PETER C. KJÆRGAARDs tale ved åbningen af Darwin-udstillingen på Statens Naturhistoriske Museum d. 4. februar. Udgivelsesdato: Marts...

  11. Darwin and Wagner: Evolution and Aesthetic Appreciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostergaard, Edvin

    2011-01-01

    Two of the most influential works of the Western nineteenth century were completed in 1859: Charles Darwin's "The Origin of Species" and Richard Wagner's opera "Tristan and Isolde." Although created within very different cultural traditions, these works show some striking similarities: both brought about a critical, long-lasting debate and caused…

  12. Darwin's Irish correspondence

    OpenAIRE

    DEARCE, MIGUEL

    2008-01-01

    PUBLISHED Searches of Darwin?s correspondence show that some 160 letters crossed between him and naturalists and others with an Irish address. While few in number, compared to Darwin?s 14,000 other known letters, some of this correspondence provoked frequent exchanges between Darwin and his closest collaborators, occasionally leading to amendments to The origin of species or becoming material for Darwin?s other publications. The absence of Darwin references in the contemporaneo...

  13. Darwinizing the Danes, 1859-1909

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Peter C.; Gregersen, Niels Henrik; Hjermitslev, Hans Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Charles Darwin is a crucial figure in nineteenth-century science with an extensive and varied reception in different countries and disciplines. His theory had a revolutionary impact not only on biology, but also on other natural sciences and the new social sciences. The term ‘Darwinism', already...... popular in Darwin's lifetime, ranged across many different areas and ideological aspects. and his own ideas about the implications of evolution for human cognitive, emotional, social and ethical capacities were often interpreted in a way that did not mirror his own intentions. The implications for...... religious, philosophical and political issues and institutions remain as momentous today as in his own time. This volume conveys the many-sidedness of Darwin's reception and exhibit his far-reaching impact on our self- understanding as human beings....

  14. Darwin por Manoel Bomfim Darwin by Manoel Bomfim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Noboru Uemori

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A noção de "luta pela existência" de Charles Darwin foi apropriada por diversas tendências intelectuais e serviu a vários propósitos políticos. Ela deu suporte para aqueles que queriam legitimar o capitalismo, fazer apologia do individualismo, do mercado, do fim dos monopólios e da competição. Ensejou concepções conservadoras como a prática da eugenia, a justificação do elitismo, da conquista e da colonização dos europeus sobre as populações asiáticas e africanas e o racismo. A idéia de luta pela existência foi trabalhada, também, por intelectuais que defendiam a idéia de que lutar pela vida relacionava-se à solidariedade e à cooperação. Manoel Bomfim sofreu influência de Darwin e beneficiou-se de suas idéias para elaborar argumentos, graças aos quais foi visto por seus intérpretes como um autor "radical" e original.Charles Darwin's notion of a 'struggle for existence' has been appropriated by several intellectual currents of opinion, and used for various political purposes. It has served to support free market capitalism, as an apologia of individualism, the market, the end of monopolies, and competition. Conservative conceptions have been based on it: the practice of eugenics, the justification of elitism, of the conquest and colonization of Asian and African peoples by the European, and of racism. On the other hand, the idea of a struggle for existence has been worked on by intellectuals who argued that it was related to solidarity and cooperation. Manoel Bomfim was influenced by Darwin and used his ideas to form arguments which have led his interpreters to see him as a 'radical' and original author.

  15. Economic Darwinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Birgitte; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    We define an evolutionary process of “economic Darwinism” for playing-the-field, symmetric games. The process captures two forces. One is “economic selection”: if current behavior leads to payoff differences, behavior yielding lowest payoff has strictly positive probability of being replaced by an...... literature. Using this result, we demonstrate that generally under positive (negative) externalities, economic Darwinism implies even more under- (over-) activity than does Nash equilibrium...

  16. Darwin taxonomist: Barnacles and shell burrowing barnacles Darwin taxónomo: cirrípedos y cirrípedos perforadores de conchas

    OpenAIRE

    JUAN CARLOS CASTILLA

    2009-01-01

    This bibliographic review revisits circumstances in which the wharf, shell burrowing barnacle, Cryptophialus minutus, was first collected by Charles Darwin in southern Chile, in 1836. Further, explores how its collection marked Darwin's taxonomical interest in Cirripedia. A short review analyzes the initial number of extant species of Cirripedia, as described by Darwin and the present situation, with emphasis on recent collections of C. minutus in the southern tip of South America.Esta revisi...

  17. EVOLUCIONISTA Y DARWIN Evolutionary Economics and Darwin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVÁN D. HERNANDEZ U

    Full Text Available A partir del siglo XIX, se tomaron dos caminos distintos en la historia de la ciencia económica. Casi simultáneamente, la revolución darwiniana y la revolución marginalista tuvieron lugar pero sus intenciones ulteriores no pudieron ser más opuestas. La teoría de Darwin de la evolución de las especies por medio de la selección natural, se convirtió en un desafío a la visión del mundo dominante: la newtoniana (Witt, 1999. Este desafío al ideal newtoniano, fue influido, paradójicamente, por estímulos intelectuales proveniente de pensadores fuera de la biología. Estas influencias emanaron de la filosofía liberal del -dejar pasar, dejar hacer- de los siglos XVIII y de principios del siglo XIX. De los diarios de Darwin se destaca la correspondencia con Herbert Spencer, en donde se denota una clara influencia del trabajo de economistas-filósofos como Adam Smith, de la llamada escuela de Edimburgo, y Robert Malthus. Lo paradójico de esta situación es que ahora es Darwin quien, de vuelta, influye sobre los economistas modernos. La revolución darwiniana en la economía moderna consiste en mostrar al capitalismo como un proceso evolucionario explicado por procesos del cambio de patrones en las relaciones entre entidades. Pero gran parte de este estudio de influencia darwiniana no tiene que ver en sí con el estudio de la biología. Está relacionado con los principios y conceptos que definen el mecanismo evolucionario que es fundamento del desarrollo de la teoría evolucionista moderna. Desde el estudio del sistema natural, y sus disciplinas ¿qué podemos aprender en el campo de lo social en los temas de adaptabilidad, ante la adversidad y bio y sociodiversidad? El alto de emprenderismo en regiones y países latinoamericanos es síntoma de resiliencia social y adaptabilidad. Es en la adversidad donde se encuentra más variedad de comportamientos y hay más condiciones ante desafíos estresantes. Dado que la teoría convencional de

  18. Charles Kindleberger

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, Edward J.

    2004-01-01

    Minimalist economists stubbornly resist Charles Kindleberger's characterization of investor expectations in a financial bubble as "irrational." This paper seeks to resolve the controversy by imbedding Kindleberger's well-researched, impressionistic theory of financial crises into an expanded, but still-minimalist model of rational expectations. Introducing the concepts of malicious disinformation and rational overpromotion creates an informational environment in which it is time-consuming and...

  19. Darwin's Galapagos finches in modern biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abzhanov, Arhat

    2010-04-12

    One of the classic examples of adaptive radiation under natural selection is the evolution of 15 closely related species of Darwin's finches (Passeriformes), whose primary diversity lies in the size and shape of their beaks. Since Charles Darwin and other members of the Beagle expedition collected these birds on the Galápagos Islands in 1835 and introduced them to science, they have been the subjects of intense research. Many biology textbooks use Darwin's finches to illustrate a variety of topics of evolutionary theory, such as speciation, natural selection and niche partitioning. Today, as this Theme Issue illustrates, Darwin's finches continue to be a very valuable source of biological discovery. Certain advantages of studying this group allow further breakthroughs in our understanding of changes in recent island biodiversity, mechanisms of speciation and hybridization, evolution of cognitive behaviours, principles of beak/jaw biomechanics as well as the underlying developmental genetic mechanisms in generating morphological diversity. Our objective was to bring together some of the key workers in the field of ecology and evolutionary biology who study Darwin's finches or whose studies were inspired by research on Darwin's finches. Insights provided by papers collected in this Theme Issue will be of interest to a wide audience. PMID:20194163

  20. The Most Important of All the Organs: Darwin on the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacyna, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses Charles Darwin's interest in topics that may broadly be defined as "neurological" in character. Using published and manuscript materials, it examines the sources of Darwin's knowledge of neurological matters and seeks to explain why questions concerning the relation of mind and brain both in humans and other animals were…

  1. Some of the Best Online Darwin Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    la Velle, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Ask most men or women in the street who Charles Darwin was and the chances are that they will know something of the work he did: the work that has revolutionised our understanding of the living world and our place in it. The 200th centenary of his birth was in February 2009. Over the 150 years since the publication of his seminal work On the…

  2. Did Darwin change his mind about the Fuegians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radick, Gregory

    2010-06-01

    Shocked by what he considered to be the savagery he encountered in Tierra del Fuego, Charles Darwin ranked the Fuegians lowest among the human races. An enduring story has it, however, that Darwin was later so impressed by the successes of missionaries there, and by the grandeur they discovered in the native tongue, that he changed his mind. This story has served diverse interests, religious and scientific. But Darwin in fact continued to view the Fuegians as he had from the start, as lowly but improvable. And while his case for their unity with the other human races drew on missionary evidence, that evidence concerned emotional expression, not language. PMID:20569987

  3. Evolution of evolution theory since Charles Darwin%达尔文学说问世以来生物进化论的发展概况及其展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒德干

    2014-01-01

    The development of evolutionary theory, from the original Darwinism through Neo-Lamarckism, Mendelism, Neo-Darwinism to the modern synthetic theory, is herein reviewed. The synthetic theory is again challenged by the new information from molecular investigations and new significant fossil discoveries. As a result, the neutral mutation-random hypothesis and the Three-episode Cambrian Explosion hypothesis were proposed.%综述了自达尔文学说诞生以来,生物进化论经历了孟德尔颗粒遗传理论、新拉马克主义、新达尔文主义直到现代综合进化论建立的发展历程。然而,综合论更面临着来自分子生物学新信息和古生物学重大新发现的挑战和发展机遇,由此产生了分子中性遗传漂变假说和三幕式寒武大爆发假说。

  4. The Curatorial Turn in the Darwin Year 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Voss

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the ‘curatorial turn’ was originally coined by Daniel Birnbaum, director of the 2009 Venice Biennale, and denoted interest in the exhibition as an alternative to the book by contemporary philosophers such as Jean-François Lyotard and Bruno Latour. During the 2009 Darwin anniversary, exhibitions revealed the most surprising insights in Darwin scholarship. ‘Darwin and the Search for Origins’ in Frankfurt and ‘Endless Forms: Charles Darwin, Natural Science and the Visual Arts’ in New Haven and Cambridge demonstrated the Darwinian component in Western twentieth-century' 'visual culture at large. Through the exhibition format they unearthed the diversity of visual rhetorics of Darwinism in the nineteenth century and showed how evolutionary theory became the new mythology of the coming age.

  5. Robert Chambers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Biekart (Kees); D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractProfessor Robert Chambers is a Research Associate at the Institute of Development Studies (IDS), University of Sussex (Brighton, UK), where he has been based for the last 40 years, including as Professorial Research Fellow. He became involved in the field of development management in the

  6. Darwin's Invention: Inheritance & the "Mad Dream" of Pangenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, William F.

    2012-01-01

    This article recounts the story of the development of pangenesis, a principle proposed by Charles Darwin to describe the rules of inheritance and the source of new variation, two concepts vital to his proposal of evolution by natural selection. Historical accounts such as this are infrequently included in texts and classroom discussions but can…

  7. Bioturbation: a fresh look at Darwin's last idea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meysman, F.J.R.; Middelburg, J.J.; Heip, C.H.R.

    2006-01-01

    Bioturbation refers to the biological reworking of soils and sediments, and its importance for soil processes and geomorphology was first realised by Charles Darwin, who devoted his last scientific book to the subject. Here, we review some new insights into the evolutionary and ecological role of bi

  8. ECONOMIA EVOLUCIONISTA Y DARWIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernandez Ivan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    A partir del siglo xix, se tomaron dos caminos distintos en la historia de la ciencia económica. Casi simultáneamente, la revolución darwiniana y la revolución marginalista tuvieron lugar pero sus intenciones ulteriores no pudieron ser más opuestas. Las grandes teorías Darwin acerca de la evolución de la vida en la tierra y la evolución de las especies por medio de la selección natural, se convirtieron en no menos que un desafío a la visión del mundo dominante: la newtoniana (Witt 1999. Este desafío al ideal newtoniano, fue influido, paradójicamente, por estímulos intelectuales de pensadores fuera de la biología. Estas influencias emanaron de la filosofía social del "dejar pasar, dejar hacer" liberal de los siglos xviii y de principios del siglo xix. De los diarios de Darwin se destaca la correspondencia con Herbert Spencer, en donde se denota una clara influencia del trabajo de economistas-filósofos como Adam Smith, de la llamada Escuela de Edimburgo, y Robert Malthus. Lo paradójico de esta situación es que ahora es Darwin quien, de vuelta, influye sobre los economistas modernos. La revolución darwiniana en la economía moderna consiste en mostrar al capitalismo como un proceso evolucionario explicado por procesos del cambio de patrones en las relaciones entre entidades. Pero gran parte de este estudio de influencia darwiniana no tiene que ver en sí  con el estudio de la biología. Está relacionado con los principios y conceptos que definen el mecanismo evolucionario que es fundamento del desarrollo de la teoría evolucionista moderna. Desde el estudio del sistema natural,y sus disciplinas ¿qué podemos aprender en el campo de lo social en los temas de adaptabilidad, ante la adversidad y bio- y sociodiversidad? El alto grado de emprenderismo en regiones y países latinoamericanos

  9. Music, Play and Darwin's Children: Pedagogical Reflections of and on the Ontogeny/Phylogeny Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannan, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between ideas about the role and purpose of music introduced in the major publications of Charles Darwin, and the fields of child development, music education and pedagogy. It also considers the significant influence on Darwin's work of his own biography and family life. In the global village of…

  10. Exploration and Exploitation of Victorian Science in Darwin's Reading Notebooks

    CERN Document Server

    Murdock, Jaimie; DeDeo, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Search in an environment with an uncertain distribution of resources involves a trade-off between local exploitation and distant exploration. This extends to the problem of information foraging, where a knowledge-seeker shifts between reading in depth and studying new domains. To study this, we examine the reading choices made by one of the most celebrated scientists of the modern era: Charles Darwin. Darwin built his theory of natural selection in part by synthesizing disparate parts of Victorian science. When we analyze his extensively self-documented reading we find shifts, on multiple timescales, between choosing to remain with familiar topics and seeking cognitive surprise in novel fields. On the longest timescales, these shifts correlate with major intellectual epochs of his career, as detected by Bayesian epoch estimation. When we compare Darwin's reading path with publication order of the same texts, we find Darwin more adventurous than the culture as a whole.

  11. Robert Recorde

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Jack

    2011-01-01

    The 16th-Century intellectual Robert Recorde is chiefly remembered for introducing the equals sign into algebra, yet the greater significance and broader scope of his work is often overlooked. This book presents an authoritative and in-depth analysis of the man, his achievements and his historical importance. This scholarly yet accessible work examines the latest evidence on all aspects of Recorde's life, throwing new light on a character deserving of greater recognition. Topics and features: presents a concise chronology of Recorde's life; examines his published works; describes Recorde's pro

  12. Entomological reactions to Darwin's theory in the nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsky, Gene

    2008-01-01

    Charles Darwin first became interested in entomology during his childhood, and this interest grew into a beetle-collecting obsession during his college days. Following the voyage of the Beagle, his focus on insects shifted from collecting specimens to searching for insect observations that supported his theory of natural selection as proposed in On the Origin of Species. Initially, Darwin believed that entomologists were opposed to his views. Using Darwin's correspondence, I show that his perception was based, in part, on three reviews, including one that he erroneously attributed to an entomological critic, and that not all entomologists were opposed to his ideas. Henry Walter Bates, discoverer of Batesian mimicry, voiced his support of Darwin in his papers and during meetings of the (now Royal) Entomological Society. In America, entomologist Benjamin D. Walsh wrote to Darwin in 1864, expressing his support and promising to counter any anti-Darwinian attack, and by 1868, Darwin was enjoying significant entomological support on both sides of the Atlantic. After his death in 1882, Darwin's supporters gained influence in Britain and the United States, completing entomology's shift to a Darwinian perspective. PMID:18067444

  13. Darwin and inheritance: the influence of Prosper Lucas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera-Solano, Ricardo; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Rosaura

    2009-01-01

    An important historical relation that has hardly been addressed is the influence of Prosper Lucas's Treatise on Natural Inheritance on the development of Charles Darwin's concepts related to inheritance. In this article we trace this historical connection. Darwin read Lucas's Treatise in 1856. His reading coincided with many changes concerning his prior ideas on the transmission and expression of characters. We consider that this reading led him to propose a group of principles regarding prepotency, hereditary diseases, morbid tendencies and atavism; following Lucas, he called these principles: laws of inheritance. PMID:20481127

  14. Protestant Responses to Darwinism in Denmark, 1859-1914

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjermitslev, Hans Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The clergyman N.F.S. Grundtvig's followers, who constituted a major fraction within the Danish Evangelical-Lutheran Established Church, were the most vocal Danish commentators on the religious consequences of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution from 1859 to 1914. While evangelicals and high......-churchmen within the church remained critical of evolution throughout the period, the Grundtvigians were divided over the issue. Orthodox Grundtvigians criticized Darwinism on philosophical and biblical grounds, while liberal neo-Grundtvigians came to terms with evolution by combining Grundtvig's critique of...

  15. Robert Schumann.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, R J

    1999-01-01

    Robert Schumann, one of the giants of early romantic music, was born in Saxony in 1810 and died in an asylum shortly after his 46th birthday. Early in life, he demonstrated extraordinary skills in both music and journalism; he remained active in both areas until his final illness. His marriage to the remarkable pianist, Clara Wieck, provided him with both much-needed emotional support and a highly effective champion of his music throughout her lengthy career. Schumann's plans to be a concert pianist were thwarted at least partially by an injury to his right hand, the nature of which has been the subject of much speculation. After considering what few facts are available, the author concludes that this may have represented focal dystonia. His compositional output waxed and waned dramatically over his professional life, reflecting to some degree his emotional state. It is considered most likely that he suffered from a major affective disorder, bipolar type. This ultimately led to a suicide attempt in February 1854, and to his eventual death in July 1856. Despite wide-spread and reasonable suspicion that he may have died from neurosyphilis, severe malnutrition from self-starvation seems more likely. PMID:10718523

  16. The concept of music evolution in Herbert Spencer’s and Charles Darwin’s theories

    OpenAIRE

    Petrov Ana

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the discourses on music in Herbert Spencer’s and Charles Darwin’s theories of evolution. Even though both Spencer and Darwin construed music as a carrier of the expression of affects and a part of a ubiquitous evolutional process towards ever increasing progress of culture, these authors’ discourses differed from each other in the understanding of the origin and function of music. Darwin considered music as being one of the (natural) means of making a selection dur...

  17. Darwin's Sacred Cause

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    of scholarly specialists and been appropriated by money makers. One could not help thinking about this as, in the autumn of 2008, the publisher began hyping Darwin's Sacred Cause as ‘one of the major contributions to the worldwide Darwin anniversary celebrations in 2009' Udgivelsesdato: February...

  18. Human Dynamics: The Correspondence Patterns of Darwin and Einstein

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, J G

    2005-01-01

    While living in different historical era, Charles Darwin (1809-1882) and Albert Einstein (1879-1955) were both prolific correspondents: Darwin sent (received) at least 7,591 (6,530) letters during his lifetime while Einstein sent (received) over 14,500 (16,200). Before email scientists were part of an extensive university of letters, the main venue for exchanging new ideas and results. But were the communication patterns of the pre-email times any different from the current era of instant access? Here we show that while the means have changed, the communication dynamics has not: Darwin's and Einstein's pattern of correspondence and today's electronic exchanges follow the same scaling laws. Their communication belongs, however, to a different universality class from email communication, providing evidence for a new class of phenomena capturing human dynamics.

  19. Adaptations: Using Darwin's Origin to teach biology and writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, James R; Costa, James T; Berry, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species is at once familiar and unfamiliar. Everyone knows that the Origin introduced the world to the idea of evolution by natural selection, but few of us have actually read it. We suggest that it is worth taking the time not only to read what Darwin had to say, but also to use the Origin to teach both biology and writing. It provides scientific lessons in areas beyond evolutionary biology, such as ecology and biogeography. In addition, it provides valuable rhetorical lessons-how to construct an argument, write persuasively, make use of evidence, know your audience, and anticipate counterarguments. We have been using the Origin in various classes for several years, introducing new generations to Darwin, in his own words. PMID:26315858

  20. Charles Darwin and Evolution: Illustrating Human Aspects of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampourakis, Kostas; McComas, William F.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the nature of science (NOS) has become recognized as an important element within the K-12 science curriculum. Despite differences in the ultimate lists of recommended aspects, a consensus is emerging on what specific NOS elements should be the focus of science instruction and inform textbook writers and curriculum developers. In this…

  1. Charles Darwin y El origen de las especies

    OpenAIRE

    CSIC - Vicepresidencia Adjunta de Organización y Cultura Científica (VAOCC)

    2009-01-01

    Estos materiales están dirigidos a la divulgación, el fomento de la cultura científica y las vocaciones científicas, y la docencia. Es posible copiar, compartir y distribuir sus contenidos siempre y cuando se reconozca la autoría, no haya fines comerciales y no se realicen obras derivadas (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).

  2. Darwin taxonomist: Barnacles and shell burrowing barnacles Darwin taxónomo: cirrípedos y cirrípedos perforadores de conchas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN CARLOS CASTILLA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This bibliographic review revisits circumstances in which the wharf, shell burrowing barnacle, Cryptophialus minutus, was first collected by Charles Darwin in southern Chile, in 1836. Further, explores how its collection marked Darwin's taxonomical interest in Cirripedia. A short review analyzes the initial number of extant species of Cirripedia, as described by Darwin and the present situation, with emphasis on recent collections of C. minutus in the southern tip of South America.Esta revisión bibliográfica describe las circunstancias en el que el cirrípedo enano, Crypophialus minutus, perforador de conchas, fue recolectado por Charles Darwin en el sur de Chile, en 1836. Además, cómo esta recolección marcó el interés taxonómico de Darwin en Cirripedia. Se presenta una revisión resumida sobre el número inicial de especies vivas de Cirripedia, como fueron descritas por Darwin, y la situación actual, con énfasis en recolecciones recientes de C. minutus en el cono sur de Suramérica.

  3. Engaging with Lyell: Alfred Russel Wallace's Sarawak Law and Ternate papers as reactions to Charles Lyell's Principles of Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, J T

    2013-12-01

    Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913) and Charles Darwin (1809-1882) are honored as the founders of modern evolutionary biology. Accordingly, much attention has focused on their relationship, from their independent development of the principle of natural selection to the receipt by Darwin of Wallace's essay from Ternate in the spring of 1858, and the subsequent reading of the Wallace and Darwin papers at the Linnean Society on 1 July 1858. In the events of 1858 Wallace and Darwin are typically seen as central players, with Darwin's friends Charles Lyell (1797-1875) and Joseph Dalton Hooker (1817-1911) playing supporting roles. This narrative has resulted in an under-appreciation of a more central role for Charles Lyell as both Wallace's inspiration and foil. The extensive anti-transmutation arguments in Lyell's landmark Principles of Geology were taken as the definitive statement on the subject. Wallace, in his quest to solve the mystery of species origins, engaged with Lyell's arguments in his private field notebooks in a way that is concordant with his engagement with Lyell in the 1855 and 1858 papers. I show that Lyell was the object of Wallace's Sarawak Law and Ternate papers through a consideration of the circumstances that led Wallace to send his Ternate paper to Darwin, together with an analysis of the material that Wallace drew upon from the Principles. In this view Darwin was, ironically, intended for a supporting role in mediating Wallace's attempted dialog with Lyell. PMID:24014172

  4. Darwins øje

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedin, Gry

    2012-01-01

    I artiklen diskuteres beskrivelsen af øjne og perception i J.P. Jacobsens roman Niels Lyhne (1880). Det analyseres det, hvordan Jacobsen håndterer de ændringer på dette felt, som Darwins udviklingshistorie bidrog til, og som udforskedes i detaljer af den tyske fysiolog Hermann von Helmholtz. Der...... forholdet mellem J.P. Jacobsens litterære værker og hans engagement som oversætter og formidler af Darwin fra en ny vinkel. I stedet for at se på tematiske sammenfald med Darwin undersøges de metodologiske og epistemologiske. Herved bliver det tydeligt, at Jacobsen ikke bare indoptager og formidler Darwin...

  5. And of Darwin that?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article is about the investigations and contributions of Darwin related with the evolution of the species. Material that gathered through their trips along everybody and the comparison that he makes with the man

  6. Darwin as Metaphor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Ballou

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In response to Steven Shapin’s query in the 'London Review of Books', 'Why such homage?', 'I look at Darwin as a metaphor for creativity, and how Darwin, as evidenced in his own metaphysical notebooks, imagined and performed acts of creation in his pursuit of science. Many of Darwin’s ideas were first conceptualised imaginatively, instinctively almost. In this way, he created concepts, rather than simply discovering them. I include a brief discussion of my experience of rendering Darwin and his life into a portrait in 75 poems and also a discussion of the bio-pic Creation'. As species change over time, but are still related, so a portrait of Darwin is a descendent of the historical man and his words, but is no longer the historical man. 

  7. Darwin and the island

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Justin Daniel.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis examines the fictional island and assesses the impact of Darwinism on the genre. I show how islands have been a recurring feature in European literature, fictional spaces where authors create a microcosm in which they satirise, criticise or hold up a mirror to their own society. I argue that traditonal Utopian islands are static realms and that through the introduction of evolution (Darwin and Wallace made their most important discoveries regarding the mechanism of...

  8. Darwinism and the Church

    OpenAIRE

    K. K. Verma

    2013-01-01

    Darwinism and the church have been in conflict right from the inception of the former. A recent expression of this conflict has appeared in the form of the Concept of Intelligent Design (ID), which amounts to the special creation concept, which is in religious scriptures. ID is not science, and the Natural Selection Theory of Evolution, propounded by Darwin, is a well established scientific theory. Intermixing science and religion, as ID is, is not advisable. However, science and religion are...

  9. (Social) Darwinism for Families

    OpenAIRE

    Bayraktar, Uğur Bahadır

    2014-01-01

    The impact of Darwinism on the formation of modern Turkish state is indisputable. Social Darwinist theories were employed to consolidate a homogenous Turkish entity in early Republican Turkey, and were promoted not just within political spheres, but also in popular culture. Against this background, this paper analyses the role of social Darwinism in an illustrated monthly family magazine, Muhit. The magazine included sections on literature, popular science, and tips on housekeeping. Ahmet Cev...

  10. Putting Darwin in His Place: The Need to Watch Our Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braterman, Paul S.; Holbrook, J. Britt

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine the use of language in debating evolution, and suggest careful choice of the terms by which people describe both themselves and their opponents. Present-day evolution science is solidly based on fact, and is as far advanced from Charles Darwin's original theory as present-day chemistry is from Dalton's atomic…

  11. Darwin and genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlesworth, Brian; Charlesworth, Deborah

    2009-11-01

    Darwin's theory of natural selection lacked an adequate account of inheritance, making it logically incomplete. We review the interaction between evolution and genetics, showing how, unlike Mendel, Darwin's lack of a model of the mechanism of inheritance left him unable to interpret his own data that showed Mendelian ratios, even though he shared with Mendel a more mathematical and probabilistic outlook than most biologists of his time. Darwin's own "pangenesis" model provided a mechanism for generating ample variability on which selection could act. It involved, however, the inheritance of characters acquired during an organism's life, which Darwin himself knew could not explain some evolutionary situations. Once the particulate basis of genetics was understood, it was seen to allow variation to be passed intact to new generations, and evolution could then be understood as a process of changes in the frequencies of stable variants. Evolutionary genetics subsequently developed as a central part of biology. Darwinian principles now play a greater role in biology than ever before, which we illustrate with some examples of studies of natural selection that use DNA sequence data and with some recent advances in answering questions first asked by Darwin. PMID:19933231

  12. Vitalism and the Darwin Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, James

    2012-01-01

    There are currently both scientific and public debates surrounding Darwinism. In the scientific debate, the details of evolution are in dispute, but not the central thesis of Darwin's theory; in the public debate, Darwinism itself is questioned. I concentrate on the public debate because of its direct impact on education in the United States. Some…

  13. Darwin's contributions to genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y-S; Zhou, X-M; Zhi, M-X; Li, X-J; Wang, Q-L

    2009-01-01

    Darwin's contributions to evolutionary biology are well known, but his contributions to genetics are much less known. His main contribution was the collection of a tremendous amount of genetic data, and an attempt to provide a theoretical framework for its interpretation. Darwin clearly described almost all genetic phenomena of fundamental importance, such as prepotency (Mendelian inheritance), bud variation (mutation), heterosis, reversion (atavism), graft hybridization (Michurinian inheritance), sex-limited inheritance, the direct action of the male element on the female (xenia and telegony), the effect of use and disuse, the inheritance of acquired characters (Lamarckian inheritance), and many other observations pertaining to variation, heredity and development. To explain all these observations, Darwin formulated a developmental theory of heredity - Pangenesis - which not only greatly influenced many subsequent theories, but also is supported by recent evidence. PMID:19638672

  14. Darwinism and the Church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Verma

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Darwinism and the church have been in conflict right from the inception of the former. A recent expression of this conflict has appeared in the form of the Concept of Intelligent Design (ID, which amounts to the special creation concept, which is in religious scriptures. ID is not science, and the Natural Selection Theory of Evolution, propounded by Darwin, is a well established scientific theory. Intermixing science and religion, as ID is, is not advisable. However, science and religion are both human needs.

  15. An Amphibious Being: How Maritime Surveying Reshaped Darwin's Approach to Natural History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponsel, Alistair

    2016-06-01

    This essay argues that Charles Darwin's distinctive approach to studying distribution and diversity was shaped by his face-to-face interactions with maritime surveyors during the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle (1831-1836). Introducing their hydrographic surveying methods into natural history enabled him to compare fossil and living marine organisms, to compare sedimentary rocks to present-day marine sediments, and to compare landscapes to submarine topology, thereby realizing Charles Lyell's fanciful ambition for a superior form of geology that might be practiced by an "amphibious being." Darwin's theories of continental uplift, coral reef formation, and the origin of species all depended on his amphibious natural history. This essay contributes to our understanding of theorizing in nineteenth-century natural history by illustrating that specific techniques of observing and collecting could themselves help to generate a particular theoretical orientation and, indeed, that such practical experiences were a more proximate source of Darwin's "Humboldtian" interest in distribution and diversity than Alexander von Humboldt's writings themselves. Darwin's debt to the hydrographers became obscured in two ways: through the "funneling" of credit produced by single-authorship publication in natural history and the "telescoping" of memory by which Darwin's new theories made him recall his former researches as though he had originally undertaken them for the very purpose of producing the later theory. PMID:27439285

  16. Darwin's apes and "savages".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Contreras, Jorge

    2010-02-01

    Since his visit to Tierra del Fuego in the 1830s, Darwin had been fascinated by the "savages" that succeeded in surviving on such a "broken beach", and because they were certainly similar in behaviour to our ancestors. However, he was also fascinated by baboons' behaviour, according to Brehm's accounts: hamadryas baboons showed a strong altruism to the point of risking their own lives in order to save their infants from attack by dogs. In 1871, he mentions he would rather have descended from brave baboons than from "savages", considered egoistic. We study the two sources of these ideas and try to show how Darwin's comparative reflections on apes and "savages" made him the first evolutionist anthropologist. PMID:20338533

  17. On the Way to the Origin: Darwin's Evolutionary Insight and Its Rhetorical Transformation. The Van Zelst Lecture in Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, John Angus

    Several implications for the understanding of the Darwinian revolution follow from an analysis of the role of colloquial language and prudential reason in Charles Darwin's quest for a theory of evolution. First, the term "natural selection" is not merely or even primarily a technical term and thus cannot be understood accurately apart from the…

  18. Going the whole orang: Darwin, Wallace and the natural history of orangutans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    This article surveys the European discovery and early ideas about orangutans followed by the contrasting experiences with these animals of the co-founders of evolution by natural selection, Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace. The first non-human great ape that both of them interacted with was...... the orangutan. They were both profoundly influenced by what they saw, but the contexts of their observations could hardly be more different. Darwin met orangutans in the Zoological Gardens in London while Wallace saw them in the wild in Borneo. In different ways these observations helped shape their...

  19. Robert Gilmore, a portrait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solari, Hernán G.

    2013-01-01

    To present the personality of Bob Gilmore is a formidable task, as his scientific contributions include group theory, laser physics, non-linear dynamics, catastrophe theory, thermodynamics, dynamical systems, quantum theory and more. But even if we succeed in describing his contributions, much of Gilmore's being would be lost. Bob as advisor, Bob as father, Bob as teacher, Bob as scientific communicator reveal as much of Bob Gilmore as his scientific papers and his books. Very much as in the Group Theory so close to him, there is a Robert Gilmore in abstract as well as representations of Robert Gilmore. We will make an attempt to find the "principle of the rule", the abstract level of Robert Gilmore as well as Robert Gilmore, himself, as a representation of the duality science-humanism.

  20. Is Darwin dangerous?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    scientific debate was settled in the 1930s with the modern synthesis bringing genetics and the theory of evolution by natural selection together within a single theoretical framework. The public debates, however, continued; mainly because of religiously motivated anti-evolution activists. The conflict...... of the publication of the Origin of Species and the 200th anniversary of Charles Darwin’s birth, comparing it to the media coverage of the events in the Scandinavian countries....

  1. Darwin's artificial selection analogy and the generic character of "phyletic" evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Stephen G

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the way Charles Darwin applied his domestic breeding analogy to the practical workings of species evolution: that application, it is argued, centered on Darwin's distinction between methodical and unconscious selection. Methodical selection, which entailed pairing particular individuals for mating purposes, represented conditions of strict geographic isolation, obviously useful for species multiplication (speciation). By contrast, unconscious selection represented an open landmass with a large breeding population. Yet Darwin held that this latter scenario, which often would include multiple ecological subdistricts and thus partial isolation, was better suited for speciation than were isolated conditions. At the same time, many passages in Darwin's writings that apparently portrayedphyletic evolution exclusively (these including references to unconscious selection), actually applied to speciation as well, for phyletic change in a single district could constitute a local manifestation of a larger common-descent pattern. This generic use of "phyletic" change was reflected in Darwin's deployment of the unconscious selection analogy in his published writings as well as in his dispute with Moritz Wagner over the necessity of geographic isolation for speciation. We can thus understand Darwin's otherwise puzzling declaration in The Origin of Species that unconscious selection was 'more important' than the methodical approach. PMID:18411837

  2. Economia evolucionista y darwin

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez Ivan

    2010-01-01

    A partir del siglo xix, se tomaron dos caminos distintos en la historia de la ciencia económica. Casi simultáneamente, la revolución darwiniana y la revolución marginalista tuvieron lugar pero sus intenciones ulteriores no pudieron ser más opuestas. Las grandes teorías Darwin acerca de la evolución de la vida en la tierra y la evolución de las especies por medio de la selección natural, se convirtieron en no menos qu...

  3. La Regla de Darwin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Caponi

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Taking as a starting point Brandon's account of the principle of natural selection, we argue that it is possible to consider such a principle as bearing the same status of the principle of causation, to wit, that of a methodological rule whose function would be to introduce a "teleological mode of inquiring the living". This way of understanding the principle of natural selection will drive us into an interpretation of Darwinism that is close to that one argued for by Daniel Dennett.

  4. Lake Charles CCS Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leib, Thomas [Leucadia Energy, LLC, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Cole, Dan [Denbury Onshore, LLC, Plano, TX (United States)

    2015-06-30

    In late September 2014 development of the Lake Charles Clean Energy (LCCE) Plant was abandoned resulting in termination of Lake Charles Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) Project which was a subset the LCCE Plant. As a result, the project was only funded through Phase 2A (Design) and did not enter Phase 2B (Construction) or Phase 2C (Operations). This report was prepared relying on information prepared and provided by engineering companies which were engaged by Leucadia Energy, LLC to prepare or review Front End Engineering and Design (FEED) for the Lake Charles Clean Energy Project, which includes the Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) Project in Lake Charles, Louisiana. The Lake Charles Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) Project was to be a large-scale industrial CCS project intended to demonstrate advanced technologies that capture and sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from industrial sources into underground formations. The Scope of work was divided into two discrete sections; 1) Capture and Compression prepared by the Recipient Leucadia Energy, LLC, and 2) Transport and Sequestration prepared by sub-Recipient Denbury Onshore, LLC. Capture and Compression-The Lake Charles CCS Project Final Technical Report describes the systems and equipment that would be necessary to capture CO2 generated in a large industrial gasification process and sequester the CO2 into underground formations. The purpose of each system is defined along with a description of its equipment and operation. Criteria for selection of major equipment are provided and ancillary utilities necessary for safe and reliable operation in compliance with environmental regulations are described. Construction considerations are described including a general arrangement of the CCS process units within the overall gasification project. A cost estimate is provided, delineated by system area with cost breakdown showing equipment, piping and materials

  5. Postglacial fringing-reef to barrier-reef conversion on Tahiti links Darwin's reef types

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchon, Paul; Granados-Corea, Marian; Abbey, Elizabeth; Braga, Juan C.; Braithwaite, Colin; Kennedy, David M.; Spencer, Tom; Webster, Jody M.; Woodroffe, Colin D.

    2014-01-01

    In 1842 Charles Darwin claimed that vertical growth on a subsiding foundation caused fringing reefs to transform into barrier reefs then atolls. Yet historically no transition between reef types has been discovered and they are widely considered to develop independently from antecedent foundations during glacio-eustatic sea-level rise. Here we reconstruct reef development from cores recovered by IODP Expedition 310 to Tahiti, and show that a fringing reef retreated upslope during postglacial ...

  6. Ancient proteins resolve the evolutionary history of Darwin's South American ungulates

    OpenAIRE

    Welker, Frido; Collins, Matthew J.; Thomas, Jessica A.; Wadsley, Marc; Brace, Selina; Cappellini, Enrico; Turvey, Samuel T.; Reguero, Marcelo; Gelfo, Javier N.; Kramarz, Alejandro; Burger, Joachim; Thomas-Oates, Jane; Ashford, David A.; Ashton, Peter D.; Rowsell, Keri

    2015-01-01

    No large group of recently extinct placental mammals remains as evolutionarily cryptic as the approximately 280 genera grouped as South American native ungulates'. To Charles Darwin, who first collected their remains, they included perhaps the strangest animal[s] ever discovered'. Today, much like 180 years ago, it is no clearer whether they had one origin or several, arose before or after the Cretaceous/Palaeogene transition 66.2 million years ago, or are more likely to belong with the eleph...

  7. Darwinism and cultural struggles in rural Askov and metropolitan Copenhagen in nineteenth-century Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjermitslev, Hans Henrik

    . However, around 1900 as Darwinism was widely criticized in scientific circles, a young generation of Grundtvigians transformed evolutionary theory into ‘safe science' and made it a legitimate subject at several folk high schools in the country. This paper argues that the cultural differences between......In the 1870s, when Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species and Descent of Man were translated into Danish by the botanist-turned-poet J. P. Jacobsen, evolutionary thought played a seminal role in the modern breakthrough advocated by the freethinker and literary critic Georg Brandes. A group of...... students and artists assembled around Brandes in the capital of Copenhagen - the only Danish city hosting a university in the late nineteenth century - and used Darwinism in their cultural struggle against what they regarded as reactionary Christian and conservative values which dominated in the country...

  8. Darwin at Puente del Inca: observations on theformation of the Inca's bridge and mountain building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor A. Ramos

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Theanalyses of the observations of Charles Darwin at Puente del Inca, during hissecond journey across the High Andes drew attention on two different aspects ofthe geological characteristics of this classic area. Most of his descriptionson the characteristics and the origin of the natural bridge were not published,mainly due to his poor impression of Puente del Inca. However, the applicationof the uniformitarian principles shows that it was formed as an ice bridgeassociated with snow and debris avalanches later on cemented by the mineralsprecipitated by the adjacent hot-water springs. Darwin's observations on the complexstructural section at Puente del Inca, together with his findings of shallowwater marine fossil mollusks in the thick stratigraphic column of the areainterfingered with volcanic rocks, led him to speculate on several geologicalprocesses. Based on his geological observations, Darwin argued on the mountain uplift, thesubsidence of the marine bottom, the episodic lateral growth of the cordillera,and their association with earthquakes and volcanic activity, which was animportant advance in the uniformitarian hypothesis of mountain uplift proposedby Charles Lyell. Darwin was able to recognize the episodic nature of mountain uplift, and basedon these premises he concluded that the Andes were still undergoing uplift. Takenas a whole, his ideas anticipated in many years some of the premises of thegeosynclinal theory, and current hypothesis on foreland migration of the foldand thrust belts.

  9. Trees and networks before and after Darwin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragan Mark A

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It is well-known that Charles Darwin sketched abstract trees of relationship in his 1837 notebook, and depicted a tree in the Origin of Species (1859. Here I attempt to place Darwin's trees in historical context. By the mid-Eighteenth century the Great Chain of Being was increasingly seen to be an inadequate description of order in nature, and by about 1780 it had been largely abandoned without a satisfactory alternative having been agreed upon. In 1750 Donati described aquatic and terrestrial organisms as forming a network, and a few years later Buffon depicted a network of genealogical relationships among breeds of dogs. In 1764 Bonnet asked whether the Chain might actually branch at certain points, and in 1766 Pallas proposed that the gradations among organisms resemble a tree with a compound trunk, perhaps not unlike the tree of animal life later depicted by Eichwald. Other trees were presented by Augier in 1801 and by Lamarck in 1809 and 1815, the latter two assuming a transmutation of species over time. Elaborate networks of affinities among plants and among animals were depicted in the late Eighteenth and very early Nineteenth centuries. In the two decades immediately prior to 1837, so-called affinities and/or analogies among organisms were represented by diverse geometric figures. Series of plant and animal fossils in successive geological strata were represented as trees in a popular textbook from 1840, while in 1858 Bronn presented a system of animals, as evidenced by the fossil record, in a form of a tree. Darwin's 1859 tree and its subsequent elaborations by Haeckel came to be accepted in many but not all areas of biological sciences, while network diagrams were used in others. Beginning in the early 1960s trees were inferred from protein and nucleic acid sequences, but networks were re-introduced in the mid-1990s to represent lateral genetic transfer, increasingly regarded as a fundamental mode of evolution at least for

  10. Shooting Charles Henri Ford

    OpenAIRE

    Linkof, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    In the mid-1930s, during one of his periodic visits to his employers at Vogue in New York City, the British photographer Cecil Beaton photographed the young American writer Charles Henri Ford sprawled out on a bed of tabloid newspapers. This Ford portrait expresses Beaton’s homoerotic investment in the rough edges of American low culture. By re-examining Beaton’s response to the violent culture of New York City, and its sensationalized representation in the tabloids, Beaton’s photograph of Fo...

  11. Trix und Robert Haussmann

    OpenAIRE

    Fischli, Fredi; Olsen, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Die Monografie Robert & Trix Haussmann eröffnet die Publikationsreihe STUDIOLO / Edition Patrick Frey, eine Kollaboration des Verlags mit dem Ausstellungsraum STUDIOLO. Die Kuratoren Fredi Fischli und Niels Olsen betreiben in einem Atelierhaus in Zürich ein vielfältiges Programm gegenwärtiger Kunstproduktion. Die Ausstellung The Log-O-Rhythmic Slide Rule im Frühjahr 2012 widmete sich dem Werk von Trix und Robert Haussmann und ist Ausgangspunkt für die folgende Publikation, die mit Bildern, Es...

  12. Organizational Darwinism and research methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Ilfryn

    2014-01-01

    I argue that research methodologies in organizational studies provide an example of cultural evolution but that the resulting dominant logic impedes understanding by militating against realistic inductive research. I examine major 'schools' in organizational Darwinism / cultural evolution and identify overlap between those who use evolutionary dynamics as a relativist lens, the more classically positivist thinking derived from Evolutionary Economics and Darwin's original (1871) conceptual or ...

  13. Characters named Charles or Charley in novels by Charles Dickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Herbert

    2007-10-01

    12 fictional characters named Charles or Charley are contained in eight of the 14 completed novels by Charles Dickens. Most of the author's namesakes have humorous attributes, an unusually close relationship with one or more other characters, and a happy subsequent life. Three stages of the author's adult life are youthful, mature, and after separation from his wife. The fictional namesakes are most humorous in the author's youthful stage and least humorous after separation from his wife. The 12 fictional namesakes of Charles Dickens are compared with the two fictional namesakes of Jane Austen. PMID:18175490

  14. Darwin and the linguists: the coevolution of mind and language, Part 1. Problematic friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Stephen G

    2007-09-01

    In his book The descent of man (1871), Charles Darwin paid tribute to a trio of writers (Hensleigh Wedgwood, F. W. Farrar, and August Schleicher) who offered naturalistic explanations of the origin of language. Darwin's concurrence with these figures was limited, however, because each of them denied some aspect of his thesis that the evolution of language had been coeval with and essential to the emergence of humanity's characteristic mental traits. Darwin first sketched out this thesis in his theoretical notebooks of the 1830s and then clarified his position in Descent, where he argued that mind-language coevolution had occurred prior to the rise of distinct racial groups. He thus opposed the view of August Schleicher and Ernst Haeckel, who (along with Alfred Russel Wallace) taught that speech had originated subsequent to the geographical and racial dispersion of humanity's ancestors. As Darwin argued in Descent, this quasi-polygenetic version of coevolution was unable to explain primeval man's initial dominance over rival ape-like populations. Drawing inspiration from British anthropologists, Darwin made the early development of language, hence mental monogenesis, central to his account of human evolution. PMID:17893066

  15. John D. Roberts

    OpenAIRE

    Dervan, Peter B.

    1988-01-01

    I met the great John D. Roberts at Caltech for the first time in 1972. He seemed larger than life: a tall, handsome, rugged man with a shock of curly grey hair, broad warm grin, huge embracing handshake, and twinkle in his eye. This was the man who has inspired a generation of organic chemists by his intellectual leadership, his innovation in developing new techniques to explore mechanistic organic chemistry, his contributions to undergraduate and graduate education and the advancement of s...

  16. On Fodor on Darwin on Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Harnad, Stevan

    2009-01-01

    Jerry Fodor argues that Darwin was wrong about "natural selection" because (1) it is only a tautology rather than a scientific law that can support counterfactuals ("If X had happened, Y would have happened") and because (2) only minds can select. Hence Darwin's analogy with "artificial selection" by animal breeders was misleading and evolutionary explanation is nothing but post-hoc historical narrative. I argue that Darwin was right on all counts. Until Darwin's "tautology," it had been beli...

  17. Darwin, artificial selection, and poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Luis

    2010-03-01

    This paper argues that the processes of evolutionary selection are becoming increasingly artificial, a trend that goes against the belief in a purely natural selection process claimed by Darwin's natural selection theory. Artificial selection is mentioned by Darwin, but it was ignored by Social Darwinists, and it is all but absent in neo-Darwinian thinking. This omission results in an underestimation of probable impacts of artificial selection upon assumed evolutionary processes, and has implications for the ideological uses of Darwin's language, particularly in relation to poverty and other social inequalities. The influence of artificial selection on genotypic and phenotypic adaptations arguably represents a substantial shift in the presumed path of evolution, a shift laden with both biological and political implications. PMID:20812798

  18. Separated at birth: the interlinked origins of Darwin's unconscious selection concept and the application of sexual selection to race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Stephen G

    2007-01-01

    This essay traces the interlinked origins of two concepts found in Charles Darwin's writings: "unconscious selection," and sexual selection as applied to humanity's anatomical race distinctions. Unconscious selection constituted a significant elaboration of Darwin's artificial selection analogy. As originally conceived in his theoretical notebooks, that analogy had focused exclusively on what Darwin later would call "methodical selection," the calculated production of desired changes in domestic breeds. By contrast, unconscious selection produced its results unintentionally and at a much slower pace. Inspiration for this concept likely came from Darwin's early reading of works on both animal breeding and physical ethnology. Texts in these fields described the slow and unplanned divergence of anatomical types, whether animal or human, under the guidance of contrasting ideals of physical perfection. These readings, it is argued, also led Darwin to his theory of sexual selection as applied to race, a theme he discussed mainly in his book The Descent of Man (1871). There Darwin described how the racial version of sexual selection operated on the same principle as unconscious selection. He thereby effectively reunited these kindred concepts. PMID:18175603

  19. Darwin y los dilemas sociales

    OpenAIRE

    Rosas, Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    RESUMEN Describo el proyecto de explicación Darwiniana de la moral siguiendo los lineamientos básicos de Darwin, como fueron expuestos en el Origen del Hombre. A diferencia de la interpretación tradicional, sostengo que Darwin no asumió, y que no es forzoso asumir en una perspectiva Darwiniana, un conflicto inevitable entre la selección individual y la selección de grupo en la explicación de la moral. Ambas trabajan en sinergia favoreciendo los rasgos que soportan el comportamiento moral en h...

  20. Robert Grosseteste's colours

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Here I am proposing a translation and discussion of the De Colore, one of the short scientific treatises written by Robert Grosseteste. In this very short treatise of the mid-1220s, Grosseteste continued the discussion on light and colours he started in the De Iride. He describes two manners of counting colours: one gives an infinity of tones, the other counts seven colours. In both cases, colours are created by the purity or impurity of the transparent medium when light is passing through it. This medieval framework survived until Newton's experiments with prisms.

  1. Remembering Robert Seydel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren van Haaften­-Schick

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This January, while preparing a new course, Robert Seydel was struck and killed by an unexpected heart attack. He was a critically under-appreciated artist and one of the most beloved and admired professors at Hampshire College.At the time of his passing, Seydel was on the brink of a major artistic and career milestone. His Book of Ruth was being prepared for publication by Siglio Press. His publisher describes the book as: “an alchemical assemblage that composes the life of his alter ego, Ruth Greisman— spinster, Sunday painter, and friend to Joseph Cornell and Marcel Duchamp. Through collages, drawings, and journal entries from Ruth’s imagined life, Seydel invokes her interior world in novelistic rhythms.”This convergence of his professional triumph with the tragedy of his death makes now a particularly appropriate time to think about Robert Seydel and his work. This feature contains a selection of excerpts from Book of Ruth (courtesy of Siglio Press alongside a pair of texts remembering him and giving critical and biographical insights into his art and his person. These texts, from a former student and a colleague respectively, were originally prepared for Seydel's memorial at Hampshire College and have since been revised for publication in continent.

  2. Tracing the origin of a scientific legend by Reference Publication Year Spectroscopy (RPYS): the legend of the Darwin finches

    CERN Document Server

    Marx, Werner

    2013-01-01

    In a previews paper we introduced the quantitative method named Reference Publication Year Spectroscopy (RPYS). With this method one can determine the historical roots of research fields and quantify their impact on current research. RPYS is based on the analysis of the frequency with which references are cited in the publications of a specific research field in terms of the publication years of these cited references. In this study, we illustrate that RPYS can also be used to reveal the origin of scientific legends. We selected Darwin finches as an example for illustration. Charles Darwin, the originator of evolutionary theory, was given credit for finches he did not see and for observations and insights about the finches he never made. We have shown that a book published in 1947 is the most-highly cited early reference cited within the relevant literature. This book had already been revealed as the origin of the term Darwin finches by Sulloway through careful historical analysis.

  3. A temática darwiniana em Freud: um exame das referências a Darwin na obra freudiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Galletti Ferretti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo visa examinar as referências a Charles Darwin (1809-1882 na obra freudiana buscando verificar qual o uso que Freud fez da teoria darwiniana e a que conceitos desta aludiu quando citou o nome do célebre evolucionista inglês. Assim, aborda-se o tema da influência de Darwin sobre Freud por meio de uma via mais evidente que, no entanto, foi pouco explorada. Essa abordagem mostra-se profícua, na medida em que fornece sólidas indicações de que o fundador da psicanálise buscou em Darwin não apenas subsídios conceituais a respeito da dinâmica anímica humana

  4. Quantum Darwinism as a Darwinian process

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, John

    2010-01-01

    The Darwinian nature of Wojciech Zurek's theory of Quantum Darwinism is evaluated against the criteria of a Darwinian process as understood within Universal Darwinism. The characteristics of a Darwinian process are developed including the consequences of accumulated adaptations resulting in adaptive systems operating in accordance with Friston's free energy principle and employing environmental simulations. Quantum theory, as developed in Zurek's research program and encapsulated by his theory of Quantum Darwinism is discussed from the view that Zurek's derivation of the measurement axioms implies that the evolution of a quantum system entangled with environmental entities is determined solely by the nature of the entangled system. There need be no further logical foundation. Quantum Darwinism is found to conform to the Darwinian paradigm in unexpected detail and is thus may be considered a theory within the framework of Universal Darwinism. With the inclusion of Quantum Darwinism within Universal Darwinism a...

  5. Epilepsy research 150 years after Darwin's theory of evolution Pesquisas em epilepsia 150 anos após a teoria da evolução de Darwin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvio A. Scorza

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available On February 12, 2009, we commemorated the 200th anniversary of Charles Darwin's birth and the 150th anniversary of the publication of the ûrst edition of the "On the origin of species". Only in the sixth edition of the Origin Darwin explicitly stated that natural selection applied to the brain as to all other organs and contemporary epilepsy research plays an interesting role in this scenario. Epilepsy affects approximately 3 percent of the general population and is a complex disease. At least 11 genes have now been described for human epilepsy and over 50 more genes have been identified in animal models of epilepsy. The complex gene to gene interactions and gene-environment interactions may account for epilepsy susceptibility and antiepileptic drug response. Darwin's thoughts on evolution are relevant to understand these gene interactions, contributing to current development of new treatments and prevention of chronic diseases, such as epilepsy.Em 12 de Fevereiro de 2009 nós comemoramos o aniversário de 200 anos de Charles Darwin e os 150 anos da publicação da primeira edição do livro "A Origem das Espécies". Apenas na sexta edição do livro A Origem, Darwin explicitamente definiu que a seleção natural se aplicava ao cérebro, assim como a todos os outros órgãos e as pesquisas contemporâneas em epilepsia tem um papel interessante neste cenário. A epilepsia afeta aproximadamente 3% da população geral e é uma doença complexa. Ao menos 11 genes foram descritos até o momento na epilepsia humana e mais de 50 genes foram identificados em modelos animais de epilepsia. As complexas interações gene-gene e genes-meio ambiente podem estar relacionadas com a susceptibilidade à epilepsia e respostas às drogas antiepilépticas. Os pensamentos de Darwin quanto à evolução são relevantes para a compreensão dessas interações gênicas, contribuindo para o desenvolvimento de novos tratamentos e na prevenção de doenças cr

  6. Darwin and the divine experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    In Denmark Darwin’s theory of evolution was known early on and viewed with respect, but did not make immediate scientific converts. In the 1870s, when Darwinism was promoted by free thinkers, public debates began to flourish, but religious reactions were remarkably few and mostly undramatic. Since...

  7. Darwin's observation in South America: what did he find at agua de la zorra, Mendoza province?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Poma

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Scarcely 23 km from Uspallata, along the track of the old national highway 7, lies the district of Agua de la Zorra, in Mendoza province in western Argentina. Charles Darwin visited the area during his South American journeys in the 19th century and discovered a geological sequence that contained a paleoflora never described before. The flora includes an important number of species, particularly what is considered a small conifer forest with many silicified trunks still in life position. Darwin described and interpreted the sequence as sedimentary; his records show a very detailed level of observation. He also wondered about the processes that would cause the burial of the paleoflora, which he considered had happened in a marine sedimentary environment. In the modern geological framework and after a detailed study of the rocks containing the trunks, it is now interpreted that the conifer forest was buried by pyroclastic flows. Darwin accurately described the fine volcanic materials as an essential part of the deposit, but the key of the enigma about the origin of the deposits and the burial of the forest is the identification of the pyroclastic flow features; these were unknown process at the time of Darwin´s observations and interpretation.

  8. Robert Cailliau honoured by Belgium

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    On 15 November, Robert Cailliau received the distinction of Commandeur de l'Ordre de Léopold from Belgium, his home country, for his pioneering work in developing the World Wide Web. Robert Cailliau worked closely with Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the Web.

  9. Looking for Darwin's footprints in the microbial world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, B. Jesse; David, Lawrence A.; Friedman, Jonathan; Alm, Eric J.

    2009-03-30

    As we observe the 200th anniversary of Charles Darwin's birthday, microbiologists interested in the application of Darwin's ideas to the microscopic world have a lot to celebrate: an emerging picture of the (mostly microbial) Tree of Life at ever-increasing resolution, an understanding of horizontal gene transfer as a driving force in the evolution of microbes, and thousands of complete genome sequences to help formulate and refine our theories. At the same time, quantitative models of the microevolutionary processes shaping microbial populations remain just out of reach, a point that is perhaps most dramatically illustrated by the lack of consensus on how (or even whether) to define bacterial species. We summarize progress and prospects in bacterial population genetics, with an emphasis on detecting the footprint of positive Darwinian selection in microbial genomes.

  10. Darwin y la imposibilidad de causas finales en la biología

    OpenAIRE

    Corral Cuartas Álvaro

    2009-01-01

    La teoría de la selección natural propuesta por Charles Darwin en su obra El Origen de las Especies no sólo colocó las bases para una explicación coherente de los hechos fundamentales de la bi...

  11. 'The art itself is nature': Darwin, domestic varieties and the scientific revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inkpen, S Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Common to both the scientific and Darwinian revolutions were discussions challenging the distinction between art and nature. Was art a part of nature? Could art be used as a model for nature? This intellectual congruence, however, is more than just nominal. Charles Darwin and Asa Gray, for example, were well-aware of the 17th century debates which preceded them through the works of such revered English writers as William Shakespeare and Thomas Browne. Furthermore, they used their understandings of these debates to inform and express their own thinking about the relation between artificial and natural selection. PMID:25439138

  12. Darwin on the Treatment of Animals: His Thoughts Then and His Influence Now

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Donna Yarri; Dr. Spencer S. Stober

    2013-01-01

    Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution has seriously challenged traditional religious views on the origins of life, as well as on our human-animal similarities. Darwin is often referenced in literature on animal ethics with regard to his contention that the difference between humans and other animals is one of degree rather than of kind. This paper posits that Darwin’s writings and theory make more positive contributions to the contemporary debate on animal ethics than for which he has previous...

  13. Bayesian Methods and Universal Darwinism

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, John

    2010-01-01

    Bayesian methods since the time of Laplace have been understood by their practitioners as closely aligned to the scientific method. Indeed a recent champion of Bayesian methods, E. T. Jaynes, titled his textbook on the subject Probability Theory: the Logic of Science. Many philosophers of science including Karl Popper and Donald Campbell have interpreted the evolution of Science as a Darwinian process consisting of a 'copy with selective retention' algorithm abstracted from Darwin's theory of Natural Selection. Arguments are presented for an isomorphism between Bayesian Methods and Darwinian processes. Universal Darwinism, as the term has been developed by Richard Dawkins, Daniel Dennett and Susan Blackmore, is the collection of scientific theories which explain the creation and evolution of their subject matter as due to the operation of Darwinian processes. These subject matters span the fields of atomic physics, chemistry, biology and the social sciences. The principle of Maximum Entropy states that system...

  14. The Scientific Status of Darwinism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havlík, Vladimír

    London: College Publications, 2011 - (Hříbek, T.; Hvorecký, J.), s. 85-98. (Texts in Philosophy. 15). ISBN 978-1-84890-043-1. [ Knowledge , Value, Evolution. Praha (CZ), 23.11.2009-25.11.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA401/08/0904 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : Darwinism * scientific theory * axiomatization Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  15. Bayesian Methods and Universal Darwinism

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, John

    2010-01-01

    Bayesian methods since the time of Laplace have been understood by their practitioners as closely aligned to the scientific method. Indeed a recent champion of Bayesian methods, E. T. Jaynes, titled his textbook on the subject Probability Theory: the Logic of Science. Many philosophers of science including Karl Popper and Donald Campbell have interpreted the evolution of Science as a Darwinian process consisting of a 'copy with selective retention' algorithm abstracted from Darwin's theory of...

  16. Hamiltonian Dynamics of Darwin Systems

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Shapovalov; Evdokimov, E. V.

    1997-01-01

    We present a Hamiltonian approach for the wellknown Eigen model of the Darwin selection dynamics. Hamiltonization is carried out by means of the embedding of the population variable space, describing behavior of the system, into the space of doubled dimension by introducing additional dynamic variables. Besides the study of the formalism, we try to interpret its basic elements (phase space, Hamiltonian, geometry of solutions) in terms of the theoretical biology. A geometric treatment is given...

  17. Robert Smithsoni ülevaade

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Ameerika maakunstniku Robert Smithsoni (1938-1973) retrospektiivnäitus 12. sept.-ni Stockholmi Moodsa Kunsti Muuseumis. Kunstnikule maailmakuulsuse toonud tööst, 1970. a. Utah' osariigi Suurde Soolajärve ehitatud spiraalmuulist "Spiral Jetty".

  18. Genetics Home Reference: Roberts syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mechanism underlying Roberts syndrome involves loss of ESCO2 acetyltransferase activity. Hum Mol Genet. 2008 Jul 15;17( ... Zou H. Two human orthologues of Eco1/Ctf7 acetyltransferases are both required for proper sister-chromatid cohesion. ...

  19. Robert Lepiksoni maailm / Eha Komissarov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Komissarov, Eha, 1947-

    2000-01-01

    Näitus "Minu maailm. Robert Lepikson fotograafina ja kollektsionäärina" galeriis "Vaal". Väljas on loodusfotod, fotod autodest, kunstikogust Eduard Steinbergi (1937) ja Vladimir Nemuhhini (1925) maalid, paar Salvador Dali värvilist litograafiat

  20. DARWIN Y LOS DILEMAS SOCIALES Darwin and the Social Dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEJANDRO ROSAS

    Full Text Available Describo el proyecto de explicación darwiniana de la moral siguiendo los lineamientos básicos de Darwin, como fueron expuestos en el Origen del hombre. A diferencia de la interpretación tradicional, sostengo que Darwin no asumió, y que no es forzoso asumir en una perspectiva darwiniana, un conflicto inevitable entre la selección individual y la selección de grupo en la explicación de la moral. Ambas trabajan en sinergia favoreciendo los rasgos que soportan el comportamiento moral en humanos. Sostengo también que de este proyecto se derivan dos enseñanzas importantes, una para la filosofía moral y otra para la concepción de la selección natural. La primera es que los dilemas sociales están en el corazón de la moral humana; la segunda es que la cooperación está en el núcleo de la selección natural. Ilustro el segundo punto con investigaciones recientes sobre la evolución de los organismos multicelulares.I describe the project of a Darwinian explanation of morality following Darwin’s basic ideas as expressed in The Descent of Man. In contrast to the traditional interpretation, I argue that Darwin did not assume, nor is it necessary to assume in a Darwinian perspective, an inevitable conflict between individual and group selection in the explanation of morality. Both operate in synergy to favor traits that support moral behavior. I also argue that two teachings result from this Darwinian project, one for moral philosophy and the other for the theory of natural selection. The first puts social dilemmas in the heart of human morality; the second puts cooperation in the core of natural selection. I illustrate the second point with recent research into the evolution of multicellular organisms.

  1. Charles Darwin’s Mitochondria

    OpenAIRE

    Hayman, John

    2013-01-01

    Charles Darwin’s long-term illness has been the subject of much speculation. His numerous symptoms have led to conclusions that his illness was essentially psychogenic in nature. These diagnoses have never been fully convincing, however, particularly in regard to the proposed underlying psychological background causes of the illness. Similarly, two proposed somatic causes of illness, Chagas disease and arsenic poisoning, lack credibility and appear inconsistent with the lifetime history of th...

  2. Darwin and Religion: Correcting the Caricatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, John Hedley

    2010-01-01

    Much has been written on the subject of Darwinism and religion, but rather less on the development of Darwin's own thinking on religious matters and how it changed over time. What were his religious, or anti-religious, beliefs? Did he believe that his theory of evolution by natural selection was incompatible with belief in a Creator? Was it his…

  3. Darwin's Eclipse Concerned Function versus Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryon, Warren W.

    2009-01-01

    Comments on a article by Dewsbury (February-March 2009) in which he stated, "Darwin provided a viable mechanism for evolutionary change, natural selection" (p. 67). Although this view is consistent with the modern synthesis, the author argues that (a) the natural selection "mechanism" provided by Darwin was not initially accepted by scientists…

  4. Robert K. Merton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Cataño

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El 23 de febrero de 2003 murió en la ciudad de Nueva York el sociólogo norteamericano Robert King Merton. Teniendo presente que no es fácil resumir en unas pocas páginas la obra de quien se dedicó durante 66 años del siglo XX a una intensa actividad teórica y docente en Sociología, el artículo sintetiza algunos de los rasgos mas sobresalientes de su extensa obra.Su carrera académica se desarrolló a partir del legado de las figuras de la tradición sociológica europea y norteamericana que habían afirmado de manera definitiva los conceptos, los métodos y los marcos de referencia del estudio de la sociedad. Siguiendo las huellas de los clásicos, sus intereses teóricos lo llevaron por los más diversos campos del análisis social con una mente abierta, lo cual lo llevó a incursionar en casi todas las especialidades de la Sociología. Los trabajos de Merton sobre la anomia, la estructura burocrática y las relaciones de la ciencia con el orden social dieron lugar al desarrollo de campos específicos del análisis social. En América Latina como en el resto del mundo su influencia en el desarrollo de la Sociología se ha hecho sentir a pesar de haber sido relegada con la irrupción del marxismo a finales de los años sesenta y comienzos de los setenta. Su ejemplo se ha convertido en modelo de rol para generaciones enteras de analistas sociales, en el patrón a seguir por quienes eligen la Sociologías como una ocupación vocacionalmente orientada.

  5. Robert K. Merton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Cataño

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El 23 de febrero de 2003 murió en la ciudad de Nueva York el sociólogo norteamericano Robert King Merton. Teniendo presente que no es fácil resumir en unas pocas páginas la obra de quien se dedicó durante 66 años del siglo XX a una intensa actividad teórica y docente en Sociología, el artículo sintetiza algunos de los rasgos mas sobresalientes de su extensa obra. Su carrera académica se desarrolló a partir del legado de las figuras de la tradición sociológica europea y norteamericana que habían afirmado de manera definitiva los conceptos, los métodos y los marcos de referencia del estudio de la sociedad. Siguiendo las huellas de los clásicos, sus intereses teóricos lo llevaron por los más diversos campos del análisis social con una mente abierta, lo cual lo llevó a incursionar en casi todas las especialidades de la Sociología. Los trabajos de Merton sobre la anomia, la estructura burocrática y las relaciones de la ciencia con el orden social dieron lugar al desarrollo de campos específicos del análisis social. En América Latina como en el resto del mundo su influencia en el desarrollo de la Sociología se ha hecho sentir a pesar de haber sido relegada con la irrupción del marxismo a finales de los años sesenta y comienzos de los setenta. Su ejemplo se ha convertido en modelo de rol para generaciones enteras de analistas sociales, en el patrón a seguir por quienes eligen la Sociologías como una ocupación vocacionalmente orientada.

  6. Darwin teleologist? Design in The orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoquet, Thierry

    2010-02-01

    Focusing on "The Orchids," this article aims at disentangling the concepts of teleology, design and natural theology. It refers to several contemporary critics of Darwin (Kölliker, Argyll, Royer, Candolle, Delpino) to challenge Huxley's interpretation that Darwin's system was "a deathblow" to teleology. "The Orchids" seems rather to be a "flank-movement" (Gray): it departs from the Romantic theories of transmutation and the "imaginary examples" of the Origin; it focuses on empirical data and on teleological structures. Although Darwin refers to natural selection, his readers mock him for his fascination for delicate morphological contrivances and co-adaptations - a sign that he was inescapably lured to finality. Some even suggested that his system was a "theodicy". In the history of Darwinism, "The Orchids" reveals "another" quite unexpected and heterodox Darwin: freed from the hypothetical fancies of the Origin, and even suggesting a new kind of physico-theology. PMID:20338528

  7. Darwin forest at agua de la zorra: the first in situ forest discovered in South America by Darwin in 1835

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Brea

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The Agua de la Zorra area (near Uspallata, Mendoza, Argentina is one of the best renowned fossil localities of the country because of its spectacular in situ fossil forest. This forest was discovered by Charles Darwin in 1835, who described this forest as monotypic and assigned it a Tertiary age. Nowadays, this fossil locality is known as the Darwin Forest. Over a century and a half later it was reinterpreted as a mixed Middle Triassic forest and a new fossil monotypic palaeocommunity of horsetails was discovered. This palaeovegetation is included in the Paramillo Formation (i.e., lower section the Potrerillos Formation of northwestern Cuyo Basin, Mendoza province (69°12' W and 32°30' S. The sediments were deposited in a sinuous fluvial system, in which channel-filling sand bodies were associated with mud-dominated floodplain deposits. The palaeoforest grew on an andisol soil that developed on volcaniclastic floodplain deposits. It had a density of 427 -759 trees per hectare, and was constituted by conifers and corystosperms distributed in two arboreal strata. The highest reached 20-26 m tall, and was dominated by corystosperms, but it also included the tallest conifers. The second stratum, mainly composed of conifers, ranged between 16-20 m tall. The forest has also emergent corystosperms, which reached 30 m tall. The understorey was composed of ferns. Growth ring anatomy suggests that conifers could have had an evergreen habit. Structure of vegetation, growth ring analyses and sedimentation suggest that the forest developed under dry, subtropical, and strongly seasonal conditions.

  8. Young Darwin and the ecology and extinctionof pleistocene south american fossil mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio F. Vizcaíno

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Duringhis two years in South America Charles Darwin became fascinated not only withthe lush vegetation of Brazil, but also with the gigantic Pleistocene mammals that hefound in the drier areas of Uruguay, and in the pampas and Patagonian coast of Argentina. These findings includedvarious ground sloths and glyptodonts among xenarthrans, and hoofed herbivoreslike Toxodon and Macrauchenia, in addition to horses and smallrodents. He concluded that the general assumption that large animals requireluxuriant vegetation was false and that vitiated the reasoning of geologists onsome aspects of Earth's history. He also reflected on the evident changes thatoccurred in the continent, the extinct fauna of which suggested to him ananalogy to southern parts of Africa. He wondered about our ignorance of biological traits inextinct creatures and the reasons for their extinction. Thus, not only did Darwin inspire phylogeneticstudies on fossil mammal lineages, he also opened a gate to the research ontheir behaviour, physiology and extinction; i.e., their palaeobiology. Whereasthe first approach was largely developed in South America beginning about thesecond half of the 19th century due to the intellectual influence ofFlorentino Ameghino, palaeobiology became a much more recent line of work, inapparent relation to innovations in methodology and technology. Thiscontribution provides an overview of recent contributions on the palaeobiologyof Pleistocene fossil mammals of South America as attempts to provide answers for Darwin's questions.

  9. Darwin's artificial selection as an experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilner, Eduardo

    2006-03-01

    Darwin used artificial selection (ASN) extensively and variedly in his theorizing. Darwin used ASN as an analogy to natural selection; he compared artificial to natural varieties, hereditary variation in nature to that in the breeding farm; and he also compared the overall effectiveness of the two processes. Most historians and philosophers of biology have argued that ASN worked as an analogical field in Darwin's theorizing. I will argue rather that this provides a limited and somewhat muddled view of Darwinian science. I say "limited" because I will show that Darwin also used ASN as a complex experimental field. And I say "muddled" because, if we concentrate on the analogical role exclusively, we conceive Darwinian science as rather disconnected from contemporary conceptions of "good science". I will argue that ASN should be conceived as a multifaceted experiment. As a traditional experiment, ASN established the efficacy of Darwin's preferred cause: natural selection. As a non-traditional experiment, ASN disclosed the nature of a crucial element in Darwin's evolutionary mechanics: the nature of hereditary variation. Finally, I will argue that the experiment conception should help us make sense of Darwin's comments regarding the "monstrous" nature of domestic breeds traditionally considered to be problematic. PMID:16473266

  10. Deceived by orchids: sex, science, fiction and Darwin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endersby, Jim

    2016-06-01

    Between 1916 and 1927, botanists in several countries independently resolved three problems that had mystified earlier naturalists - including Charles Darwin: how did the many species of orchid that did not produce nectar persuade insects to pollinate them? Why did some orchid flowers seem to mimic insects? And why should a native British orchid suffer 'attacks' from a bee? Half a century after Darwin's death, these three mysteries were shown to be aspects of a phenomenon now known as pseudocopulation, whereby male insects are deceived into attempting to mate with the orchid's flowers, which mimic female insects; the males then carry the flower's pollen with them when they move on to try the next deceptive orchid. Early twentieth-century botanists were able to see what their predecessors had not because orchids (along with other plants) had undergone an imaginative re-creation: Darwin's science was appropriated by popular interpreters of science, including the novelist Grant Allen; then H.G. Wells imagined orchids as killers (inspiring a number of imitators), to produce a genre of orchid stories that reflected significant cultural shifts, not least in the presentation of female sexuality. It was only after these changes that scientists were able to see plants as equipped with agency, actively able to pursue their own, cunning reproductive strategies - and to outwit animals in the process. This paper traces the movement of a set of ideas that were created in a context that was recognizably scientific; they then became popular non-fiction, then popular fiction, and then inspired a new science, which in turn inspired a new generation of fiction writers. Long after clear barriers between elite and popular science had supposedly been established in the early twentieth century, they remained porous because a variety of imaginative writers kept destabilizing them. The fluidity of the boundaries between makers, interpreters and publics of scientific knowledge was a highly

  11. 33 CFR 207.10 - Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission. 207.10 Section 207.10 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.10 Charles River, Mass.; dam...

  12. The Lake Charles CCS Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doug Cathro

    2010-06-30

    The Lake Charles CCS Project is a large-scale industrial carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) project which will demonstrate advanced technologies that capture and sequester carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions from industrial sources into underground formations. Specifically the Lake Charles CCS Project will accelerate commercialization of large-scale CO{sub 2} storage from industrial sources by leveraging synergy between a proposed petroleum coke to chemicals plant (the LCC Gasification Project) and the largest integrated anthropogenic CO{sub 2} capture, transport, and monitored sequestration program in the U.S. Gulf Coast Region. The Lake Charles CCS Project will promote the expansion of EOR in Texas and Louisiana and supply greater energy security by expanding domestic energy supplies. The capture, compression, pipeline, injection, and monitoring infrastructure will continue to sequester CO{sub 2} for many years after the completion of the term of the DOE agreement. The objectives of this project are expected to be fulfilled by working through two distinct phases. The overall objective of Phase 1 was to develop a fully definitive project basis for a competitive Renewal Application process to proceed into Phase 2 - Design, Construction and Operations. Phase 1 includes the studies attached hereto that will establish: the engineering design basis for the capture, compression and transportation of CO{sub 2} from the LCC Gasification Project, and the criteria and specifications for a monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) plan at the Hastings oil field in Texas. The overall objective of Phase 2, provided a successful competitive down-selection, is to execute design, construction and operations of three capital projects: (1) the CO{sub 2} capture and compression equipment, (2) a Connector Pipeline from the LLC Gasification Project to the Green Pipeline owned by Denbury and an affiliate of Denbury, and (3) a comprehensive MVA system at the Hastings oil field.

  13. Astrophysical imaging with the Darwin IR interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Röttgering, H J A; Eiroa, C; Labbé, I; Rudnick, G

    2003-01-01

    The proposed infrared space interferometry mission Darwin has two main aims: (i) to detect and characterize exo-planets similar to the Earth, and (ii) to carry out astrophysical imaging in the wavelength range 6 - 20 micron at a sensitivity similar to JWST, but at an angular resolution up to 100 times higher. In this contribution we will first briefly discuss the imaging performance of the Darwin mission. We will then discuss how Darwin will contribute in a very significant way to our understanding of the formation and evolution of planets, stars, galaxies, and super-massive black-holes located at the centers of galaxies.

  14. On Darwin's science and its contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, M J S

    2014-01-01

    The notions of 'the Darwinian revolution' and of 'the scientific Revolution' are no longer unproblematic; so this paper does not construe its task as relating these two items to each other. There can be big-picture and long-run history even when that task is declined. Such history has to be done pluralistically. Relating Darwin's science to Newton's science is one kind of historiographical challenge; relating Darwin's science to seventeenth-century finance capitalism is another kind. Relating Darwin's science to long-run traditions and transitions is a different kind of task from relating his science to the immediate short-run contexts. PMID:25457644

  15. "A Capital and Novel Argument": Charles Darwin's Notebooks and the Productivity of Rhetorical Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crick, Nathan

    2005-01-01

    With the rise of poststructuralist critiques of the autonomous subject, attention has shifted from the nature of "intentional persuasion" to the constitutive nature of discourse. Although this turn has led to valuable new insights into the nature of rhetoric, it also threatens to discount one of the most vital contributions of the rhetorical…

  16. From Charles Darwin to Sherlock Holmes: contributions of evolutionary psychology in forensic science investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Fontanesi, Lilybeth

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Evolutionary psychology (EP) is a discipline born between evolutionary biology, cognitive science, and physical anthropology. It's both a theoretical and practical scientific discipline which principal purpose is to study human behavior, in order to understand the biological and evolutionary causes that generated it. Evolutionary psychology finds its roots in the Darwinian theory, considering human behavior as the product of adaptations to recurring problems in the ancestra...

  17. On the origin of death: Paul and Augustine meet Charles Darwin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izak J.J. Spangenberg

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the 4th century, Christian theologians have linked Romans 5:12–21 with Genesis 2–3. Augustine (354–430, one of the Latin fathers of the Church, propagated the idea of ‘original sin’ according to his reading of these chapters. This idea eventually became a fixed doctrine in Western Christianity and a large number of Christians still believe and proclaim that humans would have lived for ever but for the misconduct of Adam and Eve. They also proclaim that Jesus, through his obedience, death and resurrection, re-established God’s original creation plan. Death was conquered and eternal life can be inherited by all who believe in Jesus as saviour and second Adam. However, since both the introduction of the theory of evolution into biology and the paradigm shift in biblical studies (at the end of the 19th century, the view that death was to be linked to ‘original sin’ came under severe criticism. This article argues that Romans 5:12–21 and Genesis 2–3 do not support the idea of ‘original sin’ and that death is a normal part of life on earth, as argued by evolutionary biologists and proclaimed by many Old Testament texts.

  18. On the origin of death: Paul and Augustine meet Charles Darwin

    OpenAIRE

    Izak J.J. Spangenberg

    2013-01-01

    Ever since the 4th century, Christian theologians have linked Romans 5:12–21 with Genesis 2–3. Augustine (354–430), one of the Latin fathers of the Church, propagated the idea of ‘original sin’ according to his reading of these chapters. This idea eventually became a fixed doctrine in Western Christianity and a large number of Christians still believe and proclaim that humans would have lived for ever but for the misconduct of Adam and Eve. They also proclaim that Jesus, through his obedience...

  19. Hamiltonian Dynamics of Darwin Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Shapovalov, A V

    1997-01-01

    We present a Hamiltonian approach for the wellknown Eigen model of the Darwin selection dynamics. Hamiltonization is carried out by means of the embedding of the population variable space, describing behavior of the system, into the space of doubled dimension by introducing additional dynamic variables. Besides the study of the formalism, we try to interpret its basic elements (phase space, Hamiltonian, geometry of solutions) in terms of the theoretical biology. A geometric treatment is given for the considered system dynamics in terms of the geodesic flows in the Euclidean space where the population variables serve as curvilinear coordinates. The evolution of the distribution function is found for arbitrary distributed initial values of the population variables.

  20. Charles Peyrou: 1918-2003

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Charles Peyrou, who was one of the outstanding personalities at CERN for thirty years, passed away on 6 April 2003. Born in Oloron-Sainte-Marie (France) on 18 May 1918, Charles Peyrou studied at the Ecole Polytechnique, where he attended the first class given by Louis Leprince-Ringuet in 1936. Here, he was part of the small group of enthusiastic physicists who took part in the first cosmic ray experiments. In 1938, the group built its first chamber, a large Wilson chamber in a magnetic field, operating with Geiger counters. After the war, following his appointment as chief engineer of one of the large national technical institutes known as the Corps de l'Etat, he was detached to his old laboratory to resume research on cosmic rays, and a system of two superimposed cloud chambers was set up at the Pic du Midi. This device proved very effective in the study of the strange particles that were starting to be detected at that time. Here, for example, the disintegration of the K meson into a muon and a neutrino wa...

  1. Steven Hawking with Robert Aymar

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Steven Hawking is seen meeting with CERN's Director-General, Robert Aymar. Hawking visited CERN between 24 September and 1 October 2006. During his stay he gave two lectures and toured the LHC, which may provide insights into Hawking's most famous area of study, black holes.

  2. Bayesian Methods and Universal Darwinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, John

    2009-12-01

    Bayesian methods since the time of Laplace have been understood by their practitioners as closely aligned to the scientific method. Indeed a recent Champion of Bayesian methods, E. T. Jaynes, titled his textbook on the subject Probability Theory: the Logic of Science. Many philosophers of science including Karl Popper and Donald Campbell have interpreted the evolution of Science as a Darwinian process consisting of a `copy with selective retention' algorithm abstracted from Darwin's theory of Natural Selection. Arguments are presented for an isomorphism between Bayesian Methods and Darwinian processes. Universal Darwinism, as the term has been developed by Richard Dawkins, Daniel Dennett and Susan Blackmore, is the collection of scientific theories which explain the creation and evolution of their subject matter as due to the Operation of Darwinian processes. These subject matters span the fields of atomic physics, chemistry, biology and the social sciences. The principle of Maximum Entropy states that Systems will evolve to states of highest entropy subject to the constraints of scientific law. This principle may be inverted to provide illumination as to the nature of scientific law. Our best cosmological theories suggest the universe contained much less complexity during the period shortly after the Big Bang than it does at present. The scientific subject matter of atomic physics, chemistry, biology and the social sciences has been created since that time. An explanation is proposed for the existence of this subject matter as due to the evolution of constraints in the form of adaptations imposed on Maximum Entropy. It is argued these adaptations were discovered and instantiated through the Operations of a succession of Darwinian processes.

  3. Geology of the area of Bahía Blanca, Darwin's view and the presentknowledge: a story of 10 million years Geología del área de Bahía Blanca, los comentarios de Darwin y elconocimiento actual: una historia de 10millones de años

    OpenAIRE

    Mirta E. Quattrocchio; Cecilia M. Deschamps; Carlos A. Zavala; Silvia C. Grill; Ana M. Borrome

    2009-01-01

    Theaim of this paper is to give an updated outlook of the scenery described byCharles Darwin when he visited Bahía Blanca and surrounding areas, following the itinerary during hisvoyage on board HMS Beagle. Such an outlook is a state of the art of thecurrent understanding of the Late Miocene-Holocene history in the southwestern Pampas (Argentina). Multidisciplinaryresults were integrated in a chronosequence chart synthesizing the suggestedspace-time correlation of the recognized events. Some ...

  4. Formalizing Darwinism and inclusive fitness theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafen, Alan

    2009-11-12

    Inclusive fitness maximization is a basic building block for biological contributions to any theory of the evolution of society. There is a view in mathematical population genetics that nothing is caused to be maximized in the process of natural selection, but this is explained as arising from a misunderstanding about the meaning of fitness maximization. Current theoretical work on inclusive fitness is discussed, with emphasis on the author's 'formal Darwinism project'. Generally, favourable conclusions are drawn about the validity of assuming fitness maximization, but the need for continuing work is emphasized, along with the possibility that substantive exceptions may be uncovered. The formal Darwinism project aims more ambitiously to represent in a formal mathematical framework the central point of Darwin's Origin of Species, that the mechanical processes of inheritance and reproduction can give rise to the appearance of design, and it is a fitting ambition in Darwin's bicentenary year to capture his most profound discovery in the lingua franca of science. PMID:19805422

  5. Darwin, la evolución y el lenguaje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymundo Casas Navarro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available En esta comunicación, dilucidaremos el problema del origen del lenguajedesde una perspectiva evolucionista. Nuestras reflexiones giraránen torno a preguntas como las siguientes: ¿Es el lenguaje producto deuna adaptación? ¿El desarrollo del lenguaje se puede dar cuenta con lahipótesis de una evolución gradual? O, según la pintoresca expresiónde Diamond (1994: 219, cómo conformar “una imagen coherente de laevolución del lenguaje de nuestros ancestros, desde los gruñidos hastalos sonetos de Shakespeare”. Dado que el análisis de estos tópicos sehará desde su raíz, nos remontaremos a las ideas de Charles Darwinsobre el asunto. Evidentemente, no nos circunscribiremos a una simpleexégesis de la obra darwiniana; en consecuencia, incidiremos en losenfoques y datos de las investigaciones más recientes. En particular,haremos una referencia a la obra de Noam Chomsky y al proyecto queél denomina “Biolingüística”. Esta última acotación es relevante porqueentre Darwin y el lingüista norteamericano se erigió, hace unas décadas,un desacuerdo íntimo que, en los últimos años, podría haber sidosuperado.

  6. Did Darwin write the Origin backwards?

    OpenAIRE

    Sober, Elliott

    2009-01-01

    After clarifying how Darwin understood natural selection and common ancestry, I consider how the two concepts are related in his theory. I argue that common ancestry has evidential priority. Arguments about natural selection often make use of the assumption of common ancestry, whereas arguments for common ancestry do not require the assumption that natural selection has been at work. In fact, Darwin held that the key evidence for common ancestry comes from characters whose evolution is not ca...

  7. The Evolution of the DARWIN System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Joan D.; Filman, Robert E.; Korsmeyer, David J.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    DARWIN is a web-based system for presenting the results of wind-tunnel testing and computational model analyses to aerospace designers. DARWIN captures the data, maintains the information, and manages derived knowledge (e.g. visualizations, etc.) of large quantities of aerospace data. In addition, it provides tools and an environment for distributed collaborative engineering. We are currently constructing the third version of the DARWIN software system. DARWN's development history has, in some sense, tracked the development of web applications. The 1995 DARWIN reflected the latest web technologies--CGI scripts, Java applets and a three-layer architecture--available at that time. The 1997 version of DARWIN expanded on this base, making extensive use of a plethora of web technologies, including Java/JavaScript and Dynamic HTML. While more powerful, this multiplicity has proven to be a maintenance and development headache. The year 2000 version of DARWIN will provide a more stable and uniform foundation environment, composed primarily of Java mechanisms. In this paper, we discuss this evolution, comparing the strengths and weaknesses of the various architectural approaches and describing the lessons learned about building complex web applications.

  8. From Buenos Aires to Santa Fe: Darwin's observations and modern knowledge De Buenos Aires a Santa Fe: observaciones de Darwin y conocimiento actual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Iriondo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available During his historical voyage around the world, Darwin raided deeply in the South American interior, travelling over 600 kilometers from Buenos Aires to the north along the Río Paraná. During that journey, he crossed a vast plain characterized by aeolian sediments, something unfamiliar to a European naturalist. However, Darwin's acute observation powers and precise descriptions are noteworthy. After more than 170 years since his visit, modern geological knowledge identifies several sectors in the Buenos Aires-Santa Fe region. One of them (the Tertiary at La Bajada he described admirably and others such as the Paraná flood plain were brilliantly abstracted in only two sentences. In short, Darwin traversed a first sector (Buenos Aires-Rosario characterized by aeolian and paludal Early Pleistocene sediments. From Rosario to Santa Fe the plain is formed by Late Pleistocene aeolian and fluvial units. At La Bajada (presently Paraná city lies exposed the marine Miocene and in SW Entre Ríos is a reconstructed loess-paleosol sequence generated at the Early/Middle Pleistocene transition. The Paraná flood plain and the littoral complex at the mouth (practically not observed by Darwin underwent rather complex Holocene episodes.Durante su histórico viaje alrededor del mundo, Charles Darwin incursionó profundamente en el interior de Sudamérica recorriendo más de 600 kilómetros hacia el norte de Buenos Aires a lo largo del río Paraná. Durante ese viaje, él recorrió una gran planicie caracterizada por sedimentos principalmente eólicos, un caso poco familiar para un naturalista europeo. Sin embargo, sobresale su gran capacidad de observación y precisión en sus descripciones. Después de más de 170 años de la visita de Darwin, el conocimiento geológico moderno ha identificado varios sectores en la región Buenos Aires-Santa Fe, uno de los cuales (el Terciario de La Bajada él describió admirablemente y otros, como la llanura aluvial del Paran

  9. Darwin without borders? Looking at 'generalised Darwinism' through the prism of the 'hourglass model'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levit, Georgy S; Hossfeld, Uwe

    2011-12-01

    This article critically analyzes the arguments of the 'generalized Darwinism' recently proposed for the analysis of social-economical systems. We argue that 'generalized Darwinism' is both restrictive and empty. It is restrictive because it excludes alternative (non-selectionist) evolutionary mechanisms such as orthogenesis, saltationism and mutationism without any examination of their suitability for modeling socio-economic processes and ignoring their important roles in the development of contemporary evolutionary theory. It is empty, because it reduces Darwinism to an abstract triple-principle scheme (variation, selection and inheritance) thus ignoring the actual structure of Darwinism as a complex and dynamic theoretical structure inseparable from a very detailed system of theoretical constraints. Arguing against 'generalised Darwinism' we present our vision of the history of evolutionary biology with the help of the 'hourglass model' reflecting the internal dynamic of competing theories of evolution. PMID:22116784

  10. Robert Zajonc: The Complete Psychologist

    OpenAIRE

    Berridge, Kent C.

    2010-01-01

    This article joins with others in the same issue to celebrate the career of Robert B. Zajonc who was a broad, as well as deeply talented, psychologist. Beyond his well-known focus in social psychology, the work of Zajonc also involved, at one time or another, forays into nearly every other subfield of psychology. This article focuses specifically on his studies that extended into biopsychology, which deserve special highlighting in order to be recognized alongside his many major achievements ...

  11. The Darwin package for fuel cycle applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DARWIN package, developed by the CEA and its French partners provides the required parameters for fuel cycle applications: fuel inventory, decay heat, activity, sources, spectra.... This paper presents the DARWIN2.3 package (based on the European evaluation file JEFF-3.1.1) and its experimental validation data base for fuel inventory and decay heat calculations. A synthesis of the DARWIN2.3 validation for the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Uranium Oxide (UOX) and Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel inventory and decay heat calculation is shown. An overview of the tendencies is presented on a complete range of burn-up from 10 to 85 GWd/t (10 to 60 GWd/t for MOX fuel). The experimental validation of the DARWIN2.3 package for decay heat calculation is performed using specific experiments: elementary fission bursts measurements and calorimetric measurements at different cooling time. New developments are being processed to insert deterministic uncertainty propagation in the DARWIN2.3 fuel cycle reference package. (authors)

  12. Varing Charles de Gaulle'i lennujaamas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    24. V 2004. a. varises kokku Pariisi Charles de Gaulle'i lennujaama ootesaali 45 meetri pikkune lõik. Lennujaama uusim terminal 2E avati 25. VI 2003. a. Lennujaama, k. a. terminali projekteeris prantsuse arhitekt Paul Andreu

  13. Charles Kennedy 1923-1997: An Appreciation

    OpenAIRE

    A.P. THIRLWALL

    1998-01-01

    Charles Kennedy, Honorary Professor of Economic Theory at the University of Kent at Canterbury, died from a pulmonary haemorrhage at his home on 4th November 1997, aged 74. This paper is an appreciation of his life and work.

  14. Darwin-industrien i højt gear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    Darwin-industrien i højt gear. Næste år bliver et 'Darwin-år' - både tilhængere og kritikere gør sig klar. Udgivelsesdato: 12. december......Darwin-industrien i højt gear. Næste år bliver et 'Darwin-år' - både tilhængere og kritikere gør sig klar. Udgivelsesdato: 12. december...

  15. Economists on Darwin's theory of social evolution and human behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Marciano, Alain

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyse the way economists interested in social and economic evolution cite, mention or refer to Darwin. We focus on the attitude of economists towards Darwin's theory of social evolution - an issue he considered as central to his theory. We show that economists refer to and mention Darwin as a biologist and neglect or ignore his theory of social and cultural evolution. Three types of reference are identified: first, economists view and quote Darwin as having...

  16. Introducing Students to Darwin via the Voyage of HMS "Beagle"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swab, Janice C.

    2010-01-01

    I use the diary that Darwin wrote during the voyage of HMS Beagle and recent images of a few of the places he visited to illustrate some comparisons between Darwin's world and ours. For today's students, increasingly committed to environmental issues, this may be an especially promising way to introduce Darwin.

  17. The Darwin Enterprise: From Scientific Icon to Global Product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Darwin Industry had grown into a Darwin Enterprise. It is time that we as historians take a critical look at this by seeing beyond our own scholarly niche, to get a proper perspective on what happened in 2009 and on our own contributions to the public — and scholarly — understanding of Darwin and evolution. ...

  18. Darwin's place in the history of thought: A reevaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Robert J Richards

    2009-01-01

    Scholars have usually given Darwin's theory a neo-Darwinian interpretation. A more careful examination of the language of Darwin's notebooks and the language of the Origin of Species indicates that he reconstructed nature with a definite purpose: the final goal of man as a moral creature. In the aftermath of the Origin, Darwin, however, became more circumspect.

  19. THE DEMOKTESIS OF ROBERT NOZICK A DEMOKTESIS DE ROBERT NOZICK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Netto de Andrade e Silva Sahd

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available the present article aims at reconstructing Robert Nozick’s cen-tral arguments about the extreme positions held by North American li-bertarians who do not distinguish between Welfare state and totalitarian state. Despite divergences on a pivotal question, that of the state, there are some affinities between Nozick and this current of thought. Contrary to the anarchist theory, the Minimal state is preferable to the state of nature as described by John locke.O presente artigo tem como objetivo reconstruir argumentos cen-trais, desenvolvidos por Robert Nozick, acerca das posições extremas que não diferenciam Estado-providência e Estado totalitário na política dos libertarianos norte-americanos, isto é, sobre as afinidades percebidas por Nozick com as teses desta corrente de pensamento, embora se afastando num ponto essencial: a questão do Estado. Ao contrário da teoria anar-quista, o Estado mínimo é preferível ao estado de natureza, tal como John locke o descreve.

  20. "You can't make a monkey out of us": Galen and genetics versus Darwin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamandopoulos, A; Goudas, P

    2005-12-01

    The views on the biological relationship between human and ape are polarized. One end is summarized by the axiom that "man is the third chimpanzee", a thesis put forward in an indirect way initially by Charles Darwin in the 19th century. The other is a very modern concept that although similar, the human and ape genomes are distinctly different. We have compared these two views on the subject with the stance of the ancient medical writer Galen. There is a striking resemblance between current and ancient opinion on three key issues. Firstly, on the fact that man and apes are similar but not identical. Secondly, on the influence of such debates on fields much wider than biology. And finally, on the comparative usefulness of apes as a substitute for human anatomy and physiology studies. PMID:17153282

  1. Ethics in actor networks, or: what Latour could learn from Darwin and Dewey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waelbers, Katinka; Dorstewitz, Philipp

    2014-03-01

    In contemporary Science, Technology and Society (STS) studies, Bruno Latour's Actor Network Theory (ANT) is often used to study how social change arises from interaction between people and technologies. Though Latour's approach is rich in the sense of enabling scholars to appreciate the complexity of many relevant technological, environmental, and social factors in their studies, the approach is poor from an ethical point of view: the doings of things and people are couched in one and the same behaviorist (third person) vocabulary without giving due recognition to the ethical relevance of human intelligence, sympathy and reflection in making responsible choices. This article argues that two other naturalist projects, the non-teleological virtue ethics of Charles Darwin and the pragmatist instrumentalism of John Dewey can enrich ANT-based STS studies, both, in a descriptive and in a normative sense. PMID:23371512

  2. Darwin on the Treatment of Animals: His Thoughts Then and His Influence Now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Donna Yarri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution has seriously challenged traditional religious views on the origins of life, as well as on our human-animal similarities. Darwin is often referenced in literature on animal ethics with regard to his contention that the difference between humans and other animals is one of degree rather than of kind. This paper posits that Darwin’s writings and theory make more positive contributions to the contemporary debate on animal ethics than for which he has previously been given credit. This paper addresses important aspects of Darwin’s theory for understanding our relationship with other animals and the implications for their subsequent treatment. First, this paper considers themes in Darwin’s original writings regarding relationships among different species; second, enhancements to his theory in support of these themes; and third, recommendations for how these themes can and should inform our moral reasoning and successive treatment of other animals.

  3. Charles Brenner: a practitioner's theorist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Lawrence

    2011-08-01

    To avoid certain errors in practice, Charles Brenner offered an holistic substitute for the Freudian structural model of the mind. He used the term compromise formation ambiguously to refer to both actions and states, so as to render unnecessary what he considered artificial, judgmental attitudes embodied in images of psychic structures. He believed that a theory of conflicting structures transforms the phenomenological drama of the patient's actual life-world into an artificial drama of contending intrapsychic parties that may reflect the analyst's values. According to Brenner, the meaning of life, with its desires, fears, and regrets, is structured forever in the first articulation of the family drama, and that is all the structure a practitioner should have in mind. In principle, the ambiguity of the term compromise formation allows for observed continuities in human life, and might have inspired an ambitious theoretician to exploit that option for an account of character, but that aspect of theory moves in a direction opposite to Brenner's practical mission. For the same practical reason Brenner refused to acknowledge gradations of mental operation, such as differences in maturity, or style or level of thinking, so the theory cannot say how change can take place, analytic or otherwise. These lacunae in theory were unblinkingly (if implicitly) accepted in pursuit of Brenner's goal, which was not to polish up theory but to cleanse the analyst's mind of concepts that subtly interfere with the essential nondirectiveness of treatment. His theoretical minimalism and exclusive concern with practical consequences can be recognized as a peculiarly North American attitude to psychoanalysis. PMID:21832122

  4. El traje nuevo de Darwin: Una opinión personal y otros puntos de vista sobre la Teoría de Evolución por Selección Natural

    OpenAIRE

    Cervantes, Emilio

    2008-01-01

    A mediados del siglo XIX, Charles Darwin propuso la Teoría de Evolución por Selección Natural. Desde su formulación, la teoría contó con críticas rigurosas incluyendo la opiniones de muchos científicos y también de filósofos contemporáneos de Darwin y posteriores. La extensión y divulgación de su teoría se debió a circunstancias complejas que incluyen una defensa general de la evolución, y no de la teoría de Darwin en particular, por muchos intelectuales y científicos frente a la hostilidad ...

  5. Postglacial Fringing-Reef to Barrier-Reef conversion on Tahiti links Darwin's reef types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchon, Paul; Granados-Corea, Marian; Abbey, Elizabeth; Braga, Juan C.; Braithwaite, Colin; Kennedy, David M.; Spencer, Tom; Webster, Jody M.; Woodroffe, Colin D.

    2014-01-01

    In 1842 Charles Darwin claimed that vertical growth on a subsiding foundation caused fringing reefs to transform into barrier reefs then atolls. Yet historically no transition between reef types has been discovered and they are widely considered to develop independently from antecedent foundations during glacio-eustatic sea-level rise. Here we reconstruct reef development from cores recovered by IODP Expedition 310 to Tahiti, and show that a fringing reef retreated upslope during postglacial sea-level rise and transformed into a barrier reef when it encountered a Pleistocene reef-flat platform. The reef became stranded on the platform edge, creating a lagoon that isolated it from coastal sediment and facilitated a switch to a faster-growing coral assemblage dominated by acroporids. The switch increased the reef's accretion rate, allowing it to keep pace with rising sea level, and transform into a barrier reef. This retreat mechanism not only links Darwin's reef types, but explains the re-occupation of reefs during Pleistocene glacio-eustacy. PMID:24845540

  6. On the formations of the Pampas inthe footsteps of Darwin: south of the Salado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Zárate

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In1833 during his journey across the Buenos Aires Pampas, Charles Darwin madeobservations that reflected his thoughts on two major landscape units, Pampa interserrana and Pampa deprimida, later identified byother authors. Darwin grouped the Pampean sediments into a single unit, the PampeanFormation, based upon the lithological homogeneity and the large extensionof the deposits; the unit was thought to be of estuarine-marine origin andattributed to the Recent Epoch considering the paleontological content(vertebrates and mollusks. At present, the Pampean sedimentary succession,which accumulated approximately during the last 11-12 Ma, is interpreted as a pedosedimentarysequence due to the ubiquity of pedogenetic features throughout the deposits.Four main subcycles of sedimentation are identified related to reactivations ofthe Pampean landscape. At a regional scale, the outcrop distribution of Pampeansediments of different ages suggests the dominance of more stable conditionssince the late Miocene-Pliocene in a vast area of Pampa interserrana, documented by theformation of calcretes. However, sedimentation during the latePliocene-Pleistocene was active within the domain of the Salado tectonic basin andSierras de Tandil. The regional disparity shown by the Pampean stratigraphicrecord reveals the major morphostructural differences of its basement.

  7. Inspiration in the harness of daily labor. Darwin, botany, and the triumph of evolution, 1859-1868.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellon, Richard

    2011-09-01

    Charles Darwin hoped that a large body of working naturalists would embrace evolution after the Origin of Species appeared in late 1859. He was disappointed. His evolutionary ideas at first made painfully little progress in the scientific community. But by 1863 the tide had turned dramatically, and within five years evolution became scientific orthodoxy in Britain. The Origin's reception followed this peculiar trajectory because Darwin had not initially tied its theory to productive original scientific investigation, which left him vulnerable to charges of reckless speculation. The debate changed with his successful application of evolution to original problems, most notably orchid fertilization, the subject of a well-received book in 1862. Most of Darwin's colleagues found the argument of the Origin convincing when they realized that it functioned productively in the day-to-day work of science-and not before. The conceptual force of the Origin, however outwardly persuasive, acquired full scientific legitimacy only when placed "in the harness of daily labour". PMID:22073768

  8. Combating plant diseases--the Darwin connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollomon, Derek W; Brent, Keith J

    2009-11-01

    Although Darwin knew of plant diseases, he did not study them as part of his analysis of natural selection. Effective plant disease control has only been developed after his death. This article explores the relevance of Darwin's ideas to three problem areas with respect to diseases caused by fungi: emergence of new diseases, loss of disease resistance bred into plants and development of fungicide resistance. Darwin's concept of change through natural or artificial selection relied on selection of many small changes, but subsequent genetic research has shown that change can also occur through large steps. Appearance of new diseases can involve gene duplication, transfer or recombination, but all evidence points to both host plant resistance and fungicide susceptibility being overcome through point mutations. Because the population size of diseases such as rusts and powdery and downy mildews is so large, all possible point mutations are likely to occur daily, even during moderate epidemics. Overcoming control measures therefore reflects the overall fitness of these mutants, and much resource effort is being directed towards assessment of their fitness, both in the presence and in the absence of selection. While recent developments in comparative genomics have caused some revision of Darwin's ideas, experience in managing plant disease control measures clearly demonstrates the relevance of concepts he introduced 150 years ago. It also reveals the remarkable speed and the practical impact of adaptation in wild microorganism populations to changes in their environment, and the difficulty of stopping or delaying such adaptation. PMID:19771541

  9. Darwin on Race, Gender, and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Stephanie A.; Bhatia, Sunil

    2009-01-01

    Darwin's theories of natural selection and sexual selection are significant scientific achievements, although his understanding of race and gender was defined and limited by his own life circumstances and the sociohistorical context within which he worked. This article considers the ways in which race, gender, and culture were represented and…

  10. Edward B. Aveling: the people's Darwin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paylor, Suzanne

    2005-06-01

    By the late-19th century, evolutionary theory, known by most people as Darwinism, had earned a reputation as an atheistic theory that challenged religious orthodoxy. From recent historical work we now know a great deal about how those with religious convictions received Darwinian ideas, and the role that professional scientists played in styling and communicating 'Darwinism' to the wider public and between themselves. However, relatively little is known about how Darwinian ideas were received and used by avowedly irreligious groups, and how these groups set about communicating their own version of Darwinism to a public hungry for cheap and accessible science. The activities of the Secularist Edward Bibbins Aveling, a prolific popularizer of Darwinian ideas in the late-19th century, offer a unique insight into this relatively uncharted territory. His work helped to develop the polemic of popular irreligious groups and imbue Darwinism with overtly atheistic connotations; it also engendered unprecedented support for atheism from the general public, and challenged the monopoly that some professional scientists enjoyed over imparting serious scientific knowledge to them. PMID:15935858

  11. Darwin and Phenomenology Beyond the Standard Model

    OpenAIRE

    Frampton, Paul H.

    2006-01-01

    After preamble about Darwin, my talk described the conformality approach to extending the standard model of particle phenomenology using an assumption of no conformal anomaly at high energy. Topics included quiver gauge theory, the conformality approach to phenomenology, strong-electroweak unification at 4 TeV, cancellation of quadratic divergences, cancellation of U(1) anomalies, and a dark matter candidate.

  12. ARIMA模型在达尔文通信模式研究中的运用%An Application of ARIMA model in Study of Darwin's Mail Communication Pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏士超; 高亮; 孙士钊; 李林灿

    2013-01-01

    首先利用ARIMA模型,研究了进化论的提出者查尔斯·达尔文(Charles R.Darwin,1809/02/12-1882/04/19)从1866到1879年期间的通信量变化规律,并根据模型优化的AIC和BIC准则求得ARIMA优化模型.接着,应用ARIMA优化模型,对达尔文1880至1881年的月通信数量的时间序列进行了预测.预测的月通信数量与实际通信数量的对比说明,ARIMA优化模型拟合效果良好,并能够较好的反映达尔文学术生涯后期实际通信量的时间变化规律.研究结果表明,ARIMA优化模型可以作为一种研究人类通信模式的有效模型加以广泛应用.%In this paper,time series of Charles R.Darwin's mail communication is investigated by ARIMA model.This time series is about Darwin's mail volume,including sent from and received by Darwin,during 1866 to 1879.According to BIC criterion,we get a group of parameters for ARIMA model.To forecast the Darwin's mail volume during 1880 to 1881,we employ ARIMA model with previously obtained parameters.The results show that the forecast of ARIMA model fit well with the real mail volume during 1880 to 1881,and ARIMA model with given parameters can reflect the time evolution of Darwin's mail communication in his scientific career.The results also show that the ARIMA model can be widely used as an effective model to study the human's mail communication pattern.

  13. A perspective on (neo-Darwinism (2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F.M. Strauss

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A perspective on (neo-Darwinism first of all has to account for those assumptions derived from the humanities, causing neo-Darwinism not to be a purely special scientific or natural scientific theory. A discussion of the many-sidedness of living entities highlights the difficulties surrounding a definition of biology. Attention is briefly given to the physicalism of Darwin’s 1859 work before the quest for origins is discussed. These considerations pave the way for an assessment of striking shortcomings in the thought of Darwin and his followers. In particular, modern nominalism is identified as an important source for neo-Darwinism, especially manifest in the idea that organisms are not types and do not have types (Simpson. Darwin’s idea of incremental (continuous change both in respect of the genesis of a complex organ (or the origination of the first living entity and of successive fossil forms contradict the current state of affairs – and the same applies to his own radical idea that “injurious” variations will be eliminated immediately by natural selection, for it cannot be reconciled to the role of mutations in neo-Darwinian theory. In addition neo-Darwinian paleontologists pointed out that evolution requires intermediate forms and paleontology does not provide them (Kitts and explicitly confessed that they have paid lip-service to the idea of change while they knew all the time that it was not true (Eldredge: the dominant theme of the paleontological record is stasis, constancy – a type appears and remains constant for millions of years before it disappears (Gould. The supposition of incremental continuity received a further blow from the “Cambrian explosion”, the “nasty fact” that most “major animal groups appeared simultaneously” about 530 million years ago. A few aspects of the uniqueness of humankind are treated as well as the confused picture found in an attempt to synthesise neo-Darwinism and Christianity. In

  14. Charles H. Winston and Confederate Sulfuric Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riethmiller, Steven

    1995-01-01

    Describes the invention and use of a sulfuric acid chamber by Charles Henry Winston during the Civil War. This invention helped supply munitions for the South. Winston, who was President of the Richmond Female Institute in Virginia, constructed the chamber at his farm and was granted a patent by the Confederate Patent Office in 1863. (PVD)

  15. Enduring Legacy? Charles Tilly and Durable Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Voss, Kim

    2010-01-01

    This article assesses Charles Tilly’s Durable Inequality and traces its influence. In writing Durable Inequality, Tilly sought to shift the research agenda of stratification scholars. But the book’s initial impact was disappointing. In recent years, however, its influence has grown, suggesting a more enduring legacy.

  16. [Charles II of Spain, the bewitched].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda L, Jaime

    2008-02-01

    The death of King Charles II, the Bewitched, ended two centuries of sovereignity of the Habsburg dynasty in Spain. Since his birth in 1661, he presented a peculiar set of physical, psychiatric and behavioral signs, such as respiratory and diarrheal diseases, recurrent seizures and deep developmental delay. It was not until his adulthood when his infertility became evident, being incapable of conceiving a heir, even though he married twice. Such a constellation of ominous signs motivated a curious investigation, which concluded that the king was hexed at the age of 14 years in order to take away his throne, his health and his capacity to procreate. Based on contemporary medical knowledge, it is possible that Charles IIhad a rare autosomal recessive inherited genopathy asa consequence of the frequent inbreeding among his ancestors. On the other hand, its is also possible that Charles II presented Klinefelter Syndrome, the most frequent sex chromosome disorder in humans and the most common cause of hypogonadism and infertility in males. The hypothesis that Charles II was bewitched reflects a deep belief in supernatural phenomena among the Castilian society at the beginning of the 18th century, an idea transmitted across generations, currently present in many societies worldwide. PMID:18483684

  17. Charles Maisonnier, the man and the friend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is a reconstruction of a speech delivered by the author on the occasion of a Memorial Service for Dr. Maisonnier held on 19 September at the Eglise Saint Anne, Brussels. Dr. Charles Maisonnier was one of the former leaders of ITER who made significant contributions to its development

  18. The Lost Acting Treatise of Charles Macklin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Barbara

    This paper examines the career of Charles Macklin of London, an 18th-century actor/director/teacher, whose treatise on his performative approach and pedagogical techniques, "On the Science of Acting," was lost at sea in a 1772 shipwreck. Citing two letters Macklin received from his actress daughter, Maria, and fragments of his own accounts as well…

  19. From Neo-Darwinism to Epigenetic Inheritance

    OpenAIRE

    Axholm, Ida; Ranum, Kasper; Al-Makdisi Razeeghi, Redaa

    2014-01-01

    Transgenerational epigenetic inheritance is at variance with the neo-Darwinian theory of inheritance, and this possibly has important implications for how we view evolution, since it could allow for a kind of inheritance of acquired characteristics. We have applied Imre Lakatos and Thomas Kuhn’s models of scientific change and investigated if they can accurately describe the change in the view on inheritance from neo-Darwinism to a view that includes transgenerational epigenetic inheritance, ...

  20. [Darwin in the Republic of Letters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertani, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    For those accustomed to thinking that the modern cultural dimension arose under the banner of a clash between the so-called "two cultures," the figure of Darwin the "humanist" could reserve numerous surprises. It was above all the well-known paleontologist S.J. Gould who pointed them out. He went so far as to track down, in the Italian cultural roots from Saint Francis to Galileo, an element of continuity between his own Darwinism and our literary tradition that passes through the writing of the masterpieces of the nineteenth-century natural sciences. On the basis of a similar, and also audacious, rereading of the cultural history, the essay proposes to indicate some possible developments of the new dialogue undertaken, beginning with the insertion of the scientist Darwin in the European horizon of the Republic of Letters. There are then indicated some historical-cultural categories that would merit reconsideration: the new figure of intellectual of the twenty-first century, the idea of a science immersed in the historical contingency and in the concrete pleasure of the subject that knows, the role of "sweetness" and of "wonder" also in the most rigorous study, and lastly the need of an in-depth knowledge of the Darwinian writing, not as a curiosity for the educational trend of the era of positivism, but as an indispensable epistemological requisite for a correct understanding of its science. PMID:26915234

  1. Describing Service-Oriented Architecture by Extended Darwin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Tao; SHEN Mei-e; YING Shi; YE Peng; LIANG Zao-qing

    2005-01-01

    Describing Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) is critical in the development of Web-based system. In this paper, an approach for describing SOA by extended Darwin is proposed. The requirements for describing SOA, which are different from that of ordinary architecture, are highlighted firstly, and then a solution for extending Darwin is presented. Using the extended Darwin, service components and connectors can be described explicit by the extended construct, as well as precise operational semantics of SOA by the π-calculus. Finally an example of supply-chain management system is given for manifesting the effect of the extended Darwin.

  2. Young Darwin and the ecology and extinctionof pleistocene south american fossil mammals El joven Darwin y la ecología y extinción de los mamíferos fósilessudamericanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio F. Vizcaíno

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Duringhis two years in South America Charles Darwin became fascinated not only withthe lush vegetation of Brazil, but also with the gigantic Pleistocene mammals that hefound in the drier areas of Uruguay, and in the pampas and Patagonian coast of Argentina. These findings includedvarious ground sloths and glyptodonts among xenarthrans, and hoofed herbivoreslike Toxodon and Macrauchenia, in addition to horses and smallrodents. He concluded that the general assumption that large animals requireluxuriant vegetation was false and that vitiated the reasoning of geologists onsome aspects of Earth's history. He also reflected on the evident changes thatoccurred in the continent, the extinct fauna of which suggested to him ananalogy to southern parts of Africa. He wondered about our ignorance of biological traits inextinct creatures and the reasons for their extinction. Thus, not only did Darwin inspire phylogeneticstudies on fossil mammal lineages, he also opened a gate to the research ontheir behaviour, physiology and extinction; i.e., their palaeobiology. Whereasthe first approach was largely developed in South America beginning about thesecond half of the 19th century due to the intellectual influence ofFlorentino Ameghino, palaeobiology became a much more recent line of work, inapparent relation to innovations in methodology and technology. Thiscontribution provides an overview of recent contributions on the palaeobiologyof Pleistocene fossil mammals of South America as attempts to provide answers for Darwin's questions.Durante los dos añosque Charles Darwin estuvo en América del Sur no sólo se deslumbró con laprofusa vegetación de Brasil, si no también con los gigantescos mamíferospleistocenos que colectó en áreas más secas de Uruguay y en la pampa y la costapatagónica de Argentina. Sus hallazgos incluyeron distintos perezosos ygliptodontes, ungulados herbívoros como Toxodon y Macrauchenia,además de caballos y pequeños roedores

  3. Undergraduate Research at Oral Roberts University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Richard; Thurman, Duane

    1981-01-01

    Explains Oral Roberts University's undergraduate requirement for research proficiency and how this requirement is fulfilled by biology majors. Topics of the required courses include: introduction to biological research; research techniques; independent research and senior paper; and senior seminar. (DS)

  4. Robert Walters named vice president for research

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Robert Walters, interim associate vice president of research at Virginia Tech, has been named vice president for research effective immediately for a three-year period, announced Mark McNamee, university provost and vice president for academic affairs.

  5. Charles Tilly as a Theorist of Nationalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, Rogers

    2010-12-01

    This paper considers Charles Tilly as an important but underappreciated theorist of nationalism. Tilly's theory of nationalism emerged from the "bellicist" strand of his earlier work on state-formation and later incorporated a concern with performance, stories, and cultural modeling. Yet despite the turn to culture in Tilly's later work, his theory of nationalism remained state-centered, materialist, and instrumentalist-a source of both its power and its limitations. PMID:21258439

  6. Charles Tilly as a Theorist of Nationalism

    OpenAIRE

    Brubaker, Rogers

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers Charles Tilly as an important but underappreciated theorist of nationalism. Tilly’s theory of nationalism emerged from the “bellicist” strand of his earlier work on state-formation and later incorporated a concern with performance, stories, and cultural modeling. Yet despite the turn to culture in Tilly’s later work, his theory of nationalism remained state-centered, materialist, and instrumentalist—a source of both its power and its limitations.

  7. The Scientific Metaphysics of Charles S. Peirce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent; Thellefsen, Torkild Leo

    Charles S. Peirce (1839-1914) was, perhaps, first and foremost a practising or experimental scientist. However, Peirce was also a philosopher, and to him the relation between science and metaphysics was intimate. Peirce not only wanted to develop a metaphysical system consistent with the importan...... contemporary relevance. The essays fall under the different headings of ontology, psychical or religious metaphysics, and, finally, physical metaphysics...

  8. Charles M. Breder, Jr.: Atlantis Expedition, 1934

    OpenAIRE

    Cantillo, A. Y.; Collins, E.; Leber, K. M.; Stover, S M

    2004-01-01

    Dr. Charles M. Breder participated on the 1934 expedition of the Atlantis from Woods Hole, Massachusetts to Panama and back and kept a field diary of daily activities. The Atlantis expedition of 1934, led by Prof. A. E. Parr, was a milestone in the history of scientific discovery in the Sargasso Sea and the West Indies. Although naturalists had visited the Sargasso Sea for many years, the Atlantis voyage was the first attempt to investigate in detailed quantitative manner biological problems ...

  9. Resume of Interview with Professor Charles Snow

    OpenAIRE

    Dorthe Døjbak Håkonsson

    2015-01-01

    This interview is with Professor Charles Snow. Snow is Professor Emeritus of Strategy and Organization at Penn State University. He was a professor at Penn State from 1974 to 2012. The interview was conducted in 2013 while he was visiting professor at ICOA (Interdisciplinary Center for Organizational Architecture) at Aarhus University. Professor Snow is a founding member of the Organizational Design Community and co-editor of the Journal of Organization Design. He is a Fellow of the Academy o...

  10. Charles Kenneth Thornhill (1917-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunning-Davies J.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Dr. Charles Kenneth Thornhill, who died recently, was a proud, gritty Yorkshireman who, throughout his long life, genuinely remained true to himself. This led him into conflicts within the scientific community. The jury is still out on whether he was correct or not in his ideas but, be that as it may, all can learn a tremendous amount from the courage of this man in standing up for what he truly believed.

  11. Constructions of legitimacy: the Charles Taylor trial

    OpenAIRE

    Glasius, M.; Meijers, T.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the discourses of the prosecution and the defence in the case of Charles Taylor before the Special Court for Sierra Leone. It contributes to current debates about the legitimacy and utility of international criminal justice, which have tended to neglect the examination of actual trials, and particularly the role of the defence. We draw on the legal doctrine of ‘expressivism’ to theorize the connection between normative legitimacy, actual support and the utility of intern...

  12. Getting to Darwin: Obstacles to Accepting Evolution by Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thagard, Paul; Findlay, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection is central to modern biology, but is resisted by many people. This paper discusses the major psychological obstacles to accepting Darwin's theory. Cognitive obstacles to adopting evolution by natural selection include conceptual difficulties, methodological issues, and coherence problems that…

  13. Pragmatisme dalam Filsafat Kontemporer: Analisa atas pemikiran Charles S. Peirce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustaqim Mustaqim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Filsafat menurut bahasa berasal dari Griek (Yunani berasal dari kata Pilos (cinta, Sophos (kebijaksanaan, “Mahabatul Hikmah” pecinta ilmu pengetahuan. Filsafat menurut term: ingin tahu dengan mendalam (cinta pada kebijaksanaan. Phytagoras mengatakan bahwa pengetahuan dalam artinya yang lengkap tidak sesuai untuk manusia . tiap-tiap orang yang mengalami kesukaran-kesukaran dalam memperolehnya dan meskipun menghabiskan seluruh umurnya, namun ia tidak akan mencapai tepinya. Jadi pengetahuan adalah perkara yang kita cari dan kita ambil sebagian darinya tanpa mencakup keseluruhannya. Oleh karena itu, maka kita bukan ahli pengetahuan, melainkan pencari dan pencinta pengetahuan. Secara istilah, Penulis mengutip pendapat Muhtar yahya bahwa berfikir filsafat ialah “pemikiran yang sedalam-dalamnya yang bebas dan teliti bertujuan hanya mencari hakikat kebenaran tentang alam semesta, alam manusia dan dibalik alam”. Pragmatisme dalam Filsafat Kontemporer: Dalam bidang filsafat ilmu, pemikiran Charles Sanders Peirce merupakan suatu hal yang mendasar bagi siapa saja yang berminat mengkaji Islam, karena akar pemikiran studi agama terdapat dalam struktur pemikiran Peirce. Dikenal sebagai perintis dan tokoh utama aliran filsafat pragmatisme.  Pierce juga termasuk salah satu pioner dalam logika matematika abad ke-19.  Secara profesional, ia adalah seorang ilmuwan praktisi ahli geodesi, astronomi, dan kimia. Epistemologi Peirce berlatar belakang prgamatis dan ahli logika, epistemologinya banyak disampaikan melalui logikanya, oleh karenanya epitemologi Peirce digolongkan sebagai epistemologi kontemporer. Peirce dengan filsafat pragmatisme (filsafat bertindak, memandang bahwa; suatu hipotesa dianggap benar apabila mendatangkan manfaat. Pragmatisme dikatagorikan dalam teori kebenaran. Peirce membagi kebenaran menjadi dua, yakni kebenaran transendental dan kebenaran kompleks. Kebenaran kompleks terdiri dari kebenaran etis (psikologis yaitu keselarasan

  14. 物竞天择,适者生存——解析达尔文主义在萨姆·谢泼德家庭三部曲中的体现%Survival of the Fittest --A Study on Darwinism in Sam Shepard' s Family Trilogy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程玲

    2012-01-01

    Darwinism, also called Darwinian Theory, is a theory of biological evolution developed by British biologist, Charles Darwin, in the middle of the 19th century, which is considered to be the most important landmark in the history of mankind. In literary criticism, it is a new trend to unscramble literary works from the aspect of Darwinism, which is called literary Darwinism. The objective of this paper is to make a brief survey on the Darwinism manifested in Sam Shepard' s family trilogy from a particular point of view of literary Darwinism, aiming to analyze the fatality of the characters.%随着比较文学的发展壮大,跨学科研究成为文学研究的新亮点,达尔文主义也随之被赋予了强烈的人文色彩,出现了利用进化论的观点剖析文学作品的研究,达尔文文学主义也逐渐成为文学批评研究领域的新方向。本文运用文学达尔文主义理论对当代美国最富影响的剧作家萨姆.谢泼德的家庭三部曲进行解读,旨在剖析剧中人物的悲剧宿命。

  15. Darwin forest at agua de la zorra: the first in situ forest discovered in South America by Darwin in 1835 El Bosque Darwin en Agua de la Zorra: El primer bosque in situ descubierto en América del Sur por Darwin en 1835

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Brea

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The Agua de la Zorra area (near Uspallata, Mendoza, Argentina is one of the best renowned fossil localities of the country because of its spectacular in situ fossil forest. This forest was discovered by Charles Darwin in 1835, who described this forest as monotypic and assigned it a Tertiary age. Nowadays, this fossil locality is known as the Darwin Forest. Over a century and a half later it was reinterpreted as a mixed Middle Triassic forest and a new fossil monotypic palaeocommunity of horsetails was discovered. This palaeovegetation is included in the Paramillo Formation (i.e., lower section the Potrerillos Formation of northwestern Cuyo Basin, Mendoza province (69°12' W and 32°30' S. The sediments were deposited in a sinuous fluvial system, in which channel-filling sand bodies were associated with mud-dominated floodplain deposits. The palaeoforest grew on an andisol soil that developed on volcaniclastic floodplain deposits. It had a density of 427 -759 trees per hectare, and was constituted by conifers and corystosperms distributed in two arboreal strata. The highest reached 20-26 m tall, and was dominated by corystosperms, but it also included the tallest conifers. The second stratum, mainly composed of conifers, ranged between 16-20 m tall. The forest has also emergent corystosperms, which reached 30 m tall. The understorey was composed of ferns. Growth ring anatomy suggests that conifers could have had an evergreen habit. Structure of vegetation, growth ring analyses and sedimentation suggest that the forest developed under dry, subtropical, and strongly seasonal conditions.El área de Agua de la Zorra (cerca de Uspallata, Mendoza, Argentina es uno de los sitios fósiles más espectaculares y renombrados del país porque aflora un bosque in situ. Este bosque descripto como monotípico y asignado al Terciario fue descubierto por Charles Darwin en 1835. Un siglo y medio más tarde, se reinterpretó como un bosque mixto del Tri

  16. On the formations of the Pampas inthe footsteps of Darwin: south of the Salado Sobre las formaciones de las Pampasen los pasos de Darwin: al sur del Salado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Zárate

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In1833 during his journey across the Buenos Aires Pampas, Charles Darwin madeobservations that reflected his thoughts on two major landscape units, Pampa interserrana and Pampa deprimida, later identified byother authors. Darwin grouped the Pampean sediments into a single unit, the PampeanFormation, based upon the lithological homogeneity and the large extensionof the deposits; the unit was thought to be of estuarine-marine origin andattributed to the Recent Epoch considering the paleontological content(vertebrates and mollusks. At present, the Pampean sedimentary succession,which accumulated approximately during the last 11-12 Ma, is interpreted as a pedosedimentarysequence due to the ubiquity of pedogenetic features throughout the deposits.Four main subcycles of sedimentation are identified related to reactivations ofthe Pampean landscape. At a regional scale, the outcrop distribution of Pampeansediments of different ages suggests the dominance of more stable conditionssince the late Miocene-Pliocene in a vast area of Pampa interserrana, documented by theformation of calcretes. However, sedimentation during the latePliocene-Pleistocene was active within the domain of the Salado tectonic basin andSierras de Tandil. The regional disparity shown by the Pampean stratigraphicrecord reveals the major morphostructural differences of its basement.Durante su viaje por la Pampa bonaerense en 1833 CharlesDarwin efectuó observaciones que reflejaban las dos grandes unidades de paisajeposteriormente reconocidas en la región, la Pampa interserrana y la Pampadeprimida. La homogeneidad litológica y la vasta extensión de los depósitosfueron los criterios básicos empleados para agruparlos en una única unidad, la FormaciónPampeano; basado en criterios paleontológicos le atribuyó origenestuárico-marino y la asignó a la época Reciente. Si bien han existido otraspropuestas estratigráficas, Formación Pampeano o simplemente Pampeano, sondenominaciones

  17. Group adaptation, formal darwinism and contextual analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okasha, S; Paternotte, C

    2012-06-01

    We consider the question: under what circumstances can the concept of adaptation be applied to groups, rather than individuals? Gardner and Grafen (2009, J. Evol. Biol.22: 659-671) develop a novel approach to this question, building on Grafen's 'formal Darwinism' project, which defines adaptation in terms of links between evolutionary dynamics and optimization. They conclude that only clonal groups, and to a lesser extent groups in which reproductive competition is repressed, can be considered as adaptive units. We re-examine the conditions under which the selection-optimization links hold at the group level. We focus on an important distinction between two ways of understanding the links, which have different implications regarding group adaptationism. We show how the formal Darwinism approach can be reconciled with G.C. Williams' famous analysis of group adaptation, and we consider the relationships between group adaptation, the Price equation approach to multi-level selection, and the alternative approach based on contextual analysis. PMID:22487485

  18. Obituary: Robert C. Bless (1927 - 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surrounded by his loving family, Robert Charles Bless died at home on November 29th, three days before his 88th birthday. He was born in Ithaca, NY on Dec. 3, 1927 to a Russian father, Arthur Aaron Bless, and a French mother, Eva Chantrell Bless. Bob spent many summers on the family farm in the South of France, where he gained a great pride and joy in his French heritage, large extended family, and mother tongue. As a child growing up in Gainesville, FL, Bob's first job was snake wrangling, earning 10 cents per foot, with an added bonus for the more venomous species. Young Robbie took daily adventures in the Florida woods and swamps, armed only with pockets full of pecans and oranges. He enjoyed spending time at the family's lake cabin, where he learned to sail and helped his father plant acres of trees to grow their timber plantation. As a first generation immigrant, Bob's father received a PhD in physics, which inspired Bob to pursue an extensive educational route in astrophysics. Bob excelled in academics, graduating high school at the age of 16 and the University of Florida (B.Sc.) at 19. His path to graduate school was interrupted by a diagnosis of tuberculosis that forced him into a Florida sanitorium for one year. During this time, Bob made the most of what he described as the most dismal part of life by advocating for patient rights, initiating an inter-sanitorium newsletter, and gaining skills and experience in community organization and leadership - qualities that would later inform his leadership in academe. After being one of the first successfully treated tuberculosis patients in the US, Bob went on to earn a M.Sc. from Cornell University, and received his PhD degree in Astronomy from the University of Michigan in 1958. That same year, Bob joined the staff of the Astronomy Department of the University of Wisconsin (UW), Madison. It was there that Bob met Diane McQueen. Despite Bob's Dodge Dart and what has been described as the worst first date in

  19. Geology of the area of Bahía Blanca, Darwin's view and the presentknowledge: a story of 10 million years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirta E. Quattrocchio

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Theaim of this paper is to give an updated outlook of the scenery described byCharles Darwin when he visited Bahía Blanca and surrounding areas, following the itinerary during hisvoyage on board HMS Beagle. Such an outlook is a state of the art of thecurrent understanding of the Late Miocene-Holocene history in the southwestern Pampas (Argentina. Multidisciplinaryresults were integrated in a chronosequence chart synthesizing the suggestedspace-time correlation of the recognized events. Some of the studied localitiescovering the whole time interval represented in the area were arranged in thischart in a hypothetical E-W line crossing the Río Sauce Grande basin and thesurrounding highlands. This line is also approximately the one followed in partby Darwin when riding from Bahía Blanca to Tapalqué (Tapalguenas he crossed the region toward the Río Sauce. Paleoenviromental andpaleoclimatic inferences for the last 10m.y. are also given. Paleontologicalstudies included vertebrates, ostracods and palynomorphs. Many of the resultsof these investigations are the answers to Darwin's question when he first visitedthe area.

  20. The ongoing evolution of humanness: perspectives from Darwin to de Chardin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Buckeridge

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The nature of humanness is discussed from observations made by Aristotle in 4th-century Greece, through to those of Charles Darwin, Teilhard de Chardin and William Shakespeare. Attempts to define humanness upon a narrow range of criteria, as some have tried, is argued as flawed, for humanness is more elusive than a single or a few demonstrated phenomena. The path that Darwin pursued in determining the place of humans in nature in his book The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex is assessed from a 19thcentury perspective; the difficulties he faced, both personally and with the broader public, are reviewed and then evaluated in a modern context. Darwin’s thesis adheres to scientific principles, and is debated, defended and later verified on these principles. This is somewhat at variance to the approach adopted by the priest-scientist de Chardin a century later in his major work, The Phenomenon of Man—in which an attempt is made to reconcile a deep Christian faith with science. De Chardin scores well from a theological viewpoint, but fails on scientific grounds as his thesis moves beyond the realms of empiricism into mysticism. Surprisingly, de Chardin’s predicament of a future wherein human evolution enters a new stage of consciousness through the noosphere (an invisible layer of thought encompassing the globe has been partially realised through the worldwide web, although the nature of the web is almost certainly not what de Chardin might have anticipated, or desired. Science too fails to answer all, particularly the nature of God. Darwin considered the Creator in several of his works and does not dismiss the concept of a farseeing deity, although we are left with the notion that he died agnostic. Humanness is derived from an elevated moral code and this is reflected in our arts, particularly literature, wherein we may temporally reflect upon quintessential human traits such as mercy. However, expression of the arts is only

  1. Resume of Interview with Professor Charles Snow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorthe Døjbak Håkonsson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This interview is with Professor Charles Snow. Snow is Professor Emeritus of Strategy and Organization at Penn State University. He was a professor at Penn State from 1974 to 2012. The interview was conducted in 2013 while he was visiting professor at ICOA (Interdisciplinary Center for Organizational Architecture at Aarhus University. Professor Snow is a founding member of the Organizational Design Community and co-editor of the Journal of Organization Design. He is a Fellow of the Academy of Management and is listed in Who’s Who in the Management Sciences and Great Writers on Organizations.

  2. The Inharmonious Conflicts in Robert Frost's Poetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨苗

    2015-01-01

    Robert Frost is one of the most distinguished poets,most of his poems are about the inharmonious relationship between nature and men,Conflicts are like a“thread”appearing in his poems.Frost’s true philosophy on men and life contributes to his wisdom and artistic poems.Frost tries to illustrate the conflict between nature and men in philosophy concern.

  3. Robert Aymar, Director-General of CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    Robert Aymar, photographed in 2003 before taking his position as Director-General at CERN, succeeding Luciano Maiani in 2004. At this time, Aymar was director of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) although he had already been involved with developments at CERN, chairing the External Review Committee, set up in 2001 in response to the increased cost of the LHC.

  4. Robert Lee Pyle honored with emeritus status

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, Jeffrey S.

    2007-01-01

    Dr. Robert Lee Pyle of Blacksburg, professor of cardiology in the Department of Small Animal Clinical Science at the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine at Virginia Tech, was conferred the "professor emeritus" title by the Virginia Tech Board of Visitors during the board's quarterly meeting August 27.

  5. Robert Aumann

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2007-01-01

    In this interview Nobel Prize Winner Robert Aumann talks about how he was initially drawn into game theory, when he came to think of formalizing the folk-theorem, the proper role of game theory in relation to other disciplines and why behavioral game theory probably won't last long....

  6. Charles Darwin Goes to School: The Role of Cartoons and Narrative in Setting Science in an Historical Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa da Silva, Paulo Roberto; Correia, Paulo Rogerio Miranda; Infante-Malachias, Maria Elena

    2009-01-01

    Science education is under revision. Recent changes in society require changes in education to respond to new demands. Scientific literacy can be considered a new goal of science education and the epistemological gap between natural sciences and literacy disciplines must be overcome. The history of science is a possible bridge to link these "two…

  7. Organic Farming by Vermiculture: Producing Safe, Nutritive and Protective Foods by Earthworms (Charles Darwin's Friends of Farmers)

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Rajiv K; Hahn, George; Singh, Pancham K.; Suhane, Ravindra K.; Anthonyreddy, Allam

    2011-01-01

    Agrochemicals which ushered in the ‘green revolution’ in the 1950-60’s, boosted food productivity, but at the cost of environment and society. It increased food production but also destroyed the ‘physical, chemical and the biological properties’ of soil over the years of use. It killed the beneficial soil organisms and also impaired the power of ‘biological resistance’ in crops making them more susceptible to pests and diseases. No farmland of world i...

  8. Cento e Quarenta Anos sem Charles Darwin Bastam: sobre variedades, espécies e indivíduos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Wainzbort

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at discussing some difficulties regarding the species definition problem in biology. I will try to show that typological concept defines species as fixed, immutable entities. After this, I will consider some passages of Origin of Species in the attempt to characterize Darwinian species as populations that may be modified, through natural processes, into new species. Besides, I will present the biological concept of species, trying to discuss problems of not making distinctions between species as classes and species as concrete individuals. Then, I will point out some different definitions, alternative to the biological concept. Finally, I will delineate some consequences of species definition discussion to own human species (Homo sapiens

  9. Electron billiards: einselection and quantum Darwinism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The measurement of open quantum systems has been a main topic since the advent of quantum theory. It is a basic ingredient in quantum information processing. Here, the border where the two worlds of classical and quantum mechanics meet is of significant importance due to the problem of measurement. It has been shown by Zurek that in an open system the environment imposes so-called superselection rules leading to environment-induced superselection (einselection). This means that a set of preferred states (pointer states) survive the coupling with the environment. These pointer states are characterized by their robustness and their ability to create offspring. This ability to advertise information about themselves makes it possible for different observers to measure the same information. The natural promotion of certain information in a quantum system is known as quantum Darwinism. The 'fitness' in the Darwinian sense of the selected states is essentially a measure of their classicality. That is in order to measure a quantum system objectively a system has to be designed where the transition between the classical and quantum world is observable. In this respect we show by a combination of experiment and calculation that an array of electron billiards (open quantum dots) is very well suited. We demonstrate that einselection takes place in electron billiards and a set of pointer states arises. We illustrate that beside the 'regular' (single dot) pointer states a new type of einselected states arise when two or more quantum dots are coupled together and to the environment. This new type of states can not be represented by a linear combination of pointer states of the individual dots. Finally, we discuss the propensity of the new type of einselected states to make offspring in order to see if quantum Darwinism is in action in the array of electron billiards.(author)

  10. Obituary: Charles Latif Hyder, 1930-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Oran Richard

    2004-12-01

    My friend and colleague, Charles Hyder, was a true physicist with a sound intuitive grasp of fundamentals in modern physics and the underlying mathematics. I admired his knowledge of the history of modern physics and quantum mechanics when we discussed contemporary problems in interpreting solar observations. He had the ability to present his ideas clearly and persuasively to both students and his colleagues. His insatiable curiosity about life in general led him to consider the effects of nuclear weapons development on the human race. Appreciation of the biological effects of radioactive materials produced in the course of weapons and power reactor development led him to a more public career beyond traditional research. Charles Hyder was born April 18, 1930 in Albuquerque, New Mexico. He graduated from Albuquerque High School and served in the Air Force during the Korean War. He received a BS and MS in physics from the University of New Mexico (1958, 1960) and a PhD in astrogeophysics at the University of Colorado (1964). His positions included the Department of Astronomy and Institute of Geophysics at UCLA (1964-65), Sacramento Peak Solar Observatory (1965-1970) and the Goddard Space Flight Center (1970-1977). He also taught at the University of New Mexico (1970-1977) and was active on the Solar Maximum Mission science team (1970-1977, 1980-1984). He was married twice with both marriages ending in divorce. He and his first wife Ann had three children (Paul, Roxanne and Querida) and he and his second wife Laurie had a son Niels. Charles Hyder's professional career in solar physics began in 1961 during his graduate studies at the Department of AstroGeophysics of the University of Colorado and continued until 1983 when he chose to follow his convictions to expose the threat of nuclear proliferation. His early research was in the study of the quantum mechanics of polarized light produced in the presence of magnetic fields. Application of this work to interpretation

  11. Analysis of Female Characters of Charles Dickens' Novel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娜

    2011-01-01

    By tagging different characters,Charles Dickens invented many distinct characters in his novels.Female charaters are a central of Charls Dickens literary works.They represent the unimportant and the weak in the British society in the 19th century.This ess

  12. Eneseotsingutee / Jean-Charles Hue ; intervjueerinud Reet Varblane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hue, Jean-Charles, 1968-

    2011-01-01

    Tallinna Kunstihoone galeriis on 12. juunini 2011 vaadata prantsuse videokunstniku Jean-Charles Hue' näitus "Tattoo Fight" ("Tätorebimine"), kuraator Harry Liivrand. Kunstnikust, kelle emapoolsed sugulased on Prantsusmaa mustlased ehk yéniche'id. Jean-Charles Hue yéniche'itest, nende olukorrast Prantsusmaal, oma loomingust, pikemalt mustlaste teema käsitlemisest

  13. Darwin at Orchis Bank: Selection after the Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabb, Kathryn

    2016-02-01

    Darwin's first publication after the Origin of Species was a volume on orchids that expanded on the theory of adaptation through natural selection introduced in his opus. Here I argue that On the Various Contrivances by which British and Foreign Orchids are Fertilised by Insects (1862) is not merely an empirical confirmation of his theory. In response to immediate criticisms of his metaphor of natural selection, Darwin uses Orchids to present adaptation as the result of innumerable natural laws, rather than discrete acts analogous to conscious choices. The means of selection among polliniferous plants cannot be neatly classed under the Origin's categories of artificial, natural, or sexual selection. Along with Darwin's exploration of sexual selection in his later works, Orchids serves to undo the restrictive metaphor so firmly established by the Origin and to win over those of Darwin's contemporaries who were committed advocates of natural law but suspicious of evolution by natural selection. PMID:26694543

  14. Botanical smuts and hermaphrodites: Lydia Becker, Darwin's botany, and education reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianquitto, Tina

    2013-06-01

    In 1868, Lydia Becker (1827-1890), the renowned Manchester suffragist, announced in a talk before the British Association for the Advancement of Science that the mind had no sex. A year later, she presented original botanical research at the BAAS, contending that a parasitic fungus forced normally single-sex female flowers of Lychnis diurna to develop stamens and become hermaphroditic. This essay uncovers the complex relationship between Lydia Becker's botanical research and her stance on women's rights by investigating how her interest in evolutionary theory, as well as her correspondence with Charles Darwin, critically informed her reform agendas by providing her with a new vocabulary for advocating for equality. One of the facts that Becker took away from her work on Lychnis was that even supposedly fixed, dichotomous categories such as biological sex became unfocused under the evolutionary lens. The details of evolutionary theory, from specific arguments on structural adaptations to more encompassing theories on heredity (i.e., pangenesis), informed Becker's understanding of human physiology. At the same time, Becker's belief in the fundamental equality of the sexes enabled her to perceive the distinction between inherent, biological differences and culturally contingent ones. She applied biological principles to social constructs as she asked: Do analogous evolutionary forces act on humans? PMID:23961688

  15. Darwin core based data streamlining with digimus 2.0

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kakodkar, A.P.; Kerkar, S.S.; Varghese, N.S.; Kavlekar, D.P.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    , 6, 2009, pp. 1-4 DARWIN CORE BASED DATA STREAMLINING WITH DIGIMUS 2.0 KAKODKAR A. P., KERKAR S. S., VARGHESE N. S., KAVLEKAR D. P. & C.T. ACHUTHANKUTTY Bioinformatics Centre, National Institute of Oceanography, Council of Scientific... between distributed datasets (Costello & Berghe 2006; Sautter et. al., 2007). Data retrieval tools such as DIGIR server have been meticulously designed for compatibility with Darwin Core data standards (Hobern, 2002; Greene, 2007; DiGIR, 2008...

  16. The Construction of Social Darwinism in Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛晶晶; 秦素华

    2014-01-01

    Social Darwinism is an important theory reflected in Sister Carrie. This thesis is to interpret the characters’fates with Social Darwinism.“Survival of the fittest”is an important theme. Carrie is the winner of life and Hurtwood is the loser. Their adjustability to the environment determines their future. It is hoped to help the readers construct a better understanding on this theory.

  17. CONSTITUTIONAL TRADITIONALISM IN THE ROBERTS COURT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis J Virelli III

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The debate over the role of traditionalism in constitutional interpretation has itself become a tradition. It remains a popular and controversial topic among constitutional scholars and presents normative questions that are as divisive, difficult, and important today as at the Founding. Missing from the discussion, however, is a comprehensive account of how the Supreme Court has employed traditionalism-an approach that looks for meaning in present manifestations of longstanding practices or beliefs-in its constitutional jurisprudence. This project is the first to fill this gap by providing an exhaustive and systematic analysis of the Court's use of constitutional traditionalism. This article focuses on the Roberts Court's first five terms to provide an empirical foundation that will not only offer previously unavailable insights into the Court's current traditionalist practices, but will also set forth a useful framework for the ongoing normative debate over traditionalism. This project uses content analysis of key terms to identify every instance in which the Roberts Court employed traditionalism to interpret the Constitution. More specifically, this project set out to answer the following three questions: First, how frequently does the Roberts Court employ traditionalism in its constitutional jurisprudence? Second, how robust is the Court's use of traditionalism (i.e., is it used to interpret a broad or narrow range of constitutional provisions? And finally, how often and in what contexts do individual Justices on the Roberts Court rely on traditionalism in their own constitutional opinions? The research provided here suggests answers to all three of these questions. First, the data indicate that traditionalism has been relied upon regularly by the Roberts Court, appearing in nearly half of the Court's constitutional cases. Second, traditionalism is frequently applied to a wide variety of constitutional provisions: Two-thirds of the

  18. Charles-Victor Langlois et Charles Seignobos, Introduction aux études historiques

    OpenAIRE

    Castellesi, Romain

    2014-01-01

    Positivistes, scientistes, fétichistes du document, généralistes : autant de qualificatifs utilisés par l’école des Annales, incarnées par un Lucien Febvre revanchard, et largement repris tout au long du XXe siècle pour critiquer les auteurs de L’Introduction aux études historiques, parue en 1898. L’intérêt nouveau suscité par l’ouvrage de Charles Seignobos et Charles-Victor Langlois signe t-il leur retour en grâce ? Dans sa préface inédite à cette nouvelle édition de l’ouvrage dans la toute ...

  19. Robert Bellah, religion og menneskelig evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Jørgen Lundager

    2013-01-01

    in the middle of 1st mill. BC, where new radical and intellectual ideas and practices, sceptial or world renouncing, appeared in China, India and Greece. Hopefully, Bellah's book will be a standard reference work in the academic study of religion and an inspiration for the history of religion in the future......ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Introduction to and discussion of Robert Bellah's major book, Religion in Human Evolution (2011). which defines and describes tribal religion (religion in pre-state societies), archaic religion (religion in early states) and religious currents in the axial age, the period...... to engage in historical and comparative studies. DANSK RESUMÉ: Introduktion til og diskussion af Robert Bellahs hovedværk fra 2011, Religion in Human Evolution, der definerer og beskriver tribal religion, dvs. religion i før-statslige samfund, arkaisk religion, dvs. religion i tidlig-statslige kulturer samt...

  20. Aitab hädaldamisest / Robert Antropov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Antropov, Robert, 1965-

    2006-01-01

    Endine politseijuht on seisukohal, et politseinike ja päästjate nappuses ei saa süüdistada ainult väikseid palku, küsimus on valikutes: kuidas ja millesse ressursse paigutada. Kalle Laanet ja Raivo Aeg vastavad küsimusele, mis on nende haldusalas konkreetselt kavas, et politsei saaks täita oma tegevusprioriteeti 100% ja tagada sisejulgeoleku. Vt. ka Robert Antropovi kommentaari 7. aug. Eesti Päevaleht lk. 2

  1. Robert Edwards: the path to IVF ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Martin H

    2011-01-01

    The early influences on Robert Edwards’ approach to the scientific research that led to human IVF are described. His interest as a graduate student in the genetics of early mammalian development stimulated him later to investigate whether the origins of human genetic diseases such as Down, Klinefelter and Turner syndromes might be explained by events during egg maturation. This clinical problem provided the most powerful stimulus to achieve both oocyte maturation and fertilization in vitro in...

  2. Evaluating Robert Franks Economic Naturalist Writing Assignment

    OpenAIRE

    Wayne Geerling

    2011-01-01

    This paper begins by asking a fundamental question: why do students who take Economics at an introductory level often leave the subject without understanding even the most basic economic principles? The superficial answer seems to be that courses try to cover too many concepts at the expense of mastering the important threshold concepts. Another issue is the way Economics is taught and assessed. I will evaluate an alternative pedagogical device pioneered by Robert Frank: The Economic Naturali...

  3. Architecture of (impossibilities: Robert Smithson's expositive spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bráulio Romeiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the North American artist Robert Smithson’s considerations on traditional expositive spaces: the museum and art gallery, as well as unusual and unexplored spaces by art up to that time. Looking through his texts we notice some enhanced perspectives and reset others, increasing limitation set on White Cube’s abstract and neutral quality and the substantiation on ideologies behind of these spaces manifestation.

  4. DARWIN: towards the ultimate dark matter detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aalbers, J; Alfonsi, M; Amaro, F D; Amsler, C; Aprile, E; Arazi, L; Arneodo, F; Barrow, P; Baudis, L; Benabderrahmane, M L; Berger, T; Beskers, B; Breskin, A; Breur, P A; Brown, A; Brown, E; Bruenner, S; Bruno, G; Budnik, R; Buetikofer, L; Calven, J; Cardoso, J M R; Cichon, D; Coderre, D; Colijn, A P; Conrad, J; Cussonneau, J P; Decowski, M P; Diglio, S; Drexlin, G; Duchovni, E; Erdal, E; Eurin, G; Ferella, A; Fieguth, A; Fulgione, W; Rosso, A Gallo; Di Gangi, P; Di Giovanni, A; Galloway, M; Garbini, M; Geis, C; Glueck, F; Grandi, L; Greene, Z; Grignon, C; Hasterok, C; Hannen, V; Hogenbirk, E; Howlett, J; Hilk, D; Hils, C; James, A; Kaminsky, B; Kazama, S; Kilminster, B; Kish, A; Krauss, L M; Landsman, H; Lang, R F; Lin, Q; Linde, F L; Lindemann, S; Lindner, M; Lopes, J A M; Undagoitia, T Marrodan; Masbou, J; Massoli, F V; Mayani, D; Messina, M; Micheneau, K; Molinario, A; Mora, K D; Morteau, E; Murra, M; Naganoma, J; Newstead, J L; Ni, K; Oberlack, U; Pakarha, P; Pelssers, B; de Perio, P; Persiani, R; Piastra, F; Piro, M C; Plante, G; Rauch, L; Reichard, S; Rizzo, A; Rupp, N; Santos, J M F Dos; Sartorelli, G; Scheibelhut, M; Schindler, S; Schumann, M; Schreiner, J; Lavina, L Scotto; Selvi, M; Shagin, P; Silva, M C; Simgen, H; Sissol, P; von Sivers, M; Thers, D; Thurn, J; Tiseni, A; Trotta, R; Tunnell, C D; Valerius, K; Vargas, M A; Wang, H; Wei, Y; Weinheimer, C; Wester, T; Wulf, J; Zhang, Y; Zhu, T; Zuber, K

    2016-01-01

    DARk matter WImp search with liquid xenoN (DARWIN) will be an experiment for the direct detection of dark matter using a multi-ton liquid xenon time projection chamber at its core. Its primary goal will be to explore the experimentally accessible parameter space for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) in a wide mass-range, until neutrino interactions with the target become an irreducible background. The prompt scintillation light and the charge signals induced by particle interactions in the xenon will be observed by VUV sensitive, ultra-low background photosensors. Besides its excellent sensitivity to WIMPs above a mass of 5 GeV/c2, such a detector with its large mass, low-energy threshold and ultra-low background level will also be sensitive to other rare interactions. It will search for solar axions, galactic axion-like particles and the neutrinoless double-beta decay of 136-Xe, as well as measure the low-energy solar neutrino flux with <1% precision, observe coherent neutrino-nucleus interacti...

  5. Foundations of a mathematical theory of darwinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, Charles J K; Crewe, Paul; Grafen, Alan; Gratwick, Richard

    2014-08-01

    This paper pursues the 'formal darwinism' project of Grafen, whose aim is to construct formal links between dynamics of gene frequencies and optimization programmes, in very abstract settings with general implications for biologically relevant situations. A major outcome is the definition, within wide assumptions, of the ubiquitous but problematic concept of 'fitness'. This paper is the first to present the project for mathematicians. Within the framework of overlapping generations in discrete time and no social interactions, the current model shows links between fitness maximization and gene frequency change in a class-structured population, with individual-level uncertainty but no uncertainty in the class projection operator, where individuals are permitted to observe and condition their behaviour on arbitrary parts of the uncertainty. The results hold with arbitrary numbers of loci and alleles, arbitrary dominance and epistasis, and make no assumptions about linkage, linkage disequilibrium or mating system. An explicit derivation is given of Fisher's Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection in its full generality. PMID:23835785

  6. Darwin and the origin of interspecific genetic incompatibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presgraves, Daven C

    2010-12-01

    Darwin's Origin of Species is often criticized for having little to say about speciation. The complaint focuses in particular on Darwin's supposed failure to explain the evolution of the sterility and inviability of interspecific hybrids. But in his chapter on hybridism, Darwin, working without genetics, got as close to the modern understanding of the evolution of hybrid sterility and inviability as might reasonably be expected. In particular, after surveying what was then known about interspecific crosses and the resulting hybrids, he established two facts that, while now taken for granted, were at the time radical. First, the sterility barriers between species are neither specially endowed by a creator nor directly favored by natural selection but rather evolve as incidental by-products of interspecific divergence. Second, the sterility of species hybrids results when their development is "disturbed by two organizations having been compounded into one." Bateson, Dobzhansky, and Muller later put Mendelian detail to Darwin's inference that the species-specific factors controlling development (i.e., genes) are sometimes incompatible. In this article, I highlight the major developments in our understanding of these interspecific genetic incompatibilities--from Darwin to Muller to modern theory--and review comparative, genetic, and molecular rules that characterize the evolution of hybrid sterility and inviability. PMID:21043780

  7. A Sharp Look at Robert E

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This sharp, high-resolution image shows a rock target dubbed 'Robert E,' on a rock called Stone Mountain at Meridiani Planum, Mars. It is one of the highest-resolution images ever taken while looking at a rock on another planet. Scientists are studying this area, which measures 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across, for clues about how the rock formed. The image was created by merging five separate images taken at varying distances from the target by the microscopic imager, an instrument located on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's instrument deployment device, or 'arm.'

  8. ROBERT autonomous navigation robot with artificial vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work, a joint research between ENEA (the Italian National Agency for Energy, New Technologies and the Environment) and DIGlTAL, presents the layout of the ROBERT project, ROBot with Environmental Recognizing Tools, under development in ENEA laboratories. This project aims at the development of an autonomous mobile vehicle able to navigate in a known indoor environment through the use of artificial vision. The general architecture of the robot is shown together with the data and control flow among the various subsystems. Also the inner structure of the latter complete with the functionalities are given in detail

  9. A Conversation with Robert C. Elston

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Gang; Li, Zhaohai; Geller, Nancy L

    2015-01-01

    Robert C. Elston was born on February 4, 1932, in London, England. He went to Cambridge University to study natural science from 1952–1956 and obtained B.A., M.A. and Diploma in Agriculture (Dip Ag). He came to the US at age 24 to study animal breeding at Cornell University and received his Ph.D. in 1959. From 1959–1960, he was a post-doctoral fellow in biostatistics at University of North Carolina (UNC), Chapel Hill, where he studied mathematical statistics. He then rose through the academic...

  10. Charles Bachman Moore (1920-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, William; Krehbiel, Paul

    2011-02-01

    Charles B. Moore passed away 2 March 2010 at the age of 89, following a long and varied scientific career in meteorology and the atmospheric sciences. He will be remembered best for his substantial contributions in the field of atmospheric electricity and for the students and faculty he guided as chairman of Langmuir Laboratory for Atmospheric Research and professor of physics at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. He possessed a unique sense of humor and an excellent memory that served as a reservoir of scientific and historical knowledge. Like many of his generation, Charlie's career was profoundly influenced by the Second World War. Following Pearl Harbor, he interrupted his undergraduate studies in chemical engineering at Georgia Institute of Technology to enlist in the Army Air Corps, where he became the chief weather equipment officer in the 10th Weather Squadron, setting up and operating remote meteorological stations behind enemy lines in the China-Burma-India theater. He served with distinction alongside Athelstan Spilhaus Sr., who had been one of Charlie's instructors in the Army meteorology program.

  11. Darwin and Lotka: Two Concepts of Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Kreager

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Population was the subject of two major conceptual developments in the second quarter of the 20th century. Both were inspired by evolutionary biology. Lotka developed a mathematics of evolution in human and other species by analogy to thermodynamic models. His theory followed demographic practice in treating populations as closed units, commonly macro-scale, and in inferring underlying processes of change from aggregate outcomes. In contrast, the evolutionary synthesis - a collaborative product of research in experimental and population genetics, natural history, and related fields of biology - followed Darwin in insisting that close observation of small-scale population processes and local environments is necessary to understand population change. Because gene-environment interactions rely on expanding and contracting networks of individuals, the populations in question are by nature open. Despite the apparent conflict between these positions, the synthesis broke new ground in the history of population thought by showing how the two approaches could be combined. Demography, however, moved away from evolutionary and population biology as a source of theory in the early post-war era, and this conceptual redevelopment of population was scarcely remarked upon. More recently, the tremendous development of genetics has recalled demographers' attention to evolutionary theory as an inescapable element of modern population thought. This paper provides a historical introduction to mid-20th-century developments in Darwinian population thinking, and the implications of its dual conceptualisation of population for demography. Its potential importance extends beyond the problem of gene-environment interactions to many aspects of social network analysis.

  12. The challenge of instinctive behaviour and Darwin's theory of evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo-García, Alejandro

    2016-03-01

    In the Origin of Species (1859), Darwin argued that his revolutionary theory of evolution by natural selection represented a significant breakthrough in the understanding of instinctive behaviour. However, many aspects in the development of his thinking on behavioural phenomena indicate that the explanation of this particular organic feature was by no means an easy one, but that it posed an authentic challenge - something that Darwin himself always recognized. This paper explores Darwin's treatment of instincts within his theory of natural selection. Particular attention is given to elucidate how he tackled the difficulties of explaining instincts as evolving mental features. He had to explain and demonstrate its inheritance, variation, and gradual accumulation within populations. The historical and philosophical aspects of his theory are highlighted, as well as his study of the case in which the explanation of instincts represented a 'special difficulty'; that is, the sterile castes of social insects. PMID:26839263

  13. Darwin y la imposibilidad de causas finales en la biología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corral Cuartas Álvaro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La teoría de la selección natural propuesta por Charles Darwin en su obra El Origen de las Especies no sólo colocó las bases para una explicación coherente de los hechos fundamentales de la biología (el origen común de los seres vivos, la diversidad de individuos y especies y la transmisión de características hereditarias, sino que además introduce maneras nuevas de hacer filosofía. La teoría de la selección natural hace superflua cualquier posibilidad de apelar a explicaciones de tipo finalista en la ciencia. Desde Aristóteles se conocen cuatro tipos de causa: la material, la formal, la eficiente y la final. Aunque la causa eficiente es el paradigma de explicación por excelencia de las ciencias empíricas, la causa final sigue desempeñando un papel explicativo, por cuanto parece estar arraigada en nuestra estructura humana de pensamiento y la tendencia a presentar explicaciones finalistas sigue siendo recalcitrante. Quizá por estar los seres humanos tan familiarizados con la complejidad inherente a los procesos de diseño en las artes y en la técnica, suponemos por vía de analogía que la naturaleza en su complejidad exige la presencia y acción de un diseñador inteligente. Kant en la Crítica de la facultad de juzgar hace una defensa del carácter “irrenunciable” de este modelo explicativo. Para controvertir esta opinión, me apoyaré, en recientes investigaciones de Richard Dawkins y de otros biólogos contemporáneos para mostrar con la evolución de ojos en la naturaleza que el surgimiento de órganos de alta complejidad puede ser explicado sin

  14. Robert Adrian X / Robert Adrian X ; interv. Tilman Baumgärtel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Adrian X, Robert

    2006-01-01

    1997. a. Ljubljanas tehtud intervjuu 1972. aastast Viinis elava kanada kunstniku Robert Adrian X-ga (sünd. 1935), kes töötas 1970-ndate lõpul ja 1980-ndate alguses telefoni, faksi ja varaste kirjakstisüsteemidega kunstiprojektide kallal, osales 1970-ndate ja 1980-ndate multimeediaprojektides

  15. Darwin and sexual selection: One hundred years of misunderstanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veuille, Michel

    2010-02-01

    Darwin's book on the Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex (1871) is often viewed as the continuation of The Origin of Species published 12 years earlier (1859), both because of the implicit parallelism between natural selection and sexual selection, and because Darwin himself presents the book as developing a subject (man) which he intentionally omitted in the Origin. But the Descent can also be viewed as the continuation of his book on Variation published three years earlier (1868). Firstly because Darwin's hypothesis of pangenesis links the selection process to the origin of variation through use and disuse, an idea underlying his speculations on the origin of moral sense in humans. Second because like the action of the horticulturist on his domestic crops, sexual selection exerted by one sex on the other sex can develop fancy traits that are not easily accounted for by their utility to the selected organism itself, such as artistic taste, pride, courage, and the morphological differences between human populations. These traits are difficult to reconcile with pangenesis. They add up to other contradictions of the book possibly resulting from Darwin's erroneous inference about the mechanism of inheritance, like those on the determination of sex-ratio, or the confusion between individual adaptation and the advantage to the species. These inconsistencies inaugurate a weakening of the Darwinian message, which will last 50 years after his death. They contributed to the neglect of sexual selection for a century. Darwin however maintained a logical distinction between evolutionary mechanisms and hereditary mechanisms, and an epistemological distinction between evolutionary theory and Pangenesis hypothesis. In the modern context of Mendelian genetics, Darwin's sexual selection retrospectively appears as luminous an idea in its pure principle as natural selection, even though the mechanisms governing the evolution of sexual choice in animals remain largely

  16. Robert W. Rieber (1932-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weizmann, Fredric

    2016-01-01

    Presents the obituary of Robert W. Rieber (1932-2015). Robert W. Rieber, the son of immigrants from the former Austro- Hungarian Empire was born March 24, 1932. He earned a bachelor's degree at Pennsylvania State University and a master's degree in speech pathology at Temple University. He moved to New York City, New York, in 1957, working as a speech pathologist at New York University. In 1960, he accepted an academic position at Pace University, subsequently moving to the John Jay College of Criminal Justice at City University of New York. He held appointments at Columbia University and, following his retirement from John Jay, at Fordham University. Bob founded and edited several journals, including The Journal of Communication Disorders, The Journal of Social Distress and the Homeless, and The Journal of Psycholinguistics Research. While on leave from Pace, he completed his doctorate at the University of London with a dissertation on the relationship between language and psychopathology. Rieber died at his summer home in Maine on April 9, 2015. He was 83. PMID:26866991

  17. DARWIN Y LA PARADOJA DE LAS ISLAS VACÍAS Darwin and the Empty Island Paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN FELIPE BLANCO

    Full Text Available Aunque se conoce el interés y fascinación de Darwin por la naturaleza marina a través de sus tratados sobre arrecifes coralinos, islas oceánicas y balanos, poco se comenta sobre los múltiples ejemplos dulceacuícolas que él utilizó para plantear la -teoría de la migración- dentro de -El origen-. Ésta plantea que la fauna y la flora se -dispersan- desde los continentes hacia las islas oceánicas. Sin embargo, en la islas muy alejadas de los centros de origen la probabilidad de colonización es muy baja y por lo tanto solo se encuentra una fracción de la biota continental, pudiendo considerarse en algunos casos -vacías-. Aunque las corrientes de agua de dichas islas también se consideran -vacías-, Darwin propuso un mecanismo para explicar la presencia de peces -dulceacuícolas- en las mismas, y por lo tanto no podrían considerarse -vacías-, lo cual plantea una paradoja. El mecanismo planteado por él coincide con el ciclo de vida conocido actualmente como diádromo en el cual los individuos de muchas especies de peces, camarones y gasterópodos requieren de aguas marinas y dulces para completar su desarrollo. La diadromía es una convergencia evolutiva que apareció en diferentes linajes a partir de ancestros tanto marinos como dulceacuícolas. En este ensayo se discute la evolución de la fauna dulceacuícola insular, sus implicaciones ecológicas y evolutivas, y algunos modelos experimentales. Finalmente, se discute sobre los impactos de las represas en islas tropicales y subtropicales sobre las especies diádromas.Although Darwin's fascination and interest on marine nature are well known due to his treatises about coral reefs, oceanic islands, and barnacles, little is commented about the many -freshwater- examples that he provided for supporting -The Migration Theory- in his book -The Origin of the Species-. According to this theory, faunas and floras disperse from continents to oceanic islands. However, those islands located at

  18. Theological presuppositions of the evolutionary epic: From Robert Chambers to E. O. Wilson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megill, Allan

    2016-08-01

    We can trace the "evolutionary epic" (named by E. O. Wilson, 1978) back to earlier writers, beginning with Robert Chambers (1844). Its basic elements are: fixation on seeing human history as rooted in biology; an aspiration toward telling the whole history of humankind (in its essential features); and insistence on the overall coherence of the projected narrative. The claim to coherence depends on assuming either that the universe possesses an "embedded rationality," or that it is guided by divine purpose. This article proposes the term "idealism" to refer to these two assumptions taken together, for in practice they were closely linked. Nietzsche (1881) was perhaps the first thinker to point out the evolutionary epic's dependence on such an idealism, and he also pointed out that the assumptions of embedded rationality and of divine purpose are closely connected. Darwin's theory of descent with modification (1859) was sharply inconsistent with these assumptions: he was not an "idealist" in the sense indicated here, and not a proponent of the evolutionary epic. Proclaiming his "materialism," Wilson (1978) failed to acknowledge that the epic depends on idealist assumptions; other adherents of the genre (M. Dowd, L. Rue) resurrect (knowingly or not) its theological roots. PMID:26775028

  19. Dr Charles Morehead MD (Edinburgh), FRCP (1807-1882): Pioneer in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Sunil K

    2015-05-01

    Charles Morehead studied medicine in Edinburgh and Paris. Among his teachers were George Jardine (1742-1827) (moral philosophy), Professor William Pulteney Alison (1790-1859) (medicine), Pierre Louis (1787-1872) and René Laennec (1781-1826). He joined as Assistant Surgeon in the Bombay Medical Service of the East India Company and was appointed to the staff of Governor Sir Robert Grant (1779-1838). Grant and Morehead founded the Grant Medical College and Sir Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy (1811-1877) Hospital in Bombay. Morehead established standards of medical education at these institutions far superior to those in Calcutta and Madras and, in some ways, to those in Britain. His emphasis on discipline, regular attendance, learning medicine at the bedside, the maintenance of detailed records on all patients and thorough evaluation of the progress made by students were salutary. While in London to recover his health, he wrote his classic book Clinical Researches on Disease in India for Indian doctors and those from Britain entering the Indian Medical Services. He lived in Edinburgh after retirement from India but continued to help teachers and students at his institutions in Bombay. PMID:24585609

  20. Darwin y la religión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alvarado de Piérola

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Desde que hiciera su aparición El origen de las especies y empezara adifundirse la teoría darwinista de la evolución, ésta suscitó las más encendidaspolémicas. Desde diversos sectores, partieron en mayor o en menorgrado ataques muy duros, algunos de los cuales no carecían de un sólidofundamento. Pero los golpes más violentos llegaron desde el terreno dela religión, que se sintió particularmente afectada. Aún hoy, cuando celebramosel bicentenario del nacimiento de Darwin, las aguas no parecenhaberse aquietado alrededor suyo. Todavía, algunos influyentes sectoresfundamentalistas siguen considerándola, inclusive en su versión actual,la teoría sintética de la evolución, como un peligro para la fe religiosa.Los ataques se producen bajo la forma de un amplio abanico de modalidades:desde un rechazo rotundo en defensa de los textos bíblicos hastauna descalificación supuestamente científica que, aparentando situarseen una perspectiva no religiosa, cuestiona los fundamentos de la teoría ypropone la doctrina del llamado diseño inteligente.A pesar de todo, debemos reconocer que, actualmente, a 150 añosde la publicación de El origen, la situación ha variado. Ya no existe la unanimidaden la condena. Hasta ha habido quien, como Teilhard de Chardin,sacerdote católico, intentó construir con ayuda del darwinismo unametafísica cristiana, aunque haciéndose merecedor de la condena de lajerarquía eclesiástica de su tiempo. Incluso el papa Juan Pablo II declaróen su momento: “Hoy en día, (... nuevos conocimientos llevan a reconoceren la teoría de la evolución más que una hipótesis”1,

  1. Darwin als Sehhilfe für die Psychologie - Evolutionspsychologie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Frank

    Im Folgenden geht es um Einäugige, stereoskopisches Sehen, weite und enge Horizonte, Monokel und Sonnenbrillen. Der Beitrag versucht die Metapher des Sehens und der Sehhilfen anzuwenden, um so zu verdeutlichen, welchen Gewinn die herkömmliche Psychologie durch die Verwendung einer Darwin'schen Brille erlangen kann.

  2. The Darwin model as a tool for electromagnetic plasma simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, A. N.; Rostler, P. S.

    1970-01-01

    The Darwin model of electromagnetic interaction is presented as a self-consistent theory, and is shown to be an excellent approximation to the Maxwell theory for slow electromagnetic waves. Since the fast waves of the Maxwell theory are absent, it is convenient for use in the computer simulation of the electromagnetic dynamics of nonrelativistic plasma.

  3. No Child Left Behind: A Neoliberal Repackaging of Social Darwinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva, Rodolfo

    2009-01-01

    It is widely believed that the end of Nazism, and the postwar era brought an end to academic theories and discourses regarding inherent racial inferiority. There was little tolerance Hawkins (1997) argues, for biological justifications for racism, war, and exploitation. The infamous Social Darwinism of key intellectual Herbert Spencer, and its…

  4. Teaching Darwin: Contemporary Social Studies through Controversial Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Helge

    2010-01-01

    I explore Darwin and his Theory of Natural Selection from a Social Science perspective and a social studies approach of inquiry into contemporary issues. This approach augments the more common natural science focus on the mechanics of natural selection and evolution in favor of a focus on social issues, controversy, and dialog necessary to support…

  5. Predicting Precipitation in Darwin: An Experiment with Markov Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boncek, John; Harden, Sig

    2009-01-01

    As teachers of first-year college mathematics and science students, the authors are constantly on the lookout for simple classroom exercises that improve their students' analytical and computational skills. In this article, the authors outline a project entitled "Predicting Precipitation in Darwin." In this project, students: (1) analyze and…

  6. Darwin and Mendel: who was the pioneer of genetics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongsheng

    2005-01-01

    Although Mendel is now widely recognized as the founder of genetics, historical studies have shown that he did not in fact propose the modern concept of paired characters linked to genes, nor did he formulate the two "Mendelian laws" in the form now given. Furthermore, Mendel was accused of falsifying his data, and Mendelism has been met with scepticism because of its failure to provide scientific explanation for evolution, to furnish a basis for the process of genetic assimilation and to explain the inheritance of acquired characters, graft hybridization and many other facts. Darwin was the first to clearly describe almost all genetical phenomena of fundamental importance, and was the first to present a developmental theory of heredity--Pangenesis, which not only greatly influenced many subsequent theories of inheritance, particularly those of de Vries, Galton, Brooks and Weismann, but also tied all aspects of variation, heredity and development together, provided a mechanism for most of the observable facts, and is supported by increasing evidence. It has also been indicated that Darwin's influence on Mendel, primarily from The Origin, is evident. The word "gene" was derived from "pangen", itself a derivative of "Pangenesis" which Darwin had coined. It seems that Darwin should have been regarded as the pioneer, if not of transmissional genetics, of developmental genetics and molecular genetics. PMID:16180199

  7. Darwin, Veblen and the problem of causality in economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, G M

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses some of the ways in which Darwinism has influenced a small minority of economists. It is argued that Darwinism involves a philosophical as well as a theoretical doctrine. Despite claims to the contrary, the uses of analogies to Darwinian natural selection theory are highly limited in economics. Exceptions include Thorstein Veblen, Richard Nelson, and Sidney Winter. At the philosophical level, one of the key features of Darwinism is its notion of detailed understanding in terms of chains of cause and effect. This issue is discussed in the context of the problem of causality in social theory. At least in Darwinian terms, the prevailing causal dualism--of intentional and mechanical causality--in the social sciences is found wanting. Once again, Veblen was the first economist to understand the implications for economics of Darwinism at this philosophical level. For Veblen, it was related to his notion of 'cumulative causation'. The article concludes with a discussion of the problems and potential of this Veblenian position. PMID:12472063

  8. Neoliberalism, Social Darwinism, and Consumerism Masquerading as School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienken, Christopher H.

    2013-01-01

    Education reform policies harvested from neoliberalism, social Darwinism, consumerism, and free-market ideologies have begun to replace the pragmatic progressivism of the pre-World War II era. In this article, I use three federal and state education reform policies and programs--No Child Left Behind Act, Common Core State Standards Initiative, and…

  9. Agency and space in Darwin's concept of variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Kwa

    2010-01-01

    In Kwa's discussion of evolutionary time, he positions Darwin's "natural selection" as heir to an 18th Century mechanicist understanding of nature's history, even when taking to account the important innovations that he brought to it. The key to a modern historical understanding of nature was the co

  10. Tributes to Professor Robert Berkley Harper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl G. Cooper

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1977, I began teaching at The University of Pittsburgh Law School and in short order one of my closest friends during my tenure there was Professor Robert “Bob” Harper. I wondered when I was hired whether I was selected because I looked strikingly similar to Bob, and perhaps the faculty thought my favoring Professor Harper would make my assimilation into the law school faculty that much easier. Students constantly called me Professor Harper and, indeed, many on the faculty called me Bob for several years; I never bothered to correct them. I thought if they paid that little attention to detail in law school, I would just let them go through life missing some of the finer points their education, and life for that matter, has to offer.

  11. Robert M. Wingfield, dc: A conscientious chiropractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Douglas M

    2015-09-01

    "I slept and dreamed that life was beauty. I woke - and found that life was duty." This quote from the poet Ellen Sturgis Hooper, could be attributed to Robert Wingfield, who has persevered in his quest for personal and professional excellence. This historical biography begins with his genealogy, going back to the 11(th) century in Merry England and ends in 2015, with his relatively quiet existence still centred in Ontario. The essay scrutinizes Dr. Wingfield's accomplishments for the Ontario Chiropractic Association (OCA), Canadian Chiropractic Association (CCA) and Ontario Board of Directors of Chiropractic (BDC). Moreover, it attempts to give the reader a glimpse into his personal endeavours, to help us fathom how he tackles (as William Shakespeare would say) "the thousand natural shocks that flesh is heir to." PMID:26500366

  12. Roger Chartier entretien avec Robert Darnton

    OpenAIRE

    Roger Chartier; por Robert Darnton

    2012-01-01

    Le dialogue présenté ici, entre Roger Chartier et Robert Darnton, eut lieu au Collège de France à l’occasion de la leçon inaugurale d’une nouvelle chaire nommée Écrits et culture dans l’Europe moderne, ayant Roger Chartier comme professeur titulaire. Le 11 octobre 2007, lors de l’ouverture de cette chaire, Chartier prononçait l’exposé “Écouter les morts avec les yeux”. Le vers du poète espagnol Quevedo (1580-1645), utilisé comme titre de la leçon, était cité par Chartier pour évoquer les abse...

  13. The strange trial of Robert Oppenheimer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert Oppenheimer has become the symbol of the scientist tormented and anguished by the consequences of his discoveries. R.Oppenheimer took a major part in the Manhattan project for the designing of the first atomic bomb. During this period he considered the thermonuclear bomb as the next step to reach but after Japan's surrender he reconsidered his position and favoured a more moderate atomic policy. R.Oppenheimer began to militate in favour of an international control of nuclear energy and wanted that Usa relinquish to design the hydrogen bomb. In 1953 in full Mac-Carthysm era, he was accused of being a communist and of spying for Ussr and as a consequence he was deprived of his office in AEC (atomic energy committee) but in 1963 president Lyndon Johnson rehabilitated him and R.Oppenheimer was awarded the highest reward of AEC: the Enrico Fermi prize. (A.C.)

  14. Robert Williams Wood: pioneer of invisible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shruti; Sharma, Amit

    2016-03-01

    The Wood's lamp aids in the diagnosis of multiple infectious, inflammatory and neoplastic dermatologic conditions. Although the Wood's lamp has many applications, which have improved both the diagnosis and management of disease, the man credited for its invention is relatively unknown in medicine. Robert Williams Wood, a prominent physicist of the early 20th century, is credited for the invention of the Wood's lamp. Wood was the father of infrared and ultraviolet photography and made significant contributions to other areas in optics and spectroscopy. Wood's work encompassed the formative years of American Physics; he published over 200 original papers over his lifetime. A few years after the invention of the Wood's lamp for ultraviolet photography, physicians in Europe adopted the Wood's lamp for dermatologic applications. Wood's lamp remains popular in clinics globally, given its ease of use and ability to improve diagnostic precision. PMID:26752503

  15. Robert Aymar leaves ITER for CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As of 1 September 2003, Dr. Robert Aymar, former ITER Director and subsequently Interim Project Leader, has relinquished his leadership of the ITER Project. I am convinced that everyone involved in the ITER activities will join me in expressing our sincere appreciation of Dr. Aymar's enormous contribution to the success of the ITER Project during the EDA and ITA phases. Dr. Aymar was appointed Director of ITER by the ITER Council in July 1994, after having served for nearly two years as a member of the ITER Technical Advisory Committee. Under his leadership, the results of 50 years of fusion research crystallized into the engineering project ready for practical implementation. The successful results of the ITER activities helped to attract the new ITER Participants who joined in 2003, and the countries participating in ITER now represent almost half of the world population

  16. Assume the Positional: Comment on Robert Frank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREW KASHDAN

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available We examine Robert Frank’s arguments for taxation to mitigate positional externalities. The scarcity that characterizes positional goods is real, but various mechanisms reduce the potential waste, and Frank overstates the case for a governmental solution. The plausibility of Frank’s arguments for extensive market failure requires various assumptions, including the usefulness of happiness comparisons over time, the widespread existence of winner-take-all markets, the failure of voluntary evolution to internalize externalities, and that both “leisure” and governmental activities are significantly less positional than the full-range of activities Frank proposes to tax. Each assumption is shaky. Frank’s policy solutions overlook standard public choice arguments against government expansion and shrug off the Smithian burden of proof incumbent on those proposing coercion.

  17. Robert Edwards: the path to IVF☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Martin H

    2011-01-01

    The early influences on Robert Edwards’ approach to the scientific research that led to human IVF are described. His interest as a graduate student in the genetics of early mammalian development stimulated him later to investigate whether the origins of human genetic diseases such as Down, Klinefelter and Turner syndromes might be explained by events during egg maturation. This clinical problem provided the most powerful stimulus to achieve both oocyte maturation and fertilization in vitro in humans. Indeed, preimplantation genetic diagnosis was his main goal until he met Patrick Steptoe in 1968. A re-evaluation of his meeting with Steptoe suggests that initially Steptoe’s laparoscopic skill was of interest for its potential to solve the sperm capacitation problem. Steptoe’s impact on Edwards was twofold. First, Steptoe’s long-held interest in infertility raised this application of IVF higher in Edwards’ priorities. Second, Steptoe offered a long-term partnership, in which oocyte collection without in-vitro maturation was a possibility. The professional criticism generated by their work together encouraged Edwards to pursue a deliberate programme of public education about the issues raised and to challenge and develop professional bioethical thought and discourse about reproduction. The early life and career of Robert Edwards are described and re-evaluated in the light of documentary evidence. His early interest in the genetics of development provided the major motivation behind his goal of achieving IVF in humans. Through this work, he aimed to understand and hopefully to reduce the transmission of genetic disease in humans. His meeting with Patrick Steptoe, the details of which are re-examined, increased the significance for Edwards of infertility as an outcome of IVF. It also led to a creative long-term research partnership, initiated a long-term programme of public education in the UK about reproductive science and stimulated the development of

  18. Anthony ROBERTS 5 March 1948 – 16 January 2008

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    We deeply regret to announce the death of Mr Anthony ROBERTS on 16 January 2008. Mr ROBERTS, born on 05.03.1948, worked in the HR Department and had been employed at CERN since 01.06.1973. The Director-General has sent his family a message of condolence on behalf of the CERN staff. Social Affairs Service Human Resources Department

  19. [Professor Frantisek Por MD and Professor Robert Klopstock MD, students at Budapest and Prague Faculties of Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mydlík, M; Derzsiová, K

    2010-11-01

    Professor Frantisek Por MD and Professor Robert Klopstock MD were contemporaries, both born in 1899, one in Zvolen, the other in Dombovar, at the time of Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. Prof. Por attended the Faculty of Medicine in Budapest from 1918 to 1920, and Prof. Klopstock studied at the same place between 1917 and 1919. From 1920 until graduation on 6th February 1926, Prof. Por continued his studies at the German Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague. Prof. Klopstock had to interrupt his studies in Budapest due to pulmonary tuberculosis; he received treatment at Tatranske Matliare where he befriended Franz Kafka. Later, upon Kafka's encouragement, he changed institutions and continued his studies at the German Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, where he graduated the first great go. It is very likely that, during their studies in Budapest and Prague, both professors met repeatedly, even though their life paths later separated. Following his graduation, Prof. Por practiced as an internist in Prague, later in Slovakia, and from 1945 in Kosice. In 1961, he was awarded the title of university professor of internal medicine at the Faculty of Medicine, Pavol Jozef Safarik University in Kosice, where he practiced until his death in 1980. Prof. Klopstock continued his studies in Kiel and Berlin. After his graduation in 1933, he practiced in Berlin as a surgeon and in 1938 left for USA. In 1962, he was awarded the title of university professor of pulmonary surgery in NewYork, where he died in 1972. PMID:21250499

  20. Vy jste Darwin! Yes, I am Darwin. Darwin českýma očima a darwinismus v českých zemích

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hermann, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 2 (2009), s. 36-39. ISSN 0418-5129 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB800630701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80630520 Keywords : Darwin ´s theory * history of biology * reception of Darwin ism Subject RIV: AB - History

  1. Charles Taylor y la democracia republicana Charles Taylor and Republican Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENATO CRISTI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo expone la teoría democrática de Charles Taylor. Taylor defiende una concepción tocquevilliana de la democracia que opone tanto al minimalismo democrático neoliberal, como al republicanismo democrático de Rousseau. Primero, consideramos su crítica a la democracia neoliberal y sus determinaciones conceptuales: atomismo, libertad negativa, procedimentalismo y bienes convergentes. Segundo, defiramos la "tesis republicana" de Taylor que presenta como la condición de posibilidad de una sociedad libre y autogobernada. Tercero, examinamos la desavenencia de Taylor con la homogeneización de intereses que el marxismo hereda de Rousseau. Finalmente, exploramos las posibilidades de aplicación de la teoría democrática de Taylor. Estudiamos su posible aplicación a dos economías en transición: Brasil y Chile.This paper examines Charles Taylor's democratic theory. Taylor defends a republican conception of democracy, which he opposes both to neoliberal democratic minimalism and to Rousseau and democratic republicanism. First, we consider his critique of neoliberal democracy and its conceptual determinations: atomism, negative freedom, proceduralism and. convergent goods. Second, we define Taylor's "republican thesis" which he presents as the condition of the possibility of agrees and self-governed society. Third, we study Taylor's disagreement with the homogenization of interests that Marxism inherits from Rousseau. Finally, we explore the possibility of applying Taylor's democratic theory. The case of Brazil and Chile are analyzed for this purpose.

  2. Identità e riconoscimento in Charles Taylor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Caputo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The model of the politic of difference, proposed by Charles Taylor, in the wake of a conception of liberalism ‘hospitable’, unfolds in a journey aimed to comply with the ontological dimensions of the dignity of different cultures, of cultural traditions and ways of life. Being a self, constructed in terms of dialogue and dialectic of mutual recognition between cultures, refers, in the Charles Taylor’s reflection, to the safeguarding of single, intersubjective or common meanings of specific social, moral, narrative spaces.

  3. Macroevolution via secondary endosymbiosis: a Neo-Goldschmidtian view of unicellular hopeful monsters and Darwin's primordial intermediate form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschera, U; Niklas, K J

    2008-08-01

    Seventy-five years ago, the geneticist Richard Goldschmidt hypothesized that single mutations affecting development could result in major phenotypic changes in a single generation to produce unique organisms within animal populations that he called "hopeful monsters". Three decades ago, Sarah P. Gibbs proposed that photosynthetic unicellular micro-organisms like euglenoids and dinoflagellates are the products of a process now called "secondary endosymbiosis" (i.e., the evolution of a chloroplast surrounded by three or four membranes resulting from the incorporation of a eukaryotic alga by a eukaryotic heterotrophic host cell). In this article, we explore the evidence for Goldschmidt's "hopeful monster" concept and expand the scope of this theory to include the macroevolutionary emergence of organisms like Euglena and Chlorarachnion from secondary endosymbiotic events. We argue that a Neo-Goldschmidtian perspective leads to the conclusion that cell chimeras such as euglenids and dinoflagellates, which are important groups of phytoplankton in freshwater and marine ecosystems, should be interpreted as "successful monsters". In addition, we argue that Charles Darwin had euglenoids (infusoria) in mind when he speculated on the "primordial intermediate form", although his Proto-Euglena-hypothesis for the origin of the last common ancestor of all forms of life is no longer acceptable. PMID:18581157

  4. Reconstructing Anaximander's biological model unveils a theory of evolution akin to Darwin's, though centuries before the birth of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisanato, Siro Igino

    2016-08-01

    Anaximander's fragments on biology report a theory of evolution, which, unlike the development of other biological systems in the ancient Aegean, is naturalistic and is not based on metaphysics. According to Anaximander, evolution affected all living beings, including humans. The first biological systems formed in an aquatic environment, and were encased in a rugged and robust envelope. Evolution progressed with modifications that enabled the formation of more dynamic biological systems. For instance, after reaching land, the robust armors around aquatic beings dried up, and became brittle, This led to the loss of the armor and the development of more mobile life forms. Anaximander's theory combines observations of animals with speculations, and as such mirrors the more famous theory of evolution by Charles Darwin expressed 24 centuries later. The poor reception received by Anaximander's model in his time, illustrates a zeitgeist that would explain the contemporary lag phase in the development of biology and, as a result, medicine, in the ancient western world. PMID:27598953

  5. Darwin: entre Paley y Demócrito Darwin: between Paley and Democritus

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Caponi

    2003-01-01

    Tras una breve revisión histórica sobre el desarrollo, a partir del siglo XIX hasta nuestros días, del problema del posible carácter teleológico de la explicación darvinista de la adaptación, nos planteamos nosotros mismos la cuestión teniendo como punto de partida la posición que Robert Brandon ha tomado sobre este tema. Con todo, yendo más allá de las tesis propuestas por este autor, y aproximándonos de las de Daniel Dennett, sostenemos que la explicación seleccional presenta una estructura...

  6. Magnetohydrodynamics and the earth's core selected works by Paul Roberts

    CERN Document Server

    Soward, Andrew M

    2003-01-01

    Paul Roberts'' research contributions are remarkable in their diversity, depth and international appeal. Papers from the Paul Roberts'' Anniversary meeting at the University of Exeter are presented in this volume. Topics include geomagnetism and dynamos, fluid mechanics and MHD, superfluidity, mixed phase regions, mean field electrodynamics and the Earth''s inner core. An incisive commentary of the papers puts the work of Paul Roberts into historical context. Magnetohydrodynamics and the Earth''s Core provides a valuable source of reference for graduates and researchers working in this area of geoscience.

  7. Robert R. Bennett memorial to GIFT fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    The many personal friends, colleagues, and professional associates of the late Robert R. Bennett have joined in establishing a memorial in his honor. In recognition of his vigorous support of the American Geophysical Union, they have contributed in his memory to AGU's ‘Girding for Tomorrow’ program. His name will be inscribed on a list of honorees that will be displayed on a plaque in the AGU headquarters in Washington, D.C.Bennett, who received his M.S. in geology from the University of Nebraska in 1939, formerly directed groundwater research in the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey. He was nationally and internationally recognized as an outstanding scientist in hydrogeology and groundwater hydrology. He was a pioneer authority in the development and application of analog- and digital-computer simulations that aid in the analysis and prediction of the responses of highly complex aquifer systems to stresses imposed by man's development and utilization. He conducted basic research in petrophysics to define the fundamental principles governing permeability distribution and its directional characteristics and to elucidate the manner in which the permeability factor controls the movement of water in aquifer systems. He tested the applicability of the concepts he developed with prototype studies of the Ten-sleep sandstone in the Big Horn Basin of Wyoming and of the Carrizo sandstone in the Coastal Plain of Texas.

  8. Robert Aymar awarded Global Energy prize

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    CERN Director-General Robert Aymar was recently named one of three laureates of the 2006 Global Energy International Prize for 'the development of scientific and engineering foundation for the ITER project.' ITER is an experiment planned to be built in Europe at Cadarache (South of France) and designed to show the scientific and technological feasibility of a full-scale fusion power reactor. The other two laureates, who worked with Aymar on the project, are former President of the ITER Council, Russian Academician Evgeny Velikhov, and Japan's Dr Masaji Yoshikawa, ITER's former Vice President. Aymar headed ITER from 1994 to 2003. 'This prize is not only a great honour for me and my friends and colleagues of many years at ITER, Evgeny Velikhov and Masaji Yoshikawa,' Aymar said. 'It is above all a recognition of the effort of all those who have been involved with the ITER project and worked over the years to ensure the first step in proving that fusion will provide a new sustainable energy source for the plane...

  9. A Life in Language Testing: An Interview with Charles Stansfield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Daniel J.; Bowles, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Dr. Charles W. Stansfield is widely recognized as one of the most important figures in contemporary language testing. He is respected and relied upon by leading language professionals in education, government agencies, academia, and the private sector. During his 40 years of working with languages, he has been a secondary school teacher of…

  10. G. Don Taylor named the Charles O. Gordon Professor

    OpenAIRE

    Nystrom, Lynn A.

    2004-01-01

    G. Don Taylor, of Blacksburg, Va., professor and head of the Grado Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering in the College of Engineering at Virginia Tech, was named the Charles O. Gordon Professor of Industrial Engineering by the Virginia Tech Board of Visitors at its quarterly meeting Monday, Aug. 23.

  11. Charles AlIen Reed, 1912·2000

    OpenAIRE

    Turnball, William D.; Barbara Becker

    2002-01-01

    Some researchers are true "Renaissance People". Their interests, skills and training represent an enormous breadth,and their pursuits exemplify the best of interdisciplinary efforts. Archaeology, anthropology, the University of Illinois at Chicago, and The Field Museum recently lost just such a fine scholar, dedicated investigator and loyal friend - Charles Allen Reed 11.

  12. Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Charles L. Brewer Distinguished Teaching of Psychology Award recognizes an outstanding career contribution to the teaching of psychology. The 2008 recipient of the Distinguished Teaching Award is Scott Plous. A citation, biography, and selected bibliography for Scott Plous are provided in this article. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:18665671

  13. Marc Edwards named the Charles P. Lunsford Professor

    OpenAIRE

    Nystrom, Lynn A.

    2004-01-01

    Marc Edwards, of Blacksburg, professor of civil and environmental engineering in the College of Engineering at Virginia Tech, was named the Charles P. Lunsford Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering by the Virginia Tech Board of Visitors at its quarterly meeting Monday, Aug. 23.

  14. Astronaut Charles Conrad during visual acuity experiments over Laredo

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., pilot for the prime crew on the Gemini 5 space flight, takes pictures of predetermined land areas during visual acuity experiments over Laredo, Texas. The experiments will aid in learning to identify known terrestrial features under controlled conditions.

  15. Näljane vaim : sihi otsimine kaasaegses maailmas / Charles Handy

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Handy, Charles

    2002-01-01

    Kapitalistlik ühiskond ja raha on vahendid, mitte eesmärgid; eesmärgid peaks iga inimene püstitama endale ise, lähtuvalt oma sisetunnetusest. Lühendatud tõlge Charles Handy raamatust - "The Hungry Spirit Beyond Capitalism - a Quest of Purpose in the Modern World"

  16. Complete works of Charles-François Sturm

    CERN Document Server

    Pont, Jean-Claude

    2009-01-01

    Based on lectures presented at a colloquium held in Geneva in 2003 to honour the 200th birth anniversary of Charles Francois Sturm, this book focuses on his own work. It presents his collected papers and, carries contributions from experts with an aim to re-open topics like differential equations, optics and algebraic curves.

  17. A Wireless World: Charles County Public Schools Makes Wireless Universal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Wireless connectivity in schools is all the rage, and many school systems have at least gotten their feet wet with a wireless lab or a few portable laptop carts. But Bijaya Devkota, the chief information officer of Charles County Public Schools, has done what many school systems only dream of--implemented universal wireless access throughout his…

  18. Los guisantes mágicos de Darwin y Mendel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galera, Andrés

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Presently work analyzes the hereditary models proposed by Darwin and Mendel to explain the evolutionary history of the Earth. The comparison shows us two faced biological theories, governed, one, for the principle of the natural selection, the other for the mutation.



    En el presente trabajo analizamos los modelos hereditarios propuestos por Darwin y Mendel para explicar la historia evolutiva de la Tierra. De la comparación resultan dos teorías biológicas enfrentadas, regidas una por el principio de la selección natural y la otra por la mutación.

  19. Generic emergence of classical features in quantum Darwinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Fernando G. S. L.; Piani, Marco; Horodecki, Paweł

    2015-08-01

    Quantum Darwinism posits that only specific information about a quantum system that is redundantly proliferated to many parts of its environment becomes accessible and objective, leading to the emergence of classical reality. However, it is not clear under what conditions this mechanism holds true. Here we prove that the emergence of classical features along the lines of quantum Darwinism is a general feature of any quantum dynamics: observers who acquire information indirectly through the environment have effective access at most to classical information about one and the same measurement of the quantum system. Our analysis does not rely on a strict conceptual splitting between a system-of-interest and its environment, and allows one to interpret any system as part of the environment of any other system. Finally, our approach leads to a full operational characterization of quantum discord in terms of local redistribution of correlations.

  20. Linking multiple biodiversity informatics platforms with Darwin Core Archives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ed; Rycroft, Simon; Smith, Vincent S

    2014-01-01

    We describe an implementation of the Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A) standard that allows for the exchange of biodiversity information contained within the Scratchpads virtual research environment with external collaborators. Using this single archive file Scratchpad users can expose taxonomies, specimen records, species descriptions and a range of other data to a variety of third-party aggregators and tools (currently Encyclopedia of Life, eMonocot Portal, CartoDB, and the Common Data Model) for secondary use. This paper describes our technical approach to dynamically building and validating Darwin Core Archives for the 600+ Scratchpad user communities, which can be used to serve the diverse data needs of all of our content partners. PMID:24723785

  1. The Darwin-Breit magnetic interaction and superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Essen, Hanno

    2013-01-01

    A number of facts indicating the relevance of the Darwin magnetic interaction energy in the superconducting phase are pointed out. The magnetic interaction term derived by Darwin is the same as the, so called, Breit term in relativistic quantum mechanics. While this term always is a small perturbation in few body systems it can be shown to be potentially dominating in systems of large numbers of electrons. It is therefore a natural candidate in the explanation of emergent phenomena---phenomena that only occur in sufficiently large systems. The dimensionless parameter that indicates the importance of the magnetic energy is the number of electrons times the classical electron radius divided by the size of the system. The number of electrons involved are only the electrons at the Fermi surface; electrons with lower energy cannot contribute to current density and thus not to the magnetic field. The conventional understanding of superconductivity has always been problematic and no really reductionistic derivation ...

  2. La tinta invisible: Darwin y la fuerza de la herencia

    OpenAIRE

    Noguera Solano, Ricardo; Ruiz Gutiérrez, Rosaura

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the way in which Darwin interpreted some notions of the problem of inheritance. First we describe how he used various nineteenth century categories of inheritance: atavism, constitution, genealogy, prepotency and morbid tendency. Afterward, by identifying in his texts these categories it is shown that his investigation on the transformation of species was conceptually linked with the problem of inheritance but his interpretation differed with hereditarism, the dominan...

  3. Postcopulatory sexual selection: Darwin's omission and its consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Eberhard, William G.

    2009-01-01

    In one of his few major oversights, Darwin failed to appreciate that male–male competition and sexual selection can continue even after copulation has begun. The postcopulatory equivalents of both direct male–male battles (sperm competition) and female choice (cryptic female choice) occur within the female's body. Recognition of this hidden, but intense, sexual competition provides new insights into a variety of fields. These include the hyperdiverse and paradoxically elaborate morphology of ...

  4. Evolution by epigenesis: farewell to Darwinism, neo- and otherwise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balon, Eugene K

    2004-01-01

    In the last 25 years, criticism of most theories advanced by Darwin and the neo-Darwinians has increased considerably, and so did their defense. Darwinism has become an ideology, while the most significant theories of Darwin were proven unsupportable. The critics advanced other theories instead of 'natural selection' and the survival of the fittest'. 'Saltatory ontogeny' and 'epigenesis' are such new theories proposed to explain how variations in ontogeny and novelties in evolution are created. They are reviewed again in the present essay that also tries to explain how Darwinians, artificially kept dominant in academia and in granting agencies, are preventing their acceptance. Epigenesis, the mechanism of ontogenies, creates in every generation alternative variations in a saltatory way that enable the organisms to survive in the changing environments as either altricial or precocial forms. The constant production of two such forms and their survival in different environments makes it possible, over a sequence of generations, to introduce changes and establish novelties--the true phenomena of evolution. The saltatory units of evolution remain far-from-stable structures capable of self-organization and self-maintenance (autopoiesis). PMID:15612191

  5. Educar na autenticidade em Charles Taylor = Educating in the authenticity in Charles Taylor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foschiera, Rogério

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Analiso a perspectiva tayloriana da autencidade através de uma hermenêutica de suas principais obras para propor o significado de educar na autencticidade a partir de Charles Taylor. Com autencidade e ontologia moral Taylor apresenta uma antropologia ancorada na moral e na ontologia. Com autencidade e epistemologia se percebe que a perspectiva da autencidade não exclui o paradigma científico, mas necessita de outros paradigmas, principalmente do hermenêutico. Com autencidade e linguagem evidencio a compreensão de Taylor sobre a natureza da linguagem e o destaque que ele dá á definição de ser humano como " animal portador de logos", bem como o significado e as decorrências da perspectiva expressivista. Duas políticas: a da igualdade de direitos de todos e a do reconhecimento das diferenças estão integradas na perspectiva tayloriana da autencidade. Necessariamente, o ser humano, para ser autêntico, estará em constante referência a horizontes de sentido que transcendem o indivíduo, é o que apresento com autencidade e transcendência

  6. TBT recommends : Vera Bila. The No Smoking Orchestra. Robert Plant

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Mustlasansambli Kale ja Vera Bila kontserdist 8. apr Tallinnas. Bosnia filmirežissööri Emir Kusturica ja tema ansambli No Smoking Orchestra kontserdist 12. apr. Riias. Inglise rocklaulja Robert Planti kontserdist 10. apr. Vilniuses

  7. Post sdal, port prinjal / Robert Antropov ; interv. Oksana Avdejeva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Antropov, Robert, 1965-

    2006-01-01

    Endine politseiameti peadirektor Robert Antropov Tõnismäe pronkssõduri ümber toimuvast ning valitsuse otsustusvõimetusest, sammud, mida oleks vaja teha sisejulgeoleku tagamiseks, poliitikast, perekonnast

  8. Research Ship Robert Gordon Sproul Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Robert Gordon Sproul Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and...

  9. 77 FR 40609 - Robert D. Willis Power Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... entitled Power Marketing Administration Financial Reporting. Procedures for Public Participation in Power... Southwestern Power Administration Robert D. Willis Power Rate AGENCY: Southwestern Power Administration, DOE... Administration (Southwestern), has prepared Current and Revised 2012 Power Repayment Studies which show the...

  10. Robert Rodrigueze verejugadega õudusfilm tuleb Igavuse planeedilt / Mihkel Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Mihkel, 1969-

    2007-01-01

    Filmiprojekt "Grindhouse" koosneb Robert Rodrigueze retroõudukast "Grindhouse : Õuduste planeet" ("Planet Terror") ja Quentin Tarantino 70-ndatest inspireeritud õudusfilmist "Surmakindel" ("Death Proof") : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2007. R. Rodrigueze filmist

  11. Astronaut Robert Gibson prepares to use motion picture camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Astronaut Robert L. Gibson, STS 61-C mission commander, partially floats on the aft flight deck of the Shuttle Columbia while preparing to use a motion picture camera. The windows overlooking the cargo bay are visible in the background.

  12. Obituary: Robert H. Koch (1929-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Joanne; Corcoran, Michael; Holenstein, Bruce; Sion, Edward

    2011-12-01

    Robert H. Koch, emeritus professor of astronomy and astrophysics at the University of Pennsylvania, passed away at his home in Ardmore, Pennsylvania on 11 October 2010 after a brief illness. Bob was 80 years old and remained sharp and intellectually engaged with the astronomical community up until the onset of complications from a brain tumor. Bob was born in York, Pennsylvania on 19 December 1929, and graduated from York Catholic High School in 1947. He attended the University of Pennsylvania on a senatorial scholarship, graduating in 1951. After two years in the United States Army, he enrolled in graduate school at the University of Pennsylvania, doing his doctoral research on the photoelectric photometry of R CMa, AO Cas, AS Eri, and XY Leo at the Steward Observatory, University of Arizona in Tucson. Bob would continue this exploration of close binary stars, their atmospheres and interactions, for the rest of his career. Bob met his future spouse, Joanne C. Underwood, while in graduate school in 1957 and they were married in 1959. Bob received his PhD in astronomy in 1959 and moved to Amherst, Massachusetts, where he taught as a member of the Four College Astronomy Department until 1966. Following a year at the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque, Bob joined the Astronomy Department at Penn, teaching and doing research there until his retirement in 1996. Bob's main interests were the study of close and eclipsing binary stars, stellar envelopes and winds, intrinsic variables, transits and occultations, and the Milky Way Galaxy, producing well over 100 refereed publications. Bob was partial to photoelectric photometry and polarimetry, conducting most of his observational research at the University of Pennsylvania Flower and Cook Observatory, and at other ground- and space-based observatories. As an international figure in the area of binary stars, Bob had widespread collaborations with scientists at other institutions, in the US and throughout the world, and

  13. Robert B. Stevens: UCSC Chancellorship, 1987-1991

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Robert; Jarrell, Randall; Regional History Project, UCSC Library

    1999-01-01

    The Regional History Project conducted six interviews with UCSC Chancellor Robert B. Stevens during June and July, 1991. Stevens was appointed the campus's fifth chancellor by UC President David P. Gardner in July 1987, and served until July 1991. He was the second UCSC chancellor (following Chancellor Emeritus Robert L. Sinsheimer) recruited from a private institution. Stevens was born in England in 1933 and first came to the United States when he was 23. He was educated at Oxford U...

  14. Leaving Libertarianism: : Social Ties in Robert Nozick's New Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    SUMMARY This thesis Leaving Libertarianism: Social Ties in Robert Nozick s New Philosophy challenges the general and most widespread portrayals of the American philosopher Robert Nozick (1938-2002) by studying the notion of social ties in his later philosophy. The point of departure is the present descriptions of Nozick s philosophy. Mostly these depictions are based upon three postulates: That Nozick is an extreme individualist, that the libertarian Anarchy, State, and Utopia (1...

  15. Caruso St John y Robert Smithson: Interferencias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Hernández Pezzi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Los discursos cruzados son el soporte común del presente número de Cuadernos. El cruce que planteamos tiene como protagonistas al artista Robert Smithson y a los arquitectos Adam Caruso y Peter St John. Estos últimos hacen mención del trabajo del artista norteamericano para explicar su proyecto de remodelación de Stortorget, la plaza de la catedral en el centro de Kalmar, Suecia. A partir de aquí, comenzamos una exploración del trabajo y las preocupaciones de ambos que nos permite dibujar convergencias y sintonías procesuales por encima de las diferencias temáticas, ideológicas y estilísticas. Al disponer en paralelo la obra de Smithson y Caruso St John descubrimos vibraciones y resonancias que muestran una interacción productiva de sus preocupaciones. La materia se convierte en sus propuestas en un objeto activo y sensible, un depósito energético con el que operar. El traslado de piedras en Stortorget convoca la memoria de la ciudad del mismo modo que el basalto y la sal del Spiral Jetty, erosionados por el tiempo, nos hablan de procesos abiertos. El tiempo y la memoria pasan a ser soportes estratégicos con los que construyen sus miradas. Los objetos se disuelven en las relaciones que establecen con su entorno produciendo equilibrios frágiles e instantáneos. De esta manera el artículo pretende generar un vórtice de reflexión, una espiral en cuyo recorrido se manifiesten las tensiones parciales del cruce propuesto, sus fijezas momentáneas.

  16. Realismo e utopia em Robert Michels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Floriano Ribeiro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aponta e discute as principais influências teóricas e políticas de Robert Michels na construção de Sociologia dos partidos políticos, tentando ir além das fontes mais conhecidas, como Gaetano Mosca, Vilfredo Pareto, Max Weber e Gustave Le Bon. Como Michels não se preocupou em construir definições claras sobre seus conceitos principais, procurou-se extrair a essência de seu raciocínio, apresentando as concepções e influências teóricas predominantes no livro, e destacando as mudanças entre a primeira edição, de 1911, e a segunda, de 1925. Para tanto, realizou-se um estudo das 989 notas explicativas desta segunda edição (além do texto principal em si. Além de discutir as fontes explicitadas no livro, o artigo também esboça uma "análise genética" da obra, levantando alguns fatos biográficos prévios à sua publicação e no intervalo entre as duas edições, e recorrendo, ainda, a outros trabalhos de Michels. Após debater as concepções e críticas do autor sobre democracia, revolução, socialismo, sindicalismo e anarquismo, o artigo termina com um balanço sobre as fragilidades e contribuições da obra de Michels, destacando que a chave para se compreender vida e obra do autor reside em perceber as tensas disjuntivas estabelecidas entre realismo e utopia e entre o Michels militante e o Michels analista.

  17. The firm as a Darwin machine : How Generalized Darwinism can further the development of an evolutionary theory of economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Stoelhorst, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    The debate on the ontological foundations of evolutionary economics has reached a stage where discussions of these foundations are increasingly leading to the conclusion that there is a need to move from considerations of the general principles of evolutionary theory to the development of concrete middle-range theories of specific economic phenomena. The purpose of this paper is to engage in such an exercise. I explore to what extent the general principles of generalized Darwinism can further...

  18. DARWIN Y LA IMPOSIBILIDAD DE CAUSAS FINALES EN LA BIOLOGÍA Darwin and the Impossibility of Final Causes in Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÁLVARO CORRAL CUARTAS

    Full Text Available La teoría de la selección natural propuesta por Charles Darwin en su obra El origen de las especies no solo colocó las bases para una explicación coherente de los hechos fundamentales de la biología (el origen común de los seres vivos, la diversidad de individuos y especies y la transmisión de características hereditarias, sino que además introdujo maneras nuevas de hacer filosofía. La teoría de la selección natural hace superflua cualquier posibilidad de apelar a explicaciones de tipo finalista en la ciencia. Desde Aristóteles se conocen cuatro tipos de causa: la material, la formal, la eficiente y la final. Aunque la causa eficiente es el paradigma de explicación por exce-lencia de las ciencias naturales, la causa final sigue desempeñando un papel explicativo, por cuanto parece estar arraigada en nuestra estructura humana de pensamiento y la tendencia a presentar explicaciones finalistas sigue siendo recalcitrante. Quizá por estar los seres humanos tan familiarizados con la complejidad inherente a los procesos de diseño en las artes y en la técnica y quizá por la circunstancia de que los seres humanos organizamos casi todas nuestras acciones en torno a propósitos, es decir, a la definición de unos fines para los cuales buscamos unos medios, suponemos por vía de analogía que la naturaleza en su complejidad exige la presencia y acción de un diseñador inteligente. Kant en la Crítica de la facultad de juzgar hace una defensa del carácter "irrenunciable al género humano" de este modelo explicativo. Para contro-vertir esta opinión milenaria, me apoyaré, en investigaciones recientes de Richard Dawkins y de otros biólogos contemporáneos para mostrar con la evolución de ojos en la naturaleza que el surgimiento de órganos de alta complejidad puede ser explicado sin problema con la teoría de la selección natural propuesta por Darwin en 1859.Darwin’s theory of natural selection in The Origin of Species not only laid

  19. Robert Lowell’s Culturally Coded Lexis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Davidovska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I will examine how a vital ele­ment of Robert Lowell’s descriptive and narrative struc­tures, i.e., the lexis, promise to unfold the “layers” of the culture that served as context for Life Studies. This in­volves exploring both the denotations and connotations of his culturally encoded lexis, that is, the external mean­ings of certain words and phrases before they “en­ter” the poem and the internal meanings they acquire after entering the poem. This process of “verbal osmo­sis”, when words absorb meaning from these different contexts, is, what I believe, critic and linguist Winifred Nowottny describes as “give and take between those patterns” (Fowler, 2009: 31. My analysis will focus on the sociolinguistic patina accrued on certain units of Lowell’s poetic lexis, such as names of historical people, events and concepts belonging to American and Euro­pean spiritual cultures and traditions, as well as brand names from popular material culture of the first half of the twentieth century. The analysis will also dwell on the use of idioms, catch phrases and other verbal clichés which reflect the culture that generated them. They func­tion as verbal “ready-mades” that additionally rein­force Lowell’s well-known anecdotal, colloquial and infor­mal poetic language. The choice of these particular lexical items is significant as they reflect the categoriza­tion of the world and the experience of the poetic voice or the “language user” in broader linguistic terms. At the same time, the categorization of the experience reflects the ideational position, the worldview of the language user. In the context of his poetics of immanence and experi­ence, this culturally coded poetic diction is ana­lyzed as another authentic and documented presenta­tion of immanent narrator’s “lived experience”.

  20. Obituary: Peter Robert Wilson, 1929-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, Herschel B.

    2009-01-01

    It is with great sadness that I report the passing of Peter Robert Wilson, a well-known and well-loved figure in the solar physics community. Peter was on the faculty of the Department of Applied Mathematics at the University of Sydney for 39 years, and Chair of the department for 24 of these years. He was the author or co-author of more than 80 scientific research papers and a book, Solar and Stellar Activity Cycles (1994), published by Cambridge University Press. He died suddenly of a heart attack, at his home in Glebe, Australia, in the early morning of 11 November 2007. Peter was an organizer of, and participant in, many international conferences and workshops. He traveled extensively, holding visiting appointments at the University of Colorado (JILA), at Cambridge University, at the College de France (Paris), and at the California Institute of Technology [CalTech]. Most of his work was in the field of solar physics, but he also did some work on the philosophy of science and on tides. Peter came from a line of mathematicians. His father, Robert Wilson, immigrated to Australia from Glasgow in 1911, and became a mathematics teacher at Scotch College, a private school in Melbourne. There his name was changed to 'Bill' because 'Bob' was already taken." Peter's enjoyment of this story as characteristic of Australian academia (as any fan of Monty Python would understand) is indicative of his infectious sense of humor. In a similar vein, he claimed ancestry traced back to the eighteenth-century Scottish mathematician Alexander Wilson, Professor of Astronomy at the University of Glasgow. That Wilson is famous in the solar physics community for his discovery, known as the "Wilson Effect," of the photospheric depressions associated with sunspots. Peter himself could not resist writing a paper on this subject, and was delighted when the bait was taken by some less-informed colleagues who chided him for "naming an effect after himself." "Bill" Wilson married Naomi

  1. Kesse ütles, et Darwin on surnud? / Vaapo Vaher

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaher, Vaapo, 1945-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Roberts, Andrew. Sõjatorm : uus II maailmasõja ajalugu. Tallinn : Varrak, 2011 ; Tannberg, Tõnu. Eesti mees Vene kroonus : uurimusi Baltikumi ja Venemaa sõjaajaloost impeeriumi perioodil 1721–1917. Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2011 ; Dennett, Daniel Clement. Darwini ohtlik idee. Tallinn : Varrak, 2011

  2. Astronaut Charles Duke photographed collecting lunar samples at Station 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, is photographed collecting lunar samples at Station no. 1 during the first Apollo 16 extravehicular activity at the Descartes landing site. This picture, looking eastward, was taken by Astronaut John W. Young, commander. Duke is standing at the rim of Plum crater, which is 40 meters in diameter and 10 meters deep. The parked Lunar Roving Vehicle can be seen in the left background.

  3. 75 FR 61246 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Darwin National Assurance Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... Supplement No. 4 to the Treasury Department Circular 570, 2010 Revision, published July 1, 2010, at 75 FR... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Darwin National Assurance Company AGENCY.... 9305 to the following company: Darwin National Assurance Company (NAIC 16624). Business Address: 9...

  4. Making a Theist out of Darwin: Asa Gray's Post-Darwinian Natural Theology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, T. Russell

    2012-01-01

    In March of 1860 the eminent Harvard Botanist and orthodox Christian Asa Gray began promoting the Origin of Species in hopes of securing a fair examination of Darwin's evolutionary theory among theistic naturalists. To this end, Gray sought to demonstrate that Darwin had not written atheistically and that his theory of evolution by natural…

  5. Considering the Role and Nature of the Scientist: The Case of Darwin and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Serap Öz

    2015-01-01

    For many students, preconceived notions about Darwin are among the most significant obstacles in learning about the theory of evolution by natural selection. I present an activity designed to eliminate this obstacle and encourage empathizing with Darwin, utilizing the history-of-science approach. Through the activity, students' negative…

  6. The Great Struggles of Life: Darwin and the Emergence of Evolutionary Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Darwin envisioned a scientific revolution for psychology. His theories of natural and sexual selection identified two classes of struggles--the struggle for existence and the struggle for mates. The emergence of evolutionary psychology and related disciplines signals the fulfillment of Darwin's vision. Natural selection theory guides scientists to…

  7. Darwin's "Imaginary Illustrations": Creatively Teaching Evolutionary Concepts & the Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Alan C.

    2010-01-01

    An overlooked feature of Darwin's work is his use of "imaginary illustrations" to show that natural selection is competent to produce adaptive, evolutionary change. When set in the context of Darwin's methodology, these thought experiments provide a novel way to teach natural selection and the nature of science.

  8. DARWIN Y LA PARADOJA DE LAS ISLAS VACIAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanco Juan Felipe

    2009-12-01

    ían considerarse “vacías”, lo cual plantea una paradoja. El mecanismo por él planteado coincide con el ciclo de vida conocido actualmente como diádromo en el cual los individuos de muchas especies de peces, camarones y gasterópodos requieren de aguas marinas y dulces para completar su desarrollo. La diadromía es una convergencia evolutiva que apareció en diferentes linajes a partir de ancestros tanto marinos como dulceacuícolas. En este ensayo se discute la evolución de la fauna dulceacuícola insular, sus implicaciones ecológicas y evolutivas, y algunos modelos experimentales. Finalmente, se discute sobre los impactos de las represas en islas tropicales y subtropicales en las especies diádromas.

     

    Palabras clave: Teoría de la migración, biogeografía insular, diadromía, quebradas insulares, El Origen de las Especies, Charles Darwin.

     

    ABSTRACT

    Although Darwin’s fascination and

  9. ["The piano trio" Robert Schumann, Clara Schumann and Johannes Brahms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albretsen, C S

    1998-12-10

    The relationship between the pianist and composer Clara Schumann and the composers Robert Schumann and Johannes Brahms has for a century been an interesting topic. Clara and Robert Schumann both suffered separation from their mothers during early childhood. Johannes Brahms was intensely spoiled by his mother. Robert Schumann needed a structuring wife in his adult life, while Johannes Brahms turned to be afraid of intrusive women. Robert Schumann's psychotic breakdown in February 1854 had a complex background: a hypomanic state, some marital problems, a stressful journey with musical appearances, and possibly a difficulty in differentiating between himself and his new friend Johannes Brahms. As for Clara Schumann, who lost her mother before the age of five, musical activities became her way of overcoming the difficulties of life. She was able to support Robert in his lunatic asylum and their seven children growing up in three separate towns. The chronic diseases of the sons: schizophrenia, polyarthritis and tuberculosis made a deep impression on her and her fingers and hands were periodically immobilised with severe pain. For four decades Johannes was her able "son" and Clara was his "mother", at a safe distance. PMID:9914757

  10. Darwin's Pangenesis as a molecular theory of inherited diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongsheng; Li, Xiuju

    2016-05-10

    Darwin spent much time and effort on the study of inherited diseases and the role of environment in disease development. To explain inherited diseases and a considerable variety of other hereditary phenomena, he formulated a Pangenesis hypothesis, assuming that cells could shed many kinds of molecules capable of diffusion from cell to cell, circulation throughout the body, incorporation into recipient cells, and transmission from parents to offspring. His Pangenesis is now supported by the discovery of circulating DNA, mobile RNAs and prions, and might provide an alternative molecular mechanism underlying the inherited diseases. PMID:26836487

  11. Evolution of species from Darwin theory: A simple model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moret, M. A.; Pereira, H. B. B.; Monteiro, S. L.; Galeão, A. C.

    2012-04-01

    Evolution of species is a complex phenomenon. Some theoretical models take into account evolution of species, like the Bak-Sneppen model that obtain punctuated equilibrium from self-organized criticality and the Penna model for biological aging that consists in a bit-string model subjected to aging, reproduction and death. In this work we propose a simple model to study different scenarios used to simulate the evolution of species. This model is based on Darwin's ideas of evolution. The present findings show that punctuated equilibria and stasis seem to be obtained directly from the mutation, selection of parents and the genetic crossover, and are very close to the fossil data analysis.

  12. Reflection of Naturalism and Darwinism in Dreiser' s Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静

    2009-01-01

    Naturalism is a significant school of literature in American literary history. This thesis mainly reviews the background, development, and characteristic of the realism and naturalism literature, and states the significant person in Naturalism literature-Dreiser and his. important literary position and analyzes the reflection of naturalism and Darwinism in Sister Carrie. Through the analysis of determinism, desire, ethics and detail description, a conclusion is made: the factors affecting the novel' s writing not only include the author' s own experiences but also the main social ideology in his living years.

  13. Farewell party for Annick Lyraud and Robert Aymar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although Robert Aymar will only take up his position as Director-General of CERN in January 2004, he formally gave up leadership of ITER at the end of June 2003, with the transfer of that responsibility to Yasuo Shimomura. After the summer he will devote the lion's share of his efforts to his new job. The International Team therefore held a party to say farewell to him, as well as to Annick Lyraud, who will move in September to CERN to continue to support him there. Robert and Annick were on the receiving end of three speeches. Yasuo Shimomura paid tribute to Robert's dedication to the ITER cause from the time well before he became ITER Director, confirming that without his leadership the ITER project would not be in its present expectant state

  14. A higher-order Robert-Asselin type time filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Trenchea, Catalin

    2014-02-01

    The Robert-Asselin (RA) time filter combined with leapfrog scheme is widely used in numerical models of weather and climate. It successfully suppresses the spurious computational mode associated with the leapfrog method, but it also weakly dampens the physical mode and degrades the numerical accuracy. The Robert-Asselin-Williams (RAW) time filter is a modification of the RA filter that reduces the undesired numerical damping of RA filter and increases the accuracy. We propose a higher-order Robert-Asselin (hoRA) type time filter which effectively suppresses the computational modes and achieves third-order accuracy with the same storage requirement as RAW filter. Like RA and RAW filters, the hoRA filter is non-intrusive, and so it would be easily implementable. The leapfrog scheme with hoRA filter is almost as accurate, stable and efficient as the intrusive third-order Adams-Bashforth (AB3) method.

  15. Double trisomy (48,XXX,+18) with features of Roberts syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Descartes, M.; Longshore, J.W.; Crawford, E. [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    We report an infant with double trisomy 48,XXX,+18, who also displayed features of Roberts syndrome. All previously published cases with similar double trisomy have presented with features of trisomy 18 syndrome. The chromosome analysis done at birth revealed the double trisomy; parental chromosomes were normal. The proband presented with microbrachycephaly, unilateral cleft lip and palate, choanal atresia, midfacial capillary hemanioma, thin nares, shallow orbits, malformed ears, sparse hair, hypomelia of the upper limbs, rocker-bottom feet, auricular septal defect and agenesis of the corpus callosum. Characteristic features of Roberts syndrome included hypomelia, midfacial defects, and severe growth deficiency. Among the many different features reported in the literature for patients with trisomy 18 syndrome, the most consistent were growth deficiency, clenched fingers and congenital heart defects (e.g. VSD, ASD, PDA). Although some of our patient`s features such as cleft lip and cleft palate, low-set malformed ears, ASD, defects of the corpus callosum, choanal atresia, radial aplasia could also be seen in trisomy 18 syndrome (in 10-50% of the cases), her phenotype was more typical of Roberts syndrome because of symmetrical hypomelia and midfacial defects. Our patient`s chromosomes did not show premature separation of centromeric heterochromatin, a feature reported to occur in approximately one-half of individuals with Roberts syndrome. Sporadic aneuploidy involving different chromosomes has been found in lymphocyte cultures from some Roberts syndrome patients and is considered by some authors as a mitotic mutant. This aneuploidy is most likely to be chromosome gain. The simultaneous occurrence of trisomy X and 18 is extremely rare with only 11 cases having been reported in the literature. Our patient is unique since she has the double trisomy in addition to the characteristic features of Roberts syndrome.

  16. 舞台上的达尔文:戏剧里的进化论%Darwin on Stage:Evolutionary Theory in the Theater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kirsten Shepherd-Barr[法; 王延博

    2015-01-01

    本文以有关达尔文及其进化论思想的戏剧为主线,不仅将达尔文各阶段的人生经历和性格生动还原,还发掘了与这位科学家有关的家庭和婚姻主题。探索了剧本创作的历史和文化背景,以及多种戏剧创作的角度和手法。通过与其他的科学剧进行比较,分析了科学家以及科学剧本身的巨大魅力。最后,尝试通过达尔文剧这一典型代表,反思和总结目前科学剧创作面对的诸多挑战和质疑,同时也论述了其未来发展的巨大潜力和可能性。%This essay, by taking the dramas about Charles Darwin and his evolutionary ideas as the main thread, has not only vividly reproduced Darwin’ s personality and life experience at all sta-ges, but also explored subject matters such as family and matrimonial relationship.It has studied the historical and cultural context of these works as well as various perspectives and skills involved in play writing.Through comparison with other science plays, it has analyzed the fascination which sci-entists and the theaters concerned are endowed with.At last, by employing Darwin play as a repre-sentative, it tries to summarize and reflect series of challenges or queries science plays are confront-ed with at present, with its future potential and possibilities discussed at the same time.

  17. Dr Robert Proust: a gynaecologist's contribution to world literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Costa, Caroline

    2013-09-01

    Dr Robert Proust, though overshadowed in history by his more famous brother, the novelist Marcel Proust, was an eminent and innovative French surgeon who achieved recognition largely as a gynaecologist, but also was an accomplished urologist and general surgeon. He was the author of a textbook, The surgery of the female genital tract, that was very successful in his lifetime and ran to six editions. He was always very supportive of his brother's writing, and after Marcel's premature death Robert edited and arranged for publication of the final three volumes of his novel À la recherche du temps perdu, which has been called the greatest novel of the twentieth century. PMID:23820137

  18. La tinta invisible: Darwin y la fuerza de la herencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noguera Solano, Ricardo

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the way in which Darwin interpreted some notions of the problem of inheritance. First we describe how he used various nineteenth century categories of inheritance: atavism, constitution, genealogy, prepotency and morbid tendency. Afterward, by identifying in his texts these categories it is shown that his investigation on the transformation of species was conceptually linked with the problem of inheritance but his interpretation differed with hereditarism, the dominant point of view from which the history of the research on inheritance has been written.En este escrito revisamos la forma en la que Darwin interpretó algunas nociones del problema de la herencia. Primero describimos como utiliza las categorías de la herencia del siglo XIX: atavismo, constitución, genealogía, prepotencia y tendencia mórbida. Después, identificando en sus escritos el uso de esas categorías se muestra que su investigación sobre la transformación de las especies estaba conceptualmente ligada a la problemática de la herencia, pero su interpretación difirió de la corriente hereditarista, versión hegemónica a partir de la cual se ha escrito la historia de las investigaciones de la herencia.

  19. Obituary: Robert Fleischer, 1918-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Peter Bradford; Saffell, Mary E.

    2003-12-01

    Robert Fleischer was born 20 August 1918 to Leon and Rose Fleischer in Flushing, NY. He was educated at Harvard, receiving his BS in 1940, MA in 1947, and PhD in 1949. He specialized in geophysics and solar-terrestrial relations. Fleischer joined the faculty at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute advancing from Assistant to Full professor in 1958. As Director of the RPI Observatory, Fleischer attempted to bring modern astronomy to the institutions in the Albany area by procuring the funds to build a radio telescope. He left for the National Science Foundation (NSF) before the observatory was completed. It is a testament to his character that without his enormous energy, organizational, and fundraising abilities, the radio telescope project languished after he left. Fleischer joined the NSF in 1962 as the Program Director for Solar-Terrestrial Research. He was the government-wide Coordinator for the International Quiet Sun Years, and coordinated the 1966 South American Eclipse expeditions. Thereafter, he was appointed Deputy Head of the Office of International Science Activities. Fleischer is most notably remembered as the head of the Astronomy Section at the National Science Foundation. He brought astronomy into its own at NSF and involved the community in a major way through use of advisory committees. He was dedicated to helping the astronomical community understand the funding system, the political environment, and the various factors in how money is allocated. Fleischer truly believed in the concept that scientists should be making the important decisions about their field. He was instrumental in injecting science into the oversight of the National Observatories. Relations with the community say a lot about the man, the complexities of his character, and the forces that drove him. Fleischer was passionate in his beliefs and in his devotion to doing the best for astronomy. His strong approach and belief in himself served him well in many ways, but caused him grief

  20. An Ottoman response to Darwinism: İsmail Fennî on Islam and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgili, Alper

    2015-12-01

    The Scopes trial (1925) fuelled discussion in the United States on the social and political implications of Darwinism. For the defenders of the 1925 Tennessee law - which prohibited the teaching of Darwinism in schools - Darwinism was, amongst other things, responsible for the German militarism which eventually led to the First World War. This view was supported by İsmail Fennî, a late Ottoman intellectual, who authored a book immediately after the trial which aimed to debunk scientific materialism. In it, he claimed that Darwinism blurred the distinction between man and beast and thus destroyed the foundations of morality. However, despite his anti-Darwinist stance, İsmail Fennî argued against laws forbidding the teaching of Darwinism in schools, and emphasized that even false theories contributed to scientific improvement. Indeed, because of his belief in science he claimed that Muslims should not reject Darwinism if it were supported by future scientific evidence. If this turned out to be the case, then religious interpretations should be revised accordingly. This article contributes to the literature on early Muslim reactions to Darwinism by examining the views of İsmail Fennî, which were notably sophisticated when compared with those of the anti-religious Darwinist and anti-Darwinist religious camps that dominated late Ottoman intellectual life. PMID:26337528

  1. Robert Grosseteste's thought on Light and Form of the World

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2014-01-01

    Robert Grosseteste was one of the most prominent thinkers of the Thirteenth Century. Philosopher and scientist, he proposed a metaphysics based on the propagation of light. In this framework, he gave a cosmology too. Here we will discuss the treatise where Grosseteste proposed it, that entitled 'De luce, seu de incohatione formarum', 'On Light and the Beginning of Forms'.

  2. The Inharmonious Conflicts in Robert Frost’s Poetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨苗

    2015-01-01

    Robert Frost is one of the most distinguished poets,most of his poems are about the inharmonious relationship between nature and men,Conflicts are like a "thread" appearing in his poems.Frost’s true philosophy on men and life contributes to his wisdom and artistic poems.Frost tries to illustrate the conflict between nature and men in philosophy concern.

  3. Zombilood / Robert Kirkman ; intervjueerinud Margit Tõnson, Peeter Helme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kirkman, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Režissöör George A. Romero kultusfilmid zombidest "Elavate surnute öö", "Surnute koidik", "Surnute päev" jpt. on inspiratsiooniks koomiksikirjutaja Robert Kirklandile. Režissöör Frank Darabont on teinud tema tuntuimast koomiksiseeriast "The Walking Dead" teleseriaali "Kõndivad surnud". Zombiteema kasvavast populaarsusest ning intervjuu koomiksikirjutajaga

  4. Robert Bostrom's Contribution to Listening in Organizational Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Judi

    2013-01-01

    Robert Bostrom has not only left a listening legacy, but he was also a pioneer in the larger discipline of communication. Bostrom was one of the first scholars to focus on the dynamics of interpersonal contexts, thereby directly contributing to the transition of our field from "speech" to "communication." Early on he recognized the importance of…

  5. Robert Moses procurement and model tests a contractor's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the need to provide realistic cost/benefit evaluation criteria in turbine bid specifications and the benefits of competitive model testing. Recent procurement and model test efforts for the Robert Moses Niagara Power Project are used to illustrate these topics

  6. Wikinews interviews World Wide Web co-inventor Robert Cailliau

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "The name Robert Caillau may not ring a bell to the general pbulic, but his invention is the reason why you are reading this: Dr. Cailliau together with his colleague Sir Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web, making the internet accessible so it could grow from an academic tool to a mass communication medium." (9 pages)

  7. Conceptualising Childhood: Robert Louis Stevenson's "A Child's Garden of Verses."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the construct of childhood in Robert Louis Stevenson's collection of poems, "A Child's Garden of Verses," by employing notions of child development drawn from Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky. Finds, from a literary perspective, Stevenson's collection located on the boundaries of romanticism and modernism. (BT)

  8. 77 FR 64506 - Robert D. Willis Hydropower Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... Register, (77 FR 40609), of the proposed rate increase for the Willis project. Southwestern provided a 30... proposed Willis power rate were announced by a Federal Register notice published on July 10, 2012 (77 FR... Southwestern Power Administration Robert D. Willis Hydropower Rate AGENCY: Southwestern Power...

  9. Robert Aymar seals the last interconnect in the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2007-01-01

    The LHC completes the circle. On 7 November, in a brief ceremony in the LHC tunnel, CERN Director General Robert Aymar (Photo 1) sealed the last interconnect between the main magnets of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Jean-Philippe Tock, leader of the Interconnections team, tightens the last bolt (Photos 4-8).

  10. Paul Robert Wendt: Programmed Instruction and Visual Literacy Pioneer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David M.; Bedient, Douglas

    2000-01-01

    Provides a profile of Paul Robert Wendt who was interested in using technology to teach students how to succeed in higher education by improving library and information skills. Highlights include his educational background; work in films; teaching in higher education at Southern Illinois University (SIU); work in programmed instruction and visual…

  11. Measuring What Matters: Robert Sternberg's Enlightened Approach to Admissions Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Catherine O'Neill

    2011-01-01

    Psychologist Robert J. Sternberg's conviction that American standardized testing does not accurately reflect a child's intelligence or potential is far from theoretical. As an elementary school student in the 1950s, he scored poorly on the ubiquitous IQ test of the time, freezing up when the school psychologist entered the room. Thankfully for…

  12. Astronaut Charles Conrad checks out Human Vestibular Function experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., commander of the first manned Skylab mission, checks out the Human Vestibular Function, Experiment M131, during Skylab training at JSC. Conrad is in the work and experiments compartment of the crew quarters of the Skylab Orbital Workshop (OWS) trainer at JSC. The reference sphere with a magnetic rod is used by the astronaut to indicate body orientation non-visually. The litter chair in which he is seated can be rotated by a motor at its base or, when not being rotated, can tilt forward, backward or to either side.

  13. Chapter Four: Turning History into Art – Charles the First

    OpenAIRE

    Mulhallen, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    Shelley began writing Charles the First in January 1822, but at his death he had completed only scenes for a first act, an outline sketch for a second and many notes, jottings and stray lines. As he had not worked on it in the months preceding his death, there is a view that he would not have completed it even had he lived. This view undermines the importance of this project, which he had been researching since 1818, and his competence as a dramatist is challenged by the idea that it may have...

  14. Charles Lamb's R eminiscences in “South-Sea House”

    OpenAIRE

    Dr . Himanshu A . Sriv as t a v a

    2011-01-01

    Charles Lamb has rightly been called “The Prince of English Essayist.” Lamb was one of the most autobiographical ofthe English essayists and his essays at every step reflect his nobility of soul, his good nature and his charity. Essaysof Elia reconstructs the whole of his life from the beginning to the end. The South-Sea House, from the essays ofElia is an autobiographical essay which presents the glorious past of South-Sea House Company and its ingloriousend. He vividly describes his co-work...

  15. From Darwin to Internet at the speed of light

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-11-01

    Data moving around the Internet are like road traffic in that a car can be driven fast down a straight road but has to slow down a great deal when changing direction at a junction. The same thing happens on information highways. Beams of light carry data along fibre-optic cables at very high speeds. When the data arrive at computers, known as servers, the servers redirect them to their final destinations. Presently, you need to convert the light signals into electricity, and that slows everything down. Electrons move at a speed of a few kilometres per second through a circuit, whereas light travels at nearly 300 000 kilometres per second. Integrated optics would leave the data as light and simply channel it through the chip, in the right direction. Scientists call this area integrated optics, referring to the integrated circuit board on which chips are mounted. Instead of miniaturised electronics, however, miniaturised optics are placed on a microchip. ESA has a strategy to enable more sophisticated searches for extra-solar planets in the future. Two planned developments rely on combining the light from such planets in a number of different telescopes. These are the Darwin mission and its precursor, the ESA/ESO Ground-based European Nulling Interferometer Experiment (GENIE). When you combine light beams, you traditionally need moving mirrors and lenses to divert the light beams to where you want them. However, if the system moves, it can break. As Malcolm Fridlund, Project Scientist for Darwin and GENIE says, “To change to integrated optics, which is much smaller and has no moving parts, would be highly desirable.” Desirable certainly, but also difficult. At present, integrated optics is a science that is far behind integrated circuit technology. For this reason, ESA is funding two studies. Astrium has been asked to study a traditional optics approach and Alcatel is investigating an integrated-optics solution. “We shall take the decision on whether GENIE will

  16. ¿Fue Darwin el Newton de la brizna de hierba?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Caponi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Ratifying Haeckel and contradicting Kant’s negative prophesy, in this paper I try to show that Darwin was, really, the Newton of the blade of grass. Darwin showed how the configurations according to goals of the living beings, could be explained from a naturalistic point of view, without having to postulate the existence of an intentional agent that had arranged or prearranged then. This achievement, nevertheless, was obtained by a way that Kant could not foresee and that Haeckel could not understand: Darwin came there showing that there was more natural science than that Newton, Kant and Haeckel could conceive.

  17. RRS "Charles Darwin" Cruise CD166, 29 Oct - 22 Nov 2004. Sedimentary processes and deposits in the Agadir Basin and Gulf of Cadiz

    OpenAIRE

    Wynn, R.B.; Cronin, B.T.

    2005-01-01

    The primary aim of CD166 was to undertake intensive coring in the Agadir Basin on the Northwest African margin, with the intention of characterising deep-water gravity flow processes and deposits at a basin-wide scale. In addition, it was hoped that sampling of volcaniclastic turbidites derived from Canary Islands landslides would provide insights into landslide processes and aid assessment of potential tsunami hazards. In addition, the first two days of the cruise were assigned to piston cor...

  18. Is Goethe a Pioneer of Charles Darwin's Evolution Theory?%歌德是达尔文进化论的先驱吗?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫光华

    2009-01-01

    本文梳理了自达尔文发表以来,人们围绕歌德的生物学思想与达尔文进化论思想之间的关系发生的种种争论,指出两者之间有明显的距离,歌德的生物学思想并不具有达尔文进化论上的先驱意义.

  19. Robert Putnam : miks peaksime naabritega rohkem rääkima? / Robert Putnam ; interv. Külli-Riin Tigasson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Putnam, Robert

    2006-01-01

    26. mail Tallinnas toimuva Avatud Ühiskonna Foorumi peaesineja, Harvardi Ülikooli professor väidab, et mida paremini tuntakse oma naabreid, mida aktiivsemalt osaletakse kohalikus elus ning mida rohkem inimesed omavahel suhtlevad, seda paremaks ja turvalisemaks muutub nende elukeskkond. Lisad: Robert Putnam (sünd 1941); Kuidas kasvatada sotsiaalset kapitali?

  20. Advertising eugenics: Charles M. Goethe's campaign to improve the race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenl, William; Peck, Danielle

    2010-06-01

    Over the last several decades historians have shown that the eugenics movement appealed to an extraordinarily wide constituency. Far from being the brainchild of the members of any one particular political ideology, eugenics made sense to a diverse range of Americans and was promoted by professionals ranging from geneticists and physicians to politicians and economists.(1) Seduced by promises of permanent fixes to national problems, and attracted to the idea of a scientifically legitimate form of social activism, eugenics quickly grew in popularity during the first decades of the twentieth century. Charles M. Goethe, the land developer, entrepreneur, conservationist and skilled advertiser who founded the Eugenics Society of Northern California, exemplifies the broad appeal of the eugenics movement. Goethe played an active role within the American eugenics movement at its peak in the 1920s. The last president of the Eugenics Research Association,(2) he also campaigned hard against Mexican immigration to the US and he continued open support for the Nazi regime's eugenic practices into the later 1930s.(3) This article examines Goethe's eugenic vision and, drawing on his correspondence with the leading geneticist Charles Davenport, explores the relationship between academic and non-academic advocates of eugenics in America. PMID:20510454

  1. Le Darwin de Hopkins: déchiffrage contextuel

    OpenAIRE

    Cary H. Plotkin

    2009-01-01

    Gérard Manley Hopkins était bien placé pour apprécier la controverse qui sévissait parmi les scientifiques, les ecclésiastiques et les laïcs autour du darwinisme et de l’évolutionnisme en général. Naturaliste à la manière victorienne, exercé aux catégories philosophiques classiques du programme d’Oxford, formé en théologie jésuite, poète de la nature et de Dieu, il semblerait en effet avoir les qualités requises d’un «témoin-clé de l’âge de Darwin». Pourtant il fait rarement mention de ce der...

  2. Rereading Darwin. Notes for a critical history of indeterminism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo Scardovi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available On carefully re-examining the theory of natural selection, one can see in it the first nondeterministic hypothesis in the history of modern science. As such it also exemplifies the use of statistics as a modus intellegendi, as an empirical language for all phenomena which cannot be interpreted in terms of strict teleology. According to this interpretation, the work of Darwin turns the course of science towards a new way of knowing, of interpreting nature, the way that with Mendel’s Laws has given birth to a deep renewal of research in biology, and has also gradually come to characterize all modern physics starting from the statistical thermodynamics of Boltzmann.

  3. Consequence etiology and biological teleology in Aristotle and Darwin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depew, David J

    2008-12-01

    Aristotle's biological teleology is rooted in an epigenetic account of reproduction. As such, it is best interpreted by consequence etiology. I support this claim by citing the capacity of consequence etiology's key distinctions to explain Aristotle's opposition to Empedocles. There are implications for the relation between ancient and modern biology. The analysis reveals that in an important respect Darwin's account of adaptation is closer to Aristotle's than to Empedocles's. They both rely on consequence etiological considerations to evade attributing the purposiveness of organisms to chance. Two implications follow: (l) Darwinian explanations of adaptation are as teleological as Aristotle's, albeit differently; and (2) these differences show how deeply resistant Aristotle's version of biological teleology is to descent from a common ancestor. PMID:19026970

  4. STS-56 ESC Earth observation of Darwin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    STS-56 electronic still camera (ESC) Earth observation image taken aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, is of Darwin, Australia. The image was recorded with a 180mm lens on the Hand-held, Earth-oriented, Real-time, Cooperative, User-friendly, Location-targeting and Environmental System (HERCULES). HERCULES is a device that makes it simple for Shuttle crewmembers to take pictures of Earth as they just point a modified 35mm camera and shoot any interesting feature, whose latitude and longitude are automatically determined in real time. In this observation, the center coordinates are 12.433 degrees south latitude and 130.939 degrees east longitude. Geolocation accuracy on this image is 2.3 nautical miles. Digital file name is ESC01037.IMG.

  5. Lahkunud maailmaparandaja Robert Lepikson jäi igavesti otsijaks / Kai Kalamees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalamees, Kai

    2006-01-01

    Ülevaade riigikogu liikme, endise siseministri, Tallinna linnapea ja Võru maavanema Robert Lepiksoni elukäigust, meenutused tuntud ühiskonnategelastelt. Lisad: Robert Lepikson; Kõva sõnaga mees. Vt. samas: Turvavaatleja vastutusrikas töö viimasel rallil; Ivar Raidam: Lepiksoni panus autosporti oli tohutu; Hans H. Luik: Respect, Robert!

  6. On Darwin's 'metaphysical notebooks'. II: "Metaphysics" and final cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabi, L

    2001-01-01

    The first part of this paper was published in Rivista di Biologia/Biology Forum 94 (2001). In the second part below an examination is made of the meaning of the term Metaphysics in some passages of the Darwinian Notebooks for the years 1836-1844. Metaphysics no longer defines a field of philosophical enquiries mainly concerning the being and the essence after the manner of Aristotle; it now refers to a kind of philosophy of mind after the manner of J. Locke's criticism of the Hypokeimenon. However Aristotle's Metaphysics also encompasses a treatment of the idea of causes, and of final cause particularly, in the explanation of events, and in the explanation of natural phenomena especially. The criticism of the idea of final cause in the interpretation of the world of life is one of Darwin's foundational acts in his early years. When conceiving his Système du monde, in the last years of the XVIII Century, Laplace could think that God is a hypothesis not really needed by science, as we are told. For the knowledge of organic nature to attain the status of science, it remained to be shown that since--certain of the exemplariness of Newton's Principles as much as cautious before the mystery of life--did not need the hypothesis of final ends in order to understand and explain the productions of the living nature: not only in the form of that final cause (the First Cause, the Vera Causa) in which Natural Theology still rested, but also in the form of nature's inner finality which still moulded Whewell's Kantian philosophy. Such demonstration is a very important subject in Darwin's early enquiries, where he criticises finalism as a projection of self-conceiving Man, likely inherited from a knowing of causality in nuce to be found also in animals. PMID:11702652

  7. Search for Extra-Terrestrial planets: The DARWIN mission - Target Stars and Array Architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Kaltenegger, L

    2005-01-01

    The DARWIN mission is an Infrared free flying interferometer mission based on the new technique of nulling interferometry. Its main objective is to detect and characterize other Earth-like planets, analyze the composition of their atmospheres and their capability to sustain life, as we know it. DARWIN is currently in definition phase. This PhD work that has been undertaken within the DARWIN team at the European Space Agency (ESA) addresses two crucial aspects of the mission. Firstly, a DARWIN target star list has been established that includes characteristics of the target star sample that will be critical for final mission design, such as, luminosity, distance, spectral classification, stellar variability, multiplicity, location and radius of the star. Constrains were applied as set by planet evolution theory and mission architecture. Secondly, a number of alternative mission architectures have been evaluated on the basis of interferometer response as a function of wavelength, achievable modulation efficienc...

  8. Climate Prediction Center Historical Darwin Sea Level Pressure (1882-1950)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is one of the CPC?s Monthly Atmospheric and SST Indices. It contains Darwin sea level pressures and anomalies during 1882-1950. The anomalies are departures...

  9. Then & Now: Research Pays Off for All Americans Darwin, DNA, and The Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Issues Then & Now Darwin, DNA, and The Genome Milestones in the Evolution of Genetic Research Past ... combined to form words and sentences. 2003: Human Genome Sequenced Begun in 1990 and completed in 2003, ...

  10. The influence of James and Darwin on Cajal and his research into the neuron theory and evolution of the nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rômulo Monte Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss the influence of William James and Charles Darwin on the thoughts of Ramón y Cajal concerning the structure, plasticity and evolution of the nervous system at the cellular level. Here we develop Cajal’s notion that neuronal theory is a necessary condition to explain the plasticity of neural connections. Although the roots of the term ‘plasticity’ in reference to neuroscience are not completely clear, Cajal was an important figure in the propagation and popularization of its use. It is true that he carried out a large number of studies throughout his career in favor of the neuronal theory, but perhaps one of the most interesting aspects of his studies was his innovative capacity to interpret structure as being the result of evolutionary mechanisms, i.e., natural selection. This capacity would ultimately lead Cajal to the conclusion that, in relation to the histology of the nervous system, such selection occurs in the establishment of connections between cells.

  11. Darwin and his pigeons. The analogy between artificial and natural selection revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, Bert

    2012-01-01

    The analogy between artificial selection of domestic varieties and natural selection in nature was a vital element of Darwin's argument in his Origin of Species. Ever since, the image of breeders creating new varieties by artificial selection has served as a convincing illustration of how the theory works. In this paper I argue that we need to reconsider our understanding of Darwin's analogy. Contrary to what is often assumed, nineteenth-century animal breeding practices constituted a highly controversial field that was fraught with difficulties. It was only with considerable effort that Darwin forged his analogy, and he only succeeded by downplaying the importance of two other breeding techniques - crossing of varieties and inbreeding - that many breeders deemed essential to obtain new varieties. Part of the explanation for Darwin's gloss on breeding practices, I shall argue, was that the methods of his main informants, the breeders of fancy pigeons, were not representative of what went on in the breeding world at large. Darwin seems to have been eager to take the pigeon fanciers at their word, however, as it was only their methods that provided him with the perfect analogy with natural selection. Thus while his studies of domestic varieties were important for the development of the concept of natural selection, the reverse was also true: Darwin's comprehension of breeding practices was moulded by his understanding of the working of natural selection in nature. Historical studies of domestic breeding practices in the eighteenth and nineteenth century confirm that, besides selection, the techniques of inbreeding and crossing were much more important than Darwin's interpretation allowed for. And they still are today. This calls for a reconsideration of the pedagogic use of Darwin's analogy too. PMID:22037999

  12. Characteristics of proposed 3 and 4 telescope configurations for Darwin and TPF-I

    OpenAIRE

    Kaltenegger, L.; Fridlund, M.

    2006-01-01

    The Darwin and TPF-I missions are Infrared free flying interferometer missions based on nulling interferometry. Their main objective is to detect and characterize other Earth-like planets, analyze the composition of their atmospheres and their capability to sustain life, as we know it. Darwin and TPF-I are currently in study phase. A number of mission architectures of 3 and 4 free flying telescopes are evaluated on the basis of the interferometer's response, ability to distinguish multiple pl...

  13. William Keith Brooks and the naturalist's defense of Darwinism in the late-nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Richard

    2015-06-01

    William Keith Brooks was an American zoologist at Johns Hopkins University from 1876 until his death in 1908. Over the course of his career, Brooks staunchly defended Darwinism, arguing for the centrality of natural selection in evolutionary theory at a time when alternative theories, such as neo-Lamarckism, grew prominent in American biology. In his book The Law of Heredity (1883), Brooks addressed problems raised by Darwin's theory of pangenesis. In modifying and developing Darwin's pangenesis, Brooks proposed a new theory of heredity that sought to avoid the pitfalls of Darwin's hypothesis. In so doing he strengthened Darwin's theory of natural selection by undermining arguments for the inheritance of acquired characteristics. In later attacks on neo-Lamarckism, Brooks consistently defended Darwin's theory of natural selection on logical grounds, continued to challenge the idea of the inheritance of acquired characteristics, and argued that natural selection best explained a wide range of adaptations. Finally, he critiqued Galton's statistical view of heredity and argued that Galton had resurrected an outmoded typological concept of species, one which Darwin and other naturalists had shown to be incorrect. Brooks's ideas resemble the "biological species concept" of the twentieth century, as developed by evolutionary biologist Ernst Mayr and others. The late-nineteenth century was not a period of total "eclipse" of Darwinism, as biologists and historians have hitherto seen it. Although the "Modern Synthesis" refers to the reconciliation of post-Mendelian genetics with evolution by natural selection, we might adjust our understanding of how the synthesis developed by seeing it as the culmination of a longer discussion that extends back to the late-nineteenth century. PMID:26013644

  14. Darwin's "Principle of divergence" and the link between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Hector, A

    2009-01-01

    The effect of biodiversity loss on ecosystem functioning is a relatively new research topic in ecology. The motivation for this research comes largely from current forecasts of ongoing loss of biodiversity. However, the intellectual link between biodiversity and ecosystem processes was first inferred by Darwin based on his Principle of Divergence. In the notes for his Big Species Book Darwin explicitly states that communities composed of organisms developed under “many and widely differing...

  15. Darwinism in Context: An interdisciplinary, highly contextualized course on nature of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostas Kampourakis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we describe a course, titled Darwinism in Context, which focuses on the social, cultural and scientific influences on the development of Darwin's theory. This was an interdisciplinary, highly contextualized nature of science course that aimed to help students learn about a core nature of science aspect: that there are historical, cultural and social influences on the practice and directions of science. For this purpose, the course was based on a well-documented historical case study: the development of Darwin's theory. The course consisted of five classes that focused on: (a Victorian society, (b the views and beliefs of scholars that had an impact on Darwin's thinking (historical influences, (c aspects of Darwin's personal and social life that influenced the publication of his theory (social influences, (d the reception of Darwin's theory and the relationship between religion and science (cultural influences and (e the relationship between science and literature. In all cases, teaching included presentations of the historical events but was mostly based on the analysis and discussion of excerpts from the respective original writings. During the classes only a few examples were presented; students were motivated to study further the original writings and identify some key concepts and ideas after the classes. It is concluded that this kind of highly contextualized nature of science instruction can provide students with a more authentic view of science.

  16. Antes de los Estudios Culturales. Robert Warshow y la experiencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lastra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo estudia la influencia del concepto de experiencia que desarrolla Robert Warshow. Warshow ha supuesto el contrapunto americano a las teorías desarrolladas por Walter Benjamien en Europa. Si bien ambos insistieron en la pobreza de la experiencia, como resultado de la tecnificación de la sociedad, Warshow supo introducir matizaciones que influyeron en todo el círculo de intelectuales concentrados en Nueva York durante la etapa de consolidación de los Estudios Culturales. This paper studies the influence of the experience concept by Robert Warshow. Warshow is the American counterpoint to theories developed by Walter Benjamin in Europe. Although both insisted in the poverty of experience, as a result of technique, Warshow knew how to introduce nuances that influenced intellectuals in New York as Cultural Studies emerged.

  17. The auriferous placer at Mount Robert, Pietersburg Greenstone belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mount Robert gold placer near Potgietersrus occurs in coarse, matrix-supported conglomerates of the Uitkyk Formation within the Pietersburg greenstone belt. Sedimentological and mineralogical investigations indicate that the conglomerates and the ore minerals were derived from a greenstone provenance, and that they were deposited in a braided river environment within a rapidly subsiding trough. Lack of sedimentological concentration of the heavy minerals is considered to be the main reason for the low and erratic gold grades encountered (usually below 1 g/t) and, thus, the failure of all past mining ventures. The mineralogical composition of the Mount Robert ore closely resembles that of the Witwatersrand deposits. However, uraninite is absent, probably as a result of its complete removal by weathering processes. Remaining small uranium concentrations can still be detected within the conglomerates where they occur associated with grains of carbonaceous matter, leucoxene aggregates, and secondary iron-hydroxides. U3O8 values found in the conglomerates are given

  18. Robert Aymar receives one of the highest Finnish distinctions

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    On 9 December 2008 Robert Aymar, CERN Director-General, was awarded the decoration of Commander, first class, of the Order of the Lion of Finland by the President of the Republic of Finland. This decoration, one of the highest of Finland, was presented in a ceremony by the Ambassador Hannu Himanen, Permanent Representative of Finland to the UN and other international organisations in Geneva. Robert Aymar was honoured for his service to CERN, the LHC, his role in the cooperation between Finland and CERN, as well as his contribution to science in general. In his speech the ambassador underlined CERN’s efforts in the field of education, mentioning the High school teachers programme.

  19. As teorias de Lamarck e Darwin nos livros didáticos de Biologia no Brasil Lamarck's and Darwin's theories in text books of Biology in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argus Vasconcelos de Almeida

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As teorias de Lamarck e Darwin são analisadas numa amostra de livros didáticos brasileiros de biologia, num período de sessenta anos. A de Darwin ocupa, nos livros didáticos, uma área maior do que a de Lamarck. Nestes é variável a extensão do conteúdo de Lamarck. Dentre os livros, destacam-se as edições do BSCS. Nestas, pela primeira vez, é apresentado o exemplo da figura do alongamento do pescoço da girafa, para ilustrar as diferenças de abordagem entre as teorias, e reproduzido desde então na maioria dos livros didáticos. Na teoria de Darwin, o principal conceito referenciado pelos autores é o da seleção natural, e, na de Lamarck, a herança dos caracteres adquiridos. As duas teorias são diferentemente apresentadas nos livros didáticos de biologia no Brasil. Darwin é apresentado como modelo de cientista e Lamarck como um teórico especulativo, tendo a sua teoria consideravelmente deformada, distante da formulação original.Theories formulated by Lamarck and Darwin are analyzed in a sample of Brazilian textbooks on biology published in a period of sixty years. Darwin's theory is covered more than Lamarck's theory. Among the analyzed books, an important mention must be addressed for BSCS editions, since the example of the elongation of the giraffes" necks for illustrating differences between both theories is presented in this series for the first time, and since then has been adopted by the majority of other textbooks on biology. The main concepts presented as representative of Darwin's and Lamarck's theories by all textbooks are natural selection and the inheritance of acquired characters, respectively. Not only theories but also the authors are differently presented in reviewed textbooks: while Darwin is presented as a model of scientist, Lamarck appears as a speculative theoretician, his theoretical propositions being remarkably deformed and changed from their original formulations.

  20. Robert K. Crane - Na+-Glucose Cotransporter to Cure?

    OpenAIRE

    KirkLHamilton

    2013-01-01

    Dr. Robert K. Crane made major contributions to our understanding of carbohydrate metabolism and transport of the intestine over a very long and productive career. This Perspective examines, briefly, his early life and academic positions, but more importantly, this Perspective highlights his contributions to the understanding of coupled Na+-glucose absorption by the small intestine. I discuss how his early hypothesis of a ‘cotransport’ of sodium and glucose ushered in and provided the physio...

  1. A Voice of Disturbance - Robert Coover und Mythos

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Elisabeth Ly

    2010-01-01

    This monograph about Robert Coover demonstrates that myth in his works is played out not in merely in naming, or as theme, or recycling of symbols, but rather that his preoccupation with myth(s) pervades his entire work, and does so on multiple levels. Coover’s undermining of inherited systems and their forms in a counter-production differentiates him from his contemporaries and grants him an exceptional position. Following an introductory determination of Coover’s literary significance,...

  2. Biographical Listening: Intimacy, Madness and the Music of Robert Schumann

    OpenAIRE

    Braunschweig, Michelle Elizabeth Yael

    2013-01-01

    Evaluating music as psychological utterance and biographical confession emerged as a mode of music criticism during the early to mid-nineteenth century. Ever since, critics have characterized Robert Schumann as a composer whose works and life are bound together inextricably. The ramifications of these values in Schumann reception and scholarship form the subject of this dissertation. The origins of this practice can be found in the late eighteenth century, when German writers began describing...

  3. Robert K. Crane—Na+-glucose cotransporter to cure?

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Kirk L.

    2013-01-01

    Dr. Robert K. Crane made major contributions to our understanding of carbohydrate metabolism and transport of the intestine over a very long and productive career. This Perspective examines, briefly, his early life and academic positions, but more importantly, this Perspective highlights his contributions to the understanding of coupled Na+-glucose absorption by the small intestine. I discuss how his early hypothesis of a “cotransport” of sodium and glucose ushered in and provided the physiol...

  4. Who was J. Robert Oppenheimer? Charisma and Complex Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Thorpe, Charles; Shapin, Steven

    2000-01-01

    Charismatic authority flourishes in places where some social scientists evidently do not expect to find it - in late modernity and in highly complex and instrumentally orientated technoscientific organizations. This paper documents and interprets participants' testimony about the workings of wartime Los Alamos in relation to the charisma of its Scientific Director. J. Robert Oppenheimer. We treat charisma as an interactional accomplishment, and examine its role in technoscientific organizatio...

  5. Robert J. Aumann - matemaatikust Nobeli preemia laureaat / Peeter Puusemp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Puusemp, Peeter

    2006-01-01

    2005. a. Nobeli preemia majanduse alal silmapaistva panuse eest mänguteooria ülesannete lahendamisse saanud Robert J. Aumannist ja D. Saari loetelu matemaatikutest - Nobeli preemia laureaatidest: John Nash'ist, Herbert Hauptman'ist, John Pople'ist, Bertrand Arthur William Russell'ist, Kenneth Joseph Arrow'ist, Gerard Debreu'ist, Leonid Vitaljevitš Kantorovitš'ist, Reinhard Selten'ist, Jan Tinbergen'ist

  6. Robert Ignatius Burns (1921-2008. In memoriam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Teresa Ferrer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Father Robert Ignatius Burns, a corresponding member of our History and Archeology Section, died at the Jesuit residence in Los Gatos, California, on the 22nd of November 2008. His work has been extremely important and will continue to be so in the future due to his extraordinary contributions to our knowledge of a crucial period in the consolidation and expansion of the Catalan-Aragonese monarchy.

  7. Zimbabwean Nationalism and the rise of Robert Mugabe.

    OpenAIRE

    Riley, Mark Francis.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis discusses the black nationalist movement in Zimbabwe. The first is a history of the Zimbabwean nationalist movement, including the emergence and evolution of the nationalist organizations and leaders, the guerrilla war, and the diplomatic negotiations that occurred up to the Lancaster House Settlement of 1979. The second portion explains why and how Robert Mugabe and the Zimbabwe African National Union won the 1980 elections. The author compares Mugabe with his two principle oppon...

  8. Perfil académico del profesor Robert A. Mundell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciencias de Suecia Academia Real de

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Robert A. Mundell es Profesor de Economía de la Universidad de Culumbia en Nueva York de 1974. Despues de estudiar en el MIT y en la Escuela de Economía de Londres, recibio su Ph.D en el MIT en 1956. Obtuvo la Beca Postdoctoral en Economía Politica en la Universidad de Chicago en 1956-1957.

  9. 76 FR 24007 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Lake Charles Carbon Capture...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Lake Charles Carbon Capture and... Industrial Carbon Capture and Sequestration (ICCS) Program. The Lake Charles Carbon Capture and Sequestration Project (Lake Charles CCS Project) would demonstrate: (1) advanced technologies that capture...

  10. 78 FR 28205 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Lake Charles Carbon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Lake Charles Carbon Capture and... Charles Carbon Capture and Sequestration Project Draft ] Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0464D... the Lake Charles Carbon Capture and Sequestration Project, which would be constructed and operated...

  11. An Architecture for the Electronic Church: Oral Roberts University in Tulsa, Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubiak, Margaret M

    2016-04-01

    More than a university, Oral Roberts University in Tulsa, Oklahoma, was also the headquarters for evangelist Oral Roberts's electronic church. The electronic church in America, dominated by Christian evangelicals, used technology to spread the Gospel over radio airways and television signals to a dispersed audience. Yet evangelicals like Roberts also constructed ambitious campuses in real space and time. The architecture of Oral Roberts University visualized a modern and "populuxe" image for the electronic church in the 1960s and 1970s. The university's Prayer Tower purposely alluded to the Seattle Space Needle, aligning religion and the Space Age, and the campus's white, gold, and black color palette on late modern buildings created an image of aspirational luxury, conveying Roberts's health and wealth gospel. Oral Roberts University served as a sound stage for Roberts's radio and television shows, a pilgrimage point for his audience, and a university dedicated to training evangelicals in the electronic church. PMID:27237069

  12. Charles Hard Townes: Remarkable Scientist and Inspiring Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, P. F.

    2016-05-01

    Charles Townes is renowned for his work elucidating the structure of molecules through microwave spectroscopy and for his invention of the maser and the laser. He also had a lifelong interest in astronomy, and in the later portion of his remarkable and long career devoted himself to astronomical research, pioneering the study of molecules in interstellar space and the development of infrared spectroscopy, first from the ground and then from airborne facilities. His interest in high angular resolution, as well as high spectral resolution observations, led to development of the first infrared spatial interferometer employing coherent signal processing techniques. In this short review I will only touch on some of Townes' many scientific contributions, concentrating on astronomy, and will also give some personal thoughts about how he inspired students in their research, helping to make the "Townes Group" at the University of California, Berkeley, an ideal environment in which to start a career in research.

  13. Gustave Flaubert, Charles Dickens, and Isaac Pulvermacher's "magic band".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waits, Robert K

    2013-01-01

    Around 1850, Isaac L. Pulvermacher (1815-1884) joined the ranks of so-called "galvanists" who had, for nearly a century, been touting the shocks and sparks of electricity as a miracle cure for all ills, including neurological complaints such as palsy and hemiplegia. The famed authors, Gustave Flaubert (1821-1880), in France, and Charles Dickens (1812-1870), in England, although contemporaries, apparently never met or corresponded. But during their lives, they both became aware of Pulvermacher and his patented Hydro-Electric Chains, claimed to impart vigor and cure nearly every complaint. Pulvermacher's chains made a cameo appearance in Madame Bovary (1857), Flaubert's controversial (and most successful) novel. Among Dickens's last letters (1870) was an order for I. L. Pulvermacher and Company's "magic band." Since the Victorian age, electrical and magnetic cures, for better or worse, continue to be products of both the medical profession and quackery. PMID:24290267

  14. On the humanism in Charles Dickens' David Copperfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董莉

    2008-01-01

    Charles Dickens was the main representative of English realist in nineteenth century.He was one of the vast host of Victorian novelists.He saw astonishing changes:during his lifetime Britain was transformed from a predominantly rural economy to a major industrial power.Transport,mass communications,education,legal and parliamentary structures.He created fourteen novels in his life.Dickens's activities and creation in his lifetime always kept step with trend of the times.In his works he devoted himself to disclose bourgeoisie's greed and cruelty,and at the same he expressed the deep sympathy with workers and farmers,especially women and children.Dickens considered humanism as the main idea throughout all his works,he eulogized genuineness,goodness,and happiness of human nature.He also hankered a more rationalization society and a more wonderful life.

  15. Charles bonnet syndrome, management with simple behavioral technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baba Awoye Issa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Charles Bonnet syndrome occurs in visually impaired but cognitively normal individuals. This report describes a condition of vivid visual hallucination (phantom images in an 85-year-old conscious man, who had been blind by bilateral progressively worsening glaucoma. This common, but rarely reported, condition was managed by behavioral approach of repeated blinking, intermittent eyes closure, and reassurance. While emotional, mood and cognitive disorders need to be ruled out, the condition, though frightening to the afflicted, is benign and remediable with simple, inexpensive approach. Health workers managing people with terminal blindness should always ask for the presence of hallucinations from their patients to forestall a preventable distress resulting from wrong perception without visual stimulus.

  16. Charles River lower basin artificial destratification project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferullo, A.F.; DiPietro, P.J.; Shaughnessy, R.J.

    1981-06-01

    The Charles River Basin which was created by construction of a dam in 1910 has been stratified since that time with salt water intruding from Boston Harbor through a boat lock and leaky sluices. In order to eliminate nuisance conditions and fish kills caused by hydrogen sulfide from the anoxic bottom water, destratification by air-mixing was initiated in the spring of 1978. Six diffusers were installed on the bottom in the deep sections of the Basin and operated as necessary to induce sufficient circulation to maintain a minimum of 4.0 mg/1 dissolved oxygen throughout the water column. After two and a half years of operation, hydrogen sulfide has been eliminated and water quality has generally improved in the area of the Basin influenced by the diffusers.

  17. VHF Wind Profiling Radar Studies at Darwin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolman, B. K.; Reid, I. M.; May, P. T.; Vincent, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    A 54.1 MHz wind profiling radar was installed at Darwin, Australia in late 2005, to participate in the TWP-ICE campaign, and it has remained in this location. The primary purpose of the instrument was to measure the horizontal and vertical lower troposphere winds in the vertical column above the profiler. The profiler operates at 7.5 kW, and utilizes the Spaced Antenna Full Correlation Analysis (FCA) technique to measure winds, this achieving high temporal resolution. In addition to sampling the wind field, VHF profilers are capable of retrieving the rain drop size distribution (DSD), as radar returns are received from precipitation and clear-air with roughly equal magnitude. DSD retrievals then permit examination of the precipitation structure and spatial and temporal evolution in the vertical column above the profiler as rain bands pass over head. Understanding the evolution of the rain drop size distribution (DSD) in the descent from cloud to ground is important for quantitative precipitation estimation. The Darwin profiler has been used in multiple intercomparison studies. The FCA technique is well known to underestimate the wind magnitude by up to 10%, when compared to other measurement techniques, but agree well in direction. As the profiler is co-located with routine sonde launches, a large intercomparison data set exists, which can be used to investigate empirical corrections to the underestimation. Similarly, profiler vertical velocity estimates can be compared to Doppler Lidar measurements, and the relative strengths of both instruments examined. The profiler can also be used in rainfall studies. During TWP-ICE, when rainfall events passed over the profiler the DSD was retrieved. Each rain event was then separated into stratiform, convective and transitional regions. The integral rainfall parameters were then averaged through each region, and examined for evidence of a dominant microphysical process. For example, evaporation is detected through an

  18. Conferencias a la Memoria de la Dra. Lydia J. Roberts 1967, 1969-1973 (Conferences in Memory of Dr. Lydia J. Roberts 1967, 1969-1973).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerto Rico Univ., Rio Piedras.

    This publication includes eleven lectures presented as part of a conference given honoring Dr. Lydia J. Roberts. Seven of the papers are written in the English language and four in Spanish. Most of the papers relate to the topic of nutrition, but a few pay tribute to Dr. Roberts in recognition of her distinguished leadership and teacher of human…

  19. Dock treatment process : M/T King Darwin spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starkes, R. [Eastern Canada Response Corp. Ltd., Dartmouth, NS (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper discussed the challenges that oil spill responder face when dealing with an incident on docks, piers and other marine structures. In September 2008, Bunker C fuel oil was spilled from the M/T King Darwin during the offloading operation when a pipe flange broke on the deck of the tanker. An estimated 64 tonnes of fuel was spilled in the West Wharf in Dalhousie, New Brunswick. The incident provided an opportunity to develop a response process designed for under-dock structures. The response process involved the following 3 phases: (1) survey and documentation, (2) assessment and characterization, and (3) under-dock treatment plan, development and implementation. Containment booms were deployed around the vessel and dock to control the movement of oil. Oil was also contained on the surface decking of the dock. Most of the oil was contained to the immediate area of the dock. Only a small amount of oil escaped outside the containment boom. The methodology used in this incident proved to be effective and has broader application for future spills. The development of a Dock Oiling Cleanup Assessment Technique (DOCAT) that is complimentary to the established Shoreline Cleanup Assessment Technique (SCAT) process was recommended. 2 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  20. Postcopulatory sexual selection: Darwin's omission and its consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, William G

    2009-06-16

    In one of his few major oversights, Darwin failed to appreciate that male-male competition and sexual selection can continue even after copulation has begun. The postcopulatory equivalents of both direct male-male battles (sperm competition) and female choice (cryptic female choice) occur within the female's body. Recognition of this hidden, but intense, sexual competition provides new insights into a variety of fields. These include the hyperdiverse and paradoxically elaborate morphology of both sperm and male genitalia, the equally puzzling and elaborate morphology of nongenitalic male structures that are specialized to grasp and stimulate females, powerful manipulative effects of substances in male semen on female reproductive physiology, paradoxical male courtship behavior that occurs after copulation has already begun, variability in parental investments, and the puzzlingly complex and diverse interactions between sperm and female products that surround animal eggs and between male gametophytes and female tissues in flowering plants. Many bizarre traits are involved, including male genitalia that are designed to explode or fall apart during copulation leaving behind parts within the female, male genitalia that "sing" during copulation, potent seminal products that invade the female's body cavity and her nervous system to influence her behavior, and a virtual Kama Sutra of courtship behavior performed after rather than before genital coupling, including male-female dialogues during copulation. PMID:19528642

  1. Universal Darwinism As a Process of Bayesian Inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, John O

    2016-01-01

    Many of the mathematical frameworks describing natural selection are equivalent to Bayes' Theorem, also known as Bayesian updating. By definition, a process of Bayesian Inference is one which involves a Bayesian update, so we may conclude that these frameworks describe natural selection as a process of Bayesian inference. Thus, natural selection serves as a counter example to a widely-held interpretation that restricts Bayesian Inference to human mental processes (including the endeavors of statisticians). As Bayesian inference can always be cast in terms of (variational) free energy minimization, natural selection can be viewed as comprising two components: a generative model of an "experiment" in the external world environment, and the results of that "experiment" or the "surprise" entailed by predicted and actual outcomes of the "experiment." Minimization of free energy implies that the implicit measure of "surprise" experienced serves to update the generative model in a Bayesian manner. This description closely accords with the mechanisms of generalized Darwinian process proposed both by Dawkins, in terms of replicators and vehicles, and Campbell, in terms of inferential systems. Bayesian inference is an algorithm for the accumulation of evidence-based knowledge. This algorithm is now seen to operate over a wide range of evolutionary processes, including natural selection, the evolution of mental models and cultural evolutionary processes, notably including science itself. The variational principle of free energy minimization may thus serve as a unifying mathematical framework for universal Darwinism, the study of evolutionary processes operating throughout nature. PMID:27375438

  2. The formal Darwinism project: a mid-term report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafen, A

    2007-07-01

    For 8 years I have been pursuing in print an ambitious and at times highly technical programme of work, the 'Formal Darwinism Project', whose essence is to underpin and formalize the fitness optimization ideas used by behavioural ecologists, using a new kind of argument linking the mathematics of motion and the mathematics of optimization. The value of the project is to give stronger support to current practices, and at the same time sharpening theoretical ideas and suggesting principled resolutions of some untidy areas, for example, how to define fitness. The aim is also to unify existing free-standing theoretical structures, such as inclusive fitness theory, Evolutionary Stable Strategy (ESS) theory and bet-hedging theory. The 40-year-old misunderstanding over the meaning of fitness optimization between mathematicians and biologists is explained. Most of the elements required for a general theory have now been implemented, but not together in the same framework, and 'general time' remains to be developed and integrated with the other elements to produce a final unified theory of neo-Darwinian natural selection. PMID:17584220

  3. Is Beak Morphology in Darwin's Finches Tuned to Loading Demands?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joris Soons

    Full Text Available One of nature's premier illustrations of adaptive evolution concerns the tight correspondence in birds between beak morphology and feeding behavior. In seed-crushing birds, beaks have been suggested to evolve at least in part to avoid fracture. Yet, we know little about mechanical relationships between beak shape, stress dissipation, and fracture avoidance. This study tests these relationships for Darwin's finches, a clade of birds renowned for their diversity in beak form and function. We obtained anatomical data from micro-CT scans and dissections, which in turn informed the construction of finite element models of the bony beak and rhamphotheca. Our models offer two new insights. First, engineering safety factors are found to range between 1 and 2.5 under natural loading conditions, with the lowest safety factors being observed in species with the highest bite forces. Second, size-scaled finite element (FE models reveal a correspondence between inferred beak loading profiles and observed feeding strategies (e.g. edge-crushing versus tip-biting, with safety factors decreasing for base-crushers biting at the beak tip. Additionally, we identify significant correlations between safety factors, keratin thickness at bite locations, and beak aspect ratio (depth versus length. These lines of evidence together suggest that beak shape indeed evolves to resist feeding forces.

  4. Johnson-Kendall-Roberts theory applied to living cells

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Y S; Thiery, J P; Pérez, E; Pincet, F; Chu, Yeh-Shiu; Dufour, Sylvie; Thiery, Jean Paul; Perez, Eric; Pincet, Frédéric

    2005-01-01

    Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) theory is an accurate model for strong adhesion energies of soft slightly deformable material. Little is known about the validity of this theory on complex systems such as living cells. We have addressed this problem using a depletion controlled cell adhesion and measured the force necessary to separate the cells with a micropipette technique. We show that the cytoskeleton can provide the cells with a 3D structure that is sufficiently elastic and has a sufficiently low deformability for JKR theory to be valid. When the cytoskeleton is disrupted, JKR theory is no longer applicable.

  5. An Archetypal Study of Plant Imagery in Robert Frost's Poems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱芬芬

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most popular American poets in the twentieth century, Robert Frost demonstrated myriads of universally acknowledged works to the world. This paper aims to analyze the plant imagery appearing in his poems from the perspective of archetypal theory. This study, on the basis of analyzing poetic texts, utilizes content analysis to classify plant images into four types and work out relevant statistics. After data analysis based on thematology and archetypal theory, the study finds that plant images in his poems demonstrate the relationship between human beings and nature, psychological conflicts of the poet, death and dismay, expectation for life and rebirth.

  6. Robert Graves y Mallorca: su narrativa breve mallorquina

    OpenAIRE

    Segui Aznar, Juana Mª

    2005-01-01

    Aquest treball d'investigació explora i analitza divuit narracions curtes de Robert Graves publicades al llarg dels anys 1947 a 1962. Està dirigit a establir la relació entre Graves i Mallorca mitjançant els elements autobiogràfics i locals que es poden trobar en les narracions. La idiosincràsia de l'illa queda reflectida en la descripció i comportament dels personatges, en els aspectes socials, polítics, culturals i lingüístics, i en l'escenari espaciotemporal d'aquestes narracions; tots aqu...

  7. The Diffident Naturalist Robert Boyle and the Philosophy of Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Sargent, Rose-Mary

    1995-01-01

    In a provocative reassessment of one of the quintessential figures of early modern science, Rose-Mary Sargent explores Robert Boyle's philosophy of experiment, a central aspect of his life and work that became a model for mid- to late seventeenth-century natural philosophers and for many who followed them. Sargent examines the philosophical, legal, experimental, and religious traditions—among them English common law, alchemy, medicine, and Christianity—that played a part in shaping Boyle's experimental thought and practice. The roots of his philosophy in his early life and education, in his re

  8. On the Study of Richard Tom Robert Identity

    CERN Document Server

    Tsai, Yeong-Shyeong

    2008-01-01

    In order to estimate the average speed of mosquitoes, a simple experiment was designed by Richard (Lu-Hsing Tsai), Tom (Po-Yu Tsai) and Robert (Hung-Ming Tsai). The result of the experiment was posted in the science exhibitions Taichung Taiwan 1993. The average speed of mosquitoes is inferred by the simple relation is obtained In this paper, we will show how to get the data generated by computer. Though the rigorous proof is not shown, a sketch proof will be shown in this paper

  9. Robert Aymar awarded the Légion d’honneur

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

      On 24 May, Robert Aymar, CERN Director-General from 2004 to 2008, was awarded the Légion d’honneur by the French authorities in recognition of his outstanding scientific career. A renowned French physicist, he was Director of the superconducting tokamak Tore Supra from 1977 to 1988, Director of Material Sciences at the CEA in 1990 and Director of the ITER project in 1994. His term of office as CERN Director-General was marked in particular by the commissioning and start-up of the LHC machine, which he inaugurated on 21 October 2008.        

  10. Summary Robert Noyce and the invention of Silicon Valley

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This work offers a summary of the book "THE MAN BEHIND THE MICROCHIP: Robert Noyce and the Invention of Silicon Valley""by Leslie Berlin.The Man behind the Microchip is Leslie Berlin's first book. This author is project historian for the Silicon Valley Archives, a division of the Stanford University Department of Special Collections. This book tells the story of a giant of the high-tech industry: the multimillionaire Bob Noyce. This co-founder of Fairchild Semiconductor and Intel co-invented the integrated circuit which became the electronic heart of every modern computer, automobile, advance

  11. Antes de los Estudios Culturales. Robert Warshow y la experiencia

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Lastra

    2008-01-01

    Este artículo estudia la influencia del concepto de experiencia que desarrolla Robert Warshow. Warshow ha supuesto el contrapunto americano a las teorías desarrolladas por Walter Benjamien en Europa. Si bien ambos insistieron en la pobreza de la experiencia, como resultado de la tecnificación de la sociedad, Warshow supo introducir matizaciones que influyeron en todo el círculo de intelectuales concentrados en Nueva York durante la etapa de consolidación de los Estudios Culturales. This paper...

  12. Singing his praises: Darwin and his theory in song and musical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smocovitis, Vassiliki Betty

    2009-09-01

    This essay offers a chronological survey of the range of songs and musical productions inspired by Darwin and his theory since they entered the public sphere some 150 years ago.It draws on an unusual set of historical materials, including illustrated sheet music, lyrics and librettos, wax cylinder recordings, vinyl records, and video recordings located in digital and sound archives and on the Internet. It also offers a characterization of the varied genres and a literary analysis of the forms as a way of understanding the diverse audiences engaging, and indeed "entertaining," Darwin and the implications of his theory. It argues that the engagement with Darwin and his celebrated theory is far more creative than has been appreciated and recommends that historians of science further explore Darwin and his theory as embodied ina fuller range of cultural expressions. This will lead to an understanding of Darwin's "iconic"status that draws on a fuller range of human sensory experience and that also enables us to appreciate his--and his theory's-enduring power to engage the human imagination. PMID:20166251

  13. 2010 NOAA Ortho-rectified Mosaic from Color Aerial Imagery of LAKE CHARLES (NODC Accession 0075827)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative of LAKE CHARLES. The...

  14. 2010 NOAA Ortho-rectified Mosaic from Color Aerial Imagery of LAKE CHARLES

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative of LAKE CHARLES. The...

  15. Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge including the satellite refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1979 calendar year....

  16. Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Charles M. Russell NWR including the satellite refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1982 calendar year. The report...

  17. Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Charles M. Russell NWR including the satellite refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1981 calendar year. The report...

  18. 75 FR 54381 - Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge and UL Bend National Wildlife Refuge, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... wild ungulates and responsible synthetic methods such as farming and tree planting. Wildlife-dependent... Register (72 FR 68174, December 4, 2007). Charles M. Russell and UL Bend NWRs encompass nearly 1.1...

  19. Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Range : Narrative Report : January - December 1967

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Range (includes satellite refuges: Hailstone, Halfbreed, Mason, Miller, Yellow Water, War...

  20. Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Range : Narrative Report : January - December 1966

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Range (includes satellite refuges: Hailstone, Halfbreed, Mason, Miller, Yellow Water, War...

  1. Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Range : Narrative Report : January - December 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Range (includes satellite refuges: Hailstone, Halfbreed, Mason, Miller, Yellow Water, War...

  2. Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Range : Narrative Report : January - December 1964

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Charles M. Russell NWR (including the satellite refuges: Hailstone, Halfbreed, Mason, Miller, Yellow Water, War Horse, and Wild...

  3. Charles M. Russell NWR administrative inspection, July 25-29, 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is an administrative inspection report for Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge, completed July 2529, 1994. The following areas were reviewed: buildings...

  4. Charles M. Russell & UL Bend NWR Report on Wilderness Character Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses 43 possible wilderness character monitoring measures for Charles M. Russell and UL Bend National Wildlife Refuges. In 2011, measures were...

  5. Charles M Russell National Wildlife Refuge [Land Status Map: Sheet 1 of 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge. It was generated from rectified aerial...

  6. Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Range : Narrative Report : January - April 1963

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Charles M. Russell outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1963. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  7. Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Range : Narrative Report : September to December 1963

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Charles M. Russell outlines Refuge accomplishments from September to December of 1963. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  8. Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Charles M. Russell NWR (including the satellite refuges) outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1983 calendar year. The report...

  9. Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Charles M. Russell NWR (including the satellite refuges) outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1984 calendar year. The report...

  10. Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Charles M. Russell NWR, War Horse NWR, Lake Mason NWR, Hailstone NWR, Halfbreed NWR, Tew WPA, and Spidel WPA outlines Refuge...

  11. Relations between logic and mathematics in the work of Benjamin and Charles S. Peirce.

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Alison

    1999-01-01

    Charles Peirce (1839-1914) was one of the most important logicians of the nineteenth century. This thesis traces the development of his algebraic logic from his early papers, with especial attention paid to the mathematical aspects. There are three main sources to consider. 1) Benjamin Peirce (1809-1880), Charles's father and also a leading American mathematician of his day, was an inspiration. His memoir Linear Associative Algebra (1870) is summarised and for the first time the algebraic ...

  12. Gender Differences in Cognition in China and Reasons for Change over Time: Evidence from CHARLS

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Xiaoyan; Smith, James P.; Sun, Xiaoting; Zhao, Yaohui

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we model gender differences in cognitive ability in China using a new sample of middle-aged and older Chinese respondents. Modeled after the American Health and Retirement Survey (HRS), CHARLS respondents are 45 years and older and are nationally representative of the Chinese population in this age span. Our measures of cognition in CHARLS relies on two measures that proxy for different dimensions of adult cognition - episodic memory and intact mental status. We relate these co...

  13. Charles Darwin’s lost Cinereous Harrier found in the collection of the National Museum of Natural History Leiden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grouw, van H.; Steinheimer, F.D.

    2008-01-01

    During reorganisation of the Leiden bird collection a mounted harrier was found what seemed to be one of the still lost specimens collected by Darwin. After closer research it turned out it was indeed the last missing harrier of the Darwin collection.

  14. "Professor" Charles Tyrrell and his ideal sight restorer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, A P

    1986-09-01

    Charles A. Tyrrell was a masseur who obtained his MD degree at age 57 in 1900. In addition to his private practice he was editor of several pseudomedical magazines. He also owned two proprietary ventures that he conducted on a mail order basis. One of these involved production and sale of the The Ideal Sight Restorer, a U-shaped device consisting of a rubber bulb at the base, from which on both sides arose an arm of rubber tubing capped by an ivory eye piece. The eye cups were applied to the closed eyelids and the intermittent suction produced by squeezing the rubber bulb was claimed to provide a form of ocular massage capable of curing serious eye diseases (eg. cataract and glaucoma), as well as doing away with the need for spectacles. Although his fraudulent activities and deceptive advertising practices were described on several occasions in the Journal of the American Medical Association, Dr. Tyrrell persisted in his enterprises until he died in 1918. PMID:3543791

  15. On Cas A, Cassini, Comets and King Charles

    CERN Document Server

    Soria, Roberto; Ohtsuka, Yasuyo

    2013-01-01

    We re-examine the long-standing problem of the date of the Cassiopeia A supernova (SN), in view of recent claims that it might be the 1630 "noon-star" seen at the birth of King Charles II. We do not support this identification, based on the expected brightness of a Type-IIb SN (too faint to be seen in daylight), the extrapolated motion of the ejecta (inconsistent with a date earlier than 1650), the lack of any scientific follow-up observations, the lack of any mention of it in Asian archives. The origin of the 1630 noon-star event (if real) remains a mystery; there was a bright comet in 1630 June but no evidence to determine whether or not it was visible in daylight. Instead, we present French reports about a 4th-magnitude star discovered by Cassini in Cassiopeia in or shortly before 1671, which was not seen before or since. The brightness is consistent with what we expect for the Cas A SN; the date is consistent with the extrapolated motion of the ejecta. We argue that this source could be the long-sought SN...

  16. Charles Everett Koop: the “Family doctor of America”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bucci

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Charles Everett Koop was a great Surgeon General, probably the most influential in the history of the United States of America. He never missed courage in his life and often he had used it to tackle professional and personal tough problems.In his public activity, he faced controversial health problems of American people as smoking, abortion and the first occurrence of the epidemic Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS. Koop was a rigorous man. The lodestar that guided Koop in his work, as a public servant was to do the best for health of Americans. In his prestigious and difficult role, he faced the pressing problems of health of millions of people trying to avoid political influence. During his mandate of eight years, Koop increased the influence and authority of his role. His appearance and behaviour were unmistakable: Lincolnesque beard and uniform, conduct hard and pure, exclusively oriented to the health of citizens, over the personal conveniences, political pressure and lobbying. An exemplary man, who for his passion for medicine and his sincere interest in promoting public health, was affectionately considered the "Family Doctor of America".

  17. 'The adventure': Charles-Ferdinand Ramuz's extraordinary stroke diary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogousslavsky, J

    2010-01-01

    The famous Swiss writer Charles-Ferdinand Ramuz suffered a stroke at 65 years, which he called 'the adventure' or 'the accident'. He developed language disturbances suggesting crossed aphasia in a right hander with left hemiparesis. This uncommon pattern allowed him to continue to write his diary and to report his disturbances, with a unique depth and precision, especially for cognitive-emotional changes. Language and motor dysfunction recovered within a few weeks, but Ramuz complained of persisting emotional flattening alternating with irritability, fatigue, depression, anxiety, and concentration difficulty, which gave him the feeling to have become another person and to be inhabited by a stranger, whom he compared with devils. Ramuz fought several months to resume his literary activity, having the impression to have lost inspiration and creativity. However, the novels he wrote less than 6 months after stroke show no stylistic changes and have been found to be of the same quality as his previous production. Ramuz even 'used' his stroke experience in his work, in particular in a novel depicting an old man who has a stroke and dies of it. Ramuz's diary, with his own daily description of stroke features and consequences during acute and recovery phases, is a unique document in a writer of his importance, and provides invaluable information on subjective emotional and cognitive experience of stroke. PMID:20375532

  18. Robert Schumann in the psychiatric hospital at Endenich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Robert Schumann (1810-1856) spent the last two-and-a-half years of his life in the private psychiatric hospital in Endenich. His medical records emerged in 1991 and were published by B. R. Appel in 2006. Daily entries document the treatment typical at that time for what was at first considered to be "melancholy with delusions": Shielding from stimuli, physical procedures, and a dietary regimen. The feared, actual diagnosis, a "general (incomplete) paralysis," becomes a certainty in the course of the paranoid-hallucinatory symptoms with cerebro-organic characteristics and agitated states, differences in pupil size, and increasing speech disturbances. In the medicine of the time, syphilis is just emerging as the suspected cause, and the term "progressive paralysis" is coined as typical for the course. Proof of the Treponema pallidum infection and the serologic reaction is not obtained until 1906. People close to Robert, in particular his wife Clara and the circle of friends around Brahms and Joachim, cared intensively for him and suffered under the therapeutic isolation. The medical records and illness-related letters contradict the theory that Schumann was disposed of by being put into the psychiatric hospital; they show the concern of all during the unfavorable illness course. PMID:25684293

  19. Darwin's manufactory hypothesis is confirmed and predicts the extinction risk of extant birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Haskell

    Full Text Available In the Origin of Species Darwin hypothesized that the "manufactory" of species operates at different rates in different lineages and that the richness of taxonomic units is autocorrelated across levels of the taxonomic hierarchy. We confirm the manufactory hypothesis using a database of all the world's extant avian subspecies, species and genera. The hypothesis is confirmed both in correlations across all genera and in paired comparisons controlling for phylogeny. We also find that the modern risk of extinction, as measured by "Red List" classifications, differs across the different categories of genera identified by Darwin. Specifically, species in "manufactory" genera are less likely to be threatened, endangered or recently extinct than are "weak manufactory" genera. Therefore, although Darwin used his hypothesis to investigate past evolutionary processes, we find that the hypothesis also foreshadows future changes to the evolutionary tree.

  20. Claiming Darwin: Stephen Jay Gould in contests over evolutionary orthodoxy and public perception, 1977-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Myrna Perez

    2014-03-01

    This article analyzes the impact of the resurgence of American creationism in the early 1980s on debates within post-synthesis evolutionary biology. During this period, many evolutionists criticized Harvard biologist Stephen Jay Gould for publicizing his revisions to traditional Darwinian theory and opening evolution to criticism by creationists. Gould's theory of punctuated equilibrium was a significant source of contention in these disputes. Both he and his critics, including Richard Dawkins, claimed to be carrying the mantle of Darwinian evolution. By the end of the 1990s, the debate over which evolutionary thinkers were the rightful heirs to Darwin's evolutionary theory was also a conversation over whether Darwinism could be defended against creationists in the broader cultural context. Gould and others' claims to Darwin shaped the contours of a political, religious and scientific controversy. PMID:24457049