WorldWideScience

Sample records for charging infrastructure review

  1. 2009 Infrastructure Platform Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, John [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass program‘s Infrastructure platform review meeting, held on February 19, 2009, at the Marriott Residence Inn, National Harbor, Maryland.

  2. U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program -- Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity -- Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Morrow; Donald Darner; James Francfort

    2008-11-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are under evaluation by various stake holders to better understand their capability and potential benefits. PHEVs could allow users to significantly improve fuel economy over a standard HEV and in some cases, depending on daily driving requirements and vehicle design, have the ability to eliminate fuel consumption entirely for daily vehicle trips. The cost associated with providing charge infrastructure for PHEVs, along with the additional costs for the on-board power electronics and added battery requirements associated with PHEV technology will be a key factor in the success of PHEVs. This report analyzes the infrastructure requirements for PHEVs in single family residential, multi-family residential and commercial situations. Costs associated with this infrastructure are tabulated, providing an estimate of the infrastructure costs associated with PHEV deployment.

  3. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review. Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindauer, Alicia [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Infrastructure Platform Review meeting.

  4. Oil Giants to Build Electric Charging Infrastructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dou Yali

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's Domestic oil companies have started developing charging stations for electric vehicles to cash in on the growth in clean energy.The country is pushing forward development of new energy vehicles,in particular electric vehicles,consistent with its status as the world's largest car market and auto-producing country,as well as the world's largest exporter of new energy vehicles.

  5. The economics of fast charging infrastructure for electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By 2011 little is known about the economic rationale of public fast chargers for electric vehicles (EV). This paper aims at providing an insight into the business case of this technology in a case study for Germany. The estimated Return on Investment (ROI) of a public fast charging station constitutes the main contribution. Potential users and organization structures are investigated as well as different tariff types. According to the estimations, the current market outlook seems too uncertain for triggering a large-scale roll-out of fast charging infrastructure. Approximations suggest that investment is hardly profitable at low EV adoption rates, unless investment cost can be severely lowered. Besides competition with alternative charging solutions, the general EV adoption rate is detected as being a main risk factor for investment in public charging infrastructure. Highlights: ► Private investment into public fast charging infrastructure appears to be driven by other than pure project prospects at current EV penetration rates. ► High cost markups are needed to refinance investment, unless grid tariffs are exempted or constant high demand is assured. ► Investment into public fast charging remains risky and incentives can be contained by the spreading of alternative home-charging devices and alternative propulsion technologies.

  6. A review of four distribution infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, J.; Edwards, N.; Cole, R.

    1994-06-01

    The paper describes experiences in designing and implementing a groupware application (a shared whiteboard) on four different distribution infrastructures. We describe the application and how its design was influenced by reliability requirements. We review the four platforms and discuss the useful, and not so useful, features of each platform.

  7. Review of CERN Data Centre Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, P.; Bell, T.; van Eldik, J.; McCance, G.; Panzer-Steindel, B.; Coelho dos Santos, M.; Traylen and, S.; Schwickerath, U.

    2012-12-01

    The CERN Data Centre is reviewing strategies for optimizing the use of the existing infrastructure and expanding to a new data centre by studying how other large sites are being operated. Over the past six months, CERN has been investigating modern and widely-used tools and procedures used for virtualisation, clouds and fabric management in order to reduce operational effort, increase agility and support unattended remote data centres. This paper gives the details on the project's motivations, current status and areas for future investigation.

  8. Review of CERN Data Centre Infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Andrade, P; van Eldik, J; McCance, G; Panzer-Steindel, B; Coelho dos Santos, M; Traylen, S; Schwickerath, U

    2012-01-01

    The CERN Data Centre is reviewing strategies for optimizing the use of the existing infrastructure and expanding to a new data centre by studying how other large sites are being operated. Over the past six months, CERN has been investigating modern and widely-used tools and procedures used for virtualisation, clouds and fabric management in order to reduce operational effort, increase agility and support unattended remote data centres. This paper gives the details on the project’s motivations, current status and areas for future investigation.

  9. Cost-effective electric vehicle charging infrastructure siting for Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Colin J. R.; Gopal, Anand R.; Harris, Andrew; Jacobson, Arne

    2016-06-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) represent a substantial opportunity for governments to reduce emissions of both air pollutants and greenhouse gases. The Government of India has set a goal of deploying 6–7 million hybrid and PEVs on Indian roads by the year 2020. The uptake of PEVs will depend on, among other factors like high cost, how effectively range anxiety is mitigated through the deployment of adequate electric vehicle charging stations (EVCS) throughout a region. The Indian Government therefore views EVCS deployment as a central part of their electric mobility mission. The plug-in electric vehicle infrastructure (PEVI) model—an agent-based simulation modeling platform—was used to explore the cost-effective siting of EVCS throughout the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, India. At 1% penetration in the passenger car fleet, or ∼10 000 battery electric vehicles (BEVs), charging services can be provided to drivers for an investment of 4.4 M (or 440/BEV) by siting 2764 chargers throughout the NCT of Delhi with an emphasis on the more densely populated and frequented regions of the city. The majority of chargers sited by this analysis were low power, Level 1 chargers, which have the added benefit of being simpler to deploy than higher power alternatives. The amount of public infrastructure needed depends on the access that drivers have to EVCS at home, with 83% more charging capacity required to provide the same level of service to a population of drivers without home chargers compared to a scenario with home chargers. Results also depend on the battery capacity of the BEVs adopted, with approximately 60% more charging capacity needed to achieve the same level of service when vehicles are assumed to have 57 km versus 96 km of range.

  10. Business Models for Solar Powered Charging Stations to Develop Infrastructure for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Robinson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Electric power must become less dependent on fossil fuels and transportation must become more electric to decrease carbon emissions and mitigate climate change. Increasing availability and accessibility of charging stations is predicted to increase purchases of electric vehicles. In order to address the current inadequate charging infrastructure for electric vehicles, major entities must adopt business models for solar powered charging stations (SPCS. These SPCS should be located in parking lots to produce electricity for the grid and provide an integrated infrastructure for charging electric vehicles. Due to the lack of information related to SPCS business models, this manuscript designs several models for major entities including industry, the federal and state government, utilities, universities, and public parking. A literature review of the available relevant business models and case studies of constructed charging stations was completed to support the proposals. In addition, a survey of a university’s students, staff, and faculty was conducted to provide consumer research on people’s opinion of SPCS construction and preference of business model aspects. Results showed that 69% of respondents would be more willing to invest in an electric vehicle if there was sufficient charging station infrastructure at the university. Among many recommendations, the business models suggest installing level 1 charging for the majority of entities, and to match entities’ current pricing structures for station use. The manuscript discusses the impacts of fossil fuel use, and the benefits of electric car and SPCS use, accommodates for the present gap in available literature on SPCS business models, and provides current consumer data for SPCS and the models proposed.

  11. Charged current review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental measurements of the τ lifetime and leptonic branching ratios are combined to give updated world averages for these quantities. The results are then used to test the universality of the electroweak charged current couplings to the three lepton species and are found to be consistent with Standard Model predictions at the level of 0.2%, permitting limits to be derived on non-Standard Model physics such as the mass of the τ neutrino

  12. Electric vehicle charging infrastructure assignment and power grid impacts assessment in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper estimates the charging demand of an early electric vehicle (EV) market in Beijing and proposes an assignment model to distribute charging infrastructure. It finds that each type of charging infrastructure has its limitation, and integration is needed to offer a reliable charging service. It also reveals that the service radius of fast charging stations directly influences the final distribution pattern and an infrastructure deployment strategy with short service radius for fast charging stations has relatively fewer disturbances on the power grid. Additionally, although the adoption of electric vehicles will cause an additional electrical load on the Beijing's power grid, this additional load can be accommodated by the current grid's capacity via the charging time management and the battery swap strategy. - Highlight: ► Charging posts, fast charging stations, and battery swap stations should be integrated. ► Charging posts at home parking places will take a major role in a charging network. ► A service radius of 2 km is proposed for fast charging stations deployment. ► The additional charging load from EVs can be accommodated by charging time management.

  13. Cloud Infrastructure Service Management - A Review

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The new era of computing called Cloud Computing allows the user to access the cloud services dynamically over the Internet wherever and whenever needed. Cloud consists of data and resources; and the cloud services include the delivery of software, infrastructure, applications, and storage over the Internet based on user demand through Internet. In short, cloud computing is a business and economic model allowing the users to utilize high-end computing and storage virtually with minimal infrast...

  14. Regulatory framework and business models for charging plug-in electric vehicles: Infrastructure, agents, and commercial relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electric vehicles (EVs) present efficiency and environmental advantages over conventional transportation. It is expected that in the next decade this technology will progressively penetrate the market. The integration of plug-in electric vehicles in electric power systems poses new challenges in terms of regulation and business models. This paper proposes a conceptual regulatory framework for charging EVs. Two new electricity market agents, the EV charging manager and the EV aggregator, in charge of developing charging infrastructure and providing charging services are introduced. According to that, several charging modes such as EV home charging, public charging on streets, and dedicated charging stations are formulated. Involved market agents and their commercial relationships are analysed in detail. The paper elaborates the opportunities to formulate more sophisticated business models for vehicle-to-grid applications under which the storage capability of EV batteries is used for providing peak power or frequency regulation to support the power system operation. Finally penetration phase dependent policy and regulatory recommendations are given concerning time-of-use pricing, smart meter deployment, stable and simple regulation for reselling energy on private property, roll-out of public charging infrastructure as well as reviewing of grid codes and operational system procedures for interactions between network operators and vehicle aggregators. - Highlights: → A conceptual regulatory framework for charging EVs is proposed. → 2 new agents, EV charging point manager, EV aggregator and their functions are introduced. → Depending on private or public access of charging points, contractual relations change. → A classification of charging scenarios alludes implications on regulatory topics. → EV penetration phase dependent policy and regulatory recommendations are given.

  15. Electric mobility and charging: systems of systems and infrastructure systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnema, G. Maarten; Muller, Gerrit; Schuddeboom, Lisette

    2015-01-01

    In light of European and worldwide environmental programs, reduction of CO2 emissions and improvements in air quality receive a lot of attention. A prominent way to improve on both aspects is the replacement of Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles with Electrical Vehicles. Yet, simply replacing vehicles will not result in proper electric mobility because using Electrical Vehicles depends on many systems and infrastructures including the chargers, parking sites and payment structures. In this p...

  16. Planning Minimum Interurban Fast Charging Infrastructure for Electric Vehicles: Methodology and Application to Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Colmenar-Santos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the research is to assess the minimum requirement of fast charging infrastructure to allow country-wide interurban electric vehicle (EV mobility. Charging times comparable to fueling times in conventional internal combustion vehicles are nowadays feasible, given the current availability of fast charging technologies. The main contribution of this paper is the analysis of the planning method and the investment requirements for the necessary infrastructure, including the definition of the Maximum Distance between Fast Charge (MDFC and the Basic Highway Charging Infrastructure (BHCI concepts. According to the calculations, distance between stations will be region-dependent, influenced primarily by weather conditions. The study considers that the initial investment should be sufficient to promote the EV adoption, proposing an initial state-financed public infrastructure and, once the adoption rate for EVs increases, additional infrastructure will be likely developed through private investment. The Spanish network of state highways is used as a case study to demonstrate the methodology and calculate the investment required. Further, the results are discussed and quantitatively compared to other incentives and policies supporting EV technology adoption in the light-vehicle sector.

  17. Integrated Nuclear Infrastructure Review (INIR) Missions: The First Six Years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IAEA Integrated Nuclear Infrastructure Review (INIR) missions are designed to assist Member States in evaluating the status of their national infrastructure for the introduction of a nuclear power programme. INIR missions are conducted upon request from the Member State. Each INIR mission is coordinated and led by the IAEA and conducted by a team of IAEA staff and international experts drawn from Member States which have experience in different aspects of developing and deploying nuclear infrastructure. INIR missions cover the 19 infrastructure issues described in Milestones in the Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power, IAEA Nuclear Energy Series No. NG-G-3.1, published in 2007 and revised in 2015, and the assessment is based on an analysis of a self-evaluation report prepared by the Member State, a review of the documents it provides and interviews with its key officials. Phase 1 INIR missions evaluate the status of the infrastructure to achieve Milestone 1 (Ready to make a knowledgeable commitment to a nuclear power programme). Phase 2 INIR missions evaluate the status of the infrastructure to achieve Milestone 2 (Ready to invite bids/negotiate a contract for the first nuclear power plant). From 2009 to 2014, 14 IAEA INIR missions and follow-ups were conducted in States embarking on a nuclear power programme and one State expanding its programme. During this time, considerable experience was gained by the IAEA on the conduct of INIR missions, and this feedback has been used to continually improve the overall INIR methodology. The INIR methodology has thus evolved and is far more comprehensive today than in 2009. Despite the limited number of INIR missions conducted, some common findings were identified in Member States embarking on nuclear power programmes. This publication summarizes the results of the missions and highlights the most significant areas in which recommendations were made

  18. System Component Modelling of Electric Vehicles and Charging Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Tsakmakis, Emanuel

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a model for the electrical components that are involved in charging and discharging of an electric vehicle (EV). This will enable testing differ-ent energy management strategies that improve energy efficiency, battery lifetime, and ener-gy availability. Furthermore, the model will enable the investigation of vehicle to grid (V2G), thermal preconditioning of vehicles, and an economic analysis and optimization. In order to achieve the above goals,...

  19. Nuclear Energy Infrastructure Database Fitness and Suitability Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidrich, Brenden [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    In 2014, the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Science and Technology Innovation (NE-4) initiated the Nuclear Energy-Infrastructure Management Project by tasking the Nuclear Science User Facilities (NSUF) to create a searchable and interactive database of all pertinent NE supported or related infrastructure. This database will be used for analyses to establish needs, redundancies, efficiencies, distributions, etc. in order to best understand the utility of NE’s infrastructure and inform the content of the infrastructure calls. The NSUF developed the database by utilizing data and policy direction from a wide variety of reports from the Department of Energy, the National Research Council, the International Atomic Energy Agency and various other federal and civilian resources. The NEID contains data on 802 R&D instruments housed in 377 facilities at 84 institutions in the US and abroad. A Database Review Panel (DRP) was formed to review and provide advice on the development, implementation and utilization of the NEID. The panel is comprised of five members with expertise in nuclear energy-associated research. It was intended that they represent the major constituencies associated with nuclear energy research: academia, industry, research reactor, national laboratory, and Department of Energy program management. The Nuclear Energy Infrastructure Database Review Panel concludes that the NSUF has succeeded in creating a capability and infrastructure database that identifies and documents the major nuclear energy research and development capabilities across the DOE complex. The effort to maintain and expand the database will be ongoing. Detailed information on many facilities must be gathered from associated institutions added to complete the database. The data must be validated and kept current to capture facility and instrumentation status as well as to cover new acquisitions and retirements.

  20. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi and P. Tropea

    2012-01-01

    The CMS Infrastructures teams are preparing for the LS1 activities. A long list of maintenance, consolidation and upgrade projects for CMS Infrastructures is on the table and is being discussed among Technical Coordination and sub-detector representatives. Apart from the activities concerning the cooling infrastructures (see below), two main projects have started: the refurbishment of the SX5 building, from storage area to RP storage and Muon stations laboratory; and the procurement of a new dry-gas (nitrogen and dry air) plant for inner detector flushing. We briefly present here the work done on the first item, leaving the second one for the next CMS Bulletin issue. The SX5 building is entering its third era, from main assembly building for CMS from 2000 to 2007, to storage building from 2008 to 2012, to RP storage and Muon laboratory during LS1 and beyond. A wall of concrete blocks has been erected to limit the RP zone, while the rest of the surface has been split between the ME1/1 and the CSC/DT laborat...

  1. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi and P. Tropea

    2011-01-01

    Most of the work relating to Infrastructure has been concentrated in the new CSC and RPC manufactory at building 904, on the Prevessin site. Brand new gas distribution, powering and HVAC infrastructures are being deployed and the production of the first CSC chambers has started. Other activities at the CMS site concern the installation of a new small crane bridge in the Cooling technical room in USC55, in order to facilitate the intervention of the maintenance team in case of major failures of the chilled water pumping units. The laser barrack in USC55 has been also the object of a study, requested by the ECAL community, for the new laser system that shall be delivered in few months. In addition, ordinary maintenance works have been performed during the short machine stops on all the main infrastructures at Point 5 and in preparation to the Year-End Technical Stop (YETS), when most of the systems will be carefully inspected in order to ensure a smooth running through the crucial year 2012. After the incide...

  2. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A.Gaddi

    2011-01-01

    Between the end of March to June 2011, there has been no detector downtime during proton fills due to CMS Infrastructures failures. This exceptional performance is a clear sign of the high quality work done by the CMS Infrastructures unit and its supporting teams. Powering infrastructure At the end of March, the EN/EL group observed a problem with the CMS 48 V system. The problem was a lack of isolation between the negative (return) terminal and earth. Although at that moment we were not seeing any loss of functionality, in the long term it would have led to severe disruption to the CMS power system. The 48 V system is critical to the operation of CMS: in addition to feeding the anti-panic lights, essential for the safety of the underground areas, it powers all the PLCs (Twidos) that control AC power to the racks and front-end electronics of CMS. A failure of the 48 V system would bring down the whole detector and lead to evacuation of the cavern. EN/EL technicians have made an accurate search of the fault, ...

  3. Charging infrastructure dimensioning for electric mobility; Dimensionierung des Ladeinfrastrukturbedarfs fuer Elektromobilitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sund, Matthias; Ballentin, Ralph; Thielecke, Gunther; Bross, Justus [Alcatel-Lucent Deutschland AG, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Various factors require a fundamental change of our individual mobility behavior. These factors include among others the scarcity of fossil fuels like oil, environmental aspects and the increasing urbanization on a global scale. For this purpose different approaches will be examined. Electric mobility seems to be a serious alternative to vehicles with combustion engines. Various international research programs are currently being issued by several countries with the objective to foster the mass rollout of electric vehicles (EVs). On behalf of the Federal German Government, it is especially the National Electric Mobility Platform (NPE) that promotes this ambition in Germany. In the past two years, the NPE developed a recommendation regarding a nationwide introduction of electric vehicles. In this context, it particularly discussed the question of necessary charging infrastructure that needs to be built to satisfy the charging demand of the increasing number of EVs in Germany. The main focus of this discussion is on the optimization of the three major challenges of reliability, vehicle operating distances and investment costs. This paper examines vehicle movement patterns with the objective to derive the optimal density of charging infrastructure in urban areas. Based on simulated charging processes suitable locations for charging stations will be ultimately identified. The necessary charging station dimensioning will be performed in the following. The investigation is based on empirical data respectively movement pattern derived out of this data. The data can be scaled to future market trends. (orig.)

  4. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi

    2012-01-01

    The CMS Infrastructures teams are constantly ensuring the smooth operation of the different services during this critical period when the detector is taking data at full speed. A single failure would spoil hours of high luminosity beam and everything is put in place to avoid such an eventuality. In the meantime however, the fast approaching LS1 requires that we take a look at the various activities to take place from the end of the year onwards. The list of infrastructures consolidation and upgrade tasks is already long and will touch all the services (cooling, gas, inertion, powering, etc.). The definitive list will be available just before the LS1 start. One activity performed by the CMS cooling team that is worth mentioning is the maintenance of the cooling circuits at the CMS Electronics Integration Centre (EIC) at building 904. The old chiller has been replaced by a three-units cooling plant that also serves the HVAC system for the new CSC and RPC factories. The commissioning of this new plant has tak...

  5. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    Andrea Gaddi

    2010-01-01

    In addition to the intense campaign of replacement of the leaky bushing on the Endcap circuits, other important activities have also been completed, with the aim of enhancing the overall reliability of the cooling infrastructures at CMS. Remaining with the Endcap circuit, the regulating valve that supplies cold water to the primary side of the circuit heat-exchanger, is not well adapted in flow capability and a new part has been ordered, to be installed during a stop of LHC. The instrumentation monitoring of the refilling rate of the circuits has been enhanced and we can now detect leaks as small as 0.5 cc/sec, on circuits that have nominal flow rates of some 20 litres/sec. Another activity starting now that the technical stop is over is the collection of spare parts that are difficult to find on the market. These will be stored at P5 with the aim of reducing down-time in case of component failure. Concerning the ventilation infrastructures, it has been noticed that in winter time the relative humidity leve...

  6. Techno-Economic Analysis of BEVs with Fast Charging Infrastructure: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-08-01

    Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) offer the potential to reduce both oil imports and greenhouse gas emissions, but high upfront costs, battery-limited vehicle range, and concern over high battery replacement costs may discourage many potential purchasers. One proposed solution is to employ a subscription model under which a service provider assumes ownership of the battery while providing access to vast fast charging infrastructure. Thus, high upfront and subsequent battery replacement costs are replaced by a predictable monthly fee, and battery-limited range is replaced by a larger infrastructure-limited range. Assessing the costs and benefits of such a proposal are complicated by many factors, including customer drive patterns, the amount of required infrastructure, and battery life. Herein the National Renewable Energy Laboratory applies its Battery Ownership Model to address these challenges and compare the economics and utility of a BEV fast charging service plan to a traditional direct ownership option. In single vehicle households, where such a service is most valuable, we find that operating a BEV under a fast charge service plan can be more cost-effective than direct ownership of a BEV, but it is rarely more cost-effective than direct ownership of a conventional vehicle.

  7. Micro Climate Assessment of Grid-Connected Electric Drive Vehicles and Charging Infrastructure. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy’s advanced vehicle testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America to conduct several U.S. Department of Defense-based micro-climate studies to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). The study included Joint Base Lewis McChord, located in Washington State; Naval Air Station Whidbey Island, located in Washington State; and United States Marine Corp Base Camp Lejeune, located in North Carolina. The project was divided into four tasks for each of the three bases studied. Task 1 consisted of surveying the non-tactical fleet of vehicles to begin review of vehicle mission assignments and types of vehicles in service. In Task 2, the daily operational characteristics of the vehicles were identified to select vehicles for further monitoring and attachment of data loggers. Task 3 recorded vehicle movements in order to characterize the vehicles’ missions. Results of the data analysis and observations were provided. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provided the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption (i.e., whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle [collectively referred to as PEVs] can fulfill the mission requirements). It also provided the basis for recommendations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. In Task 4, an implementation approach was provided for near-term adoption of PEVs into the respective fleets. Each facility was provided detailed reports on each of these tasks. This paper summarizes and provides observations on the project and completes Intertek’s required actions.

  8. Review on modeling and simulation of interdependent critical infrastructure systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern societies are becoming increasingly dependent on critical infrastructure systems (CISs) to provide essential services that support economic prosperity, governance, and quality of life. These systems are not alone but interdependent at multiple levels to enhance their overall performance. However, recent worldwide events such as the 9/11 terrorist attack, Gulf Coast hurricanes, the Chile and Japanese earthquakes, and even heat waves have highlighted that interdependencies among CISs increase the potential for cascading failures and amplify the impact of both large and small scale initial failures into events of catastrophic proportions. To better understand CISs to support planning, maintenance and emergency decision making, modeling and simulation of interdependencies across CISs has recently become a key field of study. This paper reviews the studies in the field and broadly groups the existing modeling and simulation approaches into six types: empirical approaches, agent based approaches, system dynamics based approaches, economic theory based approaches, network based approaches, and others. Different studies for each type of the approaches are categorized and reviewed in terms of fundamental principles, such as research focus, modeling rationale, and the analysis method, while different types of approaches are further compared according to several criteria, such as the notion of resilience. Finally, this paper offers future research directions and identifies critical challenges in the field. - Highlights: • Modeling approaches on interdependent critical infrastructure systems are reviewed. • I mainly review empirical, agent-based, system-dynamics, economic, network approaches. • Studies by each approach are sorted out in terms of fundamental principles. • Different approaches are further compared with resilience as the main criterion

  9. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    Andrea Gaddi

    2010-01-01

    During the last six months, the main activity on the cooling circuit has essentially been preventive maintenance. At each short machine technical stop, a water sample is extracted out of every cooling circuit to measure the induced radioactivity. Soon after, a visual check of the whole detector cooling network is done, looking for water leaks in sensitive locations. Depending on sub-system availability, the main water filters are replaced; the old ones are inspected and sent to the CERN metallurgical lab in case of suspicious sediments. For the coming winter technical stop, a number of corrective maintenance activities and infrastructure consolidation work-packages are foreseen. A few faulty valves, found on the muon system cooling circuit, will be replaced; the cooling gauges for TOTEM and CASTOR, in the CMS Forward region, will be either changed or shielded against the magnetic stray field. The demineralizer cartridges will be replaced as well. New instrumentation will also be installed in the SCX5 PC farm ...

  10. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi and P. Tropea

    2013-01-01

      Most of the CMS infrastructures at P5 will go through a heavy consolidation-work period during LS1. All systems, from the cryogenic plant of the superconducting magnet to the rack powering in the USC55 counting rooms, from the cooling circuits to the gas distribution, will undergo consolidation work. As announced in the last issue of the CMS Bulletin, we present here one of the consolidation projects of LS1: the installation of a new dry-gas plant for inner detectors inertion. So far the oxygen and humidity suppression inside the CMS Tracker and Pixel volumes were assured by flushing dry nitrogen gas evaporated from a large liquid nitrogen tank. For technical reasons, the maximum flow is limited to less than 100 m3/h and the cost of refilling the tank every two weeks with liquid nitrogen is quite substantial. The new dry-gas plant will supply up to 400 m3/h of dry nitrogen (or the same flow of dry air, during shut-downs) with a comparatively minimal operation cost. It has been evaluated that the...

  11. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    Andrea Gaddi

    With all the technical services running, the attention has moved toward the next shutdown that will be spent to perform those modifications needed to enhance the reliability of CMS Infrastructures. Just to give an example for the cooling circuit, a set of re-circulating bypasses will be installed into the TS/CV area to limit the pressure surge when a circuit is partially shut-off. This problem has affected especially the Endcap Muon cooling circuit in the past. Also the ventilation of the UXC55 has to be revisited, allowing the automatic switching to full extraction in case of magnet quench. (Normally 90% of the cavern air is re-circulated by the ventilation system.) Minor modifications will concern the gas distribution, while the DSS action-matrix has to be refined according to the experience gained with operating the detector for a while. On the powering side, some LV power lines have been doubled and the final schematics of the UPS coverage for the counting rooms have been released. The most relevant inte...

  12. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi

    The long winter shut-down allows for modifications that will improve the reliability of the detector infrastructures at P5. The annual maintenance of detector services is taking place as well. This means a full stop of water-cooling circuits from November 24th with a gradual restart from mid January 09. The annual maintenance service includes the cleaning of the two SF5 cooling towers, service of the chiller plants on the surface, and the cryogenic plant serving the CMS Magnet. In addition, the overall site power is reduced from 8MW to 2MW, compatible with the switchover to the Swiss power network in winter. Full power will be available again from end of January. Among the modification works planned, the Low Voltage cabinets are being refurbished; doubling the cable sections and replacing the 40A circuit breakers with 60A types. This will reduce the overheating that has been experienced. Moreover, two new LV transformers will be bought and pre-cabled in order to assure a quick swap in case of failure of any...

  13. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    Andrea Gaddi.

    The various water-cooling circuits ran smoothly over the summer. The overall performance of the cooling system is satisfactory, even if some improvements are possible, concerning the endcap water-cooling and the C6F14 circuits. In particular for the endcap cooling circuit, we aim to lower the water temperature, to provide more margin for RPC detectors. An expert-on-call piquet has been established during the summer global run, assuring the continuous supervision of the installations. An effort has been made to collect and harmonize the existing documentation on the cooling infrastructures at P5. The last six months have seen minor modifications to the electrical power network at P5. Among these, the racks in USC55 for the Tracker and Sniffer systems, which are backed up by the diesel generator in case of power outage, have been equipped with new control boxes to allow a remote restart. Other interventions have concerned the supply of assured power to those installations that are essential for CMS to run eff...

  14. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi

    2011-01-01

    During the last winter technical stop, a number of corrective maintenance activities and infrastructure consolidation work-packages were completed. On the surface, the site cooling facility has passed the annual maintenance process that includes the cleaning of the two evaporative cooling towers, the maintenance of the chiller units and the safety checks on the software controls. In parallel, CMS teams, reinforced by PH-DT group personnel, have worked to shield the cooling gauges for TOTEM and CASTOR against the magnetic stray field in the CMS Forward region, to add labels to almost all the valves underground and to clean all the filters in UXC55, USC55 and SCX5. Following the insertion of TOTEM T1 detector, the cooling circuit has been branched off and commissioned. The demineraliser cartridges have been replaced as well, as they were shown to be almost saturated. New instrumentation has been installed in the SCX5 PC farm cooling and ventilation network, in order to monitor the performance of the HVAC system...

  15. The impact of range anxiety and home, workplace, and public charging infrastructure on simulated battery electric vehicle lifetime utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Wood, Eric

    2014-07-01

    Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) offer the potential to reduce both oil imports and greenhouse gas emissions, but have a limited utility due to factors including driver range anxiety and access to charging infrastructure. In this paper we apply NREL's Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles (BLAST-V) to examine the sensitivity of BEV utility to range anxiety and different charging infrastructure scenarios, including variable time schedules, power levels, and locations (home, work, and public installations). We find that the effects of range anxiety can be significant, but are reduced with access to additional charging infrastructure. We also find that (1) increasing home charging power above that provided by a common 15 A, 120 V circuit offers little added utility, (2) workplace charging offers significant utility benefits to select high mileage commuters, and (3) broadly available public charging can bring many lower mileage drivers to near-100% utility while strongly increasing the achieved miles of high mileage drivers.

  16. Environmental assessment of pavement infrastructure: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inyim, Peeraya; Pereyra, Jose; Bienvenu, Michael; Mostafavi, Ali

    2016-07-01

    Through a critical review and systematic analysis of pavement life cycle assessment (LCA) studies published over the past two decades, this study shows that the available information regarding the environmental impacts of pavement infrastructure is not sufficient to determine what pavement type is more environmentally sustainable. Limitations and uncertainties related to data, system boundary and functional unit definitions, consideration of use and maintenance phase impacts, are identified as the main reasons for inconsistency of reported results in pavement LCA studies. The study outcomes also highlight the need for advancement of knowledge pertaining to: (1) utilization of performance-adjusted functional units, (2) accurate estimation of use, maintenance, and end-of-life impacts, (3) incorporation of the dynamic and uncertain nature of pavement condition performance in impact assessment; (4) development of region-specific inventory data for impact estimation; and (5) consideration of a standard set of impact categories for comparison of environmental performance of different pavement types. Advancing the knowledge in these areas is critical in providing consistent and reliable results to inform decision-making toward more sustainable roadway infrastructure. PMID:27045541

  17. Review of Variable Generation Integration Charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, K.; Fink, S.; Buckley, M.; Rogers, J.; Hodge, B. M.

    2013-03-01

    The growth of wind and solar generation in the United States, and the expectation of continued growth of these technologies, dictates that the future power system will be operated in a somewhat different manner because of increased variability and uncertainty. A small number of balancing authorities have attempted to determine an 'integration cost' to account for these changes to their current operating practices. Some balancing authorities directly charge wind and solar generators for integration charges, whereas others add integration charges to projected costs of wind and solar in integrated resource plans or in competitive solicitations for generation. This report reviews the balancing authorities that have calculated variable generation integration charges and broadly compares and contrasts the methodologies they used to determine their specific integration charges. The report also profiles each balancing authority and how they derived wind and solar integration charges.

  18. Identifying bottlenecks in charging infrastructure of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles through agent-based traffic simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Lindgren, Juuso; Lund, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of different charging infrastructure configurations on the electric-driven distance of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (e-mileage) has been investigated, using an agent-based traffic simulation. Our findings suggest that the same e-mileage can be achieved with fewer charging poles if the poles support charging from several parking slots around them, and the charging cable is switched from one vehicle to the next. We also find that the charging power supported by most Finnish charg...

  19. Assessment of Charging Infrastructure for Plug-in Electric Vehicles at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island: Task 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Steve [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Several U.S. Department of Defense base studies have been conducted to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). Task 1 consisted of a survey of the non-tactical fleet of vehicles at NASWI to begin the review of vehicle mission assignments and types of vehicles in service. Task 2 selected vehicles for further monitoring and involved identifying daily operational characteristics of these select vehicles. Data logging of vehicle movements was initiated in order to characterize the vehicle’s mission. The Task 3 Vehicle Utilization report provided the results of the data analysis and observations related to the replacement of current vehicles with PEVs. This report provides an assessment of charging infrastructure required to support the suggested PEV replacements.

  20. Josephson charge qubits:a brief review

    OpenAIRE

    Pashkin, Yuri; Astafiev, O.; Yamamoto, T.; Nakamura, Y.; Tsai, J. S.

    2009-01-01

    The field of solid-state quantum computation is expanding rapidly initiated by our original charge qubit demonstrations. Various types of solid-state qubits are being studied, and their coherent properties are improving. The goal of this review is to summarize achievements on Josephson charge qubits. We cover the results obtained in our joint group of NEC Nano Electronics Research Laboratories and RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, also referring to the works done by other groups. Starting fro...

  1. Location, duration, and power; How Americans' driving habits and charging infrastructure inform vehicle-grid interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearre, Nathaniel S.

    The substitution of electrical energy for gasoline as a transportation fuel is an initiative both with a long history, and one made both pressing and important in today's policy discussion by renewed interest in plug-in vehicles. The research presented in this dissertation attempts to inform the policy discussion for governments, for electric utilities, for the makers of electric cars, and for the industries developing and planning charging infrastructure. To that end, the impacts of variations to several possible system design parameters, on several metrics of evaluation, are assessed. The analysis is based on a dataset of vehicle trips collected by Georgia Institute of Technology, tracking almost 500 vehicles that commute to, from or within the Atlanta city center, comprising Atlanta `commuter-shed'. By assuming that this dataset of trips defines the desired travel behavior of urban and suburban American populations, the effects of travel electrification in personal vehicles can be assessed. Several significant and novel findings have emerged from this research. These include the conclusion that at-work charging is not necessarily the logical next step beyond home-charging, as it will in general add little to the substitutability of electric vehicles. In contrast, high power en-route charging, combined with modest power home charging is shown to be surprisingly effective, potentially requiring of EV drivers a total time spent at en-route recharging stations similar to that for liquid fueled cars. From the vehicle marketing perspective, a quantification of the hybrid household effect, wherein multi-vehicle households own one EV, showed that about a quarter of all households could adopt a vehicle with 80 miles of range with no changes to travel patterns. Of interest to grid management, this research showed an apparent maximum fleet-wide load from unregulated charging of about 1 kW per vehicle, regardless of EVSE power or EV battery size. This contrasts with a

  2. COMPETITION AND PRICING OF ESSENTIAL INPUTS: THE CASE OF ACCESS CHARGES FOR THE USE OF THE ITALIAN RAIL INFRASTRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Arrigo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the access charge for the use of the Italian rail infrastructure. Access problems arise when the provision of a complete service to end users requires the combination of two or more inputs, one of which is non-competitive (OECD, 2004. It is a well-known fact that excessive access charges mean higher prices for rail passengers and rail freight companies when using the infrastructure. We conclude that the structure of the access charge has changed significantly with the recent introduction of the HS/HC (high-speed and high-capacity network; specifically, the fixed component has lost importance, whilst the variable component reaches 94%. The results of this paper provide evidence of the access charge for HS/HC being above 13 €/km.

  3. Fast Charging Battery Buses for the Electrification of Urban Public Transport : A Feasibility Study Focusing on Charging Infrastructure and Energy Storage Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Rogge; Sebastian Wollny; Dirk Uwe Sauer

    2015-01-01

    The electrification of public transport bus networks can be carried out utilizing different technological solutions, like trolley, battery or fuel cell buses. The purpose of this paper is to analyze how and to what extent existing bus networks can be electrified with fast charging battery buses. The so called opportunity chargers use mainly the regular dwell time at the stops to charge their batteries. This results in a strong linkage between the vehicle scheduling and the infrastructure plan...

  4. Assessment of Charging Infrastructure for Plug-in Electric Vehicles at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune. Task 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy’s advanced vehicle testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America (Intertek) to conduct several U.S. Department of Defense-based studies to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). Task 1 consisted of a survey of the non-tactical fleet of vehicles at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune to begin the review of vehicle mission assignments and types of vehicles in service. Task 2 selected vehicles for further monitoring and involved identifying daily operational characteristics of these select vehicles. Data logging of vehicle movements was initiated in order to characterize the vehicle’s mission. The Task 3 vehicle utilization report provided results of the data analysis and observations related to the replacement of current vehicles with PEVs. Finally, this report provides an assessment of charging infrastructure required to support the suggested PEV replacements. Intertek acknowledges the support of Idaho National Laboratory, Marine Corps headquarters, and Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune Fleet management and personnel for participation in this study. Intertek is pleased to provide this report and is encouraged by enthusiasm and support from Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune personnel.

  5. Optimal design and allocation of electrified vehicles and dedicated charging infrastructure for minimum life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrified vehicles can reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by shifting energy demand from gasoline to electricity. GHG reduction potential depends on vehicle design, adoption, driving and charging patterns, charging infrastructure, and electricity generation mix. We construct an optimization model to study these factors by determining optimal design of conventional vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and battery electric vehicles (BEVs) with optimal allocation of vehicle designs and dedicated workplace charging infrastructure in the fleet for minimum life cycle cost or GHG emissions over a range of scenarios. We focus on vehicles with similar body size and acceleration to a Toyota Prius under government 5-cycle driving conditions. We find that under the current US grid mix, PHEVs offer only small GHG emissions reductions compared to HEVs, and workplace charging is insignificant. With grid decarbonization, PHEVs and BEVs offer substantial GHG emissions reductions, and workplace charging provides additional benefits. HEVs are optimal or near-optimal for minimum cost in most scenarios. High gas prices and low vehicle and battery costs are the major drivers for PHEVs and BEVs to enter and dominate the cost-optimal fleet. Carbon prices have little effect. Cost and range restrictions limit penetration of BEVs. - Highlights: ► We pose an MINLP model to minimize cost and GHG emissions of electrified vehicles. ► We design PHEVs and BEVs and assign vehicles and charging infrastructure in US fleet. ► Under US grid mix, PEVs provide minor GHG reductions and work chargers do little. ► HEVs are robust; PEVs and work charging potential improve with a decarbonized grid. ► We quantify factors needed for PEVs to enter and dominate the optimal fleet.

  6. CO2 Emissions Associated with Electric Vehicle Charging: The Impact of Electricity Generation Mix, Charging Infrastructure Availability and Vehicle Type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, Joyce; Miller, John; O' Shaughnessy, Eric; Wood, Eric; Shapiro, Evan

    2016-06-01

    The emission reduction benefits of EVs are dependent on the time and location of charging. An analysis of battery electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles under four charging scenarios and five electricity grid profiles shows that CO2 emissions are highly dependent on the percentage of fossil fuels in the grid mix. Availability of workplace charging generally results in lower emissions, while restricting charging to off-peak hours results in higher total emissions.

  7. Fast Charging Battery Buses for the Electrification of Urban Public Transport—A Feasibility Study Focusing on Charging Infrastructure and Energy Storage Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Rogge

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The electrification of public transport bus networks can be carried out utilizing different technological solutions, like trolley, battery or fuel cell buses. The purpose of this paper is to analyze how and to what extent existing bus networks can be electrified with fast charging battery buses. The so called opportunity chargers use mainly the regular dwell time at the stops to charge their batteries. This results in a strong linkage between the vehicle scheduling and the infrastructure planning. The analysis is based on real-world data of the bus network in Muenster, a mid-sized city in Germany. The outcomes underline the necessity to focus on entire vehicle schedules instead on individual trips. The tradeoff between required battery capacity and charging power is explained in detail. Furthermore, the impact on the electricity grid is discussed based on the load profiles of a selected charging station and a combined load profile of the entire network.

  8. Emissions Associated with Electric Vehicle Charging: Impact of Electricity Generation Mix, Charging Infrastructure Availability, and Vehicle Type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wood, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Shapiro, Evan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-04-11

    With the aim of reducing greenhouse gas emissions associated with the transportation sector, policy-makers are supporting a multitude of measures to increase electric vehicle adoption. The actual level of emission reduction associated with the electrification of the transport sector is dependent on the contexts that determine when and where drivers charge electric vehicles. This analysis contributes to our understanding of the degree to which a particular electricity grid profile, vehicle type, and charging patterns impact CO2 emissions from light-duty, plug-in electric vehicles. We present an analysis of emissions resulting from both battery electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles for four charging scenarios and five electricity grid profiles. A scenario that allows drivers to charge electric vehicles at the workplace yields the lowest level of emissions for the majority of electricity grid profiles. However, vehicle emissions are shown to be highly dependent on the percentage of fossil fuels in the grid mix, with different vehicle types and charging scenarios resulting in fewer emissions when the carbon intensity of the grid is above a defined level. Restricting charging to off-peak hours results in higher total emissions for all vehicle types, as compared to other charging scenarios.

  9. What kind of charging infrastructure do Chevrolet Volts Drivers in The EV Project use?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Smart

    2013-09-01

    This report summarizes key conclusions from analysis of data collected from Chevrolet Volts participating in The EV Project. Topics include how much Volt drivers charge at level 1 vs. level 2 rates and how much they charge at home vs. away from home.

  10. What kind of charging infrastructure do Nissan Leaf drivers in The EV Project use?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shawn Salisbury

    2014-09-01

    This document will describe the charging behavior of Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicles that were enrolled in the EV Project. It will include aggregated data from several thousand vehicles regarding time-of-day, power level, and location of charging and driving events. This document is a white paper that will be published on the INL AVTA website.

  11. Review on Electric Vehicle, Battery Charger, Charging Station and Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afida Ayob

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicles are a new and upcoming technology in the transportation and power sector that have many benefits in terms of economic and environmental. This study presents a comprehensive review and evaluation of various types of electric vehicles and its associated equipment in particular battery charger and charging station. A comparison is made on the commercial and prototype electric vehicles in terms of electric range, battery size, charger power and charging time. The various types of charging stations and standards used for charging electric vehicles have been outlined and the impact of electric vehicle charging on utility distribution system is also discussed.

  12. Noise Charges in Road Infrastructure: A Pricing Schedule Based on the Marginal Cost Principle

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Henrik; Ögren, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    One way of mitigating the negative effects of noise from road traffic is to include the external cost of noise in a road charging system. This study shows how standardized calculation methods for road traffic noise can be used together with monetary estimates of the social cost of noise exposure to calculate charges based on the social marginal cost. Using Swedish data on traffic volume and individuals exposed to road noise, together with official Swedish monetary values for no...

  13. Idaho National Laboratory’s Analysis of ARRA-Funded Plug-in Electric Vehicle and Charging Infrastructure Projects: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bennett, Brion [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Carlson, Richard [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Garretson, Thomas [Electric Applications Incorporated, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Gourley, LauraLee [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Karner, Donal [Electric Applications Incorporated, Phoenix, AZ (United States); McGuire, Patti [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Scoffield, Don [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kirkpatrick, Mindy [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Shrik, Matthew [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Salisbury, Shawn [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schey, Stephen [Electric Applications Incorporated, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Smart, John [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); White, Sera [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wishard, Jeffery [Intertek Center for the Evaluation of Clean Energy Technology, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is the lead laboratory for U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA). INL’s conduct of the AVTA resulted in a significant base of knowledge and experience in the area of testing light-duty vehicles that reduced transportation-related petroleum consumption. Due to this experience, INL was tasked by DOE to develop agreements with companies that were the recipients of The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) grants, that would allow INL to collect raw data from light-duty vehicles and charging infrastructure. INL developed non-disclosure agreements (NDAs) with several companies and their partners that resulted in INL being able to receive raw data via server-to-server connections from the partner companies. This raw data allowed INL to independently conduct data quality checks, perform analysis, and report publicly to DOE, partners, and stakeholders, how drivers used both new vehicle technologies and the deployed charging infrastructure. The ultimate goal was not the deployment of vehicles and charging infrastructure, cut rather to create real-world laboratories of vehicles, charging infrastructure and drivers that would aid in the design of future electric drive transportation systems. The five projects that INL collected data from and their partners are: • ChargePoint America - Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Demonstration • Chrysler Ram PHEV Pickup - Vehicle Demonstration • General Motors Chevrolet Volt - Vehicle Demonstration • The EV Project - Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Demonstration • EPRI / Via Motors PHEVs – Vehicle Demonstration The document serves to benchmark the performance science involved the execution, analysis and reporting for the five above projects that provided lessons learned based on driver’s use of the

  14. Radiobiology with heavy charged particles: a historical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skarsgard, L.D. [Dept. of Medical Biophysics, B.C. Cancer Research Centre and TRIUMF, Vancouver (Canada)

    1997-09-01

    The presentation will attempt to briefly review some of radiobiological data on the effects of heavy charged particles and to discuss the influence of those studies on the clinical application which followed. (orig./MG)

  15. U.S. Department of Energy's EV Everywhere Workplace Charging Challenge, Mid-Program Review: Employees Plug In

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-12-01

    This Program Review takes an unprecedented look at the state of workplace charging in the United States -- a report made possible by U.S. Department of Energy leadership and valuable support from our partners as they share their progress in developing robust workplace charging programs. Through the Workplace Charging Challenge, more than 250 participants are accelerating the development the nation's worksite PEV charging infrastructure and are supporting cleaner, more convenient transportation options within their communities. Challenge partners are currently providing access to PEV charging stations at more than 440 worksites across the country and are influencing countless other organizations to do the same.

  16. Structural Health Monitoring of Civil Infrastructure Using Optical Fiber Sensing Technology: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. W. Ye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, a significant number of innovative sensing systems based on optical fiber sensors have been exploited in the engineering community due to their inherent distinctive advantages such as small size, light weight, immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI and corrosion, and embedding capability. A lot of optical fiber sensor-based monitoring systems have been developed for continuous measurement and real-time assessment of diversified engineering structures such as bridges, buildings, tunnels, pipelines, wind turbines, railway infrastructure, and geotechnical structures. The purpose of this review article is devoted to presenting a summary of the basic principles of various optical fiber sensors, innovation in sensing and computational methodologies, development of novel optical fiber sensors, and the practical application status of the optical fiber sensing technology in structural health monitoring (SHM of civil infrastructure.

  17. Structural health monitoring of civil infrastructure using optical fiber sensing technology: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, X W; Su, Y H; Han, J P

    2014-01-01

    In the last two decades, a significant number of innovative sensing systems based on optical fiber sensors have been exploited in the engineering community due to their inherent distinctive advantages such as small size, light weight, immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI) and corrosion, and embedding capability. A lot of optical fiber sensor-based monitoring systems have been developed for continuous measurement and real-time assessment of diversified engineering structures such as bridges, buildings, tunnels, pipelines, wind turbines, railway infrastructure, and geotechnical structures. The purpose of this review article is devoted to presenting a summary of the basic principles of various optical fiber sensors, innovation in sensing and computational methodologies, development of novel optical fiber sensors, and the practical application status of the optical fiber sensing technology in structural health monitoring (SHM) of civil infrastructure. PMID:25133250

  18. The impact of transportation infrastructure on bicycling injuries and crashes: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cripton Peter A

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bicycling has the potential to improve fitness, diminish obesity, and reduce noise, air pollution, and greenhouse gases associated with travel. However, bicyclists incur a higher risk of injuries requiring hospitalization than motor vehicle occupants. Therefore, understanding ways of making bicycling safer and increasing rates of bicycling are important to improving population health. There is a growing body of research examining transportation infrastructure and the risk of injury to bicyclists. Methods We reviewed studies of the impact of transportation infrastructure on bicyclist safety. The results were tabulated within two categories of infrastructure, namely that at intersections (e.g. roundabouts, traffic lights or between intersections on "straightaways" (e.g. bike lanes or paths. To assess safety, studies examining the following outcomes were included: injuries; injury severity; and crashes (collisions and/or falls. Results The literature to date on transportation infrastructure and cyclist safety is limited by the incomplete range of facilities studied and difficulties in controlling for exposure to risk. However, evidence from the 23 papers reviewed (eight that examined intersections and 15 that examined straightaways suggests that infrastructure influences injury and crash risk. Intersection studies focused mainly on roundabouts. They found that multi-lane roundabouts can significantly increase risk to bicyclists unless a separated cycle track is included in the design. Studies of straightaways grouped facilities into few categories, such that facilities with potentially different risks may have been classified within a single category. Results to date suggest that sidewalks and multi-use trails pose the highest risk, major roads are more hazardous than minor roads, and the presence of bicycle facilities (e.g. on-road bike routes, on-road marked bike lanes, and off-road bike paths was associated with the lowest

  19. Review on Electric Vehicle, Battery Charger, Charging Station and Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Afida Ayob; Wan Mohd Faizal Wan Mahmood; Azah Mohamed Mohd Zamri Che Wanik; MohdFadzil Mohd Siam; Saharuddin Sulaiman; Abu Hanifah Azit; Mohamed Azrin Mohamed Ali

    2014-01-01

    Electric vehicles are a new and upcoming technology in the transportation and power sector that have many benefits in terms of economic and environmental. This study presents a comprehensive review and evaluation of various types of electric vehicles and its associated equipment in particular battery charger and charging station. A comparison is made on the commercial and prototype electric vehicles in terms of electric range, battery size, charger power and charging time. The various types o...

  20. IRIS guidelines. 2014 ed. Integrated Review of Infrastructure for Safety (IRIS) for self-assessment when establishing the safety infrastructure for a nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA safety standards reflect an international consensus on what constitutes a high level of safety for protecting people and the environment, and therefore represent what all Member States should achieve, whilst recognizing the ultimate responsibility of each State to ensure safety when implementing a nuclear power programme. IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SSG-16, entitled Establishing the Safety Infrastructure for a Nuclear Power Programme was published in order to provide recommendations, presented in the form of sequential actions, on meeting safety requirements progressively during the initial three phases of the development of safety, as described in INSAG-22, Nuclear Safety Infrastructure for a National Nuclear Power Programme Supported by the IAEA Fundamental Safety Principles. To that end, the 200 safety related actions, which are proposed by SSG-16, constitute a roadmap to establish a foundation for promoting a high level of safety over the entire lifetime of the nuclear power plant. These actions reflect international consensus on good practice in order to achieve full implementation of IAEA safety standards. The IAEA has developed a methodology and tool, the Integrated Review of Infrastructure for Safety (IRIS), to assist States in undertaking self-assessment with respect to SSG-16 recommendations when establishing the safety infrastructure for a nuclear power programme, and to develop an action plan for improvement. The IRIS methodology and the associated tool are fully compatible with the IAEA safety standards and are also used, when appropriate, in the preparation of review missions, such as the Integrated Regulatory Review Service and advisory missions. The present guidelines describe the IRIS methodology for self-assessment against SSG-16 recommendations. Through IRIS implementation, every organization concerned with nuclear safety may gain proper awareness and engage in a continuous progressive process to develop the effective national

  1. A review on computer vision based defect detection and condition assessment of concrete and asphalt civil infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Christian; Georgieva, Kristina; Kasireddy, Varun; Akinci, Burcu; Fieguth, Paul

    2015-01-01

    To ensure the safety and the serviceability of civil infrastructure it is essential to visually inspect and assess its physical and functional condition. This review paper presents the current state of practice of assessing the visual condition of vertical and horizontal civil infrastructure; in particular of reinforced concrete bridges, precast concrete tunnels, underground concrete pipes, and asphalt pavements. Since the rate of creation and deployment of computer vision methods for civil e...

  2. A review of pollinator conservation and management on infrastructure supporting rights-of-way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Agatha Wojcik

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Early successional landscapes along or adjacent to infrastructure installations have been highlighted as potential pollinator conservation zones that provide environmental benefits and ameliorate some of the negative impacts of wildland conversion. Habitat development and management initiatives in this field are active, but vetted support for particular techniques and strategies is lacking and technical information is diffuse. We reviewed the current scientific and technical literature relating to right-of-way and roadside management to produce an overview. Surveys and comparative studies dominate the literature, with limited manipulative experimentation and limited tests of best management practices. Local floristic diversity is shown to be a determinant of butterfly, bee, and fly patterns but data is almost entirely lacking on vertebrate pollinators. The degree to which these linear landscape corridors can promote movement and connectivity is also not well addressed, yet there is a focus in the conservation community to promote migrations and movement. Contrasting results are reported for the impact of disturbance regimes associated with management (mowing and herbicide use, and there is also only minimal attention given to the potential negative impacts that are experienced by pollinators on rights-of-way. Even with the limited literary accounts of pollinator management in these landscapes we believe infrastructure landscapes can provide substantial benefits to pollinator species and ecosystem services and encourage further management-based investigations.

  3. Charging infrastructures for electric vehicles. Development and evaluation of a development strategy on the basis of driving performance; Ladeinfrastrukturen fuer Elektrofahrzeuge. Entwicklung und Bewertung einer Ausbaustrategie auf Basis des Fahrverhaltens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kley, Fabian

    2011-07-01

    Recently, electric vehicles have once again been attracting increased attention against the backdrop of rising oil prices and the necessity to reduce CO2-emissions. However, it is as yet still unclear which charging infrastructure will be required for these vehicles. Charging infrastructure has not been a major topic in the literature and electric mobility studies up to now. The focus here tends to be on technical design, different standardization efforts, or the demands for a dense infrastructure. The users' perspective is reflected to some extent in surveys conducted in the scope of acceptance studies of electric mobility. However, so far, no analysis has been made of which charging infrastructure will be required based on driving behavior. This thesis therefore describes the technical alternatives for charging an electric vehicle and assesses the charging infrastructure based on an economic assessment considering real driving behavior. An optimal charging profile is determined for each pattern of driving behavior using dynamic programming and entered into a total cost assessment. The optimization incorporates different vehicle concepts, charging infrastructures, as well as battery aging. A minimum cost vehicle concept and the optimal battery size can be determined for each charging profile helping to derive a suitable charging infrastructure. In contrast to the widely held belief that a public charging infrastructure is indispensable, this thesis was able to show that charging should take place in the private domain at low charging power levels. Besides fully electric vehicles, plug-in hybrids are well suited for early market adoption and mean that people can benefit earlier from the advantages of electric mobility with a high all-electric driving share and a guaranteed driving range because of the additional combustion engine. This thesis is based on my research conducted at the Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research (ISI) in Karlsruhe

  4. Review of E-Learning and ICT Infrastructure in Developing Countries (Case Study of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Omidinia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: E-Learning aims to apply information and communications technology to enhance and/or support learning process. Today E-Learning is one of tools for education justice. This study attempts to review on challenges and infrastructure of e-learning in developing countries specially Iran and to know what have been developed in Iran, what issues and challenges exists and what solutions make e-Learning as a major success to transforms Iran to knowledge society. Conclusion/Recommendation: Our finding have shown that the following factors can be attributed for hindering the success of e-Learning projects in Iran: process focus, implementation expertise, technology focus, open-source technology and one-time funding.

  5. Literature Review for the Baseline Knowledge Assessment of the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truett, L.F.

    2003-12-10

    The purpose of the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies (HFCIT) Program Baseline Knowledge Assessment is to measure the current level of awareness and understanding of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and the hydrogen economy. This information will be an asset to the HFCIT program in formulating an overall education plan. It will also provide a baseline for comparison with future knowledge and opinion surveys. To assess the current understanding and establish the baseline, the HFCIT program plans to conduct scientific surveys of four target audience groups--the general public, the educational community, governmental agencies, and potential large users. The purpose of the literature review is to examine the literature and summarize the results of surveys that have been conducted in the recent past concerning the existing knowledge and attitudes toward hydrogen. This literature review covers both scientific and, to a lesser extent, non-scientific polls. Seven primary data sources were reviewed, two of which were studies based in Europe. Studies involved both closed-end and open-end questions; surveys varied in length from three questions to multi-page interviews. Populations involved in the studies were primarily adults, although one study involved students. The number of participants ranged from 13 to over 16,000 per study. In addition to the primary surveys, additional related studies were mined for pertinent information. The primary conclusions of the surveys reviewed are that the public knows very little about hydrogen and fuel cell technologies but is generally accepting of the potential for hydrogen use. In general, respondents consider themselves as environmentally conscious. The public considers safety as the primary issue surrounding hydrogen as a fuel. Price, performance, and convenience are also considerations that will have major impacts on purchase decisions.

  6. An Integrated Framework for the Development of Green Infrastructure: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Beauchamp

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Green infrastructure (GI has emerged as an active term of reference in projectdevelopment planning. A gap exists in the GI research literature in the form of theabsence of an integrated framework to assist engineering organizations in planning thestart-up of new projects in the context of greening and sustainability. This study attemptsto identify the existing frameworks that propose the development of green projects.The first purpose of this study is to explore the use of fully integrated GI in theengineering design of a modern, new development. A clear sequence of tasks must definethe workflow, leading teamwork. This literature review identifies several differentapproaches and selects four to build a ready-to-use framework of sequenced tasks, whichincludes all the components of water management (rain and drainage, water supply andwastewater.This essay reviews GI literature with a focus on water resources and ecosystem services. Itincludes the methods, tools, and techniques available in different approaches, such as lowimpact development (LID, leadership in energy and environmental design (LEED, theBritish Columbia (BC guidebook, and the EPA (Environmental Protection Agencyscorecard. It explores different frameworks to start or structure an urban developmentproject.

  7. Cost-effectiveness of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery capacity and charging infrastructure investment for reducing US gasoline consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federal electric vehicle (EV) policies in the United States currently include vehicle purchase subsidies linked to EV battery capacity and subsidies for installing charging stations. We assess the cost-effectiveness of increased battery capacity vs. nondomestic charging infrastructure installation for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as alternate methods to reduce gasoline consumption for cars, trucks, and SUVs in the US. We find across a wide range of scenarios that the least-cost solution is for more drivers to switch to low-capacity plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (short electric range with gasoline backup for long trips) or gasoline-powered hybrid electric vehicles. If more gasoline savings are needed per vehicle, nondomestic charging infrastructure installation is substantially more expensive than increased battery capacity per gallon saved, and both approaches have higher costs than US oil premium estimates. Cost effectiveness of all subsidies are lower under a binding fuel economy standard. Comparison of results to the structure of current federal subsidies shows that policy is not aligned with fuel savings potential, and we discuss issues and alternatives. - Highlights: ► We compare cost of PHEV batteries vs. charging infrastructure per gallon of gasoline saved. ► The lowest cost solution is to switch more drivers to low-capacity PHEVs and HEVs. ► If more gasoline savings is needed, batteries offer a better value than chargers. ► Extra batteries and chargers are both more costly per gal than oil premium estimates. ► Current subsidies are misaligned with fuel savings. We discuss alternatives.

  8. A Review on Criteria for Green Infrastructure to be Adopted by Local Authorities

    OpenAIRE

    Kamalludin Bilal; Hishammudin Mohd Ali; Ibrahim Sipan; Nurlaila Ali

    2014-01-01

    Green infrastructure planning has grown in prominence since it was first discussed in the late 1990’s. Since the President’s Council on Sustainable Development discussed the concept researchers and academics from across the globe, though predominantly the UK, Western Europe and North America, have won the process. However, green infrastructure is an important trust in National Landscape Policy (NLP). At the moment, Malaysia is moving towards to a developed nation by the year 2020. One thing t...

  9. What Kind of Charging Infrastructure Do Chevrolet Volt Drivers in The EV Project Use and When Do They Use It?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shawn Salisbury

    2014-09-01

    This document will present information describing the charging behavior of Chevrolet Volts that were enrolled in the EV Project. It will included aggregated data from more than 1,800 vehicles regarding locations, power levels, and time-of-day of charging events performed by those vehicles. This document will be published to the INL AVTA website.

  10. Proximity effects in cold gases of multiply charged atoms (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikina, I.; Shikin, V.

    2016-07-01

    Possible proximity effects in gases of cold, multiply charged atoms are discussed. Here we deal with rarefied gases with densities nd of multiply charged (Z ≫ 1) atoms at low temperatures in the well-known Thomas-Fermi (TF) approximation, which can be used to evaluate the statistical properties of single atoms. In order to retain the advantages of the TF formalism, which is successful for symmetric problems, the external boundary conditions accounting for the finiteness of the density of atoms (donors), nd ≠ 0, are also symmetrized (using a spherical Wigner-Seitz cell) and formulated in a standard way that conserves the total charge within the cell. The model shows that at zero temperature in a rarefied gas of multiply charged atoms there is an effective long-range interaction Eproxi(nd), the sign of which depends on the properties of the outer shells of individual atoms. The long-range character of the interaction Eproxi is evaluated by comparing it with the properties of the well-known London dispersive attraction ELond(nd) 0 and for the alkali and alkaline-earth elements Eproxi thermal decay are interesting in themselves as they determine the important phenomenon of dissociation of neutral complexes into charged fragments. This phenomenon appears consistently in the TF theory through the temperature dependence of the different versions of Eproxi. The anomaly in the thermal proximity effect shows up in the following way: for T ≠ 0 there is no equilibrium solution of TS statistics for single multiply charged atoms in a vacuum when the effect is present. Instability is suppressed in a Wigner-Seitz model under the assumption that there are no electron fluxes through the outer boundary R3 ∝ n-1d of a Wigner-Seitz cell. Eproxi corresponds to the definition of the correlation energy in a gas of interacting particles. This review is written so as to enable comparison of the results of the TF formalism with the standard assumptions of the correlation theory for

  11. Proximity effects in cold gases of multiply charged atoms (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikina, I.; Shikin, V.

    2016-07-01

    Possible proximity effects in gases of cold, multiply charged atoms are discussed. Here we deal with rarefied gases with densities nd of multiply charged (Z ≫ 1) atoms at low temperatures in the well-known Thomas-Fermi (TF) approximation, which can be used to evaluate the statistical properties of single atoms. In order to retain the advantages of the TF formalism, which is successful for symmetric problems, the external boundary conditions accounting for the finiteness of the density of atoms (donors), nd ≠ 0, are also symmetrized (using a spherical Wigner-Seitz cell) and formulated in a standard way that conserves the total charge within the cell. The model shows that at zero temperature in a rarefied gas of multiply charged atoms there is an effective long-range interaction Eproxi(nd), the sign of which depends on the properties of the outer shells of individual atoms. The long-range character of the interaction Eproxi is evaluated by comparing it with the properties of the well-known London dispersive attraction ELond(nd) 0 and for the alkali and alkaline-earth elements Eproxi theory through the temperature dependence of the different versions of Eproxi. The anomaly in the thermal proximity effect shows up in the following way: for T ≠ 0 there is no equilibrium solution of TS statistics for single multiply charged atoms in a vacuum when the effect is present. Instability is suppressed in a Wigner-Seitz model under the assumption that there are no electron fluxes through the outer boundary R3 ∝ n-1d of a Wigner-Seitz cell. Eproxi corresponds to the definition of the correlation energy in a gas of interacting particles. This review is written so as to enable comparison of the results of the TF formalism with the standard assumptions of the correlation theory for classical plasmas. The classic example from work on weak solutions (including charged solutions)—the use of semi-impermeable membranes for studies of osmotic pressure—is highly appropriate for

  12. Electric Vehicles Integration in the Electric Power System with Intermittent Energy Sources - The Charge/Discharge infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco

    The replacement of conventional fuelled vehicles with electric vehicles (EVs) is going to increase in the coming years, following the trend seen for renewable energy sources (RES), as photovoltaic (PV) and wind power. In this scenario, the electric power systems in Europe are going to accommodate...... increased levels of non-dispatchable and fluctuating energy sources, as well as additional power demand due to EV charging. If the charging of EVs can be intelligently managed, several advantages can be offered to the power system. How useful coordinated EV charging can be, in combination with RES...... and the power levels needed. Furthermore, during EV coordination, a number of nonlinearities and battery ageing issues should be taken into account, to ensure a correct EV coordination and to preserve the EV battery lifetime. The third part of this research exploits the use of EV load coordination as an energy...

  13. 77 FR 18885 - Improving Performance of Federal Permitting and Review of Infrastructure Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ..., employees, or agents, or any other person. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, March 22, 2012. [FR Doc... tracked on the online Federal Infrastructure Projects Dashboard (Dashboard) created pursuant to my... Dashboard, the Chief Information Officer (CIO) and Chief Technology Officer to implement this order....

  14. Review of EuCARD project on accelerator infrastructure in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of big infrastructural and research programs (like pan-European Framework Programs) and individual projects realized inside these programs in Europe is to structure the European Research Area - ERA in this way as to be competitive with the leaders of the world. One of this projects in EuCARD (European Coordination of Accelerator Research and Development) with the aim to structure and modernize accelerator, (including accelerators for big free electron laser machines) research infrastructure. This article presents the periodic development of EuCARD which took place between the annual meeting, April 2012 in Warsaw and SC meeting in Uppsala, December 2012. The background of all these efforts are achievements of the LHC machine and associated detectors in the race for new physics. The LHC machine works in the regime of p-p, Pb-p, Pb-Pb (protons and lead ions). Recently, a discovery by the LHC of Higgs like boson, has started vivid debates on the further potential of this machine and the future. The periodic EuCARD conference, workshop and meetings concern building of the research infrastructure, including in this advanced photonic and electronic systems for servicing large high energy physics experiments. There are debated a few basic groups of such systems like: measurement - control networks of large geometrical extent, multichannel systems for large amounts of metrological data acquisition, precision photonic networks of reference time, frequency and phase distribution. The aim of the discussion is not only summarize the current status but make plans and prepare practically to building new infrastructures. Accelerator science and technology is one of a key enablers of the developments in the particle physic, photon physics and also applications in medicine and industry. Accelerator technology is intensely developed in all developed nations and regions of the world. The EuCARD project contains a lot of subjects related directly and indirectly to photon

  15. Universities Review Overhead Charges; Some Alter Policies on President's Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, Colleen

    1991-01-01

    Congressional investigations into university overhead charges, especially those at Stanford University (California), for federally sponsored research are leading universities to reexamine and change some policies, including charging some housing costs for university officers to government contracts. (DB)

  16. The impact of transportation infrastructure on bicycling injuries and crashes: a review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Cripton Peter A; Teschke Kay; Harris M.; Reynolds Conor CO; Winters Meghan

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Bicycling has the potential to improve fitness, diminish obesity, and reduce noise, air pollution, and greenhouse gases associated with travel. However, bicyclists incur a higher risk of injuries requiring hospitalization than motor vehicle occupants. Therefore, understanding ways of making bicycling safer and increasing rates of bicycling are important to improving population health. There is a growing body of research examining transportation infrastructure and the risk ...

  17. An Integrated Framework for the Development of Green Infrastructure: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Beauchamp, P.; Adamowski, J.

    2013-01-01

    Green infrastructure (GI) has emerged as an active term of reference in projectdevelopment planning. A gap exists in the GI research literature in the form of theabsence of an integrated framework to assist engineering organizations in planning thestart-up of new projects in the context of greening and sustainability. This study attemptsto identify the existing frameworks that propose the development of green projects.The first purpose of this study is to explore the use of fully integrated G...

  18. Review of infrastructures and preparedness systems in France, Germany and United Kingdom for potential releases of radioactivity into the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, I.; Voigt, G. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Lochard, J.; Croueail, P. [Centre d' Etudes sur l' Evaluation de la Protection dans le Domaine Nucleaire, Paris (France); Nisbet, A.; Mercer, J.; Green, N.; Wilkins, B. [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    For the European SAGE-Project a review of the existing infrastructures and preparedness systems in France, Germany and United Kingdom concerning radiation protection with regard to a long term contamination after a nuclear accident was made. This review clearly shows that the infrastructure in all three countries regulates the situation during and shortly after a nuclear incident but not in case that a radioactive contamination will last for long time. For that situation it is necessary to install local information centres in the affected area with sufficient trained staff. To improve the confidence of the population in possible measures implemented by the authorities a copious and understandable information and education must be provided. Especially doctors, teachers, kindergarten teachers and mothers have to get the possibility to be educated in a reasonable way how to deal with a short, middle and long term contamination. The concerned population must be able to control the own radiological situation by measuring their environment and their food and by reducing food contamination by appropriate reasonable measures. (orig.)

  19. Review of infrastructures and preparedness systems in France, Germany and United Kingdom for potential releases of radioactivity into the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the European SAGE-Project a review of the existing infrastructures and preparedness systems in France, Germany and United Kingdom concerning radiation protection with regard to a long term contamination after a nuclear accident was made. This review clearly shows that the infrastructure in all three countries regulates the situation during and shortly after a nuclear incident but not in case that a radioactive contamination will last for long time. For that situation it is necessary to install local information centres in the affected area with sufficient trained staff. To improve the confidence of the population in possible measures implemented by the authorities a copious and understandable information and education must be provided. Especially doctors, teachers, kindergarten teachers and mothers have to get the possibility to be educated in a reasonable way how to deal with a short, middle and long term contamination. The concerned population must be able to control the own radiological situation by measuring their environment and their food and by reducing food contamination by appropriate reasonable measures. (orig.)

  20. Telecom infrastructure leasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slides to accompany a discussion about leasing telecommunications infrastructure, including radio/microwave tower space, radio control buildings, paging systems and communications circuits, were presented. The structure of Alberta Power Limited was described within the ATCO group of companies. Corporate goals and management practices and priorities were summarized. Lessons and experiences in the infrastructure leasing business were reviewed

  1. TOPICAL REVIEW: Detection of charge distributions in insulator surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, C. A.; Gouveia, R. F.; da Silva, M. A.; Galembeck, F.

    2009-07-01

    Charge distribution in insulators has received considerable attention but still poses great scientific challenges, largely due to a current lack of firm knowledge about the nature and speciation of charges. Recent studies using analytical microscopies have shown that insulators contain domains with excess fixed ions forming various kinds of potential distribution patterns, which are also imaged by potential mapping using scanning electric probe microscopy. Results from the authors' laboratory show that solid insulators are seldom electroneutral, as opposed to a widespread current assumption. Excess charges can derive from a host of charging mechanisms: excess local ion concentration, radiochemical and tribochemical reactions added to the partition of hydroxonium and hydronium ions derived from atmospheric water. The last factor has been largely overlooked in the literature, but recent experimental evidence suggests that it plays a decisive role in insulator charging. Progress along this line is expected to help solve problems related to unwanted electrostatic discharges, while creating new possibilities for energy storage and handling as well as new electrostatic devices.

  2. Post-disaster supply chain interdependent critical infrastructure system restoration: A review of data necessary and available for modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Varun; Long, Suzanna K.; Shoberg, Thomas G.; Corns, Steven; Carlo, Hector J.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of restoration strategies in the wake of large-scale disasters have focused on short-term emergency response solutions. Few consider medium- to long-term restoration strategies to reconnect urban areas to national supply chain interdependent critical infrastructure systems (SCICI). These SCICI promote the effective flow of goods, services, and information vital to the economic vitality of an urban environment. To re-establish the connectivity that has been broken during a disaster between the different SCICI, relationships between these systems must be identified, formulated, and added to a common framework to form a system-level restoration plan. To accomplish this goal, a considerable collection of SCICI data is necessary. The aim of this paper is to review what data are required for model construction, the accessibility of these data, and their integration with each other. While a review of publically available data reveals a dearth of real-time data to assist modeling long-term recovery following an extreme event, a significant amount of static data does exist and these data can be used to model the complex interdependencies needed. For the sake of illustration, a particular SCICI (transportation) is used to highlight the challenges of determining the interdependencies and creating models capable of describing the complexity of an urban environment with the data publically available. Integration of such data as is derived from public domain sources is readily achieved in a geospatial environment, after all geospatial infrastructure data are the most abundant data source and while significant quantities of data can be acquired through public sources, a significant effort is still required to gather, develop, and integrate these data from multiple sources to build a complete model. Therefore, while continued availability of high quality, public information is essential for modeling efforts in academic as well as government communities, a more

  3. Review of household solid waste charges for developing countries--A focus on quantity-based charge methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welivita, Indunee; Wattage, Premachandra; Gunawardena, Prasanthi

    2015-12-01

    Solid waste management has become a major issue in almost all municipalities especially in developing countries across the world. As more waste needs to be collected and disposed of in urban areas, the increased cost cannot be covered by the available funds in developing countries. Managing the Household Solid Waste (HSW) sector is very important as it is the main contributor of the waste that needs to be collected in residential areas. The reduction of the amount of HSW to be disposed of can be achieved by households themselves practising the "4R" activities: reducing, reusing, recycling and recovering. As a policy instrument, the Waste Management Charge (WMC) for HSW has shown much success in encouraging such activities all over the world. Given the already difficult context in which developing countries operate, it is important to careful consider what kind of charging system is implemented. Using available literature, this paper reviews the applicability of available charging methods, from a flat rate method, through to volume-based (bags, cans or tag/sticker) and weight-based charging methods. These charging methods were evaluated on the basis of overall cost, technology need possible other issues. By considering the conditions in developing countries, a 'pre-paid bag based charging method' could be suggested as the most suitable charging method for a WMC in Sri Lanka or other developing countries. The potential applicability of this method was also examined in the context of social, economic and political characteristics. Whilst the use of economic instruments, including WMC, was widely discussed in the literature, the selection of a charging method in the context of developing countries is rarely discussed. Having said that, this paper gives an insight to the policy makers in developing countries upon using pre-paid bag based charging method for HSW sector. It also provides recommendations regarding possible issues in implementing for developing countries

  4. 78 FR 34112 - Review and Revision of the National Infrastructure Protection Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... and implementation of physical and cybersecurity. Review of the Risk Management Approach The NIPP's...). The 2009 NIPP set forth a comprehensive risk management framework and defined roles and... most effective manner. The NIPP risk management framework responds to an evolving risk landscape;...

  5. Bike Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Victor; Harder, Henrik; Jensen, Ole B.; Madsen, Jens Chr. Overgaard

    Bike Infrastructures aims to identify bicycle infrastructure typologies and design elements that can help promote cycling significantly. It is structured as a case study based research where three cycling infrastructures with distinct typologies were analyzed and compared. The three cases are Ves......, the findings of this research project can also support bike friendly design and planning, and cyclist advocacy....

  6. Infrastructure sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, Kenichi; Schooling, Jennifer

    2016-08-01

    Design, construction, maintenance and upgrading of civil engineering infrastructure requires fresh thinking to minimize use of materials, energy and labour. This can only be achieved by understanding the performance of the infrastructure, both during its construction and throughout its design life, through innovative monitoring. Advances in sensor systems offer intriguing possibilities to radically alter methods of condition assessment and monitoring of infrastructure. In this paper, it is hypothesized that the future of infrastructure relies on smarter information; the rich information obtained from embedded sensors within infrastructure will act as a catalyst for new design, construction, operation and maintenance processes for integrated infrastructure systems linked directly with user behaviour patterns. Some examples of emerging sensor technologies for infrastructure sensing are given. They include distributed fibre-optics sensors, computer vision, wireless sensor networks, low-power micro-electromechanical systems, energy harvesting and citizens as sensors. PMID:27499845

  7. Charge particle accelerator - a brief review, future challenges and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charged particle accelerators are important tools to investigate hitherto inaccessible problems in various fields of science. The interaction of charged particles with materials reveals structural information at very small scale (-16 cm). Accelerator based equipments viz. scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and focused ion beam (FIB) machines are extensively being used to explore new possibilities in nanotechnology. Many experiments in nuclear and particle physics examine the fundamental laws of physics by colliding a high-energy beam of particles, such as electrons or protons, with a fixed target or with another beam of particles. Modern light sources, which are capable of producing high-energy photons such as X-rays, operate by 'bending' the path of electrons in an accelerator with magnets to generate radiation. State-of-the-art cancer treatment facilities utilize high-energy proton and heavier ion beams to treat inoperable tumors. The man made sun, International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), will utilize 1 MeV, 40 A neutral proton beams for additional heating of the plasma. A roadmap for developing accelerator driven systems (ADS) in India was prepared in 2001 and involves development of a 1 GeV, 30 mA proton linear accelerator. Due to potential applications, developing high energy accelerators worldwide is a challenge for the community. New acceleration schemes to make accelerator size compact have been realized. In the present talk, various types of accelerators, accelerator based programs worldwide and new acceleration scheme of charge particles will be discussed. The low energy ion beam facility (LEIBF) at IUAC and a few experimental results arising from this facility will be presented. Finally, I will touch some applications, particularly in nanotechnology, where accelerators are making a big impact. (author)

  8. X-ray diffraction studies of charge density waves in cuprate superconductors: A brief review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High temperature superconductivity in the cuprates has fascinated scientists for more than 25 years, but there is still no consensus on the pairing mechanism. Soon after the discovery of high temperature superconductivity, it was suggested that the cuprates have an incipient tendency towards spatial electronic order – spin and charge order. In this paper, I will review X-ray diffraction studies of charge density waves in the cuprates. These results, by a number of different groups, indicate that short-range charge correlations exist across the cuprate family, and in many cases are clearly competing with the superconductivity

  9. Cyber resilience: a review of critical national infrastructure and cyber security protection measures applied in the UK and USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Wayne; Matteson, Ashley

    This paper presents cyber resilience as key strand of national security. It establishes the importance of critical national infrastructure protection and the growing vicarious nature of remote, well-planned, and well executed cyber attacks on critical infrastructures. Examples of well-known historical cyber attacks are presented, and the emergence of 'internet of things' as a cyber vulnerability issue yet to be tackled is explored. The paper identifies key steps being undertaken by those responsible for detecting, deterring, and disrupting cyber attacks on critical national infrastructure in the United Kingdom and the USA. PMID:24457326

  10. A review of factors affecting electrostatic charging of pharmaceuticals and adhesive mixtures for inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaialy, Waseem

    2016-04-30

    Pharmaceutical powders are typically insulators consisting of relatively small particles and thus they usually exhibit significant electrostatic charging behaviours. In the inhalation field, the measurement of electrostatic charge is an imperative stage during pharmaceutical formulation development. The electrostatic charge is affected by the interplay of many factors. This article reviews the factors affecting the electrostatic charging of pharmaceutical powders with a focus on dry powder inhalations. The influences of particle resistivity, size distribution, shape distribution, surface roughness, polymorphic form and hygroscopicity, as well as the effects of moisture uptake, environmental conditions, pharmaceutical processing (i.e., milling, sieving, spray drying and blending), and storage on the electrostatic charge behaviours of pharmaceuticals, with focus on inhalation powders, were reviewed. The influence of electrostatic charge on the performance of dry powder inhaler formulations in terms of drug content homogeneity, the passage of drug through the inhaler device, drug-carrier adhesion/detachment, and drug deposition on the respiratory airways were discussed. The understanding gained is crucial to improving the safety, quality, and efficiency of the pharmaceutical inhalation products. PMID:26836710

  11. CERN printing infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Otto, R

    2008-01-01

    For many years CERN had a very sophisticated print server infrastructure [13] which supported several different protocols (AppleTalk, IPX and TCP/IP) and many different printing standards. Today's situation differs a lot: we have a much more homogenous network infrastructure, where TCP/IP is used everywhere and we have less printer models, which almost all work using current standards (i.e. they all provide PostScript drivers). This change gave us the possibility to review the printing architecture aiming at simplifying the infrastructure in order to achieve full automation of the service. The new infrastructure offers both: LPD service exposing print queues to Linux and Mac OS X computers and native printing for Windows based clients. The printer driver distribution is automatic and native on Windows and automated by custom mechanisms on Linux, where the appropriate Foomatic drivers are configured. Also the process of printer registration and queue creation is completely automated following the printer regis...

  12. Regulation of gas infrastructure expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The topic of this dissertation is the regulation of gas infrastructure expansion in the European Union (EU). While the gas market has been liberalised, the gas infrastructure has largely remained in the regulated domain. However, not necessarily all gas infrastructure facilities - such as gas storage facilities, LNG import terminals and certain gas transmission pipelines - need to be regulated, as there may be scope for competition. In practice, the choice of regulation of gas infrastructure expansion varies among different types of gas infrastructure facilities and across EU Member States. Based on a review of economic literature and on a series of in-depth case studies, this study explains these differences in choices of regulation from differences in policy objectives, differences in local circumstances and differences in the intrinsic characteristics of the infrastructure projects. An important conclusion is that there is potential for a larger role for competition in gas infrastructure expansion.

  13. An Experimental Review of Charged Lepton Flavor Violation in Muon Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ootani, Wataru

    2016-09-01

    The flavor violating transition between generations of charged leptons is highly suppressed in the Standard Model of the elementary particle physics, whereas many of the promising new physics beyond the Standard Model predict sizable rates of the flavor violating processes within a reach of the ongoing or proposed experiments. The status and the perspectives of the experimental quests for the charged lepton flavor violation in muon channel are reviewed focusing on the three major processes, μ - N to e - N, μ + to e + γ , and μ + to e + e - e + .

  14. Review of highly charged heavy ion production with electron cyclotron resonance ion source (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, T

    2014-02-01

    The electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) plays an important role in the advancement of heavy ion accelerators and other ion beam applications worldwide, thanks to its remarkable ability to produce a great variety of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. Great efforts over the past decade have led to significant ECRIS performance improvements in both the beam intensity and quality. A number of high-performance ECRISs have been built and are in daily operation or are under construction to meet the continuously increasing demand. In addition, comprehension of the detailed and complex physical processes in high-charge-state ECR plasmas has been enhanced experimentally and theoretically. This review covers and discusses the key components, leading-edge developments, and enhanced ECRIS performance in the production of highly charged heavy ion beams. PMID:24593514

  15. Review of highly charged heavy ion production with electron cyclotron resonance ion source (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, T.

    2014-02-01

    The electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) plays an important role in the advancement of heavy ion accelerators and other ion beam applications worldwide, thanks to its remarkable ability to produce a great variety of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. Great efforts over the past decade have led to significant ECRIS performance improvements in both the beam intensity and quality. A number of high-performance ECRISs have been built and are in daily operation or are under construction to meet the continuously increasing demand. In addition, comprehension of the detailed and complex physical processes in high-charge-state ECR plasmas has been enhanced experimentally and theoretically. This review covers and discusses the key components, leading-edge developments, and enhanced ECRIS performance in the production of highly charged heavy ion beams.

  16. Review of highly charged heavy ion production with electron cyclotron resonance ion source (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) plays an important role in the advancement of heavy ion accelerators and other ion beam applications worldwide, thanks to its remarkable ability to produce a great variety of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. Great efforts over the past decade have led to significant ECRIS performance improvements in both the beam intensity and quality. A number of high-performance ECRISs have been built and are in daily operation or are under construction to meet the continuously increasing demand. In addition, comprehension of the detailed and complex physical processes in high-charge-state ECR plasmas has been enhanced experimentally and theoretically. This review covers and discusses the key components, leading-edge developments, and enhanced ECRIS performance in the production of highly charged heavy ion beams

  17. Simulation and optimization of site and capacity selection in the planning of charge infrastructure for battery electric vehicle fleets; Simulation und Optimierung der Standort- und Kapazitaetsauswahl in der Planung von Ladeinfrastruktur fuer batterieelektrische Fahrzeugflotten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siefen, Kostja

    2012-07-15

    Political, technological and economic factors have led to a new upswing in the development of Electric Mobility. In addition to the private sector, certain industrial fleets are especially suited as pilot customers for battery electric vehicles. Economic advantages compared to conventional vehicles are caused by low energy costs if vehicles reach high mileage and still have enough time to recharge the needed energy. To supply energy to all fleet vehicles, a proper charging infrastructure has to be available in the operational area. The focus of this work is the development of new simulation and optimization models for this strategic planning task. The developed simulation model allows a detailed analysis and evaluation of the impact of various business models. It allows the variation of the fleet size, the vehicle types, the battery capacity, the infrastructure configuration and charging rules in the operational concept. The developed optimization model allows the cost-minimal selection of supply locations and their capacity to ensure the required quality of service. For medium and large problem instances exact solution methods reach their limits, so that a separate heuristic method is presented. The developed methods were used in a real project to demonstrate the practicality.

  18. 77 FR 14462 - Space Transportation Infrastructure Matching Grants Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ..._offices/ast/environmental/review . Who May Apply for a Space Transportation Infrastructure Matching Grant... Federal Aviation Administration Space Transportation Infrastructure Matching Grants Program AGENCY... Transportation Infrastructure Matching Grants Program. SUMMARY: This notice solicits Fiscal Year (FY) 2012...

  19. A review of technical options for solar charging stations in Asia and Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Almeida

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Charging stations are an attractive solution to provide access to electricity to low income populations with low energy consumption in remote and off-grid areas. This paper reviews the state of the art of charging stations, with special focus on the technical options. Forty-five different actors in this field were analysed, based on academic publications, reports, online search and surveys. Results show that most stations are run in Sub Saharan Africa and South Asia, are powered by solar energy and although there are many different energy services targeted, the most popular services are charging batteries, mobile phones and lamps. The first charging station was installed in 1992 but most activities happen after 2005. This recent growth has been enabled by the falling cost of photovoltaic modules, learning effect, economies of scale, financial innovation, private sector involvement and worldwide dissemination of mobile phones. While in the first system the only purpose was to charge solar photovoltaic lanterns, the first multi-purpose station appeared in 2008. As expected, the technical challenges are mostly related to the use of batteries not only because they represent the component with shortest lifetime but also because if the battery is not for individual use, social questions arise due to poor definition of rights and duties of the customers. Furthermore, the development of a sustainable business model is also a challenge since this requires technical skills and system monitoring that are not usually available locally. Finally, it is also suggested that the minimum technical quality standards for charging stations should be defined and implemented.

  20. Charged Particle Radiation Therapy for Uveal Melanoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhen, E-mail: Wang.Zhen@mayo.edu [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Nabhan, Mohammed [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Schild, Steven E. [Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, Arizona (United States); Stafford, Scott L.; Petersen, Ivy A.; Foote, Robert L.; Murad, M. Hassan [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Charged particle therapy (CPT) delivered with either protons, helium ions, or carbon ions, has been used to treat uveal melanoma. The present analysis was performed to systematically evaluate the efficacy and adverse effects of CPT for uveal melanoma. We searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and SciVerse Scopus and cross-referenced recent systematic reviews through January 2012. Two independent reviewers identified clinical trials and observational studies of CPT (protons, helium ions, and carbon ions). These reviewers extracted data and assessed study quality. Twenty-seven studies enrolling 8809 uveal melanoma patients met inclusion criteria. The rate of local recurrence was significantly less with CPT than with brachytherapy (odds ratio [OR] = 0.22, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.21-0.23). There were no significant differences in mortality or enucleation rates. Results were robust in multiple sensitivity analyses. CPT was also associated with lower retinopathy and cataract formation rates. Data suggest better outcomes may be possible with charged particle therapy with respect to local recurrence, retinopathy, and cataract formation rates. The overall quality of the evidence is low, and higher quality comparative effectiveness studies are needed to provide better evidence.

  1. Charged Particle Radiation Therapy for Uveal Melanoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charged particle therapy (CPT) delivered with either protons, helium ions, or carbon ions, has been used to treat uveal melanoma. The present analysis was performed to systematically evaluate the efficacy and adverse effects of CPT for uveal melanoma. We searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and SciVerse Scopus and cross-referenced recent systematic reviews through January 2012. Two independent reviewers identified clinical trials and observational studies of CPT (protons, helium ions, and carbon ions). These reviewers extracted data and assessed study quality. Twenty-seven studies enrolling 8809 uveal melanoma patients met inclusion criteria. The rate of local recurrence was significantly less with CPT than with brachytherapy (odds ratio [OR] = 0.22, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.21-0.23). There were no significant differences in mortality or enucleation rates. Results were robust in multiple sensitivity analyses. CPT was also associated with lower retinopathy and cataract formation rates. Data suggest better outcomes may be possible with charged particle therapy with respect to local recurrence, retinopathy, and cataract formation rates. The overall quality of the evidence is low, and higher quality comparative effectiveness studies are needed to provide better evidence

  2. Research on typical design scheme of charging/battery swap infrastructure for electric vehicle%电动汽车充换电设施典型设计方案研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许庆强; 寇英刚; 马建伟; 闫安心; 江明

    2015-01-01

    为规范充换电设施建设规模和站体布置,研究了电动汽车充换电设施标准化问题,提出了典型设计方案。阐述了典型设计方案编制原则,给出了服务对象具体参数和典型设计方案分类,举例对充电站典型设计方案进行分析研究,包括总平面布置、充电设备、供配电系统、二次系统、土建、消防等内容,并从电池架充电、分箱充电机选型及组柜、换电设备设计、换电监控、电池检测维护等五方面详细阐述换电系统设计方案。提供了所有典型设计方案的配置情况。该典型设计方案可用于统一设备类别和选型,有效控制充换电设施工程造价,也为后续充换电设施运行维护取费标准作好准备,已成功用于指导国家电网公司系统各单位编制充换电设施项目建设方案。%For limiting the construction scale and the layout of charging/battery swap infrastructure, standardization schemes of electric vehicle charging/battery swap infrastructure are researched, and then typical design schemes are raised. Firstly, the typical design scheme compiling principle is described, and specific parameters of serviced electric vehicle and the classification of typical design scheme are provided. On the basis, a typical scheme, including general layout, charging equipment, power supply and distribution system, second order system, civil engineering, fire control, etc., is used as an example for detailedly researching and analyzing the typical design schemes. The design scheme of battery swap system is elaborated in detail, in which charging battery frame, box charger selection and set cabinet, design of battery swap device, battery swap monitoring, battery detection and maintenance are involved. At last, the configuration of typical design schemes is provided. The proposed typical design schemes can be used for unifying the category and selection of equipment and determining the operation

  3. Industrial infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A substantial prerequisite for an increase of the domestic participation is the existence of an ''industrial infrastructure''. As long as a structure such as that described in this paper does not exist, domestic industry participation will continue to be confined to the assembly of components, while most of the supplies (materials, accessory parts) would have to be imported. The scope and set-up of the ''industrial infrastructure'' will be determined by a study of the required capacity and organization, which has to be prepared at a very early stage (second phase of an envisaged transfer of technology), and which will be included within the scope of a nuclear programme. Experience has shown that the different state institutes, the universities, private industry and the State companies work independently without any co-ordination of their activities. By the assignment of tasks, after taking into account existing conditions, an infrastructure can be built up which can be developed more intensively in the different fields co-operating with the institutes of the partner country. In the past good co-ordination of the different activities by an experienced partner has turned out to be absolutely necessary. This, too, presents the opportunity of co-operation with the main contractor who has extensive experience in constructing nuclear power plants. In the course of time, this co-ordination function can be transferred to a specially qualified domestic institute or company, which will undertake further development and co-ordination. (author)

  4. TOPICAL REVIEW: Charged-particle multiplicity in proton-proton collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiete Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan; Reygers, Klaus

    2010-08-01

    This review summarizes and critically reviews measurements of charged-particle multiplicity distributions and pseudorapidity densities in p+p(\\bar{p}) collisions between \\sqrt{s} = 23.6 {\\;GeV} and \\sqrt{s} = 1.8\\;TeV. Related theoretical concepts are briefly introduced. Moments of multiplicity distributions are presented as a function of \\sqrt{s}. Feynman scaling, KNO scaling as well as the description of multiplicity distributions with a single negative binomial distribution and with combinations of two or more negative binomial distributions is discussed. Moreover, similarities between the energy dependence of charged-particle multiplicities in p+p(\\bar{p}) and e+e- collisions are studied. Finally, various predictions for pseudorapidity densities, average multiplicities in full phase space and multiplicity distributions of charged particles in p+p(\\bar{p}) collisions at the LHC energies of \\sqrt{s} = 7\\;TeV, 10\\;TeV and 14 TeV are summarized and compared.

  5. Review of theories of charge transfer processes involving highly stripped heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is made of various theoretical models to study charge transfer processes involving highly stripped heavy ions Asup(z+) + B → Asup((z-1)+) + B+. The limitations of applicability of these models are critically discussed. Detailed comparison is made between theories for examples of C6+ + H → C5+ + H+ and Fe26+ + H → Fe25+ + H+. Scaling rules of the charge transfer cross section with respect to Z and theoretical predictions of the distribution over the fimal states of the highly stripped heavy ion are summarized, which are important for application to nuclear fusion and to X-ray laser. The theoretical results are compared with the experimental data available at present. (author)

  6. Mission Report on the Integrated Nuclear Infrastructure Review (INIR), 18-29 June 2012, Minsk, Republic of Belarus. Counterpart: Ministry of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a letter dated 23 November 2011, the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Belarus to the International Organizations in Vienna requested the IAEA to carry out an Integrated Nuclear Infrastructure Review Mission (INIR). The Republic of Belarus (hereafter Belarus) also provided their self-evaluation report (in Russian and English) entitled: Report on the Assessment of the National Nuclear Infrastructure of the Republic of Belarus. After preparatory activities, the INIR mission was conducted from 18 to 29 June 2012 in Minsk and represents an evaluation of the development status of the infrastructure issues described in the Milestones in the Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power (Nuclear Energy Series No. NG-G-3.1). The methodology for the evaluation is described in Evaluation of the Status of National Nuclear Infrastructure Development (Nuclear Energy Series No. NG-T-3.2). Given the status of Belarus's programme, the mission covered conditions for both Phases 1 and 2. Belarus began its preparations for nuclear power in the 1980s but stopped after the Chernobyl accident. In July 2006, after strategic energy planning activities, Belarus decided to again consider the possibility of introducing nuclear power into the national energy mix. Subsequently on September 17, 2007, The Concept of Energy Security of the Republic of Belarus was approved by the Decree No. 433 of the President and included a plan to commission two nuclear power units with total power capacity of 2000 MWe by 2020. The Resolution of the Security Council of Belarus in 2008 approved the construction. The Law on the Use of Atomic Energy in Belarus was adopted on July 30, 2008 and provides the legal basis for safe nuclear power development. In 2009, the Master Plan of Key Organizational Measures for Construction of Nuclear Power Plant was adopted. The mission team concluded that the Government of Belarus has made a clear commitment to a nuclear power programme, which is important to

  7. Infrastructure Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Idongesit

    2012-01-01

    It is the quest of every government to achieve universal Access and service of telecommunication services and ICTs. Unfortunately due to the high cost of deploying infrastructure in rural areas of developing countries due to non-significant or no economic activity, this dream of achieving Universal...... access and service of telecommunications/ICTs have been stalled. This paper throws light on a possible Public Private Partnership framework as a development path that will enable affordable network technologies to be deployed in rural areas at a cost that will translate to what the rural dweller...... in a developing country in Africa can afford. The paper is a conceptual paper...

  8. Making green infrastructure healthier infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mare Lõhmus

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing urban green and blue structure is often pointed out to be critical for sustainable development and climate change adaptation, which has led to the rapid expansion of greening activities in cities throughout the world. This process is likely to have a direct impact on the citizens’ quality of life and public health. However, alongside numerous benefits, green and blue infrastructure also has the potential to create unexpected, undesirable, side-effects for health. This paper considers several potential harmful public health effects that might result from increased urban biodiversity, urban bodies of water, and urban tree cover projects. It does so with the intent of improving awareness and motivating preventive measures when designing and initiating such projects. Although biodiversity has been found to be associated with physiological benefits for humans in several studies, efforts to increase the biodiversity of urban environments may also promote the introduction and survival of vector or host organisms for infectious pathogens with resulting spread of a variety of diseases. In addition, more green connectivity in urban areas may potentiate the role of rats and ticks in the spread of infectious diseases. Bodies of water and wetlands play a crucial role in the urban climate adaptation and mitigation process. However, they also provide habitats for mosquitoes and toxic algal blooms. Finally, increasing urban green space may also adversely affect citizens allergic to pollen. Increased awareness of the potential hazards of urban green and blue infrastructure should not be a reason to stop or scale back projects. Instead, incorporating public health awareness and interventions into urban planning at the earliest stages can help insure that green and blue infrastructure achieves full potential for health promotion.

  9. CERN Printing Infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Otto, R

    2007-01-01

    For many years CERN had a very sophisticated print server infrastructure [13] which supported several different protocols (AppleTalk, IPX and TCP/IP) and many different printing standards. Today’s situation differs a lot: we have a much more homogenous network infrastructure, where TCP/IP is used everywhere and we have less printer models, which almost all work using current standards (i.e. they all provide PostScript drivers). This change gave us the possibility to review the printing architecture aiming at simplifying the infrastructure in order to achieve full automation of the service. The new infrastructure offers both: LPD service exposing print queues to Linux and Mac OS X computers and native printing for Windows based clients. The printer driver distribution is automatic and native on Windows and automated by custom mechanisms on Linux, where the appropriate Foomatic drivers are configured. Also the process of printer registration and queue creation is completely automated following the printer ...

  10. CERN printing infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For many years CERN had a very sophisticated print server infrastructure [13] which supported several different protocols (AppleTalk, IPX and TCP/IP) and many different printing standards. Today's situation differs a lot: we have a much more homogenous network infrastructure, where TCP/IP is used everywhere and we have less printer models, which almost all work using current standards (i.e. they all provide PostScript drivers). This change gave us the possibility to review the printing architecture aiming at simplifying the infrastructure in order to achieve full automation of the service. The new infrastructure offers both: LPD service exposing print queues to Linux and Mac OS X computers and native printing for Windows based clients. The printer driver distribution is automatic and native on Windows and automated by custom mechanisms on Linux, where the appropriate Foomatic drivers are configured. Also the process of printer registration and queue creation is completely automated following the printer registration in the network database. At the end of 2006 we have moved all (∼1200) CERN printers and all users' connections at CERN to the new service. This paper will describe the new architecture and summarize the process of migration

  11. Transport Infrastructure and Regional Development

    OpenAIRE

    Percolo, Marco

    2003-01-01

    The paper deals with transport infrastructure, seen as a key factor in sustaining high levels of regional competitiveness. After reviewing some theoretical issues and providing some empirical evidence on the impact of infrastructure on regional growth, I focus on the impact of advanced transportation system as a fundamental attribute to link up with the growing internationalization of markets by analyzing the case of Duisburg port and the Transrapid railway.

  12. Non-adiabatic quantized charge pumping with tunable-barrier quantum dots: a review of current progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestner, Bernd; Kashcheyevs, Vyacheslavs

    2015-10-01

    Precise manipulation of individual charge carriers in nanoelectronic circuits underpins practical applications of their most basic quantum property—the universality and invariance of the elementary charge. A charge pump generates a net current from periodic external modulation of parameters controlling a nanostructure connected to source and drain leads; in the regime of quantized pumping the current varies in steps of {{q}\\text{e}} f as function of control parameters, where {{q}\\text{e}} is the electron charge and f is the frequency of modulation. In recent years, robust and accurate quantized charge pumps have been developed based on semiconductor quantum dots with tunable tunnel barriers. These devices allow modulation of charge exchange rates between the dot and the leads over many orders of magnitude and enable trapping of a precise number of electrons far away from equilibrium with the leads. The corresponding non-adiabatic pumping protocols focus on understanding of separate parts of the pumping cycle associated with charge loading, capture and release. In this report we review realizations, models and metrology applications of quantized charge pumps based on tunable-barrier quantum dots.

  13. Non-adiabatic quantized charge pumping with tunable-barrier quantum dots: a review of current progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestner, Bernd; Kashcheyevs, Vyacheslavs

    2015-10-01

    Precise manipulation of individual charge carriers in nanoelectronic circuits underpins practical applications of their most basic quantum property--the universality and invariance of the elementary charge. A charge pump generates a net current from periodic external modulation of parameters controlling a nanostructure connected to source and drain leads; in the regime of quantized pumping the current varies in steps of [Formula: see text] as function of control parameters, where [Formula: see text] is the electron charge and f is the frequency of modulation. In recent years, robust and accurate quantized charge pumps have been developed based on semiconductor quantum dots with tunable tunnel barriers. These devices allow modulation of charge exchange rates between the dot and the leads over many orders of magnitude and enable trapping of a precise number of electrons far away from equilibrium with the leads. The corresponding non-adiabatic pumping protocols focus on understanding of separate parts of the pumping cycle associated with charge loading, capture and release. In this report we review realizations, models and metrology applications of quantized charge pumps based on tunable-barrier quantum dots. PMID:26394066

  14. California Hydrogen Infrastructure Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heydorn, Edward C

    2013-03-12

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. has completed a comprehensive, multiyear project to demonstrate a hydrogen infrastructure in California. The specific primary objective of the project was to demonstrate a model of a real-world retail hydrogen infrastructure and acquire sufficient data within the project to assess the feasibility of achieving the nation's hydrogen infrastructure goals. The project helped to advance hydrogen station technology, including the vehicle-to-station fueling interface, through consumer experiences and feedback. By encompassing a variety of fuel cell vehicles, customer profiles and fueling experiences, this project was able to obtain a complete portrait of real market needs. The project also opened its stations to other qualified vehicle providers at the appropriate time to promote widespread use and gain even broader public understanding of a hydrogen infrastructure. The project engaged major energy companies to provide a fueling experience similar to traditional gasoline station sites to foster public acceptance of hydrogen. Work over the course of the project was focused in multiple areas. With respect to the equipment needed, technical design specifications (including both safety and operational considerations) were written, reviewed, and finalized. After finalizing individual equipment designs, complete station designs were started including process flow diagrams and systems safety reviews. Material quotes were obtained, and in some cases, depending on the project status and the lead time, equipment was placed on order and fabrication began. Consideration was given for expected vehicle usage and station capacity, standard features needed, and the ability to upgrade the station at a later date. In parallel with work on the equipment, discussions were started with various vehicle manufacturers to identify vehicle demand (short- and long-term needs). Discussions included identifying potential areas most suited for hydrogen fueling

  15. Central Region Green Infrastructure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This Green Infrastructure data is comprised of 3 similar ecological corridor data layers ? Metro Conservation Corridors, green infrastructure analysis in counties...

  16. Collaborative Engagement Approaches For Delivering Sustainable Infrastructure Projects In The AEC Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adetola, Alaba

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The public sector has traditionally financed and operated infrastructure projects using resources from taxes and various levies (e.g. fuel taxes, road user charges. However, the rapid increase in human population growth coupled with extended globalisation complexities and associated social/political/economic challenges have placed new demands on the purveyors and operators of infrastructure projects. The importance of delivering quality infrastructure has been underlined by the United Nations declaration of the Millennium Development Goals; as has the provision of ‘adequate’ basic structures and facilities necessary for the well-being of urban populations in developing countries. Thus, in an effort to finance developing countries’ infrastructure needs, most countries have adopted some form of public-private collaboration strategy. This paper critically reviews these collaborative engagement approaches, identifies and highlights 10 critical themes that need to be appropriately captured and aligned to existing business models in order to successfully deliver sustainable infrastructure projects. Research findings show that infrastructure services can be delivered in many ways, and through various routes. For example, a purely public approach can cause problems such as slow and ineffective decision-making, inefficient organisational and institutional augmentation, and lack of competition and inefficiency (collectively known as government failure. On the other hand, adopting a purely private approach can cause problems such as inequalities in the distribution of infrastructure services (known as market failure. Thus, to overcome both government and market failures, a collaborative approach is advocated which incorporates the strengths of both of these polarised positions.

  17. Capacitive RF MEMS switch dielectric charging and reliability: a critical review with recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a comprehensive review of the reliability issues hampering capacitive RF MEMS switches in their development toward commercialization. Dielectric charging and its effects on device behavior are extensively addressed, as well as the application of different dielectric materials, improvements in the mechanical design and the use of advanced actuation waveforms. It is concluded that viable capacitive RF MEMS switches with a great chance of market acceptance preferably have no actuation voltage across a dielectric at all, contrary to the ‘standard’ geometry. This is substantiated by the reliability data of a number of dielectric-less MEMS switch designs. However, a dielectric can be used for the signal itself, resulting in a higher Con/Coff ratio than that one would be able to achieve in a switch without any dielectric. The other reliability issues of these devices are also covered, such as creep, RF-power-related failures and packaging reliability. This paper concludes with a recipe for a conceptual ‘ideal’ switch from a reliability point of view, based on the lessons learned. (paper)

  18. A Review of Applicability and Effectiveness of Low Impact Development/Green Infrastructure Practices in Arid/Semi-Arid United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Jiang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Urbanized areas of the southwestern/western United States are among the fastest growing in the nation and face multiple water resource challenges. Low impact development (LID/green infrastructure (GI practices are increasingly popular technologies for managing stormwater; however, LID is often not as common in the southwest/west due to the lack of regulatory and/or economic drivers. There is also a lack of performance evaluation of these practices, particularly at the field scale. This study focused on investigating the hydrologic and pollutant removal performance of field-scale LID/GI systems in arid/semi-arid climates. Nine typical practices were reviewed: rainwater harvest system, detention pond, retention pond, bioretention, media filter, porous pavement, vegetated swale/buffer/strip, green roof, and infiltration trench, as well as integrated LIDs. We evaluate these practices by a cost-effectiveness analysis and also recommend best practices for the arid/semi-arid area. The analysis provides data support and insights for future implementation of LID/GI in the southwest/west.

  19. 77 FR 36903 - Accelerating Broadband Infrastructure Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... Infrastructure Development Through More Efficient and Effective Permitting and Environmental Review). (b) The..., Washington, June 14, 2012. [FR Doc. 2012-15183 Filed 6-19-12; 8:45 am] Billing code 3295-F2-P ... Documents#0;#0; ] Executive Order 13616 of June 14, 2012 Accelerating Broadband Infrastructure Deployment...

  20. Modeling and Managing Risk in Billing Infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiardi, Fabrizio; Telmon, Claudio; Sgandurra, Daniele

    This paper discusses risk modeling and risk management in information and communications technology (ICT) systems for which the attack impact distribution is heavy tailed (e.g., power law distribution) and the average risk is unbounded. Systems with these properties include billing infrastructures used to charge customers for services they access. Attacks against billing infrastructures can be classified as peripheral attacks and backbone attacks. The goal of a peripheral attack is to tamper with user bills; a backbone attack seeks to seize control of the billing infrastructure. The probability distribution of the overall impact of an attack on a billing infrastructure also has a heavy-tailed curve. This implies that the probability of a massive impact cannot be ignored and that the average impact may be unbounded - thus, even the most expensive countermeasures would be cost effective. Consequently, the only strategy for managing risk is to increase the resilience of the infrastructure by employing redundant components.

  1. Infrastructure needs for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power is a significant component of electricity systems world-wide and in OECD countries as a whole it accounts for about 25% of the electricity supply. The current stagnation in nuclear power orders and the expectation of diminishing nuclear programmes in several countries might jeopardize industrial infrastructures based on nuclear activities. Questions arise as to whether special measures are needed to ensure that the nuclear option will be available when wanted and if so, who would take these measures. This paper provides at first an attempt to define what can be considered as ''structure'' and ''infrastructure'' and then a review of relevant issues related to industrial and governmental supporting infrastructure. In particular, the manpower availability and educational implications are examined

  2. Invited Review Article: Contemporary instrumentation and application of charge exchange neutral particle diagnostics in magnetic fusion energy experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the developments postcirca 1980s in the instrumentation and application of charge exchange neutral particle diagnostics on magnetic fusion energy experiments is presented. First, spectrometers that employ only electric fields and hence provide ion energy resolution but not mass resolution are discussed. Next, spectrometers that use various geometrical combinations of both electric and magnetic fields to provide both energy and mass resolutions are reviewed. Finally, neutral particle diagnostics based on utilization of time-of-flight techniques are presented

  3. Partnerships for Urban Forestry and Green Infrastructure Delivering Services to People and the Environment: A Review on What They Are and Aim to Achieve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Hansmann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Partnerships are a key mechanism in the planning, delivery and management of urban forestry (UF and green infrastructure (GI. They can facilitate locally rooted co-management and polycentric governance. They can also achieve synergies by combining the resources, commitment and expertise of diverse stakeholder groups in order to generate valuable outcomes and build social capital. Unfortunately, the term “partnerships” is not used consistently in literature and requires clarification. The characteristics which distinguish a partnership approach from other modes of co-operation are identified and described. The diversity of existing UF and GI oriented partnerships is outlined, with reference to their stakeholders, drivers, activities and goals, together with potential advantages of the partnership approach. Considerations to be made in their evaluation are derived from this background analysis and possible success factors are discussed. Materials and Methods: The diversity, aims and defining characteristics of a partnership approach are based on an extensive literature review. Results: Partnerships focus on diverse aspects and delivery phases of UF, ranging from the planning, design and creation of urban forests and GI to their management and use. Benefits delivered by such partnerships include environmental and economic services as well as social and cultural services such as environmental education, health, leisure and tourism. Generating valuable services whilst at the same time nurturing relationships between stakeholders helps to develop social capital and build capacity. In addition to environmental, economic and social benefits, the evaluation of partnerships may also address internal process variables such as social learning, the relationship between partners, and motivational outcomes that can influence future co-operation. Conclusions: Co-operative partnerships offer a promising approach for delivery in UF

  4. Infrastructure Concessions in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Lobo, Andrés; Hinojosa, Sergio

    2000-01-01

    To increase investment in infrastructure, in the early 1990s Chiles government introduced private capital into the transport infrastructure sector, covering roads and highways, bridges, tunnels, and airports. The chosen mechanism: a concession scheme through which private firms would finance and build a given project and then operate the infrastructure for a set of number of years, recover...

  5. Controversy over Charges by Stanford Prompts Critical Review of Entire Indirect-Cost System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, Colleen

    1991-01-01

    As a result of investigations into overhead charges at Stanford University (California), lawmakers and federal agency officials are seeking ways to prevent universities from overcharging the government for indirect costs and ways to improve federal oversight of government payments. (DB)

  6. Doctors charged with manslaughter in the course of medical practice, 1795-2005: a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Ferner, R E; McDowell, Sarah E

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To quantify the number of doctors charged with manslaughter in the course of legitimate medical practice and to classify cases, as mistakes, slips (or lapses), and violations, using a recognized classification of human error system.

  7. An Independent Review Of The Fee-Charging Debt Management Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Collard, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    A debt management plan (DMP) provides a means for people to repay their consumer credit debts in full. An affordable payment is calculated, based on an assessment of an individual's inclome and expenditure. The person in debt makes one monthly payment to a debt management provider, which is then distributed between their creditors on a pro rata basis, either electronically or by cheque. DMPs are provided by fee-charging debt management companies, which generally charge their customers a set-u...

  8. Charge independence and charge symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, G A; Miller, Gerald A; van Oers, Willem T H

    1994-01-01

    Charge independence and charge symmetry are approximate symmetries of nature, violated by the perturbing effects of the mass difference between up and down quarks and by electromagnetic interactions. The observations of the symmetry breaking effects in nuclear and particle physics and the implications of those effects are reviewed.

  9. Charge independence and charge symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charge independence and charge symmetry are approximate symmetries of nature, violated by the perturbing effects of the mass difference between up and down quarks and by electromagnetic interactions. The observations of the symmetry breaking effects in nuclear and particle physics and the implications of those effects are reviewed. (author). 145 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs

  10. Parallel digital forensics infrastructure.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebrock, Lorie M. (New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM); Duggan, David Patrick

    2009-10-01

    This report documents the architecture and implementation of a Parallel Digital Forensics infrastructure. This infrastructure is necessary for supporting the design, implementation, and testing of new classes of parallel digital forensics tools. Digital Forensics has become extremely difficult with data sets of one terabyte and larger. The only way to overcome the processing time of these large sets is to identify and develop new parallel algorithms for performing the analysis. To support algorithm research, a flexible base infrastructure is required. A candidate architecture for this base infrastructure was designed, instantiated, and tested by this project, in collaboration with New Mexico Tech. Previous infrastructures were not designed and built specifically for the development and testing of parallel algorithms. With the size of forensics data sets only expected to increase significantly, this type of infrastructure support is necessary for continued research in parallel digital forensics. This report documents the implementation of the parallel digital forensics (PDF) infrastructure architecture and implementation.

  11. User charges for health services in developing countries: a review of the economic literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPake, B

    1993-06-01

    Literature suggests that in theory, the efficiency of user charges for health services is related to the level of externality, the price elasticity of demand, the proportion of total costs which are private access costs, and the level of the government budget constraint. Theoretical models predict that price elasticity of demand for health services is likely to be higher for lower income groups and that user charges are therefore unlikely to promote equity, or reduce the discrepancies between the utilisation rates of the rich and poor, 'ceteris paribus'. Empirical evidence tends to confirm the latter prediction but to suggest that user charges in many countries provide the scope for welfare gains for the majority. Unfortunately, this scope is seldom exploited in practice. It is argued that many countries have little choice but to try to exploit the potential for majority gains, but that more emphasis should be placed on ensuring quality improvements than on superficial financial measures of success. PMID:8511628

  12. The evolution of ion charge states in cathodic vacuum arc plasmas: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Andre

    2011-12-18

    Cathodic vacuum arc plasmas are known to contain multiply charged ions. 20 years after “Pressure Ionization: its role in metal vapour vacuum arc plasmas and ion sources” appeared in vol. 1 of Plasma Sources Science and Technology, it is a great opportunity to re-visit the issue of pressure ionization, a non-ideal plasma effect, and put it in perspective to the many other factors that influence observable charge state distributions, such as the role of the cathode material, the path in the density-temperature phase diagram, the “noise” in vacuum arc plasma as described by a fractal model approach, the effects of external magnetic fields and charge exchange collisions with neutrals. A much more complex image of the vacuum arc plasma emerges putting decades of experimentation and modeling in perspective.

  13. 锂电池充电技术综述%Review of lithium battery charging technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何秋生; 徐磊; 吴雪雪

    2013-01-01

    在二次锂电池问世以来,凭借其循环寿命长、比能量高等优良的性能被应用在生产生活的各个领域.充电作为锂电池使用过程中最重要的一环,直接影响着电池的寿命及循环性能.在锂电池最佳充电曲线的基础上,分析了锂电池的各种不同充电方法,比较各自的充电速度、应用范围、电池寿命和循环性能等特性,最后提出了今后研究的方向.%The rechargeable lithium battery with the advantages of long cycle life,high energy density and other excellent performance has been widely used since its development in 1970s.As one of the most important process,charging directly affects the battery life and cycling performance.On the basis of the best lithium battery charging curve,the performance of various lithium battery charging methods was analyzed.Finally,the future investigation on lithium battery charging technology was discussed.

  14. Infrastructure and trade

    OpenAIRE

    Nordås, Hildegunn Kyvik; Piermartini, Roberta

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the role that quality of infrastructure has on a country's trade performance, estimating a gravity model that incorporates bilateral tariffs and a number of indicators for the quality of infrastructure. The paper looks at the impact of the quality of infrastructure (road, airport, port and telecommunication, and the time required for customs clearance) on total bilateral trade and on trade in the automotive, clothing and textile sectors. In order to obtain unbiased estimat...

  15. Trends in infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Greg Coombs; Chris Roberts

    2007-01-01

    The adequacy of Australia’s infrastructure has been a long-standing topic of debate. This article provides some insight into the question of infrastructure adequacy by examining trends in investment across OECD countries, and discusses some of the fundamental factors influencing Australia’s investment relative to other OECD countries. The article also looks at the question of the changing composition of public and private infrastructure spending in Australia over recent decades.

  16. Company infrastructure management system

    OpenAIRE

    Rykunich Anastasiya Yu.; Shvydanenko Genefa A.

    2013-01-01

    The article studies the content, structure and methods of organisational influence upon the company infrastructure. It offers definition of the company infrastructure from the point of view of a complex approach and also functional structure of the infrastructural complex, which allowed allocation of component elements and analysis of their role in servicing main production. The article analyses advantages and risks under conditions of attraction of outsourcing companies into company infrastr...

  17. Critical review of electrical conductivity measurements and charge distribution analysis of magnesium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Friedemann; Freund, Minoru M.; Batllo, Francois

    1993-01-01

    The electrical conductivity sigma of MgO single crystals shows a sharp increase at 500-800 C, in particular of sigma surface, generally attributed to surface contamination. Charge Distribution Analysis (CDA), a new technique providing information on fundamental properties that was previously unavailable, allows for the determination of surface charges, their sign and associated internal electric field. Data on 99.99% purity, arc-fusion grown MgO crystals show that mobile charge carriers start to appear in the bulk of the MgO crystals between 200 and 400 C when sigma (measured by conventional techniques) is in t he 10(exp -14) to 10(exp -16) /omega/cm range. Above 500 C, as sigma increases to 10(exp -6) to 10(exp -7)/omega/cm, more charges appear giving rise to a strong positive surface charge supported by a strong internal field. This indicates that charges are generated in the bulk and diffuse to the surface by an internally controlled process. On the basis of their positive sign they are identified as holes (defect electrons). Because of the low cation content of these very pure MgO crystals, theses holes cannnot be associated with transition metal impurties. Instead, they are associated with the O(2-) sublattice, e.g. consist of O(-) states or positive holes. This conclusion is supported by magnetic susceptibility data showing the appearance of 1000 +/- 500 ppm paramagnetic species between 200-500 C. The magnetic data are consistent with strongly coupled, diamagnetic O(-) pairs below 200-500 C, chemically equivalent to peroxy anions, O2(2-), and probably associated with cation vacancies in the MgO matrix. The formation of O2(2-) in arc-fusion grown MgO crystals is very unexpected because of the highly reducing growth conditions. Their presence implies an internal redox reaction involving dissolved 'water' by which OH(-) pairs convert to O2(2-) plus H2 molecules. This redox conversion is supported by mass spectroscopic measurements of the H2 release from highly

  18. Geospatial Information Infrastructure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geospatial Information Infrastructure (GII) system is the Departments common solution architecture for the enterprise geospatial segment administered by the DHS...

  19. Infrastructure and economic growth in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Urrunaga; Carlos Aparicio

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the literature analysing the importance of infrastructure for economic growth, and performs an econometric estimation to discover the relation between the two variables in the case of Peru. Different estimators are used with panel data from the 24 regions of Peru for the period 1980-2009. The econometric results confirm that public-service infrastructures (roads, electricity and telecommunications) are important in explaining temporary differences in regional output, in k...

  20. Partnerships for Urban Forestry and Green Infrastructure Delivering Services to People and the Environment: A Review on What They Are and Aim to Achieve

    OpenAIRE

    Hansmann, Ralph; Whitehead, Ian; Krajter Ostoić, Silvija; Živojinović, Ivana; Stojanovska, Makedonka; Jones, Nerys; Bernasconi, Andreas; Benamar, Samira; Lelieveld, Charlotte; Barstad, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Partnerships are a key mechanism in the planning, delivery and management of urban forestry (UF) and green infrastructure (GI). They can facilitate locally rooted co-management and polycentric governance. They can also achieve synergies by combining the resources, commitment and expertise of diverse stakeholder groups in order to generate valuable outcomes and build social capital. Unfortunately, the term “partnerships” is not used consistently in literature and requir...

  1. Modular Infrastructure for Rapid Flight Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Craig

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of modular infrastructure to assist in the development of flight software. A feature of this program is the use of model based approach for application unique software. A review of two programs that this approach was use on are: the development of software for Hover Test Vehicle (HTV), and Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Experiment (LADEE).

  2. Supporting clinicians in infrastructuring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten; Karasti, Helena

    2015-01-01

    notion of infrastructuring, we carry out an infrastructural analysis of eWBs and approach our joint efforts as unfolding and continuing the con-figuration of participatory design activities. We identify a need for local support and novel competences among the clinicians in order for them to engage in...

  3. Infrastructure Survey 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the Group of Eight (Go8) conducted a survey on the state of its buildings and infrastructure. The survey is the third Go8 Infrastructure survey, with previous surveys being conducted in 2007 and 2009. The current survey updated some of the information collected in the previous surveys. It also collated data related to aspects of the…

  4. Clustering of Infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, J.K.C.A.S.

    2001-01-01

    Bundling or converging infrastructure has been the leading principle for locating infrastructure since the mid seventies. It is assumed to offer certain advantages, such as a restriction of severance, consumption of free space and environmental hindrance. However, the concept of converging infrastru

  5. Data analysis methods for infrastructure permanent monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargaro, Danilo; Rainieri, Carlo; Fabbrocino, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    Safety and management of road networks is of paramount relevance not only under common operational conditions, but also in the case of extreme events, such as earthquakes or other natural hazards. Structural Health Monitoring systems may represent an attractive option for those institutions and companies having in charge the maintenance. Advances in sensing technology and miniaturization of computational devices make possible and reliable the installation of permanent monitoring systems and bring to operators both local and global data records. In this framework, vibration based monitoring represents an effective tool to track relevant modal properties during time by means of automated procedures. In any case, estimates of modal properties are influenced by environmental and operational factors as well as by the damage pointing out the need of discriminating between the different sources of influence. In the present paper, methodologies and strategies aimed at quantifying the influence of environmental and operational factors on modal parameters of infrastructure components are reviewed and some remarks on the application of blind source separation techniques to this end are proposed.

  6. Information infrastructure(s) boundaries, ecologies, multiplicity

    CERN Document Server

    Mongili, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    This book marks an important contribution to the fascinating debate on the role that information infrastructures and boundary objects play in contemporary life, bringing to the fore the concern of how cooperation across different groups is enabled, but also constrained, by the material and immaterial objects connecting them. As such, the book itself is situated at the crossroads of various paths and genealogies, all focusing on the problem of the intersection between different levels of scale...

  7. Chef infrastructure automation cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Marschall, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Chef Infrastructure Automation Cookbook contains practical recipes on everything you will need to automate your infrastructure using Chef. The book is packed with illustrated code examples to automate your server and cloud infrastructure.The book first shows you the simplest way to achieve a certain task. Then it explains every step in detail, so that you can build your knowledge about how things work. Eventually, the book shows you additional things to consider for each approach. That way, you can learn step-by-step and build profound knowledge on how to go about your configuration management

  8. Resilience in social insect infrastructure systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Eliza J T; Latty, Tanya

    2016-03-01

    Both human and insect societies depend on complex and highly coordinated infrastructure systems, such as communication networks, supply chains and transportation networks. Like human-designed infrastructure systems, those of social insects are regularly subject to disruptions such as natural disasters, blockages or breaks in the transportation network, fluctuations in supply and/or demand, outbreaks of disease and loss of individuals. Unlike human-designed systems, there is no deliberate planning or centralized control system; rather, individual insects make simple decisions based on local information. How do these highly decentralized, leaderless systems deal with disruption? What factors make a social insect system resilient, and which factors lead to its collapse? In this review, we bring together literature on resilience in three key social insect infrastructure systems: transportation networks, supply chains and communication networks. We describe how systems differentially invest in three pathways to resilience: resistance, redirection or reconstruction. We suggest that investment in particular resistance pathways is related to the severity and frequency of disturbance. In the final section, we lay out a prospectus for future research. Human infrastructure networks are rapidly becoming decentralized and interconnected; indeed, more like social insect infrastructures. Human infrastructure management might therefore learn from social insect researchers, who can in turn make use of the mature analytical and simulation tools developed for the study of human infrastructure resilience. PMID:26962030

  9. Resilience in social insect infrastructure systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Both human and insect societies depend on complex and highly coordinated infrastructure systems, such as communication networks, supply chains and transportation networks. Like human-designed infrastructure systems, those of social insects are regularly subject to disruptions such as natural disasters, blockages or breaks in the transportation network, fluctuations in supply and/or demand, outbreaks of disease and loss of individuals. Unlike human-designed systems, there is no deliberate planning or centralized control system; rather, individual insects make simple decisions based on local information. How do these highly decentralized, leaderless systems deal with disruption? What factors make a social insect system resilient, and which factors lead to its collapse? In this review, we bring together literature on resilience in three key social insect infrastructure systems: transportation networks, supply chains and communication networks. We describe how systems differentially invest in three pathways to resilience: resistance, redirection or reconstruction. We suggest that investment in particular resistance pathways is related to the severity and frequency of disturbance. In the final section, we lay out a prospectus for future research. Human infrastructure networks are rapidly becoming decentralized and interconnected; indeed, more like social insect infrastructures. Human infrastructure management might therefore learn from social insect researchers, who can in turn make use of the mature analytical and simulation tools developed for the study of human infrastructure resilience. PMID:26962030

  10. 蓄电池容量均衡方法概述%Review on Battery Charge Equalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董博; 李永东

    2011-01-01

    蓄电池由于其储能时间长,价格低等特点在电动车、新能源发电等领域得到了广泛应用。但蓄电池单体电压、容量较小,为了满足增大蓄电池容量的要求,一般将蓄电池单体串联使用,但由于单体的个体差异,在长时间使用后会导致单体的容量各不相同,对整个电池组的效率产生严重的影响。因此对蓄电池组各单体的容量均衡就非常重要.是保证蓄电池长期、有效运行的关键技术。文中将对现有的各种蓄电池均衡技术进行介绍,并指出各种方法的优缺点。%Battery is used widely in EV and renewable energy generation because of its long-time storage and low price. However, the voltage and energy of a cell are very low. In order to increase storage energy, cells are usually used in series connection. For the difference among cells, state of charge will be different after a long time use, which could decrease the efficiency of battery pack. Therefore, the battery charge equalization is very important. A review on battery charge equalization is described, bringing forward the advantage and disadvantage of each method.

  11. Sinonasal Malignancies and Charged Particle Radiation Treatment: A Systematic Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Maurizio Amichetti; Marco Cianchetti

    2012-01-01

    Background. Paranasal and nasal cavity malignancies are rare tumors that frequently present at advanced stages. Tumor extension and anatomic complexity pose a challenge for their treatment. Due to their peculiar physical and biological properties particle radiation therapy, i.e. protons and ions can have a role in their management. We performed a systematic literature review to gather clinical evidence about their use to treat sinonasal malignancies. Materials and Methods. We searched the bro...

  12. Dissolved and colloidal substances (DCS and the charge demand of papermaking process waters and suspensions: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A. Hubbe

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved and colloidal substances (DCS in the process waters of paper machine systems can interfere with the retention of fine particles, retard the drainage of water from the wet web, and generally hurt the intended functions of various polyelectrolytes that are added to the process. This review considers publications that have attempted to characterize the nature and effects of different DCS fractions, in addition to some of the ways that paper technologists have attempted to overcome related problems. The consequences of DCS in a paper machine system can be traced to their ability to form complexes with various polyelectrolytes. Such tendencies can be understood based on a relatively strong complexing ability of multivalent materials, depending on the macromolecular size and charge density. Continuing research is needed to more fully understand the different contributions to cationic demand in various paper machine systems and to find more efficient means of dealing with DCS.

  13. IPHE Infrastructure Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-02-01

    This proceedings contains information from the IPHE Infrastructure Workshop, a two-day interactive workshop held on February 25-26, 2010, to explore the market implementation needs for hydrogen fueling station development.

  14. Nuclear safety infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of nuclear power in any country requires the early establishment of a long term nuclear safety infrastructure. This is necessary to ensure that the siting, design, construction, commissioning, operation and dismantling of the nuclear power plant and any other related installations, as well as the long term management of radioactive waste and spent fuel, are conducted in a safe and secure manner. The decision to undertake a nuclear power program is a major commitment requiring strict attention to nuclear safety. This commitment is a responsibility to not only the citizens of the country developing such a program, but also a responsibility to the international community. Nobody can take on this responsibility or make the critical decisions except the host country. It is important to make sure that the decision making process and the development activities are done in as open a manner as possible allowing interested stakeholders the opportunity to review and comment on the actions and plans. It cannot be overemphasized that everyone involved in a program to develop nuclear power carries a responsibility for ensuring safety. While it is clear that the key decisions and activities are the responsibility of the host country, it is also very important to recognize that help is available. The IAEA, OECD-NEA, WANO and other international organizations along with countries with established nuclear power programs are available to provide information and assistance. In particular, the IAEA and OECD-NEA have published several documents regarding the development of a nuclear power program and they have been and continue to support many meetings and seminars regarding the development of nuclear power programs

  15. Monitoring Infrastructure Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    David Levinson

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the issues around monitoring of the capacity of public sector infrastructure to absorb land development.This paper first introduces Montgomery County¹s growth management system. It then offers two theories to justify monitoring infrastructure utilization for the purposes of establishing development capacity. The first, drawn from ecology is based on the notion of environmental carrying capacity. The second, from economics, employs the notion of externalities. However, neit...

  16. e-Infrastructures Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Solís, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    In January 2014, the three-year partner project entitled e-Infrastructures Austria was initiated. The overall objective of this project is the coordinated establishment and development of repository infrastructures for digital resources in research throughout Austria. The initial situation at the 25 participating scientific institutions is very heterogeneous. Through networking and pooling of expertise and resources, a network of knowledge and professional competence is created, which f...

  17. Monitoring Infrastructure Affordances

    OpenAIRE

    Björn, Ståhl

    2013-01-01

    Computing has made its way into most of our lives as a key processor of vast quantities of information. This has happened directly in terms of gadgets and devices that assists us in everyday life, but also indirectly, through the critical infrastructures that enables these devices to function. A key issue with critical infrastructures such as transportation, communication, power-grids and finance, is increasingly circular interdependencies. Because of this issue, a disruption in either one ca...

  18. MFC Communications Infrastructure Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Cannon; Terry Barney; Gary Cook; George Danklefsen, Jr.; Paul Fairbourn; Susan Gihring; Lisa Stearns

    2012-01-01

    Unprecedented growth of required telecommunications services and telecommunications applications change the way the INL does business today. High speed connectivity compiled with a high demand for telephony and network services requires a robust communications infrastructure.   The current state of the MFC communication infrastructure limits growth opportunities of current and future communication infrastructure services. This limitation is largely due to equipment capacity issues, aging cabling infrastructure (external/internal fiber and copper cable) and inadequate space for telecommunication equipment. While some communication infrastructure improvements have been implemented over time projects, it has been completed without a clear overall plan and technology standard.   This document identifies critical deficiencies with the current state of the communication infrastructure in operation at the MFC facilities and provides an analysis to identify needs and deficiencies to be addressed in order to achieve target architectural standards as defined in STD-170. The intent of STD-170 is to provide a robust, flexible, long-term solution to make communications capabilities align with the INL mission and fit the various programmatic growth and expansion needs.

  19. New infrastructures, new landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Nifosì

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available New infrastructures, new landscapes AbstractThe paper will discuss one recent Italian project that share a common background: the relevance of the existing maritime landscape as a non negotiable value. The studies will be discussed in details a feasibility study for the new port in Monfalcone. National infrastructural policies emphasize competitiveness and connection as a central issue incultural, economic and political development of communities . Based on networks and system development along passageways that make up the European infrastructural armor; the two are considered at the meantime as cause and effect of "territorialisation”. These two views are obviously mutually dependent. It's hard to think about a strong attractiveness out of the network, and to be part of the latter encourages competitiveness. Nonetheless this has proved to be conflictual when landscape values and the related attractiveness are considered.The presented case study project, is pursuing the ambition to promote a new approach in realizing large infrastructures; its double role is to improve connectivity and to generate lasting and positive impact on the local regions. It deal with issues of inter-modality and the construction of nodes and lines which connects Europe, and its markets.Reverting the usual approach which consider landscape project as as a way to mitigate or to compensate for the infrastructure, the goal is to succeed in realizing large infrastructural works by conceiving them as an occasion to reinterpret a region or, as extraordinary opportunities, to build new landscapes.The strategy proposed consists in achieving structural images based on the reinforcement of the environmental and historical-landscape systems. Starting from the reinterpretation of local maritime context and resources it is possible not just to preserve the attractiveness of a specific landscape but also to conceive infrastructure in a more efficient way. 

  20. Sustainability of Urban Infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Tanac Zeren

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The scope of the paper is to overview the different approaches for evaluation of urban infrastructure sustainability. In this context, urban infrastructure covers transportation, energy, water, sewage and information networks as well as waste management and blue-green infrastructure, in terms of both the supply and demand side. A common effort of partners in the European project “C8—Best Practice in Sustainable Urban Infrastructure”, developed under the Cooperation in Science and Technology program (COST, in brief COST C8, was focused on defining the methods, indicators and criteria for evaluation of sustainability, and resulted in a guidebook for decision-makers in local authorities. Here, the COST C8 matrix for simple sustainability assessment of urban infrastructure is applied to The Path (POT case—a circular memorial and recreational park around the city of Ljubljana, Slovenia. The applicability and acceptance of the matrix in 43 other cases of sustainable urban infrastructure, collected in the COST C8 project, is presented and discussed.

  1. Private Infrastructure and the Inter-American Development Bank Group

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Vives; Jorge Rivas

    1998-01-01

    This report provides a review of IDB Group activities supporting private participation in infrastructure between 1990 and 1997. It is intended to serve as a reference in the development of its infrastructure strategies. By compiling in a single document all the actions that promote private participation in infrastructure, a better appreciation will be developed, inside and outside the IDB Group, for the contribution it has made and the degree to which more action is required. Section II comme...

  2. The coupling of surface charge and boundary slip at the solid-liquid interface and their combined effect on fluid drag: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Dalei; Bhushan, Bharat

    2015-09-15

    Fluid drag of micro/nano fluidic systems has inspired wide scientific interest. Surface charge and boundary slip at the solid-liquid interface are believed to affect fluid drag. This review summarizes the recent studies on the coupling of surface charge and slip, and their combined effect on fluid drag at micro/nano scale. The effect of pH on surface charge of borosilicate glass and silica surfaces in deionized (DI) water and saline solution is discussed using a method based on colloidal probe atomic force microscopy (AFM). The boundary slip of various oil-solid interfaces are discussed for samples with different degrees of oleophobicity prepared by nanoparticle-binder system. By changing the pH of solution or applying an electric field, effect of surface charge on slip of a smooth hydrophobic octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) in DI water and saline solution is studied. A theoretical model incorporating the coupling relationship between surface charge and slip is used to discuss the combined effect of surface charge-induced electric double layer (EDL) and slip on fluid drag of pressure-driven flow in a one-dimensional parallel-plates microchannel. A theoretical method is used to reduce the fluid drag. The studies show that the increasing magnitude of surface charge density leads to a decrease in slip length. The surface charge results in a larger fluid drag, and the coupling of surface charge and slip can further increase the fluid drag. Surface charge-induced EDLs with asymmetric zeta potentials can effectively reduce the fluid drag. PMID:26021432

  3. Railway infrastructure security

    CERN Document Server

    Sforza, Antonio; Vittorini, Valeria; Pragliola, Concetta

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive monograph addresses crucial issues in the protection of railway systems, with the objective of enhancing the understanding of railway infrastructure security. Based on analyses by academics, technology providers, and railway operators, it explains how to assess terrorist and criminal threats, design countermeasures, and implement effective security strategies. In so doing, it draws upon a range of experiences from different countries in Europe and beyond. The book is the first to be devoted entirely to this subject. It will serve as a timely reminder of the attractiveness of the railway infrastructure system as a target for criminals and terrorists and, more importantly, as a valuable resource for stakeholders and professionals in the railway security field aiming to develop effective security based on a mix of methodological, technological, and organizational tools. Besides researchers and decision makers in the field, the book will appeal to students interested in critical infrastructur...

  4. Building safeguards infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much has been written in recent years about the nuclear renaissance - the rebirth of nuclear power as a clean and safe source of electricity around the world. Those who question the nuclear renaissance often cite the risk of proliferation, accidents or an attack on a facility as concerns, all of which merit serious consideration. The integration of three areas - sometimes referred to as 3S, for safety, security and safeguards - is essential to supporting the clean and safe growth of nuclear power, and the infrastructure that supports these three areas should be robust. The focus of this paper will be on the development of the infrastructure necessary to support safeguards, and the integration of safeguards infrastructure with other elements critical to ensuring nuclear energy security

  5. Information Infrastructure, National Policy, and Global Competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, John L.; Kraemer, Kenneth L.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the dilemma of national policy formation for information technology in the context of the national information infrastructure in the United States. Reviews technological forces shaping the convergence of computers and communications, describes current and future services, service providers and markets, and concludes with implications for…

  6. The ATLAS Simulation Infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Adorisio, Cristina; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmed, Hossain; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov , Andrei; Aktas, Adil; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amelung, Christoph; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonelli, Stefano; Antos, Jaroslav; Antunovic, Bijana; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Archambault, John-Paul; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Theodoros; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Arutinov, David; Asai, Makoto; Asai, Shoji; Silva, José; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asner, David; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Atoian, Grigor; Auerbach, Benjamin; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Austin, Nicholas; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Mark; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Sarah; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Baranov, Sergey; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Bartsch, Detlef; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Bazalova, Magdalena; Beare, Brian; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Becerici, Neslihan; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Graham; Beck, Hans Peter; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Ayda; Beddall, Andrew; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendel, Markus; Benedict, Brian Hugues; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benincasa, Gianpaolo; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertin, Antonio; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blocker, Craig; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bocci, Andrea; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boelaert, Nele; Böser, Sebastian; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bondarenko, Valery; Bondioli, Mario; Boonekamp, Maarten; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borroni, Sara; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Bourdarios, Claire; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Braem, André; Branchini, Paolo; Brandenburg, George; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brodet, Eyal; Bromberg, Carl; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Büscher, Volker; Bugge, Lars; Bulekov, Oleg; Bunse, Moritz; Buran, Torleiv; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butin, Françcois; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Byatt, Tom; Caballero, Jose; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Capasso, Luciano; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Caramarcu, Costin; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Carrillo Montoya, German D.; Carron Montero, Sebastian; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cauz, Diego; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Kevin; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Cheplakov, Alexander; Chepurnov, Vladimir; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Tcherniatine, Valeri; Chesneanu, Daniela; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chevallier, Florent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Illectra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciobotaru, Matei Dan; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Citterio, Mauro; Clark, Allan G.; Clark, Philip James; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H.; Coggeshall, James; Cogneras, Eric; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collard, Caroline; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colon, German; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Consonni, Michele; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Costin, Tudor; Côté, David; Coura Torres, Rodrigo; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cowden, Christopher; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cranshaw, Jack; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Crupi, Roberto; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Curatolo, Maria; Curtis, Chris; Cwetanski, Peter; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dallison, Steve; Daly, Colin; Dam, Mogens; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dannheim, Dominik; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Adam; Dawson, Ian; Daya, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Castro Faria Salgado, Pedro; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De Mora, Lee; De Oliveira Branco, Miguel; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; De Zorzi, Guido; Dean, Simon; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Dehchar, Mohamed; Del Papa, Carlo; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deng, Jianrong; Deng, Wensheng; Denisov, Sergey; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diblen, Faruk; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djilkibaev, Rashid; Djobava, Tamar; do Vale, Maria Aline Barros; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dobson, Marc; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolenc, Irena; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Dohmae, Takeshi; Donega, Mauro; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doxiadis, Alexander; Doyle, Tony; Drasal, Zbynek; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Dührssen , Michael; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Dushkin, Andrei; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Düren, Michael; Ebenstein, William; Ebke, Johannes; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edmonds, Keith; Edwards, Clive; Egorov, Kirill; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Ehrich, Thies; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Eppig, Andrew; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ermoline, Iouri; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Facius, Katrine; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Fayard, Louis; Fayette, Florent; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Woiciech; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Felzmann, Ulrich; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Ferland, Jonathan; Fernandes, Bruno; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrer, Maria Lorenza; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filippas, Anastasios; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fisher, Matthew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fowler, Andrew; Fowler, Ken; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; Freestone, Julian; French, Sky; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallas, Manuel; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galyaev, Eugene; Gan, K K; Gao, Yongsheng; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gautard, Valerie; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gee, Norman; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; Georgatos, Fotios; George, Simon; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gilbert, Laura; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gilewsky, Valentin; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Girtler, Peter; Giugni, Danilo; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Göpfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gössling, Claus; Göttfert, Tobias; Goggi, Virginio; Goldfarb, Steven; Goldin, Daniel; Golling, Tobias; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçcalo, Ricardo; Gonella, Laura; Gong, Chenwei; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Green, Barry; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griesmayer, Erich; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Groh, Manfred; Groll, Marius; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guicheney, Christophe; Guida, Angelo; Guillemin, Thibault; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Gupta, Ambreesh; Gusakov, Yury; Gutierrez, Andrea; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Härtel, Roland; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansl-Kozanecka, Traudl; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Karl; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hashemi, Kevan; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heller, Mathieu; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Hemperek, Tomasz; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Henß, Tobias; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Hershenhorn, Alon David; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hessey, Nigel; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Homma, Yasuhiro; Horazdovsky, Tomas; Hori, Takuya; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howe, Travis; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Guang Shun; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuri; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishino, Masaya; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Isobe, Tadaaki; Issakov, Vladimir; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Itoh, Yuki; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jared, Richard; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jenni, Peter; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joffe, David; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jorge, Pedro; Joseph, John; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Kabachenko, Vasily; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kaiser, Steffen; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kalinowski, Artur; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagounis, Michael; Karagoz, Muge; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasmi, Azzedine; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kastoryano, Michael; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kayumov, Fred; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keates, James Robert; Keeler, Richard; Keener, Paul; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Kelly, Marc; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Khakzad, Mohsen; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoriauli, Gia; Khovanskiy, Nikolai; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Peter; Kim, Shinhong; Kind, Oliver; Kind, Peter; King, Barry; Kirk, Julie; Kirsch, Guillaume; Kirsch, Lawrence; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiyamura, Hironori; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Klute, Markus; Kluth, Stefan; Knecht, Neil; Kneringer, Emmerich; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Koblitz, Birger; Kocian, Martin; Kocnar, Antonin; Kodys, Peter; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Köpke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollar, Daniel; Kolos, Serguei; Kolya, Scott; Komar, Aston; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konovalov, Serguei; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Koperny, Stefan; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostka, Peter; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Serguei; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotov, Konstantin; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Henri; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kreisel, Arik; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kubota, Takashi; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurchaninov, Leonid; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kwee, Regina; La Rotonda, Laura; Labbe, Julien; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Rémi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lamanna, Massimo; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lane, Jenna; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larner, Aimee; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Lazarev, Alexandre; Lazzaro, Alfio; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; Le Vine, Micheal; Lebedev, Alexander; Lebel, Céline; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; LeGeyt, Benjamin; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lellouch, Jeremie; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lester, Christopher; Leung Fook Cheong, Annabelle; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Leyton, Michael; Li, Haifeng; Li, Shumin; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhihua; Liang, Zhijun; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Lilley, Joseph; Lim, Heuijin; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipinsky, Lukas; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Tiankuan; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Lockwitz, Sarah; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Lovas, Lubomir; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Luehring, Frederick; Luisa, Luca; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundquist, Johan; Lynn, David; Lys, Jeremy; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Macana Goia, Jorge Andres; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Magalhaes Martins, Paulo Jorge; Magradze, Erekle; Mahalalel, Yair; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahmood, A.; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makouski, Mikhail; Makovec, Nikola; Malecki, Piotr; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mambelli, Marco; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manjavidze, Ioseb; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March , Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Zach; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Alex; Martin, Andrew; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian; Martin, Franck Francois; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Tim; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martini, Agnese; Martyniuk, Alex; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massol, Nicolas; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matricon, Pierre; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maxfield, Stephen; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mc Donald, Jeffrey; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; McGlone, Helen; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Meyer, W. Thomas; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Mills, Bill; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Misawa, Shigeki; Miscetti, Stefano; Misiejuk, Andrzej; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A.; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Mladenov, Dimitar; Moa, Torbjoern; Moed, Shulamit; Moeller, Victoria; Mönig, Klaus; Möser, Nicolas; Mohr, Wolfgang; Mohrdieck-Möck, Susanne; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molina-Perez, Jorge; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montesano, Simone; Monticelli, Fernando; Moore, Roger; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morais, Antonio; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morii, Masahiro; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morozov, Sergey; Morris, John; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Müller, Thomas; Muenstermann, Daniel; Muir, Alex; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Garcia, Raul; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakamura, Koji; Nakano, Itsuo; Nakatsuka, Hiroki; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Nash, Michael; Nation, Nigel; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nderitu, Simon Kirichu; Neal, Homer; Nebot, Eduardo; Nechaeva, Polina; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newcomer, Mitchel; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicolas, Ludovic; Nicoletti, Giovanni; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaev, Kirill; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishiyama, Tomonori; Nisius, Richard; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nordberg, Markus; Nordkvist, Bjoern; Notz, Dieter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nožička, Miroslav; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Ohshita, Hidetoshi; Ohsugi, Takashi; Okada, Shogo; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olchevski, Alexander; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver, John; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Omachi, Chihiro; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Ortega, Eduardo; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Ottersbach, John; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Oyarzun, Alejandro; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozone, Kenji; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pajchel, Katarina; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panes, Boris; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Panuskova, Monika; Paolone, Vittorio; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Park, Su-Jung; Park, Woochun; Parker, Andy; Parker, Sherwood; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor , Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Patwa, Abid; Pauly, Thilo; Peak, Lawrence; Pecsy, Martin; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Peng, Haiping; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez, Kerstin; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Persembe, Seda; Perus, Antoine; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Alan; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pinto, Belmiro; Pizio, Caterina; Placakyte, Ringaile; Plamondon, Mathieu; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poffenberger, Paul; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, Martin; Polci, Francesco; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Ponsot, Patrick; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Popule, Jiri; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Porter, Robert; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potekhin, Maxim; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Potter, Keith; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Pribyl, Lukas; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Prichard, Paul; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Puigdengoles, Carles; Purdham, John; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qi, Ming; Qian, Jianming; Qian, Weiming; Qin, Zhonghua; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quinonez, Fernando; Raas, Marcel; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radics, Balint; Rador, Tonguc; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Rauscher, Felix; Rauter, Emanuel; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reinherz-Aronis, Erez; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Reljic, Dusan; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renkel, Peter; Rescia, Sergio; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richards, Alexander; Richards, Ronald; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rijpstra, Manouk; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Roa Romero, Diego Alejandro; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robinson, Mary; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Rodriguez, Diego; Rodriguez Garcia, Yohany; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rojo, Victoria; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romanov, Victor; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Maltrana, Diego; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosenbaum, Gabriel; Rosselet, Laurent; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rotaru, Marina; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexander; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Ruckert, Benjamin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Gerald; Rühr, Frederik; Ruggieri, Federico; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Rutherfoord, John; Ruwiedel, Christoph; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Ryan, Patrick; Rybkin, Grigori; Rzaeva, Sevda; Saavedra, Aldo; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Samset, Björn Hallvard; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandhu, Pawan; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sandvoss, Stephan; Sankey, Dave; Sanny, Bernd; Sansoni, Andrea; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Saraiva, João; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarri, Francesca; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Savard, Pierre; Savine, Alexandre; Savinov, Vladimir; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Says, Louis-Pierre; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scannicchio, Diana; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schäfer, Uli; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R.~Dean; Schamov, Andrey; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitz, Martin; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schreiner, Alexander; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schroers, Marcel; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schumacher, Jan; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Schwindling, Jerome; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedykh, Evgeny; Segura, Ester; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sevior, Martin; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Sherman, Daniel; Sherwood, Peter; Shibata, Akira; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Siegrist, James; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simmons, Brinick; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Sloper, John erik; Sluka, Tomas; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yuri; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Douglas; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snuverink, Jochem; Snyder, Scott; Soares, Mara; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Soluk, Richard; Sondericker, John; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sosebee, Mark; Soukharev, Andrey; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spencer, Edwin; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spila, Federico; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St. Denis, Richard Dante; Stahl, Thorsten; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stancu, Stefan Nicolae; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Stastny, Jan; Stavina, Pavel; Stavropoulos, Georgios; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stevenson, Kyle; Stewart, Graeme; Stockton, Mark; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Strachota, Pavel; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strube, Jan; Stugu, Bjarne; Su, Dong; Soh, Dart-yin; Sugaya, Yorihito; Sugimoto, Takuya; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Sushkov, Serge; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Takuya; Suzuki, Yu; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Szymocha, Tadeusz; Sánchez, Javier; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taga, Adrian; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tamsett, Matthew; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tatarkhanov, Mous; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Ryan P.; Taylor, Wendy; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Tennenbaum-Katan, Yaniv-David; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terwort, Mark; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Thioye, Moustapha; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Stan; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Ray; Thomson, Evelyn; Thun, Rudolf; Tic, Tomas; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Tipton, Paul; Tique Aires Viegas, Florbela De Jes; Tisserant, Sylvain; Toczek, Barbara; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomasek, Lukas; Tomasek, Michal; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torrence, Eric; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Trinh, Thi Nguyet; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trivedi, Arjun; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tuggle, Joseph; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turlay, Emmanuel; Tuts, Michael; Twomey, Matthew Shaun; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Uhrmacher, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urkovsky, Evgeny; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Uslenghi, Massimiliano; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valente, Paolo; Valentinetti, Sara; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Berg, Richard; van der Graaf, Harry; van der Kraaij, Erik; van der Poel, Egge; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; van Kesteren, Zdenko; van Vulpen, Ivo; Vandelli, Wainer; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vasilyeva, Lidia; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vellidis, Constantine; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Viehhauser, Georg; Villa, Mauro; Villani, Giulio; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Viret, Sébastien; Virzi, Joseph; Vitale , Antonio; Vitells, Ofer; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vlasak, Michal; Vlasov, Nikolai; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Loeben, Joerg; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Voss, Thorsten Tobias; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vudragovic, Dusan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Peter; Walbersloh, Jorg; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Jin; Wang, Song-Ming; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Warsinsky, Markus; Wastie, Roy; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Weber, Marc; Weber, Manuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Pavel; Weidberg, Anthony; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Wellenstein, Hermann; Wells, Phillippa; Wen, Mei; Wenaus, Torre; Wendler, Shanti; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Werthenbach, Ulrich; Wessels, Martin; Whalen, Kathleen; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Sebastian; Whitehead, Samuel Robert; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicek, Francois; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Michael Galante; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Catherine; Wright, Dennis; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wulf, Evan; Wynne, Benjamin; Xaplanteris, Leonidas; Xella, Stefania; Xie, Song; Xu, Da; Xu, Neng; Yamada, Miho; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamaoka, Jared; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yao, Weiming; Yao, Yushu; Yasu, Yoshiji; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Riktura; Young, Charles; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, Jaehoon; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zajacova, Zuzana; Zambrano, Valentina; Zanello, Lucia; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeller, Michael; Zemla, Andrzej; Zendler, Carolin; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zenonos, Zenonas; Zenz, Seth; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhan, Zhichao; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Qizhi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu

    2010-01-01

    The simulation software for the ATLAS Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider is being used for large-scale production of events on the LHC Computing Grid. This simulation requires many components, from the generators that simulate particle collisions, through packages simulating the response of the various detectors and triggers. All of these components come together under the ATLAS simulation infrastructure. In this paper, that infrastructure is discussed, including that supporting the detector description, interfacing the event generation, and combining the GEANT4 simulation of the response of the individual detectors. Also described are the tools allowing the software validation, performance testing, and the validation of the simulated output against known physics processes.

  7. Transformation of technical infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    , the evolution of large technological systems and theories about organisational and technological transformationprocesses. The empirical work consist of three analysis at three different levels: socio-technical descriptions of each sector, an envestigation of one municipality and envestigations of one......The scope of the project is to investigate the possibillities of - and the barriers for a transformation of technical infrastructure conserning energy, water and waste. It focus on urban ecology as a transformation strategy. The theoretical background of the project is theories about infrastructure...

  8. Collaborative financial infrastructure protection

    CERN Document Server

    Baldoni, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    The Critical Infrastructure Protection Survey recently released by Symantec found that 53% of interviewed IT security experts from international companies experienced at least ten cyber attacks in the last five years, and financial institutions were often subject to some of the most sophisticated and large-scale cyber attacks and frauds. The book by Baldoni and Chockler analyzes the structure of software infrastructures found in the financial domain, their vulnerabilities to cyber attacks and the existing protection mechanisms. It then shows the advantages of sharing information among financia

  9. Indonesian infrastructure development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is with the achievement of a competitive advantage as a motivating factor that the Indonesian coal industry is engaged in infrastructure development including both small regionally trade-based terminals and high capacity capesize bulk terminals to support large scale coal exports. The unique characteristics of Indonesian coal quality, low production costs and the optimization of transport economics in accordance with vessel size provides great incentives for the European and U.S. market. This paper reports on the infrastructure development, Indonesian coal resources, and coal exports

  10. India : Country Framework Report for Private Participation in Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2000-01-01

    This Country Framework Report for India is the first in a series of country reviews aimed at improving the environment for private sector involvement in infrastructure. Prepared at the request of the government concerned, Country Framework Reports have three main objectives: 1) To describe and assess the current status and performance of key infrastructure sectors. 2) To describe and asses...

  11. Network Infrastructure Security

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Angus

    2009-01-01

    Attacks to network infrastructure affect large portions of the Internet at a time and create large amounts of service disruption, due to breaches such as IP spoofing, routing table poisoning and routing loops. This book includes conceptual examples that show how network attacks can be run, along with appropriate countermeasures and solutions

  12. Supporting Clinicians in Infrastructuring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten; Karasti, Helena

    the notion of infrastructuring, we carry out an in- frastructural analysis of eWBs and approach our joint efforts as unfolding and continuing the configuration of participatory design activities. We identify a need for local support and novel competences among the clinicians in order for them to...

  13. Infrastructuring for Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus; Danholt, Peter; Ubbesen, Morten Bonde

    2015-01-01

    indicators for quality in treatment to guide and govern their performance, in order to investigate whether this may generate a new performance measurement infrastructure that will improve quality of healthcare. The project is entitled: “New governance in the patient’s perspective”....

  14. Documentation of Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Workspace

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the software infrastructure developed within the WorkSPACE  project, both from a software architectural point of view and from a user point of  view. We first give an overview of the system architecture, then go on to present the  more prominent features of the 3D graphical ...

  15. Hercules finances research infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Vanden Berghe, Jeroen

    2009-01-01

    In 2007 the Flemish government created a structural funding channel to support investment in research infrastructure: Hercules. On 15 October 2008 the Hercules Foundation approved a first list of investment proposals. In this article specific features of this first call are examined.

  16. Infrastructure network vulnerability

    OpenAIRE

    Kamissoko, Daouda; Pérès, François; ZARATÉ, Pascale

    2011-01-01

    The work presented in this paper aims to propose a methodology of analyzing infrastructure network vulnerability in the field of prevention or reduction of the natural disaster consequences. After a state of the art on vulnerability models in the academic literature, the various vulnerability factors are classified and discussed. Eventually, a general model of vulnerability analysis including societal parameters is presented.

  17. PRACE - The European HPC Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadelmeyer, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The mission of PRACE (Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe) is to enable high impact scientific discovery and engineering research and development across all disciplines to enhance European competitiveness for the benefit of society. PRACE seeks to realize this mission by offering world class computing and data management resources and services through a peer review process. This talk gives a general overview about PRACE and the PRACE research infrastructure (RI). PRACE is established as an international not-for-profit association and the PRACE RI is a pan-European supercomputing infrastructure which offers access to computing and data management resources at partner sites distributed throughout Europe. Besides a short summary about the organization, history, and activities of PRACE, it is explained how scientists and researchers from academia and industry from around the world can access PRACE systems and which education and training activities are offered by PRACE. The overview also contains a selection of PRACE contributions to societal challenges and ongoing activities. Examples of the latter are beside others petascaling, application benchmark suite, best practice guides for efficient use of key architectures, application enabling / scaling, new programming models, and industrial applications. The Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe (PRACE) is an international non-profit association with its seat in Brussels. The PRACE Research Infrastructure provides a persistent world-class high performance computing service for scientists and researchers from academia and industry in Europe. The computer systems and their operations accessible through PRACE are provided by 4 PRACE members (BSC representing Spain, CINECA representing Italy, GCS representing Germany and GENCI representing France). The Implementation Phase of PRACE receives funding from the EU's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreements RI-261557, RI-283493 and RI

  18. Value for Money and Policy Review of the Economic Cost and Charges Associated with Private and Semi-Private Treatment Services in Public Hospitals - Final Report

    OpenAIRE

    Department of Health

    2010-01-01

    This Value for Money and Policy Review (VFM&PR) of the Economic Cost and Charges Associated with Private and Semi-Private Treatment Services in Public Hospitals was initiated by the Department of Health and Children in June 2009 and was conducted under the auspices of the Governmentâ?Ts Value for Money & Policy Review Initiative 2009-2011. The Review was overseen by an independently chaired National Steering Group comprised of senior representatives from the Department of Health and Children...

  19. Beyond the Child-Langmuir law: A review of recent results on multidimensional space-charge-limited flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Space-charge-limited (SCL) flows in diodes have been an area of active research since the pioneering work of Child and Langmuir in the early part of the last century. Indeed, the scaling of current density with the voltage to the 3/2's power is one of the best-known limits in the fields of non-neutral plasma physics, accelerator physics, sheath physics, vacuum electronics, and high power microwaves. In the past five years, there has been renewed interest in the physics and characteristics of SCL emission in physically realizable configurations. This research has focused on characterizing the current and current density enhancement possible from two- and three-dimensional geometries, such as field-emitting arrays. In 1996, computational efforts led to the development of a scaling law that described the increased current drawn due to two-dimensional effects. Recently, this scaling has been analytically derived from first principles. In parallel efforts, computational work has characterized the edge enhancement of the current density, leading to a better understanding of the physics of explosive emission cathodes. In this paper, the analytic and computational extensions to the one-dimensional Child-Langmuir law will be reviewed, the accuracy of SCL emission algorithms will be assessed, and the experimental implications of multidimensional SCL flows will be discussed

  20. Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, G; Abhayaratne, P; Bale, J; Bhattacharjee, A; Blair, C; Hansell, L; Jayne, A; Kosal, M; Lucas, S; Moran, K; Seroki, L; Vadlamudi, S

    2006-12-04

    determine whether a terrorist organization will attack critical infrastructure. In other words, this research investigates: (1) why terrorists choose to attack critical infrastructure rather than other targets; (2) how groups make such decisions; (3) what, if any, types of groups are most inclined to attack critical infrastructure targets; and (4) which types of critical infrastructure terrorists prefer to attack and why. In an effort to address the above questions as comprehensively as possible, the project team employed four discrete investigative approaches in its research design. These include: (1) a review of existing terrorism and threat assessment literature to glean expert consensus regarding terrorist target selection, as well as to identify theoretical approaches that might be valuable to analysts and decision-makers who are seeking to understand such terrorist group decision-making processes; (2) the preparation of several concise case studies to help identify internal group factors and contextual influences that have played significant roles in leading some terrorist groups to attack critical infrastructure; (3) the creation of a new database--the Critical Infrastructure Terrorist Incident Catalog (CrITC)--to capture a large sample of empirical CI attack data that might be used to illuminate the nature of such attacks to date; and (4) the development of a new analytical framework--the Determinants Effecting Critical Infrastructure Decisions (DECIDe) Framework--designed to make the factors and dynamics identified by the study more ''usable'' in any future efforts to assess terrorist intentions to target critical infrastructure. Although each is addressed separately in the following chapters, none of the four aspects of this study were developed in isolation. Rather, all the constituent elements of the project informed--and were informed by--the others. For example, the review of the available literature on terrorist target selection made

  1. Infrastructure: A technology battlefield in the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drucker, H.

    1997-12-31

    A major part of technological advancement has involved the development of complex infrastructure systems, including electric power generation, transmission, and distribution networks; oil and gas pipeline systems; highway and rail networks; and telecommunication networks. Dependence on these infrastructure systems renders them attractive targets for conflict in the twenty-first century. Hostile governments, domestic and international terrorists, criminals, and mentally distressed individuals will inevitably find some part of the infrastructure an easy target for theft, for making political statements, for disruption of strategic activities, or for making a nuisance. The current situation regarding the vulnerability of the infrastructure can be summarized in three major points: (1) our dependence on technology has made our infrastructure more important and vital to our everyday lives, this in turn, makes us much more vulnerable to disruption in any infrastructure system; (2) technologies available for attacking infrastructure systems have changed substantially and have become much easier to obtain and use, easy accessibility to information on how to disrupt or destroy various infrastructure components means that almost anyone can be involved in this destructive process; (3) technologies for defending infrastructure systems and preventing damage have not kept pace with the capability for destroying such systems. A brief review of these points will illustrate the significance of infrastructure and the growing dangers to its various elements.

  2. Infrastructure of the Gemini Observatory control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Kim K.; Walker, Shane

    1998-07-01

    Construction of the first Gemini 8-m telescope is well underway. The software that provides the user interface and high-level control of the observatory, the observatory control system (OCS), is also proceeding on track. The OCS provides tools that assist the astronomer from the proposal submission phase through planning, observation execution, and data review. A capable and flexible software infrastructure is required to support this comprehensive approach. New software technologies and industry standards have played a large part in the implementation of this infrastructure. For instance, the use of CORBA has provided many benefits in the software including object distribution, an interface definition language, and implementation language independence. In this paper, we describe the infrastructure of the OCS that supports observation planning and execution. Important software decisions and interfaces that allow Internet access and the ability to substitute alternate implementations easily are discussed as a model for other similar projects.

  3. Non-adiabatic quantized charge pumping with tunable-barrier quantum dots: a review of current progress

    OpenAIRE

    Kaestner, Bernd; Kashcheyevs, Vyacheslavs

    2014-01-01

    Precise manipulation of individual charge carriers in nanoelectronic circuits underpins practical applications of their most basic quantum property --- the universality and invariance of the elementary charge. A charge pump generates a net current from periodic external modulation of parameters controlling a nanostructure connected to source and drain leads; in the regime of quantized pumping the current varies in steps of $q_e f$ as function of control parameters, where $q_e$ is the electron...

  4. Social experience infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvistgaard, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Using the case of Kühlungsborn in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern as an example of a resort in which social experience infrastructure plays a pivotal role in the ongoing success of attracting German tourists from especially Berlin, Hamburg and Hanover it is the aim of this article in a descriptive and...... explorative fashion to share with others thoughts and ideas concerning the development of new ways to construct/reconstruct recreational spaces with a better coherence with regard to designing experiences. This article claims that it is possible to design recreational spaces with good social experience...... infrastructure in order to create experience spaces for personal experiences (in line with Schultze’s social constructivist view of experiences) without completely adhering to the economic rationalist thoughts and guidelines of Pine & Gilmore that claim that experiences can be designed and controlled by...

  5. Assessing infrastructure vulnerability to major floods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenssen, Lars

    1998-12-31

    This thesis proposes a method for assessing the direct effects of serious floods on a physical infrastructure or utility. This method should be useful in contingency planning and in the design of structures likely to be damaged by flooding. A review is given of (1) methods of floodplain management and strategies for mitigating floods, (2) methods of risk analysis that will become increasingly important in flood management, (3) methods for hydraulic computations, (4) a variety of scour assessment methods and (5) applications of geographic information systems (GIS) to the analysis of flood vulnerability. Three computer codes were developed: CULVCAP computes the headwater level for circular and box culverts, SCOUR for assessing riprap stability and scour depths, and FASTFLOOD prepares input rainfall series and input files for the rainfall-runoff model used in the case study. A road system in central Norway was chosen to study how to analyse the flood vulnerability of an infrastructure. Finally, the thesis proposes a method for analysing the flood vulnerability of physical infrastructure. The method involves a general stage that will provide data on which parts of the infrastructure are potentially vulnerable to flooding and how to analyse them, and a specific stage which is concerned with analysing one particular kind of physical infrastructure in a study area. 123 refs., 59 figs., 17 tabs= .

  6. Glossary of Spatial Data Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedjeljko Frančula

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available All items are listed in the Glossary by alphabetical order. If an item consists of two or more words, the first is always a noun. For example: spatial data infrastructure is listed as infrastructure, saptial data.

  7. Modeling Dependencies in Critical Infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuijs, A.H.; Luiijf, H.A.M.; Klaver, M.H.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a model for expressing critical infrastructure dependencies. The model addresses the limitations of existing approaches with respect to clarity of definition, support for quality and the influence of operating states of critical infrastructures and environmental factors.

  8. Chef infrastructure automation cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Marschall, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    This book is for system engineers and administrators who have a fundamental understanding of information management systems and infrastructure. It helps if you've already played around with Chef; however, this book covers all the important topics you will need to know. If you don't want to dig through a whole book before you can get started, this book is for you, as it features a set of independent recipes you can try out immediately.

  9. GRID infrastructure sustainability guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Nicolas; Gorgan, Dorian; Giuliani, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    A grid computing infrastructure can be defined as a cluster of loosely coupled, networked computers acting in concert to perform very large tasks. Grid computing is an important part of the enviroGRIDS project, because it will allow one to perform computationally-intensive simulations of the hydrological balance of the Black Sea Catchment and will permit to analyze large quantity of high resolution data sets. It is therefore important that the ability to use grid computing is maintained throu...

  10. Internet: Infrastructure, users, regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhail Doroshevich; Marina Sokolova

    2014-01-01

    By the end of 2014, Belarus totaled over 5 million Internet users, which constitutes 70% of the population aged 15 to 74. The Internet has become not only an integral part of everyday life, but also a platform for activities of state-controlled and private companies and organizations. Infrastructural development (like broadband Internet) remains a key element of the strategy of an informationoriented society. The download speed in Belarus is lower than in the neighboring countries and the cos...

  11. Critical infrastructure protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, F. [Canadian Electricity Association, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2003-04-01

    The need to protect critical electrical infrastructure from terrorist attacks, or other physical damage, including weather related events, or the potential impact of computer viruses and other attacks on IT resources are discussed. Activities of the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) are highlighted which seek to safeguard the North American bulk electric power system principally through the Information Sharing and Analysis Sector (ES-ISAC). ES-ISAC serves the electricity sector by facilitating communication between electric sector participants, federal government and other critical infrastructure industries by disseminating threat indications, analyses and warnings, together with interpretations, to assist the industry in taking infrastructure protection actions. Attention is drawn to the numerous cyber incidents in recent years, which although resulted in no loss of service to electricity customers so far, in at least one instance (the January 25th SOL-Slammer worm incident) resulted in degradation of service in a number of sectors, including financial, transportation and telecommunication services. The increasing frequency of cyber-based attacks, coupled with the industry's growing dependence on e-commerce and electronic controls, are good reasons to believe that critical infrastructure protection (CIP) poses a serious challenge to the industry's risk management practices. The Canadian Electricity Association (CEA) is an active participant in ES-ISAC and works cooperatively with a range of partners, such as the Edison Electric Institute and the American Public Power Association to ensure coordination and effective protection program delivery for the electric power sector. The Early Warning System (EWS) developed by the CIP Working Group is one of the results of this cooperation. EWS uses the Internet, e-mail, web-enabled cell phones and Blackberry hand-held devices to deliver real-time threat information to members on a 24/7 basis. EWS

  12. Systems Infrastructure (SYS 18)

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Guy; John Hicks; Karen Weeks

    2006-01-01

    The Systems Infrastructure team assembles, tests, and provides complete sensor network solutions containing both exploratory and hardened components, from high-level applications and analysis tools, down to hardware at the sensor platform level. Recent significant progress is seen in SensorBase and ESS2 at the database and application levels; in disruption-tolerant data delivery and system control software and in the integration of the latest wireless routing algorithms.

  13. Breeding programme and infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Zonabend König, Emelie

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to study potential breeding strategies for indigenous livestock in Eastern and Southern Africa under low input production systems. The thesis covered a study of the status of supportive infrastructure for use of animal genetic resources. The case of Red Maasai sheep was studied as a model for design of strategies for improvement of an indigenous breed under threat. Studies [I-II] were performed through participatory approaches by use of structured interviews, while ...

  14. Durability of critical infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Pascu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with those infrastructures by which world society, under the pressure ofdemographic explosion, self-survives. The main threatening comes not from terrorist attacks, but fromthe great natural catastrophes and global climate change. It’s not for the first time in history when suchmeasures of self-protection are built up. First objective of this paper is to present the background fordurability analysis. Then, with the aid of these mathematical tools the absolute durability of three linearmodels, typical for critical infrastructures, are successively calculated. In order to enhance the durabilityof critical infrastructures the solution based on redundancies is chosen. Five types of connection theredundancies for each of the three models are considered. Three topological schemes for connecting theredundancies are adopted: locally, by twining and globally. Absolute values of durability in all fifteenmodels with redundancies are further calculated. Then, the relative performances of enhanced durabilityin the same fifteen models, compared with the three original models, considered as references, areanalysed. The relative costs of the same fifteen models and in similar topologic conditions are furtheranalysed. By dividing the performance with cost the relative profitableness of each model is obtained.Finally, the three initial models, each reshaped with redundancies in three selective modes, arecompared from the perspective of their relative profitableness. The outcomes of this paper are original.They are of practical interests in planning the maintenance programs and checking the plausibility ofproposed interventions according to the clause 7.4 of ISO 13822:2001

  15. Charged weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this review of charged weak currents we shall concentrate on inclusive high energy neutrino physics. The plan of this review is the following: general structure of charged current; new results on total cross-section; Callan-Gross relation; antiquark distribution; scaling violations and tests of QCD. At the end we will give a very short summary on multilepton physics

  16. In Situ Nuclear Characterization Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A. Smith; J. Rory Kennedy

    2011-11-01

    To be able to evolve microstructure with a prescribed in situ process, an effective measurement infrastructure must exist. This interdisciplinary infrastructure needs to be developed in parallel with in situ sensor technology. This paper discusses the essential elements in an effective infrastructure.

  17. Final Report on National NGV Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GM Sverdrup; JG DeSteese; ND Malcosky

    1999-01-07

    This report summarizes work fimded jointly by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) to (1) identi& barriers to establishing sustainable natural gas vehicle (NGV) infrastructure and (2) develop planning information that can help to promote a NGV infrastructure with self-sustaining critical maw. The need for this work is driven by the realization that demand for NGVS has not yet developed to a level that provides sufficient incentives for investment by the commercial sector in all necessary elements of a supportive infrastructure. The two major objectives of this project were: (1) to identifi and prioritize the technical barriers that may be impeding growth of a national NGV infrastructure and (2) to develop input that can assist industry in overcoming these barriers. The approach used in this project incorporated and built upon the accumulated insights of the NGV industry. The project was conducted in three basic phases: (1) review of the current situation, (2) prioritization of technical infrastructure btiiers, and (3) development of plans to overcome key barriers. An extensive and diverse list of barriers was obtained from direct meetings and telephone conferences with sixteen industry NGV leaders and seven Clean Cities/Clean Corridors coordinators. This information is filly documented in the appendix. A distillation of insights gained in the interview process suggests that persistent barriers to developing an NGV market and supporting infrastructure can be grouped into four major categories: 1. Fuel station economics 2. Value of NGVs from the owner/operator perspective 3. Cooperation necessary for critical mass 4. Commitment by investors. A principal conclusion is that an efficient and effective approach for overcoming technical barriers to developing an NGV infrastructure can be provided by building upon and consolidating the relevant efforts of the NGV industry and government. The major recommendation of this project is the

  18. Radiation protection infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prerequisite for the safe use of ionizing radiation in a country is the availability of an adequate infrastructure to achieve the desired degree of protection. The extent of such an infrastructure, generally comprising regulatory mechanisms and technical capabilities for application and enforcement of regulations, has to be commensurate with the stage of technological development. The expanding application of ionizing radiation in medicine, industry and research calls for vigorous promotion of effective radiation protection efforts, not only to prevent any unsafe practices but also to assess correctly and provide authoritative information on the safety of adopted practices. Experience reveals that radiation protection practices vary considerably from one country to another. The regulatory structures and type of organization with regard to radiation protection are very different, depending on a number of factors such as the constitutional framework, the legal and administrative systems of the country concerned, the state of technical development, the status of application of radiation sources, the existence of research and associated institutions, and the technical skills and financial resources available. Radiation protection principles evolve with time as further experience is gained and as new research evidence becomes available. Regulation of radiation protection has to take account of such changes and adapt to changing conditions. Forty-eight papers from 29 Member States and two International Organizations were presented in nine scientific sessions. Topics included radiation protection regulation and licensing notification, registration, inspection and control programmes, education and training, the role of supporting institutions such as national laboratories and research institutes, the role of professional associations, the contribution of radiation protection services, and international activities. A concluding panel addressed development strategies to

  19. A Theoretical Secure Enterprise Architecture for Multi Revenue Generating Smart Grid Sub Electric Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Hina

    2013-01-01

    This study is a part of the smart grid initiative providing electric vehicle charging infrastructure. It is a refueling structure, an energy generating photovoltaic system and charge point electric vehicle charging station. The system will utilize advanced design and technology allowing electricity to flow from the site's normal electric service…

  20. Agile Infrastructure Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, P.; Ascenso, J.; Fedorko, I.; Fiorini, B.; Paladin, M.; Pigueiras, L.; Santos, M.

    2014-06-01

    At the present time, data centres are facing a massive rise in virtualisation and cloud computing. The Agile Infrastructure (AI) project is working to deliver new solutions to ease the management of CERN data centres. Part of the solution consists in a new "shared monitoring architecture" which collects and manages monitoring data from all data centre resources. In this article, we present the building blocks of this new monitoring architecture, the different open source technologies selected for each architecture layer, and how we are building a community around this common effort.

  1. Fractal actors and infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøge, Ask Risom

    2011-01-01

    -network-theory (ANT) into surveillance studies (Ball 2002, Adey 2004, Gad & Lauritsen 2009). In this paper, I further explore the potential of this connection by experimenting with Marilyn Strathern’s concept of the fractal (1991), which has been discussed in newer ANT literature (Law 2002; Law 2004; Jensen 2007). I...... under surveillance. Based on fieldwork conducted in 2008 and 2011 in relation to my Master’s thesis and PhD respectively, I illustrate fractal concepts by describing the acts, actors and infrastructure that make up the ‘DNA surveillance’ conducted by the Danish police....

  2. LHCb Silicon Tracker infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Ermoline, Yuri

    2004-01-01

    The LHCb Silicon Tracker is a vital part of the experiment. It consists of four planar stations: one trigger and three inner tracking stations. The operation of the Silicon Tracker detectors and electronics is provided by its infrastructure: cooling system, high- and low-voltage power supply systems, temperature and radiation monitoring systems. Several components of these systems are located in the experimental hall and subjected to radiation. This paper mainly concentrates on the recent development: requirements definition, evaluation of possible implementation scenarios, component choice and component radiation tests.

  3. Agile infrastructure monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the present time, data centres are facing a massive rise in virtualisation and cloud computing. The Agile Infrastructure (AI) project is working to deliver new solutions to ease the management of CERN data centres. Part of the solution consists in a new 'shared monitoring architecture' which collects and manages monitoring data from all data centre resources. In this article, we present the building blocks of this new monitoring architecture, the different open source technologies selected for each architecture layer, and how we are building a community around this common effort.

  4. TELECOMMUNICATIONS INFRASTRUCTURE AND GDP /JIPP CURVE/

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Kaneva

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between telecommunications infrastructure and economic activity is under discussion in many scientific papers. Most of the authors use for research and analysis the Jipp curve. A lot of doubts about the correctness of the Jipp curve appear in terms of applying econometric models. The aim of this study is a review of the Jipp curve, refining the possibility of its application in modern conditions. The methodology used in the study is based on dynami...

  5. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Vivek; Tawfik, Magdy S.

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy concept is becoming a reality for the US energy infrastructure where combinations of the various potential energy sources (nuclear, wind, solar, biomass, and so on) are integrated in a hybrid energy system. This paper focuses on challenges facing a hybrid system with a Small Modular Reactor at its core. The core of the paper will discuss efforts required to develop supervisory control center that collects data, supports decision-making, and serves as an information hub for supervisory control center. Such a center will also be a model for integrating future technologies and controls. In addition, advanced operations research, thermal cycle analysis, energy conversion analysis, control engineering, and human factors engineering will be part of the supervisory control center. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure would allow operators to optimize the cost of energy production by providing appropriate means of integrating different energy sources. The data needs to be stored, processed, analyzed, trended, and projected at right time to right operator to integrate different energy sources.

  6. 强风暴中反极性电荷结构研究进展%Review on Inverted Charge Structure of Severe Storms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张义军; 徐良韬; 郑栋; 王飞

    2014-01-01

    The charge structure in storms is regarded as a bridge linking lightning activity with dynamic and mi-crophysical conditions.An inverted charge structure is always seen in severe storms,which attracts much attention in recent years. Although the charge structure in thundercloud is complicated,the tripole charge structure could be used to describe the main discharging region.In general,the tripole charge structure is characterized by a negative charge region between levels of -10°C and -25°C,accompanied by a respective positive charge region below and above the negative charge region.In 2000,lightning mapping array and electric field sounding are carried out in the experiment of Severe Thunderstorm Electrification and Precipitation Study (STEPS)organized by USA.Most case studies in this experiment indicate that the charge structure in se-vere storms is opposite to the normal charge structure,when original positive charge changes into negative charge,and vice versa.This new structure is called inverted charge structure. Related studies on the inverted charge structure are reviewed,focusing on the discovery,formation, relevant numerical simulation and the detection method.The inverted charge structure appears in the se-vere storms,resulting in the substantial positive cloud-to-ground lightning.Moreover,it is always associ-ated with disastrous weather.The inverted charge structure doesn’t appear in the beginning of storms, but in the special developing stage of storms. The inverted charge structure formation is associated with the strong ascending motion in severe storms,which makes the liquid water content change and influences the electrification process during the collision among different kinds of particles in the main electrification region.It will result in graupel charged positively and ice crystal charged negatively,implying the formation of the inverted charge struc-ture.One view focuses on microphysical conditions,by which the charge separation is

  7. Review of Langmuir-Wave-Caused Dips and Charge-Exchange-Caused Dips in Spectral Lines from Plasmas and their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Dalimier

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We review studies of two kinds of dips in spectral line profiles emitted by plasmas—dips that have been predicted theoretically and observed experimentally: Langmuir-wave-caused dips (L-dips and charge-exchange-caused dips (X-dips. There is a principal difference with respect to positions of L-dips and X-dips relative to the unperturbed wavelength of a spectral line: positions of L-dips scale with the electron density Ne roughly as Ne1/2, while positions of X-dips are almost independent of Ne (the dependence is much weaker than for L-dips. L-dips and X-dips phenomena are important, both fundamentally and practically. The fundamental importance is due to a rich physics behind each of these phenomena. L-dips are a multi-frequency resonance phenomenon caused by a single-frequency (monochromatic electric field. X-dips are due to charge exchange at anticrossings of terms of a diatomic quasi-molecule, whose nuclei have different charges. As for important practical applications, they are as follows: observations of L-dips constitute a very accurate method to measure the electron density in plasmas—a method that does not require knowledge of the electron temperature. L-dips also allow measuring the amplitude of the electric field of Langmuir waves—the only spectroscopic method available for this purpose. Observations of X-dips provide an opportunity to determine rate coefficient of charge exchange between multi-charged ions. This is an important reference data, virtually inaccessible by other experimental methods. The rate coefficients of charge exchange are important for magnetic fusion in Tokamaks, for population inversion in the soft x-ray and VUV ranges, for ion storage devices, as well as for astrophysics (e.g., for the solar plasma and for determining the physical state of planetary nebulae.

  8. Have Collapses in Infrastructure Spending led to Cross-Country Divergence in Per Capita GDP?

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Rodriguez

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores whether the post-1980 decline in infrastructure investment in developing countries is a source of growing disparities in world per capita GDP. I start by reviewing the literature on the infrastructure-productivity link, arguing that a balanced reading of previous studies points to a significant effect of infrastructure provision on productivity. I then empirically study whether retrenchments in infrastructure provision have played a role in growing disparities using a data...

  9. Michigan E85 Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstrom, Matthew M.

    2012-03-30

    This is the final report for a grant-funded project to financially assist and otherwise provide support to projects that increase E85 infrastructure in Michigan at retail fueling locations. Over the two-year project timeframe, nine E85 and/or flex-fuel pumps were installed around the State of Michigan at locations currently lacking E85 infrastructure. A total of five stations installed the nine pumps, all providing cost share toward the project. By using cost sharing by station partners, the $200,000 provided by the Department of Energy facilitated a total project worth $746,332.85. This project was completed over a two-year timetable (eight quarters). The first quarter of the project focused on project outreach to station owners about the incentive on the installation and/or conversion of E85 compatible fueling equipment including fueling pumps, tanks, and all necessary electrical and plumbing connections. Utilizing Clean Energy Coalition (CEC) extensive knowledge of gasoline/ethanol infrastructure throughout Michigan, CEC strategically placed these pumps in locations to strengthen the broad availability of E85 in Michigan. During the first and second quarters, CEC staff approved projects for funding and secured contracts with station owners; the second through eighth quarters were spent working with fueling station owners to complete projects; the third through eighth quarters included time spent promoting projects; and beginning in the second quarter and running for the duration of the project was spent performing project reporting and evaluation to the US DOE. A total of 9 pumps were installed (four in Elkton, two in Sebewaing, one in East Lansing, one in Howell, and one in Whitmore Lake). At these combined station locations, a total of 192,445 gallons of E85, 10,786 gallons of E50, and 19,159 gallons of E30 were sold in all reporting quarters for 2011. Overall, the project has successfully displaced 162,611 gallons (2,663 barrels) of petroleum, and reduced

  10. Charges associated with pediatric head injuries: A five-year retrospective review of 41 pediatric hospitals in the US.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Edward McConnel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brain injuries are a significant public health problem, particularly among the pediatric population. Brain injuries account for a significant portion of pediatric injury deaths, and are the highest contributor to morbidity and mortality in the pediatric and young adult populations. Several studies focus on particular mechanisms of brain injury and the cost of treating brain injuries, but few studies exist in the literature examining the highest contributing mechanisms to pediatric brain injury and the billed charges associated with them. METHODS: Data were extracted from the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS from member hospitals on all patients admitted with diagnosed head injuries and comparisons were made between ICU and non-ICU admissions. Collected data included demographic information, injury information, total billed charges, and patient outcome. RESULTS: Motor vehicle collisions, falls, and assaults/abuse are the three highest contributors to brain injury in terms of total numbers and total billed charges. These three mechanisms of injury account for almost $1 billion in total charges across the five-year period, and account for almost half of the total charges in this dataset over that time period. CONCLUSION: Research focusing on brain injury should be tailored to the areas of the most pressing need and the highest contributing factors. While this study is focused on a select number of pediatric hospitals located throughout the country, it identifies significant contributors to head injuries, and the costs associated with treating them.

  11. The Infrastructure Gap and Decentralization

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Andres; Dan Biller; Jordan Schwartz

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an economic logic for underpinning decentralization in the infrastructure sectors. It starts by detailing the definition of the infrastructure gap and the methodologies to calculate it. It provides some global trends for developing countries in terms of the gap and briefly discusses financing possibilities for developing countries to address the gap. Then it turns to the discussion of the link between the infrastructure gap and decentralization, providing a typology infras...

  12. INSTITUTIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE: ESSENCE AND CONTENT

    OpenAIRE

    Ponomarev A. A.

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses the concept of "institutional infrastructure" and clarifies its essential content in relation to market cars. In terms of the industry market the main purpose of the institutional infrastructure is achieving the maximum economic benefit within limited resources. The main tasks that need to be solved in order to achieve this goal were formulated. We have developed and proved structurally-logical chart of the elements of the institutional infrastructure. The content of the...

  13. Boosting Infrastructure Investments in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Donald Kaberuka

    2011-01-01

    The absolute and relative lack of infrastructure in Africa suggests that the continent’s competitiveness could be boosted by scaling up investments in infrastructure. Such investments would facilitate domestic and international trade, enhance Africa’s integration into the global economy and promote better human development outcomes, especially, by bringing unconnected rural communities into the mainstream economy. While there are yawning gaps in all infrastructure subsectors, inadequate e...

  14. MOEMS industrial infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heeren, Henne; Paschalidou, Lia

    2004-08-01

    Forecasters and analysts predict the market size for microsystems and microtechnologies to be in the order of 68 billion by the year 2005 (NEXUS Market Study 2002). In essence, the market potential is likely to double in size from its 38 billion status in 2002. According to InStat/MDR the market for MOEMS (Micro Optical Electro Mechanical Systems) in optical communication will be over $1.8 billion in 2006 and WTC states that the market for non telecom MOEMS will be even larger. Underpinning this staggering growth will be an infrastructure of design houses, foundries, package/assembly providers and equipment suppliers to cater for the demand in design, prototyping, and (mass-) production. This infrastructure is needed to provide an efficient route to commercialisation. Foundries, which provide the infrastructure to prototype, fabricate and mass-produce the designs emanating from the design houses and other companies. The reason for the customers to rely on foundries can be diverse: ranging from pure economical reasons (investments, cost-price) to technical (availability of required technology). The desire to have a second source of supply can also be a reason for outsourcing. Foundries aim to achieve economies of scale by combining several customer orders into volume production. Volumes are necessary, not only to achieve the required competitive cost prices, but also to attain the necessary technical competence level. Some products that serve very large markets can reach such high production volumes that they are able to sustain dedicated factories. In such cases, captive supply is possible, although outsourcing is still an option, as can be seen in the magnetic head markets, where captive and non-captive suppliers operate alongside each other. The most striking examples are: inkjet heads (>435 million heads per year) and magnetic heads (>1.5 billion heads per year). Also pressure sensor and accelerometer producers can afford their own facilities to produce the

  15. Infrastructural politics on Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkbak, Andreas

    If Twitter started as a device for reporting one’s everyday comings and goings, it has in recent years come to be seen also as a resource for understanding and problematizing things like revolutions, disasters and politics (Rogers 2013). In this paper, I raise the question of whether a similar...... to curb congestion in Copenhagen. The so-called payment ring project has now been officially dropped, but only after becoming one of the most heated topics in Danish politics in recent years. Thousands of people mobilized on Facebook pages for and against the actualization of the payment ring. I suggest...... participation in city planning, e.g. about ’smart cities’. The use of Facebook pages in the payment ring controversy appears as an experimental form of infrastructural politics in which experts and lay people, politicians and grassroots, commercial interests and public issues are deployed in a device that does...

  16. Energy Transmission and Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathison, Jane

    2012-12-31

    The objective of Energy Transmission and Infrastructure Northern Ohio (OH) was to lay the conceptual and analytical foundation for an energy economy in northern Ohio that will: • improve the efficiency with which energy is used in the residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, and transportation sectors for Oberlin, Ohio as a district-wide model for Congressional District OH-09; • identify the potential to deploy wind and solar technologies and the most effective configuration for the regional energy system (i.e., the ratio of distributed or centralized power generation); • analyze the potential within the district to utilize farm wastes to produce biofuels; • enhance long-term energy security by identifying ways to deploy local resources and building Ohio-based enterprises; • identify the policy, regulatory, and financial barriers impeding development of a new energy system; and • improve energy infrastructure within Congressional District OH-09. This objective of laying the foundation for a renewable energy system in Ohio was achieved through four primary areas of activity: 1. district-wide energy infrastructure assessments and alternative-energy transmission studies; 2. energy infrastructure improvement projects undertaken by American Municipal Power (AMP) affiliates in the northern Ohio communities of Elmore, Oak Harbor, and Wellington; 3. Oberlin, OH-area energy assessment initiatives; and 4. a district-wide conference held in September 2011 to disseminate year-one findings. The grant supported 17 research studies by leading energy, policy, and financial specialists, including studies on: current energy use in the district and the Oberlin area; regional potential for energy generation from renewable sources such as solar power, wind, and farm-waste; energy and transportation strategies for transitioning the City of Oberlin entirely to renewable resources and considering pedestrians, bicyclists, and public transportation as well as drivers

  17. INSTITUTIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE: ESSENCE AND CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponomarev A. A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the concept of "institutional infrastructure" and clarifies its essential content in relation to market cars. In terms of the industry market the main purpose of the institutional infrastructure is achieving the maximum economic benefit within limited resources. The main tasks that need to be solved in order to achieve this goal were formulated. We have developed and proved structurally-logical chart of the elements of the institutional infrastructure. The content of the institutional infrastructure of the car are presented and justified. The analysis condition of the car market’s institutional infrastructure showed the problems associated with the state of institutions which have an impact on the functioning of the car market. Measures to stimulate the car market does not cover entire sector as a whole, and imported institutions do not give the expected effect because of inconsistency formal and informal elements of the institutional infrastructure. Presented assessment of the institutional infrastructure of the car market confirms the dependence of the state of the industry market cars from institutional infrastructure. Only reforming the institutions at all levels of the industry, from production to car sales can have a positive effect on the industry. Changes in the institutional infrastructure should be focused on improving the competitiveness, stability and independence from external factors

  18. Building an Information Security Infrastructure - A Comprehensive Framework towards a Robust, Resilient and Dependable Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Ranjan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available India is striving to become a knowledge economy by the year 2020. In order to achieve this goal, there is a growing focus both at the government level as well as private sector level to leverage the expertise of the IT and ITES sector of the country which has become one of the main drivers of growth for the Indian Economy. This has lead to increasing investment in IT infrastructure. In this paper we review this trend and analyze the importance of Information Security Infrastructure for the country.We propose a comprehensive conceptual framework for building a robust, resilient and dependable Information Security Infrastructure which will help in establishing India as the secure and trusted hub of the future.

  19. Moby.Cockpit Project for EV seamless integration in the cooperative transport infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    João C. Ferreira; Monteiro, Vítor Duarte Fernandes; Afonso, João L.

    2013-01-01

    Electric Vehicles (EV) are being introduced in the market, however the reduced energy storage capacity of their batteries and the lack of a high density charging infrastructure, limits their autonomy range. In order to overcome this limitation, we propose the development of a new solution for EV drivers that enables to travel longer distances. This is achieved by integrating some components of the cooperative transport infrastructure, as EV battery charging systems and public transports syste...

  20. Radiation protection and safety infrastructures in Albania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper intends to present the evolution and actual situation of radiation protection and safety infrastructure in Albania, focusing in its establishing and functioning in accordance with BBS and other important documents of specialized international organizations. There are described the legal framework of radiation safety, the regulatory authority, the services as well the practice of their functioning. The issue of the establishing and functioning of the radiation safety infrastructure in Albania was considered as a prerequisite for a good practices development in the peaceful uses of radiation sources . The existence of the adequate legislation and the regulatory authority, functioning based in the Basic Safety Standards (BSS), are the necessary condition providing the fulfilment of the most important issues in the mentioned field. The first document on radiation protection in Albania stated that 'for the safe use of radiation sources it is mandatory that the legal person should have a valid permission issued by Radiation Protection Commission'. A special organ was established in the Ministry of Health to supervise providing of the radiation protection measures. This organization of radiation protection showed many lacks as result of the low efficiency . The personnel monitoring, import, transport, waste management and training of workers were in charge of Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP). In 1992 an IAEA RAPAT mission visited Albania and proposed some recommendations for radiation protection improvements. The mission concluded that 'the legislation of the radiation protection should be developed'. In 1995 Albania was involved in the IAEA Model Project 'Upgrading of Radiation Protection Infrastructure'. This project, which is still in course, intended to establish the modern radiation safety infrastructures in the countries with low efficiency ones and to update and upgrade all aspects related with radiation safety: legislation and regulations, regulatory

  1. NGNP Infrastructure Readiness Assessment: Consolidation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian K Castle

    2011-02-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project supports the development, demonstration, and deployment of high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). The NGNP project is being reviewed by the Nuclear Energy Advisory Council (NEAC) to provide input to the DOE, who will make a recommendation to the Secretary of Energy, whether or not to continue with Phase 2 of the NGNP project. The NEAC review will be based on, in part, the infrastructure readiness assessment, which is an assessment of industry's current ability to provide specified components for the FOAK NGNP, meet quality assurance requirements, transport components, have the necessary workforce in place, and have the necessary construction capabilities. AREVA and Westinghouse were contracted to perform independent assessments of industry's capabilities because of their experience with nuclear supply chains, which is a result of their experiences with the EPR and AP-1000 reactors. Both vendors produced infrastructure readiness assessment reports that identified key components and categorized these components into three groups based on their ability to be deployed in the FOAK plant. The NGNP project has several programs that are developing key components and capabilities. For these components, the NGNP project have provided input to properly assess the infrastructure readiness for these components.

  2. Cyber and physical infrastructure interdependencies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Laurence R.; Kelic, Andjelka; Warren, Drake E.

    2008-09-01

    The goal of the work discussed in this document is to understand the risk to the nation of cyber attacks on critical infrastructures. The large body of research results on cyber attacks against physical infrastructure vulnerabilities has not resulted in clear understanding of the cascading effects a cyber-caused disruption can have on critical national infrastructures and the ability of these affected infrastructures to deliver services. This document discusses current research and methodologies aimed at assessing the translation of a cyber-based effect into a physical disruption of infrastructure and thence into quantification of the economic consequences of the resultant disruption and damage. The document discusses the deficiencies of the existing methods in correlating cyber attacks with physical consequences. The document then outlines a research plan to correct those deficiencies. When completed, the research plan will result in a fully supported methodology to quantify the economic consequences of events that begin with cyber effects, cascade into other physical infrastructure impacts, and result in degradation of the critical infrastructure's ability to deliver services and products. This methodology enables quantification of the risks to national critical infrastructure of cyber threats. The work addresses the electric power sector as an example of how the methodology can be applied.

  3. Infrastructure for Improved Rural Livelihoods

    OpenAIRE

    Brushett, Stephen; John-Abraham, Indu

    2006-01-01

    This article highlights some of the findings from recent analytical work that has been carried out in the Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region, notably a number of promising practices that are being developed to effectively address the infrastructure provision challenge, and in particular to ensure that infrastructure increases rural competitiveness and incomes.

  4. Prioritizing Infrastructure Investments in Panama

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo, Darwin; Mandri-Perrott, Cledan; House, Schuyler

    2016-01-01

    Infrastructure services are significant determinants of economic development, social welfare, trade, and public health. As such, they typically feature strongly in national development plans. While governments may receive many infrastructure project proposals, however, resources are often insufficient to finance the full set of proposals in the short term. Leading up to 2020, an estimated US$836 ...

  5. Nigeria's infrastructure : a continental perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Vivien; Pushak, Nataliya

    2011-01-01

    Infrastructure made a net contribution of around one percentage point to Nigeria's improved per capita growth performance in recent years, in spite of the fact that unreliable power supplies held growth back. Raising the country's infrastructure endowment to that of the region's middle-income countries could boost annual growth by around 4 percentage points. Among its African peers, Nigeri...

  6. Global information infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, D A

    1994-01-01

    The High Performance Computing and Communications Program (HPCC) is a multiagency federal initiative under the leadership of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, established by the High Performance Computing Act of 1991. It has been assigned a critical role in supporting the international collaboration essential to science and to health care. Goals of the HPCC are to extend USA leadership in high performance computing and networking technologies; to improve technology transfer for economic competitiveness, education, and national security; and to provide a key part of the foundation for the National Information Infrastructure. The first component of the National Institutes of Health to participate in the HPCC, the National Library of Medicine (NLM), recently issued a solicitation for proposals to address a range of issues, from privacy to 'testbed' networks, 'virtual reality,' and more. These efforts will build upon the NLM's extensive outreach program and other initiatives, including the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS), MEDLARS, and Grateful Med. New Internet search tools are emerging, such as Gopher and 'Knowbots'. Medicine will succeed in developing future intelligent agents to assist in utilizing computer networks. Our ability to serve patients is so often restricted by lack of information and knowledge at the time and place of medical decision-making. The new technologies, properly employed, will also greatly enhance our ability to serve the patient. PMID:8125625

  7. MAGNET/INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi

    Most of the infrastructure at Pt5 has been completed and is now passing their commissioning phase. The power distribution is almost completed. During autumn the powering of UXC55 racks from USC55 cabinets has been achieved. The full control/safety chain has been tested by injecting smoke into the sensitive rack volume in YE+ racks and is being extended to all the other racks as soon as cabling is done. The USC55 cooling station has all the water circuits commissioned and running. The annual maintenance of the surface cooling towers has been done during weeks 45 and 46 and a special plan has been set up, in close coordination with the CERN technical department. All the USC55 racks have passed a campaign of cleaning of the water filters and quality checks. A new partition of the USC55 area, for the function of the AUG (General Emergency Stop) buttons, is being done. This has an impact on the design of the underground UPS (Uninterruptible Power System) that secure the Magnet system and the electronics racks ...

  8. Small business infrastructure development. Problems and ways to improve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhaylo Pyvovarov

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The study reviews foreign and Ukrainian theory and practice in terms of business infrastructure. The infrastructure is one of the key factors to success of small and medium-sized enterprises which ensures their efficient operation. This paper defines small business infrastructure as a set of state and public institutions (organizations, entities which provide support services to enterprises, facilitate their economic activity and enhance its efficiency.The article concludes that organizational and informational infrastructure of small business support should be identified as an array of business support services (informational, consulting and legal offered by authorized institutions to facilitate small businesses. This study takes a look at the system of small business infrastructure in the country, its state, development and government support. Currently business incubators in the form of technology parks are the type of business assistance programs which prevail in regions and help startup and early-stage companies with technical advice during their first, the most difficult, year in the marketplace. Business incubators are nonprofit organizations financed by communities or sponsors. They can only recover 10 – 60 % of their cost. That is why the government, that declares state support to small business, should share the cost of business incubator programs and encourage sponsors and venture capitalists to give financial support. The dissertation studies the mechanisms of business incubator operation and the stages of its development. It analyzes the development of small business infrastructure elements in Ukrainian over the past 10 years. The analysis of regional business support programs implementation shows that no more than 5.2% of local budgets are allocated to develop the infrastructure. As a result, the majority of regions do not have an established network of financial credit or advisory infrastructure of business assistance, or it

  9. Potential for sharing nuclear power infrastructure between countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction or expansion of a nuclear power programme in a country and its successful execution is largely dependent on the network of national infrastructure, covering a wide range of activities and capabilities. The infrastructure areas include legal framework, safety and environmental regulatory bodies, international agreements, physical facilities, finance, education, training, human resources and public information and acceptance. The wide extent of infrastructure needs require an investment that can be too large or onerous for the national economy. The burden of infrastructure can be reduced significantly if a country forms a sharing partnership with other countries. The sharing can be at regional or at multinational level. It can include physical facilities, common programmes and knowledge, which will reflect in economic benefits. The sharing can also contribute in a significant manner to harmonization of codes and standards in general and regulatory framework in particular. The opportunities and potential of sharing nuclear power infrastructure is determined by the objectives, strategy and scenario of the national nuclear power programme. A review of individual infrastructure items shows that there are several opportunities for sharing of nuclear power infrastructure between countries if they cooperate with each other. International cooperation and sharing of nuclear power infrastructure are not new. This publication provides criteria and guidance for analyzing and identifying the potential for sharing of nuclear power infrastructure during the stages of nuclear power project life cycle. The target users are decision makers, advisers and senior managers in utilities, industrial organizations, regulatory bodies and governmental organizations in countries adopting or extending nuclear power programmes. This publication was produced within the IAEA programme directed to increase the capability of Member States to plan and implement nuclear power

  10. Critical Success Factors for Implementing Road Charging Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Oehry, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    Road user charging is used as an 'umbrella' term to describe a wide range of applications of pricing roads and infrastructure. Road user charging includes a number of charging measures that governments and other road owners use to: i) finance new or maintain existing road infrastructure ii) manage traffic (e.g. reduce congestion) iii) minimise environmental impacts of transport iv) internalise the external costs of road transport caused, e.g., by pollution and noise emissions. Historically, t...

  11. Utilities Power Change: Engaging Commercial Customers in Workplace Charging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lommele, Stephen; Dafoe, Wendy

    2016-06-01

    As stewards of an electric grid that is available almost anywhere people park, utilities that support workplace charging are uniquely positioned to help their commercial customers be a part of the rapidly expanding network of charging infrastructure. Utilities understand the distinctive challenges of their customers, have access to technical information about electrical infrastructure, and have deep experience modeling and managing demand for electricity. This case study highlights the experiences of two utilities with workplace charging programs.

  12. Carbon emissions of infrastructure development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Daniel B; Liu, Gang; Løvik, Amund N; Modaresi, Roja; Pauliuk, Stefan; Steinhoff, Franciska S; Brattebø, Helge

    2013-10-15

    Identifying strategies for reconciling human development and climate change mitigation requires an adequate understanding of how infrastructures contribute to well-being and greenhouse gas emissions. While direct emissions from infrastructure use are well-known, information about indirect emissions from their construction is highly fragmented. Here, we estimated the carbon footprint of the existing global infrastructure stock in 2008, assuming current technologies, to be 122 (-20/+15) Gt CO2. The average per-capita carbon footprint of infrastructures in industrialized countries (53 (± 6) t CO2) was approximately 5 times larger that that of developing countries (10 (± 1) t CO2). A globalization of Western infrastructure stocks using current technologies would cause approximately 350 Gt CO2 from materials production, which corresponds to about 35-60% of the remaining carbon budget available until 2050 if the average temperature increase is to be limited to 2 °C, and could thus compromise the 2 °C target. A promising but poorly explored mitigation option is to build new settlements using less emissions-intensive materials, for example by urban design; however, this strategy is constrained by a lack of bottom-up data on material stocks in infrastructures. Infrastructure development must be considered in post-Kyoto climate change agreements if developing countries are to participate on a fair basis. PMID:24053762

  13. 75 FR 67989 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Office of Infrastructure Protection; Infrastructure...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... SECURITY Agency Information Collection Activities: Office of Infrastructure Protection; Infrastructure... Infrastructure Protection (IP), will submit the following Information Collection Request (ICR) to the Office of... Infrastructure Protection, Attn.: Michael Beland, Michael.Beland@dhs.gov . Written comments should reach...

  14. 76 FR 22113 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Office of Infrastructure Protection; Infrastructure...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... SECURITY Agency Information Collection Activities: Office of Infrastructure Protection; Infrastructure... Infrastructure Protection (IP), will submit the following Information Collection Request to the Office of... Collection Request, Infrastructure Protection Stakeholder Input Project. DHS previously published...

  15. E15 and Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, K. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yanowitz, J. [Ecoengineering, Inc.,Sharonville, OH (United States)

    2015-05-27

    This report explores the compatibility of refueling station equipment with E15--a 15% ethanol and 85% gasoline blend intended for use in conventional gasoline light duty vehicles model year 2001 or newer. The report includes background information on E15, a literature review seeking to identify issues during the nationwide deployment of E10, a diagram of all station equipment and supporting data.

  16. The Fermilab data storage infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jon A Bakken et al.

    2003-02-06

    Fermilab, in collaboration with the DESY laboratory in Hamburg, Germany, has created a petabyte scale data storage infrastructure to meet the requirements of experiments to store and access large data sets. The Fermilab data storage infrastructure consists of the following major storage and data transfer components: Enstore mass storage system, DCache distributed data cache, ftp and Grid ftp for primarily external data transfers. This infrastructure provides a data throughput sufficient for transferring data from experiments' data acquisition systems. It also allows access to data in the Grid framework.

  17. Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, G; Abhayaratne, P; Bale, J; Bhattacharjee, A; Blair, C; Hansell, L; Jayne, A; Kosal, M; Lucas, S; Moran, K; Seroki, L; Vadlamudi, S

    2006-12-04

    determine whether a terrorist organization will attack critical infrastructure. In other words, this research investigates: (1) why terrorists choose to attack critical infrastructure rather than other targets; (2) how groups make such decisions; (3) what, if any, types of groups are most inclined to attack critical infrastructure targets; and (4) which types of critical infrastructure terrorists prefer to attack and why. In an effort to address the above questions as comprehensively as possible, the project team employed four discrete investigative approaches in its research design. These include: (1) a review of existing terrorism and threat assessment literature to glean expert consensus regarding terrorist target selection, as well as to identify theoretical approaches that might be valuable to analysts and decision-makers who are seeking to understand such terrorist group decision-making processes; (2) the preparation of several concise case studies to help identify internal group factors and contextual influences that have played significant roles in leading some terrorist groups to attack critical infrastructure; (3) the creation of a new database--the Critical Infrastructure Terrorist Incident Catalog (CrITC)--to capture a large sample of empirical CI attack data that might be used to illuminate the nature of such attacks to date; and (4) the development of a new analytical framework--the Determinants Effecting Critical Infrastructure Decisions (DECIDe) Framework--designed to make the factors and dynamics identified by the study more ''usable'' in any future efforts to assess terrorist intentions to target critical infrastructure. Although each is addressed separately in the following chapters, none of the four aspects of this study were developed in isolation. Rather, all the constituent elements of the project informed--and were informed by--the others. For example, the review of the available literature on terrorist target selection made

  18. Strengthening Nuclear Regulatory Infrastructure: Malaysia's Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The legislation governing atomic energy activities in Malaysia, the Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984 is in place and able to address the control and monitoring of all atomic energy activities including Nuclear Power Reactors. However, due to global developments and the commitment of the Malaysian Government to adhere to the highest standard of governing these activities in Malaysia, this act is reviewed with the assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In 2003, the IAEA published the 'Handbook on Nuclear Law' which outlined the essential elements of nuclear legislation taking into consideration various international legal instruments. This timely document was fully utilized and referred to in reviewing again Act 304. This paper will explain the journey of Atomic Energy Licensing Board's effort in reviewing and enhancing Malaysia's legislation governing atomic energy activities in Malaysia. The journey has not ended but is nearing its destination in enhancing the legal infrastructure to ensure the safety and security and safeguarding nuclear activities. (author)

  19. Hydrogen infrastructure for the transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to review the factors already discussed in the literature and identify gaps or issues which seem to require further debate in relation of the introduction of hydrogen in the transport sector. Studies in the academic and grey literature have analysed transport systems with a rather wide range of hydrogen penetration rates, utilisation of the infrastructure, hypotheses on the dynamics of the systems, capital costs of the infrastructure and hydrogen price. Most of the issues which could widen the debate in the literature are related to policy instruments. In particular, more attention should be paid to the policy instruments needed to foster co-ordination among stakeholders, persuade drivers to buy hydrogen vehicles despite the existence of a sparse infrastructure; guarantee investment in the early, possibly loss-making, retail stations and to foster financially sustainable government commitments. The effect of limited availability of hydrogen vehicle models on the penetration rates in the literature and the sensitivity of the hydrogen price to taxation from the government are other two issues deserving a more in-depth discussion. (author)

  20. Low-carbon infrastructure strategies for cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, C. A.; Ibrahim, N.; Hoornweg, D.

    2014-05-01

    Reducing greenhouse gas emissions to avert potentially disastrous global climate change requires substantial redevelopment of infrastructure systems. Cities are recognized as key actors for leading such climate change mitigation efforts. We have studied the greenhouse gas inventories and underlying characteristics of 22 global cities. These cities differ in terms of their climates, income, levels of industrial activity, urban form and existing carbon intensity of electricity supply. Here we show how these differences in city characteristics lead to wide variations in the type of strategies that can be used for reducing emissions. Cities experiencing greater than ~1,500 heating degree days (below an 18 °C base), for example, will review building construction and retrofitting for cold climates. Electrification of infrastructure technologies is effective for cities where the carbon intensity of the grid is lower than ~600 tCO2e GWh-1 whereas transportation strategies will differ between low urban density (~6,000 persons km-2) cities. As nation states negotiate targets and develop policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, attention to the specific characteristics of their cities will broaden and improve their suite of options. Beyond carbon pricing, markets and taxation, governments may develop policies and target spending towards low-carbon urban infrastructure.

  1. Embedded Processor Oriented Compiler Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJUKIC, M.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, research of special compiler techniques and algorithms for embedded processors broaden the knowledge of how to achieve better compiler performance in irregular processor architectures. However, industrial strength compilers, besides ability to generate efficient code, must also be robust, understandable, maintainable, and extensible. This raises the need for compiler infrastructure that provides means for convenient implementation of embedded processor oriented compiler techniques. Cirrus Logic Coyote 32 DSP is an example that shows how traditional compiler infrastructure is not able to cope with the problem. That is why the new compiler infrastructure was developed for this processor, based on research. in the field of embedded system software tools and experience in development of industrial strength compilers. The new infrastructure is described in this paper. Compiler generated code quality is compared with code generated by the previous compiler for the same processor architecture.

  2. Office of Aviation Safety Infrastructure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Office of Aviation Safety Infrastructure (AVS INF) provides authentication and access control to AVS network resources for users. This is done via a distributed...

  3. Public Key Infrastructure: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Aysha Albarqi; Ethar Alzaid; Fatimah Al Ghamdi; Somaya Asiri; Jayaprakash Kar

    2014-01-01

    As security is essential in communications through electronic networks, development of structures providing high levels of security is needed. Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is a way of providing security measures by implementing the means of key pairs among users. In this paper, an overview of the public key infrastructure is discussed that includes various components and operation, some well known PKIs and their comparisons. Also we discuss current implementations, risk and challenges of P...

  4. Hybrid architecture: object, landscape, infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto de Freitas, Rita

    2011-01-01

    The concept of "hybrid architecture" developed in this study considers hybrid all architecture that is at once object, landscape and infrastructure. Hybrid architecture, pushed by the fact that it concentrates in a single architectural intervention a triple object-, landscape- and infrastructure-related nature, generates architectural answers with very specific features, and its study achieves following goals: 1: Clarify the term hybrid related to architectural intervention; 2: Tran...

  5. Building a Modular Authorization Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Chadwick, David W; Zhao, Gansen; Otenko, Sassa; LABORDE, Romain; Su, Linying; Nguyen, Tuan Anh

    2006-01-01

    Authorization infrastructures manage privileges and render access control decisions, allowing applications to adjust their behavior according to the privileges allocated to users. This paper describes the PERMIS role based authorization infrastructure along with its conceptual authorisation, access control, and trust models. PERMIS has the novel concept of a credential validation service, which verifies a user’s credentials prior to access control decision making and enables ...

  6. PERMIS: a modular authorization infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Chadwick, David W; Zhao, Gansen; Otenko, Sassa; LABORDE, Romain; Su, Linying; Nguyen, Tuan Anh

    2008-01-01

    Authorization infrastructures manage privileges and render access control decisions, allowing applications to adjust their behavior according to the privileges allocated to users. This paper describes the PERMIS role-based authorization infrastructure along with its conceptual authorization, access control, and trust models. PERMIS has the novel concept of a credential validation service, which verifies a user's credentials prior to access control decision-making and enables the distributed m...

  7. Forests and Forest Cover - Green Infrastructure Gaps

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — These data provide restoration value rankings and ecological attributes associated with green infrastructure gaps. The Green Infrastructure Assessment was developed...

  8. Methodologies and applications for critical infrastructure protection: State-of-the-art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work provides an update of the state-of-the-art on energy security relating to critical infrastructure protection. For this purpose, this survey is based upon the conceptual view of OECD countries, and specifically in accordance with EU Directive 114/08/EC on the identification and designation of European critical infrastructures, and on the 2009 US National Infrastructure Protection Plan. The review discusses the different definitions of energy security, critical infrastructure and key resources, and shows some of the experie'nces in countries considered as international reference on the subject, including some information-sharing issues. In addition, the paper carries out a complete review of current methodologies, software applications and modelling techniques around critical infrastructure protection in accordance with their functionality in a risk management framework. The study of threats and vulnerabilities in critical infrastructure systems shows two important trends in methodologies and modelling. A first trend relates to the identification of methods, techniques, tools and diagrams to describe the current state of infrastructure. The other trend accomplishes a dynamic behaviour of the infrastructure systems by means of simulation techniques including systems dynamics, Monte Carlo simulation, multi-agent systems, etc. - Highlights: → We examine critical infrastructure protection experiences, systems and applications. → Some international experiences are reviewed, including EU EPCIP Plan and the US NIPP programme. → We discuss current methodologies and applications on critical infrastructure protection, with emphasis in electric networks.

  9. Water Supply Infrastructure System Surety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EKMAN,MARK E.; ISBELL,DARYL

    2000-01-06

    The executive branch of the United States government has acknowledged and identified threats to the water supply infrastructure of the United States. These threats include contamination of the water supply, aging infrastructure components, and malicious attack. Government recognition of the importance of providing safe, secure, and reliable water supplies has a historical precedence in the water works of the ancient Romans, who recognized the same basic threats to their water supply infrastructure the United States acknowledges today. System surety is the philosophy of ''designing for threats, planning for failure, and managing for success'' in system design and implementation. System surety is an alternative to traditional compliance-based approaches to safety, security, and reliability. Four types of surety are recognized: reactive surety; proactive surety, preventative surety; and fundamental, inherent surety. The five steps of the system surety approach can be used to establish the type of surety needed for the water infrastructure and the methods used to realize a sure water infrastructure. The benefit to the water industry of using the system surety approach to infrastructure design and assessment is a proactive approach to safety, security, and reliability for water transmission, treatment, distribution, and wastewater collection and treatment.

  10. 77 FR 21777 - Expanded Charge for Peer Review of the NIOSH document Titled: “Criteria for a Recommended...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ...The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is undergoing peer review for the draft document, ``Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Exposure to Diacetyl and 2,3- pentanedione.'' NIOSH held a public meeting on August 26, 2011 in Washington, DC [76 FR 44338] to discuss and obtain comments on the draft......

  11. Investment in transport infrastructure, regulation, and gas-gas competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper develops a simple model in which a regulated (upstream) transporter provides capacity to a marketer competing in output with an incumbent in the (downstream) gas commodity market. The equilibrium outcome of the firms' interaction in the downstream market is explicitly taken into account by the regulator when setting the transport charge. We consider various forms of competition in this market and derive the corresponding optimal transport charge policies. We then run simulations that allow us to perform a comparative welfare analysis of these transport infrastructure investment policies based on different assumptions about the intensity of the competition that prevails in the gas commodity market. (author)

  12. E-Infrastructure Concertation Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2010-01-01

    The 8th e-Infrastructure Concertation Meeting was held in the Globe from 4 to 5 November to discuss the development of Europe’s distributed computing and storage resources.   Project leaders attend the E-Concertation Meeting at the Globe on 5 November 2010. © Corentin Chevalier E-Infrastructures have become an indispensable tool for scientific research, linking researchers to virtually unlimited e-resources like the grid. The recent e-Infrastructure Concertation Meeting brought together e-Science project leaders to discuss the development of this tool in the European context. The meeting was part of an ongoing initiative to develop a world-class e-infrastructure resource that would establish European leadership in e-Science. The e-Infrastructure Concertation Meeting was organised by the Commission Services (EC) with the support of e-ScienceTalk. “The Concertation meeting at CERN has been a great opportunity for e-ScienceTalk to meet many of the 38 new proje...

  13. Infrastructure Commons in Economic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischmann, Brett M.

    This chapter briefly summarizes a theory (developed in substantial detail elsewhere)1 that explains why there are strong economic arguments for managing and sustaining infrastructure resources in an openly accessible manner. This theory facilitates a better understanding of two related issues: how society benefits from infrastructure resources and how decisions about how to manage or govern infrastructure resources affect a wide variety of public and private interests. The key insights from this analysis are that infrastructure resources generate value as inputs into a wide range of productive processes and that the outputs from these processes are often public goods and nonmarket goods that generate positive externalities that benefit society as a whole. Managing such resources in an openly accessible manner may be socially desirable from an economic perspective because doing so facilitates these downstream productive activities. For example, managing the Internet infrastructure in an openly accessible manner facilitates active citizen involvement in the production and sharing of many different public and nonmarket goods. Over the last decade, this has led to increased opportunities for a wide range of citizens to engage in entrepreneurship, political discourse, social network formation, and community building, among many other activities. The chapter applies these insights to the network neutrality debate and suggests how the debate might be reframed to better account for the wide range of private and public interests at stake.

  14. Infrastructure Systems Interdependencies and Risk Informed Decision Making (RIDM): Impact Scenario Analysis of Infrastructure Risks Induced by Natural, Technological and Intentional Hazards

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolph Frederick Stapelberg

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews current research into infrastructure systems interdependencies with regard to safesty risks induced by natural, technological and intentional hazards. The paper further considers risk informed decision-making.

  15. Infrastructure Systems Interdependencies and Risk Informed Decision Making (RIDM: Impact Scenario Analysis of Infrastructure Risks Induced by Natural, Technological and Intentional Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolph Frederick Stapelberg

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews current research into infrastructure systems interdependencies with regard to safesty risks induced by natural, technological and intentional hazards. The paper further considers risk informed decision-making.

  16. Electric charge quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimentally it has been known for a long time that the electric charges of the observed particles appear to be quantized. An approach to understanding electric charge quantization that can be used for gauge theories with explicit U(1) factors - such as the standard model and its variants - is pedagogically reviewed and discussed in this article. This approach used the allowed invariances of the Lagrangian and their associated anomaly cancellation equations. It is demonstrated that charge may be de-quantized in the three-generation standard model with massless neutrinos, because differences in family-lepton-numbers are anomaly-free. The relevant experimental limits are also reviewed. This approach to charge quantization suggests that the minimal standard model should be extended so that family-lepton-number differences are explicitly broken. Some candidate extensions such as the minimal standard model augmented by Majorana right-handed neutrinos are also briefly discussed. 30 refs

  17. Automated Verification of Virtualized Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bleikertz, Sören; Gross, Thomas; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Virtualized infrastructures and clouds present new challenges for security analysis and formal verification: they are complex environments that continuously change their shape, and that give rise to non-trivial security goals such as isolation and failure resilience requirements. We present a...... platform that connects declarative and expressive description languages with state-of-the art verification methods. The languages integrate homogeneously descriptions of virtualized infrastructures, their transformations, their desired goals, and evaluation strategies. The different verification tools...... range from model checking to theorem proving; this allows us to exploit the complementary strengths of methods, and also to understand how to best represent the analysis problems in different contexts. We consider first the static case where the topology of the virtual infrastructure is fixed and...

  18. Centralized versus Decentralized Infrastructure Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hines, Paul D H; Schläpfer, Markus

    2015-01-01

    While many large infrastructure networks, such as power, water, and natural gas systems, have similar physical properties governing flows, these systems tend to have distinctly different sizes and topological structures. This paper seeks to understand how these different size-scales and topological features can emerge from relatively simple design principles. Specifically, we seek to describe the conditions under which it is optimal to build decentralized network infrastructures, such as a microgrid, rather than centralized ones, such as a large high-voltage power system. While our method is simple it is useful in explaining why sometimes, but not always, it is economical to build large, interconnected networks and in other cases it is preferable to use smaller, distributed systems. The results indicate that there is not a single set of infrastructure cost conditions under which optimally-designed networks will have highly centralized architectures. Instead, as costs increase we find that average network size...

  19. Rise of the build infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CMS Offline Software, CMSSW, is an extremely large software project, with roughly 3 millions lines of code, two hundreds of active developers and two to three active development branches. Given the scale of the problem, both from a technical and a human point of view, being able to keep on track such a large project, bug free, and to deliver builds for different architectures is a challenge in itself. Moreover the challenges posed by the future migration of CMSSW to multithreading also require adapting and improving our QA tools. We present the work done in the last two years in our build and integration infrastructure, particularly in the form of improvements to our build tools, in the simplification and extensibility of our build infrastructure and the new features added to our QA and profiling tools. Finally we present our plans for the future directions for code management and how this reflects on our workflows and the underlying software infrastructure.

  20. LCG/AA build infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Software Process and Infrastructure (SPI) project provides a build infrastructure for regular integration testing and release of the LCG Applications Area software stack. In the past, regular builds have been provided using a system which has been constantly growing to include more features like server-client communication, long-term build history and a summary web interface using present-day web technologies. However, the ad-hoc style of software development resulted in a setup that is hard to monitor, inflexible and difficult to expand. The new version of the infrastructure is based on the Django Python framework, which allows for a structured and modular design, facilitating later additions. Transparency in the workflows and ease of monitoring has been one of the priorities in the design. Formerly missing functionality like on-demand builds or release triggering will support the transition to a more agile development process.

  1. Financing Infrastructure: A Spectrum of Country Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Sophia Chong; Emily Poole

    2013-01-01

    Over recent decades, there has been a shift away from public infrastructure financing towards private infrastructure financing, particularly in advanced economies. In this article, infrastructure financing in four countries – China, India, Australia and the United Kingdom – is examined to illustrate the different approaches taken by governments to finance infrastructure and encourage private financing. In all four countries, public financing of infrastructure remains significant, ranging from...

  2. Influence of roadside infrastructure on driving behavior: driving simulator study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, A.R.A. van der; Ridder, S. de

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a driving simulator study that focused on the influence of roadside infrastructure on speed choice and lateral placement of car drivers. A review of the RISER detailed accident database revealed that lateral positioning and speed of the vehicle were two of the pri

  3. Private Solutions for Infrastructure in Cambodia : A Country Framework Report

    OpenAIRE

    Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility

    2002-01-01

    Infrastructure plays a crucial role in supporting Cambodia's growth and development. Improving access to efficient and affordable water, electricity, transport, and telecommunications services has a major impact on the living standards of individual households. This Country Framework Report (CFR) is one of a series of country reviews aimed at improving the environment for the private secto...

  4. Infrastructure Gap in South Asia: Infrastructure Needs, Prioritization, and Financing

    OpenAIRE

    Andres , Luis; Biller, Dan; Herrera Dappe,Matias

    2014-01-01

    If the South Asia region hopes to meet its development goals and not risk slowing down or even halting growth, poverty alleviation, and shared prosperity, it is essential to make closing its huge infrastructure gap a priority. Identifying and addressing gaps in the data on expenditure, access, and quality are crucial to ensuring that governments make efficient, practical, and effective inf...

  5. Organizing infrastructure: building infrastructure projects in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Giezen

    2008-01-01

    The paper, which reconstructs the evolution of infrastructure planning in Holland, offers a view of the transformations that have taken place in the legislative and financial context for projects, with a particular focus on the consultation procedures followed to guarantee the feasibility of program

  6. Cyberspace Policy For Critical Infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkin, Dorsey; Raines, Richard; Williams, Paul; Hopkinson, Kenneth

    The first step in preparing any battlespace is to define the domain for attack and maneuver. The various military service components have directed authority to focus their efforts in specific domains of operations (e.g., naval operations are mainly in the maritime domain). However, cyberspace operations pose challenges because they span multiple operational domains. This paper focuses on U.S. cyberspace policy related to defending and exploiting critical infrastructure assets. Also, it examines the issues involved in delineating responsibility for U.S. defensive and offensive operations related to critical infrastructures.

  7. Mastering Microsoft Azure infrastructure services

    CERN Document Server

    Savill, John

    2015-01-01

    Understand, create, deploy, and maintain a public cloud using Microsoft Azure Mastering Microsoft Azure Infrastructure Services guides you through the process of creating and managing a public cloud and virtual network using Microsoft Azure. With step-by-step instruction and clear explanation, this book equips you with the skills required to provide services both on-premises and off-premises through full virtualization, providing a deeper understanding of Azure's capabilities as an infrastructure service. Each chapter includes online videos that visualize and enhance the concepts presented i

  8. Flowscapes: Infrastructure as landscape, landscape as infrastructure. Graduation Lab Landscape Architecture 2012/2013

    OpenAIRE

    Nijhuis, S.; Jauslin, D.; de Vries, C.

    2012-01-01

    Flowscapes explores infrastructure as a type of landscape and landscape as a type of infrastructure, and is focused on landscape architectonic design of transportation-, green- and water infrastructures. These landscape infrastructures are considered armatures for urban and rural development. With movement and flows at the core, these landscape infrastructures facilitate aesthetic, functional, social and ecological relationships between natural and human systems. Through transdisciplinary des...

  9. FOREWORD: Structural Health Monitoring and Intelligent Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhishen; Fujino, Yozo

    2005-06-01

    quality standards as for any paper in a regular issue. The papers cover a wide spectrum of topics including smart and effective sensing technologies, reliable approaches to signal processing, rational data gathering and interpretation methods, advanced damage characterization, modeling feature selection and diagnosis methods, and system integration technologies, etc. This special issue contains the most up-to-date achievements in SHM and intelligent technologies and provides information pertaining to their current and potential applications in infrastructure. It is our hope that this special issue makes a significant contribution in advancing awareness and acceptance of SHM and intelligent technologies for the maintenance and construction of different kinds of infrastructure. We would like to express our sincere thanks to Professor Varadan (Editor-in-Chief), Professor Matsuzaki (Regional Editor), the Editorial Assistants and the staff at Institute of Physics Publishing for their great support and advice in publishing this special issue. Special thanks are due to all the reviewers for their willingness to share their time and expertise. Final but important thanks go to Ms Suzhen Li (Doctorate Candidate at Ibaraki University) for her assistance in editing this special issue.

  10. Fractional charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    20 years ago fractional charges were imagined to explain values of conductivity in some materials. Recent experiments have proved the existence of charges whose value is the third of the electron charge. This article presents the experimental facts that have led theorists to predict the existence of fractional charges from the motion of quasi-particles in a linear chain of poly-acetylene to the quantum Hall effect. According to the latest theories, fractional charges are neither bosons nor fermions but anyons, they are submitted to an exclusive principle that is less stringent than that for fermions. (A.C.)

  11. Michigan's Infrastructure: Priorities for the Future. Capital Investment Needs 1985-1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan Infrastructure Coalition, Lansing.

    The Michigan Infrastructure Coalition was formed to review needs and make judgments concerning priorities for future infrastructure investments in Michigan. This report describes the coalition's findings and is intended to serve as the guidelines for state elected officials. Contents include: (1) an introduction (specifying priority areas); (2)…

  12. Global Land Transport Infrastructure Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Over the next four decades, global passenger and freight travel is expected to double over 2010 levels. In order to accommodate this growth, it is expected that the world will need to add nearly 25 million paved road lane-kilometres and 335 000 rail track kilometres. In addition, it is expected that between 45 000 square kilometres and 77 000 square kilometres of new parking spaces will be added to accommodate vehicle stock growth. These land transport infrastructure additions, when combined with operations, maintenance and repairs, are expected to cost as much as USD 45 trillion by 2050. This publication reports on the International Energy Agency’s (IEA) analysis of infrastructure requirements to support projected road and rail travel through 2050, using the IEA Mobility Model. It considers land transport infrastructure additions to support travel growth to 2050. It also considers potential savings if countries pursue “avoid and shift” policies: in this scenario, cumulative global land transport infrastructure spending could decrease as much as USD 20 trillion by 2050 over baseline projections.

  13. Designing infrastructures for creative engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Christian

    2014-01-01

    As museums extend their scope beyond the traditional exhibition space and into everyday practices and institutions it is necessary to develop suitable conceptualisations of how technology can be understood and designed. To this end, we propose that the concept of socio-technical infrastructures p...

  14. Communications and information infrastructure security

    CERN Document Server

    Voeller, John G

    2014-01-01

    Communication and Information Systems Security features articles from the Wiley Handbook of Science and Technology for Homeland Security covering strategies for protecting the telecommunications sector, wireless security, advanced web based technology for emergency situations. Science and technology for critical infrastructure consequence mitigation are also discussed.

  15. Scenario Based Network Infrastructure Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thomas Phillip; Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a method for IT infrastructure planning that take into account very long term developments in usages. The method creates a scenario for a final, time independent stage in the planning process. The method abstracts relevant modelling factors from available information; this...

  16. Nuclear power infrastructure and planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are several stages in the process of introducing nuclear power in a country. These include feasibility studies; technology evaluation; request for proposals and proposal evaluation; project and contracts development and financing; supply, construction, and commissioning; and finally operation. The IAEA is developing guidance directed to provide criteria for assessing the minimum infrastructure necessary for: a) a host country to consider when engaging in the implementation of nuclear power, or b) a supplier country to consider when assessing that the recipient country would be in an acceptable condition to begin the implementation of nuclear power. There are Member States that may be denied the benefits of nuclear energy if the infrastructure requirements are too large or onerous for the national economy. However if co-operation could be achieved, the infrastructure burden could be shared and economic benefits gained by several countries acting jointly. The IAEA is developing guidance on the potential for sharing of nuclear power infrastructure among countries adopting or extending nuclear power programme

  17. Public key infrastructure for DOE security research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiken, R.; Foster, I.; Johnston, W.E. [and others

    1997-06-01

    This document summarizes the Department of Energy`s Second Joint Energy Research/Defence Programs Security Research Workshop. The workshop, built on the results of the first Joint Workshop which reviewed security requirements represented in a range of mission-critical ER and DP applications, discussed commonalties and differences in ER/DP requirements and approaches, and identified an integrated common set of security research priorities. One significant conclusion of the first workshop was that progress in a broad spectrum of DOE-relevant security problems and applications could best be addressed through public-key cryptography based systems, and therefore depended upon the existence of a robust, broadly deployed public-key infrastructure. Hence, public-key infrastructure ({open_quotes}PKI{close_quotes}) was adopted as a primary focus for the second workshop. The Second Joint Workshop covered a range of DOE security research and deployment efforts, as well as summaries of the state of the art in various areas relating to public-key technologies. Key findings were that a broad range of DOE applications can benefit from security architectures and technologies built on a robust, flexible, widely deployed public-key infrastructure; that there exists a collection of specific requirements for missing or undeveloped PKI functionality, together with a preliminary assessment of how these requirements can be met; that, while commercial developments can be expected to provide many relevant security technologies, there are important capabilities that commercial developments will not address, due to the unique scale, performance, diversity, distributed nature, and sensitivity of DOE applications; that DOE should encourage and support research activities intended to increase understanding of security technology requirements, and to develop critical components not forthcoming from other sources in a timely manner.

  18. TELECOMMUNICATIONS INFRASTRUCTURE AND GDP /JIPP CURVE/

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Kaneva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between telecommunications infrastructure and economic activity is under discussion in many scientific papers. Most of the authors use for research and analysis the Jipp curve. A lot of doubts about the correctness of the Jipp curve appear in terms of applying econometric models. The aim of this study is a review of the Jipp curve, refining the possibility of its application in modern conditions. The methodology used in the study is based on dynamic econometric models, including tests for nonstationarity and tests for causality. The focus of this study is directed to methodological problems in measuring the local density types of telecommunication networks. This study offers a specific methodology for assessing the Jipp law, through VAR-approach and Granger causality tests. It is proved that mechanical substitution of momentary aggregated variables (such as the number of subscribers of a telecommunication network at the end of the year and periodically aggregated variables (such as GDP per capita in the Jipp�s curve is methodologically wrong. Researchers have to reconsider the relationship set in the Jipp�s curve by including additional variables that characterize the Telecommunications sector and the economic activity in a particular country within a specified time period. GDP per capita should not be regarded as a single factor for the local density of telecommunications infrastructure. New econometric models studying the relationship between the investments in telecommunications infrastructure and economic development may be not only linear regression models, but also other econometric models. New econometric models should be proposed after testing and validating with sound economic theory and econometric methodology.

  19. End Of Line: Combining Housing, Facilities and Transport Infrastructure in Brussels

    OpenAIRE

    De Clerck, Philippe; Moritz, Benoît; Stessens, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    This publication presents the results of the Brussels Master Class 2013 “End Of Line, Combining Housing, Facilities and Transport Infrastructure in Brussels”, organized from Oct. 28 to Nov. 8 by Louise (Laboratory for Urbanism, Infrastructure and Ecologies, Faculté d'Architecture de l'ULB) and Cosmopolis (Centre for Urban Research, VUB) with the support of the Secretary of State in charge of Urbanism for the Brussels-Capital Region. Architecture practice URA (BE) and consultancy agency Mobili...

  20. How impact fees and local planning regulation can influence deployment of telecoms infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    GORECKI, PAUL; Hennessy, Hugh; Lyons, Seán

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how local government planning regulations and charges affect the deployment of telecommunications infrastructure. We explore the economic rationale for local government regulation of such infrastructure, which we suggest should be based on managing negative externalities. Using data from Ireland, we find that the observed geographical pattern of impact fees is inconsistent with the economic rationale for them. A simple econometric model of the number of telecoms masts in e...

  1. Development of quick charging system for electric vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anegawa, Takafumi

    2010-09-15

    Despite low environmental impact and high energy efficiency, electric vehicles (EV) have not been widely accepted. The lack of charging infrastructure is one reason. Since lithium-ion battery has high energy density and low internal resistance that allows quick charging, the convenience of EV may be greatly improved if charging infrastructure is prepared adequately. TEPCO aims for EV spread to reduce CO2 emissions and to increase demand for electric power, and has developed quick charging system for fleet-use EV to improve the convenience of EV. And based on research results, we will propose desirable characteristics of quick charger for public use.

  2. Network science, nonlinear science and infrastructure systems

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    Network Science, Nonlinear Science and Infrastructure Systems has been written by leading scholars in these areas. Its express purpose is to develop common theoretical underpinnings to better solve modern infrastructural problems. It is felt by many who work in these fields that many modern communication problems, ranging from transportation networks to telecommunications, Internet, supply chains, etc., are fundamentally infrastructure problems. Moreover, these infrastructure problems would benefit greatly from a confluence of theoretical and methodological work done with the areas of Network Science, Dynamical Systems and Nonlinear Science. This book is dedicated to the formulation of infrastructural tools that will better solve these types of infrastructural problems. .

  3. National Computational Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Daniel, A

    2008-05-30

    In this document we describe work done under the SciDAC-1 Project National Computerational Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Theory. The objective of this project was to construct the computational infrastructure needed to study quantim chromodynamics (QCD). Nearly all high energy and nuclear physicists in the United States working on the numerical study of QCD are involved in the project, as are Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab). A list of the serior participants is given in Appendix A.2. The project includes the development of community software for the effective use of the terascale computers, and the research and development of commodity clusters optimized for the study of QCD. The software developed as part of this effort is pubicly available, and is being widely used by physicists in the United States and abroad. The prototype clusters built with SciDAC-1 fund have been used to test the software, and are available to lattice guage theorists in the United States on a peer reviewed basis.

  4. Charged Condensation

    CERN Document Server

    Gabadadze, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    We consider Bose-Einstein condensation of massive electrically charged scalars in a uniform background of charged fermions. We focus on the case when the scalar condensate screens the background charge, while the net charge of the system resides on its boundary surface. A distinctive signature of this substance is that the photon acquires a Lorentz-violating mass in the bulk of the condensate. Due to this mass, the transverse and longitudinal gauge modes propagate with different group velocities. We give qualitative arguments that at high enough densities and low temperatures a charged system of electrons and helium-4 nuclei, if held together by laboratory devices or by force of gravity, can form such a substance. We briefly discuss possible manifestations of the charged condensate in compact astrophysical objects.

  5. Toward Information Infrastructure Studies: Ways of Knowing in a Networked Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Geoffrey C.; Baker, Karen; Millerand, Florence; Ribes, David

    This article presents Information Infrastructure Studies, a research area that takes up some core issues in digital information and organization research. Infrastructure Studies simultaneously addresses the technical, social, and organizational aspects of the development, usage, and maintenance of infrastructures in local communities as well as global arenas. While infrastructure is understood as a broad category referring to a variety of pervasive, enabling network resources such as railroad lines, plumbing and pipes, electrical power plants and wires, this article focuses on information infrastructure, such as computational services and help desks, or federating activities such as scientific data repositories and archives spanning the multiple disciplines needed to address such issues as climate warming and the biodiversity crisis. These are elements associated with the internet and, frequently today, associated with cyberinfrastructure or e-science endeavors. We argue that a theoretical understanding of infrastructure provides the context for needed dialogue between design, use, and sustainability of internet-based infrastructure services. This article outlines a research area and outlines overarching themes of Infrastructure Studies. Part one of the paper presents definitions for infrastructure and cyberinfrastructure, reviewing salient previous work. Part two portrays key ideas from infrastructure studies (knowledge work, social and political values, new forms of sociality, etc.). In closing, the character of the field today is considered.

  6. Evaluation of the status of national nuclear infrastructure development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    addition, the approach can be used for the implementation of external evaluations (international peer review) with the participation of the IAEA and independent external experts. Such reviews, where a Member State wishes to invite others to carry out an evaluation, will help determine the degree of progress in developing and implementing national nuclear infrastructure areas for which IAEA assistance is requested. The IAEA can, upon request, assist in implementing holistic reviews of infrastructure preparedness at different stages in the development of national nuclear programmes. In particular, 'milestone 2' as defined in the Milestones publication, is a key stage at which the Member State needs to demonstrate that it is 'ready to invite bids for the first nuclear power plant'. Through the use of this report's comprehensive self-assessment, this stage is the point in time at which the Member State is encouraged to present its readiness for the construction of the first nuclear power plant to a wider audience. This review will help the Member State enhance national and international confidence in the country's ability to embark upon a nuclear power programme, including among potential nuclear power plant suppliers

  7. v9fb: a remote framebuffer infrastructure of linux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, Abhishek [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ionkov, Latchesar [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    v9fb is a software infrastructure that allows extending framebufFer devices in Linux over the network by providing an abstraction to them in the form of a filesystem hierarchy. Framebuffer based graphic devices export a synthetic filesystem which offers a simple and easy-to-use interface for performing common framebuffer operations. Remote framebuffer devices could be accessed over the network using the 9P protocol support in Linux. We describe the infrastructure in detail and review some of the benefits it offers similar to Plan 9 distributed systems. We discuss the applications of this infrastructure to remotely display and run interactive applications on a terminal while ofFloading the computation to remote servers, and more importantly the flexibility it offers in driving tiled-display walls by aggregating graphic devices in the network.

  8. Infrastructure investments in developing economies the case of Vietnam

    CERN Document Server

    Dang, Giang

    2015-01-01

    This book aims to provide knowledge on how infrastructure is planned and built in a typical developing country, and what key variables are there in the system limiting the efficient use of public investments in infrastructure. The book begins with a comprehensive literature review on construction and economic development, and trade and economic development. The focus of the book is on the case of Vietnam, with lessons drawn for other developing economies. The book employs the mixed use of data to provide a stronger basis for analysis and interpretation of related government policies. Based on the research findings, the book recommends significant capacity building work for Vietnam to develop capacities that would remove constraints on the efficient use of public investments in infrastructure. The general principles of significant capacity building work which are useful for policy implications are introduced in the book. Analysts, academics, public and private communities in developing countries can adopt the ...

  9. Water, infrastructure and political rule: Introduction to the special issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Obertreis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This introductory article sets the scene for this special issue on water, infrastructure and political rule. It makes the case for revisiting the complex relationships between these three dimensions which have fascinated scholars since Wittfogel’s pioneering – if much criticised – work on causal links between large-scale irrigation systems and autocratic leadership. Scholarship on water, on infrastructure, as well as on political rule has made huge advances since Wittfogel’s days, requiring a wholesome reappraisal of their triangular relationship. In this article, we review the relevant advances in scientific knowledge and epistemological approaches on each dimension. We subsequently summarise the different ways in which each of the following papers takes up and interrogates the relationship between water, infrastructure and political rule prior to the final paper which synthesises the principal findings emerging from the special issue.

  10. Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical "Chemical" Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, G; Bale, J; Moran, K

    2004-12-14

    Certain types of infrastructure--critical infrastructure (CI)--play vital roles in underpinning our economy, security, and way of life. One particular type of CI--that relating to chemicals--constitutes both an important element of our nation's infrastructure and a particularly attractive set of potential targets. This is primarily because of the large quantities of toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) it employs in various operations and because of the essential economic functions it serves. This study attempts to minimize some of the ambiguities that presently impede chemical infrastructure threat assessments by providing new insight into the key motivational factors that affect terrorist organizations propensity to attack chemical facilities. Prepared as a companion piece to the Center for Nonproliferation Studies August 2004 study--''Assessing Terrorist Motivations for Attacking Critical Infrastructure''--it investigates three overarching research questions: (1) why do terrorists choose to attack chemical-related infrastructure over other targets; (2) what specific factors influence their target selection decisions concerning chemical facilities; and (3) which, if any, types of groups are most inclined to attack chemical infrastructure targets? The study involved a multi-pronged research design, which made use of four discrete investigative techniques to answer the above questions as comprehensively as possible. These include: (1) a review of terrorism and threat assessment literature to glean expert consensus regarding terrorist interest in targeting chemical facilities; (2) the preparation of case studies to help identify internal group factors and contextual influences that have played a significant role in leading some terrorist groups to attack chemical facilities; (3) an examination of data from the Critical Infrastructure Terrorist Incident Catalog (CrITIC) to further illuminate the nature of terrorist attacks against chemical

  11. INFRASTRUCTURES

    CERN Multimedia

    Andrea Gaddi

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important tasks for LS1 was achieved this autumn when all the electronics racks in the USC55 counting rooms were switched from the standard powering network to the CMS low-voltage UPS. This long-sought move will prevent fastidious power cuts of the CMS electronics in case of short power glitches on the main powering network, as already assured to the detector front-end electronics in UXC55. In the same time, a study to update the dedicated UPS units for some crucial detector sub-systems, as the Magnet Control System (MCS), the Detector Safety System (DSS) and the IT Network Star-points, has been lunched. A new architecture, with fully redundant UPS units, able to assure power supply in case of long network outage (up to a maximum of five hours, in the case of the Magnet) has been recently presented by the EN-EL group and is currently under evaluation. The dry-gas plant recently commissioned in SH5 has passed a first test in order to understand the time needed to switch from dry-air to dry-n...

  12. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi and P. Tropea

    2012-01-01

      During the Year-End Technical Stop all the systems have been carefully inspected in order to assure a smooth running through the crucial year 2012. Regarding the electrical distribution, the annual General Emergency Stop test (AUG, in CERN language) has shown a discrepancy in the action matrix, as some racks were not cut off by the AUG action as they should have been. The subsequent investigation quickly indicated that a missing connection at the main UPS switchboard was the source of the problem. The problem has been addressed to the EN/EL group responsible for the equipment and a new test is planned in the beginning of March. Some consolidation work has been carried out as well, namely the doubling of the line powering the rack that houses the DCS servers in USC55. During the last months of the technical stop, the cooling systems of CMS have undergone the usual preventive maintenance, a few corrective interventions and a huge programme of performance tests. The preventive maintenance programm...

  13. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Tropea and A. Gaddi

    2013-01-01

    One of the first activities of LS1 has been the refurbishment of the rack ventilation units in the USC55 counting rooms. These rack-mounted turbines have been in service since 2007 and they have largely passed the expected lifetime. Some 450 motor-fans units have been procured in Germany, via the CERN store, and shipped to CMS where a team of technicians has dismounted the old turbines, keeping only the bare chassis, and inserted the new fans. A metallic mesh has also been added to better protect personnel from possible injuries by spinning blades. A full test of several hours has validated the new units, prior to their installation inside the racks. The work, started soon after the beginning of LS1, has been successfully concluded last week. Figure 1: Drawing of the fan units recently refurbished in the USC55 counting room racks Image 1: New filter on the main rack water-cooling distribution line The cooling systems of CMS are gently coming out of their maintenance programme. All water circuits have...

  14. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi

    The annual maintenance of detector services took place from mid November to mid January as planned. This involved a full stoppage of water-cooling circuits on November 24th with a gradual restarting from mid-January 09. The annual maintenance service included the cleaning of the two SF5 cooling towers and the service of the chiller plants on surface. The cryogenic plant serving the CMS Magnet was shut-down as well to perform the annual maintenance. In addition to that, the overall site power has been reduced from 8 to 2 MW, in order to cope with the switching to the Swiss power network in winter. Full power was reinstated at the end of January. The cooling network has seen the installation of a bypass for the endcap circuit, in order to limit pressure surges when one endcap is shut-off. In addition, filters have been added on most of the cooling loops in UXC55 to better protect the muon chambers. At the same time a global cleaning campaign of all the filters (more than 500 pieces) has been completed. As expe...

  15. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    Andrea Gaddi

    The various water-cooling circuits have been running smoothly since the last maintenance stop. The temperature set-points are being tuned to the actual requests from sub-detectors. As the RPC chambers seem to be rather sensitive to temperature fluctuations, the set-point on the Barrel and Endcap Muon circuits has been lowered by one degree Celsius, reaching the minimum temperature possible with the current hardware. A further decrease in temperature will only be possible with a substantial modification of the heat exchanger and related control valve on the primary circuit. A study has been launched to investigate possible solutions and related costs. The two cooling skids for Totem and Castor have been installed on top of the HF platform. They will supply demineralized water to the two forward sub-detectors, transferring the heat to the main rack circuit via an on-board heat exchanger. A preliminary analysis of the cooling requirements of the SCX5 computer farm has been done. As a first result, two precision...

  16. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    Andrea Gaddi

    2010-01-01

    During the May 31st to June 2nd LHC Technical Stop, a major step was made towards upgrading the endcap cooling circuit. The chilled-water regulation valve on the primary side of the heat-exchanger was changed. This now allows reduction of the set-value of the water temperature cooling the RPCs and CSCs of the CMS endcaps. At the same time, the bypass re-circulating valve on the secondary circuit of the heat-exchanger was also changed to allow better regulation of this set-value. A project has been launched with the objective of improving the distribution of the chilled water to the different users. This was triggered by evidence that the Tracker compressors in USC55 receive insufficient flow. The chilled water is shared with the HVAC system and experts are now looking at how to better balance the flow between these two main users. The cooling loop filters located in UXC55 have been inspected and cleaned. Samples were sent to CERN Radioprotection Service to check for activation and to the Material Analysis...

  17. Cyberspace and Critical Information Infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan COLESNIUC

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Every economy of an advanced nation relies on information systems and interconnected networks, thus in order to ensure the prosperity of a nation, making cyberspace a secure place becomes as crucial as securing society. Cyber security means ensuring the safety of this cyberspace from threats which can take different forms, such as stealing secret information from national companies and government institutions, attacking infrastructure vital for the functioning of the nation or attacking the privacy of the single citizen. The critical information infrastructure (CII represents the indispensable "nervous system", that allow modern societies to work and live. Besides, without it, there would be no distribution of energy, no services like banking or finance, no air traffic control and so on. But at the same time, in the development process of CII, security was never considered a top priority and for this reason they are subject to a high risk in relation to the organized crime.

  18. Technical infrastructure monitoring at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Stowisek, Jan; Suwalska, Anna

    2006-01-01

    The Technical Infrastructure Monitoring system (TIM) is used to monitor and control CERN's technical services from the CERN Control Centre (CCC). The system's primary function is to provide CCC operators with reliable real-time information about the state of the laboratory's extensive and widely distributed technical infrastructure. TIM is also used to monitor all general services required for the operation of CERN's accelerator complex and the experiments. A flexible data acquisition mechanism allows TIM to interface with a wide range of technically diverse installations, using industry standard protocols wherever possible and custom designed solutions where needed. The complexity of the data processing logic, including persistence, logging, alarm handling, command execution and the evaluation of datadriven business rules is encapsulated in the system's business layer. Users benefit from a suite of advanced graphical applications adapted to operations (synoptic views, alarm consoles, data analysis tools etc....

  19. The impact of northern gas on North American gas infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three business units that Enbridge operates are crude oil pipelines; natural gas liquids (NGL) transportation; and gas transmission and distribution. The need for more infrastructure will increase as the demand for natural gas increases. This presentation outlined the issues that surround and sometimes impede infrastructure development. It also emphasized the need for northern gas supply at a time when conventional natural gas supplies are decreasing and demand is growing. Additional LNG supply is required along with new supply from Alaska, Mackenzie Delta and the east coast. The issue of a secure source of supply was discussed along with northern gas expectations. It is expected that Mackenzie Delta gas (1.2 bcf/day) will be available by 2008 to 2010 and Alaska North Slope gas (4 bcf/day) will be available from 2012 to 2014. Gas demand by industrial, residential, commercial and power generation sectors across North America was illustrated. The challenge lies in creating infrastructure to move the supply to where it is most in demand. General infrastructure issues were reviewed, such as prices, regulatory streamlining, lead times, stakeholder issues and supporting infrastructure. 19 figs

  20. The role of gas infrastructure in promoting UK energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper considers whether commercially driven investment in gas infrastructure is sufficient to provide security of gas supply or whether strategic investment encouraged by government is desirable. The paper focuses on the UK in the wider EU context. A modelling analysis of the impact of disruptions, lasting from days to months, at the UK's largest piece of gas infrastructure is at the heart of the paper. The disruptions are hypothesised to take place in the mid-2020s, after the current wave of commercial investments in storage and LNG import facilities has worked its way through. The paper also analyses the current role of gas in energy markets, reviews past disruptions to gas supplies, highlights current patterns of commercial investment in gas infrastructure in the UK and assesses the implications of recent EU legislation on security of gas supply. The paper concludes with an analysis of the desirability of strategic investment in gas infrastructure. - Highlights: ► We examine the impact of disruptions to gas supplies on UK energy markets. ► The policy implications of the EU regulation on gas security are discussed. ► We investigate the role of gas infrastructure investment in mitigating gas shocks. ► The policy case for strategic investment in gas storage is assessed.

  1. iMarine - data infrastructure enabling software ?

    OpenAIRE

    Simi, Manuele; Farantatos, Gerasimos

    2012-01-01

    iMarine Data Infrastructure Enabling Software contains the description of software and pointers to the related documentation and artifacts of the components that comprise the e-Infrastructure Management suite delivered up to M6. ? ? ? ?

  2. 78 FR 11737 - Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... of a framework to reduce cyber risks to critical infrastructure (the ``Cybersecurity Framework... that align policy, business, and technological approaches to address cyber risks. The Cybersecurity... operators of critical infrastructure identify, assess, and manage cyber risk. The Cybersecurity...

  3. Benefits and Challenges of Linking Green Infrastructure and Highway Planning in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcucci, Daniel J.; Jordan, Lauren M.

    2013-01-01

    Landscape-level green infrastructure creates a network of natural and semi-natural areas that protects and enhances ecosystem services, regenerative capacities, and ecological dynamism over long timeframes. It can also enhance quality of life and certain economic activity. Highways create a network for moving goods and services efficiently, enabling commerce, and improving mobility. A fundamentally profound conflict exists between transportation planning and green infrastructure planning because they both seek to create connected, functioning networks across the same landscapes and regions, but transportation networks, especially in the form of highways, fragment and disconnect green infrastructure networks. A key opportunity has emerged in the United States during the last ten years with the promotion of measures to link transportation and environmental concerns. In this article we examined the potential benefits and challenges of linking landscape-level green infrastructure planning and implementation with integrated transportation planning and highway project development in the United States policy context. This was done by establishing a conceptual model that identified logical flow lines from planning to implementation as well as the potential interconnectors between green infrastructure and highway infrastructure. We analyzed the relationship of these activities through literature review, policy analysis, and a case study of a suburban Maryland, USA landscape. We found that regionally developed and adopted green infrastructure plans can be instrumental in creating more responsive regional transportation plans and streamlining the project environmental review process while enabling better outcomes by enabling more targeted mitigation. In order for benefits to occur, however, landscape-scale green infrastructure assessments and plans must be in place before integrated transportation planning and highway project development occurs. It is in the transportation

  4. Infrastructures for Growth and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Gobbo Fabio

    2007-01-01

    During the last decade, a pervasive redefinition of our productive paradigm took place. The "cognitive capitalism " represents the result of this complex transition and highlights the strong reliance of our economic system on knowledge. In order to shift the knowledge frontier and boost potential growth, policy tools need to consider the crucial role of both tangible and intangible infrastructures. Communication platforms and intangible networks are basic elements for information transfer and...

  5. ISTISNA‘ FINANCING OF INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS

    OpenAIRE

    ZARQA, MUHAMMAD ANAS

    1997-01-01

    Projects that do not generate explicit income cannot be possibly financed on a profit-sharing basis. A suitable interest-free alternative method of financing is presented here, based on istisna‘ sale contract (commissioned or pre-ordered productio). Various aspects of using istisna‘ as a financing tool for infrastructural projects are discussed, including: (a) the illiquidity of the resulting financial claims and its implications, (b) suitability for financial intermediaries, and (c) the poss...

  6. Securing the Internet Routing Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Papadimitratos, Panos; Zygmunt J. Haas

    2002-01-01

    The unprecedented growth of the Internet over the last years, and the expectation of an even faster increase in the numbers of users and networked systems, resulted in the Internet assuming its position as a mass communication medium. At the same time, the emergence of an increasingly large number of application areas and the evolution of the networking technology suggest that in the near future the Internet may become the single integrated communication infrastructure. However, as the depend...

  7. The infrastructure of psychological proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    ). The experience of psychological proximity between patient and nurse is provided through confidence, continuity and the practical set-up. This constitutes an important enactment of skillfulness, which may render telemedicine a convincing health service in the future. Methodology: The study draws on a...... technology (Langstrup & Winthereik 2008). This study contributes by showing the infrastructure of psychological proximity, which is provided by way of device, confidence, continuity and accountability....

  8. Infrastructure of electronic information management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twitchell, G.D.

    2004-01-01

    The information technology infrastructure of an organization, whether it is a private, non-profit, federal, or academic institution, is key to delivering timely and high-quality products and services to its customers and stakeholders. With the evolution of the Internet and the World Wide Web, resources that were once "centralized" in nature are now distributed across the organization in various locations and often remote regions of the country. This presents tremendous challenges to the information technology managers, users, and CEOs of large world-wide corporations who wish to exchange information or get access to resources in today's global marketplace. Several tools and technologies have been developed over recent years that play critical roles in ensuring that the proper information infrastructure exists within the organization to facilitate this global information marketplace Such tools and technologies as JAVA, Proxy Servers, Virtual Private Networks (VPN), multi-platform database management solutions, high-speed telecommunication technologies (ATM, ISDN, etc.), mass storage devices, and firewall technologies most often determine the organization's success through effective and efficient information infrastructure practices. This session will address several of these technologies and provide options related to those that may exist and can be readily applied within Eastern Europe. ?? 2004 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

  9. Charge Transfer and Charge Transport on the Double Helix

    OpenAIRE

    N. P. Armitage; Briman, M.; Gruner, G.

    2003-01-01

    We present a short review of various experiments that measure charge transfer and charge transport in DNA. Some general comments are made on the possible connection between 'chemistry-style' charge transfer experiments that probe fluorescence quenching and remote oxidative damage and 'physics-style' measurements that measure transport properties as defined typically in the solid-state. We then describe measurements performed by our group on the millimeter wave response of DNA. By measuring ov...

  10. National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berscheid, Alan P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-30

    National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC) mission is to: (1) Improve the understanding, preparation, and mitigation of the consequences of infrastructure disruption; (2) Provide a common, comprehensive view of U.S. infrastructure and its response to disruptions - Scale & resolution appropriate to the issues and All threats; and (3) Built an operations-tested DHS capability to respond quickly to urgent infrastructure protection issues.

  11. Infrastructure and city competitiveness in India

    OpenAIRE

    Lall, Somik V.; Wang, Hyoung Gun; Deichmann, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    Do local improvements in infrastructure provision improve city competitiveness? What public finance mechanisms stimulate local infrastructure supply? And how do local efforts compare with national decisions of placing inter-regional trunk infrastructure? In this paper, we examine how the combination of local and national infrastructure supply improve city competitiveness, measured as the city's share of national private investment. For the empirical analysis, we collect city-level data for In...

  12. Contextual-Analysis for Infrastructure Awareness Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Juan David Hincapie; Tabard, Aurelien; Alt, Florian

    Infrastructures are persistent socio-technical systems used to deliver different kinds of services. Researchers have looked into how awareness of infrastructures in the areas of sustainability [6, 10] and software appropriation [11] can be provided. However, designing infrastructure-aware systems...... has specific requirements, which are often ignored. In this paper we explore the challenges when developing infrastructure awareness systems based on contextual analysis, and propose guidelines for enhancing the design process....

  13. Comparative study of Malaysian and Philippine regulatory infrastructures on radiation and nuclear safety with international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents the results of the critical reviews, analysis, and comparison of the regulatory infrastructures for radiation and nuclear safety of Malaysis and the Philippines usi ng the IAEA safety requirements, GSR Part 1, Government, Legal and Regulatory Framework for Safety'' as the main basis and in part, the GSR Part 3, Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards. The scope of the comparison includes the elements of the relevant legislations, the regulatory system and processes including the core functions of the regulatory body (authorization, review and assessment, inspection and enforcement, development of regulations and guides); and the staffing and training of regulatory body. The respective availabe data of the Malaysian and Philippine regulatory infrastructures and current practices were gathered and analyzed. Recommendations to fill the gaps and strengthen the existing regulatory infrastructure of each country was given using as bases relevant IAEA safety guides. Based on the analysis made, the main findings are: the legislations of both countries do not contain al the elements of teh national policy and strategy for safety as well as those of teh framework for safety in GR Part I. Among the provision that need to be included in the legislations are: emergency planning and response; decommissioning of facilities safe management of radioactive wastes and spent fuel; competence for safety; and technical sevices. Provisions on coordination of different authorities with safety responsibilities within the regulatory framework for safety as well as liaison with advisory bodies and support organizations need to be enhanced. The Philippines needs to establish an independent regulatory body, ie. separate from organizations charged with promotion of nuclear technologies and responsible for facilitiesand activities. Graded approach on the system of notification and authorization by registration and licensing

  14. Electric Vehicle Charging Stations Allocation Model

    OpenAIRE

    BAOUCHE, Fouad; Billot, Romain; Trigui, Rochdi; El Faouzi, Nour-Eddin

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, French authorities launched a national plan for the deployment of charging infrastructure in order to promote the electromobility. Key stakeholders and industrial such car manufacturers, energy distribution companies and researchers were encouraged to propose optimal solutions for the installation of charging stations (CS). These solutions should cover all types of configurations: public roads, parking, and workplace. The French Environmental and Energy Management Agency (ADEME) set ...

  15. Efficiency of transport infrastructure and ICT development

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Chang-Ho; Na, Kyoung-Youn

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the impact of ICT growth on the productivity effects of transportation infrastructure. Using dynamic panel data of OECD member countries, the study finds econometrically meaningful results on examining the complementarity between ICT and transportation infrastructures. The network effect of growth of motorway infrastructure in advanced countries tends to accelerate when the ICT network grows beyond a certain threshold level.

  16. 76 FR 17934 - Infrastructure Protection Data Call

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... SECURITY Infrastructure Protection Data Call AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS... of Infrastructure Protection (IP), will submit the following Information Collection Request to the... infrastructure and key resources (CIKR). At DHS, this responsibility is managed by IP within NPPD. Beginning...

  17. 31 CFR 800.208 - Critical infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Critical infrastructure. 800.208..., AND TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.208 Critical infrastructure. The term critical infrastructure means, in the context of a particular covered transaction, a system or asset, whether physical...

  18. Infrastructure and Trade: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guney Celbis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Low levels of infrastructure quality and quantity can create trade impediments through increased transport costs. Since the late 1990s an increasing number of trade studies have taken infrastructure into account. The purpose of the present paper is to quantify the importance of infrastructure for trade by means of meta-analysis and meta-regression techniques that synthesize various studies. The type of infrastructure that we focus on is mainly public infrastructure in transportation and communication. We examine the impact of infrastructure on trade by means of estimates obtained from 36 primary studies that yielded 542 infrastructure elasticities of trade. We explicitly take into account that infrastructure can be measured in various ways and that its impact depends on the location of the infrastructure. We estimate several meta-regression models that control for observed heterogeneity in terms of variation across different methodologies, infrastructure types, geographical areas and their economic features, model specifications, and publication characteristics. Additionally, random effects account for between-study unspecified heterogeneity, while publication bias is explicitly addressed by means of the Hedges model.  After controlling for all these issues we find that a 1 percent increase in own infrastructure increases exports by about 0.6 percent and imports by about 0.3 percent. Such elasticities are generally larger for developing countries, land infrastructure, IV or panel data estimation, and macro-level analyses. They also depend on the inclusion or exclusion of various common covariates in trade regressions.

  19. Charge states of ions, and mechanisms of charge ordering transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To gain insight into the mechanism of charge ordering transitions, which conventionally are pictured as a disproportionation of an ion M as 2Mn+→M(n+1)+ + M(n−1)+, we (1) review and reconsider the charge state (or oxidation number) picture itself, (2) introduce new results for the putative charge ordering compound AgNiO2 and the dual charge state insulator AgO, and (3) analyze the cationic occupations of the actual (not formal) charge, and work to reconcile the conundrums that arise. We establish that several of the clearest cases of charge ordering transitions involve no disproportion (no charge transfer between the cations, and hence no charge ordering), and that the experimental data used to support charge ordering can be accounted for within density functional-based calculations that contain no charge transfer between cations. We propose that the charge state picture retains meaning and importance, at least in many cases, if one focuses on Wannier functions rather than atomic orbitals. The challenge of modeling charge ordering transitions with model Hamiltonians isdiscussed. (paper)

  20. Nuclear power infrastructure - issues, strategy and possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Today humanity faces daunting challenges: the pressing need for development in many parts of the world and the desire for a more effective system of international security. At the outset of the 21st century, the Millennium Development Goals and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation have both set global objectives for sustainable development (SD) that give high priority to the eradication of poverty and hunger, environmental sustainability, universal access to plentiful fresh water and energy. In this context there are many expectations about Nuclear Renascence supported by many national and international studies, by discussions in the mass media and international forums, etc. The Agency has taken an integrated approach outlining all considerations that have to be taken into account for the introduction of a nuclear power programme, providing guiding documents, forums for sharing information, consultancies and technical meetings and sending multidisciplinary teams to countries requesting assistance with nuclear power infrastructure. The process also includes specific assistance and review services in the areas of infrastructure readiness, feasibility studies, draft nuclear law, regulatory frameworks and organization, siting issues, human resource development and planning, bid evaluation and technology assessment, owner/operator competence, and safety and security. It is important to support the decision making processes of States introducing nuclear power to ensure they can make informed choices on the role of nuclear power in their energy mixes. The IAEA helps countries prepare for the introduction or expansion of nuclear power by 1) helping them ensure that nuclear energy is used safely, securely and with minimal proliferation risk, and 2) meeting the need of developing countries to build capacity in terms of human resources, energy analysis, regulatory capabilities and other infrastructure necessary for nuclear power. The process also includes

  1. Charge symmetry at the partonic level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Londergan, J. T.; Peng, J. C.; Thomas, A. W.

    2010-07-01

    This review article discusses the experimental and theoretical status of partonic charge symmetry. It is shown how the partonic content of various structure functions gets redefined when the assumption of charge symmetry is relaxed. We review various theoretical and phenomenological models for charge symmetry violation in parton distribution functions. We summarize the current experimental upper limits on charge symmetry violation in parton distributions. A series of experiments are presented, which might reveal partonic charge symmetry violation, or alternatively might lower the current upper limits on parton charge symmetry violation.

  2. Development Model for Research Infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wächter, Joachim; Hammitzsch, Martin; Kerschke, Dorit; Lauterjung, Jörn

    2015-04-01

    Research infrastructures (RIs) are platforms integrating facilities, resources and services used by the research communities to conduct research and foster innovation. RIs include scientific equipment, e.g., sensor platforms, satellites or other instruments, but also scientific data, sample repositories or archives. E-infrastructures on the other hand provide the technological substratum and middleware to interlink distributed RI components with computing systems and communication networks. The resulting platforms provide the foundation for the design and implementation of RIs and play an increasing role in the advancement and exploitation of knowledge and technology. RIs are regarded as essential to achieve and maintain excellence in research and innovation crucial for the European Research Area (ERA). The implementation of RIs has to be considered as a long-term, complex development process often over a period of 10 or more years. The ongoing construction of Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs) provides a good example for the general complexity of infrastructure development processes especially in system-of-systems environments. A set of directives issued by the European Commission provided a framework of guidelines for the implementation processes addressing the relevant content and the encoding of data as well as the standards for service interfaces and the integration of these services into networks. Additionally, a time schedule for the overall construction process has been specified. As a result this process advances with a strong participation of member states and responsible organisations. Today, SDIs provide the operational basis for new digital business processes in both national and local authorities. Currently, the development of integrated RIs in Earth and Environmental Sciences is characterised by the following properties: • A high number of parallel activities on European and national levels with numerous institutes and organisations participating

  3. Impact evaluation of infrastructure interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Andersen, Ole Winckler; White, Howard

    2011-01-01

    volume. Understanding impact means understanding the context in which an intervention takes place and the channels through which the impact on outcomes is expected to occur. Such analysis typically requires mixing both quantitative and qualitative approaches. The analysis will also anticipate......The focus on results in development agencies has led to increased focus on impact evaluation to demonstrate the effectiveness of development programmes. A range of methods are available for counterfactual analysis of infrastructure interventions, as illustrated by the variety of papers in this...

  4. A Messaging Infrastructure for WLCG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the EGEE-III project operational tools such as SAM, Nagios, Gridview, the regional Dashboard and GGUS moved to a communication architecture based on ActiveMQ, an open-source enterprise messaging solution. LHC experiments, in particular ATLAS, developed prototypes of systems using the same messaging infrastructure, validating the system for their use-cases. In this paper we describe the WLCG messaging use cases and outline an improved messaging architecture based on the experience gained during the EGEE-III period. We show how this provides a solid basis for many applications, including the grid middleware, to improve their resilience and reliability.

  5. An investigation into waste taxes and charges

    OpenAIRE

    Dunne, Louise

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the potential for problems regarding public acceptability of environmental taxes with: a review of waste charges literature; a review of the literature on environmental attitudes; and a case study - the municipal waste charge protests in Ireland in 2003 and 2004. These public protests against new waste charges demonstrate the necessity for good advertisement and public relations when introducing a new tax. Rather than explain the polluter pays principle and simultaneously p...

  6. Charged Leptons

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, J; Babu, K; Bernstein, R H; Blum, T; Brown, D N; Casey, B C K; Cheng, C -h; Cirigliano, V; Cohen, A; Deshpande, A; Dukes, E C; Echenard, B; Gaponenko, A; Glenzinski, D; Gonzalez-Alonso, M; Grancagnolo, F; Grossman, Y; Harnik, R; Hitlin, D G; Kiburg, B; Knoepfe, K; Kumar, K; Lim, G; Lu, Z -T; McKeen, D; Miller, J P; Ramsey-Musolf, M; Ray, R; Roberts, B L; Rominsky, M; Semertzidis, Y; Stoeckinger, D; Talman, R; Van De Water, R; Winter, P

    2013-01-01

    This is the report of the Intensity Frontier Charged Lepton Working Group of the 2013 Community Summer Study "Snowmass on the Mississippi", summarizing the current status and future experimental opportunities in muon and tau lepton studies and their sensitivity to new physics. These include searches for charged lepton flavor violation, measurements of magnetic and electric dipole moments, and precision measurements of the decay spectrum and parity-violating asymmetries.

  7. High-charge-state ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sources of high charge state positive ions have uses in a variety of research fields. For heavy ion particle accelerators higher charge state particles give greater acceleration per gap and greater bending strength in a magnet. Thus higher energies can be obtained from circular accelerators of a given size, and linear accelerators can be designed with higher energy gain per length using higher charge state ions. In atomic physics the many atomic transitions in highly charged ions supplies a wealth of spectroscopy data. High charge state ion beams are also used for charge exchange and crossed beam experiments. High charge state ion sources are reviewed

  8. POPCORN: privacy-preserving charging for e-mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Höfer, Christina; Petit, Jonathan; Schmidt, Robert; Kargl, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Upcoming years will see a massive deployment of electric vehicles and hence charging infrastructure. This will require protocols and standards that control authentication, authorization, and billing of electric vehicle charging. The ISO/IEC 15118 protocol addresses the communication between the char

  9. POPCORN: privacy-preserving charging for eMobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Höfer, Christina; Petit, Jonathan; Schmidt, Robert K.; Kargl, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Upcoming years will see a massive deployment of electric vehicles and, combined with this, of charging infrastructure. This will require protocols and standards that will control authentication, authorization, and billing of electric-vehicle charging. The ISO/IEC 15118 protocol that addresses the co

  10. 76 FR 20995 - Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... infrastructure protection security measures, incident response, recovery, infrastructure resilience... sharing threat, vulnerability, risk mitigation, and infrastructure continuity information. Organizational... SECURITY Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC) AGENCY: National Protection...

  11. 75 FR 31458 - Infrastructure Protection Data Call Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... SECURITY National Protection and Programs Directorate Infrastructure Protection Data Call Survey AGENCY... Protection and Programs Directorate (NPPD), Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP), Infrastructure... Directorate is soliciting comments concerning New Information Collection Request, Infrastructure...

  12. 77 FR 64818 - The Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC) in a Federal Register Notice (71 FR 14930-14933) dated March..., incident response, recovery, and infrastructure resilience; reconstituting critical infrastructure assets..., risk mitigation, and infrastructure continuity information. Organizational Structure: CIPAC members...

  13. 78 FR 16861 - The Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-19

    ... Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC) in a Federal Register Notice (71 FR 14930-14933) dated March... response, recovery, and infrastructure resilience; reconstituting critical infrastructure assets and... mitigation, and infrastructure continuity information. Organizational Structure: CIPAC members are...

  14. Risk Assessment of Critical Communication Infrastructure in Railways in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Johnsen, Stig O.; Veen, Mona

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the significant findings of a risk assessment of infrastructure used in emergency communication by railways in Norway. The initial risk assessment was performed in 2008 and we have reviewed the results in 2010, documenting mitigating actions and their effect. The development of safety and security culture has also been evaluated. The risk assessment was based on a socio-technical approach, which considers technical, organizational and human factors. Action research was us...

  15. Cyber Threats to Nuclear Infrastructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear facility personnel expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against both natural and man-made threats. Historically, most attention has been placed on physical security. Recently however, the threat of cyber-related attacks has become a recognized and growing world-wide concern. Much attention has focused on the vulnerability of the electric grid and chemical industries to cyber attacks, in part, because of their use of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. Lessons learned from work in these sectors indicate that the cyber threat may extend to other critical infrastructures including sites where nuclear and radiological materials are now stored. In this context, this white paper presents a hypothetical scenario by which a determined adversary launches a cyber attack that compromises the physical protection system and results in a reduced security posture at such a site. The compromised security posture might then be malevolently exploited in a variety of ways. The authors conclude that the cyber threat should be carefully considered for all nuclear infrastructures.

  16. Cyber Threats to Nuclear Infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert S. Anderson; Paul Moskowitz; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Curtis St. Michel

    2010-07-01

    Nuclear facility personnel expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against both natural and man-made threats. Historically, most attention has been placed on physical security. Recently however, the threat of cyber-related attacks has become a recognized and growing world-wide concern. Much attention has focused on the vulnerability of the electric grid and chemical industries to cyber attacks, in part, because of their use of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. Lessons learned from work in these sectors indicate that the cyber threat may extend to other critical infrastructures including sites where nuclear and radiological materials are now stored. In this context, this white paper presents a hypothetical scenario by which a determined adversary launches a cyber attack that compromises the physical protection system and results in a reduced security posture at such a site. The compromised security posture might then be malevolently exploited in a variety of ways. The authors conclude that the cyber threat should be carefully considered for all nuclear infrastructures.

  17. The EGEE user support infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Antoni, T; Mills, A

    2007-01-01

    User support in a grid environment is a challenging task due to the distributed nature of the grid. The variety of users and VOs adds further to the challenge. One can find support requests by grid beginners, users with specific applications, site administrators, or grid monitoring operators. With the GGUS infrastructure, EGEE provides a portal where users can find support in their daily use of the grid. The current use of the system has shown that the goal has been achieved with success. The grid user support model in EGEE can be captioned ‘regional support with central coordination’. Users can submit a support request to the central GGUS service, or to their Regional Operations' Centre (ROC) or to their Virtual Organisation helpdesks. Within GGUS there are appropriate support groups for all support requests. The ROCs and VOs and the other project wide groups such as middleware groups (JRA), network groups (NA), service groups (SA) and other grid infrastructures (OSG, NorduGrid, etc.) are connected via a...

  18. 77 FR 32655 - Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... protection security measures, incident response, recovery, infrastructure resilience; reconstituting critical..., vulnerability, risk mitigation, and infrastructure continuity information. Organizational Structure:...

  19. Infrastructure Franchising and Government Guarantees Infrastructure Franchising and Government Guarantees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Galetovic

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Government guarantees for private infrastructure projects reduce the incentives of firms to perform efficiently, weaken the incentives to screen projects for white elephants, and shift government obligations to future periods. Thus the use of guarantees needs to be limited, and they need to be carefully designed. Franchising schemes should in principle assign risks to the parties best able to manage and control them. The mechanisms by which contracts are awarded should be simple, so that possibilities for evaluator subjectivity are reduced, the award process remains as transparent as possible, and the likelihood of having to renegotiate is minimized. Infrastructure franchises have usually been awarded on a fixed-term basis. Such contracts expose franchise holders to considerable demand risk, which investors are often unwilling to assume without government guarantees. These contracts are also inflexible, since it is difficult to determine a fair level of compensation to the franchise holder if the contract is terminated early or modified. Under an alternative mechanism, the franchise is awarded to the firm that asks for the least present value of user fee revenue for a given tariff structure, and the franchise ends when the present value of user fee revenues is equal to the franchise holder's bid. Such contracts reduce the demand risk borne by the franchise holder (and the concomitant demand for government guarantees. They also make fair compensation of franchise holders in the event of early termination straightforward, since the level of fair compensation is equal to the revenue remaining to be collected. Government guarantees for private infrastructure projects reduce the incentives of firms to perform efficiently, weaken the incentives to screen projects for white elephants, and shift government obligations to future periods. Thus the use of guarantees needs to be limited, and they need to be carefully designed. Franchising schemes should in

  20. Organizing English Learner Instruction in New Immigrant Destinations: District Infrastructure and Subject-Specific School Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Megan; Lowenhaupt, Rebecca; Sweet, Tracy M.

    2015-01-01

    In the context of shifting demographics and standards-based reform, school districts in new immigrant destinations are charged with designing infrastructures that support teaching and learning for English learners (ELs) in core academic subjects. This article uses qualitative data and social network analysis to examine how one district in the…

  1. Measurement of exposure dose and its reduction design for nurses in charge in FDG-PET/CT with contrast reviewing the manual and staff flow line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurses in charge received additional radiation exposure from the patients with intravenous FDG injection when FDG-PET/CT with contrast media was performed. The exposure dose was measured about 1.5μSv per examination on average. There was not a large difference among those when the mean exposure dose of each nurse was compared. There was a tendency that the exposure dose was less, as work years of the nurses in charge of PET/CT with contrast were longer. Consideration of radioactivity distribution in the PET/CT examination room has a potential to reduce radiation exposure dose of the nurses in charge. (author)

  2. Designing and Embedding Reliable Virtual Infrastructures

    CERN Document Server

    Yeow, Wai-Leong; Kozat, Ulaş C

    2010-01-01

    In a virtualized infrastructure where physical resources are shared, a single physical server failure will terminate several virtual servers and crippling the virtual infrastructures which contained those virtual servers. In the worst case, more failures may cascade from overloading the remaining servers. To guarantee some level of reliability, each virtual infrastructure, at instantiation, should be augmented with backup virtual nodes and links that have sufficient capacities. This ensures that, when physical failures occur, sufficient computing resources are available and the virtual network topology is preserved. However, in doing so, the utilization of the physical infrastructure may be greatly reduced. This can be circumvented if backup resources are pooled and shared across multiple virtual infrastructures, and intelligently embedded in the physical infrastructure. These techniques can reduce the physical footprint of virtual backups while guaranteeing reliability.

  3. Public administration role in infrastructure development

    OpenAIRE

    Grigorescu, Adriana

    2006-01-01

    The infrastructure (transport) is essential for the economic development of a region. If we are taking into consideration the tourism industry and other tourist activities, the importance of the infrastructure is higher, due to the fact that the attractiveness is increased by the comfort and the easiness of reaching the targeted places. The public administration plays a huge role in developing projects for improving the infrastructure or for rehabilitating it. We are presenting different sit...

  4. IFC and infrastructure - investing in power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adequate infrastructure is essential to a country's growth. It provides a foundation which enables the economy to function. Until recently, most governments provided the physical infrastructure of industry: transport, communications, and power systems. Today, the trend is for governments to regulate monopolies while taking maximum advantage of private sector investment, decision-making and management. The private sector is increasingly being recognized as having the capacity to operate infrastructure projects more efficiently. (author)

  5. Supply and demand for telecommunication infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Veith, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    The interplay of infrastructure supply and demand is of central interest in line with Web 2.0. As the role of customers turns from a service users’ role to an information providers’ role, the traffic on existing lines increases and, simultaneously, customers’ demand for high-quality infrastructure. On the other hand, infrastructure providers carry investment risks but can hardly internalize the value provided for service providers. In consequence, politicians have to think about how to initia...

  6. Social Capital and Regional Social Infrastructure Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Roskruge; Arthur Grimes; Philip McCann; Jacques Poot

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we link unique data on local social infrastructure expenditure with microlevel individual survey data of self-reported social capital measures of trust and participation in community activities. We use both probit and tobit models to estimate the impact of social infrastructure expenditure on social capital formation. Our results imply that the links between social capital, demographic characteristics, human capital, geography, and public social infrastructure investment are ...

  7. Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    BOOK REVIEWS (269) The Science of Imaging - An Introduction Northern Lights Vacuum Bazookas, Electric Rainbow Jelly, and 27 other Saturday Science Projects Physics and Engineering in Medicine in the New Millennium CD-ROM REVIEWS (272) I fell in love with a STARBase trooper Aber - greatest hits... WEB WATCH (273) 'Here is the guess of their true strength and forces' Gary Williams EDITOR'S NOTE (275) Reviews of Christopher Bishop's Astrophysics (John Murray, 2000) PHYSICS TEASER (276) Why or How, Sophistry and Guestimation

  8. Computational infrastructure for nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Computational Infrastructure for Nuclear Astrophysics is a platform-independent suite of computer codes available online at nucastrodata.org that enables users to quickly quantify the potential astrophysical impact of a new laboratory nuclear physics result. Users can evaluate cross sections, process them into thermonuclear reaction rates, and parameterize (with a few percent accuracy) these rates that vary by up to 30 orders of magnitude over temperatures from 0.01 - 10 GK. Users can then properly format these rates for input into astrophysical computer simulations, create and manipulate libraries of rates, and enter and browse through comments on rates and libraries. Users can also run sample post-processing nucleosynthesis calculations, and visualize the calculation results with one- or two-dimensional plots. (author)

  9. Infrastructure package. Draft position statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Commission published on 17 November 2010 the communication entitled: 'COM(2010)0677 - Energy infrastructure priorities for 2020 and beyond - A Blueprint for an integrated European energy network'. It aims at ensuring that strategic energy networks and storage facilities are completed by 2020. To this end, the EC has identified 12 priority corridors and areas covering electricity, gas, oil and carbon dioxide transport networks. It proposes a regime of 'common interest' for projects contributing to implementing these priorities and having obtained this label. The UFE, the professional association for the electricity sector, has analyzed the EC communication and presents its remarks in this document. UFE's focusses its analysis on 5 key points: 1. Towards a European 'strategic planning' tool for future investment; 2. The correlation between networks and security of Supply (production capacities, energy mix); 3. Financing; 4. Acceptability of projects; 5. Accelerate authorisation procedures

  10. Emergent Risks In Critical Infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynes, Scott

    Firms cannot function successfully without managing a host of internal and external organizational and process interdependencies. Part of this involves business continuity planning, which directly aects how resilient arm and its business sector are in the face of disruptions. This paper presents the results of eld studies related to information risk management practices in the health care and retail sectors. The studies explore information risk management coordinating signals within and across rms in these sectors as well as the potential eects of cyber disruptions on the rms as stand-alone entities and as part of a critical infrastructure. The health care case study investigates the impact of the Zotob worm on the ability to deliver medical care and treatment. The retail study examines the resilience of certain elements of the food supply chain to cyber disruptions.

  11. Regulatory authority infrastructure for Namibia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Republic of Namibia is participating in the International Atomic Energy Agency's Model Project for the Improvement of National Regulatory Authority Infrastructures in Member States. The paper illustrates our experience in solving problems and difficulties confronted in establishing an effective regulatory authority operating within the existing national infrastructure that should be supported by the Government. An effective regulatory authority is seen as part of the wider administrative scope of our Government through ministerial mandates given by the State from time to time, guaranteeing its independence when implementing legal provisions under statutes. Sections of the report illustrate our experience in the following areas: 1. National radiation protection policy 2. Structure of our national regulatory authority 3. Laws and regulations 4. Provisions for notification, authorization and registration 5. In-depth security measures for radiation sources and radioactive material 6. Systems for the inspection of radiation sources, radioactive materials, enforcement of legal provisions 7. Extent of the applications of radiation sources and radioactive materials in the country. The paper provides information regarding existing Government policy on radiation protection; structure and legal aspects of the national regulatory, including statutes and regulations; the extent of application and uses of radiation sources and security of radioactive materials; human resources: strengths and constraints; management practices and financing of regulatory authority; and plans for emergency recovery of orphan sources. National plans for management of disused sources, recovery of orphan sources, abnormal emergencies, communication of information to affected persons on exposure effects, and the safety training of persons using these applications are discussed. the paper provides a summary and some suggestions of the way forward for Namibia. (author)

  12. Resilience of networked infrastructure systems analysis and measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Omer, Mayada

    2013-01-01

    This volume elaborates on both the qualitative and quantitative aspects of resilience. Reviewing the literature exploring the concept of resilience in engineering, it discusses resilience in terms of the various definitions used, the methodologies proposed to characterize resilience, and the metrics put forward to quantify the resilience of specific service infrastructure systems. The review also identifies the key factors that contribute to organizational resilience.The concept of resilience is compared to other system properties such as reliability, robustness, flexibility and agility, by ta

  13. IT Infrastructure Construction: Based on Competitive Advantage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J(U) Qing-jiang

    2006-01-01

    Information technology (IT) infrastructure is the foundation of information sharing, storage, and processing upon which the entire business depends and it changes not only inner organizational structures but also outer competitive conditions. An IT infrastructure that possesses elements unique to a particular organization and difficult to duplicate can produce competitive advantage. To achieve this advantage, not only the inner integration of technology,personnel and business process in a firm is needed, but also a platform for electronic commerce is required. The purpose of this study is to establish the whole concept framework for IT infrastructure, based on competitive advantage, and to propose ideas about the construction of IT infrastructure system.

  14. Spatial Data Web Services Pricing Model Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmus, L.; Erkek, B.; Colak, S.; Cankurt, I.; Bakıcı, S.

    2013-08-01

    The General Directorate of Land Registry and Cadastre (TKGM) which is the leader in the field of cartography largely continues its missions which are; to keep and update land registry and cadastre system of the country under the responsibility of the treasure, to perform transactions related to real estate and to establish Turkish national spatial information system. TKGM a public agency has completed many projects. Such as; Continuously Operating GPS Reference Stations (TUSAGA-Aktif), Geo-Metadata Portal (HBB), Orthophoto-Base Map Production and web services, Completion of Initial Cadastre, Cadastral Renovation Project (TKMP), Land Registry and Cadastre Information System (TAKBIS), Turkish National Spatial Data Infrastructure Project (TNSDI), Ottoman Land Registry Archive Information System (TARBIS). TKGM provides updated map and map information to not only public institutions but also to related society in the name of social responsibility principals. Turkish National Spatial Data Infrastructure activities have been started by the motivation of Circular No. 2003/48 which was declared by Turkish Prime Ministry in 2003 within the context of e-Transformation of Turkey Short-term Action Plan. Action No. 47 in the mentioned action plan implies that "A Feasibility Study shall be made in order to establish the Turkish National Spatial Data Infrastructure" whose responsibility has been given to General Directorate of Land Registry and Cadastre. Feasibility report of NSDI has been completed in 10th of December 2010. After decision of Steering Committee, feasibility report has been send to Development Bank (old name State Planning Organization) for further evaluation. There are two main arrangements with related this project (feasibility report).First; Now there is only one Ministry which is Ministry of Environment and Urbanism responsible for establishment, operating and all national level activities of NSDI. And Second arrangement is related to institutional Level. The

  15. Opportunities, support and constraints in connection with infrastructures for safe nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety of nuclear power generation involves the activities of various parties, which can be divided into three groups belonging to certain 'infrastructures', i.e. the general infrastructure, the nuclear infrastructure and the operation infrastructure. The group belonging to the general infrastructure is interested not only in the safety of nuclear power generation but also in economy, security and other values of society. In recent years, the requirements of this group regarding the safety and quality of nuclear power have become more stringent. Therefore, operators of nuclear power plants (NPPs) are required to strengthen their questioning attitude regarding progress and transparency of their work. The nuclear infrastructure includes parties which are institutionally connected with nuclear power generation, provide technological resources and have an influence on the constraints to the operation of NPPs. They are expected to act as mediators between the group belonging to the general infrastructure and the operators, using their technological and institutional knowledge as a catalyst. The operators of NPPs should seek co-operation with this group to organize and manage their technological and human resources. The group of people belonging to the operation infrastructure is responsible for maintaining the safety and economy of nuclear power. Plant operators should direct and control activities in accordance with their responsibility for enhancing and maintaining the safety and competitiveness of the plants, continuously strengthening the safety culture of workers in all activities, with peer evaluation, information exchange, periodic reviews, etc

  16. The EPOS e-Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Keith; Bailo, Daniele

    2014-05-01

    The European Plate Observing System (EPOS) is integrating geoscientific information concerning earth movements in Europe. We are approaching the end of the PP (Preparatory Project) phase and in October 2014 expect to continue with the full project within ESFRI (European Strategic Framework for Research Infrastructures). The key aspects of EPOS concern providing services to allow homogeneous access by end-users over heterogeneous data, software, facilities, equipment and services. The e-infrastructure of EPOS is the heart of the project since it integrates the work on organisational, legal, economic and scientific aspects. Following the creation of an inventory of relevant organisations, persons, facilities, equipment, services, datasets and software (RIDE) the scale of integration required became apparent. The EPOS e-infrastructure architecture has been developed systematically based on recorded primary (user) requirements and secondary (interoperation with other systems) requirements through Strawman, Woodman and Ironman phases with the specification - and developed confirmatory prototypes - becoming more precise and progressively moving from paper to implemented system. The EPOS architecture is based on global core services (Integrated Core Services - ICS) which access thematic nodes (domain-specific European-wide collections, called thematic Core Services - TCS), national nodes and specific institutional nodes. The key aspect is the metadata catalog. In one dimension this is described in 3 levels: (1) discovery metadata using well-known and commonly used standards such as DC (Dublin Core) to enable users (via an intelligent user interface) to search for objects within the EPOS environment relevant to their needs; (2) contextual metadata providing the context of the object described in the catalog to enable a user or the system to determine the relevance of the discovered object(s) to their requirement - the context includes projects, funding, organisations

  17. Long-Term Economic Impacts of USDAWater and Sewer Infrastructure Investments in Oklahoma

    OpenAIRE

    Janeski, Ivica; Whitacre, Brian E.

    2014-01-01

    One of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Rural Development’s most popular programs is the funding for public water and sewer infrastructure projects in rural communities. This article reviews the water and sewer infrastructure projects funded in the state of Oklahoma between 1990 and 2000 and evaluates their impact on different measures of economic growth over both the short (one to 10 years) and long (10 to 20 years) term. Evaluation techniques include multivariate regression and average ...

  18. Developing a living city process : an architect's approach to enabling interdisciplinary practice in infrastructure development

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, Rosemarie

    2010-01-01

    peer-reviewed This research project develops a methodology for creating multifunctional infrastructure projects. It focuses on enabling an interdisciplinary approach to the establishment of a brief for the redesign of a road, the orbital route, in Galway City, Ireland. The research begins with the premise that infrastructure projects are unavoidably multifunctional in nature, having both social and utilitarian aspects. The project defines a method of conceiving of these projects using mapp...

  19. EEW Implementation into Critical Infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulfikar, Can; Pinar, Ali

    2016-04-01

    In FP7 MARsite project WP9, the integration algorithm of existing strong motion networks with the critical infrastructures strong motion networks have been studied. In Istanbul, the existing Istanbul Earthquake Early Warning (IEEW) strong motion network consists of 15 stations including 10 on land and 5 ocean bottom stations. The system provides continuous online data and earthquake early warning alert depending on the exceedance of the threshold levels in ground motion acceleration in certain number of station within the certain time interval. The data transmission is provided through the fiber optic cable and satellite line alternatively. The early warning alert is transmitted to the critical infrastructures of Istanbul Natural Gas distribution line and Marmaray Tube Tunnel line in order to activate the local strong motion networks for the automatic shut-off mechanism. Istanbul Natural Gas distribution line has 1.800km steel and 15.200km polyethylene in total 18.000km gas pipeline in Istanbul. There are in total 750 district regulators in the city where the gas pressure is reduced from 20bar to 4bar and from there the gas is transmitted with polyethylene lines to service boxes. Currently, Istanbul Natural Gas Distribution Company (IGDAS) has its own strong motion network with 110 strong motion stations installed at the 110 of 750 district regulators. Once the IGDAS strong motion network is activated by the IEEW network, depending on the exceedance of the ground motion parameters threshold levels the gas flow is stopped at the district regulators. Other than the Earthquake Early Warning operation in IGDAS strong motion network, having the calculated ground motion parameters in the network provides damage maps for the buildings and natural gas pipeline network. The Marmaray Tube Tunnel connects the Europe and Asian sides of Istanbul City by a rail line. The tunnel is 1.4km length and consists of 13segments. There is strong motion monitoring network in the tunnel

  20. Meeting Hanford's Infrastructure Requirements - 12505

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanford, by all accounts, is an enormous and complex project, with thousands of disparate, but co-mingled activities in motion on any given day. The primary target of the mission at Hanford is cleanup of the 586 square-mile site, but there is the equally vital mission of site services and infrastructure. Without functions like the well-maintained site roads, electricity, water, and emergency management services, not a single cleanup project could be undertaken. As the cleanup projects evolve - with new work-scope emerging, while existing projects are completed - there becomes a very real need to keep projects integrated and working to the same 'blueprint'. And the Hanford blueprint extends for years and includes myriad variables that come with meeting the challenges and complexities associated with Hanford cleanup. Because of an innovative and unique contracting strategy, the Department of Energy (DOE) found a way to keep the cleanup projects un-encumbered from the side task of having to self-provide their individual essential site services, thus allowing the cleanup contractors to concentrate their efforts on their primary mission of cleaning up the site. These infrastructure and support services also need to be provided efficiently and cost effectively - done primarily through 'right-sizing' efforts. The real innovation came when DOE had the foresight to include a second provision in this contract which specifically asked for a specialized role of site integrator and innovator, with a special emphasis placed on providing substantial cost savings for the government. The need for a true site integrator function was necessitated by the ever-increasing complexity of projects at Hanford and the progression of cleanup at others. At present, there are two main DOE offices overseeing the cleanup work and six primary contractors performing that work. Each of these contractors works to separate schedules and cleanup milestones, and the nature of the cleanup differs, but

  1. Unlocking Land Values to Finance Urban Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, George E.

    2008-01-01

    Urban growth throughout the developing world has created a challenge for financing infrastructure. Investment in infrastructure is needed to provide basic services for newly developed parts of urban areas. It is needed to meet the demand for a safer and more reliable water supply, higher standards for the removal and treatment of wastewater and solid waste, and the transportation requireme...

  2. Composite indicator for railway infrastructure management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen M. Famurewa; Christer Stenstro¨ m; Matthias Asplund; Diego Galar; Uday Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The assessment and analysis of railway infra-structure capacity is an essential task in railway infra-structure management carried out to meet the required quality and capacity demand of railway transport. For sustainable and dependable infrastructure management, it is important to assess railway capacity limitation from the point of view of infrastructure performance. However, the existence of numerous performance indicators often leads to diffused information that is not in a format suitable to support decision making. In this paper, we demonstrated the use of fuzzy inference system for aggregating selected railway infrastructure performance indicators to relate maintenance function to capacity situation. The selected indicators consider the safety, comfort, punctuality and reliability aspects of railway infrastructure performance. The resulting composite indicator gives a reliable quanti-fication of the health condition or integrity of railway lines. A case study of the assessment of overall infrastructure performance which is an indication of capacity limitation is presented using indicator data between 2010 and 2012 for five lines on the network of Trafikverket (Swedish Trans-port Administration). The results are presented using cus-tomised performance dashboard for enhanced visualisation, quick understanding and relevant comparison of infra-structure conditions for strategic management. This gives additional information on capacity status and limitation from maintenance management perspective.

  3. After the year 2000: Critical infrastructure protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presentation defines the critical infrastructure which includes: telecommunication, banking, transportation, electric energy, oil and gas supply, water supply, emergency services and government operations. The problem of protecting the critical infrastructure is is exposed in detail concerning physical protection and protection of information systems against cyberthreats

  4. Extensible threat taxonomy for critical infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.; Nieuwenhuijs, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    The European Union-sponsored project Vital Infrastructure Threats and Assurance (VITA) has the objective of exploring and showing new paths in Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) R&D. This paper describes one of VITA’s results: the idea and the development of a novel extensible and generic thre

  5. Policy and planning for large infrastructure projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on problems and their causes and cures in policy and planning for large infrastructure projects. First, it identifies as the main problem in major infrastructure development pervasive misinformation about the costs, benefits, and risks involved. A consequence of misinformation ...... for large infrastructure projects, with a focus on better planning methods and changed governance structures, the latter being more important.......This paper focuses on problems and their causes and cures in policy and planning for large infrastructure projects. First, it identifies as the main problem in major infrastructure development pervasive misinformation about the costs, benefits, and risks involved. A consequence of misinformation is...... likelihood that it is their projects, and not the competition's, that gain approval and funding. This results in the "survival of the unfittest," where often it is not the best projects that are built, but the most misrepresented ones. Finally, the paper presents measures for reforming policy and planning...

  6. Site Support Program Plan Infrastructure Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-26

    The Fiscal Year 1996 Infrastructure Program Site Support Program Plan addresses the mission objectives, workscope, work breakdown structures (WBS), management approach, and resource requirements for the Infrastructure Program. Attached to the plan are appendices that provide more detailed information associated with scope definition. The Hanford Site`s infrastructure has served the Site for nearly 50 years during defense materials production. Now with the challenges of the new environmental cleanup mission, Hanford`s infrastructure must meet current and future mission needs in a constrained budget environment, while complying with more stringent environmental, safety, and health regulations. The infrastructure requires upgrading, streamlining, and enhancement in order to successfully support the site mission of cleaning up the Site, research and development, and economic transition.

  7. Infrastructural urbanism that learns from place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carruth, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The development of renewable energy infrastructures in response to climatic change, calls of ‘peak oil’, environmental degradation, and geopolitical instabilities is a global challenge, and innumerable organisations and disciplines are working towards a transition to zero-carbon energy systems...... relationships, proposing that landscape itself is infrastructural with the capacity to simultaneously host and connect ecological, economical, and environmental processes. Concurrently, cultural anthropology has critically revised understandings of infrastructure to encompass semantic and sociocultural....... Conventionally, energy ‘infrastructure’ denotes a physical system of pipes, cables, generators, plants, transformers, sockets, and pylons, however recent architectural research emerging within the loosely defined movement of Infrastructural Urbanism has reframed infrastructure as a symbiotic system of flows and...

  8. Site Support Program Plan Infrastructure Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fiscal Year 1996 Infrastructure Program Site Support Program Plan addresses the mission objectives, workscope, work breakdown structures (WBS), management approach, and resource requirements for the Infrastructure Program. Attached to the plan are appendices that provide more detailed information associated with scope definition. The Hanford Site's infrastructure has served the Site for nearly 50 years during defense materials production. Now with the challenges of the new environmental cleanup mission, Hanford's infrastructure must meet current and future mission needs in a constrained budget environment, while complying with more stringent environmental, safety, and health regulations. The infrastructure requires upgrading, streamlining, and enhancement in order to successfully support the site mission of cleaning up the Site, research and development, and economic transition

  9. Infrastructure for distributed enterprise simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M.M.; Yoshimura, A.S.; Goldsby, M.E. [and others

    1998-01-01

    Traditional discrete-event simulations employ an inherently sequential algorithm and are run on a single computer. However, the demands of many real-world problems exceed the capabilities of sequential simulation systems. Often the capacity of a computer`s primary memory limits the size of the models that can be handled, and in some cases parallel execution on multiple processors could significantly reduce the simulation time. This paper describes the development of an Infrastructure for Distributed Enterprise Simulation (IDES) - a large-scale portable parallel simulation framework developed to support Sandia National Laboratories` mission in stockpile stewardship. IDES is based on the Breathing-Time-Buckets synchronization protocol, and maps a message-based model of distributed computing onto an object-oriented programming model. IDES is portable across heterogeneous computing architectures, including single-processor systems, networks of workstations and multi-processor computers with shared or distributed memory. The system provides a simple and sufficient application programming interface that can be used by scientists to quickly model large-scale, complex enterprise systems. In the background and without involving the user, IDES is capable of making dynamic use of idle processing power available throughout the enterprise network. 16 refs., 14 figs.

  10. The EGEE user support infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Antoni, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    Grid user support is a challenging task due to the distributed nature of the Grid. The variety of users and Virtual Organisations adds further to the challenge. Support requests come from Grid beginners, from users with specific applications, from site administrators, or from Grid monitoring operators. With the GGUS infrastructure, EGEE provides a portal where users can find support in their daily use of the Grid. The current use of the system shows that the goal has been achieved with success. The Grid user support model in EGEE can be captioned "regional support with central coordination". This model is realised through a support process which is clearly defined and involves all the parties that are needed to run a project-wide support service. This process is sustained by a help desk system which consists of a central platform integrated with several satellite systems belonging to the Regional Operations Centres (ROCs) and the Virtual Organisations (VOs). The central system (Global Grid User Support, GGUS)...

  11. Radiation Protection Infrastructure In Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation sources are widely used in medicine, industry, research and education in Madagascar. Safety and security of these sources are the main statutory functions of the Regulatory Authority as defined by the regulations in Radiation Protection in Madagascar. These functions are carried out through the system of notification, authorization and inspection, inventory of radiation source and emergency preparedness. The law no 97-041 on radiation protection and radioactive waste management in Madagascar was promulgated on 2nd January 1998. It governs all activities related to the peaceful use of nuclear energy in Madagascar in order to protect the public, the environment and for the safety of radiation sources. This law complies with the International Basic Safety Standards for protection against ionising Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS, IAEA Safety Series no 115). Following the promulgation of the law, four decrees have been enacted by the Malagasy Government. With an effective implementation of these decrees, the ANPSR will be the Highest Administrative Authority in the Field of Radiation Protection and Waste Management in Madagascar. This Regulatory Authority is supported by an Executive Secretariat, assisted by the OTR for Radiation Protection and the OCGDR for Managing Radioactive Waste.The paper includes an overview of the regulatory infrastructure and the organizations of radiation protection in Madagascar

  12. Scaling Agile Infrastructure to People

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, B; Traylen, S; Arias, N Barrientos

    2015-01-01

    When CERN migrated its infrastructure away from homegrown fabric management tools to emerging industry-standard open-source solutions, the immediate technical challenges and motivation were clear. The move to a multi-site Cloud Computing model meant that the tool chains that were growing around this ecosystem would be a good choice, the challenge was to leverage them. The use of open-source tools brings challenges other than merely how to deploy them. Homegrown software, for all the deficiencies identified at the outset of the project, has the benefit of growing with the organization. This paper will examine what challenges there were in adapting open-source tools to the needs of the organization, particularly in the areas of multi-group development and security. Additionally, the increase in scale of the plant required changes to how Change Management was organized and managed. Continuous Integration techniques are used in order to manage the rate of change across multiple groups, and the tools and workflow ...

  13. Scaling Agile Infrastructure to People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B.; McCance, G.; Traylen, S.; Barrientos Arias, N.

    2015-12-01

    When CERN migrated its infrastructure away from homegrown fabric management tools to emerging industry-standard open-source solutions, the immediate technical challenges and motivation were clear. The move to a multi-site Cloud Computing model meant that the tool chains that were growing around this ecosystem would be a good choice, the challenge was to leverage them. The use of open-source tools brings challenges other than merely how to deploy them. Homegrown software, for all the deficiencies identified at the outset of the project, has the benefit of growing with the organization. This paper will examine what challenges there were in adapting open-source tools to the needs of the organization, particularly in the areas of multi-group development and security. Additionally, the increase in scale of the plant required changes to how Change Management was organized and managed. Continuous Integration techniques are used in order to manage the rate of change across multiple groups, and the tools and workflow for this will be examined.

  14. Polymer Nanocomposites for Infrastructure Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, M. R.; Goertzen, W. K.

    Polymer matrix composites (PMCs) are becoming increasingly important in the structural repair and rehabilitation of damaged infrastructure - from pipelines to buildings to bridges. For example, composite overwraps are used to repair corroded steel pipelines because the repair can be completed in a relatively short amount of time and the fluid transmission in the piping system can remain undisrupted while the repair is being made. Often in these applications, a primer and filler adhesive is used to fill defects in the substrate so that load can be adequately transferred to the continuous fiber composite. In this work we discuss various nano-scale reinforcements such as fumed silica, alumina, nanoclay, and carbon nanotubes as additives to this filler adhesive in order to improve mechanical properties and to tailor the thermal expansion of the composite to match the underlying substrate being repaired. The thermal expansion mismatch is especially important in applications where temperature fluctuations are present. We highlight our results from rheology, thermal expansion, and dynamic mechanical analysis testing of nanosilica/cyanate ester composites and show that the incorporation of the nano-scale fillers can result in improvement of the thermo-mechanical behavior of the composites.

  15. Fluxnet Synthesis Dataset Collaboration Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Deborah A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Humphrey, Marty [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); van Ingen, Catharine [Microsoft. San Francisco, CA (United States); Beekwilder, Norm [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Goode, Monte [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jackson, Keith [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rodriguez, Matt [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Weber, Robin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-02-06

    The Fluxnet synthesis dataset originally compiled for the La Thuile workshop contained approximately 600 site years. Since the workshop, several additional site years have been added and the dataset now contains over 920 site years from over 240 sites. A data refresh update is expected to increase those numbers in the next few months. The ancillary data describing the sites continues to evolve as well. There are on the order of 120 site contacts and 60proposals have been approved to use thedata. These proposals involve around 120 researchers. The size and complexity of the dataset and collaboration has led to a new approach to providing access to the data and collaboration support and the support team attended the workshop and worked closely with the attendees and the Fluxnet project office to define the requirements for the support infrastructure. As a result of this effort, a new website (http://www.fluxdata.org) has been created to provide access to the Fluxnet synthesis dataset. This new web site is based on a scientific data server which enables browsing of the data on-line, data download, and version tracking. We leverage database and data analysis tools such as OLAP data cubes and web reports to enable browser and Excel pivot table access to the data.

  16. IAEA Catalogue of Services for Nuclear Infrastructure Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This IAEA Catalogue offers a wide range of services to Member States embarking on a new nuclear power programme or expanding an existing one. A new IAEA Catalogue of Services for Nuclear Infrastructure Development helps Member States to identify and request IAEA assistance for national organizations at different stages of the development or expansion of a nuclear power programme. This IAEA Catalogue of Services is presented in two tables. It is based on the IAEA Milestones Approach for nuclear power infrastructure development, documented in 'Milestones in the Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power' (IAEA Nuclear Energy Series NG-G-3.1). The two tables allow users to identify and select available IAEA services by: i) The three phases of the IAEA Milestones Approach, or ii) Organizations typically involved in the development of a nuclear power programme: the government / Nuclear Energy Programme Implementing Organization (NEPIO), the regulatory body and the owner operator of a nuclear power plant. This Catalogue includes information on the following IAEA services: i) Workshops / Training Courses; ii) Expert Missions / Advisory Services; iii) Review Missions / Peer Reviews; iv) Training tools and networks. The Catalogue lists both existing IAEA services and those being developed for the 19 issues to be addressed in developing a national nuclear infrastructure. Each existing service is linked to a relevant IAEA webpage that either describes a particular service or gives practical examples of the type of assistance that the Agency offers (e.g. workshops or missions). The owners of these webpages can be contacted for more detailed information or to request assistance. This IAEA Catalogue of Services will be updated regularly.

  17. Neutral and Charged Anyon Fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Hosotani, Yutaka

    1993-01-01

    (Review) Properties of neutral and charged anyon fluids are examined, with the main focus on the question whether or not a charged anyon fluid exhibits a superconductivity at zero and finite temperature. Quantum mechanics of anyon fluids is precisely described by Chern-Simons gauge theory. The random phase approximation (RPA), the linearized self-consistent field method (SCF), and the hydrodynamic approach employed in the early analysis of anyon fluids are all equivalent. Relations and differ...

  18. Charged-lepton flavour physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Andreas Hoecker

    2012-11-01

    This write-up on a talk at the 2011 Lepton–Photon symposium in Mumbai, India, summarizes recent results in the charged-lepton flavour sector. Searches for charged-lepton flavour violation, lepton electric dipole moments and flavour-conserving CP violation are reviewed here. Recent progress in -lepton physics and in the Standard Model prediction of the muon anomalous magnetic moment is also discussed.

  19. Review of Langmuir-wave-caused dips and charge-exchange-caused dips in spectral lines from plasmas and their applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dalimier, E.; Oks, E.; Renner, Oldřich

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2014), s. 178-194. ISSN 2218-2004 Grant ostatní: AVČR(CZ) M100101208 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Laser-matter interaction * spectral line profiles * Langmuir waves * plasma electron density * charge exchange rates Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  20. NIMBY headlock on infrastructure development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipelines are a critical component in accessing Canada's abundant natural gas resources. As one of the world's leading petroleum producers, Canada plays an increasingly important role in meeting global energy demand. Open markets and enforceable trade rules have made Canada internationally competitive, and have attracted significant capital from investors. However, Canada does not have enough pipeline capacity to move the energy resources to market. Transmission constraints must be addressed in a timely manner in order to continue to meet energy needs. This presentation identified the benefits of achieving Canada's true energy potential as well as the costs that Canadians will pay if the true energy potential is not reached. The members of the Canadian Energy Pipeline Association (CEPA) operate $20 billion worth of pipeline infrastructure to move more than 95 per cent of Canada's natural gas and oil to markets across North America. The value of the combined assets is expected to double to $40 billion in the next 15 years as CEPA continues to build a pipeline network that is reliable, cost-effective, safe and secure. CEPA claims that Canada's true energy potential can be accomplished by improved efficiency of regulatory processes that protect the public interest but which also provide project proponents with certainty that decisions will be made in a timely manner; ensuring competitive financial regimes; and, building capacity in communities that are not familiar with energy development and which have questions about local impacts and benefits. In order for CEPA members to expand their pipeline systems, they must attract investment capital and compete against energy projects from around the world. In order to create the favourable circumstances that are needed to attract the required level of investment, roadblocks that stand in the way of efficient and timely energy resource development must be removed. The demand for labour and materials must also be satisfied and

  1. Emergency Navigation without an Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Gelenbe

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Emergency navigation systems for buildings and other built environments, such as sport arenas or shopping centres, typically rely on simple sensor networks to detect emergencies and, then, provide automatic signs to direct the evacuees. The major drawbacks of such static wireless sensor network (WSN-based emergency navigation systems are the very limited computing capacity, which makes adaptivity very difficult, and the restricted battery power, due to the low cost of sensor nodes for unattended operation. If static wireless sensor networks and cloud-computing can be integrated, then intensive computations that are needed to determine optimal evacuation routes in the presence of time-varying hazards can be offloaded to the cloud, but the disadvantages of limited battery life-time at the client side, as well as the high likelihood of system malfunction during an emergency still remain. By making use of the powerful sensing ability of smart phones, which are increasingly ubiquitous, this paper presents a cloud-enabled indoor emergency navigation framework to direct evacuees in a coordinated fashion and to improve the reliability and resilience for both communication and localization. By combining social potential fields (SPF and a cognitive packet network (CPN-based algorithm, evacuees are guided to exits in dynamic loose clusters. Rather than relying on a conventional telecommunications infrastructure, we suggest an ad hoc cognitive packet network (AHCPN-based protocol to adaptively search optimal communication routes between portable devices and the network egress nodes that provide access to cloud servers, in a manner that spares the remaining battery power of smart phones and minimizes the time latency. Experimental results through detailed simulations indicate that smart human motion and smart network management can increase the survival rate of evacuees and reduce the number of drained smart phones in an evacuation process.

  2. Restructuring Schooling: The Equity Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    Argues that the school restructuring movement offers considerable promise for enhancing educational equity. Reviews equity definitions, outlines restructuring principles, and describes three powerful ethics (competitive/utilitarian, social justice, and caring) underlying current attempts to highlight equity values in education. Presents a strategy…

  3. An Overview on Infrastructure of Digital Prescription and a Proposed Strategic Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Keshavarz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common and important therapeutic tools used by physicians is prescription. The use of digital systems in the health field has many benefits and significant impacts on the health system. One of these systems is digital prescription. In this article, First, we will review the existing infrastructure and work done in this area, and then with a new perspective on health issues, we will provide a new infrastructure. Instead of introduction and use of a product or a system or statistical work , we aim to reviewe fundamental issues in the field of health system and present a strategic plan in the field of medicine from the perspective of experts of medical informatics and IT specialists. In fact, we will present a strategic plan and will provide infrastructure in the health field The infrastructure needed to create a digital system will be provided in order to increase productivity in various aspects of the health system; also, the interactions between different parts of this infrastructure will be discussed. The advantages of this project will be reviewed from the perspective of various elements involved in the health system; these include patients, doctors, health system managers, pharmacies, pharmaceutical distribution companies, insurance office and other organizations, such as the environmental organizations, tax office, etc. and benefits of each one will be reviewed

  4. Transforming the U.S. Energy Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Demick

    2010-07-01

    The U.S. energy infrastructure is among the most reliable, accessible and economic in the world. On the other hand, the U.S. energy infrastructure is excessively reliant on foreign sources of energy, experiences high volatility in energy prices, does not practice good stewardship of finite indigenous energy resources and emits significant quantities of greenhouse gases (GHG). This report presents a Technology Based Strategy to achieve a full transformation of the U.S. energy infrastructure that corrects these negative factors while retaining the positives.

  5. Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adoption & Fostering, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Reviews 17 publications covering a variety of topics including abused disabled children; child placement; helping attachment disordered children; open adoption; family empowerment; teenage fostering; the Children Act of 1989 (Great Britain); family law; social services and child care law; and challenging racism in the early years. (TJQ)

  6. Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-01

    BOOK REVIEWS (353) Dr Dyer's Academy Further Advanced Physics Physics 11-14, with Biology 11-14 and Chemistry 11-14 Nelson Modular Science: Books 1 and 2 Key Science: Physics, 3rd Edition Nelson Science: Physics, 2nd Edition Physics for AQA: Separate Award, Coordinated Award Physical Processes: A Visual Approach WEB WATCH (359) Physics Favourites: John Miller's selection

  7. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prud’homme van Reine, W.F.

    1998-01-01

    The two published parts of the Desmid Flora of Austria are well-illustrated review volumes on a group of precious freshwater microalgae. Volume 1 contains a pretty, visual key to the genera, completed by figures of one or more characteristic species. In all keys of the separate genera many visual ai

  8. Assessing the vulnerability of infrastructure to climate change on the Islands of Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhruddin, S. H. M.; Babel, M. S.; Kawasaki, A.

    2015-06-01

    Pacific Islanders have been exposed to risks associated with climate change. Samoa, as one of the Pacific Islands, is prone to climatic hazards that will likely increase in the coming decades, affecting coastal communities and infrastructure around the islands. Climate models do not predict a reduction of such disaster events in the future in Samoa; indeed, most predict an increase. This paper identifies key infrastructure and their functions and status in order to provide an overall picture of relative vulnerability to climate-related stresses of such infrastructure on the island. By reviewing existing reports as well as holding a series of consultation meetings, a list of critical infrastructure was developed and shared with stakeholders for their consideration. An indicator-based vulnerability model (SIVM) was developed in collaboration with stakeholders to assess the vulnerability of selected infrastructure systems on the Samoan Islands. Damage costs were extracted from the Cyclone Evan recovery needs document. Additionally, data on criticality and capacity to repair damage were collected from stakeholders. Having stakeholder perspectives on these two issues was important because (a) criticality of a given infrastructure could be viewed differently among different stakeholders, and (b) stakeholders were the best available source (in this study) to estimate the capacity to repair non-physical damage to such infrastructure. Analysis of the results suggested a ranking of sectors from the most vulnerable to least vulnerable are: the transportation sector, the power sector, the water supply sector and the sewerage system.

  9. Evaluation of the Contribution of Construction Professionals in Budgeting for Infrastructure Development in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akintayo Opawole

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Researchers are of the opinion that the low implementation of public financed infrastructure projects in Nigeria could be correlated to the level of involvement of construction professionals in the budgeting process at macro-level. Though this assertion presently lacks empirical justification, the objective of this study seeks to quantitatively establish this linkage. In order to achieve this, sixteen (16 core budgeting and procurement processes were identified in literature. Furthermore, respondents involved in the study were architects, quantity surveyors, builders, town planners, estate surveyors, engineers (civil, mechanical and electrical, accountants and economists in the public service of Osun State. The fact that infrastructure financing depends majorly on budgetary financing in Osun State provided the justification for choice of the State for the study. Data analysis was through percentage and mean. The study indicates adequate contribution in activities involving post-budgetary process and only progressive trend in pre-budgetary process especially technical and cost evaluation of infrastructure projects and review and approval of budgets for infrastructure projects. Moreover, budgeting process for infrastructure development in Nigeria indicated that majority of projects budgeted for execution lack adequate technical evaluation and cost assessment as a result of inadequate professional involvement. This could be adduced a significant problem of implementation of public financed infrastructure projects in Nigeria. The study provides information on key areas where public policy makers can appropriate construction professionals’ inputs to prepare realistic budget for infrastructure development in developing economy.

  10. Assessing the vulnerability of infrastructure to climate change on the Islands of Samoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. M. Fakhruddin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pacific Islanders have been exposed to risks associated with climate change. Samoa as one of the Pacific Islands are prone to climatic hazards that will likely increase in coming decades, affecting coastal communities and infrastructure around the islands. Climate models do not predict a reduction of such disaster events in the future in Samoa; indeed, most predict an increase in such events. This paper identifies key infrastructure and their functions and status in order to provide an overall picture of relative vulnerability to climate-related stresses of such infrastructure on the island. By reviewing existing reports as well as holding a series of consultation meetings, a list of critical infrastructures were developed and shared with stakeholders for their consideration. An indicator-based vulnerability model (SIVM was developed in collaboration with stakeholders to assess the vulnerability of selected infrastructure systems on the Samoan Islands. Damage costs were extracted from the Evan cyclone recovery needs document. On the other hand, criticality and capacity to repair data were collected from stakeholders. Having stakeholder perspectives on these two issues was important because (a criticality of a given infrastructure could be viewed differently among different stakeholders, and (b stakeholders were the best available source (in this study to estimate the capacity to repair non-physical damage to such infrastructure. Analysis of the results suggested rankings from most vulnerable to least vulnerable sectors are the transportation sector, the power sector, the water supply sector and the sewerage system.

  11. 77 FR 32656 - Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... (CIPAC) by notice published in the Federal Register Notice (71 FR 14930-14933) dated March 24, 2006. That..., incident response, recovery, infrastructure resilience, reconstituting critical infrastructure assets and... mitigation, and infrastructure continuity information. Organizational Structure: CIPAC members are...

  12. The MEUST deep sea infrastructure in the Toulon site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamare Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The MEUST infrastructure (Mediterranean Eurocentre for Underwater Sciences and Technologies is a permanent deep sea cabled infrastructure currently being deployed off shore of Toulon, France. The design and the status of the infrastructure are presented.

  13. Commissioning the CERN IT Agile Infrastructure with experiment workloads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to ease the management of their infrastructure, most of the WLCG sites are adopting cloud based strategies. In the case of CERN, the Tier 0 of the WLCG, is completely restructuring the resource and configuration management of their computing center under the codename Agile Infrastructure. Its goal is to manage 15,000 Virtual Machines by means of an OpenStack middleware in order to unify all the resources in CERN's two datacenters: the one placed in Meyrin and the new on in Wigner, Hungary. During the commissioning of this infrastructure, CERN IT is offering an attractive amount of computing resources to the experiments (800 cores for ATLAS and CMS) through a private cloud interface. ATLAS and CMS have joined forces to exploit them by running stress tests and simulation workloads since November 2012. This work will describe the experience of the first deployments of the current experiment workloads on the CERN private cloud testbed. The paper is organized as follows: the first section will explain the integration of the experiment workload management systems (WMS) with the cloud resources. The second section will revisit the performance and stress testing performed with HammerCloud in order to evaluate and compare the suitability for the experiment workloads. The third section will go deeper into the dynamic provisioning techniques, such as the use of the cloud APIs directly by the WMS. The paper finishes with a review of the conclusions and the challenges ahead.

  14. Evolution of the Virtualized HPC Infrastructure of Novosibirsk Scientific Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adakin, A.; Anisenkov, A.; Belov, S.; Chubarov, D.; Kalyuzhny, V.; Kaplin, V.; Korol, A.; Kuchin, N.; Lomakin, S.; Nikultsev, V.; Skovpen, K.; Sukharev, A.; Zaytsev, A.

    2012-12-01

    Novosibirsk Scientific Center (NSC), also known worldwide as Akademgorodok, is one of the largest Russian scientific centers hosting Novosibirsk State University (NSU) and more than 35 research organizations of the Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences including Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP), Institute of Computational Technologies, and Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics (ICM&MG). Since each institute has specific requirements on the architecture of computing farms involved in its research field, currently we've got several computing facilities hosted by NSC institutes, each optimized for a particular set of tasks, of which the largest are the NSU Supercomputer Center, Siberian Supercomputer Center (ICM&MG), and a Grid Computing Facility of BINP. A dedicated optical network with the initial bandwidth of 10 Gb/s connecting these three facilities was built in order to make it possible to share the computing resources among the research communities, thus increasing the efficiency of operating the existing computing facilities and offering a common platform for building the computing infrastructure for future scientific projects. Unification of the computing infrastructure is achieved by extensive use of virtualization technology based on XEN and KVM platforms. This contribution gives a thorough review of the present status and future development prospects for the NSC virtualized computing infrastructure and the experience gained while using it for running production data analysis jobs related to HEP experiments being carried out at BINP, especially the KEDR detector experiment at the VEPP-4M electron-positron collider.

  15. Assessment of the biodiesel distribution infrastructure in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's biodiesel industry is in its infancy, and must work to achieve the demand needed to ensure its development. This assessment of Canada's biodiesel distribution infrastructure was conducted to recommend the most efficient infrastructure pathway for effective biodiesel distribution. The study focused on the establishment of a link between biodiesel supplies and end-users. The current Canadian biodiesel industry was discussed, and future market potentials were outlined. The Canadian distillate product distribution infrastructure was discussed. Technical considerations and compliance issues were reviewed. The following 2 scenarios were used to estimate adaptations and costs for the Canadian market: (1) the use of primary terminals to ensure quality control of biodiesel, and (2) storage in secondary terminals where biodiesel blends are prepared before being transported to retail outlets. The study showed that relevant laboratory training programs are needed as well as proficiency testing programs in order to ensure adequate quality control of biodiesel. Standards for biodiesel distribution are needed, as well as specifications for the heating oil market. It was concluded that this document may prove useful in developing government policy objectives and identifying further research needs. 21 refs., 12 tabs., 13 figs

  16. Electric Vehicles: Charging into the Future

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf-Peter Schill

    2010-01-01

    Electric vehicle drives offer a number of advantages over conventional internal combustion engines, especially in terms of lower local emissions, higher energy efficiency, and decreased dependency upon oil. Yet there are significant barriers to the rapid adoption of electric cars, including the limitations of battery technology, high purchase costs, and the lack of recharging infrastructure. With intelligently controlled charging operations, the energy needs of potential electric vehicle flee...

  17. Regional study on investment for transmission infrastructure in China based on the State Grid data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wendong; Wu, Xudong; Wu, Xiaofang; Xi, Qiangmin; Ji, Xi; Li, Guoping

    2016-06-01

    Transmission infrastructure is an integral component of safeguarding the stability of electricity delivery. However, existing studies of transmission infrastructure mostly rely on a simple review of the network, while the analysis of investments remains rudimentary. This study conducted the first regionally focused analysis of investments in transmission infrastructure in China to help optimize its structure and reduce investment costs. Using State Grid data, the investment costs, under various voltages, for transmission lines and transformer substations are calculated. By analyzing the regional profile of cumulative investment in transmission infrastructure, we assess correlations between investment, population, and economic development across the regions. The recent development of ultra-high-voltage transmission networks will provide policy-makers new options for policy development.

  18. From upgrade to uptake: The effect of mobile internet infrastructure on usage of local online services

    OpenAIRE

    Mang, Constantin

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides evidence that superior mobile Internet infrastructure increases take-up of location-based online services. Using data from the largest German online platform for restaurant reviews, I find that upgrading the 2G network to 3G increases the number of restaurant reviews and the share of reviews written on smartphones. To identify the causal effect of the network upgrade, I exploit the geographic location of restaurants relative to cellular network antennas and the terrain aro...

  19. Integrated sustainable urban infrastructures in building projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Elle, Morten; Hoffmann, Birgitte; Rødtnes, Mette; Becht, Jan Peter

    2007-01-01

    Current strategies in urban planning and development merely promote standardized building solutions, while failing to prioritize innovative approaches of integration between building projects and sustainable urban infrastructures. As a result of this, urban infrastructures – the urban veins – are...... outdated from a sustainability perspective. This paper looks into more holistic ways of approaching building projects and discuss whether this provide a basis for an increased integration of urban infrastructures within building projects. In our study, we especially emphasise how conventional ways of...... approaching building projects are influenced by lock-in of existing infrastructural systems and compare this with two examples of more holistic ways of approaching building projects, developed by two architecture firms. The paper points out that such holistic perspective in building projects provide an...

  20. iMarine - data infrastructure enabling software ?

    OpenAIRE

    Simi, Manuele

    2012-01-01

    iMarine Data Infrastructure Enabling Software contains the description of software and pointers to the documentation and artifacts of the related components that comprise the e-Infrstructure Management suite delivered from M7 to M10 ?

  1. Green infrastructure monitoring in Camden, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Camden County Municipal Utilities Authority (CCMUA) installed green infrastructure Stormwater Control Measures (SCMs) at multiple locations around the city of Camden, NJ. The SCMs include raised downspout planter boxes, rain gardens, and cisterns. The cisterns capture water ...

  2. Transport infrastructure; 1 : 1 000 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transport infrastructure is represented by the road and railway networks, airports, ports, road and railway border crossings. The individual roads and railways are discerned according to their importance. (author

  3. Fortran Testing and Refactoring Infrastructure Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Tech-X proposes to develop a comprehensive Fortran testing and refactoring infrastructure that allows developers and scientists to leverage the benefits of a...

  4. Costs Associated With Propane Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-08-01

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with propane vehicle fueling infrastructure. It provides an overview of the equipment and processes necessary to develop a propane fueling station and offers estimated cost ranges.

  5. Costs Associated With Propane Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-08-05

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with propane vehicle fueling infrastructure. It provides an overview of the equipment and processes necessary to develop a propane fueling station and offers estimated cost ranges.

  6. Fortran Testing and Refactoring Infrastructure Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Tech-X proposes to develop a comprehensive Fortran testing and refactoring infrastructure that allows developers and scientists to leverage the benefits of...

  7. Joint deployment of refuelling infrastructure and vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide range of fuels will be used in future transportation technologies. This presentation discussed refuelling infrastructure solutions for alternative fuels. A well-placed demonstration infrastructure will help to accelerate market development. Stakeholder collaboration is needed to create high value business paradigms and identify stakeholder benefits. Infrastructure paradigms include the home; businesses; retail public refuelling forecourts; and multi-fuel waste heat recovery sites. Commercial nodes can be developed along major transportation routes. Stakeholder groups include technology providers, supply chain and service providers, commercial end-users, and government. A successful alternative fuel infrastructure model will consider market development priorities, time frames and seed investment opportunities. Applications must be market-driven in order to expand. A case study of the natural gas vehicle (NGV) program in Ontario was also discussed, as well as various hydrogen projects. tabs., figs.

  8. Wireless Public Key Infrastructure for Mobile Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balachandra Muniyal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobile devices play an important role in the wireless network environment for providingdifferent services over internet. The business transactions over wireless electronic devices are not secureand hence the messages are prone to be intercepted and modified by an intruder. So, devices supportingwireless internet must be guaranteed at the same level of security as the wired network. PKI (Public KeyInfrastructure used in the wired environment is not suitable for wireless environment because of the lesspowerful processor and small memory. This arises a need for the development of a Wireless Public KeyInfrastructure (WPKI that provides the similar security level as the wired PKI suitable for mobile phone.In this paper, a discussion of public key infrastructure and an experimental set up for Wireless Public keyInfrastructure for mobile phones are made.

  9. A technological infrastructure to sustain Internetworked Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Mattina, Ernesto; Savarino, Vincenzo; Vicari, Claudia; Storelli, Davide; Bianchini, Devis

    In the Web 3.0 scenario, where information and services are connected by means of their semantics, organizations can improve their competitive advantage by publishing their business and service descriptions. In this scenario, Semantic Peer to Peer (P2P) can play a key role in defining dynamic and highly reconfigurable infrastructures. Organizations can share knowledge and services, using this infrastructure to move towards value networks, an emerging organizational model characterized by fluid boundaries and complex relationships. This chapter collects and defines the technological requirements and architecture of a modular and multi-Layer Peer to Peer infrastructure for SOA-based applications. This technological infrastructure, based on the combination of Semantic Web and P2P technologies, is intended to sustain Internetworked Enterprise configurations, defining a distributed registry and enabling more expressive queries and efficient routing mechanisms. The following sections focus on the overall architecture, while describing the layers that form it.

  10. Managing Transportation Infrastructure for Sustainable Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akinyemi, Edward O.; Zuidgeest, Mark H.P.

    2002-01-01

    Major requirements for operationalization of the concept of sustainable development in urban transportation infrastructure operations management are presented. In addition, it is shown that the current approach to management is incompatible with the requirements for sustainable urban development. Co

  11. Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Barker

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available There were two copy-editing blunders in Clive Betts's review, in ALT-J 5 (3, of Shirley Fletcher's Designing Competence-Based Training, one in paragraph 2 line 1, the other in paragraph 3 line 8. The errors (the result of the Editor, Gabriel Jacobs, trying to perform a final proof of the journal at lightning speed in order to meet the printing deadline, and not of any mistake on the part of either Philip Barker or the University of Wales Press hardly affected meaning, but the fact that they appeared in a review of a book on competence makes the embarrassment all the more telling. The Editor apologizes, and thanks eagle-eyed readers. He has decided to read the book in the hope that such errors will not recur.

  12. Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Hazel, H B; Kielland-Brandt, Morten; Winther, Jakob R.

    1996-01-01

    The yeast vacuole, which is equivalent to the lysosome of higher eukaryotes, is one of the best characterized degradative organelles. This review describes the biosynthesis and function of yeast vacuolar proteases. Most of these enzymes are delivered to the vacuole via the early compartments of the...... vacuolar proteolysis are described. Substrates of the vacuolar proteases are mostly imported via endocytosis or autophagocytosis, and vacuolar proteolysis appears to be mainly important under nutritional stress conditions and sporulation....

  13. Transport Infrastructure Influences on the Regional Development

    OpenAIRE

    Frantz Daniel Fistung; Oana Bianca Fistung; Teodor Popescu

    2013-01-01

    The scope of this work is to analyze the influence of transport infrastructure, on regional development. Moreover, it aims to illustrate the major influences of the economic, social and ecological factors on transport infrastructure development. In that respect, starting by analyzing the current views on national and international levels regarding these items, the work propose to go further, by supplement these theories with some new elements, requested by the current and future society’s evo...

  14. Science Data Infrastructure for Preservation - Earth Science

    OpenAIRE

    Albani, Mirko; Marelli, Fulvio; Giaretta, David; Shaon, Arif

    2012-01-01

    The proper preservation of both current and historical scientific data will underpin a multitude of ecological, economic and political decisions in the future of our society. The SCIDIP-ES project addresses the long-term persistent storage, access and management needs of scientific data by providing preservation infrastructure services. Taking exemplars from the Earth Science domain we highlight the key preservation challenges and barriers to be overcome by the SCIDIP-ES infrastructure. SCIDI...

  15. IT infrastructure assessment approach in enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Kalu, Isaac

    2012-01-01

    In today’s business operations, there is an increase in the use of information technology to deliver on the constantly changing customer demands resulting in the high investment in IT infrastructure within enterprises in order to gain competitive advantage, across industries. Nevertheless, these investments call for the need of IT transformation projects and assessments in existing infrastructures to evaluate its entirety before initiating any changes. In this thesis, the practice and theo...

  16. International Civil and Infrastructure Engineering Conference 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Yusoff, Marina; Alisibramulisi, Anizahyati; Amin, Norliyati; Ismail, Zulhabri

    2015-01-01

    The special focus of this proceedings is to cover the areas of infrastructure engineering and sustainability management. The state-of-the art information in infrastructure and sustainable issues in engineering covers earthquake, bioremediation, synergistic management, timber engineering, flood management and intelligent transport systems. It provides precise information with regards to innovative research development in construction materials and structures in addition to a compilation of interdisciplinary finding combining nano-materials and engineering.

  17. The Regulatory Anticommons of Green Infrastructures

    OpenAIRE

    Bellantuono, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Development of green infrastructures (renewable energy plants and transmission networks) is urgently needed if significant reductions of greenhouse emissions are to be accomplished in the next few decades. But the huge financial investments required by these infrastructures will not be undertaken without a well-designed regulatory framework. This paper argues that barriers to the implementation of such a framework can best be understood by drawing analogies to the Law and Economics literature...

  18. The X.509 Privilege Management Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Chadwick, David W

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the Privilege Management Infrastructure (PMI) introduced in the 2000 edition of X.509. It describes the entities in the infrastructure: Sources of Authority, Attribute Authorities and Privilege Holders, as well as the basic data structure - the attribute certificate - that is used to hold privileges. The contents of attribute certificates are described in detail, including the various policy related extensions that may be added to them. The similarities betw...

  19. Security of the Accounting Information System Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Mihalache D. Arsenie-Samoil

    2011-01-01

    The accounting information system infrastructure is crucial to the carry out successfully most of bookkeeping operations in a modern enterprise. Consequently, the security of the system should be an important issue on the enterprise agenda. A series of factories can be construed as having increased the risk of electronic attack at the accounting information system infrastructure such as unavoidable difficulties of securing such system; the increased globalization; insufficient awareness and t...

  20. A Grid Service Infrastructure for Mobile Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Tao; Zaluska, Ed; de Roure, David

    2005-01-01

    One of the visions of Grid computing is to access computational resources automatically on demand to deliver the services required with appropriate quality. Because mobile devices are now increasingly common, an infrastructure is required to allow mobile devices to use Grid services, and thus enable the execution of complex resource-intensive applications on the resource-constrained devices. We present a system infrastructure that allows local mobile devices to interact with the Grid. Central...

  1. Infrastructure investments in the main emerging countries

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Antonelli; Lorenzo Bencivelli; Annalisa Bucalossi; Luigi Concistr�; Raffaele De Marchi; Giorgio Merlonghi; Valeria Rolli; Giorgio Trebeschi

    2014-01-01

    This paper surveys the current conditions and prospects for the infrastructure sector in seven large emerging countries - Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Russia and Turkey - assessing the adequacy of their current infrastructural endowment and illustrating the latest government investment plans. It also discusses the extent of private sector involvement and the main obstacles to the realization of the planned investments, including those related to the limited availability and high c...

  2. Globalization, Poverty And Role Of Infrastructures

    OpenAIRE

    Alinsato, Alastaire Sèna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to complement the theoretical and empirical literature on the globalization-poverty nexus. Based on a simple model of social welfare, the paper demonstrates that the different types of globalization have different effects on social welfare. The main empirical findings suggest that globalization contributes to poverty reduction but with a larger magnitude in the presence of infrastructures instruments. It follows that good quality of infrastructure is a necessary condi...

  3. Monitoring civil infrastructure using satellite radar interferometry

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, L.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite radar interferometry (InSAR) is a precise and efficient technique to monitor deformation on Earth with millimeter precision. Most InSAR applications focus on geophysical phenomena, such as earthquakes, volcanoes, or subsidence. Monitoring civil infrastructure with InSAR is relatively new, with potential for operational applications, but currently not exploited to full advantage. Here we investigate how to optimally assess and monitor the structural health of civil infrastructure usi...

  4. International Civil and Infrastructure Engineering Conference 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Yusoff, Marina; Ismail, Zulhabri; Amin, Norliyati; Fadzil, Mohd

    2014-01-01

    The special focus of this proceedings is to cover the areas of infrastructure engineering and sustainability management. The state-of-the art information in infrastructure and sustainable issues in engineering covers earthquake, bioremediation, synergistic management, timber engineering, flood management and intelligent transport systems. It provides precise information with regards to innovative research development in construction materials and structures in addition to a compilation of interdisciplinary finding combining nano-materials and engineering.

  5. Network infrastructure control for virtual campuses

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Igor Duarte

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation provides a way to merge Cloud Computing infrastructures with traditional or legacy network deployments, leveraging the best in both worlds and enabling a logically centralized control for it. A design/architecture is proposed to extend existing Cloud Computing software stacks so they are able to manage networks outside the Cloud Computing infrastructure, by extending the internal, virtualized network segments. This is useful in a variety of use cases such a...

  6. Intelligent infrastructures systems for sustainable urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Amariei

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Extensive research is now under way around the world to develop advanced technologies to enhance the performances of infrastructure systems. While these technological advances are incremental in nature, they will eventually lead to structures which are distinctly different from the actual infrastructure systems. These new structures will be therefore capable of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM, involving applications of electronics and smart materials, aiming to assist engineers in realizing the full benefits of structural health monitoring.

  7. Overview on transportation infrastructure research in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Hugo Manuel Ribeiro Dias da

    2003-01-01

    The road infrastructures in Portugal have a great importance in the general transportation system, and the investments made in the last decades in the Portuguese road network resulted in road infrastructures of very good quality, classified by OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) in the best places between the OECD countries. Concomitantly, the number of road accidents in Portugal deeply decreased into values only observed a few decades ago, when the traffi...

  8. Risk Analysis of Accounting Information System Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    MIHALACHE, Arsenie-Samoil

    2011-01-01

    National economy and security are fully dependent on information technology and infrastructure. At the core of the information infrastructure society relies on, we have the Internet, a system designed initially as a scientists’ forum for unclassified research. The use of communication networks and systems may lead to hazardous situations that generate undesirable effects such as communication systems breakdown, loss of data or taking the wrong decisions. The paper studies the risk analysis of...

  9. SMEs need formative infrastructure for business transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Gäre, Klas; Melin, Ulf

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose is to study conditions for ICT-use in SMEs, actors and roles involved and concepts constituting a formative infrastructure. Method - The methodological point of departure and approach in this study is qualitative and more than 60 interviews are performed within a geographical region. Findings – Important findings from the present research is a formative ICT infrastructure can be viewed as constituted by identified needs among SMEs, in (1) sensemaking, (2) sensegiving, an...

  10. Systematic Approach for Development of Innovative Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarema Muhamedova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The necessity for development of innovative infrastructure is proved. Its nature, reasonability of systematic approach use and purpose has been identified. The author suggests considering the regime of infrastructural provision aimed at offering horizontal and vertical integration of institutions. This model is designed to create and integral complex for innovative support. The grounds of establishment the state politics are identified. The conceptual recommendations on its development and formation of relevant model, strategy and regulatory mechanism are outlined.

  11. Informatics Infrastructure for the Materials Genome Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dima, Alden; Bhaskarla, Sunil; Becker, Chandler; Brady, Mary; Campbell, Carelyn; Dessauw, Philippe; Hanisch, Robert; Kattner, Ursula; Kroenlein, Kenneth; Newrock, Marcus; Peskin, Adele; Plante, Raymond; Li, Sheng-Yen; Rigodiat, Pierre-François; Amaral, Guillaume Sousa; Trautt, Zachary; Schmitt, Xavier; Warren, James; Youssef, Sharief

    2016-07-01

    A materials data infrastructure that enables the sharing and transformation of a wide range of materials data is an essential part of achieving the goals of the Materials Genome Initiative. We describe two high-level requirements of such an infrastructure as well as an emerging open-source implementation consisting of the Materials Data Curation System and the National Institute of Standards and Technology Materials Resource Registry.

  12. 75 FR 21011 - Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... protection security measures, incident response, recovery, and infrastructure resilience; reconstituting CIKR..., risk mitigation, and infrastructure continuity information. Organizational Structure: CIPAC members...

  13. Research infrastructure support to address ecosystem dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los, Wouter

    2014-05-01

    Predicting the evolution of ecosystems to climate change or human pressures is a challenge. Even understanding past or current processes is complicated as a result of the many interactions and feedbacks that occur within and between components of the system. This talk will present an example of current research on changes in landscape evolution, hydrology, soil biogeochemical processes, zoological food webs, and plant community succession, and how these affect feedbacks to components of the systems, including the climate system. Multiple observations, experiments, and simulations provide a wealth of data, but not necessarily understanding. Model development on the coupled processes on different spatial and temporal scales is sensitive for variations in data and of parameter change. Fast high performance computing may help to visualize the effect of these changes and the potential stability (and reliability) of the models. This may than allow for iteration between data production and models towards stable models reducing uncertainty and improving the prediction of change. The role of research infrastructures becomes crucial is overcoming barriers for such research. Environmental infrastructures are covering physical site facilities, dedicated instrumentation and e-infrastructure. The LifeWatch infrastructure for biodiversity and ecosystem research will provide services for data integration, analysis and modeling. But it has to cooperate intensively with the other kinds of infrastructures in order to support the iteration between data production and model computation. The cooperation in the ENVRI project (Common operations of environmental research infrastructures) is one of the initiatives to foster such multidisciplinary research.

  14. Clean Energy Infrastructure Educational Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallinan, Kevin; Menart, James; Gilbert, Robert

    2012-08-31

    The Clean Energy Infrastructure Educational Initiative represents a collaborative effort by the University of Dayton, Wright State University and Sinclair Community College. This effort above all aimed to establish energy related programs at each of the universities while also providing outreach to the local, state-wide, and national communities. At the University of Dayton, the grant has aimed at: solidfying a newly created Master's program in Renewable and Clean Energy; helping to establish and staff a regional sustainability organization for SW Ohio. As well, as the prime grantee, the University of Dayton was responsible for insuring curricular sharing between WSU and the University of Dayton. Finally, the grant, through its support of graduate students, and through cooperation with the largest utilities in SW Ohio enabled a region-wide evaluation of over 10,000 commercial building buildings in order to identify the priority buildings in the region for energy reduction. In each, the grant has achieved success. The main focus of Wright State was to continue the development of graduate education in renewable and clean energy. Wright State has done this in a number of ways. First and foremost this was done by continuing the development of the new Renewable and Clean Energy Master's Degree program at Wright State . Development tasks included: continuing development of courses for the Renewable and Clean Energy Master's Degree, increasing the student enrollment, and increasing renewable and clean energy research work. The grant has enabled development and/or improvement of 7 courses. Collectively, the University of Dayton and WSU offer perhaps the most comprehensive list of courses in the renewable and clean energy area in the country. Because of this development, enrollment at WSU has increased from 4 students to 23. Secondly, the grant has helped to support student research aimed in the renewable and clean energy program. The grant helped to solidify

  15. Development of knowledge management infrastructure in organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.I. Sytnik

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to analyze development of knowledge management infrastructure (KM infrastructure at various stages of knowledge management evolution at organization. The results of the analysis. KM infrastructure is an important issue of the improvement of existing knowledge management systems. KM infrastructure could be defined as a set of interrelated organizational factors that ensure long-term operation and development of KM and support organizational processes of knowledge capture, share, accumulation, transfer, and use. Theoretically the concept of KM infrastructure is close to the concept of «ba» – enabling context, space, conditions needed to manage knowledge flows effectively. However, these concepts are not identical and the differences between them are highlighted and discussed in the study. Content analysis of the academic literature devoted to KM provision allowed determining major components of well-developed KM infrastructure. It consists of common knowledge, physical space, human resources management procedures, IT, organizational structure and culture. Their specific roles in KM functioning are discussed. It is shown that KM evolution at organization is associated with the development of corresponding KM infrastructure. At the spontaneous stage employees exchanged data and information on demand and knowledge processes were rather sporadic and badly organized. KM infrastructure incorporated mainly common knowledge (in tacit form and physical space for job-related communications between employees. Growing awareness of knowledge value at high management levels leaded to development of human resources management procedures specific to KM processes support. These procedures were directed mainly at accumulation of personal knowledge through vocational training and enhancing organizational knowledge basis through recruitment of highly qualified employees. The attempts to codify and store valuable

  16. Economic Viability Study of an On-Road Wireless Charging System with a Generic Driving Range Estimation Method

    OpenAIRE

    Aditya Shekhar; Venugopal Prasanth; Pavol Bauer; Mark Bolech

    2016-01-01

    The economic viability of on-road wireless charging of electric vehicles (EVs) strongly depends on the choice of the inductive power transfer (IPT) system configuration (static or dynamic charging), charging power level and the percentage of road coverage of dynamic charging. In this paper, a case study is carried out to determine the expected investment costs involved in installing the on-road charging infrastructure for an electric bus fleet. Firstly, a generic methodology is described to d...

  17. Europlanet Research Infrastructure: Planetary Simulation Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G. R.; Mason, N. J.; Green, S.; Gómez, F.; Prieto, O.; Helbert, J.; Colangeli, L.; Srama, R.; Grande, M.; Merrison, J.

    2008-09-01

    EuroPlanet The Europlanet Research Infrastructure consortium funded under FP7 aims to provide the EU Planetary Science community greater access for to research infrastructure. A series of networking and outreach initiatives will be complimented by joint research activities and the formation of three Trans National Access distributed service laboratories (TNA's) to provide a unique and comprehensive set of analogue field sites, laboratory simulation facilities, and extraterrestrial sample analysis tools. Here we report on the infrastructure that comprises the second TNA; Planetary Simulation Facilities. 11 laboratory based facilities are able to recreate the conditions found in the atmospheres and on the surfaces of planetary systems with specific emphasis on Martian, Titan and Europa analogues. The strategy has been to offer some overlap in capabilities to ensure access to the highest number of users and to allow for progressive and efficient development strategies. For example initial testing of mobility capability prior to the step wise development within planetary atmospheres that can be made progressively more hostile through the introduction of extreme temperatures, radiation, wind and dust. Europlanet Research Infrastructure Facilties: Mars atmosphere simulation chambers at VUA and OU These relatively large chambers (up to 1 x 0.5 x 0.5 m) simulate Martian atmospheric conditions and the dual cooling options at VUA allows stabilised instrument temperatures while the remainder of the sample chamber can be varied between 220K and 350K. Researchers can therefore assess analytical protocols for instruments operating on Mars; e.g. effect of pCO2, temperature and material (e.g., ± ice) on spectroscopic and laser ablation techniques while monitoring the performance of detection technologies such as CCD at low T & variable p H2O & pCO2. Titan atmosphere and surface simulation chamber at OU The chamber simulates Titan's atmospheric composition under a range of

  18. CHARGE Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semanti Chakraborty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present here a case of 17-year-old boy from Kolkata presenting with obesity, bilateral gynecomastia, mental retardation, and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. The patient weighed 70 kg and was of 153 cm height. Facial asymmetry (unilateral facial palsy, gynecomastia, decreased pubic and axillary hair, small penis, decreased right testicular volume, non-palpable left testis, and right-sided congenital inguinal hernia was present. The patient also had disc coloboma, convergent squint, microcornea, microphthalmia, pseudohypertelorism, low set ears, short neck, and choanalatresia. He had h/o VSD repaired with patch. Laboratory examination revealed haemoglobin 9.9 mg/dl, urea 24 mg/dl, creatinine 0.68 mg/dl. IGF1 77.80 ng/ml (decreased for age, GH <0.05 ng/ml, testosterone 0.25 ng/ml, FSH-0.95 ΅IU/ml, LH 0.60 ΅IU/ml. ACTH, 8:00 A.M cortisol, FT3, FT4, TSH, estradiol, DHEA-S, lipid profile, and LFT was within normal limits. Prolactin was elevated at 38.50 ng/ml. The patient′s karyotype was 46XY. Echocardiography revealed ventricularseptal defect closed with patch, grade 1 aortic regurgitation, and ejection fraction 67%. Ultrasound testis showed small right testis within scrotal sac and undescended left testis within left inguinal canal. CT scan paranasal sinuses revealed choanalatresia and deviation of nasal septum to the right. Sonomammography revealed bilateral proliferation of fibroglandular elements predominantly in subareoalar region of breasts. MRI of brain and pituitary region revealed markedly atrophic pituitary gland parenchyma with preserved infundibulum and hypothalamus and widened suprasellar cistern. The CHARGE association is an increasingly recognized non-random pattern of congenital anomalies comprising of coloboma, heart defect, choanal atresia, retarded growth and development, genital hypoplasia, ear abnormalities, and/or deafness. [1] These anomalies have a higher probability of occurring together. In this report, we have

  19. Economic impacts of rules- versus risk-based cybersecurity regulations for critical infrastructure providers.

    OpenAIRE

    Massacci, F.

    2016-01-01

    What's the optimal way to regulate cybersecurity for the critical infrastructure operators in charge of electricity transmission? Should regulation follow the US style (a mostly rules-based model), the EU approach (which is mostly risk-based), or a balance of both? The authors discuss the economic issues behind making this choice and present a cybersecurity economics model for public policy in the presence of strategic attackers. They calibrated these models in the field with the support of N...

  20. Exit fees and termination fees revisited: funding irrigation infrastructure in a manner compatible with water trade

    OpenAIRE

    Biggar, Darryl

    2010-01-01

    It has long been recognised that the mechanism for funding irrigation infrastructure in Australia may be incompatible with efficient trade in the rural water market. If the revenue received by an irrigation operator is dependent on the volume of water entitlements held in the operator’s region, out-of-region permanent water sales threaten the operator’s revenue stream, potentially leading to higher charges on remaining irrigators, encouraging an inefficient ‘rush for the exit’. In response, i...

  1. Strategic choice of freight mode and investments in transport infrastructure within production networks

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Ying Yi

    2009-01-01

    In the context of production linkages in which downstream producers require freight services provided by transport operators, I show that the strategic choice of using an alternative transport mode does not necessarily induce lower access charges, relative to the standard transport mode. Additionally, I show that the nature of infrastructure investment determines the share of final goods delivery by the alternative transport mode. An immediate implication is that interactions among infrastruc...

  2. Congestion charge as the regulatory tool of a transport system

    OpenAIRE

    Chlaň, Alexander; Lejsková, Pavla

    2010-01-01

    Congestion increases private transport costs and contributes to the decline of public transport service. While these two phenomena are logically connected, in most cities they are institutionally and financially separated. In principle, vehicular users of congested urban road space should be charged a price at least equal to the short-run marginal cost of use, including congestion, road wear and tear, and environmental impacts. Charging for road infrastructure is the core of a strategy ...

  3. Critical Infrastructure for Ocean Research and Societal Needs in 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Research Council

    2011-04-22

    . Consequently, a coordinated national plan for making future strategic investments becomes an imperative to address societal needs. Such a plan should be based upon known priorities and should be reviewed every 5-10 years to optimize the federal investment. The committee examined the past 20 years of technological advances and ocean infrastructure investments (such as the rise in use of self-propelled, uncrewed, underwater autonomous vehicles), assessed infrastructure that would be required to address future ocean research questions, and characterized ocean infrastructure trends for 2030. One conclusion was that ships will continue to be essential, especially because they provide a platform for enabling other infrastructure autonomous and remotely operated vehicles; samplers and sensors; moorings and cabled systems; and perhaps most importantly, the human assets of scientists, technical staff, and students. A comprehensive, long-term research fleet plan should be implemented in order to retain access to the sea. The current report also calls for continuing U.S. capability to access fully and partially ice-covered seas; supporting innovation, particularly the development of biogeochemical sensors; enhancing computing and modeling capacity and capability; establishing broadly accessible data management facilities; and increasing interdisciplinary education and promoting a technically-skilled workforce. The committee also provided a framework for prioritizing future investment in ocean infrastructure. They recommend that development, maintenance, or replacement of ocean research infrastructure assets should be prioritized in terms of societal benefit, with particular consideration given to usefulness for addressing important science questions; affordability, efficiency, and longevity; and ability to contribute to other missions or applications. These criteria are the foundation for prioritizing ocean research infrastructure investments by estimating the economic costs and benefits

  4. Participation of private sector in infrastructure projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last century, Colombia has reached an important expansion in its physical infrastructure and in the covering of the services associated to her. Nevertheless, when comparing the current state of this infrastructure with that of other countries of similar development level, back payments and weaknesses are observed in the Colombian case, that are manifested in inferior indexes of covering, poor quality of the provided services and institutional inefficient. The infrastructure inadequacy, the scarce maintenance and the progressive deterioration of the existent, the quality deficiencies and the institutional inefficient represent high costs annually for the country economy. The appropriate infrastructure endowment and the efficient services related with this rebound positively about the productivity of the economic activities and therefore, about the international competitiveness of the country, recognizing this effect, Colombians government, grant a high priority to the expansion and rehabilitation of the infrastructure, as well as to the improvement in the quality of the public services. In such a sense and to complete the ambitious persons goals settled down in the development national plan, in the energy sector, transport, telecommunications, water drinkable and basic sanitation

  5. Intelligent Infrastructure: Delivering the Competitiveness Benefits and Enterprise Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Intelligent infrastructure is the application of technology to deliver a more effective and efficient infrastructure service. This Forfás report explores the potential for the deployment of intelligent infrastructure in Ireland and focuses specifically on the core infrastructures of energy, water, transport and waste.

  6. Securing Infrastructure from High Explosive Threats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glascoe, L; Noble, C; Reynolds, J; Kuhl, A; Morris, J

    2009-03-20

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is working with the Department of Homeland Security's Science and Technology Directorate, the Transportation Security Administration, and several infrastructure partners to characterize and help mitigate principal structural vulnerabilities to explosive threats. Given the importance of infrastructure to the nation's security and economy, there is a clear need for applied research and analyses (1) to improve understanding of the vulnerabilities of these systems to explosive threats and (2) to provide decision makers with time-critical technical assistance concerning countermeasure and mitigation options. Fully-coupled high performance calculations of structural response to ideal and non-ideal explosives help bound and quantify specific critical vulnerabilities, and help identify possible corrective schemes. Experimental validation of modeling approaches and methodologies builds confidence in the prediction, while advanced stochastic techniques allow for optimal use of scarce computational resources to efficiently provide infrastructure owners and decision makers with timely analyses.

  7. Recovery of infrastructure networks after localised attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fuyu; Yeung, Chi Ho; Yang, Saini; Wang, Weiping; Zeng, An

    2016-04-01

    The stability of infrastructure network is always a critical issue studied by researchers in different fields. A lot of works have been devoted to reveal the robustness of the infrastructure networks against random and malicious attacks. However, real attack scenarios such as earthquakes and typhoons are instead localised attacks which are investigated only recently. Unlike previous studies, we examine in this paper the resilience of infrastructure networks by focusing on the recovery process from localised attacks. We introduce various preferential repair strategies and found that they facilitate and improve network recovery compared to that of random repairs, especially when population size is uneven at different locations. Moreover, our strategic repair methods show similar effectiveness as the greedy repair. The validations are conducted on simulated networks, and on real networks with real disasters. Our method is meaningful in practice as it can largely enhance network resilience and contribute to network risk reduction.

  8. Infrastructure Support for Collaborative Pervasive Computing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard Mogensen, Martin

    Collaborative Pervasive Computing Systems (CPCS) are currently being deployed to support areas such as clinical work, emergency situations, education, ad-hoc meetings, and other areas involving information sharing and collaboration.These systems allow the users to work together synchronously, but...... all characterized by unstable, volatile environments, either due to the underlying components changing or the nomadic work habits of users. A major challenge, for the creators of collaborative pervasive computing systems, is the construction of infrastructures supporting the system. The complexity of...... in order to build a supporting infrastructure for the envisioned collaborative pervasive computing system. Following an experimental computer science approach, where experiments are used both for theory testing and for exploration, we research the area of infrastructure support for collaborative...

  9. Engineering economics and finance for transportation infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Prassas, Elena S

    2013-01-01

    Transportation infrastructure is often referred to as society’s bloodstream.  It allows for the movement of people and goods to provide the ability to optimize the production and distribution of goods in an effective and efficient manner, and to provide personal opportunities for employment, recreation, education, health care, and other vital activities.   At the same time, the costs to provide, maintain, and operate this complex infrastructure are enormous.  Because so much of the economic resources to be invested come from public funds, it is critical that expenditures are made in a manner that provides society with the best possible return on the investment.  Further, it is important that sufficient investment is made available, and the costs of the investment are equitably borne by taxpayers.   This textbook provides a fundamental overview of the application of engineering economic principles to transportation infrastructure investments.  Basic theory is presented and illustrated with examples spe...

  10. Bandwidth Analysis of Smart Meter Network Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balachandran, Kardi; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2014-01-01

    Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) is a net-work infrastructure in Smart Grid, which links the electricity customers to the utility company. This network enables smart services by making it possible for the utility company to get an overview of their customers power consumption and also control...... devices in their costumers household e.g. heat pumps. With these smart services, utility companies can do load balancing on the grid by shifting load using resources the customers have. The problem investigated in this paper is what bandwidth require-ments can be expected when implementing such network to...... utilize smart meters and which existing broadband network technologies can facilitate this smart meter service. Initially, scenarios for smart meter infrastructure are identified. The paper defines abstraction models which cover the AMI scenarios. When the scenario has been identified a general overview...

  11. Globalization, Poverty And Role Of Infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastaire Sèna ALINSATO

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to complement the theoretical and empirical literature on the globalization-poverty nexus. Based on a simple model of social welfare, the paper demonstrates that the different types of globalization have different effects on social welfare. The main empirical findings suggest that globalization contributes to poverty reduction but with a larger magnitude in the presence of infrastructures instruments. It follows that good quality of infrastructure is a necessary condition for a higher globalization effect on poverty reduction. The empirical evidence also supports the idea that globalization driven by the reduction in information access cost and the removal of barriers to their dissemination has the greatest impact on poverty reduction. Finally, the study discusses the economic policy implications and suggests in particular investment in adequate ICT and energy infrastructures for globalization to contribute significantly to the reduction of poverty.

  12. The Essential Dynamics of Information Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Hanseth, Ole

    2011-01-01

    This paper inquires into the complexities of contemporary IT solutions based on a case study of the EU’s eCustoms initiatives using Manuel DeLanda’s Assemblage Theory. Technological innovations have enabled information infrastructures with dramatically increased number and heterogeneity of included...... components, and their dynamic and unexpected interactions. Unfortunately, lack of understanding of how the increasing complexity influences development initiatives is hampering effective information infrastructure development. Assemblage Theory can be seen as holistic synthesis of previous research streams...... seeking to explain how information infrastructures evolve in social contexts. Accordingly, in this paper it helps us getting a holistic grasp of the complexity of contemporary IT solutions and the “essence” of their dynamics. Through Assemblage Theory we explain how the European eCustoms information...

  13. Basic infrastructure for a nuclear power project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are several stages in the process of introducing nuclear power in a country. These include development of nuclear policies and regulations, feasibility studies, public consultations, technology evaluation, requests for proposals and evaluations, contracts and financing, supply, construction, commissioning, operation and finally decommissioning. This publication addresses the 'basic' infrastructure needs, which are adequate until the issue of the construction license. It is obvious that a fully developed nuclear infrastructure will be required for the further implementation stages of a nuclear power reactor. The officials and experts in each country will undertake the transition from a basic infrastructure to a fully developed infrastructure that covers the stages of construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning. The publication is directed to provide guidance for assessing the basic infrastructure necessary for: - A host country to consider when engaging in the implementation of nuclear power, and - A supplier country to consider when assessing whether the recipient country is in an acceptable condition to begin the implementation of a nuclear power project. The target users are decision makers, advisers and senior managers in the governmental organizations, utilities, industrial organizations and regulatory bodies in the countries adopting nuclear power programmes or exporting supplies for these programmes. The governmental organizations that may find this publication useful include: Ministries of Economy, Energy, Foreign Affairs, Finance, Mining, Internal Affairs, Academic Institutions, Nuclear Energy Agencies and Environmental Agencies. This publication was produced within the IAEA programme directed to increase the capability of Member States to plan and implement nuclear power programmes and to establish and enhance national nuclear infrastructure. This publication should be used in conjunction with the IAEA Safety Standards Series and other

  14. Financing for Infrastructure Investment in G-20 Countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Sengupta, Ramprasad; Mukherjee, Sacchidananda; Gupta, Manish

    2015-01-01

    This study looks into various sources of financing infrastructure and the demands for infrastructure investments and highlights the mismatch between demand and supply of funds for infrastructure financing in India. In order to address this mismatch, and given the constraints of traditional sources of infrastructure finance in India, this paper suggests credit enhancement scheme (CES) as an alternative framework for mobilizing long-term infrastructure finance. It suggests for scaling up CES as...

  15. Enthusiasts, Deregulators, Guardians, and Skeptics: Contrasting Policy Viewpoints on the National Information Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Donald O.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews more than 80 National Information Infrastructure (NII)-related documents, published from 1988 to 1997, and classifies their views and authors according to a two-dimensional typology by policy analyst William Dutton. Comparisons are made between those advocating "Public" versus "Market" leadership in NII development, and between promotional…

  16. Regulatory infrastructure for radiation safety in Belarus: Lessons learnt and a way ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with assessment of the effectiveness of regulatory infrastructures for radiation safety in the Republic of Belarus. It identifies weaknesses and provides recommendations for improvement based, in part, on the findings of an IAEA Peer Review Mission carried out on October. (author)

  17. Charged Higgs Bosons in the LHCHXSWG

    CERN Document Server

    Heinemeyer, S

    2014-01-01

    Searches for charged Higgs bosons are an integral part of current and future investigations at the LHC. The LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group (LHCHXSWG) was created to provide cross sections, branching ratios, analysis strategies etc. for Higgs boson searches at the LHC. We briefly review progress and results for charged Higgs bosons in and for the LHCHXSWG.

  18. Choosing the components of a digital infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    DiLauro, Tim

    2004-01-01

    Choosing the components of a digital infrastructure by Tim DiLauro This paper is based on a talk of the same name given at the IMLS–sponsored Web–Wise 2004 conference.The purpose of this paper — as with the talk before it — is to highlight some issues and help inform the choices associated with developing digital environments within a single institution or among many. While the bulk of this discussion focuses on digital repositories as a key component of the digital infrastructure, persis...

  19. CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROTECTION WITHIN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile N. POPA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The new dynamics and intensity of the risks and threats posed to societal functioning and citizens’ security have acquired new meanings. Consequently, an integrated approach to the concept of ”critical infrastructure” is necessary. The critical nature of some of the basic characteristics of the critical infrastructures has made them acquire new meanings within the national/transnational strategic planning. Moreover, the complexity and importance of critical infrastructure protection for social stability have generated the correlaton of the strategies developed by states and organizations.

  20. Road Infrastructure and Climate Change in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S. Chinowsky

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a potential threat to Vietnam’s development as current and future infrastructure will be vulnerable to climate change impacts. This paper focuses on the physical asset of road infrastructure in Vietnam by evaluating the potential impact of changes from stressors, including: sea level rise, precipitation, temperature and flooding. Across 56 climate scenarios, the mean additional cost of maintaining the same road network through 2050 amount to US$10.5 billion. The potential scale of these impacts establishes climate change adaptation as an important component of planning and policy in the current and near future.

  1. Managing Assets in The Infrastructure Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.P. van Houten

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In view of the importance of managing assets and the lack of research in managing assets in the infrastructure sector, we develop an asset management model in this study. This model is developed in line with the unique characteristics of the infrastructure assets and asset management principles and criteria. In the proposed model, we consider activities at three levels, namely the strategical, tactical and operational levels. The interviews with experts in asset management and officials in several Dutch organizations have proven the potential of our asset management model.

  2. Strategic Policy Competition with Public Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Nahuis, R.; Tang, P.J.G.

    2004-01-01

    Governments try to attract firms and jobs by investing in international infrastructure. We analyse this type of strategic policy competition in a three-country model of monopolistic competition. What governments compete for, is to obtain a so called ‘hub’ position. A hub is a relatively well connected location in a transport network. A hub might thus be an attractive location for firms. However, for a small or backward country the hub position, due to infrastructure investment, is overwhe...

  3. Settlement characteristics of major infrastructures in Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, X.; Yan, X. X.; Wang, H. M.

    2015-11-01

    Critical infrastructures in Shanghai have undergone uneven settlement since their operation, which plays an important role in affecting the security of Shanghai. This paper, taking rail transportation as example, investigates settlement characteristics and influencing factors of this linear engineering, based on long-term settlement monitoring data. Results show that rail settlement is related to geological conditions, regional ground subsidence, surrounding construction activities and structural differences in the rail systems. In order to effectively decrease the impact of regional ground subsidence, a monitoring and early-warning mechanism for critical infrastructure is established by the administrative department and engineering operators, including monitoring network construction, settlement monitoring, information sharing, settlement warning, and so on.

  4. Workplace Charging. Charging Up University Campuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, Carrie [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Ryder, Carrie [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Lommele, Stephen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This case study features the experiences of university partners in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Workplace Charging Challenge with the installation and management of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging stations.

  5. Towards Spatially Explicit Agent-based Model for Simulation of Informal Transport Infrastructure Indirect Growth Dynamic in Informal Settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Vahidi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The informal construction of dwellings (housing and the informal growth of transport infrastructure are two main dynamics of an informal settlement growth phenomenon that may influence each other over time. Some studies have been done to understand the growth mechanisms of informal settlements, but not enough attention has been paid to study the informal growth of transport infrastructure dynamic. In this study, the morphology and spatial pattern of different types of informal settlements have been reviewed and categorized to clearly define and formulate the mechanisms of informal transport infrastructure formation in the context of informal settlement. To this end, two different dynamics have been suggested in this study for modelling of the growth of informal transport infrastructure. In the first suggested dynamic, the infrastructure is extended directly as the result of consolidation of the physical signs of dwellers’ movement (foot prints on the environment over time. In the second proposed dynamic that is the main focus of this study, the informal infrastructure growth could be considered as the function of dwelling construction (housing dynamic in the settlement. In this context, informal transport infrastructure is extended based on an indirect dynamic by consideration of the void spaces by dwellers as the accessibility corridors in the settlement during the construction process of the settlement. Finally, to study the validity of the second proposed dynamic for modelling of the indirect growth of informal transport infrastructure, a simple conceptual model was developed and tested and the results were evaluated and discussed.

  6. EUDAT: A New Cross-Disciplinary Data Infrastructure For Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecarpentier, Damien; Michelini, Alberto; Wittenburg, Peter

    2013-04-01

    In recent years significant investments have been made by the European Commission and European member states to create a pan-European e-Infrastructure supporting multiple research communities. As a result, a European e-Infrastructure ecosystem is currently taking shape, with communication networks, distributed grids and HPC facilities providing European researchers from all fields with state-of-the-art instruments and services that support the deployment of new research facilities on a pan-European level. However, the accelerated proliferation of data - newly available from powerful new scientific instruments, simulations and the digitization of existing resources - has created a new impetus for increasing efforts and investments in order to tackle the specific challenges of data management, and to ensure a coherent approach to research data access and preservation. EUDAT is a pan-European initiative that started in October 2011 and which aims to help overcome these challenges by laying out the foundations of a Collaborative Data Infrastructure (CDI) in which centres offering community-specific support services to their users could rely on a set of common data services shared between different research communities. Although research communities from different disciplines have different ambitions and approaches - particularly with respect to data organization and content - they also share many basic service requirements. This commonality makes it possible for EUDAT to establish common data services, designed to support multiple research communities, as part of this CDI. During the first year, EUDAT has been reviewing the approaches and requirements of a first subset of communities from linguistics (CLARIN), solid earth sciences (EPOS), climate sciences (ENES), environmental sciences (LIFEWATCH), and biological and medical sciences (VPH), and shortlisted four generic services to be deployed as shared services on the EUDAT infrastructure. These services are data

  7. The Declining Role of the State in Infrastructure Investments in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Pollitt, M.G.

    2000-01-01

    This paper explores the increasing private involvement in social infrastructure projects in the UK since 1979. It begins by reviewing the effect of privatisation on the quantity of investment undertaken by the utility sector. The evidence is consistent with the view that the private sector is capable of raising the necessary finance. The history, theory and experience of the Private Finance Initiative (PFI) is then discussed. Five case studies of major PFI projects are reviewed, covering hosp...

  8. Footprints of air pollution and changing environment on the sustainability of built infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, P.; Imam, B

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Over 150 research articles relating three multi-disciplinary topics (air pollution, climate change and civil engineering structures) are reviewed to examine the footprints of air pollution and changing environment on the sustainability of building and transport structures (referred as built infrastructure). The aim of this review is to synthesize the existing knowledge on this topic, highlight recent advances in our understanding and discuss research priorities. The article begins wi...

  9. Development of urban solar infrastructure to support low-carbon mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The provision of an adequate network of urban infrastructures is essential to create clean and energy-efficient urban mobility systems. However, the urban infrastructure to support sustainable mobility can produce a substantial environmental burden if no life cycle environmental criteria are applied in its design and management. This paper demonstrates the potential to support energy-efficient and CO2-free pedestrian and electric bike (e-bike) mobility through the ecological design (eco-design) of urban elements. An eco-design approach is applied to reconceptualize a conventional pergola toward an eco-product (solar pergola). The solar pergola generates surplus photovoltaic electricity that provides a multifunctional character. According to the end-use of this energy, different scenarios are analyzed for robust decision-making. The deployment of solar pergolas can contribute to save from 2,080 kg to over 47,185 kg of CO2 eq. and from 350,390 MJ to over 692,760 MJ eq. in 10 years, depending on the geographic emplacement (solar radiation and electricity grid system). These savings are equivalent to charging 2–9 e-bikes per day using clean energy. Instead of maximizing infrastructure deployment to shift to environmentally friendly modes of mobility, the implementation of multifunctional urban elements represents a key area of action in the context of smart city development. -- Highlights: •Infrastructure eco-design is key to mitigate environmental impacts of urban mobility. •Solar pergolas can support pedestrian and e-bike mobility with no environmental cost. •Over 47 tons of CO2 and 692 GJ can be avoided in 10 years per implemented pergola. •Each pergola can support daily charging of 2–9 e-bikes by supplying clean energy. •Multifunctional infrastructure is key to support sustainable multimodal mobility

  10. 49 CFR 536.5 - Trading infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Every manufacturer subject to fuel economy standards under 49 CFR parts 531 or 533 is automatically an... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trading infrastructure. 536.5 Section 536.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRANSFER AND TRADING OF FUEL ECONOMY CREDITS § 536.5...

  11. Monitoring civil infrastructure using satellite radar interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, L.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite radar interferometry (InSAR) is a precise and efficient technique to monitor deformation on Earth with millimeter precision. Most InSAR applications focus on geophysical phenomena, such as earthquakes, volcanoes, or subsidence. Monitoring civil infrastructure with InSAR is relatively new,

  12. Telehealth ICT Infrastructures in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Daniel Bjerring; Hallenborg, Kasper

    This paper presents an overview and recommendations of ICT infrastructures and reference architectures for telehealth in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden). This study shows that so far only Denmark has designed a complete reference architecture, and by the end of...

  13. Infrastratego. Strategic behavior in infrastructural sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strategic behavior and the working of counter arrangements in eight infrastructural sectors are described: public rail transport; public bus transport; road maintenance in Sweden and Finland; natural gas distribution; electricity market in California, USA; competition in the computer industry; the auction of UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) frequencies; and site sharing (use of antennas)

  14. iMarine - data infrastructure resource model

    OpenAIRE

    Simeoni, Fabio; Simi, Manuele

    2012-01-01

    The document defines the Second Generation of the model that governs the descriptions of resources available to and managed by the Infrastructure. In particular,the document illustrates the design rationale of the model, the primitives that it defines,the XML binding of those primitives, and the requirements that it raises against implementations.

  15. Pilot Implementations as an Approach to Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manikas, Maria Ie; Torkilsheyggi, Arnvør Martinsdóttir á

    In this paper we introduce pilot implementation, a supplement to information systems development, as an approach to study and design work infrastructures. We report from two pilot implementations in the Danish healthcare, which showed signs of grappling with aligning the past, present and the...

  16. PACS infrastructure supporting e-learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital imaging is becoming predominant in radiology. This has implications for teaching support, because conventional film-based concepts are now obsolete. The IHE Teaching File and Clinical Study Export (TCE) profile provides an excellent platform to enhance PACS infrastructure with educational functionality. This can be supplemented with dedicated e-learning tools.

  17. European risk assessment methodology for critical infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, M.H.A.; Luiijf, H.A.M.; Nieuwenhuijs, A.H.; Cavenne, F.; Ulisse, A.; Bridegeman, G.

    2008-01-01

    Most risk assessment methodologies aim at the risk at the level of an individual organization or company. The European Union commissioned a study to define the elements for a uniform and scalable risk assessment methodology which takes into account critical infrastructure dependencies across organiz

  18. A security assessment methodology for critical infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caselli, Marco; Kargl, Frank; Hämmerli, Bernhard M.; Lopez, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Interest in security assessment and penetration testing techniques has steadily increased. Likewise, security of industrial control systems (ICS) has become more and more important. Very few methodologies directly target ICS and none of them generalizes the concept of "critical infrastructures pente

  19. Is the Infrastructure of EHDI Programs Working?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, K. Todd; Hoffman, Jeff; Munoz, Karen F.; Bradham, Tamala S.

    2011-01-01

    State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that consisted of 12 evaluative areas of EHDI programs. For the EHDI program infrastructure area, 47 coordinators responded with a total of 292 items, and themes were identified in each…

  20. Utilizing Instructional Media for Teaching Infrastructure Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajriah, Ulfah Nur; Churiyah, Madziatul

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to produce instructional media Corel VideoStudio Pro X7-based on teaching infrastructure administration at class XI of APK in SMKN 1 Ngawi, East Java, Indonesia. This study uses Research and Development research design (R & D) through 10 steps, namely: (1) the potential and problems, (2) data collection, (3) the design of the…

  1. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Analysis (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.

    2012-05-01

    This is a presentation about the Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Learning Demo, a 7-year project and the largest single FCEV and infrastructure demonstration in the world to date. Information such as its approach, technical accomplishments and progress; collaborations and future work are discussed.

  2. ACRF Data Collection and Processing Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macduff, M; Egan, D

    2004-12-01

    We present a description of the data flow from measurement to long-term archive. We also discuss data communications infrastructure. The data handling processes presented include collection, transfer, ingest, quality control, creation of Value-Added Products (VAP), and data archiving.

  3. ELASSTIC contributes to the resilience of infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doormaal, J.C.A.M. van; Jagt, M.J. van der

    2015-01-01

    The growing world population, the ongoing urbanization, the ever increasing size, height and complexity of large scale built infrastructures lead to higher risks with respect to natural and manmade threats. in case of a real incident, the number of casualties and injured people and the amount of dam

  4. Telecommunications and Technology Infrastructure Program, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Community Colleges, Chancellor's Office, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This 16th annual report highlights up-to-date information on the programs supported through the Chancellor's Office Telecommunications and Technology Infrastructure Program (TTIP). To summarize 2012-13, one would describe it as a year of planning and preparation. The system-wide budget cuts of the past few years, reports of impacted classes, staff…

  5. Infrastructure development to support the hydrocarbon industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tengiz and Jubail represent areas in which the exploitation of oil and gas resources have, and are, providing enormous opportunities for regional development. Each has required a vision of the future and an understanding that infrastructure input is very broadly defined. Tengiz and Jubail are extreme examples. There are probably no cases in the Americas that will exactly mirror these. But opportunities for oil and gas development here may share some of these projects characteristics - extraction from remote areas, challenging transportatoin needs, and perhaps most importantly, opportunities for related industrial and economic development. Just as Jubail's master plan was part of a larger Saudi vision, oil and gas infrastructure planning can support Latin and North American countries individual visions of their nation's future. Where regional economic integration and interaction is increasing, there are even greater opportunities for good infrastructure planning. In some cases, such economic integration will provide the key which will unlock oil and gas development. Once these keys are provided - be it through the intangible innovations of creative project finance or tangible links through roadways, pipeline and rail - the opening will provide real chances to develop the infrastructure of the entire region

  6. Critical (information) Infrastructure Protection in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.; Burger, H.H.; Klaver, M.H.A.

    2003-01-01

    Some sectors and parts of the Dutch national infrastructure are that essential to the Netherlands that serious disruption or even loss of service could lead to a severe impact to the Dutch society, government and industry as well as to those of neighbouring countries. Early 2002, the Dutch governmen

  7. Mitigating for nature in Danish infrastructure projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen; Kørnøv, Lone; Christensen, Per

    2015-01-01

    his paper presents results of a Danish study of mitigation efforts directed at nature protection in EIA of Danish infrastructure projects. The projects included in the study comprise road, rail, bridges, tunnels cables and oil- and gas-pipes. The study is based on a document analysis of EIA reports...

  8. PACS infrastructure supporting e-learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mildenberger, Peter, E-mail: milden@radiologie.klinik.uni-mainz.de [University Medicine Mainz, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Langenbeckstr 1, Mainz (Germany); Brueggemann, Kerstin; Roesner, Freya; Koch, Katja; Ahlers, Christopher [University Medicine Mainz, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Langenbeckstr 1, Mainz (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    Digital imaging is becoming predominant in radiology. This has implications for teaching support, because conventional film-based concepts are now obsolete. The IHE Teaching File and Clinical Study Export (TCE) profile provides an excellent platform to enhance PACS infrastructure with educational functionality. This can be supplemented with dedicated e-learning tools.

  9. Risk sharing with Multilateral Financial Institutions in infrastructure and energy project financing : effect on capital relief for commercial banks

    OpenAIRE

    Rosales Araque, Raúl C.

    2012-01-01

    (Matsukawa and Habeck, 2007) analyse the main instruments for risk mitigation in infrastructure financing with Multilateral Financial Institutions (MFIs). Their review coincided with the global financial crisis of 2007-08, and is highly relevant in current times considering the sovereign debt crisis, the lack of available capital and the increases in bank regulation in Western economies. The current macroeconomic environment has seen a slowdown in the level of finance for infrastructure proje...

  10. Battery Ownership Model: A Tool for Evaluating the Economics of Electrified Vehicles and Related Infrastructure; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keefe, M.; Brooker, A.; Johnson, C.; Mendelsohn, M.; Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2011-01-01

    Electric vehicles could significantly reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and dependence on imported petroleum. However, for mass adoption, EV costs have historically been too high to be competitive with conventional vehicle options due to the high price of batteries, long refuel time, and a lack of charging infrastructure. A number of different technologies and business strategies have been proposed to address some of these cost and utility issues: battery leasing, battery fast-charging stations, battery swap stations, deployment of charge points for opportunity charging, etc. In order to investigate these approaches and compare their merits on a consistent basis, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed a new techno-economic model. The model includes nine modules to examine the levelized cost per mile for various types of powertrain and business strategies. The various input parameters such as vehicle type, battery, gasoline, and electricity prices; battery cycle life; driving profile; and infrastructure costs can be varied. In this paper, we discuss the capabilities of the model; describe key modules; give examples of how various assumptions, powertrain configurations, and business strategies impact the cost to the end user; and show the vehicle's levelized cost per mile sensitivity to seven major operational parameters.

  11. 高原运行柴油机增压技术应用综述%A review of charging technology application to diesel engine in plateau area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭猛超; 张晶; 孙志新; 路峰

    2011-01-01

    针对高原环境涡轮增压柴油机功率下降、油耗上升、热负荷升高的问题,考虑通过增压系统的改进解决之.在综述了涡轮增压器的重新匹配,涡轮增压器结构改进、补气增压、电动增压、机械增压,二级增压、以及可变增压等技术方案的基础上,以某型特种车辆柴油机为例,分析了各方案的应用情况和总体效果.分析为高原环境涡轮增压器故障维修和通过改造增压系统恢复高原运行柴油机功率提供参考.%In order to solve the problem brought by the special environment factors in plateau areas, including the decrease of engine power,the increase of brake specific fuel consumption, and the aggravation of thermal load, the improvement of turbocharging system are proposed.Based on summarizing the following technical schemes such as rematch of turbocharging system,promotion of turbocharger structure,air boost- ing,electric supercharging, mechanical supercharging as well as two-stage sequential turbocharging system and variable turborharging system,the effects of different charging system are discussed by taking certain special vehicle as the research object.It provides a research reference for faults maintenance of turbocharger in Plateau Area and the power restore of diesel engine working in plateau area through renovating the supercharging system.

  12. Role of Information Technology Infrastructure Library in E-Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq R. Soomro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The E-Government implementation has been achieved by many countries. This is meant to improve the delivery of public services to citizens, business and governmental departments alike. Different strategies are used to build E-Government infrastructure and deliver its services to the public. The degree of success that is achieved by different E-Governments in terms of service level and quality of service varies significantly. Approach: The objective of achieving e-Governance goes far beyond mere computerization of standalone back office operations. Strict measures are required to help E-Governments evaluate the service level and assess the quality of service. Results: In this study we introduce the E-Government strategies, perspectives, implementation, transformation and their major problems. In this context, the role of Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL is reviewed. Conclusion: Dubai E-Government (DeG which was officially launched in December 2001 is selected as a case study for service management assessment based on ITIL standards. Two main areas of DeG service management were selected; service support and service delivery.

  13. National Computational Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Theory: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this document we describe work done under the SciDAC-1 Project National Computerational Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Theory. The objective of this project was to construct the computational infrastructure needed to study quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Nearly all high energy and nuclear physicists in the United States working on the numerical study of QCD are involved in the project, as are Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab). A list of the senior participants is given in Appendix A.2. The project includes the development of community software for the effective use of the terascale computers, and the research and development of commodity clusters optimized for the study of QCD. The software developed as part of this effort is publicly available, and is being widely used by physicists in the United States and abroad. The prototype clusters built with SciDAC-1 fund have been used to test the software, and are available to lattice gauge theorists in the United States on a peer reviewed basis

  14. Developing industrial infrastructures to support a programme of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Guidebook is intended to offer assistance in the many considerations and decisions involved in preparing the national industry for participation in a nuclear power programme. The heavy financial investment, the setting up of certain infrastructures many years ahead of plant construction, plus the high level of technology involved require early and systematic planning. A further purpose of this Guidebook is to serve particularly those decision makers and planners in the various governmental authorities, the technological institutions and in the industries likely to be involved in a nuclear project. These industries include the services of the national engineering resources, the domestic design and manufacturing groups as well as the civil construction companies. These will be responsible for plant erection, testing and commissioning and most of all for the establishment of a framework for quality assurance. All of these are the components of an essential infrastructure necessary to raise the standards of the national industry and to displace increasingly foreign suppliers to the extent possible. In addition, this Guidebook should help to show some of the implications, consequences and options involved in a nuclear power programme. It does not consider the basic decisions for going nuclear, nor does it review the choice of the technology or nuclear process selected for the programme. Instead, it limits itself to a consideration of the nuclear power plant and its essential cycle activities. Figs and tabs

  15. Towards sustainable infrastructure development through integrated contracts : Experiences with inclusiveness in Dutch infrastructure projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenferink, Sander; Tillema, Taede; Arts, Jos

    2013-01-01

    Current complex society necessitates finding inclusive arrangements for delivering sustainable road infrastructure integrating design, construction and maintenance stages of the project lifecycle. In this article we investigate whether linking stages by integrated contracts can lead to more sustaina

  16. Mobile metering. Enabling cost-efficient smart charging for EVs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hechtfischer, Knut; Pawlitschek, Frank [ubitricity GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Berg, Andreas [VOLTARIS, Merzig (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Users of electric vehicles want to and should be mobile with the least possible limitations. A fundamental requirement is an affordable and easy to use charging infrastructure that allows charging of the vehicle, if achievable wherever the EV is parked. ubitricity and VOLTARIS are developing and testing the On-Board Metering system and the underlying business and security concepts for such an ubiquitous charging infrastructure for electric mobility. Further leading partners are supporting the project that is being co-funded by research grants of the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology. The basic idea is to install metering and communication technology inside the car to generate the information required for billing processes. (orig.)

  17. Dynamic Analysis of Levee Infrastructure Failure Risk: A Framework for Enhanced Critical Infrastructure Management

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Current models that assess infrastructure failure risk are â linear,â and therefore, only consider the direct influence attributed to each factor that defines risk. These models do not consider the undeniable relationships that exist among these parameters. In reality, factors that define risk are interdependent and influence each other in a â non-linearâ fashion through feedback effects. Current infrastructure failure risk assessment models are also static, and do not allow infrastruct...

  18. The Creation and Development of Innovative Infrastructure in the Danube Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Rosca-Sadurschi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship development is supported by a developed infrastructure or innovative infrastructure. The purpose of the business infrastructure is to create favorable conditions for its development by providing support in various areas, complete and targeted to businesses. Training system infrastructure provides creation and development of innovation infrastructure objects. Thus, this article will conduct a comparative analysis of the elements of innovation infrastructure and how their development in different countries. Innovation infrastructure elements analyzed are: information infrastructure refers to access to information; Financial infrastructure refers to financial resources; infrastructure, staff training (qualified staff; material and technical infrastructure; infrastructure consulting (expert consultation; marketing infrastructure.

  19. Cloud infrastructure for providing tools as a service: quality attributes and potential solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chauhan, Muhammad Aufeef; Ali Babar, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Cloud computing is being increasingly adopted in various domains for providing on-demand infrastructure and Software as a service (SaaS) by leveraging the utility computing model and virtualization technologies. One of the domains, where cloud computing is expected to gain huge traction is Global...... projects. Through an extensive review of the relevant literature on GSD and Cloud Computing, we have identified a set of quality attributes and potential architectural solutions for a cloud-based infrastructure that can provide TaaS to GSD teams. This paper outlines the promised benefits of TaaS to GSD...... efficiently and cost-effectively. Moreover, variations in tools available/used by different GSD team members can also pose challenges. We assert that providing Tools as a Service (TaaS) to GSD teams through a cloud-based infrastructure can be a promising solution to address the tools related challenges in GSD...

  20. Privilege management infrastructure for virtual organizations in healthcare grids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvillo, Jorge; Román, Isabel; Rivas, Sergio; Roa, Laura M

    2011-03-01

    This paper is focused on the management of virtual organizations (VO) inside healthcare environments where grid technology is used as middleware for a healthcare services-oriented architecture (HSOA). Some of the main tasks considered for the provision of an efficient VO management are management of users, assignation of roles to users, assignation of privileges to roles, and definition of resources access policies. These tasks are extremely close to privilege management infrastructures (PMI), so we face VO management services as part of the PMI supporting access control to healthcare resources inside the HSOA. In order to achieve a completely open and interoperable PMI, we review and apply standards of security and architectural design. Moreover, semantic technologies are introduced in decision points for access control allowing the management of a high degree of descriptors by means of ontologies and infer the decision making through rules and reasoners. PMID:21216720