WorldWideScience

Sample records for charges

  1. CHARGE syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Chitra

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract CHARGE syndrome was initially defined as a non-random association of anomalies (Coloboma, Heart defect, Atresia choanae, Retarded growth and development, Genital hypoplasia, Ear anomalies/deafness. In 1998, an expert group defined the major (the classical 4C's: Choanal atresia, Coloboma, Characteristic ears and Cranial nerve anomalies and minor criteria of CHARGE syndrome. Individuals with all four major characteristics or three major and three minor characteristics are highly likely to have CHARGE syndrome. However, there have been individuals genetically identified with CHARGE syndrome without the classical choanal atresia and coloboma. The reported incidence of CHARGE syndrome ranges from 0.1–1.2/10,000 and depends on professional recognition. Coloboma mainly affects the retina. Major and minor congenital heart defects (the commonest cyanotic heart defect is tetralogy of Fallot occur in 75–80% of patients. Choanal atresia may be membranous or bony; bilateral or unilateral. Mental retardation is variable with intelligence quotients (IQ ranging from normal to profound retardation. Under-development of the external genitalia is a common finding in males but it is less apparent in females. Ear abnormalities include a classical finding of unusually shaped ears and hearing loss (conductive and/or nerve deafness that ranges from mild to severe deafness. Multiple cranial nerve dysfunctions are common. A behavioral phenotype for CHARGE syndrome is emerging. Mutations in the CHD7 gene (member of the chromodomain helicase DNA protein family are detected in over 75% of patients with CHARGE syndrome. Children with CHARGE syndrome require intensive medical management as well as numerous surgical interventions. They also need multidisciplinary follow up. Some of the hidden issues of CHARGE syndrome are often forgotten, one being the feeding adaptation of these children, which needs an early aggressive approach from a feeding team. As the child

  2. Charged Leptons

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, J; Babu, K; Bernstein, R H; Blum, T; Brown, D N; Casey, B C K; Cheng, C -h; Cirigliano, V; Cohen, A; Deshpande, A; Dukes, E C; Echenard, B; Gaponenko, A; Glenzinski, D; Gonzalez-Alonso, M; Grancagnolo, F; Grossman, Y; Harnik, R; Hitlin, D G; Kiburg, B; Knoepfe, K; Kumar, K; Lim, G; Lu, Z -T; McKeen, D; Miller, J P; Ramsey-Musolf, M; Ray, R; Roberts, B L; Rominsky, M; Semertzidis, Y; Stoeckinger, D; Talman, R; Van De Water, R; Winter, P

    2013-01-01

    This is the report of the Intensity Frontier Charged Lepton Working Group of the 2013 Community Summer Study "Snowmass on the Mississippi", summarizing the current status and future experimental opportunities in muon and tau lepton studies and their sensitivity to new physics. These include searches for charged lepton flavor violation, measurements of magnetic and electric dipole moments, and precision measurements of the decay spectrum and parity-violating asymmetries.

  3. CHARGE Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semanti Chakraborty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present here a case of 17-year-old boy from Kolkata presenting with obesity, bilateral gynecomastia, mental retardation, and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. The patient weighed 70 kg and was of 153 cm height. Facial asymmetry (unilateral facial palsy, gynecomastia, decreased pubic and axillary hair, small penis, decreased right testicular volume, non-palpable left testis, and right-sided congenital inguinal hernia was present. The patient also had disc coloboma, convergent squint, microcornea, microphthalmia, pseudohypertelorism, low set ears, short neck, and choanalatresia. He had h/o VSD repaired with patch. Laboratory examination revealed haemoglobin 9.9 mg/dl, urea 24 mg/dl, creatinine 0.68 mg/dl. IGF1 77.80 ng/ml (decreased for age, GH <0.05 ng/ml, testosterone 0.25 ng/ml, FSH-0.95 ΅IU/ml, LH 0.60 ΅IU/ml. ACTH, 8:00 A.M cortisol, FT3, FT4, TSH, estradiol, DHEA-S, lipid profile, and LFT was within normal limits. Prolactin was elevated at 38.50 ng/ml. The patient′s karyotype was 46XY. Echocardiography revealed ventricularseptal defect closed with patch, grade 1 aortic regurgitation, and ejection fraction 67%. Ultrasound testis showed small right testis within scrotal sac and undescended left testis within left inguinal canal. CT scan paranasal sinuses revealed choanalatresia and deviation of nasal septum to the right. Sonomammography revealed bilateral proliferation of fibroglandular elements predominantly in subareoalar region of breasts. MRI of brain and pituitary region revealed markedly atrophic pituitary gland parenchyma with preserved infundibulum and hypothalamus and widened suprasellar cistern. The CHARGE association is an increasingly recognized non-random pattern of congenital anomalies comprising of coloboma, heart defect, choanal atresia, retarded growth and development, genital hypoplasia, ear abnormalities, and/or deafness. [1] These anomalies have a higher probability of occurring together. In this report, we have

  4. Workplace Charging. Charging Up University Campuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, Carrie [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Ryder, Carrie [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Lommele, Stephen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This case study features the experiences of university partners in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Workplace Charging Challenge with the installation and management of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging stations.

  5. Battery charging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carollo, J.A.; Kalinsky, W.A.

    1984-02-21

    A battery charger utilizes three basic modes of operation that includes a maintenance mode, a rapid charge mode and time controlled limited charging mode. The device utilizes feedback from the battery being charged of voltage, current and temperature to determine the mode of operation and the time period during which the battery is being charged.

  6. Magnetic charge quantisation and fractionally charged quarks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooft, G. 't

    1976-01-01

    If magnetic monopoles with Schwinger's value of the magnetic charge would exist then that would pose serious restrictions on theories with fractionally charged quarks, even if they are confined. Weak and electromagnetic interactions must be unified with color, leading to a Weinberg angle w close to

  7. Electrodynamics of Radiating Charges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øyvind Grøn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The theory of electrodynamics of radiating charges is reviewed with special emphasis on the role of the Schott energy for the conservation of energy for a charge and its electromagnetic field. It is made clear that the existence of radiation from a charge is not invariant against a transformation between two reference frames that has an accelerated motion relative to each other. The questions whether the existence of radiation from a uniformly accelerated charge with vanishing radiation reaction force is in conflict with the principle of equivalence and whether a freely falling charge radiates are reviewed. It is shown that the resolution of an electromagnetic “perpetuum mobile paradox” associated with a charge moving geodetically along a circular path in the Schwarzschild spacetime requires the so-called tail terms in the equation of motion of a charged particle.

  8. Surface Charging and Points of Zero Charge

    CERN Document Server

    Kosmulski, Marek

    2009-01-01

    Presents Points of Zero Charge data on well-defined specimen of materials sorted by trademark, manufacturer, and location. This text emphasizes the comparison between particular results obtained for different portions of the same or very similar material and synthesizes the information published in research reports over the past few decades

  9. Rain Drop Charge Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Sreekanth T.

    begin{center} Large Large Rain Drop Charge Sensor Sreekanth T S*, Suby Symon*, G. Mohan Kumar (1) , S. Murali Das (2) *Atmospheric Sciences Division, Centre for Earth Science Studies, Thiruvananthapuram 695011 (1) D-330, Swathi Nagar, West Fort, Thiruvananthapuram 695023 (2) Kavyam, Manacaud, Thiruvananthapuram 695009 begin{center} ABSTRACT To study the inter-relations with precipitation electricity and precipitation microphysical parameters a rain drop charge sensor was designed and developed at CESS Electronics & Instrumentation Laboratory. Simultaneous measurement of electric charge and fall speed of rain drops could be done using this charge sensor. A cylindrical metal tube (sensor tube) of 30 cm length is placed inside another thick metal cover opened at top and bottom for electromagnetic shielding. Mouth of the sensor tube is exposed and bottom part is covered with metal net in the shielding cover. The instrument is designed in such a way that rain drops can pass only through unhindered inside the sensor tube. When electrically charged rain drops pass through the sensor tube, it is charged to the same magnitude of drop charge but with opposite polarity. The sensor tube is electrically connected the inverted input of a current to voltage converter operational amplifier using op-amp AD549. Since the sensor is electrically connected to the virtual ground of the op-amp, the charge flows to the ground and the generated current is converted to amplified voltage. This output voltage is recorded using a high frequency (1kHz) voltage recorder. From the recorded pulse, charge magnitude, polarity and fall speed of rain drop are calculated. From the fall speed drop diameter also can be calculated. The prototype is now under test running at CESS campus. As the magnitude of charge in rain drops is an indication of accumulated charge in clouds in lightning, this instrument has potential application in the field of risk and disaster management. By knowing the charge

  10. Induced Charge Capacitive Deionization

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, S; Biesheuvel, P M; Bercovici, M

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the phenomenon of induced-charge capacitive deionization (ICCDI) that occurs around a porous and conducting particle immersed in an electrolyte, under the action of an external electrostatic field. The external electric field induces an electric dipole in the porous particle, leading to capacitive charging of its volume by both cations and anions at opposite poles. This regime is characterized both by a large RC charging time and a small electrochemical charge relaxation time, which leads to rapid and significant deionization of ionic species from a volume which is on the scale of the particle. We show by theory and experiment that the transient response around a cylindrical particle results in spatially non-uniform charging and non-steady growth of depletion regions which emerge around the particle's poles. Potentially, ICCDI can be useful in applications where fast concentration changes of ionic species are required over large volumes.

  11. Electric vehicle battery charging controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention provides an electric vehicle charging controller. The charging controller comprises a first interface connectable to an electric vehicle charge source for receiving a charging current, a second interface connectable to an electric vehicle for providing the charging current...... to a battery management system in the electric vehicle to charge a battery therein, a first communication unit for receiving a charging message via a communication network, and a control unit for controlling a charging current provided from the charge source to the electric vehicle, the controlling at least...

  12. An improved charge pump with suppressed charge sharing effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Bai

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A differential charge pump with reduced charge sharing effect is presented. The current-steering topology is adopted for fast switching. A replica charge pump is added to provide a current path for the complementary branch of the master charge pump in the current switching. Through the replica charge pump, the voltage at the complementary node of the master charge pump keeps stable during switching, and the dynamic charge sharing effect is avoided. Apply the charge pump to a 4.8 GHz band integer-N PLL, the measured reference spur is -49.7dBc with a 4-MHz reference frequency.

  13. Space-Charge Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Chauvin, N

    2013-01-01

    First, this chapter introduces the expressions for the electric and magnetic space-charge internal fields and forces induced by high-intensity beams. Then, the root-mean-square equation with space charge is derived and discussed. In the third section, the one-dimensional Child-Langmuir law, which gives the maximum current density that can be extracted from an ion source, is exposed. Space-charge compensation can occur in the low-energy beam transport lines (located after the ion source). This phenomenon, which counteracts the spacecharge defocusing effect, is explained and its main parameters are presented. The fifth section presents an overview of the principal methods to perform beam dynamics numerical simulations. An example of a particles-in-cells code, SolMaxP, which takes into account space-charge compensation, is given. Finally, beam dynamics simulation results obtained with this code in the case of the IFMIF injector are presented.

  14. Primitive Virtual Negative Charge

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kiyoung

    2008-01-01

    Physical fields, such as gravity and electromagnetic field, are interpreted as results from rearrangement of vacuum particles to get the equilibrium of net charge density and net mass density in 4-dimensional complex space. Then, both fields should interact to each other in that physical interaction is considered as a field-to-field interaction. Hence, Mass-Charge interaction is introduced with primitive-virtual negative charge defined for the mass. With the concept of Mass-Charge interaction electric equilibrium of the earth is discussed, especially about the electric field and magnetic field of the earth. For unsettled phenomena related with the earth's gravity, such as antigravity phenomenon, gravity anomalies during the solar eclipses, the connection between geomagnetic storms and earthquakes, etc., possible explanations are discussed.

  15. Water Quality Protection Charges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The Water Quality Protection Charge (WQPC) is a line item on your property tax bill. WQPC funds many of the County's clean water initiatives including: • Restoration...

  16. Electric Vehicle Charging Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Grahn, Pia

    2014-01-01

    With an electrified passenger transportation fleet, carbon dioxide emissions could be reduced significantly depending on the electric power production mix. Increased electric power consumption due to electric vehicle charging demands of electric vehicle fleets may be met by increased amount of renewable power production in the electrical systems. With electric vehicle fleets in the transportation system there is a need for establishing an electric vehicle charging infrastructure that distribu...

  17. Electrically charged targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Ronald K.; Hunt, Angus L.

    1984-01-01

    Electrically chargeable laser targets and method for forming such charged targets in order to improve their guidance along a predetermined desired trajectory. This is accomplished by the incorporation of a small amount of an additive to the target material which will increase the electrical conductivity thereof, and thereby enhance the charge placed upon the target material for guidance thereof by electrostatic or magnetic steering mechanisms, without adversely affecting the target when illuminated by laser energy.

  18. Charge-sensitive amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Startsev V. I.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider design and circuit design techniques of reduction of the influence of the pyroelectric effect on operation of the charge sensitive amplifiers. The presented experimental results confirm the validity of the measures taken to reduce the impact of pyroelectric currents. Pyroelectric currents are caused by the influence of the temperature gradient on the piezoelectric sensor and on the output voltage of charge sensitive amplifiers.

  19. Holographic charge density waves

    CERN Document Server

    Donos, Aristomenis

    2013-01-01

    We show that strongly coupled holographic matter at finite charge density can exhibit charge density wave phases which spontaneously break translation invariance while preserving time-reversal and parity invariance. We show that such phases are possible within Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory in general spacetime dimensions. We also discuss related spatially modulated phases when there is an additional coupling to a second vector field, possibly with non-zero mass. We discuss how these constructions, and others, should be associated with novel spatially modulated ground states.

  20. Holographic charge density waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donos, Aristomenis; Gauntlett, Jerome P.

    2013-06-01

    We show that strongly coupled holographic matter at finite charge density can exhibit charge density wave phases which spontaneously break translation invariance while preserving time-reversal and parity invariance. We show that such phases are possible within Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory in general spacetime dimensions. We also discuss related spatially modulated phases when there is an additional coupling to a second vector field, possibly with nonzero mass. We discuss how these constructions, and others, should be associated with novel spatially modulated ground states.

  1. Charges for linearized gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Aksteiner, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Maxwell test fields as well as solutions of linearized gravity on the Kerr exterior admit non-radiating modes, i.e. non-trivial time-independent solutions. These are closely related to conserved charges. In this paper we discuss the non-radiating modes for linearized gravity, which may be seen to correspond to the Poincare Lie-algebra. The 2-dimensional isometry group of Kerr corresponds to a 2-parameter family of gauge-invariant non-radiating modes representing infinitesimal perturbations of mass and azimuthal angular momentum. We calculate the linearized mass charge in terms of linearized Newman-Penrose scalars.

  2. Charged particle beams

    CERN Document Server

    Humphries, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    Detailed enough for a text and sufficiently comprehensive for a reference, this volume addresses topics vital to understanding high-power accelerators and high-brightness-charged particle beams. Subjects include stochastic cooling, high-brightness injectors, and the free electron laser. Humphries provides students with the critical skills necessary for the problem-solving insights unique to collective physics problems. 1990 edition.

  3. Optimization of BEV Charging Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wei

    This paper presents different approaches to optimize fast charging and workplace charging strategy of battery electric vehicle (BEV) drivers. For the fast charging analysis, a rule-based model was built to simulate BEV charging behavior. Monte Carlo analysis was performed to explore to the potential range of congestion at fast charging stations which could be more than four hours at the most crowded stations. Genetic algorithm was performed to explore the theoretical minimum waiting time at fast charging stations, and it can decrease the waiting time at the most crowded stations to be shorter than one hour. A deterministic approach was proposed as a feasible suggestion that people should consider to take fast charging when the state of charge is approaching 40 miles. This suggestion is hoped to help to minimize potential congestion at fast charging stations. For the workplace charging analysis, scenario analysis was performed to simulate temporal distribution of charging demand under different workplace charging strategies. It was found that if BEV drivers charge as much as possible and as late as possible at workplace, it could increase the utility of solar-generated electricity while relieve grid stress of extra intensive electricity demand at night caused by charging electric vehicles at home.

  4. Perturbatively charged holographic disorder

    CERN Document Server

    O'Keeffe, Daniel K

    2015-01-01

    Within the framework of holography applied to condensed matter physics, we study a model of perturbatively charged disorder in D=4 dimensions. Starting from initially uncharged AdS_4, a randomly fluctuating boundary chemical potential is introduced by turning on a bulk gauge field parameterized by a disorder strength and a characteristic scale k_0. Accounting for gravitational backreaction, we construct an asymptotically AdS solution perturbatively in the disorder strength. The disorder averaged geometry displays unphysical divergences in the deep interior. We explain how to remove these divergences and arrive at a well behaved solution. The disorder averaged DC conductivity is calculated and is found to contain a correction to the AdS result. The correction appears at second order in the disorder strength and scales inversely with k_0. We discuss the extension to a system with a finite initial charge density. The disorder averaged DC conductivity may be calculated by adopting a technique developed for hologr...

  5. High Voltage Charge Pump

    KAUST Repository

    Emira, Ahmed A.

    2014-10-09

    Various embodiments of a high voltage charge pump are described. One embodiment is a charge pump circuit that comprises a plurality of switching stages each including a clock input, a clock input inverse, a clock output, and a clock output inverse. The circuit further comprises a plurality of pumping capacitors, wherein one or more pumping capacitors are coupled to a corresponding switching stage. The circuit also comprises a maximum selection circuit coupled to a last switching stage among the plurality of switching stages, the maximum selection circuit configured to filter noise on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage, the maximum selection circuit further configured to generate a DC output voltage based on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage.

  6. Electrically charged curvaton

    CERN Document Server

    D'Onofrio, Michela; Rajantie, Arttu

    2012-01-01

    We consider the possibility that the primordial curvature perturbation was generated through the curvaton mechanism from a scalar field with an electric charge, or precisely the Standard Model U(1) weak hypercharge. This links the dynamics of the very early universe concretely to the Standard Model of particle physics, and because the coupling strength is known, it reduces the number of free parameters in the curvaton model. We show that the model is compatible with CMB observations for Hubble rate $H_* > 10^8 GeV$ and curvaton mass $m > 10^{-2}H_*$. Charge fluctuations generated during inflation are screened by electron-positron pairs, and therefore do not violate observational constraints. The interaction with the gauge field leads to interesting dynamics after inflation, including resonant preheating, with potentially highly non-trivial observational consequences, which should be studied more carefully using numerical field theory simulations.

  7. Existence of magnetic charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, David

    1990-10-01

    A status report is presented on the existence of quarks carrying the Dirac unit of magnetic charge g = (137/2) e. The Paschen-Back effect in dyonium is discussed. From the dyonium model, Akers predicted the existence of a new η meson at 1814 MeV with I G(JPC) = 0+(0-+). Experimental evidence now confirms the existence of the meson resonance.

  8. Extremally charged line

    CERN Document Server

    Ryzner, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the properties of a static, cylindrically symmetric Majumdar-Papapetrou-type solution of Einstein-Maxwell equations. We locate its singularities, establish its algebraic type, find its asymptotic properties and weak-field limit, study the structure of electrogeodesics, and determine the mass and charge of its sources. We provide an interpretation of the spacetime and discuss the parameter appearing in the metric.

  9. Charged Lifshitz Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghani, M. H.; Pourhasan, R.; Mann, R. B.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate modifications of the Lifshitz black hole solutions due to the presence of Maxwell charge in higher dimensions for arbitrary $z$ and any topology. We find that the behaviour of large black holes is insensitive to the topology of the solutions, whereas for small black holes significant differences emerge. We generalize a relation previously obtained for neutral Lifshitz black branes, and study more generally the thermodynamic relationship between energy, entropy, and chemical pot...

  10. Distributed charging of electrical assets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Soumyadip; Phan, Dung; Sharma, Mayank; Wu, Chai Wah; Xiong, Jinjun

    2016-02-16

    The present disclosure relates generally to the field of distributed charging of electrical assets. In various examples, distributed charging of electrical assets may be implemented in the form of systems, methods and/or algorithms.

  11. Modular Battery Charge Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Robert; Gonzalez, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    A new approach to masterless, distributed, digital-charge control for batteries requiring charge control has been developed and implemented. This approach is required in battery chemistries that need cell-level charge control for safety and is characterized by the use of one controller per cell, resulting in redundant sensors for critical components, such as voltage, temperature, and current. The charge controllers in a given battery interact in a masterless fashion for the purpose of cell balancing, charge control, and state-of-charge estimation. This makes the battery system invariably fault-tolerant. The solution to the single-fault failure, due to the use of a single charge controller (CC), was solved by implementing one CC per cell and linking them via an isolated communication bus [e.g., controller area network (CAN)] in a masterless fashion so that the failure of one or more CCs will not impact the remaining functional CCs. Each micro-controller-based CC digitizes the cell voltage (V(sub cell)), two cell temperatures, and the voltage across the switch (V); the latter variable is used in conjunction with V(sub cell) to estimate the bypass current for a given bypass resistor. Furthermore, CC1 digitizes the battery current (I1) and battery voltage (V(sub batt) and CC5 digitizes a second battery current (I2). As a result, redundant readings are taken for temperature, battery current, and battery voltage through the summation of the individual cell voltages given that each CC knows the voltage of the other cells. For the purpose of cell balancing, each CC periodically and independently transmits its cell voltage and stores the received cell voltage of the other cells in an array. The position in the array depends on the identifier (ID) of the transmitting CC. After eight cell voltage receptions, the array is checked to see if one or more cells did not transmit. If one or more transmissions are missing, the missing cell(s) is (are) eliminated from cell

  12. Banking Bank Charge Debates Continue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG PEI

    2006-01-01

    @@ The saying, "There's no such thing as a free lunch" is one that can be applied to the charges increasingly being imposed on savers by Chinese banks.Ranging from managementfees for small deposit accounts to charges for withdrawals of large amounts of cash, from ATM cross-bank withdrawal charges to annual fees for bank payment cards, charges by banks are becoming a unstoppable trend. But it is not a trend the general public is so keen to accept.

  13. Notch Charge-Coupled Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janesick, James

    1992-01-01

    Notch charge-coupled devices are imaging arrays of photodetectors designed to exhibit high charge-transfer efficiencies necessary for operation in ultra-large array, and less vulnerable to degradation by energetic protons, neutrons, and electrons. Main channel of horizontal register includes deep narrow inner channel (notch). Small packets of charge remain confined to notch. Larger packets spill into rest of channel; transferred in usual way. Degradation of charge-transfer efficiency by energetic particles reduced.

  14. Predictions of nuclear charge radii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, M.; Lu, Y.; Zhao, Y. M.; Arima, A.

    2016-12-01

    The nuclear charge radius is a fundamental property of an atomic nucleus. In this article we study the predictive power of empirical relations for experimental nuclear charge radii of neighboring nuclei and predict the unknown charge radii of 1085 nuclei based on the experimental CR2013 database within an uncertainty of 0.03 fm.

  15. Tools for charged Higgs bosons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staal, Oscar

    2010-12-15

    We review the status of publicly available software tools applicable to charged Higgs physics. A selection of codes are highlighted in more detail, focusing on new developments that have taken place since the previous charged Higgs workshop in 2008. We conclude that phenomenologists now have the tools ready to face the LHC data. A new web page collecting charged Higgs resources is presented. (orig.)

  16. Improving Charging-Breeding Simulations with Space-Charge Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilek, Ryan; Kwiatkowski, Ania; Steinbrügge, René

    2016-09-01

    Rare-isotope-beam facilities use Highly Charged Ions (HCI) for accelerators accelerating heavy ions and to improve measurement precision and resolving power of certain experiments. An Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) is able to create HCI through successive electron impact, charge breeding trapped ions into higher charge states. CBSIM was created to calculate successive charge breeding with an EBIT. It was augmented by transferring it into an object-oriented programming language, including additional elements, improving ion-ion collision factors, and exploring the overlap of the electron beam with the ions. The calculation is enhanced with the effects of residual background gas by computing the space charge due to charge breeding. The program assimilates background species, ionizes and charge breeds them alongside the element being studied, and allows them to interact with the desired species through charge exchange, giving fairer overview of realistic charge breeding. Calculations of charge breeding will be shown for realistic experimental conditions. We reexamined the implementation of ionization energies, cross sections, and ion-ion interactions when charge breeding.

  17. Charge dynamic characteristics in corona-charged polytetrafluoroethylene film electrets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈钢进; 肖慧明; 朱春凤

    2004-01-01

    In this work, the charge dynamics characteristics of injection, transport and decay in porous and non-porous polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) film electrets were investigated by means of corona charging, isothermal and thermal stimulating surface-potential decay measurements. The results showed that the initial surface potential, whether positively or negatively charging, is much higher in non-porous PTFE than in porous PTFE. For porous film the value of initial sur-face potentials increases with increase of film thickness. Higher charging temperature can remarkably improve charge stability. The charge dynamics are correlated to materials microstructure according to their scanning electron micrographs.For non-porous PTFE films, polarizability change of C-F bonds is the main origin of electret charges; but for porous PTFE film a large number of bulk and interface type traps are expected because of the greater area of interface and higher crys-tallinity.

  18. Charge dynamic characteristics in corona-charged polytetrafluoroethylene film electrets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈钢进; 肖慧明; 朱春凤

    2004-01-01

    In this work, the charge dynamics characteristics of injection, transport and decay in porous and non-porous polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) film electrets were investigated by means of corona charging, isothermal and thermal stimulating surface-potential decay measurements. The results showed that the initial surface potential, whether positively or negatively charging, is much higher in non-porous PTFE than in porous PTFE. For porous film the value of initial surface potentials increases with increase of film thickness. Higher charging temperature can remarkably improve charge stability. The charge dynamics are correlated to materials microstructure according to their scanning electron micrographs.For non-porous PTFE films, polarizability change of C-F bonds is the main origin of electret charges; but for porous PTFE film a large number of bulk and interface type traps are expected because of the greater area of interface and higher crystallinity.

  19. Charge sniffer for electrostatics demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinca, Mihai P.

    2011-02-01

    An electronic electroscope with a special design for demonstrations and experiments on static electricity is described. It operates as an electric charge sniffer by detecting slightly charged objects when they are brought to the front of its sensing electrode. The sniffer has the advantage of combining high directional sensitivity with a logarithmic bar display. It allows for the identification of electric charge polarity during charge separation by friction, peeling, electrostatic induction, batteries, or secondary coils of power transformers. Other experiments in electrostatics, such as observing the electric field of an oscillating dipole and the distance dependence of the electric field generated by simple charge configurations, are also described.

  20. Antiproton charge radius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivelli, P.; Cooke, D.; Heiss, M. W.

    2016-09-01

    The upcoming operation of the extra low energy antiprotons ring at CERN, the upgrade of the antiproton decelerator (AD), and the installation in the AD hall of an intense slow positron beam with an expected flux of 1 08 e+ /s will open the possibility for new experiments with antihydrogen (H ¯). Here we propose a scheme to measure the Lamb shift of H ¯. For four months of data taking, we anticipate an uncertainty of 100 ppm. This will provide a test of C P T and the first determination of the antiproton charge radius at the level of 10%.

  1. Price Based Electric Vehicle Charging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahat, Pukar; Handl, Martin; Kanstrup, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    It is expected that a lot of the new light vehicles in the future will be electrical vehicles (EV). The storage capacity of these EVs has the potential to complement renewable energy resources and mitigate its intermittency. However, EV charging may have negative impact on the power grid. This pa......It is expected that a lot of the new light vehicles in the future will be electrical vehicles (EV). The storage capacity of these EVs has the potential to complement renewable energy resources and mitigate its intermittency. However, EV charging may have negative impact on the power grid....... This paper investigates the impact on a Danish distribution system when the EV charging aims to reduce the charging cost by charging at the cheapest hours. Results show that the charging based on the price signal only will have adverse effect on the grid. The paper also proposes an alternate EV charging...

  2. Charged Galileon black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babichev, Eugeny; Charmousis, Christos; Hassaine, Mokhtar

    2015-05-01

    We consider an Abelian gauge field coupled to a particular truncation of Horndeski theory. The Galileon field has translation symmetry and couples non minimally both to the metric and the gauge field. When the gauge-scalar coupling is zero the gauge field reduces to a standard Maxwell field. By taking into account the symmetries of the action, we construct charged black hole solutions. Allowing the scalar field to softly break symmetries of spacetime we construct black holes where the scalar field is regular on the black hole event horizon. Some of these solutions can be interpreted as the equivalent of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes of scalar tensor theories with a non trivial scalar field. A self tuning black hole solution found previously is extended to the presence of dyonic charge without affecting whatsoever the self tuning of a large positive cosmological constant. Finally, for a general shift invariant scalar tensor theory we demonstrate that the scalar field Ansatz and method we employ are mathematically compatible with the field equations. This opens up the possibility for novel searches of hairy black holes in a far more general setting of Horndeski theory.

  3. Charged Dust Aggregate Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2015-11-01

    A proper understanding of the behavior of dust particle aggregates immersed in a complex plasma first requires a knowledge of the basic properties of the system. Among the most important of these are the net electrostatic charge and higher multipole moments on the dust aggregate as well as the manner in which the aggregate interacts with the local electrostatic fields. The formation of elongated, fractal-like aggregates levitating in the sheath electric field of a weakly ionized RF generated plasma discharge has recently been observed experimentally. The resulting data has shown that as aggregates approach one another, they can both accelerate and rotate. At equilibrium, aggregates are observed to levitate with regular spacing, rotating about their long axis aligned parallel to the sheath electric field. Since gas drag tends to slow any such rotation, energy must be constantly fed into the system in order to sustain it. A numerical model designed to analyze this motion provides both the electrostatic charge and higher multipole moments of the aggregate while including the forces due to thermophoresis, neutral gas drag, and the ion wakefield. This model will be used to investigate the ambient conditions leading to the observed interactions. This research is funded by NSF Grant 1414523.

  4. Charged Galileon black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Babichev, Eugeny; Hassaine, Mokhtar

    2015-01-01

    We consider an Abelian gauge field coupled to a particular truncation of Horndeski theory. The Galileon field has translation symmetry and couples non minimally both to the metric and the gauge field. When the gauge-scalar coupling is zero the gauge field reduces to a standard Maxwell field. By taking into account the symmetries of the action, we construct charged black hole solutions. Allowing the scalar field to softly break symmetries of spacetime we construct black holes where the scalar field is regular on the black hole event horizon. Some of these solutions can be interpreted as the equivalent of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes of scalar tensor theories with a non trivial scalar field. A self tuning black hole solution found previously is extended to the presence of dyonic charge without affecting whatsoever the self tuning of a large positive cosmological constant. Finally, for a general shift invariant scalar tensor theory we demonstrate that the scalar field Ansatz and method we employ are mathematic...

  5. Charge Breeding of Radioactive Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Wenander, F J C

    2013-01-01

    Charge breeding is a technique to increase the charge state of ions, in many cases radioactive ions. The singly charged radioactive ions, produced in an isotope separator on-line facility, and extracted with a low kinetic energy of some tens of keV, are injected into a charge breeder, where the charge state is increased to Q. The transformed ions are either directed towards a dedicated experiment requiring highly charged ions, or post-accelerated to higher beam energies. In this paper the physics processes involved in the production of highly charged ions will be introduced, and the injection and extraction beam parameters of the charge breeder defined. A description of the three main charge-breeding methods is given, namely: electron stripping in gas jet or foil; external ion injection into an electron-beam ion source/trap (EBIS/T); and external ion injection into an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). In addition, some preparatory devices for charge breeding and practical beam delivery aspects ...

  6. Fractional lattice charge transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flach, Sergej; Khomeriki, Ramaz

    2017-01-01

    We consider the dynamics of noninteracting quantum particles on a square lattice in the presence of a magnetic flux α and a dc electric field E oriented along the lattice diagonal. In general, the adiabatic dynamics will be characterized by Bloch oscillations in the electrical field direction and dispersive ballistic transport in the perpendicular direction. For rational values of α and a corresponding discrete set of values of E(α) vanishing gaps in the spectrum induce a fractionalization of the charge in the perpendicular direction - while left movers are still performing dispersive ballistic transport, the complementary fraction of right movers is propagating in a dispersionless relativistic manner in the opposite direction. Generalizations and the possible probing of the effect with atomic Bose-Einstein condensates and photonic networks are discussed. Zak phase of respective band associated with gap closing regime has been computed and it is found converging to π/2 value. PMID:28102302

  7. Battery charging stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergey, M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper discusses the concept of battery charging stations (BCSs), designed to service rural owners of battery power sources. Many such power sources now are transported to urban areas for recharging. A BCS provides the opportunity to locate these facilities closer to the user, is often powered by renewable sources, or hybrid systems, takes advantage of economies of scale, and has the potential to provide lower cost of service, better service, and better cost recovery than other rural electrification programs. Typical systems discussed can service 200 to 1200 people, and consist of stations powered by photovoltaics, wind/PV, wind/diesel, or diesel only. Examples of installed systems are presented, followed by cost figures, economic analysis, and typical system design and performance numbers.

  8. Explosive bulk charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Jacob Lee

    2015-04-21

    An explosive bulk charge, including: a first contact surface configured to be selectively disposed substantially adjacent to a structure or material; a second end surface configured to selectively receive a detonator; and a curvilinear side surface joining the first contact surface and the second end surface. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface form a bi-truncated hemispherical structure. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface are formed from an explosive material. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface each have a substantially circular shape. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface consist of planar structures that are aligned substantially parallel or slightly tilted with respect to one another. The curvilinear side surface has one of a smooth curved geometry, an elliptical geometry, and a parabolic geometry.

  9. High dynamic range charge measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Geronimo, Gianluigi

    2012-09-04

    A charge amplifier for use in radiation sensing includes an amplifier, at least one switch, and at least one capacitor. The switch selectively couples the input of the switch to one of at least two voltages. The capacitor is electrically coupled in series between the input of the amplifier and the input of the switch. The capacitor is electrically coupled to the input of the amplifier without a switch coupled therebetween. A method of measuring charge in radiation sensing includes selectively diverting charge from an input of an amplifier to an input of at least one capacitor by selectively coupling an output of the at least one capacitor to one of at least two voltages. The input of the at least one capacitor is operatively coupled to the input of the amplifier without a switch coupled therebetween. The method also includes calculating a total charge based on a sum of the amplified charge and the diverted charge.

  10. 12 CFR 226.4 - Finance charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Finance charge. 226.4 Section 226.4 Banks and... LENDING (REGULATION Z) General § 226.4 Finance charge. (a) Definition. The finance charge is the cost of...) Charges by third parties. The finance charge includes fees and amounts charged by someone other than...

  11. Butterflies with rotation and charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Alan P.; Ross, Simon F.

    2016-11-01

    We explore the butterfly effect for black holes with rotation or charge. We perturb rotating BTZ and charged black holes in 2 + 1 dimensions by adding a small perturbation on one asymptotic region, described by a shock wave in the spacetime, and explore the effect of this shock wave on the length of geodesics through the wormhole and hence on correlation functions. We find the effect of the perturbation grows exponentially at a rate controlled by the temperature; dependence on the angular momentum or charge does not appear explicitly. We comment on issues affecting the extension to higher-dimensional charged black holes.

  12. Butterflies with rotation and charge

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, Alan P

    2016-01-01

    We explore the butterfly effect for black holes with rotation or charge. We perturb rotating BTZ and charged black holes in 2+1 dimensions by adding a small perturbation on one asymptotic region, described by a shock wave in the spacetime, and explore the effect of this shock wave on the length of geodesics through the wormhole and hence on correlation functions. We find the effect of the perturbation grows exponentially at a rate controlled by the temperature; dependence on the angular momentum or charge does not appear explicitly. We comment on issues affecting the extension to higher-dimensional charged black holes.

  13. Charge transport in polymeric transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Salleo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric semiconductors have attracted much attention because of their possible use as active materials in printed electronics. Thin-film transistors (TFTs are a convenient tool for studying charge-transport physics in conjugated polymers. Two families of materials are reviewed here: fluorene copolymers and polythiophenes. Because charge transport is highly anisotropic in molecular conductors, the electrical properties of conjugated polymers are strongly dependent on microstructure. Molecular weight, polydispersity, and regioregularity all affect morphology and charge-transport in these materials. Charge transport models based on microstructure are instrumental in identifying the electrical bottlenecks in these materials.

  14. Charged Polaritons with Spin 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samoilov V.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a new model for metal which is based on the stimulated vibration of independent charged Fermi-ions, representing as independent harmonic oscillators with natural frequencies, under action of longitudinal and transverse elastic waves. Due to application of the elastic wave-particle principle and ion-wave dualities, we predict the existence of two types of charged Polaritons with spin 1 which are induced by longitudinal and transverse elastic fields. As result of presented theory, at small wavenumbers, these charged polaritons represent charged phonons.

  15. Low-charge-state linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.; Kim, J.W.

    1995-08-01

    A design is being developed for a low-charge-state linac suitable for injecting ATLAS with a low-charge-state, radioactive beam. Initial work indicates that the existing ATLAS interdigital superconducting accelerating structures, together with the superconducting quadrupole transverse focussing element discussed above, provides a basis for a high-performance low-charge-state linac. The initial 2 or 3 MV of such a linac could be based on a normally-conducting, low-frequency RFQ, possibly combined with 24-MHz superconducting interdigital structures. Beam dynamics studies of the whole low-charge-state post-accelerator section were carried out in early FY 1995.

  16. Charge transfer in multicomponent oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohan, A. F.; Ceder, G.

    1998-02-01

    The transfer of charge between different ions in an oxide plays an essential role in the stability of these compounds. Since small variations in charge can introduce large changes in the total energy, a correct description of this phenomenon is critical. In this work, we show that the ionic charge in oxides can strongly depend on its atomic environment. A model to assign point charges to atoms as a function of their atomic environment has recently been proposed for binary alloys [C. Wolverton, A. Zunger, S. Froyen, and S.-H. Wei, Phys. Rev. B 54, 7843 (1996)] and proven to be very successful in screened solids such as semiconductors and metals. Here, we extend this formalism to multicomponent oxides and we assess its applicability. The simple point-charge model predicts a linear relation between the charge on an atom and the number of unlike neighbors, and between the net value of the charge and the Coulomb field at a given site. The applicability of this approach is tested in a large-supercell self-consistent tight-binding calculation for a random Zr-Ca-O alloy. The observed fluctuations of the ionic charge about the average linear behavior (as a function of the number of unlike neighbors) was larger than 0.25 electrons even when many shells of atomic neighbors were considered in the fit. This variation is significant since it can introduce large errors in the electrostatic energy. On the other hand, for small absolute values of the charge, the ionic charge varied linearly with the Coulomb field, in agreement with previous findings. However, for large Coulomb fields, this function saturates at the formal chemical charge.

  17. Quantum charged rigid membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordero, Ruben [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del I.P.N., Unidad Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Edificio 9, 07738 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Molgado, Alberto [Unidad Academica de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas Zac. (Mexico); Rojas, Efrain, E-mail: cordero@esfm.ipn.mx, E-mail: amolgado@fisica.uaz.edu.mx, E-mail: efrojas@uv.mx [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Fisica e Inteligencia Artificial, Universidad Veracruzana, 91000 Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2011-03-21

    The early Dirac proposal to model the electron as a charged membrane is reviewed. A rigidity term, instead of the natural membrane tension, involving linearly the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the membrane is considered in the action modeling the bubble in the presence of an electromagnetic field. We set up this model as a genuine second-order derivative theory by considering a non-trivial boundary term which plays a relevant part in our formulation. The Lagrangian in question is linear in the bubble acceleration and by means of the Ostrogradski-Hamiltonian approach, we observed that the theory comprises the management of both first- and second-class constraints. We thus show that our second-order approach is robust allowing for a proper quantization. We found an effective quantum potential which permits us to compute bounded states for the system. We comment on the possibility of describing brane world universes by invoking this kind of second-order correction terms.

  18. Quantum charged rigid membrane

    CERN Document Server

    Cordero, Ruben; Rojas, Efrain

    2010-01-01

    The early Dirac proposal to model the electron as a charged membrane is reviewed. A rigidity term, instead of the natural membrane tension, involving linearly the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the membrane is considered in the action modeling the bubble in the presence of an electromagnetic field. We set up this model as a genuine second-order derivative theory by considering a non-trivial boundary term which plays a relevant part in our formulation. The Lagrangian in question is linear in the bubble acceleration and by means of the Ostrogradski-Hamiltonian approach we observed that the theory comprises the management of both first- and second-class constraints. We show thus that our second-order approach is robust allowing for a proper quantization. We found an effective quantum potential which permits to compute bounded states for the system. We comment on the possibility of describing brane world universes by invoking this kind of second-order correction terms.

  19. Metallic charge stripes in cuprates

    OpenAIRE

    Tranquada, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    Some recent evidence for the existence of dynamic, metallic stripes in the 214-family of cuprates is reviewed. The mechanism of stripe pinning is considered, and changes in the charge density within stripes between the pinned and dynamic phases is discussed. From a purely experimental perspective, dynamic charge stripes are fully compatible with nodal ``quasiparticles'' and other electronic properties common to all superconducting cuprates.

  20. Filling of charged cylindrical capillaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Siddhartha; Chanda, Sourayon; Eijkel, J.C.T.; Tas, N.R.; Chakraborty, Suman; Mitra, Sushanta K.

    2014-01-01

    We provide an analytical model to describe the filling dynamics of horizontal cylindrical capillaries having charged walls. The presence of surface charge leads to two distinct effects: It leads to a retarding electrical force on the liquid column and also causes a reduced viscous drag force because

  1. Charge transport in amorphous oligothiophenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrader, Manuel; Baumeier, Bjoern; Andrienko, Denis [Max-Planck-Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Elschner, Chris; Riede, Moritz; Leo, Karl [TU Dresden, Institute of Applied Photophysics, Mommsenstr. 13, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Organic semiconducting materials are needed for emerging devices such as photovoltaic solar cells. In this work we combine first principle calculations, molecular dynamics and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations to study charge transport in dicyanovinyl oligothiophenes of different lengths. Poole-Frenkel behavior of the charge carrier mobility is rationalized based on electrostatic and conformational disorder.

  2. Electrostatic charging of jumping droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljkovic, Nenad; Preston, Daniel J.; Enright, Ryan; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2013-09-01

    With the broad interest in and development of superhydrophobic surfaces for self-cleaning, condensation heat transfer enhancement and anti-icing applications, more detailed insights on droplet interactions on these surfaces have emerged. Specifically, when two droplets coalesce, they can spontaneously jump away from a superhydrophobic surface due to the release of excess surface energy. Here we show that jumping droplets gain a net positive charge that causes them to repel each other mid-flight. We used electric fields to quantify the charge on the droplets and identified the mechanism for the charge accumulation, which is associated with the formation of the electric double layer at the droplet-surface interface. The observation of droplet charge accumulation provides insight into jumping droplet physics as well as processes involving charged liquid droplets. Furthermore, this work is a starting point for more advanced approaches for enhancing jumping droplet surface performance by using external electric fields to control droplet jumping.

  3. Grain charging in protoplanetary discs

    CERN Document Server

    Ilgner, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Recent work identified a growth barrier for dust coagulation that originates in the electric repulsion between colliding particles. Depending on its charge state, dust material may have the potential to control key processes towards planet formation such as MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) turbulence and grain growth which are coupled in a two-way process. We quantify the grain charging at different stages of disc evolution and differentiate between two very extreme cases: compact spherical grains and aggregates with fractal dimension D_f = 2. Applying a simple chemical network that accounts for collisional charging of grains, we provide a semi-analytical solution. This allowed us to calculate the equilibrium population of grain charges and the ionisation fraction efficiently. The grain charging was evaluated for different dynamical environments ranging from static to non-stationary disc configurations. The results show that the adsorption/desorption of neutral gas-phase heavy metals, such as magnesium, effects the ...

  4. Piston-assisted charge pumping

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, D; Mourokh, L

    2015-01-01

    We examine charge transport through a system of three sites connected in series in the situation when an oscillating charged piston modulates the energy of the middle site. We show that with an appropriate set of parameters, charge can be transferred against an applied voltage. In this scenario, when the oscillating piston shifts away from the middle site, the energy of the site decreases and it is populated by a charge transferred from the lower energy site. On the other hand, when the piston returns to close proximity, the energy of the middle site increases and it is depopulated by the higher energy site. Thus through this process, the charge is pumped against the potential gradient. Our results can explain the process of proton pumping in one of the mitochondrial enzymes, Complex I. Moreover, this mechanism can be used for electron pumping in semiconductor nanostructures.

  5. Holography, charge and baryon asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Mongan, T R

    2009-01-01

    The holographic principle indicates the finite number of bits of information available on the particle horizon describes all physics within the horizon. Linking information on the horizon with Standard Model particles requires a holographic model describing constituents (preons) of Standard Model particles in terms of bits of information on the horizon. Standard Model particles have charges 0, 1/3, 2/3 or 1 in units of the electron charge e, so bits in a preon model must be identified with fractional charge. Energy must be transferred to change the state of a bit, and labeling the low energy state of a bit e/3n and the high energy state -e/3n amounts to defining electric charge. Any such charged preon model will produce more protons than anti-protons at the time of baryogenesis and require baryon asymmetry. It will also produce more positrons than electrons, as suggested by astrophysical measurements.

  6. Collaborative Mobile Charging and Coverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴杰

    2014-01-01

    Wireless energy charging using mobile vehicles has been a viable research topic recently in the area of wireless networks and mobile computing. This paper gives a short survey of recent research conducted in our research group in the area of collaborative mobile charging. In collaborative mobile charging, multiple mobile chargers work together to accomplish a given set of ob jectives. These ob jectives include charging sensors at different frequencies with a minimum number of mobile chargers and reaching the farthest sensor for a given set of mobile chargers, subject to various constraints, including speed and energy limits of mobile chargers. Through the process of problem formulation, solution construction, and future work extension for problems related to collaborative mobile charging and coverage, we present three principles for good practice in conducting research. These principles can potentially be used for assisting graduate students in selecting a research problem for a term project, which can eventually be expanded to a thesis/dissertation topic.

  7. Simulation for signal charge transfer of charge coupled devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zujun; Liu Yinong; Chen Wei; Tang Benqi; Xiao Zhigang; Huang Shaoyan; Liu Minbo; Zhang Yong

    2009-01-01

    Physical device models and numerical processing methods are presented to simulate a linear buried channel charge coupled devices (CCDs). The dynamic transfer process of CCD is carried out by a three-phase clock pulse driver. By using the semiconductor device simulation software MEDICI, dynamic transfer pictures of signal charges cells, electron concentration and electrostatic potential are presented. The key parameters of CCD such as charge transfer efficiency (CTE) and dark electrons are numerically simulated. The simulation results agree with the theoretic and experimental results.

  8. When Charged Black Holes Merge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-08-01

    Most theoretical models assume that black holes arent charged. But a new study shows that mergers of charged black holes could explain a variety of astrophysical phenomena, from fast radio bursts to gamma-ray bursts.No HairThe black hole no hair theorem states that all black holes can be described by just three things: their mass, their spin, and their charge. Masses and spins have been observed and measured, but weve never measured the charge of a black hole and its widely believed that real black holes dont actually have any charge.That said, weve also never shown that black holes dont have charge, or set any upper limits on the charge that they might have. So lets suppose, for a moment, that its possible for a black hole to be charged. How might that affect what we know about the merger of two black holes? A recent theoretical study by Bing Zhang (University of Nevada, Las Vegas) examines this question.Intensity profile of a fast radio burst, a sudden burst of radio emission that lasts only a few milliseconds. [Swinburne Astronomy Productions]Driving TransientsZhangs work envisions a pair of black holes in a binary system. He argues that if just one of the black holes carries charge possibly retained by a rotating magnetosphere then it may be possible for the system to produce an electromagnetic signal that could accompany gravitational waves, such as a fast radio burst or a gamma-ray burst!In Zhangs model, the inspiral of the two black holes generates a global magnetic dipole thats perpendicular to the plane of the binarys orbit. The magnetic flux increases rapidly as the separation between the black holes decreases, generating an increasingly powerful magnetic wind. This wind, in turn, can give rise to a fast radio burst or a gamma-ray burst, depending on the value of the black holes charge.Artists illustration of a short gamma-ray burst, thought to be caused by the merger of two compact objects. [ESO/A. Roquette]Zhang calculates lower limits on the charge

  9. Charge-pump voltage converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, John P.; Christenson, Todd R.

    2009-11-03

    A charge-pump voltage converter for converting a low voltage provided by a low-voltage source to a higher voltage. Charge is inductively generated on a transfer rotor electrode during its transit past an inductor stator electrode and subsequently transferred by the rotating rotor to a collector stator electrode for storage or use. Repetition of the charge transfer process leads to a build-up of voltage on a charge-receiving device. Connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in series can generate higher voltages, and connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in parallel can generate higher currents. Microelectromechanical (MEMS) embodiments of this invention provide a small and compact high-voltage (several hundred V) voltage source starting with a few-V initial voltage source. The microscale size of many embodiments of this invention make it ideally suited for MEMS- and other micro-applications where integration of the voltage or charge source in a small package is highly desirable.

  10. Big break for charge symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, G A

    2003-01-01

    Two new experiments have detected charge-symmetry breaking, the mechanism responsible for protons and neutrons having different masses. Symmetry is a crucial concept in the theories that describe the subatomic world because it has an intimate connection with the laws of conservation. The theory of the strong interaction between quarks - quantum chromodynamics - is approximately invariant under what is called charge symmetry. In other words, if we swap an up quark for a down quark, then the strong interaction will look almost the same. This symmetry is related to the concept of sup i sospin sup , and is not the same as charge conjugation (in which a particle is replaced by its antiparticle). Charge symmetry is broken by the competition between two different effects. The first is the small difference in mass between up and down quarks, which is about 200 times less than the mass of the proton. The second is their different electric charges. The up quark has a charge of +2/3 in units of the proton charge, while ...

  11. Analyzing Affect of Image Charge in Space Charge Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangXueying; XuHushan; JiaFei; LiWenfei

    2003-01-01

    There is an increasing requirement of high injection current and highly charged ion beams for accelerators at many laboratories, such as CERN, GSI, GANIL and IMP, with the development of super-conducting ECR source in recent.years. In this case, the space charge effect becomes a major concern when the beam current is as high as tens of mA. In fact, the faradic field induced by the image charges will be come into the metallic surfaces while the beams are transported in a vacuum tube or in between two plates. In order to ensure studying the space charge effect in reason, it is necessary to investigate the effect from such a field.

  12. Charge density waves in solids

    CERN Document Server

    Gor'kov, LP

    2012-01-01

    The latest addition to this series covers a field which is commonly referred to as charge density wave dynamics.The most thoroughly investigated materials are inorganic linear chain compounds with highly anisotropic electronic properties. The volume opens with an examination of their structural properties and the essential features which allow charge density waves to develop.The behaviour of the charge density waves, where interesting phenomena are observed, is treated both from a theoretical and an experimental standpoint. The role of impurities in statics and dynamics is considered and an

  13. Rewritable artificial magnetic charge ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y. -L.; Xiao, Z. -L.; Snezhko, A.; Xu, J.; Ocola, L. E.; Divan, R.; Pearson, J. E.; Crabtree, G. W.; Kwok, W. -K.

    2016-05-19

    Artificial ices enable the study of geometrical frustration by design and through direct observation. However, it has proven difficult to achieve tailored long-range ordering of their diverse configurations, limiting both fundamental and applied research directions. We designed an artificial spin structure that produces a magnetic charge ice with tunable long-range ordering of eight different configurations. We also developed a technique to precisely manipulate the local magnetic charge states and demonstrate write-read-erase multifunctionality at room temperature. This globally reconfigurable and locally writable magnetic charge ice could provide a setting for designing magnetic monopole defects, tailoring magnonics, and controlling the properties of other two-dimensional materials.

  14. Effect of Zn Adsorption on Charge of Variable Charge Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUNHAN-YUAN

    1993-01-01

    The variation in appa rent carge of two typical variable charge soils resulting from Zn adsorption were studied by KCl saturation and NH4NO3 replacement methods.Results showed that zinc were adsorbed specifically to those sites with negative charge.As in different pH ranges,the percantages of specific and electrostatic adsorptions of zine and the mechanisms of specific adsorption were different,the effects of Zn adsorption on apparent charge were varied and could be characterized as:when 1 mmol Zn2+ was adsorbed,a change about 1 mmol in the apparent charge was observed in the low pH range(1),1.4 to 1.5mmol in the moderate pH range(II) and 0.55 to 0.6mmol in the high pH range (III).These experimental data,in terms of soil charge,proved once more author's conclusion in the preceding paper(Sun,1993) that in accordance with the behaviors of Zn adsorption by the variable charge soils in relation to pH,three pH ranges with different adsorption mechanisms were delineated;that is,in Range I,specific adsorption was the predominant mechanism,in Ranges II and III,specific and electrostatic adsorptions co-existed,but their specific adsorption mechanisms were not identical.

  15. Screening Effect in Charge Qubit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUA Ming; XIAO Xiao; GAO Yi-Bo

    2011-01-01

    We study the influence of screening effect on quantum decoherence for charge qubit and the process of quantum information storage. When the flux produced by the circulating current in SQUID loop is considered, screening effect is formally characterized by a LC resonator. Using large-detuning condition and Fr(o)hlich transformation in the qubit-cavity-resonator system, we calculate the decoherence factor for charge qubit and the effective qubit-cavity Hamiltonian. The decoherence factor owns a factorized structure, it shows that screening effect is a resource of decoherence for charge qubit. The effective Hamiltonian shows that the screening effect results in a frequency shift for charge qubit and a modified qubit-cavity coupling constant induced by a LC resonator.

  16. Measurements of W Charge Asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzbauer, J. L. [Mississippi U.

    2015-10-06

    We discuss W boson and lepton charge asymmetry measurements from W decays in the electron channel, which were made using 9.7 fb$^{-1}$ of RunII data collected by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The electron charge asymmetry is presented as a function of pseudo-rapidity out to |$\\eta$| $\\le$ 3.2, in five symmetric and asymmetric kinematic bins of electron transverse momentum and the missing transverse energy of the event. We also give the W charge asymmetry as a function of W boson rapidity. The asymmetries are compared with next-to-leading order perturbative quantum chromodynamics calculations. These charge asymmetry measurements will allow more accurate determinations of the proton parton distribution functions and are the most precise to date.

  17. Induced-charge Electrokinetic Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Bazant, M Z; Bazant, Martin Z.; Squires, Todd M.

    2003-01-01

    Motivated by the recent discovery of AC electro-osmosis near micro-electrodes, we predict a broad class of nonlinear electrokinetic phenomena involving induced interfacial charge. By considering various polarizable objects (metals or dielectrics) in DC and AC applied fields, we develop a simple physical picture of `induced-charge electro-osmosis' (ICEO), the fluid slip at a surface due to an electric field acting on the diffuse charge it induces. We also discuss `induced-charge electrophoresis' (ICEP), the analogous motion of a freely-suspended polarizable particle. Both differ significantly from their classical linear counterparts. We present a mathematical theory of ICEO flows in the weakly nonlinear limit of thin double layers. As an example, we calculate the time-dependent ICEO slip around a metallic sphere with a thin dielectric coating in a suddenly-applied DC field. We briefly discuss possible applications of ICEO to microfluidics and of ICEP to colloidal manipulation.

  18. BRST charge for nonlinear algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Buchbinder, I L

    2007-01-01

    We study the construction of the classical nilpotent canonical BRST charge for the nonlinear gauge algebras where a commutator (in terms of Poisson brackets) of the constraints is a finite order polynomial of the constraints.

  19. Organic Text Authors Charge Plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Reports on the recent controversy involving two organic chemistry textbooks. The charge of plagiarism and the court litigations are the object of interest in the chemical community since many prominant scientists are planned as witnesses. (SA)

  20. Charge Transport in one dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Holcombe, S R

    2010-01-01

    We consider charge transport in nanopores where the dielectric constant inside the nanopore is much greater than in the surrounding material, so that the flux of the electric fields due to the charges is almost entirely confined to the nanopore. That means that we may model the electric fields due to charge densities in the nanopore in terms of average properties across the nanopore as solutions of one dimensional Poisson equations. We develop basic equations for an M component system using equations of continuity to relate concentrations to currents, and flux equations relating currents to concentration gradients and conductivities. We then derive simplified scaled versions of the equations. We develop exact solutions for the one component case in a variety of boundary conditions using a Hopf-Cole transformation, Fourier series, and periodic solutions of the Burgers equation. These are compared with a simpler model in which the scaled diffusivity is zero so that all charge motion is driven by the electric fi...

  1. Quantum physics: Destruction of discrete charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarov, Yuli V.

    2016-08-01

    Electric charge is quantized in units of the electron's charge. An experiment explores the suppression of charge quantization caused by quantum fluctuations and supports a long-standing theory that explains this behaviour. See Letter p.58

  2. Multizone Artillery Propelling Charge Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    PROJECT, TASK AREA 4 WORK UNIT NUMBERS IL162618AH80 11. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS US Army Armament Research & Development Command...are affected by the many interrelated components comprising the charge. We have identified areas of concern for bagged multizone charges; studies...B. Brodman DRDAP-LCB-I, D. Spring DRDAR-LCE, R. Walker DRDAR-LCU-CT E. Barrleres R. Davitt DRDAR-CLU-CV C.Mandala E. Moore DRDAR-LCM-E S

  3. Metallic charge stripes in cuprates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tranquada, J.M

    2004-08-01

    Some recent evidence for the existence of dynamic, metallic stripes in the 214 family of cuprates is reviewed. The mechanism of stripe pinning is considered, and changes in the charge density within stripes between the pinned and dynamic phases is discussed. From a purely experimental perspective, dynamic charge stripes are fully compatible with nodal 'quasiparticles' and other electronic properties common to all superconducting cuprates.

  4. Metallic charge stripes in cuprates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranquada, J. M.

    2004-08-01

    Some recent evidence for the existence of dynamic, metallic stripes in the 214 family of cuprates is reviewed. The mechanism of stripe pinning is considered, and changes in the charge density within stripes between the pinned and dynamic phases is discussed. From a purely experimental perspective, dynamic charge stripes are fully compatible with nodal “quasiparticles” and other electronic properties common to all superconducting cuprates.

  5. Charged-lepton flavour physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Andreas Hoecker

    2012-11-01

    This write-up on a talk at the 2011 Lepton–Photon symposium in Mumbai, India, summarizes recent results in the charged-lepton flavour sector. Searches for charged-lepton flavour violation, lepton electric dipole moments and flavour-conserving CP violation are reviewed here. Recent progress in -lepton physics and in the Standard Model prediction of the muon anomalous magnetic moment is also discussed.

  6. A note on charged interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Huaqiang [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, NY 10012 (United States); Yu, M Y [Institute for Theoretical Physics I, Ruhr-University, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2006-12-15

    A condition associated with the plasma boundary or other charged interface is reviewed. It is pointed out that in comparing theories and simulations of such interfaces, in order to avoid conflicting results it should be ascertained that the systems under consideration are thermodynamically equivalent. For the plasma-wall interface in equilibrium, the rate of change of the surface-charge density with respect to the surface potential must be positive.

  7. Thermophoresis of charged colloidal particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayolle, Sébastien; Bickel, Thomas; Würger, Alois

    2008-04-01

    Thermally induced particle flow in a charged colloidal suspension is studied in a fluid-mechanical approach. The force density acting on the charged boundary layer is derived in detail. From Stokes' equation with no-slip boundary conditions at the particle surface, we obtain the particle drift velocity and the thermophoretic transport coefficients. The results are discussed in view of previous work and available experimental data.

  8. Thermophoresis of charged colloidal particles

    OpenAIRE

    Fayolle, Sébastien; Bickel, Thomas; Würger, Alois

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Thermally induced particle flow in a charged colloidal suspension is studied in a fluid-mechanical approach. The force density acting on the charged boundary layer is derived in detail. From Stokes' equation with no-slip boundary conditions at the particle surface, we obtain the particle drift velocity and the thermophoretic transport coefficients. The results are discussed in view of previous work and available experimental data.

  9. Solar Charged Stand Alone Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Vasugi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with solar powered stand alone inverter which converts the variable dc output of a photovoltaic solar panel into ac that can be fed to loads. Stand alone inverters are used in systems where the inverter get its energy from batteries charged by photo voltaic arrays. A charge controller limits the rate at which electric current is added to or drawn from electric batteries. This charge discharge controller is needed to prevent the battery from being overcharged or discharged thus prolonging its life. The charge/discharge control is necessary in order to achieve safety and increase the capacity of the battery. The project has been tested according its operational purposes. Maximum power rating of the experimented solar charge controller is 100W according battery capacities. Cost effective solar charge controller has been designed and implemented to have efficient system and much longer battery lifetime. The dc output is given to inverter and then it is supplied to loads. This method is very cheap and cost effective.

  10. Electroelasticity of Charged Black Branes

    CERN Document Server

    Armas, Jay; Obers, Niels A

    2013-01-01

    We present the first order corrected dynamics of fluid branes carrying higher-form charge by obtaining the general form of their equations of motion to pole-dipole order. Assuming linear response theory, we characterize the corresponding effective theory of stationary bent charged (an)isotropic fluid branes in terms of two sets of response coefficients, the Young modulus and the piezoelectric moduli. We subsequently find large classes of examples in gravity of this effective theory, by constructing stationary strained charged black brane solutions to first order in a derivative expansion. Using solution generating techniques and bent neutral black branes as a seed solution, we obtain a class of charged black brane geometries carrying smeared Maxwell charge in Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity. In the specific case of ten-dimensional space-time we furthermore use T-duality to generate bent black branes with higher-form charge, including smeared D-branes of type II string theory. By subsequently measuring the be...

  11. Jet charge at the LHC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, David; Schwartz, Matthew D; Lin, Tongyan; Waalewijn, Wouter J

    2013-05-24

    Knowing the charge of the parton initiating a light-quark jet could be extremely useful both for testing aspects of the standard model and for characterizing potential beyond-the-standard-model signals. We show that despite the complications of hadronization and out-of-jet radiation such as pileup, a weighted sum of the charges of a jet's constituents can be used at the LHC to distinguish among jets with different charges. Potential applications include measuring electroweak quantum numbers of hadronically decaying resonances or supersymmetric particles, as well as standard model tests, such as jet charge in dijet events or in hadronically decaying W bosons in tt[over ¯] events. We develop a systematically improvable method to calculate moments of these charge distributions by combining multihadron fragmentation functions with perturbative jet functions and pertubative evolution equations. We show that the dependence on energy and jet size for the average and width of the jet charge can be calculated despite the large experimental uncertainty on fragmentation functions. These calculations can provide a validation tool for data independent of Monte Carlo fragmentation models.

  12. Problems in point charge electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ferris, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    (Shortened due to character limit) This thesis consists of two parts. In part I we consider a discrepancy in the derivation of the electromagnetic self force for a point charge. In the point charge framework the self force can be defined as an integral of the Lienard-Wiechert stress 3-forms over a suitably defined worldtube. We show the Schott term may be obtained using a null displacement vector to define the worldtube providing certain conditions are realized. Part II comprises an investigation into a problem in accelerator physics. In a high energy accelerator the cross-section of the beampipe is not continuous and there exist geometric discontinuities such as collimators and cavities. When a relativistic bunch of particles passes such a discontinuity the field generated by a leading charge can interact with the wall and consequently affect the motion of trailing charges. The fields acting on the trailing charges are known as (geometric) wakefields. We model a bunch of particles as a one dimensional contin...

  13. Space Charge Modulated Electrical Breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengtao; Zhu, Yuanwei; Min, Daomin; Chen, George

    2016-09-01

    Electrical breakdown is one of the most important physical phenomena in electrical and electronic engineering. Since the early 20th century, many theories and models of electrical breakdown have been proposed, but the origin of one key issue, that the explanation for dc breakdown strength being twice or higher than ac breakdown strength in insulating materials, remains unclear. Here, by employing a bipolar charge transport model, we investigate the space charge dynamics in both dc and ac breakdown processes. We demonstrate the differences in charge accumulations under both dc and ac stresses and estimate the breakdown strength, which is modulated by the electric field distortion induced by space charge. It is concluded that dc breakdown initializes in the bulk whereas ac breakdown initializes in the vicinity of the sample-electrode interface. Compared with dc breakdown, the lower breakdown strength under ac stress and the decreasing breakdown strength with an increase in applied frequency, are both attributed to the electric field distortion induced by space charges located in the vicinity of the electrodes.

  14. Coaxial charged particle energy analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael A. (Inventor); Bryson, III, Charles E. (Inventor); Wu, Warren (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A non-dispersive electrostatic energy analyzer for electrons and other charged particles having a generally coaxial structure of a sequentially arranged sections of an electrostatic lens to focus the beam through an iris and preferably including an ellipsoidally shaped input grid for collimating a wide acceptance beam from a charged-particle source, an electrostatic high-pass filter including a planar exit grid, and an electrostatic low-pass filter. The low-pass filter is configured to reflect low-energy particles back towards a charged particle detector located within the low-pass filter. Each section comprises multiple tubular or conical electrodes arranged about the central axis. The voltages on the lens are scanned to place a selected energy band of the accepted beam at a selected energy at the iris. Voltages on the high-pass and low-pass filters remain substantially fixed during the scan.

  15. Charged Higgs Analysis in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Eysermans, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this talk an overview is given of the possible searches of the Charged Higgs Boson during run 2 of the LHC data taking period. The Charged Higgs boson emerges in several (minimal) Standard Model (SM) extensions such as the 2 Doublet Higgs Model, which predicts 5 physical Higgs bosons, consistent with the SM Higgs boson. Based on the main production and decay modes, the possible intermediate and final state particles are predicted for a Charged Higgs mass higher than the top quark mass ($m_{H^{\\pm}} > m_t$). In particular, the dominant H to tau nu and H to tb channels are discussed in more detail together with their associated background.

  16. Charging transient in polyvinyl formal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Khare; P L Jain; R K Pandey

    2001-08-01

    In the present paper charging and discharging transient currents in polyvinyl formal (PVF) were measured as a function of temperatures (40–80°C), poling fields (9.0 × 103–9.0 × 104 V/cm) and electrode combinations (Al–Al, Au–Al, Zn–Al, Bi–Al, Cu–Al and Ag–Al). The current–time characteristics have different values of slope lying between 0.42–0.56 and 1.42–1.63. The polarization is considered to be due to dipolar reorientation associated with structural motions and space charge relaxations due to trapping of injected charge carriers in energetically distributed traps.

  17. 47 CFR 69.124 - Interconnection charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interconnection charge. 69.124 Section 69.124... Computation of Charges § 69.124 Interconnection charge. (a) Until December 31, 2001, local exchange carriers not subject to price cap regulation shall assess an interconnection charge expressed in dollars...

  18. 75 FR 7411 - Schedule of Water Charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 410 Schedule of Water Charges AGENCY: Delaware River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice... Regulations--Water Supply Charges to revise the schedule of water charges. DATES: The Commission will hold a... the subject line ``Schedule of Water Charges.'' FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, CONTACT: Please contact...

  19. 76 FR 10233 - Schedule of Water Charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 420 Schedule of Water Charges AGENCY: Delaware River Basin Commission. ACTION: Final...--Water Supply Charges. Accordingly, the Commission's water charging rates for consumptive use and non.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For questions about the water charging program, please contact...

  20. Nanotribology of charged polymer brushes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Jacob

    Polymers at surfaces, whose modern understanding may be traced back to early work by Sam Edwards1, have become a paradigm for modification of surface properties, both as steric stabilizers and as remarkable boundary lubricants2. Charged polymer brushes are of particular interest, with both technological implications and especially biological relevance where most macromolecules are charged. In the context of biolubrication, relevant in areas from dry eye syndrome to osteoarthritis, charged polymer surface phases and their complexes with other macromolecules may play a central role. The hydration lubrication paradigm, where tenaciously-held yet fluid hydration shells surrounding ions or zwitterions serve as highly-efficient friction-reducing elements, has been invoked to understand the excellent lubrication provided both by ionized3 and by zwitterionic4 brushes. In this talk we describe recent advances in our understanding of the nanotribology of such charged brush systems. We consider interactions between charged end-grafted polymers, and how one may disentangle the steric from the electrostatic surface forces5. We examine the limits of lubrication by ionized brushes, both synthetic and of biological origins, and how highly-hydrated zwitterionic chains may provide extremely effective boundary lubrication6. Finally we describe how the lubrication of articular cartilage in the major joints, a tribosystem presenting some of the greatest challenges and opportunities, may be understood in terms of a supramolecular synergy between charged surface-attached polymers and zwitterionic groups7. Work supported by European Research Council (HydrationLube), Israel Science Foundation (ISF), Petroleum Research Fund of the American Chemical Society, ISF-NSF China Joint Program.

  1. Electric Charge in Interaction with Magnetically Charged Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, J H

    2007-01-01

    We examine the angular momentum of an electric charge e placed at rest outside a dilaton black hole with magnetic charge Q. The electromagnetic angular momentum which is stored in the electromagnetic field outside the black hole shows several common features regardless of the dilaton coupling strength, though the dilaton black holes are drastically different in their spacetime structure depending on it. First, the electromagnetic angular momentum depends on the separation distance between the two objects and changes monotonically from eQ to 0 as the charge goes down from infinity to the horizon, if rotational effects of the black hole are discarded. Next, as the black hole approaches extremality, however, the electromagnetic angular momentum tends to be independent of the distance between the two objects. It is then precisely $eQ$ as in the electric charge and monopole system in flat spacetime. We discuss why these effects are exhibited and argue that the above features are to hold in widely generic settings ...

  2. Charge Qubit-Atom Hybrid

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Deshui; Hufnagel, C; Kwek, L C; Amico, Luigi; Dumke, R

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a novel hybrid system of a superconducting charge qubit interacting directly with a single neutral atom via electric dipole coupling. Interfacing of the macroscopic superconducting circuit with the microscopic atomic system is accomplished by varying the gate capacitance of the charge qubit. To achieve strong interaction, we employ two Rydberg states with an electric-dipole-allowed transition, which alters the polarizability of the dielectric medium of the gate capacitor. Sweeping the gate voltage with different rates leads to a precise control of hybrid quantum states. Furthermore, we show a possible implementation of a universal two-qubit gate.

  3. Static Charge Development on Explosives .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Raha

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Static charge development character of some of the important explosive crystals have been predicted on the basis of their crystal class and symmetry. Among the important mechanism of charge development, the piezoelectric and pyroelectric characters have been considered. Ammonium trinitrate, ammonium nitrate, m-dinitro-benzene, trinitro-toluene, styphnic acid, beeta-lead styphnate, 4,4'dinitro-dipheny1, a-hexamethylenetetranitramine, nitroguanidine, picric acid, dimethylnitramine, a-lead azide and beeta-lead azide are pyroelectric in nature, whereas pentaerythritol tetranitrate, picryliodide, hexamethylenetranitramine, tetranitromethane and trinitroethane are piezoelectric in nature.

  4. A charged spherically symmetric solution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Moodley; S D Maharaj; K S Govinder

    2003-09-01

    We find a solution of the Einstein–Maxwell system of field equations for a class of accelerating, expanding and shearing spherically symmetric metrics. This solution depends on a particular ansatz for the line element. The radial behaviour of the solution is fully specified while the temporal behaviour is given in terms of a quadrature. By setting the charge contribution to zero we regain an (uncharged) perfect fluid solution found previously with the equation of state =+ constant, which is a generalisation of a stiff equation of state. Our class of charged shearing solutions is characterised geometrically by a conformal Killing vector.

  5. Equilibrium configurations of tripolar charges

    CERN Document Server

    Yershov, V N

    2005-01-01

    It is shown that an ensemble of particles with tripolar (colour) charges will necessarily cohere in a hierarchy of structures, from simple clusters and strings to complex aggregates and cyclic molecule-like structures. The basic combinatoric rule remains essentially the same on different levels of the hierarchy, thus leading to a pattern of resemblance between different levels. The number of primitive charges in each structure is determined by the symmetry of the combined effective potential of this structure. The outlined scheme can serve as a framework for building a model of composite fundamental fermions.

  6. Hydration of highly charged ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Thomas S; Weiss, Alexander K H; Randolf, Bernhard R; Rode, Bernd M

    2011-08-01

    Based on a series of ab initio quantum mechanical charge field molecular dynamics (QMCF MD) simulations, the broad spectrum of structural and dynamical properties of hydrates of trivalent and tetravalent ions is presented, ranging from extreme inertness to immediate hydrolysis. Main group and transition metal ions representative for different parts of the periodic system are treated, as are 2 threefold negatively charged anions. The results show that simple predictions of the properties of the hydrates appear impossible and that an accurate quantum mechanical simulation in cooperation with sophisticated experimental investigations seems the only way to obtain conclusive results.

  7. Scientist to appeal misconduct charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2008-08-01

    Lawyers for the "bubble-fusion" researcher Rusi Taleyarkhan have told Physics World that he will appeal over the findings of a panel that last month found him guilty of two charges of scientific misconduct. Taleyarkhan, a nuclear engineer at Purdue University in the US, was charged by a sixmember internal committee, which concluded that he had cited a paper by researchers in his own lab as if it were an independent confirmation of his alleged discovery of bubble fusion in 2002. The committee also found him guilty of adding the name of a student who had not contributed to that paper as an author.

  8. Electrooptical Detection of Charged Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Semertzidis, Y K; Kowalski, L A; Kraus, D E; Larsen, R; Lazarus, D M; Magurno, B; Nikas, D; Ozben, C; Srinivasan-Rao, T; Tsang, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    We have made the first observation of a charged particle beam by means of its electro-optical effect on the polarization of laser light in a LiNbO3 crystal. The modulation of the laser light during the passage of a pulsed electron beam was observed using a fast photodiode and a digital oscilloscope. The fastest rise time measured, 120 ps, was obtained in the single shot mode and was limited by the bandwidth of the oscilloscope and the associated electronics. This technology holds promise for detectors of greatly improved spatial and temporal resolution for single relativistic charged particles as well as particle beams.

  9. Absolute Stability Limit for Relativistic Charged Spheres

    CERN Document Server

    Giuliani, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    We find an exact solution for the stability limit of relativistic charged spheres for the case of constant gravitational mass density and constant charge density. We argue that this provides an absolute stability limit for any relativistic charged sphere in which the gravitational mass density decreases with radius and the charge density increases with radius. We then provide a cruder absolute stability limit that applies to any charged sphere with a spherically symmetric mass and charge distribution. We give numerical results for all cases. In addition, we discuss the example of a neutral sphere surrounded by a thin, charged shell.

  10. Amine reactivity with charged sulfuric acid clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Bzdek, B. R.; D. P. Ridge; Johnston, M. V.

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of charged species produced by electrospray of an ammonium sulfate solution in both positive and negative polarities is examined using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS). Positively-charged ammonium bisulfate cluster composition differs significantly from negatively-charged cluster composition. For positively-charged clusters all sulfuric acid is neutralized to bisulfate, whereas for negatively-charged clusters the degree of sulfuric acid n...

  11. Electrostatic wire stabilizing a charged particle beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prono, D.S.; Caporaso, G.J.; Briggs, R.J.

    1983-03-21

    In combination with a charged particle beam generator and accelerator, apparatus and method are provided for stabilizing a beam of electrically charged particles. A guiding means, disposed within the particle beam, has an electric charge induced upon it by the charged particle beam. Because the sign of the electric charge on the guiding means and the sign of the particle beam are opposite, the particles are attracted toward and cluster around the guiding means to thereby stabilize the particle beam as it travels.

  12. Charge Management Optimization for Future TOU Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jiucai; Markel, Tony

    2016-06-22

    The effectiveness of future time of use (TOU) rates to enable managed charging for providing demand response depends on the vehicle's flexibility and the benefits to owners. This paper adopts opportunity, delayed, and smart charging methods to quantify these impacts, flexibilities, and benefits. Simulation results show that delayed and smart charging methods can shift most charging events to lower TOU rate periods without compromising the charged energy and individual driver mobility needs.

  13. Charging for differentiated Internet services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiller, Burkhard; Gerke, Jan; Hasan, Hasan; Reichl, Peter; Flury, Placi

    2001-07-01

    Internet communications today play a major role in data transport within the local as well as the wide area. On one hand, since emerging networked applications require a variety of different communication services, the number of service classes offered by service providers has to be targeted at this demand. On the other hand, assuming that a set of different traffic classes are offered by service providers, the 'right' incentives have to be provided, ensuring that applications or their users select the most appropriate traffic class. Even though users are considered to be selective, they intend to chose that class which offers the best available Quality-of-Service (QoS), as long as the price to be paid does not exceed their willingness-to-pay. Therefore, charging for differentiated Internet services is important in a commercialized Internet. The current Internet does not cater for charging at all, since the technology required, the pricing models going beyond a flat-fee approach, and the appropriate efficiency in technical as well as economic terms are still missing on a global basis. This paper outlines the major problems for charging Internet services and describes briefly an important new solution for a pricing approach, which solves the Internet pricing feasibility problem. Based on these preconditions an Internet Charging System (ICS) is introduced, focusing mainly on its leading characteristics and its generic approach to instantiate for a given scenario.

  14. Floating liquid bridge charge dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Omar; Soares, David Mendez; Gomes, Whyllerson Evaristo; Valente Filho, Juracyr Ferraz

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of liquid with electric fields is investigated in a configuration where up to 13 kV are applied between electrodes resulting in a 106 V/m electric field in the capillaries and where there is the formation of a free-standing fluid bridge in the interelectrode gap. The Mott-Gurney equation was fitted to the measured ionization current vs applied voltage curve which indicates that the ionization rate at the high-voltage anode electrode dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) interface and space charging in the interelectrode gap determine the floating liquid bridge current for a given cathode-to-anode voltage. Space charge effects were measured in the cathode becker and also at the liquid bridge since the ionized charges at the anode migrate to the bridge outer surface and decrease the interfacial tension from 43 mJ/m2 to 29 mJ/m2. Two distinct structural regions then form the bridge, a charged plastic (bulk modulus ˜100 MPa) conducting outer layer with a surface conductivity of ˜10-9 Ω-1, which shapes and supports the floating fluid structure, and an inner liquid cylinder, where DMSO molecules flow.

  15. The Penetration of Shaped Charges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Mingde

    1996-01-01

    @@ In order to get the best perforating effect, many facts have to be considered. Perforating job is often design by computer. A perforating engineer has to decide the perforating technology and procedure, the gun and charge system, the shot density and phasing, the penetration and hole size, etc.

  16. Diffractive charged meson pair production

    CERN Document Server

    Lehmann-Dronke, B; Schäfer, S; Stein, E; Schäfer, A

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the possibility to measure the nonforward gluon distribution function by means of diffractively produced charged pion and kaon pairs in polarized lepton nucleon scattering. The resulting cross sections are sizable and are dominated by the gluonic contribution. We find large spin asymmetries, both for pion pairs and for kaon pairs.

  17. Microscopic Charge Density Wave Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, Erwin

    2005-01-01

    This thesis describes the work performed on crystals with a phase transition to a Charge-Density Wave (CDW). The electrical transport properties change when crystal sizes are smaller than characteristic length scales for CDWs, typically 1 micrometer. In contrast to metals, semiconductors and superco

  18. Complexation behavior of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes: Effect of charge distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Mingtian; Li, Baohui, E-mail: dliang@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: baohui@nankai.edu.cn [School of Physics and Key Laboratory of Functional Polymer Materials of Ministry of Education, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Zhou, Jihan; Su, Cuicui; Niu, Lin; Liang, Dehai, E-mail: dliang@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: baohui@nankai.edu.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences and the Key Laboratory of Polymer Chemistry and Physics of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2015-05-28

    Complexation behavior of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes in a solution is investigated using a combination of computer simulations and experiments, focusing on the influence of polyelectrolyte charge distributions along the chains on the structure of the polyelectrolyte complexes. The simulations are performed using Monte Carlo with the replica-exchange algorithm for three model systems where each system is composed of a mixture of two types of oppositely charged model polyelectrolyte chains (EGEG){sub 5}/(KGKG){sub 5}, (EEGG){sub 5}/(KKGG){sub 5}, and (EEGG){sub 5}/(KGKG){sub 5}, in a solution including explicit solvent molecules. Among the three model systems, only the charge distributions along the chains are not identical. Thermodynamic quantities are calculated as a function of temperature (or ionic strength), and the microscopic structures of complexes are examined. It is found that the three systems have different transition temperatures, and form complexes with different sizes, structures, and densities at a given temperature. Complex microscopic structures with an alternating arrangement of one monolayer of E/K monomers and one monolayer of G monomers, with one bilayer of E and K monomers and one bilayer of G monomers, and with a mixture of monolayer and bilayer of E/K monomers in a box shape and a trilayer of G monomers inside the box are obtained for the three mixture systems, respectively. The experiments are carried out for three systems where each is composed of a mixture of two types of oppositely charged peptide chains. Each peptide chain is composed of Lysine (K) and glycine (G) or glutamate (E) and G, in solution, and the chain length and amino acid sequences, and hence the charge distribution, are precisely controlled, and all of them are identical with those for the corresponding model chain. The complexation behavior and complex structures are characterized through laser light scattering and atomic force microscopy measurements. The order

  19. Charge Exchange Effect on Space-Charge-Limited Current Densities in Ion Diode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石磊

    2002-01-01

    The article theoretically studied the charge-exchange effects on space charge limited electron and ion current densities of non-relativistic one-dimensional slab ion diode, and compared with those of without charge exchange.

  20. Charge symmetry at the partonic level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Londergan, J. T.; Peng, J. C.; Thomas, A. W.

    2010-07-01

    This review article discusses the experimental and theoretical status of partonic charge symmetry. It is shown how the partonic content of various structure functions gets redefined when the assumption of charge symmetry is relaxed. We review various theoretical and phenomenological models for charge symmetry violation in parton distribution functions. We summarize the current experimental upper limits on charge symmetry violation in parton distributions. A series of experiments are presented, which might reveal partonic charge symmetry violation, or alternatively might lower the current upper limits on parton charge symmetry violation.

  1. Holographic heavy ion collisions with baryon charge

    CERN Document Server

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; van der Schee, Wilke; Triana, Miquel

    2016-01-01

    We numerically simulate collisions of charged shockwaves in Einstein-Maxwell theory in anti-de Sitter space as a toy model of heavy ion collisions with non-zero baryon charge. The stress tensor and the baryon current become well described by charged hydrodynamics at roughly the same time. The effect of the charge density on generic observables is typically no larger than 15\\%. %The rapidity profile of the charge is wider than the profile of the local energy density. We find significant stopping of the baryon charge and compare our results with those in heavy ion collision experiments.

  2. Stability of charged strange quark stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbañil, José D. V.; Malheiro, Manuel [Departamento de Física, Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, Centro Técnico Aeroespacial, 12228-900 São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2015-12-17

    We investigate the hydrostatic equilibrium and the stability of charged stars made of a charged perfect fluid. The matter contained in the star follows the MIT bag model equation of state and the charge distribution to a power-law of the radial coordinate. The hydrostatic equilibrium and the stability of charged strange stars are analyzed using the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation and the Chandrasekhar’s equation pulsation, respectively. These two equation are modified from their original form to the inclusion of the electric charge. We found that the stability of the star decreases with the increment of the central energy density and with the increment of the amount of charge.

  3. Geometrical charged-particle optics

    CERN Document Server

    Rose, Harald H

    2009-01-01

    This reference monograph covers all theoretical aspects of modern geometrical charged-particle optics. It is intended as a guide for researchers, who are involved in the design of electron optical instruments and beam-guiding systems for charged particles, and as a tutorial for graduate students seeking a comprehensive treatment. Procedures for calculating the properties of systems with arbitrarily curved axes are outlined in detail and methods are discussed for designing and optimizing special components such as aberration correctors, spectrometers, energy filters, monochromators, ion traps, electron mirrors and cathode lenses. Also addressed is the design of novel electron optical components enabling sub-Angstroem spatial resolution and sub-0.1eV energy resolution. Relativistic motion and spin precession of the electron is treated in a concise way by employing a covariant five-dimensional procedure.

  4. Charged gravastars in higher dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ghosh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We explore possibility to find out a new model of gravastars in the extended D-dimensional Einstein–Maxwell space–time. The class of solutions as obtained by Mazur and Mottola of a neutral gravastar [1,2] have been observed as a competent alternative to D-dimensional versions of the Schwarzschild–Tangherlini black hole. The outer region of the charged gravastar model therefore corresponds to a higher dimensional Reissner–Nordström black hole. In connection to this junction conditions, therefore we have formulated mass and the related Equation of State of the gravastar. It has been shown that the model satisfies all the requirements of the physical features. However, overall observational survey of the results also provide probable indication of non-applicability of higher dimensional approach for construction of a gravastar with or without charge from an ordinary 4-dimensional seed as far as physical ground is concerned.

  5. Geometrical charged-particle optics

    CERN Document Server

    Rose, Harald

    2012-01-01

    This second edition is an extended version of the first edition of Geometrical Charged-Particle Optics. The updated reference monograph is intended as a guide for researchers and graduate students who are seeking a comprehensive treatment of the design of instruments and beam-guiding systems of charged particles and their propagation in electromagnetic fields. Wave aspects are included in this edition for explaining electron holography, the Aharanov-Bohm effect and the resolution of electron microscopes limited by diffraction. Several methods for calculating the electromagnetic field are presented and procedures are outlined for calculating the properties of systems with arbitrarily curved axis. Detailed methods are presented for designing and optimizing special components such as aberration correctors, spectrometers, energy filters monochromators, ion traps, electron mirrors and cathode lenses. In particular, the optics of rotationally symmetric lenses, quadrupoles, and systems composed of these elements are...

  6. Nonadiabatic charged spherical gravitational collapse

    CERN Document Server

    Di Prisco, A; Denmat, G Le; MacCallum, M A H; Santos, N O

    2007-01-01

    We present a complete set of the equations and matching conditions required for the description of physically meaningful charged, dissipative, spherically symmetric gravitational collapse with shear. Dissipation is described with both free-streaming and diffusion approximations. The effects of viscosity are also taken into account. The roles of different terms in the dynamical equation are analyzed in detail. The dynamical equation is coupled to a causal transport equation in the context of Israel-Stewart theory. The decrease of the inertial mass density of the fluid, by a factor which depends on its internal thermodynamic state, is reobtained, with the viscosity terms included. In accordance with the equivalence principle, the same decrease factor is obtained for the gravitational force term. The effect of the electric charge on the relation between the Weyl tensor and the inhomogeneity of energy density is discussed.

  7. Make Dark Matter Charged Again

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Prateek; Randall, Lisa; Scholtz, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    We revisit constraints on dark matter that is charged under a $U(1)$ gauge group in the dark sector, decoupled from Standard Model forces. We find that the strongest constraints in the literature are subject to a number of mitigating factors. For instance, the naive dark matter thermalization timescale in halos is corrected by saturation effects that slow down isotropization for modest ellipticities. The weakened bounds uncover interesting parameter space, making models with weak-scale charged dark matter viable, even with electromagnetic strength interaction. This also leads to the intriguing possibility that dark matter self-interactions within small dwarf galaxies are extremely large, a relatively unexplored regime in current simulations. Such strong interactions suppress heat transfer over scales larger than the dark matter mean free path, inducing a dynamical cutoff length scale above which the system appears to have only feeble interactions. These effects must be taken into account to assess the viabili...

  8. Charged particles in Titan's ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Sachchida

    2010-05-01

    Charged particles in Titan's ionosphere Marykutty Michael1, Sachchida Nand Tripathi1,2,3, Pratima Arya1 1Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur 2Oak Ridge Associated Universities 3NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Observations by two instruments onboard the Cassini spacecraft, Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) and CAssini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS), revealed the existence of heavy hydrocarbon and nitrile species with masses of several thousand atomic mass units at altitudes of 950 - 1400 km in the atmosphere of Titan (Waite et al., 2007; Crary et al., 2009). Though these particles were believed to be molecules, they are most likely aerosols formed by the clumping of smaller molecules (Waite et al., 2009). These particles were estimated to have a density of 10-3 kg m-3 and a size of up to 256 nm. The existence of very heavy ions has also been observed by the CAPS components with a mass by charge ratio of up to 10000 (Coates et al., 2007, 2009; Sittler et al., 2009). The goal of this paper is to find out whether the so called heavy ions (or charged particles) are generated by the charge transfer of ions and electrons to the particles. The charging of these particles has been studied by using the charge balance equations that include positive ions, negative ions, electrons, neutral and charged particles. Information on the most abundant ion clusters are obtained from Vuitton et al., (2009) and Wilson and Atreya, (2004). Mass by charge ratio thus calculated will be compared with those observed by Coates et al. (2007). References: Coates AJ, et al., Discovery of heavy negative ions in Titan's ionosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34:L22103, 2007. Coates AJ, et al., Heavy negative ions in titan's ionosphere: altitude and latitude dependence. Planet. Space Sci., doi:10.1016/j.pss.2009.05.009, 2009. Crary F.J., et al., Heavy ions, temperatures and winds in titan's ionosphere: Combined cassini caps and inms observations. Planet. Space Sci., doi:10.1016/j.pss.2009.09.006, 2009

  9. Charging Graphene for Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jun

    2014-10-06

    Since 2004, graphene, including single atomic layer graphite sheet, and chemically derived graphene sheets, has captured the imagination of researchers for energy storage because of the extremely high surface area (2630 m2/g) compared to traditional activated carbon (typically below 1500 m2/g), excellent electrical conductivity, high mechanical strength, and potential for low cost manufacturing. These properties are very desirable for achieving high activity, high capacity and energy density, and fast charge and discharge. Chemically derived graphene sheets are prepared by oxidation and reduction of graphite1 and are more suitable for energy storage because they can be made in large quantities. They still contain multiply stacked graphene sheets, structural defects such as vacancies, and oxygen containing functional groups. In the literature they are also called reduced graphene oxide, or functionalized graphene sheets, but in this article they are all referred to as graphene for easy of discussion. Two important applications, batteries and electrochemical capacitors, have been widely investigated. In a battery material, the redox reaction occurs at a constant potential (voltage) and the energy is stored in the bulk. Therefore, the energy density is high (more than 100 Wh/kg), but it is difficult to rapidly charge or discharge (low power, less than 1 kW/kg)2. In an electrochemical capacitor (also called supercapacitors or ultracapacitor in the literature), the energy is stored as absorbed ionic species at the interface between the high surface area carbon and the electrolyte, and the potential is a continuous function of the state-of-charge. The charge and discharge can happen rapidly (high power, up to 10 kW/kg) but the energy density is low, less than 10 Wh/kg2. A device that can have both high energy and high power would be ideal.

  10. Screening in quantum charged systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ph. A.; Gruber, Ch.

    1984-07-01

    For stationary states of quantum charged systems in ν dimensions, ν>=2, it is proven that the reduced-density matrices satisfy a set of sum rules whenever the clustering is faster than |x|-(ν+l). These sum rules, describing the screening properties, are analogous to those previously derived for classical systems. For neutral quantum fluids, it is shown that the clustering cannot be faster than the decay of the force.

  11. Invariance of the Noether charge

    CERN Document Server

    Silagadze, Z K

    2016-01-01

    Surprisingly, an interesting property of the Noether charge that it is by itself invariant under the corresponding symmetry transformation is never discussed in quantum field theory or classical mechanics textbooks we have checked. This property is also almost never mentioned in articles devoted to Noether's theorem. Nevertheless, to prove this property in the context of Lagrangian formalism is not quite trivial and the proof, outlined in this article, can constitute an useful and interesting exercise for students.

  12. Intramolecular Charge Transfer in Arylpyrazolines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ming-Liang; LIU Ju-Zheng; XU Chun-Xiang

    2006-01-01

    @@ Arylpyrazoline microparticles dispersed in water are synthesized and their absorption spectra are compared with those in solution. It is found that the absorbance of pyrazoline group in solution of 5-aryl arylpyrazoline is far greater than that in solution of arylpyrazolines with no 5-aryl group. This hyperchromic effect is intensified in 5-aryl arylpyrazoline microparticles. It is indicated that intramolecular charge transfer exists between pyrazoline group and 5-aryl group and this kind of interaction is increased in their microparticles.

  13. The Aerospace Spacecraft Charging Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-07

    materials is caused primarily by electrons with energies of a few hundred keV to 1.5 Hev (meg~alectron volts). These energetic electrons can penetrate thin ...Figure 13 presents a histogram of the amplitudes of those test dis- Chrges. For comparison purposes, Figure 14 presents a silar histogram of the natural...surface charging of dielectrics with respect to frame and other surface potentials include the use of transparent conduc- tive films grounded to the

  14. Synchrotron radiation from massless charge

    CERN Document Server

    Gal'tsov, D V

    2015-01-01

    Classical radiation power from an accelerated massive charge diverges in the zero-mass limit, while some general arguments suggest that strictly massless charge does not not radiate at all. On the other hand, the regularized classical radiation reaction force, though looking odd, is non-zero and finite. To clarify this controversy, we consider radiation problem in massless scalar quantum electrodynamics in the external magnetic field. In this framework, synchrotron radiation is found to be non-zero, finite, and essentially quantum. Its spectral distribution is calculated using Schwinger's proper time technique for {\\em ab initio} massless particle of zero spin. Provided $E^2\\gg eH$, the maximum in the spectrum is shown to be at $\\hbar \\omega=E/3$, and the average photon energy is $4E/9$. The normalized spectrum is universal, depending neither on $E$ nor on $H$. Quantum nature of radiation makes classical radiation reaction equation meaningless for massless charge. Our results are consistent with the view (sup...

  15. Synchrotron radiation from massless charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Gal'tsov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Classical radiation power from an accelerated massive charge diverges in the zero-mass limit, while some authors suggest that strictly massless charge does not radiate at all. On the other hand, the regularized classical radiation reaction force, though looking odd, is non-zero and finite. To clarify this controversy, we consider radiation problem in massless scalar quantum electrodynamics in the external magnetic field. In this framework, synchrotron radiation is found to be non-zero, finite, and essentially quantum. Its spectral distribution is calculated using Schwinger's proper time technique for ab initio massless particle of zero spin. Provided E2≫eH, the maximum in the spectrum is shown to be at ħω=E/3, and the average photon energy is 4E/9. The normalized spectrum is universal, depending neither on E nor on H. Quantum nature of radiation makes classical radiation reaction equation meaningless for massless charge. Classical theory is reliable only as providing the low-frequency part of the true quantum radiation spectrum.

  16. Fully Traversable Wormholes Hiding Charge

    CERN Document Server

    Guendelman, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The charge-hiding effect by a wormhole, which was studied for the case where gravity/gauge-field system is self-consistently interacting with a charged lightlike brane (LLB) as a matter source, is now studied for the case of a time like brane. From the demand that no surfaces of infinite coordinate time redshift appear in the problem we are lead now to a completly traversable wormhole space, according to not only the traveller that goes through the wormhole (as was the case for the LLB), but also to a static external observer, this requires negative surface energy density for the shell sitting at the throat of the wormhole. We study a gauge field subsystem which is of a special non-linear form containing a square-root of the Maxwell term and which previously has been shown to produce a QCD-like confining gauge field dynamics in flat space-time. The condition of finite energy of the system or asymptotic flatness on one side of the wormhole implies that the charged object sitting at the wormhole throat expels a...

  17. Electrostatic charges generated on aerosolisation of dispersions

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Y

    2001-01-01

    In responding to the international community's agreement of phasing out chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) propellants by the year 2000, hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) has been chosen to replace CFCs. Intensive investigations related to the new propellant products have been carried out. Aerosol electrostatics is one of the topics investigated. To understand and subsequently control the charging processes is the motive of the research reported here. To help elucidate the complex charging process occurring naturally during atomization of liquids from pressurised Metered Dose Inhalers (pMDIs), it has been broken down into a sequence of related, simpler sub processes-drop charging, streaming current charging (coarse spray), splashing charging and fine spray charging. Our initial studies are of single drops forming at and breaking away from the tips of capillary tubes. The drop forming processes are so slow that any hydrodynamic effect can be dismissed. Then the charge on the drop is measured. It is found that the charge on water ...

  18. Charged line segments and ellipsoidal equipotentials

    CERN Document Server

    Curtright, T L; Chen, X; Haddad, M J; Karayev, S; Khadka, D B; Li, J

    2016-01-01

    This is a survey of the electrostatic potentials produced by charged straight-line segments, in various numbers of spatial dimensions, with comparisons between uniformly charged segments and those having non-uniform linear charge distributions that give rise to ellipsoidal equipotentials surrounding the segments. A uniform linear distribution of charge is compatible with ellipsoidal equipotentials only for three dimensions. In higher dimensions, the linear charge density giving rise to ellipsoidal equipotentials is counter-intuitive --- the charge distribution has a maximum at the center of the segment and vanishes at the ends of the segment. Only in two dimensions is the continuous charge distribution intuitive --- for that one case of ellipsoidal equipotentials, the charge is peaked at the ends of the segment and minimized at the center.

  19. Complete Charging for Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊康旗; 徐春辉; 王卫东

    2014-01-01

    Under an in-phase assumption, the complete charging for an energy harvesting system is studied, which consists of a piezoelectric energy harvester (PEH), a bridge rectifier, a filter capacitor, a switch, a controller and a rechargeable battery. For the transient charging, the results indicate that the voltage across the filter capacitor increases as the charging proceeds, which is consistent with that reported in the literature. However, a new finding shows that the charging rate and energy harvesting efficiency decrease over time after their respective peak values are acquired. For the steady-state charging, the results reveal that the energy harvesting efficiency can be adjusted by altering the critical charging voltage that controls the transition of the system. The optimal energy harvesting efficiency is limited by the optimal efficiency of the transient charging. Finally, the relationship between the critical charging voltage and the equivalent resistance of the controller and rechargeable battery is established explicitly.

  20. Characteristics of Extreme Auroral Charging Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Willis, Emily; Parker, Linda Neergaard

    2014-01-01

    Today’s presentation describes preliminary results from a study of extreme auroral charging in low Earth orbit. Goal of study is to document characteristics of auroral charging events of importance to spacecraft design, operations, and anomaly investigations.

  1. Complementary surface charge for enhanced capacitive deionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, X.; Porada, S.; Omosebi, A.; Liu, K.L.; Biesheuvel, P.M.; Landon, J.

    2016-01-01

    Commercially available activated carbon cloth electrodes are treated using nitric acid and ethylenediamine solutions, resulting in chemical surface charge enhanced carbon electrodes for capacitive deionization (CDI) applications. Surface charge enhanced electrodes are then configured in a CDI cel

  2. 38 CFR 21.7076 - Entitlement charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Bill-Active Duty) Entitlement § 21.7076 Entitlement charges. (a) Overview. VA will make charges against... part of the normal term, quarter or semester, if the veteran or servicemember is enrolled for...

  3. DNA charge transport: Moving beyond 1D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuqi; Zhang, William B.; Liu, Chaoren; Zhang, Peng; Balaeff, Alexander; Beratan, David N.

    2016-10-01

    Charge transport across novel DNA junctions has been studied for several decades. From early attempts to move charge across DNA double crossover junctions to recent studies on DNA three-way junctions and G4 motifs, it is becoming clear that efficient cross-junction charge migration requires strong base-to-base electronic coupling at the junction, facilitated by favorable pi-stacking. We review recent progress toward the goal of manipulating and controlling charge transport through DNA junctions.

  4. Amine reactivity with charged sulfuric acid clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Bzdek, B. R.; D. P. Ridge; Johnston, M. V.

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of ionic species produced by electrospray of an ammonium sulfate solution in both positive and negative polarities is examined using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS). Positively-charged ammonium bisulfate cluster composition differs significantly from negatively-charged cluster composition. For positively-charged clusters all sulfuric acid is neutralized to bisulfate, whereas for negatively-charged clusters the degree of sulfuric acid neu...

  5. On the Preon Model with Preonic Charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senju, H.

    1987-05-01

    It is proposed to identify ghe recently introduced preonic charge as the source of the binding force with the magnetic charge. This identification leads to the necessary relation of composite quarks and leptons among preonic charges. The reason why the charge of quark is a third of e is under stood. The color number 3 and the preon number 3 in lepton and quark are correlated.

  6. Invisible Surface Charge Pattern on Inorganic Electrets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fei; Hansen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    We propose an easy method to pattern the surface charge of ${\\rm SiO}_{2}$ electrets without patterning the dielectric layer. By eliminating the use of metal guard electrodes, both the charge efficiency and the surface charge stability in humid environments improve. We apply the concept to a vibr...

  7. Self compensation of classical non abelian charge

    OpenAIRE

    Bartnik, E. A.

    2009-01-01

    A new classical, non singular solution with arbitrarily low energy is found for SU(2) non abelian fields in the presence of a static charge. Physically it means that a classical charge coupled to any SU(N) non abelian gauge field will develop a pure gauge field, carrying no energy, that will completely screen it - there are no visible classical non abelian charges.

  8. Can Like Charges Attract Each Other?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, Nuri

    2012-01-01

    Electroscopes are sensitive instruments useful for investigations of static electricity. They are devices that are used for detecting whether an object is charged or uncharged. They also determine the type of charge. Their operation is based on the principle of like sign charge repulsion.

  9. Electrostatics with Computer-Interfaced Charge Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    Computer interfaced electrostatic charge sensors allow both qualitative and quantitative measurements of electrostatic charge but are quite sensitive to charges accumulating on modern synthetic materials. They need to be used with care so that students can correctly interpret their measurements. This paper describes the operation of the sensors,…

  10. 40 CFR 89.327 - Charge cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Charge cooling. 89.327 Section 89.327....327 Charge cooling. For engines with an air-to-air intercooler (or any other low temperature charge air cooling device) between the turbocharger compressor and the intake manifold, follow SAE...

  11. 25 CFR 700.105 - Utility charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Utility charges. 700.105 Section 700.105 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.105 Utility charges. Utility charges means the cost for...

  12. Charge conservation effects for high order fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Begun, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    The exact charge conservation significantly impacts multiplicity fluctuations. The result depends strongly on the part of the system charge carried by the particles of interest. Along with the expected suppression of fluctuations for large systems, charge conservation may lead to negative skewness or kurtosis for small systems.

  13. 22 CFR 901.17 - Charged employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Charged employee. 901.17 Section 901.17 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE BOARD GENERAL Meanings of Terms As Used in This Chapter § 901.17 Charged employee. Charged employee means a member of the Senior Foreign Service or a member of the Service...

  14. When electric charge becomes also magnetic

    CERN Document Server

    Adorno, Tiago C; Shabad, Anatoly E

    2015-01-01

    In nonlinear electrodynamics, QED included, we find a static solution to the field equations with an electric charge as its source, which is comprised of homogeneous parallel magnetic and electric fields, and a radial spherically-nonsymmetric long-range magnetic field, whose magnetic charge is proportional to the electric charge and also depends on the homogeneous component of the solution.

  15. Incremental Pressing Technique in Explosive Charge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A pressing technique has become available that might be useful for compressing granular explosives. If the height-diameter ratio of the charge is unfavorable,the high quality charge can not be obtained with the common single-action pressing. This paper presents incremental pressing technique, which can obtain the charge with higher overall density and more uniform density.

  16. 24 CFR 206.205 - Property charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Property charges. 206.205 Section... CONVERSION MORTGAGE INSURANCE Servicing Responsibilities § 206.205 Property charges. (a) General. The mortgagor shall pay all property charges consisting of taxes, ground rents, flood and hazard...

  17. Charge-Transfer Versus Charge-Transfer-Like Excitations Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Barry; Sun, Haitao; Govind, Niranjan; Kowalski, Karol; Autschbach, Jochen

    2015-07-14

    Criteria to assess charge-transfer (CT) and `CT-like' character of electronic excitations are examined. Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) with non-hybrid, hybrid, and tuned long-range corrected (LC) functionals is compared with with coupled-cluster (CC) benchmarks. The test set includes an organic CT complex, two `push-pull' donor-acceptor chromophores, a cyanine dye, and several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Proper CT is easily identified. Excitations with significant density changes upon excitation within regions of close spatial proximity can also be diagnosed. For such excitations, the use of LC functionals in TDDFT sometimes leads to dramatic improvements of the singlet energies, similar to proper CT, which has led to the concept of `CT-like' excitations. However, `CT-like' excitations are not like charge transfer, and the improvements are not obtained for the right reasons. The triplet excitation energies are underestimated for all systems, often severely. For the `CT-like' candidates, when going from a non-hybrid to an LC functional the error in the singlet-triplet (S/T) separation changes from negative to positive, providing error compensation. For the cyanine, the S/T separation is too large with all functionals, leading to the best error compensation for non-hybrid functionals.

  18. Charge densities and charge noise in mesoscopic conductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Büttiker

    2002-02-01

    We introduce a hierarchy of density of states to characterize the charge distribution in a mesoscopic conductor. At the bottom of this hierarchy are the partial density of states which represent the contribution to the local density of states if both the incident and the out-going scattering channel is prescribed. The partial density of states play a prominent role in measurements with a scanning tunneling microscope on multiprobe conductors in the presence of current flow. The partial density of states determine the degree of dephasing generated by a weakly coupled voltage probe. In addition the partial density of states determine the frequency-dependent response of mesoscopic conductors in the presence of slowly oscillating voltages applied to the contacts of the sample. The partial density of states permit the formulation of a Friedel sum rule which can be applied locally. We introduce the off-diagonal elements of the partial density of states matrix to describe charge fluctuation processes. This generalization leads to a local Wigner–Smith life-time matrix.

  19. Charge transport in organic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortmann, Frank

    2009-07-01

    The understanding of charge transport is one of the central goals in the research on semiconducting crystals. For organic crystals this is particularly complicated due to the strength of the electron-phonon interaction which requires the description of a seamless transition between the limiting cases of a coherent band-transport mechanism and incoherent hopping. In this thesis, charge transport phenomena in organic crystals are studied by theoretical means. A theory for charge transport in organic crystals is developed which covers the whole temperature range from low T, where it reproduces an expression from the Boltzmann equation for band transport, via elevated T, where it generalizes Holstein's small-polaron theory to finite bandwidths, up to high T, for which a temperature dependence equal to Marcus' electron-transfer theory is obtained. Thereby, coherent band transport and thermally induced hopping are treated on equal footing while simultaneously treating the electron-phonon interaction non-perturbatively. By avoiding the approximation of narrow polaron bands the theory allows for the description of large and small polarons and serves as a starting point for computational studies. The theoretical description is completed by using ab initio material parameters for the selected crystals under study. These material parameters are taken from density functional theory calculations for durene, naphthalene, and guanine crystals. Besides the analysis of the transport mechanism, special focus is put on the study of the relationship between mobility anisotropy and structure of the crystals. This study is supported by a 3D-visualization method for the transport channels in such crystals which has been derived in this thesis. (orig.)

  20. Charged Frenkel biexcitons in organic molecular crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Agranovich, V M; Kamchatnov, A M

    2001-01-01

    It is known that the energy of the lowest electronic transition in neutral molecules of anthracene, tetracene and other polyacenes is blue shifted in comparison with the corresponding transition energy in mono-valent molecular ions. This effect in molecular crystal may be responsible for the attraction between molecular (Frenkel) exciton and charge carrier. Due to this attraction the bound state of Frenkel exciton and free charge (charged Frenkel exciton) may be formed. The same mechanism can be responsible for formation of charged biexcitons (bound state of two Frenkel excitons and a charge carrier). Calculations are performed for molecular crystals like tetracene by means of one-dimensional lattice model

  1. Backward Charge Transfer in Conjugated Polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Meng-Xing; LI Guang-Qi; Thomas F. George; SUN Xin

    2005-01-01

    It has been known that the static polarizability of a polymer chain with a biexciton is negative. In order to understand this peculiar fact, this paper studies the dynamical process of the charge transfer in the polymer chain induced by an external electric field E during forming the biexciton. The time dependence of the charge distribution in the chain reveals that the charge transfer is backward: the positive charge shifts in the opposite direction of the external electric field. Such a backward charge transfer (BCT) produces an opposite dipole, which makes the polarization negative. The effect of electron interaction on the BCT is illustrated.

  2. Jet charge determination at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Tokar, Stano; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Knowing the charge of the parton initiating a jet could be very useful both for testing different aspects of the Standard model and for searching signals of a beyond-the-standard-model physics. A weighted sum of the charges of a jet constituents can be used at the LHC experiments to distinguish among jets from partons with different charges. A few applications of the jet charge variable are presented here. The jet charge was used to distinguish jets initiated by $b$ quarks from those initiated by $\\bar{b}$ quarks, for distinguishing between boosted hadronically decaying $W^+$ and $W^{-}$, and for distinguishing jets initiated by quarks from those initiated by gluons.

  3. Th economics of workplace charging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fetene, Gebeyehu Manie; Hirte, Georg; Kaplan, Sigal

    2016-01-01

    subsidies to charging facility costs and adjustments in electricity tariffs or loading technologies. We find that direct subsidies to WPC facilities or subsidies combined with specific energy price policies could be a way to foster WPC provision. In contrast measures on the employee side that may help...... to stimulate the demand for WPC turn out to be less feasible.Hence, our results suggest that in order to promote WPC it is more promising to support employers in offering WPC contracts than to provide employees an incentive to accept WPC contracts. The study therefore gives a rationale for public initiatives...

  4. Motions of Classical Charged Tachyons

    CERN Document Server

    Davidson, M P

    2001-01-01

    It is shown by numerical simulation that classical charged tachyons have self-orbiting helical solutions in a narrow neighborhood of certain discrete values for the velocity when the electromagnetic interaction is described by Feynman-Wheeler electrodynamics. The force rapidly oscillates between attractive and repulsive as a function of velocity in this neighborhood. Causal electrodynamics is also considered, and in this case it is found that when the force is attractive the tachyon loses energy to radiation. Only certain narrow ranges of velocity give attractive forces, and a geometrical derivation of these special velocities is given. Possible implications of these results for hidden variable theories of quantum mechanics are conjectured.

  5. Test of charge conjugation invariance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefkens, B M K; Prakhov, S; Gårdestig, A; Allgower, C E; Bekrenev, V; Briscoe, W J; Clajus, M; Comfort, J R; Craig, K; Grosnick, D; Isenhower, D; Knecht, N; Koetke, D; Koulbardis, A; Kozlenko, N; Kruglov, S; Lolos, G; Lopatin, I; Manley, D M; Manweiler, R; Marusić, A; McDonald, S; Olmsted, J; Papandreou, Z; Peaslee, D; Phaisangittisakul, N; Price, J W; Ramirez, A F; Sadler, M; Shafi, A; Spinka, H; Stanislaus, T D S; Starostin, A; Staudenmaier, H M; Supek, I; Tippens, W B

    2005-02-04

    We report on the first determination of upper limits on the branching ratio (BR) of eta decay to pi0pi0gamma and to pi0pi0pi0gamma. Both decay modes are strictly forbidden by charge conjugation (C) invariance. Using the Crystal Ball multiphoton detector, we obtained BR(eta-->pi0pi0gamma)pi0pi0pi0gamma)<6 x 10(-5) at the 90% confidence level, in support of C invariance of isovector electromagnetic interactions.

  6. Diffusiophoresis of a charged drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Shin, Sangwoo; Stone, Howard

    2016-11-01

    Diffusiophoresis describes the motion of colloids in an electrolytic solution under a concentration gradient. Most of the previous studies in diffusiophoresis have dealt with motion of rigid particles. Here, we study the diffusiophoresis of fluid particles analytically and experimentally. We obtain the analytical solution of the diffusiophoretic velocity of fluid particles by perturbation methods. Using charged oil droplets, we measure the droplet speed under solute concentration gradient and compare it with the analytical solution. Our findings have potential applications for oil recovery and drug delivery.

  7. Dielectric charging by an electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upatov, V. Y.

    1996-08-01

    Experimental discovery of a charge spot field effect (CSFE) has altered considerably our understanding of dielectric charging by an electron beam, under conditions typical for the operation of a large class of cathode ray tubes (CRT). Dielectric charging by an electron beam was studied using a specific pulse method for the measurement of the potential. The accuracy of this method is discussed. Measurements were made of the potential relief of a positively charged spot on muscovite mica (quartz, aluminum oxide). The potential at the spot center, under conditions described in the paper and at a relatively long charging time, was shown to be considerably lower than that of the collector. Potential dependence on charging time, determined under the same conditions, is shown for the charged spot center and a number of adjacent points. During creation of the charged spot charging current was measured. The results of the measurements are discussed. A new mechanism of dielectric charging by electron beam is proposed. A CSFE is formulated, and its significance for the operation of CRT is stated. Criticism is given of in-plane grid effect. The paper presents calculations of fields for grid target models determining the mechanism of dielectric charging by electron beam.

  8. Repulsion between oppositely charged planar macroions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YongSeok Jho

    Full Text Available The repulsive interaction between oppositely charged macroions is investigated using Grand Canonical Monte Carlo simulations of an unrestricted primitive model, including the effect of inhomogeneous surface charge and its density, the depth of surface charge, the cation size, and the dielectric permittivity of solvent and macroions, and their contrast. The origin of the repulsion is a combination of osmotic pressure and ionic screening resulting from excess salt between the macroions. The excess charge over-reduces the electrostatic attraction between macroions and raises the entropic repulsion. The magnitude of the repulsion increases when the dielectric constant of the solvent is lowered (below that of water and/or the surface charge density is increased, in good agreement with experiment. Smaller size of surface charge and the cation, their discreteness and mobility are other factors that enhance the repulsion and charge inversion phenomenons.

  9. Holography of charges in gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Julia, B L

    2001-01-01

    In this short review we compare the rigid Noether charges to topological gauge charges. One important extension is that one should consider each boundary component of spacetime independently. The argument that relates bulk charges to surface terms can be adapted to the perfect fluid situation where one can recognise the helicity and enstrophies as Noether charges. More generally a forcing procedure that increases for instance any Noether charge is demonstrated. In the gauge theory situation, the key idea can be summarized by one sentence: ``go to infinity and stay there''. A new variational formulation of Einstein's gravity is given that allows for local GL(D,R) invariance. The a priori indeterminacy of the Noether charges is emphasized and a covariant ansatz due to S. Silva for the surface charges of gauge theories is analysed, it replaces the (non-covariant) Regge-Teitelboim procedure.

  10. Coupling Electromagnetism to Global Charge

    CERN Document Server

    Guendelman, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    It is shown that an alternative to the standard scalar QED is possible. In this new version there is only global gauge invariance as far as the charged scalar fields are concerned although local gauge invariance is kept for the electromagnetic field. The electromagnetic coupling has the form $j_\\mu (A^{\\mu} +\\partial^{\\mu}B)$ where $B$ is an auxiliary field and the current $j_\\mu$ is $A_{\\mu}$ independent so that no "sea gull terms" are introduced. In a model of this kind spontaneous breaking of symmetry does not lead to photon mass generation, instead the Goldstone boson becomes a massless source for the electromagnetic field. Infrared questions concerning the theory when spontaneous symmetry breaking takes place and generalizations to global vector QED are discussed. In this framework Q-Balls and other non topological solitons that owe their existence to a global U(1) symmetry can be coupled to electromagnetism and could represent multiply charged particles now in search in the LHC. Finally, we give an exam...

  11. Floating Charge%Floating Charge--浮动抵押

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍为民

    2004-01-01

    "Floating Charge"来源于英美法系,它将担保设立在公司的全部财产之上(该担保甚至可及于公司未来之财产),在结晶前公司对财产享有处分权.通过介绍Floating Charge的创立和发展变化,从设定和实施两个方面详细考察了该制度的具体内涵.最后通过和大陆法系财团抵押制度的对比,提出应在我国引进浮动抵押,完善企业担保制度.

  12. Point charges optimally placed to represent the multipole expansion of charge distributions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramu Anandakrishnan

    Full Text Available We propose an approach for approximating electrostatic charge distributions with a small number of point charges to optimally represent the original charge distribution. By construction, the proposed optimal point charge approximation (OPCA retains many of the useful properties of point multipole expansion, including the same far-field asymptotic behavior of the approximate potential. A general framework for numerically computing OPCA, for any given number of approximating charges, is described. We then derive a 2-charge practical point charge approximation, PPCA, which approximates the 2-charge OPCA via closed form analytical expressions, and test the PPCA on a set of charge distributions relevant to biomolecular modeling. We measure the accuracy of the new approximations as the RMS error in the electrostatic potential relative to that produced by the original charge distribution, at a distance 2x the extent of the charge distribution--the mid-field. The error for the 2-charge PPCA is found to be on average 23% smaller than that of optimally placed point dipole approximation, and comparable to that of the point quadrupole approximation. The standard deviation in RMS error for the 2-charge PPCA is 53% lower than that of the optimal point dipole approximation, and comparable to that of the point quadrupole approximation. We also calculate the 3-charge OPCA for representing the gas phase quantum mechanical charge distribution of a water molecule. The electrostatic potential calculated by the 3-charge OPCA for water, in the mid-field (2.8 Å from the oxygen atom, is on average 33.3% more accurate than the potential due to the point multipole expansion up to the octupole order. Compared to a 3 point charge approximation in which the charges are placed on the atom centers, the 3-charge OPCA is seven times more accurate, by RMS error. The maximum error at the oxygen-Na distance (2.23 Å is half that of the point multipole expansion up to the octupole

  13. Charge of a quasiparticle in a superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronen, Yuval; Cohen, Yonatan; Kang, Jung-Hyun; Haim, Arbel; Rieder, Maria-Theresa; Heiblum, Moty; Mahalu, Diana; Shtrikman, Hadas

    2016-02-16

    Nonlinear charge transport in superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) Josephson junctions has a unique signature in the shuttled charge quantum between the two superconductors. In the zero-bias limit Cooper pairs, each with twice the electron charge, carry the Josephson current. An applied bias VSD leads to multiple Andreev reflections (MAR), which in the limit of weak tunneling probability should lead to integer multiples of the electron charge ne traversing the junction, with n integer larger than 2Δ/eVSD and Δ the superconducting order parameter. Exceptionally, just above the gap eVSD ≥ 2Δ, with Andreev reflections suppressed, one would expect the current to be carried by partitioned quasiparticles, each with energy-dependent charge, being a superposition of an electron and a hole. Using shot-noise measurements in an SIS junction induced in an InAs nanowire (with noise proportional to the partitioned charge), we first observed quantization of the partitioned charge q = e*/e = n, with n = 1-4, thus reaffirming the validity of our charge interpretation. Concentrating next on the bias region eVSD ~ 2Δ, we found a reproducible and clear dip in the extracted charge to q ~ 0.6, which, after excluding other possibilities, we attribute to the partitioned quasiparticle charge. Such dip is supported by numerical simulations of our SIS structure.

  14. Battery Charge Equalizer with Transformer Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis

    2013-01-01

    High-power batteries generally consist of a series connection of many cells or cell banks. In order to maintain high performance over battery life, it is desirable to keep the state of charge of all the cell banks equal. A method provides individual charging for battery cells in a large, high-voltage battery array with a minimum number of transformers while maintaining reasonable efficiency. This is designed to augment a simple highcurrent charger that supplies the main charge energy. The innovation will form part of a larger battery charge system. It consists of a transformer array connected to the battery array through rectification and filtering circuits. The transformer array is connected to a drive circuit and a timing and control circuit that allow individual battery cells or cell banks to be charged. The timing circuit and control circuit connect to a charge controller that uses battery instrumentation to determine which battery bank to charge. It is important to note that the innovation can charge an individual cell bank at the same time that the main battery charger is charging the high-voltage battery. The fact that the battery cell banks are at a non-zero voltage, and that they are all at similar voltages, can be used to allow charging of individual cell banks. A set of transformers can be connected with secondary windings in series to make weighted sums of the voltages on the primaries.

  15. Charge of a quasiparticle in a superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronen, Yuval; Cohen, Yonatan; Kang, Jung-Hyun; Haim, Arbel; Rieder, Maria-Theresa; Heiblum, Moty; Mahalu, Diana; Shtrikman, Hadas

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear charge transport in superconductor–insulator–superconductor (SIS) Josephson junctions has a unique signature in the shuttled charge quantum between the two superconductors. In the zero-bias limit Cooper pairs, each with twice the electron charge, carry the Josephson current. An applied bias VSD leads to multiple Andreev reflections (MAR), which in the limit of weak tunneling probability should lead to integer multiples of the electron charge ne traversing the junction, with n integer larger than 2Δ/eVSD and Δ the superconducting order parameter. Exceptionally, just above the gap eVSD ≥ 2Δ, with Andreev reflections suppressed, one would expect the current to be carried by partitioned quasiparticles, each with energy-dependent charge, being a superposition of an electron and a hole. Using shot-noise measurements in an SIS junction induced in an InAs nanowire (with noise proportional to the partitioned charge), we first observed quantization of the partitioned charge q = e*/e=n, with n = 1–4, thus reaffirming the validity of our charge interpretation. Concentrating next on the bias region eVSD∼2Δ, we found a reproducible and clear dip in the extracted charge to q ∼0.6, which, after excluding other possibilities, we attribute to the partitioned quasiparticle charge. Such dip is supported by numerical simulations of our SIS structure. PMID:26831071

  16. Energy of a Charged Wormhole

    CERN Document Server

    Salti, M; Aydogdu, Oktay; Salti, Mustafa

    2005-01-01

    The Moller energy(due to matter and fields including gravity) distribution of the traversable Lorentzian wormhole space-time by the scalar field or electric charged is studied in two different approaches of gravity such as general relativity and tele-parallel gravity. The results are found exactly the same in these different approximations. The energy found in tele-parallel gravity is also independent of the tele-parallel dimensionless coupling constant, which means that it is valid in any tele-parallel model. Our results sustains that (a) the importance of the energy-momentum definitions in the evaluation of the energy distribution of a given space-time and (b) the viewpoint of Lassner that the Moller energy-momentum complex is a powerful concept of energy and momentum.

  17. Magnetic guidance of charged particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Dubbers

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many experiments and devices in physics use static magnetic fields to guide charged particles from a source onto a detector, and we ask the innocent question: What is the distribution of particle intensity over the detector surface? One should think that the solution to this seemingly simple problem is well known. We show that, even for uniform guide fields, this is not the case, and we present analytical point spread functions (PSF for magnetic transport that deviate strongly from previous results. The “magnetic” PSF shows unexpected singularities, which were recently also observed experimentally, and which make detector response very sensitive to minute changes of position, field amplitude, or particle energy. In the field of low-energy particle physics, these singularities may become a source of error in modern high precision experiments, or may be used for instrument tests.

  18. Test of Charge Conjugation Invariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefkens, B. M.; Prakhov, S.; Gårdestig, A.; Allgower, C. E.; Bekrenev, V.; Briscoe, W. J.; Clajus, M.; Comfort, J. R.; Craig, K.; Grosnick, D.; Isenhower, D.; Knecht, N.; Koetke, D.; Koulbardis, A.; Kozlenko, N.; Kruglov, S.; Lolos, G.; Lopatin, I.; Manley, D. M.; Manweiler, R.; Marušić, A.; McDonald, S.; Olmsted, J.; Papandreou, Z.; Peaslee, D.; Phaisangittisakul, N.; Price, J. W.; Ramirez, A. F.; Sadler, M.; Shafi, A.; Spinka, H.; Stanislaus, T. D.; Starostin, A.; Staudenmaier, H. M.; Supek, I.; Tippens, W. B.

    2005-02-01

    We report on the first determination of upper limits on the branching ratio (BR) of η decay to π0π0γ and to π0π0π0γ. Both decay modes are strictly forbidden by charge conjugation (C) invariance. Using the Crystal Ball multiphoton detector, we obtained BR(η→π0π0γ)<5×10-4 at the 90% confidence level, in support of C invariance of isoscalar electromagnetic interactions of the light quarks. We have also measured BR(η→π0π0π0γ)<6×10-5 at the 90% confidence level, in support of C invariance of isovector electromagnetic interactions.

  19. a Movable Charging Unit for Green Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElBanhawy, E. Y.; Nassar, K.

    2013-05-01

    Battery swapping of electric vehicles (EVs) matter appears to be the swiftest and most convenient to users. The existence of swapping stations increases the feasibility of distributed energy storage via the electric grid. However, it is a cost-prohibitive way of charging. Early adaptors' preferences of /perceptions about EV system in general, has its inflectional effects on potential users hence the market penetration level. Yet, the charging matter of electric batteries worries the users and puts more pressure on them with the more rigorous planning-ahead they have to make prior to any trip. This paper presents a distinctive way of charging. It aims at making the overall charging process at ease. From a closer look into the literature, most of EVs' populations depend on domestic charge. Domestic charging gives them more confidence and increases the usability factor of the EV system. Nevertheless, they still need to count on the publically available charging points to reach their destination(s). And when it comes to multifamily residences, it becomes a thorny problem as these apartments do not have a room for charging outlets. Having said the irritating charging time needed to fatten the batteries over the day and the minimal average mileage drove daily, hypothetically, home delivery charging (Movable Charging Unit-MCU) would be a stupendous solution. The paper discusses the integration of shortest path algorithm problem with the information about EV users within a metropolitan area, developing an optimal route for a charging unit. This MCU delivers charging till homes whether by swapping batteries or by fast charging facility. Information about users is to be provided by the service provider of the neighbourhood, which includes charging patterns (timing, power capacity). This problem lies under the shortest path algorithms problem. It provides optimal route of charging that in return shall add more reliability and usability values and alleviate the charging

  20. Charge transport in nanoscale junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Tim; Kornyshev, Alexei; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2008-09-03

    Understanding the fundamentals of nanoscale charge transfer is pivotal for designing future nano-electronic devices. Such devices could be based on individual or groups of molecular bridges, nanotubes, nanoparticles, biomolecules and other 'active' components, mimicking wire, diode and transistor functions. These have operated in various environments including vacuum, air and condensed matter, in two- or three-electrode configurations, at ultra-low and room temperatures. Interest in charge transport in ultra-small device components has a long history and can be dated back to Aviram and Ratner's letter in 1974 (Chem. Phys. Lett. 29 277-83). So why is there a necessity for a special issue on this subject? The area has reached some degree of maturity, and even subtle geometric effects in the nanojunction and noise features can now be resolved and rationalized based on existing theoretical concepts. One purpose of this special issue is thus to showcase various aspects of nanoscale and single-molecule charge transport from experimental and theoretical perspectives. The main principles have 'crystallized' in our minds, but there is still a long way to go before true single-molecule electronics can be implemented. Major obstacles include the stability of electronic nanojunctions, reliable operation at room temperature, speed of operation and, last but not least, integration into large networks. A gradual transition from traditional silicon-based electronics to devices involving a single (or a few) molecule(s) therefore appears to be more viable from technologic and economic perspectives than a 'quantum leap'. As research in this area progresses, new applications emerge, e.g. with a view to characterizing interfacial charge transfer at the single-molecule level in general. For example, electrochemical experiments with individual enzyme molecules demonstrate that catalytic processes can be studied with nanometre resolution, offering a route towards optimizing biosensors at

  1. Review of Variable Generation Integration Charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, K.; Fink, S.; Buckley, M.; Rogers, J.; Hodge, B. M.

    2013-03-01

    The growth of wind and solar generation in the United States, and the expectation of continued growth of these technologies, dictates that the future power system will be operated in a somewhat different manner because of increased variability and uncertainty. A small number of balancing authorities have attempted to determine an 'integration cost' to account for these changes to their current operating practices. Some balancing authorities directly charge wind and solar generators for integration charges, whereas others add integration charges to projected costs of wind and solar in integrated resource plans or in competitive solicitations for generation. This report reviews the balancing authorities that have calculated variable generation integration charges and broadly compares and contrasts the methodologies they used to determine their specific integration charges. The report also profiles each balancing authority and how they derived wind and solar integration charges.

  2. Research on the fast charging of VRLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Qing

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available VRLA can be the energy storing device of the HEV (Hybrid Electric Vehicle, photovoltaic system and so on. The most important factor that restricts the improvement of these fields is the service lifetime of the battery cannot reach the expectation. In the charging process, traditional charging method has serious polarization phenomenon. It will decrease its service life. Aimed at the purpose of reducing the polarization phenomenon, this paper proposed the changing current depolarization pulse charging method which is combining the dynamic model of the battery on the basis of analyzing the existential issues in the pulse charging method. By building the hardware circuit to achieve the function and verify their feasibility. The results indicate that, compared with pulse charging method, the new method makes battery fully charged in shorter time obviously and the temperature of batteries rise more slowly.

  3. Hydrodynamics and Elasticity of Charged Black Branes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gath, Jakob

    charge and a dilaton coupling. For the case of Maxwell black branes we furthermore compute the charge diffusion constant. We find that the shear viscosity to entropy bound is saturated and comment on proposed bounds for the bulk viscosity to entropy ratio. With the transport coecients we compute......)isotropic uid branes in terms of two sets of response coecients, the Young modulus and the piezoelectric moduli. We subsequently consider a large class of examples in gravity of this effective theory. In particular, we consider dilatonic black p-branes in two different settings: charged under a Maxwell gauge...... as a seed solution, we obtain a class of charged black brane geometries carrying smeared Maxwell charge in Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory. In the specific case of ten-dimensional space-time we furthermore use T-duality to generate bent black branes with higher-form charge, including smeared D...

  4. Quantum crystallographic charge density of urea

    OpenAIRE

    Wall, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Standard X-ray crystallography methods use free-atom models to calculate mean unit-cell charge densities. Real molecules, however, have shared charge that is not captured accurately using free-atom models. To address this limitation, a charge density model of crystalline urea was calculated using high-level quantum theory and was refined against publicly available ultra-high-resolution experimental Bragg data, including the effects of atomic displacement parameters. The resulting quantum crys...

  5. A Radio Frequency Charge Parity Meter

    OpenAIRE

    Schroer, M. D.; Jung, M.; Petersson, K. D.; Petta, J. R.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a total charge parity measurement by detecting the radio frequency signal that is reflected by a lumped element resonator coupled to a single InAs nanowire double quantum dot. The high frequency response of the circuit is used to probe the effects of the Pauli exclusion principle at interdot charge transitions. Even parity charge transitions show a striking magnetic field dependence that is due to a singlet-triplet transition, while odd parity transitions are relatively insensi...

  6. Spinning a charged dilaton black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Shiraishi, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    A charged dilaton black hole which possesses infinitesimal angular momentum is studied. We find that the gyromagnetic ratio of the dilaton black hole depends not only on the parameter which appears in the interaction between the dilaton and the electric field but also nonlinearly on the ratio of the charge to the mass of the black hole. The moment of inertia for the charged dilaton hole in the limit of infinitesimal angular momentum is also calculated.

  7. Spin and charge necklaces at commensurate filling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikoin, K [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Kiselev, M N, E-mail: konstk@post.tau.ac.i [The Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy)

    2009-03-01

    The charge and spin properties of spin chains decorated with dimers and closed trimers (equilateral triangles) with commensurate partial filling (1/4 and 1/3, respectively) are considered. It is shown that due to the charge separation both systems prefer the ground state with even occupation per elementary cell, where the spin spectrum possesses the Haldane gap for negative spin exchange and magnon-like for positive coupling. The charge spectrum is always gapped.

  8. Bonding charge density from atomic perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Wang, William Yi; Chen, Long-Qing; Liu, Zi-Kui

    2015-05-15

    Charge transfer among individual atoms is the key concept in modern electronic theory of chemical bonding. In this work, we present a first-principles approach to calculating the charge transfer. Based on the effects of perturbations of an individual atom or a group of atoms on the electron charge density, we determine unambiguously the amount of electron charge associated with a particular atom or a group of atoms. We computed the topological electron loss versus gain using ethylene, graphene, MgO, and SrTiO3 as examples. Our results verify the nature of chemical bonds in these materials at the atomic level.

  9. Radiation from charges in the continuum limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ianconescu, Reuven [Shenkar College of Engineering and Design, Ramat Gan 52526 (Israel)

    2013-06-15

    It is known that an accelerating charge radiates according to Larmor formula. On the other hand, any DC current following a curvilinear path, consists of accelerating charges, but in such case the radiated power is 0. The scope of this paper is to analyze and quantify how a system of charges goes from a radiating state to a non radiating state when the charges distribution goes to the continuum limit. Understanding this is important from the theoretical point of view and the results of this work are applicable to particle accelerator, cyclotron and other high energy devices.

  10. Charge-transfer with graphene and nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.N.R. Rao

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Charge-transfer between electron–donor and –acceptor molecules is a widely studied subject of great chemical interest. Some of the charge-transfer compounds in solid state exhibit novel electronic properties. In the last two to three years, occurrence of molecular charge-transfer involving single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs and graphene has been demonstrated. This interaction gives rise to significant changes in the electronic properties of these nanocarbons. We examine charge-transfer phenomenon in graphene and SWNTs in this article in view of its potential utility in device applications.

  11. Conductivity maximum in a charged colloidal suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastea, S

    2009-01-27

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a charged colloidal suspension in the salt-free regime show that the system exhibits an electrical conductivity maximum as a function of colloid charge. We attribute this behavior to two main competing effects: colloid effective charge saturation due to counterion 'condensation' and diffusion slowdown due to the relaxation effect. In agreement with previous observations, we also find that the effective transported charge is larger than the one determined by the Stern layer and suggest that it corresponds to the boundary fluid layer at the surface of the colloidal particles.

  12. Charge fluctuation of the superconducting molecular crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, T., E-mail: yamataka@chem.sci.osaka-u.ac.j [Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Nakazawa, Y. [Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Kato, R. [RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Yakushi, K. [Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki, Aichi 444-8581 (Japan); Akutsu, H.; Akustu, A.S. [School of Science and Graduate School of Material Sciences, University of Hyogo, Kamigouri, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); Yamamoto, H. [RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kawamoto, A. [Graduate School and Faculty of Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810 (Japan); Turner, S.S. [Department of Chemistry, Warwick University, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Day, P. [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-01

    In recent years, concern has been raised about the charge fluctuation of the superconducting transition in the loosely dimerized molecular conductors. Not only the observation of the charge fluctuation is of considerably important but also the understanding of the mechanism of the fluctuation. We have observed degree of charge fluctuation of several {beta}''-type ET salts. The {beta}''-type ET salt is one of the best model compounds because the direction of the largest inter-site Coulomb interaction is perpendicular to that of the largest transfer integral. This structural property allows us to examine the role of inter-site Coulomb interaction from the viewpoint of the inter-molecular distance. The difference in the molecular charges between the charge rich site and the charge poor sites, {Delta}{rho}, is correlated with the conducting behavior; the superconducting materials have the small but finite {Delta}{rho}, whereas {Delta}{rho} of the insulating (metallic) materials is large (almost zero). After the analysis of the configuration in the inter-molecular distances, we have found that the degree of fluctuation, {Delta}{rho}, is attributed to the number of the most stable charge distribution(s), N{sub S}, and the number of the energy levels of the allowed charge distribution, N{sub A}. The superconducting materials belong to the condition of N{sub S{>=}}2 and N{sub A{>=}}2. Indeed, this condition contributes to the fluctuation of the molecular charges.

  13. Discrete electrostatic charge transfer by the electrophoresis of a charged droplet in a dielectric liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Do Jin; Ahn, Myung Mo; Yoo, Byeong Sun; Moon, Dustin; Lee, Dong Woog; Kang, In Seok

    2012-08-14

    We have experimentally investigated the electrostatic charging of a water droplet on an electrified electrode surface to explain the detailed inductive charging processes and use them for the detection of droplet position in a lab-on-a-chip system. The periodic bouncing motion of a droplet between two planar electrodes has been examined by using a high-resolution electrometer and an image analysis method. We have found that this charging process consists of three steps. The first step is inductive charge accumulation on the opposite electrode by the charge of a droplet. This induction process occurs while the droplet approaches the electrode, and it produces an induction current signal at the electrometer. The second step is the discharging of the droplet by the accumulated induced charge at the moment of contact. For this second step, there is no charge-transfer detection at the electrometer. The third step is the charging of the neutralized droplet to a certain charged state while the droplet is in contact with the electrode. The charge transfer of the third step is detected as the pulse-type signal of an electrometer. The second and third steps occur simultaneously and rapidly. We have found that the induction current by the movement of a charged droplet can be accurately used to measure the charge of the droplet and can also be used to monitor the position of a droplet under actuation. The implications of the current findings for understanding and measuring the charging process are discussed.

  14. Threshold-Based Random Charging Scheme for Decentralized PEV Charging Operation in a Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojin Kwon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Smart grids have been introduced to replace conventional power distribution systems without real time monitoring for accommodating the future market penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs. When a large number of PEVs require simultaneous battery charging, charging coordination techniques have become one of the most critical factors to optimize the PEV charging performance and the conventional distribution system. In this case, considerable computational complexity of a central controller and exchange of real time information among PEVs may occur. To alleviate these problems, a novel threshold-based random charging (TBRC operation for a decentralized charging system is proposed. Using PEV charging thresholds and random access rates, the PEVs themselves can participate in the charging requests. As PEVs with a high battery state do not transmit the charging requests to the central controller, the complexity of the central controller decreases due to the reduction of the charging requests. In addition, both the charging threshold and the random access rate are statistically calculated based on the average of supply power of the PEV charging system that do not require a real time update. By using the proposed TBRC with a tolerable PEV charging degradation, a 51% reduction of the PEV charging requests is achieved.

  15. Modeling of stored charge in metallized biaxially oriented polypropylene film capacitors based on charging current measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Wang, Bowen; Li, Zhiwei; Liu, De; Lin, Fuchang; Dai, Ling; Zhang, Qin; Chen, Yaohong

    2013-10-01

    Metallized biaxially oriented polypropylene film (BOPP) capacitors are widely used in pulsed power systems. When the capacitor is used as the energy storage equipment under high electric field, more charges should be provided to maintain the voltage of the capacitor. This should be ascribed to the completion of the slow polarization which may take several hours or even longer. This paper focuses on the stored charge in metallized BOPP film capacitors. The modeling of the stored charge by the equivalent conversion of circuits is conducted to analyse the slow polarization in the BOPP film. The 3-RC network is proposed to represent the time-dependent charge stored in the capacitor. A charging current measurement system is established to investigate the charge storage property of the capacitor. The measurement system can measure the long time charging current with a sampling rate of 300Hz. The total charge calculated by the charging current indicates that the stored charge in the capacitor under the electric field of 400 V/μm is 13.5% larger than the product of the voltage and the capacitance measured by the AC bridge. The nonlinear effect of the electric field on the slow polarization charge is also demonstrated. And the simulation of charge storage based on the 3-RC network can match well with the trend of the stored charge increasing with the time.

  16. Late-Time Evolution of Charged Gravitational Collapse and Decay of Charged Scalar Hair, 2

    CERN Document Server

    Hod, S; Hod, Shahar; Piran, Tsvi

    1998-01-01

    We study analytically the initial value problem for a charged massless scalar-field on a Reissner-Nordström spacetime. Using the technique of spectral decomposition we extend recent results on this problem. Following the no-hair theorem we reveal the dynamical physical mechanism by which the charged hair is radiated away. We show that the charged perturbations decay according to an inverse power-law behaviour at future timelike infinity and along future null infinity. Along the future outer horizon we find an oscillatory inverse power-law relaxation of the charged fields. We find that a charged black hole becomes ``bald'' slower than a neutral one, due to the existence of charged perturbations. Our results are also important to the study of mass-inflation and the stability of Cauchy horizons during a dynamical gravitational collapse of charged matter in which a charged black-hole is formed.

  17. Effect of trapped charge accumulation on the retention of charge trapping memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Rui; Liu Xiaoyan; Du Gang; Kang Jinfeng; Han Ruqi, E-mail: xyliu@ime.pku.edu.cn [Institute of Microelectronics, Peking University, Beijing, 100871 (China)

    2010-12-15

    The accumulation process of trapped charges in a TANOS cell during P/E cycling is investigated via numerical simulation. The recombination process between trapped charges is an important issue on the retention of charge trapping memory. Our results show that accumulated trapped holes during P/E cycling can have an influence on retention, and the recombination mechanism between trapped charges should be taken into account when evaluating the retention capability of TANOS. (semiconductor devices)

  18. Study on charge equilibration time of highly charged ions in carbon foils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Yan; Xiao Guo-Qing; Xu Hu-Shan; Sun Zhi-Yu; Zhao Yong-Wao; Hu Zheng-Guo; Xu Hua-Gen; Huang Wian-Heng; Wang Yu-Yu

    2008-01-01

    Charge state distribution of 0.8MeV/u uranium ions after transmission through a thin carbon foil has been studied.It is observed that the charge state distribution is equilibrated after the uranium ions have passed through a 15 μg/cm2 carbon foil.The equilibrated average charge state is 33.72 and the charge equilibration time of uranium ions in carbon foil is less than 5.4fs.

  19. Estimation of the diameter-charge distribution in polydisperse electrically charged sprays of electrically insulating liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigit, A. R. H.; Shrimpton, John S.

    2009-06-01

    The majority of scientific and industrial electrical spray applications make use of sprays that contain a range of drop diameters. Indirect evidence suggests the mean drop diameter and the mean drop charge level are usually correlated. In addition, within each drop diameter class there is every reason to suspect a distribution of charge levels exist for a particular drop diameter class. This paper presents an experimental method that uses the joint PDF of drop velocity and diameter, obtained from phase Doppler anemometry measurements, and directly obtained spatially resolved distributions of the mass and charge flux to obtain a drop diameter and charge frequency distribution. The method is demonstrated using several data-sets obtained from experimental measurements of steady poly-disperse sprays of an electrically insulating liquid produced with the charge injection technique. The space charge repulsion in the spray plume produces a hollow cone spray structure. In addition an approximate self-similarity is observed, with the maximum radial mass and charge flow occurring at r/ d ~ 200. The charge flux profile is slightly offset from the mass flux profile, and this gives direct evidence that the spray specific charge increases from approximately 20% of the bulk mean spray specific charge on the spray axis to approximately 200% of the bulk mean specific charge in the periphery of the spray. The results from the drop charge estimation model suggest a complex picture of the correlation between drop charge and drop diameter, with spray specific charge, injection velocity and orifice diameter all contributing to the shape of the drop diameter-charge distribution. Mean drop charge as a function of the Rayleigh limit is approximately 0.2, and is invariant with drop diameter and also across the spray cases tested.

  20. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES Effect of trapped charge accumulation on the retention of charge trapping memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Jin; Xiaoyan, Liu; Gang, Du; Jinfeng, Kang; Ruqi, Han

    2010-12-01

    The accumulation process of trapped charges in a TANOS cell during P/E cycling is investigated via numerical simulation. The recombination process between trapped charges is an important issue on the retention of charge trapping memory. Our results show that accumulated trapped holes during P/E cycling can have an influence on retention, and the recombination mechanism between trapped charges should be taken into account when evaluating the retention capability of TANOS.

  1. Adsorption of heterogeneously charged nanoparticles on a variably charged surface by the extended surface complexation approach: Charge regulation, chemical heterogeneity, and surface complexation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saito, T.; Koopal, L.K.; Nagasaki, S.; Tanaka, S.

    2008-01-01

    Adsorption of randomly branched polyelectrolytes, hairy particles and internally structured macromolecules, collectively denoted as heterogeneously charged nanoparticles, on charged surfaces is important in. many technological and natural processes. In this paper, we will focus on (1) the charge reg

  2. Dielectric sample with two-layer charge distribution for space charge calibration purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim; Henriksen, Mogens; Rasmussen, C.

    2002-01-01

    In the present paper is described a dielectric test sample with two very narrow concentrations of bulk charges, achieved by two internal electrodes not affecting the acoustical properties of the sample, a fact important for optimal application of most space charge measuring systems. Space charge...

  3. Ultrafast Charge Photogeneration in MEH-PPV Charge-Transfer Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakulin, Artem A.; Paraschuk, Dmitry Yu.; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; van Loosdrecht, Paul H. M.

    Visible-pump-IR-probe spectroscopy is used to study the ultrafast charge dynamics in MEH-PPV based charge-transfer complexes and donor-acceptor blends. Transient anisotropy of the polymer polaron band provides invaluable insights into excitation localisation and charge-transfer pathways.

  4. Area-charge inequality for black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Dain, Sergio; Reiris, Martín

    2011-01-01

    The inequality between area and charge $A\\geq 4\\pi Q^2$ for dynamical black holes is proved. No symmetry assumption is made and charged matter fields are included. Extensions of this inequality are also proved for regions in the spacetime which are not necessarily black hole boundaries.

  5. Area Wide Road User Charging in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildebogaard, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents the concept of a distance based road user charging scheme and the research programme FORTRIN at DTU is introduced.......The paper presents the concept of a distance based road user charging scheme and the research programme FORTRIN at DTU is introduced....

  6. 16 CFR 444.4 - Late charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Late charges. 444.4 Section 444.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES CREDIT PRACTICES § 444.4 Late charges. (a) In connection with collecting a debt arising out of an extension of credit to a consumer in or...

  7. Charge accumulation in lossy dielectrics: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jørgen Knøster; McAllister, Iain Wilson; Crichton, George C

    1999-01-01

    such that the material parameters which influence charge accumulation are clearly identified; viz. the conductivity, permittivity and dimensions of the insulating media. The two former parameters, together with the applied voltage, govern both the magnitude and polarity of the accumulated charge....

  8. Fluctuation charge effects in ionization fronts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrayas, Manuel; Trueba, Jose L [Area de Electromagnetismo, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Camino del Molino s/n, 28943 Fuenlabrada, Madrid (Spain); Baltanas, J P [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Reina Mercedes 2, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)

    2008-05-21

    In this paper, we study the effects of charge fluctuations on the propagation of both negative and positive ionization fronts in streamer discharges. We show that fronts accelerate when random charge creation events are present. This effect might play a similar role to photoionization in order to make the front move faster.

  9. Controlling charge quantization with quantum fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezouin, S.; Iftikhar, Z.; Anthore, A.; Parmentier, F. D.; Gennser, U.; Cavanna, A.; Ouerghi, A.; Levkivskyi, I. P.; Idrisov, E.; Sukhorukov, E. V.; Glazman, L. I.; Pierre, F.

    2016-08-01

    In 1909, Millikan showed that the charge of electrically isolated systems is quantized in units of the elementary electron charge e. Today, the persistence of charge quantization in small, weakly connected conductors allows for circuits in which single electrons are manipulated, with applications in, for example, metrology, detectors and thermometry. However, as the connection strength is increased, the discreteness of charge is progressively reduced by quantum fluctuations. Here we report the full quantum control and characterization of charge quantization. By using semiconductor-based tunable elemental conduction channels to connect a micrometre-scale metallic island to a circuit, we explore the complete evolution of charge quantization while scanning the entire range of connection strengths, from a very weak (tunnel) to a perfect (ballistic) contact. We observe, when approaching the ballistic limit, that charge quantization is destroyed by quantum fluctuations, and scales as the square root of the residual probability for an electron to be reflected across the quantum channel; this scaling also applies beyond the different regimes of connection strength currently accessible to theory. At increased temperatures, the thermal fluctuations result in an exponential suppression of charge quantization and in a universal square-root scaling, valid for all connection strengths, in agreement with expectations. Besides being pertinent for the improvement of single-electron circuits and their applications, and for the metal-semiconductor hybrids relevant to topological quantum computing, knowledge of the quantum laws of electricity will be essential for the quantum engineering of future nanoelectronic devices.

  10. Evaluation of charge breeding options for EURISOL

    CERN Document Server

    Delahaye, P; Lamy, T; Marie-Jeanne, M; Kester, O; Wenander, F

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive study of charge breeding techniques for the most ambitious ISOL-facility project, EURISOL, is presented here. It is based on results obtained during the past years at CERN-ISOLDE and LPSC Grenoble with charge breeders of both ECR and EBIS types.

  11. Charge-regularization effects on polyelectrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumar, Murugappan

    2012-02-01

    When electrically charged macromolecules are dispersed in polar solvents, their effective net charge is generally different from their chemical charges, due to competition between counterion adsorption and the translational entropy of dissociated counterions. The effective charge changes significantly as the experimental conditions change such as variations in solvent quality, temperature, and the concentration of added small electrolytes. This charge-regularization effect leads to major difficulties in interpreting experimental data on polyelectrolyte solutions and challenges in understanding the various polyelectrolyte phenomena. Even the most fundamental issue of experimental determination of molar mass of charged macromolecules by light scattering method has been difficult so far due to this feature. We will present a theory of charge-regularization of flexible polyelectrolytes in solutions and discuss the consequences of charge-regularization on (a) experimental determination of molar mass of polyelectrolytes using scattering techniques, (b) coil-globule transition, (c) macrophase separation in polyelectrolyte solutions, (c) phase behavior in coacervate formation, and (d) volume phase transitions in polyelectrolyte gels.

  12. 32 CFR 776.81 - Charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in the charged attorney's chain of command (or such other officer as JAG may designate), and direct.... (c) The Rules Counsel shall also provide a copy of the charges to the commanding officer, or... Command (NLSC) units, to Vice Commander, NLSC; (2) In cases involving Navy attorneys serving in...

  13. An unusual charging event on ISEE 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, R. C.; Whipple, E. C.

    1988-06-01

    Electrostatic cleanliness requirements on ISEE 1 were expected to prevent negative charging in sunlight. This has largely been true, but on three occasions, ISEE 1 has been observed to charge to significant negative potentials in sunlight. Data from the two electric field experiments and from the plasma composition experiment on ISEE 1 show that the spacecraft charged to close to -70 V in sunlight at about 0700 UT on March 17, 1978. Data from the electron spectrometer experiments show that there was a potential barrier of some -10 to -20 V about the spacecraft during this event. The potential barrier was effective in turning back emitted photoelectrons to the spacecraft. Potential barriers can be formed by differential charging on the spacecraft or by the presence of excess space charge in the plasma. The shape of the barrier suggests that it is due to the former, even though electrostatic cleanliness specifications imposed on ISEE were intended to eliminate differential charging. Modeling of this event showed that the barrier could not be produced by the presence of space charge but that it was most likely produced by differential charging of the solar arrays.

  14. An unusual charging event on ISEE 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, R.C. (Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (USA)); Whipple, E.C. (Univ. of California at San Diego, La Jolla (USA))

    1988-06-01

    Electrostatic cleanliness requirements on ISEE 1 were expected to prevent negative charging in sunlight. This has largely been true, but on three occasions, ISEE 1 has been observed to charge to significant negative potentials in sunlight. Data from the two electric field experiments and from the plasma composition experiment on ISEE 1 show that the spacecraft charged to close to {minus}70 V in sunlight at about 0700 UT on March 17, 1978. Data from the electron spectrometer experiment show that there was a potential barrier of some {minus}10 to {minus}20 V about the spacecraft during this event. The potential barrier was effective in turning back emitted photoelectrons to the spacecraft. Potential barriers can be formed by differential charging on the spacecraft or by the presence of excess space charge in the plasma. The shape of the barrier suggests that it is due to the former, even though electrostatic cleanliness specifications imposed on ISEE were intended to eliminate differential charging. Modeling of this event showed that the barrier could not be produced by the presence of space charge but that it was most likely produced by differential charging of the solar arrays.

  15. Opposites Attract: Organic Charge Transfer Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Wouw, Heidi L.; Chamorro, Juan; Quintero, Michael; Klausen, Rebekka S.

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described that introduces second-year undergraduate organic chemistry students to organic electronic materials. The discovery of metallic conductivity in the charge transfer salt tetrathiafulvalene tetracyanoquinodimethane (TTF-TCNQ) is a landmark result in the history of organic electronics. The charge transfer…

  16. Radiation from charges in the continuum limit

    CERN Document Server

    Ianconescu, Reuven

    2012-01-01

    It is known that an accelerating charge radiates according to Larmor formula. On the other hand, any DC current following a curvilinear path, e.g. a circular loop, consists of accelerating charges, but in such case the radiated power is 0. The scope of this paper is to analyze and quantify how the radiation vanishes when one goes to the continuum DC limit.

  17. Infinite Charge Algebra of Gravitational Instantons

    CERN Document Server

    Hoppe, J; Hoppe, Jens

    1994-01-01

    Using a formalism of minitwistors, we derive infinitely many conserved charges for the $sl(\\infty )$-Toda equation which accounts for gravitational instantons with a rotational Killing symmetry. These charges are shown to form an infinite dimensional algebra through the Poisson bracket which is isomorphic to two dimensional area preserving diffeomorphism with central extentions.

  18. Analysis of electrolyte transport through charged nanopores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, P.B.; Roij, van R.; Bazant, M.Z.; Biesheuvel, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the classical problem of flow of electrolyte solutions through charged capillary nanopores or nanotubes as described by the capillary pore model (also called "space charge" theory). This theory assumes very long and thin pores and uses a one-dimensional flux-force formalism which relat

  19. 'Stutter timing' for charge decay time measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, John; Harbour, John; Pavey, Ian

    2011-06-01

    The paper describes the approach of 'stutter timing' that has been developed to improve the accuracy of measuring charge decay times in the presence of noise in compact and portable charge decay test instrumentation. The approach involves starting and stopping the timing clock as the noisy signal rises above and falls below the target threshold voltage level.

  20. Charged Black Holes in New Massive Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Ghodsi, Ahmad; Moghadassi, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    We construct charged black hole solutions to three-dimensional New Massive Gravity (NMG), by adding electromagnetic Maxwell and Chern-Simons actions. We find charged black holes in the form of warped AdS_3 and "log" solutions in specific critical point. The entropy, mass and angular momentum of these black holes are computed.

  1. Charge-symmetry-breaking nucleon form factors

    CERN Document Server

    Kubis, Bastian

    2009-01-01

    A quantitative understanding of charge-symmetry breaking is an increasingly important ingredient for the extraction of the nucleon's strange vector form factors. We review the theoretical understanding of the charge-symmetry-breaking form factors, both for single nucleons and for Helium-4.

  2. Space charge fields in DC cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson; Crichton, George C; Pedersen, Aage

    1996-01-01

    The space charge that accumulates in DC cables can, mathematically, be resolved into two components. One is related to the temperature and the other to the magnitude of the electric field strength. Analytical expressions for the electric fields arising from each of these space charge components...

  3. Infinite Blueshift of Charged Null Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, R. B.; Sajko, W. N.

    1994-01-01

    We demonstrate that charged null particles can be infinitely blue\\-shifted in a Kerr-Newman spacetime. The surface of infinite blueshift can be outside of the ergosphere in a Kerr-Newman spacetime, and outside of the outer event horizon for a Reissner-Nordstrom spacetime. Implications for extensions of the standard model which incorporate charged neutrinos are discussed.

  4. Low-charge-state RFQ injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.; Kim, J.W.

    1995-08-01

    Preliminary design work was done for a short, normally-conducting RFQ entrance section for a low-charge-state linac. Early results indicate that a low- frequency (12 MHz) RFQ, operated on a high-voltage platform, and injected with a pre-bunched beam, can provide ATLAS quality beams of ions of charge-to-mass ratio less than 1/132.

  5. Production of Charge in Heavy Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Pratt, Scott; Ratti, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    By analyzing preliminary experimental measurements of charge-balance functions from the STAR Collaboration at the Relativistic-Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC), it is found that pictures where balancing charges are produced in a single surge, and therefore separated by a single length scale, are inconsistent with data. In contrast, a model that assumes two surges, one associated with the formation of a thermalized quark-gluon plasma and a second associated with hadronization, provides a far superior reproduction of the data. A statistical analysis of the model comparison finds that the two-surge model best reproduces the data if the charge production from the first surge is similar to expectations for equilibrated matter taken from lattice gauge theory. The charges created in the first surge appear to separate by approximately one unit of spatial rapidity before emission, while charges from the second wave appear to have separated by approximately a half unit or less.

  6. Charging and Growth of Fractal Dust Grains

    CERN Document Server

    Matthews, Lorin S

    2007-01-01

    The structure and evolution of aggregate grains formed within a plasma environment are dependent upon the charge acquired by the micron-sized dust grains during the coagulation process. The manner in which the charge is arranged on developing irregular structures can affect the fractal dimension of aggregates formed during collisions, which in turn influences the coagulation rate and size evolution of the dust within the plasma cloud. This paper presents preliminary models for the charge and size evolution of fractal aggregates immersed in a plasma environment calculated using a modification to the orbital-motion-limited (OML) theory. Primary electron and ion currents incident on points on the aggregate surface are determined using a line-of-sight (LOS) approximation: only those electron or ion trajectories which are not blocked by another grain within the aggregate contribute to the charging current. Using a self-consistent iterative approach, the equilibrium charge and dipole moment are calculated for the d...

  7. On equilibrium charge distribution above dielectric surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.V. Slyusarenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the equilibrium state of the charged many-particle system above dielectric surface is formulated. We consider the case of the presence of the external attractive pressing field and the case of its absence. The equilibrium distributions of charges and the electric field, which is generated by these charges in the system in the case of ideally plane dielectric surface, are obtained. The solution of electrostatic equations of the system under consideration in case of small spatial heterogeneities caused by the dielectric surface, is also obtained. These spatial inhomogeneities can be caused both by the inhomogeneities of the surface and by the inhomogeneous charge distribution upon it. In particular, the case of the "wavy" spatially periodic surface is considered taking into account the possible presence of the surface charges.

  8. Mobile electric vehicles online charging and discharging

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Miao; Shen, Xuemin (Sherman)

    2016-01-01

    This book examines recent research on designing online charging and discharging strategies for mobile electric vehicles (EVs) in smart grid. First, the architecture and applications are provided. Then, the authors review the existing works on charging and discharging strategy design for EVs. Critical challenges and research problems are identified. Promising solutions are proposed to accommodate the issues of high EV mobility, vehicle range anxiety, and power systems overload. The authors investigate innovating charging and discharging potentials for mobile EVS based on real-time information collections (via VANETS and/or cellular networks) and offer the power system adjustable load management methods.  Several innovative charging/discharging strategy designs to address the challenging issues in smart grid, i.e., overload avoidance and range anxiety for individual EVs, are presented. This book presents an alternative and promising way to release the pressure of the power grid caused by peak-time EV charging ...

  9. Net Charge Fluctuation and String Fragmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SABen-Hao; CAIXu; TAIAn; ZHOUDai-Mei

    2004-01-01

    We present the simulation results of the net charge fluctuation in Au+Au collisions at √Snn=130 GeV from a dynamic model, JPCIAE, and its revisions. The simulations are done for the quark-gluon matter, the directly produced pions, the pion matter, and the hadron matter. The simulated net charge fluctuation of the quark-gluon matter is close to the thermal model prediction for the quark-gluon gas. However, the discrepancy exists comparing the simulated net charge fluctuation for directly produced pions and the pion matter with the thermal model prediction for pion gas and the resonance pion gas, respectively. The net charge fluctuation of hadron matter from default JPCIAE simulations is nearly 3.5 times larger than quark-gluon matter. A discussion is given for the net charge fluctuation as an evidence of QGP phase transition.

  10. Hydrodynamics of charge fluctuations and balance functions

    CERN Document Server

    Ling, B; Stephanov, M

    2013-01-01

    We apply stochastic hydrodynamics to the study of charge density fluctuations in QCD matter undergoing Bjorken expansion. We find that the charge density correlations are given by a time integral over the history of the system, with the dominant contribution coming from the QCD crossover region where the change of susceptibility per entropy, chi T/s, is most significant. We study the rapidity and azimuthal angle dependence of the resulting charge balance function using a simple analytic model of heavy-ion collision evolution. Our results are in agreement with experimental measurements, indicating that hydrodynamic fluctuations contribute significantly to the measured charge correlations in high energy heavy-ion collisions. The sensitivity of the balance function to the value of the charge diffusion coefficient D allows us to estimate the typical value of this coefficient in the crossover region to be rather small, of the order of 1/(2pi T), characteristic of a strongly coupled plasma.

  11. JET VELOCITY OF LINEAR SHAPED CHARGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vječislav Bohanek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Shaped explosive charges with one dimension significantly larger than the other are called linear shaped charges. Linear shaped charges are used in various industries and are applied within specific technologies for metal cutting, such as demolition of steel structures, separating spent rocket fuel tanks, demining, cutting holes in the barriers for fire service, etc. According to existing theories and models efficiency of linear shaped charges depends on the kinetic energy of the jet which is proportional to square of jet velocity. The original method for measuring velocity of linear shaped charge jet is applied in the aforementioned research. Measurements were carried out for two different linear materials, and the results are graphically presented, analysed and compared. Measurement results show a discrepancy in the measured velocity of the jet for different materials with the same ratio between linear and explosive mass (M/C per unit of surface, which is not described by presented models (the paper is published in Croatian.

  12. On Cracking of Charged Anisotropic Polytropes

    CERN Document Server

    Azam, M

    2016-01-01

    Recently in \\cite{34}, the role of electromagnetic field on the cracking of spherical polytropes has been investigated without perturbing charge parameter explicitly. In this study, we have examined the occurrence of cracking of anisotropic spherical polytropes through perturbing parameters like anisotropic pressure, energy density and charge. We consider two different types of polytropes in this study. We discuss the occurrence of cracking in two different ways $(i)$ by perturbing polytropic constant, anisotropy and charge parameter $(ii)$ by perturbing polytropic index, anisotropy and charge parameter for each case. We conclude that cracking appears for a wide range of parameters in both cases. Also, our results are reduced to \\cite{33} in the absence of charge.

  13. Quantum and classical dissipation of charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibarra-Sierra, V.G. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana at Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 México D.F. (Mexico); Anzaldo-Meneses, A.; Cardoso, J.L.; Hernández-Saldaña, H. [Área de Física Teórica y Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana at Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, Azcapotzalco, 02200 México D.F. (Mexico); Kunold, A., E-mail: akb@correo.azc.uam.mx [Área de Física Teórica y Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana at Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, Azcapotzalco, 02200 México D.F. (Mexico); Roa-Neri, J.A.E. [Área de Física Teórica y Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana at Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, Azcapotzalco, 02200 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2013-08-15

    A Hamiltonian approach is presented to study the two dimensional motion of damped electric charges in time dependent electromagnetic fields. The classical and the corresponding quantum mechanical problems are solved for particular cases using canonical transformations applied to Hamiltonians for a particle with variable mass. Green’s function is constructed and, from it, the motion of a Gaussian wave packet is studied in detail. -- Highlights: •Hamiltonian of a damped charged particle in time dependent electromagnetic fields. •Exact Green’s function of a charged particle in time dependent electromagnetic fields. •Time evolution of a Gaussian wave packet of a damped charged particle. •Classical and quantum dynamics of a damped electric charge.

  14. Discreteness of Point Charge in Nonlinear Electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Breev, A I

    2016-01-01

    We consider two point charges in electrostatic interaction between them within the framework of a nonlinear model, associated with QED, that provides finiteness of their field energy. We argue that if the two charges are equal to each other the repulsion force between them disappears when they are infinitely close to each other, but remains as usual infinite if their values are different. This implies that within any system to which such a model may be applicable the point charge is fractional, it may only be $2^n$-fold of a certain fundamental charge, n=0,1,2... We find the common field of the two charges in a dipole approximation, where the separation between them is much smaller than the observation distance.

  15. Carriers recombination processes in charge trapping memory cell by simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Yun-Cheng; Liu Xiao-Yan; Du Gang; Kang Jin-Feng; Han Ru-Qi

    2008-01-01

    We have evaluated the effects of recombination processes in a charge storage layer, either between trapped electrons and trapped holes or between trapped carriers and free carriers, on charge trapping memory cell's performances by numerical simulation. Recombination is an indispensable mechanism in charge trapping memory. It helps charge convert process between negative and positive charges in the charge storage layer during charge trapping memory programming/erasing operation. It can affect the speed of programming and erasing operations.

  16. VARIABLE CHARGE SOILS: MINERALOGY AND CHEMISTRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Ranst, Eric; Qafoku, Nikolla; Noble, Andrew; Xu, Ren-Kou

    2016-09-19

    Soils rich in particles with amphoteric surface properties in the Oxisols, Ultisols, Alfisols, Spodosols and Andisols orders (1) are considered to be variable charge soils (2) (Table 1). The term “variable charge” is used to describe organic and inorganic soil constituents with reactive surface groups whose charge varies with pH and ionic concentration and composition of the soil solution. Such groups are the surface carboxyl, phenolic and amino functional groups of organic materials in soils, and surface hydroxyl groups of Fe and Al oxides, allophane and imogolite. The hydroxyl surface groups are also present on edges of some phyllosilicate minerals such as kaolinite, mica, and hydroxyl-interlayered vermiculite. The variable charge is developed on the surface groups as a result of adsorption or desorption of ions that are constituents of the solid phase, i.e., H+, and the adsorption or desorption of solid-unlike ions that are not constituents of the solid phase. Highly weathered soils and subsoils (e.g., Oxisols and some Ultisols, Alfisols and Andisols) may undergo isoelectric weathering and reach a “zero net charge” stage during their development. They usually have a slightly acidic to acidic soil solution pH, which is close to either the point of zero net charge (PZNC) (3) or the point of zero salt effect (PZSE) (3). They are characterized by high abundances of minerals with a point of zero net proton charge (PZNPC) (3) at neutral and slightly basic pHs; the most important being Fe and Al oxides and allophane. Under acidic conditions, the surfaces of these minerals are net positively charged. In contrast, the surfaces of permanent charge phyllosilicates are negatively charged regardless of ambient conditions. Variable charge soils therefore, are heterogeneous charge systems.

  17. Control Algorithms Charge Batteries Faster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    On March 29, 2011, NASA s Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft beamed a milestone image to Earth: the first photo of Mercury taken from orbit around the solar system s innermost planet. (MESSENGER is also the first spacecraft to orbit Mercury.) Like most of NASA s deep space probes, MESSENGER is enabled by a complex power system that allows its science instruments and communications to function continuously as it travels millions of miles from Earth. "Typically, there isn't one particular power source that can support the entire mission," says Linda Taylor, electrical engineer in Glenn Research Center s Power Systems Analysis Branch. "If you have solar arrays and you are in orbit, at some point you re going to be in eclipse." Because of this, Taylor explains, spacecraft like MESSENGER feature hybrid power systems. MESSENGER is powered by a two-panel solar array coupled with a nickel hydrogen battery. The solar arrays provide energy to the probe and charge the battery; when the spacecraft s orbit carries it behind Mercury and out of the Sun s light, the spacecraft switches to battery power to continue operations. Typically, hybrid systems with multiple power inputs and a battery acting alternately as storage and a power source require multiple converters to handle the power flow between the devices, Taylor says. (Power converters change the qualities of electrical energy, such as from alternating current to direct current, or between different levels of voltage or frequency.) This contributes to a pair of major concerns for spacecraft design. "Weight and size are big drivers for any space application," Taylor says, noting that every pound added to a space vehicle incurs significant costs. For an innovative solution to managing power flows in a lightweight, cost-effective manner, NASA turned to a private industry partner.

  18. Variable Charge Soils: Mineralogy and Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qafoku, Nik; Van Ranst, Eric; Noble, Andrew; Baert, Geert

    2003-11-01

    Soils rich in particles with amphoteric surface properties in the Oxisols, Ultisols, Alfisols, Spodosols and Andisols orders (1) are considered variable charge soils (2). The term “variable charge” is used to describe organic and inorganic soil constituents with reactive surface groups whose charge varies with pH, ionic concentration and composition of the soil solution. Such groups are the surface carboxyl, phenolic and amino functional groups of organic materials in soils, and surface hydroxyl groups of Fe and Al oxides, allophane and imogolite. The hydroxyl surface groups are also present on edges of some phyllosilicate minerals such as kaolinite, mica, and hydroxyl-interlayered vermiculite. The variable charge is developed on the surface groups as a result of adsorption or desorption of ions that are constituents of the solid phase, i.e., H+, and the adsorption or desorption of solid-unlike ions that are not constituents of the solid. Highly weathered soils usually undergo isoeletric weathering and reach a “zero net charge” stage during their development. They have a slightly acidic to acidic soil solution pH, which is close to either point of zero net charge (PZNC) (3) or point of zero salt effect (PZSE) (3). They are characterized by high abundances of minerals with a point of zero net proton charge (PZNPC) (3) at neutral and slightly basic pHs; the most important being Fe and Al oxides and allophane. Under acidic conditions, the surfaces of these minerals are net positively charged. In contrast, the surfaces of permanent charge phyllosilicates are negatively charged regardless of ambient conditions. Variable charge soils therefore, are heterogeneous charge systems. The coexistence and interactions of oppositely charged surfaces or particles confers a different pattern of physical and chemical behavior on the soil, relatively to a homogeneously charged system of temperate regions. In some variable charge soils (Oxisols and some Ultisols developed on

  19. The role of effective charges in the electrophoresis of highly charged colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterji, Apratim; Horbach, Jürgen

    2010-12-15

    We study the variation of electrophoretic mobility μ of highly charged spherical colloidal macroions for varying surface charge density σ on the colloid using computer simulations of the primitive model for charged colloids. Hydrodynamic interactions between ions are incorporated by coupling the primitive model of charged colloids to the lattice Boltzmann model (LB) of the fluid. In the highly charged regime, the mobility μ of the colloid is known to decrease with the increase of bare charge Q of the colloid; the aim of this paper is to investigate the cause of this. We have identified that the two main factors contributing to the decrease of μ are counterion charge condensation on the highly charged colloid and an increase in effective friction of the macroion-counterion complex due to the condensed counterions. Thus the established O'Brien and White theory, which identified the dipolar force originating from distortion of the electric double layer as the cause of decreasing μ, seems to break down for the case of highly charged colloids with σ in the range of 30-400 µC cm (- 2). To arrive at our conclusions, we counted the number of counterions q0 moving along with the spherical macroion. We observe in our simulations that q0 increases with the increase of bare charge Q, such that the effective charge Qeff = Q - q0 remains approximately constant. Interestingly for our nanometer-sized charged colloid, we observe that, if surface charge density σ of the colloid is increased by decreasing the radius RM of the colloid but fixed bare charge Q, the effective charge Q - q0 decreases with the increase of σ. This behavior is qualitatively different when σ is increased by increasing Q keeping RM fixed. Our observations address a controversy about the effective charge of a strongly charged macroion: some studies claim that effective charge is independent of the bare charge (Alexander et al 1984 J. Chem. Phys. 80 5776; Trizac et al 2003 Langmuir 19 4027) whereas

  20. Topological Charges, Prequarks and Presymmetry: a Topological Approach to Quark Fractional Charges

    CERN Document Server

    Matute, E A

    2004-01-01

    A topological approach to quark fractional charges, based on charge constraints unexplained by the Standard Model of particle physics, is discussed. Charge fractionalization is related to a tunneling process occurring in time between pure gauge field configurations at the far past and future associated with integer-charged bare quarks, named prequarks. This transition conforms to a topologically nontrivial configuration of the weak gauge fields in Euclidean space-time. In this context, an electroweak $Z_{2}$ symmetry between bare quarks and leptons, named presymmetry, is revealed. It is shown that an effective topological charge equal to the ratio between baryon number and the number of fermion generations may be associated with baryonic matter. The observed conservation of baryon number is then connected with the conservation of this charge on quarks. Similar results are obtained for leptons in the dual scenario with local quark charges.

  1. Charge-transport simulations in organic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Falk

    2012-07-06

    In this thesis we have extended the methods for microscopic charge-transport simulations for organic semiconductors, where weak intermolecular interactions lead to spatially localized charge carriers, and the charge transport occurs as an activated hopping process between diabatic states. In addition to weak electronic couplings between these states, different electrostatic environments in the organic material lead to a broadening of the density of states for the charge energies which limits carrier mobilities. The contributions to the method development include (i) the derivation of a bimolecular charge-transfer rate, (ii) the efficient evaluation of intermolecular (outer-sphere) reorganization energies, (iii) the investigation of effects of conformational disorder on intramolecular reorganization energies or internal site energies and (iv) the inclusion of self-consistent polarization interactions for calculation of charge energies. These methods were applied to study charge transport in amorphous phases of small molecules used in the emission layer of organic light emitting diodes (OLED). When bulky substituents are attached to an aromatic core in order to adjust energy levels or prevent crystallization, a small amount of delocalization of the frontier orbital to the substituents can increase electronic couplings between neighboring molecules. This leads to improved charge-transfer rates and, hence, larger charge-mobility. We therefore suggest using the mesomeric effect (as opposed to the inductive effect) when attaching substituents to aromatic cores, which is necessary for example in deep blue OLEDs, where the energy levels of a host molecule have to be adjusted to those of the emitter. Furthermore, the energy landscape for charges in an amorphous phase cannot be predicted by mesoscopic models because they approximate the realistic morphology by a lattice and represent molecular charge distributions in a multipole expansion. The microscopic approach shows that

  2. Electrostatic interactions of asymmetrically charged membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Yaakov, Dan; Burak, Yoram; Andelman, David; Safran, S. A.

    2007-08-01

    We predict the nature (attractive or repulsive) and range (exponentially screened or long-range power law) of the electrostatic interactions of oppositely charged, planar plates as a function of the salt concentration and surface charge densities (whose absolute magnitudes are not necessarily equal). An analytical expression for the crossover between attractive and repulsive pressure is obtained as a function of the salt concentration. This condition reduces to the high-salt limit of Parsegian and Gingell where the interaction is exponentially screened and to the zero salt limit of Lau and Pincus in which the important length scales are the inter-plate separation and the Gouy-Chapman length. In the regime of low salt and high surface charges we predict —for any ratio of the charges on the surfaces— that the attractive pressure is long-ranged as a function of the spacing. The attractive pressure is related to the decrease in counter-ion concentration as the inter-plate distance is decreased. Our theory predicts several scaling regimes with different scaling expressions for the pressure as a function of salinity and surface charge densities. The pressure predictions can be related to surface force experiments of oppositely charged surfaces that are prepared by coating one of the mica surfaces with an oppositely charged polyelectrolyte.

  3. Direct observation of a fractional charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Picciotto, R.; Reznikov, M.; Heiblum, M.; Umansky, V.; Bunin, G.; Mahalu, D.

    1997-09-01

    Since Millikan's famous oil-drop experiments, it has been well known that electrical charge is quantized in units of the charge of an electron, e. For this reason, the theoretical prediction, by Laughlin of the existence of fractionally charged `quasiparticles'-proposed as an explanation for the fractional quantum Hall (FQH) effect-is very counterintuitive. The FQH effect is a phenomenon observed in the conduction properties of a two-dimensional electron gas subjected to a strong perpendicular magnetic field. This effect results from the strong interaction between electrons, brought about by the magnetic field, giving rise to the aforementioned fractionally charged quasiparticles which carry the current. Here we report the direct observation of these counterintuitive entities by using measurements of quantum shot noise. Quantum shot noise results from the discreteness of the current-carrying charges and so is proportional to both the charge of the quasiparticles and the average current. Our measurements of quantum shot noise show unambiguously that current in a two-dimensional electron gas in the FQH regime is carried by fractional charges-e/3 in the present case-in agreement with Laughlin's prediction.

  4. Amine reactivity with charged sulfuric acid clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzdek, B. R.; Ridge, D. P.; Johnston, M. V.

    2011-08-01

    The distribution of charged species produced by electrospray of an ammonium sulfate solution in both positive and negative polarities is examined using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS). Positively-charged ammonium bisulfate cluster composition differs significantly from negatively-charged cluster composition. For positively-charged clusters all sulfuric acid is neutralized to bisulfate, whereas for negatively-charged clusters the degree of sulfuric acid neutralization is cluster size-dependent. With increasing cluster size (and, therefore, a decreasing role of charge), both positively- and negatively-charged cluster compositions converge toward ammonium bisulfate. The reactivity of negatively-charged sulfuric acid-ammonia clusters with dimethylamine and ammonia is also investigated by FTICR-MS. Two series of negatively-charged clusters are investigated: [(HSO4)(H2SO4)x]- and [(NH4)x(HSO4)x+1(H2SO4)3]-. Dimethylamine substitution for ammonia in [(NH4) x(HSO4) x+1(H2SO4)3]- clusters is nearly collision-limited, and subsequent addition of dimethylamine to neutralize H2SO4 to bisulfate is within one order of magnitude of the substitution rate. Dimethylamine addition to [(HSO4) (H2SO4) x]- clusters is either not observed or very slow. The results of this study indicate that amine chemistry will be evident and important only in large ambient negative ions (>m/z 400), whereas amine chemistry may be evident in small ambient positive ions. Addition of ammonia to unneutralized clusters occurs at a rate that is ~2-3 orders of magnitude slower than incorporation of dimethylamine either by substitution or addition. Therefore, in locations where amine levels are within a few orders of magnitude of ammonia levels, amine chemistry may compete favorably with ammonia chemistry.

  5. Surface charge mapping with a nanopipette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Kim; Kinnear, Sophie L; Perry, David; Momotenko, Dmitry; Unwin, Patrick R

    2014-10-01

    Nanopipettes are emerging as simple but powerful tools for probing chemistry at the nanoscale. In this contribution the use of nanopipettes for simultaneous surface charge mapping and topographical imaging is demonstrated, using a scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) format. When a nanopipette is positioned close to a surface in electrolyte solution, the direct ion current (DC), driven by an applied bias between a quasi-reference counter electrode (QRCE) in the nanopipette and a second QRCE in the bulk solution, is sensitive to surface charge. The charge sensitivity arises because the diffuse double layers at the nanopipette and the surface interact, creating a perm-selective region which becomes increasingly significant at low ionic strengths (10 mM 1:1 aqueous electrolyte herein). This leads to a polarity-dependent ion current and surface-induced rectification as the bias is varied. Using distance-modulated SICM, which induces an alternating ion current component (AC) by periodically modulating the distance between the nanopipette and the surface, the effect of surface charge on the DC and AC is explored and rationalized. The impact of surface charge on the AC phase (with respect to the driving sinusoidal signal) is highlighted in particular; this quantity shows a shift that is highly sensitive to interfacial charge and provides the basis for visualizing charge simultaneously with topography. The studies herein highlight the use of nanopipettes for functional imaging with applications from cell biology to materials characterization where understanding surface charge is of key importance. They also provide a framework for the design of SICM experiments, which may be convoluted by topographical and surface charge effects, especially for small nanopipettes.

  6. Environmental charges as an instrument of environmental protection

    OpenAIRE

    Cvjetković, Cvjetana

    2014-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to one category of economic instruments in environmental protection - environmental charges. The paper considers the notion of environmental charges, the similarities and differences between environmental taxes and environmental charges, as well as the basic forms of environmental charges. At the end, the author presents the most important environmental charges in the Republic of Serbia.

  7. An integrated charge amplifier for a pyroelectric sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiadi, D.; Armitage, A.; Binnie, T.D.; Regtien, P.P.L.; Sarro, P.M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated charge amplifier that measures a small charge. This charge is generated by a pyroelectric detector. The charge amplifier consists of a single-stage c-annon source configuration with a passive feedback network. The charge amplifier has a bandwidth of 700 kHz and an o

  8. Spacecraft Charging and Auroral Boundary Predictions in Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.

    2016-01-01

    Auroral charging of spacecraft is an important class of space weather impacts on technological systems in low Earth orbit. In order for space weather models to accurately specify auroral charging environments, they must provide the appropriate plasma environment characteristics responsible for charging. Improvements in operational space weather prediction capabilities relevant to charging must be tested against charging observations.

  9. The Paradox of Two Charged Capacitors

    CERN Document Server

    Singal, Ashok K

    2013-01-01

    It is shown that the famous paradox of two charged capacitors is successfully resolved if one properly considers all the energy changes in the system when some of the charges are transferred from one capacitor to the other. It happens so even when the connecting wire has an identically zero resistance, giving rise to no Ohmic losses in the wire. It is shown that in such a case the "missing energy" goes into the kinetic energy of conducting charges. It is shown that radiation plays no significant role in resolving the paradox. The problem can also be formulated and successfully resolved in an alternate form, without involving connecting wires in a circuit.

  10. Longitudinal Space Charge in the SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Lasheen, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal instabilities due to the SPS beam coupling impedance are a major issue for future projects and it is essential to have an accurate SPS impedance model to study them. The longitudinal space charge effect can be modelled by a pure reactive impedance and should also be included in simulations as it may have an impact at low energy. In this Note, the effect of the longitudinal space charge in the SPS is evaluated by taking into account the variation of the transverse beam size and vacuum chamber geometry along the ring. Scaling laws are used to investigate what are the most important parameters for the evaluation of the longitudinal space charge impedance.

  11. Energy Transfer of a Shaped Charge.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milinazzo, Jared Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-11-01

    A cylinder of explosive with a hollow cavity on one and a detonator at the other is considered a hollow charge. When the explosive is detonated the detonation products form a localized intense force. If the hollow charge is placed near or in contact with a steel plate then the damage to the plate is greater than a solid cylinder of explosive even though there is a greater amount of explosive in the latter charge. The hollow cavity can take almost any geometrical shape with differing amounts of damage associated with each shape. This phenomenon is known in the United States as the Munroe effect.

  12. Non-coalescence of oppositely charged drops

    CERN Document Server

    Ristenpart, W D; Belmonte, A; Dollar, F; Stone, H A

    2009-01-01

    Oppositely charged drops have long been assumed to experience an attractive force that favors their coalescence. In this fluid dynamics video we demonstrate the existence of a critical field strength above which oppositely charged drops do not coalesce. We observe that appropriately positioned and oppositely charged drops migrate towards one another in an applied electric field; but whereas the drops coalesce as expected at low field strengths, they are repelled from one another after contact at higher field strengths. Qualitatively, the drops appear to `bounce' off one another. We directly image the transient formation of a meniscus bridge between the bouncing drops.

  13. Wireless power transmission for battery charging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mi, Chris; Li, Siqi; Nguyen, Trong-Duy; Wang, Junhua; Li, Jiangui; Li, Weihan; Xu, Jun

    2016-11-15

    A wireless power transmission system is provided for high power applications. The power transmission system is comprised generally of a charging unit configured to generate an alternating electromagnetic field and a receive unit configured to receive the alternating electromagnetic field from the charging unit. The charging unit includes a power source; an input rectifier; an inverter; and a transmit coil. The transmit coil has a spirangle arrangement segmented into n coil segments with capacitors interconnecting adjacent coil segments. The receive unit includes a receive coil and an output rectifier. The receive coil also has a spirangle arrangement segmented into m coil segments with capacitors interconnecting adjacent coil segments.

  14. Surface nanostructures by single highly charged ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facsko, S; Heller, R; El-Said, A S; Meissl, W; Aumayr, F

    2009-06-03

    It has recently been demonstrated that the impact of individual, slow but highly charged ions on various surfaces can induce surface modifications with nanometer dimensions. Generally, the size of these surface modifications (blisters, hillocks, craters or pits) increases dramatically with the potential energy of the highly charged ion, while the kinetic energy of the projectile ions seems to be of little importance. This paper presents the currently available experimental evidence and theoretical models and discusses the circumstances and conditions under which nanosized features on different surfaces due to the impact of slow highly charged ions can be produced.

  15. Significant enhancement of the charging efficiency in the cavities of ferroelectrets through gas exchange during charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xunlin

    2016-11-01

    Ferroelectrets are non-polar polymer foams or polymer systems with internally charged cavities. They are charged through a series of dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) that are caused by the electrical breakdown of the gas inside the cavities. Thus, the breakdown strength of the gas strongly influences the charging process of ferroelectrets. A gas with a lower breakdown strength has a lower threshold voltage, thus decreasing the onset voltage for DBD charging. However, a lower threshold voltage also leads to a lower value for the remanent polarization, as back discharges that are caused by the electric field of the internally deposited charges can take place already at lower charge levels. On this basis, a charging strategy is proposed where the DBDs start in a gas with a lower breakdown strength (in the present example, helium) and are completed at a higher breakdown strength (e.g., nitrogen or atmospheric air). Thus, the exchange of the gas in the cavities during charging can significantly enhance the charging efficiency, i.e., yield much higher piezoelectric coefficients in ferroelectrets at significantly lower charging voltages.

  16. Study of a New Quick-Charging Strategy for Electric Vehicles in Highway Charging Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixing Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem, because of which conventional quick-charging strategies (CQCS cannot meet the requirements of quick-charging for multiple types of electric vehicles (EV on highways where vehicle inflow is excessive, this paper proposed a new quick-charging strategy (NQCS for EVs: on the premise of not affecting those EVs being charged, the remaining power of the quick-charging pile with multiple power output interfaces is used to provide a synchronous charging service for EVs waiting in the queue. To verify the effectiveness of this strategy, a power distribution model of charging pile and a queuing model of charging station (CS were constructed. In addition, based on an actual highway service area where vehicle inflow is excessive during the simulation period (0:00–24:00, charging situations of CQCS and NQCS were respectively simulated in a charging station (CS, with different number of chargers, by basic queuing algorithm and an improved queuing algorithm. The simulation results showed that when the relative EV inflow is excessive, compared to CQCS, NQCS not only can reduce user waiting time, charging time, and stay time, but also can improve the utilisation rate of charging infrastructure and service capacity of CS and reduce the queue length of CS. At the same time, NQCS can reduce the impact on the power grid. In addition, in NQCS, the on-demand power distribution method is more efficient than the average power distribution method. Therefore, NQCS is more suitable for quick-charging for multiple types of EVs on highways where vehicle inflow is excessive.

  17. Charged-Exciton Complexes in Quantum Dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Wen-Fang

    2001-01-01

    It is known experimentally that stable charged-exciton complexes can exist in low-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures. Much less is known about the properties of such charged-exciton complexes since three-body problems are very difficult to be solved, even numerically. Here we introduce the correlated hyperspherical harmonics as basis functions to solve the hyperangular equation for negatively and positively charged excitons (trions) in a harmonic quantum dot. By using this method, we have calculated the energy spectra of the low-lying states of a charged exciton as a function of the radius of quantum dot. Based on symmetry analysis, the level crossover as the dot radius increases can be fully explained as the results of symmetry constraint.``

  18. Congestion control in charging of electric vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Carvalho, Rui; Gibbens, Richard; Kelly, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The increasing penetration of electric vehicles over the coming decades, taken together with the high cost to upgrade local distribution networks, and consumer demand for home charging, suggest that managing congestion on low voltage networks will be a crucial component of the electric vehicle revolution and the move away from fossil fuels in transportation. Here, we model the max-flow and proportional fairness protocols for the control of congestion caused by a fleet of vehicles charging on distribution networks. We analyse the inequality in the charging times as the vehicle arrival rate increases, and show that charging times are considerably more uneven in max-flow than in proportional fairness. We also analyse the onset of instability, and find that the critical arrival rate is indistinguishable between the two protocols.

  19. Survey of International Space Station Charging Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, P. D.; Wright, Kenneth H., Jr.; Minow, Joseph I.; Coffey, Victoria N.; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Ferguson, Dale C.; Parker, Linda N.

    2009-01-01

    With the negative grounding of the 160V Photovoltaic (PV) arrays, the International Space Station (ISS) can experience varied and interesting charging events. Since August 2006, there has been a multi-probe p ackage, called the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU), availa ble to provide redundant measurements of the floating potential of th e ISS as well as the density and temperature of the local plasma environment. The FPMU has been operated during intermittent data campaigns since August 2006 and has collected over 160 days of information reg arding the charging of the ISS as it has progressed in configuration from one to three PV arrays and with various additional modules such as the European Space Agency?s Columbus laboratory and the Japan Aeros pace Exploration Agency's Kibo laboratory. This paper summarizes the charging of the ISS and the local environmental conditions that contr ibute to those charging events, both as measured by the FPMU.

  20. Instability of Extremal Relativistic Charged Spheres

    CERN Document Server

    Anninos, P; Anninos, Peter; Rothman, Tony

    2002-01-01

    With the question, ``Can relativistic charged spheres form extremal black holes?" in mind, we investigate the properties of such spheres from a classical point of view. The investigation is carried out numerically by integrating the Oppenheimer-Volkov equation for relativistic charged fluid spheres and finding interior Reissner-Nordstr\\"om solutions for these objects. We consider both constant density and adiabatic equations of state, as well as several possible charge distributions, and examine stability by both a normal mode and an energy analysis. In all cases, the stability limit for these spheres lies between the extremal ($Q = M$) limit and the black hole limit ($R = R_+$). That is, we find that charged spheres undergo gravitational collapse before they reach $Q = M$, suggesting that extremal Reissner-Nordtr\\"om black holes produced by collapse are ruled out. A general proof of this statement would support a strong form of the cosmic censorship hypothesis, excluding not only stable naked singularities, ...

  1. Space Charge Mitigation by Hollow Bunches

    CERN Multimedia

    Oeftiger, AO

    2014-01-01

    To satisfy the requirements of the HL-LHC (High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider), the LHC injector chain will need to supply a higher brightness, i.e. deliver the same transverse beam emittances \\epsilon_{x,y} while providing a higher intensity N. However, a larger number of particles per bunch enhances space charge effects. One approach to mitigate the impact of space charge is to change the longitudinal phase space distribution: hollow bunches feature a depleted bunch centre and a densely populated periphery. Thus, the spatial line density maximum is depressed which ultimately decreases the tune spread imposed by space charge. Therefore, a higher intensity can be accepted while keeping the same overall space charge tune shift. 3 different methods to create hollow bunches in the PSBooster are simulated.

  2. Transfer Pricing; Charging of head office costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Joergen

    1998-07-01

    The key issues discussed in this presentation are (1) What are head office costs?, (2) Why is the charging an area of concern for international companies?, (3) Which part of head office costs should be charged?, (4) OECD guidelines on charging. Head office costs are classified as Shareholder costs, Stewardship costs, Costs related to a specific subsidiary or group of subsidiaries (on call), and Costs related to operational activities in the parent company. The OECD reports of 1984 and 1996 are discussed. In Norsk Hydro's experience, the practising of the OECD guidelines by national authorities are confusing and not consistent over time or across borders. To get a better understanding of how charging of corporate head office costs are dealt with on an international level, Norsk Hydro asked Deloitte and Touche in London to carry out a study on international companies' behaviour. Their conclusions are included.

  3. Asymptotic analysis of ultra-relativistic charge

    CERN Document Server

    Burton, D A; Tucker, R W; Burton, David A.; Gratus, Jonathan; Tucker, Robin W.

    2006-01-01

    This article offers a new approach for analysing the dynamic behaviour of distributions of charged particles in an electromagnetic field. After discussing the limitations inherent in the Lorentz-Dirac equation for a single point particle a simple model is proposed for a charged continuum interacting self-consistently with the Maxwell field in vacuo. The model is developed using intrinsic tensor field theory and exploits to the full the symmetry and light-cone structure of Minkowski spacetime. This permits the construction of a regular stress-energy tensor whose vanishing divergence determines a system of non-linear partial differential equations for the velocity and self-fields of accelerated charge. Within this covariant framework a particular perturbation scheme is motivated by an exact class of solutions to this system describing the evolution of a charged fluid under the combined effects of both self and external electromagnetic fields. The scheme yields an asymptotic approximation in terms of inhomogeneo...

  4. A global analog of Cheshire charge

    CERN Document Server

    McGraw, P

    1994-01-01

    It is shown that a model with a spontaneously broken global symmetry can support defects analogous to Alice strings, and a process analogous to Cheshire charge exchange can take place. A possible realization in superfluid He-3 is pointed out.

  5. Charging dynamics of dopants in helium nanoplasmas

    OpenAIRE

    Heidenreich, Andreas; Grüner, Barbara; Schomas, Dominik; Stienkemeier, Frank; Krishnan, Siva Rama; Mudrich, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    We present a combined experimental and theoretical study of the charging dynamics of helium nanodroplets doped with atoms of different species and irradiated by intense near-infrared (NIR) laser pulses (

  6. Charge Diagnostics for Laser Plasma Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, K.; Gonsalves, A. J.; Lin, C.; Sokollik, T.; Smith, A.; Rodgers, D.; Donahue, R.; Bryne, W.; Leemans, W. P.

    2010-06-01

    The electron energy dependence of a scintillating screen (Lanex Fast) was studied with sub-nanosecond electron beams ranging from 106 MeV to 1522 MeV at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Advanced Light Source (ALS) synchrotron booster accelerator. The sensitivity of the Lanex Fast decreased by 1percent per 100 MeV increase of the energy. The linear response of the screen against the charge was verified with charge density and intensity up to 160 pC/mm2 and 0.4 pC/ps/mm2, respectively. For electron beams from the laser plasma accelerator, a comprehensive study of charge diagnostics has been performed using a Lanex screen, an integrating current transformer, and an activation based measurement. The charge measured by each diagnostic was found to be within +/-10 percent.

  7. Nuclear charge radius of $^8$He

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, P; Villari, A C C; Alcantara-Nunez, J A; Alves-Conde, R; Bailey, K; Drake, G W F; Dubois, M; Eleon, C; Gaubert, G; Holt, R J; Janssens, R V F; Lecesne, N; Lu, Z -T; O'Connor, T P; Saint-Laurent, M -G; Thomas, J -C; Wang, L -B

    2008-01-01

    The root-mean-square (rms) nuclear charge radius of ^8He, the most neutron-rich of all particle-stable nuclei, has been determined for the first time to be 1.93(3) fm. In addition, the rms charge radius of ^6He was measured to be 2.068(11) fm, in excellent agreement with a previous result. The significant reduction in charge radius from ^6He to ^8He is an indication of the change in the correlations of the excess neutrons and is consistent with the ^8He neutron halo structure. The experiment was based on laser spectroscopy of individual helium atoms cooled and confined in a magneto-optical trap. Charge radii were extracted from the measured isotope shifts with the help of precision atomic theory calculations.

  8. Transverse Mode Coupling Instability with Space Charge

    CERN Document Server

    Balbekov, V

    2016-01-01

    Transverse mode coupling instability of a bunch with space charge and wake field is considered in frameworks of the boxcar model. Eigenfunctions of the bunch without wake are used as the basis for solution of the equations with the wake field included. Dispersion equation for the bunch eigentunes is obtained in the form of an infinite continued fraction. It is shown that influence of space charge on the instability essentially depends on the wake sign. In particular, threshold of the negative wake increases in absolute value until the space charge tune shift is rather small, and goes to zero at higher space charge. The explanation of this behavior is developed by analysis of the bunch spectrum. A comparison of the results with published articles is represented.

  9. Charged particle detection in organic semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Beckerle, P

    2000-01-01

    Polyacetylene is an organic semiconductor in which charges can be set free by a traversing charged particle, transported by an electric field to read-out electrodes and, subsequently, amplified and recorded in a way similar to what happens in a silicon-drift detector. In an experimental investigation of the features of this charge transport in thin foils we find drift velocities of the order of 40 cm/s. Stretching of the foils by a factor of three to four increases the drift velocity by a factor of ten and introduces a strong directionality of the charge transport. The detection efficiency of 5 MeV alpha particles in a few micron thin stretched foil is around 70%.

  10. Nickel-cadmium cell residual charge analyser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, W.G.; Leek, R.; Hampson, N.A.; Lovelock, G.R.

    1984-09-01

    This paper describes a portable unit for measuring the charge remaining in nickel-cadmium secondary cells. Exhaustive frequency response tests have confirmed that cell impedance varies very little with charge state, with the possible exception of that at very low frequencies (< 50 mHz). In the interim before further work in this area is carried out, a microprocessor-based test unit has been built which uses a current pulse discharge method to arrive at a residual charge reading. When the cell is discharged according to a particular regime, the unit produces results accurate to within 10-15% over the entire range of charge. Further development involving the inclusion of cell history parameters promises to make the unit useful for military and other applications.

  11. 38 CFR 21.9560 - Entitlement charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Entitlement § 21.9560 Entitlement charges. (a... the normal term, quarter, or semester if the individual is enrolled for the entire term, quarter,...

  12. Hydrodynamics of R-charged black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Son, D T; Son, Dam T.; Starinets, Andrei O.

    2006-01-01

    We consider hydrodynamics of N=4 supersymmetric SU(N_c) Yang-Mills plasma at a nonzero density of R-charge. In the regime of large N_c and large 't Hooft coupling the gravity dual description involves an asymptotically Anti- de Sitter five-dimensional charged black hole solution of Behrnd, Cvetic and Sabra. We compute the shear viscosity as a function of chemical potentials conjugated to the three U(1) \\subset SO(6)_R charges. The ratio of the shear viscosity to entropy density is independent of the chemical potentials and is equal to 1/4\\pi. For a single charge black hole we also compute the thermal conductivity, and investigate the critical behavior of the transport coefficients near the boundary of thermodynamic stability.

  13. On asymptotic flatness and Lorentz charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compere, Geoffrey [KdV Institute for Mathematics, Universiteit van Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dehouck, Francois; Virmani, Amitabh, E-mail: gcompere@uva.nl, E-mail: fdehouck@ulb.ac.be, E-mail: avirmani@ulb.ac.be [Physique Theorique et Mathematique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2011-07-21

    In this paper we establish two results concerning four-dimensional asymptotically flat spacetimes at spatial infinity. First, we show that the six conserved Lorentz charges are encoded in two unique, distinct, but mutually dual symmetric divergence-free tensors that we construct from the equations of motion. Second, we show that the integrability of Einstein's equations in the asymptotic expansion is sufficient to establish the equivalence between counter-term charges defined from the variational principle and charges defined by Ashtekar and Hansen. These results clarify earlier constructions of conserved charges in the hyperboloid representation of spatial infinity. In showing this, the parity condition on the mass aspect is not needed. Along the way in establishing these results, we prove two lemmas on tensor fields on three-dimensional de Sitter spacetime stated by Ashtekar-Hansen and Beig-Schmidt and state and prove three additional lemmas.

  14. High temperature charge amplifier for geothermal applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, Scott C.; Maldonado, Frank J.; Henfling, Joseph A.

    2015-12-08

    An amplifier circuit in a multi-chip module includes a charge to voltage converter circuit, a voltage amplifier a low pass filter and a voltage to current converter. The charge to voltage converter receives a signal representing an electrical charge and generates a voltage signal proportional to the input signal. The voltage amplifier receives the voltage signal from the charge to voltage converter, then amplifies the voltage signal by the gain factor to output an amplified voltage signal. The lowpass filter passes low frequency components of the amplified voltage signal and attenuates frequency components greater than a cutoff frequency. The voltage to current converter receives the output signal of the lowpass filter and converts the output signal to a current output signal; wherein an amplifier circuit output is selectable between the output signal of the lowpass filter and the current output signal.

  15. Transverse Mode Coupling Instability with Space Charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbekov, V. [Fermilab

    2016-03-11

    Transverse mode coupling instability of a bunch with space charge and wake field is considered in frameworks of the boxcar model. Eigenfunctions of the bunch without wake are used as the basis for solution of the equations with the wake field included. Dispersion equation for the bunch eigentunes is obtained in the form of an infinite continued fraction. It is shown that influence of space charge on the instability essentially depends on the wake sign. In particular, threshold of the negative wake increases in absolute value until the space charge tune shift is rather small, and goes to zero at higher space charge. The explanation of this behavior is developed by analysis of the bunch spectrum. A comparison of the results with published articles is represented.

  16. Motion of charged particles in pulsar magnetospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariades, Haris Andrea

    The motion of charges in the magnetosphere of pulsars is studied from two complementary points of view: (1) for the case of aligned magnetic and rotational axes we solve a fluid version of the Lorentz-Dirac equation, in the Landau approximation, for a two-component plasma. We start from an approximately force-free initial condition and numerically integrate the equations of motion for a time equal to 1.6 percent of one stellar rotation period. We find that the system tends to a charge-separated state in which a negative charge region above the poles is separated by a vacuum gap from a positive charge region near the equator. We see the formation of force-free regions and a tendency of the vacuum gap to spread as the integrations proceed. The energies attained by the charges are only mildly relativistic and radiation reaction does not play an important role during the integrations. The negative charge above the polar region is electrostatically bound and there is a force-free region towards which negative charge tends to flow. Some positive charge is magnetically confined near the stellar equator and other positive charge crosses magnetic field lines moving outward to the region beyond the light cylinder. The outward motion of positive charge is due to the relative magnitudes of the electric and magnetic fields. (2) For the case of non-aligned axes we study the single particle dynamics for electrons moving in the region beyond the light cylinder, again using the Landau approximation to the Lorentz-Dirac equation. The effect of the inner magnetosphere is taken into account by adding a central attractive charge. We find that there exists a class of solutions corresponding to bounded orbits beyond the light cylinder. In an independent particle picture, particles started with different initial conditions within the basin of attraction of this class of orbits eventually form corotating patterns beyond the light cylinder. For a frequently occurring particle configuration

  17. Ewald Electrostatics for Mixtures of Point and Continuous Line Charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antila, Hanne S; Tassel, Paul R Van; Sammalkorpi, Maria

    2015-10-15

    Many charged macro- or supramolecular systems, such as DNA, are approximately rod-shaped and, to the lowest order, may be treated as continuous line charges. However, the standard method used to calculate electrostatics in molecular simulation, the Ewald summation, is designed to treat systems of point charges. We extend the Ewald concept to a hybrid system containing both point charges and continuous line charges. We find the calculated force between a point charge and (i) a continuous line charge and (ii) a discrete line charge consisting of uniformly spaced point charges to be numerically equivalent when the separation greatly exceeds the discretization length. At shorter separations, discretization induces deviations in the force and energy, and point charge-point charge correlation effects. Because significant computational savings are also possible, the continuous line charge Ewald method presented here offers the possibility of accurate and efficient electrostatic calculations.

  18. Radiation Reaction for a Charged Brownian Particle

    CERN Document Server

    Vlasov, A A

    2002-01-01

    As it is known a model of a charged particle with finite size is a good tool to consider the effects of self- action and backreaction, caused by electromagnetic radiation. In this work the "size" of a charged particle is induced by its stochastic Brownian vibration. Appropriate equation of particle's motion with radiation force is derived. It is shown that the solutions of this equation correctly describe the effects of radiation reaction.

  19. Charging of Proteins in Native Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susa, Anna C.; Xia, Zijie; Tang, Henry Y. H.; Tainer, John A.; Williams, Evan R.

    2017-02-01

    Factors that influence the charging of protein ions formed by electrospray ionization from aqueous solutions in which proteins have native structures and function were investigated. Protein ions ranging in molecular weight from 12.3 to 79.7 kDa and pI values from 5.4 to 9.6 were formed from different solutions and reacted with volatile bases of gas-phase basicities higher than that of ammonia in the cell of a Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. The charge-state distribution of cytochrome c ions formed from aqueous ammonium or potassium acetate is the same. Moreover, ions formed from these two solutions do not undergo proton transfer to 2-fluoropyridine, which is 8 kcal/mol more basic than ammonia. These results provide compelling evidence that proton transfer between ammonia and protein ions does not limit protein ion charge in native electrospray ionization. Both circular dichroism and ion mobility measurements indicate that there are differences in conformations of proteins in pure water and aqueous ammonium acetate, and these differences can account for the difference in the extent of charging and proton-transfer reactivities of protein ions formed from these solutions. The extent of proton transfer of the protein ions with higher gas-phase basicity bases trends with how closely the protein ions are charged to the value predicted by the Rayleigh limit for spherical water droplets approximately the same size as the proteins. These results indicate that droplet charge limits protein ion charge in native mass spectrometry and are consistent with these ions being formed by the charged residue mechanism.

  20. MESOSCOPIC ELECTRIC CIRCUITS WITH CHARGE DISCRETIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    MESOSCOPIC ELECTRIC CIRCUITS WITH CHARGE DISCRETIZATION Nanoscience is a modern aspect of electronic engineering with significant projections for applications on new devices. This project allowed presenting an innovative language and a rigorous vision on aspects of nanoscience. The theory of quantum electrical circuits with discrete charge corresponds to the description (in simple terms) of some aspects of nanoscience. Our results gather aspects of quantum mechanics, electrical circuit...

  1. Charge Transfer in Nanocrystalline Semiconductor Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bouroushian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline electrodes in liquid junction devices possess a number of unique properties arising from their convoluted structure and the dimensions of their building units. The light-induced charge separation and transport in photoelectrochemical systems using nanocrystalline/nanoporous semiconductor electrodes is discussed here in connection with the basic principles of the (Schottky barrier theory. Recent models for charge transfer kinetics in normal and unipolar (dye-sensitized cells are reviewed, and novel concepts and materials are considered.

  2. Charged fluids with symmetries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S D Maharaj; D B Lorthan

    2011-09-01

    We investigate the role of symmetries for charged perfect fluids by assuming that spacetime admits a conformal Killing vector. The existence of a conformal symmetry places restrictions on the model. It is possible to find a general relationship for the Lie derivative of the electromagnetic field along the integral curves of the conformal vector. The electromagnetic field is mapped conformally under particular conditions. The Maxwell equations place restrictions on the form of the proper charge density.

  3. Self-excitation of space charge waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyuksyutov, Sergei; Buchhave, Preben; Vasnetsov, Mikhail

    1997-01-01

    We report a direct observation of space charge waves in photorefractive crystals with point group 23 (sillenites) based on their penetration into an area with uniform light illumination. It is shown experimentally that the quality factor of the waves increases substantially with respect to what c...... current theory predicts [B. Sturman el al., Appl. Phys. A 55, 235 (1992)]. This results in the appearance of strong spontaneous beams caused by space charge wave self-excitation....

  4. Method for forming electrically charged laser targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Ronald K.; Hunt, Angus L.

    1979-01-01

    Electrically chargeable laser targets and method for forming such charged targets in order to improve their guidance along a predetermined desired trajectory. This is accomplished by the incorporation of a small amount of an additive to the target material which will increase the electrical conductivity thereof, and thereby enhance the charge placed upon the target material for guidance thereof by electrostatic or magnetic steering mechanisms, without adversely affecting the target when illuminated by laser energy.

  5. Q-balls with scalar charges

    CERN Document Server

    Rubakov, V

    2010-01-01

    We consider Friedberg-Lee-Sirlin Q-balls in a (3+1)-dimensional model with vanishing scalar potential of one of the fields. The Q-ball is stabilized by the gradient energy of this field and carries scalar charge, over and beyond the global charge. The latter property is inherent also in a model with the scalar potential that does not vanish in some finite field region near the origin.

  6. Improved charge amplifier using hybrid hysteresis compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin-Shahidi, Darya; Trumper, David L.

    2013-08-01

    We present a novel charge amplifier, with a robust feedback circuit and a method for compensating piezoelectric actuator's hysteresis at low frequencies. The amplifier uses a modified feedback circuit which improves robustness to the addition of series load impedance such as in cabling. We also describe a hybrid hysteresis compensation method for enabling the charge amplifier to reduce hysteresis at low frequencies. Experimental results demonstrate the utility of the new amplifier design.

  7. New Charged Particles from Higgs Couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Andrew G

    2012-01-01

    The recently reported observation of a new particle with mass about 125 GeV and couplings generally resembling those of the Standard Model Higgs boson provides a potential probe of the physics of electroweak symmetry breaking. Although the current data only provides hints, we suggest a particular combination of Higgs couplings as an assay for new charged particles connected with electroweak symmetry breaking, and construct a simple model with charge 5/3 quarks as a demonstration of its use.

  8. Charging characteristics of ionographic latent images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallone, B.G.; Podgorsak, E.B.

    The charging characteristics of ionographic latent images are discussed in terms of the saturation characteristics of ionographic chambers. It is shown that latent images are essentially foil electrets with surface charge densities modulated by the x-ray transmission through the object. Empirical methods for the calculation of saturation current densities and extrapolated electric fields are given. Both the saturation current density and the extrapolated field consist of two components: one, which is linear with the air gap thickness, is produced by primary photon interactions in the chamber-sensitive volume; the other, exhibiting an exponential saturation, is attributed to photoelectrons backscattered from the polarizing electrode into the chamber-sensitive volume. The minimum applied electric field needed for an optimized charge collection in the ionographic chamber is presented in terms of both the characteristic polarization time and the electret relaxation time. The maximum possible surface charge density in the latent image is calculated, first exhibiting direct proportionality with the polarizing voltage V0, and then following a V0 (1/2) dependence for voltages larger than the breakpoint voltage. The optimum exposure for latent image production is calculated. Exposures below this optimum give insufficient charge densities for subsequent development, while exposures above it degrade the image and eventually result in a uniform foil electret charged to its maximum theoretical value.

  9. Tunable Morphologies from Charged Block Copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goswami, Monojoy [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Messman, Jamie M [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The bulk morphologies formed by a new class of charged block copolymers, 75 vol % fluorinated polyisoprene (FPI) 25 vol% sulfonated polystyrene (PSS) with 50% sulfonation, are characterized, and the fundamental underlying forces that promote the self-assembly processes are elucidated. The results show how the bulk morphologies are substantially different from their uncharged diblock counterparts (PS-PI) and also how morphology can be tuned with volume fraction of the charged block and the casting solvent. A physical understanding based on the underlying strong electrostatic interactions between the charged block and counterions is obtained using Monte Carlo (MC) and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. The 75/25 FPI-PSS shows hexagonal morphologies with the minority blocks (PSS) forming the continuous phase due to charge percolation and the FPI blocks arranged in hexagonal cylinders. Some long-range order can be sustained even if lipophobicity is increased (addition of water), albeit with lower dimensional structures. However, thermal annealing provides sufficient energy to disrupt the percolated charges and promotes aggregation of ionic sites which leads to a disordered system. Diverse and atypical morphologies are readily accessible by simply changing the number distribution of the charges on PSS block.

  10. The question of charge and of mass

    CERN Document Server

    Dolocan, Voicu

    2016-01-01

    There are two long-range forces in the Universe, electromagnetism and gravity.We have found a general expression for the energy of interaction in these cases alphaXhbarXc/r, where alpha is the fine structure constant and r is the distance between the two particles.In the case of the electromagnetic interaction we have alphaxhbarxc=e^2/4pixepsilon, where e is the gauge charge, which is the elementary electron charge. In the case of the gravitational interaction alphaxhbarxc=GxM^2where M=1.85x10^(-9) kg is the gauge mass of the particle.This is a giant particle. A system of like charged giant particles, would be a charged superfluid. By spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry are generated the Higgs masive bosons.The unitary gauge assure generation of the neutral massive particles. The perturbation from the unitary gauge generates charged massive particles. Also, the Higgs boson decays into charged and neutral particles.The Tesla coil is the user of the excitations of the vacuum.

  11. Point-charge electrostatics in disordered alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Wolverton, C; Froyen, S; Wei, S H; Zunger, Alex

    1996-01-01

    A simple analytic model of point-ion electrostatics has been previously proposed in which the magnitude of the net charge q_i on each atom in an ordered or random alloy depends linearly on the number N_i^(1) of unlike neighbors in its first coordination shell. Point charges extracted from recent large supercell (256-432 atom) local density approximation (LDA) calculations of Cu-Zn random alloys now enable an assessment of the physical validity and accuracy of the simple model. We find that this model accurately describes (i) the trends in q_i vs. N_i^(1), particularly for fcc alloys, (ii) the magnitudes of total electrostatic energies in random alloys, (iii) the relationships between constant-occupation-averaged charges and Coulomb shifts (i.e., the average over all sites occupied by either $A$ or $B$ atoms) in the random alloy, and (iv) the linear relation between the site charge q_i and the constant- charge-averaged Coulomb shift (i.e., the average over all sites with the same charge) for fcc alloys. Howe...

  12. Search milli-charged particles at SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langeveld, W.G.J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Particles with electric charge q {triple_bond} Qe {le} 10{sup -3} e and masses in the range 1-1000 MeV/c{sup 2} are not excluded by present experiments or by astrophysical or cosmological arguments. A beam dump experiment uniquely suited to the detection of such {open_quotes}milli-charged{close_quotes} particles has been carried out at SLAC, utilizing the short-duration pulses of the SLC electron beam to establish a tight coincidence window for the signal. The detector, a large scintillation counter sensitive to very small energy depositions, provided much greater sensitivity than previous searches. Analysis of the data leads to the exclusion of a substantial portion of the charge-mass plane. In this report, a preliminary mass-dependent upper limit is presented for the charge of milli-charged particles, ranging from Q = 1.7 x 10{sup -5} at milli-charged particle mass 0.1 MeV/c{sup 2} to Q = 9.5 x 10{sup -4} at 100 MeV/c{sup 2}.

  13. Interactions Between Charged Macroions Mediated by Molecules with Rod-like Charged Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohinc, K.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A short review of recent theoretical advances in studies of the interaction between highly charged systems embedded in a solution of rod-like molecules is presented. The system is theoretically described by the functional density theory, where the correlations within the rod-like molecules are accounted for. We show that for sufficiently long molecules and large surface charge densities, an attractive force between like-charged surfaces arises due to the spatially distributed charges within the molecules. The added salt has an influence on the condition for the attractive force between like-charged surfaces. The theoretical results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations. Many phenomena motivate the study of the interaction between like-charged surfaces (DNA condensation, virus aggregation, yeast flocculation, cohesion of cement paste.

  14. Charge exchange and energy loss of slow highly charged ions in 1 nm thick carbon nanomembranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Richard A; Gruber, Elisabeth; Ritter, Robert; Heller, René; Facsko, Stefan; Aumayr, Friedrich

    2014-04-18

    Experimental charge exchange and energy loss data for the transmission of slow highly charged Xe ions through ultrathin polymeric carbon membranes are presented. Surprisingly, two distinct exit charge state distributions accompanied by charge exchange dependent energy losses are observed. The energy loss for ions exhibiting large charge loss shows a quadratic dependency on the incident charge state indicating that equilibrium stopping force values do not apply in this case. Additional angle resolved transmission measurements point on a significant contribution of elastic energy loss. The observations show that regimes of different impact parameters can be separated and thus a particle's energy deposition in an ultrathin solid target may not be described in terms of an averaged energy loss per unit length.

  15. 75 FR 81335 - Reasonable Charges for Medical Care or Services; 2011 Calendar Year Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... professional charges for anesthesia services and dental services; pathology and laboratory charges; observation... and other professional charges, including professional charges for anesthesia services and dental services; pathology and laboratory charges; observation care facility charges; ambulance and...

  16. Absolute cross sections for charge capture from Rydberg targets by slow highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePaola, B.D.; Huang, M.; Winecki, S.; Stoeckli, M.P.; Kanai, Y. [J. R. Macdonald Laboratory, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States); Lundeen, S.R.; Fehrenbach, C.W.; Arko, S.A. [Department of Physics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A crossed beam experiment has been used to measure absolute charge capture cross sections in collisions of slow highly charged xenon ions with laser excited Rydberg atoms. The cross sections were measured for scaled projectile velocities {ital nv}{sub {ital p}} from 1.0 to 6.0, for projectile charges of 8, 16, 32, and 40, where {ital n} is the principal quantum number of the target electron. Experimental cross sections are compared with predictions of classical models.

  17. The effect of polymer charge density and charge distribution on the formation of multilayers

    CERN Document Server

    Voigt, U; Tauer, K; Hahn, M; Jäger, W; Klitzing, K V

    2003-01-01

    Polyelectrolyte multilayers which are built up by alternating adsorption of polyanions and polycations from aqueous solutions at a solid interface are investigated by reflectometry and ellipsometry. Below a degree of charge of about 70% the adsorption stops after a certain number of dipping cycles and no multilayer formation occurs. This indicates an electrostatically driven adsorption process. Below a charge density of 70% an adsorption can take place if the charged segments are combined as a block of the polymer.

  18. Like-charge attraction and opposite-charge decomplexation between polymers and DNA molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukdagli, Sahin

    2017-02-01

    We scrutinize the effect of polyvalent ions on polymer-DNA interactions. We extend a recently developed test-charge theory [S. Buyukdagli et al., Phys. Rev. E 94, 042502 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevE.94.042502] to the case of a stiff polymer interacting with a DNA molecule in an electrolyte mixture. The theory accounts for one-loop level electrostatic correlation effects such as the ionic cloud deformation around the strongly charged DNA molecule as well as image-charge forces induced by the low DNA permittivity. Our model can reproduce and explain various characteristics of the experimental phase diagrams for polymer solutions. First, the addition of polyvalent cations to the electrolyte solution results in the attraction of the negatively charged polymer by the DNA molecule. The glue of the like-charge attraction is the enhanced shielding of the polymer charges by the dense counterion layer at the DNA surface. Second, through the shielding of the DNA-induced electrostatic potential, mono- and polyvalent cations of large concentration both suppress the like-charge attraction. Within the same formalism, we also predict a new opposite-charge repulsion effect between the DNA molecule and a positively charged polymer. In the presence of polyvalent anions such as sulfate or phosphate, their repulsion by the DNA charges leads to the charge screening deficiency of the region around the DNA molecule. This translates into a repulsive force that results in the decomplexation of the polymer from DNA. This opposite-charge repulsion phenomenon can be verified by current experiments and the underlying mechanism can be beneficial to gene therapeutic applications where the control over polymer-DNA interactions is the key factor.

  19. Numerical Comparison of Optimal Charging Schemes for Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Hu, Junjie; Pedersen, Anders Bro

    2012-01-01

    The optimal charging schemes for Electric vehicles (EV) generally differ from each other in the choice of charging periods and the possibility of performing vehicle-to-grid (V2G), and have different impacts on EV economics. Regarding these variations, this paper presents a numerical comparison...... of four different charging schemes, namely night charging, night charging with V2G, 24 hour charging and 24 hour charging with V2G, on the basis of real driving data and electricity price of Denmark in 2003. For all schemes, optimal charging plans with 5 minute resolution are derived through the solving...

  20. Network based management for multiplexed electric vehicle charging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadh, Rajit; Chung, Ching Yen; Qui, Li

    2017-04-11

    A system for multiplexing charging of electric vehicles, comprising a server coupled to a plurality of charging control modules over a network. Each of said charging modules being connected to a voltage source such that each charging control module is configured to regulate distribution of voltage from the voltage source to an electric vehicle coupled to the charging control module. Data collection and control software is provided on the server for identifying a plurality of electric vehicles coupled to the plurality of charging control modules and selectively distributing charging of the plurality of charging control modules to multiplex distribution of voltage to the plurality of electric vehicles.

  1. Dynamics of neutral and charged aerosol particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppae, J.

    2012-07-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles have various climate effects and adverse health effects, which both depend on the size and number concentration of the particles. Freshly-formed particles are not large enough to impact neither health nor climate and they are most susceptible to removal by collisions with larger pre-existing particles. Consequently, the knowledge of both the formation and the growth rate of particles are crucially important when assessing the health and climate effects of atmospheric new particle formation. The purpose of this thesis is to increase our knowledge of the dynamics of neutral and charged aerosol particles with a specific interest towards the particle growth rate and processes affecting the aerosol charging state. A new model, Ion-UHMA, which simulates the dynamics of neutral and charged particles, was developed for this purpose. Simple analytical formulae that can be used to estimate the growth rate due to various processes were derived and used to study the effects of charged particles on the growth rate. It was found that the growth rate of a freshly-formed particle population due to condensation and coagulation could be significantly increased when a considerable fraction of the particles are charged. Finally, recent data-analysis methods that have been applied to the aerosol charging states obtained from the measurements were modified for a charge asymmetric framework. The methods were then tested on data obtained from aerosol dynamics simulations. The methods were found to be able to provide reasonable estimates on the growth rate and proportion of particles formed via ion-induced nucleation, provided that the growth rate is high enough and that the charged particles do not grow much more rapidly than the neutral ones. A simple procedure for estimating whether the methods are suitable for analysing data obtained in specific conditions was provided. In this thesis, the dynamics of neutral and charged aerosol particles were studied in

  2. Experimental study of diffusion charging of aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pui, D.Y.H.

    1976-03-01

    The electrical charging of aerosol particles by unipolar gaseous ions was studied theoretically and experimentally. The primary objective of the study was to make precise determinations of the aerosol particle charge under various conditions of charging and to compare the experimental results with those predicted by theory. Experiments were performed using monodisperse oleic acid aerosols generated by a vibrating orifice generator, monodisperse NaCl and DOP (di-octyl phthalate) aerosols generated by an electrostatic classification method, and sulfuric acid aerosols generated by the photo-chemical conversion of gaseous SO/sub 2/ in the smog chamber. The experiments covered a particle size range of 0.0075 ..mu..m to 5.04 ..mu..m diameter. The corresponding range in Knudsen number (Kn = lambda/sub i//a, lambda/sub i/ = mean free path of ions, a = particle radius) was from 0.0056 to 3.86. The charging parameter, n/sub 0/t, was varied between 2.56 x 10/sup 6/ to 5.1 x 10/sup 7/ ion-s/cc, where n/sub 0/ is the concentration of ions and t is the charging time. Comparisons of the results with available aerosol charging theories indicate that there is reasonable agreement between the theory and experiment in the continuum regime (Kn << 1) where the classical Fuchs--Pluvinage equation is expected to apply. However, in the free molecular (Kn >> 1) and the transition regimes (Kn approx. or equal to 1), where the ion mean free path is no longer small in comparison with particle size, there is considerable discrepancy between the experimental data and available charging theories. A semi-empirical equation was developed which agrees well with the experimental data over the entire range of particle size and charging parameters covered in the experiments. Theoretical results are presented showing the distribution of charges on the particles as a function of particle size and the charging parameter n/sub 0/t. 70 figures, 24 tables, 112 references. (auth)

  3. Stability of charged black holes in string theory under charged massive scalar perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Ran

    2013-01-01

    Similar to the superradiant effect in Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m black hole, a charged scalar field can be amplified when impinging on the charged black hole in string theory. According to the black-hole bomb mechanism, the mass term of the incident field can effectively works as the reflecting mirror, which may trigger the instability of black hole. We study the possible instability triggered by superradiant effect and demonstrate that the charged black hole in string theory is stable against the massive charged scalar perturbation. The reason is that there is no trapping potential well in the black hole exterior and there is no bound states in the superradiant regime.

  4. Space charge and charge trapping characteristics of cross-linked polyethylene subjected to ac electric stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Y. L.; Chen, G.; Miyake, H.; Matsui, K.; Tanaka, Y.; Takada, T.

    2006-04-01

    This paper reports on the result of space charge evolution in cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) planar samples approximately 220 µm thick. The space charge measurement technique used in this study is the pulsed electroacoustic method. There are two phases to this experiment. In the first phase, the samples were subjected to dc 30 kVdc mm-1 and ac (sinusoidal) electric stress levels of 30 kVpk mm-1 at frequencies of 1, 10 and 50 Hz ac. In addition, ac space charge under 30 kVrms mm-1 and 60 kVpk mm-1 electric stress at 50 Hz was also investigated. The volts-off results showed that the amount of charge trapped in XLPE sample under dc electric stress is significantly bigger than samples under ac stress even when the applied ac stresses are substantially higher. The second phase of the experiment involves studying the dc space charge evolution in samples that were tested under ac stress during the first phase of the experiment. Ac ageing causes positive charge to become more dominant over negative charge. It was also discovered that ac ageing creates deeper traps, particularly for negative charge. This paper also gives a brief overview of the data processing methods used to analyse space charge under ac electric stress.

  5. Dust charging and charge fluctuations in a weakly collisional radio-frequency sheath at low pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piel, Alexander, E-mail: piel@physik.uni-kiel.de; Schmidt, Christian [IEAP, Christian-Albrechts-Universität, Kiel (Germany)

    2015-05-15

    Models for the charging of dust particles in the bulk plasma and in the sheath region are discussed. A new model is proposed that describes collision-enhanced ion currents in the sheath. The collisions result in a substantial reduction of the negative charge of the dust. Experimental data for the dust charge in the sheath can be described by this model when a Bi-Maxwellian electron distribution is taken into account. Expressions for the dust charging rate for all considered models are presented and their influence on the rise of the kinetic dust temperature is discussed.

  6. Aggregator-Based Interactive Charging Management System for Electric Vehicle Charging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingchao Xia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With the ongoing large-scale implementation of electric vehicles (EVs, the exploration of a more flexible approach to maintain fair interaction between EVs and the power grid is urgently required. This paper presents an aggregator-based interactive charging management scheme adopting interruptible load (IL pricing, in which the EV aggregator will respond to the load control command of the grid in an EV interactive mode. Charging managements are carried out according to battery state-of-charge and the EV departure time in EV charging stations. A power-altering charging (PAC control method is proposed to dispatch the EVs charging fairly in a station and guarantee EV owners’ preferences. The method does not require classical iterative procedures or heavy computations; furthermore, it is beneficial for EVs to depart earlier than expected for reasons beyond keeping homeostatic charging. The proposed scheme, which is tested to charge individual EVs well according to its preference, was implemented as part of an “EV Beijing” project. The proposed management scheme provides new insight into EV charging strategy and provides another choice to EV users.

  7. Charged Massive Particle’s Tunneling from Charged Nonrotating Microblack Hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Soleimani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the tunneling framework of Hawking radiation, charged massive particle’s tunneling in charged nonrotating TeV-scale black hole is investigated. To this end, we consider natural cutoffs as a minimal length, a minimal momentum, and a maximal momentum through a generalized uncertainty principle. We focus on the role played by these natural cutoffs on the luminosity of charged nonrotating microblack hole by taking into account the full implications of energy and charge conservation as well as the backscattered radiation.

  8. Greybody factors of massive charged fermionic fields in a charged two-dimensional dilatonic black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becar, Ramon [Universidad Catolica de Temuco, Departamento de Ciencias Matematicas y Fisicas, Temuco (Chile); Gonzalez, P.A. [Universidad Diego Portales, Facultad de Ingenieria, Santiago (Chile); Saavedra, Joel [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile); Vasquez, Yerko [Universidad de La Serena, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, La Serena (Chile)

    2015-02-01

    We study massive charged fermionic perturbations in the background of a charged two-dimensional dilatonic black hole, and we solve the Dirac equation analytically. Then we compute the reflection and transmission coefficients and the absorption cross section for massive charged fermionic fields, and we show that the absorption cross section vanishes at the low- and high-frequency limits. However, there is a range of frequencies where the absorption cross section is not null. Furthermore, we study the effect of the mass and electric charge of the fermionic field over the absorption cross section. (orig.)

  9. Modeling charge transport in organic photovoltaic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jenny; Kwiatkowski, Joe J; Kirkpatrick, James; Frost, Jarvist M

    2009-11-17

    The performance of an organic photovoltaic cell depends critically on the mobility of charge carriers within the constituent molecular semiconductor materials. However, a complex combination of phenomena that span a range of length and time scales control charge transport in disordered organic semiconductors. As a result, it is difficult to rationalize charge transport properties in terms of material parameters. Until now, efforts to improve charge mobilities in molecular semiconductors have proceeded largely by trial and error rather than through systematic design. However, recent developments have enabled the first predictive simulation studies of charge transport in disordered organic semiconductors. This Account describes a set of computational methods, specifically molecular modeling methods, to simulate molecular packing, quantum chemical calculations of charge transfer rates, and Monte Carlo simulations of charge transport. Using case studies, we show how this combination of methods can reproduce experimental mobilities with few or no fitting parameters. Although currently applied to material systems of high symmetry or well-defined structure, further developments of this approach could address more complex systems such anisotropic or multicomponent solids and conjugated polymers. Even with an approximate treatment of packing disorder, these computational methods simulate experimental mobilities within an order of magnitude at high electric fields. We can both reproduce the relative values of electron and hole mobility in a conjugated small molecule and rationalize those values based on the symmetry of frontier orbitals. Using fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of molecular packing, we can quantitatively replicate vertical charge transport along stacks of discotic liquid crystals which vary only in the structure of their side chains. We can reproduce the trends in mobility with molecular weight for self-organizing polymers using a cheap, coarse

  10. Amine reactivity with charged sulfuric acid clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Bzdek

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of charged species produced by electrospray of an ammonium sulfate solution in both positive and negative polarities is examined using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS. Positively-charged ammonium bisulfate cluster composition differs significantly from negatively-charged cluster composition. For positively-charged clusters all sulfuric acid is neutralized to bisulfate, whereas for negatively-charged clusters the degree of sulfuric acid neutralization is cluster size-dependent. With increasing cluster size (and, therefore, a decreasing role of charge, both positively- and negatively-charged cluster compositions converge toward ammonium bisulfate. The reactivity of negatively-charged sulfuric acid-ammonia clusters with dimethylamine and ammonia is also investigated by FTICR-MS. Two series of negatively-charged clusters are investigated: [(HSO4(H2SO4x] and [(NH4x(HSO4x+1(H2SO43]. Dimethylamine substitution for ammonia in [(NH4 x(HSO4 x+1(H2SO43] clusters is nearly collision-limited, and subsequent addition of dimethylamine to neutralize H2SO4 to bisulfate is within one order of magnitude of the substitution rate. Dimethylamine addition to [(HSO4 (H2SO4 x] clusters is either not observed or very slow. The results of this study indicate that amine chemistry will be evident and important only in large ambient negative ions (>m/z 400, whereas amine chemistry may be evident in small ambient positive ions. Addition of ammonia to unneutralized clusters occurs at a rate that is ~2–3 orders of magnitude slower than incorporation of dimethylamine either by substitution or addition

  11. Effective Charge Carrier Utilization in Photocatalytic Conversions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Tuo; Chang, Xiaoxia; Gong, Jinlong

    2016-05-17

    Continuous efforts have been devoted to searching for sustainable energy resources to alleviate the upcoming energy crises. Among various types of new energy resources, solar energy has been considered as one of the most promising choices, since it is clean, sustainable, and safe. Moreover, solar energy is the most abundant renewable energy, with a total power of 173 000 terawatts striking Earth continuously. Conversion of solar energy into chemical energy, which could potentially provide continuous and flexible energy supplies, has been investigated extensively. However, the conversion efficiency is still relatively low since complicated physical, electrical, and chemical processes are involved. Therefore, carefully designed photocatalysts with a wide absorption range of solar illumination, a high conductivity for charge carriers, a small number of recombination centers, and fast surface reaction kinetics are required to achieve a high activity. This Account describes our recent efforts to enhance the utilization of charge carriers for semiconductor photocatalysts toward efficient solar-to-chemical energy conversion. During photocatalytic reactions, photogenerated electrons and holes are involved in complex processes to convert solar energy into chemical energy. The initial step is the generation of charge carriers in semiconductor photocatalysts, which could be enhanced by extending the light absorption range. Integration of plasmonic materials and introduction of self-dopants have been proved to be effective methods to improve the light absorption ability of photocatalysts to produce larger amounts of photogenerated charge carriers. Subsequently, the photogenerated electrons and holes migrate to the surface. Therefore, acceleration of the transport process can result in enhanced solar energy conversion efficiency. Different strategies such as morphology control and conductivity improvement have been demonstrated to achieve this goal. Fine-tuning of the

  12. Physical stage of photosynthesis charge separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovlev, A. G.; Shuvalov, V. A.

    2016-06-01

    An analytical review is given concerning the biophysical aspects of light-driven primary charge separation in photosynthesis reaction centers (RCs) which are special pigment-protein complexes residing in a cell membrane. The primary (physical) stage of charge separation occurs in the pico- and femtosecond ranges and consists of transferring an electron along the active A-branch of pigments. The review presents vast factual material on both the general issues of primary photosynthesis and some more specific topics, including (1) the role of the inactive B-branch of pigments, (2) the effect of the protein environment on the charge separation, and (3) the participation of monomeric bacteriochlorophyll BA in primary electron acceptance. It is shown that the electron transfer and stabilization are strongly influenced by crystallographic water and tyrosine M210 molecules from the nearest environment of BA. A linkage between collective nuclear motions and electron transfer upon charge separation is demonstrated. The nature of the high quantum efficiency of primary charge separation reactions is discussed.

  13. Quantum crystallographic charge density of urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Michael E

    2016-07-01

    Standard X-ray crystallography methods use free-atom models to calculate mean unit-cell charge densities. Real molecules, however, have shared charge that is not captured accurately using free-atom models. To address this limitation, a charge density model of crystalline urea was calculated using high-level quantum theory and was refined against publicly available ultra-high-resolution experimental Bragg data, including the effects of atomic displacement parameters. The resulting quantum crystallographic model was compared with models obtained using spherical atom or multipole methods. Despite using only the same number of free parameters as the spherical atom model, the agreement of the quantum model with the data is comparable to the multipole model. The static, theoretical crystalline charge density of the quantum model is distinct from the multipole model, indicating the quantum model provides substantially new information. Hydrogen thermal ellipsoids in the quantum model were very similar to those obtained using neutron crystallography, indicating that quantum crystallography can increase the accuracy of the X-ray crystallographic atomic displacement parameters. The results demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of integrating fully periodic quantum charge density calculations into ultra-high-resolution X-ray crystallographic model building and refinement.

  14. Charge-induced electromagnetic resonances in nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocifaj, Miroslav [ICA, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia); Faculty of Mathematics, Physics, and Informatics, Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Klacka, Jozef; Kundracik, Frantisek [Faculty of Mathematics, Physics, and Informatics, Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Videen, Gorden [US Army Research Laboratory, AMSRD-ARL-CI-ES, Adelphi, MD (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Electromagnetic theories have reproduced the scattering properties of differently shaped particles and successfully been used to characterize numerous systems. However, certain anomalous features remain unexplained that include enhanced extinction when particles are much smaller than the wavelength. Here we explain these features exploiting recent research in electromagnetic scattering theories that suggests incorporating the effect of particle charge results in new physical outcomes that deviate appreciably from what is predicted by electromagnetic interaction from uncharged systems. For electrically charged particles, the resonant excitation of surface modes is governed by excess charges deposited on the particle surface. Charge effects become large when particles are small compared to the incident wavelength, and we show that the electrostatic approximation is not valid for modelling the electromagnetic interaction from such particles. Charge-induced resonances appear in such systems that can reproduce previously unexplained phenomena, for instance, amplified microwave attenuation observed in sandstorms. (copyright 2015 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Quantum crystallographic charge density of urea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Standard X-ray crystallography methods use free-atom models to calculate mean unit-cell charge densities. Real molecules, however, have shared charge that is not captured accurately using free-atom models. To address this limitation, a charge density model of crystalline urea was calculated using high-level quantum theory and was refined against publicly available ultra-high-resolution experimental Bragg data, including the effects of atomic displacement parameters. The resulting quantum crystallographic model was compared with models obtained using spherical atom or multipole methods. Despite using only the same number of free parameters as the spherical atom model, the agreement of the quantum model with the data is comparable to the multipole model. The static, theoretical crystalline charge density of the quantum model is distinct from the multipole model, indicating the quantum model provides substantially new information. Hydrogen thermal ellipsoids in the quantum model were very similar to those obtained using neutron crystallography, indicating that quantum crystallography can increase the accuracy of the X-ray crystallographic atomic displacement parameters. The results demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of integrating fully periodic quantum charge density calculations into ultra-high-resolution X-ray crystallographic model building and refinement. PMID:27437111

  16. Gravitational collapse of charged scalar fields

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Jose M

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the gravitational collapse of charged matter we analyze the simple model of an self-gravitating massless scalar field coupled to the electromagnetic field in spherical symmetry. The evolution equations for the Maxwell-Klein-Gordon sector are derived in the 3+1 formalism, and coupled to gravity by means of the stress-energy tensor of these fields. To solve consistently the full system we employ a generalized Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura (BSSN) formulation of General Relativity that is adapted to spherical symmetry. We consider two sets of initial data that represent a time symmetric spherical thick shell of charged scalar field, and differ by the fact that one set has zero global electrical charge while the other has non-zero global charge. For compact enough initial shells we find that the configuration doesn't disperse and approaches a final state corresponding to a sub-extremal Reissner-N\\"ordstrom black hole with $|Q|charge of the scalar field $...

  17. Colloids with continuously tunable surface charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ravensteijn, Bas G P; Kegel, Willem K

    2014-09-09

    In this paper, we present a robust way to tune the surface potential of polystyrene colloids without changing the pH, ionic strength, etc. The colloids are composed of a cross-linked polystyrene core and a cross-linked vinylbenzyl chloride layer. Besides the chlorine groups, the particle surface contains sulfate/sulfonate groups (arising from the polymerization initiators) that provide a negative surface potential. Performing a Menschutkin reaction on the surface chlorine groups with tertiary amines allows us to introduce quaternary, positively charged amines. The overall charge on the particles is then determined by the ratio between the sulfate/sulfonate moieties and the quaternary amines. Using this process, we were able to invert the charge in a continuous manner without losing colloidal stability upon passing the isoelectric point. The straightforward reaction mechanism together with the fact that the reaction could be quenched rapidly resulted in a colloidal system in which the ζ potential can be tuned between -80 and 45 mV. As proof of principle, the positively charged particles were used in heterocoagulation experiments with nanometer- and micrometer-sized negatively charged silica particles to create geometrically well-defined colloidal (nano) clusters.

  18. Martian Atmospheric Pressure Static Charge Elimination Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    A Martian pressure static charge elimination tool is currently in development in the Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory (ESPL) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. In standard Earth atmosphere conditions, static charge can be neutralized from an insulating surface using air ionizers. These air ionizers generate ions through corona breakdown. The Martian atmosphere is 7 Torr of mostly carbon dioxide, which makes it inherently difficult to use similar methods as those used for standard atmosphere static elimination tools. An initial prototype has been developed to show feasibility of static charge elimination at low pressure, using corona discharge. A needle point and thin wire loop are used as the corona generating electrodes. A photo of the test apparatus is shown below. Positive and negative high voltage pulses are sent to the needle point. This creates positive and negative ions that can be used for static charge neutralization. In a preliminary test, a floating metal plate was charged to approximately 600 volts under Martian atmospheric conditions. The static elimination tool was enabled and the voltage on the metal plate dropped rapidly to -100 volts. This test data is displayed below. Optimization is necessary to improve the electrostatic balance of the static elimination tool.

  19. Scintillation Detectors for Charged Particles and Photons

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoq, P

    2011-01-01

    Scintillation Detectors for Charged Particles and Photons in 'Charged Particle Detectors - Particle Detectors and Detector Systems', part of 'Landolt-Börnstein - Group I Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, Volume 21B1: Detectors for Particles and Radiation. Part 1: Principles and Methods'. This document is part of Part 1 'Principles and Methods' of Subvolume B 'Detectors for Particles and Radiation' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Subsection '3.1.1 Scintillation Detectors for Charged Particles and Photons' of Section '3.1 Charged Particle Detectors' of Chapter '3 Particle Detectors and Detector Systems' with the content: 3.1.1 Scintillation Detectors for Charged Particles and Photons 3.1.1.1 Basic detector principles and scintillator requirements 3.1.1.1.1 Interaction of ionizing radiation with scintillator material 3.1.1.1.2 Important scint...

  20. Charged Local Defects in Extended Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Peter A.

    1999-05-25

    The conventional approach to treating charged defects in extended systems in first principles calculations is via the supercell approximation using a neutralizing jellium background charge. I explicitly demonstrate shortcomings of this standard approach and discuss the consequences. Errors in the electrostatic potential surface over the volume of a supercell are shown to be comparable to a band gap energy in semiconductor materials, for cell sizes typically used in first principles simulations. I present an alternate method for eliminating the divergence of the Coulomb potential in supercell calculations of charged defects in extended systems that embodies a correct treatment of the electrostatic potential in the local viciniq of the a charged defect, via a mixed boundary condition approach. I present results of first principles calculations of charged vacancies in NaCl that illustrate the importance of polarization effects once an accurate representation of the local potential is obtained. These polarization effects, poorly captured in small supercells, also impact the energetic on the scale of typical band gap energies.

  1. Quantum crystallographic charge density of urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Wall

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Standard X-ray crystallography methods use free-atom models to calculate mean unit-cell charge densities. Real molecules, however, have shared charge that is not captured accurately using free-atom models. To address this limitation, a charge density model of crystalline urea was calculated using high-level quantum theory and was refined against publicly available ultra-high-resolution experimental Bragg data, including the effects of atomic displacement parameters. The resulting quantum crystallographic model was compared with models obtained using spherical atom or multipole methods. Despite using only the same number of free parameters as the spherical atom model, the agreement of the quantum model with the data is comparable to the multipole model. The static, theoretical crystalline charge density of the quantum model is distinct from the multipole model, indicating the quantum model provides substantially new information. Hydrogen thermal ellipsoids in the quantum model were very similar to those obtained using neutron crystallography, indicating that quantum crystallography can increase the accuracy of the X-ray crystallographic atomic displacement parameters. The results demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of integrating fully periodic quantum charge density calculations into ultra-high-resolution X-ray crystallographic model building and refinement.

  2. Charging of grains in sprite-plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serozhkin, Y.; Oryeshko, E.

    The presence of a charged dust component at a mesosphere substantially determines properties of this atmospheric layer and has manifold manifestations One of possible sources of free electrons for a charge of grains can be served the electrical discharges in a mesosphere sprites 1 As sprites take huge volume about 10000 cubic kilometer and happen approximately 1 time per one second their role in the charging of grains in a mesosphere necessarily should be taken into account In supported work is estimated the value of a charge which grains obtained in sprite-plasma The parameters of sprite-plasma velocity concentration of an electronic component duration of existence make possible a charge of submicron grains up to value at which in case of sufficient concentration of particles the sprite-plasmas can to be possessed of the dusty plasma properties 2 begin enumerate item V P Pasko U S Inan T F Bell Y N Taranenko Sprites produced by quasi-electrostatic heating ldots J Geophys Res Vol 102 No A3 pages 4529-4561 March 1 1997 item Yu Serozhkin Dusty sprite-plasma and conditions for its formation AIP Conference Proceedings New vistas in dusty plasmas Fourth International Conferences on the Physics of Dusty Plasmas Orleans France 13-17 June 2005 Vol 799 pages 383-386 end enumerate

  3. Critical behaviour in charging of electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Rui; Buzna, Lubos; Gibbens, Richard; Kelly, Frank

    2015-09-01

    The increasing penetration of electric vehicles over the coming decades, taken together with the high cost to upgrade local distribution networks and consumer demand for home charging, suggest that managing congestion on low voltage networks will be a crucial component of the electric vehicle revolution and the move away from fossil fuels in transportation. Here, we model the max-flow and proportional fairness protocols for the control of congestion caused by a fleet of vehicles charging on two real-world distribution networks. We show that the system undergoes a continuous phase transition to a congested state as a function of the rate of vehicles plugging to the network to charge. We focus on the order parameter and its fluctuations close to the phase transition, and show that the critical point depends on the choice of congestion protocol. Finally, we analyse the inequality in the charging times as the vehicle arrival rate increases, and show that charging times are considerably more equitable in proportional fairness than in max-flow.

  4. Photovoltaic battery charging experience in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, S.T. Jr.

    1997-12-01

    With the turn of the century, people in remote areas still live without electricity. Conventional electrification will hardly reach the remaining 50% of the population of the Philippines in remote areas. With photovoltaic technology, the delivery of electricity to remote areas can be sustainable. Malalison island was chosen as a project site for electrification using photovoltaic technology. With the fragile balance of ecology and seasonal income in this island, the PV electrification proved to be a better option than conventional fossil based electrification. The Solar Battery Charging Station (SBCS) was used to suit the economic and geographical condition of the island. Results showed that the system can charge as many as three batteries in a day for an average fee of $0.54 per battery. Charging is measured by an ampere-hour counter to determine the exact amount of charge the battery received. The system was highly accepted by the local residents and the demand easily outgrew the system within four months. A technical, economic and social evaluation was done. A recovery period of seven years and five months is expected when competed with the conventional battery charging in the mainland. The technical, economic, institutional and social risks faced by the project were analyzed. Statistics showed that there is a potential of 920,000 households that can benefit from PV electrification in the Philippines. The data and experiences gained in this study are valuable in designing SBCS for remote unelectrified communities in the Philippines and other developing countries.

  5. Charged Water Droplets can Melt Metallic Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elton, Eric; Rosenberg, Ethan; Ristenpart, William

    2016-11-01

    A water drop, when immersed in an insulating fluid, acquires charge when it contacts an energized electrode. Provided the electric field is strong enough, the drop will move away to the opposite electrode, acquire the opposite charge, and repeat the process, effectively 'bouncing' back and forth between the electrodes. A key implicit assumption, dating back to Maxwell, has been that the electrode remains unaltered by the charging process. Here we demonstrate that the electrode is physically deformed during each charge transfer event with an individual water droplet or other conducting object. We used optical, electron, and atomic force microscopy to characterize a variety of different metallic electrodes before and after drops were electrically bounced on them. Although the electrodes appear unchanged to the naked eye, the microscopy reveals that each charge transfer event yielded a crater approximately 1 micron wide and 50 nm deep, with the exact dimensions proportional to the applied field strength. We present evidence that the craters are formed by localized melting of the electrodes via Joule heating in the metal and concurrent dielectric breakdown of the surrounding fluid, suggesting that the electrode locally achieves temperatures exceeding 3400°C. Present address: Dept. Materials Sci. Engineering, MIT.

  6. Estimates of the Nucleon Tensor Charge

    CERN Document Server

    Gamberg, L P; Gamberg, Leonard; Goldstein, Gary R.

    2001-01-01

    Like the axial vector charges, defined from the forward nucleon matrix element of the axial vector current on the light cone, the nucleon tensor charge, defined from the corresponding matrix element of the tensor current, is essential for characterizing the momentum and spin structure of the nucleon. Because there must be a helicity flip of the struck quark in order to probe the transverse spin polarization of the nucleon, the transversity distribution (and thus the tensor charge) decouples at leading twist in deep inelastic scattering, although no such suppression appears in Drell-Yan processes. This makes the tensor charge difficult to measure and its non-conservation makes its prediction model dependent. We present a different approach. Exploiting an approximate SU(6)xO(3) symmetric mass degeneracy of the light axial vector mesons (a1(1260), b1(1235) and h1(1170)) and using pole dominance, we calculate the tensor charge. The result is simple in form and depends on the decay constants of the axial vector me...

  7. Localized charge carriers in graphene nanodevices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischoff, D., E-mail: dominikb@phys.ethz.ch; Varlet, A.; Simonet, P.; Eich, M.; Overweg, H. C.; Ihn, T.; Ensslin, K. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-09-15

    Graphene—two-dimensional carbon—is a material with unique mechanical, optical, chemical, and electronic properties. Its use in a wide range of applications was therefore suggested. From an electronic point of view, nanostructured graphene is of great interest due to the potential opening of a band gap, applications in quantum devices, and investigations of physical phenomena. Narrow graphene stripes called “nanoribbons” show clearly different electronical transport properties than micron-sized graphene devices. The conductivity is generally reduced and around the charge neutrality point, the conductance is nearly completely suppressed. While various mechanisms can lead to this observed suppression of conductance, disordered edges resulting in localized charge carriers are likely the main cause in a large number of experiments. Localized charge carriers manifest themselves in transport experiments by the appearance of Coulomb blockade diamonds. This review focuses on the mechanisms responsible for this charge localization, on interpreting the transport details, and on discussing the consequences for physics and applications. Effects such as multiple coupled sites of localized charge, cotunneling processes, and excited states are discussed. Also, different geometries of quantum devices are compared. Finally, an outlook is provided, where open questions are addressed.

  8. High charge carrier mobility and efficient charge separation in highly soluble perylenetetracarboxyl-diimides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Günbaş, D.D.; Xue, C.; Patwardhan,S.; Fravventura, M.C.; Zhang, H.; Jager, W.F.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.; Laurens D. A.; Siebbeles, L.D.A.; Savenije, T.J.; Jin, S.; Grozema, F.C.

    2014-01-01

    In this communication we report on the synthesis and charge mobility of highly soluble perylenebisimid derivatives.We show that introduction of alkylester side chains results in compounds combining a high solubility with charge mobilities up to 0.22 cm2 V_1 s_1. These materials are therefore interes

  9. Reconciling $(g-2)_\\mu$ and charged lepton flavour violating processes through a doubly charged scalar

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabortty, Joydeep; Mondal, Subhadeep; Srivastava, Tripurari

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the phenomenological consequences of a doubly charged scalar which may belong to different uncoloured scalar multiplets. This doubly charged scalar couples to the charged leptons as well as gauge bosons, which we parametrize in a model independent way. Restricting ourselves in the regime of conserved charged-parity (CP), we assume only a few non-zero Yukawa couplings ($y_{\\mu \\ell}$, where $\\ell=e,\\mu,\\tau$) between the doubly charged scalar and the charged leptons. Our choices allow the doubly charged scalar to impinge low-energy processes like anomalous magnetic moment of muon and a few possible charged lepton flavour violating (CLFV) processes. These same Yukawa couplings are also instrumental in producing same-sign di-lepton signatures at the LHC. In this article we examine the impact of individual contributions from the diagonal and off-diagonal Yukawa couplings in the light of muon $(g-2)$ excess. Subsequently, we use the derived information to inquire the possible CLFV proc...

  10. The Effect of Ketone Defects on the Charge Transport and Charge Recombination in Polyfluorenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuik, Martijn; Wetzelaer, Gert-Jan A. H.; Ladde, Jurre G.; Nicolai, Herman T.; Wildeman, Jurjen; Sweelssen, Jorgen; Blom, Paul W. M.; Sweelssen, Jörgen

    2011-01-01

    The effect of on-chain ketone defects on the charge transport of the polyfluorene derivative poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO) is investigated. Using MoO3 as ohmic hole contact, the hole transport in a pristine PFO diode is observed to be limited by space-charge, whereas fluorenone contaminated PFO (P

  11. Effect of Charge Patterning on the Phase Behavior of Polymer Coacervates for Charge Driven Self Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishna, Mithun; Sing, Charles E.

    Oppositely charged polymers can undergo associative liquid-liquid phase separation when mixed under suitable conditions of ionic strength, temperature and pH to form what are known as `polymeric complex coacervates'. Polymer coacervates find use in diverse array of applications like microencapsulation, drug delivery, membrane filtration and underwater adhesives. The similarity between complex coacervate environments and those in biological systems has also found relevance in areas of bio-mimicry. Our previous works have demonstrated how local charge correlations and molecular connectivity can drastically affect the phase behavior of coacervates. The precise location of charges along the chain therefore dramatically influences the local charge correlations, which consequently influences the phase behavior of coacervates. We investigate the effect of charge patterning along the polymer chain on the phase behavior of coacervates in the framework of the Restricted Primitive Model using Gibbs Ensemble Monte Carlo simulations. Our results show that charge patterning dramatically changes the phase behavior of polymer coacervates, which contrasts with the predictions of the classical Voorn-Overbeek theory. This provides the basis for designing new materials through charge driven self assembly by controlling the positioning of the charged monomers along the chain.

  12. A Review of SCATHA (Spacecraft Charging at High Altitudes) Satellite Results: Charging and Discharging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Publ. AFGL-TR-77-0051 (1977), 723. 28. Reagan, J. B., E. E. Mayarott, E. E. Gaines., R. W. Nightingale, P. C. Filbert, and W. L. Imhof , "Space Charging...1982). 29. Reagan, J. B., R. W. Nightingale, E. E. Gaines, R. E. Meyercroft, and W. L. Imhof , "The Role of Energetic Particles in the Charging

  13. X-ray emission from charge exchange of highly-charged ions in atoms and molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, J. B.; Williams, I. D.; Smith, S. J.; Chutjian, A.

    2000-01-01

    Charge exchange followed by radiative stabilization are the main processes responsible for the recent observations of X-ray emission from comets in their approach to the Sun. A new apparatus was constructed to measure, in collisions of HCIs with atoms and molecules, (a) absolute cross sections for single and multiple charge exchange, and (b) normalized X-ray emission cross sections.

  14. Driving and Charging Behavior of Nissan Leafs in The EV Project with Access to Workplace Charging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don Scoffield; Shawn Salisbury; John Smart

    2014-11-01

    This paper documents findings from analysis of data collected from Nissan Leafs enrolled in The EV Project who parked and charged at workplaces with EV charging equipment. It will be published as a white paper on INL's website, accessible by the general public.

  15. Nano watermill driven by the revolving charge

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Xiaoyan; Nie, Xuechuan; Wu, Fengmin; Liu, Yang; Lu, Hangjun

    2015-01-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we propose a novel nanoscale watermill for unidirectional transport of water molecules through a curved single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT). In this nanoscale system, a revolving charge is introduced to drive water chain confined inside the SWNT, which is served as nano waterwheel and nano engine. A resonance-like phenomenon is found that the revolving frequency of the charge plays a key role in pumping water chain. The water flux across the SWNT increases with respect to the revolving frequency of the external charge and reaches the maximum when the frequency is 4 THz. Correspondingly, the number of the hydrogen bonds of water chain inside the SWNT decreases dramatically with the frequency ranging from 4 THz to 25 THz. The mechanism behind the resonant phenomenon has been investigated systematically. Our findings are helpful for designing nanoscale fluidic devices and energy converters.

  16. Ionization and Dust Charging in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Ivlev, A V; Caselli, P

    2016-01-01

    Ionization-recombination balance in dense interstellar and circumstellar environments is a key factor for a variety of important physical processes, such as chemical reactions, dust charging and coagulation, coupling of the gas with magnetic field and the development of magnetorotational instability in protoplanetary disks. We present a self-consistent analytical model which allows us to exactly calculate abundances of charged species in dusty gas, in the regime where the dust-phase recombination dominates over the gas-phase recombination. The model is employed to verify applicability of a conventional approximation of low dust charges in protoplanetary disks, and to discuss the implications for the dust coagulation and the development of the "dead zone" in the disk. Furthermore, the importance of mutually consistent models for the ionization and dust evolution is addressed: These processes are coupled via several mechanisms operating in the disk, and therefore their interplay can be crucial for the ultimate ...

  17. Charge-transfer processes in semiconductor colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Prashant V.; Gopidas, K. R.

    1990-04-01

    A picosecond transient absorption spectroscopy technique has been employed to probe the charge transfer processes in Ti02 semiconductor colloids. The trapping of electrons at the TiO surface (Ti4+ sitesY was characterized from the appearance of a broad absorption in the region of 550-750 nm following the 355-nm laser pulse excitation of Ti02 colloids. The lifetime of these trapped charge carriers increased upon incorporation of a hole scavenger in the colloidal semiconductor system. The mechanistic and kinetic details of the charge injection from excited CdS into a large bandgap semiconductor such as AgI and Ti02 have also been inves-' t i ga ted.

  18. Modeling and Analyzing Electric Vehicle Charging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Thomsen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The combined battery capacity in electric vehicles (EVs) is considered an integral part of balancing a smart power grid in the future. In addition, EVs can reduce the usage of fossil fuels in the transport sector because EVs can be charged using electricity from renewable energy sources......, such as wind turbines. To both enable a smart grid and the use of renewable energy, it is essential to know when and where an EV is plugged into the power grid and what battery capacity is available. In this paper, we present a generic spatio-temporal data-warehouse model for storing detailed information...... on all aspects of charging EVs, including integration with the electricity prices from a spot market. The proposed data warehouse is fully implemented and currently contains 2.5 years of charging data from 176 EVs. We describe the date warehouse model and the implementation including complex operations...

  19. Charge fluctuations in nano-scale capacitors

    CERN Document Server

    Limmer, David T; Salanne, Mathieu; Chandler, David; Madden, Paul A; van Roij, René; Rotenberg, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The fluctuations of the charge on an electrode contain information on the microscopic correlations within the adjacent fluid and their effect on the electronic properties of the interface. We investigate these fluctuations using molecular dynamics simulations in a constant-potential ensemble with histogram reweighting techniques. This approach offers an efficient and accurate route to the differential capacitance and is broadly applicable. We demonstrate these methods with three different capacitors: pure water between platinum electrodes, and a pure as well as a solvent-based organic electrolyte each between graphite electrodes. The total charge distributions with the pure solvent and solvent-based electrolytes are remarkably Gaussian, while in the pure ionic liquid the total charge distribution displays distinct non-Gaussian features, suggesting significant potential-driven changes in the organization of the interfacial fluid.

  20. Space charge and screening in bilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolomeisky, Eugene B.; Straley, Joseph P.; Abrams, Daniel L.

    2016-11-01

    Undoped bilayer graphene is a two-dimensional semimetal with a low-energy excitation spectrum that is parabolic in the momentum. As a result, the screening of an arbitrary external charge Ze is accompanied by a reconstruction of the ground state: valence band electrons (for Z  >  0) are promoted to form a space charge around the charge while the holes leave the physical picture. The outcome is a flat neutral object resembling the regular atom except that for Z\\gg 1 it is described by a strictly linear Thomas-Fermi theory. This theory also predicts that the bilayer’s static dielectric constant is the same as that of a two-dimensional electron gas in the long-wavelength limit.

  1. Classical BRST charge for nonlinear algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Buchbinder, I L

    2007-01-01

    We study the construction of the classical nilpotent canonical BRST charge for the nonlinear gauge algebras where a commutator (in terms of Poisson brackets) of the constraints is a finite order polynomial of the constraints. Such a polynomial is characterized by the coefficients forming a set of higher order structure constants. Assuming the set of constraints to be linearly independent, we find the restrictions on the structure constants when the nilpotent BRST charge can be written in a simple and universal form. In the case of quadratically nonlinear algebras we find the expression for third order contribution in the ghost fields to the BRST charge without the use of any additional restrictions on the structure constants.

  2. Automatic charge control system for satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuman, B. M.; Cohen, H. A.

    1985-01-01

    The SCATHA and the ATS-5 and 6 spacecraft provided insights to the problem of spacecraft charging at geosychronous altitudes. Reduction of the levels of both absolute and differential charging was indicated, by the emission of low energy neutral plasma. It is appropriate to complete the transition from experimental results to the development of a system that will sense the state-of-charge of a spacecraft, and, when a predetermined threshold is reached, will respond automatically to reduce it. A development program was initiated utilizing sensors comparable to the proton electrostatic analyzer, the surface potential monitor, and the transient pulse monitor that flew in SCATHA, and combine these outputs through a microprocessor controller to operate a rapid-start, low energy plasma source.

  3. Influence of surface charge on wetting kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puah, Lee San; Sedev, Rossen; Fornasiero, Daniel; Ralston, John; Blake, Terry

    2010-11-16

    The wettability of a titania surface, partially covered with octadecyltrihydrosilane, has been investigated as a function of solution pH. The results show that surface charge affects both static wettability and wetting kinetics. The static contact angle decreases above and below the point of zero charge of the titania surface in a Lippman-like manner as the pH is altered. The dependence of dynamic contact angle on velocity is also affected by pH. The molecular-kinetic theory (MKT) is used to interpret the dynamic contact angle data. The frequency of molecular displacement κ(0) strongly varies with surface charge, whereas the mean molecular displacement length λ is essentially unaffected. There is an exponential dependence of contact-line friction upon work of adhesion, which is varied simply by altering the pH.

  4. Charge-displacement analysis for excited states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronca, Enrico, E-mail: enrico@thch.unipg.it; Tarantelli, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.tarantelli@unipg.it [Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, via Elce di Sotto 8, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Dipartimento di Chimica, Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto 8, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Pastore, Mariachiara, E-mail: chiara@thch.unipg.it; Belpassi, Leonardo; De Angelis, Filippo [Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, via Elce di Sotto 8, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Angeli, Celestino; Cimiraglia, Renzo [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, via Borsari 46, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy)

    2014-02-07

    We extend the Charge-Displacement (CD) analysis, already successfully employed to describe the nature of intermolecular interactions [L. Belpassi et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 13046 (2010)] and various types of controversial chemical bonds [L. Belpassi et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 1048 (2008); N. Salvi et al., Chem. Eur. J. 16, 7231 (2010)], to study the charge fluxes accompanying electron excitations, and in particular the all-important charge-transfer (CT) phenomena. We demonstrate the usefulness of the new approach through applications to exemplary excitations in a series of molecules, encompassing various typical situations from valence, to Rydberg, to CT excitations. The CD functions defined along various spatial directions provide a detailed and insightful quantitative picture of the electron displacements taking place.

  5. A charge-driven molecular water pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiaojing; Li, Jingyuan; Lu, Hangjun; Wan, Rongzheng; Li, Jichen; Hu, Jun; Fang, Haiping

    2007-11-01

    Understanding and controlling the transport of water across nanochannels is of great importance for designing novel molecular devices, machines and sensors and has wide applications, including the desalination of seawater. Nanopumps driven by electric or magnetic fields can transport ions and magnetic quanta, but water is charge-neutral and has no magnetic moment. On the basis of molecular dynamics simulations, we propose a design for a molecular water pump. The design uses a combination of charges positioned adjacent to a nanopore and is inspired by the structure of channels in the cellular membrane that conduct water in and out of the cell (aquaporins). The remarkable pumping ability is attributed to the charge dipole-induced ordering of water confined in the nanochannels, where water can be easily driven by external fields in a concerted fashion. These findings may provide possibilities for developing water transport devices that function without osmotic pressure or a hydrostatic pressure gradient.

  6. The Charge Collection Properties of CVD Diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Behnke, T; Oh, A; Steuerer, J; Wagner, A; Zeuner, W; Behnke, Ties; Hüntemeyer, Petra; Oh, Alexander; Steuerer, Johannes; Wagner, Albrecht; Zeuner, Wolfram

    1998-01-01

    The charge collection properties of CVD diamond have been investigated with ionising radiation. In this study two CVD diamond samples, prepared with electrical contacts have been used as solid state ionisation chambers. The diamonds have been studied with beta particles and 10 keV photons, providing a homogeneous ionisation density and with protons and alpha particles which are absorbed in a thin surface layer. For the latter case a strong decrease of the signal as function of time is observed, which is attributed to polarisation effects inside the diamond. Spatially resolved measurements with protons show a large variation of the charge collection efficiency, whereas for photons and minimum ionising particles the response is much more uniform and in the order of 18%. These results indicate that the applicability of CVD diamond as a position sensitive particle detector depends on the ionisation type and appears to be promising for homogeneous ionisation densities as provided by relativistic charged particles.

  7. Search for fractional charges in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, D. C.; Abrams, P. C.; Bland, R. W.; Johnson, R. T.; Lindgren, M. A.; Savage, M. H.; Scholz, M. H.; Young, B. A.; Hodges, C. L.

    1983-08-01

    The results of a search for quarks in water, using a modified Millikan-oil-drop experiment, are presented. A total of 51 micrograms of water from different fresh and salt sources were investigated in a computer-controlled device comprising a piezoelectric drop injector, a series of 90 optical timing slits, and a chamber with an electric field that is reversed as the drop reaches split 39 and again at slit 74. Only drops with a charge between -12 and +12 e were accepted. A typical drift-velocity plot and the residual-charge frequency distribution for all the observations are shown. No fractional charges were detected in the samples, corresponding to an upper limit of quark concentration per nucleon of 9.8 x 10 to the -20th. This negative finding is discussed in terms of the presumed chemical properties of quarked atoms and compared with the results of other quark searches.

  8. Charge and spin transport in mesoscopic superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Wolf

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-equilibrium charge transport in superconductors has been investigated intensely in the 1970s and 1980s, mostly in the vicinity of the critical temperature. Much less attention has been paid to low temperatures and the role of the quasiparticle spin.Results: We report here on nonlocal transport in superconductor hybrid structures at very low temperatures. By comparing the nonlocal conductance obtained by using ferromagnetic and normal-metal detectors, we discriminate charge and spin degrees of freedom. We observe spin injection and long-range transport of pure, chargeless spin currents in the regime of large Zeeman splitting. We elucidate charge and spin transport by comparison to theoretical models.Conclusion: The observed long-range chargeless spin transport opens a new path to manipulate and utilize the quasiparticle spin in superconductor nanostructures.

  9. The charge storage characteristics of ZrO2 nanocrystallite-based charge trap nonvolatile memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Zhen-Jie; Li Rong; Yin Jiang

    2013-01-01

    ZrO2 nanocrystallite-based charge trap flash memory capacitors incorporating a (ZrO2)0.6(SiO2)0.4 pseudobinary high-k oxide film as the charge trapping layer were prepared and investigated.The precipitation reaction in the charge trapping layer,forming ZrO2 nanocrystallites during rapid thermal annealing,was investigated by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction.It was observed that a ZrO2 nanocrystallite-based memory capacitor after post-annealing at 850 ℃ for 60 s exhibits a maximum memory window of about 6.8 V,good endurance and a low charge loss of ~25% over a period of 10 years (determined by extrapolating the charge loss curve measured experimentally),even at 85 ℃.Such 850 ℃-annealed memory capacitors appear to be candidates for future nonvolatile flash memory device applications.

  10. ANALISA PENGARUH PERIODIK CHARGING DAN DISCHARGING PADA WAKTU CHARGING DAN DISCHARGING DARI METAL HYDRIDE REACTOR (MHR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taurista Perdana Syawitri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Perpindahan panas merupakan faktor penting yang mempengaruhi kinerja tangki penyimpanan hydrogen dalam bentuk metal hydride. Penelitian sebelumnya menyimpulkan bahwa penambahan sejumlah kecil metal foam pada interior metal hydride reactor (MHR merupakan cara yang efektif untuk meningkatkan perpindahan panas pada reaktor, sehingga mengurangi waktu charging. Namun, proses charging dan discharging MHR dilakukan secara terpisah dalam studi ini. Oleh karena itu, penelitian ini menyimulasikan model 2-D axisymmetric menggunakan software COMSOL untuk menginvestigasi pengaruh dari periodik charging dan discharging dari MHR yang mengandung metal foam dengan fraksi volume tertentu. Hasil simulasi menunjukkan bahwa model saat ini mempunyai hasil yang sesuai dengan hasil yang ditunjukkan di dalam literatur. Selain itu, ditemukan bahwa terdapat nilai optimum dari fraksi volume metal foam di setiap proses charging dan proses discharging yang memberikan waktu charging dan discharging lebih pendek.

  11. Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging Management with Dynamic Distribution System Tariff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Wu, Qiuwei; Østergaard, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    An electric vehicle (EV) charging schedule algorithm was proposed in this paper in order to charge EVs to meet EV users’ driving needs with the minimum EV charging cost and respect the local distribution system constraints. A day-ahead dynamic distribution system tariff scheme was proposed to avoid...... used to carry out case studies to illustrate the proposed EV charging schedule algorithm....

  12. Large Capacitance Measurement by Multiple Uses of MBL Charge Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Sook; Chae, Min; Kim, Jung Bog

    2010-01-01

    A recent article by Morse described interesting electrostatics experiments using an MBL charge sensor. In this application, the charge sensor has a large capacitance compared to the charged test object, so nearly all charges can be transferred to the sensor capacitor from the capacitor to be measured. However, the typical capacitance of commercial…

  13. 47 CFR 1.1110 - Attachment of charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Attachment of charges. 1.1110 Section 1.1110 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Schedule of Statutory Charges and Procedures for Payment § 1.1110 Attachment of charges. The charges required to accompany a request for...

  14. 42 CFR 489.31 - Allowable charges: Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable charges: Blood. 489.31 Section 489.31... Allowable charges: Blood. (a) Limitations on charges. (1) A provider may charge the beneficiary (or other person on his or her behalf) only for the first three pints of blood or units of packed red...

  15. The structure of XLPE and the distribution of space charge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Jixiao(李吉晓); ZHANG; Yewen(张冶文); ZHENG; Feihu(郑飞虎); WU; Changshun(吴长顺); XIA; Zhongfu(夏钟福)

    2003-01-01

    The formation and accumulation of space charge under charge treatment are investigated using PWP method. The interaction between space charge and the structure of XLPE is measured using infrared spectroscopy (IR) method. The related mechanism about space charge distribution and the structure of XLPE are discussed.

  16. 12 CFR 7.4002 - National bank charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... charge its customers non-interest charges and fees, including deposit account service charges. (b... providing the service; (ii) The deterrence of misuse by customers of banking services; (iii) The enhancement... judgment and safe and sound banking principles. A national bank establishes non-interest charges and...

  17. The Orbit of Water Droplets around Charged Rod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferstl, Andrew; Burns, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The motion of charges around a centrally charged object is often compared to gravitational orbits (such as satellites around planets). Recently, a video taken by astronaut Don Pettit onboard the International Space Station shows water droplets orbiting a charged knitting needle. Here we attempt to model this motion and estimate the charges on the…

  18. Strategies for Charging Electric Vehicles in the Electricity Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nina; Pantuso, Giovanni; Iversen, Jan Emil Banning

    2015-01-01

    a model of four alternative charging strategies. We think of them as increasing in sophistication from dumb via delayed to deterministic and stochastic model-based charging. We show that 29% of the total savings from ‘dumb’ are due to delayed charging and that substantial additional gains come charging...

  19. Did Millikan observe fractional charges on oil drops?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbank, William M.; Franklin, Allan

    1982-05-01

    We have reanalyzed Millikan's 1913 data on oil drops to examine the evidence for charge quantization and for fractional residual charge. We find strong evidence in favor of charge quantization and no convincing evidence for fractional residual charges on the oil drops.

  20. Improving battery charging with solar panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boico, Florent Michael

    Recent technological developments in thin-film photovoltaics, such as amorphous silicon and hybrid dye sensitized photovoltaic (PV) cells are leading to new generations of portable solar arrays. These new arrays are lightweight, durable, flexible, and have been reported to achieve power efficiencies of up to 10%. Already, commercial-off-the-shelf arrays exist that have panels embedded in fabric that can be folded to dimensions of less than 12" x 12", yet are able to produce up to 50Watts of power at 12V. These new products make solar power available to various types of applications. In particular, military applications are emerging to give soldier a source of power that can always be at reach. In parallel with these developments, NiMH and Li-ion batteries are increasingly being used to power various equipment. Currently, the military is field testing solar charging of its batteries with portable solar arrays. However, so far, all known charge control algorithm have failed as they commonly falsely detect overcharge at random times in the charging and leave the battery partially charged. The goal of our research is to investigate the origins of failure in existing charge control algorithms and to propose adequate algorithms that would improve the battery charging. Additionally, ways to optimize the generated photovoltaic power is critical for portable solar application as the energy produced is limited. It is known that the use of a DC-DC converter between the solar panel and the load allows optimization of the power delivered by the solar panel when "Maximum Power Point Tracking" is utilized. Therefore we are developing new solutions that address the specific problem of Maximum Power Point Tracking for modular solar panels.

  1. Charge and Size Distributions of Electrospray Drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Juan L; de la Mora JF

    1997-02-15

    The distributions of charge q and diameter d of drops emitted from electrified liquid cones in the cone-jet mode are investigated with two aerosol instruments. A differential mobility analyzer (DMA, Vienna type) first samples the spray drops, selects those with electrical mobilities within a narrow band, and either measures the associated current or passes them to a second instrument. The drops may also be individually counted optically and sized by sampling them into an aerodynamic size spectrometer (API's Aerosizer). For a given cone-jet, the distribution of charge q for the main electrospray drops is some 2.5 times broader than their distribution of diameters d, with qmax/qmin approximately 4. But mobility-selected drops have relative standard deviations of only 5% for both d and q, showing that the support of the (q, d) distribution is a narrow band centered around a curve q(d). The approximate one-dimensionality of this support region is explained through the mechanism of jet breakup, which is a random process with only one degree of freedom: the wavelength of axial modulation of the jet. The observed near constancy of the charge over volume ratio (q approximately d3) shows that the charge is frozen in the liquid surface at the time scale of the breakup process. The charge over volume ratio of the primary drops varies between 98 and 55% of the ratio of spray current I over liquid flow rate Q, and decreases at increasing Q. I/Q is therefore an unreliable measure of the charge density of these drops.

  2. Simulations of charge transport in organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vehoff, Thorsten

    2010-05-05

    We study the charge transport properties of organic liquid crystals, i.e. hexabenzocoronene and carbazole macrocycle, and single crystals, i.e. rubrene, indolocarbazole and benzothiophene derivatives (BTBT, BBBT). The aim is to find structure-property relationships linking the chemical structure as well as the morphology with the bulk charge carrier mobility of the compounds. To this end, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed yielding realistic equilibrated morphologies. Partial charges and molecular orbitals are calculated based on single molecules in vacuum using quantum chemical methods. The molecular orbitals are then mapped onto the molecular positions and orientations, which allows calculation of the transfer integrals between nearest neighbors using the molecular orbital overlap method. Thus we obtain realistic transfer integral distributions and their autocorrelations. In case of organic crystals the differences between two descriptions of charge transport, namely semi-classical dynamics (SCD) in the small polaron limit and kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) based on Marcus rates, are studied. The liquid crystals are investigated solely in the hopping limit. To simulate the charge dynamics using KMC, the centers of mass of the molecules are mapped onto lattice sites and the transfer integrals are used to compute the hopping rates. In the small polaron limit, where the electronic wave function is spread over a limited number of neighboring molecules, the Schroedinger equation is solved numerically using a semi-classical approach. The carbazole macrocycles form columnar structures arranged on a hexagonal lattice with side chains facing inwards, so columns can closely approach each other allowing inter-columnar and thus three-dimensional transport. We are able to show that, on the time-scales of charge transport, static disorder due to slow side chain motions is the main factor determining the mobility. The high mobility of rubrene is explained by two main

  3. Black hole horizons and quantum charged particles

    CERN Document Server

    Jaramillo, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    We point out a structural similarity between the characterization of black hole apparent horizons as stable marginally outer trapped surfaces (MOTS) and the quantum description of a non-relativistic charged particle moving in given magnetic and electric fields on a closed surface. Specifically, the spectral problem of the MOTS-stability operator corresponds to a stationary quantum particle with a formal fine-structure constant $\\alpha$ of negative sign. We discuss how such analogy enriches both problems, illustrating this with the insights into the MOTS-spectral problem gained from the analysis of the spectrum of the quantum charged particle Hamiltonian.

  4. Charged black holes in phantom cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamil, Mubasher; Qadir, Asghar; Rashid, Muneer Ahmad [National University of Sciences and Technology, Center for Advanced Mathematics and Physics, Rawalpindi (Pakistan)

    2008-11-15

    In the classical relativistic regime, the accretion of phantom-like dark energy onto a stationary black hole reduces the mass of the black hole. We have investigated the accretion of phantom energy onto a stationary charged black hole and have determined the condition under which this accretion is possible. This condition restricts the mass-to-charge ratio in a narrow range. This condition also challenges the validity of the cosmic-censorship conjecture since a naked singularity is eventually produced due to accretion of phantom energy onto black hole. (orig.)

  5. Charged particles constrained to a curved surface

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We study the motion of charged particles constrained to arbitrary two-dimensional curved surfaces but interacting in three-dimensional space via the Coulomb potential. To speed-up the interaction calculations, we use the parallel compute capability of the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) of todays graphics boards. The particles and the curved surfaces are shown using the Open Graphics Library (OpenGL). The paper is intended to give graduate students, who have basic experiences with electrostatics and differential geometry, a deeper understanding in charged particle interactions and a short introduction how to handle a many particle system using parallel computing on a single home computer

  6. Dissipative charged fluid in a magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Abbasi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We study the collective excitations in a dissipative charged fluid at zero chemical potential when an external magnetic field is present. While in the absence of magnetic field, four collective excitations appear in the fluid, we find five hydrodynamic modes here. This implies that the magnetic field splits the degeneracy between the transverse shear modes. Using linear response theory, we then compute the retarded response functions. In particular, it turns out that the correlation between charge and the energy fluctuations will no longer vanish, even at zero chemical potential. By use of the response functions, we also derive the relevant Kubo formulas for the transport coefficients.

  7. Further Problems with Integral Spin Charged Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comay E.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the Lagrangian density of quantum theories of electrically charged particles is analyzed. It is pointed out that a well known and self-consistent expression exists for the electromagnetic interactions of a spin-1/2 Dirac particle. On the other hand, using the Noether theorem, it is shown that no such expression exists for the spin-0 Klein-Gordon charged particle as well as for the W spin-1 particle. It is also explained why effective expressions used in practical analysis of collider data cannot be a part of a self-consistent theory. The results cast doubt on the validity of the electroweak theory.

  8. Charged black holes in colored Lifshitz spacetimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Ying Fan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We consider Einstein gravities coupled to a cosmological constant and SU(2 Yang–Mills fields in four and five dimensions. We find that the theories admit colored Lifshitz solutions with dynamic exponents z>1. We study the wave equations of the SU(2 scalar triplet in the bulk, and find that the vacuum color modifies the scaling dimensions of the dual operators. We also introduce a Maxwell field and construct exact solutions of electrically-charged black holes that approach the D=4, z=3 and D=5, z=4 colored Lifshitz spacetimes. We derive the thermodynamical first law for general colored and charged Lifshitz black holes.

  9. WIND DRIVEN MOBILE CHARGING OF AUTOMOBILE BATTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUDHIR KUMAR SINHA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with implementation of mobile wind driven generator technology to produce electricity in charging of two wheeler (12V automobile battery. The use of PWM methodology with pulse charging method at a constant rate has been adopted for this purpose. The low speed PMSG driven by wind at speed of 15/40 km/hour has been used to eliminate gear box to achieve high efficiency. The output of three phase bridge rectifier is fed to boost converter which provides pulses of constant current to the battery.

  10. Amine reactivity with charged sulfuric acid clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Bzdek

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of ionic species produced by electrospray of an ammonium sulfate solution in both positive and negative polarities is examined using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS. Positively-charged ammonium bisulfate cluster composition differs significantly from negatively-charged cluster composition. For positively-charged clusters all sulfuric acid is neutralized to bisulfate, whereas for negatively-charged clusters the degree of sulfuric acid neutralization is cluster size-dependent. With increasing cluster size (and, therefore, a decreasing role of charge, both positively- and negatively-charged cluster compositions converge toward ammonium bisulfate. The reactivity of negatively-charged sulfuric acid-ammonia clusters with dimethylamine and ammonia are also investigated by FTICR-MS. Two series of negatively-charged clusters are investigated: [(HSO4(H2SO4x] and [(NH4x(HSO4x+1(H2SO43]. Dimethylamine substitution for ammonia in [(NH4x(HSO4x+1(H2SO43] clusters is nearly collision-limited, and subsequent addition of dimethylamine to neutralize H2SO4 is within one order of magnitude of the substitution rate. Dimethylamine addition to [(HSO4(H2SO4x]clusters is either not observed or very slow. The results of this study indicate that amine chemistry will be evident and important only in large ambient negative ions (> m/z 400, whereas amine chemistry may be evident in small ambient positive ions. Addition of ammonia to unneutralized clusters occurs at a rate that is ~2–3 orders of magnitude slower than incorporation of dimethylamine either by

  11. Dyons of One Half Monopole Charge

    CERN Document Server

    Teh, R; Teh, Rosy; Wong, Khai-Ming

    2005-01-01

    We would like to present some exact SU(2) Yang-Mills-Higgs dyon solutions of one half monopole charge. These static dyon solutions satisfy the first order Bogomol'nyi equations and are characterized by a parameter, $m$. They are axially symmetric. The gauge potentials and the electromagnetic fields possess a string singularity along the negative z-axis and hence they possess infinite energy density along the line singularity. However the net electric charges of these dyons which varies with the parameter $m$ are finite.

  12. Dyons of One-Half Monopole Charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Rosy; Wong, Khai-Ming

    We would like to present some exact SU(2) Yang-Mills-Higgs dyon solutions of one-half monopole charge. These static dyon solutions satisfy the first order Bogomol'nyi equations and are characterized by a parameter, m. They are axially symmetric. The gauge potentials and the electromagnetic fields possess a string singularity along the negative z-axis and hence they possess infinite energy density along the line singularity. However the net electric charges of these dyons which varies with the parameter m are finite.

  13. Charged particle therapy: the physics of interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomax, Antony J

    2009-01-01

    Particle therapy has a long and distinguished history with more than 50,000 patients having been treated, mainly with high-energy proton therapy. Particularly, for proton therapy, there is an increasing interest in exploiting the physical characteristics of charged particles for further improving the potential of radiation therapy. In this article, we review the most important interactions of charged particles with matter and describe the basic physical principles that underlie why particle beams behave the way they do and why such a behavior could bring many benefits in radiation therapy.

  14. Two-Centered Magical Charge Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Andrianopoli, Laura; Ferrara, Sergio; Marrani, Alessio; Trigiante, Mario

    2011-01-01

    We determine the two-centered generic charge orbits of magical N = 2 and maximal N = 8 supergravity theories in four dimensions. These orbits are classified by seven U-duality invariant polynomials, which group together into four invariants under the horizontal symmetry group SL(2,R). These latter are expected to disentangle different physical properties of the two-centered black-hole system. The invariant with the lowest degree in charges is the symplectic product (Q1,Q2), known to control the mutual non-locality of the two centers.

  15. Charge transport in semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzel, Tamar Shoshana

    In this thesis, we study charge transport in arrays of semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots. Nanocrystals are synthesized in solution, and an organic ligand on the surface of the nanocrystal creates a potential barrier that confines charges in the nanocrystal. Optical absorption measurements reveal discrete electronic energy levels in the nanocrystals resulting from quantum confinement. When nanocrystals are deposited on a surface, they self-assemble into a close-packed array forming a nanocrystal solid. We report electrical transport measurements of a PbSe nanocrystal solid that serves as the channel of an inverted field-effect transistor. We measure the conductance as a function of temperature, source-drain bias and. gate voltage. The data indicates that holes are the majority carriers; the Fermi energy lies in impurity states in the bandgap of the nanocrystal; and charges hop between the highest occupied valence state in the nanocrystals (the 1S h states). At low source-drain voltages, the activation energy for hopping is given by the energy required to generate holes in the 1Sh state plus activation over barriers resulting from site disorder. The barriers from site disorder are eliminated with a sufficiently high source-drain bias. From the gate effect, we extract the Thomas-Fermi screening length and a density of states that is consistent with the estimated value. We consider variable-range hopping as an alternative model, and find no self-consistent evidence for it. Next, we employ charge sensing as an alternative to current measurements for studying transport in materials with localized sites. A narrow-channel MOSFET serves as a charge sensor because its conductance is sensitive to potential fluctuations in the nearby environment caused by the motion of charge. In particular, it is sensitive to the fluctuation of single electrons at the silicon-oxide interface within the MOSFET. We pattern a strip of amorphous germanium within 100 nm of the transistor. The

  16. The Foaming Three-Charge Black Hole

    OpenAIRE

    Bena, Iosif; Wang, Chih-Wei; Nicholas P. Warner(Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089, U.S.A.)

    2006-01-01

    We find a very large set of smooth horizonless geometries that have the same charges and angular momenta as the five-dimensional, maximally-spinning, three-charge, BPS black hole (J^2 = Q^3). Our solutions are constructed using a four-dimensional Gibbons-Hawking base space that has a very large number of two-cycles. The entropy of our solutions is proportional to Q^(1/2). In the same class of solutions we also find microstates corresponding to zero-entropy black rings, and these are related t...

  17. A Penrose-Like Inequality with Charge

    CERN Document Server

    Khuri, Marcus A

    2013-01-01

    We establish a Penrose-like inequality for general (not necessarily time-symmetric) initial data sets of the Einstein-Maxwell equations, which satisfy the dominant energy condition. More precisely, it is shown that the ADM energy is bounded below by an expression which is proportional to the sum of the square root of the area of the outermost future (or past) apparent horizon and the square of the total charge. The proportionality constants depend on the solution to a linear elliptic equation which incorporates the charge. In addition, a corrected version of the Penrose-like inequality in [14] is presented.

  18. A Penrose-like inequality with charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuri, Marcus A.

    2013-11-01

    We establish a Penrose-like inequality for general (not necessarily time-symmetric) initial data sets of the Einstein-Maxwell equations, which satisfy the dominant energy condition. More precisely, it is shown that the ADM energy is bounded below by an expression which is proportional to the sum of the square root of the area of the outermost future (or past) apparent horizon and the square of the total charge. The proportionality constants depend on the solution to a linear elliptic equation which incorporates the charge. In addition, a corrected version of the Penrose-like inequality (Commun Math Phys 290(2):779-788, 2009) is presented.

  19. Handbook for highly charged ion spectroscopic research

    CERN Document Server

    Hutton, Roger; Currell, Fred; Martinson, Indrek; Hagmann, Siegbert

    2011-01-01

    Highly charged ions are key research objects in atomic physics. Precision spectroscopy of such ions provides a powerful tool for exploring relativistic and quantum electrodynamics effects. Additionally, the interaction of high-energy heavy-ions with matter is itself a topic of importance in many areas of applied physics, including fusion and plasma physics, accelerator physics, materials science and semiconductor device preparation and behavior. This work provides a complete overview of modern methods of studying highly charged ions. With chapters covering everything from the essential backgro

  20. Noncommutative magnetic moment of charged particles

    CERN Document Server

    Adorno, T C; Shabad, A E; Vassilevich, D V

    2011-01-01

    It has been argued, that in noncommutative field theories sizes of physical objects cannot be taken smaller than an elementary length related to noncommutativity parameters. By gauge-covariantly extending field equations of noncommutative U(1)_*-theory to the presence of external sources, we find electric and magnetic fields produces by an extended charge. We find that such a charge, apart from being an ordinary electric monopole, is also a magnetic dipole. By writing off the existing experimental clearance in the value of the lepton magnetic moments for the present effect, we get the bound on noncommutativity at the level of 10^4 TeV.

  1. Search for Charged Higgs Bosons at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; de la Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; van Dalen, J A; De Asmundis, R; Déglon, P L; Debreczeni, J; Degré, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, M; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duda, M; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El-Hage, A; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Extermann, P; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, M; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Fisher, W; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; van Gulik, R; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, G; Hou, S R; Hu, Y; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Käfer, D; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V F; Kräber, M H; Krämer, R W; Krüger, A; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levchenko, P M; Li, C; Likhoded, S; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nisati, A; Novák, T; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Pal, I; Palomares, C; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pioppi, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Razis, P A; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosenbleck, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rubio, J A; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vásquez, R; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; Wienemann, P; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, J; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Yeh, S C; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B; Zöller, M

    2003-01-01

    A search for pair-produced charged Higgs bosons is performed with the L3 detector at LEP using data collected at centre-of-mass energies between 189 and 209GeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 629.4/pb. Decays into a charm and a strange quark or into a tau lepton and its neutrino are considered. No significant excess is observed and lower limits on the mass of the charged Higgs boson are derived at the 95% confidence level. They vary from 76.5 to 82.7GeV, as a function of the H->tv branching ratio.

  2. First Electrooptical Detection of Charged Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Lazarus, D M; Kowalski, L A; Kraus, D E; Larsen, R; Magurno, B; Nikas, D; Ozben, C; Semertzidis, Y K; Srinivasan-Rao, T; Tsang, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    We have made the first observation of a charged particle beam by means of its electro-optical effect on the polarization of laser light in a birefringent crystal. The modulation of the laser light during the passage of a pulsed electron beam was observed using a fast photodiode and a digital oscilloscope. The fastest rise time measured in a single shot, 120 ps, was limited by the bandwidth of the oscilloscope and the associated electronics. This technology holds promise for detectors of greatly improved spatial and temporal resolution for single relativistic charged particles as well as particle beams.

  3. Electro-optical detection of charged particles

    CERN Document Server

    Semertzidis, Y K; Kowalski, L A; Kraus, D E; Larsen, R; Lazarus, D M; Magurno, B; Nikas, D; Ozben, C; Srinivasan-Rao, T; Tsang, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    We have made the first observation of a charged particle beam by means of its electro-optical effect on the polarization of laser light in a LiNbO sub 3 crystal. The modulation of the laser light during the passage of a pulsed electron beam was observed using a fast photodiode and a digital oscilloscope. The fastest rise time measured, 120 ps, was obtained in the single shot mode and was limited by the bandwidth of the oscilloscope and the associated electronics. This technology holds good for detectors of greatly improved spatial and temporal resolution for single relativistic charged particles as well as particle beams.

  4. Comparison of Charging Characteristics of Polymerized and Pulverized Toners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasushi Hoshino; Tsunenori Nakanishi; Ye Zhou; Hidetaka Ishihara

    2004-01-01

    Toner charge is very important in electrophotographic printing process. Although many studies on toner charging mechanism have been carried out, the mechanism is very complex and the understanding of toner charging characteristics is not yet sufficient. Toner charge distribution is measured by E-SPART (electrical single particle aerodynamic relaxation time) analyzer, which can measure the size and charge of toner. The measured toners are polymerized and pulverized type. Charging is carried out as follows: the toner is mixed with the carrier and the mixture is bottled into the roller, and mixed by rotating the roller. Toner charge dependences on toner wt% are compared between polymerized and pulverized toner.

  5. Lexan Linear Shaped Charge Holder with Magnets and Backing Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maples, Matthew W.; Dutton, Maureen L.; Hacker, Scott C.; Dean, Richard J.; Kidd, Nicholas; Long, Chris; Hicks, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    A method was developed for cutting a fabric structural member in an inflatable module, without damaging the internal structure of the module, using linear shaped charge. Lexan and magnets are used in a charge holder to precisely position the linear shaped charge over the desired cut area. Two types of charge holders have been designed, each with its own backing plate. One holder cuts fabric straps in the vertical configuration, and the other charge holder cuts fabric straps in the horizontal configuration.

  6. Charge Management Optimization for Future TOU Rates: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jiucai; Markel, Tony

    2016-07-01

    The effectiveness of future time of use (TOU) rates to enable managed charging for providing demand response depends on the vehicle's flexibility and the benefits to owners. This paper adopts opportunity, delayed, and smart charging methods to quantify these impacts, flexibilities, and benefits. Simulation results show that delayed and smart charging methods can shift most charging events to lower TOU rate periods without compromising the charged energy and individual driver mobility needs.

  7. Electrostatic wire for stabilizing a charged particle beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prono, Daniel S.; Caporaso, George J.; Briggs, Richard J.

    1985-01-01

    In combination with a charged particle beam generator and accelerator, apparatus and method are provided for stabilizing a beam of electrically charged particles. A guiding means, disposed within the particle beam, has an electric charge induced upon it by the charged particle beam. Because the sign of the electric charge on the guiding means and the sign of the particle beam are opposite, the particles are attracted toward and cluster around the guiding means to thereby stabilize the particle beam as it travels.

  8. Electrical Double Layer and Charge Regulation for a Homotattic Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhmud; House

    1997-03-15

    The spatial distribution of the electrostatic potential near a charge-regulated homotattic surface containing zones with altering ionization ability is studied in the framework of the Debye approximation. In contrast to the constant-charge case traditionally discussed in the literature, charge regulation causes inhomogeneity of the surface charge distribution within each zone at the surface. Possible methods of solution of the charge regulation problem are outlined, and the results of a model calculation are reported.

  9. Phase Diagrams and Ordering in Charged Membranes: Binary Mixtures of Charged and Neutral Lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimokawa, Naofumi; Himeno, Hiroki; Hamada, Tsutomu; Takagi, Masahiro; Komura, Shigeyuki; Andelman, David

    2016-07-07

    We propose a model describing the phase behavior of two-component membranes consisting of binary mixtures of electrically charged and neutral lipids. We take into account the structural phase transition (main-transition) of the hydrocarbon chains, and investigate the interplay between this phase transition and the lateral phase separation. The presence of charged lipids significantly affects the phase behavior of the multicomponent membrane. Due to the conservation of lipid molecular volume, the main-transition temperature of charged lipids is lower than that of neutral ones. Furthermore, as compared with binary mixtures of neutral lipids, the membrane phase separation in binary mixtures of charged lipids is suppressed, in accord with recent experiments. We distinguish between two types of charged membranes: mixtures of charged saturated lipid/neutral unsaturated lipid and a second case of mixtures of neutral saturated lipid/charged unsaturated lipid. The corresponding phase behavior is calculated and shown to be very different. Finally, we discuss the effect of added salt on the phase separation and the temperature dependence of the lipid molecular area.

  10. Delayed Equation for Charged Rigid Nonrelativistic Ball

    CERN Document Server

    Vlasov, A A

    2002-01-01

    Simple expression for self-force acting on radiating rigid charged ball is derived (Sommerfeld ball). It is shown that appropriate delayed equation of motion has solutions in general differ from that for Sommerfeld sphere - there are no "radiationless" solutions, but there are oscillating without damping solutions though self-force has nonzero value.

  11. CP and charge asymmetries at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morello, Michael; /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa

    2007-11-01

    We present CDF results on the branching fractions and time-integrated direct CP asymmetries for B0 and B0s decay modes into pairs of charmless charged hadrons (pions or kaons). We report also the first observation of B0s->DsK mode and the measurement of its branching fraction.

  12. The charged particle accelerators subsystems modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averyanov, G. P.; Kobylyatskiy, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    Presented web-based resource for information support the engineering, science and education in Electrophysics, containing web-based tools for simulation subsystems charged particle accelerators. Formulated the development motivation of Web-Environment for Virtual Electrophysical Laboratories. Analyzes the trends of designs the dynamic web-environments for supporting of scientific research and E-learning, within the framework of Open Education concept.

  13. Imaging Charged Dust in Laboratory Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goree, John

    2010-05-01

    Laboratory experiments with dust grains are described in this talk, which will include numerous images and videos from the experiments. In all the experiments, grains are immersed in plasma, and they are electrically charged. In the first experiment, grains are synthesized under conditions that simulate the outflow of carbon stars. These grains are grown in the gas phase with a carbon vapor. They grow by homogeneous nucleation, accretion, and coagulation. After growth, they are collected and imaged by scanning electron microscopy. These images reveal the grain morphology. In the second experiment, the structure and dynamics of the liquid or solid-phase centers of a star is simulated in the laboratory using charged grains (precision micron-size spheres) as proxies for protons. These grains are imaged by video microscopy, revealing how they self-organize, arranging themselves spatially in a crystalline-like lattice due to mutual Coulomb repulsion. Video microscopy allows tracking the motion of the microspheres and calculating their velocities. This measurement allows the experimenter to detect waves corresponding to random thermal motion, and from the properties of these waves one can measure the grain's charge. In the third experiment, sound waves in a cloud of charged dust are observed using high-speed video cameras. The compression and rarefaction of the dust-grain number density are easily observed in the video. Work supported by NSF and NASA.

  14. Asset Freezing: Smart Sanction or Criminal Charge?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, Melissa van den; Hazelhorst, Monique; Zanger, Wouter de

    2011-01-01

    In this article the question is asked whether asset freezing can be qualified as a criminal charge within the meaning of Article6 ECHR and if yes, what effects this qualification may have on the legislative framework on so called smart sanctions. Byanalysing Community and EU law and case law of the

  15. Colloidal gelation of oppositely charged particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russel, E.; Sprakel, J.H.B.; Kodger, T.E.; Weitz, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Colloidal gelation has been extensively studied for the case of purely attractive systems, but little is understood about how colloidal gelation is affected by the presence of repulsive interactions. Here we demonstrate the gelation of a binary system of oppositely charged colloids, in which repulsi

  16. Trapped-charge thermochronometry and thermometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    King, Georgina E.; Guralnik, Benny; Valla, Pierre G.; Herman, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Trapped-charge dating methods including luminescence and electron spin resonance dating have high potential as low temperature (<100 °C) thermochronometers. Despite an early proof of concept almost 60 years ago, it is only in the past two decades that thermoluminescence (TL), electron-spin-res

  17. Galvanic Cells: Anodes, Cathodes, Signs and Charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Electrochemistry is a difficult subject for students at school and beyond and even for their teachers. This article explores the difficult "truth" that, when a current flows from a galvanic cell, positive ions within the cell electrolyte move towards the electrode labelled positive. This seems to contravene the basic rule that like charges repel…

  18. Ionization and Dust Charging in Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivlev, A. V.; Akimkin, V. V.; Caselli, P.

    2016-12-01

    Ionization-recombination balance in dense interstellar and circumstellar environments is a key factor for a variety of important physical processes, such as chemical reactions, dust charging and coagulation, coupling of the gas with magnetic field, and development of instabilities in protoplanetary disks. We determine a critical gas density above which the recombination of electrons and ions on the grain surface dominates over the gas-phase recombination. For this regime, we present a self-consistent analytical model, which allows us to calculate exactly the abundances of charged species in dusty gas, without making assumptions on the grain charge distribution. To demonstrate the importance of the proposed approach, we check whether the conventional approximation of low grain charges is valid for typical protoplanetary disks, and discuss the implications for dust coagulation and development of the “dead zone” in the disk. The presented model is applicable for arbitrary grain-size distributions and, for given dust properties and conditions of the disk, has only one free parameter—the effective mass of the ions, shown to have a small effect on the results. The model can be easily included in numerical simulations following the dust evolution in dense molecular clouds and protoplanetary disks.

  19. Simulation study of pixel detector charge digitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fuyue; Nachman, Benjamin; Sciveres, Maurice; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Team

    2017-01-01

    Reconstruction of tracks from nearly overlapping particles, called Tracking in Dense Environments (TIDE), is an increasingly important component of many physics analyses at the Large Hadron Collider as signatures involving highly boosted jets are investigated. TIDE makes use of the charge distribution inside a pixel cluster to resolve tracks that share one of more of their pixel detector hits. In practice, the pixel charge is discretized using the Time-over-Threshold (ToT) technique. More charge information is better for discrimination, but more challenging for designing and operating the detector. A model of the silicon pixels has been developed in order to study the impact of the precision of the digitized charge distribution on distinguishing multi-particle clusters. The output of the GEANT4-based simulation is used to train neutral networks that predict the multiplicity and location of particles depositing energy inside one cluster of pixels. By studying the multi-particle cluster identification efficiency and position resolution, we quantify the trade-off between the number of ToT bits and low-level tracking inputs. As both ATLAS and CMS are designing upgraded detectors, this work provides guidance for the pixel module designs to meet TIDE needs. Work funded by the China Scholarship Council and the Office of High Energy Physics of the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  20. 20 CFR 901.38 - Supplemental charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supplemental charges. 901.38 Section 901.38 Employees' Benefits JOINT BOARD FOR THE ENROLLMENT OF ACTUARIES REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PERFORMANCE OF ACTUARIAL SERVICES UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 Suspension or Termination...

  1. ASTROD I Charging Simulation and Disturbances

    CERN Document Server

    Bao, Gang; Araújo, H M; Ni, Wei-Tou; Sumner, T J; Liu, Lei

    2007-01-01

    ASTROD I is planned as a single spacecraft mission. It will use interferometric and pulse ranging techniques between the spacecraft and ground stations, to make high precision measurements of the parameters that describe the solar system, and to test relativistic gravity with improved accuracy. At the heart of the spacecraft is a test mass, which the spacecraft will follow using a drag-free control system. The mission critically depends on maintaining the geodesic motion of the test mass. Charging of the test mass due to cosmic rays and solar particles will disturb its geodesic motion. We have modelled the charging process using the GEANT4 toolkit and a simplified, geometrical model and estimate that the ASTROD I test mass will charge positively, at a rate of 24 +/-7 e+/s, due to cosmic ray protons and alpha particles (3He and 4He) at solar minimum. We have used the results of this simulation to estimate the magnitude of disturbances associated with test mass charging, for the worst-case scenario, taking into...

  2. Long Duration Balloon Charge Controller Stack Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Kyle

    NASA and the Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility are interested in updating the design of the charge controller on their long duration balloon (LDB) in order to enable the charge controllers to be directly interfaced via RS232 serial communication by a ground testing computers and the balloon's flight computer without the need to have an external electronics stack. The design involves creating a board that will interface with the existing boards in the charge controller in order to receive telemetry from and send commands to those boards, and interface with a computer through serial communication. The inputs to the board are digital status inputs indicating things like whether the photovoltaic panels are connected or disconnected; and analog inputs with information such as the battery voltage and temperature. The outputs of the board are 100ms duration command pulses that will switch relays that do things like connect the photovoltaic panels. The main component of this design is a PIC microcontroller which translates the outputs of the existing charge controller into serial data when interrogated by a ground testing or flight computer. Other components involved in the design are an AD7888 12-bit analog to digital converter, a MAX3232 serial transceiver, various other ICs, capacitors, resistors, and connectors.

  3. 5 CFR 2604.702 - Charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND SCHEDULE OF FEES FOR THE PRODUCTION OF PUBLIC FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE REPORTS Fees for the Reproduction and Mailing of Public Financial Disclosure Reports § 2604.702 Charges. (a) Duplication. Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, copies of public financial disclosure reports (SF...

  4. Infrared response of charge-coupled devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loch, M.; Widenhorn, R.; Bodegom, E.

    2005-01-01

    With a band gap of silicon of 1.1eV, the largest wavelength that can excite electrons from the valence to the conduction band is roughly 1100nm. As a consequence, in, for instance, a charge-coupled device, the quantum efficiency (QE) for wavelengths larger than 1100nm is assumed to be zero. We found

  5. Simulation of charge transport in organic semiconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kaap, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Plastic electronic devices can be used to emit light, or can convert sunlight into electricity. Charge transport in plastic electronic devices is described by thermally activated hopping of electrons between sites with varying energy levels. Since the hopping mechanism is hard to describe analytical

  6. Electromagnetic Form Factor of Charged Scalar Meson

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Heng-Mei; CHEN Ning; WANG Zhi-Gang; WAN Shao-Long

    2007-01-01

    Wavefunctions and the electromagnetic form factor of charged scalar mesons are studied with the vector-vectortype flat-bottom potential model under the framework of the spinor spinor Bethe Salpeter equation. The obtained results are in agreement with other theories.

  7. Energy storage device with large charge separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holme, Timothy P.; Prinz, Friedrich B.; Iancu, Andrei

    2016-04-12

    High density energy storage in semiconductor devices is provided. There are two main aspects of the present approach. The first aspect is to provide high density energy storage in semiconductor devices based on formation of a plasma in the semiconductor. The second aspect is to provide high density energy storage based on charge separation in a p-n junction.

  8. 10 CFR 904.7 - Base charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power... component shall be made during outages which cause significant reductions in capacity as provided by the... deficiency in Firm Energy pursuant to section 105(a)(2) of the Hoover Power Plant Act (43 U.S.C....

  9. Pyroelectric Charge Release in Rhombohedral PZT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noheda, Beatriz; Duan, Ning; Cereceda, Noé; Gonzalo, Julio A.

    1998-01-01

    A new experimental set-up controlled by computer has been made to measure the pyroelectric charge of ferroelectric materials with a relatively high conductivity at slow rates of temperature variation. It allowed us to obtain the polarisation vs. temperature behaviour of PZT with various compositions

  10. Competition between superconductivity and charge density waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Seok

    2007-02-01

    We derive an effective field theory for the competition between superconductivity (SC) and charge density waves (CDWs) by employing the SO(3) pseudospin representation of the SC and CDW order parameters. One important feature in the effective nonlinear σ model is the emergence of a Berry phase even at half filling, originating from the competition between SC and CDWs, i.e., the pseudospin symmetry. A-well known conflict between the previous studies of Oshikawa [Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1535 (2000)] and Lee and Shankar [Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1490 (1990)] is resolved by the appearance of the Berry phase. The Berry phase contribution allows a deconfined quantum critical point of fractionalized charge excitations with e instead of 2e in the SC-CDW quantum transition at half filling. Furthermore, we investigate the stability of the deconfined quantum criticality against quenched randomness by performing a renormalization group analysis of an effective vortex action. We argue that, although randomness results in a weak disorder fixed point differing from the original deconfined quantum critical point, deconfinement of the fractionalized charge excitations still survives at the disorder fixed point owing to a nonzero fixed point value of the vortex charge.

  11. Charge sensitive amplifies. The state of arts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Kunishiro [Clear Pulse Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-07-01

    In the radiation detectors, signals are essentially brought with charges produced by radiation, then it is naturally the best way to use a charge sensitive amplifier (CSA) system to extract those signals. The CSA is thought to be the best amplifier suitable to almost all the radiation detectors, if neglecting economical points of view. The CSA has been only applied to special fields like radiation detection because the concept of `charges` is not so universal against the concepts of `voltage` and `current`. The CSA, however, is low in noise and a high speed amplifier and may be applicable not only to radiation measurement but also piezoelectric devices and also bolometers. In this article, noise in the CSA, basic circuit on the CSA, concepts of `equivalent noise charge` (ENC), a method for the ENC, and importance of the `open-loop gain` in the CSA to achieve better performance of it and how to realize in a practical CSA were described. And, characteristics on a counting rate of the CSA, various circuit used in the CSA, and CSAs which are commercially available at present and special purpose CSAs were also introduced. (G.K.)

  12. Lie n-algebras of BPS charges

    CERN Document Server

    Sati, Hisham

    2015-01-01

    We uncover higher algebraic structures on Noether currents and BPS charges. It is known that equivalence classes of conserved currents form a Lie algebra. We show that at least for target space symmetries of higher parameterized WZW-type sigma-models this naturally lifts to a Lie (p+1)-algebra structure on the Noether currents themselves. Applied to the Green-Schwarz-type action functionals for super p-brane sigma-models this yields super Lie (p+1)-algebra refinements of the traditional BPS brane charge extensions of supersymmetry algebras. We discuss this in the generality of higher differential geometry, where it applies also to branes with (higher) gauge fields on their worldvolume. Applied to the M5-brane sigma-model we recover and properly globalize the M-theory super Lie algebra extension of 11-dimensional superisometries by 2-brane and 5-brane charges. Passing beyond the infinitesimal Lie theory we find cohomological corrections to these charges in higher analogy to the familiar corrections for D-brane...

  13. 42 CFR 93.202 - Charge letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Charge letter. 93.202 Section 93.202 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON...

  14. Screening of a Test Charge in Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Bai-Song; WANG Rong

    2005-01-01

    Nonlinear screening of a test charge in plasma by electrons trapped or untrapped is studied. The obtained results are in rigorous estimations mathematically in comparison with the corresponding Debye screening forms.Meanwhile their validity is physically discussed and some confusions in literature are clarified.

  15. Editors' Introduction: The Charge and the Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Carl A.; Graue, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    The new editors of the "Review of Educational Research" recognize their charge to be comprehensive in the process of review of educational research and to be of service to educators. They also acknowledge the challenge to be nurtured by the scholarship of the times and innovations in education. (SLD)

  16. 7 CFR 1767.23 - Interest charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Companies 431Other Interest Expense 432Allowance for Borrowed Funds Used During Construction—Credit Interest... amortization of unamortized debt discount and expense on outstanding long-term debt. Amounts charged to this... Reacquired Debt A. This account shall include the amortization of the losses on reacquisition of...

  17. Spacecraft charging requirements and engineering issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Henry B.; Whittlesey, Albert C.

    2006-01-01

    An effort is currently underway to recast and combine two NASA guidelines for mitigating the effects of spacecraft charging and electrostatic discharge on spacecraft. The task has the goal of taking the existing NASA guidelines for preventing surface electrostatic charging, NASA-TP-2361 (Purvis et al., 1984), and internal electrostatic charging, NASAHDBK 4002 (Whittlesey, 1999), and bringing them up to date with recent laboratory and onorbit findings. This paper will describe the status of those on-going efforts to combine and update the two guidelines. Reasons for the upgrades will be presented, including new subject material for which there is now a greater understanding or a greater need which changes satellite design procedures, or both. There will be an emphasis on the proposed contents and on the differences and similarities between surface and internal charging mitigation techniques. In addition, the mitigation requirements that can be derived from the combined handbook will be discussed with emphasis on how they might affect the engineering design and testing of future spacecraft.

  18. Screening effect on nanostructure of charged gel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiyama, M; Annaka, M; Hino, M;

    2004-01-01

    Charge screening effects on nanostructures of N-isopropylacrylamide-sodium acrylate (NIPA-SA) and -acrylic acid (NIPA-AAc) gels are investigated with small-angle neutron scattering. The NIPA-SA and NIPA-AAc gels with low water content exhibit microphase separations with different dimensions...

  19. ENERGETIC CHARGE OF AN INFORMATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popova T.M.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Main laws of technical thermodynamics are universal and could be applied to processes other than thermodynamic ones. The results of the comparison of peculiarities of irreversible informational and thermodynamic processes are presented in the article and a new term “Infopy” is used. A more precise definition of “infopy” as an energetic charge is given in the article.

  20. The charge transport in polymeric gel electrolytes

    CERN Document Server

    Reiche, A

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present thesis consisted in the study of the charge transport in gel electrolytes, which were obtained by photopolymerization of oligo(ethylene glycol) sub n -dimethacrylates with n=3, 9, and 23, and the survey of structure and property relations for the optimization of the electrolyte composition. The pressure dependence of the electric conductivity was measured. (HSI)

  1. A universal thermal conductance of charge carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greiner, A.; Reggiani, L. [Lecce, Univ. (Italy). Ist. Nazionale di Fisica della Materia. Dipt. di Scienza dei Materiali; Kuhn, T. [Munster, Westfalische Wilhelms-Univ. (Germany). Inst. fur Theoretische Physik II; Varani, L. [Montpellier, Univ. Montpellier II (France). Centre d`Electronique et de Micro-optoelectronique

    1996-12-01

    A universal thermal conductance of charge carriers K = 2{pi}{sup 2}k{sub B}{sup 2}T / (3h) is rigorously derived within a correlation-function formalism. Similar to the case of the universal electrical conductance G = 2e{sup 2} / h this result pertains to one-dimensional, ballistic, and degenerate conditions for non-interacting particles.

  2. Charge segregation in weakly ionized microgels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, John S.; Douglas, Alison M.; Stanley, Chris; Do, Changwoo; Barker, Thomas H.; Fernández-Nieves, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    We investigate microgels synthesized from N -isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) copolymerized with a large mol% of acrylic acid, finding that when the acid groups are partially ionized at high temperatures, competition between ion-induced swelling and hydrophobic deswelling of poly(NIPAM) chains results in microphase separation. In cross-linked microgels, this manifests as a dramatic decrease in the ratio between the radius of gyration and the hydrodynamic radius to ˜0.2 , indicating that almost all the mass of the microgel is concentrated near the particle center. We also observe a concurrent decrease of the polymer network length scale via small-angle neutron scattering, confirming the presence of a dense, deswollen core surrounded by a diffuse, charged periphery. We compare these results to those obtained for a system of charged ultralow-cross-linked microgels; the form factor shows a distinct peak at high q when the temperature exceeds a threshold value. We successfully fit the form factor to theory developed to describe scattering from weakly charged gels in poor solvents, and we tie this behavior to charge segregation in the case of the cross-linked microgels.

  3. Studying Charged Particle Optics: An Undergraduate Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovalle, V.; Otomar, D. R.; Pereira, J. M.; Ferreira, N.; Pinho, R. R.; Santos A. C. F.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes some computer-based activities to bring the study of charged particle optics to undergraduate students, to be performed as a part of a one-semester accelerator-based experimental course. The computational simulations were carried out using the commercially available SIMION program. The performance parameters, such as the focal…

  4. One-component plasma of point charges and of charged rods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatlo, Marius M; Karatrantos, Argyrios; Lue, Leo

    2009-12-01

    An approximate theory is developed to describe the properties of mobile particles with extended charge distributions in the presence of a neutralizing fixed background charge. Long-wavelength fluctuations of the electric potential are handled within a variational perturbation approximation, and the short-wavelength fluctuations are handled within a cumulant (fugacity) expansion. The distinct treatment of these two contributions to the free energy enables the theory to provide quantitative predictions for the properties of these systems from the weak- to the strong-coupling regimes. With this theory, we study three different variations in the classical one-component plasma model: a plasma of point charges, a plasma of particles consisting of 8 linearly bonded point charges (8-mer), and a plasma of line charges. The theory was found to agree well with the available computer simulation data for the electrostatic interaction energy of these systems for all values of the plasma coupling parameter examined ( Gamma=0 to 400). In addition, we find that both the 8-mer rod and the line charge systems form a strongly ordered nematic phase, which is entirely driven by electrostatic interactions. The nematic phase only exists within a finite range of lengths of the charged particles. If the particles are too short or too long, the nematic phase does not appear. Finally, we find that the nematic phase is stable over a broader range of conditions for the line charge system than for the 8-mer rod system; consequently, the phase behavior of the one-component plasma is sensitive to the manner in which the charge is distributed on the particles.

  5. PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE OF ROAD-USER CHARGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil THORPE

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses upon public attitudes to and public acceptance of road-user charging as an effective means of managing travel demand, with the overall aim of identifying the characteristics of key interest groups, the kinds of attitudes they hold and their preferences for the distribution of the benefits of generated net revenues and released roadspace. It is argued that this knowledge can play a pivotal role in the design of road-user charging systems that satisfy two important criteria – namely, that they are capable of achieving their stated objectives and are generally acceptable to the public. A case-study of three toll-rings used for revenue generation by the Norwegian cities of Bergen, Oslo and Trondheim is selected, where a team of Norwegian interviewers administered a computer-based survey to a total of 756 respondents. Results of the analyses of the attitudinal data collected raise concerns about the approach of introducing initially low levels of road-use charge, designed to have negligible impacts on travel behaviour but to raise revenues to fund necessary improvements to public transport, both to familiarise private car-users with the principles of a pay-as-you-go system of charging and hopefully to reduce levels of public opposition prior to the introduction of the longer term objective of higher charges for traffic restraint. The timescale over which charges are increased may be crucial in terms of balancing a resistance to change in the longer term against the credibility of a system whose objectives are modified in the relatively short-term. The key conclusion from the first Stated Preference exercise is that there is a high degree of consensus among individuals on the importance of investing significant amounts of net revenues in new road infrastructure as well as improved public transport. The second Stated Preference exercise highlights respondents' concerns that the benefits in improved network performance achieved by a

  6. Annealed Scaling for a Charged Polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caravenna, F., E-mail: francesco.caravenna@unimib.it [Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Matematica e Applicazioni (Italy); Hollander, F. den, E-mail: denholla@math.leidenuniv.nl [Leiden University, Mathematical Institute (Netherlands); Pétrélis, N., E-mail: nicolas.petrelis@univ-nantes.fr [Université de Nantes, Laboratoire de Mathématiques Jean Leray UMR 6629 (France); Poisat, J., E-mail: poisat@ceremade.dauphine.fr [Université Paris-Dauphine, PSL Research University, CEREMADE, UMR 7534 (France)

    2016-03-15

    This paper studies an undirected polymer chain living on the one-dimensional integer lattice and carrying i.i.d. random charges. Each self-intersection of the polymer chain contributes to the interaction Hamiltonian an energy that is equal to the product of the charges of the two monomers that meet. The joint probability distribution for the polymer chain and the charges is given by the Gibbs distribution associated with the interaction Hamiltonian. The focus is on the annealed free energy per monomer in the limit as the length of the polymer chain tends to infinity. We derive a spectral representation for the free energy and use this to prove that there is a critical curve in the parameter plane of charge bias versus inverse temperature separating a ballistic phase from a subballistic phase. We show that the phase transition is first order. We prove large deviation principles for the laws of the empirical speed and the empirical charge, and derive a spectral representation for the associated rate functions. Interestingly, in both phases both rate functions exhibit flat pieces, which correspond to an inhomogeneous strategy for the polymer to realise a large deviation. The large deviation principles in turn lead to laws of large numbers and central limit theorems. We identify the scaling behaviour of the critical curve for small and for large charge bias. In addition, we identify the scaling behaviour of the free energy for small charge bias and small inverse temperature. Both are linked to an associated Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problem. A key tool in our analysis is the Ray-Knight formula for the local times of the one-dimensional simple random walk. This formula is exploited to derive a closed form expression for the generating function of the annealed partition function, and for several related quantities. This expression in turn serves as the starting point for the derivation of the spectral representation for the free energy, and for the scaling theorems

  7. Annealed Scaling for a Charged Polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravenna, F.; den Hollander, F.; Pétrélis, N.; Poisat, J.

    2016-03-01

    This paper studies an undirected polymer chain living on the one-dimensional integer lattice and carrying i.i.d. random charges. Each self-intersection of the polymer chain contributes to the interaction Hamiltonian an energy that is equal to the product of the charges of the two monomers that meet. The joint probability distribution for the polymer chain and the charges is given by the Gibbs distribution associated with the interaction Hamiltonian. The focus is on the annealed free energy per monomer in the limit as the length of the polymer chain tends to infinity. We derive a spectral representation for the free energy and use this to prove that there is a critical curve in the parameter plane of charge bias versus inverse temperature separating a ballistic phase from a subballistic phase. We show that the phase transition is first order. We prove large deviation principles for the laws of the empirical speed and the empirical charge, and derive a spectral representation for the associated rate functions. Interestingly, in both phases both rate functions exhibit flat pieces, which correspond to an inhomogeneous strategy for the polymer to realise a large deviation. The large deviation principles in turn lead to laws of large numbers and central limit theorems. We identify the scaling behaviour of the critical curve for small and for large charge bias. In addition, we identify the scaling behaviour of the free energy for small charge bias and small inverse temperature. Both are linked to an associated Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problem. A key tool in our analysis is the Ray-Knight formula for the local times of the one-dimensional simple random walk. This formula is exploited to derive a closed form expression for the generating function of the annealed partition function, and for several related quantities. This expression in turn serves as the starting point for the derivation of the spectral representation for the free energy, and for the scaling theorems

  8. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: Simulation for signal charge transfer of charge coupled devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zujun, Wang; Yinong, Liu; Wei, Chen; Benqi, Tang; Zhigang, Xiao; Shaoyan, Huang; Minbo, Liu; Yong, Zhang

    2009-12-01

    Physical device models and numerical processing methods are presented to simulate a linear buried channel charge coupled devices (CCDs). The dynamic transfer process of CCD is carried out by a three-phase clock pulse driver. By using the semiconductor device simulation software MEDICI, dynamic transfer pictures of signal charges cells, electron concentration and electrostatic potential are presented. The key parameters of CCD such as charge transfer efficiency (CTE) and dark electrons are numerically simulated. The simulation results agree with the theoretic and experimental results.

  9. Retrospective accident dosimetry using trapped charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. I.; Kim, J. L.; Chang, I.; Kim, B. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Dicentric chromosome aberrations technique scoring of aberrations in metaphases prepared from human lymphocytes is most commonly used. This is considered as a reliable technique because the sample is extracted from the individual human body itself. There are other techniques in biological dosimetry such as Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) using translocations, premature chromosome condensation (PCC) and micronucleus assay. However the minimum detectable doses (MDD) are relatively high and sample preparation time is also relatively longer. Therefore, there is limitation in use of these techniques for the purpose of triage in a short time in case of emergency situation relating large number of persons. Electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique is based on the signal from unpaired electrons such as free radicals in irradiated materials especially tooth enamel, however it has also limitation for the purpose of triage because of difficulty of sample taking and its high MDD. Recently as physical methods, thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) technique have been attracted due to its lower MDD and simplicity of sample preparation. Density of the trapped charges is generally proportional to the radiation dose absorbed and the intensity of emitting light is also proportional to the density of trapped charges, thus it can be applied to measure radiation dose retrospectively. In this presentation, TL and OSL techniques are going to introduced and discussed as physical methods for retrospective accident dosimetry using trapped charges especially in electronic component materials. As a tool for dose reconstruction for emergency situation, thermoluminescece and optically stimulated luminescence techniques which are based on trapped charges during exposure of material are introduced. These techniques have several advantages such as high sensitivity, fast evaluation and ease to sample collection over common biological dosimetry and EPR

  10. Interaction Between Charge Characteristics and Cu2+ Adsorption-Desorption of Soils with Variable or Permanent Charge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Charge characteristics and Cu2+ adsorption-desorption of soils with variable charge (latosol) and per-manent charge (brown soil) and the relationship between them were studied by means of back-titration andadsorption equilibrium respectively. The amount of variable negative charge was much less in variable-chargesoil than in permanent-charge soil and increased with the pH in the system, but the opposite trend occurredin the points of zero charge (PZCs). The amount of Cu2+ ions sorbed by permanent-charge soil was morethan that by variable-charge soil and increased with the increase of Cu2+ concentration within a certainrange in the equilibrium solution. The amount of Cu2+ ions desorbed with KCl from permanent-chargesoil was more than that from variable-charge soil, but the amount of Cu2+ ions desorbed with de-ionizedwater from permanent-charge soil was extremely low whereas there was still a certain amount of desorptionfrom variable-charge soil. The increase of PZC of soils with variable or permanent charge varied with theincrement of Cu2+ ions added. When the same amount of Cu2+ ions was added, the increments of PZC andvariable negative surface charge of permanent-charge soil were different from those of variable-charge soil.

  11. On the electric charge of the observable Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Goolsby-Cole, Cody

    2015-01-01

    Light fields get large scale fluctuations during inflation. If some of them are electrically charged, then large scale fluctuations of the electric charge will be generated. As a consequence, any finite portion of the Universe, including our observable one, will carry a net electric charge. This fact does not require any form of breaking of the gauge symmetry at any time. We discuss under which conditions such a charge is maintained until the end of inflation, and we estimate its expected magnitude both in the case of charged fermions and of charged scalars. While one charged fermion species yields a charge density that is several orders of magnitude below the observational constraints, charged scalars can easily exceed those constraints.

  12. Influence of layer charge and charge distribution of smectites on the flow behaviour and swelling of bentonites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christidis, G.E.; Blum, A.E.; Eberl, D.D.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of layer charge and charge distribution of dioctahedral smectites on the rheological and swelling properties of bentonites is examined. Layer charge and charge distribution were determined by XRD using the LayerCharge program [Christidis, G.E., Eberl, D.D., 2003. Determination of layer charge characteristics of smectites. Clays Clay Miner. 51, 644-655.]. The rheological properties were determined, after sodium exchange using the optimum amount of Na2CO3, from free swelling tests. Rheological properties were determined using 6.42% suspensions according to industrial practice. In smectites with layer charges of - 0.425 to - 0.470 per half formula unit (phfu), layer charge is inversely correlated with free swelling, viscosity, gel strength, yield strength and thixotropic behaviour. In these smectites, the rheological properties are directly associated with the proportion of low charge layers. By contrast, in low charge and high charge smectites there is no systematic relation between layer charge or the proportion of low charge layers and rheological properties. However, low charge smectites yield more viscous suspensions and swell more than high charge smectites. The rheological properties of bentonites also are affected by the proportion of tetrahedral charge (i.e. beidellitic charge), by the existence of fine-grained minerals having clay size, such as opal-CT and to a lesser degree by the ionic strength and the pH of the suspension. A new method for classification of smectites according to the layer charge based on the XRD characteristics of smecites is proposed, that also is consistent with variations in rheological properties. In this classification scheme the term smectites with intermediate layer charge is proposed. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Study of the Charge Density Control Method Including the Space Charge Effect in the Proton Synchrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shinichi; Harada, Hiroyuki; Hotchi, Hideaki; Okabe, Kota; Yamamoto, Kazami; Kinsho, Michikazu

    For high intensity proton accelerators, one of the beam loss sources is the incoherent tune spread caused by the space charge force. In the 3 GeV rapid cycling synchrotron of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex, beams are injected sequentially and shifted slightly from the central orbit in order to increase the beam size intentionally and suppress the charge density and incoherent tune spread. This injection method has been adopted and suppressed the beam loss. However, simulations clarified that beams did not spread as much as expected because of the space charge effect in the high current case. As simulation results of the optimized beam shift pattern when the space charge effect is considered, it was obtained that the incoherent tune spread could be suppressed to an extent that has not been achieved previously.

  14. Charge balance functions in a scenario of continuing charge production in quark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Ying-Hua [Harbin Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Heilongjiang (China); Zhang, Wei-Ning [Harbin Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Heilongjiang (China); Dalian University of Technology, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Liaoning (China)

    2015-11-15

    We study the charge balance functions of π{sup +}π{sup -} and K{sup +}K{sup -} in a scenario of continuing charge creation in a strongly interacting quark-gluon plasma (QGP) in high-energy heavy-ion collisions, using relativistic hydrodynamics and the lattice QCD results of quark susceptibilities and the equation of state of the QGP. We find that the charge balance functions are dominated by their QGP components because most charges are produced before the hadronic stage. The hadronic component of the balance function of π{sup +}π{sup -} is small but non-negligible. The balance function of K{sup +}K{sup -} has a negative hadronic component because the strangeness decreases during the system evolution. The correlation between light and strange quarks leads to small enhancements of the balance functions at small rapidity difference. (orig.)

  15. Charge balance functions in a scenario of continuing charge production in quark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ying-Hua; Zhang, Wei-Ning

    2015-11-01

    We study the charge balance functions of π+π- and K+K- in a scenario of continuing charge creation in a strongly interacting quark-gluon plasma (QGP) in high-energy heavy-ion collisions, using relativistic hydrodynamics and the lattice QCD results of quark susceptibilities and the equation of state of the QGP. We find that the charge balance functions are dominated by their QGP components because most charges are produced before the hadronic stage. The hadronic component of the balance function of π+π- is small but non-negligible. The balance function of K+K- has a negative hadronic component because the strangeness decreases during the system evolution. The correlation between light and strange quarks leads to small enhancements of the balance functions at small rapidity difference.

  16. No Free Charge Theorem: a Covert Channel via USB Charging Cable on Mobile Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Spolaor, Riccardo; Abudahi, Laila; Moonsamy, Veelasha; Conti, Mauro; Poovendran, Radha

    2016-01-01

    More and more people are regularly using mobile and battery-powered handsets, such as smartphones and tablets. At the same time, thanks to the technological innovation and to the high user demands, those devices are integrating extensive functionalities and developers are writing battery-draining apps, which results in a surge of energy consumption of these devices. This scenario leads many people to often look for opportunities to charge their devices at public charging stations: the presenc...

  17. What Controls the Rate of Ultrafast Charge Transfer and Charge Separation Efficiency in Organic Photovoltaic Blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakowetz, Andreas C; Böhm, Marcus L; Zhang, Jiangbin; Sadhanala, Aditya; Huettner, Sven; Bakulin, Artem A; Rao, Akshay; Friend, Richard H

    2016-09-14

    In solar energy harvesting devices based on molecular semiconductors, such as organic photovoltaics (OPVs) and artificial photosynthetic systems, Frenkel excitons must be dissociated via charge transfer at heterojunctions to yield free charges. What controls the rate and efficiency of charge transfer and charge separation is an important question, as it determines the overall power conversion efficiency (PCE) of these systems. In bulk heterojunctions between polymer donor and fullerene acceptors, which provide a model system to understand the fundamental dynamics of electron transfer in molecular systems, it has been established that the first step of photoinduced electron transfer can be fast, of order 100 fs. But here we report the first study which correlates differences in the electron transfer rate with electronic structure and morphology, achieved with sub-20 fs time resolution pump-probe spectroscopy. We vary both the fullerene substitution and donor/fullerene ratio which allow us to control both aggregate size and the energetic driving force for charge transfer. We observe a range of electron transfer times from polymer to fullerene, from 240 fs to as short as 37 fs. Using ultrafast electro-optical pump-push-photocurrent spectroscopy, we find the yield of free versus bound charges to be weakly dependent on the energetic driving force, but to be very strongly dependent on fullerene aggregate size and packing. Our results point toward the importance of state accessibility and charge delocalization and suggest that energetic offsets between donor and acceptor levels are not an important criterion for efficient charge generation. This provides design rules for next-generation materials to minimize losses related to driving energy and boost PCE.

  18. Analytical Charge Voltage Model in MOS Inversion Layer Based on Space Charge Capacitance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The concept of Space Charge Capacitance (SCC) is proposed and used to make a novel analytical charge model of quantized inversion layer in MOS structures. Based on SCC,continuous expressions of surface potential and inversion layer carrier density are derived.Quantum mechanical effects on both inversion layer carrier density and surface potential are extensively included. The accuracy of the model is verified by the numerical solution to Schrodinger and Poisson equation and the model is demonstrated,too.

  19. Variational multiscale models for charge transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guo-Wei; Zheng, Qiong; Chen, Zhan; Xia, Kelin

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a few variational multiscale models for charge transport in complex physical, chemical and biological systems and engineering devices, such as fuel cells, solar cells, battery cells, nanofluidics, transistors and ion channels. An essential ingredient of the present models, introduced in an earlier paper (Bulletin of Mathematical Biology, 72, 1562-1622, 2010), is the use of differential geometry theory of surfaces as a natural means to geometrically separate the macroscopic domain from the microscopic domain, meanwhile, dynamically couple discrete and continuum descriptions. Our main strategy is to construct the total energy functional of a charge transport system to encompass the polar and nonpolar free energies of solvation, and chemical potential related energy. By using the Euler-Lagrange variation, coupled Laplace-Beltrami and Poisson-Nernst-Planck (LB-PNP) equations are derived. The solution of the LB-PNP equations leads to the minimization of the total free energy, and explicit profiles of electrostatic potential and densities of charge species. To further reduce the computational complexity, the Boltzmann distribution obtained from the Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation is utilized to represent the densities of certain charge species so as to avoid the computationally expensive solution of some Nernst-Planck (NP) equations. Consequently, the coupled Laplace-Beltrami and Poisson-Boltzmann-Nernst-Planck (LB-PBNP) equations are proposed for charge transport in heterogeneous systems. A major emphasis of the present formulation is the consistency between equilibrium LB-PB theory and non-equilibrium LB-PNP theory at equilibrium. Another major emphasis is the capability of the reduced LB-PBNP model to fully recover the prediction of the LB-PNP model at non-equilibrium settings. To account for the fluid impact on the charge transport, we derive coupled Laplace-Beltrami, Poisson-Nernst-Planck and Navier-Stokes equations from the variational principle

  20. Characterization of a constant current charge detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Masanobu; Chen, Yongjing; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2012-12-15

    Ion exchangers are ionic equivalents of doped semiconductors, where cations and anions are equivalents of holes and electrons as charge carriers in solid state semiconductors. We have previously demonstrated an ion exchange membrane (IEM) based electrolyte generator which behaves similar to a light-emitting diode and a charge detector (ChD) which behaves analogous to a p-i-n photodiode. The previous work on the charge detector, operated at a constant voltage, established its unique ability to respond to the charge represented by the analyte ions regardless of their redox properties, rather than to their conductivities. It also suggested that electric field induced dissociation (EFID) of water occurs at one or both ion exchange membranes. A logical extension is to study the behavior of the same device, operated in a constant current mode (ChD(i)). The evidence indicates that in the present operational mode the device also responds to the charge represented by the analytes and not their conductivity. Injection of a base into a charge detector operated in the constant voltage mode was not previously examined; in the constant current mode, base injection appears to inhibit EFID. The effects of applied current, analyte residence time and outer channel fluid composition were individually examined; analyte ions of different mobilities as well as affinities for the respective IEMs were used. While the exact behavior is somewhat dependent on the applied current, strong electrolytes, both acids and salts, respond the highest and in a near-uniform fashion, weak acids and their salts respond in an intermediate fashion and bases produce the lowest responses. A fundamentally asymmetric behavior is observed. Injected bases but not injected acids produce a poor response; the effects of incorporating a strong base as the electrolyte in the anion exchange membrane (AEM) compartment is far greater than incorporating an acid in the cation exchange membrane (CEM) compartment. These

  1. Metastable states of plasma particles close to a charged surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shavlov, A. V., E-mail: shavlov@ikz.ru [The Institute of the Earth Cryosphere, RAS Siberian branch, 625000, P.O. 1230, Tyumen (Russian Federation); Tyumen State Oil and Gas University, 38, Volodarskogo St., 625000, Tyumen (Russian Federation); Dzhumandzhi, V. A. [The Institute of the Earth Cryosphere, RAS Siberian branch, 625000, P.O. 1230, Tyumen (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    The free energy of the plasma particles and the charged surface that form an electroneutral system is calculated on the basis of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. It is shown that, owing to correlation of light plasma particles near the charged surface and close to heavy particles of high charge, there can be metastable states in plasma. The corresponding phase charts of metastable states of the separate components of plasma, and plasma as a whole, are constructed. These charts depend on temperature, the charge magnitude, the size of the particles, and the share of the charge of the light carriers out of the total charge of the plasma particles.

  2. Domain wall stability in ferroelectrics with space charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Yinan, E-mail: zuo@mfm.tu-darmstadt.de; Genenko, Yuri A.; Klein, Andreas; Stein, Peter; Xu, Baixiang [Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, D-64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-02-28

    Significant effect of semiconductor properties on domain configurations in ferroelectrics is demonstrated, especially in the case of doped materials. Phase field simulations are performed for ferroelectrics with space charges due to donors and electronic charge carriers. The free charges introduced thereby can act as a source for charge compensation at domain walls with uncompensated polarization bound charges. Results indicate that the equilibrium position of a domain wall with respect to its rotation in a head-to-head or a tail-to-tail domain configuration depends on the charge defect concentration and the Fermi level position.

  3. Reducing Range Anxiety by Unifying Networks of Charging Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Khalil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Availability of charging infrastructure is an important factor in penetration of electric vehicles into daily transportation system. Several factors in electric vehicle industry have caused range anxiety including insufficient charging stations, limited range of electric vehicles, long charging time, inaccurate estimation of available range, and energy consumption of auxiliary in-vehicle devices. However less attention has been paid to universality in charging station networks. This paper reviews the solutions to range anxiety. With regards to availability of charging station as one of the solutions, accessibility of charging stations by electric vehicle owners is also represented as another cause of range anxiety and a possible solution is provided.

  4. Overcoming charge noise decoherence by photon-assisted pair-breaking in a charge qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Sebastian; Leppäkangas, Juha; Adamyan, Astghik; Danilov, Andrey; Lindström, Tobias; Fogelström, Mikael; Johansson, Göran; Kubatkin, Sergey

    2014-03-01

    We report on recent measurements of a charge qubit, a Cooper-pair box, coupled to a high-Q microwave cavity in the strong driving regime. This we model using a dressed state formalism, and we find evidence for a process that involves energy transfer corresponding to a large number (~14) of photons. This energy is sufficient to break a Cooper-pair on the island, and it results in a new relaxation channel for the qubit. Specifically, this relaxation resets the qubit into a charge state determined by the static bias conditions, resulting in a sudden population inversion around each dressed state degeneracy point. At low driving strengths, decoherence is governed by charge noise in the environment, while in the discovered strong driving regime the relaxation rate due to pair-breaking can overcome the environmental charge relaxation rate. This results in a regime that is especially attractive for charge sensing since the qubit response becomes immune to non-equilibrium quasiparticle poisoning and less susceptible to its charge noise environment.

  5. [Probabilistic calculations of biomolecule charge states that generate mass spectra of multiply charged ions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raznikova, M O; Raznikov, V V

    2015-01-01

    In this work, information relating to charge states of biomolecule ions in solution obtained using the electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of different biopolymers is analyzed. The data analyses have mainly been carried out by solving an inverse problem of calculating the probabilities of retention of protons and other charge carriers by ionogenic groups of biomolecules with known primary structures. The approach is a new one and has no known to us analogues. A program titled "Decomposition" was developed and used to analyze the charge distribution of ions of native and denatured cytochrome c mass spectra. The possibility of splitting of the charge-state distribution of albumin into normal components, which likely corresponds to various conformational states of the biomolecule, has been demonstrated. The applicability criterion for using previously described method of decomposition of multidimensional charge-state distributions with two charge carriers, e.g., a proton and a sodium ion, to characterize the spatial structure of biopolymers in solution has been formulated. In contrast to known mass-spectrometric approaches, this method does not require the use of enzymatic hydrolysis or collision-induced dissociation of the biopolymers.

  6. Charged Q-balls and boson stars and dynamics of charged test particles

    CERN Document Server

    Brihaye, Yves; Hartmann, Betti

    2014-01-01

    We construct electrically charged Q-balls and boson stars in a model with a scalar self-interaction potential resulting from gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking. We discuss the properties of these solutions in detail and emphasize the differences to the uncharged case. We observe that $Q$-balls can only be constructed up to a maximal value of the charge of the scalar field, while for boson stars the interplay between the attractive gravitational force and the repulsive electromagnetic force determines their behaviour. We also study the motion of charged, massive test particles in the space-time of boson stars. We find that in contrast to charged black holes the motion of charged test particles in charged boson star space-times is planar, but that the presence of the scalar field plays a crucial r\\^ole for the qualitative features of the trajectories. Applications of this test particle motion can be made in the study of extreme-mass ratio inspirals (EMRIs) as well as astrophysical plasmas relevant e.g. in th...

  7. New charging strategy for lithium-ion batteries based on the integration of Taguchi method and state of charge estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Thanh Tu; Chen, Xiaopeng; Shen, Weixiang; Kapoor, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a new charging strategy of lithium-polymer batteries (LiPBs) has been proposed based on the integration of Taguchi method (TM) and state of charge estimation. The TM is applied to search an optimal charging current pattern. An adaptive switching gain sliding mode observer (ASGSMO) is adopted to estimate the SOC which controls and terminates the charging process. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed charging strategy can successfully charge the same types of LiPBs with different capacities and cycle life. The proposed charging strategy also provides much shorter charging time, narrower temperature variation and slightly higher energy efficiency than the equivalent constant current constant voltage charging method.

  8. Problems in Modelling Charge Output Accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomczyk Krzysztof

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents major issues associated with the problem of modelling change output accelerometers. The presented solutions are based on the weighted least squares (WLS method using transformation of the complex frequency response of the sensors. The main assumptions of the WLS method and a mathematical model of charge output accelerometers are presented in first two sections of this paper. In the next sections applying the WLS method to estimation of the accelerometer model parameters is discussed and the associated uncertainties are determined. Finally, the results of modelling a PCB357B73 charge output accelerometer are analysed in the last section of this paper. All calculations were executed using the MathCad software program. The main stages of these calculations are presented in Appendices A−E.

  9. Charge-transport model for conducting polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongmin Kang, Stephen; Jeffrey Snyder, G.

    2016-11-01

    The growing technological importance of conducting polymers makes the fundamental understanding of their charge transport extremely important for materials and process design. Various hopping and mobility edge transport mechanisms have been proposed, but their experimental verification is limited to poor conductors. Now that advanced organic and polymer semiconductors have shown high conductivity approaching that of metals, the transport mechanism should be discernible by modelling the transport like a semiconductor with a transport edge and a transport parameter s. Here we analyse the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient together and determine that most polymers (except possibly PEDOT:tosylate) have s = 3 and thermally activated conductivity, whereas s = 1 and itinerant conductivity is typically found in crystalline semiconductors and metals. The different transport in polymers may result from the percolation of charge carriers from conducting ordered regions through poorly conducting disordered regions, consistent with what has been expected from structural studies.

  10. Tangent bundle formulation of a charged gas

    CERN Document Server

    Sarbach, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the relativistic kinetic theory for a simple, collisionless, charged gas propagating on an arbitrary curved spacetime geometry. Our general relativistic treatment is formulated on the tangent bundle of the spacetime manifold and takes advantage of its rich geometric structure. In particular, we point out the existence of a natural metric on the tangent bundle and illustrate its role for the development of the relativistic kinetic theory. This metric, combined with the electromagnetic field of the spacetime, yields an appropriate symplectic form on the tangent bundle. The Liouville vector field arises as the Hamiltonian vector field of a natural Hamiltonian. The latter also defines natural energy surfaces, called mass shells, which turn out to be smooth Lorentzian submanifolds. A simple, collisionless, charged gas is described by a distribution function which is defined on the mass shell and satisfies the Liouville equation. Suitable fibre integrals of the distribution function define observable fie...

  11. Computational Approach to Electron Charge Transfer Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Elvar Örn

    -molecular mechanics scheme, and tools to analyse statistical data and generate relative free energies and free energy surfaces. The methodology is applied to several charge transfer species and reactions in chemical environments - chemical in the sense that solvent, counter ions and substrate surfaces are taken...... in to account - which directly influence the reactants and resulting reaction through both physical and chemical interactions. All methods are though general and can be applied to different types of chemistry. First, the basis of the various theoretical tools is presented and applied to several test systems...... and asymmetric charge transfer reactions between several first-row transition metals in water. The results are compared to experiments and rationalised with classical analytic expressions. Shortcomings of the methods are accounted for with clear steps towards improved accuracy. Later the analysis is extended...

  12. Compensating strong coupling with large charge

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez-Gaume, Luis; Orlando, Domenico; Reffert, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    We study (conformal) field theories with global symmetries in the sector where the value of the global charge $Q$ is large. We find (as expected) that the low energy excitations of this sector are described by the general form of Goldstone's theorem in the non-relativistic regime. We also derive the unexpected result, first presented in [Hellerman:2015], that the effective field theory describing such sector of fixed $Q$ contains effective couplings $\\lambda_{\\text{eff}}\\sim \\lambda^b /Q^{a}$, where $\\lambda$ is the original coupling. Hence, large charge leads to weak coupling. In the last section of the paper we present an outline of how to compute anomalous dimensions in this limit.

  13. Thermal quantum electrodynamics of nonrelativistic charged fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buenzli, Pascal R.; Martin, Philippe A.; Ryser, Marc D.

    2007-04-01

    The theory relevant to the study of matter in equilibrium with the radiation field is thermal quantum electrodynamics (TQED). We present a formulation of the theory, suitable for nonrelativistic fluids, based on a joint functional integral representation of matter and field variables. In this formalism cluster expansion techniques of classical statistical mechanics become operative. They provide an alternative to the usual Feynman diagrammatics in many-body problems, which is not perturbative with respect to the coupling constant. As an application we show that the effective Coulomb interaction between quantum charges is partially screened by thermalized photons at large distances. More precisely one observes an exact cancellation of the dipolar electric part of the interaction, so that the asymptotic particle density correlation is now determined by relativistic effects. It still has the r-6 decay typical for quantum charges, but with an amplitude strongly reduced by a relativistic factor.

  14. Thermodynamics and Charging of Interstellar Iron Nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Hensley, Brandon S

    2016-01-01

    Interstellar iron in the form of metallic iron nanoparticles may constitute a component of the interstellar dust. We compute the stability of iron nanoparticles to sublimation in the interstellar radiation field, finding that iron clusters can persist down to a radius of $\\simeq 4.5\\,$\\AA, and perhaps smaller. We employ laboratory data on small iron clusters to compute the photoelectric yields as a function of grain size and the resulting grain charge distribution in various interstellar environments, finding that iron nanoparticles can acquire negative charges particularly in regions with high gas temperatures and ionization fractions. If $\\gtrsim 10\\%$ of the interstellar iron is in the form of ultrasmall iron clusters, the photoelectric heating rate from dust may be increased by up to tens of percent relative to dust models with only carbonaceous and silicate grains.

  15. Charged Condensate and Helium Dwarf Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Gabadadze, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    White dwarf stars composed of carbon, oxygen or heavier elements are expected to crystallize as they cool down below certain temperatures. Yet, simple arguments suggest that the helium white dwarf cores may not solidify, mostly because of zero-point oscillations of the helium ions that would dissolve the crystalline structure. We argue that the interior of the helium dwarfs may instead form a macroscopic quantum state in which the charged helium-4 nuclei are in a Bose-Einstein condensate, while the relativistic electrons form a neutralizing degenerate Fermi liquid. We discuss the electric charge screening, and the spectrum of this substance, showing that the bosonic long-wavelength fluctuations exhibit a mass gap. Hence, there is a suppression at low temperatures of the boson contribution to the specific heat -- the latter being dominated by the specific heat of the electrons near the Fermi surface. This state of matter may have observational signatures.

  16. Thermodynamics and Charging of Interstellar Iron Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Brandon S.; Draine, B. T.

    2017-01-01

    Interstellar iron in the form of metallic iron nanoparticles may constitute a component of the interstellar dust. We compute the stability of iron nanoparticles to sublimation in the interstellar radiation field, finding that iron clusters can persist down to a radius of ≃4.5 Å, and perhaps smaller. We employ laboratory data on small iron clusters to compute the photoelectric yields as a function of grain size and the resulting grain charge distribution in various interstellar environments, finding that iron nanoparticles can acquire negative charges, particularly in regions with high gas temperatures and ionization fractions. If ≳10% of the interstellar iron is in the form of ultrasmall iron clusters, the photoelectric heating rate from dust may be increased by up to tens of percent relative to dust models with only carbonaceous and silicate grains.

  17. Central charge for the Schwarzschild black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropotenko, K.

    2016-12-01

    Proceeding in exactly the same way as in the derivation of the temperature of a dual CFT for the extremal black hole in the Kerr/CFT correspondence, it is found that the temperature of a chiral, dual CFT for the Schwarzschild black hole is T = 1/2π. Comparing Cardy’s formula with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and using T, it is found that the central charge for the Schwarzschild black hole is of the form c = 12Jin, where Jin is the intrinsic angular momentum of the black hole, Jin = A/8πG. It is shown that the central charge for any four-dimensional (4D) extremal black hole is of the same form. The possible universality of this form is briefly discussed.

  18. Evidence for a dynamic origin of charge

    CERN Document Server

    Hofer, W A

    2000-01-01

    The fundamental equations of particle motion lead to a modified Poisson equation including dynamic charge. This charge derives from density oscillations of a particle; it is not discrete, but continuous. Within the dynamic model of hydrogen it accounts for all features of electron proton interactions, its origin are density oscillations of the proton. We propose a new system of electromagnetic units, based on meter, kilogram, and second, bearing on these findings. The system has none of the disadvantages of traditional three-unit systems. On the basis of our theoretical model we can genuinely derive the scaling factor between electromagnetic and mechanic variables, which is equal, within a few percent, to Planck's constant h. The implications of the results in view of unifying gravity and quantum theory are discussed. It seems that the hypothetical solar gravity field, in the very low frequency range of the electromagnetic spectrum, is open to experimental detection.

  19. Thermal quantum electrodynamics of nonrelativistic charged fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buenzli, Pascal R; Martin, Philippe A; Ryser, Marc D

    2007-04-01

    The theory relevant to the study of matter in equilibrium with the radiation field is thermal quantum electrodynamics (TQED). We present a formulation of the theory, suitable for nonrelativistic fluids, based on a joint functional integral representation of matter and field variables. In this formalism cluster expansion techniques of classical statistical mechanics become operative. They provide an alternative to the usual Feynman diagrammatics in many-body problems, which is not perturbative with respect to the coupling constant. As an application we show that the effective Coulomb interaction between quantum charges is partially screened by thermalized photons at large distances. More precisely one observes an exact cancellation of the dipolar electric part of the interaction, so that the asymptotic particle density correlation is now determined by relativistic effects. It still has the r(-6) decay typical for quantum charges, but with an amplitude strongly reduced by a relativistic factor.

  20. Effective dynamics of a classical point charges

    CERN Document Server

    Polonyi, Janos

    2013-01-01

    The effective Lagrangian of a point charge is derived by eliminating the electromagnetic field within the framework of the classical closed time path formalism. The short distance singularity of the electromagnetic field is regulated by an UV cutoff. The Abraham-Lorentz force is recovered and its similarity to anomalies is underlined. The full cutoff-dependent linearized equation of motion is obtained, no runaway trajectories are found but the effective dynamics shows acausality if the cutoff is beyond the classical charge radius. The strength of the radiation reaction force displays a pole in its cutoff-dependence in a manner reminiscent of the Landau-pole of perturbative QED. Similarity between the dynamical breakdown of the time reversal invariance and dynamical symmetry breaking is pointed out.

  1. Distance distributions of photogenerated charge pairs in organic photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Alex J; Chen, Kai; Hodgkiss, Justin M

    2014-08-27

    Strong Coulomb interactions in organic photovoltaic cells dictate that charges must separate over relatively long distances in order to circumvent geminate recombination and produce photocurrent. In this article, we measure the distance distributions of thermalized charge pairs by accessing a regime at low temperature where charge pairs are frozen out following the primary charge separation step and recombine monomolecularly via tunneling. The exponential attenuation of tunneling rate with distance provides a sensitive probe of the distance distribution of primary charge pairs, reminiscent of electron transfer studies in proteins. By fitting recombination dynamics to distributions of recombination rates, we identified populations of charge-transfer states and well-separated charge pairs. For the wide range of materials we studied, the yield of separated charges in the tunneling regime is strongly correlated with the yield of free charges measured via their intensity-dependent bimolecular recombination dynamics at room temperature. We therefore conclude that populations of free charges are established via long-range charge separation within the thermalization time scale, thus invoking early branching between free and bound charges across an energetic barrier. Subject to assumed values of the electron tunneling attenuation constant, we estimate critical charge separation distances of ∼3-4 nm in all materials. In some blends, large fullerene crystals can enhance charge separation yields; however, the important role of the polymers is also highlighted in blends that achieved significant charge separation with minimal fullerene concentration. We expect that our approach of isolating the intrinsic properties of primary charge pairs will be of considerable value in guiding new material development and testing the validity of proposed mechanisms for long-range charge separation.

  2. Simulating charge transport in flexible systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Clark

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Systems in which movements occur on two significantly different time domains, such as organic electronic components with flexible molecules, require different simulation techniques for the two time scales. In the case of molecular electronics, charge transport is complicated by the several different mechanisms (and theoretical models that apply in different cases. We cannot yet combine time scales of molecular and electronic movement in simulations of real systems. This review describes our progress towards this goal.

  3. Topological Charge of Lattice Abelian Gauge Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiwara, T; Wu, K

    2001-01-01

    Configuration space of abelian gauge theory on a periodic lattice becomes topologically disconnected by excising exceptional gauge field configurations. It is possible to define a U(1) bundle from the nonexceptional link variables by a smooth interpolation of the transition functions. The lattice analogue of Chern character obtained by a cohomological technique based on the noncommutative differential calculus is shown to give a topological charge related to the topological winding number of the U(1) bundle.

  4. Take Charge. Take the Test. PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-07

    As part of the Take Charge. Take the Test. campaign, this 30 second PSA encourages African American women to get tested for HIV. Locations for a free HIV test can be found by visiting hivtest.org/takecharge or calling 1-800-CDC-INFO (1-800-232-4636).  Created: 3/7/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/7/2012.

  5. Charged Higgs Boson Search at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, D P

    2005-01-01

    This review starts with a brief introduction to the charged Higgs boson $(H^\\pm)$ in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). It then discusses the prospects of a relatively light $H^\\pm$ boson search via top quark decay and finally a heavy $H^\\pm$ boson search at LHC. The viable channels for $H^\\pm$ search are discussed, with particular emphasis on the $H^\\pm -> tau+nu$ decay channel.

  6. The Dyon Charge in Noncommutative Gauge Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cieri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct a dyon solution for the noncommutative version of the Yang-Mills-Higgs model with a ϑ-term. Extending the Noether method to the case of a noncommutative gauge theory, we analyze the effect of CP violation induced both by the ϑ-term and by noncommutativity proving that the Witten effect formula for the dyon charge remains the same as in ordinary space.

  7. Formation of Charged Particle Tracks in Solids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mukhtar A. Rana

    2006-01-01

    A criterion for formation of etchabJe tracks in solids is suggested using the well-known concepts of ionization and thermal spikes, diffusion process with useful and justified assumptions, and present or published experimental and theoretical investigations on the same subject. The suggested criterion is useful for a wide spectrum of researchers including development and applications of track recording materials, ions implantation, sputtering and other areas, which include interactions of charged particles with solids.

  8. Virasoro central charges for Nichols algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Semikhatov, A M

    2011-01-01

    Virasoro central charge associated with Nichols algebras is invariant under the Weyl groupoid action and takes very suggestive values for some items in Heckenberger's list of rank-2 Nichols algebras. In particular, this might be taken as an indication of the existence of reasonable logarithmic extensions of W3==WA2, WB2, and WG2 models of conformal field theory. In the W3 case, the construction of an octuplet extended algebra is outlined.

  9. Parametric Landau damping of space charge modes

    CERN Document Server

    Macridin, Alexandru; Stern, Eric; Amundson, James; Spentzouris, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Landau damping is the mechanism of plasma and beam stabilization; it is caused by energy transfer from collective modes to incoherent motion of resonant particles. Normally this resonance requires the wave frequency in the particle frame to match the resonant particles frequency. Using the Synergia modeling package to study transverse coherent modes of bunched beams with space charge, we have identified a new kind of damping mechanism, parametric Landau damping, driven by the modulation of the wave-particle interaction.

  10. Ion specific effects on charged interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Medda, Luca

    2013-01-01

    The physico-chemical phenomena occurring at charged interfaces are specifically affected by the type and the concentration of electrolytes. This has implications both in living and in inorganic systems. The discovery of the ‘ion specific effects’ dates back to Hofmeister (1888), who observed the specific effect of salts in promoting egg white proteins precipitation. Nowadays we are aware that ion specific effects are ubiquitous in all fields of science and technology where electrolytes play a...

  11. Spreading of charged micro-droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Iaia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider the spreading of a charged microdroplet on a flat dielectric surface whose spreading is driven by surface tension and electrostatic repulsion. This leads to a third order nonlinear partial differential equation that gives the evolution of the height profile. Assuming the droplets are circular we are able to prove existence of solutions with infinite contact angle and in many cases we are able to prove nonexistence of solutions with finite contact angle.

  12. Space Charge Mitigation With Longitudinally Hollow Bunches

    CERN Document Server

    Oeftiger, Adrian; Rumolo, Giovanni; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    Suitably, hollow longitudinal phase space distributions have a flat profile and hence reduce the impact of transverse space charge. Dipolar parametric excitation with the phase loop feedback systems provides such hollow distributions under reproducible conditions. We present a procedure to create hollow bunches during the acceleration ramp of CERN’s PS Booster machine with minimal changes to the operational cycle. The improvements during the injection plateau of the downstream Proton Synchrotron are assessed in comparison to standard parabolic bunches.

  13. Comments on Charged Lepton Flavor Violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryman, Douglas

    2014-03-01

    Charged lepton flavor violation has been of interest since the muon (and subsequently, the tau lepton) was identified as a heavy version of the electron. CLFV continues to be pursued vigorously with the hope that its observation would reveal new information relating to the generation puzzle or about physics beyond the Standard Model. Theories abound which incorporate hypothetical CLFV at potentially observable levels although the mass scales and couplings are unknown, and innovative experiments continue to push the boundaries of sensitivity.

  14. Illusory flow in radiation from accelerating charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biro, Tamas S.; Szendi, Zsuzsanna [RMI, WIGNER Research Centre for Physics, Budapest (Hungary); Schram, Zsolt [University of Debrecen, Department of Theoretical Physics, Debrecen (Hungary); MTA-DE Particle Physics Research Group, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2014-03-15

    In this paper we analyze the classical electromagnetic radiation of an accelerating point charge moving on a straight line trajectory. Depending on the duration of accelerations, rapidity distributions of photons emerge, resembling the ones obtained in the framework of hydrodynamical models by Landau or Bjorken. Detectable differences between our approach and spectra obtained from hydrodynamical models occur at high transverse momenta due to classical wave interference phenomena included in our model. (orig.)

  15. Illusory Flow in Radiation from Accelerating Charge

    CERN Document Server

    Biro, Tamas S; Schram, Zsolt

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the classical electromagnetic radiation of an accelerating point charge moving on a straight line trajectory. Depending on the duration of accelerations, rapidity distributions of photons emerge, resembling the ones obtained in the framework of hydrodynamical models by Landau or Bjorken. Detectable differences between our approach and spectra obtained from hydrodynamical models occur at high transverse momenta and are due to interference.

  16. OPTIMAL CONGESTION CHARGES IN GENERAL EQUILIBRIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Joo MOON, Ph.D.

    2002-01-01

    Another maximization problem involves characterizing the second-best optimal solution. In this problem, it is assumed to impose the congestion toll only on a single highway link. This problem yields the second-best congestion toll different from the first-best one. This second-best optimal congestion toll has the structure to reflect its impact on other highway links exempt from the congestion charge program.

  17. Demand side management of electric car charging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finn, P.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Connolly, David

    2012-01-01

    in terms of distributed energy storage and flexible load. This paper examines how optimising the charging cycles of an electriccar using DSM (DemandSideManagement) based on a number of criteria could be used to achieve financial savings, increased demand on renewable energy, reduce demand on thermal...... generation plant, and reduce peak load demand. The results demonstrate that significant gains can be achieved using currently available market data which highlights the point that DSM can be implemented without any further technological advents....

  18. Oil Giants to Build Electric Charging Infrastructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dou Yali

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's Domestic oil companies have started developing charging stations for electric vehicles to cash in on the growth in clean energy.The country is pushing forward development of new energy vehicles,in particular electric vehicles,consistent with its status as the world's largest car market and auto-producing country,as well as the world's largest exporter of new energy vehicles.

  19. Studying charged particle optics: an undergraduate course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovalle, V [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n0. Gragoata, Niteroi, 24210-346 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Otomar, D R [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n0. Gragoata, Niteroi, 24210-346 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Pereira, J M [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Ferreira, N [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n0. Gragoata, Niteroi, 24210-346 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Pinho, R R [Departamento de Fisica-ICE, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Campus Universitario, 36036-900, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Santos, A C F [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2008-03-12

    This paper describes some computer-based activities to bring the study of charged particle optics to undergraduate students, to be performed as a part of a one-semester accelerator-based experimental course. The computational simulations were carried out using the commercially available SIMION program. The performance parameters, such as the focal length and P-Q curves are obtained. The three-electrode einzel lens is exemplified here as a study case.

  20. Space Charge Mitigation With Longitudinally Hollow Bunches

    CERN Multimedia

    Oeftiger, Adrian; Rumolo, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Hollow longitudinal phase space distributions have a flat profile and hence reduce the impact of transverse space charge. Dipolar parametric excitation with the phase loop feedback systems provides such hollow distributions under reproducible conditions. We present a procedure to create hollow bunches during the acceleration ramp of CERN’s PS Booster machine with minimal changes to the operational cycle. The improvements during the injection plateau of the downstream Proton Synchrotron are assessed in comparison to standard parabolic bunches.

  1. Freezing of charged colloids in slit pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandner, Stefan; Klapp, Sabine H L

    2008-12-28

    Using Monte Carlo simulations in the grand canonical and isobaric ensembles we investigate freezing phenomena in a charged colloidal suspension confined to narrow slit pores. Our model involves only the macroions which interact via a Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) potential supplemented by a soft-sphere potential. We focus on DLVO parameters typical for moderately charged silica particles (with charges Z approximately 35) in solvents of low ionic strengths. The corresponding DLVO interactions are too weak to drive a (bulk) freezing transition. Nevertheless, for sufficiently small surface separations L(z) the confined systems display not only layering but also significant in-plane crystalline order at chemical potentials where the bulk system is a globally stable fluid (capillary freezing). At confinement conditions related to two-layer systems the observed in-plane structures are consistent with those detected in ground state calculations for perfect Yukawa bilayers [R. Messina and H. Lowen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 146101 (2003)]. Here we additionally observe (at fixed L(z)) a compression-induced first-order phase transition from a two-layer to a three-layer system with different in-plane structure, in agreement with previous findings for pure hard spheres.

  2. Charge Transport in Conjugated Block Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brandon; Le, Thinh; Lee, Youngmin; Gomez, Enrique

    Interest in conjugated block copolymers for high performance organic photovoltaic applications has increased considerably in recent years. Polymer/fullerene mixtures for conventional bulk heterojunction devices, such as P3HT:PCBM, are severely limited in control over interfaces and domain length scales. In contrast, microphase separated block copolymers self-assemble to form lamellar morphologies with alternating electron donor and acceptor domains, thereby maximizing electronic coupling and local order at interfaces. Efficiencies as high as 3% have been reported in solar cells for one block copolymer, P3HT-PFTBT, but the details concerning charge transport within copolymers have not been explored. To fill this gap, we probed the transport characteristics with thin-film transistors. Excellent charge mobility values for electron transport have been observed on aluminum source and drain contacts in a bottom gate, bottom contact transistor configuration. Evidence of high mobility in ordered PFTBT phases has also been obtained following thermal annealing. The insights gleaned from our investigation serve as useful guideposts, revealing the significance of the interplay between charge mobility, interfacial order, and optimal domain size in organic block copolymer semiconductors.

  3. Self-arraying of charged levitating droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffmann, Paul; Nussbaumer, Jérémie; Masse, Alain; Jeandey, Christian; Grateau, Henri; Pham, Pascale; Reyne, Gilbert; Haguet, Vincent

    2011-06-01

    Diamagnetic levitation of water droplets in air is a promising phenomenon to achieve contactless manipulation of chemical or biochemical samples. This noncontact handling technique prevents contaminations of samples as well as provides measurements of interaction forces between levitating reactors. Under a nonuniform magnetic field, diamagnetic bodies such as water droplets experience a repulsive force which may lead to diamagnetic levitation of a single or few micro-objects. The levitation of several repulsively charged picoliter droplets was successfully performed in a ~1 mm(2) adjustable flat magnetic well provided by a centimeter-sized cylindrical permanent magnet structure. Each droplet position results from the balance between the centripetal diamagnetic force and the repulsive Coulombian forces. Levitating water droplets self-organize into satellite patterns or thin clouds, according to their charge and size. Small triangular lattices of identical droplets reproduce magneto-Wigner crystals. Repulsive forces and inner charges can be measured in the piconewton and the femtocoulomb ranges, respectively. Evolution of interaction forces is accurately followed up over time during droplet evaporation.

  4. Doubly-charged Higgs searches by ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Nuti, Francesco; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    A search for new physics in dilepton final states with same electric charge, $e^{\\pm}e^{\\pm}$, $e^{\\pm}\\mu^{\\pm}$ and $\\mu^{\\pm}\\mu^{\\pm}$, with the ATLAS detector at LHC, is presented. No significant contribution from beyond the Standard Model physics is observed in 4.7$~$fb$^{-1}$ of $\\sqrt{s}= 7~$TeV proton-proton collisions. An upper limit at 95% Confidence Level$~$(CL) on the fiducial cross section for new physics processes is derived, ranging between 1.7$~$fb and 64$~$fb depending on the dilepton invariant mass and the lepton flavour combination. A 95% CL limit is also set on the cross section for pair production of doubly-charged Higgs as a function of its mass, varying between 25$~$fb and 0.6$~$fb. Lower limits on the mass of doubly-charged Higgs bosons in the Left-Right symmetric models and in the Zee-Babu models are obtained.

  5. Induced-Charge Electro-Osmosis

    CERN Document Server

    Squires, T M; Squires, Todd M.; Bazant, Martin Z.

    2003-01-01

    The general phenomenon of `induced-charge electro-osmosis' (ICEO) is described -- the nonlinear electro-osmotic slip caused by an applied field acting on induced ionic charge in the vicinity of a polarizable surface. A simple physical picture of the basic phenomenon is presented, and the ICEO flow around conducting cylinders and spheres in steady (DC), oscillitory (AC), and suddenly-applied electric fields is calculated, providing perhaps the simplest and clearest example of a non-equilibrium electrokinetic phenomenon. It is shown that ICEO slip velocities generally vary like $u_s \\propto E_0^2 a$ in uniform fields, where $E_0$ is the applied field strength and $a$ is a geometrical length scale, and are set up on a time scale $\\tau_c = \\lambda_D a/D$, where $\\lambda_D$ is the screening length and $D$ the diffusion constant of the electrolytic ions. A variety of microfludic flows results for conducting objects of either fixed total charge or fixed potential. The effect of a dielectric coating upon ICEO flows i...

  6. The Spin-Charge-Family Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankoč Borštnik, Norma Susana

    The spin-charge-family theory, which is a kind of the Kaluza-Klein theories but with fermions carrying two kinds of spins (no charges), offers the explanation for all the assumptions of the standard model, with the origin of families, the higgs and the Yukawa couplings included. It offers the explanation also for other phenomena, like the origin of the dark matter and of the matter/antimatter asymmetry in the universe. It predicts the existence of the fourth family to the observed three, as well as several scalar fields with the weak and the hyper charge of the standard model higgs (± 1/2 ∓ 1/2], respectively), which determine the mass matrices of family members, offering an explanation, why the fourth family with the masses above 1 TeV contributes weakly to the gluon-fusion production of the observed higgs and to its decay into two photons, and predicting that the two photons events, observed at the LHC at ≈ 750 GeV, might be an indication for the existence of one of several scalars predicted by this theory.

  7. Spectroscopy with trapped highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiersdorfer, P

    2008-01-23

    We give an overview of atomic spectroscopy performed on electron beam ion traps at various locations throughout the world. Spectroscopy at these facilities contributes to various areas of science and engineering, including but not limited to basic atomic physics, astrophysics, extreme ultraviolet lithography, and the development of density and temperature diagnostics of fusion plasmas. These contributions are accomplished by generating, for example, spectral surveys, making precise radiative lifetime measurements, accounting for radiative power emitted in a given wavelength band, illucidating isotopic effects, and testing collisional-radiative models. While spectroscopy with electron beam ion traps had originally focused on the x-ray emission from highly charged ions interacting with the electron beam, the operating modes of such devices have expanded to study radiation in almost all wavelength bands from the visible to the hard x-ray region; and at several facilities the ions can be studied even in the absence of an electron beam. Photon emission after charge exchange or laser excitation has been observed, and the work is no longer restricted to highly charged ions. Much of the experimental capabilities are unique to electron beam ion traps, and the work performed with these devices cannot be undertaken elsewhere. However, in other areas the work on electron beam ion traps rivals the spectroscopy performed with conventional ion traps or heavy-ion storage rings. The examples we present highlight many of the capabilities of the existing electron beam ion traps and their contributions to physics.

  8. Microscale vortex laser with controlled topological charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing-Yuan; Chen, Hua-Zhou; Li, Ying; Li, Bo; Ma, Ren-Min

    2016-12-01

    A microscale vortex laser is a new type of coherent light source with small footprint that can directly generate vector vortex beams. However, a microscale laser with controlled topological charge, which is crucial for virtually any of its application, is still unrevealed. Here we present a microscale vortex laser with controlled topological charge. The vortex laser eigenmode was synthesized in a metamaterial engineered non-Hermitian micro-ring cavity system at exceptional point. We also show that the vortex laser cavity can operate at exceptional point stably to lase under optical pumping. The microscale vortex laser with controlled topological charge can serve as a unique and general building block for next-generation photonic integrated circuits and coherent vortex beam sources. The method we used here can be employed to generate lasing eigenmode with other complex functionalities. Project supported by the “Youth 1000 Talent Plan” Fund, Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. 201421) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11574012 and 61521004).

  9. Charged Particle Tracking with the Timepix ASIC

    CERN Document Server

    Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Collins, P; Crossley, M; Dumps, R; Gersabeck, M; Gligorov, Vladimir V; Llopart, X; Nicol, M; Poikela, T; Cabruja, Enric; Fleta, C; Lozano, M; Pellegrini, G; Bates, R; Eklund, L; Hynds, D; Ferre Llin, L; Maneuski, D; Parkes, C; Plackett, R; Rodrigues, E; Stewart, G; Akiba, K; van Beuzekom, M; Heijne, V; Heijne, E H M; Gordon, H; John, M; Gandelman, M; Esperante, D; Gallas, A; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Bayer, F; Michel, T; Needham, M; Artuso, M; Badman, R; Borgia, A; Garofoli, J; Wang, J; Xing, Z; Buytaert, Jan; Leflat, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    A prototype particle tracking telescope has been constructed using Timepix and Medipix ASIC hybrid pixel assemblies as the six sensing planes. Each telescope plane consisted of one 1.4 cm2 assembly, providing a 256x256 array of 55 micron square pixels. The telescope achieved a pointing resolution of 2.3 micron at the position of the device under test. During a beam test in 2009 the telescope was used to evaluate in detail the performance of two Timepix hybrid pixel assemblies; a standard planar 300 micron thick sensor, and 285 micron thick double sided 3D sensor. This paper describes a detailed charge calibration study of the pixel devices, which allows the true charge to be extracted, and reports on measurements of the charge collection characteristics and Landau distributions. The planar sensor achieved a best resolution of 4.0 micron for angled tracks, and resolutions of between 4.4 and 11 micron for perpendicular tracks, depending on the applied bias voltage. The double sided 3D sensor, which has signific...

  10. Electrical charging of ash in Icelandic volcanic plumes

    CERN Document Server

    Aplin, Karen L; Nicoll, Keri A

    2014-01-01

    The existence of volcanic lightning and alteration of the atmospheric potential gradient in the vicinity of near-vent volcanic plumes provides strong evidence for the charging of volcanic ash. More subtle electrical effects are also visible in balloon soundings of distal volcanic plumes. Near the vent, some proposed charging mechanisms are fractoemission, triboelectrification, and the so-called "dirty thunderstorm" mechanism, which is where ash and convective clouds interact electrically to enhance charging. Distant from the vent, a self-charging mechanism, probably triboelectrification, has been suggested to explain the sustained low levels of charge observed on a distal plume. Recent research by Houghton et al. (2013) linked the self-charging of volcanic ash to the properties of the particle size distribution, observing that a highly polydisperse ash distribution would charge more effectively than a monodisperse one. Natural radioactivity in some volcanic ash could also contribute to self-charging of volcan...

  11. Strategies for Charging Electric Vehicles in the Electricity Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nina; Pantuso, Giovanni; Iversen, Jan Emil Banning;

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses different charging strategies for a fleet of electric vehicles. Along with increasing the realism of the strategies, the opportunity for acting on the regulating market is also included. We test the value of a vehicle owner that can choose when and how to charge; by presenting...... a model of four alternative charging strategies. We think of them as increasing in sophistication from dumb via delayed to deterministic and stochastic model-based charging. We show that 29% of the total savings from ‘dumb’ are due to delayed charging and that substantial additional gains come charging...... optimally in response to predicted spot prices, and – in some settings – additional gains from using the up and down regulating prices. Particularly, strategies are chosen from uncontrolled charging through deterministic optimization, to modelling the charging and bidding problem with stochastic programming...

  12. 77 FR 60005 - Schedule of Charges Outside the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Schedule of Charges Outside the United States AGENCY: Federal Aviation... of charges for services of FAA Flight Standards Aviation Safety Inspectors outside the United...

  13. Demand power with EV charging schemes considering actual data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Hyeok Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eco-friendly energies have recently become a popular topic. Given this trend, we predict that a large number of electric vehicles (EVs will be widely used. However, EVs need to be connected to a power system for charging, thereby causing severe risks, such as rapid increase of demand power. Therefore, in this study, we analyze the effects of EV charging on demand power, which depend on different charging schemes, namely, dumb charging, off-peak charging, time-of-use (ToU price-based charging. For practical analysis, we conduct simulations by considering the actual power system and driving patterns in South Korea. Simulation results show that the ToU price-based charging scheme exhibits better performance in terms of demand power over the other charging schemes.

  14. Arabinogalactan Proteins Are Incorporated in Negatively Charged Coffee Brew Melanoidins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekedam, E.K.; Laat, de M.P.F.C.; Schols, H.A.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Smit, G.

    2007-01-01

    The charge properties of melanoidins in high molecular weight (HMw) coffee brew fractions, isolated by diafiltration and membrane dialysis, were studied. Ion exchange chromatography experiments with the HMw fractions showed that coffee brew melanoidins were negatively charged whereas these molecules

  15. Charge transport in amorphous organic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukyanov, Alexander

    2011-03-15

    Organic semiconductors with the unique combination of electronic and mechanical properties may offer cost-effective ways of realizing many electronic applications, e. g. large-area flexible displays, printed integrated circuits and plastic solar cells. In order to facilitate the rational compound design of organic semiconductors, it is essential to understand relevant physical properties e. g. charge transport. This, however, is not straightforward, since physical models operating on different time and length scales need to be combined. First, the material morphology has to be known at an atomistic scale. For this atomistic molecular dynamics simulations can be employed, provided that an atomistic force field is available. Otherwise it has to be developed based on the existing force fields and first principle calculations. However, atomistic simulations are typically limited to the nanometer length- and nanosecond time-scales. To overcome these limitations, systematic coarse-graining techniques can be used. In the first part of this thesis, it is demonstrated how a force field can be parameterized for a typical organic molecule. Then different coarse-graining approaches are introduced together with the analysis of their advantages and problems. When atomistic morphology is available, charge transport can be studied by combining the high-temperature Marcus theory with kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. The approach is applied to the hole transport in amorphous films of tris(8- hydroxyquinoline)aluminium (Alq{sub 3}). First the influence of the force field parameters and the corresponding morphological changes on charge transport is studied. It is shown that the energetic disorder plays an important role for amorphous Alq{sub 3}, defining charge carrier dynamics. Its spatial correlations govern the Poole-Frenkel behavior of the charge carrier mobility. It is found that hole transport is dispersive for system sizes accessible to simulations, meaning that calculated

  16. Production of antihydrogen via double charge exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muellers, Andreas

    2013-02-01

    Spectroscopy of the 1S-2S transition of antihydrogen confined in a neutral atom trap and comparison with the equivalent spectral line in hydrogen will provide an accurate test of CPT symmetry and the first one in a mixed baryon-lepton system. Also, with neutral antihydrogen atoms, the gravitational interaction between matter and antimatter can be tested unperturbed by the much stronger Coulomb forces. Antihydrogen is regularly produced at CERN's Antiproton Decelerator by three-body-recombination (TBR) of one antiproton and two positrons. The method requires injecting antiprotons into a cloud of positrons, which raises the average temperature of the antihydrogen atoms produced way above the typical 0.5 K trap depths of neutral atom traps. Therefore only very few antihydrogen atoms can be confined at a time. Precision measurements, like laser spectroscopy, will greatly benefit from larger numbers of simultaneously trapped antihydrogen atoms. Therefore, the ATRAP collaboration developed a different production method that has the potential to create much larger numbers of cold, trappable antihydrogen atoms. Positrons and antiprotons are stored and cooled in a Penning trap in close proximity. Laser excited cesium atoms collide with the positrons, forming Rydberg positronium, a bound state of an electron and a positron. The positronium atoms are no longer confined by the electric potentials of the Penning trap and some drift into the neighboring cloud of antiprotons where, in a second charge exchange collision, they form antihydrogen. The antiprotons remain at rest during the entire process, so much larger numbers of trappable antihydrogen atoms can be produced. Laser excitation is necessary to increase the efficiency of the process since the cross sections for charge-exchange collisions scale with the fourth power of the principal quantum number n. This method, named double charge-exchange, was demonstrated by ATRAP in 2004. Since then, ATRAP constructed a new

  17. Impact of mechanical deformation on space charge in XLPE

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, G; Kamaruzzaman, M. R.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we report the effect of mechanical deformation on space charge dynamics in crosslinked polyethylene. Thin films were peeled from a 66 kV commercial XLPE cable. Space charge measurements under dc electric fields have been monitored using the pulsed electroacoustic (PEA) technique. It has been found that charge dynamics in deformed XLPE are different from that from undeformed XLPE at lower voltages. At low applied electric field, space charge is dominated by heterocharge in the de...

  18. Field Driven Charging Dynamics of a Fluidized Granular Bed

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshimatsu, R; Shinbrot, T; Herrmann, H J

    2016-01-01

    A simplified model has previously described the inductive charging of colliding identical grains in the presence of an external electric field. Here we extend that model by including heterogeneous surface charge distributions, grain rotations and electrostatic interactions between grains. We find from this more realistic model that strong heterogeneities in charging can occur in agitated granular beds, and we predict that shielding due to these heterogeneities can dramatically alter the charging rate in such beds.

  19. Dust Charging in Electronegative SiH4 Plasmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Ping; WANG Zheng-Xiong; LIU Yue; LIU Jin-Yuan; WANG Xiao-Gang

    2005-01-01

    @@ We theoretically investigate the dust charging in electronegative silane (SiH4) plasmas, taking into account the effects of UV photodetachment. It is found that UV photodetachment could significantly lower the dust negative charge and even makes dust grains be positively charged under some special conditions. In addition, the other parameters, involving the negative ion and dust number densities, electron temperature and dust radius, have great effects upon the dust charging.

  20. Screening of heterogeneous surfaces: charge renormalization of Janus particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, N; Carvajal Gallardo, E; Zheng, S; Eggen, E; Dijkstra, M; van Roij, R

    2010-03-17

    Nonlinear ionic screening theory for heterogeneously charged spheres is developed in terms of a mode decomposition of the surface charge. A far-field analysis of the resulting electrostatic potential leads to a natural generalization of charge renormalization from purely monopolar to dipolar, quadrupolar, etc, including 'mode couplings'. Our novel scheme is generally applicable to large classes of surface heterogeneities, and is explicitly applied here to Janus spheres with differently charged upper and lower hemispheres, revealing strong renormalization effects for all multipoles.