International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
20 years ago fractional charges were imagined to explain values of conductivity in some materials. Recent experiments have proved the existence of charges whose value is the third of the electron charge. This article presents the experimental facts that have led theorists to predict the existence of fractional charges from the motion of quasi-particles in a linear chain of poly-acetylene to the quantum Hall effect. According to the latest theories, fractional charges are neither bosons nor fermions but anyons, they are submitted to an exclusive principle that is less stringent than that for fermions. (A.C.)
Gabadadze, Gregory
2008-01-01
We consider Bose-Einstein condensation of massive electrically charged scalars in a uniform background of charged fermions. We focus on the case when the scalar condensate screens the background charge, while the net charge of the system resides on its boundary surface. A distinctive signature of this substance is that the photon acquires a Lorentz-violating mass in the bulk of the condensate. Due to this mass, the transverse and longitudinal gauge modes propagate with different group velocities. We give qualitative arguments that at high enough densities and low temperatures a charged system of electrons and helium-4 nuclei, if held together by laboratory devices or by force of gravity, can form such a substance. We briefly discuss possible manifestations of the charged condensate in compact astrophysical objects.
Charge independence and charge symmetry
Miller, G A; Miller, Gerald A; van Oers, Willem T H
1994-01-01
Charge independence and charge symmetry are approximate symmetries of nature, violated by the perturbing effects of the mass difference between up and down quarks and by electromagnetic interactions. The observations of the symmetry breaking effects in nuclear and particle physics and the implications of those effects are reviewed.
Charge independence and charge symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Charge independence and charge symmetry are approximate symmetries of nature, violated by the perturbing effects of the mass difference between up and down quarks and by electromagnetic interactions. The observations of the symmetry breaking effects in nuclear and particle physics and the implications of those effects are reviewed. (author). 145 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs
Albrecht, J; Babu, K; Bernstein, R H; Blum, T; Brown, D N; Casey, B C K; Cheng, C -h; Cirigliano, V; Cohen, A; Deshpande, A; Dukes, E C; Echenard, B; Gaponenko, A; Glenzinski, D; Gonzalez-Alonso, M; Grancagnolo, F; Grossman, Y; Harnik, R; Hitlin, D G; Kiburg, B; Knoepfe, K; Kumar, K; Lim, G; Lu, Z -T; McKeen, D; Miller, J P; Ramsey-Musolf, M; Ray, R; Roberts, B L; Rominsky, M; Semertzidis, Y; Stoeckinger, D; Talman, R; Van De Water, R; Winter, P
2013-01-01
This is the report of the Intensity Frontier Charged Lepton Working Group of the 2013 Community Summer Study "Snowmass on the Mississippi", summarizing the current status and future experimental opportunities in muon and tau lepton studies and their sensitivity to new physics. These include searches for charged lepton flavor violation, measurements of magnetic and electric dipole moments, and precision measurements of the decay spectrum and parity-violating asymmetries.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Semanti Chakraborty
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We present here a case of 17-year-old boy from Kolkata presenting with obesity, bilateral gynecomastia, mental retardation, and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. The patient weighed 70 kg and was of 153 cm height. Facial asymmetry (unilateral facial palsy, gynecomastia, decreased pubic and axillary hair, small penis, decreased right testicular volume, non-palpable left testis, and right-sided congenital inguinal hernia was present. The patient also had disc coloboma, convergent squint, microcornea, microphthalmia, pseudohypertelorism, low set ears, short neck, and choanalatresia. He had h/o VSD repaired with patch. Laboratory examination revealed haemoglobin 9.9 mg/dl, urea 24 mg/dl, creatinine 0.68 mg/dl. IGF1 77.80 ng/ml (decreased for age, GH <0.05 ng/ml, testosterone 0.25 ng/ml, FSH-0.95 ΅IU/ml, LH 0.60 ΅IU/ml. ACTH, 8:00 A.M cortisol, FT3, FT4, TSH, estradiol, DHEA-S, lipid profile, and LFT was within normal limits. Prolactin was elevated at 38.50 ng/ml. The patient′s karyotype was 46XY. Echocardiography revealed ventricularseptal defect closed with patch, grade 1 aortic regurgitation, and ejection fraction 67%. Ultrasound testis showed small right testis within scrotal sac and undescended left testis within left inguinal canal. CT scan paranasal sinuses revealed choanalatresia and deviation of nasal septum to the right. Sonomammography revealed bilateral proliferation of fibroglandular elements predominantly in subareoalar region of breasts. MRI of brain and pituitary region revealed markedly atrophic pituitary gland parenchyma with preserved infundibulum and hypothalamus and widened suprasellar cistern. The CHARGE association is an increasingly recognized non-random pattern of congenital anomalies comprising of coloboma, heart defect, choanal atresia, retarded growth and development, genital hypoplasia, ear abnormalities, and/or deafness. [1] These anomalies have a higher probability of occurring together. In this report, we have
Workplace Charging. Charging Up University Campuses
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Giles, Carrie [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Ryder, Carrie [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Lommele, Stephen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
2016-03-01
This case study features the experiences of university partners in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Workplace Charging Challenge with the installation and management of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging stations.
Multistep Charge Method by Charge Arrays
Segami, Go; Kusawake, Hiroaki; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Iwasa, Minoru; Kibe, Koichi
2008-09-01
We studied reduction of the size and weight of the Power Control Unit (PCU). In this study, we specifically examined the weight of the Battery Charge Regulator (BCR), which accounts for half of the PCU weight for a low earth orbit (LEO) satellite. We found a multistep charge method by charge arrays and adopted a similar method for GEO satellites, thereby enabling the BCR reduction. We found the possibility of reducing the size and weight of PCU through more detailed design than that for a conventional PCU.BCRC1R1batterySAPower Control UnitBCRC1R1batterySAPower UnitHowever, this method decreases the state of charge (SOC) of the battery. Battery tests, a battery simulator test, and numerical analysis were used to evaluate the SOC decrease. We also studied effects of this method on the battery lifetime. The multistep charge method by charge arrays enabled charging to the same level of SOC as the conventional constant current/ constant voltage (CC/CV) charge method for a LEO satellite.
Tsintsadze, Nodar L.; Tsintsadze, Levan N.
2008-01-01
A general derivation of the charging equation of a dust grain is presented, and indicated where and when it can be used. A problem of linear fluctuations of charges on the surface of the dust grain is discussed.
Induced Charge Capacitive Deionization
Rubin, S.; Suss, M. E.; Biesheuvel, P. M.; Bercovici, M.
2016-01-01
We demonstrate the phenomenon of induced-charge capacitive deionization (ICCDI) that occurs around a porous and conducting particle immersed in an electrolyte, under the action of an external electrostatic field. The external electric field induces an electric dipole in the porous particle, leading to capacitive charging of its volume by both cations and anions at opposite poles. This regime is characterized both by a large RC charging time and a small electrochemical charge relaxation time, ...
Primitive Virtual Negative Charge
Kim, Kiyoung
2008-01-01
Physical fields, such as gravity and electromagnetic field, are interpreted as results from rearrangement of vacuum particles to get the equilibrium of net charge density and net mass density in 4-dimensional complex space. Then, both fields should interact to each other in that physical interaction is considered as a field-to-field interaction. Hence, Mass-Charge interaction is introduced with primitive-virtual negative charge defined for the mass. With the concept of Mass-Charge interaction...
Anderson, Oscar A.
1978-01-01
An improved charge exchange system for substantially reducing pumping requirements of excess gas in a controlled thermonuclear reactor high energy neutral beam injector. The charge exchange system utilizes a jet-type blanket which acts simultaneously as the charge exchange medium and as a shield for reflecting excess gas.
Ferrario, M; Palumbo, L
2014-01-01
The space charge forces are those generated directly by the charge distribution, with the inclusion of the image charges and currents due to the interaction of the beam with a perfectly conducting smooth pipe. Space charge forces are responsible for several unwanted phenomena related to beam dynamics, such as energy loss, shift of the synchronous phase and frequency , shift of the betatron frequencies, and instabilities. We will discuss in this lecture the main feature of space charge effects in high-energy storage rings as well as in low-energy linacs and transport lines.
Modelling airport congestion charges
Janić, Milan
2012-01-01
This article deals with modelling congestion charges at an airport. In this context, congestion charging represents internalizing the cost of marginal delays that a flight imposes on other flights due to congestion. The modelling includes estimating congestion and flight delays, the cost of these delays and the efficiency of particular flights following the introduction ofa congestion charge. The models are applied to an airport / New York LaGuardia / to illustrate their ability to handle mor...
Higher charge periodic monopoles
Maldonado, Rafael
2013-01-01
We consider singly periodic solutions to the SU(2) Bogomolny equations and use the Nahm transform to generate a class of monopoles of charge k>2, thereby extending known results for lower charge chains. Some simple scattering processes are presented and a comparison made with geodesic motion of monopoles in $\\mathbb{R}^3$.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this review of charged weak currents we shall concentrate on inclusive high energy neutrino physics. The plan of this review is the following: general structure of charged current; new results on total cross-section; Callan-Gross relation; antiquark distribution; scaling violations and tests of QCD. At the end we will give a very short summary on multilepton physics
Induced Charge Capacitive Deionization
Rubin, S; Biesheuvel, P M; Bercovici, M
2016-01-01
We demonstrate the phenomenon of induced-charge capacitive deionization (ICCDI) that occurs around a porous and conducting particle immersed in an electrolyte, under the action of an external electrostatic field. The external electric field induces an electric dipole in the porous particle, leading to capacitive charging of its volume by both cations and anions at opposite poles. This regime is characterized both by a large RC charging time and a small electrochemical charge relaxation time, which leads to rapid and significant deionization of ionic species from a volume which is on the scale of the particle. We show by theory and experiment that the transient response around a cylindrical particle results in spatially non-uniform charging and non-steady growth of depletion regions which emerge around the particle's poles. Potentially, ICCDI can be useful in applications where fast concentration changes of ionic species are required over large volumes.
Price Based Electric Vehicle Charging
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mahat, Pukar; Handl, Martin; Kanstrup, Kenneth;
2012-01-01
paper investigates the impact on a Danish distribution system when the EV charging aims to reduce the charging cost by charging at the cheapest hours. Results show that the charging based on the price signal only will have adverse effect on the grid. The paper also proposes an alternate EV charging...
Decay of electric charge on corona charged polyethylene
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper describes a study on the surface potential decay of corona charged low density polyethylene (LDPE) films. A conventional corona charging process is used to deposit charge on the surface of film and surface potential is measured by a compact JCI 140 static monitor. The results from corona charged multilayer sample reveal that the bulk process dominates charge decay. In addition, the pulsed-electro-acoustic (PEA) technique has been employed to monitor charge profiles in corona charged LDPE films. By using the PEA technique, we are able to monitor charge migration through the bulk. Charge profiles in corona charged multilayer sample are consistent with surface potential results. Of further significance, the charge profiles clearly demonstrate that double injection has taken place in corona charged LDPE films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Experimentally it has been known for a long time that the electric charges of the observed particles appear to be quantized. An approach to understanding electric charge quantization that can be used for gauge theories with explicit U(1) factors - such as the standard model and its variants - is pedagogically reviewed and discussed in this article. This approach used the allowed invariances of the Lagrangian and their associated anomaly cancellation equations. It is demonstrated that charge may be de-quantized in the three-generation standard model with massless neutrinos, because differences in family-lepton-numbers are anomaly-free. The relevant experimental limits are also reviewed. This approach to charge quantization suggests that the minimal standard model should be extended so that family-lepton-number differences are explicitly broken. Some candidate extensions such as the minimal standard model augmented by Majorana right-handed neutrinos are also briefly discussed. 30 refs
Primitive Virtual Negative Charge
Kim, Kiyoung
2008-01-01
Physical fields, such as gravity and electromagnetic field, are interpreted as results from rearrangement of vacuum particles to get the equilibrium of net charge density and net mass density in 4-dimensional complex space. Then, both fields should interact to each other in that physical interaction is considered as a field-to-field interaction. Hence, Mass-Charge interaction is introduced with primitive-virtual negative charge defined for the mass. With the concept of Mass-Charge interaction electric equilibrium of the earth is discussed, especially about the electric field and magnetic field of the earth. For unsettled phenomena related with the earth's gravity, such as antigravity phenomenon, gravity anomalies during the solar eclipses, the connection between geomagnetic storms and earthquakes, etc., possible explanations are discussed.
Chauvin, N
2013-01-01
First, this chapter introduces the expressions for the electric and magnetic space-charge internal fields and forces induced by high-intensity beams. Then, the root-mean-square equation with space charge is derived and discussed. In the third section, the one-dimensional Child-Langmuir law, which gives the maximum current density that can be extracted from an ion source, is exposed. Space-charge compensation can occur in the low-energy beam transport lines (located after the ion source). This phenomenon, which counteracts the spacecharge defocusing effect, is explained and its main parameters are presented. The fifth section presents an overview of the principal methods to perform beam dynamics numerical simulations. An example of a particles-in-cells code, SolMaxP, which takes into account space-charge compensation, is given. Finally, beam dynamics simulation results obtained with this code in the case of the IFMIF injector are presented.
Startsev V. I.; Yampolsky Ju. S.
2008-01-01
The authors consider design and circuit design techniques of reduction of the influence of the pyroelectric effect on operation of the charge sensitive amplifiers. The presented experimental results confirm the validity of the measures taken to reduce the impact of pyroelectric currents. Pyroelectric currents are caused by the influence of the temperature gradient on the piezoelectric sensor and on the output voltage of charge sensitive amplifiers.
Robinson, Paul A., Jr.
1988-01-01
Charged-particle probe compact and consumes little power. Proposed modification enables metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) to act as detector of static electric charges or energetic charged particles. Thickened gate insulation acts as control structure. During measurements metal gate allowed to "float" to potential of charge accumulated in insulation. Stack of modified MOSFET'S constitutes detector of energetic charged particles. Each gate "floats" to potential induced by charged-particle beam penetrating its layer.
Gaseous charge transfer reactions of multiply charged ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doubly charged ions produced in electron impact ionization have received relatively little study due to their low abundance and masking from singly charged ions which are detected at the same mass-to-charge ratio by a mass spectrometer. This interference problem was avoided by exploiting a technique in which doubly charged molecular and fragment ions are monitored using a collisional charge-exchange process where only fast singly charged product ions are allowed to reach the detector. Primary research efforts were to determine structures and energetics of multiply charged ions formed in high energy electron impact ionization processes and their reactivities in ion-molecule charge exchange interactions. Doubly charged ion mass distributions for various chemical classes (including acetylenes, alkenes, terpenes and organophosphorus compounds) were recorded and appearance energies of prominent doubly charged ions were measured. Computer molecular orbital calculations (at the MINDO/3 level) of ionic structures, energies and charge distributions were utilized to augment the analysis of experimental results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this work a study is made for the factors affecting the production and extraction of highly charged ion beams. Discussion is made for the production of highly charged ions from: the conventional vacuum are ion sources (Pinning PIG and Duoplasmatron DP) and the recent trends type which are (Electron Beam Ion Sources EBIS, Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources ECRIS and Laser Ion source LIS). The highly charged ions with charge state +7 , O+8 ,Ne+10 , Ar+18 have been extracted from the ECRIS while fully stripped Xe+54 has been extracted from EBIS. Improving the capabilities of the conventional RF ion source to produce multiply charged ions is achieved through the use of electron injection into the plasma or with the use of RF driven ion source. The later is based on coupling the RF power to the discharge through an internal antenna in vacuum are ion source. The argon ion species extracted from these upgraded RF ion sources could reach Ar+5
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
After an introductory section on the relationship between emittance and beam Coulomb energy we discuss the properties of space charge dominated beams in progressive steps: from uniformly charged bunched beams to non-uniformly charged beams to correlation effects between particles (simulation beams or 'crystalline' beams). A practical application can be found in the beam dynamics of a high-current injector. The concept of correlation energy is of practical interest in computer simulation of high-brilliance beams, where one deals with an artificially enhanced two-particle Coulomb energy, if many real particles are combined into one simulation super-particle. This can be a source of non-physical emittance growth. (orig./HSI)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This document is a basic course on charged particle sources for post-graduate students and thematic schools on large facilities and accelerator physics. A simple but precise description of the creation and the emission of charged particles is presented. This course relies on every year upgraded reference documents. Following relevant topics are considered: electronic emission processes, technological and practical considerations on electron guns, positron sources, production of neutral atoms, ionization, plasma and discharge, different types of positive and negative ion sources, polarized particle sources, materials for the construction of ion sources, low energy beam production and transport. (N.T.)
Charged conformal Killing spinors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the twistor equation on pseudo-Riemannian Spinc-manifolds whose solutions we call charged conformal Killing spinors (CCKSs). We derive several integrability conditions for the existence of CCKS and study their relations to spinor bilinears. A construction principle for Lorentzian manifolds admitting CCKS with nontrivial charge starting from CR-geometry is presented. We obtain a partial classification result in the Lorentzian case under the additional assumption that the associated Dirac current is normal conformal and complete the classification of manifolds admitting CCKS in all dimensions and signatures ≤5 which has recently been initiated in the study of supersymmetric field theories on curved space
Charge configurations in viral proteins.
Karlin, S; Brendel, V
1988-01-01
The spatial distribution of the charged residues of a protein is of interest with respect to potential electrostatic interactions. We have examined the proteins of a large number of representative eukaryotic and prokaryotic viruses for the occurrence of significant clusters, runs, and periodic patterns of charge. Clusters and runs of positive charge are prominent in many capsid and core proteins, whereas surface (glyco)proteins frequently contain a negative charge cluster. Significant charge ...
Humphries, Stanley
2013-01-01
Detailed enough for a text and sufficiently comprehensive for a reference, this volume addresses topics vital to understanding high-power accelerators and high-brightness-charged particle beams. Subjects include stochastic cooling, high-brightness injectors, and the free electron laser. Humphries provides students with the critical skills necessary for the problem-solving insights unique to collective physics problems. 1990 edition.
Charged Particle Optics Theory
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hawkes, P. W.; Lencová, Bohumila
-, č. 6 (2006), s. 6-8 Grant ostatní: EC 5RP(XE) G5RD-CT-2000-00344 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : optics of charged particles * design of ion lithography system * spot profile * the finite element method Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering www.phantomsnet.net
Stability of charged membranes
Bensimon, D; David, F.; Leibler, S.; Pumir, A.
1990-01-01
The electrostatic contribution to the bending elastic modulus of charged phospholipid bilayers in an ionic solution is computed. It is found to be the same for conducting and non-conducting membranes and is always stabilizing. This stability for free membranes is shown to be a simple consequence of the vanishing of the physical surface tension.
Spontaneous Emission of Charged Bosons from Supercritical Point Charges
Kim, Sang Pyo
2013-01-01
We study the spontaneous emission of charged bosons from supercritical Coulomb potentials and charged black holes. We find the exact emission rate from the Bogoliubov transformation by applying the tunneling boundary condition on the Jost functions at the asymptotic boundaries. The emission rate for charged bosons in the supercritical Coulomb potential increases as the charge $Z\\alpha > 1/2$ of the superatom and the energy of the bosons increase but is suppressed for large angular momenta. We discuss physical implications of the emission of charged bosons from superatoms and charged black holes.
Decay of electric charge on corona charged polyethylene
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, the surface potential decay of corona-charged low density polyethylene (LDPE) films has been investigated. It has been found that for the same sample thickness the faster decay occurs in the sample with a higher charging voltage. For the same charging voltage, the surface potential in the thinner sample shows rapid decay. Our new evidence from both the surface potential measurement on multilayer samples and space charge measurement suggests the surface potential decay is a bulk limited process. More importantly, space charge measurement indicates double injection has taken place during corona charging process.
Optimization of BEV Charging Strategy
Ji, Wei
This paper presents different approaches to optimize fast charging and workplace charging strategy of battery electric vehicle (BEV) drivers. For the fast charging analysis, a rule-based model was built to simulate BEV charging behavior. Monte Carlo analysis was performed to explore to the potential range of congestion at fast charging stations which could be more than four hours at the most crowded stations. Genetic algorithm was performed to explore the theoretical minimum waiting time at fast charging stations, and it can decrease the waiting time at the most crowded stations to be shorter than one hour. A deterministic approach was proposed as a feasible suggestion that people should consider to take fast charging when the state of charge is approaching 40 miles. This suggestion is hoped to help to minimize potential congestion at fast charging stations. For the workplace charging analysis, scenario analysis was performed to simulate temporal distribution of charging demand under different workplace charging strategies. It was found that if BEV drivers charge as much as possible and as late as possible at workplace, it could increase the utility of solar-generated electricity while relieve grid stress of extra intensive electricity demand at night caused by charging electric vehicles at home.
Charge Breeding of Radioactive Ions
Wenander, F. J. C.
2014-01-01
Charge breeding is a technique to increase the charge state of ions, in many cases radioactive ions. The singly charged radioactive ions, produced in an isotope separator on-line facility, and extracted with a low kinetic energy of some tens of keV, are injected into a charge breeder, where the charge state is increased to Q. The transformed ions are either directed towards a dedicated experiment requiring highly charged ions, or post-accelerated to higher beam energies. In this paper the phy...
Intelligent battery charging system
Everett, Hobert R., Jr.
1991-09-01
The present invention is a battery charging system that provides automatic voltage selection, short circuit protection, and delayed output to prevent arcing or pitting. A second embodiment of the invention provides a homing beacon which transmits a signal so that a battery powered mobile robot may home in on and contact the invention to charge its battery. The invention includes electric terminals isolated from one another. One terminal is grounded and the other has a voltage applied to it through a resistor connected to the output of a DC power supply. A voltage scaler is connected between the resistor and the hot terminal. An On/Off controller and a voltage mode selector sense the voltage provided at the output of the voltage scaler.
Emira, Ahmed A.
2014-10-09
Various embodiments of a high voltage charge pump are described. One embodiment is a charge pump circuit that comprises a plurality of switching stages each including a clock input, a clock input inverse, a clock output, and a clock output inverse. The circuit further comprises a plurality of pumping capacitors, wherein one or more pumping capacitors are coupled to a corresponding switching stage. The circuit also comprises a maximum selection circuit coupled to a last switching stage among the plurality of switching stages, the maximum selection circuit configured to filter noise on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage, the maximum selection circuit further configured to generate a DC output voltage based on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage.
Feng, Jonathan L; Tu, Huitzu; Yu, Hai-Bo
2009-01-01
We examine the possibility that dark matter is hidden, that is, neutral under all standard model gauge interactions, but charged under an exact U(1) gauge symmetry of the hidden sector. Such candidates are predicted in simple WIMPless models, supersymmetric models in which hidden dark matter has the desired thermal relic density for a wide range of masses. Hidden charged dark matter has many potentially disastrous implications for astrophysics: (1) bound state formation and Sommerfeld-enhanced annihilation after chemical freeze out may destroy its relic density, (2) similar effects greatly enhance dark matter annihilation in protohalos at redshifts of z ~ 30, (3) Compton scattering off hidden photons delays kinetic decoupling, suppressing small scale structure, and (4) Rutherford scattering makes such dark matter self-interacting and collisional, potentially violating constraints from the Bullet Cluster and the observed morphology of galactic halos. We show that all of these constraints are satisfied and are ...
Controlling charge on levitating drops.
Hilger, Ryan T; Westphall, Michael S; Smith, Lloyd M
2007-08-01
Levitation technologies are used in containerless processing of materials, as microscale manipulators and reactors, and in the study of single drops and particles. Presented here is a method for controlling the amount and polarity of charge on a levitating drop. The method uses single-axis acoustic levitation to trap and levitate a single, initially neutral drop with a diameter between 400 microm and 2 mm. This drop is then charged in a controllable manner using discrete packets of charge in the form of charged drops produced by a piezoelectric drop-on-demand dispenser equipped with a charging electrode. The magnitude of the charge on the dispensed drops can be adjusted by varying the voltage applied to the charging electrode. The polarity of the charge on the added drops can be changed allowing removal of charge from the trapped drop (by neutralization) and polarity reversal. The maximum amount of added charge is limited by repulsion of like charges between the drops in the trap. This charging scheme can aid in micromanipulation and the study of charged drops and particles using levitation. PMID:17580951
Charge states of ions, and mechanisms of charge ordering transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
To gain insight into the mechanism of charge ordering transitions, which conventionally are pictured as a disproportionation of an ion M as 2Mn+→M(n+1)+ + M(n−1)+, we (1) review and reconsider the charge state (or oxidation number) picture itself, (2) introduce new results for the putative charge ordering compound AgNiO2 and the dual charge state insulator AgO, and (3) analyze the cationic occupations of the actual (not formal) charge, and work to reconcile the conundrums that arise. We establish that several of the clearest cases of charge ordering transitions involve no disproportion (no charge transfer between the cations, and hence no charge ordering), and that the experimental data used to support charge ordering can be accounted for within density functional-based calculations that contain no charge transfer between cations. We propose that the charge state picture retains meaning and importance, at least in many cases, if one focuses on Wannier functions rather than atomic orbitals. The challenge of modeling charge ordering transitions with model Hamiltonians isdiscussed. (paper)
Mesoscopic charge quantization
Aleiner, I.L.; Glazman, L. I.
1997-01-01
We study the Coulomb blockade in a chaotic quantum dot connected to a lead by a single channel at nearly perfect transmission. We take into account quantum fluctuations of the dot charge and a finite level spacing for electron states within the dot. Mesoscopic fluctuations of thermodynamic and transport properties in the Coulomb blockade regime exist at any transmission coefficient. In contrast to the previous theories, we show that by virtue of these mesoscopic fluctuations, the Coulomb bloc...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Experimental measurements of the τ lifetime and leptonic branching ratios are combined to give updated world averages for these quantities. The results are then used to test the universality of the electroweak charged current couplings to the three lepton species and are found to be consistent with Standard Model predictions at the level of 0.2%, permitting limits to be derived on non-Standard Model physics such as the mass of the τ neutrino
Taylor, M
2006-01-01
Two charge BPS horizon free supergravity geometries are important in proposals for understanding black hole microstates. In this paper we construct a new class of geometries in the NS1-P system, corresponding to solitonic strings carrying fermionic as well as bosonic condensates. Such geometries are required to account for the full microscopic entropy of the NS1-P system. We then briefly discuss the properties of the corresponding geometries in the dual D1-D5 system.
Charging mechanisms in persistent phosphors
Smet, Philippe; Van den Eeckhout, Koen; Korthout, Katleen; Botterman, Jonas; van der Kolk, Erik; Bos, Adrie; Dorenbos, Pieter; Poelman, Dirk
2011-01-01
The development of novel persistent phosphors is currently hampered by a limited understanding of the charging mechanism. Using x-ray absorption and thermoluminescence spectroscopy we evaluate the validity of recently proposed models for the charging mechanism.
Distributed charging of electrical assets
Ghosh, Soumyadip; Phan, Dung; Sharma, Mayank; Wu, Chai Wah; Xiong, Jinjun
2016-02-16
The present disclosure relates generally to the field of distributed charging of electrical assets. In various examples, distributed charging of electrical assets may be implemented in the form of systems, methods and/or algorithms.
Submerged AUV Charging Station
Jones, Jack A.; Chao, Yi; Curtin, Thomas
2014-01-01
Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are becoming increasingly important for military surveillance and mine detection. Most AUVs are battery powered and have limited lifetimes of a few days to a few weeks. This greatly limits the distance that AUVs can travel underwater. Using a series of submerged AUV charging stations, AUVs could travel a limited distance to the next charging station, recharge its batteries, and continue to the next charging station, thus traveling great distances in a relatively short time, similar to the Old West “Pony Express.” One solution is to use temperature differences at various depths in the ocean to produce electricity, which is then stored in a submerged battery. It is preferred to have the upper buoy submerged a reasonable distance below the surface, so as not to be seen from above and not to be inadvertently destroyed by storms or ocean going vessels. In a previous invention, a phase change material (PCM) is melted (expanded) at warm temperatures, for example, 15 °C, and frozen (contracted) at cooler temperatures, for example, 8 °C. Tubes containing the PCM, which could be paraffin such as pentadecane, would be inserted into a container filled with hydraulic oil. When the PCM is melted (expanded), it pushes the oil out into a container that is pressurized to about 3,000 psi (approx equals 20.7 MPa). When a valve is opened, the high-pressure oil passes through a hydraulic motor, which turns a generator and charges a battery. The low-pressure oil is finally reabsorbed into the PCM canister when the PCM tubes are frozen (contracted). Some of the electricity produced could be used to control an external bladder or a motor to the tether line, such that depth cycling is continued for a very long period of time. Alternatively, after the electricity is generated by the hydraulic motor, the exiting low-pressure oil from the hydraulic motor could be vented directly to an external bladder on the AUV, such that filling of the bladder
Banking Bank Charge Debates Continue
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG PEI
2006-01-01
@@ The saying, "There's no such thing as a free lunch" is one that can be applied to the charges increasingly being imposed on savers by Chinese banks.Ranging from managementfees for small deposit accounts to charges for withdrawals of large amounts of cash, from ATM cross-bank withdrawal charges to annual fees for bank payment cards, charges by banks are becoming a unstoppable trend. But it is not a trend the general public is so keen to accept.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cooler Storage Ring (CSR), and upgrading program planned at the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL), will supply beams with higher quality and intensity. Space charge effects should be considered due to this magnitude of intensity in CSR. The concept and some phenomena of space charge effects are discussed. Space charge intensity limit and space charge tune shift of normal CSR operation are given. It is of significance for the construction and operation of the future facility
Modular Battery Charge Controller
Button, Robert; Gonzalez, Marcelo
2009-01-01
A new approach to masterless, distributed, digital-charge control for batteries requiring charge control has been developed and implemented. This approach is required in battery chemistries that need cell-level charge control for safety and is characterized by the use of one controller per cell, resulting in redundant sensors for critical components, such as voltage, temperature, and current. The charge controllers in a given battery interact in a masterless fashion for the purpose of cell balancing, charge control, and state-of-charge estimation. This makes the battery system invariably fault-tolerant. The solution to the single-fault failure, due to the use of a single charge controller (CC), was solved by implementing one CC per cell and linking them via an isolated communication bus [e.g., controller area network (CAN)] in a masterless fashion so that the failure of one or more CCs will not impact the remaining functional CCs. Each micro-controller-based CC digitizes the cell voltage (V(sub cell)), two cell temperatures, and the voltage across the switch (V); the latter variable is used in conjunction with V(sub cell) to estimate the bypass current for a given bypass resistor. Furthermore, CC1 digitizes the battery current (I1) and battery voltage (V(sub batt) and CC5 digitizes a second battery current (I2). As a result, redundant readings are taken for temperature, battery current, and battery voltage through the summation of the individual cell voltages given that each CC knows the voltage of the other cells. For the purpose of cell balancing, each CC periodically and independently transmits its cell voltage and stores the received cell voltage of the other cells in an array. The position in the array depends on the identifier (ID) of the transmitting CC. After eight cell voltage receptions, the array is checked to see if one or more cells did not transmit. If one or more transmissions are missing, the missing cell(s) is (are) eliminated from cell
Adsorption of highly charged Gaussian polyelectrolytes onto oppositely charged surfaces
Dutta, Sandipan; Jho, Y. S.
2016-03-01
In many biological processes highly charged biopolymers are adsorbed onto oppositely charged surfaces of macroions and membranes. They form strongly correlated structures close to the surface which cannot be explained by the conventional Poisson-Boltzmann theory. In this work strong coupling theory is used to study the adsorption of highly charged Gaussian polyelectrolytes. Two cases of adsorptions are considered, when the Gaussian polyelectrolytes are confined (a) by one charged wall, and (b) between two charged walls. The effects of salt and the geometry of the polymers on their adsorption-depletion transitions in the strong coupling regime are discussed.
Measuring Charge Transport in an Amorphous Semiconductor Using Charge Sensing
Maclean, K; Mentzel, T. S.; Kastner, M. A.
2009-01-01
We measure charge transport in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) using a nanometer scale silicon MOSFET as a charge sensor. This charge detection technique makes possible the measurement of extremely large resistances. At high temperatures, where the a-Si:H resistance is not too large, the charge detection measurement agrees with a direct measurement of current. The device geometry allows us to probe both the field effect and dispersive transport in the a-Si:H using charge sensing and t...
Charging Users for Library Service.
Cooper, Michael D.
1978-01-01
Examines the question of instituting direct charges for library service, using on-line bibliographic searching as an example, and contrasts this with the current indirect charging system where services are paid for by taxes. Information, as a merit good, should be supplied with or without direct charges, depending upon user status. (CWM)
Transient analysis of charging system with centrifugal charging pumps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The CARD (CVCS Analysis for Design) code has been developed for the transient analysis of the letdown and charging system of Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plant. The computer code has been already verified and validated by comparing with actual test results. Analyzed in this paper are the flow and pressure transients in the charging line. The sensitivity studies are performed to select the acceptable control parameters of charging line backpressure controller and seal injection flow controller. In addition, the seal injection system transient is evaluated for the pressurizer auxiliary spray operation. It is shown that the charging line backpressure controller control parameters yield a significant effect on the charging system stability. The results obtained from this study will be used to verify the system design and to select the optimum control parameters for the charging system with centrifugal charging pumps
Price Based Electric Vehicle Charging
Mahat, Pukar; Handl, Martin; Kanstrup, Kenneth; Lozano, Alberto; Sleimovits, Aleksandr
2012-01-01
It is expected that a lot of the new light vehicles in the future will be electrical vehicles (EV). The storage capacity of these EVs has the potential to complement renewable energy resources and mitigate its intermittency. However, EV charging may have negative impact on the power grid. This paper investigates the impact on a Danish distribution system when the EV charging aims to reduce the charging cost by charging at the cheapest hours. Results show that the charging based on the price s...
Branes, Charge and Intersections
Marolf, D M
2001-01-01
This is a brief summary of lectures given at the Fourth Mexican School on Gravitation and Mathematical Physics. The lectures gave an introduction to branes in eleven-dimensional supergravity and in type IIA supergravities in ten-dimensions. Charge conservation and the role of the so-called `Chern-Simons terms' were emphasized. Known exact solutions were discussed and used to provide insight into the question `Why don't fundamental strings fall off of D-branes,' which is often asked by relativists. The following is a brief overview of the lectures with an associated guide to the literature.
Branes, Charge and Intersections
Marolf, Donald
2001-01-01
This is a brief summary of lectures given at the Fourth Mexican School on Gravitation and Mathematical Physics. The lectures gave an introduction to branes in eleven-dimensional supergravity and in type IIA supergravities in ten-dimensions. Charge conservation and the role of the so-called `Chern-Simons terms' were emphasized. Known exact solutions were discussed and used to provide insight into the question `Why don't fundamental strings fall off of D-branes,' which is often asked by relativ...
Bulk charges in eleven dimensions
Hawking, Stephen William
1998-01-01
Eleven dimensional supergravity has electric type currents arising from the Chern-Simon and anomaly terms in the action. However the bulk charge integrates to zero for asymptotically flat solutions with topological trivial spatial sections. We show that by relaxing the boundary conditions to generalisations of the ALE and ALF boundary conditions in four dimensions one can obtain static solutions with a bulk charge preserving between 1/16 and 1/4 of the supersymmetries. One can introduce membranes with the same sign of charge into these backgrounds. This raises the possibility that these generalized membranes might decay quantum mechanically to leave just a bulk distribution of charge. Alternatively and more probably, a bulk distribution of charge can decay into a collection of singlely charged membranes. Dimensional reductions of these solutions lead to novel representations of extreme black holes in four dimensions with up to four charges. We discuss how the eleven-dimensional Kaluza-Klein monopole wrapped a...
Charged Dust Aggregate Interactions
Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell
2015-11-01
A proper understanding of the behavior of dust particle aggregates immersed in a complex plasma first requires a knowledge of the basic properties of the system. Among the most important of these are the net electrostatic charge and higher multipole moments on the dust aggregate as well as the manner in which the aggregate interacts with the local electrostatic fields. The formation of elongated, fractal-like aggregates levitating in the sheath electric field of a weakly ionized RF generated plasma discharge has recently been observed experimentally. The resulting data has shown that as aggregates approach one another, they can both accelerate and rotate. At equilibrium, aggregates are observed to levitate with regular spacing, rotating about their long axis aligned parallel to the sheath electric field. Since gas drag tends to slow any such rotation, energy must be constantly fed into the system in order to sustain it. A numerical model designed to analyze this motion provides both the electrostatic charge and higher multipole moments of the aggregate while including the forces due to thermophoresis, neutral gas drag, and the ion wakefield. This model will be used to investigate the ambient conditions leading to the observed interactions. This research is funded by NSF Grant 1414523.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The group of automorphisms of the conformal algebra su(2,2) has four components giving the usual four components of symmetries of space time. Only two of these components extend to symmetries of the conformal superalgebra - the identity component and the component which induces the parity transformation, P, on space time. There is no automorphism of the conformal superalgebra which induces T or PT on space time. Automorphisms of su(2,2) which belong to these last two components induce transformations on the conformal superalgebra which reverse the sign of the odd brackets. In this sense conformal supersymmetry prefers CP to CPT. The operator of charge conjugation acting on spinors, as is found in the standard texts, induces conformal inversion and hence a parity transformation on space time, when considered as acting on the odd generators of the conformal superalgebra. Although it commutes with Lorentz transformations, it does not commute with all of su(2,2). We propose a different operator for charge conjugation. Geometrically it is induced by the Hodge star operator acting on twistor space. Under the known realization of conformal states from the inclusion SU(2,2)→Sp(8) and the metaplectic representations, its action on states is induced by the unique (up to phase) antilinear intertwining operator between the two metaplectic representations. It is consistent with the split orthosymplectic algebras and hence, by the inclusion of the superconformal in the orthosymplectic, with the orthosymplectic algebra. (orig.)
Babichev, Eugeny; Charmousis, Christos; Hassaine, Mokhtar
2015-05-01
We consider an Abelian gauge field coupled to a particular truncation of Horndeski theory. The Galileon field has translation symmetry and couples non minimally both to the metric and the gauge field. When the gauge-scalar coupling is zero the gauge field reduces to a standard Maxwell field. By taking into account the symmetries of the action, we construct charged black hole solutions. Allowing the scalar field to softly break symmetries of spacetime we construct black holes where the scalar field is regular on the black hole event horizon. Some of these solutions can be interpreted as the equivalent of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes of scalar tensor theories with a non trivial scalar field. A self tuning black hole solution found previously is extended to the presence of dyonic charge without affecting whatsoever the self tuning of a large positive cosmological constant. Finally, for a general shift invariant scalar tensor theory we demonstrate that the scalar field Ansatz and method we employ are mathematically compatible with the field equations. This opens up the possibility for novel searches of hairy black holes in a far more general setting of Horndeski theory.
Babichev, Eugeny; Hassaine, Mokhtar
2015-01-01
We consider an Abelian gauge field coupled to a particular truncation of Horndeski theory. The Galileon field has translation symmetry and couples non minimally both to the metric and the gauge field. When the gauge-scalar coupling is zero the gauge field reduces to a standard Maxwell field. By taking into account the symmetries of the action, we construct charged black hole solutions. Allowing the scalar field to softly break symmetries of spacetime we construct black holes where the scalar field is regular on the black hole event horizon. Some of these solutions can be interpreted as the equivalent of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes of scalar tensor theories with a non trivial scalar field. A self tuning black hole solution found previously is extended to the presence of dyonic charge without affecting whatsoever the self tuning of a large positive cosmological constant. Finally, for a general shift invariant scalar tensor theory we demonstrate that the scalar field Ansatz and method we employ are mathematic...
Tuffner, Francis K.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Pratt, Richard M.
2012-05-22
Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.
Charge Breeding of Radioactive Ions
Wenander, F J C
2013-01-01
Charge breeding is a technique to increase the charge state of ions, in many cases radioactive ions. The singly charged radioactive ions, produced in an isotope separator on-line facility, and extracted with a low kinetic energy of some tens of keV, are injected into a charge breeder, where the charge state is increased to Q. The transformed ions are either directed towards a dedicated experiment requiring highly charged ions, or post-accelerated to higher beam energies. In this paper the physics processes involved in the production of highly charged ions will be introduced, and the injection and extraction beam parameters of the charge breeder defined. A description of the three main charge-breeding methods is given, namely: electron stripping in gas jet or foil; external ion injection into an electron-beam ion source/trap (EBIS/T); and external ion injection into an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). In addition, some preparatory devices for charge breeding and practical beam delivery aspects ...
Adsorption of highly charged Gaussian polyelectrolytes to oppositely charged surfaces
Dutta, Sandipan; Jho, Y. S.
2015-01-01
In many biological processes highly charged biomolecules are adsorbed into oppositely charged surfaces of macroions and membranes. They form strongly correlated structures close to the surface which can not be explained by the conventional Poisson-Boltzmann theory. Many of the flexible biomolecules can be described by Gaussian polymers. In this work strong coupling theory is used to study the adsorption of highly charged Gaussian polyelectrolytes. Two cases of adsorptions are considered, when...
Charge Transfer and Charge Transport on the Double Helix
N. P. Armitage; Briman, M.; Gruner, G.
2003-01-01
We present a short review of various experiments that measure charge transfer and charge transport in DNA. Some general comments are made on the possible connection between 'chemistry-style' charge transfer experiments that probe fluorescence quenching and remote oxidative damage and 'physics-style' measurements that measure transport properties as defined typically in the solid-state. We then describe measurements performed by our group on the millimeter wave response of DNA. By measuring ov...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shalini S. Durgam
2015-03-01
Full Text Available One of the primary needs for socio-economic development in any nation in the world is the provision of reliable electricity supply systems with lower carbon footprint levels. The purpose of this work is the development of a hybrid Power system that harnesses the renewable energy in sun and electricity to generate electricity. The working model can able to run on dual mode- solar and electricity. It can also be driven independently either by solar or electricity. The battery can be charge from solar panel (40W or by power supply. The household single phase A.C. power supply of 230V is converted into 12V D.C. using step down transformer and rectifying circuit. The working model can achieve energy saving, low carbon emission, environmental protection for the upcoming future of human life.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bergey, M.
1997-12-01
This paper discusses the concept of battery charging stations (BCSs), designed to service rural owners of battery power sources. Many such power sources now are transported to urban areas for recharging. A BCS provides the opportunity to locate these facilities closer to the user, is often powered by renewable sources, or hybrid systems, takes advantage of economies of scale, and has the potential to provide lower cost of service, better service, and better cost recovery than other rural electrification programs. Typical systems discussed can service 200 to 1200 people, and consist of stations powered by photovoltaics, wind/PV, wind/diesel, or diesel only. Examples of installed systems are presented, followed by cost figures, economic analysis, and typical system design and performance numbers.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the quantum stabilization of a cosmic string by a heavy fermion doublet in a reduced version of the standard model. We show that charged strings, obtained by populating fermionic bound state levels, become stable if the electroweak bosons are coupled to a fermion that is less than twice as heavy as the top quark. This result suggests that extraordinarily large fermion masses or unrealistic couplings are not required to bind a cosmic string in the standard model. Numerically we find the most favorable string profile to be a simple trough in the Higgs vacuum expectation value of radius ≅10-18 m. The vacuum remains stable in our model, because neutral strings are not energetically favored.
Stable charged cosmic strings.
Weigel, H; Quandt, M; Graham, N
2011-03-11
We study the quantum stabilization of a cosmic string by a heavy fermion doublet in a reduced version of the standard model. We show that charged strings, obtained by populating fermionic bound state levels, become stable if the electroweak bosons are coupled to a fermion that is less than twice as heavy as the top quark. This result suggests that extraordinarily large fermion masses or unrealistic couplings are not required to bind a cosmic string in the standard model. Numerically we find the most favorable string profile to be a simple trough in the Higgs vacuum expectation value of radius ≈10(-18) m. The vacuum remains stable in our model, because neutral strings are not energetically favored. PMID:21469786
Miller, Jacob Lee
2015-04-21
An explosive bulk charge, including: a first contact surface configured to be selectively disposed substantially adjacent to a structure or material; a second end surface configured to selectively receive a detonator; and a curvilinear side surface joining the first contact surface and the second end surface. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface form a bi-truncated hemispherical structure. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface are formed from an explosive material. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface each have a substantially circular shape. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface consist of planar structures that are aligned substantially parallel or slightly tilted with respect to one another. The curvilinear side surface has one of a smooth curved geometry, an elliptical geometry, and a parabolic geometry.
Nanodosimetry of charged particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In last year's annual report, the authors described the development of an ultra-miniature counter (UMC), described some of its physical characteristics, and presented some first measurements with this counter of microdosimetric spectra for neutrons (15 MeV) and photons (137Cs). It remains to investigate in more detail the operational characteristics of the UMC and if possible, to make a comparison of relevant physical parameters such as gain and multiplication radius with the Segur theory. In order to accomplish these objectives, it is necessary to build a wall-less version of the UMC, which will be amenable to calibration and investigation with collimated beams of charged particles. The design of such a counter has been worked out in principle. Investigations into the optimal design of electrode structures and dimensions are being carried out at present. The main problem occurs with the design of the grid structure which is required to define the outer boundary of the collecting volume. Our initial attempts would make it appear at present that a counter of 1 to 1.5 mm diameter is feasible. This should be more than adequate to provide an appropriately wall-less counter within a reasonable size cavity. It will probably be about a year before a working counter can be produced. In the interim, it is possible to make some initial efforts into the investigation of operational characteristics of a wall-less UMC by making use of similar design, but at a somewhat larger size. These first attempts at measurement of charged particle microdosimetric spectra at nanometer site provide added evidence that these counters can yield useful microdosimetric data at far smaller site sizes than heretofore attempted. They also provide added incentive and encouragement for development of wall-less UMC
12 CFR 226.4 - Finance charge.
2010-01-01
... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Finance charge. 226.4 Section 226.4 Banks and... LENDING (REGULATION Z) General § 226.4 Finance charge. (a) Definition. The finance charge is the cost of...) Charges by third parties. The finance charge includes fees and amounts charged by someone other than...
Charge contribution to patch-charged microparticle adhesion
Vallabh, Chaitanya Krishna Prasad; Vahdat, Armin Saeedi; Cetinkaya, Cetin
2014-11-01
Microparticle adhesion influenced by electrostatic charge has been a significant research interest for over past three decades or so in a wide spectrum of areas of interest from manufacturing (electrophotography, powder technology, metallurgy, and semi-conductor manufacturing) to natural phenomena (desert sandstorms and northern lights (auroras)). However, over the years, as a result of the strong discrepancies between the experimental adhesion measurements data and theoretical predictions, some key issues regarding the contributors of adhesion forces in charged microparticles and the nature of surface charge distribution still remain unresolved. In the current work, a non-contact ultrasonic approach is presented and employed for understanding the nature of charge distribution on a single microparticle and determining the effect of electrostatic charge on its adhesion in a non-invasive manner. From the vibrational spectra of the charged particle response to the ultrasonic substrate oscillations under various electrostatic loading conditions, three distinct shifting patterns of vibrational (rocking) resonance frequencies are observed for each level of applied substrate surface voltage, implying an un-symmetric force field on the particle, thus depicting non-uniform non-symmetric surface charge distribution on its surface. Also, a simple mathematical model was presented and employed for predicting the equivalent bulk charge on a single microparticle (toner) from resonance frequency shifts. In summary, it is found that the charge levels reported here are consistent with the previously published data, and it is demonstrated that, in a non-invasive manner, non-uniform charge distribution on a single microparticle can be observed and its total charge can be predicted.
Exact solutions of charged wormhole
Kim, Sung-Won; Lee, Hyunjoo
2001-01-01
In this paper, the backreaction to the traversable Lorentzian wormhole spacetime by the scalar field or electric charge is considered to find the exact solutions. The charges play the role of the additional matter to the static wormhole which is already constructed by the exotic matter. The stability conditions for the wormhole with scalar field and electric charge are found from the positiveness and flareness for the wormhole shape function.
Charging graphene nanoribbon quantum dots
Żebrowski, D. P.; B. Szafran
2015-01-01
We describe charging a quantum dot induced electrostatically within a semiconducting graphene nanoribbon by electrons or holes. The applied model is based on a tight-binding approach with the electron-electron interaction introduced by a mean field local spin density approximation. The numerical approach accounts for the charge of all the $p_z$ electrons and screening of external potentials by states near the charge neutrality point. Both a homogenous ribbon and a graphene flake embedded with...
Solar Charged Stand Alone Inverter
M.Vasugi; Prof R.Jayaraman
2014-01-01
This paper deals with solar powered stand alone inverter which converts the variable dc output of a photovoltaic solar panel into ac that can be fed to loads. Stand alone inverters are used in systems where the inverter get its energy from batteries charged by photo voltaic arrays. A charge controller limits the rate at which electric current is added to or drawn from electric batteries. This charge discharge controller is needed to prevent the battery from being overcharged o...
Engineering charge ordering into multiferroicity
He, Xu; Jin, Kui-juan
2016-01-01
Multiferroic materials have attracted great interests but are rare in nature. In many transitional metal oxides, charge ordering and magnetic ordering coexist, so that a method of engineering charge-ordered materials into ferroelectric materials would lead to a large class of multiferroic materials. We propose a strategy for designing new ferroelectric or even multiferroic materials by inserting a spacing layer into each two layers of charge-ordered materials and artificially making a superla...
Charge transferred in brush discharges
Talarek, M.; Kacprzyk, R.
2015-10-01
Electrostatic discharges from surfaces of plastic materials can be a source of ignition, when appear in explosive atmospheres. Incendivity of electrostatic discharges can be estimated using the transferred charge test. In the case of brush discharges not all the energy stored at the tested sample is released and the effective surface charge density (or surface potential) crater is observed after the discharge. Simplified model, enabling calculation of a charge transferred during electrostatic brush discharge, was presented. Comparison of the results obtained from the simplified model and from direct measurements of transferred charge are presented in the paper.
Butterflies with rotation and charge
Reynolds, Alan P
2016-01-01
We explore the butterfly effect for black holes with rotation or charge. We perturb rotating BTZ and charged black holes in 2+1 dimensions by adding a small perturbation on one asymptotic region, described by a shock wave in the spacetime, and explore the effect of this shock wave on the length of geodesics through the wormhole and hence on correlation functions. We find the effect of the perturbation grows exponentially at a rate controlled by the temperature; dependence on the angular momentum or charge does not appear explicitly. We comment on issues affecting the extension to higher-dimensional charged black holes.
Interactions of charged dust particles in clouds of charges
Gundienkov, Vladimir; Yakovlenko, Sergey
2004-03-01
Two charged dust particles inside a cloud of charges are considered as Debye atoms forming a Debye molecule. Cassini coordinates are used for the numerical solution of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation for the charged cloud. The electric force acting on a dust particle by the other dust particle was determined by integrating the electrostatic pressure on the surface of the dust particle. It is shown that attractive forces appear when the following two conditions are satisfied. First, the average distance between dust particles should be approximately equal to two Debye radii. Second, attraction takes place when similar charges are concentrated predominantly on the dust particles. If the particles carry a small fraction of total charge of the same polarity, repulsion between the particles takes place at all distances. We apply our results to the experiments with thermoemission plasma and to the experiments with nuclear-pumped plasma.
Charge Injection, Charge Trapping and Charge Transfer in Quantum-Dot Solids
Boehme, S.C.
2015-01-01
This study reports on fundamental processes in Quantum-Dot Solids, after light absorption. Transient Absorption and Time-resolved Photoluminescence spectrocopy reveal the dynamics of charge transfer and charge trapping processes. Typically, both occur on a picosecond time scale and compete with each other. We find that the efficiency of these processes depends on the Fermi level in the Quantum-Dot Solid. The latter can be controlled electrochemically, via charge injection into the Quantum-Dot...
Quantum charged rigid membrane
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The early Dirac proposal to model the electron as a charged membrane is reviewed. A rigidity term, instead of the natural membrane tension, involving linearly the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the membrane is considered in the action modeling the bubble in the presence of an electromagnetic field. We set up this model as a genuine second-order derivative theory by considering a non-trivial boundary term which plays a relevant part in our formulation. The Lagrangian in question is linear in the bubble acceleration and by means of the Ostrogradski-Hamiltonian approach, we observed that the theory comprises the management of both first- and second-class constraints. We thus show that our second-order approach is robust allowing for a proper quantization. We found an effective quantum potential which permits us to compute bounded states for the system. We comment on the possibility of describing brane world universes by invoking this kind of second-order correction terms.
Quantum charged rigid membrane
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cordero, Ruben [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del I.P.N., Unidad Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Edificio 9, 07738 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Molgado, Alberto [Unidad Academica de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas Zac. (Mexico); Rojas, Efrain, E-mail: cordero@esfm.ipn.mx, E-mail: amolgado@fisica.uaz.edu.mx, E-mail: efrojas@uv.mx [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Fisica e Inteligencia Artificial, Universidad Veracruzana, 91000 Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico)
2011-03-21
The early Dirac proposal to model the electron as a charged membrane is reviewed. A rigidity term, instead of the natural membrane tension, involving linearly the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the membrane is considered in the action modeling the bubble in the presence of an electromagnetic field. We set up this model as a genuine second-order derivative theory by considering a non-trivial boundary term which plays a relevant part in our formulation. The Lagrangian in question is linear in the bubble acceleration and by means of the Ostrogradski-Hamiltonian approach, we observed that the theory comprises the management of both first- and second-class constraints. We thus show that our second-order approach is robust allowing for a proper quantization. We found an effective quantum potential which permits us to compute bounded states for the system. We comment on the possibility of describing brane world universes by invoking this kind of second-order correction terms.
Space charge dominated beam transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider beam transport systems where space charge forces are comparable in strength with the external focusing force. Space charge then plays an important role for beam transmission and emittance growth. We use the envelope model for matching and the generalized field energy equations to study emittance growth. Analytic results are compared with numerical simulation. (orig.)
Bulk charges in eleven dimensions
Hawking, S. W.; Taylor-Robinson, M. M.
1998-07-01
Eleven dimensional supergravity has electric type currents arising from the Chern-Simon and anomaly terms in the action. However the bulk charge integrates to zero for asymptotically flat solutions with topological trivial spatial sections. We show that by relaxing the boundary conditions to generalisations of the ALE and ALF boundary conditions in four dimensions one can obtain static solutions with a bulk charge. Solutions involving anomaly terms preserve between 1/16 and 1/4 of the supersymmetries but Chern-Simons fluxes generally break all of the remaining supersymmetry. One can introduce membranes with the same sign of charge into these backgrounds. This raises the possibility that these generalized membranes might decay quantum mechanically to leave just a bulk distribution of charge. Alternatively and more probably, a bulk distribution of charge can decay into a collection of singly charged membranes. Dimensional reductions of these solutions lead to novel representations of extreme black holes in four dimensions with up to four charges. We discuss how the eleven-dimensional Kaluza-Klein monopole wrapped around a space with non-zero first Pontryagin class picks up an electric charge proportional to the Pontryagin number.
Shielding of moving line charges
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Youmei; He, Bingyu [Department of Physics, School of Science, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Yu, Wei [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Yu, M.Y., E-mail: myyu@zju.edu.cn [Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation and Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Institute for Theoretical Physics I, Ruhr University, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)
2015-07-03
A charged object moving in plasma can excite plasma waves that inevitably modify its Debye shielding characteristics. When the excited waves propagate sufficiently fast, the shielding can even break down. Here the properties of finite amplitude plasma waves excited by a moving line charge are investigated. It is found that when the speed of the latter is close to but less than the thermal speed of the background plasma electrons, only a localized disturbance in the form of a soliton that moves together with the line charge is excited. That is, the line charge is well shielded even though it is moving at a high speed and has generated a large local electrostatic field. However, for a pair of line charges moving together, such complete shielding behavior could not be found.
Piston-assisted charge pumping
Kaur, D; Mourokh, L
2015-01-01
We examine charge transport through a system of three sites connected in series in the situation when an oscillating charged piston modulates the energy of the middle site. We show that with an appropriate set of parameters, charge can be transferred against an applied voltage. In this scenario, when the oscillating piston shifts away from the middle site, the energy of the site decreases and it is populated by a charge transferred from the lower energy site. On the other hand, when the piston returns to close proximity, the energy of the middle site increases and it is depopulated by the higher energy site. Thus through this process, the charge is pumped against the potential gradient. Our results can explain the process of proton pumping in one of the mitochondrial enzymes, Complex I. Moreover, this mechanism can be used for electron pumping in semiconductor nanostructures.
Collaborative Mobile Charging and Coverage
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
吴杰
2014-01-01
Wireless energy charging using mobile vehicles has been a viable research topic recently in the area of wireless networks and mobile computing. This paper gives a short survey of recent research conducted in our research group in the area of collaborative mobile charging. In collaborative mobile charging, multiple mobile chargers work together to accomplish a given set of ob jectives. These ob jectives include charging sensors at different frequencies with a minimum number of mobile chargers and reaching the farthest sensor for a given set of mobile chargers, subject to various constraints, including speed and energy limits of mobile chargers. Through the process of problem formulation, solution construction, and future work extension for problems related to collaborative mobile charging and coverage, we present three principles for good practice in conducting research. These principles can potentially be used for assisting graduate students in selecting a research problem for a term project, which can eventually be expanded to a thesis/dissertation topic.
Simulation for signal charge transfer of charge coupled devices
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Zujun; Liu Yinong; Chen Wei; Tang Benqi; Xiao Zhigang; Huang Shaoyan; Liu Minbo; Zhang Yong
2009-01-01
Physical device models and numerical processing methods are presented to simulate a linear buried channel charge coupled devices (CCDs). The dynamic transfer process of CCD is carried out by a three-phase clock pulse driver. By using the semiconductor device simulation software MEDICI, dynamic transfer pictures of signal charges cells, electron concentration and electrostatic potential are presented. The key parameters of CCD such as charge transfer efficiency (CTE) and dark electrons are numerically simulated. The simulation results agree with the theoretic and experimental results.
Heavy charged particle therapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A pilot study of heavy charged particles with heavy ion medical accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) for advanced H and N cancer has been carried out from June 1994 at National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). As of the beginning of August 1994, three patients were treated by 290 MeV carbon ions. The patients had adenocarcinoma of the cheek mucosa, squamous cell carcinoma of the ethmoid sinus and adenoid cystic carcinoma of the sublingual gland. Patients were immobilized by individual head coach and thermosplint facial shell. Individual collimators and bolus were also prepared for each ports. Dose fractionation for the initial pilot study group was 16.2 GyE/18 fractions/6 weeks, which would be equivalent to standard fractionation of 60.0 Gy/30 fractions/6 weeks with photons. This dose fractionation was considered to be 20% lesser than 75 GyE/37.5 fractions/7.5 weeks, which is estimated to be maximum tolerance dose for advanced H and N cancers. HIMAC worked well and there was no major trouble causing any treatment delay. Acute skin reactions of 3 patients were 2 cases of bright erythema with patchy moist desquamation and one of dull erythema, which were evaluated as equivalent reaction with irradiated dose. Acute mucosa reactions appeared to have lesser reaction than predicted mucositis. Tumor reactions of three patients were partial reaction (PR) at the end of treatment and nearly complete remission (CR) after 6 months of treatment. From October 1994, we started to treat patients with advanced H and N cancer with 10% high dose than previous dose. And new candidates of pilot study with non small cell lung cancer, brain tumor and carcinoma of the tongue were entered into pilot study. At the end of February 1995, a total of 21 patients were treated by carbon ions. (J.P.N.)
Miller, G A
2003-01-01
Two new experiments have detected charge-symmetry breaking, the mechanism responsible for protons and neutrons having different masses. Symmetry is a crucial concept in the theories that describe the subatomic world because it has an intimate connection with the laws of conservation. The theory of the strong interaction between quarks - quantum chromodynamics - is approximately invariant under what is called charge symmetry. In other words, if we swap an up quark for a down quark, then the strong interaction will look almost the same. This symmetry is related to the concept of sup i sospin sup , and is not the same as charge conjugation (in which a particle is replaced by its antiparticle). Charge symmetry is broken by the competition between two different effects. The first is the small difference in mass between up and down quarks, which is about 200 times less than the mass of the proton. The second is their different electric charges. The up quark has a charge of +2/3 in units of the proton charge, while ...
Brainard, John P.; Christenson, Todd R.
2009-11-03
A charge-pump voltage converter for converting a low voltage provided by a low-voltage source to a higher voltage. Charge is inductively generated on a transfer rotor electrode during its transit past an inductor stator electrode and subsequently transferred by the rotating rotor to a collector stator electrode for storage or use. Repetition of the charge transfer process leads to a build-up of voltage on a charge-receiving device. Connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in series can generate higher voltages, and connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in parallel can generate higher currents. Microelectromechanical (MEMS) embodiments of this invention provide a small and compact high-voltage (several hundred V) voltage source starting with a few-V initial voltage source. The microscale size of many embodiments of this invention make it ideally suited for MEMS- and other micro-applications where integration of the voltage or charge source in a small package is highly desirable.
Decoherence of charge qubit coupled to interacting background charges
Yurkevich, I. V.; Baldwin, J.; Lerner, I. V.; Altshuler, B. L.
2009-01-01
The major contribution to decoherence of a double quantum dot or a Josephson junction charge qubit comes from the electrostatic coupling to fluctuating background charges hybridized with the conduction electrons in the reservoir. However, estimations according to previously developed theories show that finding a sufficient number of effective fluctuators in a realistic experimental layout is quite improbable. We show that this paradox is resolved by allowing for a short-range Coulomb interact...
Rewritable artificial magnetic charge ice
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Yong-Lei; Xiao, Zhili; Snezhko, Alexey; Xu, Jing; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Divan, Ralu; Pearson, John E.; Crabtree, George W.; Kwok, Wai-Kwong
2016-05-20
Artificial ices enable the study of geometrical frustration by design and through direct observation. However, it has proven difficult to achieve tailored long-range ordering of their diverse configurations, limiting both fundamental and applied research directions. We designed an artificial spin structure that produces a magnetic charge ice with tunable long-range ordering of eight different configurations. We also developed a technique to precisely manipulate the local magnetic charge states and demonstrate write-read-erase multifunctionality at room temperature. This globally reconfigurable and locally writable magnetic charge ice could provide a setting for designing magnetic monopole defects, tailoring magnonics, and controlling the properties of other two-dimensional materials.
Rewritable artificial magnetic charge ice
Wang, Yong-Lei; Xiao, Zhi-Li; Snezhko, Alexey; Xu, Jing; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Divan, Ralu; Pearson, John E.; Crabtree, George W.; Kwok, Wai-Kwong
2016-05-01
Artificial ices enable the study of geometrical frustration by design and through direct observation. However, it has proven difficult to achieve tailored long-range ordering of their diverse configurations, limiting both fundamental and applied research directions. We designed an artificial spin structure that produces a magnetic charge ice with tunable long-range ordering of eight different configurations. We also developed a technique to precisely manipulate the local magnetic charge states and demonstrate write-read-erase multifunctionality at room temperature. This globally reconfigurable and locally writable magnetic charge ice could provide a setting for designing magnetic monopole defects, tailoring magnonics, and controlling the properties of other two-dimensional materials.
Foot, R
1993-01-01
Theoretically, the electric charge of the tau neutrino may be non-zero. The experimental bound on the electric charge of the tau neutrino is many orders of magnitude weaker than that for any other known neutrino. If the tau neutrino does have a small electric charge, and its mass is greater than 1 MeV, then it can annihilate sufficiently in the early Universe by electromagnetic interactions to avoid conflict with the standard cosmology model. A novel feature of this scenario is that there can be effectively less than three neutrino species present during nucleosynthesis.
Charge density waves in solids
Gor'kov, LP
2012-01-01
The latest addition to this series covers a field which is commonly referred to as charge density wave dynamics.The most thoroughly investigated materials are inorganic linear chain compounds with highly anisotropic electronic properties. The volume opens with an examination of their structural properties and the essential features which allow charge density waves to develop.The behaviour of the charge density waves, where interesting phenomena are observed, is treated both from a theoretical and an experimental standpoint. The role of impurities in statics and dynamics is considered and an
Effects of induced charge in the kinestatic charge detector.
Wagenaar, D J; Terwilliger, R A
1995-05-01
The principle of the kinestatic charge detector (KCD) for digital radiography depends on the synchronization of the scan velocity of a parallel plate drift chamber with the cation drift velocity. Compared with line-beam scanners, this motion-compensated imaging technique makes better use of the x-ray tube output. A Frisch grid traditionally has been used within the KCD to minimize unwanted signal contributions from both cations and negative charge carriers during irradiation. In this work the charge induction process in a parallel plate geometry was investigated for the special case of the KCD. In the limit of infinite plates, the cathode charge density due to both cations and negative charge carriers increases quadratically in time for a kinestatically scanned narrow slit. In the KCD the cathode is segmented into an array of narrow electrodes, each aligned with the incident x-ray beam. Our conformal mapping computation determined that the shape of the induced charge signal depends critically on delta x/w, the ratio of electrode width to drift gap. Our conclusion introduces the possibility of eliminating the Frisch grid from the KCD design because the value of delta x/w required for transverse sampling in the KCD is sufficiently low as to allow "self-gridding" to take effect. PMID:7643803
Effect of Zn Adsorption on Charge of Variable Charge Soils
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SUNHAN－YUAN
1993-01-01
The variation in appa rent carge of two typical variable charge soils resulting from Zn adsorption were studied by KCl saturation and NH4NO3 replacement methods.Results showed that zinc were adsorbed specifically to those sites with negative charge.As in different pH ranges,the percantages of specific and electrostatic adsorptions of zine and the mechanisms of specific adsorption were different,the effects of Zn adsorption on apparent charge were varied and could be characterized as:when 1 mmol Zn2+ was adsorbed,a change about 1 mmol in the apparent charge was observed in the low pH range(1),1.4 to 1.5mmol in the moderate pH range(II) and 0.55 to 0.6mmol in the high pH range (III).These experimental data,in terms of soil charge,proved once more author's conclusion in the preceding paper(Sun,1993) that in accordance with the behaviors of Zn adsorption by the variable charge soils in relation to pH,three pH ranges with different adsorption mechanisms were delineated;that is,in Range I,specific adsorption was the predominant mechanism,in Ranges II and III,specific and electrostatic adsorptions co-existed,but their specific adsorption mechanisms were not identical.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Trunev A. P.
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Wave solutions of Einstein's equations in the sixdimensional space-time with metric signature (+, +, +, -, -, - have been found. It is shown that solutions of this type can be used to model the structure of the electric charge
Trunev A. P.
2014-01-01
Wave solutions of Einstein's equations in the sixdimensional space-time with metric signature (+, +, +, -, -, -) have been found. It is shown that solutions of this type can be used to model the structure of the electric charge
Measurements of W Charge Asymmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Holzbauer, J. L. [Mississippi U.
2015-10-06
We discuss W boson and lepton charge asymmetry measurements from W decays in the electron channel, which were made using 9.7 fb$^{-1}$ of RunII data collected by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The electron charge asymmetry is presented as a function of pseudo-rapidity out to |$\\eta$| $\\le$ 3.2, in five symmetric and asymmetric kinematic bins of electron transverse momentum and the missing transverse energy of the event. We also give the W charge asymmetry as a function of W boson rapidity. The asymmetries are compared with next-to-leading order perturbative quantum chromodynamics calculations. These charge asymmetry measurements will allow more accurate determinations of the proton parton distribution functions and are the most precise to date.
Brooks, Austin
2014-01-01
Take Charge of Your Health is a promotional flyer for potential adult SNAP-Ed participants. This flyer encourages eligible adults to participate in the SNAP-Ed program to make healthy nutrition and physical activity behavior changes.
Elementary charges in classical electrodynamics
KAPU'{S}CIK, Edward
1999-01-01
In the framework of classical electrodynamics elementary particles are treated as capacitors. The electrostatic potentials satisfy equations of the Schrödinger type. An interesting "quantization condition" for elementary charges is derived.
Electric charge in the stochastic electric field
Simonov, Yu A
2016-01-01
The influence of electric stochastic fields on the relativistic charged particles is investigated in the gauge invariant path integral formalism. Using the cumulant expansion one finds the exponential relaxation of the charge Green's function both for spinless and Dirac charges.
Quantum physics: Destruction of discrete charge
Nazarov, Yuli V.
2016-08-01
Electric charge is quantized in units of the electron's charge. An experiment explores the suppression of charge quantization caused by quantum fluctuations and supports a long-standing theory that explains this behaviour. See Letter p.58
Measuring momentum for charged particle tomography
Morris, Christopher; Fraser, Andrew Mcleod; Schultz, Larry Joe; Borozdin, Konstantin N.; Klimenko, Alexei Vasilievich; Sossong, Michael James; Blanpied, Gary
2010-11-23
Methods, apparatus and systems for detecting charged particles and obtaining tomography of a volume by measuring charged particles including measuring the momentum of a charged particle passing through a charged particle detector. Sets of position sensitive detectors measure scattering of the charged particle. The position sensitive detectors having sufficient mass to cause the charged particle passing through the position sensitive detectors to scatter in the position sensitive detectors. A controller can be adapted and arranged to receive scattering measurements of the charged particle from the charged particle detector, determine at least one trajectory of the charged particle from the measured scattering; and determine at least one momentum measurement of the charged particle from the at least one trajectory. The charged particle can be a cosmic ray-produced charged particle, such as a cosmic ray-produced muon. The position sensitive detectors can be drift cells, such as gas-filled drift tubes.
Charged particle acceleration with plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Under certain conditions it is possible to create spatial charge waves (OCE) in a plasma (ionized gas) through some disturbance mechanism, the phenomenon produces electric fields of high intensity that are propagated at velocities near to a c. When charged particles are connected to such OCE they may be accelerated to very high energies in short distances. At present electric fields of approximately 107 V/cm have been observed. (Author). 4 refs
Charged rotating noncommutative black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper we complete the program of the noncomutative geometry inspired black holes, providing the richest possible solution, endowed with mass, charge and angular momentum. After providing a prescription for employing the Newman-Janis algorithm in the case of nonvanishing stress tensors, we find regular axisymmetric charged black holes in the presence of a minimal length. We study also the new thermodynamics and we determine the corresponding higher-dimensional solutions. As a conclusion we make some consideration about possible applications.
Charged rotating noncommutative black holes
Modesto, Leonardo; Nicolini, Piero
2010-11-01
In this paper we complete the program of the noncomutative geometry inspired black holes, providing the richest possible solution, endowed with mass, charge and angular momentum. After providing a prescription for employing the Newman-Janis algorithm in the case of nonvanishing stress tensors, we find regular axisymmetric charged black holes in the presence of a minimal length. We study also the new thermodynamics and we determine the corresponding higher-dimensional solutions. As a conclusion we make some consideration about possible applications.
Charged rotating noncommutative black holes
Modesto, Leonardo
2010-01-01
In this paper we complete the program of the Noncomutative Geometry inspired black holes, providing the richest possible solution, endowed with mass, charge and angular momentum. After providing a prescription for employing the Newmann-Janis algorithm in case of nonvanishing stress tensors, we find regular axisymmetric charged black holes in the presence of a minimal length. We study also the new thermodynamics and we determine the corresponding higher-dimensional solutions. As a conclusion we make some consideration about possible applications.
Grain charging in protoplanetary discs
Ilgner, Martin
2011-01-01
Recent work identified a growth barrier for dust coagulation that originates in the electric repulsion between colliding particles. Depending on its charge state, dust material may have the potential to control key processes towards planet formation such as MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) turbulence and grain growth which are coupled in a two-way process. We quantify the grain charging at different stages of disc evolution and differentiate between two very extreme cases: compact spherical grains a...
Weak charges of charmed particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The matrix elements between the lowest states of the ΔC=1 weak charges are evaluated including the effect of SU4 breaking. The charges are obtained from the corresponding generators of the classification group by a unitary transformation U, which is factorized as the product of operators acting on a single quark: the breaking is naturally introduced by having different mixing parameters for the different quarks
Smart electric vehicle charging system
João C. Ferreira; Monteiro, Vítor Duarte Fernandes; João L Afonso; Silva, Alberto R.
2011-01-01
In this work is proposed the design of a system to create and handle Electric Vehicles (EV) charging procedures, based on intelligent process. Due to the electrical power distribution network limitation and absence of smart meter devices, Electric Vehicles charging should be performed in a balanced way, taking into account past experience, weather information based on data mining, and simulation approaches. In order to allow information exchange and to help user ...
Irrigation externalities: pricing and charges
Gavan Dwyer; Robert Douglas; Deb Peterson; Jo Chong; Kate Maddern
2006-01-01
The Productivity Commission Staff Working Paper ‘Irrigation externalities: pricing and charges. by Gavan Dwyer, Robert Douglas, Deb Peterson, Jo Chong and Kate Maddern was released on 14 March 2006. The paper discusses the nature and causes of environmental change related to rural water use, and provides a taxonomy of the many diverse types. It also examines the issues surrounding possible charges on water use for water related externalities. There have been few attempts by water utilities to...
Rewritable Artificial Magnetic Charge Ice
Wang, Yong-Lei; Xiao, Zhi-Li; Snezhko, Alexey; Xu, Jing; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Divan, Ralu; Pearson, John E.; Crabtree, George W.; Kwok, Wai-Kwong
2016-01-01
Artificial ices enable the study of geometrical frustration by design and through direct observation. However, it has proven difficult to achieve tailored long-range ordering of their diverse configurations, limiting both fundamental and applied research directions. We designed an artificial spin structure that produces a magnetic charge ice with tunable long-range ordering of eight different configurations. We also developed a technique to precisely manipulate the local magnetic charge state...
Neutral and Charged Anyon Fluids
Hosotani, Yutaka
1993-01-01
(Review) Properties of neutral and charged anyon fluids are examined, with the main focus on the question whether or not a charged anyon fluid exhibits a superconductivity at zero and finite temperature. Quantum mechanics of anyon fluids is precisely described by Chern-Simons gauge theory. The random phase approximation (RPA), the linearized self-consistent field method (SCF), and the hydrodynamic approach employed in the early analysis of anyon fluids are all equivalent. Relations and differ...
Charged-lepton flavour physics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Andreas Hoecker
2012-11-01
This write-up on a talk at the 2011 Lepton–Photon symposium in Mumbai, India, summarizes recent results in the charged-lepton flavour sector. Searches for charged-lepton flavour violation, lepton electric dipole moments and flavour-conserving CP violation are reviewed here. Recent progress in -lepton physics and in the Standard Model prediction of the muon anomalous magnetic moment is also discussed.
Safe explosives for shaped charges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It was demonstrated that high-performance shaped charges could be developed using as the explosive charge mixtures of ingredients that are not, by themselves, considered explosives. At least one of the ingredients needed to be a liquid, stored separately, that could be quickly injected into the shaped charge cavity to generate the active explosive. Precision copper shaped charge cones in diameters of 65.2, 83.8, and 100.2 mm (about 2.6, 3.3, and 4.0 in.) were obtained and appropriate hardware was fabricated. It was demonstrated that 4 cone diameters of penetration were obtained in 255 BHN armor plate steel if the explosive charge was nitromethane or a combination of fine crystalline ammonium nitrate at a density of 1.0 Mg/m3 with nitromethane. However, when prilled ammonium nitrate was used with nitromethane, the jet failed to form. The shaped charges would be used to destroy the high explosive in a nuclear warhead in case of imminent enemy threat to the weapon
Solar Charged Stand Alone Inverter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.Vasugi
2014-07-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with solar powered stand alone inverter which converts the variable dc output of a photovoltaic solar panel into ac that can be fed to loads. Stand alone inverters are used in systems where the inverter get its energy from batteries charged by photo voltaic arrays. A charge controller limits the rate at which electric current is added to or drawn from electric batteries. This charge discharge controller is needed to prevent the battery from being overcharged or discharged thus prolonging its life. The charge/discharge control is necessary in order to achieve safety and increase the capacity of the battery. The project has been tested according its operational purposes. Maximum power rating of the experimented solar charge controller is 100W according battery capacities. Cost effective solar charge controller has been designed and implemented to have efficient system and much longer battery lifetime. The dc output is given to inverter and then it is supplied to loads. This method is very cheap and cost effective.
Krohn, David; Schwartz, Matthew D; Waalewijn, Wouter J
2013-01-01
Knowing the charge of the parton initiating a light-quark jet could be extremely useful both for testing aspects of the Standard Model and for characterizing potential beyond-the-Standard-Model signals. We show that despite the complications of hadronization and out-of-jet radiation such as pile-up, a weighted sum of the charges of a jet's constituents can be used at the LHC to distinguish among jets with different charges. Potential applications include measuring electroweak quantum numbers of hadronically decaying resonances or supersymmetric particles, as well as Standard Model tests, such as jet charge in dijet events or in hadronically-decaying W bosons in t-tbar events. We develop a systematically improvable method to calculate moments of these charge distributions by combining multi-hadron fragmentation functions with perturbative jet functions and pertubative evolution equations. We show that the dependence on energy and jet size for the average and width of the jet charge can be calculated despite th...
Engineering charge ordering into multiferroicity
He, Xu; Jin, Kui-juan
2016-04-01
Multiferroic materials have attracted great interest but are rare in nature. In many transition-metal oxides, charge ordering and magnetic ordering coexist, so that a method of engineering charge-ordered materials into ferroelectric materials would lead to a large class of multiferroic materials. We propose a strategy for designing new ferroelectric or even multiferroic materials by inserting a spacing layer into each two layers of charge-ordered materials and artificially making a superlattice. One example of the model demonstrated here is the perovskite (LaFeO3)2/LaTiO3 (111) superlattice, in which the LaTiO3 layer acts as the donor and the spacing layer, and the LaFeO3 layer is half doped and performs charge ordering. The collaboration of the charge ordering and the spacing layer breaks the space inversion symmetry, resulting in a large ferroelectric polarization. As the charge ordering also leads to a ferrimagnetic structure, (LaFeO3)2/LaTiO3 is multiferroic. It is expected that this work can encourage the designing and experimental implementation of a large class of multiferroic structures with novel properties.
Space Charge Modulated Electrical Breakdown.
Li, Shengtao; Zhu, Yuanwei; Min, Daomin; Chen, George
2016-01-01
Electrical breakdown is one of the most important physical phenomena in electrical and electronic engineering. Since the early 20(th) century, many theories and models of electrical breakdown have been proposed, but the origin of one key issue, that the explanation for dc breakdown strength being twice or higher than ac breakdown strength in insulating materials, remains unclear. Here, by employing a bipolar charge transport model, we investigate the space charge dynamics in both dc and ac breakdown processes. We demonstrate the differences in charge accumulations under both dc and ac stresses and estimate the breakdown strength, which is modulated by the electric field distortion induced by space charge. It is concluded that dc breakdown initializes in the bulk whereas ac breakdown initializes in the vicinity of the sample-electrode interface. Compared with dc breakdown, the lower breakdown strength under ac stress and the decreasing breakdown strength with an increase in applied frequency, are both attributed to the electric field distortion induced by space charges located in the vicinity of the electrodes. PMID:27599577
Alternator control for battery charging
Brunstetter, Craig A.; Jaye, John R.; Tallarek, Glen E.; Adams, Joseph B.
2015-07-14
In accordance with an aspect of the present disclosure, an electrical system for an automotive vehicle has an electrical generating machine and a battery. A set point voltage, which sets an output voltage of the electrical generating machine, is set by an electronic control unit (ECU). The ECU selects one of a plurality of control modes for controlling the alternator based on an operating state of the vehicle as determined from vehicle operating parameters. The ECU selects a range for the set point voltage based on the selected control mode and then sets the set point voltage within the range based on feedback parameters for that control mode. In an aspect, the control modes include a trickle charge mode and battery charge current is the feedback parameter and the ECU controls the set point voltage within the range to maintain a predetermined battery charge current.
Singularities of noncompact charged objects
Sharif, M.; G., Abbas
2013-03-01
We formulate a model for noncompact spherical charged objects in the framework of noncommutative field theory. The Einstein—Maxwell field equations are solved with charged anisotropic fluid. We choose matter and charge densities as functions of the two parameters, instead of defining these quantities in terms of the Gaussian distribution function. It is found that the corresponding densities and the Ricci scalar are singular in origin, whereas the metric is nonsingular, indicating a spacelike singularity. The numerical solution of the horizon equation implies that there are two or one or no horizon(s), depending on the mass. We also evaluate the Hawking temperature and find that a black hole with two horizons is evaporated to an extremal black hole with one horizon.
Singularities of noncompact charged objects
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
M.Sharif; G.Abbas
2013-01-01
We formulate a model for noncompact spherical charged objects in the framework of noncommutative field theory.The Einstein-Maxwell field equations are solved with charged anisotropic fluid.We choose matter and charge densities as functions of the two parameters,instead of defining these quantities in terms of the Gaussian distribution function.It is found that the corresponding densities and the Ricci scalar are singular in origin,whereas the metric is nonsingular,indicating a spacelike singularity.The numerical solution of the horizon equation implies that there are two or one or no horizon(s),depending on the mass.We also evaluate the Hawking temperature and find that a black hole with two horizons is evaporated to an extremal black hole with one horizon.
Singularities of Noncompact Charged Objects
Sharif, M; 10.1088/1674-1056/22/3/030401
2013-01-01
We formulate a model of noncompact spherical charged objects in the framework of noncommutative field theory. The Einstein-Maxwell field equations are solved with charged anisotropic fluid. We choose the forms of mass and charge densities which belong to two parameter family of density distribution functions instead of densities as Gaussian width length. It is found that the corresponding densities and the Ricci scalar are singular at origin whereas the metric is nonsingular indicating a spacelike singularity. The numerical solution of the horizon equation implies that there are either two or one or no horizon depending on the mass. We also evaluate the Hawking temperature which implies that a black hole with two horizons is evaporated to an extremal black hole with one horizon.
Charging transient in polyvinyl formal
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
P K Khare; P L Jain; R K Pandey
2001-08-01
In the present paper charging and discharging transient currents in polyvinyl formal (PVF) were measured as a function of temperatures (40–80°C), poling fields (9.0 × 103–9.0 × 104 V/cm) and electrode combinations (Al–Al, Au–Al, Zn–Al, Bi–Al, Cu–Al and Ag–Al). The current–time characteristics have different values of slope lying between 0.42–0.56 and 1.42–1.63. The polarization is considered to be due to dipolar reorientation associated with structural motions and space charge relaxations due to trapping of injected charge carriers in energetically distributed traps.
Nonlinear screening of charge impurities in graphene
2006-01-01
It is shown that a ``vacuum polarization'' induced by Coulomb potential in graphene leads to a strong suppression of electric charges even for undoped case (no charge carriers). A standard linear response theory is therefore not applicable to describe the screening of charge impurities in graphene. In particular, it overestimates essentially the contributions of charge impurities into the resistivity of graphene.
Nanotribology of charged polymer brushes
Klein, Jacob
Polymers at surfaces, whose modern understanding may be traced back to early work by Sam Edwards1, have become a paradigm for modification of surface properties, both as steric stabilizers and as remarkable boundary lubricants2. Charged polymer brushes are of particular interest, with both technological implications and especially biological relevance where most macromolecules are charged. In the context of biolubrication, relevant in areas from dry eye syndrome to osteoarthritis, charged polymer surface phases and their complexes with other macromolecules may play a central role. The hydration lubrication paradigm, where tenaciously-held yet fluid hydration shells surrounding ions or zwitterions serve as highly-efficient friction-reducing elements, has been invoked to understand the excellent lubrication provided both by ionized3 and by zwitterionic4 brushes. In this talk we describe recent advances in our understanding of the nanotribology of such charged brush systems. We consider interactions between charged end-grafted polymers, and how one may disentangle the steric from the electrostatic surface forces5. We examine the limits of lubrication by ionized brushes, both synthetic and of biological origins, and how highly-hydrated zwitterionic chains may provide extremely effective boundary lubrication6. Finally we describe how the lubrication of articular cartilage in the major joints, a tribosystem presenting some of the greatest challenges and opportunities, may be understood in terms of a supramolecular synergy between charged surface-attached polymers and zwitterionic groups7. Work supported by European Research Council (HydrationLube), Israel Science Foundation (ISF), Petroleum Research Fund of the American Chemical Society, ISF-NSF China Joint Program.
Charge transfer processes of low charge state heavy ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, some aspects of the collision processes of accelerated heavy ions in very low charge state is reviewed, and the beam loss due to such collisions is estimated. The processes included in ion-atom collisions are electron capture, the electron stripping of ions, and target ionization. The stripping cross sections decrease slowly at high energy, and are much larger than the electron capture cross sections. At low energy, the electron capture is dominant, and this process plays a principal role near ion sources and preacceleration regions. This has not been taken into account properly. In order to keep the beam loss less than 0.1 percent, it is estimated that the average vacuum of about 10-7 to 10-8 Torr is required. An empirical formula to calculate the stripping cross sections of heavy ions in low charge state in collisions is derived. The beam loss due to ion-atom collisions can be estimated. The charge transfer and stripping processes in ion-ion collisions are also discussed. The typical processes in ion-ion collisions are almost same as those in ion-atom collisions. In order to minimize the ion beam loss due to charge-changing processes, it is important to choose the heavy ions with closed shell configurations, which correspond to the slightly more ionized states than the singly ionized state. (Kato, T.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sources of high charge state positive ions have uses in a variety of research fields. For heavy ion particle accelerators higher charge state particles give greater acceleration per gap and greater bending strength in a magnet. Thus higher energies can be obtained from circular accelerators of a given size, and linear accelerators can be designed with higher energy gain per length using higher charge state ions. In atomic physics the many atomic transitions in highly charged ions supplies a wealth of spectroscopy data. High charge state ion beams are also used for charge exchange and crossed beam experiments. High charge state ion sources are reviewed
Charge-exchange straggling in equilibrium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sigmund, P. [Department of Physics and Chemistry, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Osmani, O. [Department of Physics, University of Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Kaiserslautern and Research Center OPTIMAS, D-67653 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Schinner, A. [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Johannes, Kepler Universitaet, A-4040 Linz (Austria)
2011-05-01
A general expression has been derived that allows computation of charge-exchange straggling of swift heavy ions when many charge states are involved. Charge exchange is found to hinge on the variation of the stopping cross section with the ion charge and on the transient behavior of the charge population as a function of traveled pathlength. These effects appear factorized in the final formula. The focus of this paper is on straggling in charge equilibrium. The case of MeV/u sulfur ions in carbon has been used as an illustration. Charge-exchange straggling is found to be dominating straggling over a considerable range of beam energies.
Integral charge SUSY in strong nuclear gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Till today there is no reason for the question: why there exists 6 individual quarks? Till today no experiment reported a free fractional charge quark. Authors humble opinion is nuclear charge (either positive or negative) constitutes 6 different flavors and each flavor holds certain mass, charged flavor can be called as a quark. It is neither a fermion nor a boson. A fermion is a container for different charges, a charge is a container for different flavors and each flavor is a container for certain matter. If charged matter rests in a fermionic container it is a fermion and if charged matter rests in a bosonic container it is a boson
Charge transfer and transport in DNA
Jortner, Joshua; Bixon, Mordechai; Langenbacher, Thomas; Michel-Beyerle, Maria E.
1998-01-01
We explore charge migration in DNA, advancing two distinct mechanisms of charge separation in a donor (d)–bridge ({Bj})–acceptor (a) system, where {Bj} = B1,B2, … , BN are the N-specific adjacent bases of B-DNA: (i) two-center unistep superexchange induced charge transfer, d*{Bj}a → d∓{Bj}a±, and (ii) multistep charge transport involves charge injection from d* (or d+) to {Bj}, charge hopping within {Bj}, and charge trapping by a. For off-resonance coupling, mechanism i prevails with the char...
Yu, Deshui; Hufnagel, C; Kwek, L C; Amico, Luigi; Dumke, R
2016-01-01
We investigate a novel hybrid system of a superconducting charge qubit interacting directly with a single neutral atom via electric dipole coupling. Interfacing of the macroscopic superconducting circuit with the microscopic atomic system is accomplished by varying the gate capacitance of the charge qubit. To achieve strong interaction, we employ two Rydberg states with an electric-dipole-allowed transition, which alters the polarizability of the dielectric medium of the gate capacitor. Sweeping the gate voltage with different rates leads to a precise control of hybrid quantum states. Furthermore, we show a possible implementation of a universal two-qubit gate.
Yu, Deshui; Valado, María Martínez; Hufnagel, Christoph; Kwek, Leong Chuan; Amico, Luigi; Dumke, Rainer
2016-04-01
We investigate a hybrid system of a superconducting charge qubit interacting directly with a single neutral atom via electric dipole coupling. Interfacing of the macroscopic superconducting circuit with the microscopic atomic system is accomplished by varying the gate capacitance of the charge qubit. To achieve a strong interaction, we employ two Rydberg states with an electric-dipole-allowed transition, which alters the polarizability of the dielectric medium of the gate capacitor. Sweeping the gate voltage with different rates leads to a precise control of hybrid quantum states. Furthermore, we show a possible implementation of a universal two-qubit gate.
Th economics of workplace charging
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fetene, Gebeyehu Manie; Hirte, Georg; Kaplan, Sigal;
2016-01-01
To overcome the range-anxiety problem and further shortcomings associated with electric vehicles, workplace charging (WPC) is gaining increasing attention. We propose a microeconomic model of WPC and use the approach to shed light on the incentives and barriers employees and employers face when...... subsidies to charging facility costs and adjustments in electricity tariffs or loading technologies. We find that direct subsidies to WPC facilities or subsidies combined with specific energy price policies could be a way to foster WPC provision. In contrast measures on the employee side that may help to...
New charged anisotropic compact models
Kileba Matondo, D.; Maharaj, S. D.
2016-07-01
We find new exact solutions to the Einstein-Maxwell field equations which are relevant in the description of highly compact stellar objects. The relativistic star is charged and anisotropic with a quark equation of state. Exact solutions of the field equations are found in terms of elementary functions. It is interesting to note that we regain earlier quark models with uncharged and charged matter distributions. A physical analysis indicates that the matter distributions are well behaved and regular throughout the stellar structure. A range of stellar masses are generated for particular parameter values in the electric field. In particular the observed mass for a binary pulsar is regained.
A charged spherically symmetric solution
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
K Moodley; S D Maharaj; K S Govinder
2003-09-01
We ﬁnd a solution of the Einstein–Maxwell system of ﬁeld equations for a class of accelerating, expanding and shearing spherically symmetric metrics. This solution depends on a particular ansatz for the line element. The radial behaviour of the solution is fully speciﬁed while the temporal behaviour is given in terms of a quadrature. By setting the charge contribution to zero we regain an (uncharged) perfect ﬂuid solution found previously with the equation of state =+ constant, which is a generalisation of a stiff equation of state. Our class of charged shearing solutions is characterised geometrically by a conformal Killing vector.
Vortex Motion In Charged Fluids
Stratopoulos, G N
1994-01-01
A non-relativistic scalar field coupled minimally to electromagnetism supports in the presence of a homogeneous background electric charge density the existence of smooth, finite-energy topologically stable flux vortices. The static properties of such vortices are studied numerically in the context of a two parameter model describing this system as a special case. It is shown that the electrostatic and the mexican hat potential terms of the energy are each enough to ensure the existence of vortex solutions. The interaction potential of two minimal vortices is obtained for various values of the parameters. It is proven analytically that a free isolated vortex with topological charge $N\
Butterflies with rotation and charge
Reynolds, Alan P.; Ross, Simon F.
2016-01-01
We explore the butterfly effect for black holes with rotation or charge. We perturb rotating BTZ and charged black holes in 2+1 dimensions by adding a small perturbation on one asymptotic region, described by a shock wave in the spacetime, and explore the effect of this shock wave on the length of geodesics through the wormhole and hence on correlation functions. We find the effect of the perturbation grows exponentially at a rate controlled by the temperature; dependence on the angular momen...
Intrinsic Charges and the Strong Forc
Lehnert B.
2013-01-01
According to a revised quantum electrodynamic theory, there are models of leptons such as the electron which possess both a net integrated electric charge and a much larger intrinsic charge of both polarities. From estimates based on such models, the corresponding Coulomb force due to the intrinsic charges then becomes two orders of magnitude larger than that due to the conventional net charge. This intrinsic charge force can also have the features of a short-range interaction. If these resul...
Brown, Marshall A.
2013-01-01
Today's work world is full of uncertainty. Every day, people hear about another organization going out of business, downsizing, or rightsizing. To prepare for these uncertain times, one must take charge of their own career. This article presents some tips for surviving in today's world of work: (1) Be self-managing; (2) Know what you…
Dust particle charging in sheath
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The charging and the screening of spherical dust particles in sheaths near the wall were studied using computer simulation. The three-dimensional PIC/MCC method and molecular dynamics method were applied to describe plasma particles motion and interaction with macroscopic dust grain. Calculations were carried out at different neutral gas pressures and wall potentials. Values of the charge of the dust particles and spatial distributions of plasma parameters are obtained by modelling. The results have shown that the charge of the dust particles in the sheath, as well as the spatial distribution of the ions and electrons near the dust particles, depend strongly on the wall potential. It is shown that for large negative values of the wall potential the negative charge of a dust particle decreases due to the decline of the electron density in its vicinity. In addition, the flow of energy of the ions on the surface of dust particles is increased due to better focusing effect of the dust particle field on ions.
Stability of charged thin shells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this article we study the mechanical stability of spherically symmetric thin shells with charge, in Einstein-Maxwell and Einstein-Born-Infeld theories. We analyze linearized perturbations preserving the symmetry, for shells around vacuum and shells surrounding noncharged black holes.
Pump trials for charged liquids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The pumps intended for the circulation of charged and radioactive liquids have particular qualities. The choice of such a pump has called for endurance tests with various types of equipment: a Goodyear volumetric screw pumps, and RICHIER, Klein and SCHABAVER centrifugal pumps. The latter, fitted with a special oakum, gave the best results. (authors)
Scarcity rents and airport charges
G. Burghouwt; W. de Wit
2015-01-01
This report addresses the responses related to scarcity rents and airport charges. The Commission has asked ITF/SEO to provide evidence on scarcity rents in the London airport system. Different reports submitted in response to the Commission’s consultation make different assumptions on the way airli
The Penetration of Shaped Charges
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wu Mingde
1996-01-01
@@ In order to get the best perforating effect, many facts have to be considered. Perforating job is often design by computer. A perforating engineer has to decide the perforating technology and procedure, the gun and charge system, the shot density and phasing, the penetration and hole size, etc.
Floating liquid bridge charge dynamics
Teschke, Omar; Soares, David Mendez; Gomes, Whyllerson Evaristo; Valente Filho, Juracyr Ferraz
2016-01-01
The interaction of liquid with electric fields is investigated in a configuration where up to 13 kV are applied between electrodes resulting in a 106 V/m electric field in the capillaries and where there is the formation of a free-standing fluid bridge in the interelectrode gap. The Mott-Gurney equation was fitted to the measured ionization current vs applied voltage curve which indicates that the ionization rate at the high-voltage anode electrode dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) interface and space charging in the interelectrode gap determine the floating liquid bridge current for a given cathode-to-anode voltage. Space charge effects were measured in the cathode becker and also at the liquid bridge since the ionized charges at the anode migrate to the bridge outer surface and decrease the interfacial tension from 43 mJ/m2 to 29 mJ/m2. Two distinct structural regions then form the bridge, a charged plastic (bulk modulus ˜100 MPa) conducting outer layer with a surface conductivity of ˜10-9 Ω-1, which shapes and supports the floating fluid structure, and an inner liquid cylinder, where DMSO molecules flow.
Complexation behavior of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes: Effect of charge distribution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhao, Mingtian; Li, Baohui, E-mail: dliang@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: baohui@nankai.edu.cn [School of Physics and Key Laboratory of Functional Polymer Materials of Ministry of Education, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Zhou, Jihan; Su, Cuicui; Niu, Lin; Liang, Dehai, E-mail: dliang@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: baohui@nankai.edu.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences and the Key Laboratory of Polymer Chemistry and Physics of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)
2015-05-28
Complexation behavior of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes in a solution is investigated using a combination of computer simulations and experiments, focusing on the influence of polyelectrolyte charge distributions along the chains on the structure of the polyelectrolyte complexes. The simulations are performed using Monte Carlo with the replica-exchange algorithm for three model systems where each system is composed of a mixture of two types of oppositely charged model polyelectrolyte chains (EGEG){sub 5}/(KGKG){sub 5}, (EEGG){sub 5}/(KKGG){sub 5}, and (EEGG){sub 5}/(KGKG){sub 5}, in a solution including explicit solvent molecules. Among the three model systems, only the charge distributions along the chains are not identical. Thermodynamic quantities are calculated as a function of temperature (or ionic strength), and the microscopic structures of complexes are examined. It is found that the three systems have different transition temperatures, and form complexes with different sizes, structures, and densities at a given temperature. Complex microscopic structures with an alternating arrangement of one monolayer of E/K monomers and one monolayer of G monomers, with one bilayer of E and K monomers and one bilayer of G monomers, and with a mixture of monolayer and bilayer of E/K monomers in a box shape and a trilayer of G monomers inside the box are obtained for the three mixture systems, respectively. The experiments are carried out for three systems where each is composed of a mixture of two types of oppositely charged peptide chains. Each peptide chain is composed of Lysine (K) and glycine (G) or glutamate (E) and G, in solution, and the chain length and amino acid sequences, and hence the charge distribution, are precisely controlled, and all of them are identical with those for the corresponding model chain. The complexation behavior and complex structures are characterized through laser light scattering and atomic force microscopy measurements. The order
Complexation behavior of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes: Effect of charge distribution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Complexation behavior of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes in a solution is investigated using a combination of computer simulations and experiments, focusing on the influence of polyelectrolyte charge distributions along the chains on the structure of the polyelectrolyte complexes. The simulations are performed using Monte Carlo with the replica-exchange algorithm for three model systems where each system is composed of a mixture of two types of oppositely charged model polyelectrolyte chains (EGEG)5/(KGKG)5, (EEGG)5/(KKGG)5, and (EEGG)5/(KGKG)5, in a solution including explicit solvent molecules. Among the three model systems, only the charge distributions along the chains are not identical. Thermodynamic quantities are calculated as a function of temperature (or ionic strength), and the microscopic structures of complexes are examined. It is found that the three systems have different transition temperatures, and form complexes with different sizes, structures, and densities at a given temperature. Complex microscopic structures with an alternating arrangement of one monolayer of E/K monomers and one monolayer of G monomers, with one bilayer of E and K monomers and one bilayer of G monomers, and with a mixture of monolayer and bilayer of E/K monomers in a box shape and a trilayer of G monomers inside the box are obtained for the three mixture systems, respectively. The experiments are carried out for three systems where each is composed of a mixture of two types of oppositely charged peptide chains. Each peptide chain is composed of Lysine (K) and glycine (G) or glutamate (E) and G, in solution, and the chain length and amino acid sequences, and hence the charge distribution, are precisely controlled, and all of them are identical with those for the corresponding model chain. The complexation behavior and complex structures are characterized through laser light scattering and atomic force microscopy measurements. The order of the apparent weight-averaged molar
Complexation behavior of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes: Effect of charge distribution
Zhao, Mingtian; Zhou, Jihan; Su, Cuicui; Niu, Lin; Liang, Dehai; Li, Baohui
2015-05-01
Complexation behavior of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes in a solution is investigated using a combination of computer simulations and experiments, focusing on the influence of polyelectrolyte charge distributions along the chains on the structure of the polyelectrolyte complexes. The simulations are performed using Monte Carlo with the replica-exchange algorithm for three model systems where each system is composed of a mixture of two types of oppositely charged model polyelectrolyte chains (EGEG)5/(KGKG)5, (EEGG)5/(KKGG)5, and (EEGG)5/(KGKG)5, in a solution including explicit solvent molecules. Among the three model systems, only the charge distributions along the chains are not identical. Thermodynamic quantities are calculated as a function of temperature (or ionic strength), and the microscopic structures of complexes are examined. It is found that the three systems have different transition temperatures, and form complexes with different sizes, structures, and densities at a given temperature. Complex microscopic structures with an alternating arrangement of one monolayer of E/K monomers and one monolayer of G monomers, with one bilayer of E and K monomers and one bilayer of G monomers, and with a mixture of monolayer and bilayer of E/K monomers in a box shape and a trilayer of G monomers inside the box are obtained for the three mixture systems, respectively. The experiments are carried out for three systems where each is composed of a mixture of two types of oppositely charged peptide chains. Each peptide chain is composed of Lysine (K) and glycine (G) or glutamate (E) and G, in solution, and the chain length and amino acid sequences, and hence the charge distribution, are precisely controlled, and all of them are identical with those for the corresponding model chain. The complexation behavior and complex structures are characterized through laser light scattering and atomic force microscopy measurements. The order of the apparent weight-averaged molar
Charge transport in disordered materials
Gagorik, Adam Gerald
This thesis is focused on on using Monte Carlo simulation to extract device relevant properties, such as the current voltage behavior of transistors and the efficiency of photovoltaics, from the hopping transport of molecules. Specifically, simulation is used to study organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) and organic photo-voltaics (OPVs). For OFETs, the current was found to decrease with increasing concentration of traps and barriers in the system. As the barrier/trap concentration approaches 100%, the current recovers as carrier begin to travel through the manifold of connected trap states. Coulomb interactions between like charges are found to play a role in removing carriers from trap states. The equilibrium current in OFETs was found to be independent of charge injection method, however, the finite size of devices leads to an oscillatory current. Fourier transforms of the electrical current show peaks that vary non-linearly with device length, while being independent of device width. This has implications for the mobility of carriers in finite sized devices. Lastly, the presence of defects and high barriers (> 0.4 eV) was found to produce negative differential resistance in the saturation region of OFET curves, unlike traps. While defects and barriers prohibit carriers from reaching the drain at high voltages, the repulsive interaction between like charged carriers pushes charges around the defects. For OPVs, the effects of device morphology and charge delocalization were studied. Fill factors increased with domain size in monolayer isotropic morphologies, but decreased for band morphologies. In single-phase systems without Coulomb interactions, astonishingly high fill factors (. 70%) were found. In multilayer OPVs,a complex interplay of domain size, connectivity, tortuosity, interface trapping, and delocalization determined efficiency.
Charged Particles' Tunneling from Noncommutative Charged Black Hole
Mehdipour, S Hamid
2010-01-01
We apply the tunneling process of charged massive particles through the quantum horizon of a Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black hole in a new noncommutative gravity scenario. In this model, the tunneling amplitude on account of noncommutativity influences in the context of coordinate coherent states is modified. Our calculation points out that the emission rate satisfies the first law of black hole thermodynamics and is consistent with an underlying unitary theory.
Charged particles' tunneling from a noncommutative charged black hole
Mehdipour, S. Hamid
2010-01-01
We apply the tunneling process of charged massive particles through the quantum horizon of a Reissner-Nordstrom black hole in a new noncommutative gravity scenario. In this model, the tunneling amplitude on account of noncommutativity influences in the context of coordinate coherent states is modified. Our calculation points out that the emission rate satisfies the first law of black hole thermodynamics and is consistent with an underlying unitary theory.
Holographic heavy ion collisions with baryon charge
Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; van der Schee, Wilke; Triana, Miquel
2016-01-01
We numerically simulate collisions of charged shockwaves in Einstein-Maxwell theory in anti-de Sitter space as a toy model of heavy ion collisions with non-zero baryon charge. The stress tensor and the baryon current become well described by charged hydrodynamics at roughly the same time. The effect of the charge density on generic observables is typically no larger than 15\\%. %The rapidity profile of the charge is wider than the profile of the local energy density. We find significant stopping of the baryon charge and compare our results with those in heavy ion collision experiments.
Charge symmetry at the partonic level
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Londergan, J. T.; Peng, J. C.; Thomas, A. W.
2010-07-01
This review article discusses the experimental and theoretical status of partonic charge symmetry. It is shown how the partonic content of various structure functions gets redefined when the assumption of charge symmetry is relaxed. We review various theoretical and phenomenological models for charge symmetry violation in parton distribution functions. We summarize the current experimental upper limits on charge symmetry violation in parton distributions. A series of experiments are presented, which might reveal partonic charge symmetry violation, or alternatively might lower the current upper limits on parton charge symmetry violation.
Stability of charged strange quark stars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arbañil, José D. V.; Malheiro, Manuel [Departamento de Física, Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, Centro Técnico Aeroespacial, 12228-900 São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil)
2015-12-17
We investigate the hydrostatic equilibrium and the stability of charged stars made of a charged perfect fluid. The matter contained in the star follows the MIT bag model equation of state and the charge distribution to a power-law of the radial coordinate. The hydrostatic equilibrium and the stability of charged strange stars are analyzed using the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation and the Chandrasekhar’s equation pulsation, respectively. These two equation are modified from their original form to the inclusion of the electric charge. We found that the stability of the star decreases with the increment of the central energy density and with the increment of the amount of charge.
Particles with non abelian charges
Bastianelli, Fiorenzo; Corradini, Olindo; Latini, Emanuele
2013-01-01
Efficient methods for describing non abelian charges in worldline approaches to QFT are useful to simplify calculations and address structural properties, as for example color/kinematics relations. Here we analyze in detail a method for treating arbitrary non abelian charges. We use Grassmann variables to take into account color degrees of freedom, which however are known to produce reducible representations of the color group. Then we couple them to a U(1) gauge field defined on the worldline, together with a Chern-Simons term, to achieve projection on an irreducible representation. Upon gauge fixing there remains a modulus, an angle parametrizing the U(1) Wilson loop, whose dependence is taken into account exactly in the propagator of the Grassmann variables. We test the method in simple examples, the scalar and spin 1/2 contribution to the gluon self energy, and suggest that it might simplify the analysis of more involved amplitudes.
Geometrical charged-particle optics
Rose, Harald
2012-01-01
This second edition is an extended version of the first edition of Geometrical Charged-Particle Optics. The updated reference monograph is intended as a guide for researchers and graduate students who are seeking a comprehensive treatment of the design of instruments and beam-guiding systems of charged particles and their propagation in electromagnetic fields. Wave aspects are included in this edition for explaining electron holography, the Aharanov-Bohm effect and the resolution of electron microscopes limited by diffraction. Several methods for calculating the electromagnetic field are presented and procedures are outlined for calculating the properties of systems with arbitrarily curved axis. Detailed methods are presented for designing and optimizing special components such as aberration correctors, spectrometers, energy filters monochromators, ion traps, electron mirrors and cathode lenses. In particular, the optics of rotationally symmetric lenses, quadrupoles, and systems composed of these elements are...
Charge transport in desolvated DNA
Wolter, Mario; Elstner, Marcus; Kubař, Tomáš
2013-09-01
The conductivity of DNA in molecular junctions is often probed experimentally under dry conditions, but it is unclear how much of the solvent remains attached to the DNA and how this impacts its structure, electronic states, and conductivity. Classical MD simulations show that DNA is unstable if the solvent is removed completely, while a micro-hydrated system with few water molecules shows similar charge transport properties as fully solvated DNA does. This surprising effect is analyzed in detail by mapping the density functional theory-based electronic structure to a tight-binding Hamiltonian, allowing for an estimate of conductivity of various DNA sequences with snapshot-averaged Landauer's approach. The characteristics of DNA charge transport turn out to be determined by the nearest hydration shell(s), and the removal of bulk solvent has little effect on the transport.
Intrinsic and resonance space charge limits
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Parzen, G.
1989-01-01
The space charge limit in circular proton accelerators has been studied using a simulation program described below. Results from the simulation study indicate a different model for the space charge limit than the often presented models which emphasize resonances due to magnetic field errors. This simulation study suggests that the intrinsic space charge limit plays an important role. The intrinsic space charge limit is the space charge limit, in the absence of magnetic field errors, and is due to the forces generated by the beam itself. In studies of three operating accelerators, which include the AGS, the PS Booster and the Fermilab booster, it was found that the computed intrinsic space charge limit was fairly close to the experimentally observed space charge limit. This result plus studies of the effects of resonances due to magnetic field errors suggest that the intrinsic space charge limit provides an upper bound for the space charge limit which is not far from what is actually achieved by operating accelerators. The resonances present due to magnetic field errors, if strong enough, can prevent the accelerator from achieving the intrinsic space charge limit. However, the effects of these resonances were found to be appreciable only when the beam intensity gets close to the intrinsic space charge limit. Well below the intrinsic space charge limit, there is little beam growth due to magnetic field error driven resonances, and the space charge forces tend to stabilize these resonances. 4 refs., 5 figs.
Intrinsic and resonance space charge limits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The space charge limit in circular proton accelerators has been studied using a simulation program described below. Results from the simulation study indicate a different model for the space charge limit than the often presented models which emphasize resonances due to magnetic field errors. This simulation study suggests that the intrinsic space charge limit plays an important role. The intrinsic space charge limit is the space charge limit, in the absence of magnetic field errors, and is due to the forces generated by the beam itself. In studies of three operating accelerators, which include the AGS, the PS Booster and the Fermilab booster, it was found that the computed intrinsic space charge limit was fairly close to the experimentally observed space charge limit. This result plus studies of the effects of resonances due to magnetic field errors suggest that the intrinsic space charge limit provides an upper bound for the space charge limit which is not far from what is actually achieved by operating accelerators. The resonances present due to magnetic field errors, if strong enough, can prevent the accelerator from achieving the intrinsic space charge limit. However, the effects of these resonances were found to be appreciable only when the beam intensity gets close to the intrinsic space charge limit. Well below the intrinsic space charge limit, there is little beam growth due to magnetic field error driven resonances, and the space charge forces tend to stabilize these resonances. 4 refs., 5 figs
Medium energy charged particle spectrometer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The charged particle spectrometer E8 on HELIOS A and B will be described in some detail. It covers proton energies from 80 keV to 6 MeV, electrons from 20 keV to 2 MeV, and positrons from 150 to 550 keV. Its flight performance will be discussed. From examples of measurements the capability of the instrument will be demonstrated. (orig.)
Estimating Urban Road Congestion Charges
Newbery, David M G; Santos, Georgina
2002-01-01
Economists wishing to analyse road congestion and road pricing have usually relied on link-based speed-flow relationships. These may provide a poor description of urban congestion, which mainly arises from delays at intersections. Using the simulation model SATURN, we investigate the second-best proportional traffic reduction and find that linear speed-flow relations describe network flows quite well in eight English towns, though the predicted congestion costs and charges overstate those app...
Exercise bicycle for accumulator charging
Nekvapil, Jan
2014-01-01
Bachelor thesis is about possible solution construction of exercise bicycle with electric part working as a electric source. The first part of document introduces readers to issues about lead acid accumulators and charging, electronically commutated motors and electric converters. The second part shows potential solving constitution of exercise bicycle and we choose components and devices. EC motor will be connected with exercise bicycle by chain transmission. Transfer energy is realized thro...
Optimal Control of charge transfer
Werschnik, J.; Gross, E.K.U.
2007-01-01
In this work, we investigate how and to which extent a quantum system can be driven along a prescribed path in space by a suitably tailored laser pulse. The laser field is calculated with the help of quantum optimal control theory employing a time-dependent formulation for the control target. Within a two-dimensional (2D) model system we have successfully optimized laser fields for two distinct charge transfer processes. The resulting laser fields can be understood as a complicated interplay ...
Computations in Charged Particle Optics
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Oral, Martin; Radlička, Tomáš
Brno: Institute of Scientific Instruments AS CR, v. v. i, 2014, s. 23-24. ISBN 978-80-87441-12-1. [Workshop of Interesting Topics of SEM and ESEM. Mikulov (CZ), 26.08.2014-31.08.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE.2.3.20.0103 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : charged Particle Optics * computations Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering
Mechanisms for DNA Charge Transport
Genereux, Joseph C.; Barton, Jacqueline K.
2010-01-01
DNA charge transport (CT) chemistry has received considerable attention by scientific researchers over the past 15 years since our first provocative publication on long range CT in a DNA assembly.1,2 This interest, shared by physicists, chemists and biologists, reflects the potential of DNA CT to provide a sensitive route for signaling, whether in the construction of nanoscale biosensors or as an enzymatic tool to detect damage in the genome. Research into DNA CT chemistry began as a quest to...
Spherically symmetric charged compact stars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maurya, S.K. [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman); Gupta, Y.K. [Jaypee Institute of Information Technology University, Department of Mathematics, Noida, Uttar Pradesh (India); Ray, Saibal [Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Chowdhury, Sourav Roy [Seth Anandaram Jaipuria College, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India)
2015-08-15
In this article we consider the static spherically symmetric metric of embedding class 1. When solving the Einstein-Maxwell field equations we take into account the presence of ordinary baryonic matter together with the electric charge. Specific new charged stellar models are obtained where the solutions are entirely dependent on the electromagnetic field, such that the physical parameters, like density, pressure etc. do vanish for the vanishing charge. We systematically analyze altogether the three sets of Solutions I, II, and III of the stellar models for a suitable functional relation of ν(r). However, it is observed that only the Solution I provides a physically valid and well-behaved situation, whereas the Solutions II and III are not well behaved and hence not included in the study. Thereafter it is exclusively shown that the Solution I can pass through several standard physical tests performed by us. To validate the solution set presented here a comparison has also been made with that of the compact stars, like RX J 1856 - 37, Her X - 1, PSR 1937+21, PSRJ 1614-2230, and PSRJ 0348+0432, and we have shown the feasibility of the models. (orig.)
Fully Traversable Wormholes Hiding Charge
Guendelman, Eduardo
2012-01-01
The charge-hiding effect by a wormhole, which was studied for the case where gravity/gauge-field system is self-consistently interacting with a charged lightlike brane (LLB) as a matter source, is now studied for the case of a time like brane. From the demand that no surfaces of infinite coordinate time redshift appear in the problem we are lead now to a completly traversable wormhole space, according to not only the traveller that goes through the wormhole (as was the case for the LLB), but also to a static external observer, this requires negative surface energy density for the shell sitting at the throat of the wormhole. We study a gauge field subsystem which is of a special non-linear form containing a square-root of the Maxwell term and which previously has been shown to produce a QCD-like confining gauge field dynamics in flat space-time. The condition of finite energy of the system or asymptotic flatness on one side of the wormhole implies that the charged object sitting at the wormhole throat expels a...
Effective Topological Charge Cancelation Mechanism
Mesarec, Luka; Góźdź, Wojciech; Iglič, Aleš; Kralj, Samo
2016-06-01
Topological defects (TDs) appear almost unavoidably in continuous symmetry breaking phase transitions. The topological origin makes their key features independent of systems’ microscopic details; therefore TDs display many universalities. Because of their strong impact on numerous material properties and their significant role in several technological applications it is of strong interest to find simple and robust mechanisms controlling the positioning and local number of TDs. We present a numerical study of TDs within effectively two dimensional closed soft films exhibiting in-plane orientational ordering. Popular examples of such class of systems are liquid crystalline shells and various biological membranes. We introduce the Effective Topological Charge Cancellation mechanism controlling localised positional assembling tendency of TDs and the formation of pairs {defect, antidefect} on curved surfaces and/or presence of relevant “impurities” (e.g. nanoparticles). For this purpose, we define an effective topological charge Δmeff consisting of real, virtual and smeared curvature topological charges within a surface patch Δς identified by the typical spatially averaged local Gaussian curvature K. We demonstrate a strong tendency enforcing Δmeff → 0 on surfaces composed of Δς exhibiting significantly different values of spatially averaged K. For Δmeff ≠ 0 we estimate a critical depinning threshold to form pairs {defect, antidefect} using the electrostatic analogy.
Heavy charged particle radiotherapy trial
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Through mid-1985, a total of 49 patients received heavy-charged-particle irradiation for chordoma, chondrosarcoma, meningioma, or neurilemmoma of the base of skull or juxtaspinal area. The mean tumor dose was 68 Gray-equivalent, ranging from 26 to 80. Control within the irradiated area was obtained in 35 of 49. The median follow up in all 49 patients is 21 months, with a range from 3-90 months. Serious complications were seen in a small number of patients, with cranial nerve injury in two, transverse myelitis in one, and brain necrosis in three patients. In 42 patients with tumors of other histologies and/or sites, including tumors of paranasal sinuses, retroperitoneum, soft tissue and miscellaneous other sites, heavy charged particles were also used to deliver a higher tumor dose than possible with standard irradiation techniques. In the group, 21/42 (50%) have had local tumor control, also a good result considering the extent and the range of tumor types treated. The authors believe that there are a number of sites in addition to the juxtaspinal/base of skull tumors that will show long term benefit from treatment with heavy charged particles
Numerical Simulation for Space Charge Effect Calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Numerical simulation of space charge effect, analysis of three dimensional uniformly charged zero emittance ellipsoidal bunch as well as comparative analysis of numerical and analytical results are presented. (author)
Spinning charged test particles and Cosmic Censorship
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The authors consider spinning charged test particles in the gravitational field of a rotating charged black hole, and it is shown that the hole cannot be destroyed, according to the Cosmic Censorship hypothesis. (Auth.)
Complementary surface charge for enhanced capacitive deionization
Gao, X.; Porada, S.; Omosebi, A.; Liu, K.L.; Biesheuvel, P.M.; Landon, J.
2016-01-01
Commercially available activated carbon cloth electrodes are treated using nitric acid and ethylenediamine solutions, resulting in chemical surface charge enhanced carbon electrodes for capacitive deionization (CDI) applications. Surface charge enhanced electrodes are then configured in a CDI cel
Charged line segments and ellipsoidal equipotentials
Curtright, T L; Chen, X; Haddad, M J; Karayev, S; Khadka, D B; Li, J
2016-01-01
This is a survey of the electrostatic potentials produced by charged straight-line segments, in various numbers of spatial dimensions, with comparisons between uniformly charged segments and those having non-uniform linear charge distributions that give rise to ellipsoidal equipotentials surrounding the segments. A uniform linear distribution of charge is compatible with ellipsoidal equipotentials only for three dimensions. In higher dimensions, the linear charge density giving rise to ellipsoidal equipotentials is counter-intuitive --- the charge distribution has a maximum at the center of the segment and vanishes at the ends of the segment. Only in two dimensions is the continuous charge distribution intuitive --- for that one case of ellipsoidal equipotentials, the charge is peaked at the ends of the segment and minimized at the center.
Electrostatic charges generated on aerosolisation of dispersions
Wang, Y
2001-01-01
In responding to the international community's agreement of phasing out chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) propellants by the year 2000, hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) has been chosen to replace CFCs. Intensive investigations related to the new propellant products have been carried out. Aerosol electrostatics is one of the topics investigated. To understand and subsequently control the charging processes is the motive of the research reported here. To help elucidate the complex charging process occurring naturally during atomization of liquids from pressurised Metered Dose Inhalers (pMDIs), it has been broken down into a sequence of related, simpler sub processes-drop charging, streaming current charging (coarse spray), splashing charging and fine spray charging. Our initial studies are of single drops forming at and breaking away from the tips of capillary tubes. The drop forming processes are so slow that any hydrodynamic effect can be dismissed. Then the charge on the drop is measured. It is found that the charge on water ...
CHARGE BOTTLE FOR A MASS SEPARATOR
Davidson, P.H.
1959-07-01
Improved mass separator charge bottles are described for containing a dense charge of a chemical compound of copper, nickel, lead or other useful substance which is to be vaporized, and to the method of utilizing such improvcd charge bottles so that the chemical compound is vaporized from the under surface of the charge and thus permits the non-volatile portion thereof to fall to the bottom of the charge bottle where it does not form an obstacle to further evaporation. The charge bottle comprises a vertically disposed cylindrical portion, an inner re-entrant cylindrical portion extending axially and downwardly into the same from the upper end thereof, and evaporative source material in the form of a chemical compound compacted within the upper annular pontion of the charge bottle formed by the re-entrant cylindrical portion, whereby vapor from the chemical compound will pass outwardly from the charge bottle through an apertured closure.
The effect of single-particle charge limits on charge distributions in dusty plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An analytical expression for the stationary particle charge distribution in dusty plasmas is derived that accounts for the existence of single-particle charge limits. This expression is validated by comparison with the results of Monte Carlo charging simulations. The relative importance of the existence of charge limits for various values of the ratio of electron-to-ion density and ion mass is examined, and the effect of charge limits on the transient behavior of the charge distribution is considered. It is found that the time required to reach a steady-state charge distribution strongly decreases as the charge limit decreases, and that the existence of charge limits causes high-frequency charge fluctuations to become relatively more important than in the case without charge limits. (paper)
On stable nuclei mass charge distribution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The charge distribution of mass averaged stable nuclei about trajectory that cross the points with proton and neutron numbers nearly magic is investigated. It is shown that the charge distribution of ΔM have a symmetric property on nucleus charge z=45 and mass number A=103. The distribution of ΔM is compared with charge distribution of product of 206Th fission in framework of statistic model. 4 refs.; 1 fig. (author)
The dynamics of a charged particle
Rohrlich, Fritz
2008-01-01
Using physical arguments, I derive the physically correct equations of motion for a classical charged particle from the Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac equations (LAD) which are well known to be physically incorrect. Since a charged particle can classically not be a point particle because of the Coulomb field divergence, my derivation accounts for that by imposing a basic condition on the external force. That condition ensures that the particle's finite size charge distribution looks like a point charg...
Charge correlations in polaron hopping through molecules
Schmidt, Benjamin B.; Hettler, Matthias H.; Schön, Gerd
2009-01-01
In many organic molecules the strong coupling of excess charges to vibrational modes leads to the formation of polarons, i.e., a localized state of a charge carrier and a molecular deformation. Incoherent hopping of polarons along the molecule is the dominant mechanism of transport at room temperature. We study the far-from-equilibrium situation where, due to the applied bias, the induced number of charge carriers on the molecule is high enough such that charge correlations become relevant. W...
Charge-transfer with graphene and nanotubes
C.N.R. Rao; Rakesh Voggu
2010-01-01
Charge-transfer between electron–donor and –acceptor molecules is a widely studied subject of great chemical interest. Some of the charge-transfer compounds in solid state exhibit novel electronic properties. In the last two to three years, occurrence of molecular charge-transfer involving single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and graphene has been demonstrated. This interaction gives rise to significant changes in the electronic properties of these nanocarbons. We examine charge-transfer ph...
Reading and writing charge on graphene devices
Connolly, M. R.; Herbschleb, E. D.; Puddy, R.K.; Roy, M.; Anderson, D.(California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA); Jones, G. A. C.; Maksym, P.; Smith, C. G.
2011-01-01
We use a combination of charge writing and scanning gate microscopy to map and modify the local charge neutrality point of graphene field-effect devices. We give a demonstration of the technique by writing remote charge in a thin dielectric layer over the graphene-metal interface and detecting the resulting shift in local charge neutrality point. We perform electrostatic simulations to characterize the gating effect of a realistic scanning probe tip on a graphene bilayer and find a good agree...
Long-range charge transfer in biopolymers
Astakhova, T. Yu; Likhachev, V. N.; Vinogradov, G. A.
2012-11-01
The results of theoretical and experimental studies on the charge transfer in biopolymers, namely, DNA and peptides, are presented. Conditions that ensure the efficient long-range charge transport (by several tens of nanometres) are considered. The known theoretical models of charge transfer mechanisms are discussed and the scopes of their application are analyzed. Attention is focused on the charge transport by the polaron mechanism. The bibliography includes 262 references.
Invisible Surface Charge Pattern on Inorganic Electrets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Fei; Hansen, Ole
2013-01-01
We propose an easy method to pattern the surface charge of ${\\rm SiO}_{2}$ electrets without patterning the dielectric layer. By eliminating the use of metal guard electrodes, both the charge efficiency and the surface charge stability in humid environments improve. We apply the concept to a vibr...
Incremental Pressing Technique in Explosive Charge
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
A pressing technique has become available that might be useful for compressing granular explosives. If the height-diameter ratio of the charge is unfavorable,the high quality charge can not be obtained with the common single-action pressing. This paper presents incremental pressing technique, which can obtain the charge with higher overall density and more uniform density.
When electric charge becomes also magnetic
Adorno, Tiago C; Shabad, Anatoly E
2015-01-01
In nonlinear electrodynamics, QED included, we find a static solution to the field equations with an electric charge as its source, which is comprised of homogeneous parallel magnetic and electric fields, and a radial spherically-nonsymmetric long-range magnetic field, whose magnetic charge is proportional to the electric charge and also depends on the homogeneous component of the solution.
Charge operators in simple Lie groups
Taormina, A.
1984-03-01
Charge operators for representations of dimension less than or equal to 16 are computed in all simple Lie groups. The representations for which the charge operator reproduces the charge spectrum of leptons and quarks of one family are analyzed from a GUT point of view.
Supplementary kinetic constants of charged particles
Ribaric, Marijan; Sustersic, Luka
2006-01-01
We put forward: (A) An improved description of classical, kinetic properties of a charged pointlike physical particle that consists, in addition to its mass and charge, also of the Eliezer and Bhabha kinetic constants; and (B) a proposal to evaluate these kinetic constants by considering the trajectories of charged particles in an acccelerator.
Electrostatics with Computer-Interfaced Charge Sensors
Morse, Robert A.
2006-01-01
Computer interfaced electrostatic charge sensors allow both qualitative and quantitative measurements of electrostatic charge but are quite sensitive to charges accumulating on modern synthetic materials. They need to be used with care so that students can correctly interpret their measurements. This paper describes the operation of the sensors,…
Device for measuring charge density distribution in charged particle beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A device to measure charge density distribution in charged particle beams has been described. The device contains a set of hollow interinsulated current-receiving electrodes, recording system, and cooling system. The invention is aimed at the increase of admissible capacity of the beams measured at the expense of cooling efficiency increase. The aim is achieved by the fact, that in the device a dynamic evaporating-condensational cooling of electrodes is realized by means of cooling agent supply in perpendicular to their planes through the tubes introduced inside special cups. Spreading in radial direction over electrode surface the cooling agent gradually and intensively washes the side surface of the cup, after that, it enters the cooling cavity in the form of vapour-liquid mixture. In the cavity the cooling agent, supplied using dispensina and receiving collectors in which vapoUr is condensed, circulates. In the device suggested the surface of electrode cooling is decreased significantly at the expense of side surface of the cups which receives the electrode heat
Charge densities and charge noise in mesoscopic conductors
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
M Büttiker
2002-02-01
We introduce a hierarchy of density of states to characterize the charge distribution in a mesoscopic conductor. At the bottom of this hierarchy are the partial density of states which represent the contribution to the local density of states if both the incident and the out-going scattering channel is prescribed. The partial density of states play a prominent role in measurements with a scanning tunneling microscope on multiprobe conductors in the presence of current ﬂow. The partial density of states determine the degree of dephasing generated by a weakly coupled voltage probe. In addition the partial density of states determine the frequency-dependent response of mesoscopic conductors in the presence of slowly oscillating voltages applied to the contacts of the sample. The partial density of states permit the formulation of a Friedel sum rule which can be applied locally. We introduce the off-diagonal elements of the partial density of states matrix to describe charge ﬂuctuation processes. This generalization leads to a local Wigner–Smith life-time matrix.
Charge transport in organic crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ortmann, Frank
2009-07-01
The understanding of charge transport is one of the central goals in the research on semiconducting crystals. For organic crystals this is particularly complicated due to the strength of the electron-phonon interaction which requires the description of a seamless transition between the limiting cases of a coherent band-transport mechanism and incoherent hopping. In this thesis, charge transport phenomena in organic crystals are studied by theoretical means. A theory for charge transport in organic crystals is developed which covers the whole temperature range from low T, where it reproduces an expression from the Boltzmann equation for band transport, via elevated T, where it generalizes Holstein's small-polaron theory to finite bandwidths, up to high T, for which a temperature dependence equal to Marcus' electron-transfer theory is obtained. Thereby, coherent band transport and thermally induced hopping are treated on equal footing while simultaneously treating the electron-phonon interaction non-perturbatively. By avoiding the approximation of narrow polaron bands the theory allows for the description of large and small polarons and serves as a starting point for computational studies. The theoretical description is completed by using ab initio material parameters for the selected crystals under study. These material parameters are taken from density functional theory calculations for durene, naphthalene, and guanine crystals. Besides the analysis of the transport mechanism, special focus is put on the study of the relationship between mobility anisotropy and structure of the crystals. This study is supported by a 3D-visualization method for the transport channels in such crystals which has been derived in this thesis. (orig.)
Space charge effects: tune shifts and resonances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The effects of space charge and beam-beam interactions on single particle motion in the transverse degree of freedom are considered. The space charge force and the resulting incoherent tune shift are described, and examples are given from the AGS and CERN's PSB. Equations of motion are given for resonances in the presence of the space charge force, and particle behavior is examined under resonance and space charge conditions. Resonance phase space structure is described with and without space charge. Uniform and bunched beams are compared. Beam-beam forces and resonances and beam-beam detuning are described. 18 refs., 15 figs
Braden, H. W.; D'Avanzo, Antonella; Enolski, V. Z.
2011-03-01
We determine the spectral curve of charge-3 BPS su(2) monopoles with C3 cyclic symmetry. The symmetry means that the genus 4 spectral curve covers a (Toda) spectral curve of genus 2. A well adapted homology basis is presented enabling the theta functions and monopole data of the genus 4 curve to be given in terms of genus 2 data. The Richelot correspondence, a generalization of the arithmetic mean, is used to solve for this genus 2 curve. Results of other approaches are compared.
Braden, H W; Enolski, V Z
2010-01-01
We determine the spectral curve of charge 3 BPS su(2) monopoles with C_3 cyclic symmetry. The symmetry means that the genus 4 spectral curve covers a (Toda) spectral curve of genus 2. A well adapted homology basis is presented enabling the theta functions and monopole data of the genus 4 curve to be given in terms of genus 2 data. The Richelot correspondence, a generalization of the arithmetic mean, is used to solve for this genus 2 curve. Results of other approaches are compared.
Charge transport in conducting polymers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Polymers with metal-like electrical conductivity are presented as novel materials. After a short discussion of the present situation of technical applications experimental data on the electrical conductivity and its temperature and frequency dependence are reviewed. These data are discussed within the framework of a model involving fluctuation-induced tunneling between marcroscopic inhomogeneities and energy dependent hopping of charge carriers between localized states on a microscopic level. Pulsed photoconductivity measurements indicate that also in photoconductivity a hopping mechanism is dominant and solitary wave motion of conjugational defects escapes observation. (orig.)
Charge Fluctuations of an Uncharged Black Hole
Schiffer, Marcelo
2016-01-01
In this paper we calculate charge fluctuations of a Schwarzschild black-hole of mass $M$ confined within a perfectly reflecting cavity of radius R in thermal equilibrium with various species of radiation and fermions . Charge conservation is constrained by a Lagrange multiplier (the chemical potential). Black hole charge fluctuations are expected owing to continuous absorption and emission of particles by the black hole. For black holes much more massive than $10^{16} g$ , these fluctuations are exponentially suppressed. For black holes lighter than this, the Schwarzschild black hole is unstable under charge fluctuations for almost every possible size of the confining vessel. The stability regime and the fluctuations are calculated through the second derivative of the entropy with respect to the charge. The expression obtained contains many puzzling terms besides the expected thermodynamical fluctuations: terms corresponding to instabilities that do not depend on the specific value of charge of the charge car...
Repulsion between oppositely charged planar macroions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
YongSeok Jho
Full Text Available The repulsive interaction between oppositely charged macroions is investigated using Grand Canonical Monte Carlo simulations of an unrestricted primitive model, including the effect of inhomogeneous surface charge and its density, the depth of surface charge, the cation size, and the dielectric permittivity of solvent and macroions, and their contrast. The origin of the repulsion is a combination of osmotic pressure and ionic screening resulting from excess salt between the macroions. The excess charge over-reduces the electrostatic attraction between macroions and raises the entropic repulsion. The magnitude of the repulsion increases when the dielectric constant of the solvent is lowered (below that of water and/or the surface charge density is increased, in good agreement with experiment. Smaller size of surface charge and the cation, their discreteness and mobility are other factors that enhance the repulsion and charge inversion phenomenons.
The electric vehicle routing problem with partial charging and nonlinear charging function
Montoya, Alejandro; Guéret, Christelle; Mendoza, Jorge E.; Villegas, Juan
2015-01-01
Electric vehicle routing problems (eVRPs) extend classical routing problems to consider the limited driving range of electric vehicles. In general, this limitation is overcome by introducing planned detours to battery charging stations. Most existing eVRP models rely on one (or both) of the following assumptions: (i) the vehicles fully charge their batteries every time they reach a charging station, and (ii) the battery charge level is a linear function of the charging time. In practical situ...
Charge-state evolution of highly charged ions transmitted through microcapillaries
Tokesi, K.; Wirtz, Ludger; Lemell, C.; Burgdorfer, J.
2000-01-01
The charge-state evolution of highly charged ions transmitted through microcapillaries is studied theoretically by a classical trajectory Monte Carlo simulation.: The interaction of highly charged ions with the internal surface of the capillary is treated within the framework of dielectric response theory. We analyze the distance of closest approach and the angular distributions of the highly charged ions at the exit of the microcapillary. We find the charge-state fraction of transmitted N6+ ...
Charge on a weak polyelectrolyte
Wang, Shengqin; Granick, Steve; Zhao, Jiang
2008-12-01
Fluorescence measurements with single-molecule sensitivity are used to measure the hydrodynamic size and local pH of a weak polyelectrolyte, poly-2-vinyl pyridine end labeled with pH-sensitive dye, the polyelectrolyte having concentration so low (nanomolars) that molecular properties are resolvable only from fluorescence experiments and cannot be accessed by light scattering. We find that the local pH near the dye, inferred from its brightness, is consistently three orders of magnitude higher than the bulk pH. Upon varying the bulk pH, we measure the collapse point at which hydrophobic attraction overwhelms electrostatic repulsion between charged elements along the chain, and conclude that adding monovalent salt shifts this coil-to-globule collapse to higher pH than in the absence of salt. The influence of salt appears to shift the ionization equilibrium of this weak polyelectrolyte in the direction of the chain possessing enhanced electric charge at a given pH. Phenomenologically, this is opposite to the case for strong polyelectrolytes, although the mechanism differs.
Gauge theories and magnetic charge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
If the magnetic field for an exact gauge group H (assumed compact and connected) exhibits an inverse square law behaviour at large distances then the generalized magnetic charge, appearing as the coefficient, completely determines the topological quantum number of the solution. When this magnetic charge operator is expressed as a linear combination of mutually commuting generators of H, the components are uniquely determined, up to the action of the Weyl group, and have to be weights of a new group Hsup(γ) which is explicitly constructed out of H. The relation between the 'electric' group H and the 'magnetic' group Hsup(γ) is symmetrical in the sense that (Hsup(γ))sup(γ)=H. The results suggest that H monopoles are Hsup(γ) multiplets and vice versa and that the true symmetry group is HxHsup(γ). In this duality topological and Noether quantum numbers exchange roles rather as in Sine-Gordon theory. A physical possibility is that H and Hsup(γ) be the colour and weak electromagnetic gauge groups. (Auth.)
Direct charged particle imaging sensors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
CMOS image sensors optimized for charged particle imaging applications, such as electron microscopy and particle physics, have been designed and characterized. These directly image charged particles without reliance on performance-degrading hybrid technologies such as the use of scintillating materials. Based on standard CMOS active pixel sensor (APS) technology, the sensor arrays uses an 8-20 μm epitaxial layer that acts as a thicker sensitive region for the generation and collection of ionization electrons resulting from impinging high-energy particles. This results in a 100% fill factor and a far larger signal per incident electron than a standard CMOS photodiode could provide. A 512x550 pixels prototype has been fabricated and used extensively in an electron microscope, including having been used to take sample images. Temporal noise was measured to be 0.9 mV RMS, and the dynamic range was 60 dB. Power consumption at 70 frames/s is 20 mW. The full-width half-maximum of the collected ionization electron distribution was found to be 5.5 μm, yielding a spatial resolution of approximately 2.3 μm for individual incident electrons, and the modulation transfer function of the sensor at the Nyquist limit is to be 32%
Coupling Electromagnetism to Global Charge
Guendelman, Eduardo
2013-01-01
It is shown that an alternative to the standard scalar QED is possible. In this new version there is only global gauge invariance as far as the charged scalar fields are concerned although local gauge invariance is kept for the electromagnetic field. The electromagnetic coupling has the form $j_\\mu (A^{\\mu} +\\partial^{\\mu}B)$ where $B$ is an auxiliary field and the current $j_\\mu$ is $A_{\\mu}$ independent so that no "sea gull terms" are introduced. In a model of this kind spontaneous breaking of symmetry does not lead to photon mass generation, instead the Goldstone boson becomes a massless source for the electromagnetic field. Infrared questions concerning the theory when spontaneous symmetry breaking takes place and generalizations to global vector QED are discussed. In this framework Q-Balls and other non topological solitons that owe their existence to a global U(1) symmetry can be coupled to electromagnetism and could represent multiply charged particles now in search in the LHC. Finally, we give an exam...
Battery Charge Equalizer with Transformer Array
Davies, Francis
2013-01-01
High-power batteries generally consist of a series connection of many cells or cell banks. In order to maintain high performance over battery life, it is desirable to keep the state of charge of all the cell banks equal. A method provides individual charging for battery cells in a large, high-voltage battery array with a minimum number of transformers while maintaining reasonable efficiency. This is designed to augment a simple highcurrent charger that supplies the main charge energy. The innovation will form part of a larger battery charge system. It consists of a transformer array connected to the battery array through rectification and filtering circuits. The transformer array is connected to a drive circuit and a timing and control circuit that allow individual battery cells or cell banks to be charged. The timing circuit and control circuit connect to a charge controller that uses battery instrumentation to determine which battery bank to charge. It is important to note that the innovation can charge an individual cell bank at the same time that the main battery charger is charging the high-voltage battery. The fact that the battery cell banks are at a non-zero voltage, and that they are all at similar voltages, can be used to allow charging of individual cell banks. A set of transformers can be connected with secondary windings in series to make weighted sums of the voltages on the primaries.
Spacecraft Charging Sensitivity to Material Properties
Minow, Joseph I.; Edwards, David L.
2015-01-01
Evaluating spacecraft charging behavior of a vehicle in the space environment requires knowledge of the material properties relevant to the charging process. Implementing surface and internal charging models requires a user to specify a number of material electrical properties including electrical resistivity parameters (dark and radiation induced), dielectric constant, secondary electron yields, photoemission yields, and breakdown strength in order to correctly evaluate the electric discharge threat posed by the increasing electric fields generated by the accumulating charge density. In addition, bulk material mass density and/or chemical composition must be known in order to analyze radiation shielding properties when evaluating internal charging. We will first describe the physics of spacecraft charging and show how uncertainties in material properties propagate through spacecraft charging algorithms to impact the results obtained from charging models. We then provide examples using spacecraft charging codes to demonstrate their sensitivity to material properties. The goal of this presentation is to emphasize the importance in having good information on relevant material properties in order to best characterize on orbit charging threats.
Charge of a quasiparticle in a superconductor.
Ronen, Yuval; Cohen, Yonatan; Kang, Jung-Hyun; Haim, Arbel; Rieder, Maria-Theresa; Heiblum, Moty; Mahalu, Diana; Shtrikman, Hadas
2016-02-16
Nonlinear charge transport in superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) Josephson junctions has a unique signature in the shuttled charge quantum between the two superconductors. In the zero-bias limit Cooper pairs, each with twice the electron charge, carry the Josephson current. An applied bias VSD leads to multiple Andreev reflections (MAR), which in the limit of weak tunneling probability should lead to integer multiples of the electron charge ne traversing the junction, with n integer larger than 2Δ/eVSD and Δ the superconducting order parameter. Exceptionally, just above the gap eVSD ≥ 2Δ, with Andreev reflections suppressed, one would expect the current to be carried by partitioned quasiparticles, each with energy-dependent charge, being a superposition of an electron and a hole. Using shot-noise measurements in an SIS junction induced in an InAs nanowire (with noise proportional to the partitioned charge), we first observed quantization of the partitioned charge q = e*/e = n, with n = 1-4, thus reaffirming the validity of our charge interpretation. Concentrating next on the bias region eVSD ~ 2Δ, we found a reproducible and clear dip in the extracted charge to q ~ 0.6, which, after excluding other possibilities, we attribute to the partitioned quasiparticle charge. Such dip is supported by numerical simulations of our SIS structure. PMID:26831071
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王飞; 张文军; 郑栋; 徐良韬
2015-01-01
A three-dimensional (3D) charging-discharging cloud resolution model was used to investigate the impact of the vertical velocity fi eld on the charging processes and the formation of charge structure in a strong thunderstorm. The distribution and evolution of ice particle content and charges on ice particles were analyzed in diff erent vertical velocity fi elds. The results show that the ice particles in the vertical velocity range from 1 to 5 m s−1 obtained the most charge through charging processes during the lifetime of the thunderstorm. The magnitude of the charges could reach 1014 nC. Before the beginning of lightning activity, the charges produced in updraft region 2 (updraft speed ? 13 m s−1) and updraft region 1 (updraft speed between 5 and 13 m s−1) were relatively signifi cant. The magnitudes of charge reached 1013 nC, which clearly impacted upon the early lightning activity. The vertical velocity conditions in the quasi-steady region (updraft speed between –1 and 1 m s−1) were the most conducive for charge separation on ice particles on diff erent scales. Accordingly, a net charge structure always appeared in the quasi-steady and adjacent regions. Based on the results, a conceptual model of ice particle charging, charge separation, and charge structure formation in the fl ow fi eld was constructed. The model helps to explain observations of the“lightning hole”phenomenon.
a Movable Charging Unit for Green Mobility
ElBanhawy, E. Y.; Nassar, K.
2013-05-01
Battery swapping of electric vehicles (EVs) matter appears to be the swiftest and most convenient to users. The existence of swapping stations increases the feasibility of distributed energy storage via the electric grid. However, it is a cost-prohibitive way of charging. Early adaptors' preferences of /perceptions about EV system in general, has its inflectional effects on potential users hence the market penetration level. Yet, the charging matter of electric batteries worries the users and puts more pressure on them with the more rigorous planning-ahead they have to make prior to any trip. This paper presents a distinctive way of charging. It aims at making the overall charging process at ease. From a closer look into the literature, most of EVs' populations depend on domestic charge. Domestic charging gives them more confidence and increases the usability factor of the EV system. Nevertheless, they still need to count on the publically available charging points to reach their destination(s). And when it comes to multifamily residences, it becomes a thorny problem as these apartments do not have a room for charging outlets. Having said the irritating charging time needed to fatten the batteries over the day and the minimal average mileage drove daily, hypothetically, home delivery charging (Movable Charging Unit-MCU) would be a stupendous solution. The paper discusses the integration of shortest path algorithm problem with the information about EV users within a metropolitan area, developing an optimal route for a charging unit. This MCU delivers charging till homes whether by swapping batteries or by fast charging facility. Information about users is to be provided by the service provider of the neighbourhood, which includes charging patterns (timing, power capacity). This problem lies under the shortest path algorithms problem. It provides optimal route of charging that in return shall add more reliability and usability values and alleviate the charging
Magnetic guidance of charged particles
Dubbers, Dirk
2015-01-01
Many experiments and devices in physics use static magnetic fields to guide charged particles from a source onto a detector, and we ask the innocent question: What is the distribution of particle intensity over the detector surface? One should think that the solution to this seemingly simple problem is well known. We show that, even for uniform guide fields, this is not the case and present analytical point spread functions (PSF) for magnetic transport that deviate strongly from previous results. The "magnetic" PSF shows unexpected singularities, which were recently also observed experimentally, and which make detector response very sensitive to minute changes of position, field amplitude, or particle energy. In the field of low-energy particle physics, these singularities may become a source of error in modern high precision experiments, or may be used for instrument tests, for instance in neutrino mass retardation spectrometers.
Magnetic guidance of charged particles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dirk Dubbers
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Many experiments and devices in physics use static magnetic fields to guide charged particles from a source onto a detector, and we ask the innocent question: What is the distribution of particle intensity over the detector surface? One should think that the solution to this seemingly simple problem is well known. We show that, even for uniform guide fields, this is not the case, and we present analytical point spread functions (PSF for magnetic transport that deviate strongly from previous results. The “magnetic” PSF shows unexpected singularities, which were recently also observed experimentally, and which make detector response very sensitive to minute changes of position, field amplitude, or particle energy. In the field of low-energy particle physics, these singularities may become a source of error in modern high precision experiments, or may be used for instrument tests.
Correlations in charged bosons systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The two and three-dimensional charge Bose gas have been studied. In the bidimensional case two different types of interaction were considered: l/r and l n(r). The method of self-consistent-field was applied to these systems, which takes into account the short range correlations between the bosons through a local-field correction. By using self-consistent numerical calculations, the structure factor S(k→) was determined. The pair-correlation function, the ground-state energy, the pressure of the gas and the spectrum of elementary excitations were obtained from S (k→). The screening density induced by a fixed charged impurity was calculated. In the high-density limit our calculations reproduce the results given by Bogoliubov's perturbation theory. In the intermediate-density region, corresponding to the strongly coupled systems, the results are in very good agreement with calculations based on HNC approximation as well as Monte Carlo method. The results are compared in several situations with RPA results showing that the self-consistent method is much more accurate. The two-dimensional systems showed to be more correlated than the three-dimensional systems showed to be more correlated than the three-dimensional one; the gas with interaction l/r is also more correlated than the logarithmic one at high densities, but it begins to be less correlated than this one in the low-density region. The thermodynamic functions of the two and three-dimensional systems at finite temperatures near absolute zero are calculated based upon the gas excitation spectra at zero temperature. (author)
Charge transport in nanoscale junctions.
Albrecht, Tim; Kornyshev, Alexei; Bjørnholm, Thomas
2008-09-01
Understanding the fundamentals of nanoscale charge transfer is pivotal for designing future nano-electronic devices. Such devices could be based on individual or groups of molecular bridges, nanotubes, nanoparticles, biomolecules and other 'active' components, mimicking wire, diode and transistor functions. These have operated in various environments including vacuum, air and condensed matter, in two- or three-electrode configurations, at ultra-low and room temperatures. Interest in charge transport in ultra-small device components has a long history and can be dated back to Aviram and Ratner's letter in 1974 (Chem. Phys. Lett. 29 277-83). So why is there a necessity for a special issue on this subject? The area has reached some degree of maturity, and even subtle geometric effects in the nanojunction and noise features can now be resolved and rationalized based on existing theoretical concepts. One purpose of this special issue is thus to showcase various aspects of nanoscale and single-molecule charge transport from experimental and theoretical perspectives. The main principles have 'crystallized' in our minds, but there is still a long way to go before true single-molecule electronics can be implemented. Major obstacles include the stability of electronic nanojunctions, reliable operation at room temperature, speed of operation and, last but not least, integration into large networks. A gradual transition from traditional silicon-based electronics to devices involving a single (or a few) molecule(s) therefore appears to be more viable from technologic and economic perspectives than a 'quantum leap'. As research in this area progresses, new applications emerge, e.g. with a view to characterizing interfacial charge transfer at the single-molecule level in general. For example, electrochemical experiments with individual enzyme molecules demonstrate that catalytic processes can be studied with nanometre resolution, offering a route towards optimizing biosensors at
Research on the fast charging of VRLA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiao Qing
2012-11-01
Full Text Available VRLA can be the energy storing device of the HEV (Hybrid Electric Vehicle, photovoltaic system and so on. The most important factor that restricts the improvement of these fields is the service lifetime of the battery cannot reach the expectation. In the charging process, traditional charging method has serious polarization phenomenon. It will decrease its service life. Aimed at the purpose of reducing the polarization phenomenon, this paper proposed the changing current depolarization pulse charging method which is combining the dynamic model of the battery on the basis of analyzing the existential issues in the pulse charging method. By building the hardware circuit to achieve the function and verify their feasibility. The results indicate that, compared with pulse charging method, the new method makes battery fully charged in shorter time obviously and the temperature of batteries rise more slowly.
Charged rotating black holes at large D
Tanabe, Kentaro
2016-01-01
We study odd dimensional charged equally rotating black holes in the Einstein-Maxwell theory with/without a cosmological constant by using the large D expansion method, where D is a spacetime dimension. Solving the Einstein-Maxwell equations in the 1/D expansion we obtain the large D effective equations for charged equally rotating black holes. The effective equations describe the nonlinear dynamics of charged equally rotating black holes. Especially the perturbation analysis of the effective equations gives analytic formula for quasinormal mode frequencies, and we can show charged equally rotating black holes have instabilities. As one interesting feature of instabilities, we observe that the ultraspinning instability of neutral equally rotating black holes in de Sitter is connected with the instability of de Sitter Reissner-Nordstrom black hole in a rotation-charge plane of the solution parameter space. So these instabilities have same origin as dynamical properties of charged rotating black holes. We also ...
Aerosol charge state characterisation using an ELPI
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matthews, J C; Wright, M D; Henshaw, D L [University of Bristol (United Kingdom); Biddiscombe, M F; Usmani, O S, E-mail: j.c.matthews@bristol.ac.uk [NHLI, Imperial College London and Royal Brompton Hospital (United Kingdom)
2011-06-23
A new technique has been developed to measure the size distribution and charge state of highly charged aerosols using an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI). The internal charger was switched alternately on and off and the time between stable charge states found to be {approx} 10 s. The size distribution of aerosols was found when the charger was on, from which the charge distribution can be estimated when the charger is off using the current at each impactor stage. This method was tested in background conditions, when a candle was burning and when a negative air ioniser was used. The ELPI electrometers were not sensitive enough to accurately measure the charge state on background and candle air, but gave a value for air charged by an ioniser. Comparing results from the ELPI with other techniques showed inaccuracies in this method that need to be addressed before further use of this technique.
Aerosol charge state characterisation using an ELPI
Matthews, J. C.; Wright, M. D.; Biddiscombe, M. F.; Usmani, O. S.; Henshaw, D. L.
2011-06-01
A new technique has been developed to measure the size distribution and charge state of highly charged aerosols using an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI). The internal charger was switched alternately on and off and the time between stable charge states found to be ~ 10 s. The size distribution of aerosols was found when the charger was on, from which the charge distribution can be estimated when the charger is off using the current at each impactor stage. This method was tested in background conditions, when a candle was burning and when a negative air ioniser was used. The ELPI electrometers were not sensitive enough to accurately measure the charge state on background and candle air, but gave a value for air charged by an ioniser. Comparing results from the ELPI with other techniques showed inaccuracies in this method that need to be addressed before further use of this technique.
Review of Variable Generation Integration Charges
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Porter, K.; Fink, S.; Buckley, M.; Rogers, J.; Hodge, B. M.
2013-03-01
The growth of wind and solar generation in the United States, and the expectation of continued growth of these technologies, dictates that the future power system will be operated in a somewhat different manner because of increased variability and uncertainty. A small number of balancing authorities have attempted to determine an 'integration cost' to account for these changes to their current operating practices. Some balancing authorities directly charge wind and solar generators for integration charges, whereas others add integration charges to projected costs of wind and solar in integrated resource plans or in competitive solicitations for generation. This report reviews the balancing authorities that have calculated variable generation integration charges and broadly compares and contrasts the methodologies they used to determine their specific integration charges. The report also profiles each balancing authority and how they derived wind and solar integration charges.
Mass Effect on Axial Charge Dynamics
Guo, Er-dong
2016-01-01
We studied effect of finite quark mass on the dynamics of axial charge using the D3/D7 model in holography. The mass term in axial anomaly equation affects both the fluctuation (generation) and dissipation of axial charge. We studied the dependence of the effect on quark mass and external magnetic field. For axial charge generation, we calculated the mass diffusion rate, which characterizes the helicity flipping rate. The rate is a non-monotonous function of mass and can be significantly enhanced by the magnetic field. The diffusive behavior is also related to a divergent susceptibility of axial charge. For axial charge dissipation, we found that in the long time limit, the mass term dissipates all the charge effectively generated by parallel electric and magnetic fields. The result is consistent with a relaxation time approximation. The rate of dissipation through mass term is a monotonous increasing function of both quark mass and magnetic field.
Surface charge measurement by the Pockels effect
Sam, Y L
2001-01-01
have been observed by applying both impulse and AC voltages to a needle electrode in direct contact with the BSO. AC surface discharge behaviour of polymeric materials bonded to the BSO has also been investigated. The effect of the surrounding environment has been experimentally examined by placing the cell inside a vacuum chamber. Surface charge measurements have been made at various atmospheric pressures. The effect of an electro-negative gas (Sulphur Hexafluoride) on the surface charge distribution has also been investigated. This thesis is concerned with the design and development of a surface charge measurement system using Pockels effect. The measurement of surface charge is important in determining the electrical performance of high voltage insulation materials. The method proposed allows on-line measurement of charge and can generate two-dimensional images that represent the charge behaviour on the surface of the material under test. The measurement system is optical and uses a Pockels crystal as the ...
Intrinsic Charges and the Strong Forc
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lehnert B.
2013-07-01
Full Text Available According to a revised quantum electrodynamic theory, there are models of leptons such as the electron which possess both a net integrated electric charge and a much larger intrinsic charge of both polarities. From estimates based on such models, the corresponding Coulomb force due to the intrinsic charges then becomes two orders of magnitude larger than that due to the conventional net charge. This intrinsic charge force can also have the features of a short-range interaction. If these results would generally hold true, the intrinsic charge force could either interact with a strong force of diﬀerent origin and character, or could possibly become identical with the strong force.
Why do particle clouds generate electric charges?
Pähtz, T.; Herrmann, H. J.; Shinbrot, T.
2010-05-01
Grains in desert sandstorms spontaneously generate strong electrical charges; likewise volcanic dust plumes produce spectacular lightning displays. Charged particle clouds also cause devastating explosions in food, drug and coal processing industries. Despite the wide-ranging importance of granular charging in both nature and industry, even the simplest aspects of its causes remain elusive, because it is difficult to understand how inert grains in contact with little more than other inert grains can generate the large charges observed. Here, we present a simple yet predictive explanation for the charging of granular materials in collisional flows. We argue from very basic considerations that charge transfer can be expected in collisions of identical dielectric grains in the presence of an electric field, and we confirm the model's predictions using discrete-element simulations and a tabletop granular experiment.
Endotoxin removal by charge-modified filters.
Gerba, C P; Hou, K
1985-01-01
The effects of positively charged nylon and depth (cellulose-diatomaceous earth) filters on endotoxin removal from various solutions were evaluated. The charged filter media removed significant amounts of Escherichia coli and natural endotoxin from tap water, distilled water, sugars, and NaCl solutions; no significant removal of endotoxin was observed with negatively charged filter media. The extent of removal was influenced by pH, the presence of salts, and organic matter. Such media may be ...
Interfacial properties of charge asymmetric ionic liquids
Alejandre, Jose; Bresme, Fernando; Gonzalez-Melchor, Minerva
2009-01-01
We report molecular dynamics simulations of the coexistence and interfacial properties of ionic liquids as a function of cation/anion, (z$_+$ : z$_-$) = (2:-1), (4:-1), charge asymmetry. Our results correct previous computations of the coexistence curve of (2:-1) charge asymmetric systems, obtained via the fine-lattice discretization method. In agreement with previous computations we report a reduction in the critical temperature and an increase in the critical density with charge asymmetry. ...
On the effective charge of hydrophobic polyelectrolytes
Chepelianskii, Alexei; Mohammad-Rafiee, Farshid; Raphael, Elie
2008-01-01
In this paper we analyze the behavior of hydrophobic polyelectrolytes. It has been proposed that this system adopts a pearl-necklace structure reminiscent of the Rayleigh instability of a charged droplet. Using a Poisson-Boltzmann approach, we calculate the counterion distribution around a given pearl assuming the latter to be penetrable for the counterions. This allows us to calculate the effective electric charge of the pearl as a function of the chemical charge. Our predictions are in very...
Charged rotating black holes at large D
Tanabe, Kentaro
2016-01-01
We study odd dimensional charged equally rotating black holes in the Einstein-Maxwell theory with/without a cosmological constant by using the large D expansion method, where D is a spacetime dimension. Solving the Einstein-Maxwell equations in the 1/D expansion we obtain the large D effective equations for charged equally rotating black holes. The effective equations describe the nonlinear dynamics of charged equally rotating black holes. Especially the perturbation analysis of the effective...
Environment Dependent Charge Potential for Water
Muralidharan, Krishna; Valone, Steven M.; Atlas, Susan R.
2007-01-01
We present a new interatomic potential for water captured in a charge-transfer embedded atom method (EAM) framework. The potential accounts for explicit, dynamical charge transfer in atoms as a function of the local chemical environment. As an initial test of the charge-transfer EAM approach for a molecular system, we have constructed a relatively simple version of the potential and examined its ability to model the energetics of small water clusters. The excellent agreement between our resul...
An investigation into waste taxes and charges
Dunne, Louise
2004-01-01
This paper reviews the potential for problems regarding public acceptability of environmental taxes with: a review of waste charges literature; a review of the literature on environmental attitudes; and a case study - the municipal waste charge protests in Ireland in 2003 and 2004. These public protests against new waste charges demonstrate the necessity for good advertisement and public relations when introducing a new tax. Rather than explain the polluter pays principle and simultaneously p...
Charge trapping and detrapping in polymeric materials
Chen, George; Xu, Zhiqiang
2009-01-01
Space charge formation in polymeric materials can cause some serious concern for design engineers as the electric field may severely be distorted, leading to part of the material being overstressed. At the worst, this may result in material degradation and possibly premature failure. It is therefore important to understand charge generation, trapping, and detrapping processes in the material. In the present paper, the characteristics of charge trapping and detrapping in low density polyethyle...
Application and promotion of wireless charging technology
Yan, Kaijun
2014-01-01
The aim of this thesis is to study wireless charging technology and analyze the application and promotion of each technology. This technology is based on Faraday’s electromagnetic in 1830s. It is not a new technology but it is developing high speed nowadays. This thesis introduces four mainstream types of wireless charging technology and three main-stream standards, and analyzes their features and development status. Wireless charging technology has been applied to some products, suc...
Soret Motion of a Charged Spherical Colloid
Rasuli, Seyyed Nader; Golestanian, Ramin
2007-01-01
The thermophoretic motion of a charged spherical colloidal particle and its accompanying cloud of counterions and co-ions in a temperature gradient is studied theoretically. Using the Debye-Huckel approximation, the Soret drift velocity of a weakly charged colloid is calculated analytically. For highly charged colloids, the nonlinear system of electrokinetic equations is solved numerically, and the effects of high surface potential, dielectrophoresis, and convection are examined. Our results ...
HICS: Highly charged ion collisions with surfaces
Peters, Thorsten; Haake, Christian; Hopster, Johannes; Sokolovsky, Valentin; Wucher, Andreas; Schleberger, Marika
2008-01-01
The layout of a new instrument designed to study the interaction of highly charged ions with surfaces, which consists of an ion source, a beamline including charge separation and a target chamber, is presented here. By varying the charge state and impact velocity of the projectiles separately, the dissipation of potential and kinetic energy at or below the surface can be studied independently. The target chamber offers the use of tunable metal-insulator-metal devices as detectors for internal...
Mechanism of electric charge formation polyethylene
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The electric charge formation in irradiated dielectrics is a phenomenon resulting from interaction of radiation with matter. Using pressure-pulse techniques the general mechanism of eletric charge accumulation and space distribution in electron- and gamma-irradiated polyethylene (low and high density) was studied. The relationship between the charge accumulation and structural and radiation-induced defects in polyethylene was established. Results obtained are applied to other organic materials
Charge fluctuations in nonlinear heat transport
Gergs, Niklas M.; Hörig, Christoph B. M.; Wegewijs, Maarten R.; Schuricht, Dirk
2015-01-01
We show that charge fluctuation processes are crucial for the nonlinear heat conductance through an interacting nanostructure, even far from a resonance. The often made assumption that off-resonant transport proceeds only by virtual occupation of charge states, underlying exchange-scattering models of transport, can fail dramatically for heat transport as compared to charge transport. This indicates that nonlinear heat transport spectroscopy may be a very promising experimental tool, in parti...
Physical charges in QED and QCD
Ilderton, Anton; McMullan, David
2009-01-01
We show that the `dressing' approach, which describes physical charges as gauge invariant composites of matter and clouds of gauge bosons, arises naturally in gauge theories. We give perturbative examples of dressings for both asymptotic charges and for states in which the fields are confined to a compact volume as is required, for example, by causality in pair creation. In QCD, we use dressed states to demonstrate explicitly how Gribov copies obstruct the non-perturbative construction of colour charges.
Induction Charge Detector with Multiple Sensing Stages
Gamero-Castano, Manuel
2008-01-01
An induction charge detector with multiple sensing stages has been conceived for use in characterizing sprayed droplets, dust particles, large ionized molecules, and the like. Like related prior single-stage devices, each stage yields a measurement of the electric charge and the time of flight of the particle. In effect, an n-stage sensor yields n independent sets of such measurements from the same particle. The benefit of doing this is to increase the effective signal-to-noise ratio and thereby lower the charge-detection limit and the standard error of the charge measurement.
First charge breeding results at CARIBU EBIS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) developed to breed CARIBU radioactive beams at ATLAS is currently in the off-line commissioning stage. The beam commissioning is being performed using a low emittance surface ionization source producing singly-charged cesium ions. The primary goal of the off-line commissioning is the demonstration of high-efficiency charge breeding in the pulsed injection mode. An overview of the final design of the CARIBU EBIS charge breeder, the off-line commissioning installation and the first results on charge breeding of stable cesium ions are presented and discussed
Radiation from charges in the continuum limit
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Reuven Ianconescu
2013-06-01
Full Text Available It is known that an accelerating charge radiates according to Larmor formula. On the other hand, any DC current following a curvilinear path, consists of accelerating charges, but in such case the radiated power is 0. The scope of this paper is to analyze and quantify how a system of charges goes from a radiating state to a non radiating state when the charges distribution goes to the continuum limit. Understanding this is important from the theoretical point of view and the results of this work are applicable to particle accelerator, cyclotron and other high energy devices.
Two-phase charge-coupled device
Kosonocky, W. F.; Carnes, J. E.
1973-01-01
A charge-transfer efficiency of 99.99% per stage was achieved in the fat-zero mode of operation of 64- and 128-stage two-phase charge-coupled shift registers at 1.0-MHz clock frequency. The experimental two-phase charge-coupled shift registers were constructed in the form of polysilicon gates overlapped by aluminum gates. The unidirectional signal flow was accomplished by using n-type substrates with 0.5 to 1.0 ohm-cm resistivity in conjunction with a channel oxide thickness of 1000 A for the polysilicon gates and 3000 A for the aluminum gates. The operation of the tested shift registers with fat zero is in good agreement with the free-charge transfer characteristics expected for the tested structures. The charge-transfer losses observed when operating the experimental shift registers without the fat zero are attributed to fast interface state trapping. The analytical part of the report contains a review backed up by an extensive appendix of the free-charge transfer characteristics of CCD's in terms of thermal diffusion, self-induced drift, and fringing field drift. Also, a model was developed for the charge-transfer losses resulting from charge trapping by fast interface states. The proposed model was verified by the operation of the experimental two-phase charge-coupled shift registers.
Copeland, Edmund J; Zhou, Shuang-Yong
2014-01-01
Q-balls are non-topological solitonic solutions to a wide class of field theories that possess global symmetries. Here we show that in these same theories there also exists a tower of novel composite Q-ball solutions where, within one composite Q-ball, positive and negative charges co-exist and swap at a frequency lower than the natural frequency of an individual Q-ball. These charge-swapping Q-balls are constructed by assembling Q-balls and anti-Q-balls tightly such that their nonlinear cores overlap. We explain why charge-swapping Q-balls can form and why they swap charges.
Charge-transfer with graphene and nanotubes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C.N.R. Rao
2010-09-01
Full Text Available Charge-transfer between electron–donor and –acceptor molecules is a widely studied subject of great chemical interest. Some of the charge-transfer compounds in solid state exhibit novel electronic properties. In the last two to three years, occurrence of molecular charge-transfer involving single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs and graphene has been demonstrated. This interaction gives rise to significant changes in the electronic properties of these nanocarbons. We examine charge-transfer phenomenon in graphene and SWNTs in this article in view of its potential utility in device applications.
Conductivity maximum in a charged colloidal suspension
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bastea, S
2009-01-27
Molecular dynamics simulations of a charged colloidal suspension in the salt-free regime show that the system exhibits an electrical conductivity maximum as a function of colloid charge. We attribute this behavior to two main competing effects: colloid effective charge saturation due to counterion 'condensation' and diffusion slowdown due to the relaxation effect. In agreement with previous observations, we also find that the effective transported charge is larger than the one determined by the Stern layer and suggest that it corresponds to the boundary fluid layer at the surface of the colloidal particles.
Worldline deviations of charged spinning particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heydari-Fard, M. [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, 19839 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohseni, M. [Physics Department, Payame Noor University, 19395-4697 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: m-mohseni@pnu.ac.ir; Sepangi, H.R. [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, 19839 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2005-10-20
The geodesic deviation equation is generalized to worldline deviation equations describing the relative accelerations of charged spinning particles in the framework of Dixon-Souriau equations of motion.
Worldline deviations of charged spinning particles
Heydari-Fard, M; Sepangi, H R
2005-01-01
The geodesic deviation equation is generalized to worldline deviation equations describing the relative accelerations of charged spinning particles in the framework of Dixon-Souriau equations of motion.
Charge multiplication effect in thin diamond films
Skukan, N.; Grilj, V.; Sudić, I.; Pomorski, M.; Kada, W.; Makino, T.; Kambayashi, Y.; Andoh, Y.; Onoda, S.; Sato, S.; Ohshima, T.; Kamiya, T.; Jakšić, M.
2016-07-01
Herein, we report on the enhanced sensitivity for the detection of charged particles in single crystal chemical vapour deposition (scCVD) diamond radiation detectors. The experimental results demonstrate charge multiplication in thin planar diamond membrane detectors, upon impact of 18 MeV O ions, under high electric field conditions. Avalanche multiplication is widely exploited in devices such as avalanche photo diodes, but has never before been reproducibly observed in intrinsic CVD diamond. Because enhanced sensitivity for charged particle detection is obtained for short charge drift lengths without dark counts, this effect could be further exploited in the development of sensors based on avalanche multiplication and radiation detectors with extreme radiation hardness.
Randomly charged polymers in porous environment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Blavatska
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We study the conformational properties of charged polymers in a solvent in the presence of structural obstacles correlated according to a power law ~x-a. We work within the continuous representation of a model of linear chain considered as a random sequence of charges qi=±q0. Such a model captures the properties of polyampholytes~-- heteropolymers comprising both positively and negatively charged monomers. We apply the direct polymer renormalization scheme and analyze the scaling behavior of charged polymers up to the first order of an ε=6-d, δ=4-a-expansion.
Central depression of nuclear charge density distribution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The center-depressed nuclear charge distributions are investigated with the parametrized distribution and the relativistic mean-field theory, and their corresponding charge form factors are worked out with the phase shift analysis method. The central depression of nuclear charge distribution of 46Ar and 44S is supported by the relativistic mean-field calculation. According to the calculation, the valence protons in 46Ar and 44S prefer to occupy the 1d3/2 state rather than the 2s1/2 state, which is different from that in the less neutron-rich argon and sulfur isotopes. As a result, the central proton densities of 46Ar and 44S are highly depressed, and so are their central charge densities. The charge form factors of some argon and sulfur isotopes are presented, and the minima of the charge form factors shift upward and inward when the central nuclear charge distributions are more depressed. Besides, the effect of the central depression on the charge form factors is studied with a parametrized distribution, when the root-mean-square charge radii remain constant.
Topological charge conservation in stochastic optical fields
Roux, Filippus S.
2016-05-01
The fact that phase singularities in scalar stochastic optical fields are topologically conserved implies the existence of an associated conserved current, which can be expressed in terms of local correlation functions of the optical field and its transverse derivatives. Here, we derive the topological charge current for scalar stochastic optical fields and show that it obeys a conservation equation. We use the expression for the topological charge current to investigate the topological charge flow in inhomogeneous stochastic optical fields with a one-dimensional topological charge density.
Li, Hua; Wang, Bowen; Li, Zhiwei; Liu, De; Lin, Fuchang; Dai, Ling; Zhang, Qin; Chen, Yaohong
2013-10-01
Metallized biaxially oriented polypropylene film (BOPP) capacitors are widely used in pulsed power systems. When the capacitor is used as the energy storage equipment under high electric field, more charges should be provided to maintain the voltage of the capacitor. This should be ascribed to the completion of the slow polarization which may take several hours or even longer. This paper focuses on the stored charge in metallized BOPP film capacitors. The modeling of the stored charge by the equivalent conversion of circuits is conducted to analyse the slow polarization in the BOPP film. The 3-RC network is proposed to represent the time-dependent charge stored in the capacitor. A charging current measurement system is established to investigate the charge storage property of the capacitor. The measurement system can measure the long time charging current with a sampling rate of 300 Hz. The total charge calculated by the charging current indicates that the stored charge in the capacitor under the electric field of 400 V/μm is 13.5% larger than the product of the voltage and the capacitance measured by the AC bridge. The nonlinear effect of the electric field on the slow polarization charge is also demonstrated. And the simulation of charge storage based on the 3-RC network can match well with the trend of the stored charge increasing with the time. PMID:24182144
Late-Time Evolution of Charged Gravitational Collapse and Decay of Charged Scalar Hair, 2
Hod, S; Hod, Shahar; Piran, Tsvi
1998-01-01
We study analytically the initial value problem for a charged massless scalar-field on a Reissner-Nordström spacetime. Using the technique of spectral decomposition we extend recent results on this problem. Following the no-hair theorem we reveal the dynamical physical mechanism by which the charged hair is radiated away. We show that the charged perturbations decay according to an inverse power-law behaviour at future timelike infinity and along future null infinity. Along the future outer horizon we find an oscillatory inverse power-law relaxation of the charged fields. We find that a charged black hole becomes ``bald'' slower than a neutral one, due to the existence of charged perturbations. Our results are also important to the study of mass-inflation and the stability of Cauchy horizons during a dynamical gravitational collapse of charged matter in which a charged black-hole is formed.
Zhao, L; Cluggish, B; Kim, J S; Pardo, R; Vondrasek, R
2010-02-01
A Monte Carlo charge breeding code (MCBC) is being developed by FAR-TECH, Inc. to model the capture and charge breeding of 1+ ion beam in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) device. The ECRIS plasma is simulated using the generalized ECRIS model which has two choices of boundary settings, free boundary condition and Bohm condition. The charge state distribution of the extracted beam ions is calculated by solving the steady state ion continuity equations where the profiles of the captured ions are used as source terms. MCBC simulations of the charge breeding of Rb+ showed good agreement with recent charge breeding experiments at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). MCBC correctly predicted the peak of highly charged ion state outputs under free boundary condition and similar charge state distribution width but a lower peak charge state under the Bohm condition. The comparisons between the simulation results and ANL experimental measurements are presented and discussed. PMID:20192325
Herfst, R.W.; Steeneken, P. G.; Schmitz, J; Mank, A.J.G.; Gils, van, S.H.
2008-01-01
In this paper we use scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM) to detect charge in the dielectric of RF MEMS capacitive switches. We observe a laterally inhomogeneous distribution. Laterally inhomogeneous dielectric charging leads to a narrowing of the C-V curve [1], and can lead to stiction of the membrane. The measurements show that trapped charges slowly diffuse, which reduces the inhomogeneity and shows that charge is vertically confined. From these measurements we estimate the lateral diff...
Gan, Zecheng; Xing, Xiangjun; Xu, Zhenli
2012-07-01
We investigate the effects of image charges, interfacial charge discreteness, and surface roughness on spherical electric double layer structures in electrolyte solutions with divalent counterions in the setting of the primitive model. By using Monte Carlo simulations and the image charge method, the zeta potential profile and the integrated charge distribution function are computed for varying surface charge strengths and salt concentrations. Systematic comparisons were carried out between three distinct models for interfacial charges: (1) SURF1 with uniform surface charges, (2) SURF2 with discrete point charges on the interface, and (3) SURF3 with discrete interfacial charges and finite excluded volume. By comparing the integrated charge distribution function and the zeta potential profile, we argue that the potential at the distance of one ion diameter from the macroion surface is a suitable location to define the zeta potential. In SURF2 model, we find that image charge effects strongly enhance charge inversion for monovalent interfacial charges, and strongly suppress charge inversion for multivalent interfacial charges. For SURF3, the image charge effect becomes much smaller. Finally, with image charges in action, we find that excluded volumes (in SURF3) suppress charge inversion for monovalent interfacial charges and enhance charge inversion for multivalent interfacial charges. Overall, our results demonstrate that all these aspects, i.e., image charges, interfacial charge discreteness, their excluding volumes, have significant impacts on zeta potentials of electric double layers.
On the proton charge extensions
Stryker, Jesse R
2016-01-01
We examine how corrections to $S$-state energy levels, $ E_{nS}$, in hydrogenic atoms due to the finite proton size are affected by moments of the proton charge distribution. The corrections to $E_{nS}$ are computed moment by moment. The results demonstrate that the next-to-leading order term in the expansion is of order $r_p / a_B $ times the size of the leading order $ \\langle r_p^2 \\rangle $ term. Our analysis thus dispels any concern that the larger relative size of this term for muonic hydrogen versus electronic hydrogen might account for the outstanding discrepancy of proton radius measurements extracted from the two systems. Furthermore, the next-to-leading order term in powers of $r_p / a_B $ that we derive from a dipole proton form factor is proportional to $\\langle r_p^3 \\rangle $, rather than $\\langle r_p^4 \\rangle$ as would be expected from the scalar nature of the form factor. The dependence of the finite-size correction on $\\langle r_p^3 \\rangle $ and higher odd-power moments is shown to be a ge...
Charge Screening Effect in Metallic Carbon Nanotubes
Sasaki, K
2001-01-01
Charge screening effect in metallic carbon nanotubes is investigated in a model including the one-dimensional long-range Coulomb interaction. It is pointed out that an external charge which is being fixed spatially is screened by internal electrons so that the resulting object becomes electrically neutral. We found that the screening length is given by about the diameter of a nanotube.
Equal Plate Charges on Series Capacitors?
Illman, B. L.; Carlson, G. T.
1994-01-01
Provides a line of reasoning in support of the contention that the equal charge proposition is at best an approximation. Shows how the assumption of equal plate charge on capacitors in series contradicts the conservative nature of the electric field. (ZWH)
Prevalence of Genetic Testing in CHARGE Syndrome
Hartshorne, Timothy S.; Stratton, Kasee K.; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M. A.
2011-01-01
Parents of 145 individuals with a clinical diagnosis of CHARGE syndrome, ages 2 to 39 years, indicated in a survey whether their child had been tested for the CHD7 mutation, which is the only gene presently known to be associated with CHARGE. More than two thirds (68%) of the affected individuals ha
Charge exchange between singly ionized helium ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The plane-wave Born approximation was used to evaluate the charge transfer cross sections for the reaction He+ + He+ → He++ + He. The charge transfer cross section is graphed as a function of incident energy and compared with experimental measurements
Fluctuation charge effects in ionization fronts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arrayas, Manuel; Trueba, Jose L [Area de Electromagnetismo, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Camino del Molino s/n, 28943 Fuenlabrada, Madrid (Spain); Baltanas, J P [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Reina Mercedes 2, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)
2008-05-21
In this paper, we study the effects of charge fluctuations on the propagation of both negative and positive ionization fronts in streamer discharges. We show that fronts accelerate when random charge creation events are present. This effect might play a similar role to photoionization in order to make the front move faster.
Controlling charge quantization with quantum fluctuations
Jezouin, S.; Iftikhar, Z.; Anthore, A.; Parmentier, F. D.; Gennser, U.; Cavanna, A.; Ouerghi, A.; Levkivskyi, I. P.; Idrisov, E.; Sukhorukov, E. V.; Glazman, L. I.; Pierre, F.
2016-08-01
In 1909, Millikan showed that the charge of electrically isolated systems is quantized in units of the elementary electron charge e. Today, the persistence of charge quantization in small, weakly connected conductors allows for circuits in which single electrons are manipulated, with applications in, for example, metrology, detectors and thermometry. However, as the connection strength is increased, the discreteness of charge is progressively reduced by quantum fluctuations. Here we report the full quantum control and characterization of charge quantization. By using semiconductor-based tunable elemental conduction channels to connect a micrometre-scale metallic island to a circuit, we explore the complete evolution of charge quantization while scanning the entire range of connection strengths, from a very weak (tunnel) to a perfect (ballistic) contact. We observe, when approaching the ballistic limit, that charge quantization is destroyed by quantum fluctuations, and scales as the square root of the residual probability for an electron to be reflected across the quantum channel; this scaling also applies beyond the different regimes of connection strength currently accessible to theory. At increased temperatures, the thermal fluctuations result in an exponential suppression of charge quantization and in a universal square-root scaling, valid for all connection strengths, in agreement with expectations. Besides being pertinent for the improvement of single-electron circuits and their applications, and for the metal–semiconductor hybrids relevant to topological quantum computing, knowledge of the quantum laws of electricity will be essential for the quantum engineering of future nanoelectronic devices.
Charged Higgs Bosons in the LHCHXSWG
Heinemeyer, S
2014-01-01
Searches for charged Higgs bosons are an integral part of current and future investigations at the LHC. The LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group (LHCHXSWG) was created to provide cross sections, branching ratios, analysis strategies etc. for Higgs boson searches at the LHC. We briefly review progress and results for charged Higgs bosons in and for the LHCHXSWG.
Controlling charge quantization with quantum fluctuations.
Jezouin, S; Iftikhar, Z; Anthore, A; Parmentier, F D; Gennser, U; Cavanna, A; Ouerghi, A; Levkivskyi, I P; Idrisov, E; Sukhorukov, E V; Glazman, L I; Pierre, F
2016-08-01
In 1909, Millikan showed that the charge of electrically isolated systems is quantized in units of the elementary electron charge e. Today, the persistence of charge quantization in small, weakly connected conductors allows for circuits in which single electrons are manipulated, with applications in, for example, metrology, detectors and thermometry. However, as the connection strength is increased, the discreteness of charge is progressively reduced by quantum fluctuations. Here we report the full quantum control and characterization of charge quantization. By using semiconductor-based tunable elemental conduction channels to connect a micrometre-scale metallic island to a circuit, we explore the complete evolution of charge quantization while scanning the entire range of connection strengths, from a very weak (tunnel) to a perfect (ballistic) contact. We observe, when approaching the ballistic limit, that charge quantization is destroyed by quantum fluctuations, and scales as the square root of the residual probability for an electron to be reflected across the quantum channel; this scaling also applies beyond the different regimes of connection strength currently accessible to theory. At increased temperatures, the thermal fluctuations result in an exponential suppression of charge quantization and in a universal square-root scaling, valid for all connection strengths, in agreement with expectations. Besides being pertinent for the improvement of single-electron circuits and their applications, and for the metal-semiconductor hybrids relevant to topological quantum computing, knowledge of the quantum laws of electricity will be essential for the quantum engineering of future nanoelectronic devices. PMID:27488797
Infinite Charge Algebra of Gravitational Instantons
Hoppe, Jens; Park, Q-Han
1993-01-01
Using a formalism of minitwistors, we derive infinitely many conserved charges for the $sl(\\infty )$-Toda equation which accounts for gravitational instantons with a rotational Killing symmetry. These charges are shown to form an infinite dimensional algebra through the Poisson bracket which is isomorphic to two dimensional area preserving diffeomorphism with central extentions.
Precise Charge Measurement For Laser Plasma Accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cross-calibrations of charge diagnostics are conducted to verify their validity for measuring electron beams produced by laser plasma accelerators (LPAs). Employed diagnostics are a scintillating screen, activation based measurement, and integrating current transformer. The diagnostics agreed within ±8 %, showing that they can provide accurate charge measurements for LPAs provided they are used properly.
Complementary surface charge for enhanced capacitive deionization.
Gao, X; Porada, S; Omosebi, A; Liu, K-L; Biesheuvel, P M; Landon, J
2016-04-01
Commercially available activated carbon cloth electrodes are treated using nitric acid and ethylenediamine solutions, resulting in chemical surface charge enhanced carbon electrodes for capacitive deionization (CDI) applications. Surface charge enhanced electrodes are then configured in a CDI cell to examine their salt removal at a fixed charging voltage and both reduced and opposite polarity discharge voltages, and subsequently compared to the salt removal of untreated electrodes. Substantially improved salt removal due to chemical surface charge and the use of a discharge voltage of opposite sign to the charging voltage is clearly demonstrated in these CDI cycling tests, an observation which for the first time validates both enhanced CDI and extended-voltage CDI effects predicted by the Donnan model [Biesheuvel et al., Colloids Interf. Sci. Comm., 10.1016/j.colcom.2015.12.001 (2016)]. Our experimental and theoretical results demonstrate that the use of carbon electrodes with optimized chemical surface charge can extend the CDI working voltage window through discharge voltages of opposite sign to the charging voltage, which can significantly enhance the salt adsorption capacity of CDI electrodes. Thus, in addition to carbon pore size distribution, chemical surface charge in carbon micropores is considered foundational for salt removal in CDI cells. PMID:26878361
Search for fractional charges in water
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Results are presented from a search for fractional charges in water from a variety of natural sources. About 30 000 water drops have been measured, comprising 51 μg of water and dissolved materials. No evidence for fractional charge was seen
24 CFR 201.31 - Insurance charge.
2010-04-01
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance charge. 201.31 Section... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES TITLE I PROPERTY IMPROVEMENT AND MANUFACTURED HOME LOANS Insurance of Loans § 201.31 Insurance charge....
Synchronous charge-constrained electroquasistatic generator
Melcher, J. R.
1969-01-01
Electroquasistatic generator depends on electroquasistatic interactions to provide synchronous operation. The generator employs a moving insulating belt, with an ac electric potential source to establish positively and negatively charged regions on the belt. The field effect of the charges on the belt creates an ac output voltage.
Infinite Charge Algebra of Gravitational Instantons
Hoppe, J; Hoppe, Jens
1994-01-01
Using a formalism of minitwistors, we derive infinitely many conserved charges for the $sl(\\infty )$-Toda equation which accounts for gravitational instantons with a rotational Killing symmetry. These charges are shown to form an infinite dimensional algebra through the Poisson bracket which is isomorphic to two dimensional area preserving diffeomorphism with central extentions.
Analysis of electrolyte transport through charged nanopores
Peters, P.B.; Roij, van R.; Bazant, M.Z.; Biesheuvel, P.M.
2016-01-01
We revisit the classical problem of flow of electrolyte solutions through charged capillary nanopores or nanotubes as described by the capillary pore model (also called "space charge" theory). This theory assumes very long and thin pores and uses a one-dimensional flux-force formalism which relat
Spherical charged fluid distributions in general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Formal features of Einstein--Maxwell equations for spherically symmetric distributions of a charged perfect fluid in equilibrium are discussed. An exact solution of the system of equations for a specified choice of matter density and fluid pressure, representing a charged perfect gas is presented
Delay Equation for Charged Brown Particle
Vlasov, Alexander A.
2001-01-01
In previous work (physics/0004026) was shown, with the help of numerical calculations, that the effective Brown temperature for charged particle is lower than that for particle without charge. Here we derive this result without numerical calculations, integrating the delay equation analytically, as for zero, so for nonzero viscosity.
Stabilization of electrostatic accelerator charging belt current
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
For the purpose of improving reliability and quality of electrostatic accelerator basic parameters the stabilizer of charging belt current is developed. The stabilizer consists of two units: high-voltage unit and control unit. The charging rectifier assures voltage up to 60 kV at total current load of 750 μA. For the EG- 2.5 and the EGP-10 M accelerators supply circuits of charging device with an earth screen and posAitive voltage supply the needles. t the EGP-10-1 accelerator negative charging voltage is supplied to the screens of the charging device. ''Plus'' of the rectifier is earthed. Charging and recharging are performed by means of brushes slipping over the internal belt side. At all accelerators the stability of charging current mean value is not worse 0.1%. The highest response of the system are obtained at the EG-2.5 accelerator for account of rectifier load by charging current and instrument resistor from 140 to 400 MOhm
Laser sources of multiply charged heavy ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laser production of highly charged ions is studied at the 50 J photodissociation iodine laser facility PERUN. The laser beam is focused onto various metallic targets. The use of a parabolic mirror with a hole in the center instead of a focusing lens allows for measuring ion beam parameters along the laser beam axis and results in two fold increase in the ion extraction. The diagnostics of the laser-produced ions in a far expansion zone is based on the time-of-flight method. The reported results prove the existence of highly charged ions with ion charge z > 40 in a far expansion zone and their survival during the recombination processes occurring in early stages of expansion. The higher laser power density is applied the higher ion charge states are generated. The maximum ion charge achieved e.g. for tantalum was z = 55. (J.U.)
Magnetic charge, black holes, and cosmic censorship
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The possibility of converting a Reissner-Nordstroem black hole into a naked singularity by means of test particle accretion is considered. The dually charged Reissner-Nordstroem metric describes a black hole only when M2>Q2+P2. The test particle equations of motion are shown to allow test particles with arbitrarily large magnetic charge/mass ratios to fall radially into electrically charged black holes. To determine the nature of the final state (black hole or naked singularity) an exact solution of Einstein's equations representing a spherical shell of magnetically charged dust falling into an electrically charged black hole is studied. Naked singularities are never formed so long as the weak energy condition is obeyed by the infalling matter. The differences between the spherical shell model and an infalling point test particle are examined and discussed
Net Charge Fluctuation and String Fragmentation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SABen-Hao; CAIXu; TAIAn; ZHOUDai-Mei
2004-01-01
We present the simulation results of the net charge fluctuation in Au+Au collisions at √Snn=130 GeV from a dynamic model, JPCIAE, and its revisions. The simulations are done for the quark-gluon matter, the directly produced pions, the pion matter, and the hadron matter. The simulated net charge fluctuation of the quark-gluon matter is close to the thermal model prediction for the quark-gluon gas. However, the discrepancy exists comparing the simulated net charge fluctuation for directly produced pions and the pion matter with the thermal model prediction for pion gas and the resonance pion gas, respectively. The net charge fluctuation of hadron matter from default JPCIAE simulations is nearly 3.5 times larger than quark-gluon matter. A discussion is given for the net charge fluctuation as an evidence of QGP phase transition.
Production of Charge in Heavy Ion Collisions
Pratt, Scott; Ratti, Claudia
2015-01-01
By analyzing preliminary experimental measurements of charge-balance functions from the STAR Collaboration at the Relativistic-Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC), it is found that pictures where balancing charges are produced in a single surge, and therefore separated by a single length scale, are inconsistent with data. In contrast, a model that assumes two surges, one associated with the formation of a thermalized quark-gluon plasma and a second associated with hadronization, provides a far superior reproduction of the data. A statistical analysis of the model comparison finds that the two-surge model best reproduces the data if the charge production from the first surge is similar to expectations for equilibrated matter taken from lattice gauge theory. The charges created in the first surge appear to separate by approximately one unit of spatial rapidity before emission, while charges from the second wave appear to have separated by approximately a half unit or less.
On equilibrium charge distribution above dielectric surface
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu.V. Slyusarenko
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The problem of the equilibrium state of the charged many-particle system above dielectric surface is formulated. We consider the case of the presence of the external attractive pressing field and the case of its absence. The equilibrium distributions of charges and the electric field, which is generated by these charges in the system in the case of ideally plane dielectric surface, are obtained. The solution of electrostatic equations of the system under consideration in case of small spatial heterogeneities caused by the dielectric surface, is also obtained. These spatial inhomogeneities can be caused both by the inhomogeneities of the surface and by the inhomogeneous charge distribution upon it. In particular, the case of the "wavy" spatially periodic surface is considered taking into account the possible presence of the surface charges.
Electrostatic charge bounds for ball lightning models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Several current theories concerning the nature of ball lightning predict a substantial electrostatic charge in order to account for its observed motion and shape (Turner 1998 Phys. Rep. 293 1; Abrahamson and Dinniss 2000 Nature 403 519). Using charged soap bubbles as a physical model for ball lightning, we show that the magnitude of charge predicted by some of these theories is too high to allow for the types of motion commonly observed in natural ball lightning, which includes horizontal motion above the ground and movement near grounded conductors. Experiments show that at charge levels of only 10-15 nC, 3-cm-diameter soap bubbles tend to be attracted by induced charges to the nearest grounded conductor and rupture. We conclude with a scaling rule that can be used to extrapolate these results to larger objects and surroundings
Mobile electric vehicles online charging and discharging
Wang, Miao; Shen, Xuemin (Sherman)
2016-01-01
This book examines recent research on designing online charging and discharging strategies for mobile electric vehicles (EVs) in smart grid. First, the architecture and applications are provided. Then, the authors review the existing works on charging and discharging strategy design for EVs. Critical challenges and research problems are identified. Promising solutions are proposed to accommodate the issues of high EV mobility, vehicle range anxiety, and power systems overload. The authors investigate innovating charging and discharging potentials for mobile EVS based on real-time information collections (via VANETS and/or cellular networks) and offer the power system adjustable load management methods. Several innovative charging/discharging strategy designs to address the challenging issues in smart grid, i.e., overload avoidance and range anxiety for individual EVs, are presented. This book presents an alternative and promising way to release the pressure of the power grid caused by peak-time EV charging ...
Production of charge in heavy ion collisions
Pratt, Scott; McCormack, William Patrick; Ratti, Claudia
2015-12-01
By analyzing preliminary experimental measurements of charge-balance functions from the STAR Collaboration at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), it is found that scenarios in which balancing charges are produced in a single surge, and therefore separated by a single length scale, are inconsistent with data. In contrast, a model that assumes two surges, one associated with the formation of a thermalized quark-gluon plasma and a second associated with hadronization, provides a far superior reproduction of the data. A statistical analysis of the model comparison finds that the two-surge model best reproduces the data if the charge production from the first surge is similar to expectations for equilibrated matter taken from lattice gauge theory. The charges created in the first surge appear to separate by approximately one unit of spatial rapidity before emission, while charges from the second wave appear to have separated by approximately a half unit or less.
Charge renormalization in nominally apolar colloidal dispersions
Evans, Daniel J.; Hollingsworth, Andrew D.; Grier, David G.
2016-04-01
We present high-resolution measurements of the pair interactions between dielectric spheres dispersed in a fluid medium with a low dielectric constant. Despite the absence of charge control agents or added organic salts, these measurements reveal strong and long-ranged repulsions consistent with substantial charges on the particles whose interactions are screened by trace concentrations of mobile ions in solution. The dependence of the estimated charge on the particles' radii is consistent with charge renormalization theory and, thus, offers insights into the charging mechanism in this interesting class of model systems. The measurement technique, based on optical-tweezer manipulation and artifact-free particle tracking, makes use of optimal statistical methods to reduce measurement errors to the femtonewton frontier while covering an extremely wide range of interaction energies.
New approach to $^4{He}$ charge distribution
Wilets, L; Pepin, S; Stancu, F; Carlson, J; Koepf, W; Stancu, Fl.
1996-01-01
We present a study of the $^4$He charge distribution based on realistic nucleonic wave functions and incorporation of the nucleon's quark substructure. The central depression of the proton point density seen in modern four-body calculations is too small by itself to lead to a correct description of the charge distribution. We utilize six-quark structures calculated in the Chromodielectric Model for N-N interactions, and we find a swelling of the proton charge distribution as the internucleon distance decreases. These charge distributions are combined with the $^4$He wave function using the Independent Pair Approximation and two-body distributions generated from Green's Function Monte Carlo calculations. We obtain a reasonably good fit to the experimental charge distribution without including meson exchange currents.
JET VELOCITY OF LINEAR SHAPED CHARGES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vječislav Bohanek
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Shaped explosive charges with one dimension significantly larger than the other are called linear shaped charges. Linear shaped charges are used in various industries and are applied within specific technologies for metal cutting, such as demolition of steel structures, separating spent rocket fuel tanks, demining, cutting holes in the barriers for fire service, etc. According to existing theories and models efficiency of linear shaped charges depends on the kinetic energy of the jet which is proportional to square of jet velocity. The original method for measuring velocity of linear shaped charge jet is applied in the aforementioned research. Measurements were carried out for two different linear materials, and the results are graphically presented, analysed and compared. Measurement results show a discrepancy in the measured velocity of the jet for different materials with the same ratio between linear and explosive mass (M/C per unit of surface, which is not described by presented models (the paper is published in Croatian.
Charge transfer in ionic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Charge transfer involving multiply charged ions in collision with atomic or molecular targets are determinant processes in controlled thermonuclear fusion research and astrophysical plasma. In such processes, an electron is generally captured in a excited state of the ion, followed by line emission. The observation of line intensities provides important information on the electron temperature, density and spacial distributions in the emitting region of the plasma. From a theoretical point of view, different approaches may be used with regard to the collisional energy range of the process. A semi-classical method is currently used at keV energies, but the description of very low-velocity processes requires a complete quantum mechanical treatment of the dynamics of both electrons and nuclei. The first approach extensively used is the resolution of the stationary close-coupling equations, but we have analyzed recently the efficiency of a time-dependent wave packet method which provides a clear and physical insight into the dynamics of the processes and may be particularly interesting for polyatomic systems since it allows the possibility of developing a fully quantal mechanical treatment for some degrees of freedom, the other ones being treated classically. The keV energy range treatment is presented on two examples pointing out the case of complex ion-atom collision systems, as well as the differences between ion-atom and ion-molecule mechanisms. In connection with translation energy spectroscopy experiments of McLaughlin et al in the 4-28 keV impact energy range, we present a complete ab-initio theoretical approach of the N4+(2s)2S + He system taking into account both single and double electron capture channels. This is an extremely complex collisional system which involves numerous channels with short range interactions and a very intricate interaction region may be observed for interatomic distances around R = 3.5 a.u.. In agreement with experimental data, the
Variable Charge Soils: Mineralogy and Chemistry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qafoku, Nik; Van Ranst, Eric; Noble, Andrew; Baert, Geert
2003-11-01
Soils rich in particles with amphoteric surface properties in the Oxisols, Ultisols, Alfisols, Spodosols and Andisols orders (1) are considered variable charge soils (2). The term “variable charge” is used to describe organic and inorganic soil constituents with reactive surface groups whose charge varies with pH, ionic concentration and composition of the soil solution. Such groups are the surface carboxyl, phenolic and amino functional groups of organic materials in soils, and surface hydroxyl groups of Fe and Al oxides, allophane and imogolite. The hydroxyl surface groups are also present on edges of some phyllosilicate minerals such as kaolinite, mica, and hydroxyl-interlayered vermiculite. The variable charge is developed on the surface groups as a result of adsorption or desorption of ions that are constituents of the solid phase, i.e., H+, and the adsorption or desorption of solid-unlike ions that are not constituents of the solid. Highly weathered soils usually undergo isoeletric weathering and reach a “zero net charge” stage during their development. They have a slightly acidic to acidic soil solution pH, which is close to either point of zero net charge (PZNC) (3) or point of zero salt effect (PZSE) (3). They are characterized by high abundances of minerals with a point of zero net proton charge (PZNPC) (3) at neutral and slightly basic pHs; the most important being Fe and Al oxides and allophane. Under acidic conditions, the surfaces of these minerals are net positively charged. In contrast, the surfaces of permanent charge phyllosilicates are negatively charged regardless of ambient conditions. Variable charge soils therefore, are heterogeneous charge systems. The coexistence and interactions of oppositely charged surfaces or particles confers a different pattern of physical and chemical behavior on the soil, relatively to a homogeneously charged system of temperate regions. In some variable charge soils (Oxisols and some Ultisols developed on
Control Algorithms Charge Batteries Faster
2012-01-01
On March 29, 2011, NASA s Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft beamed a milestone image to Earth: the first photo of Mercury taken from orbit around the solar system s innermost planet. (MESSENGER is also the first spacecraft to orbit Mercury.) Like most of NASA s deep space probes, MESSENGER is enabled by a complex power system that allows its science instruments and communications to function continuously as it travels millions of miles from Earth. "Typically, there isn't one particular power source that can support the entire mission," says Linda Taylor, electrical engineer in Glenn Research Center s Power Systems Analysis Branch. "If you have solar arrays and you are in orbit, at some point you re going to be in eclipse." Because of this, Taylor explains, spacecraft like MESSENGER feature hybrid power systems. MESSENGER is powered by a two-panel solar array coupled with a nickel hydrogen battery. The solar arrays provide energy to the probe and charge the battery; when the spacecraft s orbit carries it behind Mercury and out of the Sun s light, the spacecraft switches to battery power to continue operations. Typically, hybrid systems with multiple power inputs and a battery acting alternately as storage and a power source require multiple converters to handle the power flow between the devices, Taylor says. (Power converters change the qualities of electrical energy, such as from alternating current to direct current, or between different levels of voltage or frequency.) This contributes to a pair of major concerns for spacecraft design. "Weight and size are big drivers for any space application," Taylor says, noting that every pound added to a space vehicle incurs significant costs. For an innovative solution to managing power flows in a lightweight, cost-effective manner, NASA turned to a private industry partner.
Charged-particle activation analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The paper discusses the methodology and application of nuclear activation with ion beams (19 via 16O(3He,p)18F, 12C(3He,α)11C and 14N(p,α)11C respectively. Recently, triton activation has been shown to be inherently still superior to 3He activation for the determination of oxygen [16O(3H,n)18F]. Lithium, boron, carbon and sulphur can be detected rapidly, nondestructively and with high sensitivity (approximately 0.25ppm for Li and B) via ''quasi-prompt'' activation based on the detection of short-lived, high-energy beta emitters (10ms1H(7Li,n)7Be for example. Nondestructive multielement analysis: Proton activation has the inherent potential for meeting requirements of broad elemental coverage, sensitivity (ppm and sub-ppm range) and selectivity. Up to 30 elements have been determined in Al, Co, Ag, Nb, Rh, Ta and biological samples, using 12-MeV proton activation followed by gamma-ray spectrometry. These capabilities are further enhanced with the counting of X-ray emitters, 28 elements (269) and accuracy using proton activation. 204Pb/206Pb ratios can also be determined with a relative precision of a few per cent. Although charged-particle activation analysis is a well-established trace analysis technique, broad potential capabilities remain to be explored, e.g. those arising from ultrashort-lived nuclides, heavy ion interactions and the combination of delayed and prompt methods. (author)
Production, transport and charge capture measurements of highly charged recoil ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An experiment is described to study highly charged recoil ions on-line to the heavy ion accelerator UNILAC at GSI. The highly charged recoil ions are produced by heavy ion bombardment of a gas target. Subsequently the slow highly charged recoil ions are extracted from the ionization volume, and guided through a beam transport line to a Wien filter for charge state selection and to a collision region to study charge transfer processes. Several experiments were carried out to show the efficient charge state separation. Charge states up to q=15 were observed. When using a retarding field analyzer cross sections for single electron capture were determined for different charge states of Xeq+ for q=4 to 11 and He gas. The experiments demonstrated increasing charge transfer cross sections with increasing charge state q and indicated the effect of near resonant charge capture for q=6. The flexible data acquisition system used, is described and other future experiments, such as for instance in flight ion-trapping are indicated in the appendix. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The determination of the mass of a nanoparticle via time-of-flight typically requires a direct measurement of its charge. This can be done with a differential retarding potential analyzer and an induction charge detector operating in tandem. The spectrometer described in this article selects a particle with a specified retarding potential from a beam and directs it to an induction charge detector where both its velocity and charge are measured. The retarding potential, velocity, and charge also yield the particle's mass. The particle is analyzed without the need to collect it, and therefore can be employed in a subsequent experiment. The high charge sensitivity of the induction charge detector and the capability for working at low retarding potentials make the characterization of electrosprayed nanodroplets possible for the first time.
Charge-transport simulations in organic semiconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
May, Falk
2012-07-06
In this thesis we have extended the methods for microscopic charge-transport simulations for organic semiconductors, where weak intermolecular interactions lead to spatially localized charge carriers, and the charge transport occurs as an activated hopping process between diabatic states. In addition to weak electronic couplings between these states, different electrostatic environments in the organic material lead to a broadening of the density of states for the charge energies which limits carrier mobilities. The contributions to the method development include (i) the derivation of a bimolecular charge-transfer rate, (ii) the efficient evaluation of intermolecular (outer-sphere) reorganization energies, (iii) the investigation of effects of conformational disorder on intramolecular reorganization energies or internal site energies and (iv) the inclusion of self-consistent polarization interactions for calculation of charge energies. These methods were applied to study charge transport in amorphous phases of small molecules used in the emission layer of organic light emitting diodes (OLED). When bulky substituents are attached to an aromatic core in order to adjust energy levels or prevent crystallization, a small amount of delocalization of the frontier orbital to the substituents can increase electronic couplings between neighboring molecules. This leads to improved charge-transfer rates and, hence, larger charge-mobility. We therefore suggest using the mesomeric effect (as opposed to the inductive effect) when attaching substituents to aromatic cores, which is necessary for example in deep blue OLEDs, where the energy levels of a host molecule have to be adjusted to those of the emitter. Furthermore, the energy landscape for charges in an amorphous phase cannot be predicted by mesoscopic models because they approximate the realistic morphology by a lattice and represent molecular charge distributions in a multipole expansion. The microscopic approach shows that
Symmetry of charge order in cuprates
Comin, R.; Sutarto, R.; He, F.; da Silva Neto, E. H.; Chauviere, L.; Fraño, A.; Liang, R.; Hardy, W. N.; Bonn, D. A.; Yoshida, Y.; Eisaki, H.; Achkar, A. J.; Hawthorn, D. G.; Keimer, B.; Sawatzky, G. A.; Damascelli, A.
2015-08-01
Charge-ordered ground states permeate the phenomenology of 3d-based transition metal oxides, and more generally represent a distinctive hallmark of strongly correlated states of matter. The recent discovery of charge order in various cuprate families has fuelled new interest into the role played by this incipient broken symmetry within the complex phase diagram of high-Tc superconductors. Here, we use resonant X-ray scattering to resolve the main characteristics of the charge-modulated state in two cuprate families: Bi2Sr2-xLaxCuO6+δ (Bi2201) and YBa2Cu3O6+y (YBCO). We detect no signatures of spatial modulations along the nodal direction in Bi2201, thus clarifying the inter-unit-cell momentum structure of charge order. We also resolve the intra-unit-cell symmetry of the charge-ordered state, which is revealed to be best represented by a bond order with modulated charges on the O-2p orbitals and a prominent d-wave character. These results provide insights into the origin and microscopic description of charge order in cuprates, and its interplay with superconductivity.
Charged nanograins in the Enceladus plume
Hill, T. W.; Thomsen, M. F.; Tokar, R. L.; Coates, A. J.; Lewis, G. R.; Young, D. T.; Crary, F. J.; Baragiola, R. A.; Johnson, R. E.; Dong, Y.; Wilson, R. J.; Jones, G. H.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Mitchell, D. G.; Horányi, M.
2012-05-01
There have been three Cassini encounters with the south-pole eruptive plume of Enceladus for which the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) had viewing in the spacecraft ram direction. In each case, CAPS detected a cold dense population of heavy charged particles having mass-to-charge (m/q) ratios up to the maximum detectable by CAPS (˜104 amu/e). These particles are interpreted as singly charged nanometer-sized water-ice grains. Although they are detected with both negative and positive net charges, the former greatly outnumber the latter, at least in the m/q range accessible to CAPS. On the most distant available encounter (E3, March 2008) we derive a net (negative) charge density of up to ˜2600 e/cm3 for nanograins, far exceeding the ambient plasma number density, but less than the net (positive) charge density inferred from the RPWS Langmuir probe data during the same plume encounter. Comparison of the CAPS data from the three available encounters is consistent with the idea that the nanograins leave the surface vents largely uncharged, but become increasingly negatively charged by plasma electron impact as they move farther from the satellite. These nanograins provide a potentially potent source of magnetospheric plasma and E-ring material.
24 CFR 203.554 - Enforcement of late charges.
2010-04-01
... on the part of the mortgagor is the failure to pay a late charge or charges (§ 203.25), except as provided in § 203.556. (b) A late charge attributable to a particular installment payment due under the... mortgagor of his obligation to pay a late charge, such a charge may be deducted from any subsequent...
Radiation of charge uniformly moving in medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We analyze how the frequency dependence of the dielectric permittivity affects the electromagnetic field radiated by a point charge uniformly moving in medium. It turns out that a moving charge radiates at every velocity. We study the space distribution of the electromagnetic field and show that its oscillations are due to the time-dependent medium polarization induced by the moving charge. Spectral distributions of the radiated energy and the photon number are given. Consequences arising from the choice of polarization different from the usual one are discussed. The analysis of the Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations for the treated problems is given
Effect of interfacial charge on micellar structure
Chevalier, Y; Belloni, L; Hayter, J.B.; Zemb, T
1985-01-01
We have studied the structure and effective charge of sodium octylphosphate micelles in aqueous solution as a function of concentration and pH. Such variations may be used to alter the structural charge Z0 of the polar headgroup from 0.8 to 2 without altering the surfactant molecule. Small angle neutron scattering coupled with the Hayter-Penfold analytical technique was used to measure the aggregation number N and the effective charge Z. The micelles are small and spherical for Z0 = 2, increa...
Theory of water and charged liquid bridges.
Morawetz, K
2012-08-01
The phenomenon of liquid bridge formation due to an applied electric field is investigated. A solution of a charged catenary is presented, which allows one to determine the static and dynamical stability conditions where charged liquid bridges are possible. The creeping height, the bridge radius and length, as well as the shape of the bridge are calculated showing an asymmetric profile, in agreement with observations. The flow profile is calculated from the Navier-Stokes equation leading to a mean velocity, which combines charge transport with neutral mass flow and which describes recent experiments on water bridges. PMID:23005849
Daqing Perforation Charges Enjoy Good Market Reputation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2003-01-01
@@ Founded in 1965, Daqing Perforation Charge Plant is the earliest oil perforation charge factory in China. The products,which are branded as "Qingmao" and enjoy good market reputation, are now sold to more than 20 domestic oil fields and 11 countries in the world. To meet the different demands by customers, the plant has developed some new products for market expansion with the penetration capability boosted 1130mm from 700mm five years ago. The large-calibration perforation charge filled a blank in the country.
Charged pion condensation in the chiral limit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We examine, in the chiral limit where the up and down quark masses are vanishingly small, the stability of the pure neutron ground state to small fluctuations due to charge and baryon number conserving strong interactions. It is shown that the ground state energy density as a function of pion field expectation value is determined by Weinberg's baryon two-body potential and by a calculable neutron-proton mass difference in the medium. This provides some insight into the competing physical effects that play a role in determining whether a charged pion condensate forms in dense nuclear matter. We find that in the chiral limit these effects suppress charged pion condensation. (orig.)
In Granular Charging, Does Size Really Matter?
Siu, Theodore; Mattson, Gregory; Shinbrot, Troy
2014-03-01
Spontaneous charging in systems of particles, causing particle separation and electrical discharges, is commonly observed in pharmaceutical powder beds, sandstorms and natural dust plumes. Previous studies have attributed size difference or external factors such as wind or an outside electric field as the primary driving force behind such large scale charging. In this talk we discuss experimental results showing that systems of uniformly sized particles with no external field still exhibit net polarization and charging buildup. We also present computational results modeled from a variation of Dyson's Ising model, which validates this behavior and predicts new types of phenomena.
Testing the reactor charging machine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
One of the main objective of the R - D technological engineering program devoted to the Fuel Handling System is domestic production of equipment and technology for testing the ends of the reactor charging machine (MID) destined to Cernavoda NPP, beginning with Unit 2. To achieve the objective based on an own design, a bench-scale testing stand of MIDs which can simulate the pressure, flow-rate, and temperature conditions proper to fuel channels in operating CANDU 600 reactors. The main components of this testing facility are: - fuel channels, cold also test sections, allowing the coupling of MID end upwardly and downwardly, corresponding to the direction of the water flow through the channel; - technological installation feeding with light water the testing sections of the facility in thermohydraulic conditions, similar to those in the reactor, allowing the cold and hot testings, respectively, of the MID end; - cold testing installation, water supply and oil control panel, feeding the hydraulic drives of the MID's end during the testings; - fixed bridge and mobile carrier for MID's end positioning against testing sections; - installation for functional testing of MID thrusters, before pre-admission and reception tests; - dedicated tools and devices; - raising and transport mechanical devices for handling and positioning the MID's end upon the carrier; - automation panel for controlling the stand equipment and MID's end; - process computer for conducting on-line tests. MID's end testing implies mainly the following operations: - regulation, calibration and functional testing of the MID thrusters carried out independently on a specialised stand; - regulation and calibration of MID's end sub-assemblages; - carrying out the cold and hot pre-admission tests consisting in automatic performing, without operator intervention, of 12 fuel changes, two of which being successive; - performing the cold and hot reception tests, consisting in automatic accomplishment of 4
Ohmori, Takeshi; Makabe, Toshiaki
2003-10-01
It will be essential to develop in-situ diagnostics for damage free plasma etching in the interface under close and complementary cooperation between optical and electric procedure in a top-down nanoscale etching. In our previous paper[1], we have applied an emission selected omputerized tomography close to the wafer exposed to plasma etching, in order to investigate the polarity and the phase of high energy charged particles incident on the wafer, biased deeply by a low frequency source in RIE. A reduction in charging voltage on a contact hole bottom of SiO2 was validated in the pulsed plasma power source in the 2f-CCP in CF_4/Ar, by using a dual measurement system onsisting of a temporal emission CT and a contact hole charging voltage. In the present work, detailed correlational results of the reduction in the charging voltage are shown as a function of phase and amplitude of the single bias pulse at 500 kHz. Discussion is focused both on the injection mechanism of energetic negative charges to the wafer and on the magnitude of the negative charges. As a result, during the off-period 10 us of VHF power source in the dual pulsed 2f-CCP, it is confirmed that; 1)the magnitude of the injected negative charge increases with increasing the on-time of the single bias pulse, and a strong reduction in the charging voltage is performed, 2)a strong negative self-bias-voltage is always kept to have an efficient RIE under energetic positive ion impact on the wafer except for the period of the single bias pulse. Some of predictive story will be also introduced by VicAddress. 1)T.Ohmori, T.K.Goto, T.Kitajima, and T.Makabe, Proc.of Dry Process Symposium 165(2002)Tokyo, and Appl.Phys.Lett.(submitted).
Electrostatic charges generated on aerosolisation of dispersions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Yanyang
2001-07-01
In responding to the international community's agreement of phasing out chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) propellants by the year 2000, hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) has been chosen to replace CFCs. Intensive investigations related to the new propellant products have been carried out. Aerosol electrostatics is one of the topics investigated. To understand and subsequently control the charging processes is the motive of the research reported here. To help elucidate the complex charging process occurring naturally during atomization of liquids from pressurised Metered Dose Inhalers (pMDIs), it has been broken down into a sequence of related, simpler sub processes-drop charging, streaming current charging (coarse spray), splashing charging and fine spray charging. Our initial studies are of single drops forming at and breaking away from the tips of capillary tubes. The drop forming processes are so slow that any hydrodynamic effect can be dismissed. Then the charge on the drop is measured. It is found that the charge on water drops is always negative ({approx} 10{sup -14}C) at field-free condition and the magnitude of the charge increases as the drop size increases and the surrounding tube diameter decreases. With salt solutions, the charge on drops is negative at dilute solutions, decreases in magnitude as the concentration of electrolytes increases and finally reverses the sign of charge at approximately 1 M - drop charge becomes positive. All these experimental results can be explained in terms of contact potential between liquid and the inner wall of the capillary, which sets up an electric field between the pendant drop and the surrounding tube. Then computational simulation work is carried out and the data are compared with experimental results. It is found that the computer simulation data are in accord with experimental observations. This is a potential method to measure absolute potential difference between a liquid and a solid. Secondly, the hydrodynamic processes are
A charge collection study with dedicated RD50 charge multiplication sensors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This study investigates the charge collection efficiency of silicon strip detectors, produced by MICRON Semiconductor Co., Ltd. within the CERN RD50 collaboration, designed specifically to understand the effect of design parameters on the onset and magnitude of charge multiplication. Charge collection measurements are performed before and after irradiation with a proton fluence of 1×1015 1 MeV neq/cm2 (neq/cm2) and neutron fluence ranging from 1–5×1015 neq/cm2. Structures on these devices include varying diffusion times and energies for the implantation process, different sensor thicknesses, the use of intermediate biased or floating strips between the readout strips, and several different strip width and pitch geometries. The charge collection for these devices is studied as a function of the bias voltage, looking for indications of charge multiplication. Results are compared to standard float zone 300μm thick silicon strip sensors having a strip width of 25μm and pitch of 80μm. -- Highlights: •Specially designed silicon detectors were developed to investigate charge multiplication. •Charge collection measurements were performed before and after irradiation. •Charge multiplication only seen ≥5×1015neq/cm2. •Decreasing width/pitch increases collected charge. •Increasing implant energy/diffusion time increased collected charge
Finite-volume corrections to charge radii
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The finite-volume nature of lattice QCD entails a variety of effects that must be handled in the process of performing chiral extrapolations. Since the pion cloud that surrounds hadrons becomes distorted in a finite volume, hadronic observables must be corrected before one can compare with the experimental values. The electric charge radius of the nucleon is of particular interest when considering the implementation of finite-volume corrections. It is common practice in the literature to transform electric form factors from the lattice into charge radii prior to analysis. However, there is a fundamental difficulty with using these charge radii in a finite-volume extrapolation. The subtleties are a consequence of the absence of a continuous derivative on the lattice. A procedure is outlined for handling such finite-volume corrections, which must be applied directly to the electric form factors themselves rather than to the charge radii
Charge Diagnostics for Laser Plasma Accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The electron energy dependence of a scintillating screen (Lanex Fast) was studied with sub-nanosecond electron beams ranging from 106 MeV to 1522 MeV at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Advanced Light Source (ALS) synchrotron booster accelerator. The sensitivity of the Lanex Fast decreased by 1percent per 100 MeV increase of the energy. The linear response of the screen against the charge was verified with charge density and intensity up to 160 pC/mm2 and 0.4 pC/ps/mm2, respectively. For electron beams from the laser plasma accelerator, a comprehensive study of charge diagnostics has been performed using a Lanex screen, an integrating current transformer, and an activation based measurement. The charge measured by each diagnostic was found to be within +/-10 percent.
Tariff charges for electric power and energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tariff types and rules of their construction are presented. Present Polish tariffs are described in detail. The components of tariff charges are given together with some proposals of their optimization. 15 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab
Nuclear charge radius of $^{12}$Be
Krieger, Andreas; Bissell, Mark L; Frömmgen, Nadja; Geppert, Christopher; Hammen, Michael; Kreim, Kim; Kowalska, Magdalena; Krämer, Jörg; Neff, Thomas; Neugart, Rainer; Neyens, Gerda; Nörtershäuser, Wilfried; Novotny, Christian; Sanchez, Rodolfo; Yordanov, Deyan T
2012-01-01
The nuclear charge radius of $^{12}$Be was precisely determined using the technique of collinear laser spectroscopy on the $2s_{1/2}\\rightarrow 2p_{1/2, 3/2}$ transition in the Be$^{+}$ ion. The mean square charge radius increases from $^{10}$Be to $^{12}$Be by $\\delta ^{10,12} = 0.69(5)$ fm$^{2}$ compared to $\\delta ^{10,11} = 0.49(5)$ fm$^{2}$ for the one-neutron halo isotope $^{11}$Be. Calculations in the fermionic molecular dynamics approach show a strong sensitivity of the charge radius to the structure of $^{12}$Be. The experimental charge radius is consistent with a breakdown of the N=8 shell closure.
Charged particle concepts for fog dispersion
Frost, W.; Collins, F. G.; Koepf, D.
1981-01-01
Charged particle techniques hold promise for dispersing warm fog in the terminal area of commercial airports. This report focuses on features of the charged particle technique which require further study. The basic physical principles of the technique and the major verification experiments carried out in the past are described. The fundamentals of the nozzle operation are given. The nozzle characteristics and the theory of particle charging in the nozzle are discussed, including information from extensive literature on electrostatic precipitation relative to environmental pollution control and a description of some preliminary reported analyses on the jet characteristics and interaction with neighboring jets. The equation governing the transfer of water substances and of electrical charge is given together with a brief description of several semi-empirical, mathematical expressions necessary for the governing equations. The necessary ingredients of a field experiment to verify the system once a prototype is built are described.
Space Charge Mitigation by Hollow Bunches
Oeftiger, AO
2014-01-01
To satisfy the requirements of the HL-LHC (High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider), the LHC injector chain will need to supply a higher brightness, i.e. deliver the same transverse beam emittances \\epsilon_{x,y} while providing a higher intensity N. However, a larger number of particles per bunch enhances space charge effects. One approach to mitigate the impact of space charge is to change the longitudinal phase space distribution: hollow bunches feature a depleted bunch centre and a densely populated periphery. Thus, the spatial line density maximum is depressed which ultimately decreases the tune spread imposed by space charge. Therefore, a higher intensity can be accepted while keeping the same overall space charge tune shift. 3 different methods to create hollow bunches in the PSBooster are simulated.
Rational Orbits around Charged Black Holes
Misra, Vedant
2010-01-01
We show that all eccentric timelike orbits in Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m spacetime can be classified using a taxonomy that draws upon an isomorphism between periodic orbits and the set of rational numbers. By virtue of the fact that the rationals are dense, the taxonomy can be used to approximate aperiodic orbits with periodic orbits. This may help reduce computational overhead for calculations in gravitational wave astronomy. Our dynamical systems approach enables us to study orbits for both charged and uncharged particles in spite of the fact that charged particle orbits around a charged black hole do not admit a simple one-dimensional effective potential description. Finally, we show that comparing periodic orbits in the RN and Schwarzschild geometries enables us to distinguish charged and uncharged spacetimes by looking only at the orbital dynamics.
High temperature charge amplifier for geothermal applications
Lindblom, Scott C.; Maldonado, Frank J.; Henfling, Joseph A.
2015-12-08
An amplifier circuit in a multi-chip module includes a charge to voltage converter circuit, a voltage amplifier a low pass filter and a voltage to current converter. The charge to voltage converter receives a signal representing an electrical charge and generates a voltage signal proportional to the input signal. The voltage amplifier receives the voltage signal from the charge to voltage converter, then amplifies the voltage signal by the gain factor to output an amplified voltage signal. The lowpass filter passes low frequency components of the amplified voltage signal and attenuates frequency components greater than a cutoff frequency. The voltage to current converter receives the output signal of the lowpass filter and converts the output signal to a current output signal; wherein an amplifier circuit output is selectable between the output signal of the lowpass filter and the current output signal.
Transverse Mode Coupling Instability with Space Charge
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Balbekov, V. [Fermilab
2016-03-11
Transverse mode coupling instability of a bunch with space charge and wake field is considered in frameworks of the boxcar model. Eigenfunctions of the bunch without wake are used as the basis for solution of the equations with the wake field included. Dispersion equation for the bunch eigentunes is obtained in the form of an infinite continued fraction. It is shown that influence of space charge on the instability essentially depends on the wake sign. In particular, threshold of the negative wake increases in absolute value until the space charge tune shift is rather small, and goes to zero at higher space charge. The explanation of this behavior is developed by analysis of the bunch spectrum. A comparison of the results with published articles is represented.
Towards a microscopic theory of particle charging
Bronold, Franz X; Kersten, H; Deutsch, H
2009-01-01
We recently questioned the treatment of a dust particle as a perfect absorber for electrons and ions and proposed a surface model for the charge of a dust particle in a quiescent plasma which combines the microscopic physics at the grain boundary (sticking into and desorption from external surface states) with the macrophysics of the discharge (plasma collection fluxes). Within this model the charge and partial screening of the particle can be calculated without relying on the condition that the total electron collection flux balances on the grain surface the total ion collection flux. Grain charges obtained from our approach compared favorably with experimental data. The purpose of this paper is to describe our model in more detail, in particular, the hypotheses on which it is built, contrast it with the standard charging models based on flux balancing on the grain surface, and to analyze additional experimental data.
Robust statistical reconstruction for charged particle tomography
Schultz, Larry Joe; Klimenko, Alexei Vasilievich; Fraser, Andrew Mcleod; Morris, Christopher; Orum, John Christopher; Borozdin, Konstantin N; Sossong, Michael James; Hengartner, Nicolas W
2013-10-08
Systems and methods for charged particle detection including statistical reconstruction of object volume scattering density profiles from charged particle tomographic data to determine the probability distribution of charged particle scattering using a statistical multiple scattering model and determine a substantially maximum likelihood estimate of object volume scattering density using expectation maximization (ML/EM) algorithm to reconstruct the object volume scattering density. The presence of and/or type of object occupying the volume of interest can be identified from the reconstructed volume scattering density profile. The charged particle tomographic data can be cosmic ray muon tomographic data from a muon tracker for scanning packages, containers, vehicles or cargo. The method can be implemented using a computer program which is executable on a computer.
Black diholes with unbalanced magnetic charges
Liang, Y C; Teo, Edward
2001-01-01
We present a technique that can be used to generate a static, axisymmetric solution of the Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton equations from a stationary, axisymmetric solution of the vacuum Einstein equations. Starting from the Kerr solution, Davidson and Gedalin have previously made use of this technique to obtain a pair of oppositely charged, extremal dilatonic black holes, known as a black dihole. In this paper, we shall instead start from the Kerr-NUT solution. It will be shown that the new solution can also be interpreted as a dihole, but with the black holes carrying unbalanced magnetic charges. The effect of the NUT-parameter is to introduce a net magnetic charge into the system. Finally, we uplift our solution to ten dimensions to describe a system consisting of D6 and anti-D6-branes with unbalanced charges. The limit in which they coincide agrees with a solution recently derived by Brax et al..
Calculating the Charge of a Jet
Waalewijn, Wouter J
2012-01-01
Jet charge has played an important role in experimentally testing the Parton Model and the Standard Model, and has many potential LHC applications. The energy-weighted charge of a jet is not an infrared-safe quantity, so hadronization must be taken into account. Here we develop the formalism to calculate it, cleanly separating the nonperturbative from the perturbative physics, which we compute at one-loop order. We first study the average and width of the jet charge distribution, for which the nonperturbative input is related to (dihadron) fragmentation functions. In an alternative and novel approach, we consider the full nonperturbative jet charge distribution and calculate its evolution and jet algorithm corrections, which has a natural Monte Carlo-style implementation. Our numerical results are compared to Pythia and show reasonable agreement. This calculation can directly be extended to similar track-based observables, such as the total track momentum generated by an energetic parton.
Hydrodynamics and Elasticity of Charged Black Branes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gath, Jakob
-order corrected dynamics of uid branes carrying higher-form charge by obtaining the general form of their equations of motion to pole-dipole order in the absence of external forces. To monopole order, we characterize the corresponding effective theory of viscous uid branes by writing down the general form...... of the first-order dissipative corrections in terms of the shear and bulk viscosities as well as the transport coefficient associated with charge di usion. To dipole order, we furthermore, applying linear response theory, characterize the corresponding effective theory of stationary bent charged (an...... the first-order dispersion relations of the effective uid and analyze the dynamical stability of the black branes. We then focus on constructing stationary strained charged black brane solutions to rst order in a derivative expansion. Using solution generating techniques and the bent neutral black brane...
Transverse Mode Coupling Instability with Space Charge
Balbekov, V
2016-01-01
Transverse mode coupling instability of a bunch with space charge and wake field is considered in frameworks of the boxcar model. Eigenfunctions of the bunch without wake are used as the basis for solution of the equations with the wake field included. Dispersion equation for the bunch eigentunes is obtained in the form of an infinite continued fraction. It is shown that influence of space charge on the instability essentially depends on the wake sign. In particular, threshold of the negative wake increases in absolute value until the space charge tune shift is rather small, and goes to zero at higher space charge. The explanation of this behavior is developed by analysis of the bunch spectrum. A comparison of the results with published articles is represented.
Charge collection in an external proton beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Results from the measurement of the stability of charge collected from the target and exit foil, or as alternatives, the γ-ray or backscattered proton counts from the exit foil and the Ar X-ray counts from the air path in an external proton beam are presented. These results show that comparative analysis of material mounted in air is reliable, using either the collected charge or the γ-ray counts as the normalizing factor, if there are no earthed objects in close geometry. The backscattered proton counts can also be used, but not the Ar X-ray counts, unless the current is stabilized. The electrical or thermal conductivity of the target and the target to exit foil separation do not affect the proportionality of the collected charge and the γ-ray counts to the charge incident on the target
The charge-flipping algorithm in crystallography
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Palatinus, Lukáš
2013-01-01
Roč. 69, Jan (2013), s. 1-16. ISSN 2052-5192 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : charge-flipping algorithm * dual- space methods * structure solution Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism
Dynamical charge fluctuation at FAIR energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment to be held at the Facility for antiproton and ion research (FAIR) is being designed to investigate the baryonic matter under extreme thermodynamic conditions. The hot and dense matter produced in this experiment will be rich in baryon number. It would be worthwhile to examine how the signatures proposed for identifying and characterizing a baryon free QGP like state behave in a baryon rich environment. Event-by-event fluctuation of net electrical charge and/or baryon number is one such indicator of the formation of the QGP, used and tested in RHIC and LHC heavy-ion experiments. One starts by defining the net charge Q = (N+ - N-) and the total charge Nch = (N+ + N-) where the quantities N+ and N- are respectively, the multiplicities of positively and negatively charged particles
Congestion control in charging of electric vehicles
Carvalho, Rui; Gibbens, Richard; Kelly, Frank
2015-01-01
The increasing penetration of electric vehicles over the coming decades, taken together with the high cost to upgrade local distribution networks, and consumer demand for home charging, suggest that managing congestion on low voltage networks will be a crucial component of the electric vehicle revolution and the move away from fossil fuels in transportation. Here, we model the max-flow and proportional fairness protocols for the control of congestion caused by a fleet of vehicles charging on distribution networks. We analyse the inequality in the charging times as the vehicle arrival rate increases, and show that charging times are considerably more uneven in max-flow than in proportional fairness. We also analyse the onset of instability, and find that the critical arrival rate is indistinguishable between the two protocols.
Ambulance Reasonable Charge Public Use Files
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Ambulance Reasonable Charge public use files for calendar years (CY) 2003 through 2005 are located in the Downloads section below. These public use files are...
A Global Analog of Cheshire Charge
McGraw, Patrick
1994-01-01
It is shown that a model with a spontaneously broken global symmetry can support defects analogous to Alice strings, and a process analogous to Cheshire charge exchange can take place. A possible realization in superfluid He-3 is pointed out.
Fractionally charged particles in cosmic rays
Bashindzhagyan, George
2016-01-01
The results of many experiments on a search of fractionally charged particles in cosmic rays have been reviewed. The registered by ATIC and PAMELA experiments change of the proton energy spectrum at about 250 GeV can be explained if fractionally charged particles with another energy spectrum slope actually mixed with protons but cannot be separated because of a strong dE/dx fluctuations. The performed simulations show that multilayer detectors can seriously help in such separation. In the Aragats experiment performed using multilayer proportional counter combined with hadron calorimeter a group of 4e/3 like events with unexpectedly high average energy has been registered. It could be explained by their different from regular hadrons energy spectrum. The ATIC experiment ionization spectrum in single charged particle area has been examined. An interesting bump in 2e/3 charge region was observed. The events in the bump have very different from regular protons angular distribution.
Energy extremum principle for charged black holes
Fraser, Scott; Funkhouser, Shaker Von Price
2015-11-01
For a set of N asymptotically flat black holes with arbitrary charges and masses, all initially at rest and well separated, we prove the following extremum principle: the extremal charge configuration (|qi|=mi for each black hole) can be derived by extremizing the total energy, for variations of the black hole apparent horizon areas, at fixed charges and fixed Euclidean separations. We prove this result through second order in an expansion in the inverse separations. If all charges have the same sign, this result is a variational principle that reinterprets the static equilibrium of the Majumdar-Papapetrou-Hartle-Hawking solution as an extremum of total energy, rather than as a balance of forces; this result augments a list of related variational principles for other static black holes, and is consistent with the independently known Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) energy minimum.
Charge collection in semiconductor radiation detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Semiconductor particle-detectors operate like ion chambers by collecting the charge liberated by an incident-ionizing particle. However the mechanism of charge collection is much more complicated than that of the ion chamber, depending in detail on the properties of the semiconductor, the potential distribution in the device and the ionization density along the initial track. Loss of charge can be attributed to two effects - recombination along the initial track and subsequent trapping of the moving carriers. These effects can be separated by using particles of widely differing ionization densities. Such investigations have been carried out for various silicon devices fabricated in different ways and covering a wide range of resistivities. Analytical results have been derived applicable to the general case of charge loss through trapping, and some results have also been obtained concerning recombination loss. (author)
HICS: Highly charged ion collisions with surfaces
Peters, Thorsten; Hopster, Johannes; Sokolovsky, Valentin; Wucher, Andreas; Schleberger, Marika
2008-01-01
The layout of a new instrument designed to study the interaction of highly charged ions with surfaces, which consists of an ion source, a beamline including charge separation and a target chamber, is presented here. By varying the charge state and impact velocity of the projectiles separately, the dissipation of potential and kinetic energy at or below the surface can be studied independently. The target chamber offers the use of tunable metal-insulator-metal devices as detectors for internal electronic excitation, a timeof-flight system to study the impact induced particle emission and the possibility to transfer samples in situ to a UHV scanning probe microscope. Samples and detectors can be prepared in situ as well. As a first example data on graphene layers on SrTiO3 which have been irradiated with Xe36+ are presented. Key words: highly charged ions, sputtering, AFM, graphene
Modeling Charge Collection in Detector Arrays
Hardage, Donna (Technical Monitor); Pickel, J. C.
2003-01-01
A detector array charge collection model has been developed for use as an engineering tool to aid in the design of optical sensor missions for operation in the space radiation environment. This model is an enhancement of the prototype array charge collection model that was developed for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) program. The primary enhancements were accounting for drift-assisted diffusion by Monte Carlo modeling techniques and implementing the modeling approaches in a windows-based code. The modeling is concerned with integrated charge collection within discrete pixels in the focal plane array (FPA), with high fidelity spatial resolution. It is applicable to all detector geometries including monolithc charge coupled devices (CCDs), Active Pixel Sensors (APS) and hybrid FPA geometries based on a detector array bump-bonded to a readout integrated circuit (ROIC).
Apparent Ionic Charge in Electrolyte and Polyelectrolyte Solutions
Magdelenat, H.; And Others
1978-01-01
Compares average displacements of charged particles under thermal motion alone with those obtained by the action of an external electric field to develop a concept of "apparent charge" to approximate actual structural charge in an electrolyte solution. (SL)
Charge-consistent redefinition of Fock integrals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Graphical abstract: The Fock integrals in the Hartree–Fock (HF) theory have been redefined such that every orbital pair density of an electron appearing in the conventional definition is replaced by a net neutral density that is the sum of the orbital pair density and an appropriate portion of the nuclear charge density. These charge-consistent Fock integrals in the canonical HF orbitals are shown to differ from the conventional ones only in the diagonal elements and by merely a constant, thus not altering the HF energy, orbitals, correlation energies, etc. They are shown numerically to converge much more rapidly with respect to the number of unit cells included in the lattice sums for one-dimensional solids because they contain no charge-multipole interactions in their definition unlike the conventional Fock integrals. The multipole expansion of the long-range lattice sums in the charge-consistent Fock integrals is also formulated and implemented for one-dimensional solids. Abstract: The Fock integrals in the Hartree–Fock (HF) theory have been redefined such that every orbital pair density of an electron appearing in the conventional definition is replaced by a net neutral density that is the sum of the orbital pair density and an appropriate portion of the nuclear charge density. These charge-consistent Fock integrals in the canonical HF orbitals are shown to differ from the conventional ones only in the diagonal elements and by merely a constant, thus not altering the HF energy, orbitals, correlation energies, etc. They are shown numerically to converge much more rapidly with respect to the number of unit cells included in the lattice sums for one-dimensional solids because they contain no charge-multipole interactions in their definition unlike the conventional Fock integrals. The multipole expansion of the long-range lattice sums in the charge-consistent Fock integrals is also formulated and implemented for one-dimensional solids.
Ultrafast charge dynamics in novel nanoparticles
Al Otaify, Ali Abdullah
2015-01-01
The ultrafast charge dynamics in a number of nanostructured materials relevant to the production of renewable energy are investigated using ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy. The materials include mercury telluride and cadmium mercury telluride quantum dots, and gold nanoparticles loaded on titanium dioxide colloidal spheres. The analysis of the resultant pump-induced transmittance change spectra and transients allow the determination of charge relaxation routes including multiple e...
Charging Capacitors According to Maxwell's Equations: Impossible
Funaro, Daniele
2014-01-01
The charge of an ideal parallel capacitor leads to the resolution of the wave equation for the electric field with prescribed initial conditions and boundary constraints. Independently of the capacitor's shape and the applied voltage, none of the corresponding solutions is compatible with the full set of Maxwell's equations. The paradoxical situation persists even by weakening boundary conditions, resulting in the impossibility to describe a trivial phenomenon such as the capacitor's charging process, by means of the standard Maxwellian theory.
Charging Capacitors According to Maxwell's Equations: Impossible
Funaro, Daniele
2014-01-01
The charge of an ideal parallel capacitor leads to the resolution of the wave equation for the electric field with prescribed initial conditions and boundary constraints. Independently of the capacitor's shape and the applied voltage, none of the corresponding solutions is compatible with the full set of Maxwell's equations. The paradoxical situation persists even by weakening boundary conditions, resulting in the impossibility to describe a trivial phenomenon such as the capacitor's charging...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
S D Maharaj; D B Lorthan
2011-09-01
We investigate the role of symmetries for charged perfect fluids by assuming that spacetime admits a conformal Killing vector. The existence of a conformal symmetry places restrictions on the model. It is possible to ﬁnd a general relationship for the Lie derivative of the electromagnetic ﬁeld along the integral curves of the conformal vector. The electromagnetic ﬁeld is mapped conformally under particular conditions. The Maxwell equations place restrictions on the form of the proper charge density.
Interfacial charge transfer in nanoscale polymer transistors
Worne, J. H.; Giridharagopal, R.; Kelly, K. F.; Natelson, D.
2008-01-01
Interfacial charge transfer plays an essential role in establishing the relative alignment of the metal Fermi level and the energy bands of organic semiconductors. While the details remain elusive in many systems, this charge transfer has been inferred in a number of photoemission experiments. We present electronic transport measurements in very short channel ($L < 100$ nm) transistors made from poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). As channel length is reduced, the evolution of the contact resistan...
Exact soluble two-dimensional charged wormhole
Han, Ji Young; Kim, Won Tae; Yee, Hee Ju
2003-01-01
We present an exactly soluble charged wormhole model in two dimensions by adding infalling chiral fermions on the static wormhole. The infalling energy due to the infalling charged matter requires the classical back reaction of the geometry, which is solved by taking into account of the nontrivial nonchiral exotic energy. Finally, we obtain the exact expression for the size of the throat depending on the total amount of the infalling net energy and discuss the interesting transition from the ...
Agglomeration of Charged Nanopowders in Suspensions
Werth, J. H.; Linsenbuehler, M.; Dammer, S. M.; Farkas, Z.; Hinrichsen, H.; Wirth, K. -E.; Wolf, D. E.
2002-01-01
The aim of this work is to understand agglomeration of charged powders suspended in nonpolar fluids. The concerted influence of electromagnetic, hydrodynamic and van der Waals forces as well as Brownian motion leads to a complex agglomeration behaviour which depends on several parameters, e.g., the ratios of electric charges, particle sizes, temperature and concentrations of the particles. Both experimental and theoretical considerations are presented.
Self-excitation of space charge waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lyuksyutov, Sergei; Buchhave, Preben; Vasnetsov, Mikhail
1997-01-01
We report a direct observation of space charge waves in photorefractive crystals with point group 23 (sillenites) based on their penetration into an area with uniform light illumination. It is shown experimentally that the quality factor of the waves increases substantially with respect to what...... current theory predicts [B. Sturman el al., Appl. Phys. A 55, 235 (1992)]. This results in the appearance of strong spontaneous beams caused by space charge wave self-excitation....
Electronic Strengthening of Graphene by Charge Doping
Si, Chen; Duan, Wenhui; Liu, Zheng; Liu, Feng
2012-01-01
Graphene is known as the strongest 2D material in nature, yet we show that moderate charge doping of either electrons or holes can further enhance its ideal strength by up to ~17%, based on first principles calculations. This unusual electronic enhancement, versus conventional structural enhancement, of material's strength is achieved by an intriguing physical mechanism of charge doping counteracting on strain induced enhancement of Kohn anomaly, which leads to an overall stiffening of zone b...
Charged black hole remnants at the LHC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate possible signatures of long-lived (or stable) charged black holes at the Large Hadron Collider. In particular, we find that black hole remnants are characterised by quite low speed. Due to this fact, the charged remnants could, in some cases, be very clearly distinguished from the background events, exploiting dE/dX measurements. We also compare the estimate energy released by such remnants with that of typical Standard Model particles, using the Bethe-Bloch formula. (orig.)
Asymptotic analysis of ultra-relativistic charge
Burton, David A.; Gratus, Jonathan; Tucker, Robin W.
2005-01-01
This article offers a new approach for analysing the dynamic behaviour of distributions of charged particles in an electromagnetic field. After discussing the limitations inherent in the Lorentz–Dirac equation for a single point particle a simple model is proposed for a charged continuum interacting self-consistently with the Maxwell field in vacuo. The model is developed using intrinsic tensor field theory and exploits to the full the symmetry and light-cone structure of Minkowski spacetime....
Charge State Hysteresis in Semiconductor Quantum Dots
Yang, C. H.; Rossi, A; Lai, N. S.; Leon, R.; Lim, W. H.; Dzurak, A.S.
2014-01-01
Semiconductor quantum dots provide a two-dimensional analogy for real atoms and show promise for the implementation of scalable quantum computers. Here, we investigate the charge configurations in a silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor double quantum dot tunnel coupled to a single reservoir of electrons. By operating the system in the few-electron regime, the stability diagram shows hysteretic tunnelling events that depend on the history of the dots charge occupancy. We present a model which acc...
Introduction of waste charges and public resistance
Dunne, Louise
2004-01-01
This paper reviews the potential for problems regarding public acceptability of environmental taxes. It examines the issue through a case study of the municipal waste charge protests in Ireland in 2003 and 2004. The example of these public protests against new waste charges demonstrate the necessity for good advertisement and PR when introducing a new tax. Rather than explain the polluter pays principle and simultaneously providing a good selection of options for recycling and ...
Beneficiary Charges: The Cinderella of Subnational Finance
Yeti Nisha Madhoo; Shyam Nath
2010-01-01
The revenue objective to cover the identifiable costs (in full or partly) is important with respect to both fees and charges. All revenue sources -- taxes, fees, fines and user charges -- are instruments of cost recovery to meet the financial obligations of public administration and the public and private supply of public goods and services. In the case of publicly supplied local goods, such as public administration, public education, health services, street lighting and sanitation, cost reco...
Electroactuation with Single Charge Carrier Ionomers
Lee, Alpha A; Colby, Ralph H.; Kornyshev, Alexei A.
2012-01-01
A simple theory of electromechanical transduction for single-charge-carrier double-layer electroactuators is developed, in which the ion distribution and curvature are mutually coupled. The obtained expressions for the dependence of curvature and charge accumulation on the applied voltage, as well as the electroactuation dynamics, are compared with literature data. The mechanical- or sensor- performance of such electroactuators appears to be determined by just three cumulative parameters, wit...
Electric Vehicle Charging Stations Allocation Model
BAOUCHE, Fouad; Billot, Romain; Trigui, Rochdi; El Faouzi, Nour-Eddin
2014-01-01
In 2009, French authorities launched a national plan for the deployment of charging infrastructure in order to promote the electromobility. Key stakeholders and industrial such car manufacturers, energy distribution companies and researchers were encouraged to propose optimal solutions for the installation of charging stations (CS). These solutions should cover all types of configurations: public roads, parking, and workplace. The French Environmental and Energy Management Agency (ADEME) set ...
Electrostatic Interactions of Asymmetrically Charged Membranes
Ben-Yaakov, Dan; Burak, Yoram; Andelman, David; Safran, S. A.
2007-01-01
We predict the nature (attractive or repulsive) and range (exponentially screened or long-range power law) of the electrostatic interactions of oppositely charged and planar plates as a function of the salt concentration and surface charge densities (whose absolute magnitudes are not necessarily equal). An analytical expression for the crossover between attractive and repulsive pressure is obtained as a function of the salt concentration. This condition reduces to the high-salt limit of Parse...
Interfacial properties of charge asymmetric ionic liquids
2009-01-01
Abstract We report molecular dynamics simulations of the coexistence and interfacial properties of ionic liquids as a function of cation/anion, (z$_+$ : z$_-$) = (2:-1), (4:-1), charge asymmetry. Our results correct previous computations of the coexistence curve of (2:-1) charge asymmetric systems, obtained via the fine-lattice discretization method. In agreement with previous computations we report a reduction in the critical temperature and an increase in the critical density wit...
Attractions between charged colloids at water interfaces
Oettel, M.; Dominguez, A; Dietrich, S.
2005-01-01
The effective potential between charged colloids trapped at water interfaces is analyzed. It consists of a repulsive electrostatic and an attractive capillary part which asymptotically both show dipole--like behavior. For sufficiently large colloid charges, the capillary attraction dominates at large separations. The total effective potential exhibits a minimum at intermediate separations if the Debye screening length of water and the colloid radius are of comparable size.
Color-charge algebras in Adler's chromodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show that the color-charge algebra in the three-quark sector generated by the matrices of the fundamental representation of U(n) does not have the trace properties required in Adler's extension of chromodynamics. We also discuss a diagrammatic representation of algebras generated by quark and antiquark charges in general, and an embedding of the N-quark algebra in the symmetric group S/sub N/+1
Josephson charge qubits:a brief review
Pashkin, Yuri; Astafiev, O.; Yamamoto, T.; Nakamura, Y.; Tsai, J. S.
2009-01-01
The field of solid-state quantum computation is expanding rapidly initiated by our original charge qubit demonstrations. Various types of solid-state qubits are being studied, and their coherent properties are improving. The goal of this review is to summarize achievements on Josephson charge qubits. We cover the results obtained in our joint group of NEC Nano Electronics Research Laboratories and RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, also referring to the works done by other groups. Starting fro...
Improved charge amplifier using hybrid hysteresis compensation
Amin-Shahidi, Darya; Trumper, David L.
2013-08-01
We present a novel charge amplifier, with a robust feedback circuit and a method for compensating piezoelectric actuator's hysteresis at low frequencies. The amplifier uses a modified feedback circuit which improves robustness to the addition of series load impedance such as in cabling. We also describe a hybrid hysteresis compensation method for enabling the charge amplifier to reduce hysteresis at low frequencies. Experimental results demonstrate the utility of the new amplifier design.
New Charged Particles from Higgs Couplings
Cohen, Andrew G
2012-01-01
The recently reported observation of a new particle with mass about 125 GeV and couplings generally resembling those of the Standard Model Higgs boson provides a potential probe of the physics of electroweak symmetry breaking. Although the current data only provides hints, we suggest a particular combination of Higgs couplings as an assay for new charged particles connected with electroweak symmetry breaking, and construct a simple model with charge 5/3 quarks as a demonstration of its use.
Charged perfect fluid in rigid rotation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper is a continuation of the work of Bonnor and Raychaudhuri on a charged dust distribution in rigid rotation in general relativity. Here the authors are concerned with the similar problem of a charged perfect fluid with nonvanishing pressure. As in Raychaudhuri's work, symmetry-independent reduction of Einstein--Maxwell equations is undertaken. Certain assumptions in Raychaudhuri's paper regarding the inheritance by the electromagnetic field of the symmetry resulting from the rigidity of the motion are justified
Experimental study of rare charged pion decays
Pocanic, Dinko; van der Schaaf, Andries
2014-01-01
The combination of simple dynamics, small number of available decay channels, and extremely well controlled radiative and loop corrections, make charged pion decays a sensitive means for testing the underlying symmetries and the universality of weak fermion couplings, as well as for improving our understanding of pion structure and chiral dynamics. This paper reviews the current state of experimental study of the allowed rare decays of charged pions: (a) leptonic, $\\pi^+ \\to e^+\
Charged Dilatonic Black Holes in Gravity's Rainbow
Hendi, S H; Panah, B Eslam; Panahiyan, S
2015-01-01
In this paper, we analyze charged dilatonic black holes in gravity's rainbow. We obtain metric functions and different thermodynamic quantities for these charged black holes in dilatonic gravity's rainbow. We demonstrate that first law of thermodynamics is valid for these solutions. We also investigate thermal stability of these solutions using canonical ensemble. Finally, we analyze the effect that the variation of different parameters has on the stability of these solutions.
Space charge fields in DC cables
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
McAllister, Iain Wilson; Crichton, George C; Pedersen, Aage
The space charge that accumulates in DC cables can, mathematically, be resolved into two components. One is related to the temperature and the other to the magnitude of the electric field strength. Analytical expressions for the electric fields arising from each of these space charge components are...... derived. Thereafter, the significance of these field components under both normal operating conditions and immediately following polarity reversal is discussed...
Charge regularization in phase separating polyelectrolyte solutions
Muthukumar, M.; Hua, Jing; Kundagrami, Arindam
2010-01-01
Theoretical investigations of phase separation in polyelectrolyte solutions have so far assumed that the effective charge of the polyelectrolyte chains is fixed. The ability of the polyelectrolyte chains to self-regulate their effective charge due to the self-consistent coupling between ionization equilibrium and polymer conformations, depending on the dielectric constant, temperature, and polymer concentration, affects the critical phenomena and phase transitions drastically. By considering ...
Charged black hole remnants at the LHC
Alberghi, G. L.; Bellagamba, L.; Calmet, X.; Casadio, R.; Micu, O.
2013-06-01
We investigate possible signatures of long-lived (or stable) charged black holes at the Large Hadron Collider. In particular, we find that black hole remnants are characterised by quite low speed. Due to this fact, the charged remnants could, in some cases, be very clearly distinguished from the background events, exploiting dE/ dX measurements. We also compare the estimate energy released by such remnants with that of typical Standard Model particles, using the Bethe-Bloch formula.
Charged Black Hole Remnants at the LHC
Alberghi, G. L.; Bellagamba, L.; Calmet, X.; Casadio, R.; Micu, O.
2013-01-01
We investigate possible signatures of long-lived (or stable) charged black holes at the Large Hadron Collider. In particular, we find that black hole remnants are characterised by quite low speed. Due to this fact, the charged remnants could, in some cases, be very clearly distinguished from the background events, exploiting dE/dX measurements. We also compare the estimate energy released by such remnants with that of typical Standard Model particles, using the Bethe-Bloch formula.
Position sensitive detector of magnetically charged particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Two variants of coordinate detectors of magnetically charged paticles based on the utilization of transducers with Josephson transitions are proposed. The system of data acquisition and processing is built up in the CAMAC standard. The helium cryostat diagram is presented. The detector resolution time and dead time constitute 1 μs. Methods of detection of magnetically charged particles used in the above detectors are expected to be more effective, as compared to ionization method and other indirect methods
BRST cohomology and nonlocal conserved charges
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berkovits, Nathan [Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Pamplona 145, 01405-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: nberkovi@ift.unesp.br
2005-02-01
A relation is found between nonlocal conserved charges in string theory and certain ghost-number two states in the BRST cohomology. This provides a simple proof that the nonlocal conserved charges for the superstring in an AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} background are BRST-invariant in the pure spinor formalism and are {kappa}-symmetric in the Green-Schwarz formalism. (author)
Goswami, Sirj; Hutchinson, Ryan; Kwong, Zephania W; Yang, Jihong; Wang, Xiangdan; Yao, Zhenling; Sreedhara, Alavattam; Cano, Tony; Tesar, Devin; Nijem, Ihsan; Allison, David E; Wong, Pin Yee; Kao, Yung-Hsiang; Quan, Cynthia; Joshi, Amita; Harris, Reed J; Motchnik, Paul
2010-01-01
Antibody charge variants have gained considerable attention in the biotechnology industry due to their potential influence on stability and biological activity. Subtle differences in the relative proportions of charge variants are often observed during routine biomanufacture or process changes and pose a challenge to demonstrating product comparability. To gain further insights into the impact on biological activity and pharmacokinetics (PK) of monoclonal antibody (mAb) charge heterogeneity, we isolated the major charge forms of a recombinant humanized IgG1 and compared their in vitro properties and in vivo PK. The mAb starting material had a pI range of 8.7–9.1 and was composed of about 20% acidic variants, 12% basic variants and 68% main peak. Cation exchange displacement chromatography was used to isolate the acidic, basic and main peak fractions for animal studies. Detailed analyses were performed on the isolated fractions to identify specific chemical modification contributing to the charge differences and were also characterized for purity and in vitro potency prior to being administered either subcutaneously (SC) or intravenously (IV) in rats. All isolated materials had similar potency and rat FcRn binding relative to the starting material. Following IV or SC administration (10 mg/kg) in rats, no difference in serum PK was observed, indicating that physiochemical modifications and pI differences among charge variants were not sufficient to result in PK changes. Thus, these results provided meaningful information for the comparative evaluation of charge-related heterogeneity of mAbs and suggested that charge variants of IgGs do not affect the in vitro potency, FcRn binding affinity or the PK properties in rats. PMID:20818176
Polaronic charge transport mechanism in DNA
Hennig, Dirk; Archilla, Juan F. R.
2006-01-01
For the detailed understanding of the conduction mechanism in DNA we use models based on the concept of polaron and breather solutions. We describe how charge transport relies on the coupling of the charge carrying unit to the vibrational modes of DNA allowing for the formation of polaron-like localised states. The mobility of these localised states is discussed particularly in the presence of parametrical and structural disorder inherent to biomolecules. It is demonstrated tha...
Charge Transport in DNA-Based Devices
Porath, Danny; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio; Di Felice, Rosa
2004-01-01
Charge migration along DNA molecules has attracted scientific interest for over half a century. Reports on possible high rates of charge transfer between donor and acceptor through the DNA, obtained in the last decade from solution chemistry experiments on large numbers of molecules, triggered a series of direct electrical transport measurements through DNA single molecules, bundles and networks. These measurements are reviewed and presented here. From these experiments we conclude that elect...
Long-range charge hopping in DNA
Bixon, M.; Giese, Bernd; Wessely, Stephan; Langenbacher, Thomas; Michel-Beyerle, Maria E.; Jortner, Joshua
1999-01-01
The fundamental mechanisms of charge migration in DNA are pertinent for current developments in molecular electronics and electrochemistry-based chip technology. The energetic control of hole (positive ion) multistep hopping transport in DNA proceeds via the guanine, the nucleobase with the lowest oxidation potential. Chemical yield data for the relative reactivity of the guanine cations and of charge trapping by a triple guanine unit in one of the strands quantify the hopping, trapping, and ...
Charge Transport in DNA - Insights from Simulations
Wolter, Mario
2013-01-01
Charge transport and charge transfer (CT) capabilities of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) are investigated. A QM/MM multi-scale framework is applied to calculate the CT capabilities of DNA under conditions resembling the experimental setup. The simulations are able to explain and predict the outcome of experiments and therefore make suggestions in advance. Based on the findings, suitable DNA sequences can be opted for the design of DNA-based devices as nano-scale electronic elements.
Charge transport in DNA-based devices
Porath, Danny; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio; Felice, Rosa di
2004-01-01
Charge migration along DNA molecules attracted scientific interest for over half a century. Reports on possible high rates of charge transfer between donor and acceptor through the DNA, obtained in the last decade from solution chemistry experiments on large numbers of molecules, triggered a series of direct electrical transport measurements through DNA single molecules, bundles and networks. These measurements are reviewed and presented here. From these experiments we conclude that electrica...
Charge distributions and coagulation of radioactive aerosols
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The self-charging of radioactive aerosols will be reduced by background ions, such as those produced by radioactive gases. The sources of these background ions and their production rates are specified for a reactor containment atmosphere during a possible nuclear accident. Previous theory is extended to calculate the charging of a polydisperse radioactive aerosol. Gaussian approximations to charge distributions on an aerosol of a given size, and are shown to give a good representation of the exact numerical charge distributions of a Cs aerosol at normal temperatures, and also for highly radioactive aerosol containing 131I in a containment atmosphere. Extensive calculations are performed for charged-induced modifications to Brownian coagulation rates between steady-state size distribution of these radioactive aerosols, and also between small-sized radioactive aerosol and larger (non-radioactive) aerosol. The results show considerable enhancements of the coagulation rates between large and small-sized aerosol, but also a strong suppression of coagulation between large particles. Rate modifications calculated using the Gaussian approximations are generally close to the exact values. Time-dependent calculations for a monodisperse α-decaying aerosol reveal enhancements in coagulation rates even when the average charge on the aerosol is positive. Our results are relevant to behaviour in a dusty plasma. (author)
A pipette dispenses a charged droplet
Choi, Dongwhi; Lee, Horim; Im, Do Jin; Kang, In Seok; Kang, Kwan Hyoung
2012-11-01
Micropipettes are widely used in many scientific and engineering fields. However, it is hardly known that a droplet dispensed from a plastic pipette tip has a considerable amount of charges (order of 10-10 C). Here we report that the charged droplet is dispensed from a commercial and disposable plastic pipette tip and this charge is originated from the natural electrification between a solution and the inner surface of the pipette tip. The charge amount is dependent on not only the physicochemical properties of a solution (e.g., pH and a concentration) but also dispensing environments (e.g., atmospheric humidity and type of commercial pipette tip). To investigate the effects of the charge on the droplet dispensing, we calculate the electrical force between the droplet and the pipette tip though numerical simulation. The micropipette users especially, who are dealing with discrete droplets in their experiments, should consider this charge effect in their dispensing of a droplet. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grant No. R0A-2007-000-20098-0 funded by the Korea government (MEST) and No. 20090083510 through Multiphenomena CFD Engineering Research Center.
The question of charge and of mass
Dolocan, Voicu
2016-01-01
There are two long-range forces in the Universe, electromagnetism and gravity.We have found a general expression for the energy of interaction in these cases alphaXhbarXc/r, where alpha is the fine structure constant and r is the distance between the two particles.In the case of the electromagnetic interaction we have alphaxhbarxc=e^2/4pixepsilon, where e is the gauge charge, which is the elementary electron charge. In the case of the gravitational interaction alphaxhbarxc=GxM^2where M=1.85x10^(-9) kg is the gauge mass of the particle.This is a giant particle. A system of like charged giant particles, would be a charged superfluid. By spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry are generated the Higgs masive bosons.The unitary gauge assure generation of the neutral massive particles. The perturbation from the unitary gauge generates charged massive particles. Also, the Higgs boson decays into charged and neutral particles.The Tesla coil is the user of the excitations of the vacuum.
Formation of Electric Charges in Melting Layer
Kochin, A V
2001-01-01
The paper presents a model of electric charge generation in precipitating clouds due to breaking of large particles in low melting layer. The Earth's electric field polarises the droplets and they break into small negatively charged and large positively charged fragments. A negatively charged cloud region is formed below melting layer. The charged region induces a field, which increases both polarisation of the breaking droplets and rate of charge generation. An equation is derived to describe spatial and temporal variability of the electric field, which depends on size spectrum of hydrometeors and vertical draft velocity. The model yields an exponential growth of the electric field strength to 105 - 106 V/m after 15 min of raining at a rate of more than 10 mm/h. The major condition for that is a downdraft with a velocity of 0.5 - 1 m/s within the melting layer. The maximum field strength in clouds is found at +20C level where lightning strokes to aircraft are observed most frequently. In conclusion, factors ...
Charge order, superconducting correlations, and positive muons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sonier, J.E., E-mail: jsonier@sfu.ca
2015-02-15
The recent discoveries of short-range charge-density wave order in the normal state of several hole-doped cuprate superconductors constitute a significant addition to the known intrinsic properties of these materials. Besides likely being associated with the normal-state pseudogap, the charge-density wave order presumably influences the build-up of known superconducting correlations as the temperature is lowered toward the superconducting state. As a pure magnetic probe, muon spin rotation (μ SR) is not directly sensitive to charge order, but may sense its presence via the effect it has on the magnetic dipolar coupling of the muon with the host nuclei at zero or low magnetic field. At higher field where μ SR is completely blind to the effects of charge order, experiments have revealed a universal inhomogeneous normal-state response extending to temperatures well above T{sub c}. The measured inhomogeneous line broadening has been attributed to regions of superconducting correlations that exhibit varying degrees of fluctuation diamagnetism. Here, the compatibility of these results with other measurements showing charge order correlations or superconducting fluctuations above T{sub c} is discussed. - Highlights: • Superconducting fluctuations in high-T cuprates probed by positive muons are discussed. • Superconducting fluctuations are detected at higher temperatures than by other methods. • The muon experiments indicate that the superconducting fluctuations are inhomogeneous. • The compatibility with short-range charge order in the normal state is considered.
Charge carrier transport in liquid crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The materials exhibiting charge carrier mobility ranging from 10−3 to 0.1 cm2/Vs, i.e., between those of amorphous and crystalline materials, had been missing before the 1990s when the electronic conduction in liquid crystals was discovered. Since then, various liquid crystalline materials including discotic and calamitic liquid crystals have been studied in order to clarify their charge carrier transport properties in liquid crystalline mesophases. In this article, the historical background of the discovery of electronic conduction in liquid crystals, intrinsic and extrinsic conductions, unique properties of the charge carrier transport, the effect of molecular alignment on it, and the conduction mechanism in liquid crystalline mesophases are shortly described on the basis of the experimental and theoretical studies accumulated in these two decades, noting that the missing materials were liquid crystals. - Highlights: • Liquid crystals exhibit charge mobility ranging from 10–3 to 0.1 cm2/Vs. • Electronic (intrinsic) and ionic (extrinsic) conductions in liquid crystals • Unique charge carrier transport properties in liquid crystals • Effect of molecular alignment in mesophases on charge carrier transport • Conduction mechanism in smectic liquid crystals
Battery charging in float vs. cycling environments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
COREY,GARTH P.
2000-04-20
In lead-acid battery systems, cycling systems are often managed using float management strategies. There are many differences in battery management strategies for a float environment and battery management strategies for a cycling environment. To complicate matters further, in many cycling environments, such as off-grid domestic power systems, there is usually not an available charging source capable of efficiently equalizing a lead-acid battery let alone bring it to a full state of charge. Typically, rules for battery management which have worked quite well in a floating environment have been routinely applied to cycling batteries without full appreciation of what the cycling battery really needs to reach a full state of charge and to maintain a high state of health. For example, charge target voltages for batteries that are regularly deep cycled in off-grid power sources are the same as voltages applied to stand-by systems following a discharge event. In other charging operations equalization charge requirements are frequently ignored or incorrectly applied in cycled systems which frequently leads to premature capacity loss. The cause of this serious problem: the application of float battery management strategies to cycling battery systems. This paper describes the outcomes to be expected when managing cycling batteries with float strategies and discusses the techniques and benefits for the use of cycling battery management strategies.
ChargingE-perm for radon measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recharging of commercial E-perm electret detectors used for radon measurement has been investigated. The E-perm was recharged using the poling charging method where a high voltage is applied on a metal nozzle to polarize the electret material. The optimum parameters to recharge the electrets were 5 kV charging voltage and 7 mm height of the nozzle from the electret surface and using an insulator while charging. Under these conditions, charging of E-perm carried out for 15 s attained required voltage and retained the charge for long durations. The response of recharged E-perm for radon activity measurements in a radon calibration chamber and in an open environment was compared with that of CR-39 detectors. Results showed close proximity in radon values. - Highlights: • Poling charging method was used to recharge the electret detectors. • Applying the chosen parameters were enough to reuse recharged electrets. • Similar response was obtained when compared with CR-39 for radon measurements
Charge fluctuations in open chaotic cavities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a discussion of the charge response and the charge fluctuations of mesoscopic chaotic cavities in terms of a generalized Wigner-Smith matrix. The Wigner-Smith matrix is well known in investigations of time-delay of quantum scattering. It is expressed in terms of the scattering matrix and its derivatives with energy. We consider a similar matrix but instead of an energy derivative, we investigate the derivative with regard to the electric potential. The resulting matrix is then the operator of charge. If this charge operator is combined with a self-consistent treatment of Coulomb interaction, the charge operator determines the capacitance of the system, the non-dissipative ac-linear response, the RC-time with a novel charge relaxation resistance, and in the presence of transport a resistance that governs the displacement currents induced into a nearby conductor. In particular, these capacitances and resistances determine the relaxation rate and dephasing rate of a nearby qubit (a double quantum dot). We discuss the role of screening of mesoscopic chaotic detectors. Coulomb interaction effects in quantum pumping and in photon assisted electron-hole shot noise are treated similarly. For the latter, we present novel results for chaotic cavities with non-ideal leads
Collisions of oppositely charged black holes
Zilhão, Miguel; Herdeiro, Carlos; Lehner, Luis; Sperhake, Ulrich
2013-01-01
The first fully non-linear numerical simulations of colliding charged black holes in D=4 Einstein-Maxwell theory were recently reported arXiv:1205.1063. These collisions were performed for black holes with equal charge-to-mass ratio, for which initial data can be found in closed analytic form. Here we generalize the study of collisions of charged black holes to the case of unequal charge-to-mass ratios. We focus on oppositely charged black holes, as to maximize acceleration-dependent effects. As |Q|/M increases from 0 to 0.99, we observe that the gravitational radiation emitted increases by a factor of ~ 2.7; the electromagnetic radiation emission becomes dominant for |Q|/M >~ 0.37 and at |Q|/M=0.99 is larger, by a factor of ~ 5.8, than its gravitational counterpart. We observe that these numerical results exhibit a precise and simple scaling with the charge. Furthermore, we show that the results from the numerical simulations are qualitatively captured by a simple analytic model that computes the electromagn...
Charge transfer reactions in nematic liquid crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wiederrecht, G.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.; Wasielewski, M.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.]|[Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Galili, T.; Levanon, H. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel). Dept. of Physical Chemistry
1998-07-01
Ultrafast transient absorption studies of intramolecular photoinduced charge separation and thermal charge recombination were carried out on a molecule consisting of a 4-(N-pyrrolidino)naphthalene-1,8-imide donor (PNI) covalently attached to a pyromellitimide acceptor (PI) dissolved in the liquid crystal 4{prime}-(n-pentyl)-4-cyanobiphenyl (5CB). The temperature dependencies of the charge separation and recombination rates were obtained at temperatures above the nematic-isotropic phase transition of 5CB, where ordered microdomains exist and scattering of visible light by these domains is absent. The authors show that excited state charge separation is dominated by molecular reorientation of 5CB perpendicular to the director within the liquid crystal microdomains. They also show that charge recombination is adiabatic and is controlled by the comparatively slow collective reorientation of the liquid crystal microdomains relative to the orientation of PNI{sup +}-PI{sup {minus}}. They also report the results of time resolved electron paramagnetic resonance (TREPR) studies of photoinduced charge separation in a series of supramolecular compounds dissolved in oriented liquid crystal solvents. These studies permit the determination of the radical pair energy levels as the solvent reorganization energy increases from the low temperature crystalline phase, through the soft glass phase, to the nematic phase of the liquid crystal.
Search milli-charged particles at SLAC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Langeveld, W.G.J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)
1997-01-01
Particles with electric charge q {triple_bond} Qe {le} 10{sup -3} e and masses in the range 1-1000 MeV/c{sup 2} are not excluded by present experiments or by astrophysical or cosmological arguments. A beam dump experiment uniquely suited to the detection of such {open_quotes}milli-charged{close_quotes} particles has been carried out at SLAC, utilizing the short-duration pulses of the SLC electron beam to establish a tight coincidence window for the signal. The detector, a large scintillation counter sensitive to very small energy depositions, provided much greater sensitivity than previous searches. Analysis of the data leads to the exclusion of a substantial portion of the charge-mass plane. In this report, a preliminary mass-dependent upper limit is presented for the charge of milli-charged particles, ranging from Q = 1.7 x 10{sup -5} at milli-charged particle mass 0.1 MeV/c{sup 2} to Q = 9.5 x 10{sup -4} at 100 MeV/c{sup 2}.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. V. Rodrigues
2006-03-01
Full Text Available This work gives sequence to the study on the measurement of the electrostatic charges in aerosols. The particle charge classifier developed for this purpose and presented in the previous paper (Marra and Coury, 2000 has been used here to measure the particle charge distribution of a number of different aerosols. The charges acquired by the particles were naturally derived from the aerosol generation procedure itself. Two types of aerosol generators were used: the vibrating orifice generator and turntable Venturi plate generator. In the vibrating orifice generator, mono-dispersed particles were generated by a solution of water/ethanol/methylene blue, while in the rotating plate generator, six different materials were utilized. The results showed no clear dependence between electric charge and particle diameter for the mono-dispersed aerosol. However, for the poly-dispersed aerosols, a linear dependence between particle size and charge could be noticed.
Formation of High Charge State Heavy Ion Beams with intense Space Charge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
High charge-state heavy-ion beams are of interest and used for a number of accelerator applications. Some accelerators produce the beams downstream of the ion source by stripping bound electrons from the ions as they pass through a foil or gas. Heavy-ion inertial fusion (HIF) would benefit from low-emittance, high current ion beams with charge state >1. For these accelerators, the desired dimensionless perveance upon extraction from the emitter is ∼10-3, and the electrical current of the beam pulse is ∼1 A. For accelerator applications where high charge state and very high current are desired, space charge effects present unique challenges. For example, in a stripper, the separation of charge states creates significant nonlinear space-charge forces that impact the beam brightness. We will report on the particle-in-cell simulation of the formation of such beams for HIF, using a thin stripper at low energy.
A Charge Recycling Three Phase Dual Rail Pre-Charge Logic Based Flip-Flop
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kothagudem Mounika
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Providing resistance against side channel attacks e specially differential power analysis (DPA attacks , which aim at disclosing the secret key of cryptogra phic algorithm is one of the biggest challenges of designers of cryptographic devices. In this paper d esign of novel data flip-flop compatible with three -phase dual-rail logic (TDPL, called Charge recycling TDP L flip-flop is investigated. The new flip-flop uses inverters that uses the charge recycling technique where charge stored on high output node during evaluation phase is used to partially charge the lo w output node in subsequent pre-charge phases. As a result less charge comes from the power supply thus lowering the power consumption. Simulation results in Cadence Virtuoso 45 nm CMOS process show improvemen t in power consumption in inverter up to 60% while CRTDPL flip-flop consumes around 50% less pow er compared to TDPL flip-flop.
Lu, Bo; Song, Yicheng; Zhang, Junqian
2016-07-01
This article demonstrates the design of charging strategies for lithium ion batteries with considering the balance between diffusion induced stress and total charge time for two- and three-stage charge methods. For the two-stage galvanostatic-potentiostatic charge method the low mechanical stress can be achieved without increasing total charge time by switching the galvanostatic to the potentiostatic at the time moment when the lithium concentration at the surface of particles reaches the limit cbarsurf = 0 . A three-stage method, which consists of an initial galvanostatic stage of high current, a galvanostatic stage of low current and a potentiostatic ending stage, is suggested. Employing the initial galvanostatic stage of high current is helpful not only in accelerating the charge process, but also in controlling the mechanical stress once the electrical current and time duration of the initial galvanostatic stage are properly designed.
Interactions Between Charged Macroions Mediated by Molecules with Rod-like Charged Structures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bohinc, K.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available A short review of recent theoretical advances in studies of the interaction between highly charged systems embedded in a solution of rod-like molecules is presented. The system is theoretically described by the functional density theory, where the correlations within the rod-like molecules are accounted for. We show that for sufficiently long molecules and large surface charge densities, an attractive force between like-charged surfaces arises due to the spatially distributed charges within the molecules. The added salt has an influence on the condition for the attractive force between like-charged surfaces. The theoretical results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations. Many phenomena motivate the study of the interaction between like-charged surfaces (DNA condensation, virus aggregation, yeast flocculation, cohesion of cement paste.
Temperature dependence of charge carrier generation in organic photovoltaics.
Gao, Feng; Tress, Wolfgang; Wang, Jianpu; Inganäs, Olle
2015-03-27
The charge generation mechanism in organic photovoltaics is a fundamental yet heavily debated issue. All the generated charges recombine at the open-circuit voltage (V_{OC}), so that investigation of recombined charges at V_{OC} provides a unique approach to understanding charge generation. At low temperatures, we observe a decrease of V_{OC}, which is attributed to reduced charge separation. Comparison between benchmark polymer:fullerene and polymer:polymer blends highlights the critical role of charge delocalization in charge separation and emphasizes the importance of entropy in charge generation. PMID:25860774
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
For an optimal design of ion sources and for some aspects of plasma diagnostics it is important to study the influence of all processes and parameters that are essential for the production and loss of multiply charged ions. Till now all existing calculations of CSD neglected charge transfer because of missing data. Now many of the very big charge transfer cross sections are measured and so we are able to include them into our calculations. (orig.)
K2CO3 catalysis on the reactivity of top charged coke and stamp charged coke
Pang, Qing-hai; Zhang, Jian-liang; Qi, Cheng-lin; Ma, Chao; Kong, De-wen; Mao, Rui
2013-01-01
The catalysis of K2CO3 on the reactivity of top charged coke and stamp charged coke from Pansteel in China was studied. The coke reaction index of the stamp charged coke was 1%-2% higher than that of the top charged coke. Under the catalysis of K2CO3, the coke reaction index of both cokes approximately increased by 4%, 6%, 10% and 6% at 900, 1000, 1100 and 1200°C, respectively. The reactivity of the K-enriched stamp charged coke was 1%-2% higher than that of the K-enriched top charged coke below 1100°C. However, only negligible differences were found in the temperature zone between 1100 and 1200°C. Scanning electron microscopy images illustrated that pores in the top charged coke were smaller and equally distributed, while relatively more big pores exist non-homogenously in stamp charged coke. Due to the different processes in production, the stamp charged coke was more porous and most of the pores tended to be applanate. Cracks were observed in the microstructure of the stamp charged coke during the carbon solution reaction, implying the inferior quality of the stamp charged coke to the top charged coke at high temperature. Diffusion of K during the carbon solution reaction was studied by the energy dispersive spectrometry. It is found that K gradually spreads into the center of lumpy coke with the rising of temperature and is equally distributed on the edges of pores at 1200°C. Besides, oxidation reactions of functional groups become faster with the catalysis of K.content
Dielectric sample with two-layer charge distribution for space charge calibration purposes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Holbøll, Joachim; Henriksen, Mogens; Rasmussen, C.
2002-01-01
In the present paper is described a dielectric test sample with two very narrow concentrations of bulk charges, achieved by two internal electrodes not affecting the acoustical properties of the sample, a fact important for optimal application of most space charge measuring systems. Space charge...... formation was investigated under different electrical conditions by means of the laser induced pressure pulse (LIPP) method and the pulsed electro-acoustic method (PEA)....
Shi, Jiangjian; Zhang, Huiyin; Xu, Xin; Li, Dongmei; Luo, Yanhong; Meng, Qingbo
2016-01-01
Interplays between charge and electric field, which play a critical role in determining the charge transport, recombination, storage and hysteresis in the perovskite solar cell, have been systematically investigated by both electrical transient experiments and theoretical calculations. It is found that the light illumination can increase the carrier concentration in the perovskite absorber, thus enhancing charge recombination and causing the co-existence of high electric field and free carrie...
The effect of polymer charge density and charge distribution on the formation of multilayers
Voigt, U; Tauer, K; Hahn, M; Jäger, W; Klitzing, K V
2003-01-01
Polyelectrolyte multilayers which are built up by alternating adsorption of polyanions and polycations from aqueous solutions at a solid interface are investigated by reflectometry and ellipsometry. Below a degree of charge of about 70% the adsorption stops after a certain number of dipping cycles and no multilayer formation occurs. This indicates an electrostatically driven adsorption process. Below a charge density of 70% an adsorption can take place if the charged segments are combined as a block of the polymer.
Experimental study of diffusion charging of aerosols
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pui, D.Y.H.
1976-03-01
The electrical charging of aerosol particles by unipolar gaseous ions was studied theoretically and experimentally. The primary objective of the study was to make precise determinations of the aerosol particle charge under various conditions of charging and to compare the experimental results with those predicted by theory. Experiments were performed using monodisperse oleic acid aerosols generated by a vibrating orifice generator, monodisperse NaCl and DOP (di-octyl phthalate) aerosols generated by an electrostatic classification method, and sulfuric acid aerosols generated by the photo-chemical conversion of gaseous SO/sub 2/ in the smog chamber. The experiments covered a particle size range of 0.0075 ..mu..m to 5.04 ..mu..m diameter. The corresponding range in Knudsen number (Kn = lambda/sub i//a, lambda/sub i/ = mean free path of ions, a = particle radius) was from 0.0056 to 3.86. The charging parameter, n/sub 0/t, was varied between 2.56 x 10/sup 6/ to 5.1 x 10/sup 7/ ion-s/cc, where n/sub 0/ is the concentration of ions and t is the charging time. Comparisons of the results with available aerosol charging theories indicate that there is reasonable agreement between the theory and experiment in the continuum regime (Kn << 1) where the classical Fuchs--Pluvinage equation is expected to apply. However, in the free molecular (Kn >> 1) and the transition regimes (Kn approx. or equal to 1), where the ion mean free path is no longer small in comparison with particle size, there is considerable discrepancy between the experimental data and available charging theories. A semi-empirical equation was developed which agrees well with the experimental data over the entire range of particle size and charging parameters covered in the experiments. Theoretical results are presented showing the distribution of charges on the particles as a function of particle size and the charging parameter n/sub 0/t. 70 figures, 24 tables, 112 references. (auth)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Becar, Ramon [Universidad Catolica de Temuco, Departamento de Ciencias Matematicas y Fisicas, Temuco (Chile); Gonzalez, P.A. [Universidad Diego Portales, Facultad de Ingenieria, Santiago (Chile); Saavedra, Joel [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile); Vasquez, Yerko [Universidad de La Serena, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, La Serena (Chile)
2015-02-01
We study massive charged fermionic perturbations in the background of a charged two-dimensional dilatonic black hole, and we solve the Dirac equation analytically. Then we compute the reflection and transmission coefficients and the absorption cross section for massive charged fermionic fields, and we show that the absorption cross section vanishes at the low- and high-frequency limits. However, there is a range of frequencies where the absorption cross section is not null. Furthermore, we study the effect of the mass and electric charge of the fermionic field over the absorption cross section. (orig.)
Dust charging and charge fluctuations in a weakly collisional radio-frequency sheath at low pressure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Models for the charging of dust particles in the bulk plasma and in the sheath region are discussed. A new model is proposed that describes collision-enhanced ion currents in the sheath. The collisions result in a substantial reduction of the negative charge of the dust. Experimental data for the dust charge in the sheath can be described by this model when a Bi-Maxwellian electron distribution is taken into account. Expressions for the dust charging rate for all considered models are presented and their influence on the rise of the kinetic dust temperature is discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study massive charged fermionic perturbations in the background of a charged two-dimensional dilatonic black hole, and we solve the Dirac equation analytically. Then we compute the reflection and transmission coefficients and the absorption cross section for massive charged fermionic fields, and we show that the absorption cross section vanishes at the low- and high-frequency limits. However, there is a range of frequencies where the absorption cross section is not null. Furthermore, we study the effect of the mass and electric charge of the fermionic field over the absorption cross section. (orig.)
Aggregator-Based Interactive Charging Management System for Electric Vehicle Charging
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mingchao Xia
2016-03-01
Full Text Available With the ongoing large-scale implementation of electric vehicles (EVs, the exploration of a more flexible approach to maintain fair interaction between EVs and the power grid is urgently required. This paper presents an aggregator-based interactive charging management scheme adopting interruptible load (IL pricing, in which the EV aggregator will respond to the load control command of the grid in an EV interactive mode. Charging managements are carried out according to battery state-of-charge and the EV departure time in EV charging stations. A power-altering charging (PAC control method is proposed to dispatch the EVs charging fairly in a station and guarantee EV owners’ preferences. The method does not require classical iterative procedures or heavy computations; furthermore, it is beneficial for EVs to depart earlier than expected for reasons beyond keeping homeostatic charging. The proposed scheme, which is tested to charge individual EVs well according to its preference, was implemented as part of an “EV Beijing” project. The proposed management scheme provides new insight into EV charging strategy and provides another choice to EV users.
Charged Massive Particle’s Tunneling from Charged Nonrotating Microblack Hole
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. J. Soleimani
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In the tunneling framework of Hawking radiation, charged massive particle’s tunneling in charged nonrotating TeV-scale black hole is investigated. To this end, we consider natural cutoffs as a minimal length, a minimal momentum, and a maximal momentum through a generalized uncertainty principle. We focus on the role played by these natural cutoffs on the luminosity of charged nonrotating microblack hole by taking into account the full implications of energy and charge conservation as well as the backscattered radiation.
Charged Massive Particle's Tunneling From Charged Non-Rotating Micro Black Hole
Soleimani, M J; Radiman, Shahidan; Abdullah, W A T Wan
2015-01-01
In the tunneling framework of Hawking radiation, charged massive particle's tunneling in charged non-rotating TeV-Scale black hole is investigated. To this end, we consider natural cutoffs as a minimal length, a minimal momentum, and a maximal momentum through a generalized uncertainty principle. We focus on the role played by these natural cutoffs on the luminosity of charged non-rotating micro black hole by taking into account the full implications of energy and charge conservation as well as the back- scattered radiation.
Formation of charged nanoparticles in hydrocarbon flames: principal mechanisms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Starik, A M; Savel' ev, A M; Titova, N S [Central Institute of Aviation Motors, 2 Aviamotornaya st., 111116 Moscow (Russian Federation)], E-mail: star@ciam.ru
2008-11-01
The processes of charged gaseous and particulate species formation in sooting hydrocarbon/air flame are studied. The original kinetic model, comprising the chemistry of neutral and charged gaseous species, generation of primary clusters, which then undergo charging due to attachment of ions and electrons to clusters and via thermoemission, and coagulation of charged-charged, charged-neutral and neutral-neutral particles, is reported. The analysis shows that the principal mechanisms of charged particle origin in hydrocarbon flames are associated with the attachment of ions and electrons produced in the course of chemoionization reactions to primary small clusters and particles and coagulation via charged-charged and charged-neutral particle interaction. Thermal ionization of particles does not play a significant role in the particle charging.
Formation of charged nanoparticles in hydrocarbon flames: principal mechanisms
Starik, A. M.; Savel'ev, A. M.; Titova, N. S.
2008-11-01
The processes of charged gaseous and particulate species formation in sooting hydrocarbon/air flame are studied. The original kinetic model, comprising the chemistry of neutral and charged gaseous species, generation of primary clusters, which then undergo charging due to attachment of ions and electrons to clusters and via thermoemission, and coagulation of charged-charged, charged-neutral and neutral-neutral particles, is reported. The analysis shows that the principal mechanisms of charged particle origin in hydrocarbon flames are associated with the attachment of ions and electrons produced in the course of chemoionization reactions to primary small clusters and particles and coagulation via charged-charged and charged-neutral particle interaction. Thermal ionization of particles does not play a significant role in the particle charging. This paper was presented at the Third International Symposium on Nonequilibrium Process, combustion, and Atmospheric Phenomena (Dagomys, Sochi, Russia, 25-29 June 2007).
Formation of charged nanoparticles in hydrocarbon flames: principal mechanisms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The processes of charged gaseous and particulate species formation in sooting hydrocarbon/air flame are studied. The original kinetic model, comprising the chemistry of neutral and charged gaseous species, generation of primary clusters, which then undergo charging due to attachment of ions and electrons to clusters and via thermoemission, and coagulation of charged-charged, charged-neutral and neutral-neutral particles, is reported. The analysis shows that the principal mechanisms of charged particle origin in hydrocarbon flames are associated with the attachment of ions and electrons produced in the course of chemoionization reactions to primary small clusters and particles and coagulation via charged-charged and charged-neutral particle interaction. Thermal ionization of particles does not play a significant role in the particle charging.
Effective Charge Carrier Utilization in Photocatalytic Conversions.
Zhang, Peng; Wang, Tuo; Chang, Xiaoxia; Gong, Jinlong
2016-05-17
Continuous efforts have been devoted to searching for sustainable energy resources to alleviate the upcoming energy crises. Among various types of new energy resources, solar energy has been considered as one of the most promising choices, since it is clean, sustainable, and safe. Moreover, solar energy is the most abundant renewable energy, with a total power of 173 000 terawatts striking Earth continuously. Conversion of solar energy into chemical energy, which could potentially provide continuous and flexible energy supplies, has been investigated extensively. However, the conversion efficiency is still relatively low since complicated physical, electrical, and chemical processes are involved. Therefore, carefully designed photocatalysts with a wide absorption range of solar illumination, a high conductivity for charge carriers, a small number of recombination centers, and fast surface reaction kinetics are required to achieve a high activity. This Account describes our recent efforts to enhance the utilization of charge carriers for semiconductor photocatalysts toward efficient solar-to-chemical energy conversion. During photocatalytic reactions, photogenerated electrons and holes are involved in complex processes to convert solar energy into chemical energy. The initial step is the generation of charge carriers in semiconductor photocatalysts, which could be enhanced by extending the light absorption range. Integration of plasmonic materials and introduction of self-dopants have been proved to be effective methods to improve the light absorption ability of photocatalysts to produce larger amounts of photogenerated charge carriers. Subsequently, the photogenerated electrons and holes migrate to the surface. Therefore, acceleration of the transport process can result in enhanced solar energy conversion efficiency. Different strategies such as morphology control and conductivity improvement have been demonstrated to achieve this goal. Fine-tuning of the
Amine reactivity with charged sulfuric acid clusters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. R. Bzdek
2011-08-01
Full Text Available The distribution of charged species produced by electrospray of an ammonium sulfate solution in both positive and negative polarities is examined using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS. Positively-charged ammonium bisulfate cluster composition differs significantly from negatively-charged cluster composition. For positively-charged clusters all sulfuric acid is neutralized to bisulfate, whereas for negatively-charged clusters the degree of sulfuric acid neutralization is cluster size-dependent. With increasing cluster size (and, therefore, a decreasing role of charge, both positively- and negatively-charged cluster compositions converge toward ammonium bisulfate. The reactivity of negatively-charged sulfuric acid-ammonia clusters with dimethylamine and ammonia is also investigated by FTICR-MS. Two series of negatively-charged clusters are investigated: [(HSO_{4}(H_{2}SO_{4}_{x}]^{−} and [(NH_{4}_{x}(HSO_{4}_{x+1}(H_{2}SO_{4}_{3}]^{−}. Dimethylamine substitution for ammonia in [(NH_{4}_{ x}(HSO_{4}_{ x+1}(H_{2}SO_{4}_{3}]^{−} clusters is nearly collision-limited, and subsequent addition of dimethylamine to neutralize H_{2}SO_{4} to bisulfate is within one order of magnitude of the substitution rate. Dimethylamine addition to [(HSO_{4} (H_{2}SO_{4}_{ x}]^{−} clusters is either not observed or very slow. The results of this study indicate that amine chemistry will be evident and important only in large ambient negative ions (>m/z 400, whereas amine chemistry may be evident in small ambient positive ions. Addition of ammonia to unneutralized clusters occurs at a rate that is ~2–3 orders of magnitude slower than incorporation of dimethylamine either by substitution or addition
Ejecta from single-charge cratering explosions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The objective was to obtain experimental data tracing the location of ejecta to its origin within the crater region. The experiment included ten high-explosive spherical charges weighing from 8 to 1000 pounds and detonated in a playa dry lake soil on the Tonopah Test Range. Each event included from 24 to 40 locations of distinctly different tracer material embedded in a plane in the expected crater region. Tracers consisted of glass, ceramic and bugle beads, chopped metal, and plastic wire. Results of this experiment yielded data on tracer dispersion as a function of charge weight, charge burial depth and tracer emplacement position. Tracer pattern parameters such as center-of-tracer mass, range to center-of-tracer mass, and angle to center-of-tracer mass were determined. There is a clear tendency for range (to center-of-tracer mass) and the size of the dispersion pattern to decrease as tracer emplacement depth increases. Increasing tracer emplacement depth and range tends to decrease the area over which tracers are dispersed on the ground surface. Tracers at the same scaled position relative to the charge were deposited closer to the crater (on a scaled basis) as charge weight was increased. (author)
Photovoltaic battery charging experience in the Philippines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Navarro, S.T. Jr.
1997-12-01
With the turn of the century, people in remote areas still live without electricity. Conventional electrification will hardly reach the remaining 50% of the population of the Philippines in remote areas. With photovoltaic technology, the delivery of electricity to remote areas can be sustainable. Malalison island was chosen as a project site for electrification using photovoltaic technology. With the fragile balance of ecology and seasonal income in this island, the PV electrification proved to be a better option than conventional fossil based electrification. The Solar Battery Charging Station (SBCS) was used to suit the economic and geographical condition of the island. Results showed that the system can charge as many as three batteries in a day for an average fee of $0.54 per battery. Charging is measured by an ampere-hour counter to determine the exact amount of charge the battery received. The system was highly accepted by the local residents and the demand easily outgrew the system within four months. A technical, economic and social evaluation was done. A recovery period of seven years and five months is expected when competed with the conventional battery charging in the mainland. The technical, economic, institutional and social risks faced by the project were analyzed. Statistics showed that there is a potential of 920,000 households that can benefit from PV electrification in the Philippines. The data and experiences gained in this study are valuable in designing SBCS for remote unelectrified communities in the Philippines and other developing countries.
Universal health coverage and user charges.
Smith, Peter C
2013-10-01
There has been an explosion of interest in the concept of ‘universal health coverage’, fuelled by publication of the World Health Report 2010. This paper argues that the system of user charges for health services is a fundamental determinant of levels of coverage. A charge can lead to a loss of utility in two ways. Citizens who are deterred from using services by the charge will suffer an adverse health impact. And citizens who use the service will suffer a loss of wealth. The role of social health insurance is threefold: to reduce households’ financial risk associated with sickness; to promote enhanced access to needed health services; and to contribute to societal equity objectives, through an implicit financial transfer from rich to poor and healthy to sick. In principle, an optimal user charge policy can ensure that the social health insurance funds are used to best effect in pursuit of these objectives. This paper calls for a fundamental rethink of attitudes and policy towards user charges. PMID:23962575
XPS measurements for probing dynamics of charging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The technique of recording X-ray photoemission data while the sample rod is subjected to ±10.0 V (dc) or square-wave pulses (ac) with varying frequencies in the range of 10-3 to 103 Hz for probing charging/discharging dynamics of dielectric materials, is reviewed. Application of this technique introduces charging shifts as well as broadening of the peaks, which depend non-linearly on the polarity, as well as on the frequency of the pulses applied. These changes have been measured on: (i) an artificially created dielectric sample consisting of a Au metal strip connected externally to a series resistor of 1 MΩ and a parallel capacitor of 56 nF, and two real dielectric films; (ii) a 20 nm organic polystyrene film spin-coated on a silicon substrate; (iii) a 10 nm SiO2 inorganic layer thermally grown on silicon. A simple circuit model is introduced to simulate the charging shifts and the peak broadenings. Although this simple model faithfully reproduces the charging shifts in all three cases, and also some of the broadenings for the artificial dielectric and the polystyrene film, the additional broadening in the negatively charged peaks of the SiO2 dielectric film cannot be accounted for. It is also claimed that these experimental findings can be used for extracting material-specific dielectric properties.
Gravitational collapse of charged scalar fields
Torres, Jose M
2014-01-01
In order to study the gravitational collapse of charged matter we analyze the simple model of an self-gravitating massless scalar field coupled to the electromagnetic field in spherical symmetry. The evolution equations for the Maxwell-Klein-Gordon sector are derived in the 3+1 formalism, and coupled to gravity by means of the stress-energy tensor of these fields. To solve consistently the full system we employ a generalized Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura (BSSN) formulation of General Relativity that is adapted to spherical symmetry. We consider two sets of initial data that represent a time symmetric spherical thick shell of charged scalar field, and differ by the fact that one set has zero global electrical charge while the other has non-zero global charge. For compact enough initial shells we find that the configuration doesn't disperse and approaches a final state corresponding to a sub-extremal Reissner-N\\"ordstrom black hole with $|Q|
Scintillation Detectors for Charged Particles and Photons
Lecoq, P
2011-01-01
Scintillation Detectors for Charged Particles and Photons in 'Charged Particle Detectors - Particle Detectors and Detector Systems', part of 'Landolt-Börnstein - Group I Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, Volume 21B1: Detectors for Particles and Radiation. Part 1: Principles and Methods'. This document is part of Part 1 'Principles and Methods' of Subvolume B 'Detectors for Particles and Radiation' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Subsection '3.1.1 Scintillation Detectors for Charged Particles and Photons' of Section '3.1 Charged Particle Detectors' of Chapter '3 Particle Detectors and Detector Systems' with the content: 3.1.1 Scintillation Detectors for Charged Particles and Photons 3.1.1.1 Basic detector principles and scintillator requirements 3.1.1.1.1 Interaction of ionizing radiation with scintillator material 3.1.1.1.2 Important scint...
Estimates of the Nucleon Tensor Charge
Gamberg, L P; Gamberg, Leonard; Goldstein, Gary R.
2001-01-01
Like the axial vector charges, defined from the forward nucleon matrix element of the axial vector current on the light cone, the nucleon tensor charge, defined from the corresponding matrix element of the tensor current, is essential for characterizing the momentum and spin structure of the nucleon. Because there must be a helicity flip of the struck quark in order to probe the transverse spin polarization of the nucleon, the transversity distribution (and thus the tensor charge) decouples at leading twist in deep inelastic scattering, although no such suppression appears in Drell-Yan processes. This makes the tensor charge difficult to measure and its non-conservation makes its prediction model dependent. We present a different approach. Exploiting an approximate SU(6)xO(3) symmetric mass degeneracy of the light axial vector mesons (a1(1260), b1(1235) and h1(1170)) and using pole dominance, we calculate the tensor charge. The result is simple in form and depends on the decay constants of the axial vector me...
Charge-induced electromagnetic resonances in nanoparticles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kocifaj, Miroslav [ICA, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia); Faculty of Mathematics, Physics, and Informatics, Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Klacka, Jozef; Kundracik, Frantisek [Faculty of Mathematics, Physics, and Informatics, Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Videen, Gorden [US Army Research Laboratory, AMSRD-ARL-CI-ES, Adelphi, MD (United States)
2015-12-15
Electromagnetic theories have reproduced the scattering properties of differently shaped particles and successfully been used to characterize numerous systems. However, certain anomalous features remain unexplained that include enhanced extinction when particles are much smaller than the wavelength. Here we explain these features exploiting recent research in electromagnetic scattering theories that suggests incorporating the effect of particle charge results in new physical outcomes that deviate appreciably from what is predicted by electromagnetic interaction from uncharged systems. For electrically charged particles, the resonant excitation of surface modes is governed by excess charges deposited on the particle surface. Charge effects become large when particles are small compared to the incident wavelength, and we show that the electrostatic approximation is not valid for modelling the electromagnetic interaction from such particles. Charge-induced resonances appear in such systems that can reproduce previously unexplained phenomena, for instance, amplified microwave attenuation observed in sandstorms. (copyright 2015 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Production and physics of highly charged ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highly charged ions with very few electrons make a novel and attractive research object in atomic physics. High precision spectroscopy of such ions provides a powerful tool for exploring relativistic and quantum electrodynamic effects. Moreover, their enormous electro static potential gives rise to conspicuous effects during their interaction with other particles or matters. Study of the highly charged ions may thus open up a hitherto unexplored realm of physics, shedding light on giant resonance due to multi-hole states, multiply-excited resonances displaying strong electron correlations, etc. While this comprehensive study of highly charged ions is aimed at contributing to fundamental science, spinoff should contribute to such areas as the X-ray laser, nuclear fusion and space science. In spite of their importance, it is not easy to produce these ions. Various laboratory sources are being developed. Among these, the Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) and the Electron Cyclotron Beam Ion Source (ECRIS) are the powerful ones and have the potential to produce ions of higher charge state, keeping the ion energy low. Our purpose here is both to summarize briefly the current state of the development for highly charged ion source, and to introduce a part of atomic physics experiments with the source. (author)
XPS measurements for probing dynamics of charging
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Suzer, Sefik, E-mail: suzer@fen.bilkent.edu.t [Department of Chemistry, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Institute of Materials and Nanotechnology, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Sezen, Hikmet; Ertas, Gulay [Department of Chemistry, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Institute of Materials and Nanotechnology, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Dana, Aykutlu [Institute of Materials and Nanotechnology, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)
2010-01-15
The technique of recording X-ray photoemission data while the sample rod is subjected to +-10.0 V (dc) or square-wave pulses (ac) with varying frequencies in the range of 10{sup -3} to 10{sup 3} Hz for probing charging/discharging dynamics of dielectric materials, is reviewed. Application of this technique introduces charging shifts as well as broadening of the peaks, which depend non-linearly on the polarity, as well as on the frequency of the pulses applied. These changes have been measured on: (i) an artificially created dielectric sample consisting of a Au metal strip connected externally to a series resistor of 1 MOMEGA and a parallel capacitor of 56 nF, and two real dielectric films; (ii) a 20 nm organic polystyrene film spin-coated on a silicon substrate; (iii) a 10 nm SiO{sub 2} inorganic layer thermally grown on silicon. A simple circuit model is introduced to simulate the charging shifts and the peak broadenings. Although this simple model faithfully reproduces the charging shifts in all three cases, and also some of the broadenings for the artificial dielectric and the polystyrene film, the additional broadening in the negatively charged peaks of the SiO{sub 2} dielectric film cannot be accounted for. It is also claimed that these experimental findings can be used for extracting material-specific dielectric properties.
Symmetric charge transfer cross section of uranium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Symmetric charge transfer cross section of uranium was calculated under consideration of reaction paths. In the charge transfer reaction a d3/2 electron in the U atom transfers into the d-electron site of U+(4I9/2) ion. The J value of the U atom produced after the reaction is 6, 5, 4 or 3, at impact energy below several tens eV, only resonant charge transfer in which the product atom is ground state (J=6) takes place. Therefore, the cross section is very small (4-5 x 10-15 cm2) compared with that considered so far. In the energy range of 100-1000eV the cross section increases with the impact energy because near resonant charge transfer in which an s-electron in the U atom transfers into the d-electron site of U+ ion. Charge transfer cross section between U+ in the first excited state (289 cm-1) and U in the ground state was also obtained. (author)
X-ray emission from charge exchange of highly-charged ions in atoms and molecules
Greenwood, J. B.; Williams, I. D.; Smith, S. J.; Chutjian, A.
2000-01-01
Charge exchange followed by radiative stabilization are the main processes responsible for the recent observations of X-ray emission from comets in their approach to the Sun. A new apparatus was constructed to measure, in collisions of HCIs with atoms and molecules, (a) absolute cross sections for single and multiple charge exchange, and (b) normalized X-ray emission cross sections.
Chakrabortty, Joydeep; Mondal, Subhadeep; Srivastava, Tripurari
2015-01-01
In this work, we investigate the phenomenological consequences of a doubly charged scalar which may belong to different uncoloured scalar multiplets. This doubly charged scalar couples to the charged leptons as well as gauge bosons, which we parametrize in a model independent way. Restricting ourselves in the regime of conserved charged-parity (CP), we assume only a few non-zero Yukawa couplings ($y_{\\mu \\ell}$, where $\\ell=e,\\mu,\\tau$) between the doubly charged scalar and the charged leptons. Our choices allow the doubly charged scalar to impinge low-energy processes like anomalous magnetic moment of muon and a few possible charged lepton flavour violating (CLFV) processes. These same Yukawa couplings are also instrumental in producing same-sign di-lepton signatures at the LHC. In this article we examine the impact of individual contributions from the diagonal and off-diagonal Yukawa couplings in the light of muon $(g-2)$ excess. Subsequently, we use the derived information to inquire the possible CLFV proc...
Characterization of intramolecular hydrogen bonds by atomic charges and charge fluxes.
Baranović, Goran; Biliškov, Nikola; Vojta, Danijela
2012-08-16
The electronic charge redistribution and the infrared intensities of the two types of intramolecular hydrogen bonds, O-H···O and O-H···π, of o-hydroxy- and o-ethynylphenol, respectively, together with a set of related intermolecular hydrogen bond complexes are described in terms of atomic charges and charge fluxes derived from atomic polar tensors calculated at the B3LYP/cc-pVTZ level of theory. The polarizable continuum model shows that both the atomic charges and charge fluxes are strongly dependent on solvent. It is shown that their values for the OH bond in an intramolecular hydrogen bond are not much different from those for the "free" OH bond, but the changes are toward the values found for an intermolecular hydrogen bond. The intermolecular hydrogen bond is characterized not only by the decreased atomic charge but also by the enlarged charge flux term of the same sign producing thus an enormous increase in IR intensity. The overall behavior of the charges and fluxes of the hydrogen atom in OH and ≡CH bonds agree well with the observed spectroscopic characteristics of inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bonding. The main reason for the differences between the two types of the hydrogen bond lies in the molecular structure because favorable linear proton donor-acceptor arrangement is not possible to achieve within a small molecule. The calculated intensities (in vacuo and in polarizable continuum) are only in qualitative agreement with the measured data. PMID:22809455
Driving and Charging Behavior of Nissan Leafs in The EV Project with Access to Workplace Charging
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Don Scoffield; Shawn Salisbury; John Smart
2014-11-01
This paper documents findings from analysis of data collected from Nissan Leafs enrolled in The EV Project who parked and charged at workplaces with EV charging equipment. It will be published as a white paper on INL's website, accessible by the general public.
Bibliography of integral charged particle nuclear data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This publication is the second supplement to the archival edition of the National Nuclear Data Center's charged-particle bibliography. This supplement contains citations to all references scanned since March 15, 1981, and all corrections and additions to previous citations, and indexes all data received in the international exchanged format (EXFOR). The primary goal of the bibliography has been to satisfy the need expressed by the Nuclear Reaction Data Center Network for a concise and comprehensive bibliography of integral charged-particle cross section data and to provide an index of data exchanged among the members. In 1980, coverage was expanded to include differential data relevant to charged-particle-induced neutron-source reactions
Ionization and Dust Charging in Protoplanetary Disks
Ivlev, A V; Caselli, P
2016-01-01
Ionization-recombination balance in dense interstellar and circumstellar environments is a key factor for a variety of important physical processes, such as chemical reactions, dust charging and coagulation, coupling of the gas with magnetic field and the development of magnetorotational instability in protoplanetary disks. We present a self-consistent analytical model which allows us to exactly calculate abundances of charged species in dusty gas, in the regime where the dust-phase recombination dominates over the gas-phase recombination. The model is employed to verify applicability of a conventional approximation of low dust charges in protoplanetary disks, and to discuss the implications for the dust coagulation and the development of the "dead zone" in the disk. Furthermore, the importance of mutually consistent models for the ionization and dust evolution is addressed: These processes are coupled via several mechanisms operating in the disk, and therefore their interplay can be crucial for the ultimate ...
Integral charged particle nuclear data bibliography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Holden, N.E.; Ramavataram, S.
1989-12-01
This publication is the annual supplement to the first edition published in 1984. The primary goal of this publication has been to satisfy the need expressed by the Nuclear Reaction Data Center Network for a concise and comprehensive bibliography of integral charged--particle cross section data. Included in this paper is a partial list of other bibliographies relevant to charged-particle-induced reaction data and a source list of nuclear data bibliographies, complications, and cumulative, earlier versions are also shown in the tables. This publication makes use of a modification to the database of the Nuclear Structure References (NSR) file. This modification allows the retrieval of integral charged particle nuclear data entries from the NSR file. In recent years, the presentation of various sections was changed, as a result of users' suggestions. The authors continue to welcome users' comments.
Anatomy of charge-exchange straggling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We have studied charge-exchange straggling theoretically for swift krypton and silicon ions and five target gases in the MeV/u energy regime. We find a pronounced two-peak structure for all ion-target combinations. The peak at the highest energy appears around the velocity where the bare ion and the one-electron ion are equally abundant in the equilibrium charge distribution. Correspondingly, the low-energy peak appears near the cross-over between the charge fractions of the two- and the three-electron ion. The possibility of further peaks at lower energies is discussed. Our findings are compared with recent experimental results on straggling of krypton beams
Charged Vaidya Solution Satisfies Weak Energy Condition
Chatterjee, Soumyabrata; Virmani, Amitabh
2015-01-01
The external matter stress-tensor supporting charged Vaidya solution appears to violate weak energy condition in certain region of the spacetime. Motivated by this, a new interpretation of charged Vaidya solution was proposed by Ori [1] in which the energy condition continues to be satisfied. In this construction, one glues an outgoing Vaidya solution to the original ingoing Vaidya solution provided the surface where the external stress-tensor vanishes is spacelike. We revisit this study and extend it to higher-dimensions, to AdS settings, and to higher-derivative f(R) theories. In asymptotically flat space context, we explore in detail the case when the mass function m(v) is proportional to the charge function q(v). When the proportionality constant \
Nano watermill driven by the revolving charge
Zhou, Xiaoyan; Nie, Xuechuan; Wu, Fengmin; Liu, Yang; Lu, Hangjun
2015-01-01
Using molecular dynamics simulations, we propose a novel nanoscale watermill for unidirectional transport of water molecules through a curved single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT). In this nanoscale system, a revolving charge is introduced to drive water chain confined inside the SWNT, which is served as nano waterwheel and nano engine. A resonance-like phenomenon is found that the revolving frequency of the charge plays a key role in pumping water chain. The water flux across the SWNT increases with respect to the revolving frequency of the external charge and reaches the maximum when the frequency is 4 THz. Correspondingly, the number of the hydrogen bonds of water chain inside the SWNT decreases dramatically with the frequency ranging from 4 THz to 25 THz. The mechanism behind the resonant phenomenon has been investigated systematically. Our findings are helpful for designing nanoscale fluidic devices and energy converters.
Space-charge calculations in synchrotrons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Machida, S.
1993-05-01
One obvious bottleneck of achieving high luminosity in hadron colliders, such as the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC), is the beam emittance growth, due to space-charge effects in low energy injector synchrotrons. Although space-charge effects have been recognized since the alternating-gradient synchrotron was invented, and the Laslett tune shift usually calculated to quantify these effects, our understanding of the effects is limited, especially when the Laslett tune shift becomes a large fraction of the integer. Using the Simpsons tracking code, which we developed to study emittance preservation issues in proton synchrotrons, we investigated space-charge effects in the SSC Low Energy Booster (LEB). We observed detailed dependence on parameters such as beam intensity, initial emittance, injection energy, lattice function, and longitudinal motion. A summary of those findings, as well as the tracking technique we developed for the study, are presented.
Silicon charge detector for the CREAM experiment
Park, I. H.; Park, N. H.; Nam, S. W.; Ahn, H. S.; Allison, P.; Bagliesi, M. G.; Baek, S. J.; Beatty, J. J.; Bigongiari, G.; Boyle, P.; Childers, J. T.; Conkin, N. B.; Coutu, S.; Duvernois, M. A.; Ganel, O.; Han, J. H.; Hyun, H. J.; Jeon, J. A.; Kim, K. C.; Lee, M. H.; Lutz, L.; Maestro, P.; Malinine, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Minnick, S.; Mognet, S. I.; Nutter, S.; Park, J. H.; Seo, E. S.; Sina, R.; Swordy, S.; Wakely, S.; Wu, J.; Yang, J.; Yoon, Y. S.; Zei, R.; Zinn, S. Y.
2007-01-01
The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) payload had its first successful flight in December 2004 from McMurdo Station, Antarctica as a Long Duration Balloon mission. Its aim is to explore the supernova acceleration limit of cosmic rays, the relativistic gas of protons, electrons and heavy nuclei arriving at Earth from outside of the solar system. The instrument is equipped with several systems to measure charge and energy spectra for Z=1 26 nuclei over the energy range 10 10eV. The Silicon Charge Detector (SCD) is a precision device to measure the charge of incident cosmic rays. The design, construction, integration and preliminary performance of the SCD are detailed in this paper.
Silicon charge detector for the CREAM experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) payload had its first successful flight in December 2004 from McMurdo Station, Antarctica as a Long Duration Balloon mission. Its aim is to explore the supernova acceleration limit of cosmic rays, the relativistic gas of protons, electrons and heavy nuclei arriving at Earth from outside of the solar system. The instrument is equipped with several systems to measure charge and energy spectra for Z=1-26 nuclei over the energy range 1011-1015eV. The Silicon Charge Detector (SCD) is a precision device to measure the charge of incident cosmic rays. The design, construction, integration and preliminary performance of the SCD are detailed in this paper
Field theoretic description of charge regulation interaction
Adzic, Natasa
2014-01-01
In order to find the exact form of the electrostatic interaction between two proteins with dissociable charge groups in aqueous solution, we have studied a model system composed of two macroscopic surfaces with charge dissociation sites immersed in a counterion-only ionic solution. Field-theoretic representation of the grand canonical partition function is derived and evaluated within the mean-field approximation, giving the Poisson-Boltzmann theory with the Ninham-Parsegian boundary condition. Gaussian fluctuations around the mean-field are then analyzed in the lowest order correction that we calculate analytically and exactly, using the path integral representation for the partition function of a harmonic oscillator with time-depended frequency. The first order (one loop) free energy correction gives the interaction free energy that reduces to the zero-frequency van der Waals form in the appropriate limit but in general gives rise to a mono-polar fluctuation term due to charge fluctuation at the dissociatio...
Integral charged particle nuclear data bibliography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This publication is the annual supplement to the first edition published in 1984. The primary goal of this publication has been to satisfy the need expressed by the Nuclear Reaction Data Center Network for a concise and comprehensive bibliography of integral charged--particle cross section data. Included in this paper is a partial list of other bibliographies relevant to charged-particle-induced reaction data and a source list of nuclear data bibliographies, complications, and cumulative, earlier versions are also shown in the tables. This publication makes use of a modification to the database of the Nuclear Structure References (NSR) file. This modification allows the retrieval of integral charged particle nuclear data entries from the NSR file. In recent years, the presentation of various sections was changed, as a result of users' suggestions. The authors continue to welcome users' comments
Charged Black Holes with Scalar Hair
Fan, Zhong-Ying
2015-01-01
We consider a class of Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theories, in which the dilaton coupling to the Maxwell field is not the usual single exponential function, but one with a stationary point. The theories admit two charged black holes: one is the Reissner-Nordstr\\o m (RN) black hole and the other has a varying dilaton. For a given charge, the new black hole in the extremal limit has the same AdS$_2\\times$Sphere near-horizon geometry as the RN black hole, but it carries larger mass. We then introduce some scalar potentials and obtain exact charged AdS black holes. We also generalize the results to black $p$-branes with scalar hair.
Charge and spin transport in mesoscopic superconductors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. J. Wolf
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Background: Non-equilibrium charge transport in superconductors has been investigated intensely in the 1970s and 1980s, mostly in the vicinity of the critical temperature. Much less attention has been paid to low temperatures and the role of the quasiparticle spin.Results: We report here on nonlocal transport in superconductor hybrid structures at very low temperatures. By comparing the nonlocal conductance obtained by using ferromagnetic and normal-metal detectors, we discriminate charge and spin degrees of freedom. We observe spin injection and long-range transport of pure, chargeless spin currents in the regime of large Zeeman splitting. We elucidate charge and spin transport by comparison to theoretical models.Conclusion: The observed long-range chargeless spin transport opens a new path to manipulate and utilize the quasiparticle spin in superconductor nanostructures.
Potential/charge induced nanoporous metal actuators.
Viswanath, R N
2009-01-01
The mechanical response to the electrochemical charging of nanoporous metals with their pore space wetted by electrolyte have been studied in-situ using dilatometry and wide angle x-ray diffractometry techniques. The actuation strain reported in this manuscript is purely elastic and completely reversible. The capacitive double layer charging became more effective near to the potential to zero charge (pzc) and contribute significantly to the variations of surface stress and crystal strain. In a suitable experimental setup, the actuator effect from porous metals can be amplified, where deliberate movements of the actuator parts are desirable with minimum external force, suggesting that metallic foam-like materials with high surface to volume ratio could be used to mimic natural muscles. PMID:19964917
Arrival direction dependence of muon charge ratio
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In order to study the geomagnetic influence on the charge ratio of cosmic ray muons observed at large zenith angles, the caculations of the motion of muons in the atmosphere have been carried out. The survival probabilities are computed as the function of momenta at sea level, zenith and azimuthal angles. The derived survival probabilities have been used together with a simplified model to give some qualitative estimations of the geomagnetic effects on the charge ratio in the case of the MUTRON spectrometer. It turns out that the geomagnetic effect on the charge ratio at sea level is still not negligible for muons of high momenta when the observations are made at large zenith angles or in east-west directions. (author)
Charged Rotating Black Branes in Various Dimensions
Khodam-Mohammadi, A
2007-01-01
In this thesis, two different aspects of asymptotically charged rotating black branes in various dimensions are studied. In the first part, the thermodynamics of these spacetimes is investigated, while in the second part the no hair theorem for these spacetimes in four dimensions is considered. In part I, first, the Euclidean actions of a d-dimensional charged rotating black brane are computed through the use of the counterterms renormalization method both in the canonical and the grand-canonical ensemble, and it is shown that the logarithmic divergencies associated to the Weyl anomalies and matter field vanish. Second, a Smarr-type formula for the mass as a function of the entropy, the angular momenta and the electric charge is obtained, which shows that these quantities satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. Third, by using the conserved quantities and the Euclidean actions, the thermodynamics potentials of the system in terms of the temperature, the angular velocities and the electric potential are obtai...
Anatomy of charge-exchange straggling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sigmund, P., E-mail: sigmund@sdu.dk [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Osmani, O. [Department of Physics, University of Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Schinner, A. [Institut für Experimentalphysik, Johannes Kepler Universität, A-4040 Linz (Austria)
2014-11-01
We have studied charge-exchange straggling theoretically for swift krypton and silicon ions and five target gases in the MeV/u energy regime. We find a pronounced two-peak structure for all ion-target combinations. The peak at the highest energy appears around the velocity where the bare ion and the one-electron ion are equally abundant in the equilibrium charge distribution. Correspondingly, the low-energy peak appears near the cross-over between the charge fractions of the two- and the three-electron ion. The possibility of further peaks at lower energies is discussed. Our findings are compared with recent experimental results on straggling of krypton beams.
Charge-displacement analysis for excited states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ronca, Enrico, E-mail: enrico@thch.unipg.it; Tarantelli, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.tarantelli@unipg.it [Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, via Elce di Sotto 8, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Dipartimento di Chimica, Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto 8, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Pastore, Mariachiara, E-mail: chiara@thch.unipg.it; Belpassi, Leonardo; De Angelis, Filippo [Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, via Elce di Sotto 8, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Angeli, Celestino; Cimiraglia, Renzo [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, via Borsari 46, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy)
2014-02-07
We extend the Charge-Displacement (CD) analysis, already successfully employed to describe the nature of intermolecular interactions [L. Belpassi et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 13046 (2010)] and various types of controversial chemical bonds [L. Belpassi et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 1048 (2008); N. Salvi et al., Chem. Eur. J. 16, 7231 (2010)], to study the charge fluxes accompanying electron excitations, and in particular the all-important charge-transfer (CT) phenomena. We demonstrate the usefulness of the new approach through applications to exemplary excitations in a series of molecules, encompassing various typical situations from valence, to Rydberg, to CT excitations. The CD functions defined along various spatial directions provide a detailed and insightful quantitative picture of the electron displacements taking place.
A charge-driven molecular water pump.
Gong, Xiaojing; Li, Jingyuan; Lu, Hangjun; Wan, Rongzheng; Li, Jichen; Hu, Jun; Fang, Haiping
2007-11-01
Understanding and controlling the transport of water across nanochannels is of great importance for designing novel molecular devices, machines and sensors and has wide applications, including the desalination of seawater. Nanopumps driven by electric or magnetic fields can transport ions and magnetic quanta, but water is charge-neutral and has no magnetic moment. On the basis of molecular dynamics simulations, we propose a design for a molecular water pump. The design uses a combination of charges positioned adjacent to a nanopore and is inspired by the structure of channels in the cellular membrane that conduct water in and out of the cell (aquaporins). The remarkable pumping ability is attributed to the charge dipole-induced ordering of water confined in the nanochannels, where water can be easily driven by external fields in a concerted fashion. These findings may provide possibilities for developing water transport devices that function without osmotic pressure or a hydrostatic pressure gradient. PMID:18654410
Coagulation of charged particles in dust plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
One studied peculiarities of behaviour of small particles in dust plasma resulted on the one hand, from suppression of coagulation due to monopolar charging within the range of particle dimensions under the Debye radius of shielding and, on the other hand, from leveling of this case for particles of large dimensions. On the basis of similarity ratios one determined the range of parameters making linear approximation of particle charge dependence on their dimension true. In terms of the modified classical theory of coagulation in diffusion approximation one studied certain anomalies of behavior of dimension distribution of particles. It is determined that in contrast to the ordinary aerosol in dust plasma as time passes one may reduce dispersion of distribution and average dimensions of particles. For the first time one demonstrates the possibility to realize long-lived quasiliquid state of dust plasma associated with the anomalous behaviour of distribution function of coagulating charged particles according to dimensions
Half integer charged hadrons from higher dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Certain embeddings of the low energy SU(3)sub(C) x SU(2)sub(L) x U(1)sub(y) gauge group within the higher dimensional symmetry lead to exotic chiral generations in addition to a number of standard generations. We study an example leading to an anomaly free chiral exotic generation consisting of quarks with electric charge +1/6 and -5/6, the corresponding anti quarks and additional integer charged leptons. The most striking prediction from such a compactification would be the existence of stable half integer charged hadrons with mass of order of the Fermi scale. Detection of such particles would be an impressive hint for the existence of more than four dimensions. (orig.)
Holographic Charge Excitations on Horizontal Boundary
Hotta, M
2002-01-01
We argue that states with nontrivial horizontal charges of BTZ black hole can be excited by ordinary falling matter including Hawking radiation. The matter effect does not break the integrability condition of the charges on the horizon. Thus we are able to trace the proccesses in which the matter imprints the information on the horizon by use of the charged states. It is naturally expected that in the thermal equilibrium with the Hawking radiation the black hole wanders ergodically through different horizontal states due to thermal fluctuation of incoming matter. This fact strengthens plausibility of the basic part of Carlip's idea. We also discuss some aspects of the quantum horizontal symmetry and conjecture how the precise black hole entropy will be given from our point of view.
Charge fluctuations in nano-scale capacitors
Limmer, David T; Salanne, Mathieu; Chandler, David; Madden, Paul A; van Roij, René; Rotenberg, Benjamin
2013-01-01
The fluctuations of the charge on an electrode contain information on the microscopic correlations within the adjacent fluid and their effect on the electronic properties of the interface. We investigate these fluctuations using molecular dynamics simulations in a constant-potential ensemble with histogram reweighting techniques. This approach offers an efficient and accurate route to the differential capacitance and is broadly applicable. We demonstrate these methods with three different capacitors: pure water between platinum electrodes, and a pure as well as a solvent-based organic electrolyte each between graphite electrodes. The total charge distributions with the pure solvent and solvent-based electrolytes are remarkably Gaussian, while in the pure ionic liquid the total charge distribution displays distinct non-Gaussian features, suggesting significant potential-driven changes in the organization of the interfacial fluid.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This chapter reviews the Polar 5 electric field results, presents the Polar 3 transients, and examines these phenomena from the space charge perspective. The Polar 5 experiment with its ''mother-daughter'' configuration provided a unique opportunity to observe the effects of spacecraft charging by an electron accelerator. An earlier rocket flight, Polar 3, observed transient events which are thought to involve the ''natural'' accretion and neutralization of space charge. Based on the Polar 5 results, the large magnitude of the electric field from Polar 3 would indicate that the observed space charge was probably within a few kilometers or less of the payload. The magnitudes in the phenomena discussed are similar and the durations, while shorter in the natural case, are of the same order of magnitude. Topics considered include the time constant for the shielding of small charges, electron density, and plasma sheath dimensions
Hajian, K
2015-01-01
We provide a general formulation for calculating conserved charges for solutions to generally covariant gravitational theories with possibly other internal gauge symmetries, in any dimensions and with generic asymptotic behaviors. These solutions are generically specified by a number of exact (continuous, global) symmetries and some parameters. We define "parametric variations" as field perturbations generated by variations of the solution parameters. Employing the covariant phase space method, we establish that the set of these solutions (up to pure gauge transformations) form a phase space, the solution phase space, and that the tangent space of this phase space include the parametric variations. We then compute conserved charge variations associated with the exact symmetries of the family of solutions, caused by parametric variations. Integrating the charge variations over a path in the solution phase space, we define the conserved charges. In particular, we revisit "black hole entropy as a conserved charg...
Tamura, Hiroyuki
2013-01-01
In organic photovoltaics, the mechanism by which free electrons and holes are generated overcoming the Coulomb attraction is a currently much debated topic. To elucidate this mechanism at a molecular level, we carried out a combined electronic structure and quantum dynamical analysis that captures the elementary events from the exciton dissociation to the free carrier generation at polymer/fullerene donor-acceptor heterojunctions. Our calculations show that experimentally observed efficient charge separations can be explained by a combination of two effects: First, the delocalization of charges which substantially reduces the Coulomb barrier, and second, the vibronically hot nature of the charge transfer state which promotes charge dissociation beyond the barrier. These effects facilitate an ultrafast charge separation even at low-band-offset heterojunctions.
7 CFR 56.49 - Travel expenses and other charges.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Travel expenses and other charges. 56.49 Section 56.49... EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Fees and Charges § 56.49 Travel expenses and other charges. Charges are to be made to cover the cost of travel and other expenses incurred by the AMS in connection...
Electrostatic vibration energy harvester with increased charging current
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The analysis of the operation of the electrostatic vibration energy harvester to charge self-contained power supply is carried out. An analytical expression to estimate the average charging current taking into account diode's reverse current is obtained. The ways to increase the charging current were found. The harvester with increased charging current containing no switches and inductive elements is suggested
46 CFR 401.427 - Charge on past due accounts.
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Charge on past due accounts. 401.427 Section 401.427... REGULATIONS Rates, Charges, and Conditions for Pilotage Services § 401.427 Charge on past due accounts. A charge of two percent (2%) per month shall be paid on the opening monthly balance on accounts...
30 CFR 77.1106 - Battery-charging stations; ventilation.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Battery-charging stations; ventilation. 77.1106... COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1106 Battery-charging stations; ventilation. Battery-charging stations shall be located in well-ventilated areas. Battery-charging stations shall be equipped with...
Designing Non-charging Surfaces from Non-conductive Polymers.
Zhang, Xuan; Huang, Xu; Kwok, Sen Wai; Soh, Siowling
2016-04-01
Polymers that prevent the generation of static charge by contact electrification can be fabricated by copolymerizing an appropriate proportion of a molecule that has the tendency to charge positively, and a molecule that has the tendency to charge negatively, against a reference material. These non-conductive polymers resist charging by contact or rubbing, and prevent the adhesion of microscopic particles. PMID:26923196
42 CFR 489.31 - Allowable charges: Blood.
2010-10-01
... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable charges: Blood. 489.31 Section 489.31... Allowable charges: Blood. (a) Limitations on charges. (1) A provider may charge the beneficiary (or other person on his or her behalf) only for the first three pints of blood or units of packed red...
The Orbit of Water Droplets around Charged Rod
Ferstl, Andrew; Burns, Andrew
2013-01-01
The motion of charges around a centrally charged object is often compared to gravitational orbits (such as satellites around planets). Recently, a video taken by astronaut Don Pettit onboard the International Space Station shows water droplets orbiting a charged knitting needle. Here we attempt to model this motion and estimate the charges on the…
12 CFR 7.4002 - National bank charges.
2010-01-01
... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false National bank charges. 7.4002 Section 7.4002 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Preemption § 7.4002 National bank charges. (a) Authority to impose charges and fees. A national bank may charge its customers non-interest...
Large Capacitance Measurement by Multiple Uses of MBL Charge Sensor
Lee, Jung Sook; Chae, Min; Kim, Jung Bog
2010-01-01
A recent article by Morse described interesting electrostatics experiments using an MBL charge sensor. In this application, the charge sensor has a large capacitance compared to the charged test object, so nearly all charges can be transferred to the sensor capacitor from the capacitor to be measured. However, the typical capacitance of commercial…
Atomic physics with highly charged ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The past year has been a busy one for all three accelerators, the LINAC, EBIS and the tandem. The EBIS continues to deliver beams of highly charged ions around the clock for the study of low energy collisions with gases and surfaces. The electron beam energy has been upgraded to 10 keV, and intensities of highly charged species such as Xe44+ have been greatly increased. The tandem, the traditional source of highly charged Binary encounter electron production at zero degrees were studied for medium Z (Si,Cl,Cu) projectiles. Recoil momentum spectroscopy has been used to separate the contributions to collisional ionization of one-electron ions (C5+, O7+, F8+) from the nucleus and the electrons of a He target. Marked structure in the binary encounter electron spectra for Cuq+ on H2 targets has been measured for moderate velocity projectiles. Electron capture by slow multiply charged (EBIS) projectiles from laser excited targets has been carried out. Cross sections for capture from Na(3s) and Na*(3p) have been measured for velocities between 0.1 and 1 au. The extension of these experiments to laser excited Rydberg targets is proceeding. Electron capture cross sections and average Q values for Ar16+ on He at velocities between 0.23 and 1.67 au have been measured. The charge state distribution of the He recoils following large angle scattering of C4+ and C6+ ions at 7.5 keV/u has been measured. Cross sections have been measured for up to sextuple capture from C60 (buckminsterfullerene) by highly charged slow projectiles. Coupled channel calculations for double capture from He by slow multicharge ions have been carried out
Extension of a Virtual Refrigerant Charge Sensor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Woohyun; Braun, J.
2015-07-01
The primary goal of the work described in this paper was to evaluate and extend a virtual refrigerant charge sensor (VRC) for determining refrigerant charge for equipment having variable-speed compressors and fans. To evaluate the accuracy of the VRC, data were first collected from previous laboratory tests for different systems and over a wide range of operating conditions. In addition, new laboratory tests were performed to consider conditions not available within the existing data set. The systems for the new laboratory tests were two residential ductless split heat pump systems that employ a variable-speed compressor and R-410a as the refrigerant. Based on the evaluations, the original virtual charge sensor (termed model I) was found to work well in estimating the refrigerant charge for systems with a variable-speed compressor under many operating conditions. However, for extreme test conditions such as low outdoor temperatures and low compressor speed, the VRC needed to be improved. To overcome the limitations, the model associated with the VRC sensor was modified to include a term involving the inlet quality to the evaporator estimated from the condenser outlet condition (termed model II). Both model I and II showed good performance in terms of predicting charge levels for systems with a constant speed compressor, but model II gave better performance for systems with a variable-speed compressor. However, when the superheat of the compressor was zero, neither model I nor II could accurately predict charge level. Therefore, a third approach (Model III) was developed that includes the discharge superheat of the compressor. This model improved performance for a laboratory-tested system that included a number of points with no superheat entering the compressor.
Improving battery charging with solar panels
Boico, Florent Michael
Recent technological developments in thin-film photovoltaics, such as amorphous silicon and hybrid dye sensitized photovoltaic (PV) cells are leading to new generations of portable solar arrays. These new arrays are lightweight, durable, flexible, and have been reported to achieve power efficiencies of up to 10%. Already, commercial-off-the-shelf arrays exist that have panels embedded in fabric that can be folded to dimensions of less than 12" x 12", yet are able to produce up to 50Watts of power at 12V. These new products make solar power available to various types of applications. In particular, military applications are emerging to give soldier a source of power that can always be at reach. In parallel with these developments, NiMH and Li-ion batteries are increasingly being used to power various equipment. Currently, the military is field testing solar charging of its batteries with portable solar arrays. However, so far, all known charge control algorithm have failed as they commonly falsely detect overcharge at random times in the charging and leave the battery partially charged. The goal of our research is to investigate the origins of failure in existing charge control algorithms and to propose adequate algorithms that would improve the battery charging. Additionally, ways to optimize the generated photovoltaic power is critical for portable solar application as the energy produced is limited. It is known that the use of a DC-DC converter between the solar panel and the load allows optimization of the power delivered by the solar panel when "Maximum Power Point Tracking" is utilized. Therefore we are developing new solutions that address the specific problem of Maximum Power Point Tracking for modular solar panels.
Formation and Evaporation of Charged Black Holes
Sorkin, Evgeny; Piran, Tsvi
2001-01-01
We investigate the dynamical formation and evaporation of a spherically symmetric charged black hole. We study the self-consistent one loop order semiclassical back-reaction problem. To this end the mass-evaporation is modeled by an expectation value of the stress-energy tensor of a neutral massless scalar field, while the charge is not radiated away. We observe the formation of an initially non extremal black hole which tends toward the extremal black hole $M=Q$, emitting Hawking radiation. ...
Two-Centered Magical Charge Orbits
Andrianopoli, Laura; Ferrara, Sergio; Marrani, Alessio; Trigiante, Mario
2011-01-01
We determine the two-centered generic charge orbits of magical N = 2 and maximal N = 8 supergravity theories in four dimensions. These orbits are classified by seven U-duality invariant polynomials, which group together into four invariants under the horizontal symmetry group SL(2,R). These latter are expected to disentangle different physical properties of the two-centered black-hole system. The invariant with the lowest degree in charges is the symplectic product (Q1,Q2), known to control the mutual non-locality of the two centers.
Charged black holes in colored Lifshitz spacetimes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhong-Ying Fan
2015-04-01
Full Text Available We consider Einstein gravities coupled to a cosmological constant and SU(2 Yang–Mills fields in four and five dimensions. We find that the theories admit colored Lifshitz solutions with dynamic exponents z>1. We study the wave equations of the SU(2 scalar triplet in the bulk, and find that the vacuum color modifies the scaling dimensions of the dual operators. We also introduce a Maxwell field and construct exact solutions of electrically-charged black holes that approach the D=4, z=3 and D=5, z=4 colored Lifshitz spacetimes. We derive the thermodynamical first law for general colored and charged Lifshitz black holes.
Charged black holes in phantom cosmology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jamil, Mubasher; Qadir, Asghar; Rashid, Muneer Ahmad [National University of Sciences and Technology, Center for Advanced Mathematics and Physics, Rawalpindi (Pakistan)
2008-11-15
In the classical relativistic regime, the accretion of phantom-like dark energy onto a stationary black hole reduces the mass of the black hole. We have investigated the accretion of phantom energy onto a stationary charged black hole and have determined the condition under which this accretion is possible. This condition restricts the mass-to-charge ratio in a narrow range. This condition also challenges the validity of the cosmic-censorship conjecture since a naked singularity is eventually produced due to accretion of phantom energy onto black hole. (orig.)
Handbook for highly charged ion spectroscopic research
Hutton, Roger; Currell, Fred; Martinson, Indrek; Hagmann, Siegbert
2011-01-01
Highly charged ions are key research objects in atomic physics. Precision spectroscopy of such ions provides a powerful tool for exploring relativistic and quantum electrodynamics effects. Additionally, the interaction of high-energy heavy-ions with matter is itself a topic of importance in many areas of applied physics, including fusion and plasma physics, accelerator physics, materials science and semiconductor device preparation and behavior. This work provides a complete overview of modern methods of studying highly charged ions. With chapters covering everything from the essential backgro
Charge Redistribution and Transport in Molecular Contacts
Corso, Martina; Ondráček, Martin; Lotze, Christian; Hapala, Prokop; Franke, Katharina J.; Jelínek, Pavel; Pascual, J. Ignacio
2015-09-01
The forces between two single molecules brought into contact, and their connection with charge transport through the molecular junction, are studied here using non contact AFM, STM, and density functional theory simulations. A carbon monoxide molecule approaching an acetylene molecule (C2 H2 ) initially feels weak attractive electrostatic forces, partly arising from charge reorganization in the presence of molecular . We find that the molecular contact is chemically passive, and protects the electron tunneling barrier from collapsing, even in the limit of repulsive forces. However, we find subtle conductance and force variations at different contacting sites along the C2 H2 molecule attributed to a weak overlap of their respective frontier orbitals.
High-sensitivity bunch charge monitor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Conceptual design of a high-sensitivity bunch charge monitor is presented. The device operates with short, spaced bunches. For the optimal performance, the bunch duration should be less than 10 ns and bunch spacing should be more than 100 ns. Sensitivity of the monitor is near 10 V per nanocoulomb. The equivalent scheme and the output signal shape are also presented. Such a kind of monitor seems to be promising for bunch charge measurements of the beams like those in the TESLA or ILC projects
High-sensitivity bunch charge monitor
Lebedev, N. I.; Fateev, A. A.
2008-12-01
The conceptual design for a high-sensitivity bunch charge monitor is presented. The device operates with short, spaced bunches. For optimal performance, the bunch duration should be less than 10 ns and bunch spacing should be more than 100 ns. Sensitivity of the monitor is close to 10 V per nanocoulomb. The equivalent scheme and the output signal shape are also presented. Such a monitor seems to be promising for the bunch charge measurements of beams like those in TESLA or ILC projects.
Charge transport by holographic Fermi surfaces
Faulkner, Thomas; Liu, Hong; McGreevy, John; Vegh, David
2013-01-01
We compute the contribution to the conductivity from holographic Fermi surfaces obtained from probe fermions in an AdS charged black hole. This requires calculating a certain part of the one-loop correction to a vector propagator on the charged black hole geometry. We find that the current dissipation is as efficient as possible and the transport lifetime coincides with the single-particle lifetime. In particular, in the case where the spectral density is that of a marginal Fermi liquid, the resistivity is linear in temperature.
WIND DRIVEN MOBILE CHARGING OF AUTOMOBILE BATTERY
SUDHIR KUMAR SINHA; SUMIT KUMAR JHA,; DR S.N. SINGH,
2011-01-01
This paper deals with implementation of mobile wind driven generator technology to produce electricity in charging of two wheeler (12V) automobile battery. The use of PWM methodology with pulse charging method at a constant rate has been adopted for this purpose. The low speed PMSG driven by wind at speed of 15/40 km/hour has been used to eliminate gear box to achieve high efficiency. The output of three phase bridge rectifier is fed to boost converter which provides pulses of constant curren...
Structure Scalars In Charged Plane Symmetry
Sharif, M
2013-01-01
We consider non-adiabatic flow of the fluid possessing dissipation in the form of shearing viscosity in electromagnetic field. The scalar functions (structure scalars) for charged plane symmetry are formulated and are related with the physical variables of the fluid. We also develop a relationship between the Weyl tensor and other physical variables by using Taub mass formalism. The role of electric charge as well as its physical significance for the evolution of the shear tensor and expansion scalar are also explored. Finally, we discuss a special case for dust with cosmological constant.
Simulations of charge transport in organic compounds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vehoff, Thorsten
2010-05-05
We study the charge transport properties of organic liquid crystals, i.e. hexabenzocoronene and carbazole macrocycle, and single crystals, i.e. rubrene, indolocarbazole and benzothiophene derivatives (BTBT, BBBT). The aim is to find structure-property relationships linking the chemical structure as well as the morphology with the bulk charge carrier mobility of the compounds. To this end, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed yielding realistic equilibrated morphologies. Partial charges and molecular orbitals are calculated based on single molecules in vacuum using quantum chemical methods. The molecular orbitals are then mapped onto the molecular positions and orientations, which allows calculation of the transfer integrals between nearest neighbors using the molecular orbital overlap method. Thus we obtain realistic transfer integral distributions and their autocorrelations. In case of organic crystals the differences between two descriptions of charge transport, namely semi-classical dynamics (SCD) in the small polaron limit and kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) based on Marcus rates, are studied. The liquid crystals are investigated solely in the hopping limit. To simulate the charge dynamics using KMC, the centers of mass of the molecules are mapped onto lattice sites and the transfer integrals are used to compute the hopping rates. In the small polaron limit, where the electronic wave function is spread over a limited number of neighboring molecules, the Schroedinger equation is solved numerically using a semi-classical approach. The carbazole macrocycles form columnar structures arranged on a hexagonal lattice with side chains facing inwards, so columns can closely approach each other allowing inter-columnar and thus three-dimensional transport. We are able to show that, on the time-scales of charge transport, static disorder due to slow side chain motions is the main factor determining the mobility. The high mobility of rubrene is explained by two main
Space charge effects in proton linear accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Space charge difficulties are relatively well known because of the inconveniences they cause, but the physical mechanisms by which they operate are obscure; an attempt was made to explain some of these mechanisms. The method chosen involves a numerical simulation of the beam; computer programs describing beam dynamics with space charge are presented; they are used to check results obtained elsewhere. A series of experiments was performed demonstrating that coupling phenomena produce an equalization of r. m. s. velocities in the 3 directions; new quantity (sort of hyper-emittance) is introduced: its growth between the input and output of a given linac is proportional to the beam intensity. (author)
Computer simulation of shaped charge problems
Lee, Wen Ho
2006-01-01
Devoted to the subject of shape charge design using numerical methods, this book offers the defense and commercial industries unique material not contained in any other single volume. The coverage of the Lagrangian and Eulerian methods as well as the equation of state provides first hand help to engineers working on shape charge problems.The book includes detailed descriptions of oil-well perforation not available from any other sources and, coupled with the material flow physics discussed in Chapters 2 and 3 and Appendix B, readers can design the fuel rod configurations for a nuclear reactor
Point electric charge in general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Using a proper gauge condition the static spherically symmetric solutions of Einstein-Maxwell equations with charged point source at the center are derived. It is shown that the solutions of the field equations are a three-parameter family depending on the Keplerian mass M, the charge Q, and the bare mass Mo. The result can be interpreted as a correction to Newton's gravitational potential and Coulomb's electric potential which are both regular at the centre where the massive point is placed. A correction to Gauss theorem is derived based on the nontrivial topology of the corresponding spacetime. (authors)
WIND DRIVEN MOBILE CHARGING OF AUTOMOBILE BATTERY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
SUDHIR KUMAR SINHA
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with implementation of mobile wind driven generator technology to produce electricity in charging of two wheeler (12V automobile battery. The use of PWM methodology with pulse charging method at a constant rate has been adopted for this purpose. The low speed PMSG driven by wind at speed of 15/40 km/hour has been used to eliminate gear box to achieve high efficiency. The output of three phase bridge rectifier is fed to boost converter which provides pulses of constant current to the battery.
Search for Charged Higgs Bosons at LEP
Achard, P; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; de la Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; van Dalen, J A; De Asmundis, R; Déglon, P L; Debreczeni, J; Degré, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, M; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duda, M; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El-Hage, A; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Extermann, P; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, M; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Fisher, W; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; van Gulik, R; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, G; Hou, S R; Hu, Y; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Käfer, D; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V F; Kräber, M H; Krämer, R W; Krüger, A; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levchenko, P M; Li, C; Likhoded, S; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nisati, A; Novák, T; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Pal, I; Palomares, C; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pioppi, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Razis, P A; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosenbleck, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rubio, J A; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vásquez, R; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; Wienemann, P; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, J; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Yeh, S C; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B; Zöller, M
2003-01-01
A search for pair-produced charged Higgs bosons is performed with the L3 detector at LEP using data collected at centre-of-mass energies between 189 and 209GeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 629.4/pb. Decays into a charm and a strange quark or into a tau lepton and its neutrino are considered. No significant excess is observed and lower limits on the mass of the charged Higgs boson are derived at the 95% confidence level. They vary from 76.5 to 82.7GeV, as a function of the H->tv branching ratio.
Screening effect on nanostructure of charged gel
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sugiyama, M; Annaka, M; Hino, M;
2004-01-01
Charge screening effects on nanostructures of N-isopropylacrylamide-sodium acrylate (NIPA-SA) and -acrylic acid (NIPA-AAc) gels are investigated with small-angle neutron scattering. The NIPA-SA and NIPA-AAc gels with low water content exhibit microphase separations with different dimensions. The...... dehydrated NIPA-SA gel also makes the microphase separation but the dehydrated NIPA-AAc gel does not. These results indicate that ionic circumstance around charged bases strongly affects the nanostructures both of the dehydrated gel and the gel with low water content. (C) 2004 Elsevier B. V. All rights...
Frame-Dragging from Charged Rotating Body
Dubey, Anuj Kumar
2016-01-01
In the present paper, we have considered the three parameters: mass, charge and rotation to discuss their combined effect on frame dragging for a charged rotating body. If we consider the ray of light which is emitted radially outward from a rotating body then the frame dragging shows a periodic nature with respect to coordinate $\\phi$ (azimuthal angle). It has been found that the value of frame dragging obtains a maximum at, $ \\phi =\\frac{\\pi}{2}$ and a minimum at $ \\phi =\\frac{3 \\pi}{2}$.
Born expansions for charged particle scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
High-order terms in Born expansions of scattering amplitudes in powers of charge are frequently divergent when long-range Coulomb interactions are present asymptotically. Expansions which are free from these logarithmic divergences have been constructed recently. This paper illustrates these expansions with the simplest example, namely the non-relativistic Rutherford scattering of two charged particles. This approach represents an adequate framework for the calculation of transition amplitudes and a comprehensive starting point for the development of consistent perturbation approximations in multi-channel descriptions of strongly interacting atomic systems
Electro-optical detection of charged particles
Semertzidis, Y K; Kowalski, L A; Kraus, D E; Larsen, R; Lazarus, D M; Magurno, B; Nikas, D; Ozben, C; Srinivasan-Rao, T; Tsang, Thomas
2000-01-01
We have made the first observation of a charged particle beam by means of its electro-optical effect on the polarization of laser light in a LiNbO sub 3 crystal. The modulation of the laser light during the passage of a pulsed electron beam was observed using a fast photodiode and a digital oscilloscope. The fastest rise time measured, 120 ps, was obtained in the single shot mode and was limited by the bandwidth of the oscilloscope and the associated electronics. This technology holds good for detectors of greatly improved spatial and temporal resolution for single relativistic charged particles as well as particle beams.
Asymptotic algebra for charged particles and radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A C*-algebra of asymptotic fields which properly describes the infrared structure in quantum electrodynamics is proposed. The algebra is generated by the null asymptotic of electromagnetic field and the time asymptotic of charged matter fields which incorporate the corresponding Coulomb fields. As a consequence Gauss' law is satisfied in the algebraic setting. Within this algebra the observables can be identified by the principle of gauge invariance. A class of representations of the asymptotic algebra is constructed which resembles the Kulish-Faddeev treatment of electrically charged asymptotic fields. (orig.)
Magnetically Charged Black Holes and their Stability
Aichelburg, P C; Aichelburg, Peter C.; Bizon, Piotr
1993-01-01
We study magnetically charged black holes in the Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs theory in the limit of infinitely strong coupling of the Higgs field. Using mixed analytical and numerical methods we give a complete description of static spherically symmetric black hole solutions, both abelian and nonabelian. In particular, we find a new class of extremal nonabelian solutions. We show that all nonabelian solutions are stable against linear radial perturbations. The implications of our results for the semiclassical evolution of magnetically charged black holes are discussed.
Environmental charges levied on power plants
Michal Ptak
2014-01-01
The aim of the article is to analyze the financial burden on energy sector in Poland resulting from charges on the use of the environment. The estimation of the amount of charges paid by the power plants is based on data on emissions of basic pollutants from this sector. The starting point for the analysis is the brief evaluation of the impact of Polish energy sector on the environment. The impact is quite significant due the fact that electricity generation is mainly based on solid fuels, su...
Forward charge flow in hadronic J/psi production
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The properties of the forward charge of J/psi production are examined. The rapidity distribution of the forward charge, the dependence of the forward charge as a function of J/psi Xf and as a function of the effective energy of the forward hadron system are presented. The forward charge of J/psi production is compared with those of omega production and in the inclusive interactions. The forward charge is consistent with the prediction from simple parton fusion model
Lexan Linear Shaped Charge Holder with Magnets and Backing Plate
Maples, Matthew W.; Dutton, Maureen L.; Hacker, Scott C.; Dean, Richard J.; Kidd, Nicholas; Long, Chris; Hicks, Robert C.
2013-01-01
A method was developed for cutting a fabric structural member in an inflatable module, without damaging the internal structure of the module, using linear shaped charge. Lexan and magnets are used in a charge holder to precisely position the linear shaped charge over the desired cut area. Two types of charge holders have been designed, each with its own backing plate. One holder cuts fabric straps in the vertical configuration, and the other charge holder cuts fabric straps in the horizontal configuration.
The formation of negatively charged particles in thermoemission plasmas
Vishnyakov, V. I.; Dragan, G. S.; Florko, A. V.
2008-01-01
The results of measuring the charges of the magnesium oxide particles formed near a block of metallic magnesium burning in air are presented. It has been found that, apart from positively charged magnesium oxide particles, there are negatively charged particles in the thermoemission plasma of the burning products. It has been shown that within the framework of the model of neutralizing charges, the oxide particles can acquire unlike charges in the thermoemission plasma. The calculations agree with the experimental data.
The formation of negatively charged particles in thermoemission plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vishnyakov, V. I., E-mail: pipeaes@te.net.ua; Dragan, G. S.; Florko, A. V. [Mechnikov Odessa National University (Ukraine)
2008-01-15
The results of measuring the charges of the magnesium oxide particles formed near a block of metallic magnesium burning in air are presented. It has been found that, apart from positively charged magnesium oxide particles, there are negatively charged particles in the thermoemission plasma of the burning products. It has been shown that within the framework of the model of neutralizing charges, the oxide particles can acquire unlike charges in the thermoemission plasma. The calculations agree with the experimental data.
The formation of negatively charged particles in thermoemission plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The results of measuring the charges of the magnesium oxide particles formed near a block of metallic magnesium burning in air are presented. It has been found that, apart from positively charged magnesium oxide particles, there are negatively charged particles in the thermoemission plasma of the burning products. It has been shown that within the framework of the model of neutralizing charges, the oxide particles can acquire unlike charges in the thermoemission plasma. The calculations agree with the experimental data
'Bootstrap' charging of surfaces composed of multiple materials
Stannard, P. R.; Katz, I.; Parks, D. E.
1981-01-01
The paper examines the charging of a checkerboard array of two materials, only one of which tends to acquire a negative potential alone, using the NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP). The influence of the charging material's field causes the otherwise 'non-charging' material to acquire a negative potential due to the suppression of its secondary emission ('bootstrap' charging). The NASCAP predictions for the equilibrium potential difference between the two materials are compared to results based on an analytical model.
Charge Management Optimization for Future TOU Rates: Preprint
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Jiucai; Markel, Tony
2016-07-01
The effectiveness of future time of use (TOU) rates to enable managed charging for providing demand response depends on the vehicle's flexibility and the benefits to owners. This paper adopts opportunity, delayed, and smart charging methods to quantify these impacts, flexibilities, and benefits. Simulation results show that delayed and smart charging methods can shift most charging events to lower TOU rate periods without compromising the charged energy and individual driver mobility needs.
Localization and delocalization of charges injected in DNA
Heim, Thomas; Melin, Thierry; Deresmes, Dominique; Vuillaume, Dominique
2004-01-01
To be published in Appl. Phys. Lett. The electrical properties of DNA molecules are investigated by charge injection and electric force microscopy experiments. Prior to injection, DNA molecules exhibit a weak positively charged state. We probe the electrical behaviour of DNA by measuring the localized or delocalized character of the DNA charge states upon injection of excess charges. We show that injected charges do not delocalize for overstretched DNA prepared by a receding meniscus techn...
Monte Carlo Studies of Charge Transport Below the Mobility Edge
Jakobsson, Mattias
2012-01-01
Charge transport below the mobility edge, where the charge carriers are hopping between localized electronic states, is the dominant charge transport mechanism in a wide range of disordered materials. This type of incoherent charge transport is fundamentally different from the coherent charge transport in ordered crystalline materials. With the advent of organic electronics, where small organic molecules or polymers replace traditional inorganic semiconductors, the interest for this type of h...
Tong, Sheng; Jung, Il Woong; Choi, Yoon-Young; Hong, Seungbum; Roelofs, Andreas
2016-02-23
Advanced scanning probe microscopies (SPMs) open up the possibilities of the next-generation ferroic devices that utilize both domains and domain walls as active elements. However, current SPMs lack the capability of dynamically monitoring the motion of domains and domain walls in conjunction with the transport of the screening charges that lower the total electrostatic energy of both domains and domain walls. Charge gradient microscopy (CGM) is a strong candidate to overcome these shortcomings because it can map domains and domain walls at high speed and mechanically remove the screening charges. Yet the underlying mechanism of the CGM signals is not fully understood due to the complexity of the electrostatic interactions. Here, we designed a semiconductor-metal CGM tip, which can separate and quantify the ferroelectric domain and domain wall signals by simply changing its scanning direction. Our investigation reveals that the domain wall signals are due to the spatial change of polarization charges, while the domain signals are due to continuous removal and supply of screening charges at the CGM tip. In addition, we observed asymmetric CGM domain currents from the up and down domains, which are originated from the different debonding energies and the amount of the screening charges on positive and negative bound charges. We believe that our findings can help design CGM with high spatial resolution and lead to breakthroughs in information storage and energy-harvesting devices. PMID:26751281
Charge collection and space charge distribution in neutron-irradiated epitaxial silicon detectors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Poehlsen, Thomas
2010-04-15
In this work epitaxial n-type silicon diodes with a thickness of 100 {mu}m and 150 {mu}m are investigated. After neutron irradiation with fluences between 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2} and 4 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} annealing studies were performed. CV-IV curves were taken and the depletion voltage was determined for different annealing times. All investigated diodes with neutron fluences greater than 2 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2} showed type inversion due to irradiation. Measurements with the transient current technique (TCT) using a pulsed laser were performed to investigate charge collection effects for temperatures of -40 C, -10 C and 20 C. The charge correction method was used to determine the effective trapping time {tau}{sub eff}. Inconsistencies of the results could be explained by assuming field dependent trapping times. A simulation of charge collection could be used to determine the field dependent trapping time {tau}{sub eff}(E) and the space charge distribution in the detector bulk. Assuming a linear field dependence of the trapping times and a linear space charge distribution the data could be described. Indications of charge multiplication were seen in the irradiated 100 {mu}m thick diodes for all investigated fluences at voltages above 800 V. The space charge distribution extracted from TCT measurements was compared to the results of the CV measurements and showed good agreement. (orig.)
Charge collection and space charge distribution in neutron-irradiated epitaxial silicon detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this work epitaxial n-type silicon diodes with a thickness of 100 μm and 150 μm are investigated. After neutron irradiation with fluences between 1014 cm-2 and 4 x 1015 cm-2 annealing studies were performed. CV-IV curves were taken and the depletion voltage was determined for different annealing times. All investigated diodes with neutron fluences greater than 2 x 1014 cm-2 showed type inversion due to irradiation. Measurements with the transient current technique (TCT) using a pulsed laser were performed to investigate charge collection effects for temperatures of -40 C, -10 C and 20 C. The charge correction method was used to determine the effective trapping time τeff. Inconsistencies of the results could be explained by assuming field dependent trapping times. A simulation of charge collection could be used to determine the field dependent trapping time τeff(E) and the space charge distribution in the detector bulk. Assuming a linear field dependence of the trapping times and a linear space charge distribution the data could be described. Indications of charge multiplication were seen in the irradiated 100 μm thick diodes for all investigated fluences at voltages above 800 V. The space charge distribution extracted from TCT measurements was compared to the results of the CV measurements and showed good agreement. (orig.)