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Sample records for charged particles niels

  1. Niels Hemmingsen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten, Martin Schwarz

    Præsentation af Niels Hemmingsen (1513-1600), hans biografi, forfatterskabet på ca. 100 skrifter og virke som professor i teologi ved Københavns universitet. Hans suspension i 1579 og forflyttelse til Roskilde skete efter pres fra kurfyrste August og hans hustru Anna,søster til Frederik d.2. Niel...

  2. Niels Bohr - his life and scientific achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niels Bohr, a Nobel laureate and a celebrated scientist of the 20th century is remembered for his lasting contributions to atomic and nuclear physics. His pioneering works on Energy loss by charged particles, the structure of the atom, the compound nucleus model and the mechanism of nuclear fission are indeed remarkable. In this article a brief account of his life and scientific achievements is provided. (author)

  3. On the NIEL concept for estimating the damage induced by particles and γ-rays in Si and GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Linear Energy Transfer (LET, expressed in MeV.cm2 /g) is the commonly used parameter for quantitative estimation of Ionizing Losses induced by energetic particles in matter and of Single Event Upsets in electronic devices. However, in several devices, important for practical applications (LEDs, optocouplers, CCDs , solar cells and others), failure might occur also as a result of Non Ionizing Energy Losses (NIEL). These losses result from the energy transfer to the lattice atoms due to elastic scattering of the primaries (the incident particles) and secondaries. The outcome is displacement damage. It was proposed to use, for damage estimation, a quantity named NIEL, which is similar to LET and has the same units (MeV.cm2 /g). NIEL is calculated using the differential scattering cross sections in elastic collisions of the different primaries (and secondaries) with the Si or GaAs nuclei. In this article the methods of accurate NIEL calculation for different particles are discussed. For electrons, exact cross sections, which take into account the atomic shielding, have been used. For gamma rays the acting-electron spectrum was calculated for finite dimensions instead of the often-used equilibrium electron spectrum for infinite medium. For protons, we have used experimental cross sections or ones calculated using the Optical Potential approach. For neutrons, data from the LANL-ENDF library have been used. We also studied the displacement damage due to inelastic scattering. We used our spallation model to calculate the spectra of nuclear fragments and the damage they introduce. Results of systematic NIEL calculations for Si and GaAs devices are presented for different particles and energies. Previously, it was stated that NIEL might be used to establish equivalence between different particles for damage estimation and laboratory testing. As a standard, the normalization to 1 MeV neutrons was proposed and it is often being used. This procedure was introduced as a

  4. Sources for charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a basic course on charged particle sources for post-graduate students and thematic schools on large facilities and accelerator physics. A simple but precise description of the creation and the emission of charged particles is presented. This course relies on every year upgraded reference documents. Following relevant topics are considered: electronic emission processes, technological and practical considerations on electron guns, positron sources, production of neutral atoms, ionization, plasma and discharge, different types of positive and negative ion sources, polarized particle sources, materials for the construction of ion sources, low energy beam production and transport. (N.T.)

  5. Charged particle beams

    CERN Document Server

    Humphries, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    Detailed enough for a text and sufficiently comprehensive for a reference, this volume addresses topics vital to understanding high-power accelerators and high-brightness-charged particle beams. Subjects include stochastic cooling, high-brightness injectors, and the free electron laser. Humphries provides students with the critical skills necessary for the problem-solving insights unique to collective physics problems. 1990 edition.

  6. Charged Particle Optics Theory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hawkes, P. W.; Lencová, Bohumila

    -, č. 6 (2006), s. 6-8 Grant ostatní: EC 5RP(XE) G5RD-CT-2000-00344 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : optics of charged particles * design of ion lithography system * spot profile * the finite element method Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering www.phantomsnet.net

  7. A tribute to Niels Bohr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is organized around the contribution of A. Pais, 'Niels Bohr and the development of physics', presented at CERN on the occasion of a special colloquium in the honour of Niels Bohr. It gives a broad survey of Bohr's life, the revolution in physics created by his quantum theory and his attempts to influence the peaceful development of nuclear energy. (orig.)

  8. Nanodosimetry of charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In last year's annual report, the authors described the development of an ultra-miniature counter (UMC), described some of its physical characteristics, and presented some first measurements with this counter of microdosimetric spectra for neutrons (15 MeV) and photons (137Cs). It remains to investigate in more detail the operational characteristics of the UMC and if possible, to make a comparison of relevant physical parameters such as gain and multiplication radius with the Segur theory. In order to accomplish these objectives, it is necessary to build a wall-less version of the UMC, which will be amenable to calibration and investigation with collimated beams of charged particles. The design of such a counter has been worked out in principle. Investigations into the optimal design of electrode structures and dimensions are being carried out at present. The main problem occurs with the design of the grid structure which is required to define the outer boundary of the collecting volume. Our initial attempts would make it appear at present that a counter of 1 to 1.5 mm diameter is feasible. This should be more than adequate to provide an appropriately wall-less counter within a reasonable size cavity. It will probably be about a year before a working counter can be produced. In the interim, it is possible to make some initial efforts into the investigation of operational characteristics of a wall-less UMC by making use of similar design, but at a somewhat larger size. These first attempts at measurement of charged particle microdosimetric spectra at nanometer site provide added evidence that these counters can yield useful microdosimetric data at far smaller site sizes than heretofore attempted. They also provide added incentive and encouragement for development of wall-less UMC

  9. Heavy charged particle therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pilot study of heavy charged particles with heavy ion medical accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) for advanced H and N cancer has been carried out from June 1994 at National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). As of the beginning of August 1994, three patients were treated by 290 MeV carbon ions. The patients had adenocarcinoma of the cheek mucosa, squamous cell carcinoma of the ethmoid sinus and adenoid cystic carcinoma of the sublingual gland. Patients were immobilized by individual head coach and thermosplint facial shell. Individual collimators and bolus were also prepared for each ports. Dose fractionation for the initial pilot study group was 16.2 GyE/18 fractions/6 weeks, which would be equivalent to standard fractionation of 60.0 Gy/30 fractions/6 weeks with photons. This dose fractionation was considered to be 20% lesser than 75 GyE/37.5 fractions/7.5 weeks, which is estimated to be maximum tolerance dose for advanced H and N cancers. HIMAC worked well and there was no major trouble causing any treatment delay. Acute skin reactions of 3 patients were 2 cases of bright erythema with patchy moist desquamation and one of dull erythema, which were evaluated as equivalent reaction with irradiated dose. Acute mucosa reactions appeared to have lesser reaction than predicted mucositis. Tumor reactions of three patients were partial reaction (PR) at the end of treatment and nearly complete remission (CR) after 6 months of treatment. From October 1994, we started to treat patients with advanced H and N cancer with 10% high dose than previous dose. And new candidates of pilot study with non small cell lung cancer, brain tumor and carcinoma of the tongue were entered into pilot study. At the end of February 1995, a total of 21 patients were treated by carbon ions. (J.P.N.)

  10. Optics of charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suitable for both the specialist and non-specialist, this book develops all statements from first principles. Key chapters of the book focus upon how to design particle-optical systems, the systematics of image abberations, the effects of fringing fields, systematics of beams, and solutions for particle-optical systems. An undergraduate background in physics and mathematics is required for this work

  11. Measuring momentum for charged particle tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher; Fraser, Andrew Mcleod; Schultz, Larry Joe; Borozdin, Konstantin N.; Klimenko, Alexei Vasilievich; Sossong, Michael James; Blanpied, Gary

    2010-11-23

    Methods, apparatus and systems for detecting charged particles and obtaining tomography of a volume by measuring charged particles including measuring the momentum of a charged particle passing through a charged particle detector. Sets of position sensitive detectors measure scattering of the charged particle. The position sensitive detectors having sufficient mass to cause the charged particle passing through the position sensitive detectors to scatter in the position sensitive detectors. A controller can be adapted and arranged to receive scattering measurements of the charged particle from the charged particle detector, determine at least one trajectory of the charged particle from the measured scattering; and determine at least one momentum measurement of the charged particle from the at least one trajectory. The charged particle can be a cosmic ray-produced charged particle, such as a cosmic ray-produced muon. The position sensitive detectors can be drift cells, such as gas-filled drift tubes.

  12. Dust particle charging in sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The charging and the screening of spherical dust particles in sheaths near the wall were studied using computer simulation. The three-dimensional PIC/MCC method and molecular dynamics method were applied to describe plasma particles motion and interaction with macroscopic dust grain. Calculations were carried out at different neutral gas pressures and wall potentials. Values of the charge of the dust particles and spatial distributions of plasma parameters are obtained by modelling. The results have shown that the charge of the dust particles in the sheath, as well as the spatial distribution of the ions and electrons near the dust particles, depend strongly on the wall potential. It is shown that for large negative values of the wall potential the negative charge of a dust particle decreases due to the decline of the electron density in its vicinity. In addition, the flow of energy of the ions on the surface of dust particles is increased due to better focusing effect of the dust particle field on ions.

  13. Charged-particle coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, W.L.; Crane, J.K.; Hendricks, C.D.

    1980-08-29

    Advanced target designs require thicker (approx. 300 ..mu..m) coatings and better surface finishes that can be produced with current coating techniques. An advanced coating technique is proposed to provide maximum control of the coating flux and optimum manipulation of the shell during processing. In this scheme a small beam of ions or particles of known incident energy are collided with a levitated spherical mandrel. Precise control of the incident energy and angle of the deposition flux optimizes the control of the coating morphology while controlled rotation and noncontact support of the shell minimizes the possibility of particulate or damage generated defects. Almost infinite variability of the incident energy and material in this process provides increased flexibility of the target designs which can be physically realized.

  14. Charged-particle coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced target designs require thicker (approx. 300 μm) coatings and better surface finishes that can be produced with current coating techniques. An advanced coating technique is proposed to provide maximum control of the coating flux and optimum manipulation of the shell during processing. In this scheme a small beam of ions or particles of known incident energy are collided with a levitated spherical mandrel. Precise control of the incident energy and angle of the deposition flux optimizes the control of the coating morphology while controlled rotation and noncontact support of the shell minimizes the possibility of particulate or damage generated defects. Almost infinite variability of the incident energy and material in this process provides increased flexibility of the target designs which can be physically realized

  15. Charged particle acceleration with plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under certain conditions it is possible to create spatial charge waves (OCE) in a plasma (ionized gas) through some disturbance mechanism, the phenomenon produces electric fields of high intensity that are propagated at velocities near to a c. When charged particles are connected to such OCE they may be accelerated to very high energies in short distances. At present electric fields of approximately 107 V/cm have been observed. (Author). 4 refs

  16. Magnetic guidance of charged particles

    CERN Document Server

    Dubbers, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Many experiments and devices in physics use static magnetic fields to guide charged particles from a source onto a detector, and we ask the innocent question: What is the distribution of particle intensity over the detector surface? One should think that the solution to this seemingly simple problem is well known. We show that, even for uniform guide fields, this is not the case and present analytical point spread functions (PSF) for magnetic transport that deviate strongly from previous results. The "magnetic" PSF shows unexpected singularities, which were recently also observed experimentally, and which make detector response very sensitive to minute changes of position, field amplitude, or particle energy. In the field of low-energy particle physics, these singularities may become a source of error in modern high precision experiments, or may be used for instrument tests, for instance in neutrino mass retardation spectrometers.

  17. Magnetic guidance of charged particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Dubbers

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many experiments and devices in physics use static magnetic fields to guide charged particles from a source onto a detector, and we ask the innocent question: What is the distribution of particle intensity over the detector surface? One should think that the solution to this seemingly simple problem is well known. We show that, even for uniform guide fields, this is not the case, and we present analytical point spread functions (PSF for magnetic transport that deviate strongly from previous results. The “magnetic” PSF shows unexpected singularities, which were recently also observed experimentally, and which make detector response very sensitive to minute changes of position, field amplitude, or particle energy. In the field of low-energy particle physics, these singularities may become a source of error in modern high precision experiments, or may be used for instrument tests.

  18. Geometrical charged-particle optics

    CERN Document Server

    Rose, Harald

    2012-01-01

    This second edition is an extended version of the first edition of Geometrical Charged-Particle Optics. The updated reference monograph is intended as a guide for researchers and graduate students who are seeking a comprehensive treatment of the design of instruments and beam-guiding systems of charged particles and their propagation in electromagnetic fields. Wave aspects are included in this edition for explaining electron holography, the Aharanov-Bohm effect and the resolution of electron microscopes limited by diffraction. Several methods for calculating the electromagnetic field are presented and procedures are outlined for calculating the properties of systems with arbitrarily curved axis. Detailed methods are presented for designing and optimizing special components such as aberration correctors, spectrometers, energy filters monochromators, ion traps, electron mirrors and cathode lenses. In particular, the optics of rotationally symmetric lenses, quadrupoles, and systems composed of these elements are...

  19. Medium energy charged particle spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The charged particle spectrometer E8 on HELIOS A and B will be described in some detail. It covers proton energies from 80 keV to 6 MeV, electrons from 20 keV to 2 MeV, and positrons from 150 to 550 keV. Its flight performance will be discussed. From examples of measurements the capability of the instrument will be demonstrated. (orig.)

  20. Computations in Charged Particle Optics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oral, Martin; Radlička, Tomáš

    Brno: Institute of Scientific Instruments AS CR, v. v. i, 2014, s. 23-24. ISBN 978-80-87441-12-1. [Workshop of Interesting Topics of SEM and ESEM. Mikulov (CZ), 26.08.2014-31.08.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE.2.3.20.0103 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : charged Particle Optics * computations Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  1. Heavy charged particle radiotherapy trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through mid-1985, a total of 49 patients received heavy-charged-particle irradiation for chordoma, chondrosarcoma, meningioma, or neurilemmoma of the base of skull or juxtaspinal area. The mean tumor dose was 68 Gray-equivalent, ranging from 26 to 80. Control within the irradiated area was obtained in 35 of 49. The median follow up in all 49 patients is 21 months, with a range from 3-90 months. Serious complications were seen in a small number of patients, with cranial nerve injury in two, transverse myelitis in one, and brain necrosis in three patients. In 42 patients with tumors of other histologies and/or sites, including tumors of paranasal sinuses, retroperitoneum, soft tissue and miscellaneous other sites, heavy charged particles were also used to deliver a higher tumor dose than possible with standard irradiation techniques. In the group, 21/42 (50%) have had local tumor control, also a good result considering the extent and the range of tumor types treated. The authors believe that there are a number of sites in addition to the juxtaspinal/base of skull tumors that will show long term benefit from treatment with heavy charged particles

  2. Direct charged particle imaging sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CMOS image sensors optimized for charged particle imaging applications, such as electron microscopy and particle physics, have been designed and characterized. These directly image charged particles without reliance on performance-degrading hybrid technologies such as the use of scintillating materials. Based on standard CMOS active pixel sensor (APS) technology, the sensor arrays uses an 8-20 μm epitaxial layer that acts as a thicker sensitive region for the generation and collection of ionization electrons resulting from impinging high-energy particles. This results in a 100% fill factor and a far larger signal per incident electron than a standard CMOS photodiode could provide. A 512x550 pixels prototype has been fabricated and used extensively in an electron microscope, including having been used to take sample images. Temporal noise was measured to be 0.9 mV RMS, and the dynamic range was 60 dB. Power consumption at 70 frames/s is 20 mW. The full-width half-maximum of the collected ionization electron distribution was found to be 5.5 μm, yielding a spatial resolution of approximately 2.3 μm for individual incident electrons, and the modulation transfer function of the sensor at the Nyquist limit is to be 32%

  3. The dynamics of a charged particle

    OpenAIRE

    Rohrlich, Fritz

    2008-01-01

    Using physical arguments, I derive the physically correct equations of motion for a classical charged particle from the Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac equations (LAD) which are well known to be physically incorrect. Since a charged particle can classically not be a point particle because of the Coulomb field divergence, my derivation accounts for that by imposing a basic condition on the external force. That condition ensures that the particle's finite size charge distribution looks like a point charg...

  4. Interactions of charged dust particles in clouds of charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundienkov, Vladimir; Yakovlenko, Sergey

    2004-03-01

    Two charged dust particles inside a cloud of charges are considered as Debye atoms forming a Debye molecule. Cassini coordinates are used for the numerical solution of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation for the charged cloud. The electric force acting on a dust particle by the other dust particle was determined by integrating the electrostatic pressure on the surface of the dust particle. It is shown that attractive forces appear when the following two conditions are satisfied. First, the average distance between dust particles should be approximately equal to two Debye radii. Second, attraction takes place when similar charges are concentrated predominantly on the dust particles. If the particles carry a small fraction of total charge of the same polarity, repulsion between the particles takes place at all distances. We apply our results to the experiments with thermoemission plasma and to the experiments with nuclear-pumped plasma.

  5. Niels Harrit og den rygende pistol

    OpenAIRE

    Hviid, Louise Hornbøll

    2015-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how Laclau and Mouffes theory of nodalpoint can be used as a method for investigeting how two feature articles, written by truther and conspiracy theorist Niels Harrit, construct antagonistic discourses of the truth of 9/11. The paper also examines who the feature articles address. To examine this problem Ole Togebys theory of addressee are to be included. The paper finally discusses whether 911truth and Niels Harrits are influenced by conspiracy theories in general.

  6. Supplementary kinetic constants of charged particles

    OpenAIRE

    Ribaric, Marijan; Sustersic, Luka

    2006-01-01

    We put forward: (A) An improved description of classical, kinetic properties of a charged pointlike physical particle that consists, in addition to its mass and charge, also of the Eliezer and Bhabha kinetic constants; and (B) a proposal to evaluate these kinetic constants by considering the trajectories of charged particles in an acccelerator.

  7. Spinning charged test particles and Cosmic Censorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors consider spinning charged test particles in the gravitational field of a rotating charged black hole, and it is shown that the hole cannot be destroyed, according to the Cosmic Censorship hypothesis. (Auth.)

  8. Charge of dust particles in a particle chain

    CERN Document Server

    Yousefi, Razieh; Matthews, Lorin Swint; Hyde, Truell W

    2016-01-01

    Charged dust particles form structures which are extended in the vertical direction in the electrode sheath of a rf discharge when confined within a glass box. The charge on each particle as a function of height varies due to the changing plasma conditions and the wakefield of upstream particles. Here an analysis of the equilibrium state of chains of varying number of particles is analyzed to determine the charge on each particle within a vertically extended chain as well as the magnitude of the positive wakefield charge.

  9. Worldline deviations of charged spinning particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heydari-Fard, M. [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, 19839 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohseni, M. [Physics Department, Payame Noor University, 19395-4697 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: m-mohseni@pnu.ac.ir; Sepangi, H.R. [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, 19839 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2005-10-20

    The geodesic deviation equation is generalized to worldline deviation equations describing the relative accelerations of charged spinning particles in the framework of Dixon-Souriau equations of motion.

  10. Worldline deviations of charged spinning particles

    CERN Document Server

    Heydari-Fard, M; Sepangi, H R

    2005-01-01

    The geodesic deviation equation is generalized to worldline deviation equations describing the relative accelerations of charged spinning particles in the framework of Dixon-Souriau equations of motion.

  11. Delay Equation for Charged Brown Particle

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasov, Alexander A.

    2001-01-01

    In previous work (physics/0004026) was shown, with the help of numerical calculations, that the effective Brown temperature for charged particle is lower than that for particle without charge. Here we derive this result without numerical calculations, integrating the delay equation analytically, as for zero, so for nonzero viscosity.

  12. Scintillation Detectors for Charged Particles and Photons

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoq, P

    2011-01-01

    Scintillation Detectors for Charged Particles and Photons in 'Charged Particle Detectors - Particle Detectors and Detector Systems', part of 'Landolt-Börnstein - Group I Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, Volume 21B1: Detectors for Particles and Radiation. Part 1: Principles and Methods'. This document is part of Part 1 'Principles and Methods' of Subvolume B 'Detectors for Particles and Radiation' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Subsection '3.1.1 Scintillation Detectors for Charged Particles and Photons' of Section '3.1 Charged Particle Detectors' of Chapter '3 Particle Detectors and Detector Systems' with the content: 3.1.1 Scintillation Detectors for Charged Particles and Photons 3.1.1.1 Basic detector principles and scintillator requirements 3.1.1.1.1 Interaction of ionizing radiation with scintillator material 3.1.1.1.2 Important scint...

  13. Charged-particle activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the methodology and application of nuclear activation with ion beams (19 via 16O(3He,p)18F, 12C(3He,α)11C and 14N(p,α)11C respectively. Recently, triton activation has been shown to be inherently still superior to 3He activation for the determination of oxygen [16O(3H,n)18F]. Lithium, boron, carbon and sulphur can be detected rapidly, nondestructively and with high sensitivity (approximately 0.25ppm for Li and B) via ''quasi-prompt'' activation based on the detection of short-lived, high-energy beta emitters (10ms1H(7Li,n)7Be for example. Nondestructive multielement analysis: Proton activation has the inherent potential for meeting requirements of broad elemental coverage, sensitivity (ppm and sub-ppm range) and selectivity. Up to 30 elements have been determined in Al, Co, Ag, Nb, Rh, Ta and biological samples, using 12-MeV proton activation followed by gamma-ray spectrometry. These capabilities are further enhanced with the counting of X-ray emitters, 28 elements (269) and accuracy using proton activation. 204Pb/206Pb ratios can also be determined with a relative precision of a few per cent. Although charged-particle activation analysis is a well-established trace analysis technique, broad potential capabilities remain to be explored, e.g. those arising from ultrashort-lived nuclides, heavy ion interactions and the combination of delayed and prompt methods. (author)

  14. Coagulation of charged particles in dust plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One studied peculiarities of behaviour of small particles in dust plasma resulted on the one hand, from suppression of coagulation due to monopolar charging within the range of particle dimensions under the Debye radius of shielding and, on the other hand, from leveling of this case for particles of large dimensions. On the basis of similarity ratios one determined the range of parameters making linear approximation of particle charge dependence on their dimension true. In terms of the modified classical theory of coagulation in diffusion approximation one studied certain anomalies of behavior of dimension distribution of particles. It is determined that in contrast to the ordinary aerosol in dust plasma as time passes one may reduce dispersion of distribution and average dimensions of particles. For the first time one demonstrates the possibility to realize long-lived quasiliquid state of dust plasma associated with the anomalous behaviour of distribution function of coagulating charged particles according to dimensions

  15. House for Niels Strøyberg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welling, Helen

    2007-01-01

    The house for Niels Strøyberg in Hasseris near Aalborg, Denmark, is a notable example of early modernism in an unconventional way. Although Poul Henningsen's approach to the dwelling was thoroughly functional, he added a number of visual effects to provide a sense of dynamism to the spatial perce...

  16. Weak charges of charmed particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The matrix elements between the lowest states of the ΔC=1 weak charges are evaluated including the effect of SU4 breaking. The charges are obtained from the corresponding generators of the classification group by a unitary transformation U, which is factorized as the product of operators acting on a single quark: the breaking is naturally introduced by having different mixing parameters for the different quarks

  17. Robust statistical reconstruction for charged particle tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Larry Joe; Klimenko, Alexei Vasilievich; Fraser, Andrew Mcleod; Morris, Christopher; Orum, John Christopher; Borozdin, Konstantin N; Sossong, Michael James; Hengartner, Nicolas W

    2013-10-08

    Systems and methods for charged particle detection including statistical reconstruction of object volume scattering density profiles from charged particle tomographic data to determine the probability distribution of charged particle scattering using a statistical multiple scattering model and determine a substantially maximum likelihood estimate of object volume scattering density using expectation maximization (ML/EM) algorithm to reconstruct the object volume scattering density. The presence of and/or type of object occupying the volume of interest can be identified from the reconstructed volume scattering density profile. The charged particle tomographic data can be cosmic ray muon tomographic data from a muon tracker for scanning packages, containers, vehicles or cargo. The method can be implemented using a computer program which is executable on a computer.

  18. New Charged Particles from Higgs Couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Andrew G

    2012-01-01

    The recently reported observation of a new particle with mass about 125 GeV and couplings generally resembling those of the Standard Model Higgs boson provides a potential probe of the physics of electroweak symmetry breaking. Although the current data only provides hints, we suggest a particular combination of Higgs couplings as an assay for new charged particles connected with electroweak symmetry breaking, and construct a simple model with charge 5/3 quarks as a demonstration of its use.

  19. Measurement of the electrostatic charge in airborne particles: II - particle charge distribution of different aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Rodrigues

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This work gives sequence to the study on the measurement of the electrostatic charges in aerosols. The particle charge classifier developed for this purpose and presented in the previous paper (Marra and Coury, 2000 has been used here to measure the particle charge distribution of a number of different aerosols. The charges acquired by the particles were naturally derived from the aerosol generation procedure itself. Two types of aerosol generators were used: the vibrating orifice generator and turntable Venturi plate generator. In the vibrating orifice generator, mono-dispersed particles were generated by a solution of water/ethanol/methylene blue, while in the rotating plate generator, six different materials were utilized. The results showed no clear dependence between electric charge and particle diameter for the mono-dispersed aerosol. However, for the poly-dispersed aerosols, a linear dependence between particle size and charge could be noticed.

  20. Particles with non abelian charges

    CERN Document Server

    Bastianelli, Fiorenzo; Corradini, Olindo; Latini, Emanuele

    2013-01-01

    Efficient methods for describing non abelian charges in worldline approaches to QFT are useful to simplify calculations and address structural properties, as for example color/kinematics relations. Here we analyze in detail a method for treating arbitrary non abelian charges. We use Grassmann variables to take into account color degrees of freedom, which however are known to produce reducible representations of the color group. Then we couple them to a U(1) gauge field defined on the worldline, together with a Chern-Simons term, to achieve projection on an irreducible representation. Upon gauge fixing there remains a modulus, an angle parametrizing the U(1) Wilson loop, whose dependence is taken into account exactly in the propagator of the Grassmann variables. We test the method in simple examples, the scalar and spin 1/2 contribution to the gluon self energy, and suggest that it might simplify the analysis of more involved amplitudes.

  1. Discrete Element Modeling of Triboelectrically Charged Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Michael D.; Calle, Carlos I.; Weitzman, Peter S.; Curry, David R.

    2008-01-01

    Tribocharging of particles is common in many processes including fine powder handling and mixing, printer toner transport and dust extraction. In a lunar environment with its high vacuum and lack of water, electrostatic forces are an important factor to consider when designing and operating equipment. Dust mitigation and management is critical to safe and predictable performance of people and equipment. The extreme nature of lunar conditions makes it difficult and costly to carry out experiments on earth which are necessary to better understand how particles gather and transfer charge between each other and with equipment surfaces. DEM (Discrete Element Modeling) provides an excellent virtual laboratory for studying tribocharging of particles as well as for design of devices for dust mitigation and for other purposes related to handling and processing of lunar regolith. Theoretical and experimental work has been performed pursuant to incorporating screened Coulombic electrostatic forces into EDEM, a commercial DEM software package. The DEM software is used to model the trajectories of large numbers of particles for industrial particulate handling and processing applications and can be coupled with other solvers and numerical models to calculate particle interaction with surrounding media and force fields. While simple Coulombic force between two particles is well understood, its operation in an ensemble of particles is more complex. When the tribocharging of particles and surfaces due to frictional contact is also considered, it is necessary to consider longer range of interaction of particles in response to electrostatic charging. The standard DEM algorithm accounts for particle mechanical properties and inertia as a function of particle shape and mass. If fluid drag is neglected, then particle dynamics are governed by contact between particles, between particles and equipment surfaces and gravity forces. Consideration of particle charge and any tribocharging and

  2. Charged particle concepts for fog dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, W.; Collins, F. G.; Koepf, D.

    1981-01-01

    Charged particle techniques hold promise for dispersing warm fog in the terminal area of commercial airports. This report focuses on features of the charged particle technique which require further study. The basic physical principles of the technique and the major verification experiments carried out in the past are described. The fundamentals of the nozzle operation are given. The nozzle characteristics and the theory of particle charging in the nozzle are discussed, including information from extensive literature on electrostatic precipitation relative to environmental pollution control and a description of some preliminary reported analyses on the jet characteristics and interaction with neighboring jets. The equation governing the transfer of water substances and of electrical charge is given together with a brief description of several semi-empirical, mathematical expressions necessary for the governing equations. The necessary ingredients of a field experiment to verify the system once a prototype is built are described.

  3. Towards a microscopic theory of particle charging

    CERN Document Server

    Bronold, Franz X; Kersten, H; Deutsch, H

    2009-01-01

    We recently questioned the treatment of a dust particle as a perfect absorber for electrons and ions and proposed a surface model for the charge of a dust particle in a quiescent plasma which combines the microscopic physics at the grain boundary (sticking into and desorption from external surface states) with the macrophysics of the discharge (plasma collection fluxes). Within this model the charge and partial screening of the particle can be calculated without relying on the condition that the total electron collection flux balances on the grain surface the total ion collection flux. Grain charges obtained from our approach compared favorably with experimental data. The purpose of this paper is to describe our model in more detail, in particular, the hypotheses on which it is built, contrast it with the standard charging models based on flux balancing on the grain surface, and to analyze additional experimental data.

  4. Fractionally charged particles in cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Bashindzhagyan, George

    2016-01-01

    The results of many experiments on a search of fractionally charged particles in cosmic rays have been reviewed. The registered by ATIC and PAMELA experiments change of the proton energy spectrum at about 250 GeV can be explained if fractionally charged particles with another energy spectrum slope actually mixed with protons but cannot be separated because of a strong dE/dx fluctuations. The performed simulations show that multilayer detectors can seriously help in such separation. In the Aragats experiment performed using multilayer proportional counter combined with hadron calorimeter a group of 4e/3 like events with unexpectedly high average energy has been registered. It could be explained by their different from regular hadrons energy spectrum. The ATIC experiment ionization spectrum in single charged particle area has been examined. An interesting bump in 2e/3 charge region was observed. The events in the bump have very different from regular protons angular distribution.

  5. Electro-optical detection of charged particles

    CERN Document Server

    Semertzidis, Y K; Kowalski, L A; Kraus, D E; Larsen, R; Lazarus, D M; Magurno, B; Nikas, D; Ozben, C; Srinivasan-Rao, T; Tsang, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    We have made the first observation of a charged particle beam by means of its electro-optical effect on the polarization of laser light in a LiNbO sub 3 crystal. The modulation of the laser light during the passage of a pulsed electron beam was observed using a fast photodiode and a digital oscilloscope. The fastest rise time measured, 120 ps, was obtained in the single shot mode and was limited by the bandwidth of the oscilloscope and the associated electronics. This technology holds good for detectors of greatly improved spatial and temporal resolution for single relativistic charged particles as well as particle beams.

  6. Why do particle clouds generate electric charges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pähtz, T.; Herrmann, H. J.; Shinbrot, T.

    2010-05-01

    Grains in desert sandstorms spontaneously generate strong electrical charges; likewise volcanic dust plumes produce spectacular lightning displays. Charged particle clouds also cause devastating explosions in food, drug and coal processing industries. Despite the wide-ranging importance of granular charging in both nature and industry, even the simplest aspects of its causes remain elusive, because it is difficult to understand how inert grains in contact with little more than other inert grains can generate the large charges observed. Here, we present a simple yet predictive explanation for the charging of granular materials in collisional flows. We argue from very basic considerations that charge transfer can be expected in collisions of identical dielectric grains in the presence of an electric field, and we confirm the model's predictions using discrete-element simulations and a tabletop granular experiment.

  7. Search milli-charged particles at SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langeveld, W.G.J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Particles with electric charge q {triple_bond} Qe {le} 10{sup -3} e and masses in the range 1-1000 MeV/c{sup 2} are not excluded by present experiments or by astrophysical or cosmological arguments. A beam dump experiment uniquely suited to the detection of such {open_quotes}milli-charged{close_quotes} particles has been carried out at SLAC, utilizing the short-duration pulses of the SLC electron beam to establish a tight coincidence window for the signal. The detector, a large scintillation counter sensitive to very small energy depositions, provided much greater sensitivity than previous searches. Analysis of the data leads to the exclusion of a substantial portion of the charge-mass plane. In this report, a preliminary mass-dependent upper limit is presented for the charge of milli-charged particles, ranging from Q = 1.7 x 10{sup -5} at milli-charged particle mass 0.1 MeV/c{sup 2} to Q = 9.5 x 10{sup -4} at 100 MeV/c{sup 2}.

  8. Bibliography of integral charged particle nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is the second supplement to the archival edition of the National Nuclear Data Center's charged-particle bibliography. This supplement contains citations to all references scanned since March 15, 1981, and all corrections and additions to previous citations, and indexes all data received in the international exchanged format (EXFOR). The primary goal of the bibliography has been to satisfy the need expressed by the Nuclear Reaction Data Center Network for a concise and comprehensive bibliography of integral charged-particle cross section data and to provide an index of data exchanged among the members. In 1980, coverage was expanded to include differential data relevant to charged-particle-induced neutron-source reactions

  9. Integral charged particle nuclear data bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, N.E.; Ramavataram, S.

    1989-12-01

    This publication is the annual supplement to the first edition published in 1984. The primary goal of this publication has been to satisfy the need expressed by the Nuclear Reaction Data Center Network for a concise and comprehensive bibliography of integral charged--particle cross section data. Included in this paper is a partial list of other bibliographies relevant to charged-particle-induced reaction data and a source list of nuclear data bibliographies, complications, and cumulative, earlier versions are also shown in the tables. This publication makes use of a modification to the database of the Nuclear Structure References (NSR) file. This modification allows the retrieval of integral charged particle nuclear data entries from the NSR file. In recent years, the presentation of various sections was changed, as a result of users' suggestions. The authors continue to welcome users' comments.

  10. Integral charged particle nuclear data bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is the annual supplement to the first edition published in 1984. The primary goal of this publication has been to satisfy the need expressed by the Nuclear Reaction Data Center Network for a concise and comprehensive bibliography of integral charged--particle cross section data. Included in this paper is a partial list of other bibliographies relevant to charged-particle-induced reaction data and a source list of nuclear data bibliographies, complications, and cumulative, earlier versions are also shown in the tables. This publication makes use of a modification to the database of the Nuclear Structure References (NSR) file. This modification allows the retrieval of integral charged particle nuclear data entries from the NSR file. In recent years, the presentation of various sections was changed, as a result of users' suggestions. The authors continue to welcome users' comments

  11. Position sensitive detector of magnetically charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two variants of coordinate detectors of magnetically charged paticles based on the utilization of transducers with Josephson transitions are proposed. The system of data acquisition and processing is built up in the CAMAC standard. The helium cryostat diagram is presented. The detector resolution time and dead time constitute 1 μs. Methods of detection of magnetically charged particles used in the above detectors are expected to be more effective, as compared to ionization method and other indirect methods

  12. Address at the opening session of the Niels Bohr Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In his address at the opening session of the Niels Bohr Symposium organized jointly by UNESCO and the Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen in May 1998 in order to examine the latest developments in key fields of physics, the Director General of UNESCO presented the scientific work and the spirit of Niels Bohr, emphasizing the impact of his discoveries for new openings in science and in society in general

  13. Fog camera to visualize ionizing charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The human being can not perceive the different types of ionizing radiation, natural or artificial, present in the nature, for what appropriate detection systems have been developed according to the sensibility to certain radiation type and certain energy type. The objective of this work was to build a fog camera to visualize the traces, and to identify the trajectories, produced by charged particles with high energy, coming mainly of the cosmic rays. The origin of the cosmic rays comes from the solar radiation generated by solar eruptions where the protons compose most of this radiation. It also comes, of the galactic radiation which is composed mainly of charged particles and gamma rays that comes from outside of the solar system. These radiation types have energy time millions higher that those detected in the earth surface, being more important as the height on the sea level increases. These particles in their interaction produce secondary particles that are detectable by means of this cameras type. The camera operates by means of a saturated atmosphere of alcohol vapor. In the moment in that a charged particle crosses the cold area of the atmosphere, the medium is ionized and the particle acts like a condensation nucleus of the alcohol vapor, leaving a visible trace of its trajectory. The built camera was very stable, allowing the detection in continuous form and the observation of diverse events. (Author)

  14. Control microprocessor system for charge particle channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Control microprocessor systems are widely applied not only in designing industrial robots but in providing functioning of different experimental plants. The experiment control system for charge particle channeling has been considered in the paper. Flexibility, relatively low cost and high reliability are advantages of these systems

  15. Studying Charged Particle Optics: An Undergraduate Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovalle, V.; Otomar, D. R.; Pereira, J. M.; Ferreira, N.; Pinho, R. R.; Santos A. C. F.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes some computer-based activities to bring the study of charged particle optics to undergraduate students, to be performed as a part of a one-semester accelerator-based experimental course. The computational simulations were carried out using the commercially available SIMION program. The performance parameters, such as the focal…

  16. Treatment of cancer with heavy charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goals of the clinical helium and heavy charged particle radiotherapy trial are: (1) to evaluate the potential of improved dose localization as exemplified by helium-ion irradiation where little, if any, biological advantage is expected; and (2) to evaluate the combined potential of improved dose localization and increased biological effect available with heavier ions such as carbon, neon, silicon, and argon ions

  17. Niels Bohr and Complementarity An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Plotnitsky, Arkady

    2012-01-01

    This book offers a discussion of Niels Bohr’s conception of “complementarity,” arguably his greatest contribution to physics and philosophy. By tracing Bohr’s work from his 1913 atomic theory to the introduction and then refinement of the idea of complementarity, and by explicating different meanings of “complementarity” in Bohr and the relationships between it and Bohr’s other concepts, the book aims to offer a contained and accessible, and yet sufficiently comprehensive account of Bohr’s work on complementarity and its significance.

  18. Bmad: A relativistic charged particle simulation library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bmad is a subroutine library for simulating relativistic charged particle beams in high-energy accelerators and storage rings. Bmad can be used to study both single and multi-particle beam dynamics using routines to track both particles and macroparticles. Bmad has various tracking algorithms including Runge-Kutta and symplectic (Lie algebraic) integration. Various effects such as wakefields, and radiation excitation and damping can be simulated. Bmad has been developed in a modular, object-oriented fashion to maximize flexibility. Interface routines allow Bmad to be called from C/C++ as well as Fortran programs. Bmad is well documented. Every routine is individually annotated, and there is an extensive manual

  19. Charged Particles' Tunneling from Noncommutative Charged Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Mehdipour, S Hamid

    2010-01-01

    We apply the tunneling process of charged massive particles through the quantum horizon of a Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black hole in a new noncommutative gravity scenario. In this model, the tunneling amplitude on account of noncommutativity influences in the context of coordinate coherent states is modified. Our calculation points out that the emission rate satisfies the first law of black hole thermodynamics and is consistent with an underlying unitary theory.

  20. Charged particles' tunneling from a noncommutative charged black hole

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdipour, S. Hamid

    2010-01-01

    We apply the tunneling process of charged massive particles through the quantum horizon of a Reissner-Nordstrom black hole in a new noncommutative gravity scenario. In this model, the tunneling amplitude on account of noncommutativity influences in the context of coordinate coherent states is modified. Our calculation points out that the emission rate satisfies the first law of black hole thermodynamics and is consistent with an underlying unitary theory.

  1. Tumor therapy with heavy charged particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blattmann, Hans

    1999-11-01

    Nuclear science has contributed significantly to the development of tumor therapy with heavy charged particles. Interest evolved for neutron therapies in the forties because of the increased radiobiological effectiveness (RBE) compared to photon irradiation. The development of more powerful proton and heavy ion accelerators with higher energies or higher intensities, made new particles for radiation therapy available. Pions, protons, light ions, from helium up to silicon were studied in view of precision dose delivery and increased RBE. Without the parallel development of new diagnostic techniques such as computer tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET) the rapid development would not have been possible. Heavy-charged particle therapy has now come into a consolidation phase. Hospital-based facilities are built by industry, and research institutes focus on refinements in dose delivery and treatment planning, as well as systems for monitoring dose delivery and for dose distribution verification.

  2. High-frequency charged particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The device is refered to technical physics and may be used as a source of accelerated particles for irradiation of different objects in industry and agriculture. The device is aimed at increase of the power and enhancement of stability of the accelerator operation and decrease of its dimensions. High-frequency accelerator is composed of an accelerating cavity resonator a charged particle source and HF power supply. The aim is attained by the fact, that HF power source anode is made as one of coupling capasitor plates, the second plate of which is the nearest to anode HF power supply grid. The coupling capacitor plalte functional union with the HF power supply electrodes (anode and grid) reduces to spirious inductances of HF power supply circuit to minimum. Besides, the accelerator structure is simplified, as additional cooling system for the charged particle source is not necessary

  3. Acceleration of charged particles in laser beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Małachowski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper was to find parameters of the laser and maser beams in numerical ways with additionally applied external static axial magnetic field which satisfies the proper conditions for charged particle acceleration.Design/methodology/approach: The set acceleration was designed in order to obtain the possible high kinetic energy of the charged particles in the controllable manner. This was achieved applying a circularly polarized high intensity laser beam and a static axial magnetic field, both acting on the particle during the proper period.Findings: The quantitative illustrations of the calculation results, in a graphical form enabled to discuss the impact of many parameters on the acceleration process of the electrons and protons. We have found the impact of the Doppler Effect on the acceleration process to be significant. Increase in laser or maser beam intensity results in particle’s energy increase and its trajectory dimension. However, increase in external magnetic field results in shrinking of the helical trajectories. It enables to keep the particle inside the laser beam.Research limitations/implications: Limits in the energy of accelerated particles arise from the limitsin up-to-date available laser beam energy and the beam diameters.Originality/value: The authors show the parameters of the circularly polarized laser beam which should be satisfied in order to obtain the desired energy of the accelerated particles. The influence of the magnetic field strength is also shown.

  4. The formation of negatively charged particles in thermoemission plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnyakov, V. I.; Dragan, G. S.; Florko, A. V.

    2008-01-01

    The results of measuring the charges of the magnesium oxide particles formed near a block of metallic magnesium burning in air are presented. It has been found that, apart from positively charged magnesium oxide particles, there are negatively charged particles in the thermoemission plasma of the burning products. It has been shown that within the framework of the model of neutralizing charges, the oxide particles can acquire unlike charges in the thermoemission plasma. The calculations agree with the experimental data.

  5. The formation of negatively charged particles in thermoemission plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vishnyakov, V. I., E-mail: pipeaes@te.net.ua; Dragan, G. S.; Florko, A. V. [Mechnikov Odessa National University (Ukraine)

    2008-01-15

    The results of measuring the charges of the magnesium oxide particles formed near a block of metallic magnesium burning in air are presented. It has been found that, apart from positively charged magnesium oxide particles, there are negatively charged particles in the thermoemission plasma of the burning products. It has been shown that within the framework of the model of neutralizing charges, the oxide particles can acquire unlike charges in the thermoemission plasma. The calculations agree with the experimental data.

  6. The formation of negatively charged particles in thermoemission plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of measuring the charges of the magnesium oxide particles formed near a block of metallic magnesium burning in air are presented. It has been found that, apart from positively charged magnesium oxide particles, there are negatively charged particles in the thermoemission plasma of the burning products. It has been shown that within the framework of the model of neutralizing charges, the oxide particles can acquire unlike charges in the thermoemission plasma. The calculations agree with the experimental data

  7. Born expansions for charged particle scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-order terms in Born expansions of scattering amplitudes in powers of charge are frequently divergent when long-range Coulomb interactions are present asymptotically. Expansions which are free from these logarithmic divergences have been constructed recently. This paper illustrates these expansions with the simplest example, namely the non-relativistic Rutherford scattering of two charged particles. This approach represents an adequate framework for the calculation of transition amplitudes and a comprehensive starting point for the development of consistent perturbation approximations in multi-channel descriptions of strongly interacting atomic systems

  8. Heavy charged particle dosimetry, theory and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were made to verify the theory of the transport of heavy particles through a medium using L-α-alaline for the detection of radiation. The dose response of L-α-alaline was measured for X-ray radiation of an energy of 4 to 16 MeV, electron radiation of an energy of 6, 10 and 20 MeV, low-LET radiation, 16 MeV and 6 MeV protons, 20 MeV particles and other charged particles. Of the measured dose responses RE values were experimentally obtained and compared with calculated results. Free and very stable radicals were obtained by radiation. Fading of low-LET and high-LET radiation was determined as induced by the said radicals. Using ESR spectra it was found that diverse chemical reactions take place in the track of high-LET particles. However, chemical reactions in the track of a heavy charged particle will be the same if the medium is homogeneously irradiated with low-LET radiation. (E.S.). 7 figs., 1 tab., 11 refs

  9. Method for charged particle beam acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of charged particle beam acceleration based on its resonance interaction with electromagnetic field of travelling wave is suggested. The electron beam is injected into waveguide in which longitudinal magnetic field and electromagnetic wave are excited. With the purpose of reducing HF-power losses in the waveguide walls, the azimuthal particle motion is synchronized with azimuthal change of longitudinal component of electric field of the accelerating electromagnetic wave. The suggested method permits to increase the efficiency and shunting resistance of the accelerating waveguide by reducing its boundary surface

  10. Collective aspects of charged particle track structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A plasmon generated by a swift charged particle constitutes a coherent excitation about the particle track. We discuss the representation of collective modes in impact parameter space when created by a swift ion or a fast electron, and the decay of these modes into localized excitations. Several alternative spatial representations are considered. We show that the high spatial resolution found in secondary electron emission measurements with scanning electron microscopy is consistent with the existence of the plasmon as an intermediary between the fast incident electron and the measured secondary electrons. 24 refs., 6 figs

  11. Charge State Model of Solar Energetic Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Peral, L.; Pérez-Peraza, J. A.; Rodríguez Frías, M. D.

    2013-05-01

    Charge states of heavy ions in Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events observed at the Earth's neighborhood with experiments on board satellites give us information about physical properties of plasma where acceleration occurs. SEP detection is performed near the Earth, therefore not only physical condition of the plasma source of accelerated particles have to be taken into account. We have developed a charge state model in order to explain the evolution of particle charge states under solar acceleration. Charge-interchange processes between the accelerated ions and the plasma matter in the acceleration region are considered on basis of electron loss and capture cross sections at high energies. We have applied the model to observational data from satellites measuring charge states of SEPs. In contrast with other models that use ionization and recombination cross-sections that require application of thermal equilibrium, our model assumes that the acceleration is so fast that thermal equilibrium can not be applied to the change interchange processes. Therefore we employ in our model high energy cross-sections for electron capture and loss, since the population which is being accelerated acquires a non-thermal spectrum. We have developed temperature dependent cross-sections. Acceleration begins from a thermal distribution. As soon as the particles increase their energy by the acceleration process, they acquire an energy spectrum which differs from the Maxwellian thermal one while interacting with the background thermal matter. Figure 1 presents the results of our model that fit experimental charge states of Fe ions from two impulsive SEP events detected by the SEPICA satellite in July 1999. We obtain good fitting for source temperature of 1.8 \\cdot 106 K and density of 5\\cdot108 cm-3 and acceleration efficiency of 1.8\\cdot 10-2 s-1 for the July 20th 1999 event and 3.3\\cdot 10-2 s-1 for the July 3rd 1999. Good concordance between experimental data and our model have

  12. High-LET charged particle radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Radiation Oncology at UCSF Medical Center and the Radiation Oncology Department at UC Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory have been evaluating the use of high LET charged particle radiotherapy in a Phase 1--2 research trial ongoing since 1979. In this clinical trail, 239 patients have received at least 10 Gy (physical) minimum tumor dose with neon ions, meaning that at least one-half of their total treatment was given with high-LET charged particle therapy. Ninety-one patients received all of their therapy with neon ions. Of the 239 patients irradiated, target sites included lesions in the skin, subcutaneous tissues, head and neck such as paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx and salivary glands (major and minor), skull base and juxtaspinal area, GI tract including esophagus, pancreas and biliary tract, prostate, lung, soft tissue and bone. Analysis of these patients has been carried out with a minimum followup period of 2 years

  13. Geometrical charged-particle optics. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Harald [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik

    2013-03-01

    Provides a unique theoretical treatment of charged-particle optics. Displays novel unpublished results on several topics. Provides insight into the properties of charged-particle devices. Treats wave optical properties of the electron. Presents the resolution limit of electron microscopes and novel theoretical treatment of the Stern-Gerlach effect. This second edition is an extended version of the first edition of Geometrical Charged-Particle Optics. The updated reference monograph is intended as a guide for researchers and graduate students who are seeking a comprehensive treatment of the design of instruments and beam-guiding systems of charged particles and their propagation in electromagnetic fields. Wave aspects are included in this edition for explaining electron holography, the Aharanov-Bohm effect and the resolution of electron microscopes limited by diffraction. Several methods for calculating the electromagnetic field are presented and procedures are outlined for calculating the properties of systems with arbitrarily curved axis. Detailed methods are presented for designing and optimizing special components such as aberration correctors, spectrometers, energy filters monochromators, ion traps, electron mirrors and cathode lenses. In particular, the optics of rotationally symmetric lenses, quadrupoles, and systems composed of these elements are discussed extensively. Beam properties such as emittance, brightness, transmissivity and the formation of caustics are outlined. Relativistic motion and spin precession of the electron are treated in a covariant way by introducing the Lorentz-invariant universal time and by extending Hamilton's principle from three to four spatial dimensions where the laboratory time is considered as the fourth pseudo-spatial coordinate. Using this procedure and introducing the self action of the electron, its accompanying electromagnetic field and its radiation field are calculated for arbitrary motion. In addition, the Stern

  14. Automated control system in charged particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general approach to the design of automated radiation safety systems at charged particle accelerators is described. Parameters of high-energy electron accelerators of the Kharkov Physics and Engineering Institute are presented. Characteristics of the surrounding radiation fields are given. Ionizing radiation transducers which can be used in automated systems are considered. Local radiation monitoring station based on the LUE-2000 accelerator of the institute is described. 9 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  15. Controlling Charged Particles with Inhomogeneous Electrostatic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Federico A. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An energy analyzer for a charged-particle spectrometer may include a top deflection plate and a bottom deflection plate. The top and bottom deflection plates may be non-symmetric and configured to generate an inhomogeneous electrostatic field when a voltage is applied to one of the top or bottom deflection plates. In some instances, the top and bottom deflection plates may be L-shaped deflection plates.

  16. Charged particle layers in the Debye limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We develop an equivalent of the Debye-Hueckel weakly coupled equilibrium theory for layered classical charged particle systems composed of one single charged species. We consider the two most important configurations, the charged particle bilayer and the infinite superlattice. The approach is based on the link provided by the classical fluctuation-dissipation theorem between the random-phase approximation response functions and the Debye equilibrium pair correlation function. Layer-layer pair correlation functions, screened and polarization potentials, static structure functions, and static response functions are calculated. The importance of the perfect screening and compressibility sum rules in determining the overall behavior of the system, especially in the r→∞ limit, is emphasized. The similarities and differences between the quasi-two-dimensional bilayer and the quasi-three-dimensional superlattice are highlighted. An unexpected behavior that emerges from the analysis is that the screened potential, the correlations, and the screening charges carried by the individual layers exhibit a marked nonmonotonic dependence on the layer separation

  17. Light Charged Particles as Gateway to Hyperdeformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Euroball-IV γ -detector array, equipped with the ancillary charged particle detector array DIAMANT was used to study the residues of the fusion reaction 64Ni + 64Ni → 128Ba at Ebeam = 255 and 261 MeV, in an attempt to reach the highest angular momentum and verify the existence of predicted hyperdeformed rotational bands. No discrete hyperdeformed bands were identified, but nevertheless a breakthrough was obtained through a systematic search for rotational ridge structures with very large moments of inertia J(2) ≥ 100 ℎ2 MeV(-1), in agreement with theoretical predictions for hyperdeformed shapes. Evidence for hyperdeformation was obtained by charged particle + γ -ray gating, selecting triple correlated ridge structures in the continuum of each of the nuclei, 118Te, 124Xe and 124,125Cs. In 7 additional nuclei, rotational ridges were also identified with J(2) = 71-77 ℎ2 MeV(-1), which most probably correspond to superdeformed shape. The angular distributions of the emitted charged particles show an excess in forward direction over expectations from pure compound evaporation, which may indicate that in-complete fusion plays an important role in the population of very elongated shapes. (author)

  18. Motion of charged particles in the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adiabatic motion of charged particles in the magnetosphere has been investigated using Mead-Fairfield magnetospheric field model (Mead and Fairfield, 1975). Since the motion of charged particles in a dipolar field geometry is well understood, we bring out in this paper some important features in characteristic motion due to non-dipolar distortions in the field geometry. We look at the tilt averaged picture of the field configuration and estimate theoretically the parameters like bounce period, longitudinal invariant and the bounce averaged drift velocities of the charged particle in the Mead-Fairfield field geometry. These parameters are evaluated as a function of pitch angle and azimuthal position in the region of ring current (5 to 7 Earth radii from the centre of the Earth) for four ranges of magnetic activity. At different longitudes the non-dipolar contribution as a percentage of dipole value in bounce period and longitudinal invariant shows maximum variation for particles close to 900 pitch angles. For any low pitch angle, these effects maximize at the midnight meridian. The radial component of the bounce averaged drift velocity is found to be greatest at the dawn-dusk meridians and the contribution vanishes at the day and midnight meridians for all pitch angles. In the absence of tilt-dependent terms in the model, the latitudinal component of the drift velocity vanishes. On the other hand, the relative non-dipolar contribution to bounce averaged azimuthal drift velocity is very high as compared to similar contribution in other characteristic parameters of particle motion. It is also shown that non-dipolar contribution in bounce period, longitudinal invariant and bounce averaged drift velocities increases in magnitude with increase in distance and magnetic activity. (orig.)

  19. Experimental research of thermoemission charging of metal particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Original experimental methods of thermoemission charge determination of a spherical metallic particle surrounded by the condensed disperse phase are proposed. The analytical dependence of the particle charge on time is found, and its relaxation time is determined

  20. Metastable states of plasma particles close to a charged surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The free energy of the plasma particles and the charged surface that form an electroneutral system is calculated on the basis of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. It is shown that, owing to correlation of light plasma particles near the charged surface and close to heavy particles of high charge, there can be metastable states in plasma. The corresponding phase charts of metastable states of the separate components of plasma, and plasma as a whole, are constructed. These charts depend on temperature, the charge magnitude, the size of the particles, and the share of the charge of the light carriers out of the total charge of the plasma particles

  1. Radiation reaction for a massless charged particle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazinski, P O; Sharapov, A A [Physics Faculty, Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2003-07-07

    We derive effective equations of motion for a massless charged particle coupled to the dynamical electromagnetic field with regard to the radiation back reaction. It is shown that unlike the massive case, not all the divergences resulting from the self-action of the particle are Lagrangian, i.e., can be cancelled out by adding appropriate counterterms to the original action. Besides, the order of renormalized differential equations governing the effective dynamics turns out to be greater than the order of the corresponding Lorentz-Dirac equation for a massive particle. For the case of a homogeneous external field, the first radiative correction to the Lorentz equation is explicitly derived via the reduction of order procedure.

  2. Radiation reaction for a massless charged particle

    CERN Document Server

    Kazinski, P O

    2003-01-01

    We derive effective equations of motion for a massless charged particle coupled to the dynamical electromagnetic field having regard to the radiation back reaction. It is shown that unlike the massive case not all the divergences resulting from the self-action of the particle are Lagrangian, i.e. can be canceled out by adding appropriate counterterms to the original action. Besides, the order of renormalized differential equations governing the effective dynamics turns out to be greater than the order of the corresponding Lorentz-Dirac equation for a massive particle. For the case of homogeneous external field the first radiative correction to the Lorentz equation is explicitly derived via the reduction of order procedure.

  3. Radiation reaction for a massless charged particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We derive effective equations of motion for a massless charged particle coupled to the dynamical electromagnetic field with regard to the radiation back reaction. It is shown that unlike the massive case, not all the divergences resulting from the self-action of the particle are Lagrangian, i.e., can be cancelled out by adding appropriate counterterms to the original action. Besides, the order of renormalized differential equations governing the effective dynamics turns out to be greater than the order of the corresponding Lorentz-Dirac equation for a massive particle. For the case of a homogeneous external field, the first radiative correction to the Lorentz equation is explicitly derived via the reduction of order procedure

  4. Radiation reaction for a massless charged particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazinski, P. O.; Sharapov, A. A.

    2003-07-01

    We derive effective equations of motion for a massless charged particle coupled to the dynamical electromagnetic field with regard to the radiation back reaction. It is shown that unlike the massive case, not all the divergences resulting from the self-action of the particle are Lagrangian, i.e., can be cancelled out by adding appropriate counterterms to the original action. Besides, the order of renormalized differential equations governing the effective dynamics turns out to be greater than the order of the corresponding Lorentz-Dirac equation for a massive particle. For the case of a homogeneous external field, the first radiative correction to the Lorentz equation is explicitly derived via the reduction of order procedure.

  5. A chemical analyzer for charged ultrafine particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Gonser

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available New particle formation is a frequent phenomenon in the atmosphere and of major significance for the earth's climate and human health. To date the mechanisms leading to the nucleation of particles as well as to aerosol growth are not completely understood. A lack of appropriate measurement equipment for online analysis of the chemical composition of freshly nucleated particles is one major limitation. We have developed a Chemical Analyzer for Charged Ultrafine Particles (CAChUP capable of analyzing particles with diameters below 30 nm. A bulk of size separated particles is collected electrostatically on a metal filament, resistively desorbed and consequently analyzed for its molecular composition in a time of flight mass spectrometer. We report of technical details as well as characterization experiments performed with the CAChUP. Our instrument was tested in the laboratory for its detection performance as well as for its collection and desorption capabilities. The manual application of known masses of camphene (C10H16 to the desorption filament resulted in a detection limit between 0.5 and 5 ng, and showed a linear response of the mass spectrometer. Flow tube experiments of 25 nm diameter secondary organic aerosol from ozonolysis of alpha-pinene also showed a linear relation between collection time and the mass spectrometer's signal intensity. The resulting mass spectra from the collection experiments are in good agreement with published work on particles generated by the ozonolysis of alpha-pinene. A sensitivity study shows that the current setup of CAChUP is ready for laboratory measurements and for the observation of new particle formation events in the field.

  6. Sound from charged particles in liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two directions of sound application appearing during the charged particles passing through liquid - in biology and for charged particles registration are considered. Application of this sound in radiology is determined by a contribution of its hypersound component (approximately 109 Hz) to radiology effect of ionizing radiation on micro-organisms and cells. Large amplitudes and pressure gradients in a hypersound wave have a pronounced destructive breaking effect on various microobjects (cells, bacteria, viruses). An essential peculiarity of these processes is the possibility of control by choosing conditions changing hypersound generation, propagation and effect. This fact may lead not only to the control by radiaiton effects but also may explain and complete the analogy of ionizing radiation and ultrasound effect on bioobjects. The second direction is acoustic registration of passing ionizing particles. It is based on the possibility of guaranteed signal reception from a shower with 1015-1016 eV energy in water at distances of hundreds of meters. Usage of acoustic technique for neutrino registration in the DUMAND project permits to use a detecting volume of water with a mass of 109 t and higher

  7. Alpha particles diffusion due to charge changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clauser, C. F., E-mail: cesar.clauser@ib.edu.ar; Farengo, R. [Centro Atómico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica and Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina)

    2015-12-15

    Alpha particles diffusion due to charge changes in a magnetized plasma is studied. Analytical calculations and numerical simulations are employed to show that this process can be very important in the pedestal-edge-SOL regions. This is the first study that presents clear evidence of the importance of atomic processes on the diffusion of alpha particles. A simple 1D model that includes inelastic collisions with plasma species, “cold” neutrals, and partially ionized species was employed. The code, which follows the exact particle orbits and includes the effect of inelastic collisions via a Monte Carlo type random process, runs on a graphic processor unit (GPU). The analytical and numerical results show excellent agreement when a uniform background (plasma and cold species) is assumed. The simulations also show that the gradients in the density of the plasma and cold species, which are large and opposite in the edge region, produce an inward flux of alpha particles. Calculations of the alpha particles flux reaching the walls or divertor plates should include these processes.

  8. Theory and design of charged particle beams

    CERN Document Server

    Reiser, Martin

    1994-01-01

    Although particle accelerators are the book's main thrust, it offers a broad synoptic description of beams which applies to a wide range of other devices such as low-energy focusing and transport systems and high-power microwave sources. Develops material from first principles, basic equations and theorems in a systematic way. Assumptions and approximations are clearly indicated. Discusses underlying physics and validity of theoretical relationships, design formulas and scaling laws. Features a significant amount of recent work including image effects and the Boltzmann line charge density prof

  9. Charged particle beam current monitoring tutorial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A tutorial presentation is made on topics related to the measurement of charged particle beam currents. The fundamental physics of electricity and magnetism pertinent to the problem is reviewed. The physics is presented with a stress on its interpretation from an electrical circuit theory point of view. The operation of devices including video pulse current transformers, direct current transformers, and gigahertz bandwidth wall current style transformers is described. Design examples are given for each of these types of devices. Sensitivity, frequency response, and physical environment are typical parameters which influence the design of these instruments in any particular application. Practical engineering considerations, potential pitfalls, and performance limitations are discussed

  10. CVD diamond sensors for charged particle detection

    CERN Document Server

    Krammer, Manfred; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bertuccio, G; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; D'Angelo, P; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Dencuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Hallewell, G D; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Kass, R; Koeth, T W; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; MacLynne, L; Manfredotti, C; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Moroni, L; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Perera, L P; Pirollo, S; Procario, M; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Rousseau, L; Rudge, A; Russ, J; Sala, S; Sampietro, M; Schnetzer, S; Sciortino, S; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R; Trischuk, W; Tromson, D; Vittone, E; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Wetstein, M; White, C; Zeuner, W; Zöller, M

    2001-01-01

    CVD diamond material was used to build position-sensitive detectors for single-charged particles to be employed in high-intensity physics experiments. To obtain position information, metal contacts shaped as strips or pixels are applied to the detector surface for one- or two- dimensional coordinate measurement. Strip detectors 2*4 cm/sup 2/ in size with a strip distance of 50 mu m were tested. Pixel detectors of various pixel sizes were bump bonded to electronics chips and investigated. A key issue for the use of these sensors in high intensity experiments is the radiation hardness. Several irradiation experiments were carried out with pions, protons and neutrons exceeding a fluence of 10/sup 15/ particles/cm/sup 2/. The paper presents an overview of the results obtained with strip and pixel detectors in high-energy test beams and summarises the irradiation studies. (8 refs).

  11. Device for measuring charge density distribution in charged particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A device to measure charge density distribution in charged particle beams has been described. The device contains a set of hollow interinsulated current-receiving electrodes, recording system, and cooling system. The invention is aimed at the increase of admissible capacity of the beams measured at the expense of cooling efficiency increase. The aim is achieved by the fact, that in the device a dynamic evaporating-condensational cooling of electrodes is realized by means of cooling agent supply in perpendicular to their planes through the tubes introduced inside special cups. Spreading in radial direction over electrode surface the cooling agent gradually and intensively washes the side surface of the cup, after that, it enters the cooling cavity in the form of vapour-liquid mixture. In the cavity the cooling agent, supplied using dispensina and receiving collectors in which vapoUr is condensed, circulates. In the device suggested the surface of electrode cooling is decreased significantly at the expense of side surface of the cups which receives the electrode heat

  12. Surface charge accumulation of particles containing radionuclides in open air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactivity can induce charge accumulation on radioactive particles. However, electrostatic interactions caused by radioactivity are typically neglected in transport modeling of radioactive plumes because it is assumed that ionizing radiation leads to charge neutralization. The assumption that electrostatic interactions caused by radioactivity are negligible is evaluated here by examining charge accumulation and neutralization on particles containing radionuclides in open air. A charge-balance model is employed to predict charge accumulation on radioactive particles. It is shown that particles containing short-lived radionuclides can be charged with multiple elementary charges through radioactive decay. The presence of radioactive particles can significantly modify the particle charge distribution in open air and yield an asymmetric bimodal charge distribution, suggesting that strong electrostatic particle interactions may occur during short- and long-range transport of radioactive particles. Possible effects of transported radioactive particles on electrical properties of the local atmosphere are reported. The study offers insight into transport characteristics of airborne radionuclides. Results are useful in atmospheric transport modeling of radioactive plumes. - Highlights: • Radioactivity-induced charge enhances electrostatic particle interactions. • Radioactivity-induced particle charging is important in radioactivity transport. • Ionization rate coefficients of beta-emitting radionuclides are reported

  13. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room by Niels Bohr Institute - Kulturnatten, Copenhagen

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Experiment

    2012-01-01

    This ATLAS Virtual Visit will be part of outreach and education programme of the Niels Bohr Institute during a Copenhagen wide night of culture and science, Kulturnatten. Visitors of all ages and background will have the chance to get an introduction to the ATLAS Experiment, the LHC, and basic particle physics. The Virtual Visit will supplement an exhibition and give the opportunity to ask questions about anything related to ATLAS to a Danish physicist at CERN. The Niels Bohr Institute is a long time member of the ATLAS Collaboration and has contributed to Kulturnatten for many years now. http://atlas-live-virtual-visit.web.cern.ch/atlas-live-virtual-visit/2012/Copenhagen-2012.html

  14. Mass-independent search for fractionally charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A proposed mass-independent search for fractionally charged particles with the all-electrostatic line of the IsoTRACE Laboratory at University of Toronto is described. Sensitive measurement of the fractional charge is accomplished by (1) a judicious choice of ion source and ion species, (2) charge changing and electrostatic analysis before injection into the tandem accelerator, (3) molecular destruction, charge changing, and acceleration by the tandem, (4) charge state selection and E/q analysis after acceleration, and (5) particle energy measurement with a Si surface barrier detector. In addition, the mass of the fractionally charged particles can be determined by a time of flight spectrometer. Specific cases involving +- (1/3)e and +- (2/3)e particles are discussed. Also included in the discussion are: integral charge background rejection, the procedure of the search, the signature of the fractionally charged particles, he resolutions of the analyzers and detectors, and the expected energy and time of flight spectra

  15. Electrophysical Systems Based On Charged Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Vorogushin, M F

    2004-01-01

    The advancement of the charged particle accelerator engineering affects appreciably the modern tendencies of the scientific and technological progress in the world. In a number of advanced countries, this trend is one of the most dynamically progressing in the field of applied science and high-technology production. Such internationally known firms as VARIAN, SIEMENS, PHILIPS, ELECTA, IBA, HITACHI, etc., with an annual budget of milliards of dollars and growth rate of tens of percent may serve as an example. Although nowadays the projects of new large-scale accelerators for physical research are not implemented so quickly and frequently as desired, accelerating facilities are finding ever-widening application in various fields of human activities. The contribution made by Russian scientists into high-energy beams physics is generally known. High scientific and technical potential in this field, qualified personnel with a high creative potential, modern production and test facilities and state-of-the-art techn...

  16. Aberration compensation in charged particle projection lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Projection systems offer the opportunity to increase the throughput for charged particle lithography, because such systems image a large area of a mask directly on to a wafer as a single shot. Shots have to be imaged over a certain range of off-axis distances at the wafer to increase the writing speed, because shot sizes are limited to about 0.25x0.25 mm2 due to aberrations. In a projection system with only lenses, however, the aberrations for off-axis shots are still very large, and some aberration compensation elements need to be introduced. In this paper, three aberration compensation elements (deflectors, stigmators and dynamic focus lenses) are first discussed, a suite of newly developed software, called PROJECTION, based on this principle and our unified aberration theory is then described, and an illustrative example computed with the software is finally given

  17. Precipitation particle charge distribution and evolution of East Asian rainbands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tsutomu

    2012-11-01

    Numerous videosondes, balloon-borne surveyors of precipitation particle morphology and charge, have been launched into cloud systems in many, disparate locations in East Asia. Reported here are videosonde-based observations of early summer, Baiu rainbands at Tanegashima in southern Japan and of summer rainbands at Chiang Rai in northern Thailand. Precipitation particles are mapped by type and charge over the course of cloud development, allowing particle and charge evolution to be derived. The basic charge distribution as observed in Hokuriku winter thunderclouds at different cloud life stages was seen at different locations characterized by vertical velocity profiles in the cloud. The charge structure of the rainbands in both locations was a basic tripole. The major charge carriers were graupel and ice crystals. As graupel and ice crystal concentrations increased, not only did space charge increase, but per-particle charge also increased. Increased lightning activity was associated with higher particle space charge and lower cloud-top temperature. The particle charge evolution of these systems includes several fundamental features: a. active negative charging of graupel in an intense updraft, b. descent of negative graupel along the edge of an updraft column, c. merging of negative graupel with positively charged raindrops falling in the central cloud, and d. extended distribution of positive ice crystals in the stratiform cloud. The observations suggest that riming electrification was the main charge separation mechanism.

  18. Searches for Fractionally Charged Particles: What Should Be Done Next?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perl, Martin L.; /SLAC

    2009-01-15

    Since the initial measurements of the electron charge a century ago, experimenters have faced the persistent question as to whether elementary particles exist that have charges that are fractional multiples of the electron charge. I concisely review the results of the last 50 years of searching for fractional charge particles with no confirmed positive results. I discuss the question of whether more searching is worthwhile?

  19. Determination of colloidal particle surface charge from dielectrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Marko; Nuansri, Rittirong; Mazza, Jacob; Ou-Yang, H. Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Electrophoresis (EP) is used to determine colloidal particle surface charge. However, when the Debye length is comparable to or larger than the particle size, electrophoresis cannot be reliably used to determine the surface charge due to counter ion retardation flow. Alexander et al. developed a theory relating colloidal osmotic pressure and particle surface charge. We use dielectrophoresis (DEP) to obtain a potential landscape based on the number density distribution of the particles in a non-uniform AC electric field. We determine the osmotic pressure from the DEP force and density profiles using Einstein's osmotic equilibrium equation. Surface charge obtained by DEP (thermodynamics) will be compared to that obtained by EP (electrokinetics).

  20. Bibliography of integral charged particle nuclear data. Archival edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the fourth annual edition of the National Nuclear Data Center charged-particle bibliography. This edition is cumulative and supersedes the previous editions. The bibliography's primary aims are to satisfy the need for a concise and comprehensive index of integral charged-particle cross section data and to provide an index of charged-particle data compiled in the international exchange format. References in this Part are by target for the various incident charged particles (in order of increasing A). The present publication is an archival volume; future publications will be cumulative supplements to this edition

  1. VEDs for charged particle accelerators: Indian scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the initial times after their invention, the charged particle accelerators have, primarily, been used for fundamental studies on nuclei and atoms. From the first modern accelerator, the cathode ray tube, used by J.J. Thomson for the discovery of electron, very recently the gigantic 27 km circumference Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is operational in the search of Higg's boson and related physics issues. Particle accelerators have emerged as powerful microscopes for investigating the finest details of cells, genes, molecules, atoms, protons, neutrons, muons, electrons, quarks and, possibly, still undiscovered even more fundamental constituents of the universe, such as dark matter and dark energy. Several noble prize winning discoveries have been made using accelerators. Accelerators are now being used in a wide area of industrial and medical applications. They are used for the production of radioisotopes for medical imaging, cancer therapy, food sterilization, treatment of waste water, sterilization of medical equipment, material modification, mass spectroscopy, cargo scanning, fabrication of semiconductors etc. Ongoing effort towards the development of accelerators with megawatt beam power is showing hope for a cleaner source of nuclear energy and treatment of nuclear waste. Several tens of thousands of accelerators are presently operational in the world for basic research and applications. Development of new accelerators has several times been driven by new technologies and materials and sometimes they have driven the technological developments towards cutting edge. Some examples are ultra-high vacuum in large volumes, superfluid helium in cryogenics, cryocoolers, superconducting magnets and RF cavities, high power vacuum electronic devices, global control systems, superfast computing and communication networks, giant data storage/processing systems etc. India has been pursuing a fairly robust programme of accelerator development at various institutions. It

  2. The effect of single-particle charge limits on charge distributions in dusty plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical expression for the stationary particle charge distribution in dusty plasmas is derived that accounts for the existence of single-particle charge limits. This expression is validated by comparison with the results of Monte Carlo charging simulations. The relative importance of the existence of charge limits for various values of the ratio of electron-to-ion density and ion mass is examined, and the effect of charge limits on the transient behavior of the charge distribution is considered. It is found that the time required to reach a steady-state charge distribution strongly decreases as the charge limit decreases, and that the existence of charge limits causes high-frequency charge fluctuations to become relatively more important than in the case without charge limits. (paper)

  3. Effects of charged particles on DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It can be noted that it is not simple double strand breaks (dsb) but the non-reparable breaks that are associated with high biological effectiveness in the cell killing effect for high LET radiation. Here, we have examined the effectiveness of fast neutrons and low (initial energy = 12 MeV/u) or high (135 MeV/u) energy charged particles on cell death in 19 mammalian cell lines including radiosensitive mutants. Some of the radiosensitive lines were deficient in DNA dsb repair such as LX830, M10, V3, and L5178Y-S cells and showed lower values of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for fast neutrons if compared with their parent cell lines. The other lines of human ataxia-telangiectasia fibroblasts, irs 1, irs 2, irs 3 and irs 1SF cells, which were also radiosensitive but known as proficient in dsb repair, showed moderate RBEs. Dsb repair deficient mutants showed low RBE values for heavy ions. These experimental findings suggest that the DNA repair system does not play a major role against the attack of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiations. Therefore, we hypothesize that a main cause of cell death induced by high LET radiations is due to non-reparable dsb, which are produced at a higher rate compared to low LET radiations. (author)

  4. Charged-particle beam: a safety mandate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) is a recent development in the field of charged particle beam research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. With this experimental apparatus, researchers will characterize intense pulses of electron beams propagated through air. Inherent with the ATA concept was the potential for exposure to hazards, such as high radiation levels and hostile breathing atmospheres. The need for a comprehensive safety program was mandated; a formal system safety program was implemented during the project's conceptual phase. A project staff position was created for a safety analyst who would act as a liaison between the project staff and the safety department. Additionally, the safety analyst would be responsible for compiling various hazards analyses reports, which formed the basis of th project's Safety Analysis Report. Recommendations for safety features from the hazards analysis reports were incorporated as necessary at appropriate phases in project development rather than adding features afterwards. The safety program established for the ATA project faciliated in controlling losses and in achieving a low-level of acceptable risk

  5. Particles and scalar waves in noncommutative charged black hole spacetime

    OpenAIRE

    Bhar, Piyali; Rahaman, Farook; Biswas, Ritabrata(Indian Institute of Engineering Sceince and Technology Shibpur (Formerly, Bengal Engineering and Science University Shibpur), 711 013, Howrah, West Bengal, India); Mondal, U. F.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we have discussed geodesics and the motion of test particle in the gravitational field of noncommutative charged black hole spacetime. The motion of massive and massless particle have been discussed seperately. A comparative study of noncommutative charged black hole and usual Reissner-Nordstrom black hole has been done. The study of effective potential has also been included. Finally, we have examined the scattering of scalar waves in noncommutative charged black hole spacetime.

  6. Particles and Scalar Waves in Noncommutative Charged Black Hole Spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piyali, Bhar; Farook, Rahaman; Ritabrata, Biswas; U. F., Mondal

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we have discussed geodesics and the motion of test particle in the gravitational field of non-commutative charged black hole spacetime. The motion of massive and massless particle have been discussed seperately. A comparative study of noncommutative charged black hole and usual Reissner-Nordström black hole has been done. The study of effective potential has also been included. Finally, we have examined the scattering of scalar waves in noncommutative charged black hole spacetime.

  7. Dynamics of fast charged particle beam rotation in bended crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamics of fast charged particle beam rotation in a bended monocrystal is considered. Face and volume mechanisms of capture in channels are taken into account simultaneously in the model presented. Functions of distribution in transverse energies (φ) of channeled and dechanneled particles are obtained. Charge-energy ''scale invariance'' in ion channeling with charge Z in a bended crystal determined by scale parameter W=pv/Z (p and v are pulse and velocity local to transverse planes) follows from the model presented

  8. Charged particle periodicity in the Saturnian magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The low energy charged particles (LECP) experiments on the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft performed measurements of electrons (approx.22 keV to approx.20 MeV) and ions (approx.28 keV to approx.150 MeV) during the Saturn encounters in 1980 and 1981. Count rate ratios of two of the low energy electron (22 to 35 keV and 183 to 500 keV) and ion (43 to 80 keV and 137 to 215 keV) channels exhibit an approximation 10 hour periodicity in the outer Saturnian magnetosphere beyond the orbit of Titan. Electron ratios vary from approx.50 to approx.300; ion ratios vary from approx.3 to approx.20. Similar but less pronounced periodicities are observed for higher and lower energy electron and ion spectral indices. Three complete cycles were observed during the Voyager 2 outbound portion of the encounter from which were determined an electron ratio period of 10/sup h/21/sup m/ +- 48/sup m/ and an ion ratio period of 9/sup h/49/sup m/ +- 59/sup m/. Using Saturn Kilometric Radiation (SKR) and Saturn Electrostatic Discharge (SED) periods, extrapolation backward from Voyager 2 to Voyager 1 suggests that the periodicities are Saturnian rather than Jovian in nature, and that they persist in phase for time intervals at least as long as 287 days. Ratio minima, or spectral hardenings, occur in the same hemisphere as do auroral brightenings, SKR activity, and spoke enhanement. We interpret the observations as prima facie evidence of an asymmetry in the Saturian magnetic field and the root cause of the observed SKR periodicity

  9. Photon production by charged particles in narrow optical fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Artru, X.; Ray, C.

    2006-01-01

    Presented at International Conference on Charged and Neutral Particles Channeling Phenomena, Frascati, Italy, July 3-7, 2006. - Theorie, CAS A charged particle passing through or by an optical fiber induces emission of light guided by the fiber. The formula giving the spontaneous emission amplitude are given in the general case when the particle trajectory is not parallel to the fiber axis. At small angle, the photon yield grows like the inverse power of the angle and in the parallel limit...

  10. Massive Vector Particles Tunneling From Noncommutative Charged Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Övgün, Ali

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the tunneling process of charged massive bosons $W^{\\pm}$ (spin-1 particles) from noncommutative charged black holes such as charged RN black holes and charged BTZ black holes. By applying the WKB approximation and by using the Hamilton-Jacobi equation we derive the tunneling rate and the corresponding Hawking temperature for those black holes configuration. The tunneling rate shows that the radiation deviates from pure thermality and is consistent with an underlying unitary theory.

  11. Highly charged hollow latex particles prepared via seeded emulsion polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuasaen, Sukanya; Tangboriboonrat, Pramuan

    2013-04-15

    The carboxylated hollow latex (HL) particles possessing high surface charge density were conveniently prepared by using poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) (P(St/AA)) as seed particles and methyl methacrylate (MMA)/divinylbenzene (DVB)/AA as monomers. Without seed removal, the hollow structure was simply tuned by adjusting the monomer/seed ratio and the monomer content. The monodisperse, spherical, and non-collapsed HL particles with double shell having the void of 280 nm were obtained from P(St/AA) seeds of 300 nm. The conductimetric back titration, SEM, TEM, and dynamic light scattering measurement revealed that the surface charge density, surface roughness, and size of HL particles significantly increased when applying the stepwise charging monomers/initiator. The highly charged HL particles would be well dispersed in coating film providing good optical properties, for example, opacity and whiteness. PMID:23428072

  12. Anomalous mobility of highly charged particles in pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yinghua; Yang, Crystal; Hinkle, Preston; Vlassiouk, Ivan V; Siwy, Zuzanna S

    2015-08-18

    Single micropores in resistive-pulse technique were used to understand a complex dependence of particle mobility on its surface charge density. We show that the mobility of highly charged carboxylated particles decreases with the increase of the solution pH due to an interplay of three effects: (i) ion condensation, (ii) formation of an asymmetric electrical double layer around the particle, and (iii) electroosmotic flow induced by the charges on the pore walls and the particle surfaces. The results are important for applying resistive-pulse technique to determine surface charge density and zeta potential of the particles. The experiments also indicate the presence of condensed ions, which contribute to the measured current if a sufficiently high electric field is applied across the pore. PMID:26177843

  13. Bibliography of integral charged particle nuclear data. Archival edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the fourth annual edition of the National Nuclear Data Center charged-particle bibliography. This edition is cumulative and supersedes the previous editions. The bibliography's primary aims are to satisfy the need for a concise and comprehensive index of integral charged-particle cross section data and to provide an index of charged-particle data compiled in the international exchange format, EXFOR. This part of the publication deals with isotope production; references are ordered by mass of the nuclide produced. The present publication is an archival volume; future publications will be cumulative supplements to this edition

  14. Quantum interface to charged particles in a vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    A superconducting qubit device suitable for interacting with a flying electron has recently been proposed [Okamoto and Nagatani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 062604 (2014), 10.1063/1.4865244]. Either a clockwise or counterclockwise directed loop of half magnetic flux quantum encodes a qubit, which naturally interacts with any single charged particle with arbitrary kinetic energy. Here, the device's properties, sources of errors, and possible applications are studied in detail. In particular, applications include detection of a charged particle essentially without applying a classical force to it. Furthermore, quantum states can be transferred between an array of the proposed devices and the charged particle.

  15. Heavy-ion radiography applied to charged particle radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the heavy-ion radiography research program applied to the clinical cancer research program of charged particle radiotherapy have a twofold purpose: (1) to explore the manner in which heavy-ion radiography and CT reconstruction can provide improved tumor localization, treatment planning, and beam delivery for radiotherapy with accelerated heavy charged particles; and (2) to explore the usefulness of heavy-ion radiography in detecting, localizing, and sizing soft tissue cancers in the human body. The techniques and procedures developed for heavy-ion radiography should prove successful in support of charged particle radiotherapy

  16. Mechanisms of Particle Charging by Surfactants in Nonpolar Dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joohyung; Zhou, Zhang-Lin; Alas, Guillermo; Behrens, Sven Holger

    2015-11-10

    Electric charging of colloidal particles in nonpolar solvents plays a crucial role for many industrial applications and products, including rubbers, engine oils, toners, or electronic displays. Although disfavored by the low solvent permittivity, particle charging can be induced by added surfactants, even nonionic ones, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood, and neither the magnitude nor the sign of charge can generally be predicted from the particle and surfactant properties. The conclusiveness of scientific studies has been limited partly by a traditional focus on few surfactant types with many differences in their chemical structure and often poorly defined composition. Here we investigate the surface charging of poly(methyl methacrylate) particles dispersed in hexane-based solutions of three purified polyisobutylene succinimide polyamine surfactants with "subtle" structural variations. We precisely vary the surfactant chemistry by replacing only a single electronegative atom located at a fixed position within the polar headgroup. Electrophoresis reveals that these small differences between the surfactants lead to qualitatively different particle charging. In the respective particle-free surfactant solutions we also find potentially telling differences in the size of the surfactant aggregates (inverse micelles), the residual water content, and the electric solution conductivity as well as indications for a significant size difference between oppositely charged inverse micelles of the most hygroscopic surfactant. An analysis that accounts for the acid/base properties of all constituents suggests that the observed particle charging is better described by asymmetric adsorption of charged inverse micelles from the liquid bulk than by charge creation at the particle surface. Intramicellar acid-base interaction and intermicellar surfactant exchange help rationalize the formation of micellar ions pairs with size asymmetry. PMID:26484617

  17. Charged particle interaction with a chirped electromagnetic pulse

    OpenAIRE

    Khachatryan, A. G.; Boller, K. -J.; Goor, van, Fred

    2003-01-01

    It is found that a charged particle can get a net energy gain from the interaction with an electromagnetic chirped pulse. Theoretically, the energy gain increases with the pulse amplitude and with the relative frequency variation in the pulse.

  18. Charged particle beam scanning using deformed high gradient insulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu -Jiuan

    2015-10-06

    Devices and methods are provided to allow rapid deflection of a charged particle beam. The disclosed devices can, for example, be used as part of a hadron therapy system to allow scanning of a target area within a patient's body. The disclosed charged particle beam deflectors include a dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) with a hollow center and a dielectric wall that is substantially parallel to a z-axis that runs through the hollow center. The dielectric wall includes one or more deformed high gradient insulators (HGIs) that are configured to produce an electric field with an component in a direction perpendicular to the z-axis. A control component is also provided to establish the electric field component in the direction perpendicular to the z-axis and to control deflection of a charged particle beam in the direction perpendicular to the z-axis as the charged particle beam travels through the hollow center of the DWA.

  19. Techniques used for charged particle nuclear data evaluation at CNDC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methods and techniques used for Charged Particle Nuclear Data (CPND) evaluation at Chinese Nuclear Data Center (CNDC) are summarized, including compilation and evaluation of experimental data, nuclear reaction theory and model calculation, systematics research and comprehensive recommendation etc

  20. Silicon pin diode array hybrids for charged particle detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the design of silicon PIN diode array hybrids for use as charged particle detectors. A brief summary of the need for vertex detectors is presented. Circuitry, block diagrams and device specifications are included

  1. Radiobiology with heavy charged particles: a historical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skarsgard, L.D. [Dept. of Medical Biophysics, B.C. Cancer Research Centre and TRIUMF, Vancouver (Canada)

    1997-09-01

    The presentation will attempt to briefly review some of radiobiological data on the effects of heavy charged particles and to discuss the influence of those studies on the clinical application which followed. (orig./MG)

  2. Deposition of Aerosol Particles in Electrically Charged Membrane Filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theory for the influence of electric charge on particle deposition on the surface of charged filters has been developed. It has been tested experimentally on ordinary membrane filters and Nuclepore filters of 8 μm pore size, with a bipolar monodisperse test aerosol of 1 μm particle diameter, and at a filter charge up to 20 μC/m2. Agreement with theory was obtained for the Coulomb force between filter and particle for both kinds of filters. The image force between charged filter and neutral particles did not result in the predicted deposition in the ordinary membrane filter, probably due to lacking correspondence between the filter model employed for the theory, and the real filter. For the Nuclepore filter a satisfactory agreement with theory was obtained, also at image interaction

  3. On the charged particle shock acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shock acceleration method employs injection of beam particles into the linear accelerator unexcited structure. Upon injecting a wave of accelerating electromagnetic field is excited in the structure it catches up with the particles and accelerates them. Dynamics of particle acceleration using the abovesaid method is under consideration. A d gree of particle beam compression in the process of beam acceleration is found out. New technique is suggested of shock acceleration with particle outlet to the potential barrier plateau that enables to attain compression not only of relativistic beams but also of non relativistic ones. It is shown that the method in question enables to get compression of electron and ion beams while increasing essentially their current and reducing the density modulation period. Shock acceleration in high current accelerators enables to obtain high-energy current beams (above 104A), which ght be used in studies on ionic thermonuclear fusion in powerful free electron lasers

  4. Limits on the production of massive stable charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present improved limits on the production of massive stable charged particles in bar pp collisions using the Collider Detector at Fermilab based on an integrated luminosity of 3.54 pb-1. Both unit and fractionally charged particles are considered. Cross-section upper limits are determined for masses from 50 to 500 GeV/c2. Theoretical cross sections are used to set bounds on the mass of fermionic color triplets, sextets, octets, and decuplets as well as scalar triplets

  5. Nuclear data needs in nuclear astrophysics: Charged-particle reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress in understanding a diverse range of astrophysical phenomena - such as the Big Bang, the Sun, the evolution of stars, and stellar explosions - can be significantly aided by improved compilation, evaluation, and dissemination of charged-particle nuclear reaction data. A summary of the charged-particle reaction data needs in these and other astrophysical scenarios is presented, along with recommended future nuclear data projects. (author)

  6. Analogies between light optics and charged-particle optics

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Sameen Ahmed

    2002-01-01

    The close analogy between geometrical optics and the classical theories of charged-particle beam optics have been known for a very long time. In recent years, quantum theories of charged-particle beam optics have been presented with the very expected feature of wavelength-dependent effects. With the current development of non-traditional prescriptions of Helmholtz and Maxwell optics respectively, accompanied with the wavelength-dependent effects, it is seen that the analogy between the two sy...

  7. Proposal to Search for Magnetically Charged Particles with Magnetic Charge 1e

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Michael K. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fryberger, David [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-11-02

    A model for composite elementary Standard Model (SM) particles based upon magnetically bound vorton pairs, we briefly introduce here, predicts the existence of a complete family of magnetically charged particles, as well as their neutral isotopic partners (all counterparts to the SM elementary particles), in which the lowest mass (charged) particle would be an electrically neutral stable lepton, but which carries a magnetic charge equivalent to 1e. This new particle, which we call a magneticon (a counterpart to the electron) would be pair produced at all e+e- colliders at an Ecm above twice its mass. In addition, PP and PPbar colliders should also be able to produce these new particles through the Drell-Yan process. To our knowledge, no monopole search experiment has been sensitive to such a low-charged magnetic monopole above a particle mass of about 5 GeV/c2. Hence, we propose that a search for such a stable particle of magnetic charge 1e should be undertaken. We have taken the ATLAS detector at the LHC as an example in which this search might be done. To this end, we modeled the magnetic fields and muon trigger chambers of this detector. We show results from a simple Monte Carlo simulation program to indicate how these particles might look in the detector and describe how one might search for these new particles in the ATLAS data stream.

  8. Asymptotic algebra for charged particles and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A C*-algebra of asymptotic fields which properly describes the infrared structure in quantum electrodynamics is proposed. The algebra is generated by the null asymptotic of electromagnetic field and the time asymptotic of charged matter fields which incorporate the corresponding Coulomb fields. As a consequence Gauss' law is satisfied in the algebraic setting. Within this algebra the observables can be identified by the principle of gauge invariance. A class of representations of the asymptotic algebra is constructed which resembles the Kulish-Faddeev treatment of electrically charged asymptotic fields. (orig.)

  9. Indirect Charged Particle Detection: Concepts and a Classroom Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Nicholas B.; Horányi, Mihály; Collette, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    We describe the principles of macroscopic charged particle detection in the laboratory and their connections to concepts taught in the physics classroom. Electrostatic dust accelerator systems, capable of launching charged dust grains at hypervelocities (1-100 km/s), are a critical tool for space exploration. Dust grains in space typically have…

  10. An improved search for elementary particles with fractional electric charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SLAC Quark Search Group has demonstrated successful operation of a low cost, high mass throughput Millikan apparatus designed to search for fractionally charged particles. About six million silicone oil drops were measured with no evidence of fractional charges. A second experiment is under construction with 100 times greater throughput which will utilize optimized search fluids

  11. Charged particle separation by an electrically tunable nanoporous membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the applicability of an electrically tunable nanoporous semiconductor membrane for the separation of nanoparticles by charge. We show that this type of membrane can overcome one of the major shortcomings of nanoporous membrane applications for particle separation: the compromise between membrane selectivity and permeability. The computational model that we have developed describes the electrostatic potential distribution within the system and tracks the movement of the filtered particle using Brownian dynamics while taking into consideration effects from dielectrophoresis, fluid flow, and electric potentials. We found that for our specific pore geometry, the dielectrophoresis plays a negligible role in the particle dynamics. By comparing the results for charged and uncharged particles, we show that for the optimal combination of applied electrolyte and membrane biases the same membrane can effectively separate same-sized particles based on charge with a difference of up to 3 times in membrane permeability. (paper)

  12. Charged Particle Diffusion in Isotropic Random Static Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, P.; Sonsrettee, W.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Ruffolo, D. J.; Wan, M.; Montgomery, D.

    2013-12-01

    Study of the transport and diffusion of charged particles in a turbulent magnetic field remains a subject of considerable interest. Research has most frequently concentrated on determining the diffusion coefficient in the presence of a mean magnetic field. Here we consider Diffusion of charged particles in fully three dimensional statistically isotropic magnetic field turbulence with no mean field which is pertinent to many astrophysical situations. We classify different regions of particle energy depending upon the ratio of Larmor radius of the charged particle to the characteristic outer length scale of turbulence. We propose three different theoretical models to calculate the diffusion coefficient each applicable to a distinct range of particle energies. The theoretical results are compared with those from computer simulations, showing very good agreement.

  13. Simulation of non-charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the method used to simulate the transport of neutral particles by using a Monte Carlo method with accelerating techniques of convergence based on the importance function by the method of first collision probabilities

  14. A high sensitivity selector for charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrostatic size selector for aerosol particles, is composed of two coaxial parallel conductive disks between which an electric field is established; an annular slot in the first disk allows for the atmosphere air intake. Suction and injection systems, and a third intermediate disk are used to carry out a dynamic confinement that allows for the separation of the particles having the required electric mobility and therefore the required size

  15. Charged particle detectors with active detector surface for partial energy deposition of the charged particles and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerts, David W; Bean, Robert S; Metcalf, Richard R

    2013-02-19

    A radiation detector is disclosed. The radiation detector comprises an active detector surface configured to generate charge carriers in response to charged particles associated with incident radiation. The active detector surface is further configured with a sufficient thickness for a partial energy deposition of the charged particles to occur and permit the charged particles to pass through the active detector surface. The radiation detector further comprises a plurality of voltage leads coupled to the active detector surface. The plurality of voltage leads is configured to couple to a voltage source to generate a voltage drop across the active detector surface and to separate the charge carriers into a plurality of electrons and holes for detection. The active detector surface may comprise one or more graphene layers. Timing data between active detector surfaces may be used to determine energy of the incident radiation. Other apparatuses and methods are disclosed herein.

  16. Acceleration of low energy charged particles by gravitational waves

    OpenAIRE

    Voyatzis, G.; Vlahos, L.; Ichtiaroglou, S.; Papadopoulos, D.

    2005-01-01

    The acceleration of charged particles in the presence of a magnetic field and gravitational waves is under consideration. It is shown that the weak gravitational waves can cause the acceleration of low energy particles under appropriate conditions. Such conditions may be satisfied close to the source of the gravitational waves if the magnetized plasma is in a turbulent state.

  17. Ionic charge state measurements in solar energetic particle events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the launch of the Advanced Composition Explorer, it has become possible through the SEPICA instrument to make direct ionic charge state measurements for individual Solar Energetic Particle events. In large events, the charge state may even be measured as a function of time, revealing changes that may be created by phenomena such as injections from different acceleration mechanisms, or confinement by magnetic field structures. The charge state can be a sensitive indicator of separate SEP populations. Several examples of SEP events will be presented. One of these, the November, 1997 event, displayed a trend in which the mean charge state for several ions increased with energy. These measurements may be the result of several processes, including a mixture of plasma with different source and acceleration histories, and abundance formation and possibly additional charge state modification by collisional or other means in the corona. A wide range of iron charge states have been measured for a variety of SEP events, ranging from =10+ to 20+. The mean charge states of C, O, Ne, Mg and Si all increased as the iron charge state increased. In events with the highest iron charge states, there were abundance enhancements in Ne with respect to oxygen in those cases, even though the mass/charge of the O and Ne were similar. In events with the lowest iron charge states, all these ions except Mg showed mean charge states generally consistent with coronal material of an equilibrium temperature of 1.3-1.6 million degrees K

  18. Generalized charge symmetry and charmed particle decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The charge symmetry operations are introduced within the c, s and p, n quark doublets and its consequences for weak decays proceeding via the GIM current, are studied. Numerous relations between various decays are obtained. Combined with CP an interesting pattern of allowed and suppressed amplitudes for charmed meson and baryon processes is found. The results are compatible with the present meagre experimental information. (Auth.)

  19. CMOS sensor as charged particles and ionizing radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports results of CMOS sensor suitable for use as charged particles and ionizing radiation detector. The CMOS sensor with 640 × 480 pixels area has been integrated into an electronic circuit for detection of ionizing radiation and it was exposed to alpha particle (Am-241, Unat), beta (Sr-90), and gamma photons (Cs-137). Results show after long period of time (168 h) irradiation the sensor had not loss of functionality and also the energy of the charge particles and photons were very well obtained

  20. Charged particle acceleration by electron beam in corrugated plasma waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two-beam charged particle acceleration scheme in a plasma waveguide with corrugated conducting walls is considered. The guiding heavy-current relativistic electron beam is in synchronism with the first plasma wave space harmonics and the accelerated beam is synchronism with a quicker plasma wave. In this case under weak corrugation of the wall the accelerating resonance field effecting the accelerated particles notably increases the field braking the guiding beam. The process of plasma wave excitation with regard to the guiding beam space charge and the relativistic particle acceleration dynamics are investigated by numeric methods. Optimal acceleration modes are found. 19 refs.; 12 figs

  1. Charged particles detection: the draft-and-dye method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charged particles travelling through an organic medium leave a trail of highly concentrated active, stable chemical radicals. These functions are able to initiate copolymerization reactions of unsaturated molecules. Such a reagent is made to reach the trail; polymerization occurs. If the new polymer formed either absorbs or emits light the track of the charged particle is made visible. This technique and results are discussed: the efficiency of those detectors has been increased, they do not exhibit any critical dip angle for the registration of particle tracks, they may offer a way to reveal tracks originating in the detector itself. (orig.)

  2. Charged particles detection: the graft-and-dye method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charged particles travelling through an organic medium leave a trail of highly concentrated active, stable chemical radicals. These functions are able to initiate copolymerization reactions of unsaturated molecules. Such a reagent is made to reach the trail; polymerization occurs. If the new polymer formed either absorbs or emits light the track of the charged particle is made visible. This technique and results are discussed: the efficiency of those detectors has been increased, they do not exhibit any critical dip angle for the registration of particle tracks, they may offer a way to reveal tracks originating in the detector itself. (author)

  3. Sources for charged particles; Les sources de particules chargees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arianer, J.

    1997-09-01

    This document is a basic course on charged particle sources for post-graduate students and thematic schools on large facilities and accelerator physics. A simple but precise description of the creation and the emission of charged particles is presented. This course relies on every year upgraded reference documents. Following relevant topics are considered: electronic emission processes, technological and practical considerations on electron guns, positron sources, production of neutral atoms, ionization, plasma and discharge, different types of positive and negative ion sources, polarized particle sources, materials for the construction of ion sources, low energy beam production and transport. (N.T.).

  4. Niels Bukh's gymnastics school in Denmark, 1912–1933

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Around 1916–1917 the Danish gymnastics pedagogue Niels Bukh (1880–1950) created, in an international sense, a revolutionary men's gymnastics, and in 1920 he established Denmark's and the world's first folk high school of physical education and sport. During the 1930s, Niels Bukh and his team of...... gymnasts first became a symbol for the dynamic Danish farming community, and then for the face of Denmark both at home and abroad. Bukh changed the stereotypical male expression of bodily dynamics, which in Danish rural gymnastics had been almost military. He made it legitimate for the young lads to get in...... close physical contact and to work in pairs in order to create beautiful masculine gymnastic choreographies. Within the aesthetic history of masculinity, it has often been male homosexual aestheticians, designers, musicians, dancers, and so on who have opened new avenues for the expression of male...

  5. An update on (n,charged particle) research at WNR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haight, R.C.; Bateman, F.B.; Sterbenz, S.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Grimes, S.M. [Ohio Univ., Athens, OH (United States); Wasson, O.A. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Maier-Komor, P. [T.U. Munich (Germany); Vonach, H. [Inst. fuer Radiumforschung und Kernphysik, Vienna (Austria)

    1995-12-31

    Neutron-induced reactions producing light charged particles continue to be investigated at the spallation fast-neutron source at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). New data on the cross sections for alpha-particle production for neutrons on {sup 58}Ni and {sup 60}Ni are presented from threshold to 50 MeV. Recent changes in the experiment now allow protons, deuterons, tritons, {sup 3}He and alpha particles to be identified.

  6. An update on (n,charged particle) research at WNR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron-induced reactions producing light charged particles continue to be investigated at the spallation fast-neutron source at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). New data on the cross sections for alpha-particle production for neutrons on 58Ni and 60Ni are presented from threshold to 50 MeV. Recent changes in the experiment now allow protons, deuterons, tritons, 3He and alpha particles to be identified

  7. Motions of charged particles in Goedel-type spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedel-type spacetimes in Hehl's non propagating torsion theory are reconsidered by supposing that the curvature source is a Weyssenhoff-Raab fluid and an electromagnetic field. The electromagnetic field implies space time homogeneity and admits a dual interpretation. From the trajectories of the test particles, it is shown that there is a class of such spacetimes for which charged particles can reach regions inaccessible to neutral particles or even photons. (author). 21 refs., 1 fig

  8. Motions of charged particles in Goedel-type spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Bartolomeu D.B. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1996-10-01

    Goedel-type spacetimes in Hehl`s non propagating torsion theory are reconsidered by supposing that the curvature source is a Weyssenhoff-Raab fluid and an electromagnetic field. The electromagnetic field implies space time homogeneity and admits a dual interpretation. From the trajectories of the test particles, it is shown that there is a class of such spacetimes for which charged particles can reach regions inaccessible to neutral particles or even photons. (author). 21 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Atmosphere turbulence effect on the hot particle charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The charging of hot beta-active aerosol articles of the micron size range in the turbulent current has been studied experimentally . For this purpose hot particles, obtained by the neutron activation of gold placed on the surface of glass microspheres by the cathode spraying method, were introduced into the turbulent current with the Reynolds number of 104 - 105. Results of the determination of particle charges within the current velocity range from 0.5 to 3 m/s confirm the reliability of the previously obtained model of the charging of hot particles in the turbulent current of the near - ground atmospere layer which is described by the function directly proportional to the radius of particles and the half-cube of the wind velocity, and inversely proportional to the square root of the height. The scheme is suggested and specific features are described of experimental installations used in the process of studies

  10. Doubly-charged particles at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Alloul, Adam; Fuks, Benjamin; de Traubenberg, Michel Rausch

    2013-01-01

    In this work we investigate the production and signatures of doubly-charged particles at the Large Hadron Collider. We start with the Standard Model particle content and representations and add generic doubly-charged exotic particles. We classify these doubly-charged states according to their spin, considering scalar, fermionic and vectorial fields, and according to their SU(2)L representation, being chosen to be either trivial, fundamental, or adjoint. We write the most general interactions between them and the Standard Model sector and study their production modes and possible decay channels. We then probe how they can most likely be observed and how particles with different spin and SU(2)L representations could be possibly distinguished.

  11. Quantum theory of relativistic charged particles in external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made on external field theories in which the quantized field corresponds to relativistic elementary particles with non-zero rest mass. These particles are assumed to be charged, thus they have distinct antiparticles. The thesis consists of two parts. The first tries to accommodate the general features of theories of relativistic charged particles in external fields. Spin and dynamics in particular are not specified. In the second part, the results are applied to charged spin-1/2 and spin-0 particles, the dynamics of which are given by the Dirac resp. Klein-Gordon equation. The greater emphasis is on external fields which are rapidly decreasing, infinitely differentiable functions of space-time, but also considers time-independent fields. External fields, other than electromagnetic fields are also considered, e.g. scalar fields

  12. Relativistic mixtures of charged and uncharged particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Gilberto M.

    2014-01-01

    Mixtures of relativistic gases within the framework of Boltzmann equation are analyzed. Three systems are considered. The first one refers to a mixture of uncharged particles by using Grad's moment method, where the relativistic mixture is characterized by the moments of the distribution functions: particle four-flows, energy-momentum tensors, and third-order moment tensors. In the second Fick's law for a mixture of relativistic gases of non-disparate rest masses in a Schwarzschild metric are derived from an extension of Marle and McCormack model equations applied to a relativistic truncated Grad's distribution function, where it is shown the dependence of the diffusion coefficient on the gravitational potential. The third one consists in the derivation of the relativistic laws of Ohm and Fourier for a binary mixtures of electrons with protons and electrons with photons subjected to external electromagnetic fields and in presence of gravitational fields by using the Anderson and Witting model of the Boltzmann equation.

  13. Bibliography of integral charged particle nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliography is divided into three main sections covering experimental, theoretical, and review references. The review section also includes compilation and evaluation references. Each section contains two subsections. The main subsection contains all references satisfying the criteria noted above and the second subsection is devoted to isotope production. The main subsections are ordered by increasing Z and A of the incident particle, then by increasing Z and A of the target nucleus. Within this order, the entries are ordered by residual nucleus and quantity (e.g., sigma(E)). Finally, the entries are ordered by outgoing particles or processes. All entries which have the same target, reaction, and quantity are grouped under a common heading with the most recent reference first. As noted above the second subsection is devoted to isotope production and is limited in the information it carries. Only those references which contain data on a definite residual nucleus or group of nuclei (e.g., fission fragments) are included in these subsections. Entries within these second subsections are ordered by increasing Z and A of the isotope produced and then by quantity. All references containing data on the same isotope production and quantity are grouped together. All lines within a group are ordered by increasing Z and A of the target and then of the incident particle. The final ordering is by increasing minimum energy

  14. Bibliography of integral charged particle nuclear data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrows, T.W.; Burt, J.S.

    1977-03-01

    This bibliography is divided into three main sections covering experimental, theoretical, and review references. The review section also includes compilation and evaluation references. Each section contains two subsections. The main subsection contains all references satisfying the criteria noted above and the second subsection is devoted to isotope production. The main subsections are ordered by increasing Z and A of the incident particle, then by increasing Z and A of the target nucleus. Within this order, the entries are ordered by residual nucleus and quantity (e.g., sigma(E)). Finally, the entries are ordered by outgoing particles or processes. All entries which have the same target, reaction, and quantity are grouped under a common heading with the most recent reference first. As noted above the second subsection is devoted to isotope production and is limited in the information it carries. Only those references which contain data on a definite residual nucleus or group of nuclei (e.g., fission fragments) are included in these subsections. Entries within these second subsections are ordered by increasing Z and A of the isotope produced and then by quantity. All references containing data on the same isotope production and quantity are grouped together. All lines within a group are ordered by increasing Z and A of the target and then of the incident particle. The final ordering is by increasing minimum energy.

  15. NIEL Dose Dependence for Solar Cells Irradiated with Electrons and Protons

    CERN Document Server

    Baur, C; Nieminen, P; Pensotti, S; Rancoita, P G; Tacconi, M

    2013-01-01

    The investigation of solar cells degradation and the prediction of its end-of-life performance is of primary importance in the preparation of a space mission. In the present work, we investigate the reduction of solar-cells' maximum power resulting from irradiations with electrons and protons. Both GaAs single junction and GaInP/GaAs/Ge triple junction solar cells were studied. The results obtained indicate how i) the dominant radiation damaging mechanism is due to atomic displacements, ii) the relative maximum power degradation is almost independent of the type of incoming particle, i.e., iii) to a first approximation, the fitted semi-empirical function expressing the decrease of maximum power depends only on the absorbed NIEL dose, and iv) the actual displacement threshold energy value (Ed=21 eV) accounts for annealing treatments, mostly due to self-annealing induced effects. Thus, for a given type of solar cell, a unique maximum power degradation curve can be determined as a function of the absorbed NIEL d...

  16. Charged-particle spectroscopy in organic semiconducting single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciavatti, A.; Sellin, P. J.; Basiricò, L.; Fraleoni-Morgera, A.; Fraboni, B.

    2016-04-01

    The use of organic materials as radiation detectors has grown, due to the easy processability in liquid phase at room temperature and the possibility to cover large areas by means of low cost deposition techniques. Direct charged-particle detectors based on solution-grown Organic Semiconducting Single Crystals (OSSCs) are shown to be capable to detect charged particles in pulse mode, with very good peak discrimination. The direct charged-particle detection in OSSCs has been assessed both in the planar and in the vertical axes, and a digital pulse processing algorithm has been used to perform pulse height spectroscopy and to study the charge collection efficiency as a function of the applied bias voltage. Taking advantage of the charge spectroscopy and the good peak discrimination of pulse height spectra, an Hecht-like behavior of OSSCs radiation detectors is demonstrated. It has been possible to estimate the mobility-lifetime value in organic materials, a fundamental parameter for the characterization of radiation detectors, whose results are equal to μτcoplanar = (5 .5 ± 0.6 ) × 10-6 cm2/V and μτsandwich = (1 .9 ± 0.2 ) × 10-6 cm2/V, values comparable to those of polycrystalline inorganic detectors. Moreover, alpha particles Time-of-Flight experiments have been carried out to estimate the drift mobility value. The results reported here indicate how charged-particle detectors based on OSSCs possess a great potential as low-cost, large area, solid-state direct detectors operating at room temperature. More interestingly, the good detection efficiency and peak discrimination observed for charged-particle detection in organic materials (hydrogen-rich molecules) are encouraging for their further exploitation in the detection of thermal and high-energy neutrons.

  17. Investigating forces between charged particles in the presence of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes with the multi-particle colloidal probe technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkovec, Michal; Szilagyi, Istvan; Popa, Ionel; Finessi, Marco; Sinha, Prashant; Maroni, Plinio; Papastavrou, Georg

    2012-11-01

    Direct force measurements are used to obtain a comprehensive picture of interaction forces acting between charged colloidal particles in the presence of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes. These measurements are achieved by the multi-particle colloidal probe technique based on the atomic force microscope (AFM). This novel extension of the classical colloidal probe technique offers three main advantages. First, the technique works in a colloidal suspension with a huge internal surface area of several square meters, which simplifies the precise dosing of the small amounts of the polyelectrolytes needed and makes this approach less sensitive to impurities. Second, the particles are attached in-situ within the fluid cell, which avoids the formation of nanobubbles on the latex particles used. Third, forces between two similar particles from the same batch are being measured, which allows an unambiguous determination of the surface potential due to the symmetry of the system. Based on such direct force measurements involving positively and negatively charged latex particles and different polyelectrolytes, we find the following forces to be relevant. Repulsive electrostatic double-layer forces and attractive van der Waals forces as described by the theory of Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeek (DLVO) are both important in these systems, whereby the electrostatic forces dominate away from the isoelectric point (IEP), while at this point they vanish. Additional non-DLVO attractive forces are operational, and they have been identified to originate from the electrostatic interactions between the patch-charge heterogeneities of the adsorbed polyelectrolyte films. Highly charged polyelectrolytes induce strong patch-charge attractions, which become especially important at low ionic strengths and high molecular mass. More weakly charged polyelectrolytes seem to form more homogeneous films, whereby patch-charge attractions may become negligible. Individual bridging events

  18. Trapped charged particles a graduate textbook with problems and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Madsen, Niels; Thompson, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    At Les Houches in January 2015, experts in the field of particle trapping came together to discuss the fundamental physics of traps and the different types of applications. This textbook collates the lectures delivered there; the Second Winter School on Physics with Trapped Charged Particles. Taken as a whole, the book gives an overview of why traps for charged particles are important, how they work, their special features and limitations, and their application in areas such as precision measurements, mass spectrometry, optical clocks, plasma physics, antihydrogen creation, quantum simulation and quantum information processing. Chapters from various world experts include those on the basic properties of Penning traps, RF traps and particle accelerators, as well as those covering important practical aspects such as vacuum systems, detection techniques, and different types of particle cooling including laser cooling. Finally, individual chapters deal with the different areas of application listed above. Each ...

  19. Measuring massive metastable charged particles with ATLAS RPC timing information.

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Oye, Ola Kristoffer

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the measurement of massive metastable charged particles in ATLAS, using timing information from the resistive plate chambers (RPCs). As representative particle candidates we use staus, the partners of $ au$ leptons in supersymmetric models with gravitino dark matter (GDM), which may well be stable on the scale of the detector. The generic signatures of massive metastable charged particles are a long Time-of-Flight (ToF) and high energy-loss ($dE/dx$). The RPC timing information allows us to measure the ToF of a particle which, taken in conjunction with the measurement of the particle's momentum from its track, allows one to determine its mass. We pioneer the study of the RPCs' potential for this measurement. We also consider triggering effects on the event selection, and discuss quantitatively the ATLAS potential for measuring the stau mass in three specific GDM benchmark scenarios.

  20. Charged particle creation in the steady state universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The birth of a particle of charge q(0), initial mass m(0), and radius a in the steady state universe is studied. With the particle's birth, in accord with causality, gravity, and Coulomb fields propagate away from it with the speed of light. Field energies are supplied by the particle's mass which subsequently decays in time. Asymptotic solution to a nonlinear equation for the remaining mass gives the criterion m(0) is greater that q(0)2/2ac2 as a necessary condition for the initial mass to survive the field expansion. The resulting radius of a classical charged particle is found to be greater than the standard value obtained by equating self- and rest-mass energies of the initial particle. 12 refs

  1. Charged particle reaction cross sections and nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of proton and α-particle induced reactions in carbon, neon, oxygen and silicon burning in massive stars is surveyed. The problems associated with determining thermonuclear reaction rates for reactions with widely spaced resonances and with closely spaced or overlapping resonances are discussed and the associated experimental approaches are reviewed. Experimental techniques which have been used in the measurement of reaction cross sections are discussed and their strengths and weaknesses are identified. Recent developments in attempts to establish reliable statistical-model codes for calculation of reaction cross sections are presented and discussed. The results of experimental tests of statistical model codes are summarised and evaluated

  2. Behaviour of scintillometers with charge particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behaviour of a scintillation plastic and an anthracene crystal for protons and deuterons with energies within 0,2 and 1,7 MeV. has been studied. The beam of monoenergetic particles falls directly on the detector in study in optic contact with a photomultiplicator. The impulse get in an amplifier which sends then to a scale a sting as a monitor and to an analyzer of 100 canals. The spectrum for each energy of incidental beam is obtained taking the maximum of the spectrum as the most probable value of amplitude of the detector reply, and this is represented apposite to the energy. (Author) 6 refs

  3. Complex Kepler Orbits and Particle Aggregation in Charged Microscopic Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Victor; Waitukaitis, Scott; Miskin, Marc; Jaeger, Heinrich

    2015-03-01

    Kepler orbits are usually associated with the motion of astronomical objects such as planets or comets. Here we observe such orbits at the microscale in a system of charged, insulating grains. By letting the grains fall freely under vacuum, we eliminate the effects of air drag and gravity, and by imaging them with a co-falling high-speed camera we track the relative positions of individual particles with high spatial and temporal precision. This makes it possible to investigate the behaviors caused by the combination of long-range electrostatic interactions and short-range, dissipative, contact interactions in unprecedented detail. We make the first direct observations of microscopic elliptical and hyperbolic Kepler orbits, collide-and-capture events between pairs of charged grains, and particle-by-particle aggregation into larger clusters. Our findings provide experimental evidence for electrostatic mechanisms that have been suspected, but not previously observed at the single-event level, as driving the early stages of particle aggregation in systems ranging from fluidized particle bed reactors to interstellar protoplanetary disks. Furthermore, since particles of different net charge and size are seen to aggregate into characteristic spatial configurations, our results suggest new possibilities for the formation of charge-stabilized ``granular molecules''. We can reproduce the observed molecule configurations by taking many-body, dielectric polarization effects into account.

  4. Electric birefringence anomaly of solutions of ionically charged anisometric particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, H; Gräbner, Dieter

    2015-02-01

    The term "electric birefringence anomaly" is known as the electric birefringence (EB) signal that occurs in solutions of ionically charged anisometric particles in a narrow concentration region. The signal is of opposite sign to the normal birefringence that occurs below and above this narrow concentration region. The normal electric birefringence signals in the dilute and more concentrated regions are due to the orientation of the particles in the direction of the applied electric field. The origin for the anomalous signal was not completely understood until now. The article summarises previous results in which the anomalous results had been observed but not well understood. It shows that the birefringence anomaly occurs in systems as diverse as micellar solutions, polyelectrolytes, solutions of clays, viruses and fibres. In all these systems the anomaly signals are present at the concentration when the length of the colloidal particles including the thickness of the electric double layer are about the same as the mean distance between the colloidal particles. Under these conditions the electric double layers of the particles overlap along the main axis of the particles but not in the direction across the particles. As a consequence of this situation a dipole is built up across the particles by the migration of the counter-ions of the particles in the electric field and this dipole leads to an orientation of the particles perpendicular to the electric field. The anomalous signal can usually be observed simultaneously with the normal signal. The amplitude of the anomalous signal can be larger than the amplitude of the normal signal. As a consequence the total birefringence changes its sign in the anomalous concentration region. The anomaly signal of the clays can also be explained by a fluctuating dipole around the particles, which is due to the fact that the centre of the ionic charges of the particles does not fall on the centre of the ionic charge of the counter

  5. Relativistic mixtures of charged and uncharged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kremer, Gilberto M. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba (Brazil)

    2014-01-14

    Mixtures of relativistic gases within the framework of Boltzmann equation are analyzed. Three systems are considered. The first one refers to a mixture of uncharged particles by using Grad’s moment method, where the relativistic mixture is characterized by the moments of the distribution functions: particle four-flows, energy-momentum tensors, and third-order moment tensors. In the second Fick’s law for a mixture of relativistic gases of non-disparate rest masses in a Schwarzschild metric are derived from an extension of Marle and McCormack model equations applied to a relativistic truncated Grad’s distribution function, where it is shown the dependence of the diffusion coefficient on the gravitational potential. The third one consists in the derivation of the relativistic laws of Ohm and Fourier for a binary mixtures of electrons with protons and electrons with photons subjected to external electromagnetic fields and in presence of gravitational fields by using the Anderson and Witting model of the Boltzmann equation.

  6. Optimal performance of charged particle telescopes in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Bayesian probabilistic data analysis method for energetic proton and ion data from charged particle telescopes in space is described. The telescope is assumed to consist of only a series of planar silicon detectors with graduated thicknesses. The method is based on a range-straggling function and makes optimal use of energy loss measurements in each detector. It provides accurate incidence angle estimates for particles stopping in the telescope, allowing accurate element identification and possible isotope identification. It also provides energy estimates for high-energy particles going through the telescope without stopping. Examples are shown for simulated telescope design performance tests and application to real space-particle data

  7. Medical radiation dosimetry theory of charged particle collision energy loss

    CERN Document Server

    McParland, Brian J

    2014-01-01

    Accurate radiation dosimetry is a requirement of radiation oncology, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. It is necessary so as to satisfy the needs of patient safety, therapeutic and diagnostic optimisation, and retrospective epidemiological studies of the biological effects resulting from low absorbed doses of ionising radiation. The radiation absorbed dose received by the patient is the ultimate consequence of the transfer of kinetic energy through collisions between energetic charged particles and atoms of the tissue being traversed. Thus, the ability of the medical physicist to both measure and calculate accurately patient dosimetry demands a deep understanding of the physics of charged particle interactions with matter. Interestingly, the physics of charged particle energy loss has an almost exclusively theoretical basis, thus necessitating an advanced theoretical understanding of the subject in order to apply it appropriately to the clinical regime. ​ Each year, about one-third of the worl...

  8. Charged-Particle Multiplicity in Proton-Proton Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes and critically reviews measurements of charged-particle multiplicity distributions and pseudorapidity densities in p+p(pbar) collisions between sqrt(s) = 23.6 GeV and sqrt(s) = 1.8 TeV. Related theoretical concepts are briefly introduced. Moments of multiplicity distributions are presented as a function of sqrt(s). Feynman scaling, KNO scaling, as well as the description of multiplicity distributions with a single negative binomial distribution and with combinations of two or more negative binomial distributions are discussed. Moreover, similarities between the energy dependence of charged-particle multiplicities in p+p(pbar) and e+e- collisions are studied. Finally, various predictions for pseudorapidity densities, average multiplicities in full phase space, and multiplicity distributions of charged particles in p+p(pbar) collisions at the LHC energies of sqrt(s) = 7 TeV, 10 TeV, and 14 TeV are summarized and compared.

  9. Electromagnetic radiation of charged particles in stochastic motion

    CERN Document Server

    Harko, Tiberiu

    2016-01-01

    The study of the Brownian motion of a charged particle in electric and magnetic fields fields has many important applications in plasma and heavy ions physics, as well as in astrophysics. In the present paper we consider the electromagnetic radiation properties of a charged non-relativistic particle in the presence of electric and magnetic fields, of an exterior non-electromagnetic potential, and of a friction and stochastic force, respectively. We describe the motion of the charged particle by a Langevin and generalized Langevin type stochastic differential equation. We investigate in detail the cases of the Brownian motion with or without memory in a constant electric field, in the presence of an external harmonic potential, and of a constant magnetic field. In all cases the corresponding Langevin equations are solved numerically, and a full description of the spectrum of the emitted radiation and of the physical properties of the motion is obtained. The Power Spectral Density (PSD) of the emitted power is ...

  10. Charged Massive Particle's Tunneling From Charged Non-Rotating Micro Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Soleimani, M J; Radiman, Shahidan; Abdullah, W A T Wan

    2015-01-01

    In the tunneling framework of Hawking radiation, charged massive particle's tunneling in charged non-rotating TeV-Scale black hole is investigated. To this end, we consider natural cutoffs as a minimal length, a minimal momentum, and a maximal momentum through a generalized uncertainty principle. We focus on the role played by these natural cutoffs on the luminosity of charged non-rotating micro black hole by taking into account the full implications of energy and charge conservation as well as the back- scattered radiation.

  11. Clustering of settling charged particles in turbulence: theory and experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Jiang; Nordsiek, Hansen; Shaw, Raymond A, E-mail: rashaw@mtu.edu [Department of Physics, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Drive, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Atmospheric clouds, electrosprays and protoplanetary nebula (dusty plasma) contain electrically charged particles embedded in turbulent flows, often under the influence of an externally imposed, approximately uniform gravitational or electric force. We have developed a theoretical description of the dynamics of such systems of charged, sedimenting particles in turbulence, allowing radial distribution functions (RDFs) to be predicted for both monodisperse and bidisperse particle size distributions. The governing parameters are the particle Stokes number (particle inertial time scale relative to turbulence dissipation time scale), the Coulomb-turbulence parameter (ratio of Coulomb 'terminal' speed to the turbulence dissipation velocity scale) and the settling parameter (the ratio of the gravitational terminal speed to the turbulence dissipation velocity scale). The theory is compared to measured RDFs for water particles in homogeneous, isotropic air turbulence. The RDFs are obtained from particle positions measured in three dimensions using digital holography. The measurements verify the general theoretical expression, consisting of a power law increase in particle clustering due to particle response to dissipative turbulent eddies, modulated by an exponential electrostatic interaction term. Both terms are modified as a result of the gravitational diffusion-like term, and the role of 'gravity' is explored by imposing a macroscopic uniform electric field to create an enhanced, effective gravity.

  12. Clustering of settling charged particles in turbulence: theory and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric clouds, electrosprays and protoplanetary nebula (dusty plasma) contain electrically charged particles embedded in turbulent flows, often under the influence of an externally imposed, approximately uniform gravitational or electric force. We have developed a theoretical description of the dynamics of such systems of charged, sedimenting particles in turbulence, allowing radial distribution functions (RDFs) to be predicted for both monodisperse and bidisperse particle size distributions. The governing parameters are the particle Stokes number (particle inertial time scale relative to turbulence dissipation time scale), the Coulomb-turbulence parameter (ratio of Coulomb 'terminal' speed to the turbulence dissipation velocity scale) and the settling parameter (the ratio of the gravitational terminal speed to the turbulence dissipation velocity scale). The theory is compared to measured RDFs for water particles in homogeneous, isotropic air turbulence. The RDFs are obtained from particle positions measured in three dimensions using digital holography. The measurements verify the general theoretical expression, consisting of a power law increase in particle clustering due to particle response to dissipative turbulent eddies, modulated by an exponential electrostatic interaction term. Both terms are modified as a result of the gravitational diffusion-like term, and the role of 'gravity' is explored by imposing a macroscopic uniform electric field to create an enhanced, effective gravity.

  13. Galilean electrodynamics. Part 2. Charged particle force and conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the general formulae for the transformation of fields in Galilean electrodynamics there are derived the expression for the force acting on a charged particle and the equation of motion of a charged particle. Without any additional assumptions these equations are performed into the relativistic form, that is with the relativistic momentum and energy. Hence, in an elementary way, Einstein's formula of the equivalence of energy and mass results. Then the conservation laws of energy and momentum for the fields are derived. 3 refs. (author)

  14. A New Mechanism of Higgs Bosons in Producing Charge Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Hossein; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid

    2006-01-01

    A new production method of elementary particles by Higgs Bosons will be shown. But before that the structure of photon will be considered deeply, while a new definition of Higgs Boson about color-charges and color-magnet will be given for the first time.......A new production method of elementary particles by Higgs Bosons will be shown. But before that the structure of photon will be considered deeply, while a new definition of Higgs Boson about color-charges and color-magnet will be given for the first time....

  15. Charged-particle inclusive distributions from hadronic Z0 decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have measured inclusive distributions for charged particles in hadronic decays of the Z boson. The variables chosen for study were the mean charged-particle multiplicity (left-angle nch right-angle), scaled momentum (x), and momenta transverse to the sphericity axes (p perpendicular in and p perpendicular out). The distributions have been corrected for detector effects and are compared with data from e+e- annihilation at lower energies and with the predictions of several QCD-based models. The data are in reasonable agreement with expectations. 12 refs., 2 figs

  16. The telegraph equation in charged particle transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombosi, T. I.; Jokipii, J. R.; Kota, J.; Lorencz, K.; Williams, L. L.

    1993-01-01

    We present a new derivation of the telegraph equation which modifies its coefficients. First, an infinite order partial differential equation is obtained for the velocity space solid angle-averaged phase-space distribution of particles which underwent at least a few collisions. It is shown that, in the lowest order asymptotic expansion, this equation simplifies to the well-known diffusion equation. The second-order asymptotic expansion for isotropic small-angle scattering results in a modified telegraph equation with a signal propagation speed of v(5/11) exp 1/2 instead of the usual v/3 exp 1/2. Our derivation of a modified telegraph equation follows from an expansion of the Boltzmann equation in the relevant smallness parameters and not from a truncation of an eigenfunction expansion. This equation is consistent with causality. It is shown that, under steady state conditions in a convecting plasma, the telegraph equation may be regarded as a diffusion equation with a modified transport coefficient, which describes a combination of diffusion and cosmic-ray inertia.

  17. Charged Particle Monitor on the AstroSat mission

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, A R; Bhargava, Yash; Khanna, Rakesh; Hingar, M K; Kutty, A P K; Malkar, J P; Basak, Rupal; Sreekumar, S; Samuel, Essy; Priya, P; Vinod, P; Bhattacharya, D; Bhalerao, V; Vadawale, S V; Mithun, N P S; Pandiyan, R; Subbarao, K; Seetha, S; Sarma, K Suryanarayana

    2016-01-01

    Charged Particle Monitor (CPM) on-board the AstroSat satellite is an instrument designed to detect the flux of charged particles at the satellite location. A Cesium Iodide Thallium (CsI(Tl)) crystal is used with a Kapton window to detect protons with energies greater than 1 MeV. The ground calibration of CPM was done using gamma-rays from radioactive sources and protons from particle accelerators. Based on the ground calibration results, energy deposition above 1 MeV are accepted and particle counts are recorded. It is found that CPM counts are steady and the signal for the onset and exit of South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) region are generated in a very reliable and stable manner.

  18. Universal behavior of charged particle production in heavy ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phobos Collaboration; Steinberg, Peter A.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2003-03-01

    The PHOBOS experiment at RHIC has measured the multiplicity of primary charged particles as a function of centrality and pseudorapidity in Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 19.6, 130 and 200 GeV. Two kinds of universal behavior are observed in charged particle production in heavy ion collisions. The first is that forward particle production, over a range of energies, follows a universal limiting curve with a non-trivial centrality dependence. The second arises from comparisons with pp/pbar-p and e+e- data. N_tot/(N_part/2) in nuclear collisions at high energy scales with sqrt(s) in a similar way as N_tot in e+e- collisions and has a very weak centrality dependence. This feature may be related to a reduction in the leading particle effect due to the multiple collisions suffered per participant in heavy ion collisions.

  19. Sausage mode of a pinched charged particle beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The axisymmetric oscillations of a self-pinched charged particle beam are analyzed using a dispersion relation derived from a 3/2 dimensional model. This calculation includes the effects of rounded profiles, finite conductivity, a steady return current, and phase mix damping among particle orbits. However, only the lowest order radial mode of distortion is treated, and this is done in an approximate fashion

  20. Construction of asymptotic fields for a charged particle

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, O. W.; Cowen, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Asymptotic fields do not exist in theories with massless particles and fields, because the vacuum matrix elements of products of the interacting fields in such theories do not have delta function or principal value singularities in momentum space. We remedy this problem by constructing a field for the charged particle that does have the required singularities in momentum space. We illustrate this construction in quantum electrodynamics (QED).

  1. A composite bolometer as a charged-particle spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved version of a He-cooled composite diamond bolometer with a monolithic germanium thermistor, for use as a charged-particle spectrometer, is described. The performance of the bolometer was tested using 5-6 MeV α particles, and a full-width-at-half-maximum of 36 keV was obtained at 1.3 K. (U.K.)

  2. Charged particles identification with a CsI(Tl) scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A CsI(Tl) scintillator with two light decay components is used to detect and identify p,d,t, 3He, α particles with a low energy threshold, Besides the addition of a thin plastic scintillator in front of the CsI(Tl) crystal allows charge identification for ions with Z up to 19

  3. Some peculiarity of element analysis using charged particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multilayer structures, SiC -layers at Si substrate, have been analyzed by RBS, NR, ERD and PIXE methods using the charged particle beams from EG-5 Van de Graaff accelerator of JINR. The depth profiles of the based deposited layers were obtained for the multilayer structures

  4. Nondestructive diagnostics of charged particle beams in accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logachev, P. V.; Meshkov, O. I.; Starostenko, A. A.; Nikiforov, D. A.; Andrianov, A. V.; Maltseva, Yu. I.; Levichev, A. E.; Emanov, F. A.

    2016-03-01

    The basic techniques for nondestructive diagnostics and detection of losses of charged particle beams used in accelerator engineering are reviewed. The data provided may help choose the systems for diagnostics and detection of losses of beams and give a qualitative picture of the operation principles of such devices. Quantitative characteristics that define the limits of applicability of each diagnostic technique are outlined.

  5. Periodic interactions of charged particles with spatially localized fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We derive and analyze a generic mapping for the spatially periodic interaction of charged particles with localized, coherent electric fields. For such interactions stochastic motion exists in a bounded region of phase-space. Conditions are determined for which diffusion can describe the dynamics in such a bounded, stochastic phase-space. (orig.)

  6. Challenging the weak cosmic censorship conjecture with charged quantum particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motivated by the recent attempts to violate the weak cosmic censorship conjecture for near-extreme black holes, we consider the possibility of overcharging a near-extreme Reissner-Nordstroem black hole by the quantum tunneling of charged particles. We consider the scattering of spin-0 and spin-(1/2) particles by the black hole in a unified framework and obtain analytically, for the first time, the pertinent reflection and transmission coefficients without any small charge approximation. Based on these results, we propose some gedanken experiments that could lead to the violation of the weak cosmic censorship conjecture due to the (classically forbidden) absorption of small energy charged particles by the black hole. As for the case of scattering in Kerr spacetimes, our results demonstrate explicitly that scalar fields are subject to (electrical) superradiance phenomenon, while spin-(1/2) fields are not. Superradiance impose some limitations on the gedanken experiments involving spin-0 fields, favoring, in this way, the mechanisms for creation of a naked singularity by the quantum tunneling of spin-(1/2) charged fermions. We also discuss the implications that vacuum polarization effects and quantum statistics might have on these gedanken experiments. In particular, we show that they are not enough to prevent the absorption of incident small energy particles and, consequently, the formation of a naked singularity.

  7. Some developments in neutron and charged particle dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is an increasing need for dosimetry of neutrons and charged particles. Increasing exposure levels are reported in the nuclear industry, deriving from more frequent in-service entries at commercial nuclear power plants, and from increased plant decommissioning and refurbishment activities. Another need stems from the compliance with requirements of the regulations and standards. The European Council directive 96/29 requires dosimetric precautions if the effective dose exceeds 1 mSv a-1. On average, aircrew members exceed this value. Further, there is a trend of increasing use of charged particles in radiotherapy. The present situation is that we have reasonably good photon dosemeters, but neutron and charged particle dosemeters are still in need of improvements. This work highlights some of the developments in this field. It is mainly concentrated on some developments in passive dosimetry, in particular thermally and optically stimulated luminescent detectors, indicating the direction of ongoing research. It shows that passive dosemeters are still a very active field. Active dosemeters will not be discussed with the exception of new developments in Micro-dosimetric measurements [new types of tissue equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs)]. The TEPC is unique in its ability to provide a simultaneous determination of neutron/charged particle/ gamma ray doses, or dose equivalents using a single detector. (authors)

  8. The Mathematics of Charged Particles interacting with Electromagnetic Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kim

    In this thesis, we study the mathematics used to describe systems of charged quantum mechanical particles coupled with their classical self-generated electromagnetic field. We prove the existence of a unique local in time solution to the many-body Maxwell-Schrödinger initial value problem expressed...

  9. Bibliography of integral charged-particle nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is the first supplement to the archival edition of the National Nuclear Data Center's charged-particle bibliography. This supplement contains citations to all references scanned since March 15, 1980, and all corrections and additions to previous citations, and indexes all data received in the international exchanged format (EXFOR). The primary goal of the bibliography has been to satisfy the need expressed by the Nuclear Reaction Data Center Network for a concise and comprehensive bibliography of integral charged-particle cross section data and to provide an index of data exchanged among the members. As a result of a recommendation by the recent Workshop on Intense High Energy Neutron Source and Their Characteristics, we have also undertaken to expand the coverage of charged-particle-induced neutron-source reactions to include differential data. This supplement is divided into two sections, References and Isotope Production. The References section contains all references satisfying the criteria noted. The Isotope Production section contains an abbreviated reference line for all entries which contain information on a definite residual nucleus, on particle production, or on mass, charge, or isotopic distributions. Entries in the References section are sequentially numbered. These sequence numbers serve as a link between the two sections

  10. Thermodynamic model for bouncing charged particles inside a capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeizadeh, Amin; Mameghani, Pooya

    2013-08-01

    We introduce an equation of state for a conducting particle inside a charged parallel-plate capacitor and show that it is similar to the equation of state for an ideal gas undergoing an adiabatic process. We describe a simple experiment that shows reasonable agreement with the theoretical model.

  11. Fusion reactivity graphs and tables for charged particle reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphs and tables are presented on 31 light isotope fusion reaction parameters [, n, Q/sub +/, nQ/sub +/ (for n = 1020 fuel ion species/m3 and Q/sub +/ = energy release in charged particles)] in the kinetic temperature range 1 to 1000 keV

  12. Study of the liquid water luminescence induced by charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many observations suggested that liquid water (with impurities) could give a luminescence output when irradiated with charged particles. We investigate theoretical and practical possibility of detecting such luminescence. Preliminary results on this possibility are presented, and a layout of the device proposed for measuring luminescence is given. (authors)

  13. Particle size and surface charge affect particle uptake by human dendritic cells in an in vitro model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Camilla; Brodin, Birger; Frøkjær, Sven; Sundblad, Anne

    2005-01-01

    polystyrene particles was covalently modified with different polyaminoacids/proteins, yielding particles with varying surface charge. Uptake of 1 microm particles was greatly enhanced when particles displayed a positive surface charge. In general, the present findings establish that particle diameters of 0...

  14. Continuum of the spectra of emitted charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The continuous part of nuclear particle spectra situated between direct reactions and compound nuclear reactions is of importance due to its great yield. Because most reactions studied so far have only nucleons in the entrance or exit channel, respectively, the authors have measured charged particle spectra from complex particle induced reactions: deuterons, helions and alphas with bombarding energies up to 40 MeV/nucleon. From spectra measured at both forward and backward angles angle integrated spectra have been deduced which can be compared with the predictions of reaction models. (orig./AH)

  15. Guiding of charged particles through capillaries in insulating materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolterfoht, Nikolaus; Yamazaki, Yasunori

    2016-04-01

    Studies of charged particle guiding through capillaries in insulating materials, performed during the last decade, are reviewed in a comprehensive manner. First, the principles of capillary guiding of slow highly charged ions are introduced describing the self-organized formation of charge patches. Basic quantities are defined, such as the guiding power characterizing a capillary. Challenges of the guiding experiments are pointed out. Then, experiments are described with emphasis on the guiding of highly charged ions in the keV energy range. Samples with an array of nanocapillaries as well as single macrocapillaries are treated. Emission profiles of transmitted ions are analyzed to establish scaling laws for the guiding angle, which quantifies the guiding power. Oscillations of the mean ion emission angle reveal the temporal dynamics of the charge patch formation. Next, experiments with ions of high (MeV) energies are focused on single tapered capillaries allowing for the production of a microbeam for various applications. Experiments concerning electrons are presented showing that apart from being elastically scattered these negative particles may enter into the capillary surface where they suffer energy losses. Finally, theoretical concepts of the capillary guiding are discussed. Simulations based on different charge transport methods clearly support the understanding of the guiding mechanisms. Altogether, capillary guiding involves several novel phenomena for which understanding have progressed far beyond their infancy.

  16. Review: Niels C. Taubert (2006). Produktive Anarchie? Netzwerke freier Softwareentwicklung

    OpenAIRE

    Groß, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    Unter freier Software werden Programme verstanden, deren Lizenz, Nutzung, Vervielfältigung, Verbreitung und Veränderung frei zugänglich ist. Sie wird allseits gelobt und gilt gewöhnlich als Alternative zur käuflichen Software. Wie kann es zu einem solchen Phänomen in einer Zeit kommen, in der fast alles nur noch käuflich erwerbbar erscheint? Das Buch Produktive Anarchie? Netzwerke freier Softwareentwicklung von Niels C. TAUBERT setzt sich zum Ziel, Voraussetzungen und Bedingungen der freien S...

  17. Charged-particle LET-spectra measurements aboard LDEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of charged particles was measured in the 5 to 250 keV/micron (water) interval with CR-39 and in the 500 to 1500 keV/micron (water) interval with polycarbonate plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs) under different shielding depths in the P0006 experiment. The optimal processing conditions were determined for both PNTDs in relation to the relatively high track densities due to the long term exposure in space. The total track density was measured over the selected samples, and tracks in coincidence on the facing surfaces of two detector sheets were selected for measuring at the same position on each sheet. The short range (SR) and Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) components were measured separately with CR-39 PNTDs and the integral dose and dose rate spectra of charged particles were also determined. The high LET portion of the LET spectra was measured with polycarbonate PNTDs with high statistical accuracy. This is a unique result of this exposure due to the low flux of these types of particles for typical spaceflight durations. The directional dependence of the charged particles at the position of the P0006 experiment was also studied by four small side stacks which surrounded the main stack and by analyzing the dip angle and polar angle distributions of the measured SR and GCR particle tracks in the main stack

  18. Cosmic-Ray Generated Charged Particles for Nuclear Inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charged particles continuously rain down on the surface of the Earth. These charged particles primarily consist of muons and electrons. Muons are subatomic particles with the same charge as the electron, but with 200 times the mass. These particles are generated from interactions of primary cosmic-rays, primarily protons, with the upper atmosphere. Decision Sciences has implemented a tracking detector to measure the interactions of these particles with materials through which they pass: multiple Coulomb scattering and ionization energy loss and from these measurements is able to reconstruct a three-dimensional map of the density and atomic number of the materials in a scan volume. This map, combined with sensitive gamma detection capability of the tracking detector, enables the detection of nuclear and radiological materials that may be concealed in shielding, as well as discrimination of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) from point sources that would be more associated with threats. Times to clear most non-threat cargo range from 30-60 seconds, with suspicious (heavy shielding or gamma emitting) scenes being held longer to confirm the presence of and identify nuclear or radiological materials. Extended scanning in this circumstance would typically take two to ten minutes. (author)

  19. Monitoring of Hadrontherapy Treatments by Means of Charged Particle Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraro, Silvia; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Collamati, Francesco; De Lucia, Erika; Faccini, Riccardo; Ferroni, Fernando; Fiore, Salvatore; Frallicciardi, Paola; Marafini, Michela; Mattei, Ilaria; Morganti, Silvio; Paramatti, Riccardo; Piersanti, Luca; Pinci, Davide; Rucinski, Antoni; Russomando, Andrea; Sarti, Alessio; Sciubba, Adalberto; Solfaroli-Camillocci, Elena; Toppi, Marco; Traini, Giacomo; Voena, Cecilia; Patera, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of the incoming beam radiation with the patient body in hadrontherapy treatments produces secondary charged and neutral particles, whose detection can be used for monitoring purposes and to perform an on-line check of beam particle range. In the context of ion-therapy with active scanning, charged particles are potentially attractive since they can be easily tracked with a high efficiency, in presence of a relatively low background contamination. In order to verify the possibility of exploiting this approach for in-beam monitoring in ion-therapy, and to guide the design of specific detectors, both simulations and experimental tests are being performed with ion beams impinging on simple homogeneous tissue-like targets (PMMA). From these studies, a resolution of the order of few millimeters on the single track has been proven to be sufficient to exploit charged particle tracking for monitoring purposes, preserving the precision achievable on longitudinal shape. The results obtained so far show that the measurement of charged particles can be successfully implemented in a technology capable of monitoring both the dose profile and the position of the Bragg peak inside the target and finally lead to the design of a novel profile detector. Crucial aspects to be considered are the detector positioning, to be optimized in order to maximize the available statistics, and the capability of accounting for the multiple scattering interactions undergone by the charged fragments along their exit path from the patient body. The experimental results collected up to now are also valuable for the validation of Monte Carlo simulation software tools and their implementation in Treatment Planning Software packages. PMID:27536555

  20. Monitoring of Hadrontherapy Treatments by Means of Charged Particle Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraro, Silvia; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Collamati, Francesco; De Lucia, Erika; Faccini, Riccardo; Ferroni, Fernando; Fiore, Salvatore; Frallicciardi, Paola; Marafini, Michela; Mattei, Ilaria; Morganti, Silvio; Paramatti, Riccardo; Piersanti, Luca; Pinci, Davide; Rucinski, Antoni; Russomando, Andrea; Sarti, Alessio; Sciubba, Adalberto; Solfaroli-Camillocci, Elena; Toppi, Marco; Traini, Giacomo; Voena, Cecilia; Patera, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of the incoming beam radiation with the patient body in hadrontherapy treatments produces secondary charged and neutral particles, whose detection can be used for monitoring purposes and to perform an on-line check of beam particle range. In the context of ion-therapy with active scanning, charged particles are potentially attractive since they can be easily tracked with a high efficiency, in presence of a relatively low background contamination. In order to verify the possibility of exploiting this approach for in-beam monitoring in ion-therapy, and to guide the design of specific detectors, both simulations and experimental tests are being performed with ion beams impinging on simple homogeneous tissue-like targets (PMMA). From these studies, a resolution of the order of few millimeters on the single track has been proven to be sufficient to exploit charged particle tracking for monitoring purposes, preserving the precision achievable on longitudinal shape. The results obtained so far show that the measurement of charged particles can be successfully implemented in a technology capable of monitoring both the dose profile and the position of the Bragg peak inside the target and finally lead to the design of a novel profile detector. Crucial aspects to be considered are the detector positioning, to be optimized in order to maximize the available statistics, and the capability of accounting for the multiple scattering interactions undergone by the charged fragments along their exit path from the patient body. The experimental results collected up to now are also valuable for the validation of Monte Carlo simulation software tools and their implementation in Treatment Planning Software packages. PMID:27536555

  1. Space charge distribution measurement methods and particle loaded insulating materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hole, S [Laboratoire des Instruments et Systemes d' Ile de France, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris6, 10 rue Vauquelin, 75005 Paris (France); Sylvestre, A [Laboratoire d' Electrostatique et des Materiaux Dielectriques, CNRS UMR5517, 25 avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Lavallee, O Gallot [Laboratoire d' Etude Aerodynamiques, CNRS UMR6609, boulevard Marie et Pierre Curie, Teleport 2, BP 30179, 86962 Futuroscope, Chasseneuil (France); Guillermin, C [Schneider Electric Industries SAS, 22 rue Henry Tarze, 38000 Grenoble (France); Rain, P [Laboratoire d' Electrostatique et des Materiaux Dielectriques, CNRS UMR5517, 25 avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Rowe, S [Schneider Electric Industries SAS, 22 rue Henry Tarze, 38000 Grenoble (France)

    2006-03-07

    In this paper the authors discuss the effects of particles (fillers) mixed in a composite polymer on the space charge measurement techniques. The origin of particle-induced spurious signals is determined and silica filled epoxy resin is analysed using the laser-induced-pressure-pulse (LIPP) method, the pulsed-electro-acoustic (PEA) method and the laser-induced-thermal-pulse (LITP) method. A spurious signal identified as the consequence of a piezoelectric effect of some silica particles is visible for all the method. Moreover, space charges are clearly detected at the epoxy/silica interface after a 10 kV mm{sup -1} poling at room temperature for 2 h.

  2. Brownian Dynamics of charged particles in a constant magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Hou, L J; Piel, A; Shukla, P K

    2009-01-01

    Numerical algorithms are proposed for simulating the Brownian dynamics of charged particles in an external magnetic field, taking into account the Brownian motion of charged particles, damping effect and the effect of magnetic field self-consistently. Performance of these algorithms is tested in terms of their accuracy and long-time stability by using a three-dimensional Brownian oscillator model with constant magnetic field. Step-by-step recipes for implementing these algorithms are given in detail. It is expected that these algorithms can be directly used to study particle dynamics in various dispersed systems in the presence of a magnetic field, including polymer solutions, colloidal suspensions and, particularly complex (dusty) plasmas. The proposed algorithms can also be used as thermostat in the usual molecular dynamics simulation in the presence of magnetic field.

  3. Charged Q-balls and boson stars and dynamics of charged test particles

    CERN Document Server

    Brihaye, Yves; Hartmann, Betti

    2014-01-01

    We construct electrically charged Q-balls and boson stars in a model with a scalar self-interaction potential resulting from gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking. We discuss the properties of these solutions in detail and emphasize the differences to the uncharged case. We observe that $Q$-balls can only be constructed up to a maximal value of the charge of the scalar field, while for boson stars the interplay between the attractive gravitational force and the repulsive electromagnetic force determines their behaviour. We also study the motion of charged, massive test particles in the space-time of boson stars. We find that in contrast to charged black holes the motion of charged test particles in charged boson star space-times is planar, but that the presence of the scalar field plays a crucial r\\^ole for the qualitative features of the trajectories. Applications of this test particle motion can be made in the study of extreme-mass ratio inspirals (EMRIs) as well as astrophysical plasmas relevant e.g. in th...

  4. Effects of dispersive wave modes on charged particles transport

    CERN Document Server

    Schreiner, Cedric

    2015-01-01

    The transport of charged particles in the heliosphere and the interstellar medium is governed by the interaction of particles and magnetic irregularities. For the transport of protons a rather simple model using a linear Alfv\\'en wave spectrum which follows the Kolmogorov distribution usually yields good results. Even magnetostatic spectra may be used. For the case of electron transport, particles will resonate with the high-k end of the spectrum. Here the magnetic fluctuations do not follow the linear dispersion relation, but the kinetic regime kicks in. We will discuss the interaction of fluctuations of dispersive waves in the kinetic regime using a particle-in-cell code. Especially the scattering of particles following the idea of Lange et al. (2013) and its application to PiC codes will be discussed. The effect of the dispersive regime on the electron transport will be discussed in detail.

  5. Effect of Charge, Size and Temperature on Stability of Charged Colloidal Nano Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Golchoobi; A. Khosravi; H. Modarress; A Ahmadzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Molecular simulation of charged colloidal suspension is performed in NVT canonical ensemble using Monte Carlo method and primitive model.The well-known Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theory is applied to account for effective interactions between particles.Effect of temperature,valance of micro-ions and the size of colloidal particles on the phase stability of the solution is investigated.The results indicate that the suspension is more stable at higher temperatures.On the other hand,for a more stable suspension to exist,lower microion valance is favorable.For micro-ions of higher charge the number of aggregates and the number of particle in each of aggregate on average is higher.However for the best of our results larger colloidal particle are less stable.Comparing the results with theoretical formula considering the influence of surface curvature shows qualitative consistency.

  6. Isospin Effect of Charged Particle Multiplicity in Intermediate Energy Heavy Ion Collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuRongjiang; WuHeyu; JinGenming; ZhuYongtai; DuanLimin; XiaoZhigang; WangHongwei

    2003-01-01

    The dependences of He and intermediate mass fragments (IMF) production rates in the reactions 55 MeV/u 40Ar+58,64 Ni on the isospin, impact parameter and primary excitation energy of the reaction nuclear system were studied by using the 4π charged particle multi-detector array system (MUDAL). For the mentioned two reaction systems, the measured He particle contribution in the total charged particle multiplicity increases with increasing the total charged particle multiplicity but for the contribution of IMFs in the total charged particle multiplicity increases with increasing the total charged particle multiplicity at lower total charged particle multiplicities, and latter on it drops down with further increasing of the total charged particle multiplicities (see Fig.l). The experimental results of these two reaction systems with the same nuclear charge indicate that the contribution of He and IMFs in the total charged particle multiplicities are obviously isospin dependent.

  7. Strange particle production in neutrino-neon charged current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutral strange particle production in charged-current muon-neutrino interactions have been studied in the Fermilab 15-foot neon bubble chamber. Associated production is expected to be the major source of strange particles in charged-current neutrino interactions. σ-neutral and ξ-minus production by neutrinos was observed. The dependence on various leptonic and hadronic variables is investigated. A fit to single and associated production of s, s/anti-s, and c quarks is described based on the number of single and double strange particle production events. Inclusive neutral strange particle decays (V0) production rates as a fraction of all charged-current events are measured and are tabulated. The λ/K ratio is found to be 0.39 +- 0.04 and the fraction of λ coming from σ-neutral is (16 +- 5)%. The single- and double V0 production was used to determine the associated s anti-s production rate and single s-quark production rate. 13 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Charged Particle Therapy Steps Into the Clinical Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberer, Th.

    Beams of heavy charged particles like protons or carbon ions represent the ideal tool for the treatment of deep-seated, inoperable and radioresistant tumors. For more than 4 decades research with beams of charged particles has been performed. In total more than 40000 patients have been treated, mostly using protons being delivered by accelerators that were designed for basic research centers. In Berkeley, USA heavier particles like helium or neon ions were used to conduct clinical trials until 1992. Based on that somewhat limited technological standard and triggered by the promising results from Berkeley the first dedicated charged particle facilities were constructed. In order to maximally exploit the advantageous physical and radiobiological characteristics of these beams enormous effort was put into developing dynamic beam delivery techniques and tailoring the capabilities of the accelerators, the planning systems and the quality assurance procedures and equipment to the requirements resulting from these new treatment modalities. Active beam delivery systems integrated in rotating gantries, if necessary, will allow the production of superior dose distributions that precisely follow the medical prescription. The technological progress being made during the last 10 years defines the state of the art of the upcoming next-generation facilities for the clinical environment in Europe and Japan.

  9. DART: a simulation code for charged particle beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, R.C.; Barr, W.L.; Moir, R.W.

    1988-05-16

    This paper presents a recently modified verion of the 2-D DART code designed to simulate the behavior of a beam of charged particles whose paths are affected by electric and magnetic fields. This code was originally used to design laboratory-scale and full-scale beam direct converters. Since then, its utility has been expanded to allow more general applications. The simulation technique includes space charge, secondary electron effects, and neutral gas ionization. Calculations of electrode placement and energy conversion efficiency are described. Basic operation procedures are given including sample input files and output. 7 refs., 18 figs.

  10. DART: a simulation code for charged particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a recently modified verion of the 2-D DART code designed to simulate the behavior of a beam of charged particles whose paths are affected by electric and magnetic fields. This code was originally used to design laboratory-scale and full-scale beam direct converters. Since then, its utility has been expanded to allow more general applications. The simulation technique includes space charge, secondary electron effects, and neutral gas ionization. Calculations of electrode placement and energy conversion efficiency are described. Basic operation procedures are given including sample input files and output. 7 refs., 18 figs

  11. Detection of charged particles through a photodiode: design and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project develops and construct an charge particle detector mean a pin photodiode array, design and analysis using a silicon pin Fotodiodo that generally is used to detect visible light, its good efficiency, size compact and reduced cost specifically allows to its use in the radiation monitoring and alpha particle detection. Here, so much, appears the design of the system of detection like its characterization for alpha particles where one is reported as alpha energy resolution and detection efficiency. The equipment used in the development of work consists of alpha particle a triple source composed of Am-241, Pu-239 and Cm-244 with 5,55 KBq as total activity, Maestro 32 software made by ORTEC, a multi-channel card Triumph from ORTEC and one low activity electroplated uranium sample. (Author)

  12. Charge collection studies in irradiated HV-CMOS particle detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affolder, A.; Andelković, M.; Arndt, K.; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Buttar, C.; Caragiulo, P.; Cindro, V.; Das, D.; Dopke, J.; Dragone, A.; Ehrler, F.; Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Gorišek, A.; Grabas, H.; Gregor, I. M.; Grenier, P.; Grillo, A.; Hommels, L. B. A.; Huffman, T.; John, J.; Kanisauskas, K.; Kenney, C.; Kramberger, G.; Liang, Z.; Mandić, I.; Maneuski, D.; McMahon, S.; Mikuž, M.; Muenstermann, D.; Nickerson, R.; Perić, I.; Phillips, P.; Plackett, R.; Rubbo, F.; Segal, J.; Seiden, A.; Shipsey, I.; Song, W.; Stanitzki, M.; Su, D.; Tamma, C.; Turchetta, R.; Vigani, L.; Volk, J.; Wang, R.; Warren, M.; Wilson, F.; Worm, S.; Xiu, Q.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zhang, J.; Zhu, H.

    2016-04-01

    Charge collection properties of particle detectors made in HV-CMOS technology were investigated before and after irradiation with reactor neutrons. Two different sensor types were designed and processed in 180 and 350 nm technology by AMS. Edge-TCT and charge collection measurements with electrons from 90Sr source were employed. Diffusion of generated carriers from undepleted substrate contributes significantly to the charge collection before irradiation, while after irradiation the drift contribution prevails as shown by charge measurements at different shaping times. The depleted region at a given bias voltage was found to grow with irradiation in the fluence range of interest for strip detectors at the HL-LHC. This leads to large gains in the measured charge with respect to the one before irradiation. The increase of the depleted region was attributed to removal of effective acceptors. The evolution of depleted region with fluence was investigated and modeled. Initial studies show a small effect of short term annealing on charge collection.

  13. Modelling die filling with charged particles using DEM/CFD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanuel Nkem Nwose; Chunlei Pei; Chuan-Yu Wu

    2012-01-01

    The effects of electrostatic charge on powder flow behaviour during die filling in a vacuum and in air were analysed using a coupled discrete element method and computational fluid dynamics (DEM/CFD) code,in which long range electrostatic interactions were implemented.The present 2D simulations revealed that both electrostatic charge and the presence of air can affect the powder flow behaviour during die filling.It was found that the electrostatic charge inhibited the flow of powders into the die and induced a loose packing structure.At the same filling speed,increasing the electrostatic charge led to a decrease in the fill ratio which quantifies the volumetric occupancy of powder in the die.In addition,increasing the shoe speed caused a further decrease in the fill ratio,which was characterised using the concept of critical filling speed.When the electrostatic charge was low,the air/particle interaction was strong so that a lower critical filling speed was obtained for die filling in air than in a vacuum.With high electrostatic charge,the electrostatic interactions became dominant.Consequently,similar fill ratio and critical filling speed were obtained for die filling in air and in a vacuum.

  14. Charge particle accelerator - a brief review, future challenges and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charged particle accelerators are important tools to investigate hitherto inaccessible problems in various fields of science. The interaction of charged particles with materials reveals structural information at very small scale (-16 cm). Accelerator based equipments viz. scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and focused ion beam (FIB) machines are extensively being used to explore new possibilities in nanotechnology. Many experiments in nuclear and particle physics examine the fundamental laws of physics by colliding a high-energy beam of particles, such as electrons or protons, with a fixed target or with another beam of particles. Modern light sources, which are capable of producing high-energy photons such as X-rays, operate by 'bending' the path of electrons in an accelerator with magnets to generate radiation. State-of-the-art cancer treatment facilities utilize high-energy proton and heavier ion beams to treat inoperable tumors. The man made sun, International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), will utilize 1 MeV, 40 A neutral proton beams for additional heating of the plasma. A roadmap for developing accelerator driven systems (ADS) in India was prepared in 2001 and involves development of a 1 GeV, 30 mA proton linear accelerator. Due to potential applications, developing high energy accelerators worldwide is a challenge for the community. New acceleration schemes to make accelerator size compact have been realized. In the present talk, various types of accelerators, accelerator based programs worldwide and new acceleration scheme of charge particles will be discussed. The low energy ion beam facility (LEIBF) at IUAC and a few experimental results arising from this facility will be presented. Finally, I will touch some applications, particularly in nanotechnology, where accelerators are making a big impact. (author)

  15. RESONANCE BROADENING AND HEATING OF CHARGED PARTICLES IN MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heating, acceleration, and pitch-angle scattering of charged particles by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence are important in a wide range of astrophysical environments, including the solar wind, accreting black holes, and galaxy clusters. We simulate the interaction of high-gyrofrequency test particles with fully dynamical simulations of subsonic MHD turbulence, focusing on the parameter regime with β ∼ 1, where β is the ratio of gas to magnetic pressure. We use the simulation results to calibrate analytical expressions for test particle velocity-space diffusion coefficients and provide simple fits that can be used in other work. The test particle velocity diffusion in our simulations is due to a combination of two processes: interactions between particles and magnetic compressions in the turbulence (as in linear transit-time damping; TTD) and what we refer to as Fermi Type-B (FTB) interactions, in which charged particles moving on field lines may be thought of as beads sliding along moving wires. We show that test particle heating rates are consistent with a TTD resonance that is broadened according to a decorrelation prescription that is Gaussian in time (but inconsistent with Lorentzian broadening due to an exponential decorrelation function, a prescription widely used in the literature). TTD dominates the heating for vs >> vA (e.g., electrons), where vs is the thermal speed of species s and vA is the Alfvén speed, while FTB dominates for vs A (e.g., minor ions). Proton heating rates for β ∼ 1 are comparable to the turbulent cascade rate. Finally, we show that velocity diffusion of collisionless, large gyrofrequency particles due to large-scale MHD turbulence does not produce a power-law distribution function.

  16. Cataract production in mice by heavy charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cataractogenic effects of heavy charged particles have been evaluated in mice in relation to dose and ionization density (LET/sub infinity/). The study was undertaken due to the high potential for eye exposures to HZE particles among SPS personnel working in outer space. This has made it imperative that the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) in relation to LET/sub infinity/ for various particles be defined so that appropriate quality factors (Q) could be assigned for estimation of risk. Although mice and men differ in susceptibility to radiation-induced cataracts, the results from this project should assist in defining appropriate quality factors in relation to LET/sub infinity/, particle mass, charge, or velocity. Evaluation of results indicated that : (1) low single doses (5 to 20 rad) of iron (56Fe) or argon (40Ar) particles are cataractogenic at 11 to 18 months after irradiation; (2) onset and density of the opacification are dose related; (3) cataract density (grade) at 9, 11, 13, and 16 months after irradiation shows partial LET/sub infinity/-dependence; and (4) the severity of cataracts is reduced significantly when 417 rad of 60Co gamma radiation is given in 24 weekly 17 rad fractions compared to giving this radiation as a single dose, but cataract severity is not reduced by fractionation of 12C doses over 24 weeks

  17. Emission of ions and charged soot particles by aircraft engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sorokin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a model which examines the formation and evolution of chemiions in an aircraft engine is proposed. This model which includes chemiionisation, electron thermo-emission, electron attachment to soot particles and to neutral molecules, electron-ion and ion-ion recombination, ion-soot interaction, allows the determination of the ion concentration at the exit of the combustor and at the nozzle exit of the engine. It also allows the determination of the charge of the soot particles. For the engine considered, the upper limit for the ion emission index EIi is of the order of (2-5 x1016 ions/kg-fuel if ion-soot interactions are ignored and the introduction of ion-soot interactions lead about to a 50% reduction. The results also show that most of the soot particles are either positively or negatively charged, the remaining neutral particles representing approximately 20% of the total particles. A comparison of the model results with the available ground-based experimental data obtained on the ATTAS research aircraft engines during the SULFUR experiments (Schumann, 2002 shows an excellent agreement.

  18. The Motion of a Pair of Charged Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, J

    2013-01-01

    We re-visit the problem of two (oppositely) charged particles interacting electromagnetically in one dimension with retarded potentials and no radiation reaction. The specific quantitative result of interest is the time it takes for the particles to fall in towards one another. Starting with the non-relativistic form, we answer this question while adding layers of complexity until we arrive at the full relativistic delay differential equation that governs this problem. That case can be solved using the Synge method, which we describe and discuss.

  19. The Search for Fractional Charge Elementary Particles and Very Massive Particles in Bulk Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Perl, Martin Lewis; Kim, P C; Lee, E R; Lee, I T; Loomba, D; Perl, Martin L.; Halyo, Valerie; Kim, Peter C.; Lee, Eric R.; Lee, Irwin T.; Loomba, Dinesh

    2000-01-01

    We describe our ongoing work on, and future plans for, searches in bulk matter for fractional charge elementary particles and very massive elementary particles. Our primary interest is in searching for such particles that may have been produced in the early universe and may be found in the more primeval matter available in the solar system: meteorites, material from the moon's surface, and certain types of ancient terrestrial rocks. In the future we are interested in examining material brought back by sample return probes from asteroids. We will describe our experimental methods that are based on new modifications of the Millikan liquid drop technique and modern technology: micromachining, CCD cameras, and desktop computers. Extensions of our experimental methods and technology allow searches for very massive charged particles in primeval matter; particles with masses greater than 10**13 GeV. In the first such searches carried out on earth there will be uncertainties in the mass search range. Therefore we wil...

  20. Charged point particles with magnetic moment in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbwachs Lagrangean formalism for the theory of charged point particles with spin (g = 2) is generalized and formulated in General Relativity for particles of arbitrary charge and magnetic moment. Equations are obtained, both corresponding to Frenkel's condition Ssub(μν)Xsup(ν) = 0 and to Nakano's condition Ssub(μν)Psup(ν) = 0. With the later condition the exact equations are highly coupled and non linear. When linearized in the electromagnetic and gravitational fields they coincide with de Groot-Suttorp equations for vanishing gravitational fields and with Dixon-Wald equations in the absence of electromagnetic field. The equations corresponding to Frenkel's condition, when linearized in Ssub(μν), coincide with Papapetrou's and Frenkel's equations in the corresponding limits

  1. Electro-Optical Detection of Charged Particle Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Semertzidis, Y K; Kowalski, L A; Kraus, D E; Larsen, R C; Lazarus, D M; Magurno, B; Srinivasan-Rao, T; Tsang, Thomas; Usack, V

    1999-01-01

    We have made the first observation of a charged particle beam by means of its electro-optical effect on the propagation of laser light in a birefringent crystal at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Accelerator Test Facility. Polarized infrared light was coupled to a LiNbO3 crystal through a polarization maintaining fiber of 4 micron diameter. An electron beam in 10ps bunches of 1mm diameter was scanned across the crystal. The modulation of the laser light during passage of the electron beam was observed using a photodiode with 45GHz bandwidth. The fastest rise time measured, 120ps, was made in the single shot mode and was limited by the bandwidth of the oscilloscope and the associated electronics. Both polarization dependent and polarization independent effects were observed. This technology holds promise of greatly improved spatial and temporal resolution of charged particle beams.

  2. 3D Simulations of Space Charge Effects in Particle Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first time, it is possible to calculate the complicated three-dimensional proton accelerator structures at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI). Under consideration are external and self effects, arising from guiding and space-charge forces. This thesis has as its theme the design, implementation and validation of a tracking program for charged particles in accelerator structures. This work form part of the discipline of Computational Science and Engineering (CSE), more specifically in computational accelerator modelling. The physical model is based on the collisionless Vlasov-Maxwell theory, justified by the low density (∼ 109 protons/cm3) of the beam and of the residual gas. The probability of large angle scattering between the protons and the residual gas is then sufficiently low, as can be estimated by considering the mean free path and the total distance a particle travels in the accelerator structure. (author)

  3. 3D Simulations of Space Charge Effects in Particle Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelmann, A

    2002-10-01

    For the first time, it is possible to calculate the complicated three-dimensional proton accelerator structures at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI). Under consideration are external and self effects, arising from guiding and space-charge forces. This thesis has as its theme the design, implementation and validation of a tracking program for charged particles in accelerator structures. This work form part of the discipline of Computational Science and Engineering (CSE), more specifically in computational accelerator modelling. The physical model is based on the collisionless Vlasov-Maxwell theory, justified by the low density ({approx} 10{sup 9} protons/cm{sup 3}) of the beam and of the residual gas. The probability of large angle scattering between the protons and the residual gas is then sufficiently low, as can be estimated by considering the mean free path and the total distance a particle travels in the accelerator structure. (author)

  4. Charged particle induced prompt nuclear reaction and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charged particle induced prompt nuclear reaction analysis (PNR) not only can analyze the content and concentration of elements in sample sensitively and accurately, but also can measure the distributions of elements with depth in surface and near surface layer. And the method is very simple, rapid and nondestructive, and has good depth resolution. So the PNR is very widely used in many modern science and technique field such as solid state physics, surface physics, electrochemistry, metallurgy and material science and so on. This paper deals with the principle, method and the features of the nuclear reaction analysis induced by charged particle. Especially, the distribution analysis of impurities in sample with depth and the improvement of the depth resolution are discussed in detail. Some actual examples of its application are given

  5. Production of carbon monoxide by charged particle deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A. E. S.; Sawada, T.; Edgar, B. C.; Uman, M. A.

    1973-01-01

    Recent studies of electron energy deposition in CO2 and CO based upon a large set of electron impact cross sections are utilized to estimate the telluric CO directly produced by various charged-particle deposition mechanisms. The mechanisms considered are (1) lightning, (2) cloud coronal discharges, (3) background radioactivity, (4) natural electrostatic discharges, (5) photoelectrons in the ionosphere, (6) auroral electrons, (7) auroral protons, (8) cosmic rays, and (9) solar wind. 'Ball park' estimates of the global CO production by each of these mechanisms are given. Apart from mechanisms 1, 2, and 5, all CO production mechanisms are estimated to be small compared to artificial sources. If, as appears to be the case, the hot oxygen atoms and ions and other atomic species immediately produced by these three charged-particle deposition mechanisms react rapidly with CO2 to produce CO, these mechanisms can readily lead to CO production levels in the multimegaton-per-year range.

  6. Effect of collisions on dust particle charging via particle-in-cell Monte-Carlo collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovagnati, B.; Davoudabadi, M.; Lapenta, G.; Mashayek, F.

    2007-10-01

    In this paper, the effect of collisions on the charging and shielding of a single dust particle immersed in an infinite plasma is studied. A Monte-Carlo collision (MCC) algorithm is implemented in the particle-in-cell DEMOCRITUS code to account for the collisional phenomena which are typical of dusty plasmas in plasma processing, namely, electron-neutral elastic scattering, ion-neutral elastic scattering, and ion-neutral charge exchange. Both small and large dust particle radii, as compared to the characteristic Debye lengths, are considered. The trends of the steady-state dust particle potential at increasing collisionality are presented and discussed. The ions and electron energy distributions at various locations and at increasing collisionality in the case of large particle radius are shown and compared to their local Maxwellians. The ion-neutral charge-exchange collision is found to be by far the most important collisional phenomenon. For small particle radius, collisional effects are found to be important also at low level of collisionality, as more ions are collected by the dust particle due to the destruction of trapped ion orbits. For large particle radius, the major collisional effect is observed to take place in proximity of the presheath. Finally, the species energy distribution functions are found to approach their local Maxwellians at increasing collisionality.

  7. Transport of Charged Particles: Entropy Production and Maximum Dissipation Principle

    OpenAIRE

    Hsieh, Chia-Yu; Hyon, YunKyong; Lee, Hijin; Lin, Tai-Chia; Liu, Chun

    2014-01-01

    In order to describe the dynamics of crowded ions (charged particles), we use an energetic variation approach to derive a modified Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) system which includes an extra dissipation due to the effective velocity differences between ion species. Such a system is more complicated than the original PNP system but with the same equilibrium states. Using Schauder's fixed-point theorem, we develop a local existence theorem of classical solutions for the modified PNP system. Diff...

  8. Charged particle detectors made from thin layers of amorphous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of experiments was conducted to determine the feasibility of using hydrogenated amorphous silicon (α-Si:H) as solid state thin film charged particle detectors. 241Am alphas were successfully detected with α-Si:H devices. The measurements and results of these experiments are presented. The problems encountered and changes in the fabrication of the detectors that may improve the performance are discussed

  9. Laser focusing of high-energy charged-particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that laser focusing of high-energy charged-particle beams using the inverse Cherenkov effect is well suited for applications with large linear colliders. Very high gradient (>0.5 MG/cm) lenses result that can be added sequentially without AG cancellation. These lenses are swell understood, have small geometric aberrations, and offer the possibility of correlating phase and energy aberrations to produce an achromatic final focus

  10. Electrostatic energy analyzers for high energy charged particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrostatic energy analyzers for high energy charged particle beams emitted from extended large-size objects as well as from remote point sources are proposed. Results of the analytical trajectory solutions in ideal cylindrical field provide focusing characteristics for both configurations. The instruments possess of simple compact design, based on an ideal cylindrical field with entrance window arranged in the end-boundary between electrodes and can be used for measurements in space technologies, plasma and nuclear physics

  11. Multidimensional analysis of charged particles from neutron-induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is given of the most recent experimental results obtained using twin gridded ionization chamber constructed at Obninsk, Russia. Peculiarities of (n,α) and (n,f) reactions investigated are discussed. The detailed description ol the method of charge particles spectrometry is presented. Selected results on fission fragment characteristics are discussed more in detail. Present experiments and instrumental developments are focussed on correlations between fragment masses, energies and emission angles and on fine structures in fragment parameter distributions. (author)

  12. Dynamical structure functions for charged particle bilayers and superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A modified Feynman construction with a zero-frequency central peak is used to model the dynamical structure functions for layered charged particle systems. This construction recognizes the affinity between layered and multicomponent systems. It also guarantees the simultaneous satisfaction of all three frequency-moment sum rules. The frequencies and spectral weights of the long-wavelength collective excitations and the strength of the diffusive central peak are calculated for arbitrary degeneracy

  13. Measurement of Forward-Backward Charged Particle Correlations with ALICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Carsten

    (NBI). In order for this calibration system to work, a special trigger interface was implemented. The developed and tested firmware for the FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array) will be presented. Part II is the presentation of the analysis - a study of, so-called, forward-backward correlations....... The correlations between charged particles, produced in proton-proton collisions at vs=900 GeV and vs=7 TeV over a wide range in pseudoradidity (-3.5

  14. Charged-Particle Multiplicity in Proton-Proton Collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Reygers, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes and critically reviews measurements of charged-particle multiplicity distributions and pseudorapidity densities in p+p(pbar) collisions between sqrt(s) = 23.6 GeV and sqrt(s) = 1.8 TeV. Related theoretical concepts are briefly introduced. Moments of multiplicity distributions are presented as a function of sqrt(s). Feynman scaling, KNO scaling, as well as the description of multiplicity distributions with a single negative binomial distribution and with combinations of...

  15. Optimizing interactive program for charged particle transport system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer program for charged particle transport system design is described. The program is written in the BASIC language and allows one to make calculations in dialogue with the computer. The BASTRA program permits to get output information both in digital and in graphical forms. The method for optimization is described, that allows one to put 10 limitation on beam parameters in arbitrary places of the transport system. The program can be adapted on every computer having the BASIC language in its software

  16. Neutron-Induced Charged Particle Studies at LANSCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Young; Haight, Robert C.

    2014-09-01

    Direct measurements on neutron-induced charged particle reactions are of interest for nuclear astrophysics and applied nuclear energy. LANSCE (Los Alamos Neutron Science Center) produces neutrons in energy of thermal to several hundreds MeV. There has been an effort at LANSCE to upgrade neutron-induced charged particle detection technique, which follows on (n,z) measurements made previously here and will have improved capabilities including larger solid angles, higher efficiency, and better signal to background ratios. For studying cross sections of low-energy neutron induced alpha reactions, Frisch-gridded ionization chamber is designed with segmented anodes for improving signal-to-noise ratio near reaction thresholds. Since double-differential cross sections on (n,p) and (n,a) reactions up to tens of MeV provide important information on deducing nuclear level density, the ionization chamber will be coupled with silicon strip detectors (DSSD) in order to stop energetic charged particles. In this paper, we will present the status of this development including the progress on detector design, calibrations and Monte Carlo simulations. This work is funded by the US Department of Energy - Los Alamos National Security, LLC under Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  17. Electromagnetic radiation of charged particles in stochastic motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harko, Tiberiu [Babes-Bolyai University, Department of Physics, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom); Mocanu, Gabriela [Astronomical Institute of the Romanian Academy, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2016-03-15

    The study of the Brownian motion of a charged particle in electric and magnetic fields has many important applications in plasma and heavy ions physics, as well as in astrophysics. In the present paper we consider the electromagnetic radiation properties of a charged non-relativistic particle in the presence of electric and magnetic fields, of an exterior non-electromagnetic potential, and of a friction and stochastic force, respectively. We describe the motion of the charged particle by a Langevin and generalized Langevin type stochastic differential equation. We investigate in detail the cases of the Brownian motion with or without memory in a constant electric field, in the presence of an external harmonic potential, and of a constant magnetic field. In all cases the corresponding Langevin equations are solved numerically, and a full description of the spectrum of the emitted radiation and of the physical properties of the motion is obtained. The power spectral density of the emitted power is also obtained for each case, and, for all considered oscillating systems, it shows the presence of peaks, corresponding to certain intervals of the frequency. (orig.)

  18. Microsparks Generated by Charged Particles in Dielectric Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Robert

    2012-10-01

    The electrodynamics of charged particles in dielectric liquids have been described by several authors [1,2]. As a charged particle approaches an electrode of opposite charge the local electric field eventually exceeds the dielectric strength of the liquid and a microspark is generated. These plasmas can be very small, about type of discharge can provide a simple means of generating non-thermal plasmas in dielectric liquids, such as oils or other hydrocarbons, which can be used to chemically process the liquids. Such a technology may lead to a highly efficient method of heavy oil upgrading which can be easily scaled. In order to understand the plasma properties optical emission spectroscopy is carried out for various hydrocarbons and voltage-current characteristics are used to determine the energy cost for this process. [4pt] [1] Melcher, James R. Continuum Electromechanics. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1981.[0pt] [2] Jones, Thomas B. Electromechanics of Particles. Cambridge University Press 1995.[0pt] [3] Staack, D., Fridman, A., Gutsol, A., Gogotsi, Y. and Friedman, G. 2008, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 47, 8020.

  19. The dynamics of charged particles in turbulent astrophysical plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dung, Rudiger; Petrosian, Vahe

    1994-01-01

    We consider the resonant interaction of energetic charged particles and transverse plasma wave propagating parallel and/or antiparallel to the uniform magnetic field B(sub 0) in an underlying background plasma of density n. The coupling of the plasma waves and the energetic particles will be controlled by the ratio n/(the absolute value of B(sub 0)(exp 2). A variation of this ratio leads to a strong variation of the dynamics of the energetic particles. By taking into account the whole transverse plasma branch for the resonant interaction we discuss the influence of the background plasma density, the background magnetic field, the cross helicity, and the magnetic helicities on the dynamics of charged particles in astrophysical plasmas. It is shown that low-energy electrons can be accelerated efficiently by the higher electromagnetic waves and short-wavelength whistlers for low values of the ratio n/(the absolute value of B(sub 0)(exp 2), which means for low values of the ratio of plasma frequency to gyrofrequency.

  20. Scanning system for charged and neutral particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention aims at providing a simple and reliable method and a reliable device for irradiating a confined volume of matter, preferably at great depth, with a beam of high energy charged or neutral particles. The basic feature of the invention is that the particle beam coming from a radiation source of charged particles is scanned electrically in two orthogonal directions, and that the beam scanned in one plane is deflected in space. For most practical purposes it is important that the radiation source is of small extension. Such a radiation source is realized by means of a beam optical system that includes two scanning magnets each of which admits scanning of the particle beam in one of two orthogonal planes. The beam scanned in one of the planes leaves the associated scanning magnet from an effective scanning centre. The optical system also includes a deflection magnet disposed between the scanning magnets for deflecting the path of the beam in space. By utilizing the optical properties of the deflection magnet in such a way that the deflection magnet produces an image of the effective scanning centre of the first scanning magnet which coincides with the effective scanning centre of the second scanning magnet, the beam scanned in two orthogonal planes will radiate isotropically from the scanning centre of the second scanning magnet. By using the deflection magnet a compact scanning system with a small distance between the scanning centres of the scanning magnets is obtained

  1. Epistemological Dimensions in Niels Bohr's Conceptualization of Complementarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derry, Gregory

    2008-03-01

    Contemporary explications of quantum theory are uniformly ahistorical in their accounts of complementarity. Such accounts typically present complementarity as a physical principle that prohibits simultaneous measurements of certain dynamical quantities or behaviors, attributing this principle to Niels Bohr. This conceptualization of complementarity, however, is virtually devoid of content and is only marginally related to Bohr's actual writing on the topic. Instead, what Bohr presented was a subtle and complex epistemological argument in which complementarity is a shorthand way to refer to an inclusive framework for the logical analysis of ideas. The important point to notice, historically, is that Bohr's work involving complementarity is not intended to be an improvement or addition to a particular physical theory (quantum mechanics), which Bohr regarded as already complete. Bohr's work involving complementarity is actually an argument related to the goals, meaning, and limitations of physical theory itself, grounded in deep epistemological considerations stemming from the fundamental discontinuity of nature on a microscopic scale.

  2. Predicted angular distribution of fast charged particles with ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moliere theory of angular distribution for fast charged particles is improved to take into account ionization loss, by using Kamata-Nishimura formulation of the theory. Decrease of the particle energy along the passage hence increase of the screening angle brings a slight different results from those derived by Moliere-Bethe formulation for fixed energies. The present results are reduced to the same Moliere distribution with modified values of the expansion parameter and the unit of Moliere angle. Properties of the new distribution and differences from the traditional one are discussed. Angular distributions of particles penetrating through the mixed or compound substances are also investigated both under the relativistic and the nonrelativistic conditions, together with the Kamata-Nishimura constants characterizing their formulation. (author)

  3. Theory of intense beams of charged particles optics of charged particle analyzers

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkes, Peter W

    2011-01-01

    Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics merges two long-running serials--Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics and Advances in Optical and Electron Microscopy. This series features extended articles on the physics of electron devices (especially semiconductor devices), particle optics at high and low energies, microlithography, image science and digital image processing, electromagnetic wave propagation, electron microscopy, and the computing methods used in all these domains. * Contributions from leading international scholars and industry experts * Discusses hot topic areas and pr

  4. The present status of the LLNL Evaluated Charged Particle Library (ECPL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report is written with two purposes in mind: to summarize the charged-particle reactions that presently exist in Evaluated Charge Particle Library; and to list all of the low-Z charged-particle reactions for which data exist in the Livermore experimental data compilation. 2 tabs

  5. Test results of satellite-borne charged particle measuring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A charged particle-measuring instrument to measure on the geostationary orbit the spectra of protons, α-particles and electrons emitted from the sun was manufactured, and its performance was assured by the test on the earth. The Geostationary Meteorological Satellite, on which the instrument will be mounted, will be launched into the geostationary orbit over the pacific ocean in the summer, 1977. The instrument has five systems of detectors to cover the measuring energy range and the kinds of particles, and data are collected every several channels separately. The tests on the earth were carried out by using a cyclotron and setting the energy ranges from 1 to 15 MeV (for protons) and 6 to 30 MeV (for α-particles) through the adjustment of the accelerating conditions and absorbers of the cyclotron. The performance of the instrument was confirmed by comparing the energy and number of the irradiated charged particles measured with the instrument and the reference detector under the same conditions. The results showed that the energy-detecting characteristic was within the error range of a few percent in most cases, and the counts were within the error of 30% against the expected values. The ditinguishing characteristic of the level discriminator was also nearly equal to the estimated result, through it degrades in the vicinity of the border of channels. However, the correction of data may be required when the instrument will be really used in space, because the conditions may be somewhat different from that on the earth. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  6. Microscopic visualization of a biological response to charged particle traversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taucher-Scholz, G.; Jakob, B.; Becker, G.; Scholz, M.

    2003-08-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying biological effects of charged particle radiation has become increasingly important in view of the use of ion beams in tumor therapy. Elucidating how the enhanced efficiency of densely ionizing radiation in cell killing is related to the initial causative lesions, namely DNA double-strand breaks, constitutes a major task in radiobiology. The inhomogeneous spatial distribution of energy deposition leading to the induction of more complex and less reparable DNA lesions is the basis for high-LET effects. But the cellular response to radiation damage also involves the interplay between repair and signal transduction proteins with the aim of coordinating the processing of DNA damage and cell cycle progression to allow time for repair. Charged particles are used as a probe for the production of localized subcellular damage to study these aspects of the biological response to ionizing radiation. Immunocytochemical techniques applied in combination with confocal laser microscopy allow to monitor the relocalization of DNA damage response proteins within individual nuclei following irradiation. In particular, the rapid accumulation of the signalling protein p21 at sites of heavy ion-induced DNA damage reflects the microscopic distribution of dose deposited within nuclei of irradiated human fibroblasts. The biological response pattern for p21 is presented for high and low energy ion beams, involving different particle species and representing a wide range of radiation qualities.

  7. The Stability of the Vacuum Polarization Surrounding a Charged Particle

    CERN Document Server

    Himpsel, F J

    2015-01-01

    The internal stability of the electron has been debated for a century at both the classical and the quantum level. Recently, a local force density balance was established for the 1s electron in the H atom, based on the energy-momentum tensor of the classical Dirac field. This methodology is now extended to quantum fields by considering the force densities acting on the vacuum polarization induced by a point charge. Such a model is applicable to any charged particle at large distances, since the only vestige of its internal structure is the electric Coulomb field together with the vacuum polarization induced by it. While the polarization charge density is attracted to the point charge, it is kept from collapsing by repulsive forces due to confinement and degeneracy. It is shown analytically that the corresponding force densities are balanced for every filled shell of mj states at a given angular momentum j. The force densities are then summed over all single-electron states in the Dirac sea and renormalized by...

  8. Study of a large acceptance charged particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated basic characteristics of a new detector system, which has been designed to be used for nuclear data measurements. The detector has a large acceptance to cover a wide range of charged particle energies. The detector consists of crystal detectors and plastic scintillators. In this detector, energy measurements are carried out by adopting the pulse-height method for low-energy particles and for high-energy particles the time of flight (TOF) technique. The low-energy detector (crystals) plays also as a degrader for high-energy particles. One of important issues is the non-linearity of scintillation output for heavy ions of crystal detectors. The other issue is the deviation of a particle trajectory due to the multiple-scattering in the detector material. In the present study, we measured the scintillation output of detectors and the multiple-scattering effect on the TOF detection efficiency. Experiments were carried out at National Inst. of Radiological Sciences-Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (NIRS-HIMAC) for a crystal detector system by using protons and Ar ions. Finally, the scintillation nonlinearity has been determined. As for the multiple-scattering effect, we found that both of simulations, GEANT4 and PHITS tend to underestimate. (author)

  9. Moving Charged Particles in Lattice Boltzmann-Based Electrokinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Kuron, Michael; Schornbaum, Florian; Bauer, Martin; Godenschwager, Christian; Holm, Christian; de Graaf, Joost

    2016-01-01

    The motion of ionic solutes and charged particles under the influence of an electric field and the ensuing hydrodynamic flow of the underlying solvent is ubiquitous in aqueous colloidal suspensions. The physics of such systems is described by a coupled set of differential equations, along with boundary conditions, collectively referred to as the electrokinetic equations. Capuani et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 121, 973 (2004)] introduced a lattice-based method for solving this system of equations, which builds upon the lattice Boltzmann (LB) algorithm for the simulation of hydrodynamic flow and exploits computational locality. However, thus far, a description of how to incorporate moving boundary conditions, which are needed to simulate moving colloids, into the Capuani scheme has been lacking. In this paper, we detail how to introduce such moving boundaries, based on an analogue to the moving boundary method for the pure LB solver. The key ingredients in our method are mass and charge conservation for the solute spec...

  10. Charging and coagulation of radioactive and nonradioactive particles in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-ha; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Nenes, Athanasios; Tsouris, Costas

    2016-03-01

    Charging and coagulation influence one another and impact the particle charge and size distributions in the atmosphere. However, few investigations to date have focused on the coagulation kinetics of atmospheric particles accumulating charge. This study presents three approaches to include mutual effects of charging and coagulation on the microphysical evolution of atmospheric particles such as radioactive particles. The first approach employs ion balance, charge balance, and a bivariate population balance model (PBM) to comprehensively calculate both charge accumulation and coagulation rates of particles. The second approach involves a much simpler description of charging, and uses a monovariate PBM and subsequent effects of charge on particle coagulation. The third approach is further simplified assuming that particles instantaneously reach their steady-state charge distributions. It is found that compared to the other two approaches, the first approach can accurately predict time-dependent changes in the size and charge distributions of particles over a wide size range covering from the free molecule to continuum regimes. The other two approaches can reliably predict both charge accumulation and coagulation rates for particles larger than about 0.04 micrometers and atmospherically relevant conditions. These approaches are applied to investigate coagulation kinetics of particles accumulating charge in a radioactive neutralizer, the urban atmosphere, and an atmospheric system containing radioactive particles. Limitations of the approaches are discussed.

  11. The all particle method: Coupled neutron, photon, electron, charged particle Monte Carlo calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the present time a Monte Carlo transport computer code is being designed and implemented at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to include the transport of: neutrons, photons, electrons and light charged particles as well as the coupling between all species of particles, e.g., photon induced electron emission. Since this code is being designed to handle all particles this approach is called the ''All Particle Method''. The code is designed as a test bed code to include as many different methods as possible (e.g., electron single or multiple scattering) and will be data driven to minimize the number of methods and models ''hard wired'' into the code. This approach will allow changes in the Livermore nuclear and atomic data bases, used to described the interaction and production of particles, to be used to directly control the execution of the program. In addition this approach will allow the code to be used at various levels of complexity to balance computer running time against the accuracy requirements of specific applications. This paper describes the current design philosophy and status of the code. Since the treatment of neutrons and photons used by the All Particle Method code is more or less conventional, emphasis in this paper is placed on the treatment of electron, and to a lesser degree charged particle, transport. An example is presented in order to illustrate an application in which the ability to accurately transport electrons is important. 21 refs., 1 fig

  12. Parallel Multiphysics Simulations of Charged Particles in Microfluidic Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Bartuschat, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    The article describes parallel multiphysics simulations of charged particles in microfluidic flows with the waLBerla framework. To this end, three physical effects are coupled: rigid body dynamics, fluid flow modelled by a lattice Boltzmann algorithm, and electric potentials represented by a finite volume discretisation. For solving the finite volume discretisation for the electrostatic forces, a cell-centered multigrid algorithm is developed that conforms to the lattice Boltzmann meshes and the parallel communication structure of waLBerla. The new functionality is validated with suitable benchmark scenarios. Additionally, the parallel scaling and the numerical efficiency of the algorithms are analysed on an advanced supercomputer.

  13. Charged particle scattering on two infinite cylindrical solenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charged particle scattering on two infinitely parallel cylindrical solenoids with similar by value and inverse by the sign magnetic fields is considered. Scattering amplitude is calculated in the 1st Born and high energy approximations. In both cases the differential cross section is nonsingular and the integral one - finite. Specific examples demonstrating that in one and the same multi-connection space under nontrivial vector-potentials and unambigous wave functions Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect can exist but it can be absent as well. It is shown that an alternative AB effect interpretation as scattering in magnetic field leakages meets sufficient difficulties

  14. Motion of charged particles in a knotted electromagnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrayas, M; Trueba, J L, E-mail: joseluis.trueba@urjc.e [Area de Electromagnetismo, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Camino del Molino s/n, 28943 Fuenlabrada, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-06-11

    In this paper we consider the classical relativistic motion of charged particles in a knotted electromagnetic field. After reviewing how to construct electromagnetic knots from maps between the three-sphere and the two-sphere, we introduce a mean quadratic radius of the energy density distribution in order to study some properties of this field. We study the classical relativistic motion of electrons in the electromagnetic field of the Hopf map, and compute their trajectories. It is observed that these electrons initially at rest are strongly accelerated by the electromagnetic force, becoming ultrarelativistic in a period of time that depends on the knot energy and size.

  15. The prospects for charged particle uses in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prospects and problems of proton therapy by means of accelerators are considered. Approaches to the solution of the problems concerning operation modes of the accelerator are formulated. It is shown that despite vivid advantage of charged particles for their applied use in beam therapy of malignant tumour it is necessary to solve two problems: extraction of special beams meeting strict medical requirements and development of technology of irradiation of malignant tumours of different localizations and construction of special equipment for execution of this technology. Engineering-technological shortcomings of proton therapy and medical-biological problems requiring reglamentation are enumerated

  16. A technique to improve crystal channeling efficiency of charged particles

    CERN Document Server

    Tikhomirov, V V

    2007-01-01

    It is shown that a narrow plane cut near the crystal surface considerably increases the probability of capture into the stable channeling motion of positively charged particles entering a crystal at angles smaller than a quarter of the critical channeling angle with respect to the crystal planes. At smallest incidence angles the capture probability reaches 99 percent. A pair of crystals bent in orthogonal planes and provided with the cuts allows to reach a 99.9 percent efficiency of single-pass deflection of a proton beam with an ultra small divergence. Conditions necessary for efficient single-pass deflection of protons from the LHC beam halo are also discussed.

  17. Fabrication and testing of prototype preamplifier for charged particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of a 4π charged particle array is one of the major activities under the superconducting cyclotron utilization project. The forward part of the array will consist of 24 telescopes, each will have three elements Si (strip) ΔE, Si(strip) E and CsI(Ti) E. Each ΔE strip will have 16 channels whereas E-strip will have 16 vertical and 16 horizontal channels. The large number of Si channels mandated the development of low-cost, high-density preamplifiers. A variety of circuits have been tested and some prototype preamplifiers have been fabricated. The performance of a prototype preamplifier has been reported

  18. Charged particle and magnetic field research in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Research completed and in progress is described, related publications and reports are listed, and abstracts of papers and talks on results of the research are given. The charged particle research centered on OGO-5 and OGO-6 electron spectrometer data, and theoretical radiation belt studies. Work on the ATS-1 magnetometer project included development of production data reduction programs, development of spectral analysis procedures, and scientific studies of ULF waves at synchronous orbit. The magnetic fields research also included work on the Mariner project and theoretical studies on the solar wind.

  19. Charged particle induced energy dispersive X-ray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review article deals with the X-ray emission induced by heavy, charged particles and the use of this process as an analytical method (PIXE). The physical processes involved, X-ray emission and the various reactions contributing to the background, are described in some detail. The sensitivity is calculated theoretically and the results compared with practical experience. A discussion is given on how the sensitivity can be optimized. The experimental arrangements are described and the various technical problems discussed. The analytical procedure, especially the sample preparation, is described in considerable detail. A number of typical practical applications are discussed. (author)

  20. Nonlinear Stability Theorem for High-Intensity Charged Particle Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global conservation constraints based on the nonlinear Vlasov-Maxwell equations are used to derive a three-dimensional kinetic stability theorem for an intense non-neutral ion beam (or charge bunch) propagating with average axial velocity vb=const . It is shown that a sufficient condition for linear and nonlinear stability for perturbations with arbitrary polarization is that the equilibrium distribution be a monotonically decreasing function of the single-particle energy H' in the beam frame, i.e., ∂feq(H') /∂H'≤0 . copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  1. Cataractogenic effects of heavy charged particles in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of heavy charged particles on the crystalline lens of the eye of mice are important because this tissue has proven susceptible to other forms of high-LET radiation. This report summarizes the results currently available from a prospectively designed study to explore the LET dependence of the cataractogenic process. The present results are consistent with a high cataractogenic effect at 100 keV/μm, because plateau argon 40 ions, with an LET in this range, produce higher average cataracts scores at 9, 11 and 13 months than do carbon 12 or neon 20 ions. In the electron micrographs, significant changes were observed from the controls

  2. Charged Particle Multiplicities in Deep Inelastic Scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aïd, S; Andreev, V; Andrieu, B; Appuhn, R D; Babaev, A; Ban, Y; Baranov, P S; Barrelet, E; Barschke, R; Bartel, Wulfrin; Barth, Monique; Bassler, U; Beck, H P; Behrend, H J; Belousov, A; Berger, C; Bernardi, G; Bertrand-Coremans, G H; Besançon, M; Beyer, R; Biddulph, P; Bispham, P; Bizot, J C; Blobel, Volker; Borras, K; Botterweck, F; Boudry, V; Braemer, A; Braunschweig, W; Brisson, V; Bruel, P; Bruncko, Dusan; Brune, C R; Buchholz, R; Buniatian, A Yu; Burke, S; Burton, M; Bähr, J; Büngener, L; Bürger, J; Büsser, F W; Calvet, D; Campbell, A J; Carli, T; Charlet, M; Chechelnitskii, S; Chernyshov, V; Clarke, D; Clegg, A B; Clerbaux, B; Cocks, S P; Contreras, J G; Cormack, C; Coughlan, J A; Courau, A; Cousinou, M C; Cozzika, G; Criegee, L; Cussans, D G; Cvach, J; Dagoret, S; Dainton, J B; Dau, W D; Daum, K; David, M; Davis, C L; De Wolf, E A; Delcourt, B; Di Nezza, P; Dirkmann, M; Dixon, P; Dlugosz, W; Dollfus, C; Dowell, John D; Dreis, H B; Droutskoi, A; Duhm, H; Dünger, O; Ebert, J; Ebert, T R; Eckerlin, G; Efremenko, V; Egli, S; Eichler, R; Eisele, Franz; Eisenhandler, Eric F; Ellison, R J; Elsen, E E; Erdmann, M; Erdmann, W; Evrard, E; Fahr, A B; Favart, L; Fedotov, A; Feeken, D; Felst, R; Feltesse, Joel; Ferencei, J; Ferrarotto, F; Flamm, K; Fleischer, M; Flieser, M; Flügge, G; Fomenko, A; Fominykh, B A; Formánek, J; Foster, J M; Franke, G; Fretwurst, E; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gabathuler, K; Gaede, F; Garvey, J; Gayler, J; Gebauer, M; Genzel, H; Gerhards, R; Glazov, A; Goerlach, U; Gogitidze, N; Goldberg, M; Goldner, D; Golec-Biernat, Krzysztof J; González-Pineiro, B; Gorelov, I V; Grab, C; Greenshaw, T J; Griffiths, R K; Grindhammer, G; Gruber, A; Gruber, C; Grässler, Herbert; Grässler, R; Görlich, L; Haack, J; Hadig, T; Haidt, Dieter; Hajduk, L; Hampel, M; Haynes, W J; Heinzelmann, G; Henderson, R C W; Henschel, H; Herynek, I; Hess, M F; Hewitt, K; Hildesheim, W; Hiller, K H; Hilton, C D; Hladky, J; Hoeger, K C; Hoffmann, D; Holtom, T; Hoppner, M; Horisberger, R P; Hudgson, V L; Hufnagel, H; Hütte, M; Ibbotson, M; Itterbeck, H; Jacholkowska, A; Jacobsson, C; Jaffré, M; Janoth, J; Jansen, T; Johnson, D P; Jung, H; Jönsson, L B; Kalmus, Peter I P; Kander, M; Kant, D; Kaschowitz, R; Kathage, U; Katzy, J M; Kaufmann, H H; Kaufmann, O; Kazarian, S; Kenyon, Ian Richard; Kermiche, S; Keuker, C; Kiesling, C; Klein, M; Kleinwort, C; Knies, G; Kolanski, H; Kole, F; Kolya, S D; Korbel, V; Korn, M; Kostka, P; Kotelnikov, S K; Krasny, M W; Krehbiel, H; Krämerkämper, T; Krücker, D; Kuhlen, M; Kurca, T; Kurzhofer, J; Köhler, T; Köhne, J H; Küster, H; Lacour, D; Laforge, B; Lander, R; Landon, M P J; Lange, W; Langenegger, U; Laporte, J F; Lebedev, A; Lehner, F; Levonian, S; Lindström, G; Lindstrøm, M; Link, J; Linsel, F; Lipinski, J; List, B; Lobo, G; Loch, P; Lomas, J W; Lubimov, V; Lüke, D; López, G C; Magnussen, N; Malinovskii, E I; Mani, S; Maracek, R; Marage, P; Marks, J; Marshall, R; Martens, J; Martin, G; Martin, R D; Martyn, H U; Martyniak, J; Mavroidis, A; Maxfield, S J; McMahon, S J; Mehta, A; Meier, K; Meyer, A; Meyer, H; Meyer, J; Meyer, P O; Migliori, A; Mikocki, S; Milstead, D; Moeck, J; Moreau, F; Morris, J V; Mroczko, E; Murín, P; Müller, G; Müller, K; Nagovitsin, V; Nahnhauer, R; Naroska, Beate; Naumann, T; Negri, I; Newman, P R; Newton, D; Neyret, D; Nguyen, H K; Nicholls, T C; Niebergall, F; Niebuhr, C B; Niedzballa, C; Niggli, H; Nisius, R; Nowak, G; Noyes, G W; Nyberg-Werther, M; Oakden, M N; Oberlack, H; Olsson, J E; Ozerov, D; Palmen, P; Panaro, E; Panitch, A; Pascaud, C; Patel, G D; Pawletta, H; Peppel, E; Phillips, J P; Pieuchot, A; Pitzl, D; Pope, G; Prell, S; Pérez, E; Rabbertz, K; Reimer, P; Reinshagen, S; Rick, Hartmut; Riech, V; Riedlberger, J; Riepenhausen, F; Riess, S; Rizvi, E; Robertson, S M; Robmann, P; Roloff, H E; Roosen, R; Rosenbauer, K; Rostovtsev, A A; Rouse, F; Royon, C; Rusakov, S V; Rybicki, K; Rädel, G; Rüter, K; Sankey, D P C; Schacht, P; Schiek, S; Schleif, S; Schleper, P; Schmidt, D; Schmidt, G; Schröder, V; Schuhmann, E; Schwab, B; Schöning, A; Sefkow, F; Seidel, M; Sell, R; Semenov, A A; Shekelian, V I; Shevyakov, I; Shtarkov, L N; Siegmon, G; Siewert, U; Sirois, Y; Skillicorn, Ian O; Smirnov, P; Smith, J R; Solochenko, V; Soloviev, Yu V; Specka, A E; Spiekermann, J; Spielman, S; Spitzer, H; Squinabol, F; Starosta, R; Steenbock, M; Steffen, P; Steinberg, R; Steiner, H; Steinhart, J; Stella, B; Stellberger, A; Stier, J; Stiewe, J; Stolze, K; Straumann, U; Struczinski, W; Stösslein, U; Sutton, J P; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tasevsky, M; Theissen, J; Thiebaux, C; Thompson, G; Truöl, P; Tsipolitis, G; Turnau, J; Tutas, J; Uelkes, P; Usik, A; Valkár, S; Valkárová, A; Vallée, C; Van Esch, P; Van Mechelen, P; Van den Plas, D; Vazdik, Ya A; Verrecchia, P; Villet, G; Wacker, K; Wagener, A; Wagener, M; Walther, A; Waugh, B; Weber, G; Weber, M; Wegener, D; Wegner, A; Wengler, T; Werner, M; West, L R; Wiesand, S; Wilksen, T; Willard, S; Winde, M; Winter, G G; Wittek, C; Wobisch, M; Wünsch, E; Zarbock, D; Zhang, Z; Zhokin, A S; Zini, P; Zomer, F; Zsembery, J; Zuber, K; Zur Nedden, M; Zácek, J; de Roeck, A; von Schlippe, W

    1996-01-01

    Using the H1 detector at HERA, charged particle multiplicity distributions in deep inelastic ep scattering have been measured over a large kinematical region. The evolution with $W$ and $Q^2$ of the multiplicity distribution and of the multiplicity moments in pseudorapidity domains of varying size is studied in the current fragmentation region of the hadronic centre-of-mass frame. The results are compared with data from fixed target lepton-nucleon interactions, $e^+e^-$ annihilations and hadron-hadron collisions as well as with expectations from QCD based parton models. Fits to the Negative Binomial and Lognormal distributions are presented.

  3. 'DIAMANT': A 4 π light charged particle detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    4π γ-spectrometers allow precise determination of weak transitions. A 4π light charged particle detector array of 54 detectors called DIAMANT is described as applied for triggering γ-spectrometers. The multidetector system allows channel selection, increases the sensitivity of the spectrometer, and can give additional information on the exit channel and the path leading to the final nucleus studied by its γ emission. The characteristics and first measured performance of the DIAMANT multidetector array are presented. (R.P.) 2 refs

  4. Energy loss of charged particles colliding with an oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, D. N.

    2015-04-01

    Energy loss of fast charged particles colliding with an oscillator is considered in the dipole approximation. In this approximation, the problem is solved exactly and the energy loss of the oscillator from the initial state | m> = |0> is found in the form of the sum of single integrals. It is shown that passing to the limit, the Bethe theory for an atom with small perturbations can be obtained, and in the case of strong fields, the correction to the Bethe theory, analogous to the Bloch correction, can be calculated; in addition, a classical limit coinciding with the Bohr formula is possible.

  5. On the energy losses of fast charged particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveev, V. I.; Makarov, D. N.; Gusarevich, E. S.

    2010-09-01

    The energy losses of fast charged particles colliding with atoms have been considered in the eikonal approximation. It has been shown that the nonperturbative contribution to the effective stopping from the region of the intermediate impact parameters (comparable with the characteristic sizes of the electron shells of the target) not only can be significant as compared to shell corrections to the Bethe-Bloch formula (usually considered in the first order of perturbation theory), but also can provide significant (up to 50%) corrections to this formula.

  6. Development of Si (Li) detectors for charged particles spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Onabe, H; Obinata, M; Kashiwagi, T

    2002-01-01

    Lithium drifted silicon (Si (Li)) detectors with high-quality large area for charged particles spectrometer abroad artificial satellite have been developed. Surface stability can be obtained by thin p-n junction fabricated with the applied photo engraving process (PEP) instead of surface barrier. The region compensated with Lithium can be improved by the adequate heat treatment, and this improvement can be monitored by means of a combination of copper plating and subsequent micro-XRF analysis. The detectors fabricated from the thermal treated wafers were found to have better energy resolution both for alpha-particles from sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am and conversion electrons from sup 2 sup 0 sup 7 Bi. (author)

  7. Physical sputtering of metallic systems by charged-particle impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper provides a brief overview of our current understanding of physical sputtering by charged-particle impact, with the emphasis on sputtering of metals and alloys under bombardment with particles that produce knock-on collisions. Fundamental aspects of ion-solid interactions, and recent developments in the study of sputtering of elemental targets and preferential sputtering in multicomponent materials are reviewed. We concentrate only on a few specific topics of sputter emission, including the various properties of the sputtered flux and depth of origin, and on connections between sputtering and other radiation-induced and -enhanced phenomena that modify the near-surface composition of the target. The synergistic effects of these diverse processes in changing the composition of the integrated sputtered-atom flux is described in simple physical terms, using selected examples of recent important progress. 325 refs., 27 figs

  8. Search for fractional charge and heavy stable particles at PETRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A search has been made for new particles with charge Q = 2/3, 1, 4/3, 5/3 produced in e+e--reactions at PETRA. The energy range was Esub(cm) = 27-35 GeV. No such particles were found. Upper limits for the cross-section depending on the assumed mass and production spectrum are given. For Q = 2/3 quarks with mass less than 12 GeV/c2, upper limits sigma(q anti q)/sigma(μμ) -2 (90% C.L.) are obtained both for inclusive and exclusive production. For the lifetime of the B-meson (msub(B) = 5 GeV/c2) an upper limit tau -9 s is obtained. (orig.)

  9. EGUN, Charged Particle Trajectories in Electromagnetic Focusing System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of problem or function: EGUN computes trajectories of charged particles in electrostatic and magnetostatic focusing systems including the effects of space charge and self-magnetic fields. Starting options include Child's Law conditions on cathodes of various shapes, user-specified conditions input for each ray, and a combination of Child's Law conditions and user specifications. Either rectangular or cylindrically symmetric geometry may be used. Magnetic fields may be specified using an arbitrary configuration of coils, or the output of a magnet program, such as Poisson, or by an externally calculated array of the axial fields. 2 - Method of solution: The program first solves Laplace's equation. Next, the first iteration of electron trajectories is started using one of the four starting options. On the first iteration cycle, space charge forces are calculated from the assumption of paraxial flow. As the rays are traced, space charge is computed and stored. After all the electron trajectories have been calculated, the program begins the second cycle by solving the Poisson equation with the space charge from the first iteration. Subsequent iteration cycles follow this pattern. The Poisson equation is solved by an alternate column relaxation technique known as the semi-iterative Chebyshev method. A fourth-order Runge-Kutta method is used to solve the relativistic differential equations of the trajectory calculations. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 9001 mesh points in a square mesh, 300 mesh points in the axial direction, 100 mesh points in the radial direction, 101 potentials, 51 rays. In the cylindrical coordinates, the magnetic fields are axially symmetric. In rectangular coordinates, the external field is assumed to be normal to the plane of the problem, which is assumed to be the median plane

  10. Charging and coagulation of radioactive and nonradioactive particles in the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-H. Kim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Charging and coagulation influence one another and impact the particle charge and size distributions in the atmosphere. However, few investigations to date have focused on the coagulation kinetics of atmospheric particles accumulating charge. This study presents three approaches to include mutual effects of charging and coagulation on the microphysical evolution of atmospheric particles such as radioactive particles. The first approach employs ion balance, charge balance, and a bivariate population balance model (PBM to comprehensively calculate both charge accumulation and coagulation rates of particles. The second approach involves a much simpler description of charging, and uses a monovariate PBM and subsequent effects of charge on particle coagulation. The third approach is further simplified assuming that particles instantaneously reach their steady-state charge distributions. It is found that compared to the other two approaches, the first approach can accurately predict time-dependent changes in the size and charge distributions of particles over a wide size range covering from the free molecule to continuum regimes. The other two approaches can reliably predict both charge accumulation and coagulation rates for particles larger than about 40 nm and atmospherically relevant conditions. These approaches are applied to investigate coagulation kinetics of particles accumulating charge in a radioactive neutralizer, the urban atmosphere, and a radioactive plume. Limitations of the approaches are discussed.

  11. Anomalous Kinetics of Hard Charged Particles Dynamical Renormalization Group Resummation

    CERN Document Server

    Boyanovsky, D

    1999-01-01

    We study the kinetics of the distribution function for charged particles of hard momentum in scalar QED. The goal is to understand the effects of infrared divergences associated with the exchange of quasistatic magnetic photons in the relaxation of the distribution function. We begin by obtaining a kinetic transport equation for the distribution function for hard charged scalars in a perturbative expansion that includes hard thermal loop resummation. Solving this transport equation, the infrared divergences arising from absorption and emission of soft quasi-static magnetic photons are manifest in logarithmic secular terms. We then implement the dynamical renormalization group resummation of these secular terms in the relaxation time approximation. The distribution function (in the linearized regime) is found to approach equilibrium as $\\delta n_k(t) =\\delta n_k(t_o) e^{-2\\alpha T (t-t_o) and $\\alpha =e^2/4\\pi$. This anomalous relaxation is recognized to be the square of the relaxation of the single particle p...

  12. Particle beams carrying orbital angular momentum, charge, mass and spin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijssen, Teuntje; Hayrapetyan, Armen; Goette, Joerg; Dennis, Mark

    Electron beams carrying vortices and angular momentum have been of much experimental and theoretical interest in recent years. In addition, optical vortex beams are a well-established field in optics and photonics. In both cases, the orbital angular momentum associated with the beam's axial vortex has effects on the overall spin of the beam, due to spin-orbit interactions. A simple model of these systems are Bessel beam solutions (of either the Dirac equation or Maxwell equations) with a nonzero azimuthal quantum number, which are found by separation in cylindrical coordinates. Here, we generalize this approach, considering the classical field theory of Bessel beams for particles which are either massive or massless, uncharged or charged and of a variety of different spins (0, 1/2, 1, ⋯). We regard the spin and helicity states and different forms of spin-orbit terms that arise. Moreover, we analyse the induced electromagnetic field when the particles carry charge. Most importantly, this unified field theory approach leads to the prediction of effects for vortex beams of neutrons, mesons and neutrinos.

  13. Modeling of mesoscopic electrokinetic phenomena using charged dissipative particle dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Mingge; Li, Zhen; Karniadakis, George

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we propose a charged dissipative particle dynamics (cDPD) model for investigation of mesoscopic electrokinetic phenomena. In particular, this particle-based method was designed to simulate micro- or nano- flows which governing by Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equation coupled with Navier-Stokes (NS) equation. For cDPD simulations of wall-bounded fluid systems, a methodology for imposing correct Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions for both PNP and NS equations is developed. To validate the present cDPD model and the corresponding boundary method, we perform cDPD simulations of electrostatic double layer (EDL) in the vicinity of a charged wall, and the results show good agreement with the mean-field theoretical solutions. The capacity density of a parallel plate capacitor in salt solution is also investigated with different salt concentration. Moreover, we utilize the proposed methodology to study the electroosmotic and electroosmotic/pressure-driven flow in a micro-channel. In the last, we simulate the dilute polyelectrolyte solution both in bulk and micro-channel, which show the flexibility and capability of this method in studying complex fluids. This work was sponsored by the Collaboratory on Mathematics for Mesoscopic Modeling of Materials (CM4) supported by DOE.

  14. Response of Charged Particles in a Storage Ring to Gravitational Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONGDong; HUANGChao-Guang

    2003-01-01

    The influence of gravitational waves on the charged particles in a storage ring is studied. It shows that the gravitational waves might be directly detected by monitoring the motion of charged particles in a storage ring. The angular velocity of the charged particles is continually adjustable by changing the initial energy of particles and the strength of the magnetic field. This feature is very useful for finding the gravitational waves with different frequencies.

  15. Response of Charged Particles in a Storage Ring to Gravitational Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Dong; HUANG Chao-Guang

    2003-01-01

    The influence of gravitational waves on the charged particles in a storage ring is studied. It shows thatthe gravitational waves might be directly detected by monitoring the motion of charged particles in a storage ring. Theangular velocity of the charged particles is continually adjustable by changing the initial energy of particles and thestrength of the magnetic field. This feature is very useful for finding the gravitational waves with different frequencies.

  16. Charged and Neutral Particles Channeling Phenomena Channeling 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabagov, Sultan B.; Palumbo, Luigi

    2010-04-01

    On the discovery of coherent Bremsstrahlung in a single crystal at the Frascati National Laboratories / C. Barbiellini, G. P. Murtas and S. B. Dabagov -- Advances in coherent Bremsstrahlung and LPM-effect studies (to the lOOth anniversary from the birth of L. D. Landau) / N. F. Shul'ga -- Spectra of radiation and created particles at intermediate energy in oriented crystal taking into account energy loss / V. N. Baier and V. M. Katkov -- The coherent Bremsstrahlung beam at MAX-lab facility / K. Fissum ... [et al.] -- Radiation from thin, structured targets (CERN NA63) / A. Dizdar -- Hard incoherent radiation in thick crystals / N. F. Shul'ga, V. V. Syshchenko and A. I. Tarnovsky -- Coherent Bremsstrahlung in periodically deformed crystals with a complex base / A. R. Mkrtchyan, A. A. Saharian and V. V. Parazian -- Induction of coherent x-ray Bremsstrahlung in crystals under the influence of acoustic waves / A. R. Mkrtchyan and V. V. Parazian -- Coherent processes in bent single crystals / V. A. Maisheev -- Experimental and theoretical investigation of complete transfer phenomenon for media with various heat exchange coefficients / A. R. Mkrtchyan, A. E. Movsisyan and V. R. Kocharyan -- Coherent pair production in crystals / A. R. Mkrtchyan, A. A. Saharian and V. V. Parazian -- Negative particle planar and axial channeling and channeling collimation / R. A. Carrigan, Jr. -- CERN crystal-based collimation in modern hadron colliders / W. Scandale -- Studies and application of bent crystals for beam steering at 70 GeV IHEP accelerator / A. G. Afonin ... [et al.] -- Crystal collimation studies at the Tevatron (T-980) / N. V. Mokhov ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of crystals for channeling of particles in accellerators / A. Mazzolari ... [et al.] -- New possibilities to facilitate collimation of both positively and negatively charged particle beams by crystals / V. Guidi, A. Mazzolari and V. V. Tikhomirov -- Increase of probability of particle capture into the channeling

  17. A novel silicon array designed for intraoperative charged particle imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel Si-PIN imaging array is under investigation for a charged particle (beta, positron, or alpha) sensitive intraoperative camera to be used for (residual) tumor identification during surgery. This class of collimator-less nuclear imaging device has a higher signal response for direct interactions than its scintillator-optical detector-based counterparts. Monte Carlo simulations with 635 keV betas were performed, yielding maximum and projected ranges of 1.64 and 0.55 mm in Si. Up to 90% of these betas were completely absorbed in the first 0.30 mm. Based on these results, 300 μm thick prototype Si detector arrays were designed in a 16x16 crossed-grid arrangement with 0.8 mm wide orthogonal strips on 1.0 mm pitch. A NIM- and CAMAC-based high-density data acquisition and processing system was used to collect the list mode data. The system was calibrated by comparisons of measured spectra to energy deposition simulations or by direct measurement of various >100 keV conversion electron or beta emitters. Mean electronic noise per strip was 2 pixel size, and measurements of beta emitting point and line sources yielded FWHM resolutions of 1.5 (lateral) and 2.5 mm (diagonal), respectively, with the larger widths due to particle range blurring effects. Deconvolution of the finite source size yielded intrinsic resolutions that corresponded to the image pixel size. Transmission images of circle and line phantoms with various hole sizes and pitch were resolved with either pure beta or positron irradiation without a background correction. This novel semiconductor imaging device facilitates high charged particle and low gamma sensitivity, high signal/noise ratio, and allows for compact design to potentially aid surgical guidance by providing in situ images of clinical relevance

  18. Fractional dynamics of charged particles in magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronel-Escamilla, A.; Gómez-Aguilar, J. F.; Alvarado-Méndez, E.; Guerrero-Ramírez, G. V.; Escobar-Jiménez, R. F.

    2016-02-01

    In many physical applications the electrons play a relevant role. For example, when a beam of electrons accelerated to relativistic velocities is used as an active medium to generate Free Electron Lasers (FEL), the electrons are bound to atoms, but move freely in a magnetic field. The relaxation time, longitudinal effects and transverse variations of the optical field are parameters that play an important role in the efficiency of this laser. The electron dynamics in a magnetic field is a means of radiation source for coupling to the electric field. The transverse motion of the electrons leads to either gain or loss energy from or to the field, depending on the position of the particle regarding the phase of the external radiation field. Due to the importance to know with great certainty the displacement of charged particles in a magnetic field, in this work we study the fractional dynamics of charged particles in magnetic fields. Newton’s second law is considered and the order of the fractional differential equation is (0;1]. Based on the Grünwald-Letnikov (GL) definition, the discretization of fractional differential equations is reported to get numerical simulations. Comparison between the numerical solutions obtained on Euler’s numerical method for the classical case and the GL definition in the fractional approach proves the good performance of the numerical scheme applied. Three application examples are shown: constant magnetic field, ramp magnetic field and harmonic magnetic field. In the first example the results obtained show bistability. Dissipative effects are observed in the system and the standard dynamic is recovered when the order of the fractional derivative is 1.

  19. Integral charged particle nuclear date bibliography. Editon 1, Supplement 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliography is divided into three sections, ''References'', ''Target Index'', and ''Residual Index.'' The ''References'' section contains all references satisfying the following criteria: excitation functions, thick targets, or product yield leading to the formation of a ground or metastable state; the atomic mass and charge of the incident particle must be greater than or equal to 1; the atomic mass of the target must be greater than or equal to 1; and the atomic masses of the outgoing and residual nuclei must be greater than or equal to 1 with the exception of processes which do not lead to a definite residual nucleus and of gamma-ray production cross sections. The ''Target Index'' section contains the incident particle energy and the abbreviated reference lines for all the entries, which contain information on a definite target nucleus and reaction. These reference lines contain the Journal name, followed by the volume and page number. The ''Residual Index'' section also contains the incident particle energy and the abbreviated reference lines for all the entries, which contain information on a definite residual nucleus and a definite target-reaction

  20. Chaotic phenomena of charged particles in crystal lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desalvo, Agostino; Giannerini, Simone; Rosa, Rodolfo

    2006-06-01

    In this article, we have applied the methods of chaos theory to channeling phenomena of positive charged particles in crystal lattices. In particular, we studied the transition between two ordered types of motion; i.e., motion parallel to a crystal axis (axial channeling) and to a crystal plane (planar channeling), respectively. The transition between these two regimes turns out to occur through an angular range in which the particle motion is highly disordered and the region of phase space spanned by the particle is much larger than the one swept in the two ordered motions. We have evaluated the maximum Lyapunov exponent with the method put forward by Rosenstein et al. [Physica D 65, 117 (1993)] and by Kantz [Phys. Lett. A 185, 77 (1994)]. Moreover, we estimated the correlation dimension by using the Grassberger-Procaccia method. We found that at the transition the system exhibits a very complex behavior showing an exponential divergence of the trajectories corresponding to a positive Lyapunov exponent and a noninteger value of the correlation dimension. These results turn out to be linked to a physical interpretation. The Lyapunov exponents are in agreement with the model by Akhiezer et al. [Phys. Rep. 203, 289 (1991)], based on the equivalence between the ion motion along the crystal plane described as a "string of strings" and the "kicked" rotator. The nonintegral value of the correlation dimension can be explained by the nonconservation of transverse energy at the transition. PMID:16822017

  1. Charge collection efficiency of GaAs detectors studied with low-energy heavy charged particles

    CERN Document Server

    Bates, R; Linhart, V; O'Shea, V; Pospísil, S; Raine, C; Smith, K; Sinor, M; Wilhelm, I

    1999-01-01

    Epitaxially grown GaAs layers have recently been produced with sufficient thickness and low enough free carrier concentration to permit their use as radiation detectors. Initial tests have shown that the epi-material behaves as a classical semiconductor as the depletion behaviour follows the square root dependency on the applied bias. This article presents the results of measurements of the growth of the active depletion depth with increasing bias using low-energy protons and alpha particles as probes for various depths and their comparison to values extrapolated from capacitance measurements. From the proton and alpha particle spectroscopic measurements, an active depth of detector material that collects 100% of the charge generated inside it was determined. The consistency of these results with independent capacitance measurements supports the idea that the GaAs epi-material behaves as a classical semiconductor. (author)

  2. Weakly nonlinear electrophoresis of a highly charged colloidal particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzer, Ory; Zeyde, Roman; Yavneh, Irad; Yariv, Ehud

    2013-05-01

    At large zeta potentials, surface conduction becomes appreciable in thin-double-layer electrokinetic transport. In the linear weak-field regime, where this effect is quantified by the Dukhin number, it is manifested in non-Smoluchowski electrophoretic mobilities. In this paper we go beyond linear response, employing the recently derived macroscale model of Schnitzer and Yariv ["Macroscale description of electrokinetic flows at large zeta potentials: Nonlinear surface conduction," Phys. Rev. E 86, 021503 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevE.86.021503] as the infrastructure for a weakly nonlinear analysis of spherical-particle electrophoresis. A straightforward perturbation in the field strength is frustrated by the failure to satisfy the far-field conditions, representing a non-uniformity of the weak-field approximation at large distances away from the particle, where salt advection becomes comparable to diffusion. This is remedied using inner-outer asymptotic expansions in the spirit of Acrivos and Taylor ["Heat and mass transfer from single spheres in Stokes flow," Phys. Fluids 5, 387 (1962), 10.1063/1.1706630], with the inner region representing the particle neighborhood and the outer region corresponding to distances scaling inversely with the field magnitude. This singular scheme furnishes an asymptotic correction to the electrophoretic velocity, proportional to the applied field cubed, which embodies a host of nonlinear mechanisms unfamiliar from linear electrokinetic theories. These include the effect of induced zeta-potential inhomogeneity, animated by concentration polarization, on electro-osmosis and diffuso-osmosis; bulk advection of salt; nonuniform bulk conductivity; Coulomb body forces acting on bulk volumetric charge; and the nonzero electrostatic force exerted upon the otherwise screened particle-layer system. A numerical solution of the macroscale model validates our weakly nonlinear analysis.

  3. Search for multiply charged Heavy Stable Charged Particles in data collected with the CMS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2013-10-30

    Several models of new physics yield particles that are massive, long-lived, and have an electric charge, Q, greater than that of the electron, e. A search for evidence of such particles was performed using 5.0 fb-1 and 18.8 fb-1 of proton-proton collision data collected at √s = 7 TeV and √s = 8 TeV, respectively, with the Compact Muon Solenoid detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The distinctive detector signatures of these particles are that they are slow-moving and highly ionizing. Ionization energy loss and time-of- flight measurements were made using the inner tracker and the muon system, respectively. The search is sensitive to 1e ≤ |Q| ≤ 8e. Data were found to be consistent with standard model expectations and upper limits on the production cross section of these particles were computed using a Drell-Yan-like production model. Masses below 517, 687, 752, 791, 798, 778, 753, and 724 GeV are excluded for |Q| = 1e, 2e, 3e, 4e, 5e, 6e, 7e, and 8e, respectively.

  4. Particle with non-Abelian charge: classical and quantum

    CERN Document Server

    Lahiri, Amitabha

    2010-01-01

    We construct an action in the worldline formalism for a non-Abelian charged particle in a non-Abelian background field, described by real bosonic variables, leading to a set of the well known classical equations given by Wong. The isospin parts in the action can be viewed as the Lagrange multiplier term corresponding to a non-holonomic constraint restricting the isospins to be parallel transported. The path integration is performed over the isospin variables and their paths turn out to be constrained by its classical solution for the isospins. We derive a wave equation from the path integral, constructed as the constrained Hamiltonian operator acts on the wave function. It reveals what operator ordering corresponds to our classical Hamiltonian. It is verified by the inverse Weyl transformation.

  5. Japan Charged-Particle Nuclear Reaction Data Group (JCPRG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This it the progress report of the Executive Committee of the Japan Charged-Particle Nuclear Reaction Data Group (JCPRG). Since the last NRDC meeting in June 2003, the group has carried out the following activities: Compilation of CPND for NRDF and EXFOR; Compilation of CPND bibliographies for CINDA; Improvement of Web-based data input system HENDEL; Improvement of NRDF retrieval system DARPE; Development of utilization system for EXFOR and evaluated libraries; Data services for Japanese users. The regular JCPRG budget has ended at March 2001. They are applying a competitive budget for our further activity. The Executive Committee is organized by 7 researchers and 1 secretary. 6 postdoctoral researchers in Meme Media Lab. of Hokkaido Univ., 6 graduated students in Nuclear Physics Laboratory of Hokkaido Univ. and 1 technical staff work part-time. 1.5 equivalent man year is dedicated to NRDC Network activities

  6. A hybrid detector telescope for fission fragments and charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of light charged particle (LCP) multiplicities in coincidence with fission fragments (FFs) during the fusion-fission process is a very useful probe to understand the fission dynamics. In this type of measurement, the LCP's are indented to be measured in a wide range of relative angles (θrel) from 0° to 180° with respect to the FF direction. The conventional method of using two separate detectors one for the FF's and another for the LCPs does not allow to direct the LCPs along the direction of FF (in particular, θrel gas and Egas) and two CsI(Tl)-Si(PIN) detectors mounted at the end of the gas-section. In this paper, the results of in-beam usage of the HDT are presented

  7. General magnetized Weyl solutions: Disks and motion of charged particles

    CERN Document Server

    García-Duque, Cristian H

    2010-01-01

    We construct three families of general magnetostatic axisymmetric exact solutions of Einstein-Maxwell equations in spherical coordinates, prolate, and oblates. The solutions obtained are then presented in the system of generalized spheroidal coordinates which is a generalization of the previous systems. The method used to build such solutions is the well-known complex potential formalism proposed by Ernst, using as seed solutions vacuum solutions of the Einstein field equations. The constructed solutions are asymptotically flat and regular on the axis of symmetry. We show explicitly some particular solutions among them a Erez-Rosen type solution and a Morgan-Morgan type solution, which we interpret as the exterior gravitational field of a finite dislike source immersed in a magnetic field. From them we also construct using the well known ``displace, cut and reflect'' method exact solutions representing relativistic thin disks of infinite extension. We analyze the motion of electrically charged test particles ...

  8. Testing of high-vacuum pumps for charged particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study a possibility of employing different types of pumps in charged-particle accelerators the following pumps have been tested: electric-arc, turbomolecular and cryogenic. The research has been carried out on a test bench which made it possible to determine the pumping-out rate for different gases (constant-volume methods), measure their limiting pressure and study the spectra of different gases by using mass spectrometers. It was possible also to warm up the pumps and pumped-out volumes. From these tests it was concluded that: (1) the electric-arc pump does not meet the accelerator pumping-out requirements; (2) the turbomolecular pump with a nitrogen-sorption trap can be recommended for pumping-out accelerators but requires modification of the supply unit; (3) the cryogenic pump can be recommended for pumpimg-out of accelerators but requires modification of the automatic system for replenishment of the cryogenic fluid

  9. A large solid angle detector for medium energy charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A charged particle detector with 0.7 sr solid angular acceptance has been built, principally to detect protons in the energy range 25-150 MeV in experiments with tagged photon beams. The detector consists of a three element ΔE1-ΔE2-E plastic scintillator telescope. Position information is obtained from the time difference between signals from the two ends of each scintillator. The design of the detector and tests of its performance are described. An energy resolution of 2.8 MeV fwhm at 60 MeV proton energy, and a two-dimensional position resolution of 24 mm x 41 mm fwhm has been obtained. Successful operation in the tagged photon environment is demonstrated. (orig.)

  10. Kinetic phenomena in charged particle transport in gases and plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovic, Zoran Lj.; Dujko, Sasa; Sasic, Olivera; Stojanovic, Vladimir; Malovic, Gordana [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, POB 68 11080 Zemun (Serbia); Faculty of Traffic Engineering, University of Belgrade Belgrade (Serbia); Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, POB 68 11080 Zemun (Serbia)

    2012-05-25

    The key difference between equilibrium (thermal) and non-equilibrium (low temperature - a.k.a. cold) plasmas is in the degree in which the shape of the cross sections influences the electron energy distribution function (EEDF). In this paper we will discuss the issue of kinetic phenomena from two different angles. The first will be how to take advantage of the strong influence and use low current data to obtain the cross sections. This is also known as the swarm technique and the product of a ''swarm analysis'' is a set of cross sections giving good number, momentum and energy balances of electrons or other charged particles. At the same time understanding the EEDF is based on the cross section data. Nevertheless sometimes the knowledge of the cross sections and even the behaviour of individual particles are insufficient to explain collective behaviour of the ensemble. The resulting ''kinetic'' effects may be used to favour certain properties of non-equilibrium plasmas and even may be used as the basis of some new plasma applications.

  11. High Energy Ionic Charge State Composition in Large Solar Energetic Particle Events

    OpenAIRE

    Labrador, A. W.; Leske, R. A.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Cummings, A. C.; Stone, E. C.; von Rosenvinge, T. T.

    2001-01-01

    Measurements of ionic charge states in solar energetic particle (SEP) events have been made at relatively high energies (> 15 MeV/nucleon) with the Mass Spectrometer Telescope (MAST) on board the Solar, Anomalous, and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) satellite using the Earth's magnetic field as a particle rigidity filter. We have examined the largest SEP events of solar cycle 23 and determined ionic charge states of Fe and other elements in several of these events. The mean charge s...

  12. Nonrelativistic Charged Particle-Magnetic Monopole Scattering in the Global Monopole Background

    CERN Document Server

    De Oliveira, A L C

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the nonrelativistic quantum scattering problem of a charged particle by an Abelian magnetic monopole in the background of a global monopole. In addition to the magnetic and geometric effects, we consider the influence of the electrostatic self-interaction on the charged particle. Moreover, for the specific case where the electrostatic self-interaction becomes attractive, charged particle-monopole bound system can be formed and the respective energy spectrum is hydrogen-like one.

  13. Surface-integral formulation of scattering theory for charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Collisions in the realm of atomic and nuclear physics not only have many practical applications, but also form the testing ground for the underlying quantum collision theory. The last decade has seen extraordinary theoretical progress in the field of electron-impact atomic breakup problem [1]. This problem was challenging to solve due to formal and computational difficulties associated with the long-range Coulomb potential. Presently, however, the electron-induced breakup processes can be calculated accurately for simple targets such as atomic hydrogen and helium, in the kinematically complete form. We report on how the computational progress has resulted in a deeper understanding of the formal theory of Coulomb few-body scattering [2] and how corresponding calculations of nuclear breakup reactions can benefit from this development. In quantum collision theory it is customary to define the scattering amplitude in terms of the scattering wave function and the potential of interaction. Despite the fact that the Coulomb wave function and the Coulomb potential are both known analytically, the conventional theory is not able to provide such a standard definition for the amplitude of scattering of two charged particles, which yields the Rutherford cross section. As far as breakup of a bound state of two particles in a system of three charged particles is concerned, here again the theory fails to give a formal definition for calculating the breakup amplitude in the post form in terms of the total scattering wave function describing the process. The reason for this failure is that charged particles continue to interact with each other even at infinite separation due to the long-range nature of the Coulomb potential, something the conventional theory cannot handle. We present a new formulation of scattering theory applicable to arbitrary two and three-body systems with both short-range and Coulomb long-range potentials [2]. The formalism is based on a surface

  14. History of activation analysis technique with charged particles in Uzbekistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The researches on activation analysis with charged particles (CPAA) were started immediately after beginning of constructing of 150-cm cyclotron U-150 in 60-th years of last century. CPAA laboratory organized on bases of the cyclotron and neutron generator NG-200 (in following I-150) in 1971 existed up to the end of 1985. We have used Ion beams of these devices to elaborate two types of nuclear analysis techniques: 1. Delayed Nuclear Analysis (DNA) involving Charged Particle Activation Analysis (CPAA) and Fast Neutron Activation Analysis (FNAA); 2. Prompt Nuclear Analysis (PNA) involving the spectrometry of particles induced X-Ray emission (PIXE). DNA with using accelerators has the following subdivisions: 1. Proton Activation Analysis (PAA); 2. Deuteron Activation Analysis (DAA); 3. 3He Activation Analysis (3HeAA); 4. 4He Activation Analysis (4HeAA or α-AA); 5. Fast Neutron Activation Analysis (FNAA). PAA and DAA found wide application were used to derive a good sensitivity in determination of contents of more than 20 chemical elements in some materials of high purity. For example, we have applied these techniques for the determination of Li, B, C, N, O, F at level of 10-8 - 10-10 g/g in different high purity semiconductors (Si, SiC, Ge, AsGa, InP et al.), nonferrous metals (Li, Be, Zr, Nb, Mo, Ta, W, Re, Al, Ti etc.), nonconductive materials (different glasses, optical materials, diamonds et al.) and environmental objects (soil, plants, water). The techniques provided good results on the determination of B, C and N contents and others. 3HeAA and 4HeAA were generally used to determine of O and C contents in semiconductors ands metals of high purity. We have elaborated rapid radiochemical techniques for separation of short-lived positron emitters. For example, the separation of 15O, formatting by nuclear reaction 16O(3He,α)15O, the reducing fusion technique was used. Radionuclide 11C was separated chemically by the oxidisation of samples in the

  15. Planar charged-particle trajectories in multipole magnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Willis

    Full Text Available This paper provides a complete generalization of the classic result that the radius of curvature (ρ of a charged-particle trajectory confined to the equatorial plane of a magnetic dipole is directly proportional to the cube of the particle's equatorial distance (ϖ from the dipole (i.e. ρ ∝ ϖ3. Comparable results are derived for the radii of curvature of all possible planar charged-particle trajectories in an individual static magnetic multipole of arbitrary order m and degree n. Such trajectories arise wherever there exists a plane (or planes such that the multipole magnetic field is locally perpendicular to this plane (or planes, everywhere apart from possibly at a set of magnetic neutral lines. Therefore planar trajectories exist in the equatorial plane of an axisymmetric (m = 0, or zonal, magnetic multipole, provided n is odd: the radius of curvature varies directly as ϖn+2. This result reduces to the classic one in the case of a zonal magnetic dipole (n =1. Planar trajectories exist in 2m meridional planes in the case of the general tesseral (0 < m < n magnetic multipole. These meridional planes are defined by the 2m roots of the equation cos[m(ΦΦnm] = 0, where Φnm = (1/m arctan (hnm/gnm; gnm and hnm denote the spherical harmonic coefficients. Equatorial planar trajectories also exist if (nm is odd. The polar axis (θ = 0,π of a tesseral magnetic multipole is a magnetic neutral line if m > 1. A further 2m(nm neutral lines exist at the intersections of the 2m meridional planes with the (nm cones defined by the (n

  16. The steady state of a particle in a vibrating box and possible application in short pulse generation of charged particles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nandan Jha; Sudhir R Jain

    2013-09-01

    In this paper the classical evolution of a particle is studied which bounces back and forth in a 1D vibrating cavity such that the reflection from the wall does not change the speed of the particle. A peculiar behaviour of the particle motion can be seen where the time evolution of the motion shows superposition of linear and oscillatory behaviour. In particular, the parameter range is found in which the particle oscillates between the walls in steady state as if the wall was static and it is showed that for these parameter ranges the particle settles to this steady state for all initial conditions. It is proposed that this phenomenon can be used to bunch charged particles in short pulses where the synchronization proposed in our model should work against the space charge effect in the charged particle bunch.

  17. Charged Particle Energization and Transport in Reservoirs throughout the Heliosphere: 1. Solar Energetic Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelof, E. C.

    2015-09-01

    “Reservoirs” of energetic charged particles are regions where the particle population is quasi-trapped in large-scale (relative to the gyroradii) magnetic field structures. Reservoirs are found throughout the heliosphere: the huge heliosheath (90appropriate description of this transport is “weak scattering”, in which the particle's first adiabatic invariant (magnetic moment) is approximately conserved while the particle itself moves rather freely along magnetic field lines. Considerable insight into the observed properties of energization processes can be gained from a remarkably simple equation that describes the particle's fractional time-rate-of-change of momentum (dlnp/dt) which depends only upon its pitch angle, the divergence of the plasma velocity (V⊥) transverse to the magnetic field), and the inner product of (V⊥) with the curvature vector of the field lines. The possibilities encompassed in this simple (but general) equation are quite rich, so we restrict our application of it in this paper to the compressive acceleration of SEPs within CMEs.

  18. Square-root operator quantization of elementary particles masses and charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantization of elementary particles masses and charges is proposed within the framework of the square-root operator formalism and the concept of extended particles associated with the structure of the torus. (author)

  19. Intermediate regime of charged particle scattering in the field-reversal configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shustov, P. I., E-mail: p.shustov@gmail.com; Yushkov, E. V. [Space Research Institute, RAS, Profsouznaya st., 84/32, GSP-7, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Department of Physics, Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation); Artemyev, A. V., E-mail: artemyev@iki.rssi.ru [Space Research Institute, RAS, Profsouznaya st., 84/32, GSP-7, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    In this paper, we investigate the charged particle scattering in the magnetic field configuration with stretched magnetic field lines. This scattering results from the violation of the adiabaticity of charged particle motion in the region with the strong gradient of the magnetic field. We consider the intermediate regime of charged particle dynamics, when the violation of the adiabaticity is significant enough, but particle motion is not chaotic. We demonstrate and describe the significant scattering of particles with large adiabatic invariants (magnetic moment). We discuss a possible application of obtained results for description of the peculiarities of pitch-angle diffusion of relativistic electrons in the Earth radiation belts.

  20. Method of producing weakly acidic cation exchange resin particles charged with uranyl ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelmonem, N.; Ringel, H.; Zimmer, E.

    1981-07-21

    Weakly acidic cationic ion exchange resin particles are charged with uranyl ions by contacting the particles step wise with aqueous uranyl nitrate solution at higher uranium concentrations from stage to stage. An alkaline medium is added to the uranyl nitrate solution in each stage to increase the successive pH values of the uranyl nitrate solution contacting the particles in dependence upon the uranium concentration effective for maximum charging of the particles with uranyl ions.

  1. Double electron excitation of helium by charged particle impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. A four-body classical trajectory Monte Carlo method is applied in the study of double electron excitation of helium by charged particle impact. The calculations are based on the independent particle model. As projectiles we consider protons and antiprotons with energies between 0.25 and 5 MeV. The state selective total cross sections as a function of the impact energy are calculated and compared with experimental and theoretical data. Fig. 1. shows the double excitation cross sections of helium to the (2s2)1S (Fig. 1a), (2s2p)1P (Fig. 1b) and (2p2)1D (Fig. 1c) states as a function of the impact energy. The errors of our calculated data are smaller or comparable with the size of the symbols. Our recent cross sections are compared with the experimental data of Giese et al. and Moretto-Capelle et al. and with the previous calculations of Bodea et al. Instead of the antiproton impact, the experiments in ref. were carried out with electron impact. These cross sections are shown at the energy where the electron velocity is equal that of the antiproton velocity. In all cases the cross sections for antiprotons exceeds the cross section for protons. The largest difference is obtained for the excitation of the (2s2)1S state (Fig. 1a). According to our expectation, with increasing projectile energies the cross sections for proton and antiproton impact approaching each other. This tendency is valid for the previous calculations of Bodea et al. except for the (2p2)1D (Fig. 1c). The calculated cross sections generally agree with the experimental values. (author)

  2. Magnetoinduction converter for measuring the charged particle flux in beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The arrangement of a contactless magnetoinduction converter (MIC) designed for measuring the charged particle flux in beams is described. The converter is made of a coil placed onto a toroidal ferromagnetic core, 120x60x12 mm in size. To eliminate the effect of the external magnetic field the MIC is placed into a compound permalloy- copper labyrinth-type screen, In the aperiodic operating mode the MIC measuring channel contains a preamplifier, an amplifier, a strobing circuit, an integrator with a converter, a delay circuit, a time relay, a pulsed-to-direct voltage converter, and a digital voltmeter. For experimental measuring of sensitivity of the MIC measuring system a calibration loop, consisting of an accurate- amplitude generator, a delay circuit and a time relay, is used. The given contactless magnetoinduction converter is a part of the electron flux standard for 5-50 MeV beams. The normal conditions of reproduction of the ''electron/s'' unit are the following: the 293+-1 K temperature, 101.3+40 kPa pressure, 60+-15% relative humidity, 220B+-10% supply voltage and 50+-0.5 Hz frequency. The dynamic range of MIC application is 1012-1015 electron/s. The total systematic error of reproduction of the electron flux unit for the MIC is 1.7%

  3. The Boltzmann equation theory of charged particle transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown how a formally exact Kubo-like response theory equivalent to the Boltzmann equation theory of charged particle transport can be constructed. The response theory gives the general wavevector and time-dependent velocity distribution at any time in terms of an initial distribution function, to which is added the response induced by a generalized perturbation over the intervening time. The usual Kubo linear response result for the distribution function is recovered by choosing the initial velocity distribution to be Maxwellian. For completeness the response theory introduces an exponential convergence function into the response time integral. This is equivalent to using a modified Boltzmann equation but the general form of the transport theory is not changed. The modified transport theory can be used to advantage where possible convergence difficulties occur in numerical solutions of the Boltzmann equation. This paper gives a systematic development of the modified transport theory and shows how the response theory fits into the broader scheme of solving the Boltzmann equation. The discussion extends both the work of Kumar et al. (1980), where the distribution function is expanded out in terms of tensor functions, and the propagator description where the non-hydrodynamic time development of the distribution function is related to the wavevector dependent Green function of the Boltzmann equation

  4. Local phase transformation in alloys during charged-particle irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, N.Q.; Okamoto, P.R.

    1984-10-01

    Among the various mechanisms and processes by which energetic irradiation can alter the phase stability of alloys, radiation-induced segregation is one of the most important phenomena. Radiation-induced segregation in alloys occurs as a consequence of preferential coupling between persistent fluxes of excess defects and solute atoms, leading to local enrichment or depletion of alloying elements. Thus, this phenomenon tends to drive alloy systems away from thermodynamic equilibrium, on a local scale. During charged-particle irradiations, the spatial nonuniformity in the defect production gives rise to a combination of persistent defect fluxes, near the irradiated surface and in the peak-damage region. This defect-flux combination can modify the alloy composition in a complex fashion, i.e., it can destabilize pre-existing phases, causing spatially- and temporally-dependent precipitation of new metastable phases. The effects of radiation-induced segregation on local phase transformations in Ni-based alloys during proton bombardment and high-voltage electron-microscope irradiation at elevated temperatures are discussed.

  5. Charged particle therapy with mini-segmented beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Avraham eDilmanian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the fundamental attributes of proton therapy and carbon ion therapy is the ability of these charged particles to spare tissue distal to the targeted tumor. This significantly reduces normal tissue toxicity and has the potential to translate to a wider therapeutic index. Although, in general, particle therapy also reduces dose to the proximal tissues, particularly in the vicinity of the target, dose to the skin and to other very superficial tissues tends to be higher than that of megavoltage x-rays. The methods presented here, namely Interleaved carbon minibeams and Radiosurgery with arrays of proton and light ion minibeams, both utilize beams segmented into arrays of parallel minibeams of about 0.3 mm incident beam size. These minibeam arrays spare tissues, as demonstrated by synchrotron x-ray experiments. An additional feature of particle minibeams is their gradual broadening due to multiple Coulomb scattering as they penetrate tissues. In the case of interleaved carbon minibeams, which do not broaden much, two arrays of planar carbon minibeams that remain parallel at target depth, are aimed at the target from 90º angles and made to interleave at the target to produce a solid radiation field within the target. As a result the surrounding tissues are exposed only to individual carbon minibeam arrays and are therefore spared. The method was used in four-directional geometry at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory to ablate a 6.5-mm target in a rabbit brain at a single exposure with 40 Gy physical absorbed dose. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and histology six month later showed very focal target necrosis with nearly no damage to the surrounding brain. As for minibeams of protons and light ions, for which the minibeam broadening is substantial, measurements at MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, Texas, and Monte Carlo simulations showed that the broadening minibeams will merge with their neighbors at a certain tissue depth

  6. Dependence of plasmon excitation energy on filler material in interaction of charged particle with filled nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahari, A., E-mail: bahari.a@lu.ac.i [Department of Physics, Lorestan University, Lorestan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohamadi, A. [Department of Physics, Shiraz Payaem Noor University, Fars (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    The interaction of charged particles with filled single-walled metallic nanotubes (SWMNT) has been investigated. Numerical results for the plasmon energy as a function of the wave vector are presented when the charged particle is outside the nanotube. Dependence of the plasmon energy on ratio of plasma frequency of the filler and SWMNT has been shown.

  7. Summary report on first research coordination meeting on heavy charged-particle interaction data for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary is given of the First Research Coordination Meeting on Heavy Charged-Particle Interaction Data for Radiotherapy. A programme to compile and evaluate charged-particle nuclear data for therapeutic applications was proposed. Detailed coordinated research proposals were also agreed. Technical discussions and the resulting work plan of the Coordinated Research Project are summarized, along with actions and deadlines. (author)

  8. Method and system for treating an interior surface of a workpiece using a charged particle beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, David Richard

    2007-05-23

    A method and system of treating an interior surface on an internal cavity of a workpiece using a charged particle beam. A beam deflector surface of a beam deflector is placed within the internal cavity of the workpiece and is used to redirect the charged particle beam toward the interior surface to treat the interior surface.

  9. Charged NUT field : [Part] I. Motion of test particles and [Part] II. Cosmic censorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some properties of the charged NUT field are studied. In the first part of the paper, some general aspects of the charged NUT field have been investigated using uncharged and charged particles. The behaviour of the particles near the singularity has also been considered. In the second part of the paper, the charged NUT sources in the context of cosmic censorship hypothesis are studied. Motion of charged particles in the equatorial plane and along the axis is considered. From this investigation the interesting result is discovered that by such a bombardment of charged test particles, the existing event horizons cannot be destroyed but, in contrast to the Reissner-Nordstrom field, naked singularities do not get enveloped by event horizons. (author)

  10. Search for fractionally charged particles in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aguilo, Ernest; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Christine; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Luyckx, Sten; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Staykova, Zlatka; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Reis, Thomas; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Marcken, Gil; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Garcia, Guillaume; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Ceard, Ludivine; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Schul, Nicolas; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Custódio, Analu; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Soares Jorge, Luana; Sznajder, Andre; Souza Dos Anjos, Tiago; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Khalil, Shaaban; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Karjalainen, Ahti; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Millischer, Laurent; Nayak, Aruna; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Shreyber, Irina; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Benhabib, Lamia; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Daci, Nadir; Dahms, Torsten; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Juillot, Pierre; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Anagnostou, Georgios; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Caudron, Julien; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Olschewski, Mark; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Weber, Martin; Bontenackels, Michael; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Lingemann, Joschka; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Costanza, Francesco; Dammann, Dirk; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Glushkov, Ivan; Gunnellini, Paolo; Habib, Shiraz; Hauk, Johannes; Hellwig, Gregor; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Novgorodova, Olga; Olzem, Jan; Perrey, Hanno; Petrukhin, Alexey; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Riedl, Caroline; Ron, Elias; Rosin, Michele; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stein, Matthias; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Draeger, Jula; Enderle, Holger; Erfle, Joachim; Gebbert, Ulla; Görner, Martin; Hermanns, Thomas; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Lange, Jörn; Mura, Benedikt; Nowak, Friederike; Peiffer, Thomas; Pietsch, Niklas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Seidel, Markus; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Vanelderen, Lukas; Barth, Christian; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Guthoff, Moritz; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Nürnberg, Andreas; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Ratnikova, Natalia; Röcker, Steffen; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Zeise, Manuel; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Ntomari, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Karancsi, János; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Kaur, Manjit; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mehta, Pourus; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Aziz, Tariq; Ganguly, Sanmay; Guchait, Monoranjan; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Hesari, Hoda; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Singh, Gurpreet; Venditti, Rosamaria; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Tosi, Silvano; Benaglia, Andrea; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Cavallo, Nicola; De Cosa, Annapaola; Dogangun, Oktay; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Romeo, Francesco; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Taroni, Silvia; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Fanelli, Cristiano; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Sigamani, Michael; Soffi, Livia; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Costa, Marco; Demaria, Natale; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Marone, Matteo; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Schizzi, Andrea; Heo, Seong Gu; Kim, Tae Yeon; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Chang, Sunghyun; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Ro, Sang-Ryul; Son, Dong-Chul; Son, Taejin; Kim, Jae Yool; Kim, Zero Jaeho; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Cho, Yongjin; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Min Suk; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Bilinskas, Mykolas Jurgis; Grigelionis, Ignas; Janulis, Mindaugas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Martínez-Ortega, Jorge; Sánchez-Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A; Krofcheck, David; Bell, Alan James; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Reucroft, Steve; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Ansari, Muhammad Hamid; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Almeida, Nuno; Bargassa, Pedrame; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Savina, Maria; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Evstyukhin, Sergey; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Erofeeva, Maria; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kossov, Mikhail; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Popov, Andrey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Ekmedzic, Marko; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Soares, Mara Senghi; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Graziano, Alberto; Jorda, Clara; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benitez, Jose F; Bernet, Colin; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; De Roeck, Albert; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dobson, Marc; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Frisch, Benjamin; Funk, Wolfgang; Georgiou, Georgios; Giffels, Manuel; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Giunta, Marina; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Govoni, Pietro; Gowdy, Stephen; Guida, Roberto; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hartl, Christian; Harvey, John; Hegner, Benedikt; Hinzmann, Andreas; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kaadze, Ketino; Karavakis, Edward; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Lecoq, Paul; Lee, Yen-Jie; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Lourenco, Carlos; Magini, Nicolo; Maki, Tuula; Malberti, Martina; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Musella, Pasquale; Nesvold, Erik; Orimoto, Toyoko; Orsini, Luciano; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Perez, Emmanuelle; Perrozzi, Luca; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Polese, Giovanni; Quertenmont, Loic; Racz, Attila; Reece, William; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovelli, Chiara; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Santanastasio, Francesco; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sekmen, Sezen; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Worm, Steven; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; 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Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kirn, Malina; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Peterman, Alison; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Twedt, Elizabeth; Apyan, Aram; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Krajczar, Krisztian; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Velicanu, Dragos; Wenger, Edward Allen; Wolf, Roger; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cooper, Seth; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Franzoni, Giovanni; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Keller, Jason; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Haley, Joseph; Nash, David; Trocino, Daniele; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Chan, Kwok Ming; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; 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Leonardo, Nuno; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Guragain, Samir; Parashar, Neeti; Adair, Antony; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Li, Wei; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Malik, Sarah; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Rekovic, Vladimir; Robles, Jorge; Rose, Keith; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Seitz, Claudia; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Sengupta, Sinjini; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Roh, Youn; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Florez, Carlos; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Belknap, Donald; Borrello, Laura; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Friis, Evan; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Palmonari, Francesco; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Swanson, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    A search is presented for free heavy long-lived fractionally charged particles produced in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV. The data sample was recorded by the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 inverse femtobarns. Candidate fractionally charged particles are identified by selecting tracks with associated low charge measurements in the silicon tracking detector. Observations are found to be consistent with expectations for background processes. The results of the search are used to set upper limits on the cross section for pair production of fractionally charged, massive spin-1/2 particles that are neutral under SU(3)$_C$ and SU(2)$_L$. We exclude at 95% confidence level such particles with electric charge ±2e/3 with masses below 310 GeV, and those with charge ±e/3 with masses below 140 GeV.

  11. Charging of mesospheric aerosol particles: the role of photodetachment and photoionization from meteoric smoke and ice particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rapp

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Time constants for photodetachment, photoemission, and electron capture are considered for two classes of mesospheric aerosol particles, i.e., meteor smoke particles (MSPs and pure water ice particles. Assuming that MSPs consist of metal oxides like Fe2O3 or SiO, we find that during daytime conditions photodetachment by solar photons is up to 4 orders of magnitude faster than electron attachment such that MSPs cannot be negatively charged in the presence of sunlight. Rather, even photoemission can compete with electron capture unless the electron density becomes very large (>>1000 cm−3 such that MSPs should either be positively charged or neutral in the case of large electron densities. For pure water ice particles, however, both photodetachment and photoemission are negligible due to the wavelength characteristics of its absorption cross section and because the flux of solar photons has already dropped significantly at such short wavelengths. This means that water ice particles should normally be negatively charged. Hence, our results can readily explain the repeated observation of the coexistence of positive and negative aerosol particles in the polar summer mesopause, i.e., small MSPs should be positively charged and ice particles should be negatively charged. These results have further important implications for our understanding of the nucleation of mesospheric ice particles as well as for the interpretation of incoherent scatter radar observations of MSPs.

  12. The charged-particle multiplicity inside jets at 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Nachman, Benjamin Philip; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The number of charged particles inside jets is a widely used discriminant for identifying the quark or gluon nature of the initiating parton and is sensitive to both the perturbative and non-perturbative components of fragmentation. This paper presents a measurement of the average number of charged particles with pT>500 MeV inside high-momentum jets in dijet events using 20.3 1/fb of data recorded with the ATLAS detector in pp collisions at s = sqrt(8) TeV collisions at the LHC. The jets considered have transverse momenta from 50 GeV up to and beyond 1.5 TeV. The reconstructed charged-particle track multiplicity distribution is unfolded to remove distortions from detector effects and the resulting charged-particle multiplicity is compared to several models. Furthermore, quark and gluon jet fractions are used to extract the average charged-particle multiplicity for quark and gluon jets separately.

  13. Threshold Laws for the Break-up of Atomic Particles into Several Charged Fragments

    OpenAIRE

    Kuchiev, M. Yu.; Ostrovsky, V. N.

    1998-01-01

    The processes with three or more charged particles in the final state exhibit particular threshold behavior, as inferred by the famous Wannier law for (2e + ion) system. We formulate a general solution which determines the threshold behavior of the cross section for multiple fragmentation. Applications to several systems of particular importance with three, four and five leptons (electrons and positrons) in the field of charged core; and two pairs of identical particles with opposite charges ...

  14. New Electrically Charged Black Hole in Higher Derivative Gravity as Particle Colliders

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Kai; Pavan, A. B.; Flores-Hidalgo, G.; Abdalla, E.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, new electrically charged asymptotically flat black hole solutions are numerically derived in the context of higher derivative gravity. These solutions can be interpreted as generalizations of two different classes of non-charged asymptotically flat spacetimes: Schwarzschild and non-Schwarzschild solutions. The possibility to use these black holes as particle colliders have been analysed. Our results show that the center-of-mass energy of two accelerated charged particles could ...

  15. Transverse momentum spectra for charged particles at the CERN proton-antiproton collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have measured transverse momentum spectra up to 10 GeV/c for charged particles produced centrally in proton-antiproton collisions at 540 GeV in the centre of mass at the CERN collider. Our results are compared with data at ISR energies and with the predictions of a QCD model. The charged particle spectrum shows a clear dependence on charged track multiplicity. (orig.)

  16. Constraints on dark matter particles charged under a hidden gauge group from primordial black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, De-Chang; Freese, Katherine; Stojkovic, Dejan

    2009-01-01

    In order to accommodate increasingly tighter observational constraints on dark matter, several models have been proposed recently in which dark matter particles are charged under some hidden gauge group. Hidden gauge charges are invisible for the standard model particles, hence such scenarios are very difficult to constrain directly. However black holes are sensitive to all gauge charges, whether they belong to the standard model or not. Here, we examine the constraints on the possible values...

  17. First direct limits on Lightly Ionizing Particles with electric charge less than $e/6$

    CERN Document Server

    Agnese, R; Balakishiyeva, D; Thakur, R Basu; Bauer, D A; Billard, J; Borgland, A; Bowles, M A; Brandt, D; Brink, P L; Bunker, R; Cabrera, B; Caldwell, D O; Cerdeno, D G; Chagani, H; Chen, Y; Cooley, J; Cornell, B; Crewdson, C H; Cushman, P; Daal, M; Di Stefano, P C F; Doughty, T; Esteban, L; Fallows, S; Figueroa-Feliciano, E; Godfrey, G L; Golwala, S R; Hall, J; Harris, H R; Hertel, S A; Hofer, T; Holmgren, D; Hsu, L; Huber, M E; Jastram, A; Kamaev, O; Kara, B; Kelsey, M H; Kennedy, A; Kiveni, M; Koch, K; Leder, A; Loer, B; Asamar, E Lopez; Mahapatra, R; Mandic, V; Martinez, C; McCarthy, K A; Mirabolfathi, N; Moffatt, R A; Moore, D C; Nelson, H; Nelson, R H; Ogburn, R W; Page, K; Page, W A; Partridge, R; Pepin, M; Phipps, A; Prasad, K; Pyle, M; Qiu, H; Rau, W; Redl, P; Reisetter, A; Ricci, Y; Rogers, H E; Saab, T; Sadoulet, B; Sander, J; Schneck, K; Schnee, R W; Scorza, S; Serfass, B; Shank, B; Speller, D; Upadhyayula, S; Villano, A N; Welliver, B; Wright, D H; Yellin, S; Yen, J J; Young, B A; Zhang, J

    2014-01-01

    While the Standard Model of particle physics does not include free particles with fractional charge, experimental searches have not ruled out their existence. We report results from the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS II) experiment that give the first direct-detection limits for cosmogenically-produced relativistic particles with electric charge lower than $e$/6. A search for tracks in the six stacked detectors of each of two of the CDMS II towers found no candidates, thereby excluding new parameter space for particles with electric charges between $e$/6 and $e$/200.

  18. Particle discriminator for the identification of light charged particles with CsI(Tl) scintillator + PIN photodiode detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A particle discriminator exploiting the ballistic deficit effect for pulse shape discrimination has been developed for CsI(Tl) scintillator + PIN photodiode charged-particle detectors. The method is theoretically investigated and it is shown that the figure of merit of the particle separation is mainly governed by the absolute value of the differential quotient of the rise time dependent ballistic deficit. As the actual particle discriminator contains shaping amplifiers, baseline restorer, pile-up rejector and analog-to-digital converters, it directly accepts signals from a charge-sensitive preamplifier, and its outputs deliver the type and the energy of the particles in the form of eight-bit digital codes. The performance of the particle discriminator is characterised by the figure-of-merit measured as a function of the particle energy. (orig.)

  19. Light charged particle emission in heavy-ion reactions – What have we learnt?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Kailas

    2001-07-01

    Light charged particles emitted in heavy-ion induced reactions, their spectra and angular distributions measured over a range of energies, carry the signature of the underlying reaction mechanisms. Analysis of data of light charged particles, both inclusive and exclusive measured in coincidence with gamma rays, fission products, evaporation residues have yielded interesting results which bring out the influence of nuclear structure, nuclear mean field and dynamics on the emission of these particles.

  20. Modelling the Role of Charge in Atmospheric Particle Formation Using Quantum Chemical Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Ruusuvuori, Kai

    2015-01-01

    New particle formation is an important process in the atmosphere. As ions are constantly produced in the atmosphere, the behaviour and role of charged particles in atmospheric processes needs to be understood. In order to gain insight on the role of charge in atmospheric new particle formation, the electron structure of the molecules taking part in this process needs to be taken into account using quantum chemical methods. Quantum chemical density functional theory was employed in an eff...

  1. High Energy Ionic Charge State Composition In Recent Large Solar Energetic Particle Events

    OpenAIRE

    Labrador, A. W.; Leske, R. A.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Stone, E. C.; von Rosenvinge, T. T.

    2003-01-01

    The ionic charge states of solar energetic particles (SEPs) provide information on the temperature of source materials and on conditions during acceleration and transport. SAMPEX/MAST measures mean ionic charge states at > 15 MeV/nuc using the geomagnetic rigidity filter technique. Charge state measurements by MAST for gradual SEP events suggest a continuum of charge states correlated with abundance ratios for a variety of elements, similar to what is observed at lower energies. In case...

  2. Investigation of surfactant mediated acid-base charging of mineral oxide particles dispersed in apolar systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacek, Matthew M; Berg, John C

    2012-12-21

    The current work examines the role of acid-base properties on particle charging in apolar media. Manipulating the polarity and magnitude of charge in such systems is of growing interest to a number of applications. A major hurdle to the implementation of this technology is that the mechanism(s) of particle charging remain a subject of debate. The authors previously conducted a study of the charging of a series of mineral oxide particles dispersed in apolar systems that contained the surfactant AOT. It was observed that there was a correlation between the particle electrophoretic mobility and the acid-base nature of the particle, as characterized by aqueous point of zero charge (PZC) or the isoelectric point (IEP). The current study investigates whether or not a similar correlation is observed with other surfactants, namely, the acidic Span 80 and the basic OLOA 11000. This is accomplished by measuring the electrophoretic mobility of a series of mineral oxides that are dispersed in Isopar-L containing various concentrations of either Span 80 or OLOA 11000. The mineral oxides used have PZC values that cover a wide range of pH, providing a systematic study of how particle and surfactant acid-base properties impact particle charge. It was found that the magnitude and polarity of particle surface charge varied linearly with the particle PZC for both surfactants used. In addition, the point at which the polarity of charge reversed for the basic surfactant OLOA 11000 was shifted to a pH of approximately 8.5, compared to the previous result of about 5 for AOT. This proves that both surfactant and particle acid-base properties are important, and provides support for the theory of acid-base charging in apolar media. PMID:23157688

  3. Ion-UHMA: a model for simulating the dynamics of neutral and charged aerosol particles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppae, J.; Kerminen, V.-M. (Finnish Meteorological Institute, Climate Change Research, Helsinki (Finland)); Gagne, S.; Manninen, H. E.; Nieminen, T.; Kulmala, M. (Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)); Laakso, L. (Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, North-West Univ. Potchefstroom (South Africa)); Korhonen, H. (Univ. of Kuopio, Dept. of Physics (Finland)); Lehtinen, K. E. J. (Univ. of Kuopio, Dept. of Physics (Finland); Finnish Meteorological Institute, Kuopio Unit (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    A new aerosol dynamical box model, Ion-UHMA (University of Helsinki Multicomponent Aerosol model for neutral and charged particles), is introduced in this paper. The model includes basic dynamical processes (condensation, coagulation and deposition) as well as ion-aerosol attachment and ion-ion recombination. The formation of particles is treated as model input or, alternatively, the model can be coupled with an existing nucleation model. Ion-UHMA was found to be able to reproduce qualitatively the measured time evolution of the particle number size distribution, when the particle formation and growth rates as well as concentrations of particles > 20 nm in diameter were taken from measurements. The simulated charging state of freshly formed particles during a new particle formation event evolved towards charge equilibrium in line with previously-derived analytical formulae. We provided a few illustrative examples to demonstrate possible applications, to which the Ion-UHMA model could be used in the near future. (orig.)

  4. A search for relativistic particles with fractional electric charge at the Cern collider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banner, M.; Kofoed-Hansen, O.

    1983-01-01

    A search for relativistic particles with fractional electric charge has been performed at the CERN collider using a telescope of scintillation counters to detect particles with abnormally low ionisation. The thickness of the detector (40 gr cm−2) limits this search to particles without strong...... absorption in matter. No evidence for such particles has been found. This negative result is used to set an upper limit for the ratio of quark yield to that of particles with unit electric charge. For quark masses below 2 GeV/c2 the 90% confidence level upper limits range from 2 × 10−4 to 2.5 × 10...

  5. Electrophoretic mobility of a charged colloidal particle: a computer simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the mobility of a charged colloidal particle in a constant homogeneous electric field by means of computer simulations. The simulation method combines a lattice Boltzmann scheme for the fluid with standard Langevin dynamics for the colloidal particle, which is built up from a net of bonded particles forming the surface of the colloid. The coupling between the two subsystems is introduced via friction forces. In addition, explicit counterions, also coupled to the fluid, are present. We observe a non-monotonic dependence of the electrophoretic mobility on the bare colloidal charge. At low surface charge density we observe a linear increase of the mobility with bare charge, whereas at higher charges, where more than half of the ions are co-moving with the colloid, the mobility decreases with increasing bare charge

  6. Ultracold Fermi and Bose gases and Spinless Bose Charged Sound Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minasyan V.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel approach for investigation of the motion of Bose or Fermi liquid (or gas which consists of decoupled electrons and ions in the uppermost hyperfine state. Hence, we use such a concept as the fluctuation motion of “charged fluid particles” or “charged fluid points” representing a charged longitudinal elastic wave. In turn, this elastic wave is quantized by spinless longitudinal Bose charged sound particles with the rest mass m and charge e 0 . The existence of spinless Bose charged sound particles allows us to present a new model for description of Bose or Fermi liquid via a non-ideal Bose gas of charged sound particles . In this respect, we introduce a new postulation for the superfluid component of Bose or Fermi liquid determined by means of charged sound particles in the condensate, which may explain the results of experiments connected with ultra-cold Fermi gases of spin-polarized hydrogen, 6 Li and 40 K, and such a Bose gas as 87 Rb in the uppermost hyperfine state, where the Bose- Einstein condensation of charged sound particles is realized by tuning the magnetic field.

  7. Trajectory of Charged Particle in Combined Electric and Magnetic Fields Using Interactive Spreadsheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambade, Popat S.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this article is to graphically illustrate to the students the physical phenomenon of motion of charged particle under the action of simultaneous electric and magnetic fields by simulating particle motion on a computer. Differential equations of motions are solved analytically and path of particle in three-dimensional space are…

  8. High-energy charged particle bursts in the near-Earth space as earthquake precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Aleksandrin

    Full Text Available The experimental data on high-energy charged particle fluxes, obtained in various near-Earth space experiments (MIR orbital station, METEOR-3, GAMMA and SAMPEX satellites were processed and analyzed with the goal to search for particle bursts. Particle bursts have been selected in every experiment considered. It was shown that the significant part of high-energy charged particle bursts correlates with seismic activity. Moreover, the particle bursts are observed several hours before strong earthquakes; L-shells of particle bursts and corresponding earthquakes are practically the same. Some features of a seismo-magnetosphere connection model, based on the interaction of electromagnetic emission of seismic origin and radiation belt particles, were considered.

    Key words. Ionospheric physics (energetic particles, trapped; energetic particles, precipitating; magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions

  9. The search for elementary particles with fractional electric charge and the philosophy of speculative experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All known elementary particles that can be isolated as individual particles have an electric charge that is equal in magnitude to the electron close-quote s charge, q=1.6x10-19C, or is zero. This includes the muon and tau charged leptons, the neutrinos, the photon, the nucleons, and the mesons. There have been many searches without confirmed success for isolated particles with fractional electric charge such as ±q/3, or ±q/2, or ±3q/2. The theory of the physics of elementary particles does not require the existence of such particles. In particular, current theory holds that quarks, whose charge is ±(1/3)q or ±2/3q, cannot be isolated. Despite past failures and current theory, we have been engaged for the past few years in a new search for isolated elementary particles with fractional electric charge. In the course of this paper we discuss models for fractional charge particles, summarize previous searches, and describe our experimental method; and because this is speculative research we will also present our thoughts on speculative experiments. copyright 1997 American Association of Physics Teachers

  10. Heavy charged particle radiobiology: using enhanced biological effectiveness and improved beam focusing to advance cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Christopher; Borak, Thomas B; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Nickoloff, Jac A

    2011-06-01

    Ionizing radiation causes many types of DNA damage, including base damage and single- and double-strand breaks. Photons, including X-rays and γ-rays, are the most widely used type of ionizing radiation in radiobiology experiments, and in radiation cancer therapy. Charged particles, including protons and carbon ions, are seeing increased use as an alternative therapeutic modality. Although the facilities needed to produce high energy charged particle beams are more costly than photon facilities, particle therapy has shown improved cancer survival rates, reflecting more highly focused dose distributions and more severe DNA damage to tumor cells. Despite early successes of charged particle radiotherapy, there is room for further improvement, and much remains to be learned about normal and cancer cell responses to charged particle radiation. PMID:21376738

  11. Toner Display Based on Movement of Tribo-electrically Charged Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takashi Kitamura

    2004-01-01

    The mechanism of toner display based on an electrical movement of black and white charged particles has been investigated. Two kinds of particles of black and white charged in the different electric polarity are enclosed in two ITO transparent electrodes using an insulating spacer. The particle movement is controlled by the external electric field applied between two transparent electrodes. The black toner is adhered on the electrode by an electrostatic force across the CTL to display a black image. The toners can be put back to the counter electrode by applying a reverse electric field, and a white image is formed. The black and white solid images are displayed by the switch of polarity of applied voltage in toner display cell. The polarity of charge and the value of charge to mass ratio of two particles were measured by observation of the particle separation on the surface-type electrodes and using q/m meter, respectively.

  12. Charge distribution over dust particles configured with size distribution in a complex plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Shikha; Mishra, Sanjay K.

    2016-02-01

    A theoretical kinetic model describing the distribution of charge on the dust particles configured with generalized Kappa size distribution in a complex plasma has been developed. The formulation is based on the manifestation of uniform potential theory with an analytical solution of the master differential equation for the probability density function of dust charge; the number and energy balance of the plasma constituents are utilized in writing the kinetic equations. A parametric study to determine the steady state plasma parameters and the charge distribution corresponding to a size distribution of dust grains in the complex plasma has been made; the numerical results are presented graphically. The charge distribution is seen sensitive to the population of small grains in the particle size distribution and thus in contrast to symmetrical distribution of charge around a mean value for uniform sized grains, the charge distribution in the present case peaks around lower charge.

  13. New Electrically Charged Black Hole in Higher Derivative Gravity as Particle Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Kai; Flores-Hidalgo, G; Abdalla, E

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, new electrically charged asymptotically flat black hole solutions are numerically derived in the context of higher derivative gravity. These solutions can be interpreted as generalizations of two different classes of non-charged asymptotically flat spacetimes: Schwarzschild and non-Schwarzschild solutions. The possibility to use these black holes as particle colliders have been analysed. Our results show that the center-of-mass energy of two accelerated charged particles could be arbitrarily high near the event horizon of the extreme charged black hole.

  14. Discrete Element Modeling (DEM) of Triboelectrically Charged Particles: Revised Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Michael D.; Calle, Carlos I.; Curry, D. R.; Weitzman, P. S.

    2008-01-01

    In a previous work, the addition of basic screened Coulombic electrostatic forces to an existing commercial discrete element modeling (DEM) software was reported. Triboelectric experiments were performed to charge glass spheres rolling on inclined planes of various materials. Charge generation constants and the Q/m ratios for the test materials were calculated from the experimental data and compared to the simulation output of the DEM software. In this paper, we will discuss new values of the charge generation constants calculated from improved experimental procedures and data. Also, planned work to include dielectrophoretic, Van der Waals forces, and advanced mechanical forces into the software will be discussed.

  15. Exposure to heavy charged particles affects thermoregulation in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandasamy, S.B.; Hunt, W.A.; Dalton, T.K.; Joseph, J.A.; Harris, A.H. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States); Rabin, B.M. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)]|[Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Rats exposed to 0.1-5 Gy of heavy particles ({sup 56}Fe, {sup 40}Ar, {sup 20}Ne or {sup 4}He) showed dose-dependent changes in body temperature. Lower doses of all particles produced hyperthermia, and higher doses of {sup 20}Ne and {sup 56}Fe produced hypothermia. Of the four HZE particles, {sup 56}Fe particles were the most potent and {sup 4}He particles were the least potent in producing changes in thermoregulation. The {sup 20}Ne and {sup 40}Ar particles produced an intermediate level of change in body temperature. Significantly greater hyperthermia was produced by exposure to 1 Gy of {sup 20}Ne, {sup 40}Ar and {sup 56}Fe particles than by exposure to 1 Gy of {sup 60}Co {gamma} rays. Pretreating rats with the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor indomethacin attenuated the hyperthermia produced by exposure to 1 Gy of {sup 56}Fe particles, indicating that prostaglandins mediate {sup 56}Fe-particle-induced hyperthermia. The hypothermia produced by exposure to 5 Gy of {sup 56}Fe particles is mediated by histamine and can be attenuated by treatment with the antihistamines mepyramine and cimetidine. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Constraints on dark matter particles charged under a hidden gauge group from primordial black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to accommodate increasingly tighter observational constraints on dark matter, several models have been proposed recently in which dark matter particles are charged under some hidden gauge group. Hidden gauge charges are invisible for the standard model particles, hence such scenarios are very difficult to constrain directly. However black holes are sensitive to all gauge charges, whether they belong to the standard model or not. Here, we examine the constraints on the possible values of the dark matter particle mass and hidden gauge charge from the evolution of primordial black holes. We find that the existence of the primordial black holes with reasonable mass is incompatible with dark matter particles whose charge to mass ratio is of the order of one. For dark matter particles whose charge to mass ratio is much less than one, we are able to exclude only heavy dark matter in the mass range of 1011 GeV–1016 GeV. Finally, for dark matter particles whose charge to mass ratio is much greater than one, there are no useful limits coming from primordial black holes

  17. Tunneling of Massive Vector Particles From Rotating Charged Black Strings

    OpenAIRE

    Jusufi, Kimet; Övgün, Ali

    2016-01-01

    We study the quantum tunneling of charged massive vector bosons from a charged static and a rotating black string. We apply the standard methods, first we use the WKB approximation and the Hamilton-Jacobi equation, and then we end up with a set of four linear equations. Finally, solving for the radial part by using the determinant of the metric equals zero, the corresponding tunneling rate and the Hawking temperature is recovered in both cases. The tunneling rate deviates from pure thermality...

  18. Charged spinning black holes as accelerators of spinning particles

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yu-Peng; Wei, Shao-Wen; Yang, Jie; Liu, Yu-Xiao

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that some black holes can act as accelerators for particles without spin. Recently, there are some works considering collision of two spinning particles in the background of Schwarzschild and Kerr black holes and it was shown that the spin of the test particles is related to the center-of-mass energy. In this paper we extend the results to some more general cases. We consider Kerr-Newman black holes as accelerators for spinning particles. We derive the center-of-mass energy of the spinning particles and use numerical method to investigate how the center-of-mass energy is affected by the properties of the black holes and spinning particles.

  19. Algorithms for tracking of charged particles in circular accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important problem in accelerator design is the determination of the largest stable betatron amplitude. This stability limit is also known as the dynamic aperture. The equations describing the particle motion are non-linear, and the Linear Lattice Functions cannot be used to compute the stability limits. The stability limits are therefore usually searched for by particle tracking. One selects a set of particles with different betatron amplitudes and tracks them for many turns around the machine. The particles which survive a sufficient number of turns are termed stable. This paper concentrates on conservative systems. For this case the particle motion can be described by a Hamiltonian, i.e. tracking particles means application of canonical transformations. Canonical transformations are equivalent to symplectic mappings, which implies that there exist invariants. These invariants should not be destroyed in tracking

  20. Asymmetry of Hawking Radiation of Dirac Particles in a Charged Vaidya - de Sitter Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, S Q

    2001-01-01

    The Hawking radiation of Dirac particles in a charged Vaidya - de Sitter black hole is investigated by using the method of generalized tortoise coordinate transformation. It is shown that the Hawking radiation of Dirac particles does not exist for $P_1, Q_2$ components, but for $P_2, Q_1$ components it does. Both the location and the temperature of the event horizon change with time. The thermal radiation spectrum of Dirac particles is the same as that of Klein-Gordon particles.

  1. A Dissipative-Particle-Dynamics Model for Simulating Dynamics of Charged Colloid

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Jiajia; Schmid, Friederike

    2013-01-01

    A mesoscopic colloid model is developed in which a spherical colloid is represented by many interacting sites on its surface. The hydrodynamic interactions with thermal fluctuations are taken accounts in full using Dissipative Particle Dynamics, and the electrostatic interactions are simulated using Particle-Particle-Particle Mesh method. This new model is applied to investigate the electrophoretic mobility of a charged colloid under an external electric field, and the influence of salt conce...

  2. Study of charged particle production using Omega RICH in WA94 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present preliminary results about charged particle production in S-S collisions at 200GeV/c per nucleon, obtained by WA94 experiment at CERN-SPS. The particle identification has been provided by the Omega RICH; a silicon telescope and an array of multiwire proportional chambers (MWPC) have been used to track particles to the RICH detector. Details about particle tracking and identification procedure are also reported. (orig.)

  3. Dependence of charge transfer phenomena during solid-air two-phase flow on particle disperser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanoue, Ken-ichiro; Suedomi, Yuuki; Honda, Hirotaka; Furutani, Satoshi; Nishimura, Tatsuo; Masuda, Hiroaki

    2012-12-01

    An experimental investigation of the tribo-electrification of particles has been conducted during solid-air two-phase turbulent flow. The current induced in a metal plate by the impact of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) particles in a high-speed air flow was measured for two different plate materials. The results indicated that the contact potential difference between the particles and a stainless steel plate was positive, while for a nickel plate it was negative. These results agreed with theoretical contact charge transfer even if not only the particle size but also the kind of metal plate was changed. The specific charge of the PMMA particles during solid-air two-phase flow using an ejector, a stainless steel branch pipe, and a stainless steel straight pipe was measured using a Faraday cage. Although the charge was negative in the ejector, the particles had a positive specific charge at the outlet of the branch pipe, and this positive charge increased in the straight pipe. The charge decay along the flow direction could be reproduced by the charging and relaxation theory. However, the proportional coefficients in the theory changed with the particle size and air velocity. Therefore, an unexpected charge transfer occurred between the ejector and the branch pipe, which could not be explained solely by the contact potential difference. In the ejector, an electrical current in air might have been produced by self-discharge of particles with excess charge between the nickel diffuser in the ejector and the stainless steel nozzle or the stainless steel pipe due to a reversal in the contact potential difference between the PMMA and the stainless steel. The sign of the current depended on the particle size, possibly because the position where the particles impacted depended on their size. When dual coaxial glass pipes were used as a particle disperser, the specific charge of the PMMA particles became more positive along the particle flow direction due to the contact

  4. Corrections for target absorption of charged particles in wire loaded nuclear emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we discuss how to correct multiplicities, angular and range distributions of charged particles in wire loaded emulsion experiments in order to make the results comparable to those of experiments where ordinary emulsions are used. The corrections arise from particles stopping in the wire or in a shadow zone around the wire and are of importance only for low energy particles. We suggest in the paper a function of the density, the charge and the diameter of the wire target to describe the multiplicity correction for black prong producing particles in hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus reactions above 1 GeV/a.m.u. (author)

  5. Nonlinear dynamics for charges particle beams with a curved axis in the matrix - recursive model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dymnikov, A.D. [University of St Petersburg, (Russian Federation). Institute of Computational Mathematics and Control Process

    1993-12-31

    In this paper a new matrix and recursive approach has been outlined for treating nonlinear optics of charged particle beams. This approach is a new analytical and computational tool for designers of optimal beam control systems. 9 refs.

  6. Charged particle-induced modification of cellular genomic DNA and gene expression level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim of this study is to understand cellular and molecular nature of cancer cells survived for long term after charged particle therapy. During the period of 1st year, clonogenic sensitivity of various cancer cell lines against charged particles was investigated by two experimental strategies. Firstly, human glioblastoma cell line, Becker, was investigated for the phenotypic changes after long term survival period (3 weeks). Especially, the cells were revealed to be sensitized toward secondary exposure of charged particles in a way of primary dose-dependence. However, this tendency was clearly eliminated when cells were treated by 5-azacytidine, a DNA methylation inhibitor, before the primary exposure. Thus, epigenetic regulations of cellular genomic DNA were supposed to play important roles in the radiation sensitivity changes of the long-term survived cells. In the second approach, mouse cancer cell line analysis in the presence of 5-azacytidine revealed epigenetic heterogeneity of charged particle sensitivity within the cell population. (author)

  7. Progress on the evaluation of charged particle nuclear reaction data in Sichuan University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluations of excitation function of 9 reactions induced by charged particles (p, α, d) have been fulfilled. The evaluated nuclear reactions and the experimental works are presented. The recommended data for each reaction were remarked

  8. Search for particles with unexpected mass and charge in Z decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskilic, D.; Decamp, D.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Minard, M.-N.; Mours, B.; Pietrzyk, B.; Alemany, R.; Ariztizabal, F.; Comas, P.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Gaitan, V.; Garrido, Ll.; Mattison, T.; Pacheco, A.; Padilla, C.; Pascual, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Farilla, A.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, N.; Quattromini, M.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Romano, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Chai, Y.; Hu, H.; Huang, D.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, D.; Xu, R.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Blucher, E.; Bonvicini, G.; Boudreau, J.; Casper, D.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Ganis, G.; Gay, C.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Haywood, S.; Hilgart, J.; Jacobsen, R.; Jost, B.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Lohse, T.; Lusiani, A.; Martinez, M.; Mato, P.; Meinhard, H.; Mitten, A.; Miotto, A.; Miquel, R.; Moser, H.-G.; Palazzi, P.; Perlas, J. A.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Redlinger, G.; Rolandi, L.; Rothberg, J.; Ruan, T.; Saich, M.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Sefkow, F.; Tejessy, W.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wildish, T.; Witzeling, W.; Wotschack, J.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Badaud, F.; Bardadin-Otwinowska, M.; El Fellous, R.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Prulhière, F.; Saadi, F.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Møllerud, R.; Nilsson, B. S.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Kyriakis, A.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Badier, J.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Fouque, G.; Orteu, S.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Tanaka, R.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Veitch, E.; Moneta, L.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Ikeda, M.; Lannutti, J.; Levinthal, D.; Mermikides, M.; Sawyer, L.; Wasserbaech, S.; Antonelli, A.; Baldini, R.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Cerutti, F.; Chiarella, V.; D'Ettorre-Piazzoli, B.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Picchi, P.; Colrain, P.; Ten Have, I.; Lynch, J. G.; Maitland, W.; Morton, W. T.; Raine, C.; Reeves, P.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Smith, M. G.; Thompson, A. S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Brandl, B.; Braun, O.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Maumary, Y.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Stahl, A.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Belk, A. T.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Cattaneo, M.; Colling, D. J.; Dornan, P. J.; Dugeay, S.; Greene, A. M.; Hassard, J. F.; Lieske, N. M.; Nash, J.; Payne, D. G.; Phillips, M. J.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Tomalin, I. R.; Wright, A. G.; Girtler, P.; Kneringer, E.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Bowdery, C. K.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jackson, D.; Keemer, N. R.; Nuttall, M.; Patel, A.; Sloan, T.; Snow, S. W.; Whelan, E. P.; Kleinknecht, K.; Raab, J.; Renk, B.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmidt, H.; Steeg, F.; Walther, S. M.; Wanke, R.; Wolf, B.; Aubert, J.-J.; Bencheikh, A. M.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Drinkard, J.; Etienne, F.; Nicod, D.; Papalexiou, S.; Payre, P.; Roos, L.; Rousseau, D.; Schwemling, P.; Talby, M.; Adlung, S.; Assmann, R.; Bauer, C.; Blum, W.; Brown, D.; Catteneo, P.; Dehning, B.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Frank, M.; Halley, A. W.; Lauber, J.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Richter, R.; Rotscheidt, H.; Schröder, J.; Schwarz, A. S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Stierlin, U.; Stiegler, U.; St. Denis, R.; Wolf, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Jaffe, D. E.; Janot, P.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Schune, M.-H.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Zhang, Z.; Abbaneo, D.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bosisio, L.; Bottigli, U.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; dell'Orso, R.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Foà, L.; Focardi, E.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Mannelli, E. B.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Triggiani, G.; Vannini, C.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Betteridge, A. P.; Carter, J. M.; Green, M. G.; March, P. V.; Mir, Ll. M.; Medcalf, T.; Quazi, I. S.; Strong, J. A.; West, L. R.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Edwards, M.; Fisher, S. M.; Jones, T. J.; Norton, P. R.; Salmon, D. P.; Thompson, J. C.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Duarte, H.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Perez, P.; Perrier, F.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Rosowsky, A.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Si Mohand, D.; Vallage, B.; Johnson, R. P.; Litke, A. M.; Taylor, G.; Wear, J.; Ashman, J. G.; Babbage, W.; Booth, C. N.; Buttar, C.; Carney, R. E.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Hatfield, F.; Thompson, L. F.; Barberio, E.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Grupen, C.; Lutters, G.; Rivera, F.; Schäfer, U.; Smolik, L.; della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Ragusa, F.; Bellantoni, L.; Chen, W.; Cinabro, D.; Conway, J. S.; Cowen, D. F.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; Grahl, J.; Harton, J. L.; Jared, R. C.; Leclaire, B. W.; Lishka, C.; Pan, Y. B.; Pater, J. R.; Saadi, Y.; Sharma, V.; Schmitt, M.; Shi, Z. H.; Walsh, A. M.; Weber, F. V.; Lan Wu, Sau; Wu, X.; Zheng, M.; Zobernig, G.

    1993-04-01

    During 1989 and 1990 over 180 000 hadronic and leptonic events, corresponding to 8 pb-1 of luminosity, were collected by the ALEPH detector in a scan of the Z peak at the e+e- collider LEP. This letter reports the results of a search in these data for particles with unexpected mass and charge by measurement of the ionization energy loss of charged tracks in the ALEPH TPC central tracking detector. The mass limits for the pair production of fractionally charged particles and of heavy, long lived charged particles are extended to 43 GeV/c2 at 90% confidence level. If single production of a heavy particle is considered, the mass limit is extended to more than 70 GeV/c2. Supported by the US Department of Energy, contract DE-AC02-76ER00881.

  9. Measurements of the Charged­ Particle distributions with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Cairo, Valentina; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Inclusive charged ­particle measurements at hadron colliders probe the low­ energy non­perturbative region of QCD. The ATLAS collaboration has measured the charged­ particle multiplicity and its dependence on transverse momentum and pseudorapidity in special data sets with low LHC beam currents, recorded at center­-of­-mass energies of 8 TeV and 13 TeV. The new precise measurements at 8 TeV cover a wide spectrum using charged­ particle selections with minimum transverse momentum of both 100 MeV and 500 MeV and in various phase space regions of low and high charged particle multiplicities. The measurements at 13 TeV present the first detailed studies with a minimum transverse momentum of both 100 MeV and 500 MeV. The measurements are compared with predictions of various MC generators and are found to provide strong constraints on these.

  10. Ground state configurations of charged particles in a disk at zero temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerkaski, M.; Nazmitdinov, R. G.

    2014-11-01

    We discuss a novel theoretical approach which explains the self-organization of charged particles in a disk geometry. It allows to calculate readily equilibrium configurations for n <= 400 with a remarkable accuracy, when compared with the molecular dynamics calculations.

  11. Stimulated Brillouin scattering of an electromagnetic wave in weakly magnetized plasma with variably charged dust particles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sourabh Bal; M Bose

    2009-10-01

    We have investigated analytically the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) of an electromagnetic wave in non-dissipative weakly magnetized plasma in the presence of dust particles with variable charge.

  12. Maximizing Ion Current by Space Charge Neutralization using Negative Ions and Dust Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion current extracted from an ion source (ion thruster) can be increased above the Child-Langmuir limit if the ion space charge is neutralized. Similarly, the limiting kinetic energy density of the plasma flow in a Hall thruster might be exceeded if additional mechanisms of space charge neutralization are introduced. Space charge neutralization with high-mass negative ions or negatively charged dust particles seems, in principle, promising for the development of a high current or high energy density source of positive light ions. Several space charge neutralization schemes that employ heavy negatively charged particles are considered. It is shown that the proposed neutralization schemes can lead, at best, only to a moderate but nonetheless possibly important increase of the ion current in the ion thruster and the thrust density in the Hall thruster

  13. Second Research Coordination Meeting on Heavy Charged-Particle Interaction Data for Radiotherapy. Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary is given of the 2nd Research Coordination Meeting (RCM) on Heavy Charged-Particle Interaction Data for Radiotherapy. The programme to compile and evaluate charged-particle nuclear data for therapeutic applications was reviewed. Technical discussions and the resulting work plan of the Coordinated Research Programme are summarized, along with planned actions and deadlines. Participants' reports at the 2nd RCM are also included in this report. (author)

  14. Tunneling of massive and charged particles from noncommutative Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m black hole

    OpenAIRE

    Nozari, Kourosh; Islamzadeh, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Massive charged and uncharged particles tunneling from commutative Reissner-Nordstrom black hole horizon has been studied with details in literature. Here, by adopting the coherent state picture of spacetime noncommutativity, we study tunneling of massive and charged particles from a noncommutative inspired Reissner-Nordstrom black hole horizon. We show that Hawking radiation in this case is not purely thermal and there are correlations between emitted modes. These correlations may provide a ...

  15. CHANTI: a fast and efficient charged particle veto detector for the NA62 experiment at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design, construction and test of a charged particle detector made of scintillation counters read by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) is described. The detector, which operates in vacuum and is used as a veto counter in the NA62 experiment at CERN, has a single channel time resolution of 1.14 ns, a spatial resolution of ∼2.5 mm and an efficiency very close to 1 for penetrating charged particles

  16. CHANTI: a fast and efficient charged particle veto detector for the NA62 experiment at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosino, F.; Capussela, T.; Di Filippo, D.; Massarotti, P.; Mirra, M.; Napolitano, M.; Palladino, V.; Saracino, G.; Roscilli, L.; Vanzanella, A.; Corradi, G.; Tagnani, D.; Paglia, U.

    2016-03-01

    The design, construction and test of a charged particle detector made of scintillation counters read by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) is described. The detector, which operates in vacuum and is used as a veto counter in the NA62 experiment at CERN, has a single channel time resolution of 1.14 ns, a spatial resolution of ~2.5 mm and an efficiency very close to 1 for penetrating charged particles.

  17. A parametrisation of the energy loss distributions of charged particles and its applications for silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Sikler, Ferenc

    2012-01-01

    The energy loss distribution of charged particles in silicon is approximated by a simple analytical parametrization. Its use is demonstrated through several examples. With the help of energy deposits in sensing elements of the detector, the position of track segments and the corresponding deposited energy are estimated with improved accuracy and less bias. The parametrization is successfully used to estimate the energy loss rate of charged particles, and it is applied to detector gain calibration tasks.

  18. Trace element analysis in thick targets by charge particle induced x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantitative determination of trace impurities in a thick target through detection of x-rays produced by an accelerated charged particle involves a continous variation of energy of the charged particle, from the incident energy to a final minimum value. Hence the expression for the x-ray yield has to be summed over a continuous range of energies. A method is described to reduce this infinite sum into a finite sum

  19. Influence of the fringe field on moving of the charged particles in flat and cylindrical capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doskeyev, G.A.; Edenova, O.A. [Aktobe State University named after K. Zhubanov, Br. Zhubanov Street 263, 030000 Aktobe (Kazakhstan); Spivak-Lavrov, I.F., E-mail: spivakif@rambler.ru [Aktobe State University named after K. Zhubanov, Br. Zhubanov Street 263, 030000 Aktobe (Kazakhstan)

    2011-07-21

    This paper describes different analytic approaches to describe the fringe fields of flat and cylindrical capacitor structures. A method for the calculation of deflection of charged particles from the optical axis is developed. The behavior of a charged particle beam in a flat capacitor is approximated by using a sharp cut-off boundary for the field, which has the provision of taking fringe fields into account.

  20. Influence of the fringe field on moving of the charged particles in flat and cylindrical capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes different analytic approaches to describe the fringe fields of flat and cylindrical capacitor structures. A method for the calculation of deflection of charged particles from the optical axis is developed. The behavior of a charged particle beam in a flat capacitor is approximated by using a sharp cut-off boundary for the field, which has the provision of taking fringe fields into account.

  1. A stochastic-hydrodynamic model of halo formation in charged particle beams

    OpenAIRE

    Petroni, Nicola Cufaro; De Martino, Salvatore; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2003-01-01

    The formation of the beam halo in charged particle accelerators is studied in the framework of a stochastic-hydrodynamic model for the collective motion of the particle beam. In such a stochastic-hydrodynamic theory the density and the phase of the charged beam obey a set of coupled nonlinear hydrodynamic equations with explicit time-reversal invariance. This leads to a linearized theory that describes the collective dynamics of the beam in terms of a classical Schr\\"odinger equation. Taking ...

  2. Effect of charged particle's multiplicity fluctuations on flow harmonics in even-by-event hydrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhuri, A. K.

    2012-01-01

    In nucleon-nucleon collisions, charged particle's multiplicity fluctuates. We have studied the effect of multiplicity fluctuation on flow harmonics in nucleus-nucleus collision in event-by-event hydrodynamics. Assuming that the charged particle's multiplicity fluctuations are governed by the negative binomial distribution, the Monte-Carlo Glauber model of initial condition is generalised to include the fluctuations. Explicit simulations with the generalised Monte-Carlo Glauber model initial c...

  3. CHANTI: a Fast and Efficient Charged Particle Veto Detector for the NA62 Experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosino, F; Di Filippo, D; Massarotti, P; Mirra, M; Napolitano, M; Palladino, V; Saracino, G; Roscilli, L; Vanzanella, A; Corradi, G; Tagnani, D; Paglia, U

    2016-01-01

    The design, construction and test of a charged particle detector made of scintillation counters read by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) is described. The detector, which operates in vacuum and is used as a veto counter in the NA62 experiment at CERN, has a single channel time resolution of 1.14 ns, a spatial resolution of ~2.5 mm and an efficiency very close to 1 for penetrating charged particles.

  4. Preliminary study for the detection of neutrons in heavy-ion collisions with charged particle detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Auditore L.; Pagano A.; Russotto P.

    2015-01-01

    At Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS) the CHIMERA 4π multidetector has been designed and setup to detect charged particles emitted in heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies. Properties and performances of CHIMERA have been widely demonstrated by published results obtained in the performed experiments. Moreover, in recent years, a new charged particle detector (ChPD) for correlation studies (FARCOS) has been designed, and recently a first prototype has been coupled to CHIMERA, in order ...

  5. Measurements of charged-particle inclusive distributions in hadronic decays of the Z boson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have measured inclusive distributions for charged particles in hadronic decays of the Z boson. The variables chosen for study were charged-particle multiplicity, scaled momentum, and momenta transverse to the sphericity axes. The distributions have been corrected for detector effects and are compared with data from e+e- annihilation at lower energies and with the predictions of several QCD-based models. The data are in reasonable agreement with expectations

  6. Development of a utility system for charged particle nuclear reaction data by using intelligentPad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyama, Shigeyoshi; Ohbayashi, Yoshihide [Information Processing Center, Kitami Institute of Technology, Kitami, Hokkaido (Japan); Masui, Hiroshi [Meme Media Laboratory, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Kato, Kiyoshi [Hokkaido University, Graduate School of Science, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Chiba, Masaki [Faculty of Social Information, Sapporo Gakuin Univ., Ebetsu, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    We have developed a utility system, WinNRDF2, for a nuclear charged particle reaction data of NRDF (Nuclear Reaction Data File) on the IntelligentPad architecture. By using the system, we can search the experimental data of a charged particle reaction of NRDF. Furthermore, we also see the experimental data by using graphic pads which was made through the CONTIP project. (author)

  7. Heavy Charged Particle Radiobiology: Using Enhanced Biological Effectiveness and Improved Beam Focusing to Advance Cancer Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Christopher; Borak, Thomas B.; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Jac A Nickoloff

    2011-01-01

    Ionizing radiation causes many types of DNA damage, including base damage and single- and double-strand breaks. Photons, including X-rays and γ-rays, are the most widely used type of ionizing radiation in radiobiology experiments, and in radiation cancer therapy. Charged particles, including protons and carbon ions, are seeing increased use as an alternative therapeutic modality. Although the facilities needed to produce high energy charged particle beams are more costly than photon facilitie...

  8. An upper limit on the branching ratio for $\\tau$ decays into seven charged particles

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerstaff, K; Allison, J; Altekamp, N; Anderson, K J; Anderson, S; Arcelli, S; Asai, S; Axen, D A; Azuelos, Georges; Ball, A H; Barberio, E; Barlow, R J; Bartoldus, R; Batley, J Richard; Baumann, S; Bechtluft, J; Beeston, C; Behnke, T; Bell, A N; Bell, K W; Bella, G; Bentvelsen, Stanislaus Cornelius Maria; Berlich, P; Bethke, Siegfried; Biebel, O; Biguzzi, A; Bird, S D; Blobel, Volker; Bloodworth, Ian J; Bloomer, J E; Bobinski, M; Bock, P; Bonacorsi, D; Boutemeur, M; Bouwens, B T; Braibant, S; Brigliadori, L; Brown, R M; Burckhart, Helfried J; Burgard, C; Bürgin, R; Capiluppi, P; Carnegie, R K; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Chrisman, D; Clarke, P E L; Cohen, I; Conboy, J E; Cooke, O C; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; Dallapiccola, C; Dallavalle, G M; De Jong, S; del Pozo, L A; Desch, Klaus; Dixit, M S; do Couto e Silva, E; Doucet, M; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Eatough, D; Edwards, J E G; Estabrooks, P G; Evans, H G; Evans, M; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Fanti, M; Faust, A A; Fiedler, F; Fierro, M; Fischer, H M; Fleck, I; Folman, R; Fong, D G; Foucher, M; Fürtjes, A; Futyan, D I; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Gascon, J; Gascon-Shotkin, S M; Geddes, N I; Geich-Gimbel, C; Geralis, T; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Giacomelli, R; Gibson, V; Gibson, W R; Gingrich, D M; Glenzinski, D A; Goldberg, J; Goodrick, M J; Gorn, W; Grandi, C; Gross, E; Grunhaus, Jacob; Gruwé, M; Hajdu, C; Hanson, G G; Hansroul, M; Hapke, M; Hargrove, C K; Hart, P A; Hartmann, C; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Hemingway, Richard J; Herndon, M; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hildreth, M D; Hill, J C; Hillier, S J; Hilse, T; Hobson, P R; Homer, R James; Honma, A K; Horváth, D; Howard, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Igo-Kemenes, P; Imrie, D C; Ingram, M R; Ishii, K; Jawahery, A; Jeffreys, P W; Jeremie, H; Jimack, Martin Paul; Joly, A; Jones, C R; Jones, G; Jones, M; Jost, U; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Karlen, D A; Kartvelishvili, V G; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Keeler, Richard K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Kirk, J; Klier, A; Kluth, S; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Koetke, D S; Kokott, T P; Kolrep, M; Komamiya, S; Kress, T; Krieger, P; Von Krogh, J; Kyberd, P; Lafferty, G D; Lahmann, R; Lai, W P; Lanske, D; Lauber, J; Lautenschlager, S R; Layter, J G; Lazic, D; Lee, A M; Lefebvre, E; Lellouch, Daniel; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Long, G D; Losty, Michael J; Ludwig, J; Macchiolo, A; MacPherson, A L; Mannelli, M; Marcellini, S; Markus, C; Martin, A J; Martin, J P; Martínez, G; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McDonald, W J; McKenna, J A; McKigney, E A; McMahon, T J; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Menke, S; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Meyer, J; Michelini, Aldo; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Mincer, A; Mir, R; Mohr, W; Montanari, A; Mori, T; Morii, M; Müller, U; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Neal, H A; Nellen, B; Nisius, R; O'Neale, S W; Oakham, F G; Odorici, F; Ögren, H O; Oldershaw, N J; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pálinkás, J; Pásztor, G; Pater, J R; Patrick, G N; Patt, J; Pearce, M J; Petzold, S; Pfeifenschneider, P; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, James L; Plane, D E; Poffenberger, P R; Poli, B; Posthaus, A; Przysiezniak, H; Rees, D L; Rigby, D; Robertson, S; Robins, S A; Rodning, N L; Roney, J M; Rooke, A M; Ros, E; Rossi, A M; Rosvick, M; Routenburg, P; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Runólfsson, O; Ruppel, U; Rust, D R; Rylko, R; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sbarra, C; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharf, F; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schenk, P; Schieck, J; Schleper, P; Schmitt, B; Schmitt, S; Schöning, A; Schröder, M; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Schulz, M; Schumacher, M; Schwick, C; Scott, W G; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Sherwood, P; Siroli, G P; Sittler, A; Skillman, A; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Snow, G A; Sobie, Randall J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Springer, R W; Sproston, M; Stephens, K; Steuerer, J; Stockhausen, B; Stoll, K; Strom, D; Szymanski, P; Tafirout, R; Talbot, S D; Tanaka, S; Taras, P; Tarem, S; Teuscher, R; Thiergen, M; Thomson, M A; Von Törne, E; Towers, S; Trigger, I; Tsur, E; Turcot, A S; Turner-Watson, M F; Utzat, P; Van Kooten, R; Verzocchi, M; Vikas, P; Vokurka, E H; Voss, H; Wäckerle, F; Wagner, A; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wermes, N; White, J S; Wilkens, B; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wolf, G; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Yekutieli, G; Zacek, V; Zer-Zion, D

    1997-01-01

    We have searched for decays of the tau lepton into seven or more charged particles, using data collected with the OPAL detector from 1990 to 1995 in e^+e^- collisions at sqrt(s) ~ M_Z. No candidate events were found and an upper limit on the branching ratio for tau decays into seven charged particles of 1.8 x 10^-5 at the 95% confidence level was determined.

  9. Short-time diffusion of charge-stabilized colloidal particles: generic features

    OpenAIRE

    Heinen, M.; Holmqvist, P.; Banchio, A. J; Nägele, G.

    2010-01-01

    Analytical theory and Stokesian dynamics simulations are used in conjunction with dynamic light scattering to investigate the role of hydrodynamic interactions in short-time diffusion in suspensions of charge-stabilized colloidal particles. The particles are modeled as solvent-impermeable charged spheres, repelling each other via a screened Coulomb potential. Numerical results for self-diffusion and sedimentation coefficients, as well as hydrodynamic and short-time diffusion functions, are co...

  10. Lateral charged particle distribution of extensive air showers - source of information about energy and nature of the primary cosmic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CORSIKA simulated showers for H, C and Fe cosmic primaries in 8 energy intervals from 1016 eV to 1018 eV, taking into account the response of KASCADE-Grande detectors, have been used to reconstruct the charged particle density for KASCADE-Grande observations, based on the Linsley lateral distribution function (LDF). Extensive studies have been done to investigate features for energy estimation and mass discrimination of cosmic primaries around 1017 eV. It has been found that the charged particle density distribution of EAS exhibits interesting information for both aspects: at larger distances from shower core, around 500 m - 600 m the charge particle density could be used as energy identifier, and at shorter distances from shower core, around, 100 m - 200 m, it signals the mass of the EAS primary. (author)

  11. Tunneling of Massive Vector Particles From Rotating Charged Black Strings

    CERN Document Server

    Jusufi, Kimet

    2015-01-01

    We study the quantum tunneling of charged massive vector bosons from a charged static and a rotating black string. We apply the standard methods, first we use the WKB approximation and the Hamilton-Jacobi equation, and then we end up with a set of four linear equations. Finally, solving for the radial part by using the determinant of the metric equals zero, the corresponding tunneling rate and the Hawking temperature is recovered in both cases. The tunneling rate deviates from pure thermality and is consistent with an underlying unitary theory.

  12. Tunneling of massive vector particles from rotating charged black strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusufi, Kimet; Övgün, Ali

    2016-07-01

    We study the quantum tunneling of charged massive vector bosons from a charged static and a rotating black string. We apply the standard methods, first we use the WKB approximation and the Hamilton-Jacobi equation, and then we end up with a set of four linear equations. Finally, solving for the radial part by using the determinant of the metric equals zero, the corresponding tunneling rate and the Hawking temperature is recovered in both cases. The tunneling rate deviates from pure thermality and is consistent with an underlying unitary theory.

  13. Photoproduction of charged particle with high transverse momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inclusive cross sections of high transverse moment charged pions induced by a high energy photon beam have been measured. These results do not account, neither in slope nor in normalisation, for the VDM component of the photon, evaluated with pion induced data taken in the same experimental conditions after VDM subtraction, excellent agreement is found with QCD calculations up to second order in αs, in an extended cinematic region, different choices of the gluon fragmentation function do not alter this conclusion. Our measures of the inclusive final state charge asymmetries also confirm QCD expectations. 42 refs

  14. The self-energy of a charged particle in the presence of a topological defect distribution

    CERN Document Server

    De Carvalho, A M M; Furtado, C; Moraes, Fernando; Furtado, Claudio

    2004-01-01

    In this work we study a charged particle in the presence of both a continuous distribution of disclinations and a continuous distribution of edge dislocations in the framework of the geometrical theory of defects. We obtain the self-energy for a single charge both in the internal and external regions of either distribution. For both distributions the result outside the defect distribution is the self-energy that a single charge experiments in the presence of a single defect.

  15. Propagators of charged particles in an external magnetic field, expanded over Landau levels

    CERN Document Server

    Kuznetsov, A V; Shitova, A M

    2015-01-01

    Various forms of expressions for the propagators of charged particles in a constant magnetic field that should be used for investigations of electroweak processes in external uniform magnetic field are discussed. Formulas for the propagators of the Standard Model charged $W$- and scalar $\\Phi$-bosons in an arbitrary $\\xi$-gauge, expanded over Landau levels, are derived for the first time.

  16. A search for charged massive long-lived particles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B.S.; Kupčo, Alexander; Lokajíček, Miloš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 12 (2012), "121802-1"-"121802-7". ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08047 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : ionization energy loss * new particle * supersymmetry * anti-p p * Batavia TEVATRON Coll * D0 Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 7.943, year: 2012 http://prl.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v108/i12/e121802

  17. Charged particle identification with modules of the plastic ball

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutbrod, H.H.; Maier, M.R.; Ritter, H.G.; Warwick, A.I.; Weik, F.; Wieman, H.; Wolf, K.L.

    1980-10-01

    The low energy pion channel (LEP) at LAMPF was used to calibrate the response of modules of the Plastic Ball detector for positive pions and protons. The detection efficiency was measured at various energies. The resolution and efficiency were found to be independent of the point at which the particle entered the detector. Scattered out particles could be well detected by including neighbouring detectors in the analysis.

  18. Ionization, Charging and Electric Field Effects on Cloud Particles in the CLOUD Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichman, L.; Järvinen, E.; Wagner, R.; Dorsey, J.; Dias, A. M.; Ehrhart, S.; Kirkby, J.; Gallagher, M. W.; Saunders, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    Ice crystals and frozen droplets play an important role in atmospheric charging and electrification processes, particularly by collision and aggregation. The dynamics of charged particles in the atmosphere can be modulated by Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR). High electric fields also affect the alignment of charged particles, allowing more time for interactions. The CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) experiment at CERN has the ability to conduct ionization, charging and high electric field experiments on liquid or ice clouds created in the chamber by adiabatic pressure reductions. A pion secondary beam from the CERN Proton Synchrotron is used to ionize the molecules in the chamber, and Ar+ Corona Ion Generator for Atmospheric Research (CIGAR) is used to inject unipolar charged ions directly into the chamber. A pressurized airgun provides rapid pressure shocks inside the chamber and induces charged ice nucleation. The cloud chamber is accompanied by a variety of analysing instruments e.g. a 3View Cloud Particle Imager (3V-CPI) coupled with an induction ring, a Scattering Intensity Measurements for the Optical detection of icE (SIMONE) and a Nano-aerosol and Air Ion Spectrometer (NAIS). Using adiabatic expansion and high electric fields we can replicate the ideal conditions for adhesion, sintering and interlocking between ice crystals. Charged cloud particles produced measurable variations in the total induced current pulse on the induction ring. The most influential factors comprised initial temperature, lapse rate and charging mechanism. The ions produced in the chamber may deposit onto larger particles and form dipoles during ice nucleation and growth. The small ion concentration was monitored by the NAIS during these runs. Possible short-term aggregates or alignment of particles were observed in-situ with the SIMONE. These and future chamber measurements of charging and aggregation could shed more light on the ambient conditions and dynamics for electrification

  19. Charged massive particle at rest in the field of a Reissner-Nordstroem black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of a Reissner-Nordstroem black hole and a charged massive particle is studied in the framework of perturbation theory. The particle backreaction is taken into account, studying the effect of general static perturbations of the hole following the approach of Zerilli. The solutions of the combined Einstein-Maxwell equations for both perturbed gravitational and electromagnetic fields to first order of the perturbation are exactly reconstructed by summing all multipoles, and are given explicit closed form expressions. The existence of a singularity-free solution of the Einstein-Maxwell system requires that the charge-to-mass ratios of the black hole and of the particle satisfy an equilibrium condition which is in general dependent on the separation between the two bodies. If the black hole is undercritically charged (i.e. its charge-to-mass ratio is less than one), the particle must be overcritically charged, in the sense that the particle must have a charge-to-mass ratio greater than one. If the charge-to-mass ratios of the black hole and of the particle are both equal to one (so that they are both critically charged, or 'extreme'), the equilibrium can exist for any separation distance, and the solution we find coincides with the linearization in the present context of the well-known Majumdar-Papapetrou solution for two extreme Reissner-Nordstroem black holes. In addition to these singularity-free solutions, we also analyze the corresponding solution for the problem of a massive particle at rest near a Schwarzschild black hole, exhibiting a strut singularity on the axis between the two bodies. The relations between our perturbative solutions and the corresponding exact two-body solutions belonging to the Weyl class are also discussed

  20. Production of leading charged particles and leading charged-particle jets at small transverse momenta in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Ochesanu, Silvia; Rougny, Romain; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dobur, Didar; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Léonard, Alexandre; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Perniè, Luca; Randle-conde, Aidan; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Zenoni, Florian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Crucy, Shannon; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Poyraz, Deniz; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Dos Reis Martins, Thiago; Molina, Jorge; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santaolalla, Javier; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Genchev, Vladimir; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Marinov, Andrey; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Zheng; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma

    2015-01-01

    The per-event yield of the highest transverse momentum charged particle and charged-particle jet, integrated above a given $p_{\\mathrm{T}}^{\\mathrm{min}}$ threshold starting at $p_{\\mathrm{T}}^{\\mathrm{min}} = $ 0.8 and 1 GeV, respectively, is studied in PbPb collisions at $\\sqrt{s} =$ 8 TeV. The particles and the jets are measured for absolute pseudorapidities lower than 2.4 and 1.9, respectively. The data are sensitive to the momentum scale at which parton densities saturate in the proton, to multiple partonic interactions, and other key aspects of the transition between the soft and hard QCD regimes in hadronic collisions.

  1. On the problem of exoemission of negatively and positively charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possible mechanisms of exoemission of positively and negatively charged particles from the surface at low temperatures (300-700 K) and electric field intensities (less than 106 V/m) are considered. Thermostimulated emission (TSE) of particles with different charge sign and emission current maxima, located at different temperatures is detected. Based on literary data the basic processes, conditioning electron and ion exoemission, are discussed. It is shown that in a number of cases regularities of ion exoemission can be explained only by the occurence of physico-chemical processes with the participation of charged surface centers. The energy, released therewith allows tha negative and positive ion and electron to be emitted

  2. Comprehensive decay law for emission of charged particles and exotic cluster radioactivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Basudeb Sahu

    2014-04-01

    A general decay formula for the emission of charged particles from metastable nuclei is developed based on the basic phenomenon of resonances occurring in quantum scattering process under Coulomb-nuclear potential. It relates the half-lives of radioactive decays with the values of the outgoing elements with masses and charges of the nuclei involved in the decay. The relation is found to be a generalization of the Geiger–Nuttall law in radioactivity and explains well all the known emissions of charged particles including clusters, alpha and proton.

  3. Thermodynamics of three-dimensional black holes via charged particle absorption

    OpenAIRE

    Bogeun Gwak; Bum-Hoon Lee

    2016-01-01

    We have shown that changes occur in a (2+1)-dimensional charged black hole by adding a charged probe. The particle increases the entropy of the black hole and guarantees the second law of thermodynamics. The first law of thermodynamics is derived from the change in the black hole mass. Using the particle absorption, we test the extremal black hole and find out that the mass of the extremal black hole increases more than the electric charge. Therefore, the outer horizon of the black hole still...

  4. Thermodynamics of three-dimensional black holes via charged particle absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwak, Bogeun; Lee, Bum-Hoon

    2016-04-01

    We have shown that changes occur in a (2 + 1)-dimensional charged black hole by adding a charged probe. The particle increases the entropy of the black hole and guarantees the second law of thermodynamics. The first law of thermodynamics is derived from the change in the black hole mass. Using the particle absorption, we test the extremal black hole and find out that the mass of the extremal black hole increases more than the electric charge. Therefore, the outer horizon of the black hole still exists. However, the extremal condition becomes non-extremal.

  5. Thermodynamics of Three-dimensional Black Holes via Charged Particle Absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Gwak, Bogeun

    2015-01-01

    We have shown that changes occur in a (2+1)-dimensional charged black hole by adding a charged probe. The particle increases the entropy of the black hole and guarantees the second law of thermodynamics. The first law of thermodynamics is derived from the change in the black hole mass. Using the particle absorption, we test the extremal black hole and find out that the mass of the extremal black hole increases more than the electric charge. Therefore, the outer horizon of the black hole still exists. However, the extremal condition becomes non-extremal.

  6. A New Approach to Charged Particle Slowing Down and Dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, David E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-03-24

    The process by which super-thermal ions slow down against background Coulomb potentials arises in many fields of study. In particular, this is one of the main mechanisms by which the mass and energy from the reaction products of fusion reactions is deposited back into the background. Many of these fields are characterized by length and time scales that are the same magnitude as the range and duration of the trajectory of these particles, before they thermalize into the background. This requires numerical simulation of this slowing down process through numerically integrating the velocities and energies of these particles. This paper first presents a simple introduction to the required plasma physics, followed by the description of the numerical integration used to integrate a beam of particles. This algorithm is unique in that it combines in an integrated manner both a second-order integration of the slowing down with the particle beam dispersion. These two processes are typically computed in isolation from each other. A simple test problem of a beam of alpha particles slowing down against an inert background of deuterium and tritium with varying properties of both the beam and the background illustrate the utility of the algorithm. This is followed by conclusions and appendices. The appendices define the notation, units, and several useful identities.

  7. Directly resolving particles in an electric field: local charge, force, torque, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qianlong

    2011-11-01

    Prosperetti's seminal Physalis method for fluid flows with suspended particles is extended to electric fields to directly resolve finite-sized particles and to investigate accurately the mutual fluid-particle, particle-particle, and particle-boundary interactions. The method can be used for uncharged/charged dielectrics, uncharged/charged conductors, conductors with specified voltage, and general weak and strong discontinuous interface conditions. These interface conditions can be in terms of field variable, its gradients, and surface integration which has not been addesed by other numerical methods. In addition, for the first time, we rigorously derive the force and torque on the finite-sized particles resulting from the interactions between harmonics. The method, for the first time, directly resolves the particles with accurate local charge distribution, force, and torque on the particles, making many applications in engineering, mechanics, physics, chemistry, and biology possible, such as heterogeneous materials, microfluidics, electrophotography, electric double layer capacitors, and microstructures of nanodispersions. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated with up to one hundred thousand 3D particles, which suggests that the method can be used for many important engineering applications of broad interest. This research is supported by the Department of Energy under funding for an EFRC (the HeteroFoaM Center), grant no. DE-SC0001061.

  8. Annealing effects on the charged particles registration characteristic of the CR-39 traces solid detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CR-39 trace solid detectors samples, previously exposed to alpha particles and fission fragments from a Cf-252 source, were submitted to a annealing treatment to study his effects on the characteristics of charged particle traces registration. (L.C.J.A.)

  9. dc acceleration of charged particles by an electrostatic wave propagating obliquely to a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A charged particle trapped in an electrostatic wave is accelerated in the plane perpendicular to the wave vector k. It is found that there is an optimum angle theta = theta/sub m/ at which the particle gains a maximum energy which is about four times larger than that at theta = π/2, theta being the angle between k and the magnetic field

  10. Systematics of Charged Particle Production in Heavy-Ion Collisions with the PHOBOS Detector at Rhic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Peter A.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Corbo, J.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Henderson, C.; Hicks, D.; Hofman, D.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A.; Mülmenstädt, J.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Rafelski, M.; Rbeiz, M.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2002-03-01

    The multiplicity of charged particles produced in Au+Au collisions as a function of energy, centrality, rapidity and azimuthal angle has been measured with the PHOBOS detector at RHIC. These results contribute to our understanding of the initial state of heavy ion collisions and provide a means to compare basic features of particle production in nuclear collisions with more elementary systems.

  11. Soliton solutions describing charged particle propagation in a system with self-induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliton solutions of the equations describing charged particle motion in an inductive feedback system are derived for quantum and classical cases. Possible existence of soliton bound states is shown. Conditions of longitudinal focusing of particles which propagate at different initial velocities in a nonlinear medium are discussed

  12. Charged particle production at the CERN ISR as a function of transverse momentum

    CERN Document Server

    Bertin, A; Capiluppi, P; D'Agostino-Bruno, M; Ellis, R J; Giacomelli, G; Poe, R T; Rossi, A M; Vannini, G

    1972-01-01

    Experimental results are presented on the production of charged particles in inclusive reactions at ISR energies. The data have been taken as function of transverse momentum p/sub t/ at the fixed x- values of 0.08, 0.16 and 0.32. The behaviour of the p/sub t/- distributions for the different particles is discussed. (9 refs).

  13. Effects of trace water on charging of silica particles dispersed in a nonpolar medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacek, Matthew; Bergsman, David; Michor, Edward; Berg, John C

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the effects of trace water on the charging of silica (SiO(2)) particles dispersed in a nonpolar medium. There are a growing number of applications that seek to use electrostatic effects in apolar media to control particle movement and aggregation stability in such systems. One factor that is often overlooked in the preparation of nonpolar colloidal dispersions is the amount of water that is introduced to the system by hygroscopic particles and surfactants. The amount and location of this water can have significant effects on the electrical properties of these systems. For nonpolar surfactant solutions it has been shown that water can affect the conductivity, and it has been speculated that this is due to swelling of the polar cores of inverse micelles, increasing the fraction of them that are charged. Some studies have suggested that particle surface charging may also be sensitive to water content, but a clear mechanism for the process has not been fully developed. The situation with particles is further complicated by the fact that it is often unclear whether the water resides on the particle surfaces or in the polar cores of inverse micelles. The current work explores not only the effect of water content on reverse micelle and particle charging but seeks to differentiate between water bound to the particles and water located in the micelles. This is accomplished by measuring the solution conductivity and the electrophoretic mobility of silicon dioxide particles dispersed in solutions of Isopar-L and OLOA 11000. The water content is determined for both the dispersion and the supernatant after centrifuging the particles out. It is found that at equilibrium the majority of the water in the system adsorbs to the surface of the hygroscopic silica particles. In addition, the effect of water on particle electrophoretic mobility is found to be dependent on surfactant concentration. At small OLOA concentrations, additional water

  14. Determining Trajectory of Triboelectrically Charged Particles, Using Discrete Element Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory is participating in an Innovative Partnership Program (IPP) project with an industry partner to modify a commercial off-the-shelf simulation software product to treat the electrodynamics of particulate systems. Discrete element modeling (DEM) is a numerical technique that can track the dynamics of particle systems. This technique, which was introduced in 1979 for analysis of rock mechanics, was recently refined to include the contact force interaction of particles with arbitrary surfaces and moving machinery. In our work, we endeavor to incorporate electrostatic forces into the DEM calculations to enhance the fidelity of the software and its applicability to (1) particle processes, such as electrophotography, that are greatly affected by electrostatic forces, (2) grain and dust transport, and (3) the study of lunar and Martian regoliths.

  15. Search for fractionally charged particles in e+e- annihilations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have searched for the production of free Q = +-1/3e, Q = +-2/3e and Q = +-4/3e particles produced in e+e- collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 29 GeV in 77 pb-1 of data collected by the time projection chamber at PEP. No evidence has been found for the production of these particles. Upper limits are established on the inclusive cross section for the production of Q = +-1/3e, Q = +-2/3e, and Q = +-4/3e particles in the mass range 1.0 to 13 GeV/c2, improving upon previously established limits. 58 references

  16. A Letter of Intent to Install a milli-charged Particle Detector at LHC P5

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Austin; Campagnari, Claudio; De Roeck, Albert; Francis, Brian; Gastal, Martin; Golf, Frank; Goldstein, Joel; Haas, Andy; Hill, Christopher S.; Izaguirre, Eder; Kaplan, Benjamin; Magill, Gabriel; Marsh, Bennett; Miller, David; Prins, Theo; Shakeshaft, Harry; Stuart, David; Swiatlowski, Max; Yavin, Itay

    2016-01-01

    In this LOI we propose a dedicated experiment that would detect "milli-charged" particles produced by pp collisions at LHC Point 5. The experiment would be installed during LS2 in the vestigial drainage gallery above UXC and would not interfere with CMS operations. With 300 fb$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity, sensitivity to a particle with charge $\\mathcal{O}(10^{-3})~e$ can be achieved for masses of $\\mathcal{O}(1)$ GeV, and charge $\\mathcal{O}(10^{-2})~e$ for masses of $\\mathcal{O}(10)$ GeV, greatly extending the parameter space explored for particles with small charge and masses above 100 MeV.

  17. Numerical Schemes for Charged Particle Movement in PIC Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A PIC model of plasma fibers is developed in the Department of Physics of the Czech Technical University for several years. The program code was written in FORTRAN 95, free-style (without compulsory columns). Fortran compiler and linker were used from Compaq Visual Fortran 6.1A embedded in the Microsoft Development studio GUI. Fully three-dimensional code with periodical boundary conditions was developed. Electromagnetic fields are localized on a grid and particles move freely through this grid. One of the partial problems of the PIC model is the numerical particle solver, which will be discussed in this paper. (author)

  18. Identified Charged Particles in Quark and Gluon Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Adzic, P; Albrecht, Z; Alderweireld, T; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anassontzis, E G; Andersson, P; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Ballestrero, A; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barbiellini, Guido; Barbier, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Belous, K S; Benekos, N C; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Bizouard, M A; Bloch, D; Blom, H M; Bonesini, M; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borgland, A W; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bozovic, I; Bozzo, M; Bracko, M; Branchini, P; Brenner, R A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Buschbeck, Brigitte; Buschmann, P; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Chabaud, V; Chapkin, M M; Charpentier, P; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chierici, R; Shlyapnikov, P; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crépé, S; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Dolbeau, J; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Dris, M; Duperrin, A; Durand, J D; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Espirito-Santo, M C; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Fayot, J; Feindt, Michael; Ferrer, A; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Ferro, F; Fichet, S; Firestone, A; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Franek, B J; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gamblin, S; Gandelman, M; García, C; Gaspar, C; Gaspar, M; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Geralis, T; Ghodbane, N; Gil, I; Glege, F; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Gonçalves, P; González-Caballero, I; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Grahl, J; Graziani, E; Gris, P; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Guy, J; Haag, C; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Haider, S; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hansen, J; Harris, F J; Hauler, F; Hedberg, V; Heising, S; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Heuser, J M; Higón, E; Holmgren, Sven Olof; Holt, P J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huber, M; Huet, K; Hughes, G J; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jeans, D; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, P E; Joram, C; Juillot, P; Jungermann, L; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Kernel, G; Kersevan, Borut P; Khokhlov, Yu A; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; Kiiskinen, A P; King, B J; Kinvig, A; Kjaer, N J; Klapp, O; Klein, H; Kluit, P M; Kokkinias, P; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krammer, Manfred; Kriznic, E; Krumshtein, Z; Kubinec, P; Kurowska, J; Kurvinen, K L; Lamsa, J; Lane, D W; Lapin, V; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Leinonen, L; Leisos, A; Leitner, R; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Lethuillier, M; Libby, J; Liebig, W; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; Lopes, J H; López, J M; López-Fernandez, R; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Mahon, J R; Maio, A; Malek, A; Malmgren, T G M; Maltezos, S; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R P; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Masik, J; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; McPherson, G; Meroni, C; Meyer, W T; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Moraes, D; Moreau, X; Morettini, P; Morton, G A; Müller, U; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mulet-Marquis, C; Muresan, R; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Myklebust, T; Naraghi, F; Nassiakou, M; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Neufeld, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Niezurawski, P; Nikolenko, M; Nomokonov, V P; Nygren, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Orazi, G; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Pain, R; Paiva, R; Palacios, J; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Pavel, T; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Phillips, H T; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Rames, J; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Rehn, J; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Ripp-Baudot, I; Røhne, O M; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Rosenberg, E I; Rosinsky, P; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Royon, C; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sampsonidis, D; Sannino, M; Schwemling, P; Schwering, B; Schwickerath, U; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Seemann, F; Segar, A M; Seibert, N; Sekulin, R L; Shellard, R C; Siebel, M; Simard, L C; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Solovianov, A; Sopczak, André; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Squarcia, S; Stanescu, C; Stanic, S; Stanitzki, M; Stevenson, K; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Taffard, A C; Chikilev, O G; Tegenfeldt, F; Terranova, F; Thomas, J; Timmermans, J; Tinti, N; Tkatchev, L G; Tobin, M; Todorova-Nová, S; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tortosa, P; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyapkin, P; Tzamarias, S; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; van Dam, P; Van den Boeck, W; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Van Remortel, N; Van Vulpen, I B; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verdier, P; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Voulgaris, G; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Washbrook, A J; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wilkinson, G R; Winter, M; Witek, M; Wolf, G; Yi, J; Yushchenko, O P; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zinchenko, A I; Zoller, P; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G

    2000-01-01

    A sample of 2.2 million hadronic \\z decays, selected fythe {\\sc Delphi} detector at {\\sc Lep} during 1994-199nimprovedmeasurement of inclusive distributions of \\pie, \\kp anrantiparticles in gluon and quark jets. The production l identified particles were found to be softer in gluon kjets, with a higher multiplicity in gluon jets as obseecharged particles. A significant proton enhancement indindicating that baryon production proceeds directly fr.The maxima, $\\xi^*$, of the $\\xi$-distributions for kakjets are observed to be different. The study of isoscanshows no indication of an excess of $\\phi(1020)$ produ.

  19. An imaging co-axial tube electrodynamic trap for manipulation of charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A tubular particle trapping device was designed and fabricated using two co-axial electrically conductive tubes with diameters of 5 mm and 7 mm, respectively. The device was integrated with an imaging camera and optical fiber bundle for real time monitoring of trapped particle motion. Charged microparticles of 3 to 50 m diameter can be suspended in air at ambient pressure using the device utilizing a quadrupole potential with an alternating voltage of amplitude 300 V to 750 V and frequency of 30 Hz to 140 Hz. Controlled trapping of a single particle or multiple particles can be achieved by tuning the voltage amplitude. The particle remained trapped when the entire assembly was translated or rotated. The device can be used as a manipulator for charged particle transport and repositioning.

  20. The Hawking radiation of the charged particle via tunnelling from the axisymmetric Sen black hole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Qing-Quan; Yang Shu-Zheng; Chen De-You

    2006-01-01

    Extending Parikh's semi-classical quantum tunnelling model, this paper has studied the Hawking radiation of the charged particle via tunnelling from the horizon of the axisymmetric Sen black hole. Different from the uncharged massless particle, the geodesies of the charged massive particle tunnelling from the horizon is not light-like. The derived result supports Parikh's opinion and provides a correct modification to Hawking strictly thermal spectrum developed by the fixed background space-time and not considering the energy conservation and the self-gravitation interaction.

  1. Use of CMOS imagers to measure high fluxes of charged particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servoli, L.; Tucceri, P.

    2016-03-01

    The measurement of high flux charged particle beams, specifically at medical accelerators and with small fields, poses several challenges. In this work we propose a single particle counting method based on CMOS imagers optimized for visible light collection, exploiting their very high spatial segmentation (> 3 106 pixels/cm2) and almost full efficiency detection capability. An algorithm to measure the charged particle flux with a precision of ~ 1% for fluxes up to 40 MHz/cm2 has been developed, using a non-linear calibration algorithm, and several CMOS imagers with different characteristics have been compared to find their limits on flux measurement.

  2. Method for identification of light charged particles with CsI(Tl) scintillator + Si Pin photodiode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A modified charge comparison principle based on the phenomenon called ballistic deficit, was used in the design of a Particle Discrimination Unit (PDU). A CsI(Tl)+PIN diode detector is coupled to a newly designed charge sensitive preamplifier. The PDU is composed of three main parts: an amplifier, a shaping circuitry and two ADCs. The unipolar shaper delivers the 'energy' output, while, the output of the bipolar shaper corresponds to 'particle-type'. For the energy measurement unipolar shaping is chosen, for particle discrimination bipolar shaping is used. (N.T.) 4 refs.; 2 figs

  3. A search for charged scalar particles pair produced in e+e- annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have searched for unstable charged scalar particles (S+-) such as techni-pions or charged Higgs particles pair produced in high energy e+e- annihilation. No evidence for such particles was observed in both decay modes e+e- → S+S- → (tauν)(hadrons) and → (tauν)(tauν). Upper limits of 4 to 11% are obtained for the branching ratio S+- → (tauν) in the S+- mass range between 4 to 12 GeV. (orig.)

  4. Massive vector particles tunneling from noncommutative charged black holes and their GUP-corrected thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Övgün, Ali; Jusufi, Kimet

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we investigate the tunneling process of charged massive bosons W^{±} (spin-1 particles) from noncommutative charged black holes such as charged RN black holes and charged BTZ black holes. By applying the WKB approximation and by using the Hamilton-Jacobi equation we derive the tunneling rate and the corresponding Hawking temperature for those black holes configuration. Furthermore, we show the quantum gravity effects using the GUP on the Hawking temperature for the noncommutative RN black holes. The tunneling rate shows that the radiation deviates from pure thermality and is consistent with an underlying unitary theory.

  5. Tunnelling Radiation of Charged and Magnetized Massive Particles from BTZ Black Holes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Tang-Mei; ZHANG Jing-Yi

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the tunnelling radiation of charged and magnetized massive particles from a Ba(n)ados-TeitelboimZanelli (BTZ) black hole by extending the Parikh-Wilczek tunnelling framework. In order to calculate the emission rate,we reconstruct the electromagnetic field tensor and the Lagrangian of the field corresponding to the source with electric and magnetic charges,and treat the charges as an equivalent electric charge for simplicity in the later calculation.The result supports Parikh-Wilczek's conclusion,that is,the Hawking thermal radiation actually deviates from perfect thermality and agrees with an underlying unitary theory.

  6. The Low-Energy Charged Particle (LECP) experiment on the Voyager Spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Low Energy Charged Particle (LECP) experiment on the Voyager spacecraft is designed to provide comprehensive measurements of energetic particles in the Jovian, Saturnian, Uranian and interplanetary environments. These measurements will be used in establishing the morphology of the magnetospheres of Saturn and Uranus, including bow shock, magnetosheath, magnetotail, trapped radiation, and satellite-energetic particle interactions. The experiment consists of two subsystems, the Low Energy Magnetospheric Particle Analyzer (LEMPA) whose design is optimized for magnetospheric measurements, and the Low Energy Particle Telescope (LEPT) whose design is optimized for measurements in the distant magnetosphere and the interplanetary medium. (Auth.)

  7. The Fields of a Charged Particle in Hyperbolic Motion

    OpenAIRE

    Franklin, Joel; Griffiths, David J

    2014-01-01

    A particle in hyperbolic motion produces electric fields that appear to terminate in mid-air, violating Gauss's law. The resolution to this paradox has been known for sixty years, but exactly why the naive approach fails is not so clear.

  8. Statistical similarity between high energy charged particle fluxes in near-earth space and earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P.; Chang, Z.; Wang, H.; Lu, H.

    2014-05-01

    It has long been noticed that rapid short-term variations of high energy charged particle fluxes in near-Earth space occur more frequently several hours before the main shock of earthquakes. Physicists wish that this observation supply a possible precursor of strong earthquakes. Based on DEMETER data, we investigate statistical behaviors of flux fluctuations for high energy charged particles in near-Earth space. Long-term clustering, scaling, and universality in the temporal occurrence are found. There is high degree statistical similarity between high energy charged particle fluxes in near-Earth space and earthquakes. Thus, the observations of the high energy particle fluxes in near-Earth space may supply a useful tool in the study of earthquakes.

  9. Thermodiffusion in positively charged magnetic colloids: influence of the particle diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehnem, A L; Aquino, R; Campos, A F C; Tourinho, F A; Depeyrot, J; Figueiredo Neto, A M

    2014-03-01

    The Soret coefficient (ST) of positively charged magnetic colloids was measured as a function of the nanoparticles' diameter. The Z-scan technique and the generalization of the thermal lens model proved to be a reliable technique to measure ST. We show that ST is negative and increases with the particle's diameter, being best described by a functional dependence of the type ST∝d0. Potentiometric and conductometric experiments show that the particle's surface charge decreases as the temperature increases, changing the electrostatic interaction between the nanoparticles. The temperature gradient imposed in the ferrofluid by the Gaussian laser beam leads to the formation of the particle's concentration gradient. The origin of this phenomenon is discussed in terms of the decrease of the particle's surface charge in the hottest region of the sample and the thermoelectric field due to the inhomogeneous distribution of hydrogenous ions present in the colloidal suspension. PMID:24730843

  10. Ionic charge state distribution of helium, carbon, oxygen, and iron in an energetic storm particle enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovestadt, D.; Klecker, B.; Hoefner, H.; Scholer, M.; Gloeckler, G.; Ipavich, F. M.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the ionic charge state distribution of He, C, O and Fe in the energetic storm particle event of September 28-29, 1978. Data were obtained with the ULEZEQ electrostatic analyzer-proportional counter on board the ISEE 3 spacecraft. The He(+)/He(++) ratio between 0.4 and 1 MeV/n is shown to be significantly lower during the energetic storm particle event than during the preceding period of solar flare particle enhancement, with a temporal evolution similar to that of the Fe/He ratio as reported by Klecker et al. (1981). Increases in the mean charge state for oxygen by about 3% and for iron by about 16% are also noted. The temporal variations in charge states are accounted for in terms of first-order Fermi acceleration of the pre-existing solar flare particles by a propagating interplanetary shock wave.

  11. Course Notes: United States Particle Accelerator School Beam Physics with Intense Space-Charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this course is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the physics of beams with intense space charge. This course is suitable for graduate students and researchers interested in accelerator systems that require sufficient high intensity where mutual particle interactions in the beam can no longer be neglected. This course is intended to give the student a broad overview of the dynamics of beams with strong space charge. The emphasis is on theoretical and analytical methods of describing the acceleration and transport of beams. Some aspects of numerical and experimental methods will also be covered. Students will become familiar with standard methods employed to understand the transverse and longitudinal evolution of beams with strong space charge. The material covered will provide a foundation to design practical architectures. In this course, we will introduce you to the physics of intense charged particle beams, focusing on the role of space charge. The topics include: particle equations of motion, the paraxial ray equation, and the Vlasov equation; 4-D and 2-D equilibrium distribution functions (such as the Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij, thermal equilibrium, and Neuffer distributions), reduced moment and envelope equation formulations of beam evolution; transport limits and focusing methods; the concept of emittance and the calculation of its growth from mismatches in beam envelope and from space-charge non-uniformities using system conservation constraints; the role of space-charge in producing beam halos; longitudinal space-charge effects including small amplitude and rarefaction waves; stable and unstable oscillation modes of beams (including envelope and kinetic modes); the role of space charge in the injector; and algorithms to calculate space-charge effects in particle codes. Examples of intense beams will be given primarily from the ion and proton accelerator communities with applications from, for example, heavy-ion fusion, spallation

  12. Method and apparatus for simultaneous detection and measurement of charged particles at one or more levels of particle flux for analysis of same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, M. Bonner; Sperline, Roger , Koppenaal, David W. , Barinaga, Charles J. , Hieftje, Gary , Barnes, IV, James H.; Atlas, Eugene

    2009-03-03

    A charged particle detector and method are disclosed providing for simultaneous detection and measurement of charged particles at one or more levels of particle flux in a measurement cycle. The detector provides multiple and independently selectable levels of integration and/or gain in a fully addressable readout manner.

  13. The van Niel International Prize for Studies in Bacterial Systematics awarded in 2014 to Nikos C. Kyrpides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The Senate of the University of Queensland is pleased to present the van Niel International Prize for Studies in Bacterial Systematics for the triennium 2011-2014 to Dr Nikos C. Kyrpides in recognition of the contributions made to the field of bacterial systematics. The award established by Professor V. B. D. Skerman of the University of Queensland honours the contribution of scholarship in the field of microbiology by Professor Cornelis Bernardus van Niel. PMID:26184666

  14. Charged particle tracking at Titan, and further applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebesi, Zsofia; Erdos, Geza; Szego, Karoly

    2016-04-01

    We use the CAPS ion data of Cassini to investigate the dynamics and origin of Titan's atmospheric ions. We developed a 4th order Runge-Kutta method to calculate particle trajectories in a time reversed scenario. The test particle magnetic field environment imitates the curved magnetic environment in the vicinity of Titan. The minimum variance directions along the S/C trajectory have been calculated for all available Titan flybys, and we assumed a homogeneous field that is perpendicular to the minimum variance direction. Using this method the magnetic field lines have been calculated along the flyby orbits so we could select those observational intervals when Cassini and the upper atmosphere of Titan were magnetically connected. We have also taken the Kronian magnetodisc into consideration, and used different upstream magnetic field approximations depending on whether Titan was located inside of the magnetodisc current sheet, or in the lobe regions. We also discuss the code's applicability to comets.

  15. Emission of ions and charged soot particles by aircraft engines

    OpenAIRE

    Sorokin, A.; Vancassel, X.; P. Mirabel

    2003-01-01

    In this article, a model which examines the formation and evolution of chemiions in an aircraft engine is proposed. This model which includes chemiionisation, electron thermo-emission, electron attachment to soot particles and to neutral molecules, electron-ion and ion-ion recombination, ion-soot interaction, allows the determination of the ion concentration at the exit of the combustor and at the nozzle exit of the engine. It also allows the determination ...

  16. Preliminary proposals for extending the ENDF format to allow incident charged particles and energy-angle correlation for emitted particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This rewrite of Data Formats and Procedures for the Evaluated Nuclear Data File, ENDF pertains to the latest version, ENDF/B-VI. Earlier versions provided representations for neutron cross sections and distributions, photon production from neutron reactions, a limited amount of charged-particle production from neutron reactions, photo-atomic interaction data, thermal neutron scattering data, and radionuclide production and decay data (including fission products). This version allows higher incident energies, adds more complete descriptions of the distributions of emitted particles, and provides for incident charged particles and photo-nuclear data by partitioning the ENDF library into sublibraries. Decay data, fission product yield data, thermal scattering data, and photo-atomic data have also been formally placed in sublibraries. In addition, this rewrite represents an extensive update to the Version V manual

  17. Charging of small grains in a space plasma: Application to Jovian stream particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhanoev, A. R.; Schmidt, J.; Liu, X.; Spahn, F.

    2016-07-01

    Context. Most theoretical investigations of dust charging processes in space have treated the current balance condition as independent of grain size. However, for small grains, since they are often observed in space environments, a dependence on grain size is expected owing to secondary electron emission (SEE). Here, by the term "small" we mean a particle size comparable to the typical penetration depth for given primary electron energy. The results are relevant for the dynamics of small, charged dust particles emitted by the volcanic moon Io, which forms the Jovian dust streams. Aims: We revise the theory of charging of small (submicron sized) micrometeoroids to take into account a high production of secondary electrons for small grains immersed in an isotropic flux of electrons. We apply our model to obtain an improved estimate for the charge of the dust streams leaving the Jovian system, detected by several spacecraft. Methods: We apply a continuum model to describe the penetration of primary electrons in a grain and the emission of secondary electrons along the path. Averaging over an isotropic flux of primaries, we derive a new expression for the secondary electron yield, which can be used to express the secondary electron current on a grain. Results: For the Jupiter plasma environment we derive the surface potential of grains composed of NaCl (believed to be the major constituent of Jovian dust stream particles) or silicates. For small particles, the potential depends on grain size and the secondary electron current induces a sensitivity to material properties. As a result of the small particle effect, the estimates for the charging times and for the fractional charge fluctuations of NaCl grains obtained using our general approach to SEE give results qualitatively different from the analogous estimates derived from the traditional approach to SEE. We find that for the charging environment considered in this paper field emission does not limit the charging of

  18. Charged Particle Energization and Transport in the Magnetotail during Substorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qingjiang

    This dissertation addresses the problem of energization of particles (both electrons and ions) to tens and hundreds of keV and the associated transport process in the magnetotail during substorms. Particles energized in the magnetotail are further accelerated to even higher energies (hundreds of keV to MeV) in the radiation belts, causing space weather hazards to human activities in space and on ground. We develop an analytical model to quantitatively estimate flux changes caused by betatron and Fermi acceleration when particles are transported along narrow high-speed flow channels from the magnetotail to the inner magnetosphere. The model shows that energetic particle flux can be significantly enhanced by a modest compression of the magnetic field and/or shrinking of the distance between the magnetic mirror points. We use coordinated spacecraft measurements, global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations driven by measured upstream solar wind conditions, and large-scale kinetic (LSK) simulations to quantify electron local acceleration in the near-Earth reconnection region and nonlocal acceleration during plasma earthward transport. Compared to the analytical model, application of the LSK simulations is much less restrictive because trajectories of millions of test particles are calculated in the realistically determined global MHD fields and the results are statistical. The simulation results validated by the observations show that electrons following a power law distribution at high energies are generated earthward of the reconnection site, and that the majority of the energetic electrons observed in the inner magnetosphere are caused by adiabatic acceleration in association with magnetic dipolarizations and fast flows during earthward transport. We extend the global MHD+LSK simulations to examine ion energization and compare it with electron energization. The simulations demonstrate that ions in the magnetotail are first nonadiabatically accelerated in the weak

  19. Excitation Functions for Charged Particle Induced Reactions in Light Elements at Low Projectile Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present chapter has been formulated with the aim of making it useful in various fields of nuclear applications with emphasis on charged particle activation analysis. Activation analysis of light elements using charged particles has proved to be an important tool in solving various problems in analytical chemistry, e g those associated with metal surfaces. Scientists desiring to evaluate the distribution of light elements in the surface of various matrices using charged particle reactions require accurate data on cross sections in the MeV-region. A knowledge of cross section data and yield-functions is of great interest in many applied fields involving work with charged particles, such as radiological protection and health physics, material research, semiconductor material investigations and corrosion chemistry. The authors therefore decided to collect a limited number of data which find use in these fields. Although the compilation is far from being complete, it is expected to be of assistance in devising measurements of charged particle reactions in Van de Graaff or other low energy accelerators

  20. Acceleration of charged particles due to chaotic scattering in the combined black hole gravitational field and asymptotically uniform magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Stuchlík, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    To test the role of large-scale magnetic fields in accretion processes, we study dynamics of charged test particles in vicinity of a black hole immersed into an asymptotically uniform magnetic field. Using the Hamiltonian formalism of charged particle dynamics, we examine chaotic scattering in the effective potential related to the black hole gravitational field combined with the uniform magnetic field. Energy interchange between the translational and oscillatory modes od the charged particle dynamics provides mechanism for charged particle acceleration along the magnetic field lines. This energy transmutation is an attribute of the chaotic charged particle dynamics in the combined gravitational and magnetic fields only, the black hole rotation is not necessary for such charged particle acceleration. The chaotic scatter can cause transition to the motion along the magnetic field lines with small radius of the Larmor motion or vanishing Larmor radius, when the speed of the particle translational motion is larg...

  1. A 2-D Implicit, Energy and Charge Conserving Particle In Cell Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPherson, Allen L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Knoll, Dana A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cieren, Emmanuel B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Feltman, Nicolas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Leibs, Christopher A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; McCarthy, Colleen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Murthy, Karthik S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Yijie [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-09-10

    Recently, a fully implicit electrostatic 1D charge- and energy-conserving particle-in-cell algorithm was proposed and implemented by Chen et al ([2],[3]). Central to the algorithm is an advanced particle pusher. Particles are moved using an energy conserving scheme and are forced to stop at cell faces to conserve charge. Moreover, a time estimator is used to control errors in momentum. Here we implement and extend this advanced particle pusher to include 2D and electromagnetic fields. Derivations of all modifications made are presented in full. Special consideration is taken to ensure easy coupling into the implicit moment based method proposed by Taitano et al [19]. Focus is then given to optimizing the presented particle pusher on emerging architectures. Two multicore implementations, and one GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) implementation are discussed and analyzed.

  2. Charged Particle Nuclear Data Group, Institute of Nuclear Research, Debrecen, Hungary. Progress report. P4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Debrecen Nuclear Data Group works within the Cyclotron Department of the Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI). The group deals with charged particle induced nuclear reaction cross section data measurement, compilation, evaluation and practical application in low and medium energy range. The experimental work and the compilations are carried out in international cooperation with different cyclotron laboratories (INC, FZ Juelich, Germany, VUB Brussels, Belgium, Turku PET Center, Finland, Tohoku University, Japan). There are also connections with theoretical groups in Russia, IPPE, Obninsk, and China, CNDC, Beijing. Work has been continuing on the experimental determination of cross sections data and yield measurements for charged particle induced nuclear reactions, as well as the compilation and the critical comparison of several selected processes used for production of medically important radioisotopes, for monitoring charged particle beams and for thin layer activation measurements. Recently priority was given to the final preparation of the TECDOC of an evaluated Reference Database for medical isotope production and monitoring light charged particle beams. The work was co-ordinated by the IAEA as a CRP under the title 'Development of reference charged particle cross section database for medical radioisotope production'. The manuscript was completed. The database contains 22 monitor reactions to monitor the beam parameters of p, d, 3He and α bombarding particles, 16 reactions to produce single gamma emitter diagnostic radioisotopes and 10 reactions for production of the most commonly used PET isotopes. The Debrecen CP Nuclear Data Group is collecting and compiling charged particle experimental cross section data measured in Debrecen and Juelich

  3. Development of radiation hardened pixel sensors for charged particle detection

    CERN Document Server

    Koziel, Michal

    2014-01-01

    CMOS Pixel Sensors are being developed since a few years to equip vertex detectors for future high-energy physics experiments with the crucial advantages of a low material budget and low production costs. The features simultaneously required are a short readout time, high granularity and high tolerance to radiation. This thesis mainly focuses on the radiation tolerance studies. To achieve the targeted readout time (tens of microseconds), the sensor pixel readout was organized in parallel columns restricting in addition the readout to pixels that had collected the signal charge. The pixels became then more complex, and consequently more sensitive to radiation. Different in-pixel architectures were studied and it was concluded that the tolerance to ionizing radiation was limited to 300 krad with the 0.35- m fabrication process currently used, while the targeted value was several Mrad. Improving this situation calls for implementation of the sensors in processes with a smaller feature size which naturally imp...

  4. Some recent developments in nuclear charged particle detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stelzer, H.

    1980-08-01

    The latest developments of large-area, position sensitive gas-filled ionization chambers are described. Multi-wire-proportional chambers as position-sensing and parallel-plate-avalanche counters as time-sensing detectors at low pressure (5 torr) have proven to be useful and reliable instruments in heavy ion physics. Gas (proportional) scintillation counters, used mainly for x-ray spectroscopy, have recently been applied as particle detectors. Finally, a brief description of a large plastic scintillator spectrometer, the Plastic Ball, is given and some of the first test and calibration data are shown.

  5. Some recent developments in nuclear charged particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The latest developments of large-area, position sensitive gas-filled ionization chambers are described. Multi-wire-proportional chambers as position-sensing and parallel-plate-avalanche counters as time-sensing detectors at low pressure (5 torr) have proven to be useful and reliable instruments in heavy ion physics. Gas (proportional) scintillation counters, used mainly for x-ray spectroscopy, have recently been applied as particle detectors. Finally, a brief description of a large plastic scintillator spectrometer, the Plastic Ball, is given and some of the first test and calibration data are shown

  6. Charged particle cross-section data and their systematization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reaction cross-sections and the thick target yields of (α,αxn) and (α,xn), induced by the alpha particles from the Buenos Aires 60 inch synchrocyclotron for Cu, Y, Zr, Rh, Te, Ta, Au and Pb were obtained. The ''stocked foil'' method was applied. The ''nuclear spin density'' parameter was determined using a phenomenological approximation from the cross section data for 181Ta(α,n) reaction producing isomeric pairs of sup(184m)Re and sup(184g)Re. The systematic behaviour of the present result and the results of other authors were demonstrated

  7. Charges recombination in α particle tracks in argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The creation and evolution of (neutral) excited states and ionized states in α particle tracks in high pressure argon are studied. The main features of recently published experimental results on the recombination luminescence can be explained and a track model is proposed. Details are given on the track radius, on the electrons thermallization, and on collisions between electrons and triplet excited states. The most important result is that at high pressure and high electron and ion densities a collective electron-ion recombination is possible, that is more efficient that the well known dissociative recombination

  8. Influence of an Additive-Free Particle Spreading Method on Interactions between Charged Colloidal Particles at an Oil/Water Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Yi, Zonglin; Xing, Xiaochen; Ngai, To; Jin, Fan

    2016-05-17

    The assembly and manipulation of charged colloidal particles at oil/water interfaces represent active areas of fundamental and applied research. Previously, we have shown that colloidal particles can spontaneously generate unstable residual charges at the particle/oil interface when spreading solvent is used to disperse them at an oil/water interface. These residual charges in turn affect the long-ranged electrostatic repulsive forces and packing of particles at the interface. To further uncover the influence arising from the spreading solvents on interfacial particle interactions, in the present study we utilize pure buoyancy to drive the particles onto an oil/water interface and compare the differences between such a spontaneously adsorbed particle monolayer to the spread monolayer based on solvent spreading techniques. Our results show that the solvent-free method could also lead particles to spread well at the interface, but it does not result in violent sliding of particles along the interface. More importantly, this additive-free spreading method can avoid the formation of unstable residual charges at the particle/oil interface. These findings agree well with our previous hypothesis; namely, those unstable residual charges are triboelectric charges that arise from the violently rubbing of particles on oil at the interface. Therefore, if the spreading solvents could be avoided, then we would be able to get rid of the formation of residual charges at interfaces. This finding will provide insight for precisely controlling the interactions among colloidal particles trapped at fluid/fluid interfaces. PMID:27108987

  9. Simulation of ASTROD I test mass charging due to solar energetic particles

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Lei; Ni, Wei-Tou; Shaul, D N A

    2007-01-01

    As ASTROD I travels through space, its test mass will accrue charge due to galactic cosmic-rays and solar energetic particles incident on the spacecraft. This test mass charge will result in Coulomb forces between the test mass and the surrounding electrodes. In earlier work using the GEANT4 toolkit, we predicted a net charging rate of nearly 9.0 +e/s from cosmic-ray protons between 0.1 and 1000 GeV at solar maximum, and rising to 26.5 +e/s at solar minimum. Here we use GEANT4 to simulate the charging process due to solar energetic particle events and to estimate the magnitude of acceleration noise due to this charging. The predicted charging rates range from 2840 to 64300 +e/s, at peak intensity, for the 4 largest SEP events in September and October 1989. For the 2 larger events, the acceleration disturbances due to charging exceeds the ASTROD I acceleration noise budget requirement. Continuous discharge should be considered for suppressing this charging noise. The acceleration noise during the 2 small event...

  10. An electrostatic charge measurement of blowing snow particles focusing on collision frequency to the snow surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omiya, S.; Sato, A.

    2010-12-01

    Blowing snow particles are known to have an electrostatic charge. This charge may be a contributing factor in the formation of snow drifts and snow cornices and changing of the trajectory of blowing snow particles. These formations and phenomena can cause natural disaster such as an avalanche and a visibility deterioration, and obstruct transportation during winter season. Therefore, charging phenomenon of the blowing snow particles is an important issue in terms of not only precise understanding of the particle motion but disaster prevention. The primary factor of charge accumulation to the blowing snow particles is thought to be due to “saltation” of them. The “saltation” is one of movement forms of blowing snow: when the snow particles are transported by the wind, they repeat frictional collisions with the snow surface. In previous studies, charge-to-mass ratios measured in the field were approximately -50 to -10 μC/kg, and in the wind tunnel were approximately -0.8 to -0.1 μC/kg. While there were qualitatively consistent in sign, negative, there were huge gaps quantitatively between them. One reason of those gaps is speculated to be due to differences in fetch. In other words, the difference of the collision frequency of snow particles to the snow surface has caused the gaps. But it is merely a suggestion and that has not been confirmed. The purpose of this experiment is to measure the charge of blowing snow particles focusing on the collision frequency and clarify the relationship between them. Experiments were carried out in the cryogenic wind tunnel of Snow and Ice Research Center (NIED, JAPAN). A Faraday cage and an electrometer were used to measure the charge of snow particles. These experiments were conducted over the hard snow surface condition to prevent the erosion of the snow surface and the generation of new snow particles from the surface. The collision frequency of particle was controlled by changing the wind velocity (4.5 to 7 m/s) under

  11. Surface charge properties of red mud particles generated from Chinese diaspore bauxite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Kun-yu; HU Hui-ping; ZHANG Li-juan; CHEN Qi-yuan

    2008-01-01

    Acid/basic potentiometric titration can be used to quantify the red mud surface charge properties. The amount of surface active -OH groups and surface charge density on the red mud particles generated from Chinese diaspore bauxite were evaluated from the acid/basic potentiometric titration data in 0.1 mol/L or 0.5 molL NaCI solution. The results show that the adsorption of sodium polyacrylate(SPA) on the red mud surface causes the increase of the surface active -OH groups, which makes the point of zero charge(PZC) shift to a lower pH value. However, the adsorption of polyacrylamide(PAM) causes little change. As the concentration of NaCl solution increases, the surface charge becomes more positive in acidic solution and more negative in alkaline solution, which can be attributed to the presence of a porous surface gel coating on the red mud particles.

  12. Dynamics of test particles in the five-dimensional, charged, rotating EMCS spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Reimers, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    We derive the complete set of geodesic equations for massive and massless test particles of a five-dimensional, charged, rotating black hole solution of the Einstein-Maxwell-Chern-Simons field equations in five-dimensional minimal gauged supergravity and present their analytical solutions in terms of Weierstra{\\ss}' elliptic functions. We study the polar and radial motion, depending on the black hole and test particle parameters, and characterize the test particle motion qualitatively by the means of effective potentials. We use the analytical solutions in order to visualize the test particle motion by two- and three-dimensional plots.

  13. Instrument to measure energy and charge of low energy interplanetary particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tums, E.; Gloeckler, G.; Cain, J.; Sciambi, R.; Fan, C. Y.

    1974-01-01

    An experiment to measure the charge composition and energy spectra of ultra low energy charged particles in interplanetary space has been developed and launched on the IMP 8 (Explorer 50) satellite on Oct. 26, 1973. The instrument consists of two separate sensors sharing common electronics. One of these sensors uses a thin window gas proportional counter to measure the rate of energy loss and a totally depleted silicon surface barrier detector to measure total energy of incoming particles. The energy range for two dimensional analysis extends from 300 KeV to 2.5 MeV for protons and 60 KeV/nucleon to 25 MeV/nucleon for iron with excellent resolution of individual chemical elements. The other sensor combines electrostatic deflection with total energy measurements in silicon surface barrier detectors to give the ionic charge and kinetic energy of the particle.

  14. Explicit symplectic algorithms based on generating functions for charged particle dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Ruili; Tang, Yifa; Liu, Jian; He, Yang; Xiao, Jianyuan

    2016-01-01

    Dynamics of a charged particle in the canonical coordinates is a Hamiltonian system, and the well-known symplectic algorithm has been regarded as the de facto method for numerical integration of Hamiltonian systems due to its long-term accuracy and fidelity. For long-term simulations with high efficiency, explicit symplectic algorithms are desirable. However, it is widely accepted that explicit symplectic algorithms are only available for sum-separable Hamiltonians, and that this restriction severely limits the application of explicit symplectic algorithms to charged particle dynamics. To overcome this difficulty, we combine the familiar sum-split method and a generating function method to construct second and third order explicit symplectic algorithms for dynamics of charged particle. The generating function method is designed to generate explicit symplectic algorithms for product-separable Hamiltonian with form of $H(\\mathbf{p},\\mathbf{q})=\\mathbf{p}_{i}f(\\mathbf{q})$ or $H(\\mathbf{p},\\mathbf{q})=\\mathbf{q}...

  15. Search for stable multi-charged particles with the ATLAS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A search for long-lived, multi-charged particles is performed using the ATLAS detector. We examine pp collision-data taken during the 2011 LHC running, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.4 fb-1. A search is made for charged particle tracks exhibiting anomalously high ionization consistent with stable massive particles with charges from |q| = 2e to |q| = 6e. For this search new variables of specific energy loss per path length (dE/dx) are developed and used in the candidate selection. No excess is observed with respect to the prediction of Standard Model processes. The 95% CL cross-section limits are interpreted as lower mass limits of 420-490 GeV for a simplified Drell-Yan production model. (authors)

  16. Integral charged particle nuclear data bibliography: Literature scanned from April 11, 1987 through November 10, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is the annual supplement to the first edition published in 1984. The primary goal of this publication has been to satisfy the need expressed by the Nuclear Reaction Data Center Network for a concise and comprehensive bibliography of integral charged-particle cross section data. The reader is referred to a partial list of other bibliographies relevant to charged-particle-induced reaction data and to ''A Source List of Nuclear Data Bibliographies, Compilations, and Evaluations'' for a more comprehensive list. Since this publication is not cumulative, earlier versions are also shown in this paper. This publication makes use of a modification to the database of the Nuclear Structure References (NSR) file. This modification allows the retrieval of integral charged particle nuclear data entries from the NSR file. In recent years, the presentation of various sections was changed, as a result of users' suggestions. The authors continue to welcome users' comments. 190 refs., 3 tabs

  17. Basic study for a novel combined treatment with a nano-DDS and charged particle therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To realize a novel cancer therapy, ''Nano-Drug Delivery System (Nano-DDS)-Charged Particle Therapy'', we performed a basic study using multimodal thermo-sensitive polymer-modified liposomes (MTPLs) containing a MR contrast agent, fluorescence dye and anticancer drug. In our previous work, Nano-DDS thermal therapy using the MTPLs was performed for pre-clinical research. The MTPL accumulated in the subcutaneous tumors for over 8 hours after administration, and the temperature-triggered membrane disruption was visualized as a signal enhancement in T1-weighted MRI. The effects of treatment using MTPL with heating were found to increase. The purpose of this year's research was to assess the treatment effects using MTPLs with heating and charged particle therapy, and to evaluate MR signal changes after irradiation with charged particles. (author)

  18. Charged particle equilibrium effects on the electron absorbed fraction in the extra-thoracic airways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimates of the dose to the extra thoracic airway (nasal vestibule) from inhaled beta-emitting radionuclides, obtained using the respiratory tract model presented in Publication 66 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, frequently predict that the basal cells in this region are the most highly irradiated tissues of the body. The dose to the basal cells is averaged over a layer of tissue 10 μm thick located at a depth of 40 μm into the airway assuming that charged particle equilibrium exists. Since the target (basal cell layer) is very small and thin (10 cm2 area and 10 μm thickness), charged particle equilibrium does not exist. In this work the effect on the absorbed fraction of the lack of charged particle equilibrium is investigated. (authors)

  19. Charged particle assisted nuclear reactions in solid state environment: renaissance of low energy nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kálmán, Péter

    2015-01-01

    The features of electron assisted neutron exchange processes in crystalline solids are survayed. It is stated that, contrary to expectations, the cross section of these processes may reach an observable magnitude even in the very low energy case because of the extremely huge increment caused by the Coulomb factor of the electron assisted processes and by the effect of the crystal-lattice. The features of electron assisted heavy charged particle exchange processes, electron assisted nuclear capure processes and heavy charged particle assisted nuclear processes are also overviewed. Experimental observations, which may be related to our theoretical findings, are dealt with. The anomalous screening phenomenon is related to electron assisted neutron and proton exchange processes in crystalline solids. A possible explanation of observations by Fleischmann and Pons is presented. The possibility of the phenomenon of nuclear transmutation is qualitatively explained with the aid of usual and charged particle assisted r...

  20. An APL program for the distribution of energy deposition by charged particles passing through thin absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, L. W.

    1985-01-01

    An APL program which numerically evaluates the probability density function (PDF) for the energy deposited in a thin absorber by a charged particle is proposed, with application to the construction, pointing, and control of spacecraft. With this program, the PDF of the restricted energy loss distribution of Watts (1973) is derived, and Vavilov's (1957) distribution is obtained by proper parameter selection. The method is demonstrated with the example of the effect of charged particle induced radiation on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) pointing accuracy. A Monte Carlo study simulates the photon noise caused by charged particles passing through the photomultiplier tube window, and the stochastic variation of energy loss is introduced into the simulation by generating random energy losses from a power law distribution. The program eliminates annoying loop procedures, and model parameter sensitivity can be studied using the graphical output.

  1. Removal of two waterborne pathogenic bacterial strains by activated carbon particles prior to and after charge modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busscher, Henk J; Dijkstra, Rene J B; Engels, Eefje; Langworthy, Don E; Collias, Dimitris I; Bjorkquist, David W; Mitchell, Michael D; Van der Mei, Henny C

    2006-11-01

    Waterborne diseases constitute a threat to public health despite costly treatment measures aimed at removing pathogenic microorganisms from potable water supplies. This paper compared the removal of Raoultella terrigena ATCC 33257 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 by negatively and positively charged types of activated carbon particles. Both strains display bimodal negative zeta-potential distributions in stabilized water. Carbon particles were suspended to an equivalent external geometric surface area of 700 cm2 in 250 mL of a bacterial suspension, with shaking. Samples were taken after different durations for plate counting. Initial removal rates were less elevated for the positively charged carbon particle than expected, yielding the conclusion that bacterial adhesion under shaking is mass-transport limited. After 360 min, however, the log-reduction of the more negatively charged R. terrigena in suspension was largest for the positively charged carbon particles as compared with the negatively charged ones, although conditioning in ultrapure or tap water of positively charged carbon particles for 21 days eliminated the favorable effect of the positive charge due to counterion adsorption from the water. Removal of the less negatively charged E. coli was less affected by aging of the (positively charged) carbon particles, confirming the role of electrostatic interactions in bacterial removal by activated carbon particles. The microporous, negatively charged coconut carbon performed less than the mesoporous, positively charged carbon particle prior to conditioning but did not suffer from loss of effect after conditioning in ultrapure or tap water. PMID:17144313

  2. Charged-Particle Bean Transport for Ion Trapping Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raichle, Brian W.; Wingfield, Love M.

    2001-11-01

    Electrostatic Einsel lenses are being developed for beam transport for use in two distinct metastable atomic lifetime experiments using two separate rf-ion traps. Each system has been modeled using Simion software, and the lenses have been designed from commercially available eV-parts. The first application is part of an electron gun source. Electrons are produced by a conventional dispenser cathode and are transported 25 cm to the trap. The design goal is to create a beam divergence to fully illuminate the active trap volume, and to provide tunable electron energies from 50 to 500 eV. The second application is to transport ions 1 m from a laser ablation ion source to an rf ion trap. Laser ablation involves essentially boiling ions from a solid target with intense laser pulses. Here, the design goal is to maximize flux by maximizing the solid angle of acceptance to the trap, minimize radial velocity, and minimize the spread in axial velocity. Development of a laser ablation ion source external to the trap volume will allow a very low base pressure in the trap region, which will make possible the study of species with lifetimes approaching 1 s. In addition, laser ablation will produce intermediately-charged ions from non-conductive solid targets.

  3. The measurement and modeling of alpha-particle-induced charge collection in dynamic memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis addresses the problem of α-particle-induced charge collection in high-density dynamic random access memories. A novel technique for the measurement of charge collection in high-density memory cells and bit lines due to α-particle strikes was developed. The technique involves D.C. tests on simple test structures with an α-particle source on the device package as a lid. The advantages of this new measurement technique are: the method allows for in-situ measurements of charge collection on both MOS capacitors and bit lines found in present-day memories; the on-chip measurement technique minimizes errors due to external probes loading the device under test; the measurements can be controlled by a personal computer, with the data being able to be reduced on the same machine. Results obtained using this new measurement technique show that the charge collection is found to depend upon test-structure size and the configuration of its neighbors. Results of two-dimensional simulations of charge flow along the surface of an MOS capacitor from current injection due to an α-particle strike indicate that a spatial potential variation of 0.5V may occur between the point of current injection and capacitor edge for a 1M dRAM capacitor

  4. Probing new physics with long-lived charged particles produced by atmospheric and astrophysical neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As suggested by some extensions of the standard model of particle physics, dark matter may be a super-weakly-interacting lightest stable particle, while the next-to-lightest particle (NLP) is charged and metastable. One could test such a possibility with neutrino telescopes, by detecting the charged NLPs produced in high-energy neutrino collisions with Earth matter. We study the production of charged NLPs by both atmospheric and astrophysical neutrinos; only the latter, which is largely uncertain and has not been detected yet, was the focus of previous studies. We compute the resulting fluxes of the charged NLPs, compare those of different origins and analyze the dependence on the underlying particle physics set-up. We point out that, even if the astrophysical neutrino flux is very small, atmospheric neutrinos, especially those from the prompt decay of charmed mesons, may provide a detectable flux of NLP pairs at neutrino telescopes such as IceCube. We also comment on the flux of charged NLPs expected from proton–nucleon collisions and show that, for theoretically motivated and phenomenologically viable models, it is typically subdominant and below detectable rates

  5. Search for fractionally charged particles produced in e+e- annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A search has been made for particles with charge Q = 1/3, Q = 2/3 and Q = 4/3 produced in e+e- annihilation using the ARGUS detector at the e+e- storage ring DORIS, operating at a centre of mass energy around 10 GeV. No candidate events were found in 84.5 pb-1 of collected data. Upper limits are established for the cross section for the production of fractionally charged particles with masses up to 4 GeV/c2, improving on previously obtained limits. (orig.)

  6. A perspective on Black Hole Horizons from the Quantum Charged Particle

    CERN Document Server

    Jaramillo, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    Black hole apparent horizons possess a natural notion of stability, whose spectral characterization can be related to the problem of the stationary quantum charged particle. Such mathematical relation leads to an "analyticity conjecture" on the dependence of the spectral properties on a complex "fine-structure-constant" parameter, that can reduce the study of the spectrum of the (non-selfadjoint) MOTS-stability operator to that of the (selfadjoint) Hamiltonian of the quantum charged particle. Moreover, this perspective might open an avenue to the spinorial treatment of apparent horizon (MOTS-)stability and to the introduction of semiclassical tools to explore some of the qualitative aspects of this black hole spectral problem.

  7. Modeling and Characterization of Charged Particle Trajectories in an Oscillating Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Irawan, Dani; Khotimah, Siti Nurul; Latief, Fourier Dzar Eljabbar; Novitrian,

    2015-01-01

    A constant magnetic field has frequently been discussed and has been known that it can cause a charged particle to form interesting trajectories such as cycloid and helix in presence of electric field, but a changing magnetic field is rarely discussed. In this work, modeling and characterization of charged particle trajectories in oscillating magnetic field is reported. The modeling is performed using Euler method with speed corrector. The result shows that there are two types of trajectory patterns that will recur for every $180 n T_0$ ($n = 0, 1, 2, ..$) in increasing of magnetic field oscillation period, where $T_0$ is about $6.25\\times10^{-7}$ s.

  8. Tunneling of massive and charged particles from noncommutative Reissner-Nordström black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozari, Kourosh; Islamzadeh, Sara

    2013-10-01

    Massive charged and uncharged particles tunneling from commutative Reissner-Nordström black hole horizon has been studied with details in literature. Here, by adopting the coherent state picture of spacetime noncommutativity, we study tunneling of massive and charged particles from a noncommutative inspired Reissner-Nordström black hole horizon. We show that Hawking radiation in this case is not purely thermal and there are correlations between emitted modes. These correlations may provide a solution to the information loss problem. We also study thermodynamics of noncommutative horizon in this setup.

  9. Tunneling of massive and charged particles from noncommutative Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Nozari, Kourosh

    2012-01-01

    Massive charged and uncharged particles tunneling from commutative Reissner-Nordstrom black hole horizon has been studied with details in literature. Here, by adopting the coherent state picture of spacetime noncommutativity, we study tunneling of massive and charged particles from a noncommutative inspired Reissner-Nordstrom black hole horizon. We show that Hawking radiation in this case is not purely thermal and there are correlations between emitted modes. These correlations may provide a solution to the information loss problem. We also study thermodynamics of noncommutative horizon in this setup.

  10. Recognition and reconstruction of charged particles in SAPHIR at the ELSA ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the offline-analysis at the Bonner SAPHIR-detector some further software tools have been developed, so that now nearly a complete offline-analysis chain is available for the reconstruction of charged particles in the SAPHIR drift chambers. This report describes the underlying concept and gives some detailed information about the approximation of the inhomogeneous magnetic field, the track reconstruction in the sideward drift chambers and the determination of the charged particle momenta. In addition the separation of pions, kaons and protons in hadronic final states by time-of-flight measurements and kinematics is discussed. (orig.)

  11. Effect of charged particle multiplicity fluctuations on flow harmonics in event-by-event hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, A. K.

    2013-03-01

    In nucleon-nucleon collisions, a charged particle's multiplicity fluctuates. We have studied the effect of multiplicity fluctuation on flow harmonics in nucleus-nucleus collisions in event-by-event hydrodynamics. Assuming that the charged particle's multiplicity fluctuations are governed by the negative binomial distribution, the Monte Carlo Glauber model of initial condition is generalized to include the fluctuations. Explicit simulations with the generalized Monte Carlo Glauber model initial conditions indicate that the multiplicity fluctuations do not have a large effect on the flow harmonics.

  12. Effect of charged particle's multiplicity fluctuations on flow harmonics in even-by-event hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhuri, A K

    2012-01-01

    In nucleon-nucleon collisions, charged particle's multiplicity fluctuates. We have studied the effect of multiplicity fluctuation on flow harmonics in nucleus-nucleus collision in event-by-event hydrodynamics. Assuming that the charged particle's multiplicity fluctuations are governed by the negative binomial distribution, the Monte-Carlo Glauber model of initial condition is generalised to include the fluctuations. Explicit simulations with the generalised Monte-Carlo Glauber model initial conditions indicate that the multiplicity fluctuations do not have large effect on the flow harmonics.

  13. Relative Nonlinear Electrodynamics Interaction of Charged Particles with Strong and Super Strong Laser Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Avetissian, Hamlet

    2006-01-01

    This book covers a large class of fundamental investigations into Relativistic Nonlinear Electrodynamics. It explores the interaction between charged particles and strong laser fields, mainly concentrating on contemporary problems of x-ray lasers, new type small set-up high-energy accelerators of charged particles, as well as electron-positron pair production from super powerful laser fields of relativistic intensities. It will also discuss nonlinear phenomena of threshold nature that eliminate the concurrent inverse processes in the problems of Laser Accelerator and Free Electron Laser, thus creating new opportunities for solving these problems.

  14. Analysis of the charged-particle multiplicity distribution using the ratio of cumulant to factorial moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ratio of the cumulant to factorial moments of the charged-particle multiplicity distribution is known to show a quasi-oscillatory behavior when plotted versus the order of the moments. This peculiar behavior is also predicted b;y the NNLLA of perturbative QCD assuming the validity of the LPHD hypothesis. Using the subjet multiplicity distribution obtained from both Durham and Cambridge jet algorithms, instead of the charged-particle multiplicity distribution, in order to vary the dependence on the LPHD hypothesis, it was found that the oscillations appear only for non-perturbative energy scales. (author)

  15. Analysis of the charged particle multiplicity distribution using the ratio of cumulant factorial to factorial moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ratio of the cumulant factorial to factorial moments of the charged particle multiplicity distribution is known to show a quasi-oscillatory behaviour when plotted versus the order of the moments. This peculiar behaviour is also predicted by the NNLLA of perturbative QCD assuming the validity of the LPHD hypothesis. Using the subjet multiplicity distribution obtained from both Durham and Cambridge jet algorithms, instead of the charged particle multiplicity distribution, in order to vary the dependence on the LPHD hypothesis; it is shown that the oscillations appear only for non-perturbative energy scales. (author)

  16. On a charged particle's spin evolution induced by a strong laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khvedelidze, A.; Mladenov, D.; Rogojin, I.

    2016-01-01

    The quantum and classical dynamics of a charged, spin-1/2 particle interacting with a strong laser, modeled by the elliptically polarized monochromatic electromagnetic plane wave, is considered in the semi-classical approach. The charge interaction with a high intensity radiation is described classically without using of the dipole approximation. The particle's spin evolution is treated according to the Pauli equation with relativistic corrections caused by the laser intensity. The resonance character of transitions between spin-1/2 states for certain regimes of intensities and values of polarization is described.

  17. Measurement of charged particle spectra in deep-inelastic ep scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charged particle production in deep-inelastic ep scattering is measured with the H1 detector at HERA. The kinematic range of the analysis covers low photon virtualities, 522, and small values of Bjorken-x, 10-4-2. The analysis is performed in the hadronic centre-of-mass system. The charged particle densities are measured as a function of pseudorapidity (η*) and transverse momentum (pT*) in the range 0*T*2. The data are compared to predictions from different Monte Carlo generators implementing various options for hadronisation and parton evolutions.

  18. Specific features of definition of charged particle trajectories in edge fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of calculation of charged particle trajectories in edge fields is described taking into account that the field maximum value will increase with the growth of the field expansion coefficient order. THe method permits to estimate the necessary and enough quantity of the edge field expansion members simply enough according to the trajectory approximation order. The method is illustrated on example of charged particle trajectories calculation in a magnetic analyzer with a homogeneous field and in a cylindrical capacitor. The described method can be also successfully used while integrating a differential equation of trajectory in the region of scattered field

  19. System of coefficients for charged-particle beam linear transformation by a magnetic dipole element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new technique for consideration of dipole magnet ion-optical effect has been developed to study the problems of commutation and monochromatization of a charged particle beam. In a new form obtained are systematized coefficients of linear transformation (CLT) of the charged particle beam for radial and axial motions in a magnetic dipole element (MDE) including a dipole magnet and two gaps without magnetic field. Given is a method of graphic determination of MDE parameters and main CLT. The new form of coefficients and conditions of the transformations feasibility considerably facilitates the choice and calculation of dipole elements

  20. A stochastic model of multiple scattering of charged particles: process, transport equation and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of angular-spatial evolution of multiple scattering of charged particles can be described by a special case of Boltzmann integro-differential equation called Lewis equation. The underlying stochastic process for this evolution is the compound Poisson process on the surface of the unit sphere. The significant portion of events that constitute compound Poisson process that describes multiple scattering have diffusional character. This property allows to analyze the process of angular-spatial evolution of multiple scattering of charged particles as combination of soft and hard collision processes and compute appropriately its transition densities. These computations provide a method of the approximate solution to the Lewis equation. (orig.)

  1. Direct search for pair production of heavy stable charged particles in Z decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A search for pair production of stable charged particles from Z decay has been performed with the Mark II detector at the SLAC Linear Collider. Particle masses are determined from momentum, ionization energy loss, and time-of-flight measurements. A limit excluding pair production of stable fourth-generation charged leptons and stable mirror fermions with masses between the muon mass and 36.3 GeV/c2 is set at the 95% confidence level. Pair production of stable supersymmetric scalar leptons with masses between the muon mass and 32.6 GeV/c2 is also excluded

  2. The role of the Wigner function in charged-particle beam transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedele Renato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of the Wigner function in the dynamics of charged particle beams in high-energy accelerating machines is discussed. This is done within the quantum-like description of the thermal wave model (TWM. A brief review of the numerical experiments showing satisfactory agreement between TWM and the particle tracking simulations is presented. A simple analysis in phase space in terms of the Wigner quasidistribution, showing that TWM is capable of reproducing the beam dynamics in the presence of the space charge effects, is put froward.

  3. Development of a WDM platform for charged-particle stopping experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylstra, A. B.; Frenje, J. A.; Grabowski, P. E.; Li, C. K.; Collins, G. W.; Fitzsimmons, P.; Glenzer, S.; Graziani, F.; Hansen, S. B.; Hu, S. X.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Keiter, P.; Reynolds, H.; Rygg, J. R.; Séguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2016-05-01

    A platform has been developed for generating large and relatively quiescent plasmas in the warm-dense matter (WDM) regime on the OMEGA laser facility. A cylindrical geometry is used to allow charged-particle probing along the axis. The plasma heating is radiative by L-shell emission generated on the outside of the cylinder. The cylinder drive is characterized with x-ray diagnostics. Possibilities for direct characterization of the plasma temperature are discussed. Finally, the unimportance of electromagnetic fields around the target is demonstrated with proton radiography. We expect this platform to be used extensively in future experiments studying charged-particle stopping in this regime.

  4. Double, Rydberg and charge transfer excitations from pairing matrix fluctuation and particle-particle random phase approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yang [Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Aggelen, Helen van [Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Yang, Weitao, E-mail: weitao.yang@duke.edu [Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2013-12-14

    Double, Rydberg, and charge transfer (CT) excitations have been great challenges for time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). Starting from an (N ± 2)-electron single-determinant reference, we investigate excitations for the N-electron system through the pairing matrix fluctuation, which contains information on two-electron addition/removal processes. We adopt the particle-particle random phase approximation (pp-RPA) and the particle-particle Tamm-Dancoff approximation (pp-TDA) to approximate the pairing matrix fluctuation and then determine excitation energies by the differences of two-electron addition/removal energies. This approach captures all types of interesting excitations: single and double excitations are described accurately, Rydberg excitations are in good agreement with experimental data and CT excitations display correct 1/R dependence. Furthermore, the pp-RPA and the pp-TDA have a computational cost similar to TDDFT and consequently are promising for practical calculations.

  5. Double, Rydberg and Charge Transfer Excitations from Pairing Matrix Fluctuation and Particle-Particle Random Phase Approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; van Aggelen, Helen; Yang, Weitao

    2014-03-01

    Double, Rydberg and charge transfer (CT) excitations have been great challenges for time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). Starting from an (N +/- 2) -electron single-determinant reference, we investigate excitations for the N-electron system through the pairing matrix fluctuation, which contains information on two-electron addition/removal processes. We adopt the particle-particle random phase approximation (pp-RPA) and the particle-particle Tamm-Dancoff approximation (pp-TDA) to approximate the pairing matrix fluctuation and then determine excitation energies by the differences of two-electron addition/removal energies. This approach captures all types of interesting excitations: single and double excitations are described accurately, Rydberg excitations are in good agreement with experimental data and CT excitations display correct 1/R dependence. Furthermore, the pp-RPA and the pp-TDA have a computational cost similar to TDDFT and consequently are promising for practical calculations.

  6. Minimum uncertainty states in angular momentum and angle variables for charged particles in structured electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the phase-space properties of a charged particle in a static electromagnetic field exhibiting vortex pairs with complementary topological charges and in a pure gauge field. A stationary solution of the Schrödinger equation that minimizes the uncertainty relations for angular momentum and trigonometric functions of the phase is obtained. It does not exhibit vortices and the angular momentum is due to the gauge field only. Increasing the topological charge of the vortices increases the regions where the Wigner function in the angle–angular momentum plane takes negative values, and thus enhances the quantum character of the dynamics

  7. Cosmic censorship in overcharging a Reissner-Nordstroem black hole via charged particle absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a claim that a static-charged black hole (Reissner-Nordstroem black hole) can be overcharged by absorbing a charged test particle. If it is true, it might give a counter example to the weak cosmic censorship conjecture, which states that spacetime singularities are never observed by a distant observer. However, so far the proposed process has only been analyzed within a test particle approximation. Here, we claim that the backreaction effects of a charged particle cannot be neglected when judging whether the suggested process is really a counter example to the cosmic censorship conjecture. Furthermore, we argue that all the backreaction effects can be properly taken into account when we consider the trajectory of a particle on the border between the plunge and bounce orbits. In such marginal cases, we find that the Reissner-Nordstroem black hole can never be overcharged via the absorption of a charged particle. Since all the plunge orbits are expected to have a higher energy than the marginal orbit, we conclude that there is no supporting evidence that indicates the violation of the cosmic censorship in the proposed overcharging process.

  8. Spatiotemporal kinetics of γ-H2AX protein on charged particles induced DNA damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, H.; Chang, H. C.; Cho, I. C.; Chen, C. H.; Liu, C. S.; Chou, W. T.

    2014-08-01

    In several researches, it has been demonstrated that charged particles can induce more complex DNA damages. These complex damages have higher ability to cause the cell death or cell carcinogenesis. For this reason, clarifying the DNA repair mechanism after charged particle irradiation plays an important role in the development of charged particle therapy and space exploration. Unfortunately, the detail spatiotemporal kinetic of DNA damage repair is still unclear. In this study, we used γ-H2AX protein to investigate the spatiotemporal kinetics of DNA double strand breaks in alpha-particle irradiated HeLa cells. The result shows that the intensity of γ-H2AX foci increased gradually, and reached to its maximum at 30 min after irradiation. A good linear relationship can be observed between foci intensity and radiation dose. After 30 min, the γ-H2AX foci intensity was decreased with time passed, but remained a large portion (∼50%) at 48 h passed. The data show that the dissolution rate of γ-H2AX foci agreed with two components DNA repairing model. These results suggest that charged particles can induce more complex DNA damages and causing the retardation of DNA repair.

  9. A core-particle model for periodically focused ion beams with intense space-charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A core-particle (CP) model is derived to analyze transverse orbits of test-particles evolving in the presence of a core ion beam that has uniform density within an elliptical cross-section. The model can be applied to both quadrupole and solenoidal focused beams in periodic or aperiodic lattices. Efficient analytical descriptions of electrostatic space-charge fields external to the beam core are derived to simplify model equations. Image-charge effects are analyzed for an elliptical beam centered in a round, conducting pipe to estimate model corrections resulting from image-charge nonlinearities. Transformations are employed in diagnostics to remove coherent flutter motion associated with oscillations of the ion beam core due to rapidly varying, linear applied-focusing forces. Diagnostics for particle trajectories, Poincare phase-space projections, and single-particle emittances based on these transformations better illustrate the effects of nonlinear forces acting on particles evolving outside the core. A numerical code has been written based on this model. Example applications illustrate model characteristics. The CP model described has recently been applied to identify physical processes leading to space-charge transport limits for an rms-envelope matched beam in a periodic quadrupole focusing-channel [S.M. Lund, S.R. Chawla, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 561 (2006) 203]. Further characteristics of these processes are presented here

  10. Evaluation of charged-particle reactions for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New evaluations of the total reaction cross sections for 2H(d,n)3He, 2H(d,p)3H, 3H(t,2n)4He,3H(d,n)4He, and 3He(d,p)4He have been completed. These evaluations are based on all known published data from 1946 to 1990 and include over 1150 measured data points from 67 references. The purpose of this work is to provide a consistent and well-documented set of cross sections for use in calculations relating to fusion energy research. A new thermonuclear data file, TDF, and a library of FORTRAN subprograms to read the file have been developed. Calculated from the new evaluations, the TDF file contains information on the Maxwellian-averaged reaction rates as a function of reaction and plasma temperature and the Maxwellian-averaged average energy of the interacting particles and reaction products. Routines are included that provide thermally-broadened spectral information for the secondary reaction products. 67 refs., 18 figs

  11. A new detector array for charged particle spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Cowin, R L; Chappell, S P G; Clarke, N M; Freer, M; Fulton, B R; Cunningham, R A; Curtis, N; Dillon, G; Lilley, J; Jones, C D; Lee, P; Rae, W D M

    1999-01-01

    A compact and highly segmented detector array consisting of 44 gas-silicon-caesium iodide, position sensitive, particle identification detector telescopes and up to 10 position-sensitive, silicon strip detectors has been constructed for the study of light-ion-heavy-ion reactions including cluster break-up in the energy range 5-15 MeV/nucleon. The detectors are housed in a purpose built vacuum chamber. The telescopes are placed in fixed positions, covering the forward hemisphere from 3 to 30 deg. in the laboratory with the target placed at 535 mm from the front of the telescopes or 6-52 deg. with the target placed at 215 mm. The strip detectors are placed in any of 30 fixed positions in the forward hemisphere. For 85 MeV sup 1 sup 2 C ions the telescope energy resolution (gas plus silicon) is 345 keV with an angular resolution of 0.03 deg. . Using the gas-silicon section ions with Z up to 21 can be identified. For ions that pass through the silicon isotopic identification is achieved using the silicon-CsI comb...

  12. Isotope production in light charged particle induced fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis the production of neutron-rich isotopes in the mass region A=96-120 has been studied. Their yields have been extensively studied with the IGISOL isotope separator in the 238U (p,f) reaction. Deuteron and alpha particle induced reactions have also been investigated. In connection with this work several new isotopes have been identified for the first time. Specifically, the decays of 110Tc and 112Tc are discussed. Cumulative mass distributions as well as independent isotopic distributions have been constructed. In the method used here the total kinetic energy of the fragments is integrated so that there is no energy selection and the yields are post-neutron emission values. A theoretical model described in one of the joined papers has been used to extract the preneutron emission yields. These results can be used for estimating the possibilities of production of new neutron-rich isotopes, e.g. at the IGISOL facility. In addition, they are necessary to help refining the existing fission models. (orig.) (50 refs., 9 figs.)

  13. The energetic charged particle absorption signature of Mimas. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Allen, J.A.; Thomsen, M.F.; Randall, B.A.

    1980-07-19

    Data are presented for a one-minute dip in electron intensity that was observed coherently by four different detectors at 1546:51 ERT on DOY 244/1979 as Pioneer 11 crossed the orbit of Mimas inbound during its encounter with the Saturn system. By a detailed analysis, we show that this absorption microsignature in electron intensity is plausibly attributable to the particle sweeping effect of Mimas; the radial width of the signature is caused primarily by energy dispersion in the longitudinal drift rate of electrons and not by radial diffusion; the spectrum of trapped electrons at Mimas is nearly monoenergetic, centered at kinetic energy E = 1.59 MeV with a spread delta E approx. 0.1 MeV; this narrow spectrum, which is unique in magnetospheric physics, is caused by the band-pass filtering action of the successive inner satellites, most importantly Enceladus, on an inward diffusing population of electrons; and the radial diffusion coefficient D of electrons E = 1.0 MeV is 1.0 x 10 to the -10 power R(subs)-squared at L = 4 and and probably in the range 37 to 8.3 10 to the -12 power R(subs)-squared at L = 3.

  14. Spectral and angular distributions of charged particles outside biological shielding of the 70 GeV Serpukhov accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Space, angular and energy distributions of the charged particle of radiation field outside the Serpukhov accelerator shielding at different protons beam energies obtained with the ΔE-E spectrometer are presented. The influence of the accelerating complex operation on the charged particles field shaping outside the concrete and heterogeneous steel-concrete shieldings has been analyzed. The ratios between neutrons and charged particles of the radiation field outside the 70 GeV accelerator shielding have been estimated

  15. Stopping power and polarization induced in a plasma by a fast charged particle in circular motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villo-Perez, Isidro [Departamento de Electronica, Tecnologia de las Computadoras y Proyectos, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Cartagena (Spain); Arista, Nestor R. [Division Colisiones Atomicas, Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Bariloche (Argentina); Garcia-Molina, Rafael [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Murcia, Murcia (Spain)

    2002-03-28

    We describe the perturbation induced in a plasma by a charged particle in circular motion, analysing in detail the evolution of the induced charge, the electrostatic potential and the energy loss of the particle. We describe the initial transitory behaviour and the different ways in which convergence to final stationary solutions may be obtained depending on the basic parameters of the problem. The results for the stopping power show a resonant behaviour which may give place to large stopping enhancement values as compared with the case of particles in straight-line motion with the same linear velocity. The results also explain a resonant effect recently obtained for particles in circular motion in magnetized plasmas. (author)

  16. Universal behavior of charged particle production in heavy ion collisions at RHIC energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PHOBOS experiment at RHIC has measured the multiplicity of primary charged particles as a function of centrality and pseudorapidity in Au+Au collisions at √SNN = 19.6, 130 and 200 GeV. Two kinds of universal behavior are observed in charged particle production in heavy ion collisions. The first is that forward particle production, over a range of energies, follows a universal limiting curve with a non-trivial centrality dependence. The second arises from comparisons with pp/p-barp and e+e- data. ch>/part/2> in nuclear collisions at high energy scales with √s in a similar way as Nch in e+e- collisions and has a very weak centrality dependence. This feature may be related to a reduction in the leading particle effect due to the multiple collisions suffered per participant in heavy ion collisions

  17. UNIVERSAL BEHAVIOR OF CHARGED PARTICLE PRODUCTION IN HEAVY ION COLLISIONS AT RHIC ENERGIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PHOBOS experiment at RHIC has measured the multiplicity of primary charged particles as a function of centrality and pseudorapidity in Au+Au collisions at √(sNN) = 19.6, 130 and 200 GeV. Two observations indicate universal behavior of charged particle production in heavy ion collisions. The first is that forward particle production, over a range of energies, follows a universal limiting curve with a non-trivial centrality dependence. The second arises from comparisons with pp/(bar p)p and e+e- data. ch>/part/2> in nuclear collisions at high energy scales with √s in a similar way as Nch in e+e- collisions and has a very weak centrality dependence. These features may be related to a reduction in the leading particle effect due to the multiple collisions suffered per participant in heavy ion collisions

  18. Particle Acceleration through Multiple Conversions from Charged into Neutral State and Back

    CERN Document Server

    Derishev, E V; Kocharovsky, V V; Kocharovsky, Vl.V.

    2003-01-01

    We propose a new way of quick and very efficient acceleration of protons and/or electrons in relativistic bulk flows. The new mechanism takes advantage of conversion of particles from the charged state (protons or electrons/positrons) into neutral state (neutrons or photons) and back. In most cases, the conversion is photon-induced and requires presence of intense radiation fields, but the converter acceleration mechanism may also operate via inelastic nucleon-nucleon collisions. Like in the traditional model -- ``stochastic'' (or diffusive) acceleration, -- the acceleration cycle in our scenario consists of escape of particles from the relativistic flow followed by their return back after deflection from the ambient magnetic field. The difference is that the charge-changing reactions, which occur during the cycle, allow accelerated particles to increase their energies in each cycle by a factor roughly equal to the bulk Lorentz factor squared. The emerging spectra of accelerated particles can be very hard and...

  19. Universal behavior of charged particle production in heavy ion collisions at RHIC energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Peter A.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Holyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.; Phobos Collaboration

    2003-04-01

    The PHOBOS experiment at RHIC has measured the multiplicity of primary charged particles as a function of centrality and pseudorapidity in Au+Au collisions at √ SNN = 19.6, 130 and 200 GeV. Two kinds of universal behavior are observed in charged particle production in heavy ion collisions. The first is that forward particle production, over a range of energies, follows a universal limiting curve with a non-trivial centrality dependence. The second arises from comparisons with pp/ overlinepp and e +e - data. / in nuclear collisions at high energy scales with √ s in a similar way as Nch in e +e - collisions and has a very weak centrality dependence. This feature may be related to a reduction in the leading particle effect due to the multiple collisions suffered per participant in heavy ion collisions.

  20. Properties of an ultrarelativistic charged particle radiation in a constant homogeneous crossed electromagnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Bogdanov, O V; Lazarenko, G Yu

    2016-01-01

    The properties of radiation created by a classical ultrarelativistic scalar charged particle in a constant homogeneous crossed electromagnetic field are described both analytically and numerically with radiation reaction taken into account in the form of the Landau-Lifshitz equation. The total radiation naturally falls into two parts: the radiation formed at the entrance point of a particle into the crossed field (the synchrotron entrance radiation), and the radiation coming from the late-time asymptotics of a particle motion (the de-excited radiation). The synchrotron entrance radiation resembles, although does not coincide with, the ultrarelativistic limit of the synchrotron radiation: its distribution over energies and angles possesses almost the same properties. The de-excited radiation is soft, not concentrated in the plane of motion of a charged particle, and almost completely circularly polarized. The photon energy delivering the maximum to its spectral angular distribution decreases with increasing th...

  1. High efficiency charged-particle spectrometer using gridded ionization chamber for fast-neutron induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high efficiency charged particle spectrometer for fast neutron induced reactions has been developed using a gridded-ionization chamber taking advantage of its large solid angle and capability of energy-angle determination. It is characterized by high stopping-power and low background to be applicable for alpha-particles emitted by 15 MeV neutrons and protons for MeV incident neutrons. The spectrometer has been applied successfully for (n, alpha) and (n, p) reactions. (orig.)

  2. Classical dynamics of a charged particle in a laser field beyond the dipole approximation

    OpenAIRE

    Jameson, Paul; Khvedelidze, Arsen

    2008-01-01

    The classical dynamics of a charged particle traveling in a laser field modeled by an elliptically polarized monochromatic electromagnetic plane wave is discussed within the time reparametrization invariant form of the non-relativistic Hamilton-Jacobi theory. The exact parametric representation for a particle's orbit in an arbitrary plane wave background beyond the dipole approximation and including effect of the magnetic field is derived. For an elliptically polarized monochromatic plane wav...

  3. Curvature-induced dielectrophoresis for continuous separation of particles by charge in spiral microchannels

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Junjie; Xuan, Xiangchun

    2011-01-01

    The separation of particles from a heterogeneous mixture is critical in chemical and biological analyses. Many methods have been developed to separate particles in microfluidic devices. However, the majority of these separations have been limited to be size based and binary. We demonstrate herein a continuous dc electric field driven separation of carboxyl-coated and noncoated 10 μm polystyrene beads by charge in a double-spiral microchannel. This method exploits the inherent electric field g...

  4. On the computation of electromagnetic fields excited by relativistic bunches of charged particles in accelerating structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A numerical method is described for the calculaion of electromagnetic fields excited by arbitrarily shaped bunches of charged particles travelling through accelerating structures with cylindrical symmetry. The fields are computed by numerical integration of Maxwell's equations in the time domain. The computer program based on this method enables the user to calculate transient electromagnetic fields as well as the energy gain of particles inside the bunch. Some results are given for the LEP cavity and a pillbox. (orig.)

  5. Small-scale Gradients of Charged Particles in the Heliospheric Magnetic Field

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Fan; Giacalone, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Using numerical simulations of charged-particles propagating in the heliospheric magnetic field, we study small-scale gradients, or "dropouts", in the intensity of solar energetic particles seen at 1 AU. We use two turbulence models, the foot-point random motion model (Jokipii & Parker 1969; Giacalone et al. 2006) and two-component model (Matthaeus et al. 1990), to generate fluctuating magnetic fields similar to spacecraft observations at 1 AU. The turbulence models include a Kolmogorov-like ...

  6. Measurements of Electric Dipole Moments of Charged Particles at Storage Rings

    OpenAIRE

    Hejny, Volker; JEDI Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Electric Dipole Moments (EDM) of elementary particles are considered to be one of the most powerful tools to investigate CP violation beyond the Standard Model and to find an explanation for the dominance of matter over antimatter in our universe. Up to now experiments concentrated on neutral systems (neutrons, atoms, molecules). Storage rings offer the possibility to measure EDMs of charged particles by observing the influence of the EDM on the spin motion. The Cooler Synchrotron COSY at the...

  7. Adjoint Monte Carlo calculation of charged plasma particle flux to wall

    CERN Document Server

    Äkäslompolo, Simppa

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript describes an adjoint/reverse Monte Carlo method to calculate the flux of charged plasma particles to the wall of e.g. a tokamak. Two applications are described: a fusion product activation probe and a neutral beam injection prompt loss measurement with a fast ion loss diagnostic. In both cases, the collisions of the particles with the background plasma can be omitted.

  8. Charged particle production and correlations at high transverse momentum at the CERN intersecting storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the production of identified charged particles in pp collisions at c.m. energy of 63 GeV in events with an identified high-psub(T) trigger particle. The measurements were performed at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings using the Axial Field Spectrometer. Production ratios are presented as a function of psub(T) in the range 2.5 to 8 GeV/c. (orig.)

  9. Determining the charged particle energy losses with usage of transmutation isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Didik, V A; Skoryatina, E A; Kozlovskij, V V

    2002-01-01

    The method for determining the charged particles energy losses in a solid body, based on the comparison of the transmutation isotopes profiles, formed by irradiation with the particles of various energies, is proposed. The protons energy losses in copper were determined by the described method. The irradiation was performed on a cyclotron by the energies of 8, 10, 12.5, 15.5 and 18 MeV. The obtained results agree well with the published data

  10. Charged particle multiplicities in nuclear collisions at 200 GeV/N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on multiplicities of charged particles produced in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at 200 GeV per nucleon are presented. It is shown that the mean multiplicity of negative particles is proportional to the mean number of nucleons participating in the collision both for nucleus-nucleus and proton-nucleus collisions. The apparent consistency of pion multiplicity data with the assumption of an incoherent superposition of nucleon-nucleon collisions is critically discussed. (orig.)

  11. Physical measurements for ion range verification in charged particle therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This PhD thesis reports on the experimental investigation of the prompt photons created during the fragmentation of the carbon beam used in particle therapy. Two series of experiments have been performed at the GANIL and GSI facilities with 95 MeV/u and 305 MeV/u 12C6+ ion beams stopped in PMMA and water phantoms. In both experiments a clear correlation was obtained between the C-ion range and the prompt photon profile. A major issue of these measurements is the discrimination between the prompt photon signal (which is correlated with the ion path) and a vast neutron background uncorrelated with the Bragg-Peak position. Two techniques are employed to allow for this photon-neutron discrimination: the time-of-flight (TOF) and the pulse-shape-discrimination (PSD). The TOF technique allowed demonstrating the correlation of the prompt photon production and the primary ion path while the PSD technique brought great insights to better understand the photon and neutron contribution in TOF spectra. In this work we demonstrated that a collimated set-up detecting prompt photons by means of TOF measurements, could allow real-time control of the longitudinal position of the Bragg-peak under clinical conditions. In the second part of the PhD thesis a simulation study was performed with Geant4 Monte Carlo code to assess the influence of the main design parameters on the efficiency and spatial resolution achievable with a multidetector and multi-collimated Prompt Gamma Camera. Several geometrical configurations for both collimators and stack of detectors have been systematically studied and the considerations on the main design constraints are reported. (author)

  12. Physical measurements for ion range verification in charged particle therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Testa, M.

    2010-10-15

    This PhD thesis reports on the experimental investigation of the prompt photons created during the fragmentation of the carbon beam used in particle therapy. Two series of experiments have been performed at the GANIL and GSI facilities with 95 MeV/u and 305 MeV/u {sup 12}C{sup 6+} ion beams stopped in PMMA and water phantoms. In both experiments a clear correlation was obtained between the C-ion range and the prompt photon profile. A major issue of these measurements is the discrimination between the prompt photon signal (which is correlated with the ion path) and a vast neutron background uncorrelated with the Bragg-Peak position. Two techniques are employed to allow for this photon-neutron discrimination: the time-of-flight (TOF) and the pulse-shape-discrimination (PSD). The TOF technique allowed demonstrating the correlation of the prompt photon production and the primary ion path while the PSD technique brought great insights to better understand the photon and neutron contribution in TOF spectra. In this work we demonstrated that a collimated set-up detecting prompt photons by means of TOF measurements, could allow real-time control of the longitudinal position of the Bragg-peak under clinical conditions. In the second part of the PhD thesis a simulation study was performed with Geant4 Monte Carlo code to assess the influence of the main design parameters on the efficiency and spatial resolution achievable with a multidetector and multi-collimated Prompt Gamma Camera. Several geometrical configurations for both collimators and stack of detectors have been systematically studied and the considerations on the main design constraints are reported. (author)

  13. Life-span studies on mice exposed to heavy charged particles or photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The carcinogenic risk associated with heavy charged (HZE) particles is currently undefined. Precise relationships have been established for relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and linear energy transfer (LET) for the killing of cells in vitro and for other short-term (acute) biological responses to charged particles, but comparable information is lacking on carcinogenic response. Experiments are in progress to study induction/promotion of Harderian gland tumors, and the present life-span studies should provide complementary information because it is inferred that over the dose range explored in the present experiments, most of the life shortening is attributable to induction/promotion of neoplastic diseases. The information sought is important both for understanding fundamental mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis and for assessing the risk of the space radiation environment and of radiation therapy or other medical applications of heavy charged particles in young patients whose life expectancy could permit expression of a tumor. The hypothesis tested in the core experiment, designated SKYHOOK, is that LET dependence for life shortening and excess mortality rates observed after mice are exposed to heavy charged particles (HZE) will conform to existing theory and observations based on other endpoints; namely, a peak RBE at a dose-averaged LET value of approximately 100 keV/μm, with RBE diminishing at lesser and greater values of LET. Because results on cell killing show different RBE values, at the same approximate LET, for different charged particles, the possibility exists that LET by itself is not a fully adequate descriptor for biological response, and physical characteristics such as mass, charge, or velocity may also be of great importance

  14. An Energy- and Charge-conserving, Implicit, Electrostatic Particle-in-Cell Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Guangye; Barnes, Daniel C

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses a novel fully implicit formulation for a 1D electrostatic particle-in-cell (PIC) plasma simulation approach. Unlike earlier implicit electrostatic PIC approaches (which are based on a linearized Vlasov-Poisson formulation), ours is based on a nonlinearly converged Vlasov-Amp\\`ere (VA) model. By iterating particles and fields to a tight nonlinear convergence tolerance, the approach features superior stability and accuracy properties, avoiding most of the accuracy pitfalls in earlier implicit PIC implementations. In particular, the formulation is stable against temporal (CFL) and spatial (aliasing) instabilities. It is charge- and energy-conserving to numerical roundoff for arbitrary implicit time steps. While momentum is not exactly conserved, errors are kept small by an adaptive particle sub-stepping orbit integrator, which is instrumental to prevent particle tunneling. The VA model is orbit-averaged along particle orbits to enforce an energy conservation theorem with particle sub-steppin...

  15. Fog camera to visualize ionizing charged particles; Camara de niebla para visualizar particulas cargadas ionizantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trujillo A, L.; Rodriguez R, N. I.; Vega C, H. R., E-mail: ingtrujilloa@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    The human being can not perceive the different types of ionizing radiation, natural or artificial, present in the nature, for what appropriate detection systems have been developed according to the sensibility to certain radiation type and certain energy type. The objective of this work was to build a fog camera to visualize the traces, and to identify the trajectories, produced by charged particles with high energy, coming mainly of the cosmic rays. The origin of the cosmic rays comes from the solar radiation generated by solar eruptions where the protons compose most of this radiation. It also comes, of the galactic radiation which is composed mainly of charged particles and gamma rays that comes from outside of the solar system. These radiation types have energy time millions higher that those detected in the earth surface, being more important as the height on the sea level increases. These particles in their interaction produce secondary particles that are detectable by means of this cameras type. The camera operates by means of a saturated atmosphere of alcohol vapor. In the moment in that a charged particle crosses the cold area of the atmosphere, the medium is ionized and the particle acts like a condensation nucleus of the alcohol vapor, leaving a visible trace of its trajectory. The built camera was very stable, allowing the detection in continuous form and the observation of diverse events. (Author)

  16. Electrostatics in dissipative particle dynamics using Ewald sums with point charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrón-Mejía, Ketzasmin A; López-Rendón, Roberto; Goicochea, Armando Gama

    2016-10-26

    A proper treatment of electrostatic interactions is crucial for the accurate calculation of forces in computer simulations. Electrostatic interactions are typically modeled using Ewald-based methods, which have become some of the cornerstones upon which many other methods for the numerical computation of electrostatic interactions are based. However, their use with charge distributions rather than point charges requires the inclusion of ansatz for the solutions of the Poisson equation, since there is no exact solution known for smeared out charges. The interest in incorporating electrostatic interactions at the scales of length and time that are relevant for the study the physics of soft condensed matter has increased considerably. Using mesoscale simulation techniques, such as dissipative particle dynamics (DPD), allows us to reach longer time scales in numerical simulations, without abandoning the particulate description of the problem. The main problem with incorporating electrostatics into DPD simulations is that DPD particles are soft and those particles with opposite charge can form artificial clusters of ions. Here we show that one can incorporate the electrostatic interactions through Ewald sums with point charges in DPD if larger values of coarse-graining degree are used, where DPD is truly mesoscopic. Using point charges with larger excluded volume interactions, the artificial formation of ionic pairs with point charges can be avoided and one obtains correct predictions. We establish ranges of parameters useful for detecting boundaries where artificial formation of ionic pairs occurs. Lastly, using point charges we predict the scaling properties of polyelectrolytes in solvents of varying quality, and obtain predictions that are in agreement with calculations that use other methods and with recent experimental results. PMID:27541198

  17. Measurements of the Charged and Neutral Particle Spectra on the Martian Surface with MSL/RAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Jan

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) onboard Mars Science Laboratory’s rover Curiosity is the first ever instrument to measure the energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars. Charged particles are a major component of this environment, both galactic cosmic rays propagating to the Martian surface and secondary particles created by interactions of these cosmic rays with the atoms of the Martian atmosphere and soil. Another important factor for determining the biological impact of the Martian surface radiation is the specific contribution of neutrons, which possess a high biological effectiveness. In contrast to charged particles, neutrons and gamma rays are generally only measured indirectly. Their measurement is the result of a complex convolution of the incident particle spectrum with the measurement process. We apply an inversion method to calculate the gamma/neutron spectra from the RAD neutral particle measurements. Here we show first surface measurements of the Martian particle spectra and compare them to theoretical predictions. Measuring the Martian particle spectra is an essential step for determining the mutagenic influences to past or present life at or beneath the Martian surface as well as the radiation hazard for future human exploration, including the shielding design of a potential habitat.

  18. The modified Newton method for the solution of the inverse scattering problem with charged particles at fixed energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modified Newton method, previously developed and used for neutral particle scattering, is extended for the solution of the inverse scattering problem with charged particles and applied to elastic nuclear heavy ion scattering. (orig.)

  19. Spatiotemporal kinetics of γ-H2AX protein on charged particles induced DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, H., E-mail: hniu@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chang, H.C. [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Cho, I.C. [Institute for Radiological Research, Chang Gung University and Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chen, C.H. [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Liu, C.S. [Cancer Center of Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chou, W.T. [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Charged particles can induce more complex DNA damages, and these complex damages have higher ability to cause the cell death or cell carcinogenesis. • In this study, we used γ-H2AX protein to investigate the spatiotemporal kinetics of DNA double strand breaks in particle irradiated HeLa cells. • The HeLa cells were irradiated by 400 keV alpha-particles in four different dosages. • The result shows that a good linear relationship can be observed between foci number and radiation dose. • The data shows that the dissolution rate of γ-H2AX foci agree with the two components DNA repairing model, and it was decreasing as the radiation dose increased. • These results suggest that charged particles can induce more complex DNA damages and causing the retardation of DNA repair. - Abstract: In several researches, it has been demonstrated that charged particles can induce more complex DNA damages. These complex damages have higher ability to cause the cell death or cell carcinogenesis. For this reason, clarifying the DNA repair mechanism after charged particle irradiation plays an important role in the development of charged particle therapy and space exploration. Unfortunately, the detail spatiotemporal kinetic of DNA damage repair is still unclear. In this study, we used γ-H2AX protein to investigate the spatiotemporal kinetics of DNA double strand breaks in alpha-particle irradiated HeLa cells. The result shows that the intensity of γ-H2AX foci increased gradually, and reached to its maximum at 30 min after irradiation. A good linear relationship can be observed between foci intensity and radiation dose. After 30 min, the γ-H2AX foci intensity was decreased with time passed, but remained a large portion (∼50%) at 48 h passed. The data show that the dissolution rate of γ-H2AX foci agreed with two components DNA repairing model. These results suggest that charged particles can induce more complex DNA damages and causing the retardation of DNA

  20. Charged particle density distributions in Au + Au collisions at relativistic heavy-ion collider energies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fauad Rami

    2003-05-01

    Charged particle pseudorapidity distributions have been measured in Au + Au collisions using the BRAHMS detector at RHIC. The results are presented as a function of the collision centrality and the center of mass energy. They are compared to the predictions of different parton scattering models and the important role of hard scattering processes at RHIC energies is discussed.