WorldWideScience

Sample records for charged particle spectra

  1. Continuum of the spectra of emitted charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The continuous part of nuclear particle spectra situated between direct reactions and compound nuclear reactions is of importance due to its great yield. Because most reactions studied so far have only nucleons in the entrance or exit channel, respectively, the authors have measured charged particle spectra from complex particle induced reactions: deuterons, helions and alphas with bombarding energies up to 40 MeV/nucleon. From spectra measured at both forward and backward angles angle integrated spectra have been deduced which can be compared with the predictions of reaction models. (orig./AH)

  2. Charged-particle LET-spectra measurements aboard LDEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of charged particles was measured in the 5 to 250 keV/micron (water) interval with CR-39 and in the 500 to 1500 keV/micron (water) interval with polycarbonate plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs) under different shielding depths in the P0006 experiment. The optimal processing conditions were determined for both PNTDs in relation to the relatively high track densities due to the long term exposure in space. The total track density was measured over the selected samples, and tracks in coincidence on the facing surfaces of two detector sheets were selected for measuring at the same position on each sheet. The short range (SR) and Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) components were measured separately with CR-39 PNTDs and the integral dose and dose rate spectra of charged particles were also determined. The high LET portion of the LET spectra was measured with polycarbonate PNTDs with high statistical accuracy. This is a unique result of this exposure due to the low flux of these types of particles for typical spaceflight durations. The directional dependence of the charged particles at the position of the P0006 experiment was also studied by four small side stacks which surrounded the main stack and by analyzing the dip angle and polar angle distributions of the measured SR and GCR particle tracks in the main stack

  3. Transverse momentum spectra for charged particles at the CERN proton-antiproton collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have measured transverse momentum spectra up to 10 GeV/c for charged particles produced centrally in proton-antiproton collisions at 540 GeV in the centre of mass at the CERN collider. Our results are compared with data at ISR energies and with the predictions of a QCD model. The charged particle spectrum shows a clear dependence on charged track multiplicity. (orig.)

  4. Measurements of the Charged and Neutral Particle Spectra on the Martian Surface with MSL/RAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Jan

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) onboard Mars Science Laboratory’s rover Curiosity is the first ever instrument to measure the energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars. Charged particles are a major component of this environment, both galactic cosmic rays propagating to the Martian surface and secondary particles created by interactions of these cosmic rays with the atoms of the Martian atmosphere and soil. Another important factor for determining the biological impact of the Martian surface radiation is the specific contribution of neutrons, which possess a high biological effectiveness. In contrast to charged particles, neutrons and gamma rays are generally only measured indirectly. Their measurement is the result of a complex convolution of the incident particle spectrum with the measurement process. We apply an inversion method to calculate the gamma/neutron spectra from the RAD neutral particle measurements. Here we show first surface measurements of the Martian particle spectra and compare them to theoretical predictions. Measuring the Martian particle spectra is an essential step for determining the mutagenic influences to past or present life at or beneath the Martian surface as well as the radiation hazard for future human exploration, including the shielding design of a potential habitat.

  5. Progress in the pellet charge exchange diagnostics on LHD and local neutral particle spectra analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production, confinement and thermalization of high-energy particles are the fundamental issues in fusion plasma ion kinetics. The ion distribution function ft(ν, θ, t) and its evolution under the ion cyclotron heating (ICH) and neutral beam injection (NBI) are studied by energy resolved charge exchange neutral particle flux measurements. For helical systems, such as LHD, local diagnostics are required due to the complex 3D magnetic configuration. First radially resolved measurements of local H0 atomic energy spectra have been made on LHD by the pellet charge exchange (PCX) method with a Compact Neutral Particle Analyzer (CNPA). The diagnostic technique, the initial measurement results in the range 10-100 keV and the data analysis are described. (author)

  6. Charged particle spectra in αα and αp collisions at the CERN ISR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momenta of charged particles produced in inelastic αα, αp, and pp collisions were measured using the Split-Field-Magnet detector at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings. Inclusive and semi-inclusive spectra are presented as a function of rapidity y, Feynman-x, and transverse momentum psub(T). The inclusive y distributions agree well with predictions of the dual parton model; the highest particle densities are reached at yapprox.=0 and the momenta of leading protons decrease significantly for increasing total multiplicity. ''Temperatures'' are equal in αα, αp, and pp interactions. The psub(T) distributions depend weakly on the multiplicity. (orig.)

  7. Transverse energy distribution, charged particle multiplicities and spectra in 16O-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The HELIOS (High Energy Lepton and Ion Spectrometer) experiment, installed at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron, proposes to examine in details the physical properties of a state of high energy created in nuclei by ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. It is generally believed that, at high densities or temperatures, a phase transition to a plasma of quark and gluons will occur. The dynamic of the expansion of such a plasma and its subsequent condensation into a hadron gas should markedly affect the composition and momentum distribution of the emerging particles and photons. The HELIOS experimental setup therefore combines 4π calorimetric coverage with measurements of inclusive particle spectra, two particle correlations, low and high mass lepton pairs and photons. The emphasis is placed on transverse energy flow (E/sub T/) measurements with good energy resolution, and the ability to trigger the acquisition of data in a variety of E/sub T/ ranges, thereby selecting the impact parameter or the violence of the collisions. This short note presents HELIOS results, for the most part still preliminary, on 16O-nucleus collisions at the incident energies of 60 and 200 GeV per nucleon. The E/sub T/ distributions from Al, Ag and W targets are discussed and compared to the associated charged particle multiplicities from W. Charged particle and (converted) photon spectra measured with the external magnetic spectrometer are compared for 16O + W and p + W collisions at 200 GeV per nucleon. 5 refs., 7 figs

  8. Secondary charged particle spectra arising from 14 MeV neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the energy spectra of the charged secondaries arising in a few media under 14 MeV neutron irradiation. Six media are considered. They are C, N, O, CO2, air and soft tissue. The alpha particles and recoiling nuclei due to (n, alpha) events and the recoils produced in elastic and inelastic scattering events are considered in detail. The different excitation levels in which the recoiling nuclei may be left and also their anisotropic angular distributions are taken into account. A total of 43 individual reactions in C, N, and O are considered and five additional reactions could not be included for want of adequate data. Dose- and fluence-average LET's and average energy of these recoils are obtained from the calculated spectra. (author)

  9. The knee in the cosmic ray energy spectrum from the simultaneous EAS charged particles and muon density spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Bijay, Biplab; Bhadra, Arunava

    2015-01-01

    In this work we examine with the help of Monte Carlo simulation whether a consistent primary energy spectrum of cosmic rays emerges from both the experimentally observed total charged particles and muon size spectra of cosmic ray extensive air showers considering primary composition may or may not change beyond the knee of the energy spectrum. It is found that EAS-TOP observations consistently infer a knee in the primary energy spectrum provided the primary is pure unchanging iron whereas no consistent primary spectrum emerges from simultaneous use of the KASCADE observed total charged particle and muon spectra. However, it is also found that when primary composition changes across the knee the estimation of spectral index of total charged particle spectrum is quite tricky, depends on the choice of selection of points near the knee in the size spectrum.

  10. Confronting current NLO parton fragmentation functions with inclusive charged-particle spectra at hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inclusive spectra of charged particles measured at high transverse momenta (pT≳2 GeV/c) in proton–proton and proton–antiproton collisions in the range of center-of-mass energies √(s)=200–7000 GeV are compared with next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations using seven recent sets of parton-to-hadron fragmentation functions (FFs). Accounting for the uncertainties in the scale choices and in the parton distribution functions, we find that most of the theoretical predictions tend to overpredict the measured LHC and Tevatron cross sections by up to a factor of two. We identify the currently too-hard gluon-to-hadron FFs as the probable source of the problem, and justify the need to refit the FFs using the available LHC and Tevatron data in a region of transverse momenta, pT≳10 GeV/c, which is supposedly free from additional non-perturbative contributions and where the scale uncertainty is only modest

  11. Measurement of charged particle spectra in deep-inelastic ep scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charged particle production in deep-inelastic ep scattering is measured with the H1 detector at HERA. The kinematic range of the analysis covers low photon virtualities, 522, and small values of Bjorken-x, 10-4-2. The analysis is performed in the hadronic centre-of-mass system. The charged particle densities are measured as a function of pseudorapidity (η*) and transverse momentum (pT*) in the range 0*T*2. The data are compared to predictions from different Monte Carlo generators implementing various options for hadronisation and parton evolutions.

  12. Research on the detection of fluxes and spectra of charged particles in space

    CERN Document Server

    Sha Jian Jun; Yu Jin Nan; Zhang Wei Guo; Xiang Hong Wen; Wu Zhong Xiang; Cai Zhen Bo; Zhu Wen Ming

    2002-01-01

    A multi-functional spectrometer-identifier was developed for studying fluxes and spectra of protons, alpha particles, oxygen and iron ions in the near-earth space. The telescope system of this spectrometer consists of three Au-Si surface barrier detectors with different thickness and scintillation CsI (Tl). Owing to adopting the DELTA E-E method in particles identification and improved fast response electronics system in data processing and acquisition system, the spectrometer can be used to simultaneously and separately detect the fluxes and spectra of protons of 1-200 MeV, alpha particles of 1-200 MeV/u(nucleon), oxygen ions of 1.7-496 MeV/u and iron ions of 2.5 MeV-1.0 GeV/u

  13. Measurement of Charged Particle Spectra in Deep-Inelastic ep Scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Alexa, C; Baghdasaryan, A; Baghdasaryan, S; Bartel, W; Begzsuren, K; Belousov, A; Belov, P; Boudry, V; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I; Brandt, G; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Britzger, D; Buniatyan, A; Bylinkin, A; Bystritskaya, L; Campbell, A J; Cantun Avila, K B; Ceccopieri, F; Cerny, K; Chekelian, V; Contreras, J G; Cvach, J; Dainton, J B; Daum, K; De Wolf, E A; Diaconu, C; Dobre, M; Dodonov, V; Dossanov, A; Eckerlin, G; Egli, S; Elsen, E; Favart, L; Fedotov, A; Felst, R; Feltesse, J; Ferencei, J; Fischer, D J; Fleischer, M; Fomenko, A; Gabathuler, E; Gayler, J; Ghazaryan, S; Glazov, A; Goerlich, L; Gogitidze, N; Gouzevitch, M; Grab, C; Grebenyuk, A; Greenshaw, T; Grindhammer, G; Habib, S; Haidt, D; Henderson, R C W; Hennekemper, E; Herbst, M; Herrera, G; Hildebrandt, M; Hiller, K H; Hladky, J; Hoffmann, D; Horisberger, R; Hreus, T; Huber, F; Jacquet, M; Janssen, X; Jonsson, L; Jung, H; Kapichine, M; Kiesling, C; Klein, M; Kleinwort, C; Kogler, R; Kostka, P; Kramer, M; Kretzschmar, J; Kruger, K; Landon, M P P J; Lange, W; Laycock, P; Lebedev, A; Levonian, S; Lipka, K; List, B; List, J; Lobodzinski, B; Lopez-Fernandez, R; Lubimov, V; Malinovski, E; Martyn, H H U; Maxfield, S S J; Mehta, A; Meyer, A B; Meyer, H; Meyer, J; Mikocki, S; Milcewicz-Mika, I; Morozov, A; Morris, J V; Muller, K; Naumann, Th; Newman, P R; Niebuhr, C; Nikitin, D; Nowak, G; Nowak, K; Olsson, J E; Ozerov, D; Pahl, P; Palichik, V; Pandurovic, M; Pascaud, C; Patel, G D; Perez, E; Petrukhin, A; Picuric, I; Pirumov, H; Pitzl, D; Placakyte, R; Pokorny, B; Polifka, R; Radescu, V; Raicevic, N; Ravdandorj, T; Reimer, P; Rizvi, E; Robmann, P; Roosen, R; Rostovtsev, A; Rotaru, M; Ruiz Tabasco, J E; Rusakov, S; Salek, D; Sankey, D P C; Sauter, M; Sauvan, E; Schmitt, S; Schoeffel, L; Schoning, A; Schultz-Coulon, H H C; Sefkow, F; Shushkevich, S; Soloviev, Y; Sopicki, P; South, D; Spaskov, V; Specka, A; Staykova, Z; Steder, M; Stella, B; Stoicea, G; Straumann, U; Sykora, T; Thompson, P D; Traynor, D; Truol, P; Tsakov, I; Tseepeldorj, B; Turnau, J; Valkarova, A; Vallee, C; Van Mechelen, P; Vazdik, Y; Wegener, D; Wunsch, E; Zacek, J; Zalesak, J; Zhang, Z; Zlebcik, R; Zohrabyan, H; Zomer, F

    2013-01-01

    Charged particle production in deep-inelastic ep scattering is measured with the H1 detector at HERA. The kinematic range of the analysis covers low photon virtualities, 5 < Q^2 < 100 GeV^2, and small values of Bjorken-x, 10^{-4} < x < 10^{-2}. The analysis is performed in the hadronic centre-of-mass system. The charged particle densities are measured as a function of pseudorapidity (eta^*) and transverse momentum (p_T^*) in the range 0< \\eta^* < 5 and 0< p_T^* < 10$ GeV differentially in x and Q^2. The data are compared to predictions from different Monte Carlo generators implementing various options for hadronisation and parton evolutions.

  14. Measurement of charged particle spectra in deep-inelastic ep scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexa, C. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Andreev, V. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Baghdasaryan, A. [Yerevan Physics Institute (Armenia)] [and others; Collaboration: H1 Collaboration

    2013-01-15

    Charged particle production in deep-inelastic ep scattering is measured with the H1 detector at HERA. The kinematic range of the analysis covers low photon virtualities, 5charged particle densities are measured as a function of pseudorapidity ({eta}{sup *}) and transverse momentum (p{sub T}{sup *}) in the range 0<{eta}{sup *}<5 and 0

  15. Measurement of charged particle spectra in deep-inelastic ep scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexa, C.; Dobre, M.; Rotaru, M.; Stoicea, G. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Andreev, V.; Belousov, A.; Fomenko, A.; Gogitidze, N.; Lebedev, A.; Malinovski, E.; Rusakov, S.; Vazdik, Y. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Baghdasaryan, A.; Baghdasaryan, S.; Zohrabyan, H. [Yerevan Physics Institute, Yerevan (Armenia); Bartel, W.; Belov, P.; Brinkmann, M.; Britzger, D.; Campbell, A.J.; Eckerlin, G.; Elsen, E.; Felst, R.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grebenyuk, A.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Kleinwort, C.; Kraemer, M.; Krueger, K.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; List, J.; Lobodzinski, B.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, J.; Niebuhr, C.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Pahl, P.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Radescu, V.; Schmitt, S.; Sefkow, F.; Shushkevich, S.; South, D.; Steder, M.; Wuensch, E. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Begzsuren, K.; Ravdandorj, T. [Institute of Physics and Technology of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Boudry, V.; Specka, A. [Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, LLR, Palaiseau (France); Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Pandurovic, M. [University of Belgrade, Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (Serbia); Brandt, G. [Oxford University, Department of Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom); Brisson, V.; Jacquet, M.; Pascaud, C.; Zhang, Z.; Zomer, F. [Universite Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, LAL, Orsay (France); Buniatyan, A.; Huber, F.; Pirumov, H.; Sauter, M.; Schoening, A. [Universitaet Heidelberg, Physikalisches Institut, Heidelberg (Germany); Bylinkin, A.; Bystritskaya, L.; Fedotov, A.; Lubimov, V.; Rostovtsev, A.; Tseepeldorj, B. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Cantun Avila, K.B.; Contreras, J.G.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E. [CINVESTAV, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Ceccopieri, F.; Wolf, E.A. de; Favart, L.; Hreus, T.; Janssen, X.; Roosen, R.; Staykova, Z.; Mechelen, P.Van [Brussels and Universiteit Antwerpen, Inter-University Institute for High Energies ULB-VUB, Antwerpen (Belgium); Cerny, K.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Salek, D.; Valkarova, A.; Zacek, J.; Zlebcik, R. [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Praha (Czech Republic); Chekelian, V.; Grindhammer, G.; Kiesling, C. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Cvach, J.; Hladky and grave, J.; Reimer, P.; Zalesak, J. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Institute of Physics, Praha (Czech Republic); Dainton, J.B.; Gabathuler, E.; Greenshaw, T.; Klein, M.; Kretzschmar, J.; Laycock, P.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Patel, G.D. [University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Daum, K.; Meyer, H. [Universitaet Wuppertal, Fachbereich C, Wuppertal (Germany); Diaconu, C.; Hoffmann, D.; Sauvan, E.; Vallee, C. [Aix-Marseille Univ, CNRS/IN2P3, CPPM, Marseille (France); Dodonov, V. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Dossanov, A. [Universitaet Hamburg, Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Hamburg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Egli, S.; Hildebrandt, M.; Horisberger, R. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland); Feltesse, J.; Perez, E.; Schoeffel, L. [CE-Saclay, CEA, DSM/Irfu, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Ferencei, J. [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Institute of Experimental Physics, Kosice (Slovakia); Goerlich, L.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Nowak, G.; Sopicki, P.; Turnau, J. [Institute for Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Grab, C. [ETH, Institut fuer Teilchenphysik, Zuerich (Switzerland); Henderson, R.C.W. [University of Lancaster, Department of Physics, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Hennekemper, E.; Herbst, M.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C. [Universitaet Heidelberg, Kirchhoff-Institut fuer Physik, Heidelberg (Germany); Herrera, G.; Lopez-Fernandez, R. [CINVESTAV IPN, Departamento de Fisica, Mexico City (Mexico); Hiller, K.H.; Kostka, P.; Lange, W.; Naumann, T. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Joensson, L. [University of Lund, Physics Department, Lund (Sweden); Jung, H. [Brussels and Universiteit Antwerpen, Inter-University Institute for High Energies ULB-VUB, Antwerpen (Belgium); DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Kapichine, M.; Morozov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Palichik, V.; Spaskov, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Kogler, R.; Nowak, K. [Universitaet Hamburg, Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Hamburg (Germany); Landon, M.P.J.; Rizvi, E.; Traynor, D. [Queen Mary, University of London, School of Physics and Astronomy, London (United Kingdom); Martyn, H.U. [I. Physikalisches Institut der RWTH, Aachen (Germany); Morris, J.V.; Sankey, D.P.C. [STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Mueller, K.; Robmann, P.; Straumann, U.; Truoel, P. [Physik-Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Newman, P.R.; Thompson, P.D. [University of Birmingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Picuric, I.; Raicevic, N. [University of Montenegro, Faculty of Science, Podgorica (Montenegro); Soloviev, Y. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Stella, B. [Dipartimento di Fisica Universita di Roma Tre (Italy); INFN Roma 3, Roma (Italy); Sykora, T. [Brussels and Universiteit Antwerpen, Inter-University Institute for High Energies ULB-VUB, Antwerpen (Belgium); Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Praha (Czech Republic); Tsakov, I. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia (Bulgaria); Wegener, D. [TU Dortmund, Institut fuer Physik, Dortmund (Germany); Collaboration: The H1 Collaboration

    2013-04-15

    Charged particle production in deep-inelastic ep scattering is measured with the H1 detector at HERA. The kinematic range of the analysis covers low photon virtualities, 5 < Q{sup 2} < 100 GeV{sup 2}, and small values of Bjorken-x, 10{sup -4} < x < 10{sup -2}. The analysis is performed in the hadronic centre-of-mass system. The charged particle densities are measured as a function of pseudorapidity ({eta}{sup *}) and transverse momentum (p{sub T}{sup *}) in the range 0<{eta}{sup *} < 5 and 0

  16. Charged particle spectra measured during the transit to Mars with the Mars Science Laboratory Radiation Assessment Detector (MSL/RAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehresmann, Bent; Hassler, Donald M.; Zeitlin, Cary; Guo, Jingnan; Köhler, Jan; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Appel, Jan K.; Brinza, David E.; Rafkin, Scot C. R.; Böttcher, Stephan I.; Burmeister, Sönke; Lohf, Henning; Martin, Cesar; Böhm, Eckart; Matthiä, Daniel; Reitz, Günther

    2016-08-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) started its 253-day cruise to Mars on November 26, 2011. During cruise the Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD), situated on board the Curiosity rover, conducted measurements of the energetic-particle radiation environment inside the spacecraft. This environment consists mainly of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs), as well as secondary particles created by interactions of these GCRs with the spacecraft. The RAD measurements can serve as a proxy for the radiation environment a human crew would encounter during a transit to Mars, for a given part of the solar cycle, assuming that a crewed vehicle would have comparable shielding. The measurements of radiological quantities made by RAD are important in themselves, and, the same data set allow for detailed analysis of GCR-induced particle spectra inside the spacecraft. This provides important inputs for the evaluation of current transport models used to model the free-space (and spacecraft) radiation environment for different spacecraft shielding and different times in the solar cycle. Changes in these conditions can lead to significantly different radiation fields and, thus, potential health risks, emphasizing the need for validated transport codes. Here, we present the first measurements of charged particle fluxes inside a spacecraft during the transit from Earth to Mars. Using data obtained during the last two month of the cruise to Mars (June 11-July 14, 2012), we have derived detailed energy spectra for low-Z particles stopping in the instrument's detectors, as well as integral fluxes for penetrating particles with higher energies. Furthermore, we analyze the temporal changes in measured proton fluxes during quiet solar periods (i.e., when no solar energetic particle events occurred) over the duration of the transit (December 9, 2011-July 14, 2012) and correlate them with changing heliospheric conditions.

  17. Abundances, charge states, and energy spectra of helium and heavy ions during solar particle events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloeckler, G.; Sciambi, R.; Fan, C. Y.; Hovestadt, D.

    1975-01-01

    Carbon and oxygen energy spectra observed during several solar events indicate a systematic deviation of these spectra from a simple power law: the spectra bend down below about 100 keV/nuc and the amount of this bending is highly correlated with the size of the flare, as measured by the 'event averaged' flux of 130-220 keV protons. The energy spectra of helium computed for the same time periods do not show a similar feature. A large variability of the alpha/CNO ratio is found from event to event (from 2 to about 20 at 40 keV/nuc), and in all cases examined the carbon and oxygen nuclei are nearly fully stripped. These results are interpreted as evidence for storage of energetic ions in hot coronal regions, followed by strong adiabatic deceleration.

  18. Charged particle yields and spectra in p+p and Heavy Ion Collisions with ATLAS at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Dolejší, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment has extensive charged particle tracking over full azimuth and within |eta|<2.5. The spectrometer consists of three pixel layers and four double-layer strip layers, giving 11 space points in all. The existing tracking software used for proton-proton collisions has been optimized for the high-multiplicity heavy ion environment. Extensions of the existing tracking to lower pT (100 MeV) using tracks and pixel tracklets, work underway for p+p, will be discussed in the context of heavy ion collisions. Finally, by correlating high momentum tracks with the ATLAS calorimetry, fake tracks can also be rejected at very high pT. The physics performance of the ATLAS inner detector for dN/deta, inclusive particle spectra, and two-particle correlations (in delta-eta and delta-phi) will be discussed. The tracking performance within jets, which is essential for the measurement of jet fragmentation functions, will also be presented.

  19. Charged particle transverse momentum spectra in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 0.9 and 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Haensel, Stephan; Hoch, Michael; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Krammer, Manfred; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Teischinger, Florian; Wagner, Philipp; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Benucci, Leonardo; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Maes, Joris; Maes, Thomas; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Devroede, Olivier; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Charaf, Otman; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Hreus, Tomas; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Adler, Volker; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Vanelderen, Lukas; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Julien; Ceard, Ludivine; Cortina Gil, Eduardo; De Favereau De Jeneret, Jerome; Delaere, Christophe; Favart, Denis; Giammanco, Andrea; Grégoire, Ghislain; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Ovyn, Severine; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Schul, Nicolas; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Alves, Gilvan; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Carvalho, Wagner; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Silva Do Amaral, Sheila Mara; Sznajder, Andre; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Darmenov, Nikolay; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vankov, Ivan; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Karadzhinova, Aneliya; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Mateev, Matey; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Ban, Yong; Guo, Shuang; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Zhang, Linlin; Zhu, Bo; Zou, Wei; Cabrera, Andrés; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Lelas, Karlo; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Dzelalija, Mile; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Khalil, Shaaban; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Hektor, Andi; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Azzolini, Virginia; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Czellar, Sandor; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Sillou, Daniel; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Gentit, François-Xavier; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Marionneau, Matthieu; Millischer, Laurent; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Shreyber, Irina; Titov, Maksym; Verrecchia, Patrice; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Benhabib, Lamia; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Elgammal, Sherif; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Thiebaux, Christophe; Wyslouch, Bolek; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Greder, Sebastien; Juillot, Pierre; Karim, Mehdi; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Mikami, Yoshinari; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Baty, Clement; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bedjidian, Marc; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Boumediene, Djamel; Brun, Hugues; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Le Grand, Thomas; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sordini, Viola; Tosi, Silvano; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Lomidze, David; Anagnostou, Georgios; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Mohr, Niklas; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Weber, Martin; Wittmer, Bruno; Ata, Metin; Bender, Walter; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Erdmann, Martin; Frangenheim, Jens; Hebbeker, Thomas; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Lanske, Dankfried; Magass, Carsten; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Bontenackels, Michael; Davids, Martina; Duda, Markus; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Giffels, Manuel; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Heydhausen, Dirk; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Linn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Rennefeld, Jörg; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Thomas, Maarten; Tornier, Daiske; Zoeller, Marc Henning; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Cakir, Altan; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Dammann, Dirk; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flossdorf, Alexander; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Hauk, Johannes; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katkov, Igor; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Olzem, Jan; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Raval, Amita; Rosin, Michele; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stein, Matthias; Tomaszewska, Justyna; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Autermann, Christian; Blobel, Volker; Bobrovskyi, Sergei; Draeger, Jula; Enderle, Holger; Gebbert, Ulla; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Klanner, Robert; Lange, Jörn; Mura, Benedikt; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nowak, Friederike; Pietsch, Niklas; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Schwandt, Joern; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Barth, Christian; Bauer, Julia; Buege, Volker; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Feindt, Michael; Gruschke, Jasmin; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Honc, Simon; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Kuhr, Thomas; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Ratnikova, Natalia; Renz, Manuel; Saout, Christophe; Scheurer, Armin; Schieferdecker, Philipp; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schmanau, Mike; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Weiler, Thomas; Zeise, Manuel; Zhukov, Valery; Ziebarth, Eva Barbara; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Ntomari, Eleni; Petrakou, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Triantis, Frixos A; Aranyi, Attila; Bencze, Gyorgy; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Kapusi, Anita; Krajczar, Krisztian; Sikler, Ferenc; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Veszpremi, Viktor; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Jindal, Monika; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Anil; Singh, Jasbir; Singh, Supreet Pal; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Gomber, Bhawna; Gupta, Pooja; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Kumar, Ashok; Ranjan, Kirti; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Aziz, Tariq; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Devdatta; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Saha, Anirban; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Manna, Norman; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Romano, Francesco; Roselli, Giuseppe; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Trentadue, Raffaello; Tupputi, Salvatore; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Giunta, Marina; Grandi, Claudio; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gianni; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Benaglia, Andrea; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Malvezzi, Sandra; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Cavallo, Nicola; De Cosa, Annapaola; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellan, Paolo; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; De Mattia, Marco; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Fanzago, Federica; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Mazzucato, Mirco; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Nespolo, Massimo; Perrozzi, Luca; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Baesso, Paolo; Berzano, Umberto; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Viviani, Claudio; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Caponeri, Benedetta; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Lucaroni, Andrea; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Romeo, Francesco; Santocchia, Attilio; Taroni, Silvia; Valdata, Marisa; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Segneri, Gabriele; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Di Marco, Emanuele; Diemoz, Marcella; Franci, Daniele; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Pandolfi, Francesco; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Botta, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Castello, Roberto; Costa, Marco; Demaria, Natale; Graziano, Alberto; Mariotti, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Mila, Giorgia; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Belforte, Stefano; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Heo, Seong Gu; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Chang, Sunghyun; Chung, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Ji Eun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Ro, Sang-Ryul; Son, Dohhee; Son, Dong-Chul; Son, Taejin; Kim, Jaeho; Kim, Jae Yool; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jeong, Min-Soo; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Rhee, Han-Bum; Seo, Eunsung; Shin, Seungsu; Sim, Kwang Souk; Choi, Minkyoo; Kang, Seokon; Kim, Hyunyong; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Min Suk; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Bilinskas, Mykolas Jurgis; Grigelionis, Ignas; Janulis, Mindaugas; Martisiute, Dalia; Petrov, Pavel; Sabonis, Tomas; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Sánchez-Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A; Krofcheck, David; Tam, Jason; Yiu, Chun Hin; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Ahmed, Ijaz; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Brona, Grzegorz; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Almeida, Nuno; Bargassa, Pedrame; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Musella, Pasquale; Nayak, Aruna; Ribeiro, Pedro Quinaz; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Afanasiev, Serguei; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Golutvin, Igor; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Toropin, Alexander; Troitsky, Sergey; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kossov, Mikhail; Krokhotin, Andrey; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Kodolova, Olga; Korotkikh, Vladimir; Lokhtin, Igor; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Korablev, Andrey; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Slabospitsky, Sergey; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cepeda, Maria; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Soares, Mara Senghi; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Jorda, Clara; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Sobron Sanudo, Mar; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bell, Alan James; Benedetti, Daniele; Bernet, Colin; Bialas, Wojciech; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bolognesi, Sara; Bona, Marcella; Breuker, Horst; Bunkowski, Karol; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Curé, Benoît; D'Enterria, David; De Roeck, Albert; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Frisch, Benjamin; Funk, Wolfgang; Gaddi, Andrea; Georgiou, Georgios; Gerwig, Hubert; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Govoni, Pietro; Gowdy, Stephen; Guiducci, Luigi; Hansen, Magnus; Hartl, Christian; Harvey, John; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hegner, Benedikt; Hoffmann, Hans Falk; Honma, Alan; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kaadze, Ketino; Karavakis, Edward; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Maki, Tuula; Malberti, Martina; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Maurisset, Aurelie; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Nesvold, Erik; Nguyen, Matthew; Orimoto, Toyoko; Orsini, Luciano; Perez, Emmanuelle; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Polese, Giovanni; Racz, Attila; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Rolandi, Gigi; Rommerskirchen, Tanja; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiropulu, Maria; Stoye, Markus; Tadel, Matevz; Tropea, Paola; Tsirou, Andromachi; Vichoudis, Paschalis; Voutilainen, Mikko; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; Starodumov, Andrei; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Caminada, Lea; Chanon, Nicolas; Chen, Zhiling; Cittolin, Sergio; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Hervé, Alain; Hintz, Wieland; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marchica, Carmelo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Meridiani, Paolo; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Nägeli, Christoph; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Punz, Thomas; Rizzi, Andrea; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Sawley, Marie-Christine; Stieger, Benjamin; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Urscheler, Christina; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Matthias; Wehrli, Lukas; Weng, Joanna; Aguilo, Ernest; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Otiougova, Polina; Regenfus, Christian; Robmann, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Snoek, Hella; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Dutta, Suchandra; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Zong-Kai; Lu, Yun-Ju; Mekterovic, Darko; Volpe, Roberta; Wu, Jing-Han; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wang, Minzu; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Uzun, Dilber; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yildirim, Eda; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Demir, Durmus; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Levchuk, Leonid; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Cheng, Teh Lee; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Hansen, Maria; Hartley, Dominic; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Kreczko, Lukasz; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Ward, Simon; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Camanzi, Barbara; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Jackson, James; Kennedy, Bruce W; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Ballin, Jamie; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; MacEvoy, Barry C; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Mathias, Bryn; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Tapper, Alexander; Tourneur, Stephane; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardle, Nicholas; Wardrope, David; Whyntie, Tom; Barrett, Matthew; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Bose, Tulika; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; St John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; Sulak, Lawrence; Avetisyan, Aram; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Chou, John Paul; Cutts, David; Ferapontov, Alexey; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Breedon, Richard; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Friis, Evan; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Liu, Haidong; Maruyama, Sho; Miceli, Tia; Nikolic, Milan; Pellett, Dave; Robles, Jorge; Salur, Sevil; Schwarz, Thomas; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Veelken, Christian; Andreev, Valeri; Arisaka, Katsushi; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Deisher, Amanda; Duris, Joseph; Erhan, Samim; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Plager, Charles; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Tucker, Jordan; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Babb, John; Chandra, Avdhesh; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Giordano, Ferdinando; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Liu, Feng; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Shen, Benjamin C; Stringer, Robert; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Sudano, Elizabeth; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Mangano, Boris; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pi, Haifeng; Pieri, Marco; Ranieri, Riccardo; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lowette, Steven; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Gataullin, Marat; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Rogan, Christopher; Shin, Kyoungha; Timciuc, Vladlen; Traczyk, Piotr; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Jun, Soon Yung; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Drell, Brian Robert; Edelmaier, Christopher; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Heyburn, Bernadette; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Zang, Shi-Lei; Agostino, Lorenzo; Alexander, James; Cassel, David; Chatterjee, Avishek; Das, Souvik; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Hopkins, Walter; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Puigh, Darren; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Shi, Xin; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Biselli, Angela; Cirino, Guy; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Atac, Muzaffer; Bakken, Jon Alan; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bloch, Ingo; Borcherding, Frederick; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Cooper, William; Eartly, David P; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Esen, Selda; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Green, Dan; Gunthoti, Kranti; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jensen, Hans; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Khatiwada, Rakshya; Klima, Boaz; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Limon, Peter; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Miao, Ting; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Pordes, Ruth; Prokofyev, Oleg; Saoulidou, Niki; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; 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Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Quertenmont, Loic; Sekmen, Sezen; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian; Guragain, Samir; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Ralich, Robert; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hamdan, Saleh; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Kunde, Gerd J; Lacroix, Florent; Malek, Magdalena; O'Brien, Christine; Silvestre, Catherine; Smoron, Agata; Strom, Derek; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Lae, Chung Khim; McCliment, Edward; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bonato, Alessio; Eskew, Christopher; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Tran, Nhan Viet; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Grachov, Oleg; Kenny Iii, Raymond Patrick; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Barfuss, Anne-fleur; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Wan, Zongru; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferencek, Dinko; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kirn, Malina; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Rossato, Kenneth; Rumerio, Paolo; Santanastasio, Francesco; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Twedt, Elizabeth; Alver, Burak; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Everaerts, Pieter; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Harris, Philip; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Lee, Yen-Jie; Li, Wei; Loizides, Constantinos; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Wenger, Edward Allen; Xie, Si; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cooper, Seth; Cushman, Priscilla; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Franzoni, Giovanni; Haupt, Jason; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Rekovic, Vladimir; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Godang, Romulus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Summers, Don; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Keller, Jason; Kelly, Tony; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R; Baur, Ulrich; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Shipkowski, Simon Peter; Smith, Kenneth; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Boeriu, Oana; Chasco, Matthew; Reucroft, Steve; Swain, John; Trocino, Daniele; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Kolberg, Ted; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Ziegler, Jill; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Gu, Jianhui; Hill, Christopher; Killewald, Phillip; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Rodenburg, Marissa; Williams, Grayson; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hunt, Adam; Jones, John; Laird, Edward; Lopes Pegna, David; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Acosta, Jhon Gabriel; Huang, Xing Tao; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Oliveros, Sandra; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E; Bolla, Gino; Borrello, Laura; Bortoletto, Daniela; Everett, Adam; Garfinkel, Arthur F; Gutay, Laszlo; Hu, Zhen; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Kress, Matthew; Laasanen, Alvin T; Leonardo, Nuno; Liu, Chang; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Jindal, Pratima; Parashar, Neeti; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Cuplov, Vesna; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Flacher, Henning; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Gotra, Yury; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Orbaker, Douglas; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Malik, Sarah; Mesropian, Christina; Yan, Ming; Atramentov, Oleksiy; Barker, Anthony; Duggan, Daniel; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hits, Dmitry; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Patel, Rishi; Richards, Alan; Rose, Keith; Schnetzer, Steve; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Gurrola, Alfredo; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Pivarski, James; Safonov, Alexei; Sengupta, Sinjini; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Weinberger, Michael; Akchurin, Nural; Bardak, Cemile; Damgov, Jordan; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Mane, Poonam; Roh, Youn; Sill, Alan; Volobouev, Igor; Wigmans, Richard; Yazgan, Efe; Appelt, Eric; Brownson, Eric; Engh, Daniel; Florez, Carlos; Gabella, William; Issah, Michael; Johns, Willard; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Yohay, Rachel; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Lamichhane, Pramod; Mattson, Mark; Milstène, Caroline; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Bachtis, Michail; Bellinger, James Nugent; Carlsmith, Duncan; Dasu, Sridhara; Efron, Jonathan; Flood, Kevin; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Palmonari, Francesco; Reeder, Don; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Swanson, Joshua; Weinberg, Marc

    2011-01-01

    The charged particle transverse momentum (pT) spectra are presented for pp collisions at sqrt(s)=0.9 and 7 TeV. The data samples were collected with the CMS detector at the LHC and correspond to integrated luminosities of 231 inverse microbarns and 2.96 inverse picobarns, respectively. Calorimeter-based high-transverse-energy triggers are employed to enhance the statistical reach of the high-pT measurements. The results are compared with both leading-order QCD and with an empirical scaling of measurements at different collision energies using the scaling variable xT = 2 pT/sqrt(s) over the pT range up to 200 GeV/c. Using a combination of xT scaling and direct interpolation at fixed pT, a reference transverse momentum spectrum at sqrt(s)=2.76 TeV is constructed, which can be used for studying high-pT particle suppression in the dense QCD medium produced in heavy-ion collisions at that centre-of-mass energy.

  20. Charged particle transverse momentum spectra in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 0.9 and 7 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatrchyan, Serguei [Yerevan Physics Inst. (Armenia); et al.

    2011-08-01

    The charged particle transverse momentum (pT) spectra are presented for pp collisions at sqrt(s)=0.9 and 7 TeV. The data samples were collected with the CMS detector at the LHC and correspond to integrated luminosities of 231 inverse microbarns and 2.96 inverse picobarns, respectively. Calorimeter-based high-transverse-energy triggers are employed to enhance the statistical reach of the high-pT measurements. The results are compared with both leading-order QCD and with an empirical scaling of measurements at different collision energies using the scaling variable xT = 2 pT/sqrt(s) over the pT range up to 200 GeV/c. Using a combination of xT scaling and direct interpolation at fixed pT, a reference transverse momentum spectrum at sqrt(s)=2.76 TeV is constructed, which can be used for studying high-pT particle suppression in the dense QCD medium produced in heavy-ion collisions at that centre-of-mass energy.

  1. Charge, energy and LET spectra of high LET primary and secondary particles in CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors of the P0006 experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csige, I.; Frigo, L. A.; Benton, E. V.; Oda, K.

    1995-01-01

    We have measured the charge, energy and linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of about 800 high LET (LET(sub infinity) H2O greater than 50 keV/micron) particles in CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors in the P0006 experiment of LDEF. Primary particles with residual range at the reference surface greater than about 2 microns and secondary particles produced in the detector material with total range greater than about 4 microns were measured. We have used a multi-etch technique and an internal calibration to identify and measure the energy of the particles at the reference surface. The LET spectrum was obtained from the charge and energy distribution of the particles.

  2. Event patterns (particle scatter plots) extracted from charged particle spectra in $pp$ and Pb-Pb collisions at 2.76 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Ya-Hui; Fakhraddin, Sakina; Rahim, Magda A; Duan, Mai-Ying

    2016-01-01

    The transverse momentum ($p_T$) and pseudorapidity ($\\eta$) spectra of charged particles produced in proton-proton ($pp$) and lead-lead (Pb-Pb) collisions at the large hadron collider (LHC) are described by a hybrid model. In the model, the $p_T$ spectrum is described by a two-component distribution which contains an inverse power-law suggested by the QCD (Quantum Chromodynamic) calculus and an Erlang distribution resulted from a multisource thermal model. The $\\eta$ spectrum is described by a Gaussian rapidity ($y$) distribution resulted from the Landau hydrodynamic model and the two-component $p_T$ distribution, where the conversion between $y$ and $\\eta$ is accurately considered. The modelling results are in agreement with the experimental data measured by the ATLAS Collaboration in $pp$ collisions at center-of-mass energy $\\sqrt{s}=2.76$ TeV and in Pb-Pb collisions at center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=2.76$ TeV. Based on the parameter values extracted from $p_T$ and $\\eta$ or $y$ spect...

  3. Nanodosimetry of charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In last year's annual report, the authors described the development of an ultra-miniature counter (UMC), described some of its physical characteristics, and presented some first measurements with this counter of microdosimetric spectra for neutrons (15 MeV) and photons (137Cs). It remains to investigate in more detail the operational characteristics of the UMC and if possible, to make a comparison of relevant physical parameters such as gain and multiplication radius with the Segur theory. In order to accomplish these objectives, it is necessary to build a wall-less version of the UMC, which will be amenable to calibration and investigation with collimated beams of charged particles. The design of such a counter has been worked out in principle. Investigations into the optimal design of electrode structures and dimensions are being carried out at present. The main problem occurs with the design of the grid structure which is required to define the outer boundary of the collecting volume. Our initial attempts would make it appear at present that a counter of 1 to 1.5 mm diameter is feasible. This should be more than adequate to provide an appropriately wall-less counter within a reasonable size cavity. It will probably be about a year before a working counter can be produced. In the interim, it is possible to make some initial efforts into the investigation of operational characteristics of a wall-less UMC by making use of similar design, but at a somewhat larger size. These first attempts at measurement of charged particle microdosimetric spectra at nanometer site provide added evidence that these counters can yield useful microdosimetric data at far smaller site sizes than heretofore attempted. They also provide added incentive and encouragement for development of wall-less UMC

  4. Nuclear effects on the transverse momentum spectra of charged particles in pPb collisions at √(s{sub NN}) = 5.02 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A.M.; Tumasyan, A. [Yerevan Physics Institute, Yerevan (Armenia); Collaboration: The CMS Collaboration; and others

    2015-05-15

    Transverse momentum spectra of charged particles are measured by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC in pPb collisions at √(s{sub NN}) = 5.02 TeV, in the range 0.4 < p{sub T} < 120 GeV/c and pseudorapidity vertical stroke η{sub CM} vertical stroke < 1.8 in the proton.nucleon center-of-mass frame. For p{sub T} < 10 GeV/c, the charged-particle production is asymmetric about η{sub CM} = 0, with smaller yield observed in the direction of the proton beam, qualitatively consistent with expectations from shadowing in nuclear parton distribution functions (nPDF). A pp reference spectrum at √(s) = 5.02 TeV is obtained by interpolation from previous measurements at higher and lower center-of-mass energies. The p{sub T} distribution measured in pPb collisions shows an enhancement of charged particles with p{sub T} > 20 GeV/c compared to expectations from the pp reference. The enhancement is larger than predicted by perturbative quantum chromodynamics calculations that include antishadowing modifications of nPDFs. (orig.)

  5. Nuclear effects on the transverse momentum spectra of charged particles in pPb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}$ = 5.02 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Ochesanu, Silvia; Rougny, Romain; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dobur, Didar; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Léonard, Alexandre; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Perniè, Luca; Randle-conde, Aidan; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Zenoni, Florian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Crucy, Shannon; Dildick, Sven; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Dos Reis Martins, Thiago; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santaolalla, Javier; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Genchev, Vladimir; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Marinov, Andrey; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Zheng; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Filipovic, Nicolas; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Skovpen, Kirill; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Brochet, Sébastien; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Xiao, Hong; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Bontenackels, Michael; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heister, Arno; Hindrichs, Otto; Klein, Katja; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Weber, Martin; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behr, Joerg; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nayak, Aruna; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Roland, Benoit; Ron, Elias; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Vargas Trevino, Andrea Del Rocio; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Junkes, Alexandra; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Lange, Jörn; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Pöhlsen, Thomas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Seidel, Markus; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Frensch, Felix; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Müller, Thomas; Nürnberg, Andreas; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Agapitos, Antonis; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Aslanoglou, Xenofon; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Makovec, Alajos; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mittal, Monika; Nishu, Nishu; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Modak, Atanu; Mukherjee, Swagata; Roy, Debarati; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Goldouzian, Reza; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Sharma, Archana; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Ferretti, Roberta; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; Dorigo, Tommaso; Galanti, Mario; Gasparini, Ugo; Giubilato, Piero; Gonella, Franco; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Montecassiano, Fabio; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Moon, Chang-Seong; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Vernieri, Caterina; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Soffi, Livia; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Casasso, Stefano; Costa, Marco; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Ortona, Giacomo; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Tamponi, Umberto; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Schizzi, Andrea; Umer, Tomo; Zanetti, Anna; Chang, Sunghyun; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Park, Hyangkyu; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Kim, Jae Yool; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kyong Sei; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Reucroft, Steve; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michał; Wolszczak, Weronika; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Demiyanov, Andrey; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Korotkikh, Vladimir; Lokhtin, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Vardanyan, Irina; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Ekmedzic, Marko; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Soares, Mara Senghi; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Graziano, Alberto; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benaglia, Andrea; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Bernet, Colin; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Bondu, Olivier; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Colafranceschi, Stefano; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Dorney, Brian; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Marrouche, Jad; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Perrozzi, Luca; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Plagge, Michael; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Treille, Daniel; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Wollny, Heiner; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Marionneau, Matthieu; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meister, Daniel; Mohr, Niklas; Musella, Pasquale; Nägeli, Christoph; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Quittnat, Milena; Rebane, Liis; Rossini, Marco; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Amsler, Claude; Canelli, Maria Florencia; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Lange, Clemens; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Pinna, Deborah; Robmann, Peter; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Taroni, Silvia; Verzetti, Mauro; Yang, Yong; Cardaci, Marco; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Ferro, Cristina; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Kao, Kai-Yi; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wilken, Rachel; Asavapibhop, Burin; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Gamsizkan, Halil; Isildak, Bora; Karapinar, Guler; Ocalan, Kadir; Sekmen, Sezen; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Yetkin, Taylan; Cankocak, Kerem; Vardarlı, Fuat Ilkehan; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Sakuma, Tai; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Burton, Darren; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Dunne, Patrick; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Kenzie, Matthew; Lane, Rebecca; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mathias, Bryn; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Kasmi, Azeddine; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Lawson, Philip; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; St John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Alimena, Juliette; Berry, Edmund; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Christopher, Grant; Cutts, David; Demiragli, Zeynep; Dhingra, Nitish; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Heintz, Ulrich; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Swanson, Joshua; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Cousins, Robert; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Rakness, Gregory; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Malberti, Martina; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wimpenny, Stephen; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Klein, Daniel; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Welke, Charles; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Barge, Derek; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Danielson, Thomas; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Flowers, Kristen; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Mccoll, Nickolas; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Duarte, Javier; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Pierini, Maurizio; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carlson, Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Krohn, Michael; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Eggert, Nicholas; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Skinnari, Louise; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Kaadze, Ketino; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Kwan, Simon; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena Ingrid; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitbeck, Andrew; Whitmore, Juliana; Yang, Fan; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Hugon, Justin; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Shchutska, Lesya; Snowball, Matthew; Sperka, David; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Kurt, Pelin; Moon, Dong Ho; O'Brien, Christine; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Silkworth, Christopher; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sen, Sercan; Tan, Ping; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Swartz, Morris; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Bruner, Christopher; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Malek, Magdalena; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Sekaric, Jadranka; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Bauer, Gerry; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Klute, Markus; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zanetti, Marco; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Keller, Jason; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Meier, Frank; Ratnikov, Fedor; Snow, Gregory R; Zvada, Marian; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael; Stoynev, Stoyan; Sung, Kevin; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Chan, Kwok Ming; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Musienko, Yuri; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Smith, Geoffrey; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Antonelli, Louis; Brinson, Jessica; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Luo, Wuming; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Winer, Brian L; Wolfe, Homer; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Hunt, Adam; Koay, Sue Ann; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Brownson, Eric; Malik, Sudhir; Mendez, Hector; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Gutay, Laszlo; Hu, Zhen; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Kurt; Kress, Matthew; Leonardo, Nuno; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shi, Xin; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Zablocki, Jakub; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Korjenevski, Sergey; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Kaplan, Steven; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; York, Andrew; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Kunori, Shuichi; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Friis, Evan; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Levine, Aaron; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ross, Ian; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Vuosalo, Carl; Woods, Nathaniel

    2015-01-01

    Transverse momentum spectra of charged particles are measured by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC in pPb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}$ = 5.02 TeV, in the range of $p_\\mathrm{T}$ between 0.4 and 120 GeV/$c$ and pseudorapidity $|\\eta_\\mathrm{CM}|$ lower than 1.8 in the proton-nucleon center-of-mass frame. For $p_\\mathrm{T}$ lower than 10 GeV/$c$, the charged-particle production is asymmetric about $|\\eta_\\mathrm{CM}|$ = 0, with smaller yield observed in the direction of the proton beam, qualitatively consistent with expectations from shadowing in nuclear parton distribution functions (nPDF). A pp reference spectrum at $\\sqrt{s}$ =5.02 TeV is obtained by interpolation from previous measurements at higher and lower center-of-mass energies. The $p_\\mathrm{T}$ distribution measured in pPb collisions shows an enhancement of charged particles with $p_\\mathrm{T}$ larger than 20 GeV/$c$ compared to expectations from the pp reference. The enhancement is larger than predicted by perturbative quantum chromodyna...

  6. Sources for charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a basic course on charged particle sources for post-graduate students and thematic schools on large facilities and accelerator physics. A simple but precise description of the creation and the emission of charged particles is presented. This course relies on every year upgraded reference documents. Following relevant topics are considered: electronic emission processes, technological and practical considerations on electron guns, positron sources, production of neutral atoms, ionization, plasma and discharge, different types of positive and negative ion sources, polarized particle sources, materials for the construction of ion sources, low energy beam production and transport. (N.T.)

  7. Charged particle spectra in 32S + 32S interactions at 200 GeV/nucleon from CCD-imaged nuclear collisions in a streamer chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have measured the transverse momentum spectra 1/pT dN/dpT and rapidity distributions dN/dy of negatively charged hadrons and protons for central 32S + 32S interactions at 200 GeV/nucleon incident energy. The negative hadron dN/dy distribution is too broad to be accounted for by thermal models which demand isotropic particle emission. It is compatible with models which emphasize longitudinal dynamics, by either a particle production mechanism, as in the Lund fragmentation model, or by introducing one-dimensional hydrodynamic expansion, as in the Landau model. The proton dN/dy distribution, although showing no evidence for a peak in the target fragmentation region, exhibits limited nuclear stopping power. We estimate the mean rapidity shift of participant target protons to be Δy ∼ 1.5, greater than observed for pp collisions, less than measured in central pA collisions, and much less than would be observed for a single equilibrated fireball at midrapidity. Both the negative hadron and proton dN/dy distributions can be fit by a symmetric Landau two-fireball model. Although the spectrum possesses a two-component structure, a comparison to pp data at comparable center-of-mass energy shows no evidence for enhanced production at low pT. The two-component structure can be explained by a thermal and chemical equilibrium model which takes into account the kinematics of resonance decay. Using an expression motivated by longitudinal expansion we find the same temperature for both the protons and negative hadrons at freezeout, Tf ∼ 170 MeV. We conclude that the charged particle spectra of negative hadrons and protons can be accommodated in a simple collision picture of limited nuclear stopping, evolution through a state of thermal equilibrium, followed by longitudinal hydrodynamic expansion until freezeout

  8. Charged particle spectra in {sup 32}S + {sup 32}S interactions at 200 GeV/nucleon from CCD-imaged nuclear collisions in a streamer chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teitelbaum, L.P.

    1992-04-01

    We have measured the transverse momentum spectra 1/p{sub T} dN/dp{sub T} and rapidity distributions dN/dy of negatively charged hadrons and protons for central {sup 32}S + {sup 32}S interactions at 200 GeV/nucleon incident energy. The negative hadron dN/dy distribution is too broad to be accounted for by thermal models which demand isotropic particle emission. It is compatible with models which emphasize longitudinal dynamics, by either a particle production mechanism, as in the Lund fragmentation model, or by introducing one-dimensional hydrodynamic expansion, as in the Landau model. The proton dN/dy distribution, although showing no evidence for a peak in the target fragmentation region, exhibits limited nuclear stopping power. We estimate the mean rapidity shift of participant target protons to be {Delta}y {approximately} 1.5, greater than observed for pp collisions, less than measured in central pA collisions, and much less than would be observed for a single equilibrated fireball at midrapidity. Both the negative hadron and proton dN/dy distributions can be fit by a symmetric Landau two-fireball model. Although the spectrum possesses a two-component structure, a comparison to pp data at comparable center-of-mass energy shows no evidence for enhanced production at low p{sub T}. The two-component structure can be explained by a thermal and chemical equilibrium model which takes into account the kinematics of resonance decay. Using an expression motivated by longitudinal expansion we find the same temperature for both the protons and negative hadrons at freezeout, T{sub f} {approximately} 170 MeV. We conclude that the charged particle spectra of negative hadrons and protons can be accommodated in a simple collision picture of limited nuclear stopping, evolution through a state of thermal equilibrium, followed by longitudinal hydrodynamic expansion until freezeout.

  9. Charged particle spectra in [sup 32]S + [sup 32]S interactions at 200 GeV/nucleon from CCD-imaged nuclear collisions in a streamer chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teitelbaum, L.P.

    1992-04-01

    We have measured the transverse momentum spectra 1/p[sub T] dN/dp[sub T] and rapidity distributions dN/dy of negatively charged hadrons and protons for central [sup 32]S + [sup 32]S interactions at 200 GeV/nucleon incident energy. The negative hadron dN/dy distribution is too broad to be accounted for by thermal models which demand isotropic particle emission. It is compatible with models which emphasize longitudinal dynamics, by either a particle production mechanism, as in the Lund fragmentation model, or by introducing one-dimensional hydrodynamic expansion, as in the Landau model. The proton dN/dy distribution, although showing no evidence for a peak in the target fragmentation region, exhibits limited nuclear stopping power. We estimate the mean rapidity shift of participant target protons to be [Delta]y [approximately] 1.5, greater than observed for pp collisions, less than measured in central pA collisions, and much less than would be observed for a single equilibrated fireball at midrapidity. Both the negative hadron and proton dN/dy distributions can be fit by a symmetric Landau two-fireball model. Although the spectrum possesses a two-component structure, a comparison to pp data at comparable center-of-mass energy shows no evidence for enhanced production at low p[sub T]. The two-component structure can be explained by a thermal and chemical equilibrium model which takes into account the kinematics of resonance decay. Using an expression motivated by longitudinal expansion we find the same temperature for both the protons and negative hadrons at freezeout, T[sub f] [approximately] 170 MeV. We conclude that the charged particle spectra of negative hadrons and protons can be accommodated in a simple collision picture of limited nuclear stopping, evolution through a state of thermal equilibrium, followed by longitudinal hydrodynamic expansion until freezeout.

  10. Charged particle beams

    CERN Document Server

    Humphries, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    Detailed enough for a text and sufficiently comprehensive for a reference, this volume addresses topics vital to understanding high-power accelerators and high-brightness-charged particle beams. Subjects include stochastic cooling, high-brightness injectors, and the free electron laser. Humphries provides students with the critical skills necessary for the problem-solving insights unique to collective physics problems. 1990 edition.

  11. Charged Particle Optics Theory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hawkes, P. W.; Lencová, Bohumila

    -, č. 6 (2006), s. 6-8 Grant ostatní: EC 5RP(XE) G5RD-CT-2000-00344 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : optics of charged particles * design of ion lithography system * spot profile * the finite element method Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering www.phantomsnet.net

  12. Heavy charged particle therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pilot study of heavy charged particles with heavy ion medical accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) for advanced H and N cancer has been carried out from June 1994 at National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). As of the beginning of August 1994, three patients were treated by 290 MeV carbon ions. The patients had adenocarcinoma of the cheek mucosa, squamous cell carcinoma of the ethmoid sinus and adenoid cystic carcinoma of the sublingual gland. Patients were immobilized by individual head coach and thermosplint facial shell. Individual collimators and bolus were also prepared for each ports. Dose fractionation for the initial pilot study group was 16.2 GyE/18 fractions/6 weeks, which would be equivalent to standard fractionation of 60.0 Gy/30 fractions/6 weeks with photons. This dose fractionation was considered to be 20% lesser than 75 GyE/37.5 fractions/7.5 weeks, which is estimated to be maximum tolerance dose for advanced H and N cancers. HIMAC worked well and there was no major trouble causing any treatment delay. Acute skin reactions of 3 patients were 2 cases of bright erythema with patchy moist desquamation and one of dull erythema, which were evaluated as equivalent reaction with irradiated dose. Acute mucosa reactions appeared to have lesser reaction than predicted mucositis. Tumor reactions of three patients were partial reaction (PR) at the end of treatment and nearly complete remission (CR) after 6 months of treatment. From October 1994, we started to treat patients with advanced H and N cancer with 10% high dose than previous dose. And new candidates of pilot study with non small cell lung cancer, brain tumor and carcinoma of the tongue were entered into pilot study. At the end of February 1995, a total of 21 patients were treated by carbon ions. (J.P.N.)

  13. Light charged particle and neutron velocity spectra in coincidence with projectile fragments in the reaction sup 4 sup 0 Ar(44 A MeV)+ sup 2 sup 7 Al

    CERN Document Server

    Lanzanò, G; Geraci, M; Pagano, A; Aiello, S; Cunsolo, A; Fonte, R; Foti, A; Sperduto, M L; Volant, C; Charvet, J L; Dayras, R; Legrain, R

    2001-01-01

    We present a three source analysis of velocity spectra of light charged particles (LCP) and neutrons emitted in the reaction sup 4 sup 0 Ar+ sup 2 sup 7 Al at 44 A MeV. The light particle (LP) velocity spectra are studied as a function of the detection angle (1.5 deg. charge of the forward detected projectile-like fragment (PLF). The temperature parameter, the velocity and the intensity of each source are extracted as a function of the PLF charge. While the temperature parameters for PLF and target-like fragments (TLF) are very similar and show a dependence on the PLF charge, the temperature parameter for the intermediate source is approximately 15 MeV, independent of the PLF charge. Comparison with temperature values extracted from double isotopic ratios, shows an agreement only between the temperature values extracted from formula involving sup 3 He, sup 4 He, d, t ratios and the PLF proton temperature parameter. The characteristics of the PLF sources are derived. Present ...

  14. Low-pT spectra of identified charged particles in √ {sNN} = 200 GeV Au+Au collisions from PHOBOS experiment at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    The PHOBOS experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), comprising the spectrometer with multiple layers of silicon wafers, is an excellent detector for very low transverse momentum (pT) particles. Transverse momentum distributions of π-+π+, K-+K+ and p+/line{p} produced at mid-rapidity are presented for the 15% most central Au-Au collisions at √ {sNN} = 200 GeV. The momentum ranges for measured particles are from 30 to 50 MeV/c for pions, 90 to 130 MeV/c for kaons and 140 to 210 MeV/c for protons and antiprotons. The measurement method is briefly described. A comparison of the pT spectra to experimental results at higher particle momenta and to model predictions is discussed. PACS: 25.75.-q

  15. Optics of charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suitable for both the specialist and non-specialist, this book develops all statements from first principles. Key chapters of the book focus upon how to design particle-optical systems, the systematics of image abberations, the effects of fringing fields, systematics of beams, and solutions for particle-optical systems. An undergraduate background in physics and mathematics is required for this work

  16. Measuring momentum for charged particle tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher; Fraser, Andrew Mcleod; Schultz, Larry Joe; Borozdin, Konstantin N.; Klimenko, Alexei Vasilievich; Sossong, Michael James; Blanpied, Gary

    2010-11-23

    Methods, apparatus and systems for detecting charged particles and obtaining tomography of a volume by measuring charged particles including measuring the momentum of a charged particle passing through a charged particle detector. Sets of position sensitive detectors measure scattering of the charged particle. The position sensitive detectors having sufficient mass to cause the charged particle passing through the position sensitive detectors to scatter in the position sensitive detectors. A controller can be adapted and arranged to receive scattering measurements of the charged particle from the charged particle detector, determine at least one trajectory of the charged particle from the measured scattering; and determine at least one momentum measurement of the charged particle from the at least one trajectory. The charged particle can be a cosmic ray-produced charged particle, such as a cosmic ray-produced muon. The position sensitive detectors can be drift cells, such as gas-filled drift tubes.

  17. Transverse momentum spectra of charged particles in proton-proton collisions at √(s)=900 GeV with ALICE at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inclusive charged particle transverse momentum distribution is measured in proton-proton collisions at √(s)=900 GeV at the LHC using the ALICE detector. The measurement is performed in the central pseudorapidity region (|η|TT>INEL=0.483±0.001 (stat.)±0.007 (syst.) GeV/c and T>NSD=0.489±0.001 (stat.)±0.007 (syst.) GeV/c, respectively. The data exhibit a slightly larger T> than measurements in wider pseudorapidity intervals. The results are compared to simulations with the Monte Carlo event generators PYTHIA and PHOJET.

  18. Transverse momentum spectra of charged particles in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 900 GeV with ALICE at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aamodt, K; Abeysekara, U; Abrahantes Quintana, A; Abramyan, A; Adamová, D; Aggarwal, M M; Aglieri Rinella, G; Agocs, A G; Aguilar Salazar, S; Ahammed, Z; Ahmad, A; Ahmad, N; Ahn, S U; Akimoto, R; Akindinov, A; Aleksandrov, D; Alessandro, B; Alfaro Molina, R; Alici, A; Almaráz Aviña, E; Alme, J; Alt, T; Altini, V; Altinpinar, S; Andrei, C; Andronic, A; Anelli, G; Angelov, V; Anson, C; Anticic, T; Antinori, F; Antinori, S; Antipin, K; Antonczyk, D; Antonioli, P; Anzo, A; Aphecetche, L; Appelshäuser, H; Arcelli, S; Arceo, R; Arend, A; Armesto, N; Arnaldi, R; Aronsson, T; Arsene, I C; Asryan, A; Augustinus, A; AverbecK, R; Awes, T C; Äystö, J; Azmi, M D; Bablok, S; Bach, M; Badalà, A; Baek, Y W; Bagnasco, S; Bailhache, R; Bala, R; Baldisseri, A; Baldit, A; Bán, J; Barbera, R; Barnaföldi, G G; Barnby, L S; Barret, V; Bartke, J; Barile, F; Basile, M; Basmanov, V; Bastid, N; Bathen, B; Batigne, G; Batyunya, B; Baumann, C; Bearden, I G; Becker, B; Belikov, I; Bellwied, R; Belmont-Moreno, E; Belogianni, A; Benhabib, L; Beole, S; Berceanu, I; Bercuci, A; Berdermann, E; Berdnikov, Y; Betev, L; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bianchi, L; Bianchi, N; Bianchin, C; Bielcík, J; Bielcíková, J; Bilandzic, A; Bimbot, L; Biolcati, E; Blanc, A; Blanco, F; Blanco, F; Blau, D; Blume, C; Boccioli, M; Bock, N; Bogdanov, A; Bøggild, H; Bogolyubsky, M; Bohm, J; Boldizsár, L; Bombara, M; Bombonati, C; Bondila, M; Borel, H; Borisov, A; Bortolin, C; Bose, S; Bosisio, L; Bossú, F; Botje, M; Böttger, S; Bourdaud, G; Boyer, B; Braun, M; Braun-Munzinger, P; Bravina, L; Bregant, M; Breitner, T; Bruckner, G; Brun, R; Bruna, E; Bruno, G E; Budnikov, D; Buesching, H; Buncic, P; Busch, O; Buthelezi, Z; Caffarri, D; Cai, X; Caines, H; Calvo, E; Camacho, E; Camerini, P; Campbell, M; Canoa Roman, V; Capitani, G P; Cara Romeo, G; Carena, F; Carena, W; Carminati, F; Casanova Díaz, A; Caselle, M; Castillo Castellanos, J; Castillo Hernandez, J F; Catanescu, V; Cattaruzza, E; Cavicchioli, C; Cerello, P; Chambert, V; Chang, B; Chapeland, S; Charpy, A; Charvet, J L; Chattopadhyay, S; Chattopadhyay, S; Cherney, M; Cheshkov, C; Cheynis, B; Chiavassa, E; Chibante Barroso, V; Chinellato, D D; Chochula, P; Choi, K; Chojnacki, M; Christakoglou, P; Christensen, C H; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chuman, F; Cicalo, C; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Cleymans, J; Cobanoglu, O; Coffin, J P; Coli, S; Colla, A; Conesa Balbastre, G; Conesa del Valle, Z; Conner, E S; Constantin, P; Contin, G; Contreras, J G; Corrales Morales, Y; Cormier, T M; Cortese, P; Cortés Maldonado, I; Cosentino, M R; Costa, F; Cotallo, M E; Crescio, E; Crochet, P; Cuautle, E; Cunqueiro, L; Cussonneau, J; Dainese, A; Dalsgaard, H H; Danu, A; Das, I; Dash, A; Dash, S; de Barros, G O V; De Caro, A; de Cataldo, G; de Cuveland, J; De Falco, A; De Gaspari, M; de Groot, J; De Gruttola, D; De Marco, N; De Pasquale, S; De Remigis, R; de Rooij, R; de Vaux, G; Delagrange, H; Delgado, Y; Dellacasa, G; Deloff, A; Demanov, V; Dénes, E; Deppman, A; D'Erasmo, G; Derkach, D; Devaux, A; Di Bari, D; Di Giglio, C; Di Liberto, S; Di Mauro, A; Di Nezza, P; Dialinas, M; Díaz, L; Díaz, R; Dietel, T; Divià, R; Djuvsland, Ø; Dobretsov, V; Dobrin, A; Dobrowolski, T; Dönigus, B; Domínguez, I; Don, D M M; Dordic, O; Dubey, A K; Dubuisson, J; Ducroux, L; Dupieux, P; Dutta Majumdar, A K; Dutta Majumdar, M R; Elia, D; Emschermann, D; Enokizono, A; Espagnon, B; Estienne, M; Esumi, S; Evans, D; Evrard, S; Eyyubova, G; Fabjan, C W; Fabris, D; Faivre, J; Falchieri, D; Fantoni, A; Fasel, M; Fateev, O; Fearick, R; Fedunov, A; Fehlker, D; Fekete, V; Felea, D; Fenton-Olsen, B; Feofilov, G; Fernández Téllez, A; Ferreiro, E G; Ferretti, A; Ferretti, R; Figueredo, M A S; Filchagin, S; Fini, R; Fionda, F M; Fiore, E M; Floris, M; Fodor, Z; Foertsch, S; Foka, P; Fokin, S; Formenti, F; Fragiacomo, E; Fragkiadakis, M; Frankenfeld, U; Frolov, A; Fuchs, U; Furano, F; Furget, C; Fusco Girard, M; Gaardhøje, J J; Gadrat, S; Gagliardi, M; Gago, A; Gallio, M; Ganoti, P; Ganti, M S; Garabatos, C; García Trapaga, C; Gebelein, J; Gemme, R; Germain, M; Gheata, A; Gheata, M; Ghidini, B; Ghosh, P; Giraudo, G; Giubellino, P; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Glasow, R; Glässel, P; Glenn, A; Gomez Jiménez, R; González Santos, H; González-Trueba, L H; González-Zamora, P; Gorbunov, S; Gorbunov, Y; Gotovac, S; Gottschlag, H; Grabski, V; Grajcarek, R; Grelli, A; Grigoras, A; Grigoras, C; Grigoriev, V; Grigoryan, A; Grigoryan, S; Grinyov, B; Grion, N; Gros, P; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J F; Grossiord, J Y; Grosso, R; Guber, F; Guernane, R; Guerra, C; Guerzoni, B; Gulbrandsen, K; Gulkanyan, H; Gunji, T; Gupta, A; Gupta, R; Gustafsson, H A; Gutbrod, H; Haaland, Ø; Hadjidakis, C; Haiduc, M; Hamagaki, H; Hamar, G; Hamblen, J; Han, B H; Harris, J W; Hartig, M; Harutyunyan, A; Hasch, D; Hasegan, D; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayrapetyan, A; Heide, M; Heinz, M; Helstrup, H; Herghelegiu, A; Hernández, C; Herrera Corral, G; Herrmann, N; Hetland, K F; Hicks, B; Hiei, A; Hille, P T; Hippolyte, B; Horaguchi, T; Hori, Y; Hristov, P; Hrivnácová, I; Hu, S; Huang, M; Huber, S; Humanic, T J; Hutter, D; Hwang, D S; Ichou, R; Ilkaev, R; Ilkiv, I; Inaba, M; Innocenti, P G; Ippolitov, M; Irfan, M; Ivan, C; Ivanov, A; Ivanov, M; Ivanov, V; Iwasaki, T; Jachokowski, A; Jacobs, P; Jancurová, L; Jangal, S; Janik, R; Jena, C; Jena, S; Jirden, L; Jones, G T; Jones, P G; Jovanovic, P; Jung, H; Jung, W; Jusko, A; Kaidalov, A B; Kalcher, S; Kalinák, P; Kalisky, M; Kalliokoski, T; Kalweit, A; Kamal, A; Kamermans, R; Kanaki, K; Kang, E; Kang, J H; Kapitan, J; Kaplin, V; Kapusta, S; Karavichev, O; Karavicheva, T; Karpechev, E; Kazantsev, A; Kebschull, U; Keidel, R; Khan, M M; Khan, S A; Khanzadeev, A; Kharlov, Y; Kikola, D; Kileng, B; Kim, D J; Kim, D S; Kim, D W; Kim, H N; Kim, J; Kim, J H; Kim, J S; Kim, M; Kim, M; Kim, S H; Kim, S; Kim, Y; Kirsch, S; Kisel, I; Kiselev, S; Kisiel, A; Klay, J L; Klein, J; Klein-Bösing, C; Kliemant, M; Klovning, A; Kluge, A; Knichel, M L; Kniege, S; Koch, K; Kolevatov, R; Kolojvari, A; Kondratiev, V; Kondratyeva, N; Konevskih, A; Kornas, E; Kour, R; Kowalski, M; Kox, S; Kozlov, K; Kral, J; Králik, I; Kramer, F; Kraus, I; Kravcáková, A; Krawutschke, T; Krivda, M; Krumbhorn, D; Krus, M; Kryshen, E; Krzewicki, M; Kucheriaev, Y; Kuhn, C; Kuijer, P G; Kumar, L; Kumar, N; Kupczak, R; Kurashvili, P; Kurepin, A; Kurepin, A N; Kuryakin, A; Kushpil, S; Kushpil, V; Kutouski, M; Kvaerno, H; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; La Rocca, P; Lackner, F; Ladron de Guevara, P; Lafage, V; Lal, C; Lara, C; Larsen, D T; Laurenti, G; Lazzeroni, C; Le Bornec, Y; Le Bris, N; Lee, H; Lee, K S; Lee, S C; Lefèvre, F; Lenhardt, M; Leistam, L; Lehnert, J; Lenti, V; Leon, H; Leon Monzon, I; Leon Vargas, H; Lévai, P; Li, X; Li, Y; Lietava, R; Lindal, S; Lindenstruth, V; Lippmann, C; Lisa, M A; Liu, L; Loginov, V; Lohn, S; Lopez, X; Lopez Noriega, M; Lopez-Ramírez, R; Lopez Torres, E; Løvhøiden, G; Lozea Feijo Soares, A; Lu, S; Luettig, P; Lunardon, M; Luparello, G; Luquin, L; Lutz, J R; Ma, K; Ma, R; Madagodahettige-Don, D M; Maevskaya, A; Mager, M; Mahapatra, D P; Maire, A; Makhlyueva, I; Mal'Kevich, D; Malaev, M; Malagalage, K J; Maldonado Cervantes, I; Malek, M; Malkiewicz, T; Malzacher, P; Mamonov, A; Manceau, L; Mangotra, L; Manko, V; Manso, F; Manzari, V; Mao, Y; Mares, J; Margagliotti, G V; Margotti, A; Marín, A; Martashvili, I; Martinengo, P; Martínez Hernández, M I; Martínez Davalos, A; Martínez García, G; Maruyama, Y; Marzari Chiesa, A; Masciocchi, S; Masera, M; Masetti, M; Masoni, A; Massacrier, L; Mastromarco, M; Mastroserio, A; Matthews, Z L; Matyja, A; Mayani, D; Mazza, G; Mazzoni, M A; Meddi, F; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Mendez Lorenzo, P; Meoni, M; Mercado Pérez, J; Mereu, P; Miake, Y; Michalon, A; Miftakhov, N; Milano, L; Milosevic, J; Minafra, F; Mischke, A; Miskowiec, D; Mitu, C; Mizoguchi, K; Mlynarz, J; Mohanty, B; Molnar, L; Mondal, M M; Montaño Zetina, L; Monteno, M; Montes, E; Morando, M; Moretto, S; Morsch, A; Moukhanova, T; Muccifora, V; Mudnic, E; Muhuri, S; Müller, H; Munhoz, M G; Munoz, J; Musa, L; Musso, A; Nandi, B K; Nania, R; Nappi, E; Navach, F; Navin, S; Nayak, T K; Nazarenko, S; Nazarov, G; Nedosekin, A; Nendaz, F; Newby, J; Nianine, A; Nicassio, M; Nielsen, B S; Nikolaev, S; Nikolic, V; Nikulin, S; Nikulin, V; Nilsen, B S; Nilsson, M S; Noferini, F; Nomokonov, P; Nooren, G; Novitzky, N; Nyatha, A; Nygaard, C; Nyiri, A; Nystrand, J; Ochirov, A; Odyniec, G; Oeschler, H; Oinonen, M; Okada, K; Okada, Y; Oldenburg, M; Oleniacz, J; Oppedisano, C; Orsini, F; Ortiz Velasquez, A; Ortona, G; Oskarsson, A; Osmic, F; Österman, L; Ostrowski, P; Otterlund, I; Otwinowski, J; Øvrebekk, G; Oyama, K; Ozawa, K; Pachmayer, Y; Pachr, M; Padilla, F; Pagano, P; Paic, G; Painke, F; Pajares, C; Pal, S; Pal, S K; Palaha, A; Palmeri, A; Panse, R; Papikyan, V; Pappalardo, G S; Park, W J; Pastircák, B; Pastore, C; Paticchio, V; Pavlinov, A; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Pepato, A; Pereira, H; Peressounko, D; Pérez, C; Perini, D; Perrino, D; Peryt, W; Peschek, J; Pesci, A; Peskov, V; Pestov, Y; Peters, A J; Petrácek, V; Petridis, A; Petris, M; Petrov, P; Petrovici, M; Petta, C; Peyré, J; Piano, S; Piccotti, A; Pikna, M; Pillot, P; Pinazza, O; Pinsky, L; Pitz, N; Piuz, F; Platt, R; Ploskon, M; Pluta, J; Pocheptsov, T; Pochybova, S; Podesta Lerma, P L M; Poggio, F; Poghosyan, M G; Polák, K; Polichtchouk, B; Polozov, P; Polyakov, V; Pommeresch, B; Pop, A; Posa, F; Pospísil, V; Potukuchi, B; Pouthas, J; Prasad, S K; Preghenella, R; Prino, F; Pruneau, C A; Pshenichnov, I; Puddu, G; Pujahari, P; Pulvirenti, A; Punin, A; Punin, V; Putis, M; Putschke, J; Quercigh, E; Rachevski, A; Rademakers, A; Radomski, S; Räihä, T S; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ramello, L; Ramírez Reyes, A; Rammler, M; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Räsänen, S S; Rashevskaya, I; Rath, S; Read, K F; Real, J S; Redlich, K; Renfordt, R; Reolon, A R; Reshetin, A; Rettig, F; Revol, J P; Reygers, K; Ricaud, H; Riccati, L; Ricci, R A; Richter, M; Riedler, P; Riegler, W; Riggi, F; Rivetti, A; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, M; Røed, K; Röhrich, D; Román Lopez, S; Romita, R; Ronchetti, F; Rosinský, P; Rosnet, P; Rossegger, S; Rossi, A; Roukoutakis, F; Rousseau, S; Roy, C; Roy, P; Rubio-Montero, A J; Rui, R; Rusanov, I; Russo, G; Ryabinkin, E; Rybicki, A; Sadovsky, S; Safarík, K; Sahoo, R; Saini, J; Saiz, P; Sakata, D; Salgado, C A; Salgueiro Domingues da Silva, R; Salur, S; Samanta, T; Sambyal, S; Samsonov, V; Sándor, L; Sandoval, A; Sano, M; Sano, S; Santo, R; Santoro, R; Sarkamo, J; Saturnini, P; Scapparone, E; Scarlassara, F; Scharenberg, R P; Schiaua, C; Schicker, R; Schindler, H; Schmidt, C; Schmidt, H R; Schossmaier, K; Schreiner, S; Schuchmann, S; Schukraft, J; Schutz, Y; Schwarz, K; Schweda, K; Scioli, G; Scomparin, E; Scott, P A; Segato, G; Semenov, D; Senyukov, S; Seo, J; Serci, S; Serkin, L; Serradilla, E; Sevcenco, A; Sgura, I; Shabratova, G; Shahoyan, R; Sharkov, G; Sharma, N; Sharma, S; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shtejer, K; Sibiriak, Y; Siciliano, M; Sicking, E; Siddi, E; Siemiarczuk, T; Silenzi, A; Silvermyr, D; Simili, E; Simonetti, G; Singaraju, R; Singh, R; Singhal, V; Sinha, B C; Sinha, T; Sitar, B; Sitta, M; Skaali, T B; Skjerdal, K; Smakal, R; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Snow, H; Søgaard, C; Soloviev, A; Soltveit, H K; Soltz, R; Sommer, W; Son, C W; Son, H; Song, M; Soos, C; Soramel, F; Soyk, D; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M; Srivastava, B K; Stachel, J; Staley, F; Stan, E; Stefanek, G; Stefanini, G; Steinbeck, T; Stenlund, E; Steyn, G; Stocco, D; Stock, R; Stolpovsky, P; Strmen, P; Suaide, A A P; Subieta Vásquez, M A; Sugitate, T; Suire, C; Sumbera, M; Susa, T; Swoboda, D; Symons, J; Szanto de Toledo, A; Szarka, I; Szostak, A; Szuba, M; Tadel, M; Tagridis, C; Takahara, A; Takahashi, J; Tanabe, R; Tapia Takaki, J D; Taureg, H; Tauro, A; Tavlet, M; Tejeda Muñoz, G; Telesca, A; Terrevoli, C; Thäder, J; Tieulent, R; Tlusty, D; Toia, A; Tolyhy, T; Torcato de Matos, C; Torii, H; Torralba, G; Toscano, L; Tosello, F; Tournaire, A; Traczyk, T; Tribedy, P; Tröger, G; Truesdale, D; Trzaska, W H; Tsiledakis, G; Tsilis, E; Tsuji, T; Tumkin, A; Turrisi, R; Turvey, A; Tveter, T S; Tydesjö, H; Tywoniuk, K; Ulery, J; Ullaland, K; Uras, A; Urbán, J; Urciuoli, G M; Usai, G L; Vacchi, A; Vala, M; Valencia Palomo, L; Vallero, S; van der Kolk, N; Vande Vyvre, P; van Leeuwen, M; Vannucci, L; Vargas, A; Varma, R; Vasiliev, A; Vassiliev, I; Vasileiou, M; Vechernin, V; Venaruzzo, M; Vercellin, E; Vergara, S; Vernet, R; Verweij, M; Vetlitskiy, I; Vickovic, L; Viesti, G; Vikhlyantsev, O; Vilakazi, Z; Villalobos Baillie, O; Vinogradov, A; Vinogradov, L; Vinogradov, Y; Virgili, T; Viyogi, Y P; Vodopianov, A; Voloshin, K; Voloshin, S; Volpe, G; von Haller, B; Vranic, D; Vrláková, J; Vulpescu, B; Wagner, B; Wagner, V; Wallet, L; Wan, R; Wang, D; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Watanabe, K; Wen, Q; Wessels, J; Westerhoff, U; Wiechula, J; Wikne, J; Wilk, A; Wilk, G; Williams, M C S; Willis, N; Windelband, B; Xu, C; Yang, C; Yang, H; Yasnopolskiy, S; Yermia, F; Yi, J; Yin, Z; Yokoyama, H; Yoo, I K; Yuan, X; Yurevich, V; Yushmanov, I; Zabrodin, E; Zagreev, B; Zalite, A; Zampolli, C; Zanevsky, Yu; Zaporozhets, S; Zarochentsev, A; Závada, P; Zbroszczyk, H; Zelnicek, P; Zenin, A; Zepeda, A; Zgura, I; Zhalov, M; Zhang, X; Zhou, D; Zhou, S; Zhu, J; Zichichi, A; Zinchenko, A; Zinovjev, G; Zoccarato, Y; Zychácek, V; Zynovyev, M

    2010-01-01

    The inclusive charged particle transverse momentum distribution is measured in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 900$~GeV at the LHC using the ALICE detector. The measurement is performed in the central pseudorapidity region $(|\\eta|_{\\rm INEL}=0.483\\pm0.001$~(stat.)~$\\pm0.007$~(syst.)~GeV/$c$ and $\\left_{\\rm NSD}=0.489\\pm0.001$~(stat.)~$\\pm0.007$~(syst.)~GeV/$c$, respectively. The data exhibit a slightly larger $\\left$ than measurements in wider pseudorapidity intervals. The results are compared to simulations with the Monte Carlo event generators PYTHIA and PHOJET.

  19. Dust particle charging in sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The charging and the screening of spherical dust particles in sheaths near the wall were studied using computer simulation. The three-dimensional PIC/MCC method and molecular dynamics method were applied to describe plasma particles motion and interaction with macroscopic dust grain. Calculations were carried out at different neutral gas pressures and wall potentials. Values of the charge of the dust particles and spatial distributions of plasma parameters are obtained by modelling. The results have shown that the charge of the dust particles in the sheath, as well as the spatial distribution of the ions and electrons near the dust particles, depend strongly on the wall potential. It is shown that for large negative values of the wall potential the negative charge of a dust particle decreases due to the decline of the electron density in its vicinity. In addition, the flow of energy of the ions on the surface of dust particles is increased due to better focusing effect of the dust particle field on ions.

  20. One-Dimensional Simulation of the Effects of Unstable Mix on Neutron and Charged Particle Spectra from Laser-Driven Implosion Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, R.; Delettrez, J. A.; Goncharov, V. N.; McKenty, P. W.; Radha, P. B.; Skupsky, S.

    1999-11-01

    The effects of Rayleigh--Taylor flow in recent laser-driven implosion experiments are simulated in one dimension by the hydrocode LILAC. Mix is modeled as a diffusive transport process affecting material constituents, thermal energy, and turbulent mix-motion energy within a growing mix region whose boundaries are derived from a saturable, linear multimode model of the Rayleigh--Taylor instability. The linear growth rates and the feedthrough coupling between perturbations of different unstable interfaces are obtained analytically in terms of the one- dimensional fluid profiles. Mode evolution proceeds according to equations applicable to all phases of acceleration, and the effects of geometrically converging, compressible flow are taken into account. Simulated mix-diagnostic signals include time-resolved energy spectra of neutrons from core fuel and/or embedded deuterium shell layers and the energy spectra of charged primary and secondary products of nuclear reactions. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC03-92SF19460, the University of Rochester, and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority.

  1. Inclusive Particle Spectra at RHIC

    OpenAIRE

    Kahana, D. E.; Kahana, S. H.

    2000-01-01

    A simulation is performed of the recently reported data from PHOBOS at energies of 56 and 130 A GeV using the relativistic heavy ion cascade LUCIFER which had previously given a good description of the NA49 inclusive spectra at E=17.2 A GeV. The results compare well with these early measurements at RHIC.

  2. Mass-independent search for fractionally charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A proposed mass-independent search for fractionally charged particles with the all-electrostatic line of the IsoTRACE Laboratory at University of Toronto is described. Sensitive measurement of the fractional charge is accomplished by (1) a judicious choice of ion source and ion species, (2) charge changing and electrostatic analysis before injection into the tandem accelerator, (3) molecular destruction, charge changing, and acceleration by the tandem, (4) charge state selection and E/q analysis after acceleration, and (5) particle energy measurement with a Si surface barrier detector. In addition, the mass of the fractionally charged particles can be determined by a time of flight spectrometer. Specific cases involving +- (1/3)e and +- (2/3)e particles are discussed. Also included in the discussion are: integral charge background rejection, the procedure of the search, the signature of the fractionally charged particles, he resolutions of the analyzers and detectors, and the expected energy and time of flight spectra

  3. Charged-particle coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, W.L.; Crane, J.K.; Hendricks, C.D.

    1980-08-29

    Advanced target designs require thicker (approx. 300 ..mu..m) coatings and better surface finishes that can be produced with current coating techniques. An advanced coating technique is proposed to provide maximum control of the coating flux and optimum manipulation of the shell during processing. In this scheme a small beam of ions or particles of known incident energy are collided with a levitated spherical mandrel. Precise control of the incident energy and angle of the deposition flux optimizes the control of the coating morphology while controlled rotation and noncontact support of the shell minimizes the possibility of particulate or damage generated defects. Almost infinite variability of the incident energy and material in this process provides increased flexibility of the target designs which can be physically realized.

  4. Charged-particle coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced target designs require thicker (approx. 300 μm) coatings and better surface finishes that can be produced with current coating techniques. An advanced coating technique is proposed to provide maximum control of the coating flux and optimum manipulation of the shell during processing. In this scheme a small beam of ions or particles of known incident energy are collided with a levitated spherical mandrel. Precise control of the incident energy and angle of the deposition flux optimizes the control of the coating morphology while controlled rotation and noncontact support of the shell minimizes the possibility of particulate or damage generated defects. Almost infinite variability of the incident energy and material in this process provides increased flexibility of the target designs which can be physically realized

  5. Charged particle acceleration with plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under certain conditions it is possible to create spatial charge waves (OCE) in a plasma (ionized gas) through some disturbance mechanism, the phenomenon produces electric fields of high intensity that are propagated at velocities near to a c. When charged particles are connected to such OCE they may be accelerated to very high energies in short distances. At present electric fields of approximately 107 V/cm have been observed. (Author). 4 refs

  6. Inclusive Particle Spectra at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Kahana, D E

    2000-01-01

    A simulation is performed of the recently reported data from PHOBOS at energies of $\\sqrt{s}=56,130 A$ GeV using the relativistic heavy ion cascade LUCIFER which had previously given a good description of the NA49 inclusive spectra at $\\sqrt{s}=17.2 A$ GeV. The results compare well with these early measurements at RHIC.

  7. Nuclear effects on the transverse momentum spectra of charged particles in pPb collisions at √(s{sub N{sub N}})=5.02 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A. [Yerevan Physics Institute, Yerevan (Armenia); Adam, W.; Bergauer, T. [Institut für Hochenergiephysik der OeAW, Wien (Austria); and others

    2015-05-29

    Transverse momentum spectra of charged particles are measured by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC in pPb collisions at √(s{sub N{sub N}})=5.02 TeV, in the range 0.4charged-particle production is asymmetric about η{sub CM}=0, with smaller yield observed in the direction of the proton beam, qualitatively consistent with expectations from shadowing in nuclear parton distribution functions (nPDF). A pp reference spectrum at √s=5.02 TeV is obtained by interpolation from previous measurements at higher and lower center-of-mass energies. The p{sub T} distribution measured in pPb collisions shows an enhancement of charged particles with p{sub T}>20 GeV/c compared to expectations from the pp reference. The enhancement is larger than predicted by perturbative quantum chromodynamics calculations that include antishadowing modifications of nPDFs.

  8. Magnetic guidance of charged particles

    CERN Document Server

    Dubbers, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Many experiments and devices in physics use static magnetic fields to guide charged particles from a source onto a detector, and we ask the innocent question: What is the distribution of particle intensity over the detector surface? One should think that the solution to this seemingly simple problem is well known. We show that, even for uniform guide fields, this is not the case and present analytical point spread functions (PSF) for magnetic transport that deviate strongly from previous results. The "magnetic" PSF shows unexpected singularities, which were recently also observed experimentally, and which make detector response very sensitive to minute changes of position, field amplitude, or particle energy. In the field of low-energy particle physics, these singularities may become a source of error in modern high precision experiments, or may be used for instrument tests, for instance in neutrino mass retardation spectrometers.

  9. Magnetic guidance of charged particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Dubbers

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many experiments and devices in physics use static magnetic fields to guide charged particles from a source onto a detector, and we ask the innocent question: What is the distribution of particle intensity over the detector surface? One should think that the solution to this seemingly simple problem is well known. We show that, even for uniform guide fields, this is not the case, and we present analytical point spread functions (PSF for magnetic transport that deviate strongly from previous results. The “magnetic” PSF shows unexpected singularities, which were recently also observed experimentally, and which make detector response very sensitive to minute changes of position, field amplitude, or particle energy. In the field of low-energy particle physics, these singularities may become a source of error in modern high precision experiments, or may be used for instrument tests.

  10. Geometrical charged-particle optics

    CERN Document Server

    Rose, Harald

    2012-01-01

    This second edition is an extended version of the first edition of Geometrical Charged-Particle Optics. The updated reference monograph is intended as a guide for researchers and graduate students who are seeking a comprehensive treatment of the design of instruments and beam-guiding systems of charged particles and their propagation in electromagnetic fields. Wave aspects are included in this edition for explaining electron holography, the Aharanov-Bohm effect and the resolution of electron microscopes limited by diffraction. Several methods for calculating the electromagnetic field are presented and procedures are outlined for calculating the properties of systems with arbitrarily curved axis. Detailed methods are presented for designing and optimizing special components such as aberration correctors, spectrometers, energy filters monochromators, ion traps, electron mirrors and cathode lenses. In particular, the optics of rotationally symmetric lenses, quadrupoles, and systems composed of these elements are...

  11. Medium energy charged particle spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The charged particle spectrometer E8 on HELIOS A and B will be described in some detail. It covers proton energies from 80 keV to 6 MeV, electrons from 20 keV to 2 MeV, and positrons from 150 to 550 keV. Its flight performance will be discussed. From examples of measurements the capability of the instrument will be demonstrated. (orig.)

  12. Computations in Charged Particle Optics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oral, Martin; Radlička, Tomáš

    Brno: Institute of Scientific Instruments AS CR, v. v. i, 2014, s. 23-24. ISBN 978-80-87441-12-1. [Workshop of Interesting Topics of SEM and ESEM. Mikulov (CZ), 26.08.2014-31.08.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE.2.3.20.0103 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : charged Particle Optics * computations Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  13. Heavy charged particle radiotherapy trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through mid-1985, a total of 49 patients received heavy-charged-particle irradiation for chordoma, chondrosarcoma, meningioma, or neurilemmoma of the base of skull or juxtaspinal area. The mean tumor dose was 68 Gray-equivalent, ranging from 26 to 80. Control within the irradiated area was obtained in 35 of 49. The median follow up in all 49 patients is 21 months, with a range from 3-90 months. Serious complications were seen in a small number of patients, with cranial nerve injury in two, transverse myelitis in one, and brain necrosis in three patients. In 42 patients with tumors of other histologies and/or sites, including tumors of paranasal sinuses, retroperitoneum, soft tissue and miscellaneous other sites, heavy charged particles were also used to deliver a higher tumor dose than possible with standard irradiation techniques. In the group, 21/42 (50%) have had local tumor control, also a good result considering the extent and the range of tumor types treated. The authors believe that there are a number of sites in addition to the juxtaspinal/base of skull tumors that will show long term benefit from treatment with heavy charged particles

  14. Heavy charged particle dosimetry, theory and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were made to verify the theory of the transport of heavy particles through a medium using L-α-alaline for the detection of radiation. The dose response of L-α-alaline was measured for X-ray radiation of an energy of 4 to 16 MeV, electron radiation of an energy of 6, 10 and 20 MeV, low-LET radiation, 16 MeV and 6 MeV protons, 20 MeV particles and other charged particles. Of the measured dose responses RE values were experimentally obtained and compared with calculated results. Free and very stable radicals were obtained by radiation. Fading of low-LET and high-LET radiation was determined as induced by the said radicals. Using ESR spectra it was found that diverse chemical reactions take place in the track of high-LET particles. However, chemical reactions in the track of a heavy charged particle will be the same if the medium is homogeneously irradiated with low-LET radiation. (E.S.). 7 figs., 1 tab., 11 refs

  15. Direct charged particle imaging sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CMOS image sensors optimized for charged particle imaging applications, such as electron microscopy and particle physics, have been designed and characterized. These directly image charged particles without reliance on performance-degrading hybrid technologies such as the use of scintillating materials. Based on standard CMOS active pixel sensor (APS) technology, the sensor arrays uses an 8-20 μm epitaxial layer that acts as a thicker sensitive region for the generation and collection of ionization electrons resulting from impinging high-energy particles. This results in a 100% fill factor and a far larger signal per incident electron than a standard CMOS photodiode could provide. A 512x550 pixels prototype has been fabricated and used extensively in an electron microscope, including having been used to take sample images. Temporal noise was measured to be 0.9 mV RMS, and the dynamic range was 60 dB. Power consumption at 70 frames/s is 20 mW. The full-width half-maximum of the collected ionization electron distribution was found to be 5.5 μm, yielding a spatial resolution of approximately 2.3 μm for individual incident electrons, and the modulation transfer function of the sensor at the Nyquist limit is to be 32%

  16. The dynamics of a charged particle

    OpenAIRE

    Rohrlich, Fritz

    2008-01-01

    Using physical arguments, I derive the physically correct equations of motion for a classical charged particle from the Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac equations (LAD) which are well known to be physically incorrect. Since a charged particle can classically not be a point particle because of the Coulomb field divergence, my derivation accounts for that by imposing a basic condition on the external force. That condition ensures that the particle's finite size charge distribution looks like a point charg...

  17. Interactions of charged dust particles in clouds of charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundienkov, Vladimir; Yakovlenko, Sergey

    2004-03-01

    Two charged dust particles inside a cloud of charges are considered as Debye atoms forming a Debye molecule. Cassini coordinates are used for the numerical solution of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation for the charged cloud. The electric force acting on a dust particle by the other dust particle was determined by integrating the electrostatic pressure on the surface of the dust particle. It is shown that attractive forces appear when the following two conditions are satisfied. First, the average distance between dust particles should be approximately equal to two Debye radii. Second, attraction takes place when similar charges are concentrated predominantly on the dust particles. If the particles carry a small fraction of total charge of the same polarity, repulsion between the particles takes place at all distances. We apply our results to the experiments with thermoemission plasma and to the experiments with nuclear-pumped plasma.

  18. Measurement of charged-particle spectra in Pb+Pb collisions at s N N = 2.76 $$ \\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}=2.76 $$ TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Agustoni, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allison, L. J.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J. -B.; Blanco, J. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boddy, C. R.; Boehler, M.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boutouil, S.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brazzale, S. F.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, K.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Brown, J.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Bucci, F.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, L.

    2015-09-01

    Charged-particle spectra obtained in Pb+Pb interactions at √sNN=2.76 and pp interactions at √sNN=2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC are presented, using data with integrated luminosities of 0.15 nb-1 and 4.2 pb-1, respectively, in a wide transverse momentum (0.5 < p T < 150 GeV) and pseudorapidity (|η| < 2) range. For Pb+Pb collisions, the spectra are presented as a function of collision centrality, which is determined by the response of the forward calorimeters located on both sides of the interaction point. The nuclear modification factors R AA and R CP are presented in detail as a function of centrality, p T and η. They show a distinct p T-dependence with a pronounced minimum at about 7 GeV. Above 60 GeV, R AA is consistent with a plateau at a centrality-dependent value, within the uncertainties. The value is 0.55 ± 0.01(stat.) ± 0.04(syst.) in the most central collisions. The R AA distribution is consistent with flat |η| dependence over the whole transverse momentum range in all centrality classes.

  19. Measurement of charged-particle spectra in Pb+Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{{s}_\\mathsf{NN}} = 2.76$TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James Baker; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanco, Jacobo Ezequiel; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boutouil, Sara; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozic, Ivan; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Kieran; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Brown, Jonathan; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burghgrave, Blake; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chang, Philip; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Charfeddine, Driss; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocio, Alessandra; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey Rogers; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davignon, Olivier; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; do Vale, Maria Aline Barros; Dobos, Daniel; Dobre, Monica; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Dris, Manolis; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dwuznik, Michal; Dyndal, Mateusz; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; French, Sky; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Shaun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guttman, Nir; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hinman, Rachel Reisner; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holmes, Tova Ray; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; König, Sebastian; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Homero; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Mechnich, Joerg; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Meric, Nicolas; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morton, Alexander; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Nanava, Gizo; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; 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Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyedruhollah; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; 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Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Bruno; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosa, David; Sosebee, Mark; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; St Denis, Richard Dante; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Stavina, Pavel; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Ray; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; 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Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloso, Filipe; Velz, Thomas; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; 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Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, Alan; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Miles; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yakabe, Ryota; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Yi; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yao, Weiming; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2015-01-01

    Charged-particle spectra obtained in 0.15nb${}^{-1}$ of Pb+Pb interactions at $\\sqrt{{s}_\\mathsf{NN}}=2.76$TeV and 4.2pb${}^{-1}$ of pp interactions at $\\sqrt{s}=2.76$TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC are presented in a wide transverse momentum ($0.5 < p_{\\mathrm{T}} < 150$GeV) and pseudorapidity ($|\\eta|<2$) range. For Pb+Pb collisions, the spectra are presented as a function of collision centrality, which is determined by the response of the forward calorimeter located on both sides of the interaction point. The nuclear modification factors $R_{\\mathrm{AA}}$ and $R_{\\mathrm{CP}}$ are presented in detail as function of centrality, $p_{\\mathrm{T}}$ and $\\eta$. They show a distinct $p_{\\mathrm{T}}$-dependence with a pronounced minimum at about 7GeV. Above 60GeV, $R_{\\mathrm{AA}}$ is consistent with a plateau at a centrality-dependent value, within the uncertainties. The value is $0.55\\pm0.01(stat.)\\pm0.04(syst.)$ in the most central collisions. The $R_{\\mathrm{AA}}$ distribution is consistent wit...

  20. A chemical analyzer for charged ultrafine particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Gonser

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available New particle formation is a frequent phenomenon in the atmosphere and of major significance for the earth's climate and human health. To date the mechanisms leading to the nucleation of particles as well as to aerosol growth are not completely understood. A lack of appropriate measurement equipment for online analysis of the chemical composition of freshly nucleated particles is one major limitation. We have developed a Chemical Analyzer for Charged Ultrafine Particles (CAChUP capable of analyzing particles with diameters below 30 nm. A bulk of size separated particles is collected electrostatically on a metal filament, resistively desorbed and consequently analyzed for its molecular composition in a time of flight mass spectrometer. We report of technical details as well as characterization experiments performed with the CAChUP. Our instrument was tested in the laboratory for its detection performance as well as for its collection and desorption capabilities. The manual application of known masses of camphene (C10H16 to the desorption filament resulted in a detection limit between 0.5 and 5 ng, and showed a linear response of the mass spectrometer. Flow tube experiments of 25 nm diameter secondary organic aerosol from ozonolysis of alpha-pinene also showed a linear relation between collection time and the mass spectrometer's signal intensity. The resulting mass spectra from the collection experiments are in good agreement with published work on particles generated by the ozonolysis of alpha-pinene. A sensitivity study shows that the current setup of CAChUP is ready for laboratory measurements and for the observation of new particle formation events in the field.

  1. Supplementary kinetic constants of charged particles

    OpenAIRE

    Ribaric, Marijan; Sustersic, Luka

    2006-01-01

    We put forward: (A) An improved description of classical, kinetic properties of a charged pointlike physical particle that consists, in addition to its mass and charge, also of the Eliezer and Bhabha kinetic constants; and (B) a proposal to evaluate these kinetic constants by considering the trajectories of charged particles in an acccelerator.

  2. Spinning charged test particles and Cosmic Censorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors consider spinning charged test particles in the gravitational field of a rotating charged black hole, and it is shown that the hole cannot be destroyed, according to the Cosmic Censorship hypothesis. (Auth.)

  3. Charge of dust particles in a particle chain

    CERN Document Server

    Yousefi, Razieh; Matthews, Lorin Swint; Hyde, Truell W

    2016-01-01

    Charged dust particles form structures which are extended in the vertical direction in the electrode sheath of a rf discharge when confined within a glass box. The charge on each particle as a function of height varies due to the changing plasma conditions and the wakefield of upstream particles. Here an analysis of the equilibrium state of chains of varying number of particles is analyzed to determine the charge on each particle within a vertically extended chain as well as the magnitude of the positive wakefield charge.

  4. Worldline deviations of charged spinning particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heydari-Fard, M. [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, 19839 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohseni, M. [Physics Department, Payame Noor University, 19395-4697 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: m-mohseni@pnu.ac.ir; Sepangi, H.R. [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, 19839 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2005-10-20

    The geodesic deviation equation is generalized to worldline deviation equations describing the relative accelerations of charged spinning particles in the framework of Dixon-Souriau equations of motion.

  5. Worldline deviations of charged spinning particles

    CERN Document Server

    Heydari-Fard, M; Sepangi, H R

    2005-01-01

    The geodesic deviation equation is generalized to worldline deviation equations describing the relative accelerations of charged spinning particles in the framework of Dixon-Souriau equations of motion.

  6. Charge-state-specific EUV spectra of Xe ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charge state specific extreme ultraviolet spectra from xenon ions have been recorded at Tokyo Metropolitan University. The Electron Cyclotron Resonance Source spectra were produced from charge exchange collisions between the xenon ions and rare gas target atoms. Atomic structure calculations were performed for Xe 16+ − Xe20+ using the Hartree-Fock with Configuration Interaction code of Cowan and showed that the spectra arise from 4p-4d and 4d-4f transitions. In addition it was necessary to allow for selective capture processes that occur in these slow collisions. The energies of the capture states involved in the single electron process are estimated using the classical over barrier model.

  7. Delay Equation for Charged Brown Particle

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasov, Alexander A.

    2001-01-01

    In previous work (physics/0004026) was shown, with the help of numerical calculations, that the effective Brown temperature for charged particle is lower than that for particle without charge. Here we derive this result without numerical calculations, integrating the delay equation analytically, as for zero, so for nonzero viscosity.

  8. Scintillation Detectors for Charged Particles and Photons

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoq, P

    2011-01-01

    Scintillation Detectors for Charged Particles and Photons in 'Charged Particle Detectors - Particle Detectors and Detector Systems', part of 'Landolt-Börnstein - Group I Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, Volume 21B1: Detectors for Particles and Radiation. Part 1: Principles and Methods'. This document is part of Part 1 'Principles and Methods' of Subvolume B 'Detectors for Particles and Radiation' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Subsection '3.1.1 Scintillation Detectors for Charged Particles and Photons' of Section '3.1 Charged Particle Detectors' of Chapter '3 Particle Detectors and Detector Systems' with the content: 3.1.1 Scintillation Detectors for Charged Particles and Photons 3.1.1.1 Basic detector principles and scintillator requirements 3.1.1.1.1 Interaction of ionizing radiation with scintillator material 3.1.1.1.2 Important scint...

  9. Charged-particle activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the methodology and application of nuclear activation with ion beams (19 via 16O(3He,p)18F, 12C(3He,α)11C and 14N(p,α)11C respectively. Recently, triton activation has been shown to be inherently still superior to 3He activation for the determination of oxygen [16O(3H,n)18F]. Lithium, boron, carbon and sulphur can be detected rapidly, nondestructively and with high sensitivity (approximately 0.25ppm for Li and B) via ''quasi-prompt'' activation based on the detection of short-lived, high-energy beta emitters (10ms1H(7Li,n)7Be for example. Nondestructive multielement analysis: Proton activation has the inherent potential for meeting requirements of broad elemental coverage, sensitivity (ppm and sub-ppm range) and selectivity. Up to 30 elements have been determined in Al, Co, Ag, Nb, Rh, Ta and biological samples, using 12-MeV proton activation followed by gamma-ray spectrometry. These capabilities are further enhanced with the counting of X-ray emitters, 28 elements (269) and accuracy using proton activation. 204Pb/206Pb ratios can also be determined with a relative precision of a few per cent. Although charged-particle activation analysis is a well-established trace analysis technique, broad potential capabilities remain to be explored, e.g. those arising from ultrashort-lived nuclides, heavy ion interactions and the combination of delayed and prompt methods. (author)

  10. Coagulation of charged particles in dust plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One studied peculiarities of behaviour of small particles in dust plasma resulted on the one hand, from suppression of coagulation due to monopolar charging within the range of particle dimensions under the Debye radius of shielding and, on the other hand, from leveling of this case for particles of large dimensions. On the basis of similarity ratios one determined the range of parameters making linear approximation of particle charge dependence on their dimension true. In terms of the modified classical theory of coagulation in diffusion approximation one studied certain anomalies of behavior of dimension distribution of particles. It is determined that in contrast to the ordinary aerosol in dust plasma as time passes one may reduce dispersion of distribution and average dimensions of particles. For the first time one demonstrates the possibility to realize long-lived quasiliquid state of dust plasma associated with the anomalous behaviour of distribution function of coagulating charged particles according to dimensions

  11. On source parameters from particle correlations and spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Ster, A.; Csorgo, T.; Lorstad, B.

    1998-01-01

    Analytic and numeric approximations are studied in detail for a hydrodynamic parameterization of single-particle spectra and two-particle correlation functions in high energy hadron-proton and heavy ion reactions. Two very different sets of model parameters are shown to result in similarly shaped correlation functions and single particle spectra in a rather large region of the momentum space. However, the absolute normalization of the single-particle spectra is found to be highly sensitive to...

  12. Weak charges of charmed particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The matrix elements between the lowest states of the ΔC=1 weak charges are evaluated including the effect of SU4 breaking. The charges are obtained from the corresponding generators of the classification group by a unitary transformation U, which is factorized as the product of operators acting on a single quark: the breaking is naturally introduced by having different mixing parameters for the different quarks

  13. Abundances, energy and LET spectra of HZE particles in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present chapter reviews knowledge of the composition and energy spectra of HZE (high Z and energy) particles in space and present experimental results of LET spectra measured in several manned satellites

  14. Robust statistical reconstruction for charged particle tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Larry Joe; Klimenko, Alexei Vasilievich; Fraser, Andrew Mcleod; Morris, Christopher; Orum, John Christopher; Borozdin, Konstantin N; Sossong, Michael James; Hengartner, Nicolas W

    2013-10-08

    Systems and methods for charged particle detection including statistical reconstruction of object volume scattering density profiles from charged particle tomographic data to determine the probability distribution of charged particle scattering using a statistical multiple scattering model and determine a substantially maximum likelihood estimate of object volume scattering density using expectation maximization (ML/EM) algorithm to reconstruct the object volume scattering density. The presence of and/or type of object occupying the volume of interest can be identified from the reconstructed volume scattering density profile. The charged particle tomographic data can be cosmic ray muon tomographic data from a muon tracker for scanning packages, containers, vehicles or cargo. The method can be implemented using a computer program which is executable on a computer.

  15. New Charged Particles from Higgs Couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Andrew G

    2012-01-01

    The recently reported observation of a new particle with mass about 125 GeV and couplings generally resembling those of the Standard Model Higgs boson provides a potential probe of the physics of electroweak symmetry breaking. Although the current data only provides hints, we suggest a particular combination of Higgs couplings as an assay for new charged particles connected with electroweak symmetry breaking, and construct a simple model with charge 5/3 quarks as a demonstration of its use.

  16. Measurement of the electrostatic charge in airborne particles: II - particle charge distribution of different aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Rodrigues

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This work gives sequence to the study on the measurement of the electrostatic charges in aerosols. The particle charge classifier developed for this purpose and presented in the previous paper (Marra and Coury, 2000 has been used here to measure the particle charge distribution of a number of different aerosols. The charges acquired by the particles were naturally derived from the aerosol generation procedure itself. Two types of aerosol generators were used: the vibrating orifice generator and turntable Venturi plate generator. In the vibrating orifice generator, mono-dispersed particles were generated by a solution of water/ethanol/methylene blue, while in the rotating plate generator, six different materials were utilized. The results showed no clear dependence between electric charge and particle diameter for the mono-dispersed aerosol. However, for the poly-dispersed aerosols, a linear dependence between particle size and charge could be noticed.

  17. Configuration interaction in charge exchange spectra of tin and xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charge-state-specific extreme ultraviolet spectra from both tin ions and xenon ions have been recorded at Tokyo Metropolitan University. The electron cyclotron resonance source spectra were produced from charge exchange collisions between the ions and rare gas target atoms. To identify unknown spectral lines of tin and xenon, atomic structure calculations were performed for Sn14+-Sn17+ and Xe16+-Xe20+ using the Hartree-Fock configuration interaction code of Cowan (1981 The Theory of Atomic Structure and Spectra (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press)). The energies of the capture states involved in the single-electron process that occurs in these slow collisions were estimated using the classical over-barrier model.

  18. Particles with non abelian charges

    CERN Document Server

    Bastianelli, Fiorenzo; Corradini, Olindo; Latini, Emanuele

    2013-01-01

    Efficient methods for describing non abelian charges in worldline approaches to QFT are useful to simplify calculations and address structural properties, as for example color/kinematics relations. Here we analyze in detail a method for treating arbitrary non abelian charges. We use Grassmann variables to take into account color degrees of freedom, which however are known to produce reducible representations of the color group. Then we couple them to a U(1) gauge field defined on the worldline, together with a Chern-Simons term, to achieve projection on an irreducible representation. Upon gauge fixing there remains a modulus, an angle parametrizing the U(1) Wilson loop, whose dependence is taken into account exactly in the propagator of the Grassmann variables. We test the method in simple examples, the scalar and spin 1/2 contribution to the gluon self energy, and suggest that it might simplify the analysis of more involved amplitudes.

  19. Discrete Element Modeling of Triboelectrically Charged Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Michael D.; Calle, Carlos I.; Weitzman, Peter S.; Curry, David R.

    2008-01-01

    Tribocharging of particles is common in many processes including fine powder handling and mixing, printer toner transport and dust extraction. In a lunar environment with its high vacuum and lack of water, electrostatic forces are an important factor to consider when designing and operating equipment. Dust mitigation and management is critical to safe and predictable performance of people and equipment. The extreme nature of lunar conditions makes it difficult and costly to carry out experiments on earth which are necessary to better understand how particles gather and transfer charge between each other and with equipment surfaces. DEM (Discrete Element Modeling) provides an excellent virtual laboratory for studying tribocharging of particles as well as for design of devices for dust mitigation and for other purposes related to handling and processing of lunar regolith. Theoretical and experimental work has been performed pursuant to incorporating screened Coulombic electrostatic forces into EDEM, a commercial DEM software package. The DEM software is used to model the trajectories of large numbers of particles for industrial particulate handling and processing applications and can be coupled with other solvers and numerical models to calculate particle interaction with surrounding media and force fields. While simple Coulombic force between two particles is well understood, its operation in an ensemble of particles is more complex. When the tribocharging of particles and surfaces due to frictional contact is also considered, it is necessary to consider longer range of interaction of particles in response to electrostatic charging. The standard DEM algorithm accounts for particle mechanical properties and inertia as a function of particle shape and mass. If fluid drag is neglected, then particle dynamics are governed by contact between particles, between particles and equipment surfaces and gravity forces. Consideration of particle charge and any tribocharging and

  20. Charged particle concepts for fog dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, W.; Collins, F. G.; Koepf, D.

    1981-01-01

    Charged particle techniques hold promise for dispersing warm fog in the terminal area of commercial airports. This report focuses on features of the charged particle technique which require further study. The basic physical principles of the technique and the major verification experiments carried out in the past are described. The fundamentals of the nozzle operation are given. The nozzle characteristics and the theory of particle charging in the nozzle are discussed, including information from extensive literature on electrostatic precipitation relative to environmental pollution control and a description of some preliminary reported analyses on the jet characteristics and interaction with neighboring jets. The equation governing the transfer of water substances and of electrical charge is given together with a brief description of several semi-empirical, mathematical expressions necessary for the governing equations. The necessary ingredients of a field experiment to verify the system once a prototype is built are described.

  1. Towards a microscopic theory of particle charging

    CERN Document Server

    Bronold, Franz X; Kersten, H; Deutsch, H

    2009-01-01

    We recently questioned the treatment of a dust particle as a perfect absorber for electrons and ions and proposed a surface model for the charge of a dust particle in a quiescent plasma which combines the microscopic physics at the grain boundary (sticking into and desorption from external surface states) with the macrophysics of the discharge (plasma collection fluxes). Within this model the charge and partial screening of the particle can be calculated without relying on the condition that the total electron collection flux balances on the grain surface the total ion collection flux. Grain charges obtained from our approach compared favorably with experimental data. The purpose of this paper is to describe our model in more detail, in particular, the hypotheses on which it is built, contrast it with the standard charging models based on flux balancing on the grain surface, and to analyze additional experimental data.

  2. Fractionally charged particles in cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Bashindzhagyan, George

    2016-01-01

    The results of many experiments on a search of fractionally charged particles in cosmic rays have been reviewed. The registered by ATIC and PAMELA experiments change of the proton energy spectrum at about 250 GeV can be explained if fractionally charged particles with another energy spectrum slope actually mixed with protons but cannot be separated because of a strong dE/dx fluctuations. The performed simulations show that multilayer detectors can seriously help in such separation. In the Aragats experiment performed using multilayer proportional counter combined with hadron calorimeter a group of 4e/3 like events with unexpectedly high average energy has been registered. It could be explained by their different from regular hadrons energy spectrum. The ATIC experiment ionization spectrum in single charged particle area has been examined. An interesting bump in 2e/3 charge region was observed. The events in the bump have very different from regular protons angular distribution.

  3. Electro-optical detection of charged particles

    CERN Document Server

    Semertzidis, Y K; Kowalski, L A; Kraus, D E; Larsen, R; Lazarus, D M; Magurno, B; Nikas, D; Ozben, C; Srinivasan-Rao, T; Tsang, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    We have made the first observation of a charged particle beam by means of its electro-optical effect on the polarization of laser light in a LiNbO sub 3 crystal. The modulation of the laser light during the passage of a pulsed electron beam was observed using a fast photodiode and a digital oscilloscope. The fastest rise time measured, 120 ps, was obtained in the single shot mode and was limited by the bandwidth of the oscilloscope and the associated electronics. This technology holds good for detectors of greatly improved spatial and temporal resolution for single relativistic charged particles as well as particle beams.

  4. Charged-particle spectroscopy in organic semiconducting single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciavatti, A.; Sellin, P. J.; Basiricò, L.; Fraleoni-Morgera, A.; Fraboni, B.

    2016-04-01

    The use of organic materials as radiation detectors has grown, due to the easy processability in liquid phase at room temperature and the possibility to cover large areas by means of low cost deposition techniques. Direct charged-particle detectors based on solution-grown Organic Semiconducting Single Crystals (OSSCs) are shown to be capable to detect charged particles in pulse mode, with very good peak discrimination. The direct charged-particle detection in OSSCs has been assessed both in the planar and in the vertical axes, and a digital pulse processing algorithm has been used to perform pulse height spectroscopy and to study the charge collection efficiency as a function of the applied bias voltage. Taking advantage of the charge spectroscopy and the good peak discrimination of pulse height spectra, an Hecht-like behavior of OSSCs radiation detectors is demonstrated. It has been possible to estimate the mobility-lifetime value in organic materials, a fundamental parameter for the characterization of radiation detectors, whose results are equal to μτcoplanar = (5 .5 ± 0.6 ) × 10-6 cm2/V and μτsandwich = (1 .9 ± 0.2 ) × 10-6 cm2/V, values comparable to those of polycrystalline inorganic detectors. Moreover, alpha particles Time-of-Flight experiments have been carried out to estimate the drift mobility value. The results reported here indicate how charged-particle detectors based on OSSCs possess a great potential as low-cost, large area, solid-state direct detectors operating at room temperature. More interestingly, the good detection efficiency and peak discrimination observed for charged-particle detection in organic materials (hydrogen-rich molecules) are encouraging for their further exploitation in the detection of thermal and high-energy neutrons.

  5. Transverse Schottky spectra and beam transfer functions of coasting ion beams with space charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the transverse dynamics of coasting ion beams with moderate space charge is presented in this work. From the dispersion relation with linear space charge, an analytic model describing the impact of space charge on transverse beam transfer functions (BTFs) and the stability limits of a beam is derived. The dielectric function obtained in this way is employed to describe the transverse Schottky spectra with linear space charge as well. The difference between the action of space charge and impedances is highlighted. The setup and the results of an experiment performed in the heavy ion synchrotron SIS-18 at GSI to detect space-charge effects at different beam intensities are explicated. The measured transverse Schottky spectra and BTFs are compared with the linear space-charge model. The stability diagrams constructed from the BTFs are presented. The space-charge parameters evaluated from the Schottky and BTF measurements are compared with estimations based on measured beam parameters. The impact of collective effects on the Schottky and BTF diagnostics is also investigated through numerical simulations. For this purpose the self-field of beams with linear and non-linear transverse density-distributions is computed on a twodimensional grid. The noise of the random particle distribution causes fluctuations of the dipole moment of the beam which produce the Schottky spectrum. BTFs are simulated by exciting the beam with transverse kicks. The simulation results are used to verify the space-charge model. (orig.)

  6. Transverse Schottky spectra and beam transfer functions of coasting ion beams with space charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paret, Stefan

    2010-02-22

    A study of the transverse dynamics of coasting ion beams with moderate space charge is presented in this work. From the dispersion relation with linear space charge, an analytic model describing the impact of space charge on transverse beam transfer functions (BTFs) and the stability limits of a beam is derived. The dielectric function obtained in this way is employed to describe the transverse Schottky spectra with linear space charge as well. The difference between the action of space charge and impedances is highlighted. The setup and the results of an experiment performed in the heavy ion synchrotron SIS-18 at GSI to detect space-charge effects at different beam intensities are explicated. The measured transverse Schottky spectra and BTFs are compared with the linear space-charge model. The stability diagrams constructed from the BTFs are presented. The space-charge parameters evaluated from the Schottky and BTF measurements are compared with estimations based on measured beam parameters. The impact of collective effects on the Schottky and BTF diagnostics is also investigated through numerical simulations. For this purpose the self-field of beams with linear and non-linear transverse density-distributions is computed on a twodimensional grid. The noise of the random particle distribution causes fluctuations of the dipole moment of the beam which produce the Schottky spectrum. BTFs are simulated by exciting the beam with transverse kicks. The simulation results are used to verify the space-charge model. (orig.)

  7. Why do particle clouds generate electric charges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pähtz, T.; Herrmann, H. J.; Shinbrot, T.

    2010-05-01

    Grains in desert sandstorms spontaneously generate strong electrical charges; likewise volcanic dust plumes produce spectacular lightning displays. Charged particle clouds also cause devastating explosions in food, drug and coal processing industries. Despite the wide-ranging importance of granular charging in both nature and industry, even the simplest aspects of its causes remain elusive, because it is difficult to understand how inert grains in contact with little more than other inert grains can generate the large charges observed. Here, we present a simple yet predictive explanation for the charging of granular materials in collisional flows. We argue from very basic considerations that charge transfer can be expected in collisions of identical dielectric grains in the presence of an electric field, and we confirm the model's predictions using discrete-element simulations and a tabletop granular experiment.

  8. Search milli-charged particles at SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langeveld, W.G.J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Particles with electric charge q {triple_bond} Qe {le} 10{sup -3} e and masses in the range 1-1000 MeV/c{sup 2} are not excluded by present experiments or by astrophysical or cosmological arguments. A beam dump experiment uniquely suited to the detection of such {open_quotes}milli-charged{close_quotes} particles has been carried out at SLAC, utilizing the short-duration pulses of the SLC electron beam to establish a tight coincidence window for the signal. The detector, a large scintillation counter sensitive to very small energy depositions, provided much greater sensitivity than previous searches. Analysis of the data leads to the exclusion of a substantial portion of the charge-mass plane. In this report, a preliminary mass-dependent upper limit is presented for the charge of milli-charged particles, ranging from Q = 1.7 x 10{sup -5} at milli-charged particle mass 0.1 MeV/c{sup 2} to Q = 9.5 x 10{sup -4} at 100 MeV/c{sup 2}.

  9. Charge Exchange Spectra of Hydrogenic and He-like Iron

    CERN Document Server

    Wargelin, B J; Neill, P A; Olson, R E; Scofield, J H

    2005-01-01

    We present H-like Fe XXVI and He-like Fe XXV charge-exchange spectra resulting from collisions of highly charged iron with N2 gas at an energy of 10 eV/amu in an electron beam ion trap. Although individual high-n emission lines are not resolved in our measurements, we observe that the most likely level for Fe25+ --> Fe24+ electron capture is n~9, in line with expectations, while the most likely value for Fe26+ --> Fe25+ charge exchange is significantly higher. In the Fe XXV spectrum, the K-alpha emission feature dominates, whether produced via charge exchange or collisional excitation. The K-alpha centroid is lower in energy for the former case than the latter (6666 versus 6685 eV, respectively), as expected because of the strong enhancement of emission from the forbidden and intercombination lines, relative to the resonance line, in charge-exchange spectra. In contrast, the Fe XXVI high-n Lyman lines have a summed intensity greater than that of Ly-alpha, and are substantially stronger than predicted from the...

  10. Effects of dispersive wave modes on charged particles transport

    CERN Document Server

    Schreiner, Cedric

    2015-01-01

    The transport of charged particles in the heliosphere and the interstellar medium is governed by the interaction of particles and magnetic irregularities. For the transport of protons a rather simple model using a linear Alfv\\'en wave spectrum which follows the Kolmogorov distribution usually yields good results. Even magnetostatic spectra may be used. For the case of electron transport, particles will resonate with the high-k end of the spectrum. Here the magnetic fluctuations do not follow the linear dispersion relation, but the kinetic regime kicks in. We will discuss the interaction of fluctuations of dispersive waves in the kinetic regime using a particle-in-cell code. Especially the scattering of particles following the idea of Lange et al. (2013) and its application to PiC codes will be discussed. The effect of the dispersive regime on the electron transport will be discussed in detail.

  11. Bibliography of integral charged particle nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is the second supplement to the archival edition of the National Nuclear Data Center's charged-particle bibliography. This supplement contains citations to all references scanned since March 15, 1981, and all corrections and additions to previous citations, and indexes all data received in the international exchanged format (EXFOR). The primary goal of the bibliography has been to satisfy the need expressed by the Nuclear Reaction Data Center Network for a concise and comprehensive bibliography of integral charged-particle cross section data and to provide an index of data exchanged among the members. In 1980, coverage was expanded to include differential data relevant to charged-particle-induced neutron-source reactions

  12. Integral charged particle nuclear data bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, N.E.; Ramavataram, S.

    1989-12-01

    This publication is the annual supplement to the first edition published in 1984. The primary goal of this publication has been to satisfy the need expressed by the Nuclear Reaction Data Center Network for a concise and comprehensive bibliography of integral charged--particle cross section data. Included in this paper is a partial list of other bibliographies relevant to charged-particle-induced reaction data and a source list of nuclear data bibliographies, complications, and cumulative, earlier versions are also shown in the tables. This publication makes use of a modification to the database of the Nuclear Structure References (NSR) file. This modification allows the retrieval of integral charged particle nuclear data entries from the NSR file. In recent years, the presentation of various sections was changed, as a result of users' suggestions. The authors continue to welcome users' comments.

  13. Integral charged particle nuclear data bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is the annual supplement to the first edition published in 1984. The primary goal of this publication has been to satisfy the need expressed by the Nuclear Reaction Data Center Network for a concise and comprehensive bibliography of integral charged--particle cross section data. Included in this paper is a partial list of other bibliographies relevant to charged-particle-induced reaction data and a source list of nuclear data bibliographies, complications, and cumulative, earlier versions are also shown in the tables. This publication makes use of a modification to the database of the Nuclear Structure References (NSR) file. This modification allows the retrieval of integral charged particle nuclear data entries from the NSR file. In recent years, the presentation of various sections was changed, as a result of users' suggestions. The authors continue to welcome users' comments

  14. Position sensitive detector of magnetically charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two variants of coordinate detectors of magnetically charged paticles based on the utilization of transducers with Josephson transitions are proposed. The system of data acquisition and processing is built up in the CAMAC standard. The helium cryostat diagram is presented. The detector resolution time and dead time constitute 1 μs. Methods of detection of magnetically charged particles used in the above detectors are expected to be more effective, as compared to ionization method and other indirect methods

  15. Particle size characterization by ultrasonic attenuation spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingxu Su; Minghua Xue; Xiaoshu Cai; Zhitao Shang; Feng Xu

    2008-01-01

    This paper contributes to extracting information from signals of broadband ultrasonic attenuation spectrum for effective utilization in particle size characterization. The single particle scattering model and the coupled-phase model are formulated simultaneously, the relationship between particle size distribution and ultrasonic spectrum is established, and a convergence criterion for calculation is quantified. Demonsa'ation inversion by the optimum regularization factor method is carded out to yield typical numerical results for discussion. With the experimental set-up developed by the Institute of Particle and Two-Phase Flow Measurement (IPTFM) at the University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, sand sediment particle size is measured by attenuation spectrum and analyzed using the above inversion algorithm and theoretical models. To validate the proposed ultrasonic spectrum particle sizing method, results are compared with those obtained by microscopy.

  16. Fog camera to visualize ionizing charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The human being can not perceive the different types of ionizing radiation, natural or artificial, present in the nature, for what appropriate detection systems have been developed according to the sensibility to certain radiation type and certain energy type. The objective of this work was to build a fog camera to visualize the traces, and to identify the trajectories, produced by charged particles with high energy, coming mainly of the cosmic rays. The origin of the cosmic rays comes from the solar radiation generated by solar eruptions where the protons compose most of this radiation. It also comes, of the galactic radiation which is composed mainly of charged particles and gamma rays that comes from outside of the solar system. These radiation types have energy time millions higher that those detected in the earth surface, being more important as the height on the sea level increases. These particles in their interaction produce secondary particles that are detectable by means of this cameras type. The camera operates by means of a saturated atmosphere of alcohol vapor. In the moment in that a charged particle crosses the cold area of the atmosphere, the medium is ionized and the particle acts like a condensation nucleus of the alcohol vapor, leaving a visible trace of its trajectory. The built camera was very stable, allowing the detection in continuous form and the observation of diverse events. (Author)

  17. Control microprocessor system for charge particle channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Control microprocessor systems are widely applied not only in designing industrial robots but in providing functioning of different experimental plants. The experiment control system for charge particle channeling has been considered in the paper. Flexibility, relatively low cost and high reliability are advantages of these systems

  18. Studying Charged Particle Optics: An Undergraduate Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovalle, V.; Otomar, D. R.; Pereira, J. M.; Ferreira, N.; Pinho, R. R.; Santos A. C. F.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes some computer-based activities to bring the study of charged particle optics to undergraduate students, to be performed as a part of a one-semester accelerator-based experimental course. The computational simulations were carried out using the commercially available SIMION program. The performance parameters, such as the focal…

  19. Treatment of cancer with heavy charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goals of the clinical helium and heavy charged particle radiotherapy trial are: (1) to evaluate the potential of improved dose localization as exemplified by helium-ion irradiation where little, if any, biological advantage is expected; and (2) to evaluate the combined potential of improved dose localization and increased biological effect available with heavier ions such as carbon, neon, silicon, and argon ions

  20. Bmad: A relativistic charged particle simulation library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bmad is a subroutine library for simulating relativistic charged particle beams in high-energy accelerators and storage rings. Bmad can be used to study both single and multi-particle beam dynamics using routines to track both particles and macroparticles. Bmad has various tracking algorithms including Runge-Kutta and symplectic (Lie algebraic) integration. Various effects such as wakefields, and radiation excitation and damping can be simulated. Bmad has been developed in a modular, object-oriented fashion to maximize flexibility. Interface routines allow Bmad to be called from C/C++ as well as Fortran programs. Bmad is well documented. Every routine is individually annotated, and there is an extensive manual

  1. Charged Particles' Tunneling from Noncommutative Charged Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Mehdipour, S Hamid

    2010-01-01

    We apply the tunneling process of charged massive particles through the quantum horizon of a Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black hole in a new noncommutative gravity scenario. In this model, the tunneling amplitude on account of noncommutativity influences in the context of coordinate coherent states is modified. Our calculation points out that the emission rate satisfies the first law of black hole thermodynamics and is consistent with an underlying unitary theory.

  2. Charged particles' tunneling from a noncommutative charged black hole

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdipour, S. Hamid

    2010-01-01

    We apply the tunneling process of charged massive particles through the quantum horizon of a Reissner-Nordstrom black hole in a new noncommutative gravity scenario. In this model, the tunneling amplitude on account of noncommutativity influences in the context of coordinate coherent states is modified. Our calculation points out that the emission rate satisfies the first law of black hole thermodynamics and is consistent with an underlying unitary theory.

  3. Level Density Parameter: A Tool to Study the Particle Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The compound nucleus 76Kr* is formed in the heavy-ion fusion reactions by an asymmetric entrance channel 12C+64Zn and the symmetric entrance channel 31P+45Sc at the excitation energy of 75 MeV and angular momentum of 39 η. Neutron energy spectra of the asymmetric system (12C+64Zn) at different angles are well described by the statistical model predictions using the normal value of the level density parameter a = A/8 MeV-1. However, in the case of the symmetric system (31P+45Sc), the statistical model interpretation of the data requires the change in the value of a = A/10 MeV-1. The delayed evolution of the compound system in case of the symmetric 31P+45Sc system may lead to the formation of a temperature equilibrated dinuclear complex, which may be responsible for the neutron emission at higher temperature, while the protons and alpha particles are evap orated after neutron emission when the system is sufficiently cooled down and the higher λ-values do not contribute in the formation of the compound nucleus for the symmetric entrance channel in case of charged particle emission.

  4. Tumor therapy with heavy charged particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blattmann, Hans

    1999-11-01

    Nuclear science has contributed significantly to the development of tumor therapy with heavy charged particles. Interest evolved for neutron therapies in the forties because of the increased radiobiological effectiveness (RBE) compared to photon irradiation. The development of more powerful proton and heavy ion accelerators with higher energies or higher intensities, made new particles for radiation therapy available. Pions, protons, light ions, from helium up to silicon were studied in view of precision dose delivery and increased RBE. Without the parallel development of new diagnostic techniques such as computer tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET) the rapid development would not have been possible. Heavy-charged particle therapy has now come into a consolidation phase. Hospital-based facilities are built by industry, and research institutes focus on refinements in dose delivery and treatment planning, as well as systems for monitoring dose delivery and for dose distribution verification.

  5. High-frequency charged particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The device is refered to technical physics and may be used as a source of accelerated particles for irradiation of different objects in industry and agriculture. The device is aimed at increase of the power and enhancement of stability of the accelerator operation and decrease of its dimensions. High-frequency accelerator is composed of an accelerating cavity resonator a charged particle source and HF power supply. The aim is attained by the fact, that HF power source anode is made as one of coupling capasitor plates, the second plate of which is the nearest to anode HF power supply grid. The coupling capacitor plalte functional union with the HF power supply electrodes (anode and grid) reduces to spirious inductances of HF power supply circuit to minimum. Besides, the accelerator structure is simplified, as additional cooling system for the charged particle source is not necessary

  6. Measurement of identified charged hadron spectra with the ALICE experiment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Milano, L

    2011-01-01

    The ALICE experiment features multiple particle identification systems. The measurement of the identified charged hadron $p_{t}$ spectra in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=900$ GeV will be discussed. In the central rapidity region ($|\\eta|<0.9$) particle identification and tracking are performed using the Inner Tracking System (ITS), which is the closest detector to the beam axis, the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) and a dedicated time-of-flight system (TOF). Particles are mainly identified using the energy loss signal in the ITS and TPC. In addition, the information from TOF is used to identify hadrons at higher momenta. Finally, the kink topology of the weak decay of charged kaons provides an alternative method to extract the transverse momentum spectra of charged kaons. This combination allows to track and identify charged hadrons in the transverse momentum ($p_{t}$) range from 100 MeV/c up to 2.5 GeV/$c$. Mesons containing strange quarks (\\kos, $\\phi$) and both singly and doubly strange baryons (\\...

  7. Light charged particle emission in heavy-ion reactions – What have we learnt?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Kailas

    2001-07-01

    Light charged particles emitted in heavy-ion induced reactions, their spectra and angular distributions measured over a range of energies, carry the signature of the underlying reaction mechanisms. Analysis of data of light charged particles, both inclusive and exclusive measured in coincidence with gamma rays, fission products, evaporation residues have yielded interesting results which bring out the influence of nuclear structure, nuclear mean field and dynamics on the emission of these particles.

  8. The 1997 IAEA test spectra for alpha-particle spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Torano, E; Woods, S; Blaauw, M; Fazinic, S

    1999-01-01

    In the framework of an IAEA intercomparison of software for alpha-particle spectrometry, a set of test spectra with reference files was produced for validation and comparison of alpha spectrum analysis programs. The considerations, the spectra and the methods employed to obtain them are presented.

  9. Acceleration of charged particles in laser beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Małachowski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper was to find parameters of the laser and maser beams in numerical ways with additionally applied external static axial magnetic field which satisfies the proper conditions for charged particle acceleration.Design/methodology/approach: The set acceleration was designed in order to obtain the possible high kinetic energy of the charged particles in the controllable manner. This was achieved applying a circularly polarized high intensity laser beam and a static axial magnetic field, both acting on the particle during the proper period.Findings: The quantitative illustrations of the calculation results, in a graphical form enabled to discuss the impact of many parameters on the acceleration process of the electrons and protons. We have found the impact of the Doppler Effect on the acceleration process to be significant. Increase in laser or maser beam intensity results in particle’s energy increase and its trajectory dimension. However, increase in external magnetic field results in shrinking of the helical trajectories. It enables to keep the particle inside the laser beam.Research limitations/implications: Limits in the energy of accelerated particles arise from the limitsin up-to-date available laser beam energy and the beam diameters.Originality/value: The authors show the parameters of the circularly polarized laser beam which should be satisfied in order to obtain the desired energy of the accelerated particles. The influence of the magnetic field strength is also shown.

  10. The formation of negatively charged particles in thermoemission plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnyakov, V. I.; Dragan, G. S.; Florko, A. V.

    2008-01-01

    The results of measuring the charges of the magnesium oxide particles formed near a block of metallic magnesium burning in air are presented. It has been found that, apart from positively charged magnesium oxide particles, there are negatively charged particles in the thermoemission plasma of the burning products. It has been shown that within the framework of the model of neutralizing charges, the oxide particles can acquire unlike charges in the thermoemission plasma. The calculations agree with the experimental data.

  11. The formation of negatively charged particles in thermoemission plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vishnyakov, V. I., E-mail: pipeaes@te.net.ua; Dragan, G. S.; Florko, A. V. [Mechnikov Odessa National University (Ukraine)

    2008-01-15

    The results of measuring the charges of the magnesium oxide particles formed near a block of metallic magnesium burning in air are presented. It has been found that, apart from positively charged magnesium oxide particles, there are negatively charged particles in the thermoemission plasma of the burning products. It has been shown that within the framework of the model of neutralizing charges, the oxide particles can acquire unlike charges in the thermoemission plasma. The calculations agree with the experimental data.

  12. The formation of negatively charged particles in thermoemission plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of measuring the charges of the magnesium oxide particles formed near a block of metallic magnesium burning in air are presented. It has been found that, apart from positively charged magnesium oxide particles, there are negatively charged particles in the thermoemission plasma of the burning products. It has been shown that within the framework of the model of neutralizing charges, the oxide particles can acquire unlike charges in the thermoemission plasma. The calculations agree with the experimental data

  13. Born expansions for charged particle scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-order terms in Born expansions of scattering amplitudes in powers of charge are frequently divergent when long-range Coulomb interactions are present asymptotically. Expansions which are free from these logarithmic divergences have been constructed recently. This paper illustrates these expansions with the simplest example, namely the non-relativistic Rutherford scattering of two charged particles. This approach represents an adequate framework for the calculation of transition amplitudes and a comprehensive starting point for the development of consistent perturbation approximations in multi-channel descriptions of strongly interacting atomic systems

  14. Automatic analysis of JET charge exchange spectra using neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of charge exchange recombination spectra represents a very challenging problem due to the presence of many overlapping spectral lines. Conventional approaches are based on iterative least-squares optimization and suffer from the two difficulties of low speed and the need for a good initial approximation to the solution. This latter problem necessitates considerable human supervision of the analysis procedure. It is shown how neural network techniques allow charge exchange data to be analysed very rapidly, to give an approximate solution without the need for supervision. The network approach is well suited to the fast intershot analysis of large volumes of data, and can readily be implemented in dedicated hardware for real-time applications. The neural network can also be used to provide the initial guess for the standard least-squares algorithm when high accuracy is required. (Author)

  15. SIMULATION OF PARTICLE SPECTRA AT RHIC.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KAHANA,D.E.; KAHANA,S.H.

    2001-09-04

    A purely hadronic simulation is performed of the recently reported data from PHOBOS at energies of {radical}s = 56, 130 GeV using the relativistic heavy ion cascade LUCIFER which had previously given a good description of the NA49 inclusive spectra at {radical}s = 17.2 GeV/A. The results compare well with these early measurements at RHIC and indeed successfully predict the increase in multiplicity now seen by PHOBOS and the other RHIC detectors at the nominal maximum energy of {radical}s = 200 GeV/A, suggesting that evidence for quark-gluon matter remains elusive.

  16. Method for charged particle beam acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of charged particle beam acceleration based on its resonance interaction with electromagnetic field of travelling wave is suggested. The electron beam is injected into waveguide in which longitudinal magnetic field and electromagnetic wave are excited. With the purpose of reducing HF-power losses in the waveguide walls, the azimuthal particle motion is synchronized with azimuthal change of longitudinal component of electric field of the accelerating electromagnetic wave. The suggested method permits to increase the efficiency and shunting resistance of the accelerating waveguide by reducing its boundary surface

  17. Collective aspects of charged particle track structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A plasmon generated by a swift charged particle constitutes a coherent excitation about the particle track. We discuss the representation of collective modes in impact parameter space when created by a swift ion or a fast electron, and the decay of these modes into localized excitations. Several alternative spatial representations are considered. We show that the high spatial resolution found in secondary electron emission measurements with scanning electron microscopy is consistent with the existence of the plasmon as an intermediary between the fast incident electron and the measured secondary electrons. 24 refs., 6 figs

  18. Charge State Model of Solar Energetic Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Peral, L.; Pérez-Peraza, J. A.; Rodríguez Frías, M. D.

    2013-05-01

    Charge states of heavy ions in Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events observed at the Earth's neighborhood with experiments on board satellites give us information about physical properties of plasma where acceleration occurs. SEP detection is performed near the Earth, therefore not only physical condition of the plasma source of accelerated particles have to be taken into account. We have developed a charge state model in order to explain the evolution of particle charge states under solar acceleration. Charge-interchange processes between the accelerated ions and the plasma matter in the acceleration region are considered on basis of electron loss and capture cross sections at high energies. We have applied the model to observational data from satellites measuring charge states of SEPs. In contrast with other models that use ionization and recombination cross-sections that require application of thermal equilibrium, our model assumes that the acceleration is so fast that thermal equilibrium can not be applied to the change interchange processes. Therefore we employ in our model high energy cross-sections for electron capture and loss, since the population which is being accelerated acquires a non-thermal spectrum. We have developed temperature dependent cross-sections. Acceleration begins from a thermal distribution. As soon as the particles increase their energy by the acceleration process, they acquire an energy spectrum which differs from the Maxwellian thermal one while interacting with the background thermal matter. Figure 1 presents the results of our model that fit experimental charge states of Fe ions from two impulsive SEP events detected by the SEPICA satellite in July 1999. We obtain good fitting for source temperature of 1.8 \\cdot 106 K and density of 5\\cdot108 cm-3 and acceleration efficiency of 1.8\\cdot 10-2 s-1 for the July 20th 1999 event and 3.3\\cdot 10-2 s-1 for the July 3rd 1999. Good concordance between experimental data and our model have

  19. High-LET charged particle radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Radiation Oncology at UCSF Medical Center and the Radiation Oncology Department at UC Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory have been evaluating the use of high LET charged particle radiotherapy in a Phase 1--2 research trial ongoing since 1979. In this clinical trail, 239 patients have received at least 10 Gy (physical) minimum tumor dose with neon ions, meaning that at least one-half of their total treatment was given with high-LET charged particle therapy. Ninety-one patients received all of their therapy with neon ions. Of the 239 patients irradiated, target sites included lesions in the skin, subcutaneous tissues, head and neck such as paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx and salivary glands (major and minor), skull base and juxtaspinal area, GI tract including esophagus, pancreas and biliary tract, prostate, lung, soft tissue and bone. Analysis of these patients has been carried out with a minimum followup period of 2 years

  20. Pseudorapidity spectra of relativistic particles emitted in the Au and Pb induced reactions at high energies

    CERN Document Server

    Belashev, B Z; Vokál, S; Vrláková, J; Ajaz, M; Khan, K H; Zaman, Ali; Wazir, Z

    2011-01-01

    The structure of the pseudorapidity spectra of charged relativistic particles with beta > 0.7 measured in Au+Em and Pb+Em collisions at AGS and SPS energies are analyzed using Fourier transformation method and maximum entropy one. The dependences of these spectra on the number of fast target protons (g-particles) are studied. They show visually some plateau and "shoulder" which are at least three selected points on the distributions. The plateau seems wider in Pb+Em reactions. The existing of plateau is expected for the parton models. The maximum entropy method confirms the existence of the plateau and the shoulder of the distributions.

  1. Geometrical charged-particle optics. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Harald [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik

    2013-03-01

    Provides a unique theoretical treatment of charged-particle optics. Displays novel unpublished results on several topics. Provides insight into the properties of charged-particle devices. Treats wave optical properties of the electron. Presents the resolution limit of electron microscopes and novel theoretical treatment of the Stern-Gerlach effect. This second edition is an extended version of the first edition of Geometrical Charged-Particle Optics. The updated reference monograph is intended as a guide for researchers and graduate students who are seeking a comprehensive treatment of the design of instruments and beam-guiding systems of charged particles and their propagation in electromagnetic fields. Wave aspects are included in this edition for explaining electron holography, the Aharanov-Bohm effect and the resolution of electron microscopes limited by diffraction. Several methods for calculating the electromagnetic field are presented and procedures are outlined for calculating the properties of systems with arbitrarily curved axis. Detailed methods are presented for designing and optimizing special components such as aberration correctors, spectrometers, energy filters monochromators, ion traps, electron mirrors and cathode lenses. In particular, the optics of rotationally symmetric lenses, quadrupoles, and systems composed of these elements are discussed extensively. Beam properties such as emittance, brightness, transmissivity and the formation of caustics are outlined. Relativistic motion and spin precession of the electron are treated in a covariant way by introducing the Lorentz-invariant universal time and by extending Hamilton's principle from three to four spatial dimensions where the laboratory time is considered as the fourth pseudo-spatial coordinate. Using this procedure and introducing the self action of the electron, its accompanying electromagnetic field and its radiation field are calculated for arbitrary motion. In addition, the Stern

  2. Automated control system in charged particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general approach to the design of automated radiation safety systems at charged particle accelerators is described. Parameters of high-energy electron accelerators of the Kharkov Physics and Engineering Institute are presented. Characteristics of the surrounding radiation fields are given. Ionizing radiation transducers which can be used in automated systems are considered. Local radiation monitoring station based on the LUE-2000 accelerator of the institute is described. 9 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  3. Controlling Charged Particles with Inhomogeneous Electrostatic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Federico A. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An energy analyzer for a charged-particle spectrometer may include a top deflection plate and a bottom deflection plate. The top and bottom deflection plates may be non-symmetric and configured to generate an inhomogeneous electrostatic field when a voltage is applied to one of the top or bottom deflection plates. In some instances, the top and bottom deflection plates may be L-shaped deflection plates.

  4. Explanation of the surface peak in charge integrated LEIS spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draxler, M.; Beikler, R.; Taglauer, E.; Schmid, K.; Gruber, R.; Ermolov, S.N.; Bauer, P. E-mail: bauer@exphys.uni-linz.ac.at

    2003-04-01

    Low energy ion scattering is very surface sensitive if scattered ions are analyzed. By time-of-flight (TOF) techniques, also neutral and charge integrated spectra (ions plus neutrals) can be obtained, which yield information about deeper layers. In the literature, the observation of a more or less pronounced surface peak was reported for charge integrated spectra, the intensity of the surface peak being higher at low energies and for heavy projectiles. Aiming at a more profound physical understanding of this surface peak, we performed TOF-experiments and computer simulations for He projectiles and a copper target. Experiments were done in the range 1-9 keV for a scattering angle of 129 deg. . The simulation was performed using the MARLOWE code for the given experimental parameters and a polycrystalline target. At low energies, a pronounced surface peak was observed, which fades away at higher energies. This peak is quantitatively reproduced by the simulation, and corresponds to scattering from {approx}2 atomic layers. Analyzing the contributions of the individual outermost atomic layers, one finds that the surface peak is due to binary collisions of projectiles with atoms in the first and second layer, while the contribution from deeper layers is dominated by multiple scattering.

  5. Explanation of the surface peak in charge integrated LEIS spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Draxler, M; Taglauer, E; Schmid, K; Gruber, R; Ermolov, S N; Bauer, P

    2003-01-01

    Low energy ion scattering is very surface sensitive if scattered ions are analyzed. By time-of-flight (TOF) techniques, also neutral and charge integrated spectra (ions plus neutrals) can be obtained, which yield information about deeper layers. In the literature, the observation of a more or less pronounced surface peak was reported for charge integrated spectra, the intensity of the surface peak being higher at low energies and for heavy projectiles. Aiming at a more profound physical understanding of this surface peak, we performed TOF-experiments and computer simulations for He projectiles and a copper target. Experiments were done in the range 1-9 keV for a scattering angle of 129 deg. . The simulation was performed using the MARLOWE code for the given experimental parameters and a polycrystalline target. At low energies, a pronounced surface peak was observed, which fades away at higher energies. This peak is quantitatively reproduced by the simulation, and corresponds to scattering from approx 2 atomic...

  6. Analysis of JET charge exchange spectra using neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Active charge exchange spectra representing the local interaction of injected neutral beams and fully stripped impurity ions are hard to analyse due to strong blending with passive emission from the plasma edge. As a result, the deduced plasma parameters (e.g. ion temperature, rotation velocity, impurity density) cannot always be determined unambiguously. Also, the speed of the analysis is limited by the time consuming nonlinear least-squares minimization procedure. In practice, semi-manual analysis is necessary and fast, automatic analysis, based on currently used techniques, does not seem feasible. In this paper the development of a robust and accurate analysis procedure based on multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural networks is described. This procedure is fully automatic and fast, thus enabling a real-time analysis of charge exchange spectra. Accuracy has been increased in several ways as compared to earlier straightforward neural network implementations and is comparable to a standard least-squares based analysis. Robustness is achieved by using a combination of different confidence measures. A novel technique for the creation of training data, suitable for high-dimensional inverse problems has been developed and used extensively. A new method for fast calculation of error bars directly from the hidden neurons in a MLP network is also described, and used as part of the confidence calculations. For demonstration purposes, a real-time ion temperature profile diagnostic based on this work has been implemented. (author)

  7. Analysis of JET charge exchange spectra using neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Active charge exchange spectra representing the local interaction of injected neutral beams and fully stripped impurity ions are hard to analyse due to the strong blending with passive emission from the plasma edge. As a result, the deduced plasma parameters (e.g. ion temperature, rotation velocity, impurity density) can not always be determined unambiguously. Also, the speed of the analysis is limited by the time consuming non-linear least-squares minimisation procedure. In practice, semi-manual analysis is necessary, and fast, automatic analysis, based on currently used techniques, does not seem feasible. In this paper the development of a robust and accurate analysis procedure based on Multi Layer Perception (MLP) neural networks is described. This procedure is fully automatic and fast, thus enabling a real-time analysis of charge exchange spectra. Accuracy has been increased in several ways as compared to earlier straight-forward neural network implementations and is comparable to a standard least squares based analysis. Robustness is achieved by using a combination of different confidence measures. A novel technique for the creation of training data, suitable for high dimensional inverse problems has been developed, and used extensively. A new method for fast calculation of error bars directly from the hidden neurons in a MLP network is also described, and used as part of the confidence calculations. For demonstration purposes, a real-time ion temperature profile diagnostic based on this has been implemented. (author)

  8. Charged particle layers in the Debye limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We develop an equivalent of the Debye-Hueckel weakly coupled equilibrium theory for layered classical charged particle systems composed of one single charged species. We consider the two most important configurations, the charged particle bilayer and the infinite superlattice. The approach is based on the link provided by the classical fluctuation-dissipation theorem between the random-phase approximation response functions and the Debye equilibrium pair correlation function. Layer-layer pair correlation functions, screened and polarization potentials, static structure functions, and static response functions are calculated. The importance of the perfect screening and compressibility sum rules in determining the overall behavior of the system, especially in the r→∞ limit, is emphasized. The similarities and differences between the quasi-two-dimensional bilayer and the quasi-three-dimensional superlattice are highlighted. An unexpected behavior that emerges from the analysis is that the screened potential, the correlations, and the screening charges carried by the individual layers exhibit a marked nonmonotonic dependence on the layer separation

  9. Light Charged Particles as Gateway to Hyperdeformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Euroball-IV γ -detector array, equipped with the ancillary charged particle detector array DIAMANT was used to study the residues of the fusion reaction 64Ni + 64Ni → 128Ba at Ebeam = 255 and 261 MeV, in an attempt to reach the highest angular momentum and verify the existence of predicted hyperdeformed rotational bands. No discrete hyperdeformed bands were identified, but nevertheless a breakthrough was obtained through a systematic search for rotational ridge structures with very large moments of inertia J(2) ≥ 100 ℎ2 MeV(-1), in agreement with theoretical predictions for hyperdeformed shapes. Evidence for hyperdeformation was obtained by charged particle + γ -ray gating, selecting triple correlated ridge structures in the continuum of each of the nuclei, 118Te, 124Xe and 124,125Cs. In 7 additional nuclei, rotational ridges were also identified with J(2) = 71-77 ℎ2 MeV(-1), which most probably correspond to superdeformed shape. The angular distributions of the emitted charged particles show an excess in forward direction over expectations from pure compound evaporation, which may indicate that in-complete fusion plays an important role in the population of very elongated shapes. (author)

  10. Motion of charged particles in the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adiabatic motion of charged particles in the magnetosphere has been investigated using Mead-Fairfield magnetospheric field model (Mead and Fairfield, 1975). Since the motion of charged particles in a dipolar field geometry is well understood, we bring out in this paper some important features in characteristic motion due to non-dipolar distortions in the field geometry. We look at the tilt averaged picture of the field configuration and estimate theoretically the parameters like bounce period, longitudinal invariant and the bounce averaged drift velocities of the charged particle in the Mead-Fairfield field geometry. These parameters are evaluated as a function of pitch angle and azimuthal position in the region of ring current (5 to 7 Earth radii from the centre of the Earth) for four ranges of magnetic activity. At different longitudes the non-dipolar contribution as a percentage of dipole value in bounce period and longitudinal invariant shows maximum variation for particles close to 900 pitch angles. For any low pitch angle, these effects maximize at the midnight meridian. The radial component of the bounce averaged drift velocity is found to be greatest at the dawn-dusk meridians and the contribution vanishes at the day and midnight meridians for all pitch angles. In the absence of tilt-dependent terms in the model, the latitudinal component of the drift velocity vanishes. On the other hand, the relative non-dipolar contribution to bounce averaged azimuthal drift velocity is very high as compared to similar contribution in other characteristic parameters of particle motion. It is also shown that non-dipolar contribution in bounce period, longitudinal invariant and bounce averaged drift velocities increases in magnitude with increase in distance and magnetic activity. (orig.)

  11. Experimental research of thermoemission charging of metal particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Original experimental methods of thermoemission charge determination of a spherical metallic particle surrounded by the condensed disperse phase are proposed. The analytical dependence of the particle charge on time is found, and its relaxation time is determined

  12. Metastable states of plasma particles close to a charged surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The free energy of the plasma particles and the charged surface that form an electroneutral system is calculated on the basis of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. It is shown that, owing to correlation of light plasma particles near the charged surface and close to heavy particles of high charge, there can be metastable states in plasma. The corresponding phase charts of metastable states of the separate components of plasma, and plasma as a whole, are constructed. These charts depend on temperature, the charge magnitude, the size of the particles, and the share of the charge of the light carriers out of the total charge of the plasma particles

  13. Radiation reaction for a massless charged particle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazinski, P O; Sharapov, A A [Physics Faculty, Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2003-07-07

    We derive effective equations of motion for a massless charged particle coupled to the dynamical electromagnetic field with regard to the radiation back reaction. It is shown that unlike the massive case, not all the divergences resulting from the self-action of the particle are Lagrangian, i.e., can be cancelled out by adding appropriate counterterms to the original action. Besides, the order of renormalized differential equations governing the effective dynamics turns out to be greater than the order of the corresponding Lorentz-Dirac equation for a massive particle. For the case of a homogeneous external field, the first radiative correction to the Lorentz equation is explicitly derived via the reduction of order procedure.

  14. Radiation reaction for a massless charged particle

    CERN Document Server

    Kazinski, P O

    2003-01-01

    We derive effective equations of motion for a massless charged particle coupled to the dynamical electromagnetic field having regard to the radiation back reaction. It is shown that unlike the massive case not all the divergences resulting from the self-action of the particle are Lagrangian, i.e. can be canceled out by adding appropriate counterterms to the original action. Besides, the order of renormalized differential equations governing the effective dynamics turns out to be greater than the order of the corresponding Lorentz-Dirac equation for a massive particle. For the case of homogeneous external field the first radiative correction to the Lorentz equation is explicitly derived via the reduction of order procedure.

  15. Radiation reaction for a massless charged particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We derive effective equations of motion for a massless charged particle coupled to the dynamical electromagnetic field with regard to the radiation back reaction. It is shown that unlike the massive case, not all the divergences resulting from the self-action of the particle are Lagrangian, i.e., can be cancelled out by adding appropriate counterterms to the original action. Besides, the order of renormalized differential equations governing the effective dynamics turns out to be greater than the order of the corresponding Lorentz-Dirac equation for a massive particle. For the case of a homogeneous external field, the first radiative correction to the Lorentz equation is explicitly derived via the reduction of order procedure

  16. Radiation reaction for a massless charged particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazinski, P. O.; Sharapov, A. A.

    2003-07-01

    We derive effective equations of motion for a massless charged particle coupled to the dynamical electromagnetic field with regard to the radiation back reaction. It is shown that unlike the massive case, not all the divergences resulting from the self-action of the particle are Lagrangian, i.e., can be cancelled out by adding appropriate counterterms to the original action. Besides, the order of renormalized differential equations governing the effective dynamics turns out to be greater than the order of the corresponding Lorentz-Dirac equation for a massive particle. For the case of a homogeneous external field, the first radiative correction to the Lorentz equation is explicitly derived via the reduction of order procedure.

  17. Sound from charged particles in liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two directions of sound application appearing during the charged particles passing through liquid - in biology and for charged particles registration are considered. Application of this sound in radiology is determined by a contribution of its hypersound component (approximately 109 Hz) to radiology effect of ionizing radiation on micro-organisms and cells. Large amplitudes and pressure gradients in a hypersound wave have a pronounced destructive breaking effect on various microobjects (cells, bacteria, viruses). An essential peculiarity of these processes is the possibility of control by choosing conditions changing hypersound generation, propagation and effect. This fact may lead not only to the control by radiaiton effects but also may explain and complete the analogy of ionizing radiation and ultrasound effect on bioobjects. The second direction is acoustic registration of passing ionizing particles. It is based on the possibility of guaranteed signal reception from a shower with 1015-1016 eV energy in water at distances of hundreds of meters. Usage of acoustic technique for neutrino registration in the DUMAND project permits to use a detecting volume of water with a mass of 109 t and higher

  18. Alpha particles diffusion due to charge changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clauser, C. F., E-mail: cesar.clauser@ib.edu.ar; Farengo, R. [Centro Atómico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica and Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina)

    2015-12-15

    Alpha particles diffusion due to charge changes in a magnetized plasma is studied. Analytical calculations and numerical simulations are employed to show that this process can be very important in the pedestal-edge-SOL regions. This is the first study that presents clear evidence of the importance of atomic processes on the diffusion of alpha particles. A simple 1D model that includes inelastic collisions with plasma species, “cold” neutrals, and partially ionized species was employed. The code, which follows the exact particle orbits and includes the effect of inelastic collisions via a Monte Carlo type random process, runs on a graphic processor unit (GPU). The analytical and numerical results show excellent agreement when a uniform background (plasma and cold species) is assumed. The simulations also show that the gradients in the density of the plasma and cold species, which are large and opposite in the edge region, produce an inward flux of alpha particles. Calculations of the alpha particles flux reaching the walls or divertor plates should include these processes.

  19. Theory and design of charged particle beams

    CERN Document Server

    Reiser, Martin

    1994-01-01

    Although particle accelerators are the book's main thrust, it offers a broad synoptic description of beams which applies to a wide range of other devices such as low-energy focusing and transport systems and high-power microwave sources. Develops material from first principles, basic equations and theorems in a systematic way. Assumptions and approximations are clearly indicated. Discusses underlying physics and validity of theoretical relationships, design formulas and scaling laws. Features a significant amount of recent work including image effects and the Boltzmann line charge density prof

  20. Charged particle beam current monitoring tutorial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A tutorial presentation is made on topics related to the measurement of charged particle beam currents. The fundamental physics of electricity and magnetism pertinent to the problem is reviewed. The physics is presented with a stress on its interpretation from an electrical circuit theory point of view. The operation of devices including video pulse current transformers, direct current transformers, and gigahertz bandwidth wall current style transformers is described. Design examples are given for each of these types of devices. Sensitivity, frequency response, and physical environment are typical parameters which influence the design of these instruments in any particular application. Practical engineering considerations, potential pitfalls, and performance limitations are discussed

  1. CVD diamond sensors for charged particle detection

    CERN Document Server

    Krammer, Manfred; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bertuccio, G; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; D'Angelo, P; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Dencuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Hallewell, G D; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Kass, R; Koeth, T W; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; MacLynne, L; Manfredotti, C; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Moroni, L; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Perera, L P; Pirollo, S; Procario, M; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Rousseau, L; Rudge, A; Russ, J; Sala, S; Sampietro, M; Schnetzer, S; Sciortino, S; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R; Trischuk, W; Tromson, D; Vittone, E; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Wetstein, M; White, C; Zeuner, W; Zöller, M

    2001-01-01

    CVD diamond material was used to build position-sensitive detectors for single-charged particles to be employed in high-intensity physics experiments. To obtain position information, metal contacts shaped as strips or pixels are applied to the detector surface for one- or two- dimensional coordinate measurement. Strip detectors 2*4 cm/sup 2/ in size with a strip distance of 50 mu m were tested. Pixel detectors of various pixel sizes were bump bonded to electronics chips and investigated. A key issue for the use of these sensors in high intensity experiments is the radiation hardness. Several irradiation experiments were carried out with pions, protons and neutrons exceeding a fluence of 10/sup 15/ particles/cm/sup 2/. The paper presents an overview of the results obtained with strip and pixel detectors in high-energy test beams and summarises the irradiation studies. (8 refs).

  2. Device for measuring charge density distribution in charged particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A device to measure charge density distribution in charged particle beams has been described. The device contains a set of hollow interinsulated current-receiving electrodes, recording system, and cooling system. The invention is aimed at the increase of admissible capacity of the beams measured at the expense of cooling efficiency increase. The aim is achieved by the fact, that in the device a dynamic evaporating-condensational cooling of electrodes is realized by means of cooling agent supply in perpendicular to their planes through the tubes introduced inside special cups. Spreading in radial direction over electrode surface the cooling agent gradually and intensively washes the side surface of the cup, after that, it enters the cooling cavity in the form of vapour-liquid mixture. In the cavity the cooling agent, supplied using dispensina and receiving collectors in which vapoUr is condensed, circulates. In the device suggested the surface of electrode cooling is decreased significantly at the expense of side surface of the cups which receives the electrode heat

  3. Surface charge accumulation of particles containing radionuclides in open air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactivity can induce charge accumulation on radioactive particles. However, electrostatic interactions caused by radioactivity are typically neglected in transport modeling of radioactive plumes because it is assumed that ionizing radiation leads to charge neutralization. The assumption that electrostatic interactions caused by radioactivity are negligible is evaluated here by examining charge accumulation and neutralization on particles containing radionuclides in open air. A charge-balance model is employed to predict charge accumulation on radioactive particles. It is shown that particles containing short-lived radionuclides can be charged with multiple elementary charges through radioactive decay. The presence of radioactive particles can significantly modify the particle charge distribution in open air and yield an asymmetric bimodal charge distribution, suggesting that strong electrostatic particle interactions may occur during short- and long-range transport of radioactive particles. Possible effects of transported radioactive particles on electrical properties of the local atmosphere are reported. The study offers insight into transport characteristics of airborne radionuclides. Results are useful in atmospheric transport modeling of radioactive plumes. - Highlights: • Radioactivity-induced charge enhances electrostatic particle interactions. • Radioactivity-induced particle charging is important in radioactivity transport. • Ionization rate coefficients of beta-emitting radionuclides are reported

  4. On Extraction of Chemical Potentials of Quarks from Particle Transverse Momentum Spectra in High Energy Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present two methods to extract the chemical potentials of quarks in high energy collisions. The first method is based on the ratios of negatively/positively charged particles, and the temperatures extracted from the transverse momentum spectra of related hadrons are needed. The second method is based on the chemical potentials of some particles, and we also need the transverse momentum spectra of related hadrons. To extract the quark chemical potentials, we would like to propose experimental collaborations to measure simultaneously not only the transverse momentum spectra of p-, p, K-, K+, π-, and π+, but also those of D-, D+, B-, and B+ (even those of Δ++, Δ-, and Ω-) in high energy nuclear collisions

  5. Analysis of $X$ Particle Spectra in Quarkonium Model

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Jeong Hun; Kim, Eun-Joo; Choi, Jong Bum

    2015-01-01

    Three more $X$ particles are established in the 2014 Particle Data compared with the 2012 ones. There are now five established $X$ particles named as $X(3872)$, $X(3900)$, $X(4260)$, $X(4360)$, and $X(4660)$. Since the first $X$ particle $X(3872)$ was discovered during the search for the remaining P charmonium states, it is valuable to check whether the established $X$ particles can be explained by quarkonium model. In this paper, we try to calculate the mass spectra of charmonium system by considering spin-dependent forces deduced from one gluon exchange diagrams. The confining potential form is taken to be linear and the free parameters are determined by least squares method comparing the theoretical and the observed masses of charmonium states.

  6. Test results of satellite-borne charged particle measuring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A charged particle-measuring instrument to measure on the geostationary orbit the spectra of protons, α-particles and electrons emitted from the sun was manufactured, and its performance was assured by the test on the earth. The Geostationary Meteorological Satellite, on which the instrument will be mounted, will be launched into the geostationary orbit over the pacific ocean in the summer, 1977. The instrument has five systems of detectors to cover the measuring energy range and the kinds of particles, and data are collected every several channels separately. The tests on the earth were carried out by using a cyclotron and setting the energy ranges from 1 to 15 MeV (for protons) and 6 to 30 MeV (for α-particles) through the adjustment of the accelerating conditions and absorbers of the cyclotron. The performance of the instrument was confirmed by comparing the energy and number of the irradiated charged particles measured with the instrument and the reference detector under the same conditions. The results showed that the energy-detecting characteristic was within the error range of a few percent in most cases, and the counts were within the error of 30% against the expected values. The ditinguishing characteristic of the level discriminator was also nearly equal to the estimated result, through it degrades in the vicinity of the border of channels. However, the correction of data may be required when the instrument will be really used in space, because the conditions may be somewhat different from that on the earth. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  7. Electrophysical Systems Based On Charged Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Vorogushin, M F

    2004-01-01

    The advancement of the charged particle accelerator engineering affects appreciably the modern tendencies of the scientific and technological progress in the world. In a number of advanced countries, this trend is one of the most dynamically progressing in the field of applied science and high-technology production. Such internationally known firms as VARIAN, SIEMENS, PHILIPS, ELECTA, IBA, HITACHI, etc., with an annual budget of milliards of dollars and growth rate of tens of percent may serve as an example. Although nowadays the projects of new large-scale accelerators for physical research are not implemented so quickly and frequently as desired, accelerating facilities are finding ever-widening application in various fields of human activities. The contribution made by Russian scientists into high-energy beams physics is generally known. High scientific and technical potential in this field, qualified personnel with a high creative potential, modern production and test facilities and state-of-the-art techn...

  8. Aberration compensation in charged particle projection lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Projection systems offer the opportunity to increase the throughput for charged particle lithography, because such systems image a large area of a mask directly on to a wafer as a single shot. Shots have to be imaged over a certain range of off-axis distances at the wafer to increase the writing speed, because shot sizes are limited to about 0.25x0.25 mm2 due to aberrations. In a projection system with only lenses, however, the aberrations for off-axis shots are still very large, and some aberration compensation elements need to be introduced. In this paper, three aberration compensation elements (deflectors, stigmators and dynamic focus lenses) are first discussed, a suite of newly developed software, called PROJECTION, based on this principle and our unified aberration theory is then described, and an illustrative example computed with the software is finally given

  9. Infrared reflectance spectra: Effects of particle size, provenance and preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Yin-Fong; Myers, Tanya L.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Blake, Thomas A.; Forland, Brenda M.; Szecsody, James E.; Johnson, Timothy J.

    2014-09-22

    We have recently developed methods for making more accurate infrared total and diffuse directional - hemispherical reflectance measurements using an integrating sphere. We have found that reflectance spectra of solids, especially powders, are influenced by a number of factors including the sample preparation method, the particle size and morphology, as well as the sample origin. On a quantitative basis we have investigated some of these parameters and the effects they have on reflectance spectra, particularly in the longwave infrared. In the IR the spectral features may be observed as either maxima or minima: In general, upward-going peaks in the reflectance spectrum result from strong surface scattering, i.e. rays that are reflected from the surface without bulk penetration, whereas downward-going peaks are due to either absorption or volume scattering, i.e. rays that have penetrated or refracted into the sample interior and are not reflected. The light signals reflected from solids usually encompass all such effects, but with strong dependencies on particle size and preparation. This paper measures the reflectance spectra in the 1.3 – 16 micron range for various bulk materials that have a combination of strong and weak absorption bands in order to observe the effects on the spectral features: Bulk materials were ground with a mortar and pestle and sieved to separate the samples into various size fractions between 5 and 500 microns. The median particle size is demonstrated to have large effects on the reflectance spectra. For certain minerals we also observe significant spectral change depending on the geologic origin of the sample. All three such effects (particle size, preparation and provenance) result in substantial change in the reflectance spectra for solid materials; successful identification algorithms will require sufficient flexibility to account for these parameters.

  10. Spatial Spectra of Jet Turbulence Measured by Particle Image Velocimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wänström, Maja; George, William K.; Meyer, Knud Erik

    2009-01-01

    The unique capabilities of particle image velocimetry (PIV) have been utilized together with two-point similarity theory to measure spatial spectra in a ‘homogenized’ fully-developed turbulence jet at relatively high Reynolds number (20,000). The theory developed by Ewing et al. [1] was found...... to be in excellent agreement with the data, and in fact key to the present application. Despite relatively poor spatial resolution of the scales of motion (up to 15 times the Kolmogorov microscale) and limited dynamic range due to progressive jet velocity decay, it was possible to produce highly accurate spectra...

  11. Precipitation particle charge distribution and evolution of East Asian rainbands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tsutomu

    2012-11-01

    Numerous videosondes, balloon-borne surveyors of precipitation particle morphology and charge, have been launched into cloud systems in many, disparate locations in East Asia. Reported here are videosonde-based observations of early summer, Baiu rainbands at Tanegashima in southern Japan and of summer rainbands at Chiang Rai in northern Thailand. Precipitation particles are mapped by type and charge over the course of cloud development, allowing particle and charge evolution to be derived. The basic charge distribution as observed in Hokuriku winter thunderclouds at different cloud life stages was seen at different locations characterized by vertical velocity profiles in the cloud. The charge structure of the rainbands in both locations was a basic tripole. The major charge carriers were graupel and ice crystals. As graupel and ice crystal concentrations increased, not only did space charge increase, but per-particle charge also increased. Increased lightning activity was associated with higher particle space charge and lower cloud-top temperature. The particle charge evolution of these systems includes several fundamental features: a. active negative charging of graupel in an intense updraft, b. descent of negative graupel along the edge of an updraft column, c. merging of negative graupel with positively charged raindrops falling in the central cloud, and d. extended distribution of positive ice crystals in the stratiform cloud. The observations suggest that riming electrification was the main charge separation mechanism.

  12. Searches for Fractionally Charged Particles: What Should Be Done Next?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perl, Martin L.; /SLAC

    2009-01-15

    Since the initial measurements of the electron charge a century ago, experimenters have faced the persistent question as to whether elementary particles exist that have charges that are fractional multiples of the electron charge. I concisely review the results of the last 50 years of searching for fractional charge particles with no confirmed positive results. I discuss the question of whether more searching is worthwhile?

  13. Testing of high-vacuum pumps for charged particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study a possibility of employing different types of pumps in charged-particle accelerators the following pumps have been tested: electric-arc, turbomolecular and cryogenic. The research has been carried out on a test bench which made it possible to determine the pumping-out rate for different gases (constant-volume methods), measure their limiting pressure and study the spectra of different gases by using mass spectrometers. It was possible also to warm up the pumps and pumped-out volumes. From these tests it was concluded that: (1) the electric-arc pump does not meet the accelerator pumping-out requirements; (2) the turbomolecular pump with a nitrogen-sorption trap can be recommended for pumping-out accelerators but requires modification of the supply unit; (3) the cryogenic pump can be recommended for pumpimg-out of accelerators but requires modification of the automatic system for replenishment of the cryogenic fluid

  14. Determination of colloidal particle surface charge from dielectrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Marko; Nuansri, Rittirong; Mazza, Jacob; Ou-Yang, H. Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Electrophoresis (EP) is used to determine colloidal particle surface charge. However, when the Debye length is comparable to or larger than the particle size, electrophoresis cannot be reliably used to determine the surface charge due to counter ion retardation flow. Alexander et al. developed a theory relating colloidal osmotic pressure and particle surface charge. We use dielectrophoresis (DEP) to obtain a potential landscape based on the number density distribution of the particles in a non-uniform AC electric field. We determine the osmotic pressure from the DEP force and density profiles using Einstein's osmotic equilibrium equation. Surface charge obtained by DEP (thermodynamics) will be compared to that obtained by EP (electrokinetics).

  15. Bibliography of integral charged particle nuclear data. Archival edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the fourth annual edition of the National Nuclear Data Center charged-particle bibliography. This edition is cumulative and supersedes the previous editions. The bibliography's primary aims are to satisfy the need for a concise and comprehensive index of integral charged-particle cross section data and to provide an index of charged-particle data compiled in the international exchange format. References in this Part are by target for the various incident charged particles (in order of increasing A). The present publication is an archival volume; future publications will be cumulative supplements to this edition

  16. Measurement of charged hadron spectra at the Z0 with Cherenkov ring imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation attempts to probe hadronization, the process by which the fundamental quarks described by quantum chromodynamics produce the jets of hadrons that the author observed in experiments. The measurements are made using e+e- collisions at the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC), operating at the Z0 resonance with the SLC Large Detector (SLD), and the unique capabilities of the SLC/SLD facility are exploited. First, the spectra of charged hadrons (π±, K±, and p/anti p) are measured. This is accomplished with the SLD Cherenkov Ring Imaging Detector (CRID), one of a first generation of devices that have been developed for efficient particle identification over a wide momentum range. The use of the CRID is central to this dissertation, and its design and performance are described in detail here. The measured spectra agree with other measurements at the Z0 and extend the momentum coverage. Next, the excellent spatial resolution of the SLD tracking systems, along with the small and stable beam spots of the SLC, is employed to identify jets produced from heavy b or c quarks and to separate them from the remaining light-quark (uds) jets. This removes the effects of heavy quark fragmentation and decays of heavy-quark hadrons from the study of hadronization. The first measurements of particle spectra in light-quark jets are then presented. Finally, the highly-polarized incident electron beam of the SLC, together with the electroweak asymmetries of the quarks, is exploited to separate quark and antiquark jets. Significant differences in quark-antiquark production of protons and of kaons are observed at high momenta. This signal suggests a leading particle effect, where the particles containing the primary quark of a jet are more likely to populate the high-momentum phase space than are other hadrons

  17. Experimental Effects on IR Reflectance Spectra: Particle Size and Morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiswenger, Toya N.; Myers, Tanya L.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Su, Yin-Fong; Blake, Thomas A.; Ertel, Alyssa B.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Szecsody, James E.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Smith, Milton; Lanker, Cory

    2016-05-23

    For geologic and extraterrestrial samples it is known that both particle size and morphology can have strong effects on the species’ infrared reflectance spectra. Due to such effects, the reflectance spectra cannot be predicted from the absorption coefficients alone. This is because reflectance is both a surface as well as a bulk phenomenon, incorporating both dispersion as well as absorption effects. The same spectral features can even be observed as either a maximum or minimum. The complex effects depend on particle size and preparation, as well as the relative amplitudes of the optical constants n and k, i.e. the real and imaginary components of the complex refractive index. While somewhat oversimplified, upward-going amplitude in the reflectance spectrum usually result from surface scattering, i.e. rays that have been reflected from the surface without penetration, whereas downward-going peaks are due to either absorption or volume scattering, i.e. rays that have penetrated or refracted into the sample interior and are not reflected. While the effects are well known, we report seminal measurements of reflectance along with quantified particle size of the samples, the sizing obtained from optical microscopy measurements. The size measurements are correlated with the reflectance spectra in the 1.3 – 16 micron range for various bulk materials that have a combination of strong and weak absorption bands in order to understand the effects on the spectral features as a function of the mean grain size of the sample. We report results for both sodium sulfate Na2SO4 as well as ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4; the optical constants have been measured for (NH4)2SO4. To go a step further from the field to the laboratory we explore our understanding of particle size effects on reflectance spectra in the field using standoff detection. This has helped identify weaknesses and strengths in detection using standoff distances of up 160 meters away from the Target. The studies have

  18. Neutron flux density and secondary-particle energy spectra at the 184-inch synchrocyclotron medical facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helium ions, with an energy of 920 MeV, produced by the 184-inch synchrocyclotron of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory are now being used in a pilot series to determine their efficacy in the treatment of tumors of large volume. The techniques for production of the large uniform radiation fields required for these treatments involve the use of beam-limiting collimators and energy degraders. Interaction of the primary beam with these beam components produces secondary charged particles and neutrons. The sources of neutron production in the beam transport system of the alpha-particle beam have been identified and their magnitudes have been determined. Measurements with activation detectors and pulse counters of differing energy responses have been used to determine secondary particle spectra at various locations on the patient table. These spectra are compared to a calculation of neutron production based on best estimates derived from published cross sections. Agreement between the calculated spectra and those derived from experimental measurements is obtained (at the 10 to 20% level) when the presence of charged particles is taken into account. The adsorbed dose in soft tissue is not very sensitive to the shape of the incident neutron energy spectrum, and the values obtained from unfolding the experimental measurements agree with the values obtained from the calculated spectra within the estimated uncertainty of +-25%. These values are about 3 x 10-3 rad on the beam axis and about 1 x 10-3 rad at 20 cm or more from the beam axis, per rad deposited by the incident alpha-particle beam. Estimates of upper limit dose to the lens of the eye and red bone marrow are approximately 10 rad and approximately 1 rad, respectively, for a typical treatment plan. The absorbed dose to the lens of the eye is thus well below the threshold value for cataractogenesis estimated for fission neutrons. An upper limit for the risk of leukemia is estimated to be approximately 0.04%

  19. Description of light charged particle multiplicities in the framework of dinuclear system model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonenko N.V.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of dinuclear system (DNS model we calculate the light charged particle (LCP multiplicities produced in fusion and quasifission reactions and their kinetic energy spectra. Calculations indicate that with increasing bombarding energy the ratio of LCP multiplicity from fragments MFF to corresponding LCP multiplicity from compound nucleus (CN MCN strongly increases.

  20. Elemental analysis of biological samples using deuteron induced X-rays and charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for elemental analysis in biological samples is presented. Samples were exposed to 4 MeV deuterons and both charged particle and X-ray spectra were recorded. The method was tested on a biopsi of mouseliver and a blood-serum-sample and was found promising for rapid analysis of samples associated with small amounts of material (μg). (Auth.)

  1. Spectra of accelerated particles at supernova shocks in the presence of neutral hydrogen: the case of Tycho

    CERN Document Server

    Morlino, G

    2015-01-01

    The presence of neutral hydrogen in the shock proximity changes the structure of the shock and affects the spectra of particles accelerated through the first order Fermi mechanism. This phenomenon has profound implications for the interpretation of the multifrequency spectra of radiation from supernova remnants. Neutrals that undergo charge exchange with hot ions downstream of the shock may result in fast neutrals moving towards the upstream gas, where they can suffer additional charge exchange or ionisation reactions, thereby depositing energy and momentum upstream. Here we discuss the implications of this neutral return flux, already predicted in our previous work on neutral mediated supernova shocks and show how the spectra of accelerated particles turn out to be appreciably steeper than $p^{-4}$, thereby affecting the gamma ray spectra from supernova remnants in general and from Tycho specifically. The theory that describes non-linear diffusive shock acceleration in the presence of neutral hydrogen has be...

  2. VEDs for charged particle accelerators: Indian scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the initial times after their invention, the charged particle accelerators have, primarily, been used for fundamental studies on nuclei and atoms. From the first modern accelerator, the cathode ray tube, used by J.J. Thomson for the discovery of electron, very recently the gigantic 27 km circumference Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is operational in the search of Higg's boson and related physics issues. Particle accelerators have emerged as powerful microscopes for investigating the finest details of cells, genes, molecules, atoms, protons, neutrons, muons, electrons, quarks and, possibly, still undiscovered even more fundamental constituents of the universe, such as dark matter and dark energy. Several noble prize winning discoveries have been made using accelerators. Accelerators are now being used in a wide area of industrial and medical applications. They are used for the production of radioisotopes for medical imaging, cancer therapy, food sterilization, treatment of waste water, sterilization of medical equipment, material modification, mass spectroscopy, cargo scanning, fabrication of semiconductors etc. Ongoing effort towards the development of accelerators with megawatt beam power is showing hope for a cleaner source of nuclear energy and treatment of nuclear waste. Several tens of thousands of accelerators are presently operational in the world for basic research and applications. Development of new accelerators has several times been driven by new technologies and materials and sometimes they have driven the technological developments towards cutting edge. Some examples are ultra-high vacuum in large volumes, superfluid helium in cryogenics, cryocoolers, superconducting magnets and RF cavities, high power vacuum electronic devices, global control systems, superfast computing and communication networks, giant data storage/processing systems etc. India has been pursuing a fairly robust programme of accelerator development at various institutions. It

  3. The effect of single-particle charge limits on charge distributions in dusty plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical expression for the stationary particle charge distribution in dusty plasmas is derived that accounts for the existence of single-particle charge limits. This expression is validated by comparison with the results of Monte Carlo charging simulations. The relative importance of the existence of charge limits for various values of the ratio of electron-to-ion density and ion mass is examined, and the effect of charge limits on the transient behavior of the charge distribution is considered. It is found that the time required to reach a steady-state charge distribution strongly decreases as the charge limit decreases, and that the existence of charge limits causes high-frequency charge fluctuations to become relatively more important than in the case without charge limits. (paper)

  4. Effects of charged particles on DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It can be noted that it is not simple double strand breaks (dsb) but the non-reparable breaks that are associated with high biological effectiveness in the cell killing effect for high LET radiation. Here, we have examined the effectiveness of fast neutrons and low (initial energy = 12 MeV/u) or high (135 MeV/u) energy charged particles on cell death in 19 mammalian cell lines including radiosensitive mutants. Some of the radiosensitive lines were deficient in DNA dsb repair such as LX830, M10, V3, and L5178Y-S cells and showed lower values of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for fast neutrons if compared with their parent cell lines. The other lines of human ataxia-telangiectasia fibroblasts, irs 1, irs 2, irs 3 and irs 1SF cells, which were also radiosensitive but known as proficient in dsb repair, showed moderate RBEs. Dsb repair deficient mutants showed low RBE values for heavy ions. These experimental findings suggest that the DNA repair system does not play a major role against the attack of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiations. Therefore, we hypothesize that a main cause of cell death induced by high LET radiations is due to non-reparable dsb, which are produced at a higher rate compared to low LET radiations. (author)

  5. Charged-particle beam: a safety mandate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) is a recent development in the field of charged particle beam research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. With this experimental apparatus, researchers will characterize intense pulses of electron beams propagated through air. Inherent with the ATA concept was the potential for exposure to hazards, such as high radiation levels and hostile breathing atmospheres. The need for a comprehensive safety program was mandated; a formal system safety program was implemented during the project's conceptual phase. A project staff position was created for a safety analyst who would act as a liaison between the project staff and the safety department. Additionally, the safety analyst would be responsible for compiling various hazards analyses reports, which formed the basis of th project's Safety Analysis Report. Recommendations for safety features from the hazards analysis reports were incorporated as necessary at appropriate phases in project development rather than adding features afterwards. The safety program established for the ATA project faciliated in controlling losses and in achieving a low-level of acceptable risk

  6. A novel silicon array designed for intraoperative charged particle imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel Si-PIN imaging array is under investigation for a charged particle (beta, positron, or alpha) sensitive intraoperative camera to be used for (residual) tumor identification during surgery. This class of collimator-less nuclear imaging device has a higher signal response for direct interactions than its scintillator-optical detector-based counterparts. Monte Carlo simulations with 635 keV betas were performed, yielding maximum and projected ranges of 1.64 and 0.55 mm in Si. Up to 90% of these betas were completely absorbed in the first 0.30 mm. Based on these results, 300 μm thick prototype Si detector arrays were designed in a 16x16 crossed-grid arrangement with 0.8 mm wide orthogonal strips on 1.0 mm pitch. A NIM- and CAMAC-based high-density data acquisition and processing system was used to collect the list mode data. The system was calibrated by comparisons of measured spectra to energy deposition simulations or by direct measurement of various >100 keV conversion electron or beta emitters. Mean electronic noise per strip was 2 pixel size, and measurements of beta emitting point and line sources yielded FWHM resolutions of 1.5 (lateral) and 2.5 mm (diagonal), respectively, with the larger widths due to particle range blurring effects. Deconvolution of the finite source size yielded intrinsic resolutions that corresponded to the image pixel size. Transmission images of circle and line phantoms with various hole sizes and pitch were resolved with either pure beta or positron irradiation without a background correction. This novel semiconductor imaging device facilitates high charged particle and low gamma sensitivity, high signal/noise ratio, and allows for compact design to potentially aid surgical guidance by providing in situ images of clinical relevance

  7. Influence of background neutrals on charge exchange neutral spectra in ohmically heated JT-60 plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutrals emitted from ohmically heated JT-60 plasmas were measured by two neutral particle analysers with different sight-lines. Measured charge exchange spectra presented clear distortion arising from poloidal asymmetry of neutral sources. Ion temperature from charge exchange measurements was 10 - 30 % less than the central temperature at n-bare = (0.5 - 4.0) x 1019 m-3. From the magnitude of the spectra, we determined the neutral density in the core region. At n-bare 19 m-3, the obtained neutral density n0 decreased as n-bare increased, and agreed with the neutral density expected by electron-ion recombination alone at n-bare = (2.5 - 4.0) x 1019 m-3. The result indicates that the neutral density in the core region is determined by penetration of cold neutrals and their generations at n-bare 19 m-3, and also shows that at n-bare > approx 2.5 x 1019 m-3 the neutrals are mainly generated by recombination of protons and electrons. (author)

  8. Measurement of charged-particle spectra in Pb+Pb collisions at √sNN = 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Chudoba, Jiří; Havránek, Miroslav; Hejbal, Jiří; Jakoubek, Tomáš; Kepka, Oldřich; Kupčo, Alexander; Kůs, Vlastimil; Lokajíček, Miloš; Lysák, Roman; Marčišovský, Michal; Mikeštíková, Marcela; Němeček, Stanislav; Šícho, Petr; Staroba, Pavel; Svatoš, Michal; Taševský, Marek; Vrba, Václav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2015, č. 9 (2015), s. 50. ISSN 1029-8479 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13009 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : QCD * heavy ions * ATLAS * CERN Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 6.111, year: 2014

  9. Particles and scalar waves in noncommutative charged black hole spacetime

    OpenAIRE

    Bhar, Piyali; Rahaman, Farook; Biswas, Ritabrata(Indian Institute of Engineering Sceince and Technology Shibpur (Formerly, Bengal Engineering and Science University Shibpur), 711 013, Howrah, West Bengal, India); Mondal, U. F.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we have discussed geodesics and the motion of test particle in the gravitational field of noncommutative charged black hole spacetime. The motion of massive and massless particle have been discussed seperately. A comparative study of noncommutative charged black hole and usual Reissner-Nordstrom black hole has been done. The study of effective potential has also been included. Finally, we have examined the scattering of scalar waves in noncommutative charged black hole spacetime.

  10. Particles and Scalar Waves in Noncommutative Charged Black Hole Spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piyali, Bhar; Farook, Rahaman; Ritabrata, Biswas; U. F., Mondal

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we have discussed geodesics and the motion of test particle in the gravitational field of non-commutative charged black hole spacetime. The motion of massive and massless particle have been discussed seperately. A comparative study of noncommutative charged black hole and usual Reissner-Nordström black hole has been done. The study of effective potential has also been included. Finally, we have examined the scattering of scalar waves in noncommutative charged black hole spacetime.

  11. Dynamics of fast charged particle beam rotation in bended crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamics of fast charged particle beam rotation in a bended monocrystal is considered. Face and volume mechanisms of capture in channels are taken into account simultaneously in the model presented. Functions of distribution in transverse energies (φ) of channeled and dechanneled particles are obtained. Charge-energy ''scale invariance'' in ion channeling with charge Z in a bended crystal determined by scale parameter W=pv/Z (p and v are pulse and velocity local to transverse planes) follows from the model presented

  12. Charged particle periodicity in the Saturnian magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The low energy charged particles (LECP) experiments on the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft performed measurements of electrons (approx.22 keV to approx.20 MeV) and ions (approx.28 keV to approx.150 MeV) during the Saturn encounters in 1980 and 1981. Count rate ratios of two of the low energy electron (22 to 35 keV and 183 to 500 keV) and ion (43 to 80 keV and 137 to 215 keV) channels exhibit an approximation 10 hour periodicity in the outer Saturnian magnetosphere beyond the orbit of Titan. Electron ratios vary from approx.50 to approx.300; ion ratios vary from approx.3 to approx.20. Similar but less pronounced periodicities are observed for higher and lower energy electron and ion spectral indices. Three complete cycles were observed during the Voyager 2 outbound portion of the encounter from which were determined an electron ratio period of 10/sup h/21/sup m/ +- 48/sup m/ and an ion ratio period of 9/sup h/49/sup m/ +- 59/sup m/. Using Saturn Kilometric Radiation (SKR) and Saturn Electrostatic Discharge (SED) periods, extrapolation backward from Voyager 2 to Voyager 1 suggests that the periodicities are Saturnian rather than Jovian in nature, and that they persist in phase for time intervals at least as long as 287 days. Ratio minima, or spectral hardenings, occur in the same hemisphere as do auroral brightenings, SKR activity, and spoke enhanement. We interpret the observations as prima facie evidence of an asymmetry in the Saturian magnetic field and the root cause of the observed SKR periodicity

  13. Photon production by charged particles in narrow optical fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Artru, X.; Ray, C.

    2006-01-01

    Presented at International Conference on Charged and Neutral Particles Channeling Phenomena, Frascati, Italy, July 3-7, 2006. - Theorie, CAS A charged particle passing through or by an optical fiber induces emission of light guided by the fiber. The formula giving the spontaneous emission amplitude are given in the general case when the particle trajectory is not parallel to the fiber axis. At small angle, the photon yield grows like the inverse power of the angle and in the parallel limit...

  14. Massive Vector Particles Tunneling From Noncommutative Charged Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Övgün, Ali

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the tunneling process of charged massive bosons $W^{\\pm}$ (spin-1 particles) from noncommutative charged black holes such as charged RN black holes and charged BTZ black holes. By applying the WKB approximation and by using the Hamilton-Jacobi equation we derive the tunneling rate and the corresponding Hawking temperature for those black holes configuration. The tunneling rate shows that the radiation deviates from pure thermality and is consistent with an underlying unitary theory.

  15. Highly charged hollow latex particles prepared via seeded emulsion polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuasaen, Sukanya; Tangboriboonrat, Pramuan

    2013-04-15

    The carboxylated hollow latex (HL) particles possessing high surface charge density were conveniently prepared by using poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) (P(St/AA)) as seed particles and methyl methacrylate (MMA)/divinylbenzene (DVB)/AA as monomers. Without seed removal, the hollow structure was simply tuned by adjusting the monomer/seed ratio and the monomer content. The monodisperse, spherical, and non-collapsed HL particles with double shell having the void of 280 nm were obtained from P(St/AA) seeds of 300 nm. The conductimetric back titration, SEM, TEM, and dynamic light scattering measurement revealed that the surface charge density, surface roughness, and size of HL particles significantly increased when applying the stepwise charging monomers/initiator. The highly charged HL particles would be well dispersed in coating film providing good optical properties, for example, opacity and whiteness. PMID:23428072

  16. Anomalous mobility of highly charged particles in pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yinghua; Yang, Crystal; Hinkle, Preston; Vlassiouk, Ivan V; Siwy, Zuzanna S

    2015-08-18

    Single micropores in resistive-pulse technique were used to understand a complex dependence of particle mobility on its surface charge density. We show that the mobility of highly charged carboxylated particles decreases with the increase of the solution pH due to an interplay of three effects: (i) ion condensation, (ii) formation of an asymmetric electrical double layer around the particle, and (iii) electroosmotic flow induced by the charges on the pore walls and the particle surfaces. The results are important for applying resistive-pulse technique to determine surface charge density and zeta potential of the particles. The experiments also indicate the presence of condensed ions, which contribute to the measured current if a sufficiently high electric field is applied across the pore. PMID:26177843

  17. Charged and Neutral Particles Channeling Phenomena Channeling 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabagov, Sultan B.; Palumbo, Luigi

    2010-04-01

    On the discovery of coherent Bremsstrahlung in a single crystal at the Frascati National Laboratories / C. Barbiellini, G. P. Murtas and S. B. Dabagov -- Advances in coherent Bremsstrahlung and LPM-effect studies (to the lOOth anniversary from the birth of L. D. Landau) / N. F. Shul'ga -- Spectra of radiation and created particles at intermediate energy in oriented crystal taking into account energy loss / V. N. Baier and V. M. Katkov -- The coherent Bremsstrahlung beam at MAX-lab facility / K. Fissum ... [et al.] -- Radiation from thin, structured targets (CERN NA63) / A. Dizdar -- Hard incoherent radiation in thick crystals / N. F. Shul'ga, V. V. Syshchenko and A. I. Tarnovsky -- Coherent Bremsstrahlung in periodically deformed crystals with a complex base / A. R. Mkrtchyan, A. A. Saharian and V. V. Parazian -- Induction of coherent x-ray Bremsstrahlung in crystals under the influence of acoustic waves / A. R. Mkrtchyan and V. V. Parazian -- Coherent processes in bent single crystals / V. A. Maisheev -- Experimental and theoretical investigation of complete transfer phenomenon for media with various heat exchange coefficients / A. R. Mkrtchyan, A. E. Movsisyan and V. R. Kocharyan -- Coherent pair production in crystals / A. R. Mkrtchyan, A. A. Saharian and V. V. Parazian -- Negative particle planar and axial channeling and channeling collimation / R. A. Carrigan, Jr. -- CERN crystal-based collimation in modern hadron colliders / W. Scandale -- Studies and application of bent crystals for beam steering at 70 GeV IHEP accelerator / A. G. Afonin ... [et al.] -- Crystal collimation studies at the Tevatron (T-980) / N. V. Mokhov ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of crystals for channeling of particles in accellerators / A. Mazzolari ... [et al.] -- New possibilities to facilitate collimation of both positively and negatively charged particle beams by crystals / V. Guidi, A. Mazzolari and V. V. Tikhomirov -- Increase of probability of particle capture into the channeling

  18. Bibliography of integral charged particle nuclear data. Archival edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the fourth annual edition of the National Nuclear Data Center charged-particle bibliography. This edition is cumulative and supersedes the previous editions. The bibliography's primary aims are to satisfy the need for a concise and comprehensive index of integral charged-particle cross section data and to provide an index of charged-particle data compiled in the international exchange format, EXFOR. This part of the publication deals with isotope production; references are ordered by mass of the nuclide produced. The present publication is an archival volume; future publications will be cumulative supplements to this edition

  19. Quantum interface to charged particles in a vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    A superconducting qubit device suitable for interacting with a flying electron has recently been proposed [Okamoto and Nagatani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 062604 (2014), 10.1063/1.4865244]. Either a clockwise or counterclockwise directed loop of half magnetic flux quantum encodes a qubit, which naturally interacts with any single charged particle with arbitrary kinetic energy. Here, the device's properties, sources of errors, and possible applications are studied in detail. In particular, applications include detection of a charged particle essentially without applying a classical force to it. Furthermore, quantum states can be transferred between an array of the proposed devices and the charged particle.

  20. Heavy-ion radiography applied to charged particle radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the heavy-ion radiography research program applied to the clinical cancer research program of charged particle radiotherapy have a twofold purpose: (1) to explore the manner in which heavy-ion radiography and CT reconstruction can provide improved tumor localization, treatment planning, and beam delivery for radiotherapy with accelerated heavy charged particles; and (2) to explore the usefulness of heavy-ion radiography in detecting, localizing, and sizing soft tissue cancers in the human body. The techniques and procedures developed for heavy-ion radiography should prove successful in support of charged particle radiotherapy

  1. Mechanisms of Particle Charging by Surfactants in Nonpolar Dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joohyung; Zhou, Zhang-Lin; Alas, Guillermo; Behrens, Sven Holger

    2015-11-10

    Electric charging of colloidal particles in nonpolar solvents plays a crucial role for many industrial applications and products, including rubbers, engine oils, toners, or electronic displays. Although disfavored by the low solvent permittivity, particle charging can be induced by added surfactants, even nonionic ones, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood, and neither the magnitude nor the sign of charge can generally be predicted from the particle and surfactant properties. The conclusiveness of scientific studies has been limited partly by a traditional focus on few surfactant types with many differences in their chemical structure and often poorly defined composition. Here we investigate the surface charging of poly(methyl methacrylate) particles dispersed in hexane-based solutions of three purified polyisobutylene succinimide polyamine surfactants with "subtle" structural variations. We precisely vary the surfactant chemistry by replacing only a single electronegative atom located at a fixed position within the polar headgroup. Electrophoresis reveals that these small differences between the surfactants lead to qualitatively different particle charging. In the respective particle-free surfactant solutions we also find potentially telling differences in the size of the surfactant aggregates (inverse micelles), the residual water content, and the electric solution conductivity as well as indications for a significant size difference between oppositely charged inverse micelles of the most hygroscopic surfactant. An analysis that accounts for the acid/base properties of all constituents suggests that the observed particle charging is better described by asymmetric adsorption of charged inverse micelles from the liquid bulk than by charge creation at the particle surface. Intramicellar acid-base interaction and intermicellar surfactant exchange help rationalize the formation of micellar ions pairs with size asymmetry. PMID:26484617

  2. Instrument to measure energy and charge of low energy interplanetary particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tums, E.; Gloeckler, G.; Cain, J.; Sciambi, R.; Fan, C. Y.

    1974-01-01

    An experiment to measure the charge composition and energy spectra of ultra low energy charged particles in interplanetary space has been developed and launched on the IMP 8 (Explorer 50) satellite on Oct. 26, 1973. The instrument consists of two separate sensors sharing common electronics. One of these sensors uses a thin window gas proportional counter to measure the rate of energy loss and a totally depleted silicon surface barrier detector to measure total energy of incoming particles. The energy range for two dimensional analysis extends from 300 KeV to 2.5 MeV for protons and 60 KeV/nucleon to 25 MeV/nucleon for iron with excellent resolution of individual chemical elements. The other sensor combines electrostatic deflection with total energy measurements in silicon surface barrier detectors to give the ionic charge and kinetic energy of the particle.

  3. Charged particle interaction with a chirped electromagnetic pulse

    OpenAIRE

    Khachatryan, A. G.; Boller, K. -J.; Goor, van, Fred

    2003-01-01

    It is found that a charged particle can get a net energy gain from the interaction with an electromagnetic chirped pulse. Theoretically, the energy gain increases with the pulse amplitude and with the relative frequency variation in the pulse.

  4. Charged particle beam scanning using deformed high gradient insulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu -Jiuan

    2015-10-06

    Devices and methods are provided to allow rapid deflection of a charged particle beam. The disclosed devices can, for example, be used as part of a hadron therapy system to allow scanning of a target area within a patient's body. The disclosed charged particle beam deflectors include a dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) with a hollow center and a dielectric wall that is substantially parallel to a z-axis that runs through the hollow center. The dielectric wall includes one or more deformed high gradient insulators (HGIs) that are configured to produce an electric field with an component in a direction perpendicular to the z-axis. A control component is also provided to establish the electric field component in the direction perpendicular to the z-axis and to control deflection of a charged particle beam in the direction perpendicular to the z-axis as the charged particle beam travels through the hollow center of the DWA.

  5. Techniques used for charged particle nuclear data evaluation at CNDC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methods and techniques used for Charged Particle Nuclear Data (CPND) evaluation at Chinese Nuclear Data Center (CNDC) are summarized, including compilation and evaluation of experimental data, nuclear reaction theory and model calculation, systematics research and comprehensive recommendation etc

  6. Silicon pin diode array hybrids for charged particle detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the design of silicon PIN diode array hybrids for use as charged particle detectors. A brief summary of the need for vertex detectors is presented. Circuitry, block diagrams and device specifications are included

  7. Radiobiology with heavy charged particles: a historical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skarsgard, L.D. [Dept. of Medical Biophysics, B.C. Cancer Research Centre and TRIUMF, Vancouver (Canada)

    1997-09-01

    The presentation will attempt to briefly review some of radiobiological data on the effects of heavy charged particles and to discuss the influence of those studies on the clinical application which followed. (orig./MG)

  8. Deposition of Aerosol Particles in Electrically Charged Membrane Filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theory for the influence of electric charge on particle deposition on the surface of charged filters has been developed. It has been tested experimentally on ordinary membrane filters and Nuclepore filters of 8 μm pore size, with a bipolar monodisperse test aerosol of 1 μm particle diameter, and at a filter charge up to 20 μC/m2. Agreement with theory was obtained for the Coulomb force between filter and particle for both kinds of filters. The image force between charged filter and neutral particles did not result in the predicted deposition in the ordinary membrane filter, probably due to lacking correspondence between the filter model employed for the theory, and the real filter. For the Nuclepore filter a satisfactory agreement with theory was obtained, also at image interaction

  9. On the charged particle shock acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shock acceleration method employs injection of beam particles into the linear accelerator unexcited structure. Upon injecting a wave of accelerating electromagnetic field is excited in the structure it catches up with the particles and accelerates them. Dynamics of particle acceleration using the abovesaid method is under consideration. A d gree of particle beam compression in the process of beam acceleration is found out. New technique is suggested of shock acceleration with particle outlet to the potential barrier plateau that enables to attain compression not only of relativistic beams but also of non relativistic ones. It is shown that the method in question enables to get compression of electron and ion beams while increasing essentially their current and reducing the density modulation period. Shock acceleration in high current accelerators enables to obtain high-energy current beams (above 104A), which ght be used in studies on ionic thermonuclear fusion in powerful free electron lasers

  10. Search for exotic stable charged particles and magnetic monopoles at ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Bader, Maria Karolina Margit

    2014-01-01

    The report describes an exploratory study of beyond the standard model particles like exotic stable charged particles and magnetic monopoles at ALICE. These particles typically posses very high masses and are reconstructable in high energy and high momentum regions. A procedure to obtain the mass spectra from the Time-of-Flight detector (TOF) and the Time-Projection Chamber (TPC) is described as well as a analysis of the TOF background signal. In addition the possibility to search for magnetic monopoles in the data and expected structures of free quarks are investigated.

  11. Limits on the production of massive stable charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present improved limits on the production of massive stable charged particles in bar pp collisions using the Collider Detector at Fermilab based on an integrated luminosity of 3.54 pb-1. Both unit and fractionally charged particles are considered. Cross-section upper limits are determined for masses from 50 to 500 GeV/c2. Theoretical cross sections are used to set bounds on the mass of fermionic color triplets, sextets, octets, and decuplets as well as scalar triplets

  12. Nuclear data needs in nuclear astrophysics: Charged-particle reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress in understanding a diverse range of astrophysical phenomena - such as the Big Bang, the Sun, the evolution of stars, and stellar explosions - can be significantly aided by improved compilation, evaluation, and dissemination of charged-particle nuclear reaction data. A summary of the charged-particle reaction data needs in these and other astrophysical scenarios is presented, along with recommended future nuclear data projects. (author)

  13. Analogies between light optics and charged-particle optics

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Sameen Ahmed

    2002-01-01

    The close analogy between geometrical optics and the classical theories of charged-particle beam optics have been known for a very long time. In recent years, quantum theories of charged-particle beam optics have been presented with the very expected feature of wavelength-dependent effects. With the current development of non-traditional prescriptions of Helmholtz and Maxwell optics respectively, accompanied with the wavelength-dependent effects, it is seen that the analogy between the two sy...

  14. Proposal to Search for Magnetically Charged Particles with Magnetic Charge 1e

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Michael K. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fryberger, David [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-11-02

    A model for composite elementary Standard Model (SM) particles based upon magnetically bound vorton pairs, we briefly introduce here, predicts the existence of a complete family of magnetically charged particles, as well as their neutral isotopic partners (all counterparts to the SM elementary particles), in which the lowest mass (charged) particle would be an electrically neutral stable lepton, but which carries a magnetic charge equivalent to 1e. This new particle, which we call a magneticon (a counterpart to the electron) would be pair produced at all e+e- colliders at an Ecm above twice its mass. In addition, PP and PPbar colliders should also be able to produce these new particles through the Drell-Yan process. To our knowledge, no monopole search experiment has been sensitive to such a low-charged magnetic monopole above a particle mass of about 5 GeV/c2. Hence, we propose that a search for such a stable particle of magnetic charge 1e should be undertaken. We have taken the ATLAS detector at the LHC as an example in which this search might be done. To this end, we modeled the magnetic fields and muon trigger chambers of this detector. We show results from a simple Monte Carlo simulation program to indicate how these particles might look in the detector and describe how one might search for these new particles in the ATLAS data stream.

  15. Asymptotic algebra for charged particles and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A C*-algebra of asymptotic fields which properly describes the infrared structure in quantum electrodynamics is proposed. The algebra is generated by the null asymptotic of electromagnetic field and the time asymptotic of charged matter fields which incorporate the corresponding Coulomb fields. As a consequence Gauss' law is satisfied in the algebraic setting. Within this algebra the observables can be identified by the principle of gauge invariance. A class of representations of the asymptotic algebra is constructed which resembles the Kulish-Faddeev treatment of electrically charged asymptotic fields. (orig.)

  16. Indirect Charged Particle Detection: Concepts and a Classroom Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Nicholas B.; Horányi, Mihály; Collette, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    We describe the principles of macroscopic charged particle detection in the laboratory and their connections to concepts taught in the physics classroom. Electrostatic dust accelerator systems, capable of launching charged dust grains at hypervelocities (1-100 km/s), are a critical tool for space exploration. Dust grains in space typically have…

  17. An improved search for elementary particles with fractional electric charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SLAC Quark Search Group has demonstrated successful operation of a low cost, high mass throughput Millikan apparatus designed to search for fractionally charged particles. About six million silicone oil drops were measured with no evidence of fractional charges. A second experiment is under construction with 100 times greater throughput which will utilize optimized search fluids

  18. Parton Energy Loss in Heavy-Ion Collisions via Direct-Photon and Charged-Particle Azimuthal Correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Abelev, B. I.; Benedosso, F.; Braidot, E.; Mischke, A.; Peitzmann, T.(Institute for Subatomic Physics of Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands); Russcher, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    Charged-particle spectra associated with direct photon ($\\gamma_{dir} $) and $\\pi^0$ are measured in $p$+$p$ and Au+Au collisions at center-of-mass energy $\\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV with the STAR detector at RHIC. A hower-shape analysis is used to partially discriminate between $\\gamma_{dir}$ and $\\pi^0$. Assuming no associated charged particles in the $\\gamma_{dir}$ direction (near side) and small contribution from fragmentation photons ($\\gamma_{frag}$), the associated charged-particle yiel...

  19. Charged particle separation by an electrically tunable nanoporous membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the applicability of an electrically tunable nanoporous semiconductor membrane for the separation of nanoparticles by charge. We show that this type of membrane can overcome one of the major shortcomings of nanoporous membrane applications for particle separation: the compromise between membrane selectivity and permeability. The computational model that we have developed describes the electrostatic potential distribution within the system and tracks the movement of the filtered particle using Brownian dynamics while taking into consideration effects from dielectrophoresis, fluid flow, and electric potentials. We found that for our specific pore geometry, the dielectrophoresis plays a negligible role in the particle dynamics. By comparing the results for charged and uncharged particles, we show that for the optimal combination of applied electrolyte and membrane biases the same membrane can effectively separate same-sized particles based on charge with a difference of up to 3 times in membrane permeability. (paper)

  20. Charged Particle Diffusion in Isotropic Random Static Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, P.; Sonsrettee, W.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Ruffolo, D. J.; Wan, M.; Montgomery, D.

    2013-12-01

    Study of the transport and diffusion of charged particles in a turbulent magnetic field remains a subject of considerable interest. Research has most frequently concentrated on determining the diffusion coefficient in the presence of a mean magnetic field. Here we consider Diffusion of charged particles in fully three dimensional statistically isotropic magnetic field turbulence with no mean field which is pertinent to many astrophysical situations. We classify different regions of particle energy depending upon the ratio of Larmor radius of the charged particle to the characteristic outer length scale of turbulence. We propose three different theoretical models to calculate the diffusion coefficient each applicable to a distinct range of particle energies. The theoretical results are compared with those from computer simulations, showing very good agreement.

  1. Simulation of non-charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the method used to simulate the transport of neutral particles by using a Monte Carlo method with accelerating techniques of convergence based on the importance function by the method of first collision probabilities

  2. X-ray Signature of Charge Exchange in the Spectra of L-shell Iron Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiersdorfer, P; Schweikhard, L; Liebisch, P; Brown, G V

    2007-01-05

    The X-ray signature of charge exchange between highly charged L-shell iron ions and neutral gas atoms was studied in the laboratory in order to assess its diagnostic utility. Significant differences with spectra formed by electron-impact excitation were observed. In particular, a strong enhancement was found of the emission corresponding to n {le} 4 {yields} n = 2 transitions relative to the n = 3 {yields} n = 2 emission. This enhancement was detectable even with relatively low-resolution X-ray instrumentation (E/{Delta}E {approx} 10) and may enable future identification of charge exchange as a line-formation mechanism in astrophysical spectra.

  3. A high sensitivity selector for charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrostatic size selector for aerosol particles, is composed of two coaxial parallel conductive disks between which an electric field is established; an annular slot in the first disk allows for the atmosphere air intake. Suction and injection systems, and a third intermediate disk are used to carry out a dynamic confinement that allows for the separation of the particles having the required electric mobility and therefore the required size

  4. Charged particle detectors with active detector surface for partial energy deposition of the charged particles and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerts, David W; Bean, Robert S; Metcalf, Richard R

    2013-02-19

    A radiation detector is disclosed. The radiation detector comprises an active detector surface configured to generate charge carriers in response to charged particles associated with incident radiation. The active detector surface is further configured with a sufficient thickness for a partial energy deposition of the charged particles to occur and permit the charged particles to pass through the active detector surface. The radiation detector further comprises a plurality of voltage leads coupled to the active detector surface. The plurality of voltage leads is configured to couple to a voltage source to generate a voltage drop across the active detector surface and to separate the charge carriers into a plurality of electrons and holes for detection. The active detector surface may comprise one or more graphene layers. Timing data between active detector surfaces may be used to determine energy of the incident radiation. Other apparatuses and methods are disclosed herein.

  5. Particle Acceleration through Multiple Conversions from Charged into Neutral State and Back

    CERN Document Server

    Derishev, E V; Kocharovsky, V V; Kocharovsky, Vl.V.

    2003-01-01

    We propose a new way of quick and very efficient acceleration of protons and/or electrons in relativistic bulk flows. The new mechanism takes advantage of conversion of particles from the charged state (protons or electrons/positrons) into neutral state (neutrons or photons) and back. In most cases, the conversion is photon-induced and requires presence of intense radiation fields, but the converter acceleration mechanism may also operate via inelastic nucleon-nucleon collisions. Like in the traditional model -- ``stochastic'' (or diffusive) acceleration, -- the acceleration cycle in our scenario consists of escape of particles from the relativistic flow followed by their return back after deflection from the ambient magnetic field. The difference is that the charge-changing reactions, which occur during the cycle, allow accelerated particles to increase their energies in each cycle by a factor roughly equal to the bulk Lorentz factor squared. The emerging spectra of accelerated particles can be very hard and...

  6. Acceleration of low energy charged particles by gravitational waves

    OpenAIRE

    Voyatzis, G.; Vlahos, L.; Ichtiaroglou, S.; Papadopoulos, D.

    2005-01-01

    The acceleration of charged particles in the presence of a magnetic field and gravitational waves is under consideration. It is shown that the weak gravitational waves can cause the acceleration of low energy particles under appropriate conditions. Such conditions may be satisfied close to the source of the gravitational waves if the magnetized plasma is in a turbulent state.

  7. Ionic charge state measurements in solar energetic particle events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the launch of the Advanced Composition Explorer, it has become possible through the SEPICA instrument to make direct ionic charge state measurements for individual Solar Energetic Particle events. In large events, the charge state may even be measured as a function of time, revealing changes that may be created by phenomena such as injections from different acceleration mechanisms, or confinement by magnetic field structures. The charge state can be a sensitive indicator of separate SEP populations. Several examples of SEP events will be presented. One of these, the November, 1997 event, displayed a trend in which the mean charge state for several ions increased with energy. These measurements may be the result of several processes, including a mixture of plasma with different source and acceleration histories, and abundance formation and possibly additional charge state modification by collisional or other means in the corona. A wide range of iron charge states have been measured for a variety of SEP events, ranging from =10+ to 20+. The mean charge states of C, O, Ne, Mg and Si all increased as the iron charge state increased. In events with the highest iron charge states, there were abundance enhancements in Ne with respect to oxygen in those cases, even though the mass/charge of the O and Ne were similar. In events with the lowest iron charge states, all these ions except Mg showed mean charge states generally consistent with coronal material of an equilibrium temperature of 1.3-1.6 million degrees K

  8. Generalized charge symmetry and charmed particle decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The charge symmetry operations are introduced within the c, s and p, n quark doublets and its consequences for weak decays proceeding via the GIM current, are studied. Numerous relations between various decays are obtained. Combined with CP an interesting pattern of allowed and suppressed amplitudes for charmed meson and baryon processes is found. The results are compatible with the present meagre experimental information. (Auth.)

  9. CMOS sensor as charged particles and ionizing radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports results of CMOS sensor suitable for use as charged particles and ionizing radiation detector. The CMOS sensor with 640 × 480 pixels area has been integrated into an electronic circuit for detection of ionizing radiation and it was exposed to alpha particle (Am-241, Unat), beta (Sr-90), and gamma photons (Cs-137). Results show after long period of time (168 h) irradiation the sensor had not loss of functionality and also the energy of the charge particles and photons were very well obtained

  10. Charged particle acceleration by electron beam in corrugated plasma waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two-beam charged particle acceleration scheme in a plasma waveguide with corrugated conducting walls is considered. The guiding heavy-current relativistic electron beam is in synchronism with the first plasma wave space harmonics and the accelerated beam is synchronism with a quicker plasma wave. In this case under weak corrugation of the wall the accelerating resonance field effecting the accelerated particles notably increases the field braking the guiding beam. The process of plasma wave excitation with regard to the guiding beam space charge and the relativistic particle acceleration dynamics are investigated by numeric methods. Optimal acceleration modes are found. 19 refs.; 12 figs

  11. Charged particles detection: the draft-and-dye method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charged particles travelling through an organic medium leave a trail of highly concentrated active, stable chemical radicals. These functions are able to initiate copolymerization reactions of unsaturated molecules. Such a reagent is made to reach the trail; polymerization occurs. If the new polymer formed either absorbs or emits light the track of the charged particle is made visible. This technique and results are discussed: the efficiency of those detectors has been increased, they do not exhibit any critical dip angle for the registration of particle tracks, they may offer a way to reveal tracks originating in the detector itself. (orig.)

  12. Charged particles detection: the graft-and-dye method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charged particles travelling through an organic medium leave a trail of highly concentrated active, stable chemical radicals. These functions are able to initiate copolymerization reactions of unsaturated molecules. Such a reagent is made to reach the trail; polymerization occurs. If the new polymer formed either absorbs or emits light the track of the charged particle is made visible. This technique and results are discussed: the efficiency of those detectors has been increased, they do not exhibit any critical dip angle for the registration of particle tracks, they may offer a way to reveal tracks originating in the detector itself. (author)

  13. Sources for charged particles; Les sources de particules chargees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arianer, J.

    1997-09-01

    This document is a basic course on charged particle sources for post-graduate students and thematic schools on large facilities and accelerator physics. A simple but precise description of the creation and the emission of charged particles is presented. This course relies on every year upgraded reference documents. Following relevant topics are considered: electronic emission processes, technological and practical considerations on electron guns, positron sources, production of neutral atoms, ionization, plasma and discharge, different types of positive and negative ion sources, polarized particle sources, materials for the construction of ion sources, low energy beam production and transport. (N.T.).

  14. An update on (n,charged particle) research at WNR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haight, R.C.; Bateman, F.B.; Sterbenz, S.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Grimes, S.M. [Ohio Univ., Athens, OH (United States); Wasson, O.A. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Maier-Komor, P. [T.U. Munich (Germany); Vonach, H. [Inst. fuer Radiumforschung und Kernphysik, Vienna (Austria)

    1995-12-31

    Neutron-induced reactions producing light charged particles continue to be investigated at the spallation fast-neutron source at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). New data on the cross sections for alpha-particle production for neutrons on {sup 58}Ni and {sup 60}Ni are presented from threshold to 50 MeV. Recent changes in the experiment now allow protons, deuterons, tritons, {sup 3}He and alpha particles to be identified.

  15. An update on (n,charged particle) research at WNR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron-induced reactions producing light charged particles continue to be investigated at the spallation fast-neutron source at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). New data on the cross sections for alpha-particle production for neutrons on 58Ni and 60Ni are presented from threshold to 50 MeV. Recent changes in the experiment now allow protons, deuterons, tritons, 3He and alpha particles to be identified

  16. Motions of charged particles in Goedel-type spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedel-type spacetimes in Hehl's non propagating torsion theory are reconsidered by supposing that the curvature source is a Weyssenhoff-Raab fluid and an electromagnetic field. The electromagnetic field implies space time homogeneity and admits a dual interpretation. From the trajectories of the test particles, it is shown that there is a class of such spacetimes for which charged particles can reach regions inaccessible to neutral particles or even photons. (author). 21 refs., 1 fig

  17. Motions of charged particles in Goedel-type spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Bartolomeu D.B. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1996-10-01

    Goedel-type spacetimes in Hehl`s non propagating torsion theory are reconsidered by supposing that the curvature source is a Weyssenhoff-Raab fluid and an electromagnetic field. The electromagnetic field implies space time homogeneity and admits a dual interpretation. From the trajectories of the test particles, it is shown that there is a class of such spacetimes for which charged particles can reach regions inaccessible to neutral particles or even photons. (author). 21 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Atmosphere turbulence effect on the hot particle charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The charging of hot beta-active aerosol articles of the micron size range in the turbulent current has been studied experimentally . For this purpose hot particles, obtained by the neutron activation of gold placed on the surface of glass microspheres by the cathode spraying method, were introduced into the turbulent current with the Reynolds number of 104 - 105. Results of the determination of particle charges within the current velocity range from 0.5 to 3 m/s confirm the reliability of the previously obtained model of the charging of hot particles in the turbulent current of the near - ground atmospere layer which is described by the function directly proportional to the radius of particles and the half-cube of the wind velocity, and inversely proportional to the square root of the height. The scheme is suggested and specific features are described of experimental installations used in the process of studies

  19. Doubly-charged particles at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Alloul, Adam; Fuks, Benjamin; de Traubenberg, Michel Rausch

    2013-01-01

    In this work we investigate the production and signatures of doubly-charged particles at the Large Hadron Collider. We start with the Standard Model particle content and representations and add generic doubly-charged exotic particles. We classify these doubly-charged states according to their spin, considering scalar, fermionic and vectorial fields, and according to their SU(2)L representation, being chosen to be either trivial, fundamental, or adjoint. We write the most general interactions between them and the Standard Model sector and study their production modes and possible decay channels. We then probe how they can most likely be observed and how particles with different spin and SU(2)L representations could be possibly distinguished.

  20. Quantum theory of relativistic charged particles in external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made on external field theories in which the quantized field corresponds to relativistic elementary particles with non-zero rest mass. These particles are assumed to be charged, thus they have distinct antiparticles. The thesis consists of two parts. The first tries to accommodate the general features of theories of relativistic charged particles in external fields. Spin and dynamics in particular are not specified. In the second part, the results are applied to charged spin-1/2 and spin-0 particles, the dynamics of which are given by the Dirac resp. Klein-Gordon equation. The greater emphasis is on external fields which are rapidly decreasing, infinitely differentiable functions of space-time, but also considers time-independent fields. External fields, other than electromagnetic fields are also considered, e.g. scalar fields

  1. Ultraviolet spectra of CeO2 nano-particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Quantum size effect is generally expected in nanometer size materials. The effect has been observed in many metal clusters and semiconducting nano-particles, but seldom in oxides, because the size control of crystalline oxides is generally difficult due to the ionic bond character. CeO2 (ceria) is one of the rare-earth oxides and the size effect is worth studying from the viewpoint of an ultraviolet (u.v.) spectroscopy and applications. This report describes the first observation of a blue shift of u.v. spectra in ceria nano-particles of 2-5 nm in diameter with its deviation within 20%. A ceria aqueous sol (pH ≅ 2.5) having particle sizes under 6 nm in diameter was produced by ultrafiltration with a polyether sulfone membrane (SIP-1013, Asahi Chemical Industry Co.) from an original ceria aqueous sol (pH ≅ 1.5) having particle sizes extending over a wide range. Obtained sol contains a high concentration of Ce3+ ions because of the high acidity. In order to separate ceria particles from Ce3+ ions and fractionate the particle size, two kinds of anion-type surfactants were used in microemulsification process with toluene and water. One is sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SD-BS) which is 2 nm in length and another is sodium octyl sulfonate (SOS) which is 1.2 nm in length. U.v. spectroscopic measurements and high resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM) observations were performed for (SOS)t , (SOS+SOS)t , and (SDBS+SOS+SDBS)t , where (SOS)t is a ceria suspension in toluene obtained by an emulsification with SOS surfactant, (SOS+SOS)t indicates the same product obtained by the further emulsification with SOS for an aqueous phase of the emulsion with SOS, and (SDBS+SOS+SDBS)t means that obtained by an additional emulsification with SDBS for an aqueous phase obtained by two successive emulsifications with SDBS and SOS. Optical density data for (SOS)t , (SOS+SOS)t , and (SDBS+SOS+SDBS)t show absorption edges at 4076 Angstroms, 3997 Angstroms, and

  2. Relativistic mixtures of charged and uncharged particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Gilberto M.

    2014-01-01

    Mixtures of relativistic gases within the framework of Boltzmann equation are analyzed. Three systems are considered. The first one refers to a mixture of uncharged particles by using Grad's moment method, where the relativistic mixture is characterized by the moments of the distribution functions: particle four-flows, energy-momentum tensors, and third-order moment tensors. In the second Fick's law for a mixture of relativistic gases of non-disparate rest masses in a Schwarzschild metric are derived from an extension of Marle and McCormack model equations applied to a relativistic truncated Grad's distribution function, where it is shown the dependence of the diffusion coefficient on the gravitational potential. The third one consists in the derivation of the relativistic laws of Ohm and Fourier for a binary mixtures of electrons with protons and electrons with photons subjected to external electromagnetic fields and in presence of gravitational fields by using the Anderson and Witting model of the Boltzmann equation.

  3. Bibliography of integral charged particle nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliography is divided into three main sections covering experimental, theoretical, and review references. The review section also includes compilation and evaluation references. Each section contains two subsections. The main subsection contains all references satisfying the criteria noted above and the second subsection is devoted to isotope production. The main subsections are ordered by increasing Z and A of the incident particle, then by increasing Z and A of the target nucleus. Within this order, the entries are ordered by residual nucleus and quantity (e.g., sigma(E)). Finally, the entries are ordered by outgoing particles or processes. All entries which have the same target, reaction, and quantity are grouped under a common heading with the most recent reference first. As noted above the second subsection is devoted to isotope production and is limited in the information it carries. Only those references which contain data on a definite residual nucleus or group of nuclei (e.g., fission fragments) are included in these subsections. Entries within these second subsections are ordered by increasing Z and A of the isotope produced and then by quantity. All references containing data on the same isotope production and quantity are grouped together. All lines within a group are ordered by increasing Z and A of the target and then of the incident particle. The final ordering is by increasing minimum energy

  4. Bibliography of integral charged particle nuclear data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrows, T.W.; Burt, J.S.

    1977-03-01

    This bibliography is divided into three main sections covering experimental, theoretical, and review references. The review section also includes compilation and evaluation references. Each section contains two subsections. The main subsection contains all references satisfying the criteria noted above and the second subsection is devoted to isotope production. The main subsections are ordered by increasing Z and A of the incident particle, then by increasing Z and A of the target nucleus. Within this order, the entries are ordered by residual nucleus and quantity (e.g., sigma(E)). Finally, the entries are ordered by outgoing particles or processes. All entries which have the same target, reaction, and quantity are grouped under a common heading with the most recent reference first. As noted above the second subsection is devoted to isotope production and is limited in the information it carries. Only those references which contain data on a definite residual nucleus or group of nuclei (e.g., fission fragments) are included in these subsections. Entries within these second subsections are ordered by increasing Z and A of the isotope produced and then by quantity. All references containing data on the same isotope production and quantity are grouped together. All lines within a group are ordered by increasing Z and A of the target and then of the incident particle. The final ordering is by increasing minimum energy.

  5. Spectra of accelerated particles at supernova shocks in the presence of neutral hydrogen: the case of Tycho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlino, G.; Blasi, P.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The presence of neutral hydrogen in the shock proximity changes the structure of the shock and affects the spectra of particles accelerated through the first-order Fermi mechanism. This phenomenon has profound implications for the interpretation of the multifrequency spectra of radiation from supernova remnants. Aims: Neutrals that undergo charge exchange with hot ions downstream of the shock may result in fast neutrals moving towards the upstream gas, where they can suffer additional charge exchange or ionisation reactions, thereby depositing energy and momentum upstream. Here we discuss the implications of this neutral return flux, which was already predicted in our previous work on neutral mediated supernova shocks, and show how the spectra of accelerated particles turn out to be appreciably steeper than p-4, thereby affecting the gamma ray spectra from supernova remnants in general and from Tycho specifically. Methods: The theory that describes non-linear diffusive shock acceleration in the presence of neutral hydrogen has been developed in recent years. Here we use a semi-analytical theory developed in previous work and specialise our predictions to the case of the Tycho supernova shock, where there is evidence from gamma ray observations that the spectrum of the parent cosmic rays is steeper than expected from the traditional theory of diffusive shock acceleration. Results: We show that, if the fraction of neutral hydrogen in the vicinity of the Tycho supernova shock is, as suggested by observations, ~70-90%, then spectra of accelerated protons steeper than p-4 may be a natural consequence of charge exchange reactions and the associated neutral return flux. The spectral shape is affected by this phenomenon for particles with energies below ~100-1000 GeV, for which the diffusion length is less than or at most comparable to the path length of charge exchange and ionisation upstream of the shock.

  6. Investigating forces between charged particles in the presence of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes with the multi-particle colloidal probe technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkovec, Michal; Szilagyi, Istvan; Popa, Ionel; Finessi, Marco; Sinha, Prashant; Maroni, Plinio; Papastavrou, Georg

    2012-11-01

    Direct force measurements are used to obtain a comprehensive picture of interaction forces acting between charged colloidal particles in the presence of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes. These measurements are achieved by the multi-particle colloidal probe technique based on the atomic force microscope (AFM). This novel extension of the classical colloidal probe technique offers three main advantages. First, the technique works in a colloidal suspension with a huge internal surface area of several square meters, which simplifies the precise dosing of the small amounts of the polyelectrolytes needed and makes this approach less sensitive to impurities. Second, the particles are attached in-situ within the fluid cell, which avoids the formation of nanobubbles on the latex particles used. Third, forces between two similar particles from the same batch are being measured, which allows an unambiguous determination of the surface potential due to the symmetry of the system. Based on such direct force measurements involving positively and negatively charged latex particles and different polyelectrolytes, we find the following forces to be relevant. Repulsive electrostatic double-layer forces and attractive van der Waals forces as described by the theory of Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeek (DLVO) are both important in these systems, whereby the electrostatic forces dominate away from the isoelectric point (IEP), while at this point they vanish. Additional non-DLVO attractive forces are operational, and they have been identified to originate from the electrostatic interactions between the patch-charge heterogeneities of the adsorbed polyelectrolyte films. Highly charged polyelectrolytes induce strong patch-charge attractions, which become especially important at low ionic strengths and high molecular mass. More weakly charged polyelectrolytes seem to form more homogeneous films, whereby patch-charge attractions may become negligible. Individual bridging events

  7. Trapped charged particles a graduate textbook with problems and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Madsen, Niels; Thompson, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    At Les Houches in January 2015, experts in the field of particle trapping came together to discuss the fundamental physics of traps and the different types of applications. This textbook collates the lectures delivered there; the Second Winter School on Physics with Trapped Charged Particles. Taken as a whole, the book gives an overview of why traps for charged particles are important, how they work, their special features and limitations, and their application in areas such as precision measurements, mass spectrometry, optical clocks, plasma physics, antihydrogen creation, quantum simulation and quantum information processing. Chapters from various world experts include those on the basic properties of Penning traps, RF traps and particle accelerators, as well as those covering important practical aspects such as vacuum systems, detection techniques, and different types of particle cooling including laser cooling. Finally, individual chapters deal with the different areas of application listed above. Each ...

  8. Measuring massive metastable charged particles with ATLAS RPC timing information.

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Oye, Ola Kristoffer

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the measurement of massive metastable charged particles in ATLAS, using timing information from the resistive plate chambers (RPCs). As representative particle candidates we use staus, the partners of $ au$ leptons in supersymmetric models with gravitino dark matter (GDM), which may well be stable on the scale of the detector. The generic signatures of massive metastable charged particles are a long Time-of-Flight (ToF) and high energy-loss ($dE/dx$). The RPC timing information allows us to measure the ToF of a particle which, taken in conjunction with the measurement of the particle's momentum from its track, allows one to determine its mass. We pioneer the study of the RPCs' potential for this measurement. We also consider triggering effects on the event selection, and discuss quantitatively the ATLAS potential for measuring the stau mass in three specific GDM benchmark scenarios.

  9. Charged particle creation in the steady state universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The birth of a particle of charge q(0), initial mass m(0), and radius a in the steady state universe is studied. With the particle's birth, in accord with causality, gravity, and Coulomb fields propagate away from it with the speed of light. Field energies are supplied by the particle's mass which subsequently decays in time. Asymptotic solution to a nonlinear equation for the remaining mass gives the criterion m(0) is greater that q(0)2/2ac2 as a necessary condition for the initial mass to survive the field expansion. The resulting radius of a classical charged particle is found to be greater than the standard value obtained by equating self- and rest-mass energies of the initial particle. 12 refs

  10. ALICE91, Particle Spectra from Compound Nucleus Decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: Several types of calculations and combinations can be performed including a standard Weisskopf-Ewing evaporation with multiple particle emission, S-wave approximation to give an upper limit to the enhancement of gamma-ray deexcitation due to momentum effects, and an evaporation calculation that can include fission competition via the Bohr-Wheeler approach. ALICE91 calculates precompound decay via Hybrid and GDH models with multiple precompound decay algorithms, single and double differential spectra, and reaction product cross sections. 2 - Method of solution: ALICE/85/300 and later revisions of the ALICE/LIVERMORE 82 computer code do precompound, compound/ statistical fission calculations in the general framework of the Weisskopf-Ewing evaporation model, the Bohr-Wheeler transition state model for fission, and the hybrid/geometry dependent models for precompound decay. ALICE/85/300 allows a variable energy mesh size, excitation energies up to 300 MeV, and incorporates several other improvements in calculational approaches. ALICE91 includes options for shell dependent level densities, and an option to use systematics for angular distribution. The new version also includes gamma-ray competition with particle decay models. The IBM PC version (B) was converted from mainframe ALICE-87, which is a revision of ALICE/85/300. Input default options were included in this version. Refer to comments in the file ALICE1.FOR for information on modifications. ALISO differs only in that it will do calculations for natural isotopic targets, giving weighted results at the end. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Users must refer to comments in the FORTRAN source files for input instructions and information. If running the PC version on 32-bit word-length machines, remove CXXXXX from double precision statements for POW and GAM

  11. Charged particle reaction cross sections and nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of proton and α-particle induced reactions in carbon, neon, oxygen and silicon burning in massive stars is surveyed. The problems associated with determining thermonuclear reaction rates for reactions with widely spaced resonances and with closely spaced or overlapping resonances are discussed and the associated experimental approaches are reviewed. Experimental techniques which have been used in the measurement of reaction cross sections are discussed and their strengths and weaknesses are identified. Recent developments in attempts to establish reliable statistical-model codes for calculation of reaction cross sections are presented and discussed. The results of experimental tests of statistical model codes are summarised and evaluated

  12. Behaviour of scintillometers with charge particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behaviour of a scintillation plastic and an anthracene crystal for protons and deuterons with energies within 0,2 and 1,7 MeV. has been studied. The beam of monoenergetic particles falls directly on the detector in study in optic contact with a photomultiplicator. The impulse get in an amplifier which sends then to a scale a sting as a monitor and to an analyzer of 100 canals. The spectrum for each energy of incidental beam is obtained taking the maximum of the spectrum as the most probable value of amplitude of the detector reply, and this is represented apposite to the energy. (Author) 6 refs

  13. Complex Kepler Orbits and Particle Aggregation in Charged Microscopic Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Victor; Waitukaitis, Scott; Miskin, Marc; Jaeger, Heinrich

    2015-03-01

    Kepler orbits are usually associated with the motion of astronomical objects such as planets or comets. Here we observe such orbits at the microscale in a system of charged, insulating grains. By letting the grains fall freely under vacuum, we eliminate the effects of air drag and gravity, and by imaging them with a co-falling high-speed camera we track the relative positions of individual particles with high spatial and temporal precision. This makes it possible to investigate the behaviors caused by the combination of long-range electrostatic interactions and short-range, dissipative, contact interactions in unprecedented detail. We make the first direct observations of microscopic elliptical and hyperbolic Kepler orbits, collide-and-capture events between pairs of charged grains, and particle-by-particle aggregation into larger clusters. Our findings provide experimental evidence for electrostatic mechanisms that have been suspected, but not previously observed at the single-event level, as driving the early stages of particle aggregation in systems ranging from fluidized particle bed reactors to interstellar protoplanetary disks. Furthermore, since particles of different net charge and size are seen to aggregate into characteristic spatial configurations, our results suggest new possibilities for the formation of charge-stabilized ``granular molecules''. We can reproduce the observed molecule configurations by taking many-body, dielectric polarization effects into account.

  14. Electric birefringence anomaly of solutions of ionically charged anisometric particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, H; Gräbner, Dieter

    2015-02-01

    The term "electric birefringence anomaly" is known as the electric birefringence (EB) signal that occurs in solutions of ionically charged anisometric particles in a narrow concentration region. The signal is of opposite sign to the normal birefringence that occurs below and above this narrow concentration region. The normal electric birefringence signals in the dilute and more concentrated regions are due to the orientation of the particles in the direction of the applied electric field. The origin for the anomalous signal was not completely understood until now. The article summarises previous results in which the anomalous results had been observed but not well understood. It shows that the birefringence anomaly occurs in systems as diverse as micellar solutions, polyelectrolytes, solutions of clays, viruses and fibres. In all these systems the anomaly signals are present at the concentration when the length of the colloidal particles including the thickness of the electric double layer are about the same as the mean distance between the colloidal particles. Under these conditions the electric double layers of the particles overlap along the main axis of the particles but not in the direction across the particles. As a consequence of this situation a dipole is built up across the particles by the migration of the counter-ions of the particles in the electric field and this dipole leads to an orientation of the particles perpendicular to the electric field. The anomalous signal can usually be observed simultaneously with the normal signal. The amplitude of the anomalous signal can be larger than the amplitude of the normal signal. As a consequence the total birefringence changes its sign in the anomalous concentration region. The anomaly signal of the clays can also be explained by a fluctuating dipole around the particles, which is due to the fact that the centre of the ionic charges of the particles does not fall on the centre of the ionic charge of the counter

  15. Relativistic mixtures of charged and uncharged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kremer, Gilberto M. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba (Brazil)

    2014-01-14

    Mixtures of relativistic gases within the framework of Boltzmann equation are analyzed. Three systems are considered. The first one refers to a mixture of uncharged particles by using Grad’s moment method, where the relativistic mixture is characterized by the moments of the distribution functions: particle four-flows, energy-momentum tensors, and third-order moment tensors. In the second Fick’s law for a mixture of relativistic gases of non-disparate rest masses in a Schwarzschild metric are derived from an extension of Marle and McCormack model equations applied to a relativistic truncated Grad’s distribution function, where it is shown the dependence of the diffusion coefficient on the gravitational potential. The third one consists in the derivation of the relativistic laws of Ohm and Fourier for a binary mixtures of electrons with protons and electrons with photons subjected to external electromagnetic fields and in presence of gravitational fields by using the Anderson and Witting model of the Boltzmann equation.

  16. Optimal performance of charged particle telescopes in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Bayesian probabilistic data analysis method for energetic proton and ion data from charged particle telescopes in space is described. The telescope is assumed to consist of only a series of planar silicon detectors with graduated thicknesses. The method is based on a range-straggling function and makes optimal use of energy loss measurements in each detector. It provides accurate incidence angle estimates for particles stopping in the telescope, allowing accurate element identification and possible isotope identification. It also provides energy estimates for high-energy particles going through the telescope without stopping. Examples are shown for simulated telescope design performance tests and application to real space-particle data

  17. Medical radiation dosimetry theory of charged particle collision energy loss

    CERN Document Server

    McParland, Brian J

    2014-01-01

    Accurate radiation dosimetry is a requirement of radiation oncology, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. It is necessary so as to satisfy the needs of patient safety, therapeutic and diagnostic optimisation, and retrospective epidemiological studies of the biological effects resulting from low absorbed doses of ionising radiation. The radiation absorbed dose received by the patient is the ultimate consequence of the transfer of kinetic energy through collisions between energetic charged particles and atoms of the tissue being traversed. Thus, the ability of the medical physicist to both measure and calculate accurately patient dosimetry demands a deep understanding of the physics of charged particle interactions with matter. Interestingly, the physics of charged particle energy loss has an almost exclusively theoretical basis, thus necessitating an advanced theoretical understanding of the subject in order to apply it appropriately to the clinical regime. ​ Each year, about one-third of the worl...

  18. Charged-Particle Multiplicity in Proton-Proton Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes and critically reviews measurements of charged-particle multiplicity distributions and pseudorapidity densities in p+p(pbar) collisions between sqrt(s) = 23.6 GeV and sqrt(s) = 1.8 TeV. Related theoretical concepts are briefly introduced. Moments of multiplicity distributions are presented as a function of sqrt(s). Feynman scaling, KNO scaling, as well as the description of multiplicity distributions with a single negative binomial distribution and with combinations of two or more negative binomial distributions are discussed. Moreover, similarities between the energy dependence of charged-particle multiplicities in p+p(pbar) and e+e- collisions are studied. Finally, various predictions for pseudorapidity densities, average multiplicities in full phase space, and multiplicity distributions of charged particles in p+p(pbar) collisions at the LHC energies of sqrt(s) = 7 TeV, 10 TeV, and 14 TeV are summarized and compared.

  19. Electromagnetic radiation of charged particles in stochastic motion

    CERN Document Server

    Harko, Tiberiu

    2016-01-01

    The study of the Brownian motion of a charged particle in electric and magnetic fields fields has many important applications in plasma and heavy ions physics, as well as in astrophysics. In the present paper we consider the electromagnetic radiation properties of a charged non-relativistic particle in the presence of electric and magnetic fields, of an exterior non-electromagnetic potential, and of a friction and stochastic force, respectively. We describe the motion of the charged particle by a Langevin and generalized Langevin type stochastic differential equation. We investigate in detail the cases of the Brownian motion with or without memory in a constant electric field, in the presence of an external harmonic potential, and of a constant magnetic field. In all cases the corresponding Langevin equations are solved numerically, and a full description of the spectrum of the emitted radiation and of the physical properties of the motion is obtained. The Power Spectral Density (PSD) of the emitted power is ...

  20. Electronic structure, charge distribution and X-ray emission spectra of V3Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluster calculations of the electronic structure and charge distribution in V3Si have been performed using two different molecular orbital methods: a semiempirical LCAO and the MS Xα model. The results are compared with X-ray emission spectra and band structure calculations. An analysis of the calculated electronic distribution reveals a charge transfer from Si-atoms to V-atoms, the additional charge on a V-atom being 0.6e (LCAO) and 0.4e (MS Xα method). The results are in good agreement with experiment, which indicates that the cluster approach is adequate for the description of charge distributions and spectra characteristics of the A-15 compounds. (author)

  1. Charged Massive Particle's Tunneling From Charged Non-Rotating Micro Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Soleimani, M J; Radiman, Shahidan; Abdullah, W A T Wan

    2015-01-01

    In the tunneling framework of Hawking radiation, charged massive particle's tunneling in charged non-rotating TeV-Scale black hole is investigated. To this end, we consider natural cutoffs as a minimal length, a minimal momentum, and a maximal momentum through a generalized uncertainty principle. We focus on the role played by these natural cutoffs on the luminosity of charged non-rotating micro black hole by taking into account the full implications of energy and charge conservation as well as the back- scattered radiation.

  2. Charged Particle Spectroscopy on Omega (Final report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the 2-MeV Van de Graaf Accelerator at SUNY Geneseo's Nuclear Structure Laboratory, a 3He-implanted tantalum target was bombarded by 450-keV deuterons to produce high energy protons via the 3He(d,p)4He reaction. A 1500-micro m surface barrier detector with a 3/16 inch diameter collimator was placed at 8.75 cm from the target and 135o from the incident beam. A movable arm was setup so that an array of aluminum filters of varying thicknesses could be rotated in front of the detector. A 6-micro m mylar filter was also mounted on the movable arm and was used to calibrate the detector as described in the CR-39 experiment report. Eight aluminum filters with thicknesses ranging from 250pm to 1100micro m were in turn rotated in front of the collimator and spectra were taken for each. The results are shown on the attached graphs. The theoretical curve for each graph was generated using TRIM The exact energy distribution of the proton beam incident on the target was not known; because no such spectrum could be taken due to the high count rate for elastically scattered deuterons. Instead, it was assumed that the incident beam had a distribution similar to that measured through the 6-micro m mylar, namely, an average energy of 13.798 MeV with a standard deviation of 0.027 MeV. A program developed locally was used to generate an input file for TRIM with this distribution. Using this input file, TRIM simulations were run for various thicknesses of Aluminum, from 200 to 1100 micro m in 50-micro m increments. The solid line on the graph indicates the energies of the transmitted protons. The two dashed lines indicate one standard deviation above and below the average exit energy. TRIM agrees well with the experimental results

  3. Clustering of settling charged particles in turbulence: theory and experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Jiang; Nordsiek, Hansen; Shaw, Raymond A, E-mail: rashaw@mtu.edu [Department of Physics, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Drive, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Atmospheric clouds, electrosprays and protoplanetary nebula (dusty plasma) contain electrically charged particles embedded in turbulent flows, often under the influence of an externally imposed, approximately uniform gravitational or electric force. We have developed a theoretical description of the dynamics of such systems of charged, sedimenting particles in turbulence, allowing radial distribution functions (RDFs) to be predicted for both monodisperse and bidisperse particle size distributions. The governing parameters are the particle Stokes number (particle inertial time scale relative to turbulence dissipation time scale), the Coulomb-turbulence parameter (ratio of Coulomb 'terminal' speed to the turbulence dissipation velocity scale) and the settling parameter (the ratio of the gravitational terminal speed to the turbulence dissipation velocity scale). The theory is compared to measured RDFs for water particles in homogeneous, isotropic air turbulence. The RDFs are obtained from particle positions measured in three dimensions using digital holography. The measurements verify the general theoretical expression, consisting of a power law increase in particle clustering due to particle response to dissipative turbulent eddies, modulated by an exponential electrostatic interaction term. Both terms are modified as a result of the gravitational diffusion-like term, and the role of 'gravity' is explored by imposing a macroscopic uniform electric field to create an enhanced, effective gravity.

  4. Clustering of settling charged particles in turbulence: theory and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric clouds, electrosprays and protoplanetary nebula (dusty plasma) contain electrically charged particles embedded in turbulent flows, often under the influence of an externally imposed, approximately uniform gravitational or electric force. We have developed a theoretical description of the dynamics of such systems of charged, sedimenting particles in turbulence, allowing radial distribution functions (RDFs) to be predicted for both monodisperse and bidisperse particle size distributions. The governing parameters are the particle Stokes number (particle inertial time scale relative to turbulence dissipation time scale), the Coulomb-turbulence parameter (ratio of Coulomb 'terminal' speed to the turbulence dissipation velocity scale) and the settling parameter (the ratio of the gravitational terminal speed to the turbulence dissipation velocity scale). The theory is compared to measured RDFs for water particles in homogeneous, isotropic air turbulence. The RDFs are obtained from particle positions measured in three dimensions using digital holography. The measurements verify the general theoretical expression, consisting of a power law increase in particle clustering due to particle response to dissipative turbulent eddies, modulated by an exponential electrostatic interaction term. Both terms are modified as a result of the gravitational diffusion-like term, and the role of 'gravity' is explored by imposing a macroscopic uniform electric field to create an enhanced, effective gravity.

  5. Galilean electrodynamics. Part 2. Charged particle force and conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the general formulae for the transformation of fields in Galilean electrodynamics there are derived the expression for the force acting on a charged particle and the equation of motion of a charged particle. Without any additional assumptions these equations are performed into the relativistic form, that is with the relativistic momentum and energy. Hence, in an elementary way, Einstein's formula of the equivalence of energy and mass results. Then the conservation laws of energy and momentum for the fields are derived. 3 refs. (author)

  6. A New Mechanism of Higgs Bosons in Producing Charge Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Hossein; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid

    2006-01-01

    A new production method of elementary particles by Higgs Bosons will be shown. But before that the structure of photon will be considered deeply, while a new definition of Higgs Boson about color-charges and color-magnet will be given for the first time.......A new production method of elementary particles by Higgs Bosons will be shown. But before that the structure of photon will be considered deeply, while a new definition of Higgs Boson about color-charges and color-magnet will be given for the first time....

  7. Charged-particle inclusive distributions from hadronic Z0 decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have measured inclusive distributions for charged particles in hadronic decays of the Z boson. The variables chosen for study were the mean charged-particle multiplicity (left-angle nch right-angle), scaled momentum (x), and momenta transverse to the sphericity axes (p perpendicular in and p perpendicular out). The distributions have been corrected for detector effects and are compared with data from e+e- annihilation at lower energies and with the predictions of several QCD-based models. The data are in reasonable agreement with expectations. 12 refs., 2 figs

  8. The telegraph equation in charged particle transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombosi, T. I.; Jokipii, J. R.; Kota, J.; Lorencz, K.; Williams, L. L.

    1993-01-01

    We present a new derivation of the telegraph equation which modifies its coefficients. First, an infinite order partial differential equation is obtained for the velocity space solid angle-averaged phase-space distribution of particles which underwent at least a few collisions. It is shown that, in the lowest order asymptotic expansion, this equation simplifies to the well-known diffusion equation. The second-order asymptotic expansion for isotropic small-angle scattering results in a modified telegraph equation with a signal propagation speed of v(5/11) exp 1/2 instead of the usual v/3 exp 1/2. Our derivation of a modified telegraph equation follows from an expansion of the Boltzmann equation in the relevant smallness parameters and not from a truncation of an eigenfunction expansion. This equation is consistent with causality. It is shown that, under steady state conditions in a convecting plasma, the telegraph equation may be regarded as a diffusion equation with a modified transport coefficient, which describes a combination of diffusion and cosmic-ray inertia.

  9. Charged Particle Monitor on the AstroSat mission

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, A R; Bhargava, Yash; Khanna, Rakesh; Hingar, M K; Kutty, A P K; Malkar, J P; Basak, Rupal; Sreekumar, S; Samuel, Essy; Priya, P; Vinod, P; Bhattacharya, D; Bhalerao, V; Vadawale, S V; Mithun, N P S; Pandiyan, R; Subbarao, K; Seetha, S; Sarma, K Suryanarayana

    2016-01-01

    Charged Particle Monitor (CPM) on-board the AstroSat satellite is an instrument designed to detect the flux of charged particles at the satellite location. A Cesium Iodide Thallium (CsI(Tl)) crystal is used with a Kapton window to detect protons with energies greater than 1 MeV. The ground calibration of CPM was done using gamma-rays from radioactive sources and protons from particle accelerators. Based on the ground calibration results, energy deposition above 1 MeV are accepted and particle counts are recorded. It is found that CPM counts are steady and the signal for the onset and exit of South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) region are generated in a very reliable and stable manner.

  10. Universal behavior of charged particle production in heavy ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phobos Collaboration; Steinberg, Peter A.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2003-03-01

    The PHOBOS experiment at RHIC has measured the multiplicity of primary charged particles as a function of centrality and pseudorapidity in Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 19.6, 130 and 200 GeV. Two kinds of universal behavior are observed in charged particle production in heavy ion collisions. The first is that forward particle production, over a range of energies, follows a universal limiting curve with a non-trivial centrality dependence. The second arises from comparisons with pp/pbar-p and e+e- data. N_tot/(N_part/2) in nuclear collisions at high energy scales with sqrt(s) in a similar way as N_tot in e+e- collisions and has a very weak centrality dependence. This feature may be related to a reduction in the leading particle effect due to the multiple collisions suffered per participant in heavy ion collisions.

  11. Sausage mode of a pinched charged particle beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The axisymmetric oscillations of a self-pinched charged particle beam are analyzed using a dispersion relation derived from a 3/2 dimensional model. This calculation includes the effects of rounded profiles, finite conductivity, a steady return current, and phase mix damping among particle orbits. However, only the lowest order radial mode of distortion is treated, and this is done in an approximate fashion

  12. Construction of asymptotic fields for a charged particle

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, O. W.; Cowen, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Asymptotic fields do not exist in theories with massless particles and fields, because the vacuum matrix elements of products of the interacting fields in such theories do not have delta function or principal value singularities in momentum space. We remedy this problem by constructing a field for the charged particle that does have the required singularities in momentum space. We illustrate this construction in quantum electrodynamics (QED).

  13. A composite bolometer as a charged-particle spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved version of a He-cooled composite diamond bolometer with a monolithic germanium thermistor, for use as a charged-particle spectrometer, is described. The performance of the bolometer was tested using 5-6 MeV α particles, and a full-width-at-half-maximum of 36 keV was obtained at 1.3 K. (U.K.)

  14. Two components in charged particle production in heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylinkin, A. A.; Chernyavskaya, N. S.; Rostovtsev, A. A.

    2016-02-01

    Transverse momentum spectra of charged particle production in heavy-ion collisions are considered in terms of a recently introduced Two Component parameterization combining exponential ("soft") and power-law ("hard") functional forms. The charged hadron densities calculated separately for them are plotted versus number of participating nucleons, Npart. The obtained dependences are discussed and the possible link between the two component parameterization introduced by the authors and the two component model historically used for the case of heavy-ion collisions is established. Next, the variations of the parameters of the introduced approach with the center of mass energy and centrality are studied using the available data from RHIC and LHC experiments. The spectra shapes are found to show universal dependences on Npart for all investigated collision energies.

  15. Charged particles identification with a CsI(Tl) scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A CsI(Tl) scintillator with two light decay components is used to detect and identify p,d,t, 3He, α particles with a low energy threshold, Besides the addition of a thin plastic scintillator in front of the CsI(Tl) crystal allows charge identification for ions with Z up to 19

  16. Some peculiarity of element analysis using charged particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multilayer structures, SiC -layers at Si substrate, have been analyzed by RBS, NR, ERD and PIXE methods using the charged particle beams from EG-5 Van de Graaff accelerator of JINR. The depth profiles of the based deposited layers were obtained for the multilayer structures

  17. Nondestructive diagnostics of charged particle beams in accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logachev, P. V.; Meshkov, O. I.; Starostenko, A. A.; Nikiforov, D. A.; Andrianov, A. V.; Maltseva, Yu. I.; Levichev, A. E.; Emanov, F. A.

    2016-03-01

    The basic techniques for nondestructive diagnostics and detection of losses of charged particle beams used in accelerator engineering are reviewed. The data provided may help choose the systems for diagnostics and detection of losses of beams and give a qualitative picture of the operation principles of such devices. Quantitative characteristics that define the limits of applicability of each diagnostic technique are outlined.

  18. Periodic interactions of charged particles with spatially localized fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We derive and analyze a generic mapping for the spatially periodic interaction of charged particles with localized, coherent electric fields. For such interactions stochastic motion exists in a bounded region of phase-space. Conditions are determined for which diffusion can describe the dynamics in such a bounded, stochastic phase-space. (orig.)

  19. Challenging the weak cosmic censorship conjecture with charged quantum particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motivated by the recent attempts to violate the weak cosmic censorship conjecture for near-extreme black holes, we consider the possibility of overcharging a near-extreme Reissner-Nordstroem black hole by the quantum tunneling of charged particles. We consider the scattering of spin-0 and spin-(1/2) particles by the black hole in a unified framework and obtain analytically, for the first time, the pertinent reflection and transmission coefficients without any small charge approximation. Based on these results, we propose some gedanken experiments that could lead to the violation of the weak cosmic censorship conjecture due to the (classically forbidden) absorption of small energy charged particles by the black hole. As for the case of scattering in Kerr spacetimes, our results demonstrate explicitly that scalar fields are subject to (electrical) superradiance phenomenon, while spin-(1/2) fields are not. Superradiance impose some limitations on the gedanken experiments involving spin-0 fields, favoring, in this way, the mechanisms for creation of a naked singularity by the quantum tunneling of spin-(1/2) charged fermions. We also discuss the implications that vacuum polarization effects and quantum statistics might have on these gedanken experiments. In particular, we show that they are not enough to prevent the absorption of incident small energy particles and, consequently, the formation of a naked singularity.

  20. Some developments in neutron and charged particle dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is an increasing need for dosimetry of neutrons and charged particles. Increasing exposure levels are reported in the nuclear industry, deriving from more frequent in-service entries at commercial nuclear power plants, and from increased plant decommissioning and refurbishment activities. Another need stems from the compliance with requirements of the regulations and standards. The European Council directive 96/29 requires dosimetric precautions if the effective dose exceeds 1 mSv a-1. On average, aircrew members exceed this value. Further, there is a trend of increasing use of charged particles in radiotherapy. The present situation is that we have reasonably good photon dosemeters, but neutron and charged particle dosemeters are still in need of improvements. This work highlights some of the developments in this field. It is mainly concentrated on some developments in passive dosimetry, in particular thermally and optically stimulated luminescent detectors, indicating the direction of ongoing research. It shows that passive dosemeters are still a very active field. Active dosemeters will not be discussed with the exception of new developments in Micro-dosimetric measurements [new types of tissue equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs)]. The TEPC is unique in its ability to provide a simultaneous determination of neutron/charged particle/ gamma ray doses, or dose equivalents using a single detector. (authors)

  1. The Mathematics of Charged Particles interacting with Electromagnetic Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kim

    In this thesis, we study the mathematics used to describe systems of charged quantum mechanical particles coupled with their classical self-generated electromagnetic field. We prove the existence of a unique local in time solution to the many-body Maxwell-Schrödinger initial value problem expressed...

  2. Bibliography of integral charged-particle nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is the first supplement to the archival edition of the National Nuclear Data Center's charged-particle bibliography. This supplement contains citations to all references scanned since March 15, 1980, and all corrections and additions to previous citations, and indexes all data received in the international exchanged format (EXFOR). The primary goal of the bibliography has been to satisfy the need expressed by the Nuclear Reaction Data Center Network for a concise and comprehensive bibliography of integral charged-particle cross section data and to provide an index of data exchanged among the members. As a result of a recommendation by the recent Workshop on Intense High Energy Neutron Source and Their Characteristics, we have also undertaken to expand the coverage of charged-particle-induced neutron-source reactions to include differential data. This supplement is divided into two sections, References and Isotope Production. The References section contains all references satisfying the criteria noted. The Isotope Production section contains an abbreviated reference line for all entries which contain information on a definite residual nucleus, on particle production, or on mass, charge, or isotopic distributions. Entries in the References section are sequentially numbered. These sequence numbers serve as a link between the two sections

  3. Thermodynamic model for bouncing charged particles inside a capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeizadeh, Amin; Mameghani, Pooya

    2013-08-01

    We introduce an equation of state for a conducting particle inside a charged parallel-plate capacitor and show that it is similar to the equation of state for an ideal gas undergoing an adiabatic process. We describe a simple experiment that shows reasonable agreement with the theoretical model.

  4. Fusion reactivity graphs and tables for charged particle reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphs and tables are presented on 31 light isotope fusion reaction parameters [, n, Q/sub +/, nQ/sub +/ (for n = 1020 fuel ion species/m3 and Q/sub +/ = energy release in charged particles)] in the kinetic temperature range 1 to 1000 keV

  5. Study of the liquid water luminescence induced by charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many observations suggested that liquid water (with impurities) could give a luminescence output when irradiated with charged particles. We investigate theoretical and practical possibility of detecting such luminescence. Preliminary results on this possibility are presented, and a layout of the device proposed for measuring luminescence is given. (authors)

  6. Particle size and surface charge affect particle uptake by human dendritic cells in an in vitro model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Camilla; Brodin, Birger; Frøkjær, Sven; Sundblad, Anne

    2005-01-01

    polystyrene particles was covalently modified with different polyaminoacids/proteins, yielding particles with varying surface charge. Uptake of 1 microm particles was greatly enhanced when particles displayed a positive surface charge. In general, the present findings establish that particle diameters of 0...

  7. Guiding of charged particles through capillaries in insulating materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolterfoht, Nikolaus; Yamazaki, Yasunori

    2016-04-01

    Studies of charged particle guiding through capillaries in insulating materials, performed during the last decade, are reviewed in a comprehensive manner. First, the principles of capillary guiding of slow highly charged ions are introduced describing the self-organized formation of charge patches. Basic quantities are defined, such as the guiding power characterizing a capillary. Challenges of the guiding experiments are pointed out. Then, experiments are described with emphasis on the guiding of highly charged ions in the keV energy range. Samples with an array of nanocapillaries as well as single macrocapillaries are treated. Emission profiles of transmitted ions are analyzed to establish scaling laws for the guiding angle, which quantifies the guiding power. Oscillations of the mean ion emission angle reveal the temporal dynamics of the charge patch formation. Next, experiments with ions of high (MeV) energies are focused on single tapered capillaries allowing for the production of a microbeam for various applications. Experiments concerning electrons are presented showing that apart from being elastically scattered these negative particles may enter into the capillary surface where they suffer energy losses. Finally, theoretical concepts of the capillary guiding are discussed. Simulations based on different charge transport methods clearly support the understanding of the guiding mechanisms. Altogether, capillary guiding involves several novel phenomena for which understanding have progressed far beyond their infancy.

  8. Cosmic-Ray Generated Charged Particles for Nuclear Inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charged particles continuously rain down on the surface of the Earth. These charged particles primarily consist of muons and electrons. Muons are subatomic particles with the same charge as the electron, but with 200 times the mass. These particles are generated from interactions of primary cosmic-rays, primarily protons, with the upper atmosphere. Decision Sciences has implemented a tracking detector to measure the interactions of these particles with materials through which they pass: multiple Coulomb scattering and ionization energy loss and from these measurements is able to reconstruct a three-dimensional map of the density and atomic number of the materials in a scan volume. This map, combined with sensitive gamma detection capability of the tracking detector, enables the detection of nuclear and radiological materials that may be concealed in shielding, as well as discrimination of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) from point sources that would be more associated with threats. Times to clear most non-threat cargo range from 30-60 seconds, with suspicious (heavy shielding or gamma emitting) scenes being held longer to confirm the presence of and identify nuclear or radiological materials. Extended scanning in this circumstance would typically take two to ten minutes. (author)

  9. Monitoring of Hadrontherapy Treatments by Means of Charged Particle Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraro, Silvia; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Collamati, Francesco; De Lucia, Erika; Faccini, Riccardo; Ferroni, Fernando; Fiore, Salvatore; Frallicciardi, Paola; Marafini, Michela; Mattei, Ilaria; Morganti, Silvio; Paramatti, Riccardo; Piersanti, Luca; Pinci, Davide; Rucinski, Antoni; Russomando, Andrea; Sarti, Alessio; Sciubba, Adalberto; Solfaroli-Camillocci, Elena; Toppi, Marco; Traini, Giacomo; Voena, Cecilia; Patera, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of the incoming beam radiation with the patient body in hadrontherapy treatments produces secondary charged and neutral particles, whose detection can be used for monitoring purposes and to perform an on-line check of beam particle range. In the context of ion-therapy with active scanning, charged particles are potentially attractive since they can be easily tracked with a high efficiency, in presence of a relatively low background contamination. In order to verify the possibility of exploiting this approach for in-beam monitoring in ion-therapy, and to guide the design of specific detectors, both simulations and experimental tests are being performed with ion beams impinging on simple homogeneous tissue-like targets (PMMA). From these studies, a resolution of the order of few millimeters on the single track has been proven to be sufficient to exploit charged particle tracking for monitoring purposes, preserving the precision achievable on longitudinal shape. The results obtained so far show that the measurement of charged particles can be successfully implemented in a technology capable of monitoring both the dose profile and the position of the Bragg peak inside the target and finally lead to the design of a novel profile detector. Crucial aspects to be considered are the detector positioning, to be optimized in order to maximize the available statistics, and the capability of accounting for the multiple scattering interactions undergone by the charged fragments along their exit path from the patient body. The experimental results collected up to now are also valuable for the validation of Monte Carlo simulation software tools and their implementation in Treatment Planning Software packages. PMID:27536555

  10. Monitoring of Hadrontherapy Treatments by Means of Charged Particle Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraro, Silvia; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Collamati, Francesco; De Lucia, Erika; Faccini, Riccardo; Ferroni, Fernando; Fiore, Salvatore; Frallicciardi, Paola; Marafini, Michela; Mattei, Ilaria; Morganti, Silvio; Paramatti, Riccardo; Piersanti, Luca; Pinci, Davide; Rucinski, Antoni; Russomando, Andrea; Sarti, Alessio; Sciubba, Adalberto; Solfaroli-Camillocci, Elena; Toppi, Marco; Traini, Giacomo; Voena, Cecilia; Patera, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of the incoming beam radiation with the patient body in hadrontherapy treatments produces secondary charged and neutral particles, whose detection can be used for monitoring purposes and to perform an on-line check of beam particle range. In the context of ion-therapy with active scanning, charged particles are potentially attractive since they can be easily tracked with a high efficiency, in presence of a relatively low background contamination. In order to verify the possibility of exploiting this approach for in-beam monitoring in ion-therapy, and to guide the design of specific detectors, both simulations and experimental tests are being performed with ion beams impinging on simple homogeneous tissue-like targets (PMMA). From these studies, a resolution of the order of few millimeters on the single track has been proven to be sufficient to exploit charged particle tracking for monitoring purposes, preserving the precision achievable on longitudinal shape. The results obtained so far show that the measurement of charged particles can be successfully implemented in a technology capable of monitoring both the dose profile and the position of the Bragg peak inside the target and finally lead to the design of a novel profile detector. Crucial aspects to be considered are the detector positioning, to be optimized in order to maximize the available statistics, and the capability of accounting for the multiple scattering interactions undergone by the charged fragments along their exit path from the patient body. The experimental results collected up to now are also valuable for the validation of Monte Carlo simulation software tools and their implementation in Treatment Planning Software packages. PMID:27536555

  11. Space charge distribution measurement methods and particle loaded insulating materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hole, S [Laboratoire des Instruments et Systemes d' Ile de France, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris6, 10 rue Vauquelin, 75005 Paris (France); Sylvestre, A [Laboratoire d' Electrostatique et des Materiaux Dielectriques, CNRS UMR5517, 25 avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Lavallee, O Gallot [Laboratoire d' Etude Aerodynamiques, CNRS UMR6609, boulevard Marie et Pierre Curie, Teleport 2, BP 30179, 86962 Futuroscope, Chasseneuil (France); Guillermin, C [Schneider Electric Industries SAS, 22 rue Henry Tarze, 38000 Grenoble (France); Rain, P [Laboratoire d' Electrostatique et des Materiaux Dielectriques, CNRS UMR5517, 25 avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Rowe, S [Schneider Electric Industries SAS, 22 rue Henry Tarze, 38000 Grenoble (France)

    2006-03-07

    In this paper the authors discuss the effects of particles (fillers) mixed in a composite polymer on the space charge measurement techniques. The origin of particle-induced spurious signals is determined and silica filled epoxy resin is analysed using the laser-induced-pressure-pulse (LIPP) method, the pulsed-electro-acoustic (PEA) method and the laser-induced-thermal-pulse (LITP) method. A spurious signal identified as the consequence of a piezoelectric effect of some silica particles is visible for all the method. Moreover, space charges are clearly detected at the epoxy/silica interface after a 10 kV mm{sup -1} poling at room temperature for 2 h.

  12. Brownian Dynamics of charged particles in a constant magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Hou, L J; Piel, A; Shukla, P K

    2009-01-01

    Numerical algorithms are proposed for simulating the Brownian dynamics of charged particles in an external magnetic field, taking into account the Brownian motion of charged particles, damping effect and the effect of magnetic field self-consistently. Performance of these algorithms is tested in terms of their accuracy and long-time stability by using a three-dimensional Brownian oscillator model with constant magnetic field. Step-by-step recipes for implementing these algorithms are given in detail. It is expected that these algorithms can be directly used to study particle dynamics in various dispersed systems in the presence of a magnetic field, including polymer solutions, colloidal suspensions and, particularly complex (dusty) plasmas. The proposed algorithms can also be used as thermostat in the usual molecular dynamics simulation in the presence of magnetic field.

  13. Charged Q-balls and boson stars and dynamics of charged test particles

    CERN Document Server

    Brihaye, Yves; Hartmann, Betti

    2014-01-01

    We construct electrically charged Q-balls and boson stars in a model with a scalar self-interaction potential resulting from gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking. We discuss the properties of these solutions in detail and emphasize the differences to the uncharged case. We observe that $Q$-balls can only be constructed up to a maximal value of the charge of the scalar field, while for boson stars the interplay between the attractive gravitational force and the repulsive electromagnetic force determines their behaviour. We also study the motion of charged, massive test particles in the space-time of boson stars. We find that in contrast to charged black holes the motion of charged test particles in charged boson star space-times is planar, but that the presence of the scalar field plays a crucial r\\^ole for the qualitative features of the trajectories. Applications of this test particle motion can be made in the study of extreme-mass ratio inspirals (EMRIs) as well as astrophysical plasmas relevant e.g. in th...

  14. Fullerene-Based Photoactive Layers for Heterojunction Solar Cells: Structure, Absorption Spectra and Charge Transfer Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanzuo Li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The electronic structure and optical absorption spectra of polymer APFO3, [70]PCBM/APFO3 and [60]PCBM/APFO3, were studied with density functional theory (DFT, and the vertical excitation energies were calculated within the framework of the time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT. Visualized charge difference density analysis can be used to label the charge density redistribution for individual fullerene and fullerene/polymer complexes. The results of current work indicate that there is a difference between [60]PCBM and [70]PCBM, and a new charge transfer process is observed. Meanwhile, for the fullerene/polymer complex, all calculations of the twenty excited states were analyzed to reveal all possible charge transfer processes in depth. We also estimated the electronic coupling matrix, reorganization and Gibbs free energy to further calculate the rates of the charge transfer and the recombination. Our results give a clear picture of the structure, absorption spectra, charge transfer (CT process and its influencing factors, and provide a theoretical guideline for designing further photoactive layers of solar cells.

  15. Charged Particles Multiplicity and Scaling Violation of Fragmentation Functions in Electron-Positron Annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Ghaffary, Tooraj

    2016-01-01

    In electron positron annihilation, changing quarks into the final hadron states is being described by fragmentation function. Based on the scaling hypothesis, this function will be independent from the center of mass energy. Gluon radiation violates the scaling feature. Transverse momentum distribution plays an important role in scaling violation of fragmentation functions. In this article, by the use of data resulted from the annihilation process of electron positron in AMY detector at 60 GeV center of mass energy, first, charged particles multiplicity distribution will be obtained and it will be fitted with the KNO scaling. Furthermore, momentum spectra of charged particles and momentum distribution respect to the jet axis will be obtained. Then, the results will be compared regarding the different models of QCD; as well, the distribution of fragmentation functions and scaling violations will be studied. It is being expected that the scaling violations of the fragmentation functions of gluon jet are stronge...

  16. Effect of Charge, Size and Temperature on Stability of Charged Colloidal Nano Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Golchoobi; A. Khosravi; H. Modarress; A Ahmadzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Molecular simulation of charged colloidal suspension is performed in NVT canonical ensemble using Monte Carlo method and primitive model.The well-known Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theory is applied to account for effective interactions between particles.Effect of temperature,valance of micro-ions and the size of colloidal particles on the phase stability of the solution is investigated.The results indicate that the suspension is more stable at higher temperatures.On the other hand,for a more stable suspension to exist,lower microion valance is favorable.For micro-ions of higher charge the number of aggregates and the number of particle in each of aggregate on average is higher.However for the best of our results larger colloidal particle are less stable.Comparing the results with theoretical formula considering the influence of surface curvature shows qualitative consistency.

  17. Isospin Effect of Charged Particle Multiplicity in Intermediate Energy Heavy Ion Collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuRongjiang; WuHeyu; JinGenming; ZhuYongtai; DuanLimin; XiaoZhigang; WangHongwei

    2003-01-01

    The dependences of He and intermediate mass fragments (IMF) production rates in the reactions 55 MeV/u 40Ar+58,64 Ni on the isospin, impact parameter and primary excitation energy of the reaction nuclear system were studied by using the 4π charged particle multi-detector array system (MUDAL). For the mentioned two reaction systems, the measured He particle contribution in the total charged particle multiplicity increases with increasing the total charged particle multiplicity but for the contribution of IMFs in the total charged particle multiplicity increases with increasing the total charged particle multiplicity at lower total charged particle multiplicities, and latter on it drops down with further increasing of the total charged particle multiplicities (see Fig.l). The experimental results of these two reaction systems with the same nuclear charge indicate that the contribution of He and IMFs in the total charged particle multiplicities are obviously isospin dependent.

  18. Strange particle production in neutrino-neon charged current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutral strange particle production in charged-current muon-neutrino interactions have been studied in the Fermilab 15-foot neon bubble chamber. Associated production is expected to be the major source of strange particles in charged-current neutrino interactions. σ-neutral and ξ-minus production by neutrinos was observed. The dependence on various leptonic and hadronic variables is investigated. A fit to single and associated production of s, s/anti-s, and c quarks is described based on the number of single and double strange particle production events. Inclusive neutral strange particle decays (V0) production rates as a fraction of all charged-current events are measured and are tabulated. The λ/K ratio is found to be 0.39 +- 0.04 and the fraction of λ coming from σ-neutral is (16 +- 5)%. The single- and double V0 production was used to determine the associated s anti-s production rate and single s-quark production rate. 13 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Charged Particle Therapy Steps Into the Clinical Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberer, Th.

    Beams of heavy charged particles like protons or carbon ions represent the ideal tool for the treatment of deep-seated, inoperable and radioresistant tumors. For more than 4 decades research with beams of charged particles has been performed. In total more than 40000 patients have been treated, mostly using protons being delivered by accelerators that were designed for basic research centers. In Berkeley, USA heavier particles like helium or neon ions were used to conduct clinical trials until 1992. Based on that somewhat limited technological standard and triggered by the promising results from Berkeley the first dedicated charged particle facilities were constructed. In order to maximally exploit the advantageous physical and radiobiological characteristics of these beams enormous effort was put into developing dynamic beam delivery techniques and tailoring the capabilities of the accelerators, the planning systems and the quality assurance procedures and equipment to the requirements resulting from these new treatment modalities. Active beam delivery systems integrated in rotating gantries, if necessary, will allow the production of superior dose distributions that precisely follow the medical prescription. The technological progress being made during the last 10 years defines the state of the art of the upcoming next-generation facilities for the clinical environment in Europe and Japan.

  20. High-confidence de novo peptide sequencing using positive charge derivatization and tandem MS spectra merging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Mingrui; Zou, Xiao; Wang, Qingsong; Zhao, Xuyang; Wu, Jing; Xu, Li-Ming; Shen, Hong-Yan; Xiao, Xueyuan; He, Dacheng; Ji, Jianguo

    2013-05-01

    De novo peptide sequencing holds great promise in discovering new protein sequences and modifications but has often been hindered by low success rate of mass spectra interpretation, mainly due to the diversity of fragment ion types and insufficient information for each ion series. Here, we describe a novel methodology that combines highly efficient on-tip charge derivatization and tandem MS spectra merging, which greatly boosts the performance of interpretation. TMPP-Ac-OSu (succinimidyloxycarbonylmethyl tris(2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl)phosphonium bromide) was used to derivatize peptides at N-termini on tips to reduce mass spectra complexity. Then, a novel approach of spectra merging was adopted to combine the benefits of collision-induced dissociation (CID) and electron transfer dissociation (ETD) fragmentation. We applied this methodology to rat C6 glioma cells and the Cyprinus carpio and searched the resulting peptide sequences against the protein database. Then, we achieved thousands of high-confidence peptide sequences, a level that conventional de novo sequencing methods could not reach. Next, we identified dozens of novel peptide sequences by homology searching of sequences that were fully backbone covered but unmatched during the database search. Furthermore, we randomly chose 34 sequences discovered in rat C6 cells and verified them. Finally, we conclude that this novel methodology that combines on-tip positive charge derivatization and tandem MS spectra merging will greatly facilitate the discovery of novel proteins and the proteome analysis of nonmodel organisms. PMID:23536960

  1. DART: a simulation code for charged particle beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, R.C.; Barr, W.L.; Moir, R.W.

    1988-05-16

    This paper presents a recently modified verion of the 2-D DART code designed to simulate the behavior of a beam of charged particles whose paths are affected by electric and magnetic fields. This code was originally used to design laboratory-scale and full-scale beam direct converters. Since then, its utility has been expanded to allow more general applications. The simulation technique includes space charge, secondary electron effects, and neutral gas ionization. Calculations of electrode placement and energy conversion efficiency are described. Basic operation procedures are given including sample input files and output. 7 refs., 18 figs.

  2. DART: a simulation code for charged particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a recently modified verion of the 2-D DART code designed to simulate the behavior of a beam of charged particles whose paths are affected by electric and magnetic fields. This code was originally used to design laboratory-scale and full-scale beam direct converters. Since then, its utility has been expanded to allow more general applications. The simulation technique includes space charge, secondary electron effects, and neutral gas ionization. Calculations of electrode placement and energy conversion efficiency are described. Basic operation procedures are given including sample input files and output. 7 refs., 18 figs

  3. Test mass charging simulation of ASTROD I due to solar energetic particles at 0.5 AU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Maintaining the geodesic motion of the test mass is vital to ASTROD I space mission. However,the electrostatic charging of the test mass due to cosmic rays and solar energetic particles will result in Coulomb and Lorentz forces and consequently influence the test mass motions. To estimate the size of these effects,a credible simulation of test mass charging processes is critically required. Using the GEANT4 software toolkit,we have modeled the charging processes and predict how the ASTROD I test mass will charge positively at a rate of 217370 e + /s,due to solar energetic particles(SEPs) at~0.5 AU caused by the largest SEPs event on 29,September,1989. In addition to Monte Carlo uncertainty,an error of ±30% in the net charging rates was added to account for uncertainties in the spectra,physics and geometry models.

  4. Recent results on identified particle spectra from d+Au collisions at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Chitrasen

    2009-10-01

    The Cronin effect [1], the enhancement of hadron spectra at intermediate pT in p + A collisions as compared to those in p + p collisions, has received renewed interest at RHIC [2]. It is thought that this effect may reflect on the early parton scatterings in high-energy nuclear collisions. In order to further investigate the Cronin effect, and shed light on the initial conditions at RHIC, we have analyzed the rapidity dependence of φ meson production in d + Au collisions at RHIC. In this talk, we report on STAR preliminary results of φ meson transverse momentum distributions(using the hadronic decay mode φ -> K^+K^-) and charged hadrons spectra from 200 GeV d + Au collisions. The dataset used for this analysis is from STAR's year 8 d + Au collisions with significantly reduced material (˜1/10) and high statistics (˜3) compared with previous runs. The particle species and the mass dependence of the nuclear modification factor as a function of rapidity will be presented.

  5. Measurement of the charged-particle multiplicity in proton-proton collisions with the ALICE detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis has introduced the theoretical framework to describe multiple-particle production. The functioning of two event generators, Pythia and Phojet, as well as theoretical descriptions of the charged-particle multiplicity have been discussed. A summary of pseudorapidity-density (dNch/dη) and multiplicity-distribution measurements of charged particles has been presented. Existing results have been shown in an energy range of √(s) = 6GeV to 1.8TeV from bubble chamber experiments and detectors at the ISR, Sp anti pS, and Tevatron. The validity of the introduced models was reviewed and the behavior as function of √(s) was discussed. Analysis procedures for two basic measurements with ALICE, the pseudorapidity density and the multiplicity distribution of charged particles, have been developed. The former allows corrections on a bin-by-bin basis, while the latter requires unfolding of the measured distribution. The procedures have been developed for two independent subdetectors of ALICE, the Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) and the Time-Projection Chamber (TPC). This allows the comparison of the analysis result in the overlapping regions as an independent cross-check of the measured distribution. Their implementation successfully reproduces different assumed spectra. The procedures have been extensively tested on simulated data using two different event generators, Pythia and Phojet. A comprehensive list of systematic uncertainties was evaluated. Some of these uncertainties still require measured data to verify or extract their magnitude. (orig.)

  6. Measurement of the charged-particle multiplicity in proton-proton collisions with the ALICE detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete

    2009-04-17

    This thesis has introduced the theoretical framework to describe multiple-particle production. The functioning of two event generators, Pythia and Phojet, as well as theoretical descriptions of the charged-particle multiplicity have been discussed. A summary of pseudorapidity-density (dN{sub ch}/d{eta}) and multiplicity-distribution measurements of charged particles has been presented. Existing results have been shown in an energy range of {radical}(s) = 6GeV to 1.8TeV from bubble chamber experiments and detectors at the ISR, Sp anti pS, and Tevatron. The validity of the introduced models was reviewed and the behavior as function of {radical}(s) was discussed. Analysis procedures for two basic measurements with ALICE, the pseudorapidity density and the multiplicity distribution of charged particles, have been developed. The former allows corrections on a bin-by-bin basis, while the latter requires unfolding of the measured distribution. The procedures have been developed for two independent subdetectors of ALICE, the Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) and the Time-Projection Chamber (TPC). This allows the comparison of the analysis result in the overlapping regions as an independent cross-check of the measured distribution. Their implementation successfully reproduces different assumed spectra. The procedures have been extensively tested on simulated data using two different event generators, Pythia and Phojet. A comprehensive list of systematic uncertainties was evaluated. Some of these uncertainties still require measured data to verify or extract their magnitude. (orig.)

  7. Inclusive particle spectra in the quark recombination model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present status of the simple and valon versions of the quark recombination model is reviewed. The model has previously been applied primarily to hadron-hadron collisions in which the fragmenting and produced particles share a single common valence quark. The application of the model is extended to two additional classes of hadron-hadron collisions. (1) Collisions in which no valence quarks are common to the fragmenting and produced particles. (2) Collisions in which all valence quarks of the fragmenting particle are also valence quarks of the produced particle

  8. Detection of charged particles through a photodiode: design and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project develops and construct an charge particle detector mean a pin photodiode array, design and analysis using a silicon pin Fotodiodo that generally is used to detect visible light, its good efficiency, size compact and reduced cost specifically allows to its use in the radiation monitoring and alpha particle detection. Here, so much, appears the design of the system of detection like its characterization for alpha particles where one is reported as alpha energy resolution and detection efficiency. The equipment used in the development of work consists of alpha particle a triple source composed of Am-241, Pu-239 and Cm-244 with 5,55 KBq as total activity, Maestro 32 software made by ORTEC, a multi-channel card Triumph from ORTEC and one low activity electroplated uranium sample. (Author)

  9. Charge collection studies in irradiated HV-CMOS particle detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affolder, A.; Andelković, M.; Arndt, K.; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Buttar, C.; Caragiulo, P.; Cindro, V.; Das, D.; Dopke, J.; Dragone, A.; Ehrler, F.; Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Gorišek, A.; Grabas, H.; Gregor, I. M.; Grenier, P.; Grillo, A.; Hommels, L. B. A.; Huffman, T.; John, J.; Kanisauskas, K.; Kenney, C.; Kramberger, G.; Liang, Z.; Mandić, I.; Maneuski, D.; McMahon, S.; Mikuž, M.; Muenstermann, D.; Nickerson, R.; Perić, I.; Phillips, P.; Plackett, R.; Rubbo, F.; Segal, J.; Seiden, A.; Shipsey, I.; Song, W.; Stanitzki, M.; Su, D.; Tamma, C.; Turchetta, R.; Vigani, L.; Volk, J.; Wang, R.; Warren, M.; Wilson, F.; Worm, S.; Xiu, Q.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zhang, J.; Zhu, H.

    2016-04-01

    Charge collection properties of particle detectors made in HV-CMOS technology were investigated before and after irradiation with reactor neutrons. Two different sensor types were designed and processed in 180 and 350 nm technology by AMS. Edge-TCT and charge collection measurements with electrons from 90Sr source were employed. Diffusion of generated carriers from undepleted substrate contributes significantly to the charge collection before irradiation, while after irradiation the drift contribution prevails as shown by charge measurements at different shaping times. The depleted region at a given bias voltage was found to grow with irradiation in the fluence range of interest for strip detectors at the HL-LHC. This leads to large gains in the measured charge with respect to the one before irradiation. The increase of the depleted region was attributed to removal of effective acceptors. The evolution of depleted region with fluence was investigated and modeled. Initial studies show a small effect of short term annealing on charge collection.

  10. Modelling die filling with charged particles using DEM/CFD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanuel Nkem Nwose; Chunlei Pei; Chuan-Yu Wu

    2012-01-01

    The effects of electrostatic charge on powder flow behaviour during die filling in a vacuum and in air were analysed using a coupled discrete element method and computational fluid dynamics (DEM/CFD) code,in which long range electrostatic interactions were implemented.The present 2D simulations revealed that both electrostatic charge and the presence of air can affect the powder flow behaviour during die filling.It was found that the electrostatic charge inhibited the flow of powders into the die and induced a loose packing structure.At the same filling speed,increasing the electrostatic charge led to a decrease in the fill ratio which quantifies the volumetric occupancy of powder in the die.In addition,increasing the shoe speed caused a further decrease in the fill ratio,which was characterised using the concept of critical filling speed.When the electrostatic charge was low,the air/particle interaction was strong so that a lower critical filling speed was obtained for die filling in air than in a vacuum.With high electrostatic charge,the electrostatic interactions became dominant.Consequently,similar fill ratio and critical filling speed were obtained for die filling in air and in a vacuum.

  11. Raman spectra of silicon carbide small particles and nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieligor, Monika; Wang, Yuejian; Zerda, T. W.

    2005-04-01

    Two manufacturing protocols of silicon carbide (SiC) nanowires are discussed. The Raman spectra of produced SiC nanowires are compared with spectra of SiC powders of various grain sizes. The temperature and pressure dependence of the Raman spectra for powders is similar to that of bulk crystals, but is different for nanowires. Frequency shifts, band broadenings and the presence of shoulders are discussed in terms of crystal size, character of defects and their population. The concentration of defects in synthesized nanowires depends on the sintering method. Raman intensity enhancement of the LO phonon was observed when the wavelength of the excitation laser was changed from 780 to 514 nm.

  12. Raman spectra of silicon carbide small particles and nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two manufacturing protocols of silicon carbide (SiC) nanowires are discussed. The Raman spectra of produced SiC nanowires are compared with spectra of SiC powders of various grain sizes. The temperature and pressure dependence of the Raman spectra for powders is similar to that of bulk crystals, but is different for nanowires. Frequency shifts, band broadenings and the presence of shoulders are discussed in terms of crystal size, character of defects and their population. The concentration of defects in synthesized nanowires depends on the sintering method. Raman intensity enhancement of the LO phonon was observed when the wavelength of the excitation laser was changed from 780 to 514 nm

  13. Charge particle accelerator - a brief review, future challenges and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charged particle accelerators are important tools to investigate hitherto inaccessible problems in various fields of science. The interaction of charged particles with materials reveals structural information at very small scale (-16 cm). Accelerator based equipments viz. scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and focused ion beam (FIB) machines are extensively being used to explore new possibilities in nanotechnology. Many experiments in nuclear and particle physics examine the fundamental laws of physics by colliding a high-energy beam of particles, such as electrons or protons, with a fixed target or with another beam of particles. Modern light sources, which are capable of producing high-energy photons such as X-rays, operate by 'bending' the path of electrons in an accelerator with magnets to generate radiation. State-of-the-art cancer treatment facilities utilize high-energy proton and heavier ion beams to treat inoperable tumors. The man made sun, International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), will utilize 1 MeV, 40 A neutral proton beams for additional heating of the plasma. A roadmap for developing accelerator driven systems (ADS) in India was prepared in 2001 and involves development of a 1 GeV, 30 mA proton linear accelerator. Due to potential applications, developing high energy accelerators worldwide is a challenge for the community. New acceleration schemes to make accelerator size compact have been realized. In the present talk, various types of accelerators, accelerator based programs worldwide and new acceleration scheme of charge particles will be discussed. The low energy ion beam facility (LEIBF) at IUAC and a few experimental results arising from this facility will be presented. Finally, I will touch some applications, particularly in nanotechnology, where accelerators are making a big impact. (author)

  14. RESONANCE BROADENING AND HEATING OF CHARGED PARTICLES IN MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heating, acceleration, and pitch-angle scattering of charged particles by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence are important in a wide range of astrophysical environments, including the solar wind, accreting black holes, and galaxy clusters. We simulate the interaction of high-gyrofrequency test particles with fully dynamical simulations of subsonic MHD turbulence, focusing on the parameter regime with β ∼ 1, where β is the ratio of gas to magnetic pressure. We use the simulation results to calibrate analytical expressions for test particle velocity-space diffusion coefficients and provide simple fits that can be used in other work. The test particle velocity diffusion in our simulations is due to a combination of two processes: interactions between particles and magnetic compressions in the turbulence (as in linear transit-time damping; TTD) and what we refer to as Fermi Type-B (FTB) interactions, in which charged particles moving on field lines may be thought of as beads sliding along moving wires. We show that test particle heating rates are consistent with a TTD resonance that is broadened according to a decorrelation prescription that is Gaussian in time (but inconsistent with Lorentzian broadening due to an exponential decorrelation function, a prescription widely used in the literature). TTD dominates the heating for vs >> vA (e.g., electrons), where vs is the thermal speed of species s and vA is the Alfvén speed, while FTB dominates for vs A (e.g., minor ions). Proton heating rates for β ∼ 1 are comparable to the turbulent cascade rate. Finally, we show that velocity diffusion of collisionless, large gyrofrequency particles due to large-scale MHD turbulence does not produce a power-law distribution function.

  15. Cataract production in mice by heavy charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cataractogenic effects of heavy charged particles have been evaluated in mice in relation to dose and ionization density (LET/sub infinity/). The study was undertaken due to the high potential for eye exposures to HZE particles among SPS personnel working in outer space. This has made it imperative that the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) in relation to LET/sub infinity/ for various particles be defined so that appropriate quality factors (Q) could be assigned for estimation of risk. Although mice and men differ in susceptibility to radiation-induced cataracts, the results from this project should assist in defining appropriate quality factors in relation to LET/sub infinity/, particle mass, charge, or velocity. Evaluation of results indicated that : (1) low single doses (5 to 20 rad) of iron (56Fe) or argon (40Ar) particles are cataractogenic at 11 to 18 months after irradiation; (2) onset and density of the opacification are dose related; (3) cataract density (grade) at 9, 11, 13, and 16 months after irradiation shows partial LET/sub infinity/-dependence; and (4) the severity of cataracts is reduced significantly when 417 rad of 60Co gamma radiation is given in 24 weekly 17 rad fractions compared to giving this radiation as a single dose, but cataract severity is not reduced by fractionation of 12C doses over 24 weeks

  16. Emission of ions and charged soot particles by aircraft engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sorokin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a model which examines the formation and evolution of chemiions in an aircraft engine is proposed. This model which includes chemiionisation, electron thermo-emission, electron attachment to soot particles and to neutral molecules, electron-ion and ion-ion recombination, ion-soot interaction, allows the determination of the ion concentration at the exit of the combustor and at the nozzle exit of the engine. It also allows the determination of the charge of the soot particles. For the engine considered, the upper limit for the ion emission index EIi is of the order of (2-5 x1016 ions/kg-fuel if ion-soot interactions are ignored and the introduction of ion-soot interactions lead about to a 50% reduction. The results also show that most of the soot particles are either positively or negatively charged, the remaining neutral particles representing approximately 20% of the total particles. A comparison of the model results with the available ground-based experimental data obtained on the ATTAS research aircraft engines during the SULFUR experiments (Schumann, 2002 shows an excellent agreement.

  17. The Motion of a Pair of Charged Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, J

    2013-01-01

    We re-visit the problem of two (oppositely) charged particles interacting electromagnetically in one dimension with retarded potentials and no radiation reaction. The specific quantitative result of interest is the time it takes for the particles to fall in towards one another. Starting with the non-relativistic form, we answer this question while adding layers of complexity until we arrive at the full relativistic delay differential equation that governs this problem. That case can be solved using the Synge method, which we describe and discuss.

  18. The Search for Fractional Charge Elementary Particles and Very Massive Particles in Bulk Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Perl, Martin Lewis; Kim, P C; Lee, E R; Lee, I T; Loomba, D; Perl, Martin L.; Halyo, Valerie; Kim, Peter C.; Lee, Eric R.; Lee, Irwin T.; Loomba, Dinesh

    2000-01-01

    We describe our ongoing work on, and future plans for, searches in bulk matter for fractional charge elementary particles and very massive elementary particles. Our primary interest is in searching for such particles that may have been produced in the early universe and may be found in the more primeval matter available in the solar system: meteorites, material from the moon's surface, and certain types of ancient terrestrial rocks. In the future we are interested in examining material brought back by sample return probes from asteroids. We will describe our experimental methods that are based on new modifications of the Millikan liquid drop technique and modern technology: micromachining, CCD cameras, and desktop computers. Extensions of our experimental methods and technology allow searches for very massive charged particles in primeval matter; particles with masses greater than 10**13 GeV. In the first such searches carried out on earth there will be uncertainties in the mass search range. Therefore we wil...

  19. Charged point particles with magnetic moment in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbwachs Lagrangean formalism for the theory of charged point particles with spin (g = 2) is generalized and formulated in General Relativity for particles of arbitrary charge and magnetic moment. Equations are obtained, both corresponding to Frenkel's condition Ssub(μν)Xsup(ν) = 0 and to Nakano's condition Ssub(μν)Psup(ν) = 0. With the later condition the exact equations are highly coupled and non linear. When linearized in the electromagnetic and gravitational fields they coincide with de Groot-Suttorp equations for vanishing gravitational fields and with Dixon-Wald equations in the absence of electromagnetic field. The equations corresponding to Frenkel's condition, when linearized in Ssub(μν), coincide with Papapetrou's and Frenkel's equations in the corresponding limits

  20. Electro-Optical Detection of Charged Particle Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Semertzidis, Y K; Kowalski, L A; Kraus, D E; Larsen, R C; Lazarus, D M; Magurno, B; Srinivasan-Rao, T; Tsang, Thomas; Usack, V

    1999-01-01

    We have made the first observation of a charged particle beam by means of its electro-optical effect on the propagation of laser light in a birefringent crystal at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Accelerator Test Facility. Polarized infrared light was coupled to a LiNbO3 crystal through a polarization maintaining fiber of 4 micron diameter. An electron beam in 10ps bunches of 1mm diameter was scanned across the crystal. The modulation of the laser light during passage of the electron beam was observed using a photodiode with 45GHz bandwidth. The fastest rise time measured, 120ps, was made in the single shot mode and was limited by the bandwidth of the oscilloscope and the associated electronics. Both polarization dependent and polarization independent effects were observed. This technology holds promise of greatly improved spatial and temporal resolution of charged particle beams.

  1. 3D Simulations of Space Charge Effects in Particle Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the first time, it is possible to calculate the complicated three-dimensional proton accelerator structures at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI). Under consideration are external and self effects, arising from guiding and space-charge forces. This thesis has as its theme the design, implementation and validation of a tracking program for charged particles in accelerator structures. This work form part of the discipline of Computational Science and Engineering (CSE), more specifically in computational accelerator modelling. The physical model is based on the collisionless Vlasov-Maxwell theory, justified by the low density (∼ 109 protons/cm3) of the beam and of the residual gas. The probability of large angle scattering between the protons and the residual gas is then sufficiently low, as can be estimated by considering the mean free path and the total distance a particle travels in the accelerator structure. (author)

  2. 3D Simulations of Space Charge Effects in Particle Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelmann, A

    2002-10-01

    For the first time, it is possible to calculate the complicated three-dimensional proton accelerator structures at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI). Under consideration are external and self effects, arising from guiding and space-charge forces. This thesis has as its theme the design, implementation and validation of a tracking program for charged particles in accelerator structures. This work form part of the discipline of Computational Science and Engineering (CSE), more specifically in computational accelerator modelling. The physical model is based on the collisionless Vlasov-Maxwell theory, justified by the low density ({approx} 10{sup 9} protons/cm{sup 3}) of the beam and of the residual gas. The probability of large angle scattering between the protons and the residual gas is then sufficiently low, as can be estimated by considering the mean free path and the total distance a particle travels in the accelerator structure. (author)

  3. Charged particle induced prompt nuclear reaction and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charged particle induced prompt nuclear reaction analysis (PNR) not only can analyze the content and concentration of elements in sample sensitively and accurately, but also can measure the distributions of elements with depth in surface and near surface layer. And the method is very simple, rapid and nondestructive, and has good depth resolution. So the PNR is very widely used in many modern science and technique field such as solid state physics, surface physics, electrochemistry, metallurgy and material science and so on. This paper deals with the principle, method and the features of the nuclear reaction analysis induced by charged particle. Especially, the distribution analysis of impurities in sample with depth and the improvement of the depth resolution are discussed in detail. Some actual examples of its application are given

  4. Production of carbon monoxide by charged particle deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A. E. S.; Sawada, T.; Edgar, B. C.; Uman, M. A.

    1973-01-01

    Recent studies of electron energy deposition in CO2 and CO based upon a large set of electron impact cross sections are utilized to estimate the telluric CO directly produced by various charged-particle deposition mechanisms. The mechanisms considered are (1) lightning, (2) cloud coronal discharges, (3) background radioactivity, (4) natural electrostatic discharges, (5) photoelectrons in the ionosphere, (6) auroral electrons, (7) auroral protons, (8) cosmic rays, and (9) solar wind. 'Ball park' estimates of the global CO production by each of these mechanisms are given. Apart from mechanisms 1, 2, and 5, all CO production mechanisms are estimated to be small compared to artificial sources. If, as appears to be the case, the hot oxygen atoms and ions and other atomic species immediately produced by these three charged-particle deposition mechanisms react rapidly with CO2 to produce CO, these mechanisms can readily lead to CO production levels in the multimegaton-per-year range.

  5. Effect of collisions on dust particle charging via particle-in-cell Monte-Carlo collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovagnati, B.; Davoudabadi, M.; Lapenta, G.; Mashayek, F.

    2007-10-01

    In this paper, the effect of collisions on the charging and shielding of a single dust particle immersed in an infinite plasma is studied. A Monte-Carlo collision (MCC) algorithm is implemented in the particle-in-cell DEMOCRITUS code to account for the collisional phenomena which are typical of dusty plasmas in plasma processing, namely, electron-neutral elastic scattering, ion-neutral elastic scattering, and ion-neutral charge exchange. Both small and large dust particle radii, as compared to the characteristic Debye lengths, are considered. The trends of the steady-state dust particle potential at increasing collisionality are presented and discussed. The ions and electron energy distributions at various locations and at increasing collisionality in the case of large particle radius are shown and compared to their local Maxwellians. The ion-neutral charge-exchange collision is found to be by far the most important collisional phenomenon. For small particle radius, collisional effects are found to be important also at low level of collisionality, as more ions are collected by the dust particle due to the destruction of trapped ion orbits. For large particle radius, the major collisional effect is observed to take place in proximity of the presheath. Finally, the species energy distribution functions are found to approach their local Maxwellians at increasing collisionality.

  6. Transport of Charged Particles: Entropy Production and Maximum Dissipation Principle

    OpenAIRE

    Hsieh, Chia-Yu; Hyon, YunKyong; Lee, Hijin; Lin, Tai-Chia; Liu, Chun

    2014-01-01

    In order to describe the dynamics of crowded ions (charged particles), we use an energetic variation approach to derive a modified Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) system which includes an extra dissipation due to the effective velocity differences between ion species. Such a system is more complicated than the original PNP system but with the same equilibrium states. Using Schauder's fixed-point theorem, we develop a local existence theorem of classical solutions for the modified PNP system. Diff...

  7. Charged particle detectors made from thin layers of amorphous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of experiments was conducted to determine the feasibility of using hydrogenated amorphous silicon (α-Si:H) as solid state thin film charged particle detectors. 241Am alphas were successfully detected with α-Si:H devices. The measurements and results of these experiments are presented. The problems encountered and changes in the fabrication of the detectors that may improve the performance are discussed

  8. Laser focusing of high-energy charged-particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that laser focusing of high-energy charged-particle beams using the inverse Cherenkov effect is well suited for applications with large linear colliders. Very high gradient (>0.5 MG/cm) lenses result that can be added sequentially without AG cancellation. These lenses are swell understood, have small geometric aberrations, and offer the possibility of correlating phase and energy aberrations to produce an achromatic final focus

  9. Electrostatic energy analyzers for high energy charged particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrostatic energy analyzers for high energy charged particle beams emitted from extended large-size objects as well as from remote point sources are proposed. Results of the analytical trajectory solutions in ideal cylindrical field provide focusing characteristics for both configurations. The instruments possess of simple compact design, based on an ideal cylindrical field with entrance window arranged in the end-boundary between electrodes and can be used for measurements in space technologies, plasma and nuclear physics

  10. Multidimensional analysis of charged particles from neutron-induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is given of the most recent experimental results obtained using twin gridded ionization chamber constructed at Obninsk, Russia. Peculiarities of (n,α) and (n,f) reactions investigated are discussed. The detailed description ol the method of charge particles spectrometry is presented. Selected results on fission fragment characteristics are discussed more in detail. Present experiments and instrumental developments are focussed on correlations between fragment masses, energies and emission angles and on fine structures in fragment parameter distributions. (author)

  11. Dynamical structure functions for charged particle bilayers and superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A modified Feynman construction with a zero-frequency central peak is used to model the dynamical structure functions for layered charged particle systems. This construction recognizes the affinity between layered and multicomponent systems. It also guarantees the simultaneous satisfaction of all three frequency-moment sum rules. The frequencies and spectral weights of the long-wavelength collective excitations and the strength of the diffusive central peak are calculated for arbitrary degeneracy

  12. Measurement of Forward-Backward Charged Particle Correlations with ALICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Carsten

    (NBI). In order for this calibration system to work, a special trigger interface was implemented. The developed and tested firmware for the FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array) will be presented. Part II is the presentation of the analysis - a study of, so-called, forward-backward correlations....... The correlations between charged particles, produced in proton-proton collisions at vs=900 GeV and vs=7 TeV over a wide range in pseudoradidity (-3.5

  13. Charged-Particle Multiplicity in Proton-Proton Collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Reygers, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes and critically reviews measurements of charged-particle multiplicity distributions and pseudorapidity densities in p+p(pbar) collisions between sqrt(s) = 23.6 GeV and sqrt(s) = 1.8 TeV. Related theoretical concepts are briefly introduced. Moments of multiplicity distributions are presented as a function of sqrt(s). Feynman scaling, KNO scaling, as well as the description of multiplicity distributions with a single negative binomial distribution and with combinations of...

  14. Optimizing interactive program for charged particle transport system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer program for charged particle transport system design is described. The program is written in the BASIC language and allows one to make calculations in dialogue with the computer. The BASTRA program permits to get output information both in digital and in graphical forms. The method for optimization is described, that allows one to put 10 limitation on beam parameters in arbitrary places of the transport system. The program can be adapted on every computer having the BASIC language in its software

  15. Generalised turbulence spectra for broadband noise predictions with the Random Particle Mesh method

    CERN Document Server

    Wohlbrandt, Attila; Guerin, Sebastien; Ewert, Roland

    2015-01-01

    For better comparison to fan broadband noise experiments the Random Particle Mesh (RPM) method is extended to generalised turbulence spectra. The RPM method synthesises turbulent fluctuations by filtering white noise with a Gaussian filter kernel, which in turn gives a Gaussian spectrum. The Gaussian function is smooth and its derivatives and antiderivatives are again Gaussian functions; the Gaussian filter is efficient and finds wide-spread applications in stochastic signal processing. However in many applications Gaussian spectra are not matching physical spectra. E.g. in turbo-machines, the von Karman, Liepmann, and modified von Karman spectra are the most relevant model spectra. In the current paper we show how to analytically derive weighting functions to realise arbitrary spectra which are isotropic and solenoidal using a superposition of weighted Gaussian spectra of differing length scales. The analytic weighting functions for the von Karman , the Liepmann , and the modified von Karman spectra are deri...

  16. A new method of charged particle identification based on frequency spectrum analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin-Tao, Zhu; Guo-Fu, Liu; Jun, Yang; Xiao-Liang, Luo; Lei, Zhang; Li-Feng, Ji

    2016-03-01

    A new frequency domain method for charged particle identification, called Frequency Ratio Analysis (FRA), is proposed by analyzing the frequency spectra of proton pulses and alpha pulses acquired from a totally depleted Si detector. Identification performance of the FRA method is evaluated and compared with two time domain methods, the current pulse amplitude method and the second moment method. The results show that the FRA method is not only feasible and effective but also superior to the two time domain methods, as it achieves an obvious increase in value of the figure-of-merit (FOM). Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11175254, 11375264)

  17. On the turbulence of inhomogeneous ionospheric plasma and charged particle fluxes according to data of the Kosmos-900 satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the turbulence of inhomogeneous ionospheric plasma and charged particles fluxes from data of the satellite 'Kosmos-900'. Calculation data on the excitement of electrostatic turbulence in the inhomogeneous plasma are used to explain measured spectra of the charged particles fluxes with energies 0,1-20 keV on the 'Kosmos-900' satellite. On the basis of data analysis of the 'Kosmos-900' satellite it is suggested that the possibility of excitation of large-scale electrostatic disturbances in inhomogeneous plasma of the low latitude ionosphere is due to photoionization and recombination processes

  18. Particle acceleration through multiple conversions from a charged into a neutral state and back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derishev, E. V.; Aharonian, F. A.; Kocharovsky, V. V.; Kocharovsky, Vl. V.

    2003-08-01

    We propose a new means for a quick and efficient acceleration of protons and/or electrons in relativistic bulk flows. The maximum attainable particle energies are limited either by radiative losses or by the condition of confinement in the magnetic field. The new mechanism takes advantage of a conversion of particles from the charged state (protons, electrons or positrons) into a neutral state (neutrons or photons) and back. In most cases, the conversion is photon induced and requires the presence of intense radiation fields, but under special circumstances the converter acceleration mechanism may operate via other charge-changing reactions, for example, inelastic nucleon-nucleon collisions. As in the traditional, “stochastic” (or diffusive) acceleration models, the acceleration cycle in the proposed scenario consists of the escape of particles from the relativistic flow followed by their return back after deflection from the ambient magnetic field. The difference is that the charge-changing reactions, which occur during the cycle, allow accelerated particles to increase their energies in each cycle by a factor much larger than 2 and usually roughly equal to the bulk Lorentz factor squared. The emerging spectra of accelerated particles can be very hard and their maximum energy in some cases is larger than in the standard mechanism. This significantly reduces the required energy budget of the sources of the highest-energy particles observed in cosmic rays. The proposed acceleration mechanism has a distinctive feature—it unavoidably creates neutral beams, consisting of photons, neutrinos, or neutrons, whose beam pattern may be much broader than the inverse Lorentz factor of the relativistic flow. Also, the new mechanism may serve as an efficient means of transferring the energy of bulk motion to gamma radiation and, if the accelerated particles are nucleons, inevitably produces high-energy neutrinos at a relative efficiency approaching ≳50%.

  19. Particle acceleration through multiple conversions from a charged into a neutral state and back

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a new means for a quick and efficient acceleration of protons and/or electrons in relativistic bulk flows. The maximum attainable particle energies are limited either by radiative losses or by the condition of confinement in the magnetic field. The new mechanism takes advantage of a conversion of particles from the charged state (protons, electrons or positrons) into a neutral state (neutrons or photons) and back. In most cases, the conversion is photon induced and requires the presence of intense radiation fields, but under special circumstances the converter acceleration mechanism may operate via other charge-changing reactions, for example, inelastic nucleon-nucleon collisions. As in the traditional, 'stochastic' (or diffusive) acceleration models, the acceleration cycle in the proposed scenario consists of the escape of particles from the relativistic flow followed by their return back after deflection from the ambient magnetic field. The difference is that the charge-changing reactions, which occur during the cycle, allow accelerated particles to increase their energies in each cycle by a factor much larger than 2 and usually roughly equal to the bulk Lorentz factor squared. The emerging spectra of accelerated particles can be very hard and their maximum energy in some cases is larger than in the standard mechanism. This significantly reduces the required energy budget of the sources of the highest-energy particles observed in cosmic rays. The proposed acceleration mechanism has a distinctive feature--it unavoidably creates neutral beams, consisting of photons, neutrinos, or neutrons, whose beam pattern may be much broader than the inverse Lorentz factor of the relativistic flow. Also, the new mechanism may serve as an efficient means of transferring the energy of bulk motion to gamma radiation and, if the accelerated particles are nucleons, inevitably produces high-energy neutrinos at a relative efficiency approaching (greater-or-similar sign)50%

  20. Neutron-Induced Charged Particle Studies at LANSCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Young; Haight, Robert C.

    2014-09-01

    Direct measurements on neutron-induced charged particle reactions are of interest for nuclear astrophysics and applied nuclear energy. LANSCE (Los Alamos Neutron Science Center) produces neutrons in energy of thermal to several hundreds MeV. There has been an effort at LANSCE to upgrade neutron-induced charged particle detection technique, which follows on (n,z) measurements made previously here and will have improved capabilities including larger solid angles, higher efficiency, and better signal to background ratios. For studying cross sections of low-energy neutron induced alpha reactions, Frisch-gridded ionization chamber is designed with segmented anodes for improving signal-to-noise ratio near reaction thresholds. Since double-differential cross sections on (n,p) and (n,a) reactions up to tens of MeV provide important information on deducing nuclear level density, the ionization chamber will be coupled with silicon strip detectors (DSSD) in order to stop energetic charged particles. In this paper, we will present the status of this development including the progress on detector design, calibrations and Monte Carlo simulations. This work is funded by the US Department of Energy - Los Alamos National Security, LLC under Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  1. Electromagnetic radiation of charged particles in stochastic motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harko, Tiberiu [Babes-Bolyai University, Department of Physics, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom); Mocanu, Gabriela [Astronomical Institute of the Romanian Academy, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2016-03-15

    The study of the Brownian motion of a charged particle in electric and magnetic fields has many important applications in plasma and heavy ions physics, as well as in astrophysics. In the present paper we consider the electromagnetic radiation properties of a charged non-relativistic particle in the presence of electric and magnetic fields, of an exterior non-electromagnetic potential, and of a friction and stochastic force, respectively. We describe the motion of the charged particle by a Langevin and generalized Langevin type stochastic differential equation. We investigate in detail the cases of the Brownian motion with or without memory in a constant electric field, in the presence of an external harmonic potential, and of a constant magnetic field. In all cases the corresponding Langevin equations are solved numerically, and a full description of the spectrum of the emitted radiation and of the physical properties of the motion is obtained. The power spectral density of the emitted power is also obtained for each case, and, for all considered oscillating systems, it shows the presence of peaks, corresponding to certain intervals of the frequency. (orig.)

  2. Microsparks Generated by Charged Particles in Dielectric Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Robert

    2012-10-01

    The electrodynamics of charged particles in dielectric liquids have been described by several authors [1,2]. As a charged particle approaches an electrode of opposite charge the local electric field eventually exceeds the dielectric strength of the liquid and a microspark is generated. These plasmas can be very small, about type of discharge can provide a simple means of generating non-thermal plasmas in dielectric liquids, such as oils or other hydrocarbons, which can be used to chemically process the liquids. Such a technology may lead to a highly efficient method of heavy oil upgrading which can be easily scaled. In order to understand the plasma properties optical emission spectroscopy is carried out for various hydrocarbons and voltage-current characteristics are used to determine the energy cost for this process. [4pt] [1] Melcher, James R. Continuum Electromechanics. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1981.[0pt] [2] Jones, Thomas B. Electromechanics of Particles. Cambridge University Press 1995.[0pt] [3] Staack, D., Fridman, A., Gutsol, A., Gogotsi, Y. and Friedman, G. 2008, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 47, 8020.

  3. Pseudorapidity Asymmetry and Centrality Dependence of Charged Hadron Spectra in d+Au collisions at √sNN = 200 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pseudorapidity asymmetry and centrality dependence of charged hadron spectra in d+Au collisions at √sNN = 200 GeV are presented. The charged particle density at mid-rapidity, its pseudorapidity asymmetry and centrality dependence are reasonably reproduced by a Multi-Phase Transport model, by HIJING, and by the latest calculations in a saturation model. Ratios of transverse momentum spectra between backward and forward pseudorapidity are above unity for pT below 5 GeV/c. The ratio of central to peripheral spectra in d+Au collisions shows enhancement at 2 T < 6 GeV/c, with a larger effect at backward rapidity than forward rapidity. Our measurements are in qualitative agreement with gluon saturation and in contrast to calculations based on incoherent multiple partonic scatterings

  4. Pseudorapidity Asymmetry and Centrality Dependence of Charged Hadron Spectra in d+Au Collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=200$ GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, J; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Amonett, J; Anderson, B D; Arkhipkin, D; Averichev, G S; Badyal, S K; Bai, Y; Balewski, J; Barannikova, O; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Bekele, S; Belaga, V V; Bellwied, R; Berger, J; Bezverkhny, B I; Bharadwaj, S; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhatia, V S; Bichsel, H; Billmeier, A; Bland, L C; Blyth, C O; Bonner, B E; Botje, M; Boucham, A; Brandin, A V; Bravar, A; Bystersky, M; Cadman, R V; Cai, X Z; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca-Sanchez, M; Carroll, J; Castillo, J; Cebra, D; Chajecki, Z; Chaloupka, P; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, Y; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Coffin, J P; Cormier, T M; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Das, D; Das, S; De Moura, M M; Derevshchikov, A A; Didenko, L; Dietel, T; Dogra, S M; Dong, W J; Dong, X; Draper, J E; Du, F; Dubey, A K; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Dutta-Majumdar, M R; Eckardt, V; Edwards, W R; Efimov, L G; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Estienne, M; Fachini, P; Faivre, J; Fatemi, R; Fedorisin, J; Filimonov, K; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fine, V; Fisyak, Yu; Foley, K J; Fomenko, K; Fu, J; Gagliardi, C A; Gans, J; Ganti, M S; Gaudichet, L; Geurts, F J M; Ghazikhanian, V; Ghosh, P; González, J E; Grachov, O; Grebenyuk, O; Grosnick, D P; Guertin, S M; Guo, Y; Sen-Gupta, A; Gutíerrez, T D; Hallman, T J; Hamed, A; Hardtke, D; Harris, J W; Heinz, M; Henry, T W; Hepplemann, S; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffmann, G W; Huang, H Z; Huang Sheng Li; Hughes, E W; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Ishihara, A; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Janik, M; Jiang, H; Jones, P G; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kang, K; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Khodyrev, V Yu; Kiryluk, J; Kisiel, A; Kislov, E M; Klay, J; Klein, S R; Klyachko, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Kopytine, M; Kotchenda, L; Krämer, M; Kravtsov, P; Kravtsov, V I; Krüger, K; Kuhn, C; Kulikov, A I; Kumar, A; Kunz, C L; Kutuev, R K; Kuznetsov, A A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; Laue, F; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lehocka, S; Le Vine, M J; Li, C; Li, Q; Li, Y; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, L; Liu, Q J; Liu, Z; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Long, H; Longacre, R S; López-Noriega, M; Love, W A; Lu, Y; Ludlam, T; Lynn, D; Ma, G L; Ma, J G; Ma, Y G; Magestro, D; Mahajan, S; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Mangotra, L K; Manweiler, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Martin, L; Marx, J N; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McClain, C J; McShane, T S; Meissner, F; Melnik, Yu M; Meschanin, A; Miller, M L; Milosevich, Z; Minaev, N G; Mironov, C; Mischke, A; Mishra, D K; Mitchell, J; Mohanty, B; Molnár, L; Moore, C F; Morozov, D A; Munhoz, M G; Nandi, B K; Nayak, S K; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Netrakanti, P K; Nikitin, V A; Nogach, L V; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Ogawa, A; Okorokov, V; Oldenburg, M; Olson, D; Pal, S K; Panebratsev, Yu A; Panitkin, S Y; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, Thomas; Perevozchikov, V; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Petrov, V A; Phatak, S C; Picha, R; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Porile, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Potekhin, M V; Potrebenikova, E V; Potukuchi, B V K S; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C A; Putschke, J; Rai, G; Rakness, G; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ravel, O; Ray, R L; Razin, S V; Reichhold, D M; Reid, J G; Renault, G; Retière, F; Ridiger, A; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevski, O V; Romero, J L; Rose, A; Roy, C; Ruan, L; Sahoo, R; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Savin, I; Sazhin, P S; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Schröder, L S; Schweda, K; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shahaliev, E; Shao, M; Shao, W; Sharma, M; Shen, W Q; Shestermanov, K E; Shimansky, S S; Sichtermann, E P; Simon, F; Singaraju, R N; Skoro, G P; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Sood, G; Sørensen, P; Sowinski, J; Speltz, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stadnik, A; Stanislaus, T D S; Stock, R; Stolpovsky, A; Strikhanov, M N; Stringfellow, B C; Suaide, A A P; Sugarbaker, E R; Suire, C; Sumbera, M; Surrow, B; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Szarwas, P; Tai, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tarnowsky, T J; Thein, D; Thomas, J H; Timoshenko, S; Tokarev, M; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tsai, O D; Ulery, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Urkinbaev, A R; Van Buren, G; Van, M; Leeuwen; Van der Molen, A M; Varma, R; Vasilevski, I M; Vasilev, A N; Vernet, R; Vigdor, S E; Viyogi, V P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Vznuzdaev, M; Waggoner, W T; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Wang, Z M; Ward, H; Watson, J W; Webb, J C; Wells, R; Westfall, G D; Wetzler, A; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wood, J; Wu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Z; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, E; Yepes, P; Yurevich, V I; Zanevsky, Yu V; Zhang, H; Zhang, W M; Zhang, Z P; Zolnierczuk, P A; Zoulkarneev, R; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zubarev, A N

    2004-01-01

    The pseudorapidity asymmetry and centrality dependence of charged hadron spectra in d+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=200$ GeV is presented. The charged particle density at mid-rapidity, its pseudorapidity asymmetry and centrality dependence are reasonably reproduced by a Multi-Phase Transport model, HIJING, and the latest calculations from a saturation model. Ratios of transverse momentum spectra between backward and forward pseudorapidity are above unity for \\pT below 5 GeV/$c$. The ratio of central to peripheral spectra in d+Au collisions shows enhancement at 2 $<$ \\pT $<$ 6 GeV/$c$, with a larger effect at backward rapidity than forward rapidity. Our measurements are in qualitative agreement with gluon saturation and in contrast to expectations based on incoherent multiple partonic scatterings.

  5. The dynamics of charged particles in turbulent astrophysical plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dung, Rudiger; Petrosian, Vahe

    1994-01-01

    We consider the resonant interaction of energetic charged particles and transverse plasma wave propagating parallel and/or antiparallel to the uniform magnetic field B(sub 0) in an underlying background plasma of density n. The coupling of the plasma waves and the energetic particles will be controlled by the ratio n/(the absolute value of B(sub 0)(exp 2). A variation of this ratio leads to a strong variation of the dynamics of the energetic particles. By taking into account the whole transverse plasma branch for the resonant interaction we discuss the influence of the background plasma density, the background magnetic field, the cross helicity, and the magnetic helicities on the dynamics of charged particles in astrophysical plasmas. It is shown that low-energy electrons can be accelerated efficiently by the higher electromagnetic waves and short-wavelength whistlers for low values of the ratio n/(the absolute value of B(sub 0)(exp 2), which means for low values of the ratio of plasma frequency to gyrofrequency.

  6. Scanning system for charged and neutral particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention aims at providing a simple and reliable method and a reliable device for irradiating a confined volume of matter, preferably at great depth, with a beam of high energy charged or neutral particles. The basic feature of the invention is that the particle beam coming from a radiation source of charged particles is scanned electrically in two orthogonal directions, and that the beam scanned in one plane is deflected in space. For most practical purposes it is important that the radiation source is of small extension. Such a radiation source is realized by means of a beam optical system that includes two scanning magnets each of which admits scanning of the particle beam in one of two orthogonal planes. The beam scanned in one of the planes leaves the associated scanning magnet from an effective scanning centre. The optical system also includes a deflection magnet disposed between the scanning magnets for deflecting the path of the beam in space. By utilizing the optical properties of the deflection magnet in such a way that the deflection magnet produces an image of the effective scanning centre of the first scanning magnet which coincides with the effective scanning centre of the second scanning magnet, the beam scanned in two orthogonal planes will radiate isotropically from the scanning centre of the second scanning magnet. By using the deflection magnet a compact scanning system with a small distance between the scanning centres of the scanning magnets is obtained

  7. Particle evaporation spectra with inclusion of thermal shape fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The origin of the substantial sub-Coulomb component observed in proton and 4He evaporation spectra at high excitation energy is attributed to the thermal excitation of shape degrees of freedom. A critique of the Hauser-Feshbach theory as used in evaporation codes is presented. A new formalism including the thermal excitation of collective modes as well as quantal penetration in the framework of a transition state approach is derived. 5 figs

  8. Predicted angular distribution of fast charged particles with ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moliere theory of angular distribution for fast charged particles is improved to take into account ionization loss, by using Kamata-Nishimura formulation of the theory. Decrease of the particle energy along the passage hence increase of the screening angle brings a slight different results from those derived by Moliere-Bethe formulation for fixed energies. The present results are reduced to the same Moliere distribution with modified values of the expansion parameter and the unit of Moliere angle. Properties of the new distribution and differences from the traditional one are discussed. Angular distributions of particles penetrating through the mixed or compound substances are also investigated both under the relativistic and the nonrelativistic conditions, together with the Kamata-Nishimura constants characterizing their formulation. (author)

  9. Theory of intense beams of charged particles optics of charged particle analyzers

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkes, Peter W

    2011-01-01

    Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics merges two long-running serials--Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics and Advances in Optical and Electron Microscopy. This series features extended articles on the physics of electron devices (especially semiconductor devices), particle optics at high and low energies, microlithography, image science and digital image processing, electromagnetic wave propagation, electron microscopy, and the computing methods used in all these domains. * Contributions from leading international scholars and industry experts * Discusses hot topic areas and pr

  10. Energy Dependence of the Transverse Momentum Distributions of Charged Particles in pp Collisions Measured by ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Abelev, Betty Bezverkhny; Adamova, Dagmar; Adare, Andrew Marshall; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agocs, Andras Gabor; Agostinelli, Andrea; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmad, Nazeer; Ahmad, Arshad; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ahn, Sul-Ah; Ahn, Sang Un; Aimo, Ilaria; Aiola, Salvatore; Ajaz, Muhammad; Akindinov, Alexander; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alexandre, Didier; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altini, Valerio; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anielski, Jonas; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arbor, Nicolas; Arcelli, Silvia; Armesto Perez, Nestor; Arnaldi, Roberta; Aronsson, Tomas; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Awes, Terry; Aysto, Juha Heikki Eskeli; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Bach, Matthias Jakob; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Ban, Jaroslav; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Baumann, Christoph Heinrich; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont Moreno, Ernesto; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bergognon, Anais Annick Erica; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blanco, Fernando; Blanco, Francesco; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Bock, Friederike; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Bogolyubskiy, Mikhail; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Book, Julian Heinz; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Bornschein, Joerg; Botje, Michiel; Botta, Elena; Boettger, Stefan; Braidot, Ermes; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Broker, Theo Alexander; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Brun, Rene; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Caliva, Alberto; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Canoa Roman, Veronica; Cara Romeo, Giovanni; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Carminati, Federico; Casanova Diaz, Amaya Ofelia; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Catanescu, Vasile Ioan; Cavicchioli, Costanza; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan Valeriev; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Dobrigkeit Chinellato, David; Chochula, Peter; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Colamaria, Fabio Filippo; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Colocci, Manuel; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa Del Valle, Zaida; Connors, Megan Elizabeth; Contin, Giacomo; Contreras Nuno, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortese, Pietro; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Crochet, Philippe; Cruz Albino, Rigoberto; Cuautle Flores, Eleazar; Cunqueiro Mendez, Leticia; Dainese, Andrea; Dang, Ruina; Danu, Andrea; Das, Kushal; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; Delagrange, Hugues; Deloff, Andrzej; Denes, Ervin Sandor; Deppman, Airton; Oliveira Valeriano De Barros, Gabriel; De Caro, Annalisa; De Cataldo, Giacinto; De Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; De Rooij, Raoul Stefan; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Dietel, Thomas; Divia, Roberto; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Giglio, Carmelo; Di Liberto, Sergio; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Dobrowolski, Tadeusz Antoni; Doenigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Dupieux, Pascal; Dutt Mazumder, Abhee Kanti; D'Erasmo, Ginevra; Elia, Domenico; Emschermann, David Philip; Engel, Heiko; Erazmus, Barbara Ewa; Erdal, Hege Austrheim; Eschweiler, Dominic; Espagnon, Bruno; Estienne, Magali Danielle; Esumi, Shinichi; Evans, David; Evdokimov, Sergey; Eyyubova, Gyulnara; Fabris, Daniela; Faivre, Julien; Falchieri, Davide; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Fehlker, Dominik; Feldkamp, Linus; Felea, Daniel; Feliciello, Alessandro; Feofilov, Grigory; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Gonzalez Ferreiro, Elena; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Figiel, Jan; Araujo Silva Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Floratos, Emmanouil; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoeje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago Medina, Alberto Martin; Gallio, Mauro; Gangadharan, Dhevan Raja; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Garabatos Cuadrado, Jose; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gargiulo, Corrado; Garishvili, Irakli; Gerhard, Jochen; Germain, Marie; Gheata, Andrei George; Gheata, Mihaela; Ghidini, Bruno; Ghosh, Premomoy; Gianotti, Paola; Giubellino, Paolo; Gladysz-Dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gorlich, Lidia Maria; Gomez Jimenez, Ramon; Gonzalez Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Gotovac, Sven; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Grajcarek, Robert; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoras, Alina Gabriela; Grigoryev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grynyov, Borys; Grion, Nevio; Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grossiord, Jean-Yves; Grosso, Raffaele; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerzoni, Barbara; Guilbaud, Maxime Rene Joseph; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gulkanyan, Hrant; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Khan, Kamal; Haake, Rudiger; Haaland, Oystein Senneset; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Haiduc, Maria; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Hanratty, Luke David; Hansen, Alexander; Harris, John William; Harton, Austin Vincent; Hatzifotiadou, Despina; Hayashi, Shinichi; Hayrapetyan, Arsen; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Heide, Markus Ansgar; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Herrmann, Norbert; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hicks, Bernard Richard; Hippolyte, Boris; Hori, Yasuto; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Hrivnacova, Ivana; Huang, Meidana; Humanic, Thomas; Hutter, Dirk; Hwang, Dae Sung; Ichou, Raphaelle; Ilkaev, Radiy; Ilkiv, Iryna; Inaba, Motoi; Incani, Elisa; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Ionita, Costin; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Ivanov, Vladimir; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanytskyi, Oleksii; Jacholkowski, Adam Wlodzimierz; Jahnke, Cristiane; Jang, Haeng Jin; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Pahula Hewage, Sandun; Jena, Satyajit; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jones, Peter Graham; Jung, Hyungtaik; Jusko, Anton; Kalcher, Sebastian; Kalinak, Peter; Kalliokoski, Tuomo Esa Aukusti; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Kar, Somnath; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kazantsev, Andrey; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Ketzer, Bernhard Franz; Khan, Palash; Khan, Mohammed Mohisin; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Beomkyu; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Mimae; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Kiss, Gabor; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Jochen; Klein-Boesing, Christian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kohler, Markus Konrad; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kolozhvari, Anatoly; Kondratyev, Valery; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Konevskikh, Artem; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Kox, Serge; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kral, Jiri; Kralik, Ivan; Kramer, Frederick; Kravcakova, Adela; Krelina, Michal; Kretz, Matthias; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Krus, Miroslav; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kucera, Vit; Kucheryaev, Yury; Kugathasan, Thanushan; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paulus Gerardus; Kulakov, Igor; Kumar, Jitendra; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, Alexey; Kurepin, Alexander; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kushpil, Svetlana; Kushpil, Vasilij; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; Ladron De Guevara, Pedro; Lagana Fernandes, Caio; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lara Martinez, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Lea, Ramona; Lechman, Mateusz Arkadiusz; Lee, Sung Chul; Lee, Graham Richard; Legrand, Iosif; Lehnert, Joerg Walter; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Lenhardt, Matthieu Laurent; Lenti, Vito; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Levai, Peter; Li, Shuang; Lien, Jorgen Andre; Lietava, Roman; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Ljunggren, Hans Martin; Lodato, Davide Francesco; Lonne, Per-Ivar; Loggins, Vera Renee; Loginov, Vitaly; Lohner, Daniel; Loizides, Constantinos; Loo, Kai Krister; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lovhoiden, Gunnar; Lu, Xianguo; Luettig, Philipp Johannes; Lunardon, Marcello; Luo, Jiebin; Luparello, Grazia; Luzzi, Cinzia; Jacobs, Peter Martin; Ma, Rongrong; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahapatra, Durga Prasad; Maire, Antonin; Malaev, Mikhail; Maldonado Cervantes, Ivonne Alicia; Malinina, Liudmila; Mal'Kevich, Dmitry; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manceau, Loic Henri Antoine; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Marin, Ana Maria; Markert, Christina; Marquard, Marco; Martashvili, Irakli; Martin, Nicole Alice; Martinengo, Paolo; Martinez Hernandez, Mario Ivan; Martinez-Garcia, Gines; Martin Blanco, Javier; Martynov, Yevgen; Mas, Alexis Jean-Michel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mazer, Joel Anthony; Mazumder, Rakesh; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Meddi, Franco; Menchaca-Rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Mercado-Perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Miake, Yasuo; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Milano, Leonardo; Milosevic, Jovan; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Miskowiec, Dariusz Czeslaw; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mlynarz, Jocelyn; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Molnar, Levente; Montano Zetina, Luis Manuel; Monteno, Marco; Montes Prado, Esther; Moon, Taebong; Morando, Maurizio; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Moretto, Sandra; Morreale, Astrid; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Muller, Hans; Gameiro Munhoz, Marcelo; Murray, Sean; Musa, Luciano; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Nattrass, Christine; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nedosekin, Alexander; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Nilsen, Bjorn Steven; Nilsson, Mads Stormo; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Nyanin, Alexander; Nyatha, Anitha; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Sun Kun; Oh, Saehanseul; Olah, Laszlo; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oliveira Da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Onderwaater, Jacobus; Oppedisano, Chiara; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pachr, Milos; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Painke, Florian; Pajares Vales, Carlos; Pal, Susanta Kumar; Palaha, Arvinder Singh; Palmeri, Armando; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Park, Woojin; Passfeld, Annika; Patalakha, Dmitry; Paticchio, Vincenzo; Paul, Biswarup; Pawlak, Tomasz Jan; Peitzmann, Thomas; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, Elienos; Peresunko, Dmitry Yurevich; Perez Lara, Carlos Eugenio; Perrino, Davide; Peryt, Wiktor Stanislaw; Pesci, Alessandro; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petran, Michal; Petris, Mariana; Petrov, Plamen Rumenov; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Piano, Stefano; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Pitz, Nora; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Planinic, Mirko; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Pohjoisaho, Esko Heikki Oskari; Polishchuk, Boris; Poljak, Nikola; Pop, Amalia; Porteboeuf, Sarah Julie; Pospisil, Vladimir; Potukuchi, Baba; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; Puddu, Giovanna; Punin, Valery; Putschke, Jorn Henning; Qvigstad, Henrik; Rachevski, Alexandre; Rademakers, Alphonse; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Raniwala, Sudhir; Raniwala, Rashmi; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Rathee, Deepika; Rauch, Wolfgang Hans; Rauf, Aamer Wali; Razazi, Vahedeh; Read, Kenneth Francis; Real, Jean-Sebastien; Redlich, Krzysztof; Reed, Rosi Jan; Rehman, Attiq Ur; Reichelt, Patrick Simon; Reicher, Martijn; Reidt, Felix; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reolon, Anna Rita; Reshetin, Andrey; Rettig, Felix Vincenz; Revol, Jean-Pierre; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riccati, Lodovico; Ricci, Renato Angelo; Richert, Tuva Ora Herenui; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Rivetti, Angelo; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Rodriguez Manso, Alis; Roeed, Ketil; Rogochaya, Elena; Sharma, Rohni; Rohr, David Michael; Roehrich, Dieter; Romita, Rosa; Ronchetti, Federico; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossegger, Stefan; Rossi, Andrea; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Rubio Montero, Antonio Juan; Rui, Rinaldo; Russo, Riccardo; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Rybicki, Andrzej; Sadovskiy, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakaguchi, Hiroaki; Sakai, Shingo; Sakata, Dosatsu; Salgado Lopez, Carlos Alberto; Salzwedel, Jai Samuel Nielsen; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sanchez Castro, Xitzel; Sandor, Ladislav; Sandoval, Andres; Sano, Masato; Santagati, Gianluca; Santoro, Romualdo; Sarkar, Debojit; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Scharenberg, Rolf Paul; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schuchmann, Simone; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schulc, Martin; Schuster, Tim Robin; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; Schweda, Kai Oliver; Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Scott, Rebecca Michelle; Scott, Patrick Aaron; Segato, Gianfranco; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Seo, Jeewon; Serci, Sergio; Serradilla Rodriguez, Eulogio; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shabratova, Galina; Shahoyan, Ruben; Sharma, Satish; Sharma, Natasha; Shigaki, Kenta; Shtejer Diaz, Katherin; Sibiryak, Yury; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Silvestre, Catherine Micaela; Simatovic, Goran; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singha, Subhash; Singhal, Vikas; Sinha, Bikash; Sarkar - Sinha, Tinku; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Skjerdal, Kyrre; Smakal, Radek; Smirnov, Nikolai; Snellings, Raimond; Soegaard, Carsten; Soltz, Ron Ariel; Song, Myunggeun; Song, Jihye; Soos, Csaba; Soramel, Francesca; Spacek, Michal; Sputowska, Iwona Anna; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, Martha; Srivastava, Brijesh Kumar; Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Ionel; Stefanek, Grzegorz; Steinpreis, Matthew Donald; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Steyn, Gideon Francois; Stiller, Johannes Hendrik; Stocco, Diego; Stolpovskiy, Mikhail; Strmen, Peter; Alarcon Do Passo Suaide, Alexandre; Subieta Vasquez, Martin Alfonso; Sugitate, Toru; Suire, Christophe Pierre; Suleymanov, Mais Kazim Oglu; Sultanov, Rishat; Sumbera, Michal; Susa, Tatjana; Symons, Timothy; Szanto De Toledo, Alejandro; Szarka, Imrich; Szczepankiewicz, Adam; Szymanski, Maciej Pawel; Takahashi, Jun; Tangaro, Marco-Antonio; Tapia Takaki, Daniel Jesus; Tarantola Peloni, Attilio; Tarazona Martinez, Alfonso; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terrevoli, Cristina; Ter-Minasyan, Astkhik; Thaeder, Jochen Mathias; Thomas, Deepa; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Timmins, Anthony Robert; Toia, Alberica; Torii, Hisayuki; Trubnikov, Victor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ulery, Jason Glyndwr; Ullaland, Kjetil; Ulrich, Jochen; Uras, Antonio; Urciuoli, Guido Maria; Usai, Gianluca; Vajzer, Michal; Vala, Martin; Valencia Palomo, Lizardo; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Vannucci, Luigi; Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Van Leeuwen, Marco; Vargas Trevino, Aurora Diozcora; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; 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Yano, Satoshi; Yasnopolskiy, Stanislav; Yi, Jungyu; Yin, Zhongbao; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yushmanov, Igor; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zach, Cenek; Zampolli, Chiara; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zelnicek, Pierre; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Yonghong; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, You; Zhou, Fengchu; Zhu, Xiangrong; Zhu, Jianlin; Zhu, Jianhui; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zimmermann, Alice; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zoccarato, Yannick Denis; Zynovyev, Mykhaylo; Zyzak, Maksym

    2013-01-01

    Differential cross sections of charged particles in inelastic pp collisions as a function of $p_T$ have been measured at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 0.9, 2.76 and 7 TeV at the LHC. The $p_T$ spectra are compared to NLO-pQCD calculations. Though the differential cross section for an individual $\\sqrt{s}$ cannot be described by NLO-pQCD, the relative increase of cross section with $\\sqrt{s}$ is in agreement with NLO-pQCD. Based on these measurements and observations, procedures are discussed to construct pp reference spectra at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 2.76 and 5.02 TeV up to $p_T$ = 50 GeV/c as required for the calculation of the nuclear modification factor in nucleus-nucleus and proton-nucleus collisions.

  11. The present status of the LLNL Evaluated Charged Particle Library (ECPL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report is written with two purposes in mind: to summarize the charged-particle reactions that presently exist in Evaluated Charge Particle Library; and to list all of the low-Z charged-particle reactions for which data exist in the Livermore experimental data compilation. 2 tabs

  12. Spectra of neutrons and fusion charged products produced in a dense laser plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of laser-produced plasma diagnostics has been investigated by measuring spectra of neutrons and alpha particles produced in the T(d,n)4He reaction. Using the Monte Carlo method the spectra have been calculated for nine states of the deuterium-tritium plasma with the temperature of 1;5 and 10 keV and the density of 0.2; 1 and 10 g/cm3 respectively. The initial radius of the target was assumed to be 0.01 cm at the density of 0.2 g/cm3. It is shown that the neutron and alpha spectra can serve as plasma diagnostics parameters in laser fusion

  13. Numerical Studies of Electromagnetic Instabilities in Intense Charged Particle Beams with Large Energy Anisotropy

    CERN Document Server

    Startsev, Edward; Lee, Wei-li

    2005-01-01

    In intense charged particle beams with large energy anisotropy, free energy is available to drive transverse electromagnetic Weibel-type instabilities. Such slow-wave transverse electromagnetic instabilities can be described by the so-called Darwin model, which neglects the fast-wave portion of the displacement current. The Weibel instability may also lead to an increase in the longitudinal velocity spread, which would make the focusing of the beam difficult and impose a limit on the minimum spot size achievable in heavy ion fusion experiments. This paper reports the results of recent numerical studies of the Weibel instability using the Beam Eigenmode And Spectra (bEASt) code for space-charge-dominated, low-emittance beams with large tune depression. To study the nonlinear stage of the instability, the Darwin model is being developed and incorporated into the Beam Equilibrium Stability and Transport(BEST) code.

  14. Microscopic visualization of a biological response to charged particle traversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taucher-Scholz, G.; Jakob, B.; Becker, G.; Scholz, M.

    2003-08-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying biological effects of charged particle radiation has become increasingly important in view of the use of ion beams in tumor therapy. Elucidating how the enhanced efficiency of densely ionizing radiation in cell killing is related to the initial causative lesions, namely DNA double-strand breaks, constitutes a major task in radiobiology. The inhomogeneous spatial distribution of energy deposition leading to the induction of more complex and less reparable DNA lesions is the basis for high-LET effects. But the cellular response to radiation damage also involves the interplay between repair and signal transduction proteins with the aim of coordinating the processing of DNA damage and cell cycle progression to allow time for repair. Charged particles are used as a probe for the production of localized subcellular damage to study these aspects of the biological response to ionizing radiation. Immunocytochemical techniques applied in combination with confocal laser microscopy allow to monitor the relocalization of DNA damage response proteins within individual nuclei following irradiation. In particular, the rapid accumulation of the signalling protein p21 at sites of heavy ion-induced DNA damage reflects the microscopic distribution of dose deposited within nuclei of irradiated human fibroblasts. The biological response pattern for p21 is presented for high and low energy ion beams, involving different particle species and representing a wide range of radiation qualities.

  15. The Stability of the Vacuum Polarization Surrounding a Charged Particle

    CERN Document Server

    Himpsel, F J

    2015-01-01

    The internal stability of the electron has been debated for a century at both the classical and the quantum level. Recently, a local force density balance was established for the 1s electron in the H atom, based on the energy-momentum tensor of the classical Dirac field. This methodology is now extended to quantum fields by considering the force densities acting on the vacuum polarization induced by a point charge. Such a model is applicable to any charged particle at large distances, since the only vestige of its internal structure is the electric Coulomb field together with the vacuum polarization induced by it. While the polarization charge density is attracted to the point charge, it is kept from collapsing by repulsive forces due to confinement and degeneracy. It is shown analytically that the corresponding force densities are balanced for every filled shell of mj states at a given angular momentum j. The force densities are then summed over all single-electron states in the Dirac sea and renormalized by...

  16. Study of a large acceptance charged particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated basic characteristics of a new detector system, which has been designed to be used for nuclear data measurements. The detector has a large acceptance to cover a wide range of charged particle energies. The detector consists of crystal detectors and plastic scintillators. In this detector, energy measurements are carried out by adopting the pulse-height method for low-energy particles and for high-energy particles the time of flight (TOF) technique. The low-energy detector (crystals) plays also as a degrader for high-energy particles. One of important issues is the non-linearity of scintillation output for heavy ions of crystal detectors. The other issue is the deviation of a particle trajectory due to the multiple-scattering in the detector material. In the present study, we measured the scintillation output of detectors and the multiple-scattering effect on the TOF detection efficiency. Experiments were carried out at National Inst. of Radiological Sciences-Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (NIRS-HIMAC) for a crystal detector system by using protons and Ar ions. Finally, the scintillation nonlinearity has been determined. As for the multiple-scattering effect, we found that both of simulations, GEANT4 and PHITS tend to underestimate. (author)

  17. Rotational Spectra in Service of Particle Physics - Zeeman & Hyperfine Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawhorter, Richard J.; Baum, Alexander L.; Glassmann, Zachary; Girodas, Benjamin; Sears, Trevor; Shafer-Ray, Neil E.; Alphei, Lukas; Grabow, Jens-Uwe

    2013-06-01

    Motivated by the ongoing search for the parity violating effects originated by an electron electric dipole moment (e-EDM) or a nuclear anapole moment,the rotational spectra of heavy atom diatomic radicals like, e.g., ^{2}Π_{1/2} PbF are studied at the unrivalled resolution offered by supersonic-jet Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. Obtaining accurate information on such relativistically behaving systems wil be the key to provide a delicate test to the proposed theories in extension to the Standard Model of Physics. Employment of an MW method to hunt down these tiny effects, easily obscured by the linewidth inherent to other techniques, in rotational transitions is a promising approach to observe the tiny energy difference of terms that are degenerate without parity violation. Already before an experiment sensitive to parity violation, the exceptional resolution of the microwave time-domain technique can be exploited to provide accurate tests on the quantum chemical predictions that are part of the calculation of the anticipated e-EDM or anapole moment sensitivity of a given species since nuclear quadrupole and magnetic hyperfine effects in the rotational spectra are closely related. In our current experiment, transitions can be observed with 0.2 kHz accuracy for unblended lines over a range of 2 - 26.5 GHz. The observation of field dependent spectra (in magnetic fields up to 4 Gauss) allows for the determination of the two body fixed g-factors, G_{perp} and G_{allel} which can then be compared with recent theoretical values. YbF provides the current e-EDM upper limit. Although it is more sensitive to magnetic fields, the nuclear quadrupole hyperfine structure of ^{173}YbF constitutes a direct probe on the electric field gradient and thus can help characterize the critical electric field at the heavy atom nucleus. We will report on 14 GHz transitions for 3 of the less abundant even isotopologues of YbF as well as the ^{207}PbF analogue ^{171}YbF, important

  18. Moving Charged Particles in Lattice Boltzmann-Based Electrokinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Kuron, Michael; Schornbaum, Florian; Bauer, Martin; Godenschwager, Christian; Holm, Christian; de Graaf, Joost

    2016-01-01

    The motion of ionic solutes and charged particles under the influence of an electric field and the ensuing hydrodynamic flow of the underlying solvent is ubiquitous in aqueous colloidal suspensions. The physics of such systems is described by a coupled set of differential equations, along with boundary conditions, collectively referred to as the electrokinetic equations. Capuani et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 121, 973 (2004)] introduced a lattice-based method for solving this system of equations, which builds upon the lattice Boltzmann (LB) algorithm for the simulation of hydrodynamic flow and exploits computational locality. However, thus far, a description of how to incorporate moving boundary conditions, which are needed to simulate moving colloids, into the Capuani scheme has been lacking. In this paper, we detail how to introduce such moving boundaries, based on an analogue to the moving boundary method for the pure LB solver. The key ingredients in our method are mass and charge conservation for the solute spec...

  19. Spectra of Particles from Laser-Induced Vacuum Decay

    OpenAIRE

    Labun, Lance; Rafelski, Johann

    2011-01-01

    The spectrum of electrons and positrons originating from vacuum decay occurring in the collision of two non-colinear laser pulses is obtained. It displays high energy, highly-collimated particle bunches traveling in a direction separate from the laser beams. This result provides an unmistakable signature of the vacuum decay phenomenon and could suggest a new avenue for development of high energy electron and/or positron beams.

  20. Charging and coagulation of radioactive and nonradioactive particles in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-ha; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Nenes, Athanasios; Tsouris, Costas

    2016-03-01

    Charging and coagulation influence one another and impact the particle charge and size distributions in the atmosphere. However, few investigations to date have focused on the coagulation kinetics of atmospheric particles accumulating charge. This study presents three approaches to include mutual effects of charging and coagulation on the microphysical evolution of atmospheric particles such as radioactive particles. The first approach employs ion balance, charge balance, and a bivariate population balance model (PBM) to comprehensively calculate both charge accumulation and coagulation rates of particles. The second approach involves a much simpler description of charging, and uses a monovariate PBM and subsequent effects of charge on particle coagulation. The third approach is further simplified assuming that particles instantaneously reach their steady-state charge distributions. It is found that compared to the other two approaches, the first approach can accurately predict time-dependent changes in the size and charge distributions of particles over a wide size range covering from the free molecule to continuum regimes. The other two approaches can reliably predict both charge accumulation and coagulation rates for particles larger than about 0.04 micrometers and atmospherically relevant conditions. These approaches are applied to investigate coagulation kinetics of particles accumulating charge in a radioactive neutralizer, the urban atmosphere, and an atmospheric system containing radioactive particles. Limitations of the approaches are discussed.

  1. The all particle method: Coupled neutron, photon, electron, charged particle Monte Carlo calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the present time a Monte Carlo transport computer code is being designed and implemented at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to include the transport of: neutrons, photons, electrons and light charged particles as well as the coupling between all species of particles, e.g., photon induced electron emission. Since this code is being designed to handle all particles this approach is called the ''All Particle Method''. The code is designed as a test bed code to include as many different methods as possible (e.g., electron single or multiple scattering) and will be data driven to minimize the number of methods and models ''hard wired'' into the code. This approach will allow changes in the Livermore nuclear and atomic data bases, used to described the interaction and production of particles, to be used to directly control the execution of the program. In addition this approach will allow the code to be used at various levels of complexity to balance computer running time against the accuracy requirements of specific applications. This paper describes the current design philosophy and status of the code. Since the treatment of neutrons and photons used by the All Particle Method code is more or less conventional, emphasis in this paper is placed on the treatment of electron, and to a lesser degree charged particle, transport. An example is presented in order to illustrate an application in which the ability to accurately transport electrons is important. 21 refs., 1 fig

  2. Parallel Multiphysics Simulations of Charged Particles in Microfluidic Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Bartuschat, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    The article describes parallel multiphysics simulations of charged particles in microfluidic flows with the waLBerla framework. To this end, three physical effects are coupled: rigid body dynamics, fluid flow modelled by a lattice Boltzmann algorithm, and electric potentials represented by a finite volume discretisation. For solving the finite volume discretisation for the electrostatic forces, a cell-centered multigrid algorithm is developed that conforms to the lattice Boltzmann meshes and the parallel communication structure of waLBerla. The new functionality is validated with suitable benchmark scenarios. Additionally, the parallel scaling and the numerical efficiency of the algorithms are analysed on an advanced supercomputer.

  3. Charged particle scattering on two infinite cylindrical solenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charged particle scattering on two infinitely parallel cylindrical solenoids with similar by value and inverse by the sign magnetic fields is considered. Scattering amplitude is calculated in the 1st Born and high energy approximations. In both cases the differential cross section is nonsingular and the integral one - finite. Specific examples demonstrating that in one and the same multi-connection space under nontrivial vector-potentials and unambigous wave functions Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect can exist but it can be absent as well. It is shown that an alternative AB effect interpretation as scattering in magnetic field leakages meets sufficient difficulties

  4. Motion of charged particles in a knotted electromagnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrayas, M; Trueba, J L, E-mail: joseluis.trueba@urjc.e [Area de Electromagnetismo, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Camino del Molino s/n, 28943 Fuenlabrada, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-06-11

    In this paper we consider the classical relativistic motion of charged particles in a knotted electromagnetic field. After reviewing how to construct electromagnetic knots from maps between the three-sphere and the two-sphere, we introduce a mean quadratic radius of the energy density distribution in order to study some properties of this field. We study the classical relativistic motion of electrons in the electromagnetic field of the Hopf map, and compute their trajectories. It is observed that these electrons initially at rest are strongly accelerated by the electromagnetic force, becoming ultrarelativistic in a period of time that depends on the knot energy and size.

  5. The prospects for charged particle uses in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prospects and problems of proton therapy by means of accelerators are considered. Approaches to the solution of the problems concerning operation modes of the accelerator are formulated. It is shown that despite vivid advantage of charged particles for their applied use in beam therapy of malignant tumour it is necessary to solve two problems: extraction of special beams meeting strict medical requirements and development of technology of irradiation of malignant tumours of different localizations and construction of special equipment for execution of this technology. Engineering-technological shortcomings of proton therapy and medical-biological problems requiring reglamentation are enumerated

  6. A technique to improve crystal channeling efficiency of charged particles

    CERN Document Server

    Tikhomirov, V V

    2007-01-01

    It is shown that a narrow plane cut near the crystal surface considerably increases the probability of capture into the stable channeling motion of positively charged particles entering a crystal at angles smaller than a quarter of the critical channeling angle with respect to the crystal planes. At smallest incidence angles the capture probability reaches 99 percent. A pair of crystals bent in orthogonal planes and provided with the cuts allows to reach a 99.9 percent efficiency of single-pass deflection of a proton beam with an ultra small divergence. Conditions necessary for efficient single-pass deflection of protons from the LHC beam halo are also discussed.

  7. Fabrication and testing of prototype preamplifier for charged particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of a 4π charged particle array is one of the major activities under the superconducting cyclotron utilization project. The forward part of the array will consist of 24 telescopes, each will have three elements Si (strip) ΔE, Si(strip) E and CsI(Ti) E. Each ΔE strip will have 16 channels whereas E-strip will have 16 vertical and 16 horizontal channels. The large number of Si channels mandated the development of low-cost, high-density preamplifiers. A variety of circuits have been tested and some prototype preamplifiers have been fabricated. The performance of a prototype preamplifier has been reported

  8. Charged particle and magnetic field research in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Research completed and in progress is described, related publications and reports are listed, and abstracts of papers and talks on results of the research are given. The charged particle research centered on OGO-5 and OGO-6 electron spectrometer data, and theoretical radiation belt studies. Work on the ATS-1 magnetometer project included development of production data reduction programs, development of spectral analysis procedures, and scientific studies of ULF waves at synchronous orbit. The magnetic fields research also included work on the Mariner project and theoretical studies on the solar wind.

  9. Charged particle induced energy dispersive X-ray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review article deals with the X-ray emission induced by heavy, charged particles and the use of this process as an analytical method (PIXE). The physical processes involved, X-ray emission and the various reactions contributing to the background, are described in some detail. The sensitivity is calculated theoretically and the results compared with practical experience. A discussion is given on how the sensitivity can be optimized. The experimental arrangements are described and the various technical problems discussed. The analytical procedure, especially the sample preparation, is described in considerable detail. A number of typical practical applications are discussed. (author)

  10. Nonlinear Stability Theorem for High-Intensity Charged Particle Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global conservation constraints based on the nonlinear Vlasov-Maxwell equations are used to derive a three-dimensional kinetic stability theorem for an intense non-neutral ion beam (or charge bunch) propagating with average axial velocity vb=const . It is shown that a sufficient condition for linear and nonlinear stability for perturbations with arbitrary polarization is that the equilibrium distribution be a monotonically decreasing function of the single-particle energy H' in the beam frame, i.e., ∂feq(H') /∂H'≤0 . copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  11. Cataractogenic effects of heavy charged particles in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of heavy charged particles on the crystalline lens of the eye of mice are important because this tissue has proven susceptible to other forms of high-LET radiation. This report summarizes the results currently available from a prospectively designed study to explore the LET dependence of the cataractogenic process. The present results are consistent with a high cataractogenic effect at 100 keV/μm, because plateau argon 40 ions, with an LET in this range, produce higher average cataracts scores at 9, 11 and 13 months than do carbon 12 or neon 20 ions. In the electron micrographs, significant changes were observed from the controls

  12. Charged Particle Multiplicities in Deep Inelastic Scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aïd, S; Andreev, V; Andrieu, B; Appuhn, R D; Babaev, A; Ban, Y; Baranov, P S; Barrelet, E; Barschke, R; Bartel, Wulfrin; Barth, Monique; Bassler, U; Beck, H P; Behrend, H J; Belousov, A; Berger, C; Bernardi, G; Bertrand-Coremans, G H; Besançon, M; Beyer, R; Biddulph, P; Bispham, P; Bizot, J C; Blobel, Volker; Borras, K; Botterweck, F; Boudry, V; Braemer, A; Braunschweig, W; Brisson, V; Bruel, P; Bruncko, Dusan; Brune, C R; Buchholz, R; Buniatian, A Yu; Burke, S; Burton, M; Bähr, J; Büngener, L; Bürger, J; Büsser, F W; Calvet, D; Campbell, A J; Carli, T; Charlet, M; Chechelnitskii, S; Chernyshov, V; Clarke, D; Clegg, A B; Clerbaux, B; Cocks, S P; Contreras, J G; Cormack, C; Coughlan, J A; Courau, A; Cousinou, M C; Cozzika, G; Criegee, L; Cussans, D G; Cvach, J; Dagoret, S; Dainton, J B; Dau, W D; Daum, K; David, M; Davis, C L; De Wolf, E A; Delcourt, B; Di Nezza, P; Dirkmann, M; Dixon, P; Dlugosz, W; Dollfus, C; Dowell, John D; Dreis, H B; Droutskoi, A; Duhm, H; Dünger, O; Ebert, J; Ebert, T R; Eckerlin, G; Efremenko, V; Egli, S; Eichler, R; Eisele, Franz; Eisenhandler, Eric F; Ellison, R J; Elsen, E E; Erdmann, M; Erdmann, W; Evrard, E; Fahr, A B; Favart, L; Fedotov, A; Feeken, D; Felst, R; Feltesse, Joel; Ferencei, J; Ferrarotto, F; Flamm, K; Fleischer, M; Flieser, M; Flügge, G; Fomenko, A; Fominykh, B A; Formánek, J; Foster, J M; Franke, G; Fretwurst, E; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gabathuler, K; Gaede, F; Garvey, J; Gayler, J; Gebauer, M; Genzel, H; Gerhards, R; Glazov, A; Goerlach, U; Gogitidze, N; Goldberg, M; Goldner, D; Golec-Biernat, Krzysztof J; González-Pineiro, B; Gorelov, I V; Grab, C; Greenshaw, T J; Griffiths, R K; Grindhammer, G; Gruber, A; Gruber, C; Grässler, Herbert; Grässler, R; Görlich, L; Haack, J; Hadig, T; Haidt, Dieter; Hajduk, L; Hampel, M; Haynes, W J; Heinzelmann, G; Henderson, R C W; Henschel, H; Herynek, I; Hess, M F; Hewitt, K; Hildesheim, W; Hiller, K H; Hilton, C D; Hladky, J; Hoeger, K C; Hoffmann, D; Holtom, T; Hoppner, M; Horisberger, R P; Hudgson, V L; Hufnagel, H; Hütte, M; Ibbotson, M; Itterbeck, H; Jacholkowska, A; Jacobsson, C; Jaffré, M; Janoth, J; Jansen, T; Johnson, D P; Jung, H; Jönsson, L B; Kalmus, Peter I P; Kander, M; Kant, D; Kaschowitz, R; Kathage, U; Katzy, J M; Kaufmann, H H; Kaufmann, O; Kazarian, S; Kenyon, Ian Richard; Kermiche, S; Keuker, C; Kiesling, C; Klein, M; Kleinwort, C; Knies, G; Kolanski, H; Kole, F; Kolya, S D; Korbel, V; Korn, M; Kostka, P; Kotelnikov, S K; Krasny, M W; Krehbiel, H; Krämerkämper, T; Krücker, D; Kuhlen, M; Kurca, T; Kurzhofer, J; Köhler, T; Köhne, J H; Küster, H; Lacour, D; Laforge, B; Lander, R; Landon, M P J; Lange, W; Langenegger, U; Laporte, J F; Lebedev, A; Lehner, F; Levonian, S; Lindström, G; Lindstrøm, M; Link, J; Linsel, F; Lipinski, J; List, B; Lobo, G; Loch, P; Lomas, J W; Lubimov, V; Lüke, D; López, G C; Magnussen, N; Malinovskii, E I; Mani, S; Maracek, R; Marage, P; Marks, J; Marshall, R; Martens, J; Martin, G; Martin, R D; Martyn, H U; Martyniak, J; Mavroidis, A; Maxfield, S J; McMahon, S J; Mehta, A; Meier, K; Meyer, A; Meyer, H; Meyer, J; Meyer, P O; Migliori, A; Mikocki, S; Milstead, D; Moeck, J; Moreau, F; Morris, J V; Mroczko, E; Murín, P; Müller, G; Müller, K; Nagovitsin, V; Nahnhauer, R; Naroska, Beate; Naumann, T; Negri, I; Newman, P R; Newton, D; Neyret, D; Nguyen, H K; Nicholls, T C; Niebergall, F; Niebuhr, C B; Niedzballa, C; Niggli, H; Nisius, R; Nowak, G; Noyes, G W; Nyberg-Werther, M; Oakden, M N; Oberlack, H; Olsson, J E; Ozerov, D; Palmen, P; Panaro, E; Panitch, A; Pascaud, C; Patel, G D; Pawletta, H; Peppel, E; Phillips, J P; Pieuchot, A; Pitzl, D; Pope, G; Prell, S; Pérez, E; Rabbertz, K; Reimer, P; Reinshagen, S; Rick, Hartmut; Riech, V; Riedlberger, J; Riepenhausen, F; Riess, S; Rizvi, E; Robertson, S M; Robmann, P; Roloff, H E; Roosen, R; Rosenbauer, K; Rostovtsev, A A; Rouse, F; Royon, C; Rusakov, S V; Rybicki, K; Rädel, G; Rüter, K; Sankey, D P C; Schacht, P; Schiek, S; Schleif, S; Schleper, P; Schmidt, D; Schmidt, G; Schröder, V; Schuhmann, E; Schwab, B; Schöning, A; Sefkow, F; Seidel, M; Sell, R; Semenov, A A; Shekelian, V I; Shevyakov, I; Shtarkov, L N; Siegmon, G; Siewert, U; Sirois, Y; Skillicorn, Ian O; Smirnov, P; Smith, J R; Solochenko, V; Soloviev, Yu V; Specka, A E; Spiekermann, J; Spielman, S; Spitzer, H; Squinabol, F; Starosta, R; Steenbock, M; Steffen, P; Steinberg, R; Steiner, H; Steinhart, J; Stella, B; Stellberger, A; Stier, J; Stiewe, J; Stolze, K; Straumann, U; Struczinski, W; Stösslein, U; Sutton, J P; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tasevsky, M; Theissen, J; Thiebaux, C; Thompson, G; Truöl, P; Tsipolitis, G; Turnau, J; Tutas, J; Uelkes, P; Usik, A; Valkár, S; Valkárová, A; Vallée, C; Van Esch, P; Van Mechelen, P; Van den Plas, D; Vazdik, Ya A; Verrecchia, P; Villet, G; Wacker, K; Wagener, A; Wagener, M; Walther, A; Waugh, B; Weber, G; Weber, M; Wegener, D; Wegner, A; Wengler, T; Werner, M; West, L R; Wiesand, S; Wilksen, T; Willard, S; Winde, M; Winter, G G; Wittek, C; Wobisch, M; Wünsch, E; Zarbock, D; Zhang, Z; Zhokin, A S; Zini, P; Zomer, F; Zsembery, J; Zuber, K; Zur Nedden, M; Zácek, J; de Roeck, A; von Schlippe, W

    1996-01-01

    Using the H1 detector at HERA, charged particle multiplicity distributions in deep inelastic ep scattering have been measured over a large kinematical region. The evolution with $W$ and $Q^2$ of the multiplicity distribution and of the multiplicity moments in pseudorapidity domains of varying size is studied in the current fragmentation region of the hadronic centre-of-mass frame. The results are compared with data from fixed target lepton-nucleon interactions, $e^+e^-$ annihilations and hadron-hadron collisions as well as with expectations from QCD based parton models. Fits to the Negative Binomial and Lognormal distributions are presented.

  13. 'DIAMANT': A 4 π light charged particle detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    4π γ-spectrometers allow precise determination of weak transitions. A 4π light charged particle detector array of 54 detectors called DIAMANT is described as applied for triggering γ-spectrometers. The multidetector system allows channel selection, increases the sensitivity of the spectrometer, and can give additional information on the exit channel and the path leading to the final nucleus studied by its γ emission. The characteristics and first measured performance of the DIAMANT multidetector array are presented. (R.P.) 2 refs

  14. Energy loss of charged particles colliding with an oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, D. N.

    2015-04-01

    Energy loss of fast charged particles colliding with an oscillator is considered in the dipole approximation. In this approximation, the problem is solved exactly and the energy loss of the oscillator from the initial state | m> = |0> is found in the form of the sum of single integrals. It is shown that passing to the limit, the Bethe theory for an atom with small perturbations can be obtained, and in the case of strong fields, the correction to the Bethe theory, analogous to the Bloch correction, can be calculated; in addition, a classical limit coinciding with the Bohr formula is possible.

  15. On the energy losses of fast charged particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveev, V. I.; Makarov, D. N.; Gusarevich, E. S.

    2010-09-01

    The energy losses of fast charged particles colliding with atoms have been considered in the eikonal approximation. It has been shown that the nonperturbative contribution to the effective stopping from the region of the intermediate impact parameters (comparable with the characteristic sizes of the electron shells of the target) not only can be significant as compared to shell corrections to the Bethe-Bloch formula (usually considered in the first order of perturbation theory), but also can provide significant (up to 50%) corrections to this formula.

  16. Development of a charged particle multidetector and application to physics at the Vivitron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The charged particle multidetector ICARE is an apparatus designed for the Vivitron accelerator, with the aim to study both heavy ions reaction mechanisms and the structure of the nuclei. It will be able to work independently with its own electronic and acquisition system as well as in association with other types of multidetectors (Eurogam, Demon, ...). The development of ICARE is based on compactness and modularity criteria and takes into account the expected multiplicities and energies of the particles to be detected. It is composed of 48 compact telescopes of low energy threshold, 8 of them being heavy ion telescopes (Z 147Gd superdeformed states of highest angular momenta. In the gamma ray spectra detected by the Eurogam array in coincidence with fission fragments, a positive contribution corresponding to energy differences are observed, which are consistent with the emission by superdeformed states. (from author) 64 figs., 12 tabs., 91 refs

  17. Extinction spectra of quasi-spherical silver sub-micron particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malynych, S.; Chumanov, G.

    2007-07-01

    In this paper, we present the experimental data on the extinction spectra of aqueous suspensions of silver sub-micron particles as well as those for planar arrays of particles. The spectra of noninteracting silver particles, i.e. colloidal suspension consist of two characteristic bands: dipole at 545 nm and quadrupole at 430 nm components of the surface plasmon resonance. Presence of some fraction of silver whiskers in colloids causes broadening and tailing of the dipole component. Coating of Ag particles with Si mantle shifts plasmon resonances to the longer wavelengths. The extinction spectrum of planar array of Ag sub-micron particles self-assembled on a glass substrate drastically differs from that for colloidal suspension. The effect may arise from coherent coupling of surface plasmons associated with the particles.

  18. Development of Si (Li) detectors for charged particles spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Onabe, H; Obinata, M; Kashiwagi, T

    2002-01-01

    Lithium drifted silicon (Si (Li)) detectors with high-quality large area for charged particles spectrometer abroad artificial satellite have been developed. Surface stability can be obtained by thin p-n junction fabricated with the applied photo engraving process (PEP) instead of surface barrier. The region compensated with Lithium can be improved by the adequate heat treatment, and this improvement can be monitored by means of a combination of copper plating and subsequent micro-XRF analysis. The detectors fabricated from the thermal treated wafers were found to have better energy resolution both for alpha-particles from sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am and conversion electrons from sup 2 sup 0 sup 7 Bi. (author)

  19. Physical sputtering of metallic systems by charged-particle impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper provides a brief overview of our current understanding of physical sputtering by charged-particle impact, with the emphasis on sputtering of metals and alloys under bombardment with particles that produce knock-on collisions. Fundamental aspects of ion-solid interactions, and recent developments in the study of sputtering of elemental targets and preferential sputtering in multicomponent materials are reviewed. We concentrate only on a few specific topics of sputter emission, including the various properties of the sputtered flux and depth of origin, and on connections between sputtering and other radiation-induced and -enhanced phenomena that modify the near-surface composition of the target. The synergistic effects of these diverse processes in changing the composition of the integrated sputtered-atom flux is described in simple physical terms, using selected examples of recent important progress. 325 refs., 27 figs

  20. Search for fractional charge and heavy stable particles at PETRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A search has been made for new particles with charge Q = 2/3, 1, 4/3, 5/3 produced in e+e--reactions at PETRA. The energy range was Esub(cm) = 27-35 GeV. No such particles were found. Upper limits for the cross-section depending on the assumed mass and production spectrum are given. For Q = 2/3 quarks with mass less than 12 GeV/c2, upper limits sigma(q anti q)/sigma(μμ) -2 (90% C.L.) are obtained both for inclusive and exclusive production. For the lifetime of the B-meson (msub(B) = 5 GeV/c2) an upper limit tau -9 s is obtained. (orig.)

  1. EGUN, Charged Particle Trajectories in Electromagnetic Focusing System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of problem or function: EGUN computes trajectories of charged particles in electrostatic and magnetostatic focusing systems including the effects of space charge and self-magnetic fields. Starting options include Child's Law conditions on cathodes of various shapes, user-specified conditions input for each ray, and a combination of Child's Law conditions and user specifications. Either rectangular or cylindrically symmetric geometry may be used. Magnetic fields may be specified using an arbitrary configuration of coils, or the output of a magnet program, such as Poisson, or by an externally calculated array of the axial fields. 2 - Method of solution: The program first solves Laplace's equation. Next, the first iteration of electron trajectories is started using one of the four starting options. On the first iteration cycle, space charge forces are calculated from the assumption of paraxial flow. As the rays are traced, space charge is computed and stored. After all the electron trajectories have been calculated, the program begins the second cycle by solving the Poisson equation with the space charge from the first iteration. Subsequent iteration cycles follow this pattern. The Poisson equation is solved by an alternate column relaxation technique known as the semi-iterative Chebyshev method. A fourth-order Runge-Kutta method is used to solve the relativistic differential equations of the trajectory calculations. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 9001 mesh points in a square mesh, 300 mesh points in the axial direction, 100 mesh points in the radial direction, 101 potentials, 51 rays. In the cylindrical coordinates, the magnetic fields are axially symmetric. In rectangular coordinates, the external field is assumed to be normal to the plane of the problem, which is assumed to be the median plane

  2. Charge-transfer spectra of ferrocene in halocarbon solvents under photoexcitation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alfazuddin Thander; Biswanath Mallik

    2000-08-01

    The changes in the electronic absorption spectra of ferrocene in the halocarbon solvents chloroform and carbontetrachloride have been investigated under photoexcitation in nitrogen atmosphere. Photoexcitations have been made with monochromatic light (using an Xe-source and a monochromator), at intervals of a few nanometers in the spectral range 220-750 nm. Analysing the spectra by a modified method the position of the charge-transfer-to-solvent (CTTS) band has been located for both the solvents. The position of the CTTS band in the case of carbontetrachloride solution located (320 nm) by the present study is different from the previously reported value (307 nm), while from the previous studies the position of the CTTS band in the case of the spectra of ferrocene in chloroform was not clear. From the present investigation, the changes in spectra after photoexcitation studied as a function, the concentration of ferrocene in the solution and the time (duration) of photoexcitations, have been observed to be systematic. Using the position of the new band (320 nm) for the CTTS transition in the case of carbontetrachloride, ionization potential of ferrocene has been estimated and the estimated value has shown excellent agreement with the experimental value indicating the exactness of the newly located CTTS band position.

  3. Charging and coagulation of radioactive and nonradioactive particles in the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-H. Kim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Charging and coagulation influence one another and impact the particle charge and size distributions in the atmosphere. However, few investigations to date have focused on the coagulation kinetics of atmospheric particles accumulating charge. This study presents three approaches to include mutual effects of charging and coagulation on the microphysical evolution of atmospheric particles such as radioactive particles. The first approach employs ion balance, charge balance, and a bivariate population balance model (PBM to comprehensively calculate both charge accumulation and coagulation rates of particles. The second approach involves a much simpler description of charging, and uses a monovariate PBM and subsequent effects of charge on particle coagulation. The third approach is further simplified assuming that particles instantaneously reach their steady-state charge distributions. It is found that compared to the other two approaches, the first approach can accurately predict time-dependent changes in the size and charge distributions of particles over a wide size range covering from the free molecule to continuum regimes. The other two approaches can reliably predict both charge accumulation and coagulation rates for particles larger than about 40 nm and atmospherically relevant conditions. These approaches are applied to investigate coagulation kinetics of particles accumulating charge in a radioactive neutralizer, the urban atmosphere, and a radioactive plume. Limitations of the approaches are discussed.

  4. Nuclear composition and energy spectra in the 1969 April 12 solar-particle event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsch, D. L.; Fichtel, C. E.; Reames, D. V.

    1972-01-01

    Measurement of the charge composition for several of the multicharged nuclei and the energy spectra for hydrogen, helium, and medium (6 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 9) nuclei in the Apr. 12, 1969, solar-particle event. The energy/nucleon spectral shape of the medium nuclei was again the same as that of the helium nuclei, and the ratio of these two species was consistent with the present best average of 58 plus or minus 5. By combining the results obtained here with previous work, improved estimates of the Ne/O and Mg/O values of 0.16 plus or minus 0.03 and 0.056 plus or minus 0.014, respectively, were obtained. Silicon and sulfur abundances relative to O were determined to be 0.208 plus or minus 0.008 plus or minus 0.006, respectively, and 85% confidence upper limits for Ar and Ca relative to O of 0.017 and 0.010 were obtained. Previously, these last four nuclei had only been listed as a group.

  5. A search for structure in charged meson spectra from proton-antiproton annihilations at rest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The charged meson momentum spectra from anti pp annihilation at rest have been measured with high statistics. A search is made for structures between 150 and 300 MeV/c which might indicate narrow baryonium states. We find four narrow lines which are identified with the absorption and decay processes of kaons stopping in the target. No other narrow structure are seen, giving limits of 2-6x10-4/anti p (90% CL) for the yield of a narrow state in the mass range 1510-1660 MeV. (orig.)

  6. Anomalous Kinetics of Hard Charged Particles Dynamical Renormalization Group Resummation

    CERN Document Server

    Boyanovsky, D

    1999-01-01

    We study the kinetics of the distribution function for charged particles of hard momentum in scalar QED. The goal is to understand the effects of infrared divergences associated with the exchange of quasistatic magnetic photons in the relaxation of the distribution function. We begin by obtaining a kinetic transport equation for the distribution function for hard charged scalars in a perturbative expansion that includes hard thermal loop resummation. Solving this transport equation, the infrared divergences arising from absorption and emission of soft quasi-static magnetic photons are manifest in logarithmic secular terms. We then implement the dynamical renormalization group resummation of these secular terms in the relaxation time approximation. The distribution function (in the linearized regime) is found to approach equilibrium as $\\delta n_k(t) =\\delta n_k(t_o) e^{-2\\alpha T (t-t_o) and $\\alpha =e^2/4\\pi$. This anomalous relaxation is recognized to be the square of the relaxation of the single particle p...

  7. Particle beams carrying orbital angular momentum, charge, mass and spin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijssen, Teuntje; Hayrapetyan, Armen; Goette, Joerg; Dennis, Mark

    Electron beams carrying vortices and angular momentum have been of much experimental and theoretical interest in recent years. In addition, optical vortex beams are a well-established field in optics and photonics. In both cases, the orbital angular momentum associated with the beam's axial vortex has effects on the overall spin of the beam, due to spin-orbit interactions. A simple model of these systems are Bessel beam solutions (of either the Dirac equation or Maxwell equations) with a nonzero azimuthal quantum number, which are found by separation in cylindrical coordinates. Here, we generalize this approach, considering the classical field theory of Bessel beams for particles which are either massive or massless, uncharged or charged and of a variety of different spins (0, 1/2, 1, ⋯). We regard the spin and helicity states and different forms of spin-orbit terms that arise. Moreover, we analyse the induced electromagnetic field when the particles carry charge. Most importantly, this unified field theory approach leads to the prediction of effects for vortex beams of neutrons, mesons and neutrinos.

  8. Modeling of mesoscopic electrokinetic phenomena using charged dissipative particle dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Mingge; Li, Zhen; Karniadakis, George

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we propose a charged dissipative particle dynamics (cDPD) model for investigation of mesoscopic electrokinetic phenomena. In particular, this particle-based method was designed to simulate micro- or nano- flows which governing by Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equation coupled with Navier-Stokes (NS) equation. For cDPD simulations of wall-bounded fluid systems, a methodology for imposing correct Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions for both PNP and NS equations is developed. To validate the present cDPD model and the corresponding boundary method, we perform cDPD simulations of electrostatic double layer (EDL) in the vicinity of a charged wall, and the results show good agreement with the mean-field theoretical solutions. The capacity density of a parallel plate capacitor in salt solution is also investigated with different salt concentration. Moreover, we utilize the proposed methodology to study the electroosmotic and electroosmotic/pressure-driven flow in a micro-channel. In the last, we simulate the dilute polyelectrolyte solution both in bulk and micro-channel, which show the flexibility and capability of this method in studying complex fluids. This work was sponsored by the Collaboratory on Mathematics for Mesoscopic Modeling of Materials (CM4) supported by DOE.

  9. Secondary radiation measurements for particle therapy applications: Charged secondaries produced by 4He and 12C ion beams in a PMMA target at large angle

    CERN Document Server

    Rucinski, A; Battistoni, G; Collamati, F; Faccini, R; Frallicciardi, P M; Mancini-Terracciano, C; Marafini, M; Mattei, I; Muraro, S; Paramatti, R; Piersanti, L; Pinci, D; Russomando, A; Sarti, A; Sciubba, A; Camillocci, E Solfaroli; Toppi, M; Traini, G; Voena, C; Patera, V

    2016-01-01

    Measurements performed with the purpose of characterizing the charged secondary radiation for dose release monitoring in particle therapy are reported. Charged secondary yields, energy spectra and emission profiles produced in poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA) target by 4He and 12C beams of different therapeutic energies were measured at 60 and 90 degree with respect to the primary beam direction. The secondary yields of protons produced along the primary beam path in PMMA target were obtained. The energy spectra of charged secondaries were obtained from time-of-flight information, whereas the emission profiles were reconstructed exploiting tracking detector information. The measured charged secondary yields and emission profiles are in agreement with the results reported in literature and confirm the feasibility of ion beam therapy range monitoring using 12C ion beam. The feasibility of range monitoring using charged secondary particles is also suggested for 4He ion beam.

  10. Response of Charged Particles in a Storage Ring to Gravitational Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONGDong; HUANGChao-Guang

    2003-01-01

    The influence of gravitational waves on the charged particles in a storage ring is studied. It shows that the gravitational waves might be directly detected by monitoring the motion of charged particles in a storage ring. The angular velocity of the charged particles is continually adjustable by changing the initial energy of particles and the strength of the magnetic field. This feature is very useful for finding the gravitational waves with different frequencies.

  11. Response of Charged Particles in a Storage Ring to Gravitational Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Dong; HUANG Chao-Guang

    2003-01-01

    The influence of gravitational waves on the charged particles in a storage ring is studied. It shows thatthe gravitational waves might be directly detected by monitoring the motion of charged particles in a storage ring. Theangular velocity of the charged particles is continually adjustable by changing the initial energy of particles and thestrength of the magnetic field. This feature is very useful for finding the gravitational waves with different frequencies.

  12. Fractional dynamics of charged particles in magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronel-Escamilla, A.; Gómez-Aguilar, J. F.; Alvarado-Méndez, E.; Guerrero-Ramírez, G. V.; Escobar-Jiménez, R. F.

    2016-02-01

    In many physical applications the electrons play a relevant role. For example, when a beam of electrons accelerated to relativistic velocities is used as an active medium to generate Free Electron Lasers (FEL), the electrons are bound to atoms, but move freely in a magnetic field. The relaxation time, longitudinal effects and transverse variations of the optical field are parameters that play an important role in the efficiency of this laser. The electron dynamics in a magnetic field is a means of radiation source for coupling to the electric field. The transverse motion of the electrons leads to either gain or loss energy from or to the field, depending on the position of the particle regarding the phase of the external radiation field. Due to the importance to know with great certainty the displacement of charged particles in a magnetic field, in this work we study the fractional dynamics of charged particles in magnetic fields. Newton’s second law is considered and the order of the fractional differential equation is (0;1]. Based on the Grünwald-Letnikov (GL) definition, the discretization of fractional differential equations is reported to get numerical simulations. Comparison between the numerical solutions obtained on Euler’s numerical method for the classical case and the GL definition in the fractional approach proves the good performance of the numerical scheme applied. Three application examples are shown: constant magnetic field, ramp magnetic field and harmonic magnetic field. In the first example the results obtained show bistability. Dissipative effects are observed in the system and the standard dynamic is recovered when the order of the fractional derivative is 1.

  13. Integral charged particle nuclear date bibliography. Editon 1, Supplement 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliography is divided into three sections, ''References'', ''Target Index'', and ''Residual Index.'' The ''References'' section contains all references satisfying the following criteria: excitation functions, thick targets, or product yield leading to the formation of a ground or metastable state; the atomic mass and charge of the incident particle must be greater than or equal to 1; the atomic mass of the target must be greater than or equal to 1; and the atomic masses of the outgoing and residual nuclei must be greater than or equal to 1 with the exception of processes which do not lead to a definite residual nucleus and of gamma-ray production cross sections. The ''Target Index'' section contains the incident particle energy and the abbreviated reference lines for all the entries, which contain information on a definite target nucleus and reaction. These reference lines contain the Journal name, followed by the volume and page number. The ''Residual Index'' section also contains the incident particle energy and the abbreviated reference lines for all the entries, which contain information on a definite residual nucleus and a definite target-reaction

  14. Chaotic phenomena of charged particles in crystal lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desalvo, Agostino; Giannerini, Simone; Rosa, Rodolfo

    2006-06-01

    In this article, we have applied the methods of chaos theory to channeling phenomena of positive charged particles in crystal lattices. In particular, we studied the transition between two ordered types of motion; i.e., motion parallel to a crystal axis (axial channeling) and to a crystal plane (planar channeling), respectively. The transition between these two regimes turns out to occur through an angular range in which the particle motion is highly disordered and the region of phase space spanned by the particle is much larger than the one swept in the two ordered motions. We have evaluated the maximum Lyapunov exponent with the method put forward by Rosenstein et al. [Physica D 65, 117 (1993)] and by Kantz [Phys. Lett. A 185, 77 (1994)]. Moreover, we estimated the correlation dimension by using the Grassberger-Procaccia method. We found that at the transition the system exhibits a very complex behavior showing an exponential divergence of the trajectories corresponding to a positive Lyapunov exponent and a noninteger value of the correlation dimension. These results turn out to be linked to a physical interpretation. The Lyapunov exponents are in agreement with the model by Akhiezer et al. [Phys. Rep. 203, 289 (1991)], based on the equivalence between the ion motion along the crystal plane described as a "string of strings" and the "kicked" rotator. The nonintegral value of the correlation dimension can be explained by the nonconservation of transverse energy at the transition. PMID:16822017

  15. Thermal Analysis of Particle Ratios and p(perpendicular) Spectra at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal model of particle production is used to analyze the particle ratios and the p(perpendicular) spectra measured recently at RHIC. Our fit of the particle ratios yields the temperature at the chemical freeze-out Tchem = 165±7 MeV with the corresponding baryon chemical potential μchem = 41 ± 5 MeV. The quality of the fit shows that the model works well for RHIC. The p(perpendicular) spectra are evaluated in an approach which takes into account the modifications of the initial thermal distributions by the secondary decays of resonances. All two- and three-body decays are included. This leads to an effective ''cooling'' of the spectra in the data region by about 30-40 MeV. We find that the pion spectrum is characterized by the inverse slope which agrees well with the value inferred from the RHIC data. (author)

  16. Charge collection efficiency of GaAs detectors studied with low-energy heavy charged particles

    CERN Document Server

    Bates, R; Linhart, V; O'Shea, V; Pospísil, S; Raine, C; Smith, K; Sinor, M; Wilhelm, I

    1999-01-01

    Epitaxially grown GaAs layers have recently been produced with sufficient thickness and low enough free carrier concentration to permit their use as radiation detectors. Initial tests have shown that the epi-material behaves as a classical semiconductor as the depletion behaviour follows the square root dependency on the applied bias. This article presents the results of measurements of the growth of the active depletion depth with increasing bias using low-energy protons and alpha particles as probes for various depths and their comparison to values extrapolated from capacitance measurements. From the proton and alpha particle spectroscopic measurements, an active depth of detector material that collects 100% of the charge generated inside it was determined. The consistency of these results with independent capacitance measurements supports the idea that the GaAs epi-material behaves as a classical semiconductor. (author)

  17. An algorithm for removing charging effects from X-ray photoelectron spectra of nanoscaled non-conductive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulyaev, R.V., E-mail: gulyaev@catalysis.ru [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Koscheev, S.V. [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Malykhin, S.E. [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Algorithm for restoration of XP-spectra distorted by surface charging was developed. • Pd3d spectra of Pd/SnO{sub 2}, Pd/CeO{sub 2}–SnO{sub 2} catalysts were successfully restored. • Algorithm performance is comparable with “hardware” charging neutralization technique. - Abstract: Inhomogeneous surface charging could lead to a distortion of X-ray photoelectron (XP) spectra, which complicates the spectra analysis and sometimes results in an incorrect interpretation of elements chemical states of the sample. The charging effects might be especially strong in the case of XPS application for the characterization of heterogeneous catalysts, which are usually based on the dielectric or semiconductor materials with complex morphology. In this paper, we propose an algorithm to restore XP spectra when distortion is caused by inhomogeneous and/or non-constant surface charging effects. A photoelectron line of a reference element can be used to eliminate the distortions from experimental spectra of other elements by an iterative deconvolution procedure. The successful application of the algorithm for the restoration of a Pd3d line shape using a reference Sn3d{sub 5/2} line was demonstrated for the Pd/SnO{sub 2} and Pd/CeO{sub 2}–SnO{sub 2} catalysts.

  18. An algorithm for removing charging effects from X-ray photoelectron spectra of nanoscaled non-conductive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Algorithm for restoration of XP-spectra distorted by surface charging was developed. • Pd3d spectra of Pd/SnO2, Pd/CeO2–SnO2 catalysts were successfully restored. • Algorithm performance is comparable with “hardware” charging neutralization technique. - Abstract: Inhomogeneous surface charging could lead to a distortion of X-ray photoelectron (XP) spectra, which complicates the spectra analysis and sometimes results in an incorrect interpretation of elements chemical states of the sample. The charging effects might be especially strong in the case of XPS application for the characterization of heterogeneous catalysts, which are usually based on the dielectric or semiconductor materials with complex morphology. In this paper, we propose an algorithm to restore XP spectra when distortion is caused by inhomogeneous and/or non-constant surface charging effects. A photoelectron line of a reference element can be used to eliminate the distortions from experimental spectra of other elements by an iterative deconvolution procedure. The successful application of the algorithm for the restoration of a Pd3d line shape using a reference Sn3d5/2 line was demonstrated for the Pd/SnO2 and Pd/CeO2–SnO2 catalysts

  19. Search for hyperdeformation at high spins in A∼120 nuclei using charged particle-xn data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    recoiling residual nuclei when one or two alpha particle(s) were emitted. The γ-energy correlation methods were used for the identification of collective structures. Preliminary results showed the presence of many normal or highly deformed bands with almost constant moment of inertia both in the and proton channels. To investigate if extreme deformations in these nuclei exist or not a further analysis of diagonal cut spectra created from 2D and 3D rotational plane mapped energy correlation data have been carried out. A breakthrough was recently obtained in this type of analysis: rotational patterns in the form of ridge-structures in the 3D rotational mapped spectra have been observed with dynamic moments of inertia J(2) ranging from 71 to 111 ℎ2/MeV in 11 different nuclei specifically selected by combination of charged particle and/or γ-gating. The 4 nuclei, 118Te, 124Cs, 125Cs, 124Xe found with moment of inertia J(2) ∼ 100 ℎ2/MeV, are most likely hyperdeformed, the remaining nuclei with smaller values of J(2) are considered to be superdeformed, in qualitative agreement with recent theoretical calculations. A comparison of such data obtained with and without Doppler correction resulted no conclusive evidence for the presence of the otherwise possible particle decay-out from the expected HD bands. (author)

  20. Intermolecular Interaction and Vibrational Spectra at Fumed Silica Particles/Silicone Polymer Interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A microscopic view on the interface formed by fumed silica particle and silicone polymers is suggested basing on a combined study that involves quantum-chemical (QCh) calculations and vibrational spectroscopic experiment. The former were performed for model clusters simulating a real 'area of contact' on the interface. Vibrational spectra were obtained for commercial products. Calculated vibrational spectra, obtained for model clusters by using force constants determined in due course of the QCh study, provided a quite perfect linkage between the QCh results and experimental spectra. This makes the suggested QCh microscopic description highly reliable

  1. Particle-hole configurations and energy spectra of 42Ca, 42Sc and 42Ti nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shell-model calculations are performed to investigate the level structure in 42Ca, 42Sc and 42Ti nuclei. The shell model states are expressed for two-particle, particle-hole and three-particle one-hole configurations in terms of coupled two-particle states. We have used the modified surface-delta interaction, pairing and Coulomb interaction in this calculation. The configurations considered are 1f7/2, 2p3/2 and 1d3/2 Single-particle energies and parameters of the interaction are determined by least-squares fitting procedure. The resulting two-body matrix elements are applied to calculate the energy spectra of two-particle states and three-particle one-hole states in 42Ca, 42Sc and 42Ti nuclei

  2. Analysis of one- and two-particle spectra at RHIC based on a hydrodynamical model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tetsufumi Hirano; Kenji Morita; Shin Muroya; Chiho Nonaka

    2003-05-01

    We calculate the one-particle hadronic spectra and correlation functions of pions based on a hydrodynamical model. Parameters in the model are so chosen that the one-particle spectra reproduce experimental results of $\\sqrt{s}=130$ A$\\cdot$GeV Au + Au collisions at RHIC. Based on the numerical solution, we discuss the space-time evolution of the fluid. Two-pion correlation functions are also discussed. Our numerical solution suggests the formation of the quark–gluon plasma with large volume and low net baryon density.

  3. Weakly nonlinear electrophoresis of a highly charged colloidal particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzer, Ory; Zeyde, Roman; Yavneh, Irad; Yariv, Ehud

    2013-05-01

    At large zeta potentials, surface conduction becomes appreciable in thin-double-layer electrokinetic transport. In the linear weak-field regime, where this effect is quantified by the Dukhin number, it is manifested in non-Smoluchowski electrophoretic mobilities. In this paper we go beyond linear response, employing the recently derived macroscale model of Schnitzer and Yariv ["Macroscale description of electrokinetic flows at large zeta potentials: Nonlinear surface conduction," Phys. Rev. E 86, 021503 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevE.86.021503] as the infrastructure for a weakly nonlinear analysis of spherical-particle electrophoresis. A straightforward perturbation in the field strength is frustrated by the failure to satisfy the far-field conditions, representing a non-uniformity of the weak-field approximation at large distances away from the particle, where salt advection becomes comparable to diffusion. This is remedied using inner-outer asymptotic expansions in the spirit of Acrivos and Taylor ["Heat and mass transfer from single spheres in Stokes flow," Phys. Fluids 5, 387 (1962), 10.1063/1.1706630], with the inner region representing the particle neighborhood and the outer region corresponding to distances scaling inversely with the field magnitude. This singular scheme furnishes an asymptotic correction to the electrophoretic velocity, proportional to the applied field cubed, which embodies a host of nonlinear mechanisms unfamiliar from linear electrokinetic theories. These include the effect of induced zeta-potential inhomogeneity, animated by concentration polarization, on electro-osmosis and diffuso-osmosis; bulk advection of salt; nonuniform bulk conductivity; Coulomb body forces acting on bulk volumetric charge; and the nonzero electrostatic force exerted upon the otherwise screened particle-layer system. A numerical solution of the macroscale model validates our weakly nonlinear analysis.

  4. Search for multiply charged Heavy Stable Charged Particles in data collected with the CMS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2013-10-30

    Several models of new physics yield particles that are massive, long-lived, and have an electric charge, Q, greater than that of the electron, e. A search for evidence of such particles was performed using 5.0 fb-1 and 18.8 fb-1 of proton-proton collision data collected at √s = 7 TeV and √s = 8 TeV, respectively, with the Compact Muon Solenoid detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The distinctive detector signatures of these particles are that they are slow-moving and highly ionizing. Ionization energy loss and time-of- flight measurements were made using the inner tracker and the muon system, respectively. The search is sensitive to 1e ≤ |Q| ≤ 8e. Data were found to be consistent with standard model expectations and upper limits on the production cross section of these particles were computed using a Drell-Yan-like production model. Masses below 517, 687, 752, 791, 798, 778, 753, and 724 GeV are excluded for |Q| = 1e, 2e, 3e, 4e, 5e, 6e, 7e, and 8e, respectively.

  5. Particle sizing in dense two-phase droplet systems by ultrasonic attenuation and velocity spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Size and size distribution of particles in particulate two-phase flow play an important role in a wide variety of industrial areas,while their measurement still remains a hard task till now.Ultrasonic wave as a mechanical vibration contains plenty of information about medium when it passes through.Thus the size distribution could be extracted from the measured ultrasonic attenuation and velocity spectra by means of well established models and data processing techniques.This paper contributes to the extraction of information of droplet size of a two-phase fat emulsion simultaneously from signals of broad-band ultrasonic attenuation and velocity spectra.According to the formulated single particle scattering model,the relationship between particle size distribution and ultrasonic spectrum is estab-lished.The sensitivities of ultrasonic spectra to the variation of particle size are illustrated.Distin-guishing features for attenuation and velocity spectra are summarized.Demonstration calculations of inversion by optimum regularization factor method are carried out to yield the typical numerical results for discussion.Based on the proposed inversion algorithm and theoretical model,a fat emulsion sam-ple with a volume fraction up to 20% is measured and analyzed.To validate the proposed ultrasonic spectrum particle sizing method,the results are compared to those obtained from optical measure-ment.

  6. Particle sizing in dense two-phase droplet systems by ultrasonic attenuation and velocity spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU MingXu; CAI XiaoShu; XUE MingHua; DONG LiLi; XU Feng

    2009-01-01

    Size and size distribution of particles in particulate two-phase flow play an important role in a wide va-riety of industrial areas, while their measurement still remains a hard task till now. Ultrasonic wave as a mechanical vibration contains plenty of information about medium when it passes through. Thus the size distribution could be extracted from the measured ultrasonic attenuation and velocity spectra by means of well established models and data processing techniques. This paper contributes to the ex-traction of information of droplet size of a two-phase fat emulsion simultaneously from signals of broad-band ultrasonic attenuation and velocity spectra. According to the formulated single particle scattering model, the relationship between particle size distribution and ultrasonic spectrum is estab-lished. The sensitivilles of ultrasonic spectra to the variation of particle size are illustrated. Distin-guishing features for attenuation and velocity spectra are summarized. Demonstration calculations of inversion by optimum regularization factor method are carried out to yield the typical numerical results for discussion. Based on the proposed inversion algorithm and theoretical model, a fat emulsion sam-ple with a volume fraction up to 20% is measured and analyzed. To validate the proposed ultrasonic spectrum particle sizing method, the results are compared to those obtained from optical measure-ment.

  7. Particle with non-Abelian charge: classical and quantum

    CERN Document Server

    Lahiri, Amitabha

    2010-01-01

    We construct an action in the worldline formalism for a non-Abelian charged particle in a non-Abelian background field, described by real bosonic variables, leading to a set of the well known classical equations given by Wong. The isospin parts in the action can be viewed as the Lagrange multiplier term corresponding to a non-holonomic constraint restricting the isospins to be parallel transported. The path integration is performed over the isospin variables and their paths turn out to be constrained by its classical solution for the isospins. We derive a wave equation from the path integral, constructed as the constrained Hamiltonian operator acts on the wave function. It reveals what operator ordering corresponds to our classical Hamiltonian. It is verified by the inverse Weyl transformation.

  8. Japan Charged-Particle Nuclear Reaction Data Group (JCPRG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This it the progress report of the Executive Committee of the Japan Charged-Particle Nuclear Reaction Data Group (JCPRG). Since the last NRDC meeting in June 2003, the group has carried out the following activities: Compilation of CPND for NRDF and EXFOR; Compilation of CPND bibliographies for CINDA; Improvement of Web-based data input system HENDEL; Improvement of NRDF retrieval system DARPE; Development of utilization system for EXFOR and evaluated libraries; Data services for Japanese users. The regular JCPRG budget has ended at March 2001. They are applying a competitive budget for our further activity. The Executive Committee is organized by 7 researchers and 1 secretary. 6 postdoctoral researchers in Meme Media Lab. of Hokkaido Univ., 6 graduated students in Nuclear Physics Laboratory of Hokkaido Univ. and 1 technical staff work part-time. 1.5 equivalent man year is dedicated to NRDC Network activities

  9. A hybrid detector telescope for fission fragments and charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of light charged particle (LCP) multiplicities in coincidence with fission fragments (FFs) during the fusion-fission process is a very useful probe to understand the fission dynamics. In this type of measurement, the LCP's are indented to be measured in a wide range of relative angles (θrel) from 0° to 180° with respect to the FF direction. The conventional method of using two separate detectors one for the FF's and another for the LCPs does not allow to direct the LCPs along the direction of FF (in particular, θrel gas and Egas) and two CsI(Tl)-Si(PIN) detectors mounted at the end of the gas-section. In this paper, the results of in-beam usage of the HDT are presented

  10. General magnetized Weyl solutions: Disks and motion of charged particles

    CERN Document Server

    García-Duque, Cristian H

    2010-01-01

    We construct three families of general magnetostatic axisymmetric exact solutions of Einstein-Maxwell equations in spherical coordinates, prolate, and oblates. The solutions obtained are then presented in the system of generalized spheroidal coordinates which is a generalization of the previous systems. The method used to build such solutions is the well-known complex potential formalism proposed by Ernst, using as seed solutions vacuum solutions of the Einstein field equations. The constructed solutions are asymptotically flat and regular on the axis of symmetry. We show explicitly some particular solutions among them a Erez-Rosen type solution and a Morgan-Morgan type solution, which we interpret as the exterior gravitational field of a finite dislike source immersed in a magnetic field. From them we also construct using the well known ``displace, cut and reflect'' method exact solutions representing relativistic thin disks of infinite extension. We analyze the motion of electrically charged test particles ...

  11. A large solid angle detector for medium energy charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A charged particle detector with 0.7 sr solid angular acceptance has been built, principally to detect protons in the energy range 25-150 MeV in experiments with tagged photon beams. The detector consists of a three element ΔE1-ΔE2-E plastic scintillator telescope. Position information is obtained from the time difference between signals from the two ends of each scintillator. The design of the detector and tests of its performance are described. An energy resolution of 2.8 MeV fwhm at 60 MeV proton energy, and a two-dimensional position resolution of 24 mm x 41 mm fwhm has been obtained. Successful operation in the tagged photon environment is demonstrated. (orig.)

  12. Deformation Effects in Hot Rotating {sup 46}Ti Probed by the Charged Particle Emission and GDR {gamma}-Decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brekiesz, M. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, PAN, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Maj, A. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, PAN, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Kmiecik, M. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, PAN, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Mazurek, K. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, PAN, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Meczynski, W. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, PAN, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Styczen, J. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, PAN, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Zuber, K. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, PAN, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Papka, P. [IPHC and ULP (Strasbourg I), B.P. 28 F-67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); iThemba LABS, 7129 Somerset West (South Africa); Beck, C. [IPHC and ULP (Strasbourg I), B.P. 28 F-67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Haas, F. [IPHC and ULP (Strasbourg I), B.P. 28 F-67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Rauch, V. [IPHC and ULP (Strasbourg I), B.P. 28 F-67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Rousseau, M. [IPHC and ULP (Strasbourg I), B.P. 28 F-67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Sanchez i Zafra, A. [IPHC and ULP (Strasbourg I), B.P. 28 F-67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Dudek, J. [IPHC and ULP (Strasbourg I), B.P. 28 F-67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Schunck, N. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, PAN, 31-342 Cracow (Poland); Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain)

    2007-05-15

    The {sup 46}Ti * compound nucleus, as populated by the fusion-evaporation reaction {sup 27}Al + {sup 19}F at the bombarding energy of E {sub lab} = 144 MeV, has been investigated by charged particle spectroscopy using the multidetector array ICARE at the VIVITRON tandem facility of the IReS (Strasbourg). The light charged particles and high-energy {gamma}-rays from the GDR decay have been measured in coincidence with selected evaporation residues. The CACARIZO code, a Monte Carlo implementation of the statistical-model code CASCADE, has been used to calculate the spectral shapes of evaporated {alpha}-particles which are compared with the experimental coincident spectra. This comparison indicates the signature of large deformations (possibly superdeformed and hyperdeformed shapes) present in the compound nucleus decay. The occurrence of the Jacobi shape transition is also discussed in the framework of a newly developed rotating liquid drop model.

  13. Energy spectra of secondary particles in gamma-families and their sensitivity to the primary cosmic ray (PCR) spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisova, V.G.; Guseva, Z.M.; Kanevskaya, E.A.; Maximenko, V.M.; Morozov, A.E.; Puchkov, V.S. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninskii pr., 53, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mukhamedshin, R.A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Prosp. 60-letiya Oktyabrya 7, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-12-15

    Spectra of secondary particles in gamma-families, detected at the Pamirs level in X-ray emulsion chambers, are analyzed. This analysis showed that secondary particle spectra change their slope at the particle energy equal to the summary particle energy at which we select gamma-families. Above this bend the secondary particle slope is sensitive to the PCR spectrum slope and composition. The slopes of secondary particle spectra in the Experiment PAMIR are close to the slopes in the variants of the MC0 model, in which the fraction of primary protons is not less than 25% after the knee.

  14. Formation of Hard Power-laws in the Energetic Particle Spectra Resulting from Relativistic Magnetic Reconnection

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Fan; Li, Hui; Daughton, William; Liu, Yi-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    Using fully kinetic simulations, we demonstrate that magnetic reconnection in relativistic plasmas is highly efficient at accelerating particles through a first-order Fermi process resulting from the curvature drift of particles in the direction of the electric field induced by the relativistic flows. This mechanism gives rise to the formation of hard power-law spectra in parameter regimes where the energy density in the reconnecting field exceeds the rest mass energy density $\\sigma \\equiv B...

  15. Energy spectra of spinning particles around spinning strings in Einstein-Cartan gravity

    OpenAIRE

    de Andrade, L. C. Garcia

    2002-01-01

    Riemannian Killing conserved currents are used to find the energy spectra of classical spinning particles moving around a spinning string in Einstein-Cartan (EC) theory of gravity. It is shown that a continuos spectrum is obtained for planar open orbits the energy shift between the upper and lower bounds obtained for circular planar orbits. A spin-spin effect between the spin of the test particle and the spin of the spinning string contributes to the energy spectrum splitting.

  16. Design of an electronic charged particle spectrometer to measure (ρR), yield, and implosion symmetry on the OMEGA Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preliminary design for a state-of-the-art diagnostic that will measure a broad energy spectrum of charged particles generated in the OMEGA Upgrade facility is investigated. Using a set of photodiodes (∼10) and a 0.8 Tesla permanent magnet, the diagnostic will uniquely determine particle energies and identities from 0.2 MeV up to the maximum charged particle energies (10.6 MeV tritons, 12.5 MeV deuterons and 17.4 MeV protons). With its high density picture elements, each photodiode has 106 single-hit detectors, giving the spectrometer a dynamic range of 1 - 105 particles/shot. For example, in the case of a DT yield of 109 neutrons, about 100 knock-on charged particles will be detected when the spectrometer aperture is 60 cm from the implosion. Furthermore, the measurement of knock-on D and T spectra will allow ρR's up to 0.15 g/cm2 to be measured (for a 1 keV plasma), or 0.3 g/cm22 if hydrogen doping is used. In addition, the yield and slowing down of secondary protons may be used to determine ρR up to 0.3 g/cm2. Significantly, this diagnostic will also directly measure the DD fusion yield and energy degradation of nascent 3 MeV protons. By using two such compact spectrometers to measure the yield and spectra on widely separated ports around the OMEGA Upgrade target chamber, the implosion and bum symmetry can be determined. Furthermore, the ion temperature, and, in principle, even the electron temperature can be measured. The diagnostic and its development will be fully tested at several critical steps, utilizing 0.2-16 MeV protons (and several other charged particles and neutrons) from our absolutely calibrated Cockcroft-Walton facility

  17. Kinetic phenomena in charged particle transport in gases and plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovic, Zoran Lj.; Dujko, Sasa; Sasic, Olivera; Stojanovic, Vladimir; Malovic, Gordana [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, POB 68 11080 Zemun (Serbia); Faculty of Traffic Engineering, University of Belgrade Belgrade (Serbia); Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, POB 68 11080 Zemun (Serbia)

    2012-05-25

    The key difference between equilibrium (thermal) and non-equilibrium (low temperature - a.k.a. cold) plasmas is in the degree in which the shape of the cross sections influences the electron energy distribution function (EEDF). In this paper we will discuss the issue of kinetic phenomena from two different angles. The first will be how to take advantage of the strong influence and use low current data to obtain the cross sections. This is also known as the swarm technique and the product of a ''swarm analysis'' is a set of cross sections giving good number, momentum and energy balances of electrons or other charged particles. At the same time understanding the EEDF is based on the cross section data. Nevertheless sometimes the knowledge of the cross sections and even the behaviour of individual particles are insufficient to explain collective behaviour of the ensemble. The resulting ''kinetic'' effects may be used to favour certain properties of non-equilibrium plasmas and even may be used as the basis of some new plasma applications.

  18. High Energy Ionic Charge State Composition in Large Solar Energetic Particle Events

    OpenAIRE

    Labrador, A. W.; Leske, R. A.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Cummings, A. C.; Stone, E. C.; von Rosenvinge, T. T.

    2001-01-01

    Measurements of ionic charge states in solar energetic particle (SEP) events have been made at relatively high energies (> 15 MeV/nucleon) with the Mass Spectrometer Telescope (MAST) on board the Solar, Anomalous, and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) satellite using the Earth's magnetic field as a particle rigidity filter. We have examined the largest SEP events of solar cycle 23 and determined ionic charge states of Fe and other elements in several of these events. The mean charge s...

  19. Nonrelativistic Charged Particle-Magnetic Monopole Scattering in the Global Monopole Background

    CERN Document Server

    De Oliveira, A L C

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the nonrelativistic quantum scattering problem of a charged particle by an Abelian magnetic monopole in the background of a global monopole. In addition to the magnetic and geometric effects, we consider the influence of the electrostatic self-interaction on the charged particle. Moreover, for the specific case where the electrostatic self-interaction becomes attractive, charged particle-monopole bound system can be formed and the respective energy spectrum is hydrogen-like one.

  20. Surface-integral formulation of scattering theory for charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Collisions in the realm of atomic and nuclear physics not only have many practical applications, but also form the testing ground for the underlying quantum collision theory. The last decade has seen extraordinary theoretical progress in the field of electron-impact atomic breakup problem [1]. This problem was challenging to solve due to formal and computational difficulties associated with the long-range Coulomb potential. Presently, however, the electron-induced breakup processes can be calculated accurately for simple targets such as atomic hydrogen and helium, in the kinematically complete form. We report on how the computational progress has resulted in a deeper understanding of the formal theory of Coulomb few-body scattering [2] and how corresponding calculations of nuclear breakup reactions can benefit from this development. In quantum collision theory it is customary to define the scattering amplitude in terms of the scattering wave function and the potential of interaction. Despite the fact that the Coulomb wave function and the Coulomb potential are both known analytically, the conventional theory is not able to provide such a standard definition for the amplitude of scattering of two charged particles, which yields the Rutherford cross section. As far as breakup of a bound state of two particles in a system of three charged particles is concerned, here again the theory fails to give a formal definition for calculating the breakup amplitude in the post form in terms of the total scattering wave function describing the process. The reason for this failure is that charged particles continue to interact with each other even at infinite separation due to the long-range nature of the Coulomb potential, something the conventional theory cannot handle. We present a new formulation of scattering theory applicable to arbitrary two and three-body systems with both short-range and Coulomb long-range potentials [2]. The formalism is based on a surface

  1. History of activation analysis technique with charged particles in Uzbekistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The researches on activation analysis with charged particles (CPAA) were started immediately after beginning of constructing of 150-cm cyclotron U-150 in 60-th years of last century. CPAA laboratory organized on bases of the cyclotron and neutron generator NG-200 (in following I-150) in 1971 existed up to the end of 1985. We have used Ion beams of these devices to elaborate two types of nuclear analysis techniques: 1. Delayed Nuclear Analysis (DNA) involving Charged Particle Activation Analysis (CPAA) and Fast Neutron Activation Analysis (FNAA); 2. Prompt Nuclear Analysis (PNA) involving the spectrometry of particles induced X-Ray emission (PIXE). DNA with using accelerators has the following subdivisions: 1. Proton Activation Analysis (PAA); 2. Deuteron Activation Analysis (DAA); 3. 3He Activation Analysis (3HeAA); 4. 4He Activation Analysis (4HeAA or α-AA); 5. Fast Neutron Activation Analysis (FNAA). PAA and DAA found wide application were used to derive a good sensitivity in determination of contents of more than 20 chemical elements in some materials of high purity. For example, we have applied these techniques for the determination of Li, B, C, N, O, F at level of 10-8 - 10-10 g/g in different high purity semiconductors (Si, SiC, Ge, AsGa, InP et al.), nonferrous metals (Li, Be, Zr, Nb, Mo, Ta, W, Re, Al, Ti etc.), nonconductive materials (different glasses, optical materials, diamonds et al.) and environmental objects (soil, plants, water). The techniques provided good results on the determination of B, C and N contents and others. 3HeAA and 4HeAA were generally used to determine of O and C contents in semiconductors ands metals of high purity. We have elaborated rapid radiochemical techniques for separation of short-lived positron emitters. For example, the separation of 15O, formatting by nuclear reaction 16O(3He,α)15O, the reducing fusion technique was used. Radionuclide 11C was separated chemically by the oxidisation of samples in the

  2. X-ray spectra induced by slow highly charged Arq+ ions in collision with Nb surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The X-ray spectra of Nb surface induced by Arq+ (q =16,17) ions with the energy range from 10 to 20 keV/q were studied by the optical spectrum technology. The experimental results indicate that the multi-electron excitation occurred as a highly charged Ar16+ ion was neutralized below the metal surface. The K shell electron of Ar16+ was excited and then de-excited cascadly to emit K X-ray. The intensity of the X-ray emitted from K shell of the hollow Ar atom decreased with the increase of projectile kinetic energy. The intensity of the X-ray emitted from L shell of the target atom Nb increased with the increase of projectile kinetic energy. The X-ray yield of Ar17+ is three magnitude orders larger than that of Ar16+.

  3. Planar charged-particle trajectories in multipole magnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Willis

    Full Text Available This paper provides a complete generalization of the classic result that the radius of curvature (ρ of a charged-particle trajectory confined to the equatorial plane of a magnetic dipole is directly proportional to the cube of the particle's equatorial distance (ϖ from the dipole (i.e. ρ ∝ ϖ3. Comparable results are derived for the radii of curvature of all possible planar charged-particle trajectories in an individual static magnetic multipole of arbitrary order m and degree n. Such trajectories arise wherever there exists a plane (or planes such that the multipole magnetic field is locally perpendicular to this plane (or planes, everywhere apart from possibly at a set of magnetic neutral lines. Therefore planar trajectories exist in the equatorial plane of an axisymmetric (m = 0, or zonal, magnetic multipole, provided n is odd: the radius of curvature varies directly as ϖn+2. This result reduces to the classic one in the case of a zonal magnetic dipole (n =1. Planar trajectories exist in 2m meridional planes in the case of the general tesseral (0 < m < n magnetic multipole. These meridional planes are defined by the 2m roots of the equation cos[m(ΦΦnm] = 0, where Φnm = (1/m arctan (hnm/gnm; gnm and hnm denote the spherical harmonic coefficients. Equatorial planar trajectories also exist if (nm is odd. The polar axis (θ = 0,π of a tesseral magnetic multipole is a magnetic neutral line if m > 1. A further 2m(nm neutral lines exist at the intersections of the 2m meridional planes with the (nm cones defined by the (n

  4. Study of latent and etched tracks by a charged particle transmission technique

    CERN Document Server

    Vacik, J; Hnatowicz, V; Fink, D; Kobayashi, Y; Hirata, K; Apel, P Y; Strauss, P

    1999-01-01

    A recently suggested technique for non-destructive investigation of inhomogeneities in thin objects, which is based on the measurement of the energy spectra of charged particles transmitted through the object, is used for the study of thermal annealing of 10-20 mu m thick polyethylene terephtalate, polypropylene and polycarbonate foils irradiated with 1-10 MeV/amu heavy ions. At elevated temperature a foil linear contraction is observed on pristine and irradiated material. Also the foil roughness increases with increasing temperature. On the same foils with etched pores 0.5-1.0 mu m in diameter, the thermal annealing results in gradual closing of the pores up to about 30% of their initial diameter at the temperatures of 150-175 deg. C. At higher temperatures the pore diameter increases and achieves its initial value.

  5. Radiation spectrum of the system of charged particles moving in nonabsorbable medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The integral expressions for spectral-angular and spectral distributions of the radiation power of charged particle systems moving on an arbitrary trajectory in nonabsorbable isotropic medium and in vacuum are obtained using Lorentz's self-action method. In this method proper electromagnetic field acting on the electron is defined as a semidifference between retarded and advanced potentials (Dirac, 1938). It is shown which redistribution effects in energy of the radiation spectrum of the studied system are caused by the coherent factor. The power spectra of Cherenkov, synchrotron and synchrotron-Cherenkov radiation are obtained for the system of electrons moving in a spiral. We have established that the radiation spectrum of the system of electrons moving in a circle in this medium is discrete. The Doppler effect causes the appearance of new harmonics in the radiation spectrum of the system of electrons moving in a spiral. These harmonics form the regions of a continuous radiation spectrum. (author)

  6. Study of high-$p_T$ charged particle suppression in PbPb compared to pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=2.76 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Hoch, Michael; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Krammer, Manfred; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Christine; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Teischinger, Florian; Wagner, Philipp; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Bansal, Sunil; Benucci, Leonardo; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Luyckx, Sten; Maes, Thomas; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Charaf, Otman; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wickens, John; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Garcia, Guillaume; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Vanelderen, Lukas; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Ceard, Ludivine; De Favereau De Jeneret, Jerome; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Grégoire, Ghislain; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Schul, Nicolas; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Alves, Gilvan; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Custódio, Analu; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Silva Do Amaral, Sheila Mara; Soares Jorge, Luana; Sznajder, Andre; Souza Dos Anjos, Tiago; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Karadzhinova, Aneliya; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Shuang; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Wang, Siguang; Zhu, Bo; Zou, Wei; Cabrera, Andrés; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Dzelalija, Mile; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Khalil, Shaaban; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Hektor, Andi; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Azzolini, Virginia; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Czellar, Sandor; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Sillou, Daniel; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Marionneau, Matthieu; Millischer, Laurent; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Shreyber, Irina; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Benhabib, Lamia; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Daci, Nadir; Dahms, Torsten; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Elgammal, Sherif; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Thiebaux, Christophe; Veelken, Christian; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Greder, Sebastien; Juillot, Pierre; Karim, Mehdi; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Baty, Clement; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bedjidian, Marc; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Boumediene, Djamel; Brun, Hugues; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Falkiewicz, Anna; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Le Grand, Thomas; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sordini, Viola; Tosi, Silvano; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Lomidze, David; Anagnostou, Georgios; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Caudron, Julien; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Erdmann, Martin; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Lanske, Dankfried; Lingemann, Joschka; Magass, Carsten; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Olschewski, Mark; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Weber, Martin; Bontenackels, Michael; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Davids, Martina; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Linn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Rennefeld, Jörg; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Zoeller, Marc Henning; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Cakir, Altan; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Dammann, Dirk; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flossdorf, Alexander; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Hauk, Johannes; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Olzem, Jan; Petrukhin, Alexey; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Rosin, Michele; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stein, Matthias; Tomaszewska, Justyna; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Autermann, Christian; Blobel, Volker; Bobrovskyi, Sergei; Draeger, Jula; Enderle, Holger; Erfle, Joachim; Gebbert, Ulla; Görner, Martin; Hermanns, Thomas; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Lange, Jörn; Mura, Benedikt; Nowak, Friederike; Pietsch, Niklas; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Barth, Christian; Berger, Joram; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Feindt, Michael; Gruschke, Jasmin; Guthoff, Moritz; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Honc, Simon; Katkov, Igor; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Kuhr, Thomas; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Ratnikova, Natalia; Renz, Manuel; Röcker, Steffen; Saout, Christophe; Scheurer, Armin; Schieferdecker, Philipp; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schmanau, Mike; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Weiler, Thomas; Zeise, Manuel; Ziebarth, Eva Barbara; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Ntomari, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Triantis, Frixos A; Aranyi, Attila; Bencze, Gyorgy; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Kapusi, Anita; Krajczar, Krisztian; Sikler, Ferenc; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Veszpremi, Viktor; Karancsi, János; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Jindal, Monika; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Anil; Singh, Jasbir; Singh, Supreet Pal; Ahuja, Sudha; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Sarkar, Subir; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Aziz, Tariq; Ganguly, Sanmay; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Saha, Anirban; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Hesari, Hoda; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Manna, Norman; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Romano, Francesco; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Singh, Gurpreet; Tupputi, Salvatore; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gianni; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Benaglia, Andrea; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Cavallo, Nicola; De Cosa, Annapaola; Dogangun, Oktay; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellan, Paolo; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Mazzucato, Mirco; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Michelotto, Michele; Nespolo, Massimo; Perrozzi, Luca; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Baesso, Paolo; Berzano, Umberto; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Viviani, Claudio; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Caponeri, Benedetta; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Lucaroni, Andrea; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Romeo, Francesco; Santocchia, Attilio; Taroni, Silvia; Valdata, Marisa; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Palmonari, Francesco; Rizzi, Andrea; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Fanelli, Cristiano; Franci, Daniele; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Pandolfi, Francesco; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Sigamani, Michael; Soffi, Livia; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Botta, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Castello, Roberto; Costa, Marco; Demaria, Natale; Graziano, Alberto; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Belforte, Stefano; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Marone, Matteo; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Heo, Seong Gu; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Chang, Sunghyun; Chung, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Ji Eun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Ro, Sang-Ryul; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Jae Yool; Kim, Zero Jaeho; Song, Sanghyeon; Jo, Hyun Yong; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Seo, Eunsung; Sim, Kwang Souk; Choi, Minkyoo; Kang, Seokon; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Cho, Yongjin; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Min Suk; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Bilinskas, Mykolas Jurgis; Grigelionis, Ignas; Janulis, Mindaugas; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Martínez-Ortega, Jorge; Sánchez-Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A; Krofcheck, David; Bell, Alan James; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Reucroft, Steve; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Brona, Grzegorz; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Bialkowska, Helena; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Almeida, Nuno; Bargassa, Pedrame; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Musella, Pasquale; Nayak, Aruna; Pela, Joao; Ribeiro, Pedro Quinaz; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Evstyukhin, Sergey; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Toropin, Alexander; Troitsky, Sergey; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Erofeeva, Maria; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kossov, Mikhail; Krokhotin, Andrey; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Korotkikh, Vladimir; Lokhtin, Igor; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Vardanyan, Irina; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Korablev, Andrey; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Ekmedzic, Marko; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Soares, Mara Senghi; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Jorda, Clara; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Sobron Sanudo, Mar; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bernet, Colin; Bialas, Wojciech; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Breuker, Horst; Bunkowski, Karol; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Curé, Benoît; D'Enterria, David; De Roeck, Albert; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dobson, Marc; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Frisch, Benjamin; Funk, Wolfgang; Gaddi, Andrea; Georgiou, Georgios; Gerwig, Hubert; Giffels, Manuel; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Giunta, Marina; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Govoni, Pietro; Gowdy, Stephen; Guida, Roberto; Guiducci, Luigi; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hartl, Christian; Harvey, John; Hegner, Benedikt; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hoffmann, Hans Falk; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kaadze, Ketino; Karavakis, Edward; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Lecoq, Paul; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Lourenco, Carlos; Maki, Tuula; Malberti, Martina; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Nesvold, Erik; Nguyen, Matthew; Orimoto, Toyoko; Orsini, Luciano; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Perez, Emmanuelle; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Polese, Giovanni; Quertenmont, Loic; Racz, Attila; Reece, William; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Rolandi, Gigi; Rommerskirchen, Tanja; Rovelli, Chiara; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Santanastasio, Francesco; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Spiropulu, Maria; Stoye, Markus; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vichoudis, Paschalis; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Worm, Steven; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; Bäni, Lukas; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Chen, Zhiling; Deisher, Amanda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Dünser, Marc; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Mohr, Niklas; Moortgat, Filip; Nägeli, Christoph; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Sawley, Marie-Christine; Starodumov, Andrei; Stieger, Benjamin; Takahashi, Maiko; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Urscheler, Christina; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Wehrli, Lukas; Weng, Joanna; Aguilo, Ernest; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Otiougova, Polina; Robmann, Peter; Snoek, Hella; Verzetti, Mauro; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Zong-Kai; Lu, Yun-Ju; Mekterovic, Darko; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Shi, Xin; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wan, Xia; Wang, Minzu; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karapinar, Guler; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Uzun, Dilber; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Yildirim, Eda; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Levchuk, Leonid; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Kreczko, Lukasz; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Basso, Lorenzo; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Jackson, James; Kennedy, Bruce W; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Mathias, Bryn; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Tapper, Alexander; Tourneur, Stephane; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardle, Nicholas; Wardrope, David; Whyntie, Tom; Barrett, Matthew; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Henderson, Conor; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; St John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; Sulak, Lawrence; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Cutts, David; Ferapontov, Alexey; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Caulfield, Matthew; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Houtz, Rachel; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Mall, Orpheus; Miceli, Tia; Nelson, Randy; Pellett, Dave; Robles, Jorge; Rutherford, Britney; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Andreev, Valeri; Arisaka, Katsushi; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Duris, Joseph; Erhan, Samim; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Plager, Charles; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Tucker, Jordan; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Giordano, Ferdinando; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Mangano, Boris; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pi, Haifeng; Pieri, Marco; Ranieri, Riccardo; Sani, Matteo; Sfiligoi, Igor; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lowette, Steven; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; West, Christopher; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Di Marco, Emanuele; Duarte, Javier; Gataullin, Marat; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Rogan, Christopher; Timciuc, Vladlen; Traczyk, Piotr; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Jun, Soon Yung; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Drell, Brian Robert; Edelmaier, Christopher; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Heyburn, Bernadette; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Zang, Shi-Lei; Agostino, Lorenzo; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Hopkins, Walter; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Puigh, Darren; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Biselli, Angela; Cirino, Guy; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Atac, Muzaffer; Bakken, Jon Alan; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bloch, Ingo; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Cooper, William; Eartly, David P; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Esen, Selda; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Green, Dan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jensen, Hans; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Miao, Ting; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Pivarski, James; Pordes, Ruth; Prokofyev, Oleg; Schwarz, Thomas; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Tan, Ping; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Goldberg, Sean; Hugon, Justin; Kim, Bockjoo; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Remington, Ronald; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Schmitt, Michael; Scurlock, Bobby; Sellers, Paul; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Snowball, Matthew; Wang, Dayong; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Gaultney, Vanessa; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Sekmen, Sezen; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Kunde, Gerd J; Lacroix, Florent; Malek, Magdalena; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Silvestre, Catherine; Strom, Derek; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Griffiths, Scott; Lae, Chung Khim; McCliment, Edward; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Bonato, Alessio; Eskew, Christopher; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Tran, Nhan Viet; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Grachov, Oleg; Kenny Iii, Raymond Patrick; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Tinti, Gemma; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Barfuss, Anne-Fleur; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kirn, Malina; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Peterman, Alison; Rossato, Kenneth; Rumerio, Paolo; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Twedt, Elizabeth; Alver, Burak; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Lee, Yen-Jie; Li, Wei; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Velicanu, Dragos; Wenger, Edward Allen; Wolf, Roger; Wyslouch, Bolek; Xie, Si; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cooper, Seth; Cushman, Priscilla; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Franzoni, Giovanni; Gude, Alexander; Haupt, Jason; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rekovic, Vladimir; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Godang, Romulus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Summers, Don; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Jindal, Pratima; Keller, Jason; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R; Baur, Ulrich; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Shipkowski, Simon Peter; Smith, Kenneth; Wan, Zongru; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Trocino, Daniele; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Ziegler, Jill; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Hill, Christopher; Killewald, Phillip; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Rodenburg, Marissa; Vuosalo, Carl; Williams, Grayson; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hunt, Adam; Laird, Edward; Lopes Pegna, David; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Raval, Amita; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Acosta, Jhon Gabriel; Huang, Xing Tao; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Oliveros, Sandra; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bolla, Gino; Borrello, Laura; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Everett, Adam; Gutay, Laszlo; Hu, Zhen; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Kress, Matthew; Laasanen, Alvin T; Leonardo, Nuno; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Guragain, Samir; Parashar, Neeti; Adair, Antony; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Cuplov, Vesna; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Gotra, Yury; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Petrillo, Gianluca; Sakumoto, Willis; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Malik, Sarah; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Atramentov, Oleksiy; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hits, Dmitry; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Richards, Alan; Rose, Keith; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Seitz, Claudia; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Sengupta, Sinjini; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Akchurin, Nural; Bardak, Cemile; Damgov, Jordan; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Mane, Poonam; Roh, Youn; Sill, Alan; Volobouev, Igor; Wigmans, Richard; Appelt, Eric; Brownson, Eric; Engh, Daniel; Florez, Carlos; Gabella, William; Gurrola, Alfredo; Issah, Michael; Johns, Willard; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Conetti, Sergio; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goadhouse, Stephen; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Yohay, Rachel; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Mattson, Mark; Milstène, Caroline; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Bachtis, Michail; Belknap, Donald; Bellinger, James Nugent; Bernardini, Jacopo; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Efron, Jonathan; Friis, Evan; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Swanson, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    The transverse momentum spectra of charged particles have been measured in pp and PbPb collisions at sqrt(sNN) = 2.76 TeV by the CMS experiment at the LHC. In the transverse momentum range pt = 5-10 GeV/c, the charged particle yield in the most central PbPb collisions is suppressed by up to a factor of 5 compared to the pp yield scaled by the number of incoherent nucleon-nucleon collisions. At higher pt, this suppression is significantly reduced, approaching roughly a factor of 2 for particles with pt in the range pt=40-100 GeV/c.

  7. Quasinormal modes of charged dilaton black holes and their entropy spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Sakalli, I

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we employ the scalar perturbations of the charged dilaton black hole (CDBH) found by Chan, Horne and Mann (CHM), and described with an action which emerges in the low-energy limit of the string theory. A CDBH is neither asymptotically flat (AF) nor non-asymptotically flat (NAF) spacetime. Depending on the value of its dilaton parameter "a", it has both Schwarzschild and linear dilaton black hole (LDBH) limits. We compute the complex frequencies of the quasinormal modes (QNM) of the CDBH by considering small perturbations around its horizon. By using the highly damped QNMs in the process prescribed by Maggiore, we obtain the quantum entropy and area spectra of these BHs. Although the QNM frequencies are tuned by "a", we show that the quantum spectra do not depend on "a", and they are equally spaced. On the other hand, the obtained value of undetermined dimensionless constant {\\epsilon} is the double of Bekenstein's result. The possible reason of this discrepancy is also discussed.

  8. Influence of surplus negative charge on absorption and fluorescence excitation spectra of asymmetric polymethine dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combined spectral and quantum-chemical investigations of the vinylog series of the asymmetric anionic polymethine dyes, derivatives of aminocoumarin, as well as the related symmetric dyes, are fulfilled. The charge injection to these types of dyes leads to the essential shifts of electronic levels. The calculations show the inverse character of the first two electron transitions in anionic polymethines and relative cationic polymethines. It is established that going to asymmetric dyes leads to a slight decrease of the spectral effect of the chromophore lengthening. The influence of the asymmetry manifests itself in a positive deviation in the absorption spectra and a negative deviation of the second electron transition manifested visually in the anisotropy of the fluorescence excitation spectra of asymmetric dyes. It is found that the lengthening of the chromophore is accompanied by an increase of the deviation of the first electron transition and, in contrast, by a decrease of the deviation of the second transition. The obtained results may be used in the design of molecular systems with prognosed current-voltage characteristics for nanoelectronics

  9. Light particle coincidences with gross structure in energy spectra from the 40Ca+40Ca collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angular correlations between light charged particles and heavy ion fragments from the 40Ca + 40Ca collision have been investigated. The high excitation energy structure previously observed in inclusive experiments is strongly populated in coincidence with protons for calcium and potassium fragments, with alphas for argon fragments. Particles emitted in coincidence with the structure are strongly focused and have a velocity close to the velocity of the beam, whereas the yield of evaporation decay is very small

  10. The steady state of a particle in a vibrating box and possible application in short pulse generation of charged particles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nandan Jha; Sudhir R Jain

    2013-09-01

    In this paper the classical evolution of a particle is studied which bounces back and forth in a 1D vibrating cavity such that the reflection from the wall does not change the speed of the particle. A peculiar behaviour of the particle motion can be seen where the time evolution of the motion shows superposition of linear and oscillatory behaviour. In particular, the parameter range is found in which the particle oscillates between the walls in steady state as if the wall was static and it is showed that for these parameter ranges the particle settles to this steady state for all initial conditions. It is proposed that this phenomenon can be used to bunch charged particles in short pulses where the synchronization proposed in our model should work against the space charge effect in the charged particle bunch.

  11. Unusual features of charge carrier traps energy spectra in silicon organic polymers revealed by advanced TSL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The improved technique of the fractional TSL registration has been elaborated. ► The discrete energies of the charge carrier traps were observed for the PDHS film. ► The TSL activation energies correlate with the Raman Ag modes of the silicon chain. ► The width of TSL curve is generally due to the frequency factor dispersion. - Abstract: The peculiarities of charge carrier traps’ energy spectra in poly (di-n-hexylsilane) films have been studied by the enhanced fractional thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) in the temperature range of 5–200 K. For the first time, we have shown that the majority of fractional energy values (>80%) is distributed between a set of horizontal energy levels suggesting a discontinuity of the traps’ energy spectrum. These data distinctly differ from the results of earlier studies where a quasilinear dependence of the activation energy on temperature was found. It is shown that the significant width of TSL bands originates from the dispersion of the frequency factor. It is also established that the values obtained for the activation energy correlate well with the frequencies of the symmetric Raman active Ag modes at 268 and 373 cm−1 of the silicon chain, which confirms the suggestion about the hole location on the segments of the silicon organic polymers backbone.

  12. Charged Particle Energization and Transport in Reservoirs throughout the Heliosphere: 1. Solar Energetic Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelof, E. C.

    2015-09-01

    “Reservoirs” of energetic charged particles are regions where the particle population is quasi-trapped in large-scale (relative to the gyroradii) magnetic field structures. Reservoirs are found throughout the heliosphere: the huge heliosheath (90appropriate description of this transport is “weak scattering”, in which the particle's first adiabatic invariant (magnetic moment) is approximately conserved while the particle itself moves rather freely along magnetic field lines. Considerable insight into the observed properties of energization processes can be gained from a remarkably simple equation that describes the particle's fractional time-rate-of-change of momentum (dlnp/dt) which depends only upon its pitch angle, the divergence of the plasma velocity (V⊥) transverse to the magnetic field), and the inner product of (V⊥) with the curvature vector of the field lines. The possibilities encompassed in this simple (but general) equation are quite rich, so we restrict our application of it in this paper to the compressive acceleration of SEPs within CMEs.

  13. Square-root operator quantization of elementary particles masses and charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantization of elementary particles masses and charges is proposed within the framework of the square-root operator formalism and the concept of extended particles associated with the structure of the torus. (author)

  14. Particle unstable excited states in 9Be: Influence of beta recoil and width on delayed particle spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The light nucleus 9Be has been studied through the emission of beta-delayed neutrons and alpha particles from 9Li. The activity was produced at the ISOLDE facility in fragmentation reactions induced either by 600 MeV proton or 910 MeV 3He beams from the CERN Synchro-cyclotron. After mass separation, neutron spectra were recorded using 3He-filled proportional counters, while surface barriere detectors were used for the spectroscopy of alpha particles. Effects on the spectrum shape induced by recoil and polarization phenomena as well as large widths of the intermediate states are discussed. (orig.)

  15. Formation of Hard Power-laws in the Energetic Particle Spectra Resulting from Relativistic Magnetic Reconnection

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Fan; Daughton, William; Liu, Yi-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    Using fully kinetic simulations, we demonstrate that magnetic reconnection in relativistic plasmas is highly efficient at accelerating particles through a first-order Fermi process resulting from the curvature drift of particles in the direction of the electric field induced by the relativistic flows. This mechanism gives to the formation of hard power-law spectra in parameter regimes where the energy density in the reconnecting field exceeds the rest mass energy density $\\sigma \\equiv B^2/(4 \\pi n m_ec^2) > 1$ and when the system size is sufficiently large. In the limit $\\sigma \\gg 1$, the spectral index approaches $p=1$ and most of the available energy is converted into non-thermal particles. A simple analytic model is proposed which explains these key features and predicts a general condition under which hard power-law spectra will be generated from magnetic reconnection.

  16. Intermediate regime of charged particle scattering in the field-reversal configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shustov, P. I., E-mail: p.shustov@gmail.com; Yushkov, E. V. [Space Research Institute, RAS, Profsouznaya st., 84/32, GSP-7, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Department of Physics, Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation); Artemyev, A. V., E-mail: artemyev@iki.rssi.ru [Space Research Institute, RAS, Profsouznaya st., 84/32, GSP-7, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    In this paper, we investigate the charged particle scattering in the magnetic field configuration with stretched magnetic field lines. This scattering results from the violation of the adiabaticity of charged particle motion in the region with the strong gradient of the magnetic field. We consider the intermediate regime of charged particle dynamics, when the violation of the adiabaticity is significant enough, but particle motion is not chaotic. We demonstrate and describe the significant scattering of particles with large adiabatic invariants (magnetic moment). We discuss a possible application of obtained results for description of the peculiarities of pitch-angle diffusion of relativistic electrons in the Earth radiation belts.

  17. Method of producing weakly acidic cation exchange resin particles charged with uranyl ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelmonem, N.; Ringel, H.; Zimmer, E.

    1981-07-21

    Weakly acidic cationic ion exchange resin particles are charged with uranyl ions by contacting the particles step wise with aqueous uranyl nitrate solution at higher uranium concentrations from stage to stage. An alkaline medium is added to the uranyl nitrate solution in each stage to increase the successive pH values of the uranyl nitrate solution contacting the particles in dependence upon the uranium concentration effective for maximum charging of the particles with uranyl ions.

  18. Transverse Momentum Distributions of Charged Particles in Nuclear Collisions at RHIC Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reports on measurements of the transverse momentum distributions of produced particles from nuclear collisions at the highest center-of-mass energies provided by the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The transverse momentum spectra of charged hadrons produced in d + Au and Au + Au collisions at the top RHIC energy of 200 GeV in the nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass system are presented. For the Au + Au system, the measurements at the lower energy of 62.4 GeV are also reported. The analyzed data were collected by the PHOBOS experiment during several RHIC data-taking runs from 2001 to 2004. The main emphasis of this paper is the measurement of particle production at very low transverse momenta, a possibility uniquely available to the PHOBOS detector. A new non-standard method was developed to extract yields of (π+ + π-), (K+ + K-) and (p + p(bar)) at the lowest transverse momentum values accessible at RHIC. The results do not confirm the prediction of a significant enhancement in particle production at very low pT . The flattening of proton and antiproton pT spectra, consistent with the expectations of transverse expansion of the system, is clearly observed down to very low pT . In contrast to Au + Au collisions, such a flattening is not observed in yields of d + Au collisions at √sNN = 200 GeV. The scaling properties of mT spectra in Au + Au and d + Au collisions, as well as particle ratios, are discussed. Results obtained from the analysis of the transverse momentum distributions clearly show that the matter produced in nuclear collisions at RHIC energies is strongly coupled and undergoes a rapid transverse expansion. Comparison to the predictions of different models aiming to describe particle production in ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions is discussed. The characteristics of the system derived from this study of the transverse momentum distributions has provided a significant contribution to the RHIC discovery of a new state of matter, a

  19. Double electron excitation of helium by charged particle impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. A four-body classical trajectory Monte Carlo method is applied in the study of double electron excitation of helium by charged particle impact. The calculations are based on the independent particle model. As projectiles we consider protons and antiprotons with energies between 0.25 and 5 MeV. The state selective total cross sections as a function of the impact energy are calculated and compared with experimental and theoretical data. Fig. 1. shows the double excitation cross sections of helium to the (2s2)1S (Fig. 1a), (2s2p)1P (Fig. 1b) and (2p2)1D (Fig. 1c) states as a function of the impact energy. The errors of our calculated data are smaller or comparable with the size of the symbols. Our recent cross sections are compared with the experimental data of Giese et al. and Moretto-Capelle et al. and with the previous calculations of Bodea et al. Instead of the antiproton impact, the experiments in ref. were carried out with electron impact. These cross sections are shown at the energy where the electron velocity is equal that of the antiproton velocity. In all cases the cross sections for antiprotons exceeds the cross section for protons. The largest difference is obtained for the excitation of the (2s2)1S state (Fig. 1a). According to our expectation, with increasing projectile energies the cross sections for proton and antiproton impact approaching each other. This tendency is valid for the previous calculations of Bodea et al. except for the (2p2)1D (Fig. 1c). The calculated cross sections generally agree with the experimental values. (author)

  20. Magnetoinduction converter for measuring the charged particle flux in beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The arrangement of a contactless magnetoinduction converter (MIC) designed for measuring the charged particle flux in beams is described. The converter is made of a coil placed onto a toroidal ferromagnetic core, 120x60x12 mm in size. To eliminate the effect of the external magnetic field the MIC is placed into a compound permalloy- copper labyrinth-type screen, In the aperiodic operating mode the MIC measuring channel contains a preamplifier, an amplifier, a strobing circuit, an integrator with a converter, a delay circuit, a time relay, a pulsed-to-direct voltage converter, and a digital voltmeter. For experimental measuring of sensitivity of the MIC measuring system a calibration loop, consisting of an accurate- amplitude generator, a delay circuit and a time relay, is used. The given contactless magnetoinduction converter is a part of the electron flux standard for 5-50 MeV beams. The normal conditions of reproduction of the ''electron/s'' unit are the following: the 293+-1 K temperature, 101.3+40 kPa pressure, 60+-15% relative humidity, 220B+-10% supply voltage and 50+-0.5 Hz frequency. The dynamic range of MIC application is 1012-1015 electron/s. The total systematic error of reproduction of the electron flux unit for the MIC is 1.7%

  1. The Boltzmann equation theory of charged particle transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown how a formally exact Kubo-like response theory equivalent to the Boltzmann equation theory of charged particle transport can be constructed. The response theory gives the general wavevector and time-dependent velocity distribution at any time in terms of an initial distribution function, to which is added the response induced by a generalized perturbation over the intervening time. The usual Kubo linear response result for the distribution function is recovered by choosing the initial velocity distribution to be Maxwellian. For completeness the response theory introduces an exponential convergence function into the response time integral. This is equivalent to using a modified Boltzmann equation but the general form of the transport theory is not changed. The modified transport theory can be used to advantage where possible convergence difficulties occur in numerical solutions of the Boltzmann equation. This paper gives a systematic development of the modified transport theory and shows how the response theory fits into the broader scheme of solving the Boltzmann equation. The discussion extends both the work of Kumar et al. (1980), where the distribution function is expanded out in terms of tensor functions, and the propagator description where the non-hydrodynamic time development of the distribution function is related to the wavevector dependent Green function of the Boltzmann equation

  2. Local phase transformation in alloys during charged-particle irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, N.Q.; Okamoto, P.R.

    1984-10-01

    Among the various mechanisms and processes by which energetic irradiation can alter the phase stability of alloys, radiation-induced segregation is one of the most important phenomena. Radiation-induced segregation in alloys occurs as a consequence of preferential coupling between persistent fluxes of excess defects and solute atoms, leading to local enrichment or depletion of alloying elements. Thus, this phenomenon tends to drive alloy systems away from thermodynamic equilibrium, on a local scale. During charged-particle irradiations, the spatial nonuniformity in the defect production gives rise to a combination of persistent defect fluxes, near the irradiated surface and in the peak-damage region. This defect-flux combination can modify the alloy composition in a complex fashion, i.e., it can destabilize pre-existing phases, causing spatially- and temporally-dependent precipitation of new metastable phases. The effects of radiation-induced segregation on local phase transformations in Ni-based alloys during proton bombardment and high-voltage electron-microscope irradiation at elevated temperatures are discussed.

  3. Charged particle therapy with mini-segmented beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Avraham eDilmanian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the fundamental attributes of proton therapy and carbon ion therapy is the ability of these charged particles to spare tissue distal to the targeted tumor. This significantly reduces normal tissue toxicity and has the potential to translate to a wider therapeutic index. Although, in general, particle therapy also reduces dose to the proximal tissues, particularly in the vicinity of the target, dose to the skin and to other very superficial tissues tends to be higher than that of megavoltage x-rays. The methods presented here, namely Interleaved carbon minibeams and Radiosurgery with arrays of proton and light ion minibeams, both utilize beams segmented into arrays of parallel minibeams of about 0.3 mm incident beam size. These minibeam arrays spare tissues, as demonstrated by synchrotron x-ray experiments. An additional feature of particle minibeams is their gradual broadening due to multiple Coulomb scattering as they penetrate tissues. In the case of interleaved carbon minibeams, which do not broaden much, two arrays of planar carbon minibeams that remain parallel at target depth, are aimed at the target from 90º angles and made to interleave at the target to produce a solid radiation field within the target. As a result the surrounding tissues are exposed only to individual carbon minibeam arrays and are therefore spared. The method was used in four-directional geometry at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory to ablate a 6.5-mm target in a rabbit brain at a single exposure with 40 Gy physical absorbed dose. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and histology six month later showed very focal target necrosis with nearly no damage to the surrounding brain. As for minibeams of protons and light ions, for which the minibeam broadening is substantial, measurements at MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, Texas, and Monte Carlo simulations showed that the broadening minibeams will merge with their neighbors at a certain tissue depth

  4. On the time-averaging of ultrafine particle number size spectra in vehicular plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. H. Yao

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafine vehicular particle (<100 nm number size distributions presented in the literature are mostly averages of long scan-time (~30 s or more spectra mainly due to the non-availability of commercial instruments that can measure particle distributions in the <10 nm to 100 nm range faster than 30 s even though individual researchers have built faster (1–2.5 s scanning instruments. With the introduction of the Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (EEPS in 2004, high time-resolution (1 full 32-channel spectrum per second particle size distribution data become possible and allow atmospheric researchers to study the characteristics of ultrafine vehicular particles in rapidly and perhaps randomly varying high concentration environments such as roadside, on-road and tunnel. In this study, particle size distributions in these environments were found to vary as rapidly as one second frequently. This poses the question on the generality of using averages of long scan-time spectra for dynamic and/or mechanistic studies in rapidly and perhaps randomly varying high concentration environments. One-second EEPS data taken at roadside, on roads and in tunnels by a mobile platform are time-averaged to yield 5, 10, 30 and 120 s distributions to answer this question.

  5. Dependence of plasmon excitation energy on filler material in interaction of charged particle with filled nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahari, A., E-mail: bahari.a@lu.ac.i [Department of Physics, Lorestan University, Lorestan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohamadi, A. [Department of Physics, Shiraz Payaem Noor University, Fars (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    The interaction of charged particles with filled single-walled metallic nanotubes (SWMNT) has been investigated. Numerical results for the plasmon energy as a function of the wave vector are presented when the charged particle is outside the nanotube. Dependence of the plasmon energy on ratio of plasma frequency of the filler and SWMNT has been shown.

  6. Summary report on first research coordination meeting on heavy charged-particle interaction data for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary is given of the First Research Coordination Meeting on Heavy Charged-Particle Interaction Data for Radiotherapy. A programme to compile and evaluate charged-particle nuclear data for therapeutic applications was proposed. Detailed coordinated research proposals were also agreed. Technical discussions and the resulting work plan of the Coordinated Research Project are summarized, along with actions and deadlines. (author)

  7. Method and system for treating an interior surface of a workpiece using a charged particle beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, David Richard

    2007-05-23

    A method and system of treating an interior surface on an internal cavity of a workpiece using a charged particle beam. A beam deflector surface of a beam deflector is placed within the internal cavity of the workpiece and is used to redirect the charged particle beam toward the interior surface to treat the interior surface.

  8. Charged NUT field : [Part] I. Motion of test particles and [Part] II. Cosmic censorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some properties of the charged NUT field are studied. In the first part of the paper, some general aspects of the charged NUT field have been investigated using uncharged and charged particles. The behaviour of the particles near the singularity has also been considered. In the second part of the paper, the charged NUT sources in the context of cosmic censorship hypothesis are studied. Motion of charged particles in the equatorial plane and along the axis is considered. From this investigation the interesting result is discovered that by such a bombardment of charged test particles, the existing event horizons cannot be destroyed but, in contrast to the Reissner-Nordstrom field, naked singularities do not get enveloped by event horizons. (author)

  9. Search for fractionally charged particles in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aguilo, Ernest; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Christine; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Luyckx, Sten; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Staykova, Zlatka; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Reis, Thomas; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Marcken, Gil; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Garcia, Guillaume; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Ceard, Ludivine; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Schul, Nicolas; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Custódio, Analu; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Soares Jorge, Luana; Sznajder, Andre; Souza Dos Anjos, Tiago; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; 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Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Karjalainen, Ahti; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Millischer, Laurent; Nayak, Aruna; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Shreyber, Irina; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Benhabib, Lamia; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Daci, Nadir; Dahms, Torsten; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Juillot, Pierre; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Anagnostou, Georgios; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Caudron, Julien; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Olschewski, Mark; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Weber, Martin; Bontenackels, Michael; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Lingemann, Joschka; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Costanza, Francesco; Dammann, Dirk; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Glushkov, Ivan; Gunnellini, Paolo; Habib, Shiraz; Hauk, Johannes; Hellwig, Gregor; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Novgorodova, Olga; Olzem, Jan; Perrey, Hanno; Petrukhin, Alexey; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Riedl, Caroline; Ron, Elias; Rosin, Michele; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stein, Matthias; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Draeger, Jula; Enderle, Holger; Erfle, Joachim; Gebbert, Ulla; Görner, Martin; Hermanns, Thomas; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Lange, Jörn; Mura, Benedikt; Nowak, Friederike; Peiffer, Thomas; Pietsch, Niklas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Seidel, Markus; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Vanelderen, Lukas; Barth, Christian; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Guthoff, Moritz; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Nürnberg, Andreas; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Ratnikova, Natalia; Röcker, Steffen; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Zeise, Manuel; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Ntomari, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Karancsi, János; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Kaur, Manjit; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mehta, Pourus; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Aziz, Tariq; Ganguly, Sanmay; Guchait, Monoranjan; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Hesari, Hoda; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Singh, Gurpreet; Venditti, Rosamaria; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Tosi, Silvano; Benaglia, Andrea; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Cavallo, Nicola; De Cosa, Annapaola; Dogangun, Oktay; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Romeo, Francesco; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Taroni, Silvia; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Fanelli, Cristiano; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Sigamani, Michael; Soffi, Livia; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Costa, Marco; Demaria, Natale; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Marone, Matteo; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Schizzi, Andrea; Heo, Seong Gu; Kim, Tae Yeon; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Chang, Sunghyun; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Ro, Sang-Ryul; Son, Dong-Chul; Son, Taejin; Kim, Jae Yool; Kim, Zero Jaeho; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Cho, Yongjin; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Min Suk; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Bilinskas, Mykolas Jurgis; Grigelionis, Ignas; Janulis, Mindaugas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Martínez-Ortega, Jorge; Sánchez-Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A; Krofcheck, David; Bell, Alan James; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Reucroft, Steve; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Ansari, Muhammad Hamid; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Almeida, Nuno; Bargassa, Pedrame; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Savina, Maria; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Evstyukhin, Sergey; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Erofeeva, Maria; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kossov, Mikhail; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Popov, Andrey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Ekmedzic, Marko; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Soares, Mara Senghi; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Graziano, Alberto; Jorda, Clara; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benitez, Jose F; Bernet, Colin; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; De Roeck, Albert; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dobson, Marc; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Frisch, Benjamin; Funk, Wolfgang; Georgiou, Georgios; Giffels, Manuel; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Giunta, Marina; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Govoni, Pietro; Gowdy, Stephen; Guida, Roberto; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hartl, Christian; Harvey, John; Hegner, Benedikt; Hinzmann, Andreas; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kaadze, Ketino; Karavakis, Edward; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Lecoq, Paul; Lee, Yen-Jie; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Lourenco, Carlos; Magini, Nicolo; Maki, Tuula; Malberti, Martina; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Musella, Pasquale; Nesvold, Erik; Orimoto, Toyoko; Orsini, Luciano; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Perez, Emmanuelle; Perrozzi, Luca; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Polese, Giovanni; Quertenmont, Loic; Racz, Attila; Reece, William; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovelli, Chiara; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Santanastasio, Francesco; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sekmen, Sezen; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Worm, Steven; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; Bäni, Lukas; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Deisher, Amanda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Mohr, Niklas; Moortgat, Filip; Nägeli, Christoph; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Starodumov, Andrei; Stieger, Benjamin; Takahashi, Maiko; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Urscheler, Christina; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Wehrli, Lukas; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Otiougova, Polina; Robmann, Peter; Snoek, Hella; Tupputi, Salvatore; Verzetti, Mauro; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Zong-Kai; Lu, Yun-Ju; Mekterovic, Darko; Singh, Anil; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Shi, Xin; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wan, Xia; Wang, Minzu; Asavapibhop, Burin; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karaman, Turker; Karapinar, Guler; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Yildirim, Eda; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Cankocak, Kerem; Levchuk, Leonid; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Kreczko, Lukasz; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Jackson, James; Kennedy, Bruce W; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Mathias, Bryn; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Stoye, Markus; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardle, Nicholas; Whyntie, Tom; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Charaf, Otman; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; St John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; Sulak, Lawrence; Alimena, Juliette; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Cutts, David; Demiragli, Zeynep; Ferapontov, Alexey; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Houtz, Rachel; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Mall, Orpheus; Miceli, Tia; Pellett, Dave; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Rutherford, Britney; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Yohay, Rachel; Andreev, Valeri; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Duris, Joseph; Erhan, Samim; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Plager, Charles; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Traczyk, Piotr; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Giordano, Ferdinando; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Mangano, Boris; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lowette, Steven; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Chen, Yi; Di Marco, Emanuele; Duarte, Javier; Gataullin, Marat; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Rogan, Christopher; Spiropulu, Maria; Timciuc, Vladlen; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Drell, Brian Robert; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bloch, Ingo; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Green, Dan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Kilminster, Benjamin; Klima, Boaz; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Hugon, Justin; Kim, Bockjoo; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Park, Myeonghun; Remington, Ronald; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Sellers, Paul; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Snowball, Matthew; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Gaultney, Vanessa; Hewamanage, Samantha; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Lacroix, Florent; Malek, Magdalena; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Strom, Derek; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Tan, Ping; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Kenny Iii, Raymond Patrick; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Tinti, Gemma; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Barfuss, Anne-Fleur; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kirn, Malina; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Peterman, Alison; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Twedt, Elizabeth; Apyan, Aram; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Krajczar, Krisztian; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Velicanu, Dragos; Wenger, Edward Allen; Wolf, Roger; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cooper, Seth; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Franzoni, Giovanni; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Keller, Jason; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Haley, Joseph; Nash, David; Trocino, Daniele; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Chan, Kwok Ming; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Vuosalo, Carl; Williams, Grayson; Winer, Brian L; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hunt, Adam; Jindal, Pratima; Lopes Pegna, David; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Raval, Amita; Safdi, Ben; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Brownson, Eric; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Everett, Adam; Hu, Zhen; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Kress, Matthew; Laasanen, Alvin T; Leonardo, Nuno; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Guragain, Samir; Parashar, Neeti; Adair, Antony; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Li, Wei; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Malik, Sarah; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Rekovic, Vladimir; Robles, Jorge; Rose, Keith; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Seitz, Claudia; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Sengupta, Sinjini; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Roh, Youn; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Florez, Carlos; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Belknap, Donald; Borrello, Laura; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Friis, Evan; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Palmonari, Francesco; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Swanson, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    A search is presented for free heavy long-lived fractionally charged particles produced in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV. The data sample was recorded by the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 inverse femtobarns. Candidate fractionally charged particles are identified by selecting tracks with associated low charge measurements in the silicon tracking detector. Observations are found to be consistent with expectations for background processes. The results of the search are used to set upper limits on the cross section for pair production of fractionally charged, massive spin-1/2 particles that are neutral under SU(3)$_C$ and SU(2)$_L$. We exclude at 95% confidence level such particles with electric charge ±2e/3 with masses below 310 GeV, and those with charge ±e/3 with masses below 140 GeV.

  10. Charging of mesospheric aerosol particles: the role of photodetachment and photoionization from meteoric smoke and ice particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rapp

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Time constants for photodetachment, photoemission, and electron capture are considered for two classes of mesospheric aerosol particles, i.e., meteor smoke particles (MSPs and pure water ice particles. Assuming that MSPs consist of metal oxides like Fe2O3 or SiO, we find that during daytime conditions photodetachment by solar photons is up to 4 orders of magnitude faster than electron attachment such that MSPs cannot be negatively charged in the presence of sunlight. Rather, even photoemission can compete with electron capture unless the electron density becomes very large (>>1000 cm−3 such that MSPs should either be positively charged or neutral in the case of large electron densities. For pure water ice particles, however, both photodetachment and photoemission are negligible due to the wavelength characteristics of its absorption cross section and because the flux of solar photons has already dropped significantly at such short wavelengths. This means that water ice particles should normally be negatively charged. Hence, our results can readily explain the repeated observation of the coexistence of positive and negative aerosol particles in the polar summer mesopause, i.e., small MSPs should be positively charged and ice particles should be negatively charged. These results have further important implications for our understanding of the nucleation of mesospheric ice particles as well as for the interpretation of incoherent scatter radar observations of MSPs.

  11. Centrality Dependence of Charged-Hadron Transverse-Momentum Spectra in d+Au Collisions at (sNN)=200 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Becker, B.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Harrington, A. S.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lee, J. W.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Noell, A.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Sedykh, I.; Skulski, W.; Smith, C. E.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S.; Sukhanov, A.; Teng, R.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.; Zhang, J.

    2003-08-01

    We have measured transverse momentum distributions of charged hadrons produced in d+Au collisions at (sNN)=200 GeV. The spectra were obtained for transverse momenta 0.25spectra with collision centrality is presented in comparison to p+p¯ collisions at the same collision energy. With increasing centrality, the yield at high transverse momenta increases more rapidly than the overall particle density, leading to a strong modification of the spectral shape. This change in spectral shape is qualitatively different from observations in Au+Au collisions at the same energy. The results provide important information for discriminating between different models for the suppression of high-pT hadrons observed in Au+Au collisions.

  12. The charged-particle multiplicity inside jets at 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Nachman, Benjamin Philip; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The number of charged particles inside jets is a widely used discriminant for identifying the quark or gluon nature of the initiating parton and is sensitive to both the perturbative and non-perturbative components of fragmentation. This paper presents a measurement of the average number of charged particles with pT>500 MeV inside high-momentum jets in dijet events using 20.3 1/fb of data recorded with the ATLAS detector in pp collisions at s = sqrt(8) TeV collisions at the LHC. The jets considered have transverse momenta from 50 GeV up to and beyond 1.5 TeV. The reconstructed charged-particle track multiplicity distribution is unfolded to remove distortions from detector effects and the resulting charged-particle multiplicity is compared to several models. Furthermore, quark and gluon jet fractions are used to extract the average charged-particle multiplicity for quark and gluon jets separately.

  13. Physical measurements for ion range verification in charged particle therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This PhD thesis reports on the experimental investigation of the prompt photons created during the fragmentation of the carbon beam used in particle therapy. Two series of experiments have been performed at the GANIL and GSI facilities with 95 MeV/u and 305 MeV/u 12C6+ ion beams stopped in PMMA and water phantoms. In both experiments a clear correlation was obtained between the C-ion range and the prompt photon profile. A major issue of these measurements is the discrimination between the prompt photon signal (which is correlated with the ion path) and a vast neutron background uncorrelated with the Bragg-Peak position. Two techniques are employed to allow for this photon-neutron discrimination: the time-of-flight (TOF) and the pulse-shape-discrimination (PSD). The TOF technique allowed demonstrating the correlation of the prompt photon production and the primary ion path while the PSD technique brought great insights to better understand the photon and neutron contribution in TOF spectra. In this work we demonstrated that a collimated set-up detecting prompt photons by means of TOF measurements, could allow real-time control of the longitudinal position of the Bragg-peak under clinical conditions. In the second part of the PhD thesis a simulation study was performed with Geant4 Monte Carlo code to assess the influence of the main design parameters on the efficiency and spatial resolution achievable with a multidetector and multi-collimated Prompt Gamma Camera. Several geometrical configurations for both collimators and stack of detectors have been systematically studied and the considerations on the main design constraints are reported. (author)

  14. Physical measurements for ion range verification in charged particle therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Testa, M.

    2010-10-15

    This PhD thesis reports on the experimental investigation of the prompt photons created during the fragmentation of the carbon beam used in particle therapy. Two series of experiments have been performed at the GANIL and GSI facilities with 95 MeV/u and 305 MeV/u {sup 12}C{sup 6+} ion beams stopped in PMMA and water phantoms. In both experiments a clear correlation was obtained between the C-ion range and the prompt photon profile. A major issue of these measurements is the discrimination between the prompt photon signal (which is correlated with the ion path) and a vast neutron background uncorrelated with the Bragg-Peak position. Two techniques are employed to allow for this photon-neutron discrimination: the time-of-flight (TOF) and the pulse-shape-discrimination (PSD). The TOF technique allowed demonstrating the correlation of the prompt photon production and the primary ion path while the PSD technique brought great insights to better understand the photon and neutron contribution in TOF spectra. In this work we demonstrated that a collimated set-up detecting prompt photons by means of TOF measurements, could allow real-time control of the longitudinal position of the Bragg-peak under clinical conditions. In the second part of the PhD thesis a simulation study was performed with Geant4 Monte Carlo code to assess the influence of the main design parameters on the efficiency and spatial resolution achievable with a multidetector and multi-collimated Prompt Gamma Camera. Several geometrical configurations for both collimators and stack of detectors have been systematically studied and the considerations on the main design constraints are reported. (author)

  15. Threshold Laws for the Break-up of Atomic Particles into Several Charged Fragments

    OpenAIRE

    Kuchiev, M. Yu.; Ostrovsky, V. N.

    1998-01-01

    The processes with three or more charged particles in the final state exhibit particular threshold behavior, as inferred by the famous Wannier law for (2e + ion) system. We formulate a general solution which determines the threshold behavior of the cross section for multiple fragmentation. Applications to several systems of particular importance with three, four and five leptons (electrons and positrons) in the field of charged core; and two pairs of identical particles with opposite charges ...

  16. New Electrically Charged Black Hole in Higher Derivative Gravity as Particle Colliders

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Kai; Pavan, A. B.; Flores-Hidalgo, G.; Abdalla, E.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, new electrically charged asymptotically flat black hole solutions are numerically derived in the context of higher derivative gravity. These solutions can be interpreted as generalizations of two different classes of non-charged asymptotically flat spacetimes: Schwarzschild and non-Schwarzschild solutions. The possibility to use these black holes as particle colliders have been analysed. Our results show that the center-of-mass energy of two accelerated charged particles could ...

  17. Constraints on dark matter particles charged under a hidden gauge group from primordial black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, De-Chang; Freese, Katherine; Stojkovic, Dejan

    2009-01-01

    In order to accommodate increasingly tighter observational constraints on dark matter, several models have been proposed recently in which dark matter particles are charged under some hidden gauge group. Hidden gauge charges are invisible for the standard model particles, hence such scenarios are very difficult to constrain directly. However black holes are sensitive to all gauge charges, whether they belong to the standard model or not. Here, we examine the constraints on the possible values...

  18. First direct limits on Lightly Ionizing Particles with electric charge less than $e/6$

    CERN Document Server

    Agnese, R; Balakishiyeva, D; Thakur, R Basu; Bauer, D A; Billard, J; Borgland, A; Bowles, M A; Brandt, D; Brink, P L; Bunker, R; Cabrera, B; Caldwell, D O; Cerdeno, D G; Chagani, H; Chen, Y; Cooley, J; Cornell, B; Crewdson, C H; Cushman, P; Daal, M; Di Stefano, P C F; Doughty, T; Esteban, L; Fallows, S; Figueroa-Feliciano, E; Godfrey, G L; Golwala, S R; Hall, J; Harris, H R; Hertel, S A; Hofer, T; Holmgren, D; Hsu, L; Huber, M E; Jastram, A; Kamaev, O; Kara, B; Kelsey, M H; Kennedy, A; Kiveni, M; Koch, K; Leder, A; Loer, B; Asamar, E Lopez; Mahapatra, R; Mandic, V; Martinez, C; McCarthy, K A; Mirabolfathi, N; Moffatt, R A; Moore, D C; Nelson, H; Nelson, R H; Ogburn, R W; Page, K; Page, W A; Partridge, R; Pepin, M; Phipps, A; Prasad, K; Pyle, M; Qiu, H; Rau, W; Redl, P; Reisetter, A; Ricci, Y; Rogers, H E; Saab, T; Sadoulet, B; Sander, J; Schneck, K; Schnee, R W; Scorza, S; Serfass, B; Shank, B; Speller, D; Upadhyayula, S; Villano, A N; Welliver, B; Wright, D H; Yellin, S; Yen, J J; Young, B A; Zhang, J

    2014-01-01

    While the Standard Model of particle physics does not include free particles with fractional charge, experimental searches have not ruled out their existence. We report results from the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS II) experiment that give the first direct-detection limits for cosmogenically-produced relativistic particles with electric charge lower than $e$/6. A search for tracks in the six stacked detectors of each of two of the CDMS II towers found no candidates, thereby excluding new parameter space for particles with electric charges between $e$/6 and $e$/200.

  19. Irregularity in gamma ray source spectra as a signature of axionlike particles

    CERN Document Server

    Wouters, Denis

    2012-01-01

    Oscillations from high energy photons into light pseudoscalar particles in an external magnetic field is expected to happen in some extensions of the Standard Model. It is usually assumed that those axionlike particles (ALPs) could produce a drop in the energy spectra of gamma ray sources and possibly decrease the opacity of the Universe for TeV gamma rays. We show here that these assumptions are in fact based on an average behavior that cannot happen in real observations of single sources. We propose a new method to search for photon-ALP oscillations, taking advantage of the fact that a single observation would deviate from the average expectation. Our method is based on the search for irregularities in the energy spectra of gamma ray sources. We predict features that are unlikely to be produced by known astrophysical processes and a new signature of ALPs that is easily falsifiable.

  20. Layered periodic disperse structures of spherical alumina particles: Coherent transmittance and reflectance spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskevich, Alexander A.; Loiko, Valery A.

    2014-03-01

    Coherent transmittance and reflectance spectra of multilayers consisting of plane-parallel monolayers of spherical monodisperse alumina particles are investigated. In the quasicrystalline approximation (QCA) of the statistical theory of multiple scattering of waves the coherent transmission and reflection coefficients of constituent monolayers are computed. Using the coefficients obtained, the transmittance and reflectance of the multilayers are calculated using the transfer matrix method (TMM) within the wavelength range of 0.3-2.0 μm. Multilayers consisting of close-to-regularly-packed monolayers (planar photonic crystals with nonideal lattice) and partially-ordered monolayers of particles are investigated. Three types of coherent transmittance minima caused by the wave interference are singled out. The spectral positions and values of these minima are determined by optical constants, size, concentration, and the arrangement of particles in a monolayer, as well as by the spacing between the monolayer and their thicknesses. The results are in good agreement with the known theoretical and experimental data. They can be used to solve the problem of a lattice quality control in photonic crystals. Coherent transmittance and reflectance spectra of a system consisting of a glass plate coated with monolayers of spherical alumina particles are analyzed. Monolayer parameters for creating antireflection coatings, diffuse light scattering structures, and filters of transmitted and reflected light are considered. The approach developed can be applied to disperse structures of isotropic particles of other materials.

  1. Microdosimetric spectra and LET distributions on board the Mir station obtained with a particle track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A spectrometer measuring energy lost (?E) was used to determine linear energy transfer (LET) spectra on board the Mir orbital station during the period from 8 October 1997 to 16 June 2000, i.e. during the 24th, 26th, 27th and 28th basic expeditions. It was found that the LET spectra of secondary particles between 10 and 700 keV.μm-1 in tissue do not depend on the external radiator, with the average quality factors for the region mentioned being about 6.4 with ICRP 26 quality factors or about 7.4 with ICRP 60 quality factors. Both differential and integral LET spectra are presented for some typical cases. The spectra permitted us to calculate the total doses and dose equivalents due to particles with the LET values in the mentioned region. It was found that these doses are higher when the detector was placed in a less shielded area. It was also found that these doses vary from one expedition to another. The correlation of these variations with the solar activity level was studied. (author)

  2. Particle discriminator for the identification of light charged particles with CsI(Tl) scintillator + PIN photodiode detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A particle discriminator exploiting the ballistic deficit effect for pulse shape discrimination has been developed for CsI(Tl) scintillator + PIN photodiode charged-particle detectors. The method is theoretically investigated and it is shown that the figure of merit of the particle separation is mainly governed by the absolute value of the differential quotient of the rise time dependent ballistic deficit. As the actual particle discriminator contains shaping amplifiers, baseline restorer, pile-up rejector and analog-to-digital converters, it directly accepts signals from a charge-sensitive preamplifier, and its outputs deliver the type and the energy of the particles in the form of eight-bit digital codes. The performance of the particle discriminator is characterised by the figure-of-merit measured as a function of the particle energy. (orig.)

  3. Dead layer on silicon p–i–n diode charged-particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semiconductor detectors in general have a dead layer at their surfaces that is either a result of natural or induced passivation, or is formed during the process of making a contact. Charged particles passing through this region produce ionization that is incompletely collected and recorded, which leads to departures from the ideal in both energy deposition and resolution. The silicon p–i–n diode used in the KATRIN neutrino-mass experiment has such a dead layer. We have constructed a detailed Monte Carlo model for the passage of electrons from vacuum into a silicon detector, and compared the measured energy spectra to the predicted ones for a range of energies from 12 to 20 keV. The comparison provides experimental evidence that a substantial fraction of the ionization produced in the “dead” layer evidently escapes by diffusion, with 46% being collected in the depletion zone and the balance being neutralized at the contact or by bulk recombination. The most elementary model of a thinner dead layer from which no charge is collected is strongly disfavored

  4. Geometrical s