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Sample records for charged particle activation

  1. Methods of charged-particle activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhri, M. Anwar; Chaudhri, M. Nasir; Jabbar, Q.; Nadeem, Q.

    2006-01-01

    The accuracy of Chaudhri's method for charged-particle activation analysis published in J. Radioanal. Chem. (1977) v. 37 p. 243 has been further demonstrated by extensive calculations. The nuclear reactions 12 C(d,n) 13 N, 63 Cu( 3 He,p) 65 Zn, 107 Ag(α,n) 110 In and 208 Pb(d,p) 209 Pb, the cross sections of which were easily available, have been examined for the detection of 12 C, 63 Cu, 107 Ag and 208 Pb, respectively, in matrices of Cu, Zr and Pb, at the bombarding energies of 4 - 22 MeV. The 'standard' is assumed to be in a carbon matrix. It has been clearly demonstrated that Chaudhri's method, which makes the charged particle activation analysis as simple as neutron activation analysis, provides results which are almost identical to, or only about 1-2 % different, from the results obtained using the full 'Activity Equation' involving solving complex integrals. It is valid even when the difference in the average atomic weights of matrices of the standard and the sample is large. (author)

  2. Charged particle activation analysis: present status and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, D.P.

    2006-01-01

    Charged particle activation analysis is a highly sensitive nuclear analytical technique for the determination of elements at trace and ultra trace levels. CPAA involves the irradiation of samples with high energy charged particles, both light ions and heavy ions, from an accelerator in the energy range of 10 to 100 MeV. CPAA has been developed and standardized for the determination of several elements at trace levels in various types of materials using high energy ion beams from VEC machine at Kolkata. A brief review on CPAA is presented here based on our present works and its applications in future. (author)

  3. Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmer, D.K.; Haverty, T.W.; Nordin, C.W.; Tyree, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite. 1 fig

  4. Charged-particle activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweikert, E.A.

    1978-01-01

    The paper discusses the methodology and application of nuclear activation with ion beams (1 9 via 16 O( 3 He,p) 18 F, 12 C( 3 He,α) 11 C and 14 N(p,α) 11 C respectively. Recently, triton activation has been shown to be inherently still superior to 3 He activation for the determination of oxygen [ 16 O( 3 H,n) 18 F]. Lithium, boron, carbon and sulphur can be detected rapidly, nondestructively and with high sensitivity (approximately 0.25ppm for Li and B) via ''quasi-prompt'' activation based on the detection of short-lived, high-energy beta emitters (10ms 1 H( 7 Li,n) 7 Be for example. Nondestructive multielement analysis: Proton activation has the inherent potential for meeting requirements of broad elemental coverage, sensitivity (ppm and sub-ppm range) and selectivity. Up to 30 elements have been determined in Al, Co, Ag, Nb, Rh, Ta and biological samples, using 12-MeV proton activation followed by gamma-ray spectrometry. These capabilities are further enhanced with the counting of X-ray emitters, 28 elements (26 9 ) and accuracy using proton activation. 204 Pb/ 206 Pb ratios can also be determined with a relative precision of a few per cent. Although charged-particle activation analysis is a well-established trace analysis technique, broad potential capabilities remain to be explored, e.g. those arising from ultrashort-lived nuclides, heavy ion interactions and the combination of delayed and prompt methods. (author)

  5. A hybrid charged-particle guide for studying (n, charged particle) reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haight, R.C.; White, R.M.; Zinkle, S.J.

    1983-01-01

    Charged-particle transport systems consisting of magnetic quadrupole lenses have been employed in recent years in the study of (n, charged particle) reactions. A new transport system was completed at the laboratory that is based both on magnetic lenses as well as electrostatic fields. The magnetic focusing of the charged-particle guide is provided by six magnetic quadrupole lenses arranged in a CDCCDC sequence (in the vertical plane). The electrostatic field is produced by a wire at high voltage which stretches the length of the guide and is physically at the centre of the magnetic axis. The magnetic lenses are used for charged particles above 5 MeV; the electrostatic guide is used for lower energies. This hybrid system possesses the excellent focusing and background rejection properties of other magnetic systems. For low energy charged-particles, the electrostatic transport avoids the narrow band-passes in charged-particle energy which are a problem with purely magnetic transport systems. This system is installed at the LLNL Cyclograaff facility for the study of (n, charged particle) reactions at neutron energies up to 35 MeV. (Auth.)

  6. Charged particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, R.D.

    1975-01-01

    A device for detecting the emission of charged particles from a specimen is described. The specimen is placed within an accumulator means which statically accumulates any charged particles emitted from the specimen. The accumulator means is pivotally positioned between a first capacitor plate having a positive electrical charge and a second capacitor plate having a negative electrical charge. The accumulator means is attracted to one capacitor plate and repelled from the other capacitor plate by an amount proportional to the amount and intensity of charged particles emitted by the specimen. (auth)

  7. Application of charged particle activation for testing machine part wear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosimova, M.; Tendera, P.

    1985-01-01

    The results of application of the charge particle activation method to investigate machine part wear are presented. Study of radionuclide activity and yield has been carried out at the U-120M isochronous cyclotron by means of the method of iron foil piles from 20 to 100 μm in thick. Protons and deuterons have been used. Wear measurement is based on determination of wear particle activity in a butyric medium. An example of the results of a bench test of activated piston rings and cylinder liner of the engine for trucks is given. The method of surface activation is shown to be acceptable for studying machine part wear under the regular service conditions, especially on the stage of the primary investigations and development, when sampling structural materials and estimating different lubricating oil applicability

  8. Charged particle activation analysis at RIKEN. Past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, T.

    2008-01-01

    From 1960s to 1980s many groups in the world actively studied and utilized charged particle activation analysis (CPAA) mainly for absolute determination of B, C, N, and O in high-purity substances, particularly semiconductor materials. Here, after a short historical note on CPAA, works of the author's group mainly at RIKEN are outlined and then his opinion is shown about how to anticipate on the present shrinking of CPAA. (author)

  9. New spectrometer for charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wajsfelner, Rene

    1970-02-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study and development of an electrostatic spectrometer which is not only more accurate for the determination of size distributions of electrically charged radio-active atmospheric aerosols, but which can also be used for measuring the grain-size distribution of any cloud of particles which will previously have been charged according to a known, reproducible law. An experimental study has been made of the development of this precipitator and also of its calibration. The electrical charge on spherical polystyrene latex particles suspended in air by atomization has been studied; a theoretical explanation of these results is put forward. (author) [fr

  10. Measuring momentum for charged particle tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher; Fraser, Andrew Mcleod; Schultz, Larry Joe; Borozdin, Konstantin N.; Klimenko, Alexei Vasilievich; Sossong, Michael James; Blanpied, Gary

    2010-11-23

    Methods, apparatus and systems for detecting charged particles and obtaining tomography of a volume by measuring charged particles including measuring the momentum of a charged particle passing through a charged particle detector. Sets of position sensitive detectors measure scattering of the charged particle. The position sensitive detectors having sufficient mass to cause the charged particle passing through the position sensitive detectors to scatter in the position sensitive detectors. A controller can be adapted and arranged to receive scattering measurements of the charged particle from the charged particle detector, determine at least one trajectory of the charged particle from the measured scattering; and determine at least one momentum measurement of the charged particle from the at least one trajectory. The charged particle can be a cosmic ray-produced charged particle, such as a cosmic ray-produced muon. The position sensitive detectors can be drift cells, such as gas-filled drift tubes.

  11. Comparison of instrumental neutron activation analysis and instrumental charged-particle activation analysis for determining of Zn-68 abundance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafii, H.; Mirzaei, M.; Aslani, G.R.; Kamali-Dehghan, M.; Rajamand, A-A.; Rahiminejad, A.; Mirzajani, N.; Sardari, D.; Shahabi, I.; Majidi, F.

    2004-01-01

    Gallium-67 has found important applications in nuclear medicine since last decades. The bombardment of enriched zinc-68 by proton beams in cyclotron is the most suitable method for the carrier-free production of this radionuclide. Any traces and isotopic impurities of the target cause serious radiological hazards because of their associated induced radioactivities. Trace analysis and Zn-68 content determination of the target material before any bombardment and chemical separation provide a valuable assessment of desired product. The elemental abundance evaluation of enriched isotopes is generally carried out by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry method, ICP-Ms Instrumental neutron activation analysis and instrumental charged particle activation analysis. International neutron activation analysis and instrumental charged- particle activation analysis, looks be an alternative nuclear method for determining the abundance evaluation of enriched Zn-68 enrichment in two different samples has been studied by mean of international neutron activation analysis and instrumental charged- particle activation analysis . One sample was purchased from a French company, cortecnet, and the other was separated by an electromagnetic system in the Ions source department of our center, NRCAM. The neutron or proton irradiation was took place respectively in miniature neutron source reactor of Esfahan by flux of (1 to 5) 10 11 n/cm 2 .sec for 30 min and in Cyclon30 by 19 MeV proton beams of 100μA current for 12 min. The produced radioactivity was measured by HpGe detector for determination of trace impurities and evaluation of Zn-68 content in the samples. The result shows a good agreement with the reported ones by their producers and their low derivation of about ± indicates that the international neutron activation analysis and instrumental charged- particle activation analysis are relatively precise and rapid and each one can be used as a supplemental method for analyzing

  12. On the determination of phosphorus via charged particle activation analysis Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kormali, S.M.; James, W.D.; Poland, J.E.; Schweikert, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    The application of charged particle activation analysis to the determination of phosphorus in a variety of sample materials is discussed. The activity produced via the sup(31)P(α,n)sup(34m)Cl reaction is quantitated either nondestructively or using postirradiation radiochemical separations depending on the characteristics of the sample matrices. Corrections which are necessary for the determination of phosphorus in pure tantalum metal due to spectral interferences are discussed. (author)

  13. The dynamics of a charged particle

    OpenAIRE

    Rohrlich, Fritz

    2008-01-01

    Using physical arguments, I derive the physically correct equations of motion for a classical charged particle from the Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac equations (LAD) which are well known to be physically incorrect. Since a charged particle can classically not be a point particle because of the Coulomb field divergence, my derivation accounts for that by imposing a basic condition on the external force. That condition ensures that the particle's finite size charge distribution looks like a point charg...

  14. Charged particle activation analysis of phosphorus in biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masumoto, K.; Yagi, M.

    1983-01-01

    Charged particle activation analysis of phosphorus in biological materials using the 31 P(α,n) sup(34m)Cl reaction has been studied. Since sup(34m)Cl is also produced by the 32 S(α,pn) and the 35 Cl(α,α'n) reactions, the thick-target yield curves on phosphorus, sulfur and chlorine were determined in order to choose the optimum irradiation conditions. As a result, it was found that the activation analysis for phosphorus without interferences from sulfur and chlorine is possible by bombarding with less than 17 MeV alphas. The applicability of this method to biological samples was then examined by irradiating several standard reference materials. It was confirmed that phosphorus can readily be determined at the detection limit of 1μg free from interferences due to the matrix elements. (author)

  15. Investigation of electrically-active deep levels in single-crystalline diamond by particle-induced charge transient spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kada, W., E-mail: kada.wataru@gunma-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Science and Technology, Gunma University, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Kambayashi, Y.; Ando, Y. [Faculty of Science and Technology, Gunma University, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Onoda, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Umezawa, H.; Mokuno, Y. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan); Shikata, S. [Kwansei Gakuin Univ., 2-1, Gakuen, Mita, Hyogo 669-1337 (Japan); Makino, T.; Koka, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Hanaizumi, O. [Faculty of Science and Technology, Gunma University, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Kamiya, T.; Ohshima, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2016-04-01

    To investigate electrically-active deep levels in high-resistivity single-crystalline diamond, particle-induced charge transient spectroscopy (QTS) techniques were performed using 5.5 MeV alpha particles and 9 MeV carbon focused microprobes. For unintentionally-doped (UID) chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond, deep levels with activation energies of 0.35 eV and 0.43 eV were detected which correspond to the activation energy of boron acceptors in diamond. The results suggested that alpha particle and heavy ion induced QTS techniques are the promising candidate for in-situ investigation of deep levels in high-resistivity semiconductors.

  16. Charged particle accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ress, T I; Nolde, G V

    1974-11-25

    A charged particle accelerator is described. It is made of an enclosure arranged for channeling a stream of charged particles along a predetermined path, and propelling means juxtaposed to the enclosure for generating a magnetic field moving in a predetermined direction with respect to each point of the path, the magnetic flux vector of that field being transverse to that path at every point, which gives the particles, along said path, a velocity connected to that of the mobile field by a predetermined relation. This can be applied to the fast production of chemical compounds, to the emission of neutrons and of thermal energy, and to the production of mechanical energy for propelling space ships.

  17. Charged particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ress, T.I.; Nolde, G.V.

    1974-01-01

    A charged particle accelerator is described. It is made of an enclosure arranged for channeling a stream of charged particles along a predetermined path, and propelling means juxtaposed to said enclosure for generating therein a magnetic field moving in a predetermined direction with respect to each point of said path, the magnetic flux vector of that field being transverse to that path at every point, which gives the particles, along said path, a velocity connected to that of the mobile field by a predetermined relation. This can be applied to the fast production of chemical compounds, to the emission of neutrons and of thermal energy, and to the production of mechanical energy for propelling space ships [fr

  18. 'ACTIV' - a package of codes for charged particle and neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cincu, Em.; Alexandreanu, B.; Manu, V.; Moisa, V.

    1997-01-01

    The 'ACTIV' Program is an advanced software package dedicated to applications of the thermal neutron and charged particle activation (NAA and CPA) induced reactions. The program is designed to run on personal computers compatible IBM PC-Models XT/AT, 286 or more advanced, operating under DOS version 5.0 or later, on systems with minimum 5 MB of hard disk memory. The package consists of 6 software modules and a Nuclear Data Base comprising physical, nuclear reaction and decay data for: thermal neutron, proton, deuteron and α-particle induced reactions on 15 selected metallic elements; the nuclear reaction data corresponds to the energy range (5-100) MeV. In the first version - ACTIV 1.0 - the set of input data concerns: the sample type, irradiation and measurement conditions, the γ-ray spectrum identification code, selected detection efficiency calibration curve, selected radionuclides, selected standardization method for elemental analysis, version of results. At present, the 'ACTIV' package comprises 6 soft modules for processing the experimental data, which ensure computation of the quantities: radionuclide activities, activation yield data (case of CPA) and elemental concentration by relative and absolute standardization methods. Recently, the software designed to processing complex γ-ray spectra was acquired and installed on our PC 486 (8 MB RAM, 100 MHz). The next step in developing the 'ACTIV' program envisages improving the existing computing codes, completing the data libraries, incorporating a new soft for the direct use of the 'Quantum TM MCA' data, developing modules dedicated to uncertainty computation and optimization of the activation experiments

  19. Charge interaction between particle-laden fluid interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Kirkwood, John; Lask, Mauricio; Fuller, Gerald

    2010-03-02

    Experiments are described where two oil/water interfaces laden with charged particles move at close proximity relative to one another. The particles on one of the interfaces were observed to be attracted toward the point of closest approach, forming a denser particle monolayer, while the particles on the opposite interface were repelled away from this point, forming a particle depletion zone. Such particle attraction/repulsion was observed even if one of the interfaces was free of particles. This phenomenon can be explained by the electrostatic interaction between the two interfaces, which causes surface charges (charged particles and ions) to redistribute in order to satisfy surface electric equipotential at each interface. In a forced particle oscillation experiment, we demonstrated the control of charged particle positions on the interface by manipulating charge interaction between interfaces.

  20. Scintillation Detectors for Charged Particles and Photons

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoq, P

    2011-01-01

    Scintillation Detectors for Charged Particles and Photons in 'Charged Particle Detectors - Particle Detectors and Detector Systems', part of 'Landolt-Börnstein - Group I Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, Volume 21B1: Detectors for Particles and Radiation. Part 1: Principles and Methods'. This document is part of Part 1 'Principles and Methods' of Subvolume B 'Detectors for Particles and Radiation' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Subsection '3.1.1 Scintillation Detectors for Charged Particles and Photons' of Section '3.1 Charged Particle Detectors' of Chapter '3 Particle Detectors and Detector Systems' with the content: 3.1.1 Scintillation Detectors for Charged Particles and Photons 3.1.1.1 Basic detector principles and scintillator requirements 3.1.1.1.1 Interaction of ionizing radiation with scintillator material 3.1.1.1.2 Important scint...

  1. Charged Particle Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Chris

    2004-01-01

    The Coulomb multiple scattering of charged particles as they pass through material allows them to be used as a radiographic probe. This forms the basis for a new kind of radiography that is finding application where conventional x-ray radiography is limited by flux or backgrounds. Charged-particle radiography is providing a versatile new probe that has advantages over conventional x-ray radiography for some unique application. Proton radiography has been used to make quantitative motion pictures of high explosive driven experiments and proves to be of great value for radiographing experiments that mock up nuclear weapon primaries for stockpile certification. By taking advantage of magnetic lens to magnify images and by using the very bright beams that can be made with electrons, charged-particle radiography may be useful for studying the fine spatial detail and very fast motion in laser driven implosion experiments at the National Ignition Facility. Finally, radiographs can be made using cosmic-ray muons for searching vehicles and cargo containers for surreptitious cargo of high z materials such as uranium or plutonium.

  2. Dynamics of neutral and charged aerosol particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppae, J.

    2012-07-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles have various climate effects and adverse health effects, which both depend on the size and number concentration of the particles. Freshly-formed particles are not large enough to impact neither health nor climate and they are most susceptible to removal by collisions with larger pre-existing particles. Consequently, the knowledge of both the formation and the growth rate of particles are crucially important when assessing the health and climate effects of atmospheric new particle formation. The purpose of this thesis is to increase our knowledge of the dynamics of neutral and charged aerosol particles with a specific interest towards the particle growth rate and processes affecting the aerosol charging state. A new model, Ion-UHMA, which simulates the dynamics of neutral and charged particles, was developed for this purpose. Simple analytical formulae that can be used to estimate the growth rate due to various processes were derived and used to study the effects of charged particles on the growth rate. It was found that the growth rate of a freshly-formed particle population due to condensation and coagulation could be significantly increased when a considerable fraction of the particles are charged. Finally, recent data-analysis methods that have been applied to the aerosol charging states obtained from the measurements were modified for a charge asymmetric framework. The methods were then tested on data obtained from aerosol dynamics simulations. The methods were found to be able to provide reasonable estimates on the growth rate and proportion of particles formed via ion-induced nucleation, provided that the growth rate is high enough and that the charged particles do not grow much more rapidly than the neutral ones. A simple procedure for estimating whether the methods are suitable for analysing data obtained in specific conditions was provided. In this thesis, the dynamics of neutral and charged aerosol particles were studied in

  3. Discrete element method modeling of the triboelectric charging of polyethylene particles: Can particle size distribution and segregation reduce the charging?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konopka, Ladislav; Kosek, Juraj

    2015-01-01

    Polyethylene particles of various sizes are present in industrial gas-dispersion reactors and downstream processing units. The contact of the particles with a device wall as well as the mutual particle collisions cause electrons on the particle surface to redistribute in the system. The undesirable triboelectric charging results in several operational problems and safety risks in industrial systems, for example in the fluidized-bed polymerization reactor. We studied the charging of polyethylene particles caused by the particle-particle interactions in gas. Our model employs the Discrete Element Method (DEM) describing the particle dynamics and incorporates the ‘Trapped Electron Approach’ as the physical basis for the considered charging mechanism. The model predicts the particle charge distribution for systems with various particle size distributions and various level of segregation. Simulation results are in a qualitative agreement with experimental observations of similar particulate systems specifically in two aspects: 1) Big particles tend to gain positive charge and small particles the negative one. 2) The wider the particle size distribution is, the more pronounced is the charging process. Our results suggest that not only the size distribution, but also the effect of the spatial segregation of the polyethylene particles significantly influence the resulting charge distribution ‘generated’ in the system. The level of particle segregation as well as the particle size distribution of polyethylene particles can be in practice adjusted by the choice of supported catalysts, by the conditions in the fluidized-bed polymerization reactor and by the fluid dynamics. We also attempt to predict how the reactor temperature affects the triboelectric charging of particles. (paper)

  4. Some problems of calibration technique in charged particle activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnov, N.N.; Zatolokin, B.V.; Konstantinov, I.O.

    1977-01-01

    It is shown that three different approaches to calibration technique based on the use of average cross-section, equivalent target thickness and thick target yield are adequate. Using the concept of thick target yield, a convenient charged particle activation equation is obtained. The possibility of simultaneous determination of two impurities, from which the same isotope is formed, is pointed out. The use of the concept of thick target yield facilitates the derivation of a simple formula for an absolute and comparative methods of analysis. The methodical error does not exceed 10%. Calibration technique and determination of expected sensitivity based on the thick target yield concept is also very convenient because experimental determination of thick target yield values is a much simpler procedure than getting activation curve or excitation function. (T.G.)

  5. Transmutation doping of semiconductors by charged particles (review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlovskii, V.V.; Zakharenkov, L.F.; Shustrov, B.A.

    1992-01-01

    A review is given of the state of the art in one of the current topics in radiation doping of semiconductors, which is process of nuclear transmutation doping (NTD) charged particles. In contrast to the neutron and photonuclear transmutation doping, which have been dealt with in monographs and reviews, NTD caused by the action of charged particles is a subject growing very rapidly in the last 10-15 years, but still lacking systematic accounts. The review consists of three sections. The first section deals with the characteristics of nuclear reactions in semiconductors caused by the action of charged particles: the main stress is on the modeling of NTD processes in semiconductors under the action of charged particles. An analysis is made of the modeling intended to give the total numbers of donors and acceptor impurities introduced by the NTD process, to optimize the compensation coefficients, and to estimate the distributions of the dopants with depth in a semiconductor crystal. In the second section the state of the art of experimental investigations of NTD under the influence of charged particles is considered. In view of the specific objects that have been investigated experimntally, the second section is divided into three subsections: silicon, III-V compounds, other semiconductors and related materials (such as high-temperature superconductors, ferroelectric films, etc.). An analysis is made of the communications reporting experimental data on the total numbers of dopants which are introduced, concentration of the electrically active fraction of the impurity, profiles of the dopant distributions, and conditions for efficient annealing of radiation defects. The third section deals with the suitability of NTD by charged particles for the fabrication of semiconductor devices. 45 refs

  6. Sources for charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arianer, J.

    1997-01-01

    This document is a basic course on charged particle sources for post-graduate students and thematic schools on large facilities and accelerator physics. A simple but precise description of the creation and the emission of charged particles is presented. This course relies on every year upgraded reference documents. Following relevant topics are considered: electronic emission processes, technological and practical considerations on electron guns, positron sources, production of neutral atoms, ionization, plasma and discharge, different types of positive and negative ion sources, polarized particle sources, materials for the construction of ion sources, low energy beam production and transport. (N.T.)

  7. Charged particle traps II applications

    CERN Document Server

    Werth, Günther; Major, Fouad G

    2009-01-01

    This, the second volume of Charged Particle Traps, is devoted to applications, complementing the first volume’s comprehensive treatment of the theory and practice of charged particle traps, their many variants and refinements. In recent years, applications of far reaching importance have emerged ranging from the ultra-precise mass determinations of elementary particles and their antiparticles and short-lived isotopes, to high-resolution Zeeman spectroscopy on multiply-charged ions, to microwave and optical spectroscopy, some involving "forbidden" transitions from metastable states of such high resolution that optical frequency standards are realized by locking lasers to them. Further the potential application of trapped ions to quantum computing is explored, based on the extraordinary quantum state coherence made possible by the particle isolation. Consideration is given to the Paul and Penning traps as potential quantum information processors.

  8. Search milli-charged particles at SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langeveld, W.G.J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Particles with electric charge q {triple_bond} Qe {le} 10{sup -3} e and masses in the range 1-1000 MeV/c{sup 2} are not excluded by present experiments or by astrophysical or cosmological arguments. A beam dump experiment uniquely suited to the detection of such {open_quotes}milli-charged{close_quotes} particles has been carried out at SLAC, utilizing the short-duration pulses of the SLC electron beam to establish a tight coincidence window for the signal. The detector, a large scintillation counter sensitive to very small energy depositions, provided much greater sensitivity than previous searches. Analysis of the data leads to the exclusion of a substantial portion of the charge-mass plane. In this report, a preliminary mass-dependent upper limit is presented for the charge of milli-charged particles, ranging from Q = 1.7 x 10{sup -5} at milli-charged particle mass 0.1 MeV/c{sup 2} to Q = 9.5 x 10{sup -4} at 100 MeV/c{sup 2}.

  9. Charged-particle mutagenesis II. Mutagenic effects of high energy charged particles in normal human fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D. J.; Tsuboi, K.; Nguyen, T.; Yang, T. C.

    1994-01-01

    The biological effects of high LET charged particles are a subject of great concern with regard to the prediction of radiation risk in space. In this report, mutagenic effects of high LET charged particles are quantitatively measured using primary cultures of human skin fibroblasts, and the spectrum of induced mutations are analyzed. The LET of the charged particles ranged from 25 KeV/micrometer to 975 KeV/micrometer with particle energy (on the cells) between 94-603 MeV/u. The X-chromosome linked hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) locus was used as the target gene. Exposure to these high LET charged particles resulted in exponential survival curves; whereas, mutation induction was fitted by a linear model. The Relative Biological Effect (RBE) for cell-killing ranged from 3.73 to 1.25, while that for mutant induction ranged from 5.74 to 0.48. Maximum RBE values were obtained at the LET of 150 keV/micrometer. The inactivation cross-section (alpha i) and the action cross-section for mutant induction (alpha m) ranged from 2.2 to 92.0 micrometer2 and 0.09 to 5.56 x 10(-3) micrometer2, respectively. The maximum values were obtained by 56Fe with an LET of 200 keV/micrometer. The mutagenicity (alpha m/alpha i) ranged from 2.05 to 7.99 x 10(-5) with the maximum value at 150 keV/micrometer. Furthermore, molecular analysis of mutants induced by charged particles indicates that higher LET beams are more likely to cause larger deletions in the hprt locus.

  10. Quantum and classical dissipation of charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibarra-Sierra, V.G. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana at Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 México D.F. (Mexico); Anzaldo-Meneses, A.; Cardoso, J.L.; Hernández-Saldaña, H. [Área de Física Teórica y Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana at Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, Azcapotzalco, 02200 México D.F. (Mexico); Kunold, A., E-mail: akb@correo.azc.uam.mx [Área de Física Teórica y Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana at Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, Azcapotzalco, 02200 México D.F. (Mexico); Roa-Neri, J.A.E. [Área de Física Teórica y Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana at Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, Azcapotzalco, 02200 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2013-08-15

    A Hamiltonian approach is presented to study the two dimensional motion of damped electric charges in time dependent electromagnetic fields. The classical and the corresponding quantum mechanical problems are solved for particular cases using canonical transformations applied to Hamiltonians for a particle with variable mass. Green’s function is constructed and, from it, the motion of a Gaussian wave packet is studied in detail. -- Highlights: •Hamiltonian of a damped charged particle in time dependent electromagnetic fields. •Exact Green’s function of a charged particle in time dependent electromagnetic fields. •Time evolution of a Gaussian wave packet of a damped charged particle. •Classical and quantum dynamics of a damped electric charge.

  11. Quantum and classical dissipation of charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibarra-Sierra, V.G.; Anzaldo-Meneses, A.; Cardoso, J.L.; Hernández-Saldaña, H.; Kunold, A.; Roa-Neri, J.A.E.

    2013-01-01

    A Hamiltonian approach is presented to study the two dimensional motion of damped electric charges in time dependent electromagnetic fields. The classical and the corresponding quantum mechanical problems are solved for particular cases using canonical transformations applied to Hamiltonians for a particle with variable mass. Green’s function is constructed and, from it, the motion of a Gaussian wave packet is studied in detail. -- Highlights: •Hamiltonian of a damped charged particle in time dependent electromagnetic fields. •Exact Green’s function of a charged particle in time dependent electromagnetic fields. •Time evolution of a Gaussian wave packet of a damped charged particle. •Classical and quantum dynamics of a damped electric charge

  12. New generation of monolithic active pixel sensors for charged particle detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deptuch, G.

    2002-09-01

    Vertex detectors are of great importance in particle physics experiments, as the knowledge of the event flavour is becoming an issue for the physics programme at Future Linear Colliders. Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) based on a novel detector structure have been proposed. Their fabrication is compatible with a standard CMOS process. The sensor is inseparable from the readout electronics, since both of them are integrated on the same, low-resistivity silicon wafer. The basic pixel configuration comprises only three MOS transistors and a diode collecting the charge through thermal diffusion. The charge is generated in the thin non-depleted epitaxial layer underneath the readout electronics. This approach provides, at low cost, a high resolution and thin device with the whole area sensitive to radiation. Device simulations using the ISE-TCAD package have been carried out to study the charge collection mechanism. In order to demonstrate the viability of the technique, four prototype chips have been fabricated using different submicrometer CMOS processes. The pixel gain has been calibrated using a 55 Fe source and the Poisson sequence method. The prototypes have been exposed to high-energy particle beams at CERN. The tests proved excellent detection performances expressed in a single-track spatial resolution of 1.5 μm and detection efficiency close to 100%, resulting from a SNR ratio of more than 30. Irradiation tests showed immunity of MAPS to a level of a few times 10 12 n/cm 2 and a few hundred kRad of ionising radiation. The ideas for future work, including on-pixel signal amplification, double sampling operation and current mode pixel design are present as well. (author)

  13. Cell inactivation by heavy charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakely, E A [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Cell and Molecular Biology Div.

    1992-06-01

    The inactivation of cells resulting in lethal or aberrant effects by charged particles is of growing interest. Charged particles at extremely high LET are capable of completely eliminating cell-type and cell-line differences in repair capacity. It is still not clear however whether the repair systems are inactivated, or merely that heavy-ion lesions are less repairable. Studies correlating the particle inactivation dose of radioresistant cells with intact DNA analyzed with pulse field gel electrophoresis and other techniques may be useful, but more experiments are also needed to assess the fidelity of repair. For particle irradiations between 40-100 keV/{mu}m there is however evidence for particle-induced activation of specific genes in mammalian cells, and certain repair processes in bacteria. New data are available on the inactivation of developmental processes in several systems including seeds, and cells of the nematode C. elegans. Future experimental and theoretical modeling research emphasis should focus on exploring particle-induced inactivation of endpoints assessing functionality and not just lethality, and on analyzing molecular damage and genetic effects arising in damage but non-inactivated survivors. The discrete nature of selective types of particle damage as a function of radiation quality indicates the value of accelerated ions as probes of normal and aberrant biological processes. Information obtained from molecular analyses of damage and repair must however be integrated into the context of cellular and tissue functions of the organism. (orig.).

  14. Charged-particle mutagenesis 2. Mutagenic effects of high energy charged particles in normal human fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D. J.; Tsuboi, K.; Nguyen, T.; Yang, T. C.

    1994-01-01

    The biological effects of high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) charged particles are a subject of great concern with regard to the prediction of radiation risk in space. In this report, mutagenic effects of high LET charged particles are quantitatively measured using primary cultures of human skin fibroblasts, and the spectrum of induced mutations are analyzed. The LET of the charged particles ranged from 25 KeV/micrometer to 975 KeV/micrometer with particle energy (on the cells) between 94-603 MeV/u. The X-chromosome linked hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) locus was used as the target gene. Exposure to these high LET charged particles resulted in exponential survival curves; whereas, mutation induction was fitted by a linear model. The Relative Biological Effect (RBE) for cell-killing ranged from 3.73 to 1.25, while that for mutant induction ranged from 5.74 to 0.48. Maximum RBE values were obtained at the LET of 150 keV/micrometer. The inactivation cross-section (alpha i) and the action cross-section for mutant induction (alpha m) ranged from 2.2 to 92.0 sq micrometer and 0.09 to 5.56 x 10(exp -3) sq micrometer respectively. The maximum values were obtained by Fe-56 with an LET of 200 keV/micrometer. The mutagenicity (alpha m/alpha i) ranged from 2.05 to 7.99 x 10(exp -5) with the maximum value at 150 keV/micrometer. Furthermore, molecular analysis of mutants induced by charged particles indicates that higher LET beams are more likely to cause larger deletions in the hprt locus.

  15. Motion of charged particles in the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, G.K.; Rajaram, R.

    1981-01-01

    The adiabatic motion of charged particles in the magnetosphere has been investigated using Mead-Fairfield magnetospheric field model (Mead and Fairfield, 1975). Since the motion of charged particles in a dipolar field geometry is well understood, we bring out in this paper some important features in characteristic motion due to non-dipolar distortions in the field geometry. We look at the tilt averaged picture of the field configuration and estimate theoretically the parameters like bounce period, longitudinal invariant and the bounce averaged drift velocities of the charged particle in the Mead-Fairfield field geometry. These parameters are evaluated as a function of pitch angle and azimuthal position in the region of ring current (5 to 7 Earth radii from the centre of the Earth) for four ranges of magnetic activity. At different longitudes the non-dipolar contribution as a percentage of dipole value in bounce period and longitudinal invariant shows maximum variation for particles close to 90 0 pitch angles. For any low pitch angle, these effects maximize at the midnight meridian. The radial component of the bounce averaged drift velocity is found to be greatest at the dawn-dusk meridians and the contribution vanishes at the day and midnight meridians for all pitch angles. In the absence of tilt-dependent terms in the model, the latitudinal component of the drift velocity vanishes. On the other hand, the relative non-dipolar contribution to bounce averaged azimuthal drift velocity is very high as compared to similar contribution in other characteristic parameters of particle motion. It is also shown that non-dipolar contribution in bounce period, longitudinal invariant and bounce averaged drift velocities increases in magnitude with increase in distance and magnetic activity. (orig.)

  16. Proposal to Search for Magnetically Charged Particles with Magnetic Charge 1e

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Michael K. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fryberger, David [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-11-02

    A model for composite elementary Standard Model (SM) particles based upon magnetically bound vorton pairs, we briefly introduce here, predicts the existence of a complete family of magnetically charged particles, as well as their neutral isotopic partners (all counterparts to the SM elementary particles), in which the lowest mass (charged) particle would be an electrically neutral stable lepton, but which carries a magnetic charge equivalent to 1e. This new particle, which we call a magneticon (a counterpart to the electron) would be pair produced at all e+e- colliders at an Ecm above twice its mass. In addition, PP and PPbar colliders should also be able to produce these new particles through the Drell-Yan process. To our knowledge, no monopole search experiment has been sensitive to such a low-charged magnetic monopole above a particle mass of about 5 GeV/c2. Hence, we propose that a search for such a stable particle of magnetic charge 1e should be undertaken. We have taken the ATLAS detector at the LHC as an example in which this search might be done. To this end, we modeled the magnetic fields and muon trigger chambers of this detector. We show results from a simple Monte Carlo simulation program to indicate how these particles might look in the detector and describe how one might search for these new particles in the ATLAS data stream.

  17. Charge neutrality of fine particle (dusty) plasmas and fine particle cloud under gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Totsuji, Hiroo, E-mail: totsuji-09@t.okadai.jp

    2017-03-11

    The enhancement of the charge neutrality due to the existence of fine particles is shown to occur generally under microgravity and in one-dimensional structures under gravity. As an application of the latter, the size and position of fine particle clouds relative to surrounding plasmas are determined under gravity. - Highlights: • In fine particle (dusty) plasmas, the charge neutrality is much enhanced by the existence of fine particles. • The enhancement of charge neutrality generally occurs under microgravity and gravity. • Structure of fine particle clouds under gravity is determined by applying the enhanced charge neutrality.

  18. Robust statistical reconstruction for charged particle tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Larry Joe; Klimenko, Alexei Vasilievich; Fraser, Andrew Mcleod; Morris, Christopher; Orum, John Christopher; Borozdin, Konstantin N; Sossong, Michael James; Hengartner, Nicolas W

    2013-10-08

    Systems and methods for charged particle detection including statistical reconstruction of object volume scattering density profiles from charged particle tomographic data to determine the probability distribution of charged particle scattering using a statistical multiple scattering model and determine a substantially maximum likelihood estimate of object volume scattering density using expectation maximization (ML/EM) algorithm to reconstruct the object volume scattering density. The presence of and/or type of object occupying the volume of interest can be identified from the reconstructed volume scattering density profile. The charged particle tomographic data can be cosmic ray muon tomographic data from a muon tracker for scanning packages, containers, vehicles or cargo. The method can be implemented using a computer program which is executable on a computer.

  19. Electrostatic Charging and Particle Interactions in Microscopic Insulating Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Victor

    In this thesis, we experimentally investigate the electrostatic charging as well as the particle interactions in microscopic insulating grains. First, by tracking individual grains accelerated in an electric field, we quantitatively demonstrate that tribocharging of same-material grains depends on particle size. Large grains tend to charge positively, and small ones tend to charge negatively. Theories based on the transfer of trapped electrons can explain this tendency but have not been validated. Here we show that the number of trapped electrons, measured independently by a thermoluminescence technique, is orders of magnitude too small to be responsible for the amount of charge transferred. This result reveals that trapped electrons are not responsible for same-material tribocharging of dielectric particles. Second, same-material tribocharging in grains can result in important long-range electrostatic interactions. However, how these electrostatic interactions contribute to particle clustering remains elusive, primarily due to the lack of direct, detailed observations. Using a high-speed camera that falls with a stream charged grains, we observe for the first time how charged grains can undergo attractive as well as repulsive Kepler-like orbits. Charged particles can be captured in their mutual electrostatic potential and form clusters via multiple bounces. Dielectric polarization effects are directly observed, which lead to additional attractive forces and stabilize "molecule-like" arrangements of charged particles. Third, we have developed a new method to study the charge transfer of microscopic particles based on acoustic levitation techniques. This method allows us to narrow the complex problem of many-particle charging down to precise charge measurements of a single sub-millimeter particle colliding with a target plate. By simply attaching nonpolar groups onto glass surfaces, we show that the contact charging of a particle is highly dependent on

  20. Excitation Functions for Charged Particle Induced Reactions in Light Elements at Low Projectile Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzen, J; Brune, D

    1973-07-01

    The present chapter has been formulated with the aim of making it useful in various fields of nuclear applications with emphasis on charged particle activation analysis. Activation analysis of light elements using charged particles has proved to be an important tool in solving various problems in analytical chemistry, e g those associated with metal surfaces. Scientists desiring to evaluate the distribution of light elements in the surface of various matrices using charged particle reactions require accurate data on cross sections in the MeV-region. A knowledge of cross section data and yield-functions is of great interest in many applied fields involving work with charged particles, such as radiological protection and health physics, material research, semiconductor material investigations and corrosion chemistry. The authors therefore decided to collect a limited number of data which find use in these fields. Although the compilation is far from being complete, it is expected to be of assistance in devising measurements of charged particle reactions in Van de Graaff or other low energy accelerators

  1. Excitation Functions for Charged Particle Induced Reactions in Light Elements at Low Projectile Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzen, J.; Brune, D.

    1973-01-01

    The present chapter has been formulated with the aim of making it useful in various fields of nuclear applications with emphasis on charged particle activation analysis. Activation analysis of light elements using charged particles has proved to be an important tool in solving various problems in analytical chemistry, e g those associated with metal surfaces. Scientists desiring to evaluate the distribution of light elements in the surface of various matrices using charged particle reactions require accurate data on cross sections in the MeV-region. A knowledge of cross section data and yield-functions is of great interest in many applied fields involving work with charged particles, such as radiological protection and health physics, material research, semiconductor material investigations and corrosion chemistry. The authors therefore decided to collect a limited number of data which find use in these fields. Although the compilation is far from being complete, it is expected to be of assistance in devising measurements of charged particle reactions in Van de Graaff or other low energy accelerators

  2. Charged particle discrimination with silicon surface barrier detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coote, G.E.; Pithie, J.; Vickridge, I.C.

    1996-01-01

    The application for materials analysis of nuclear reactions that give rise to charged particles is a powerful surface analytical and concentration depth profiling technique. Spectra of charged particles, with energies in the range 0.1 to 15 MeV, emitted from materials irradiated with beams of light nuclei such as deuterons are measured with silicon surface barrier detectors. The spectra from multi-elemental materials typically encountered in materials research are usually composed of an overlapping superposition of proton, alpha, and other charged particle spectra. Interpretation of such complex spectra would be simplified if a means were available to electronically discriminate between the detector response to the different kinds of charged particle. We have investigated two methods of discriminating between different types of charged particles. The fast charge pulses from a surface barrier detector have different shapes, depending on the spatial distribution of energy deposition of the incident particle. Fast digitisation of the pulses, followed by digital signal processing provides one avenue for discrimination. A second approach is to use a thin transmission detector in front of a thick detector as a detector telescope. For a given incident energy, different types of charged particles will lose different amounts of energy in the thin detector, providing an alternative means of discrimination. We show that both approaches can provide significant simplification in the interpretation of charged particle spectra in practical situations, and suggest that silicon surface barrier detectors having graded electronic properties could provide improved discrimination compared to the current generation of detectors having homogeneous electronic properties. (author).12 refs., 2 tabs., 28 figs

  3. Collisional charging of individual submillimeter particles: Using ultrasonic levitation to initiate and track charge transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Victor; James, Nicole M.; Waitukaitis, Scott R.; Jaeger, Heinrich M.

    2018-03-01

    Electrostatic charging of insulating fine particles can be responsible for numerous phenomena ranging from lightning in volcanic plumes to dust explosions. However, even basic aspects of how fine particles become charged are still unclear. Studying particle charging is challenging because it usually involves the complexities associated with many-particle collisions. To address these issues, we introduce a method based on acoustic levitation, which makes it possible to initiate sequences of repeated collisions of a single submillimeter particle with a flat plate, and to precisely measure the particle charge in situ after each collision. We show that collisional charge transfer between insulators is dependent on the hydrophobicity of the contacting surfaces. We use glass, which we modify by attaching nonpolar molecules to the particle, the plate, or both. We find that hydrophilic surfaces develop significant positive charges after contacting hydrophobic surfaces. Moreover, we demonstrate that charging between a hydrophilic and a hydrophobic surface is suppressed in an acidic environment and enhanced in a basic one. Application of an electric field during each collision is found to modify the charge transfer, again depending on surface hydrophobicity. We discuss these results within the context of contact charging due to ion transfer, and we show that they lend strong support to O H- ions as the charge carriers.

  4. Unipolar and bipolar diffusion charging of ultrafine particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Motoaki; Okuyama, Kikuo; Kousaka, Yasuo.

    1985-01-01

    Unipolar and bipolar diffusion charging of monodisperse ultrafine particles of 4 - 100 nm in diameter has been studied experimentally and theoretically. The particles were charged by unipolar and bipolar ions generated by α-ray irradiation and the charge distribution of particles was directly observed in the electric field after the growth of them by condensation of di-butyl phthalate vapor. In both cases of unipolar and bipolar charging, the experimental results have been found in good agreement with the solution of basic equations where Fuchs' formula is used as the combination probability of an ion with a particle. (author)

  5. Quantum mechanics of charged particle beam optics

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Sameen Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    Theory of charged particle beam optics is basic to the design and working of charged particle beam devices from electron microscopes to accelerator machines. Traditionally, the optical elements of the devices are designed and operated based on classical mechanics and classical electromagnetism, and only certain specific quantum mechanical aspects are dealt with separately using quantum theory. This book provides a systematic approach to quantum theory of charged particle beam optics, particularly in the high energy cases such as accelerators or high energy electron microscopy.

  6. Radiation doping methods of semiconductor materials: the nuclear doping by charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlovskii, V.V.; Zakharenkov, L.F.

    1996-01-01

    A review is given of the state of the art in one of the current topics in radiation doping of semiconductors, which is process of nuclear transmutation doping (NTD) by charged particles. In contrast to the neutron and photonuclear transmutation doping, which have been dealt with in monograths and reviews, NTD caused by the action of charged particles is a subject growing very rapidly in the last 10-15 years, but still lacking systematic accounts. The review consists of three sections. The first section deals with the characteristics of nuclear reactions in semiconductors caused by the action of charged particles: the main stress is on the modeling of NTD processes in semiconductors under the action of charged particles. In the second section the state of the art of experimental investigations of NTD under the influence of charged particles is considered. An analysis is made of the communications reporting experimental data on the total numbers of dopants which are introduced, concentration of the electrically active fraction of the impurity, profiles of the dopant distributions, and conditions for efficient annealing of radiation defects. The third section deals with the suitability of NTD by charged particles for the fabrication of semiconductor devices. (author)

  7. Surface charge accumulation of particles containing radionuclides in open air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Ha; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas

    2015-05-01

    Radioactivity can induce charge accumulation on radioactive particles. However, electrostatic interactions caused by radioactivity are typically neglected in transport modeling of radioactive plumes because it is assumed that ionizing radiation leads to charge neutralization. The assumption that electrostatic interactions caused by radioactivity are negligible is evaluated here by examining charge accumulation and neutralization on particles containing radionuclides in open air. A charge-balance model is employed to predict charge accumulation on radioactive particles. It is shown that particles containing short-lived radionuclides can be charged with multiple elementary charges through radioactive decay. The presence of radioactive particles can significantly modify the particle charge distribution in open air and yield an asymmetric bimodal charge distribution, suggesting that strong electrostatic particle interactions may occur during short- and long-range transport of radioactive particles. Possible effects of transported radioactive particles on electrical properties of the local atmosphere are reported. The study offers insight into transport characteristics of airborne radionuclides. Results are useful in atmospheric transport modeling of radioactive plumes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Search for Free Fractional Electric Charge Elementary Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halyo, Valerie

    2000-12-04

    A direct search was carried out in bulk matter for free fractional electric charge elementary particles using the largest mass single sample ever studied--about 17.4 mg of silicone oil. The search used an improved and highly automated Millikan oil drop technique. No evidence for fractional charge particles was found. The concentration of particles with fractional charge more than 0.16 e (e being the magnitude of the electron charge) from the nearest integer charge is less than 4.71 x 10{sup -22} particles per nucleon with 95% confidence.

  9. A Search for Free Fractional Electric Charge Elementary Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halyo, Valerie

    2000-12-04

    A direct search was carried out in bulk matter for free fractional electric charge elementary particles using the largest mass single sample ever studied| about 17.4 mg of silicone oil. The search used an improved and highly automated Millikan oil drop technique. No evidence for fractional charge particles was found. The concentration of particles with fractional charge more than 0.16 e (e being the magnitude of the electron charge) from the nearest integer charge is less than 4.71 x 10{sup -22} particles per nucleon with 95% confidence.

  10. Display of charged ionizing particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cano S, D.; Ortiz A, M. D.; Amarillas S, L. E.; Vega C, H. R.

    2017-10-01

    The human being is exposed to sources of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation, both of natural or anthropogenic origin. None of these, except non-ionizing such as visible light and infrared radiation, can be detected by the sense of sight and touch respectively. The sun emits charged particles with speeds close to the light that interact with the atoms of the gases present in the atmosphere, producing nuclear reactions that in turn produce other particles that reach the surface of the Earth and reach the living beings. On Earth there are natural radioisotopes that, when they disintegrate, emit ionizing radiation that contributes to the dose we receive. A very old system that allows the visualization of the trajectories of the charged ionizing particles is the Fog Chamber that uses a saturated steam that when crossed by particles with mass and charge, as alpha and beta particles produce condensation centers along its path leaves a trace that can be seen. The objective of this work was to build a fog chamber using easily accessible materials. To measure the functioning of the fog chamber, cosmic rays were measured, as well as a source of natural metal uranium. The fog chamber allowed seeing the presence of traces in alcohol vapor that are produced in a random way. Introducing the uranium foil inside the fog chamber, traces of alpha particles whose energy varies from 4 to 5 MeV were observed. (Author)

  11. Determination of nitrogen in zirconium by charged-particle activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strijckmans, K; Mortier, R; Vandecasteele, C; Hoste, J [Ghent Rijksuniversiteit (Belgium)

    1982-01-01

    The determination of nitrogen in zirconium by charged-particle activation analysis is described. The /sup 14/N(..cap alpha.., ..cap alpha..n)/sup 13/N and the /sup 14/N(p, ..cap alpha..)/sup 11/C reactions were used. The /sup 13/N activity was separated from matrix activity as ammonia by steam-distillation after dissolution of the sample in dilute hydrofluoric acid.The /sup 11/C activity was separated as carbon dioxide by dissolution of the sample in a mixture of concentrated sulphuric acid, sodium fluoride and potassium periodate, followed by oxidation of the evolved gases with a copper oxide-iron oxide-kaolin mixture and trapping of the carbon dioxide in dilute sodium hydroxide solution. The chemical yield of both separations was investigated. The nuclear interference of boron can be neglected, in view of the low boron content. Alpha- and protonactivation yielded the following results for BCR reference materials (alpha-activation results first): CRM 21: 24.6 +- 3.3 and 25.9 +- 0.8 ..mu..g/g (certified value: 26.4 +- 2.5 ..mu..g/g);CRM 56: 12.0 +- 1.1 and 10.5 +- 0.3 ..mu..g/g (certified value: 11.7 +- 1.7 ..mu..g/g); CRM 57: 11.2 +- 0.3 ..mu..g/g (alpha/activation) (certified value: 11.9 +- 1.8 ..mu..g/g).

  12. The 1st symposium of Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy on fundamental development of the charged particle therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soga, Fuminori

    2002-06-01

    This issue is the collection of the paper presented at the 1st Symposium of Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy on fundamental development of the charged particle therapy. The 31 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  13. In situ measurement of electrostatic charge and charge distribution on flyash particles in power station exhaust stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guang, D.

    1992-01-01

    The electrostatic charges and charge distributions on individual flyash particles were experimentally measured in situ at four power stations in New South Wales and in the laboratory with an Electrostatic Charge Classifier. The global charge of these flyashes was also measured. The electrostatic charge on flyash particles of four power stations was found to be globally native. The median charge on the flyash particles varies linearly with particle diameter for all four flyashes. The electrostatic charge on the Tallawarra flyash particles was found to increase after passage through the air heater having huge metal surface areas, suggesting that triboelectrification was the primary charging mechanism for flyash particles. Distinctly different characteristics of the electrostatic charge, particle size and particle shape were found between the Eraring and the Tallawarra flyashes. The spherical Eraring ash has the highest proportion of lines and positively charged particles, but the lowest global charge level among the four flyashes. In contrast, the Tallawarra flyash has just the opposite. It is the distinct characteristics of the flyashes from Eraring and Tallawarra power stations that are responsible for the significant differences in their baghouse performance. The napping feature on the surface of the filter bags used in the Eraring and Tallawarra power stations provides an upstream surface of low fibre density above the fabric bulk. This feature presents and advantage to highly charged particles, like the Tallawarra flyash particles. Highly charged particles tend to deposit on such an upstream surface resulting in a porous dust cake with much less contact areas with the fabric medium than would otherwise be formed. This cake is easy to remove and provides less resistance to the gas flow. After singeing the naps on the filter bag surface at the Eraring power station, the problems of high pressure drop and retention of dust cake on the bas surface have been resolved.

  14. Metastable states of plasma particles close to a charged surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shavlov, A. V., E-mail: shavlov@ikz.ru [The Institute of the Earth Cryosphere, RAS Siberian branch, 625000, P.O. 1230, Tyumen (Russian Federation); Tyumen State Oil and Gas University, 38, Volodarskogo St., 625000, Tyumen (Russian Federation); Dzhumandzhi, V. A. [The Institute of the Earth Cryosphere, RAS Siberian branch, 625000, P.O. 1230, Tyumen (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    The free energy of the plasma particles and the charged surface that form an electroneutral system is calculated on the basis of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. It is shown that, owing to correlation of light plasma particles near the charged surface and close to heavy particles of high charge, there can be metastable states in plasma. The corresponding phase charts of metastable states of the separate components of plasma, and plasma as a whole, are constructed. These charts depend on temperature, the charge magnitude, the size of the particles, and the share of the charge of the light carriers out of the total charge of the plasma particles.

  15. The Influence of Particle Charge on Heterogeneous Reaction Rate Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikin, A. C.; Pesnell, W. D.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of particle charge on heterogeneous reaction rates are presented. Many atmospheric particles, whether liquid or solid are charged. This surface charge causes a redistribution of charge within a liquid particle and as a consequence a perturbation in the gaseous uptake coefficient. The amount of perturbation is proportional to the external potential and the square of the ratio of debye length in the liquid to the particle radius. Previous modeling has shown how surface charge affects the uptake coefficient of charged aerosols. This effect is now included in the heterogeneous reaction rate of an aerosol ensemble. Extension of this analysis to ice particles will be discussed and examples presented.

  16. Bibliography of integral charged particle nuclear data. Archival edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrows, T.W.; Dempsey, P.

    1980-03-01

    This is the fourth annual edition of the National Nuclear Data Center charged-particle bibliography. This edition is cumulative and supersedes the previous editions. The bibliography's primary aims are to satisfy the need for a concise and comprehensive index of integral charged-particle cross section data and to provide an index of charged-particle data compiled in the international exchange format. References in this Part are by target for the various incident charged particles (in order of increasing A). The present publication is an archival volume; future publications will be cumulative supplements to this edition

  17. Charging and coagulation of radioactive and nonradioactive particles in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong-ha; Yiacoumi, Sotira

    2016-01-01

    Charging and coagulation influence one another and impact the particle charge and size distributions in the atmosphere. However, few investigations to date have focused on the coagulation kinetics of atmospheric particles accumulating charge. This study presents three approaches to include mutual effects of charging and coagulation on the microphysical evolution of atmospheric particles such as radioactive particles. The first approach employs ion balance, charge balance, and a bivariate population balance model (PBM) to comprehensively calculate both charge accumulation and coagulation rates of particles. The second approach involves a much simpler description of charging, and uses a monovariate PBM and subsequent effects of charge on particle coagulation. The third approach is further simplified assuming that particles instantaneously reach their steady-state charge distributions. It is found that compared to the other two approaches, the first approach can accurately predict time-dependent changes in the size and charge distributions of particles over a wide size range covering from the free molecule to continuum regimes. The other two approaches can reliably predict both charge accumulation and coagulation rates for particles larger than about 0.04 micrometers and atmospherically relevant conditions. These approaches are applied to investigate coagulation kinetics of particles accumulating charge in a radioactive neutralizer, the urban atmosphere, and an atmospheric system containing radioactive particles. Limitations of the approaches are discussed.

  18. Slowing of charged particles by particle methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, B.

    1985-03-01

    We review some facts about particle methods for solving linear hyperbolic equations. We show how one gets an evaluation of integral quantities like: ∫ u(x,t) zeta(x,t) dxdt where u denotes the solution and zeta an arbitrary weight function. Then, we apply the method to the equation describing charged particle transport in a plasma with emphasis on the evaluation of energy deposition on ions and electrons [fr

  19. Bibliography of integral charged particle nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holden, N.E.; Burrows, T.W.

    1982-03-01

    This publication is the second supplement to the archival edition of the National Nuclear Data Center's charged-particle bibliography. This supplement contains citations to all references scanned since March 15, 1981, and all corrections and additions to previous citations, and indexes all data received in the international exchanged format (EXFOR). The primary goal of the bibliography has been to satisfy the need expressed by the Nuclear Reaction Data Center Network for a concise and comprehensive bibliography of integral charged-particle cross section data and to provide an index of data exchanged among the members. In 1980, coverage was expanded to include differential data relevant to charged-particle-induced neutron-source reactions

  20. Charged particle scintillation mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranov, P.S.; Zhuravlev, E.E.; Nafikov, A.A.; Osadchi , A.I.; Raevskij, V.G.; Smirnov, P.A.; Cherepnya, S.N.; Yanulis, Yu.P.

    1982-01-01

    A scintillation mass-spectrometer for charged particle identification by the measured values of time-of-flight and energy operating on line with the D-116 computer is described. Original time detectors with 100x100x2 mm 3 and 200x2 mm 2 scintillators located on the 1- or 2 m path length are used in the spectrometer. The 200x200x200 mm 3 scintillation unit is used as a E-counter. Time-of-flight spectra of the detected particles on the 2 m path length obtained in spectrometer test in the beam of charged particles escaping from the carbon target at the angle of 130 deg under 1.2 GeV bremsstrahlung beam of the ''Pakhra'' PIAS synchrotron are presented. Proton and deuteron energy spectra as well as mass spectrum of all the particles detected by the spectrometer are given. Mass resolution obtained on the 2 m path length for π-mesons is +-25%, for protons is +-5%, for deuterons is +-3%

  1. Sequential charged particle reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Jun-ichi; Ochiai, Kentaro; Sato, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Michinori; Nishitani, Takeo

    2004-01-01

    The effective cross sections for producing the sequential reaction products in F82H, pure vanadium and LiF with respect to the 14.9-MeV neutron were obtained and compared with the estimation ones. Since the sequential reactions depend on the secondary charged particles behavior, the effective cross sections are corresponding to the target nuclei and the material composition. The effective cross sections were also estimated by using the EAF-libraries and compared with the experimental ones. There were large discrepancies between estimated and experimental values. Additionally, we showed the contribution of the sequential reaction on the induced activity and dose rate in the boundary region with water. From the present study, it has been clarified that the sequential reactions are of great importance to evaluate the dose rates around the surface of cooling pipe and the activated corrosion products. (author)

  2. The determination of nitrogen in zirconium by charged-particle activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strijckmans, K.; Mortier, R.; Vandecasteele, C.; Hoste, J.

    1982-01-01

    The determination of nitrogen in zirconium by charged-particle activation analysis is described. The 14 N(α, αn) 13 N and the 14 N(p, α) 11 C reactions were used. The 13 N activity was separated from matrix activity as ammonia by steam-distillation after dissolution of the sample in dilute hydrofluoric acid.The 11 C activity was separated as carbon dioxide by dissolution of the sample in a mixture of concentrated sulphuric acid, sodium fluoride and potassium periodate, followed by oxidation of the evolved gases with a copper oxide-iron oxide-kaolin mixture and trapping of the carbon dioxide in dilute sodium hydroxide solution. The chemical yield of both separations was investigated. The nuclear interference of boron can be neglected, in view of the low boron content. Alpha- and protonactivation yielded the following results for BCR reference materials (alpha-activation results first): CRM 21: 24.6 +- 3.3 and 25.9 +- 0.8 μg/g (certified value: 26.4 +- 2.5 μg/g);CRM 56: 12.0 +- 1.1 and 10.5 +- 0.3 μg/g (certified value: 11.7 +- 1.7 μg/g); CRM 57: 11.2 +- 0.3 μg/g (alpha/activation) (certified value: 11.9 +- 1.8 μg/g). (Author)

  3. High-energy charged particle bursts in the near-Earth space as earthquake precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Aleksandrin

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The experimental data on high-energy charged particle fluxes, obtained in various near-Earth space experiments (MIR orbital station, METEOR-3, GAMMA and SAMPEX satellites were processed and analyzed with the goal to search for particle bursts. Particle bursts have been selected in every experiment considered. It was shown that the significant part of high-energy charged particle bursts correlates with seismic activity. Moreover, the particle bursts are observed several hours before strong earthquakes; L-shells of particle bursts and corresponding earthquakes are practically the same. Some features of a seismo-magnetosphere connection model, based on the interaction of electromagnetic emission of seismic origin and radiation belt particles, were considered. Key words. Ionospheric physics (energetic particles, trapped; energetic particles, precipitating; magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions

  4. Characterization of triboelectrically charged particles deposited on dielectric surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterov, A.; Löffler, F.; Cheng, Yun-Chien; Torralba, G.; König, K.; Hausmann, M.; Lindenstruth, V.; Stadler, V.; Bischoff, F. R.; Breitling, F.

    2010-04-01

    A device for the measurement of q/m-values and charge degradation of triboelectrically charged particles deposited on a surface was developed. The setup is based on the integration of currents, which are induced in a Faraday cage by insertion of a solid support covered with charged particles. The conductivity of different particle supports was taken into account. The 'blow-off' method, in which the particles are first deposited, and then blown off using an air stream, can be used for characterization of triboelectric properties of particles relative to different surfaces.

  5. Characterization of triboelectrically charged particles deposited on dielectric surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesterov, A; Torralba, G; Hausmann, M; Lindenstruth, V [Kirchhoff Institute of Physics, In Neuenheimer Feld 227, Heidelberg (Germany); Loeffler, F; Cheng, Yun-Chien; Koenig, K; Stadler, V; Bischoff, F R [German Cancer Research Centre, In Neuenheimer Feld 280, Heidelberg (Germany); Breitling, F, E-mail: Frank.Breitling@KIT.ed, E-mail: alexander.nesterov-mueller@kit.ed [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Microstructure Technology, Herrmann von Helmholtzplatz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2010-04-28

    A device for the measurement of q/m-values and charge degradation of triboelectrically charged particles deposited on a surface was developed. The setup is based on the integration of currents, which are induced in a Faraday cage by insertion of a solid support covered with charged particles. The conductivity of different particle supports was taken into account. The 'blow-off' method, in which the particles are first deposited, and then blown off using an air stream, can be used for characterization of triboelectric properties of particles relative to different surfaces.

  6. Stereotactic radiosurgery. The role of charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, R.P.; Schulte, R.W.M.; Slater, J.D.; Miller, D.W.; Slater, J.M. [Loma Linda Univ. Medical Center, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiation Medicine

    1999-08-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery using charged-particle beams has been the subject of biomedical research and clinical development for more than 50 years. Charged particles of proton mass or greater manifest unique physical properties that can be used to place a high dose of radiation preferentially within the boundaries of a deeply located intracranial target volume. Since 1954, nearly 10 000 patients have been treated using this technique. Treated disorders include pituitary tumors, vascular malformations, primary and metastatic brain tumors, and subfoveal neovascularization. Charged-particle radiosurgery is particularly advantageous for the conformal treatment of large and/or irregularly shaped lesions, or for the treatment of lesions located in front of or adjacent to sensitive brain structures. (orig.)

  7. Stereotactic radiosurgery. The role of charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, R.P.; Schulte, R.W.M.; Slater, J.D.; Miller, D.W.; Slater, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery using charged-particle beams has been the subject of biomedical research and clinical development for more than 50 years. Charged particles of proton mass or greater manifest unique physical properties that can be used to place a high dose of radiation preferentially within the boundaries of a deeply located intracranial target volume. Since 1954, nearly 10 000 patients have been treated using this technique. Treated disorders include pituitary tumors, vascular malformations, primary and metastatic brain tumors, and subfoveal neovascularization. Charged-particle radiosurgery is particularly advantageous for the conformal treatment of large and/or irregularly shaped lesions, or for the treatment of lesions located in front of or adjacent to sensitive brain structures. (orig.)

  8. Electro-optical detection of charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semertzidis, Y.K.; Castillo, V.; Kowalski, L.; Kraus, D.E.; Larsen, R.; Lazarus, D.M.; Magurno, B.; Nikas, D.; Ozben, C.; Srinivasan-Rao, T.; Tsang, T.

    2000-01-01

    We have made the first observation of a charged particle beam by means of its electro-optical effect on the polarization of laser light in a LiNbO 3 crystal. The modulation of the laser light during the passage of a pulsed electron beam was observed using a fast photodiode and a digital oscilloscope. The fastest rise time measured, 120 ps, was obtained in the single shot mode and was limited by the bandwidth of the oscilloscope and the associated electronics. This technology holds good for detectors of greatly improved spatial and temporal resolution for single relativistic charged particles as well as particle beams

  9. Electro-optical detection of charged particles

    CERN Document Server

    Semertzidis, Y K; Kowalski, L A; Kraus, D E; Larsen, R; Lazarus, D M; Magurno, B; Nikas, D; Ozben, C; Srinivasan-Rao, T; Tsang, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    We have made the first observation of a charged particle beam by means of its electro-optical effect on the polarization of laser light in a LiNbO sub 3 crystal. The modulation of the laser light during the passage of a pulsed electron beam was observed using a fast photodiode and a digital oscilloscope. The fastest rise time measured, 120 ps, was obtained in the single shot mode and was limited by the bandwidth of the oscilloscope and the associated electronics. This technology holds good for detectors of greatly improved spatial and temporal resolution for single relativistic charged particles as well as particle beams.

  10. Electro-optical detection of charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semertzidis, Y.K.; Castillo, V.; Kowalski, L.; Kraus, D.E.; Larsen, R.; Lazarus, D.M. E-mail: lazarus@sun2.bnl.gov; Magurno, B.; Nikas, D.; Ozben, C.; Srinivasan-Rao, T.; Tsang, T

    2000-10-01

    We have made the first observation of a charged particle beam by means of its electro-optical effect on the polarization of laser light in a LiNbO{sub 3} crystal. The modulation of the laser light during the passage of a pulsed electron beam was observed using a fast photodiode and a digital oscilloscope. The fastest rise time measured, 120 ps, was obtained in the single shot mode and was limited by the bandwidth of the oscilloscope and the associated electronics. This technology holds good for detectors of greatly improved spatial and temporal resolution for single relativistic charged particles as well as particle beams.

  11. Charged particle beams

    CERN Document Server

    Humphries, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    Detailed enough for a text and sufficiently comprehensive for a reference, this volume addresses topics vital to understanding high-power accelerators and high-brightness-charged particle beams. Subjects include stochastic cooling, high-brightness injectors, and the free electron laser. Humphries provides students with the critical skills necessary for the problem-solving insights unique to collective physics problems. 1990 edition.

  12. Geometrical charged-particle optics

    CERN Document Server

    Rose, Harald

    2012-01-01

    This second edition is an extended version of the first edition of Geometrical Charged-Particle Optics. The updated reference monograph is intended as a guide for researchers and graduate students who are seeking a comprehensive treatment of the design of instruments and beam-guiding systems of charged particles and their propagation in electromagnetic fields. Wave aspects are included in this edition for explaining electron holography, the Aharanov-Bohm effect and the resolution of electron microscopes limited by diffraction. Several methods for calculating the electromagnetic field are presented and procedures are outlined for calculating the properties of systems with arbitrarily curved axis. Detailed methods are presented for designing and optimizing special components such as aberration correctors, spectrometers, energy filters monochromators, ion traps, electron mirrors and cathode lenses. In particular, the optics of rotationally symmetric lenses, quadrupoles, and systems composed of these elements are...

  13. Heavy-ion radiography applied to charged particle radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, G.T.Y.; Fabrikant, J.I.; Holley, W.R.; Tobias, C.A.; Castro, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The objectives of the heavy-ion radiography research program applied to the clinical cancer research program of charged particle radiotherapy have a twofold purpose: (1) to explore the manner in which heavy-ion radiography and CT reconstruction can provide improved tumor localization, treatment planning, and beam delivery for radiotherapy with accelerated heavy charged particles; and (2) to explore the usefulness of heavy-ion radiography in detecting, localizing, and sizing soft tissue cancers in the human body. The techniques and procedures developed for heavy-ion radiography should prove successful in support of charged particle radiotherapy

  14. Leading charged particle correlations at ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Krizek, F

    2012-01-01

    A leading charged particle correlation analysis was performed on p + p data measured by the ALICE experiment at √s = 7 TeV. The main emphasis was on the xE distributions for a given charged hadron trigger momentum pTt. It was observed that dN/dxE is driven by the imbalance function at low xE. At high xE it shows exponential behavior and the extracted slope can be related to hzti of the trigger particle.

  15. Gravitational instantons as models for charged particle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchetti, Guido; Manton, Nicholas S.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we propose ALF gravitational instantons of types A k and D k as models for charged particle systems. We calculate the charges of the two families. These are -( k + 1) for A k , which is proposed as a model for k + 1 electrons, and 2 - k for D k , which is proposed as a model for either a particle of charge +2 and k electrons or a proton and k - 1 electrons. Making use of preferred topological and metrical structures of the manifolds, namely metrically preferred representatives of middle dimension homology classes, we construct two different energy functionals which reproduce the Coulomb interaction energy for a system of charged particles.

  16. Formation of charged particles in condensation aerosol generators used for inhalation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramu, M.C.R.; Vohra, K.G.

    1976-01-01

    Formation of charged particles in a condensation aerosol generator has been studied using a charge collector and a mobility analyzer. Measurements carried out using the charge collector show that the number of charged particles increases with an increase in the particle diameter. The number of charged particles measured also depends on the thickness of the sodium chloride coating on the platinum wire used in the aerosol generator for the production of condensation nuclei. It was found that the charged particle concentration increases with decreasing coating thickness. Mobility measurements have shown that the particles are singly and doubly charged. It has been estimated that about 10% of the particles produced in the generator are charged. The mechanism of formation of charged particles in the aerosol generator has been briefly discussed. (author)

  17. A magnetic field cloak for charged particle beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capobianco-Hogan, K. G.; Cervantes, R.; Deshpande, A.; Feege, N.; Krahulik, T.; LaBounty, J.; Sekelsky, R.; Adhyatman, A.; Arrowsmith-Kron, G.; Coe, B.; Dehmelt, K.; Hemmick, T. K.; Jeffas, S.; LaByer, T.; Mahmud, S.; Oliveira, A.; Quadri, A.; Sharma, K.; Tishelman-Charny, A.

    2018-01-01

    Shielding charged particle beams from transverse magnetic fields is a common challenge for particle accelerators and experiments. We demonstrate that a magnetic field cloak is a viable solution. It allows for the use of dipole magnets in the forward regions of experiments at an Electron Ion Collider (EIC) and other facilities without interfering with the incoming beams. The dipoles can improve the momentum measurements of charged final state particles at angles close to the beam line and therefore increase the physics reach of these experiments. In contrast to other magnetic shielding options (such as active coils), a cloak requires no external powering. We discuss the design parameters, fabrication, and limitations of a magnetic field cloak and demonstrate that cylinders made from 45 layers of YBCO high-temperature superconductor, combined with a ferromagnetic shell made from epoxy and stainless steel powder, shield more than 99% of a transverse magnetic field of up to 0.45 T (95% shielding at 0.5 T) at liquid nitrogen temperature. The ferromagnetic shell reduces field distortions caused by the superconductor alone by 90% at 0.45 T.

  18. Charged-particle calculations using Boltzmann transport methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, T.J.; Dodds, H.L. Jr.; Robinson, M.T.; Holmes, D.K.

    1981-01-01

    Several aspects of radiation damage effects in fusion reactor neutron and ion irradiation environments are amenable to treatment by transport theory methods. In this paper, multigroup transport techniques are developed for the calculation of charged particle range distributions, reflection coefficients, and sputtering yields. The Boltzmann transport approach can be implemented, with minor changes, in standard neutral particle computer codes. With the multigroup discrete ordinates code, ANISN, determination of ion and target atom distributions as functions of position, energy, and direction can be obtained without the stochastic error associated with atomistic computer codes such as MARLOWE and TRIM. With the multigroup Monte Carlo code, MORSE, charged particle effects can be obtained for problems associated with very complex geometries. Results are presented for several charged particle problems. Good agreement is obtained between quantities calculated with the multigroup approach and those obtained experimentally or by atomistic computer codes

  19. ACT-XN: Revised version of an activation calculation code for fusion reactor analysis. Supplement of the function for the sequential reaction activation by charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Michinori; Sato, Satoshi; Nishitani, Takeo; Konno, Chikara; Hori, Jun-ichi; Kawasaki, Hiromitsu

    2007-09-01

    The ACT-XN is a revised version of the ACT4 code, which was developed in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) to calculate the transmutation, induced activity, decay heat, delayed gamma-ray source etc. for fusion devices. The ACT4 code cannot deal with the sequential reactions of charged particles generated by primary neutron reactions. In the design of present experimental reactors, the activation due to sequential reactions may not be of great concern as it is usually buried under the activity by primary neutron reactions. However, low activation material is one of the important factors for constructing high power fusion reactors in future, and unexpected activation may be produced through sequential reactions. Therefore, in the present work, the ACT4 code was newly supplemented with the calculation functions for the sequential reactions and renamed the ACT-XN. The ACT-XN code is equipped with functions to calculate effective cross sections for sequential reactions and input them in transmutation matrix. The FISPACT data were adopted for (x,n) reaction cross sections, charged particles emission spectra and stopping powers. The nuclear reaction chain data library were revised to cope with the (x,n) reactions. The charged particles are specified as p, d, t, 3 He(h) and α. The code was applied to the analysis of FNS experiment for LiF and Demo-reactor design with FLiBe, and confirmed that it reproduce the experimental values within 15-30% discrepancies. In addition, a notice was presented that the dose rate due to sequential reaction cannot always be neglected after a certain period cooling for some of the low activation material. (author)

  20. Determination of Oxygen in Zircaloy Surfaces by Means of Charged Particle Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzen, J; Brune, D

    1973-01-15

    Oxygen in zircaloy surfaces has been determined by means of charged particle activation analysis employing the following two reactions I. 16O (d, n) 17F ->(beta+decay) 17O Q = - 1.63 MeV; II. 16O (d, pgamma) 17O Q = + 1.05 MeV. The detection limits for oxygen in such surfaces has been investigated by measuring the promptly emitted 0.87 MeV gamma rays (reaction II) and also the 511 keV annihilation radiation which arises from beta-decay of 17F (reaction I). The correlation between the detection limit for oxygen in zircaloy, the particle energy and the surface thickness analyzed has been evaluated. At a deuteron energy of 3 MeV a detection limit of 0.7 x 10-7 g/cm2 was obtained from the measurement of the prompt gamma radiation arising from the second of these reactions. The analysis carried out by means of this technique is characterized by a high rapidity

  1. Charged-particle spectroscopy in organic semiconducting single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciavatti, A.; Basiricò, L.; Fraboni, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Sellin, P. J. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Fraleoni-Morgera, A. [ELETTRA-Sincrotrone Trieste, Strada Statale 14, Km 163.5, Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Department of Engineering and Architecture, University of Trieste, V. Valerio 10, 34100 Trieste (Italy); CNR-Nano S3 Institute, Via Campi 213/A, 41125 Modena (Italy)

    2016-04-11

    The use of organic materials as radiation detectors has grown, due to the easy processability in liquid phase at room temperature and the possibility to cover large areas by means of low cost deposition techniques. Direct charged-particle detectors based on solution-grown Organic Semiconducting Single Crystals (OSSCs) are shown to be capable to detect charged particles in pulse mode, with very good peak discrimination. The direct charged-particle detection in OSSCs has been assessed both in the planar and in the vertical axes, and a digital pulse processing algorithm has been used to perform pulse height spectroscopy and to study the charge collection efficiency as a function of the applied bias voltage. Taking advantage of the charge spectroscopy and the good peak discrimination of pulse height spectra, an Hecht-like behavior of OSSCs radiation detectors is demonstrated. It has been possible to estimate the mobility-lifetime value in organic materials, a fundamental parameter for the characterization of radiation detectors, whose results are equal to μτ{sub coplanar} = (5 .5 ± 0.6 ) × 10{sup −6} cm{sup 2}/V and μτ{sub sandwich} = (1 .9 ± 0.2 ) × 10{sup −6} cm{sup 2}/V, values comparable to those of polycrystalline inorganic detectors. Moreover, alpha particles Time-of-Flight experiments have been carried out to estimate the drift mobility value. The results reported here indicate how charged-particle detectors based on OSSCs possess a great potential as low-cost, large area, solid-state direct detectors operating at room temperature. More interestingly, the good detection efficiency and peak discrimination observed for charged-particle detection in organic materials (hydrogen-rich molecules) are encouraging for their further exploitation in the detection of thermal and high-energy neutrons.

  2. Sequential charged-particle and neutron activation of Flibe in the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latkowski, J.F.; Tobin, M.T.; Vujic, J.L.; Sanz, J.

    1996-01-01

    Most radionuclide generation/depletion codes consider only neutron reactions and assume that charged particles, which may be generated in these reactions, deposit their energy locally without undergoing further nuclear interactions. Neglect of sequential charged-particle (x,n) reactions can lead to large underestimation in the inventories of radionuclides. PCROSS code was adopted for use with the ACAB activation code to enable calculation of the effects of (x,n) reactions upon radionuclide inventories and inventory-related indices. Activation calculations were made for Flibe (2LiF + BeF 2 ) coolant in the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant design. For pure Flibe coolant, it was found that (x,n) reactions dominate the residual contact dose rate at times of interest for maintenance and decommissioning. For impure Flibe, however, radionuclides produced directly in neutron reaction dominate the contact dose rate and (x,n) reactions do not make a significant contribution. Results demonstrate potential importance of (x,n) reactions and that the relative importance of (x,n) reactions varies strongly with the composition of the material considered. Future activation calculations should consider (x,n) reactions until a method for pre-determining their importance is established

  3. Late time CMB anisotropies constrain mini-charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrage, C.; Redondo, J.; Ringwald, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Jaeckel, J. [Univ. of Durham, Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-15

    Observations of the temperature anisotropies induced as light from the CMB passes through large scale structures in the late universe are a sensitive probe of the interactions of photons in such environments. In extensions of the Standard Model which give rise to mini-charged particles, photons propagating through transverse magnetic fields can be lost to pair production of such particles. Such a decrement in the photon flux would occur as photons from the CMB traverse the magnetic fields of galaxy clusters. Therefore late time CMB anisotropies can be used to constrain the properties of mini- charged particles. We outline how this test is constructed, and present new constraints on mini-charged particles from observations of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect in the Coma cluster. (orig.)

  4. Electro-optical Detection of Charged Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarus, D.M.

    2001-01-01

    The electric field of charged particles can induce transient changes in the polarization of light that produce sub-picosecond modulation of a laser beam. This is a consequence of the electro-optical effect in which the presence of the electric field in an electro-optical medium produces a change in the index of refraction of the medium resulting in a phase retardation between polarization components parallel and perpendicular to the electric field. We have observed the electro-optical effect due to 10 picosecond electron beam bunches with rise times that were limited by the bandwidth of our data acquisition system. This technology is being applied to particle beam diagnostics and has the potential to produce charged particle detectors combining excellent spatial resolution with unprecedented temporal precision.

  5. Charged particle in higher dimensional weakly charged rotating black hole spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, Valeri P.; Krtous, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    We study charged particle motion in weakly charged higher dimensional black holes. To describe the electromagnetic field we use a test field approximation and the higher dimensional Kerr-NUT-(A)dS metric as a background geometry. It is shown that for a special configuration of the electromagnetic field, the equations of motion of charged particles are completely integrable. The vector potential of such a field is proportional to one of the Killing vectors (called a primary Killing vector) from the 'Killing tower' of symmetry generating objects which exists in the background geometry. A free constant in the definition of the adopted electromagnetic potential is proportional to the electric charge of the higher dimensional black hole. The full set of independent conserved quantities in involution is found. We demonstrate that Hamilton-Jacobi equations are separable, as is the corresponding Klein-Gordon equation and its symmetry operators.

  6. Bibliography of integral charged-particle nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrows, T.W.; Wyant, G.

    1981-03-01

    This publication is the first supplement to the archival edition of the National Nuclear Data Center's charged-particle bibliography. This supplement contains citations to all references scanned since March 15, 1980, and all corrections and additions to previous citations, and indexes all data received in the international exchanged format (EXFOR). The primary goal of the bibliography has been to satisfy the need expressed by the Nuclear Reaction Data Center Network for a concise and comprehensive bibliography of integral charged-particle cross section data and to provide an index of data exchanged among the members. As a result of a recommendation by the recent Workshop on Intense High Energy Neutron Source and Their Characteristics, we have also undertaken to expand the coverage of charged-particle-induced neutron-source reactions to include differential data. This supplement is divided into two sections, References and Isotope Production. The References section contains all references satisfying the criteria noted. The Isotope Production section contains an abbreviated reference line for all entries which contain information on a definite residual nucleus, on particle production, or on mass, charge, or isotopic distributions. Entries in the References section are sequentially numbered. These sequence numbers serve as a link between the two sections

  7. Medium-energy charged-particle data for evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearlstein, S.

    1989-01-01

    Medium-energy charged particles incident on targets can cause a variety of nuclear reactions. Charged-particle transport calculations require access to a large body of cross-section data, which results in interest in an evaluated charged-particle data library. Developing an evaluated data library can involve several steps. An index to the literature on measurements and theory is useful to locate information relevant to data evaluation. A computerized compilation of measurements facilitates the intercomparison of different experiments and the determination of how well data are known. Nuclear models, based on theory or phenomenological evidence, are compared with experiment and, where validated, are used to fill in regions where experimental data are not available. Finally, the selected data are placed into computer-readable formats for use in transport calculations. Specialized indexes to bibliography help the scientist to keep up with his field and catch up with new subjects of interest. Several indexes are relevant to medium-energy nuclear data. In addition, these data are covered in several reports not issued on a regular basis. The technical area of medium-energy charged-particle data is maturing. From isolated measurements and theories, a comprehensive approach toward establishing a validated data base extending from low to high energies is emerging

  8. Deposition of Aerosol Particles in Electrically Charged Membrane Filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroem, L

    1972-05-15

    A theory for the influence of electric charge on particle deposition on the surface of charged filters has been developed. It has been tested experimentally on ordinary membrane filters and Nuclepore filters of 8 mum pore size, with a bipolar monodisperse test aerosol of 1 mum particle diameter, and at a filter charge up to 20 muC/m2. Agreement with theory was obtained for the Coulomb force between filter and particle for both kinds of filters. The image force between charged filter and neutral particles did not result in the predicted deposition in the ordinary membrane filter, probably due to lacking correspondence between the filter model employed for the theory, and the real filter. For the Nuclepore filter a satisfactory agreement with theory was obtained, also at image interaction

  9. Spinning charged test particles and Cosmic Censorship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caderni, N [Cambridge Univ. Inst. of Astronomy (UK); Calvani, M [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia

    1979-04-16

    The authors consider spinning charged test particles in the gravitational field of a rotating charged black hole, and it is shown that the hole cannot be destroyed, according to the Cosmic Censorship hypothesis.

  10. Spinning charged test particles and Cosmic Censorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caderni, N.; Calvani, M.

    1979-01-01

    The authors consider spinning charged test particles in the gravitational field of a rotating charged black hole, and it is shown that the hole cannot be destroyed, according to the Cosmic Censorship hypothesis. (Auth.)

  11. Detection of charged particles through a photodiode: design and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angoli, A.; Quirino, L.L.; Hernandez, V.M.; Lopez del R, H.; Mireles, F.; Davila, J.I.; Rios, C.; Pinedo, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    This project develops and construct an charge particle detector mean a pin photodiode array, design and analysis using a silicon pin Fotodiodo that generally is used to detect visible light, its good efficiency, size compact and reduced cost specifically allows to its use in the radiation monitoring and alpha particle detection. Here, so much, appears the design of the system of detection like its characterization for alpha particles where one is reported as alpha energy resolution and detection efficiency. The equipment used in the development of work consists of alpha particle a triple source composed of Am-241, Pu-239 and Cm-244 with 5,55 KBq as total activity, Maestro 32 software made by ORTEC, a multi-channel card Triumph from ORTEC and one low activity electroplated uranium sample. (Author)

  12. Charged particle acceleration with plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravo O, A.

    1989-01-01

    Under certain conditions it is possible to create spatial charge waves (OCE) in a plasma (ionized gas) through some disturbance mechanism, the phenomenon produces electric fields of high intensity that are propagated at velocities near to a c. When charged particles are connected to such OCE they may be accelerated to very high energies in short distances. At present electric fields of approximately 10 7 V/cm have been observed. (Author). 4 refs

  13. Theoretical aspects of the formation and evolution of charged particle tracks

    CERN Document Server

    Miterev, A M

    2002-01-01

    Theoretical ideas on the formation and evolution of charged particle tracks in a condensed medium are discussed. The historical development of the field is briefly reviewed. The distribution of charged particle energies on quantum states and the volume of the absorbing medium are considered. and conditions for the formation of various track structures are discussed. The structures of extended heavy-ion tracks are compared for some ion parameters and track characteristics take to be the same. Relaxation processes in the tracks of multicharged ions ate analyzed. Track effects ate considered and possible mechanisms for the formation of chemically active defects in a latent track are described

  14. The connection between solar wind charged particles and tornadoes: Case analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Milan M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperature of charged particles coming from the Sun ranges from several hundred thousands to several millions °C, in extreme cases. Theoretical possibilities of the hydrodynamic air mass seizing by charged particles, i. e. solar wind, are discussed in this paper. On one hand, they are characterized by extremely high temperatures, on the other, by the compression of cold air at an approximate altitude of 90 km towards the top of the cloud of the cyclone, they influence the phenomenon of extremely low temperatures. By using the Mann-Whitney U test we have tried to determine the potential link between certain indicators of solar activity and resulting disturbances in the atmosphere. Analyzed data refer to global daily values for the 2004-2010 period. Our results confirm the possibility of coupling between the charged particles and the vortex air mass movements, based on which a more detailed study of the appearance of a tornado near Sombor on May 12th, 2010, was carried out. It has also been proven that there are grounds for a causality between the sudden arrival of the solar wind charged particles, i. e. protons, and the appearance of a tornado. Based on the presented approach, elements for an entirely novel prediction model are given. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III47007 i br. 176008

  15. Coulomb-Fourier representation approach to three-body scattering with charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alt, E.O.; Levin, S.B.; Yakovlev, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    We present a novel approach for calculating charged-composite particle scattering. It consists in eliminating by means of a suitably chosen representation that part of the interaction which is of longest range and, hence, gives rise to all the troublesome features which plague charged particle scattering theories. In this paper only the simplest case is considered, namely that of two charged and one neutral particles which interact via pairwise strong potentials, and a repulsive Coulomb potential between the charged particles

  16. 21 CFR 892.5050 - Medical charged-particle radiation therapy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-particle radiation therapy system. (a) Identification. A medical charged-particle radiation therapy system... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical charged-particle radiation therapy system... equipment, patient and equipment supports, treatment planning computer programs, component parts, and...

  17. A scintillation detector set measuring the charge particle energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dore, Chantal.

    1979-01-01

    The S143 experiment, at CERN in 1976, needed both the measurement and the identification of light nuclei, and especially the separation between 3 H and 3 He, over a large energy range. In the chosen solution, in addition to semiconductor detectors, some scintillation counters are used. The non-linearity of light versus energy of charged particles was complicated by the fact there was two different linear laws according to the charge of particles. To obtain good analogic signals over a dynamic range nearly equal to 200, the signals from several dynodes were used simultaneously. In the experimental setting up, each scintillator was put directly in contact with the corresponding photocathode. In spite of a special shielding, some perturbations due to the magnet placed close by required to bring important corrections to linear laws. Thanks to complementary informations from semiconductor counters, a full separation between charge 1 and charge 2 particles was possible. A suitable identification as guaranted among charge 1 particles, but only kinematic constraints gave the possibility to extract 4 He corresponding to the elastic scattering [fr

  18. Study of coal oxidation by charged particle activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlyer, D.J.; Wolf, A.P.

    1980-01-01

    It has been possible, using the technique of changed particle activation analysis, to follow the time course of the oxidation of coal exposed to air. The kinetics have been studied and seem to be consistent with a rapid initial uptake of oxygen containing molecules followed by slow diffusion into the surface of the coal particles. In this latter regard a study has been undertaken to study the depth profile of the oxygen into the coal particle surface. The depth of penetration of the activating particle is determined by the incident energy and therefore, by comparison to the appropriate standards, the depth profile may be determined either by varying the incident energy or by varying the particle size. Both approaches have been used and give consistent results. The depth to which a significant amount of oxygen penetrates varies from about 3 μm for very high rank coals to about 20 μm for low rank coals. This diffusion depth seems to be related to the porosity of the coals. A model for the low temperature air oxidation of coal has been developed to explain the results from the above mentioned experiments

  19. Method of measuring a profile of the density of charged particles in a particle beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyman, L.G.; Jankowski, D.J.

    1975-01-01

    A profile of the relative density of charged particles in a beam is obtained by disposing a number of rods parallel to each other in a plane perpendicular to the beam and shadowing the beam. A second number of rods is disposed perpendicular to the first rods in a plane perpendicular to the beam and also shadowing the beam. Irradiation of the rods by the beam of charged particles creates radioactive isotopes in a quantity proportional to the number of charged particles incident upon the rods. Measurement of the radioactivity of each of the rods provides a measure of the quantity of radioactive material generated thereby and, together with the location of the rods, provides information sufficient to identify a profile of the density of charged particles in the beam

  20. Ultracold Fermi and Bose gases and Spinless Bose Charged Sound Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minasyan V.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel approach for investigation of the motion of Bose or Fermi liquid (or gas which consists of decoupled electrons and ions in the uppermost hyperfine state. Hence, we use such a concept as the fluctuation motion of “charged fluid particles” or “charged fluid points” representing a charged longitudinal elastic wave. In turn, this elastic wave is quantized by spinless longitudinal Bose charged sound particles with the rest mass m and charge e 0 . The existence of spinless Bose charged sound particles allows us to present a new model for description of Bose or Fermi liquid via a non-ideal Bose gas of charged sound particles . In this respect, we introduce a new postulation for the superfluid component of Bose or Fermi liquid determined by means of charged sound particles in the condensate, which may explain the results of experiments connected with ultra-cold Fermi gases of spin-polarized hydrogen, 6 Li and 40 K, and such a Bose gas as 87 Rb in the uppermost hyperfine state, where the Bose- Einstein condensation of charged sound particles is realized by tuning the magnetic field.

  1. Bibliography of integral charged particle nuclear data. Archival edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrows, T.W.; Dempsey, P.

    1980-03-01

    This is the fourth annual edition of the National Nuclear Data Center charged-particle bibliography. This edition is cumulative and supersedes the previous editions. The bibliography's primary aims are to satisfy the need for a concise and comprehensive index of integral charged-particle cross section data and to provide an index of charged-particle data compiled in the international exchange format, EXFOR. This part of the publication deals with isotope production; references are ordered by mass of the nuclide produced. The present publication is an archival volume; future publications will be cumulative supplements to this edition

  2. Single charging events on colloidal particles in a nonpolar liquid with surfactant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuer, Caspar; Vandewiele, Stijn; Brans, Toon; Strubbe, Filip; Neyts, Kristiaan; Beunis, Filip

    2018-01-01

    Electrical charging of colloidal particles in nonpolar liquids due to surfactant additives is investigated intensively, motivated by its importance in a variety of applications. Most methods rely on average electrophoretic mobility measurements of many particles, which provide only indirect information on the charging mechanism. In the present work, we present a method that allows us to obtain direct information on the charging mechanism, by measuring the charge fluctuations on individual particles with a precision higher than the elementary charge using optical trapping electrophoresis. We demonstrate the capabilities of the method by studying the influence of added surfactant OLOA 11000 on the charging of single colloidal PMMA particles in dodecane. The particle charge and the frequency of charging events are investigated both below and above the critical micelle concentration (CMC) and with or without applying a DC offset voltage. It is found that at least two separate charging mechanisms are present below the critical micelle concentration. One mechanism is a process where the particle is stripped from negatively charged ionic molecules. An increase in the charging frequency with increased surfactant concentration suggests a second mechanism that involves single surfactant molecules. Above the CMC, neutral inverse micelles can also be involved in the charging process.

  3. Searches for Fractionally Charged Particles: What Should Be Done Next?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perl, Martin L.; /SLAC

    2009-01-15

    Since the initial measurements of the electron charge a century ago, experimenters have faced the persistent question as to whether elementary particles exist that have charges that are fractional multiples of the electron charge. I concisely review the results of the last 50 years of searching for fractional charge particles with no confirmed positive results. I discuss the question of whether more searching is worthwhile?

  4. Improved non-invasive method for aerosol particle charge measurement employing in-line digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Anjan Kumar

    Electrically charged particles are found in a wide range of applications ranging from electrostatic powder coating, mineral processing, and powder handling to rain-producing cloud formation in atmospheric turbulent flows. In turbulent flows, particle dynamics is influenced by the electric force due to particle charge generation. Quantifying particle charges in such systems will help in better predicting and controlling particle clustering, relative motion, collision, and growth. However, there is a lack of noninvasive techniques to measure particle charges. Recently, a non-invasive method for particle charge measurement using in-line Digital Holographic Particle Tracking Velocimetry (DHPTV) technique was developed in our lab, where charged particles to be measured were introduced to a uniform electric field, and their movement towards the oppositely charged electrode was deemed proportional to the amount of charge on the particles (Fan Yang, 2014 [1]). However, inherent speckle noise associated with reconstructed images was not adequately removed and therefore particle tracking data was contaminated. Furthermore, particle charge calculation based on particle deflection velocity neglected the particle drag force and rebound effect of the highly charged particles from the electrodes. We improved upon the existing particle charge measurement method by: 1) hologram post processing, 2) taking drag force into account in charge calculation, 3) considering rebound effect. The improved method was first fine-tuned through a calibration experiment. The complete method was then applied to two different experiments, namely conduction charging and enclosed fan-driven turbulence chamber, to measure particle charges. In all three experiments conducted, the particle charge was found to obey non-central t-location scale family of distribution. It was also noted that the charge distribution was insensitive to the change in voltage applied between the electrodes. The range of voltage

  5. Fog camera to visualize ionizing charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trujillo A, L.; Rodriguez R, N. I.; Vega C, H. R.

    2014-10-01

    The human being can not perceive the different types of ionizing radiation, natural or artificial, present in the nature, for what appropriate detection systems have been developed according to the sensibility to certain radiation type and certain energy type. The objective of this work was to build a fog camera to visualize the traces, and to identify the trajectories, produced by charged particles with high energy, coming mainly of the cosmic rays. The origin of the cosmic rays comes from the solar radiation generated by solar eruptions where the protons compose most of this radiation. It also comes, of the galactic radiation which is composed mainly of charged particles and gamma rays that comes from outside of the solar system. These radiation types have energy time millions higher that those detected in the earth surface, being more important as the height on the sea level increases. These particles in their interaction produce secondary particles that are detectable by means of this cameras type. The camera operates by means of a saturated atmosphere of alcohol vapor. In the moment in that a charged particle crosses the cold area of the atmosphere, the medium is ionized and the particle acts like a condensation nucleus of the alcohol vapor, leaving a visible trace of its trajectory. The built camera was very stable, allowing the detection in continuous form and the observation of diverse events. (Author)

  6. Charged particle beam scanning using deformed high gradient insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu -Jiuan

    2015-10-06

    Devices and methods are provided to allow rapid deflection of a charged particle beam. The disclosed devices can, for example, be used as part of a hadron therapy system to allow scanning of a target area within a patient's body. The disclosed charged particle beam deflectors include a dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) with a hollow center and a dielectric wall that is substantially parallel to a z-axis that runs through the hollow center. The dielectric wall includes one or more deformed high gradient insulators (HGIs) that are configured to produce an electric field with an component in a direction perpendicular to the z-axis. A control component is also provided to establish the electric field component in the direction perpendicular to the z-axis and to control deflection of a charged particle beam in the direction perpendicular to the z-axis as the charged particle beam travels through the hollow center of the DWA.

  7. Geometrical charged-particle optics. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Provides a unique theoretical treatment of charged-particle optics. Displays novel unpublished results on several topics. Provides insight into the properties of charged-particle devices. Treats wave optical properties of the electron. Presents the resolution limit of electron microscopes and novel theoretical treatment of the Stern-Gerlach effect. This second edition is an extended version of the first edition of Geometrical Charged-Particle Optics. The updated reference monograph is intended as a guide for researchers and graduate students who are seeking a comprehensive treatment of the design of instruments and beam-guiding systems of charged particles and their propagation in electromagnetic fields. Wave aspects are included in this edition for explaining electron holography, the Aharanov-Bohm effect and the resolution of electron microscopes limited by diffraction. Several methods for calculating the electromagnetic field are presented and procedures are outlined for calculating the properties of systems with arbitrarily curved axis. Detailed methods are presented for designing and optimizing special components such as aberration correctors, spectrometers, energy filters monochromators, ion traps, electron mirrors and cathode lenses. In particular, the optics of rotationally symmetric lenses, quadrupoles, and systems composed of these elements are discussed extensively. Beam properties such as emittance, brightness, transmissivity and the formation of caustics are outlined. Relativistic motion and spin precession of the electron are treated in a covariant way by introducing the Lorentz-invariant universal time and by extending Hamilton's principle from three to four spatial dimensions where the laboratory time is considered as the fourth pseudo-spatial coordinate. Using this procedure and introducing the self action of the electron, its accompanying electromagnetic field and its radiation field are calculated for arbitrary motion. In addition, the Stern

  8. Equilibration of particles with abelian charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redlich, K.; Tounsi, A.

    2002-01-01

    We formulate the kinetic equation for time evolution and chemical equilibration of particles that carries an abelian charge. We show that dependently on the thermal conditions inside a fireball the system approaches to different chemical equilibrium limits. The role of exact conservation of quantum numbers in the kinetic description of rarely produced particles is explained. (orig.)

  9. Intercalation pathway in many-particle LiFePO4 electrode revealed by nanoscale state-of-charge mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chueh, William C; El Gabaly, Farid; Sugar, Joshua D; Bartelt, Norman C; McDaniel, Anthony H; Fenton, Kyle R; Zavadil, Kevin R; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Lai, Wei; McCarty, Kevin F

    2013-03-13

    The intercalation pathway of lithium iron phosphate (LFP) in the positive electrode of a lithium-ion battery was probed at the ∼40 nm length scale using oxidation-state-sensitive X-ray microscopy. Combined with morphological observations of the same exact locations using transmission electron microscopy, we quantified the local state-of-charge of approximately 450 individual LFP particles over nearly the entire thickness of the porous electrode. With the electrode charged to 50% state-of-charge in 0.5 h, we observed that the overwhelming majority of particles were either almost completely delithiated or lithiated. Specifically, only ∼2% of individual particles were at an intermediate state-of-charge. From this small fraction of particles that were actively undergoing delithiation, we conclude that the time needed to charge a particle is ∼1/50 the time needed to charge the entire particle ensemble. Surprisingly, we observed a very weak correlation between the sequence of delithiation and the particle size, contrary to the common expectation that smaller particles delithiate before larger ones. Our quantitative results unambiguously confirm the mosaic (particle-by-particle) pathway of intercalation and suggest that the rate-limiting process of charging is initiating the phase transformation by, for example, a nucleation-like event. Therefore, strategies for further enhancing the performance of LFP electrodes should not focus on increasing the phase-boundary velocity but on the rate of phase-transformation initiation.

  10. Clinical physics for charged particle treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, G.T.Y.; Pitluck, S.; Lyman, J.T.

    1981-01-01

    The installation of a computerized tomography (CT) scanner which can be used with the patient in an upright position is described. This technique will enhance precise location of tumor position relative to critical structures for accurate charged particle dose delivery during fixed horizontal beam radiotherapy. Pixel-by-pixel treatment planning programs have been developed to calculate the dose distribution from multi-port charged particle beams. The plan includes CT scans, data interpretation, and dose calculations. The treatment planning computer is discussed. Treatment planning for irradiation of ocular melanomas is described

  11. Nanoparticle electrostatic loss within corona needle charger during particle-charging process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Chenghsiung; Alonso, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    A numerical investigation has been carried out to examine the electrostatic loss of nanoparticles in a corona needle charger. Two-dimensional flow field, electric field, particle charge, and particle trajectory were simulated to obtain the electrostatic deposition loss at different conditions. Simulation of particle trajectories shows that the number of charges per particle during the charging process depends on the particle diameter, radial position from the symmetry axis, applied voltage, Reynolds number, and axial distance along the charger. The numerical results of nanoparticle electrostatic loss agreed fairly well with available experimental data. The results reveal that the electrostatic loss of nanoparticles increases with increasing applied voltage and electrical mobility of particles; and with decreasing particle diameter and Reynolds number. A regression equation closely fitted the obtained numerical results for different conditions. The equation is useful for directly calculating the electrostatic loss of nanoparticles in the corona needle charger during particle-charging process.

  12. High-LET charged particle radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, J.R.; California Univ., San Francisco, CA

    1991-07-01

    The Department of Radiation Oncology at UCSF Medical Center and the Radiation Oncology Department at UC Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory have been evaluating the use of high LET charged particle radiotherapy in a Phase 1--2 research trial ongoing since 1979. In this clinical trail, 239 patients have received at least 10 Gy (physical) minimum tumor dose with neon ions, meaning that at least one-half of their total treatment was given with high-LET charged particle therapy. Ninety-one patients received all of their therapy with neon ions. Of the 239 patients irradiated, target sites included lesions in the skin, subcutaneous tissues, head and neck such as paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx and salivary glands (major and minor), skull base and juxtaspinal area, GI tract including esophagus, pancreas and biliary tract, prostate, lung, soft tissue and bone. Analysis of these patients has been carried out with a minimum followup period of 2 years

  13. Quantum theory of relativistic charged particles in external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruijsenaars, S.N.M.

    1976-01-01

    A study was made on external field theories in which the quantized field corresponds to relativistic elementary particles with non-zero rest mass. These particles are assumed to be charged, thus they have distinct antiparticles. The thesis consists of two parts. The first tries to accommodate the general features of theories of relativistic charged particles in external fields. Spin and dynamics in particular are not specified. In the second part, the results are applied to charged spin-1/2 and spin-0 particles, the dynamics of which are given by the Dirac resp. Klein-Gordon equation. The greater emphasis is on external fields which are rapidly decreasing, infinitely differentiable functions of space-time, but also considers time-independent fields. External fields, other than electromagnetic fields are also considered, e.g. scalar fields

  14. Performance of PC-based charged particle multi-channel spectrometer utilising particle identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palla, G.; Sziklai, J.; Trajber, Cs.

    1993-12-01

    A collaterally expandable charged particle spectrometer based on PC control and particle identification is described. A typical system configuration consisting of two channels are used to test the system performance. (author) 7 refs.; 5 figs

  15. Charged particle layers in the Debye limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Kenneth I; Kalman, Gabor J; Kyrkos, Stamatios

    2002-09-01

    We develop an equivalent of the Debye-Hückel weakly coupled equilibrium theory for layered classical charged particle systems composed of one single charged species. We consider the two most important configurations, the charged particle bilayer and the infinite superlattice. The approach is based on the link provided by the classical fluctuation-dissipation theorem between the random-phase approximation response functions and the Debye equilibrium pair correlation function. Layer-layer pair correlation functions, screened and polarization potentials, static structure functions, and static response functions are calculated. The importance of the perfect screening and compressibility sum rules in determining the overall behavior of the system, especially in the r--> infinity limit, is emphasized. The similarities and differences between the quasi-two-dimensional bilayer and the quasi-three-dimensional superlattice are highlighted. An unexpected behavior that emerges from the analysis is that the screened potential, the correlations, and the screening charges carried by the individual layers exhibit a marked nonmonotonic dependence on the layer separation.

  16. Charged particle layers in the Debye limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golden, Kenneth I.; Kalman, Gabor J.; Kyrkos, Stamatios

    2002-01-01

    We develop an equivalent of the Debye-Hueckel weakly coupled equilibrium theory for layered classical charged particle systems composed of one single charged species. We consider the two most important configurations, the charged particle bilayer and the infinite superlattice. The approach is based on the link provided by the classical fluctuation-dissipation theorem between the random-phase approximation response functions and the Debye equilibrium pair correlation function. Layer-layer pair correlation functions, screened and polarization potentials, static structure functions, and static response functions are calculated. The importance of the perfect screening and compressibility sum rules in determining the overall behavior of the system, especially in the r→∞ limit, is emphasized. The similarities and differences between the quasi-two-dimensional bilayer and the quasi-three-dimensional superlattice are highlighted. An unexpected behavior that emerges from the analysis is that the screened potential, the correlations, and the screening charges carried by the individual layers exhibit a marked nonmonotonic dependence on the layer separation

  17. Kinetics of particle ensembles with variable charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivlev, A. V.; Zhdanov, S.; Klumov, B.; Morfill, G.; Tsytovich, V. N.; Angelis, U. de

    2005-01-01

    One of the remarkable features distinguishing complex (dusty) plasmas from usual plasmas is that charges on the grains are not constant, but fluctuate in time around some equilibrium value which, in then, is some function of spatial coordinates. Generally, ensembles of particles with variable charges are non-Hamiltonian systems where the mutual collisions do not conserve energy. Therefore, the use of thermodynamic potentials to describe such systems is not really valid. An appropriate way to investigate their evolution is to employ the kinetic approach. We studied (both analytical and numerically) two cases: (a) inhomogeneous charge-it depends on the particle coordinate but does not change in time, and (b)fluctuating charge-it changes in time around the equilibrium value, which is constant in space. For both cases we used the Fokker-Planck approach to derive the collision integral which describes the momentum and energy transfer in mutual particle collisions as well as in the collisions with neutrals. We obtained that the mean particle energy grows in time when the neutral friction is below a certain threshold (as shown in Fig. 1). In case (a) the energy changes as ∞(t c r-t)''2, in case (b) it scales as ∞(t c r-t)''-1, exhibiting the explosion-like growth with t c r a critical time scale. The obtained solutions can be of significant importance for laboratory dusty plasmas as well as for space plasma environments, where inhomogeneous charge distributions are often present. For instance, the instability can cause dust heating in low-pressure complex plasma experiments, it can be responsible for the melting of plasma crystals, it might operate in protoplanetary disks and effect the kinetics of the planet formation, etc. (Author)

  18. Mass spectrometer provided with an optical system for separating neutron particles against charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeher, J R; Story, M S; Smith, R D

    1977-03-03

    This invention concerns a mass spectrometer with an ion focusing optical system that efficiently separates the charged and neutral particles. It concerns an apparatus that can be used in ionisation areas operating at relatively high pressure (> 10/sup -2/ Torr). The invention relates more particularly to a mass spectrometer with an inlet device for the samples to be identified, a sample ionisation system for forming charged and neutral particles, a mass analyser and an optical system for focusing the ions formed in the mass analyser. The optics include several conducting components of which at least one has sides formed of grids, in the direction of the axis, towards the analyser the optics forming a potential well along the axis. The selected charged particles are focused in the analyser and the remaining particles can escape by the openings in the conducting grids.

  19. Gravity influence on the clustering of charged particles in turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiang; Nordsiek, Hansen; Shaw, Raymond

    2010-11-01

    We report results aimed at studying the interactions of bidisperse charged inertial particles in homogeneous, isotropic turbulence, under the influence of gravitational settling. We theoretically and experimentally investigate the impact of gravititational settling on particle clustering, which is quantified by the radial distribution function (RDF). The theory is based on a drift-diffusion (Fokker-Planck) model with gravitational settling appearing as a diffusive term depending on a dimensionless settling parameter. The experiments are carried out in a laboratory chamber with nearly homogeneous, isotropic turbulence in which the flow is seeded with charged particles and digital holography used to obtain 3D particle positions and velocities. The derived radial distribution function for bidisperse settling charged particles is compared to the experimental RDFs.

  20. Escape of charged particles from a neutron star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelizzari, M.A.

    1976-01-01

    The theory of particle trajectories in an axisymmetric magnetic field, formulated by C. Stormer, can be extended to cover conservative force fields as well. As such, it is an ideal tool to study the escape of charged particles from a rapidly rotating neutron star, enabling one to determine the maximum range of their trajectories in space. With the aid of this theory, it is shown that a neutron star, rotating in a vacuum with rotation and magnetic axes aligned, will not evolve a perfectly conducting magnetosphere if the neutron star is the only source of charge. The sign of charge accelerated from the equatorial regions will be magnetically trapped to a toroidal region very near the star, and the opposite sign of charge, emerging from the polar regions, will escape from the magnetosphere until a critical stellar charge is reached, after which polar charges will be electrostatically bound to the magnetosphere. This selective magnetic trapping of one sign of charge, which prevents the formation of a stellar wind, is a consequence of the magnetic field's orientation relative to the internal charge density of the neutron star

  1. Study of correlations of positive and negative charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Y.; Chan, C.H.; Dong, B.L.; Duthie, J.G.; Gregory, J.C.; Hayashi, T.; Yokomi, H.; Christl, M.J.; Derrickson, J.H.; Eby, P.B.; Fountain, W.F.; Parnell, T.A.; Roberts, F.E.; Nagamiya, S.; Dake, S.; Tominaga, T.; Fuki, M.; Iyono, A.; Ogata, T.; Miyamura, O.

    1991-01-01

    Particle correlations of the central collision events of 32 S + Pb at 200 GeV/AMU have been studied by utilizing a Magnetic-Interferomagnetic-Emulsion-Chamber (MAGIC) detector. Particle angles, momentum, and charge-signs are measured for all produced charged tracks for each event. Two-particle correlation functions, C 2 = dN (vertical strokep 1 - p 2 vertical stroke = q)/dp 1 dp 2 , for (++), (--) and (+-) particles are examined. A source radius around 4 - 6 fm is observed for overall identical particle correlations, while unexpected short-range correlations of unlike-sign pairs are observed in the high rapidity region. An analysis of unlike-sign pairs in terms of resonance decays indicated that a large amount (40% relative to pions) of η or ω mesons (decaying into 3 π), or of scalar iso-scalar σ mesons (decaying into 2 π) would be required to explain some of the data. Multi-particle charge-sign clusters are recognized; however, their 'run-test' and 'conjugate-test' show small deviations from statistical fluctuations. (orig.)

  2. Motion of Charged Particles near Magnetic Field Discontinuities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodin, I.Y.; Fisch, N.J.

    2000-01-01

    The motion of charged particles in slowly changing magnetic fields exhibits adiabatic invariance even in the presence of abrupt magnetic discontinuities. Particles near discontinuities in magnetic fields, what we call ''boundary particles'', are constrained to remain near an arbitrarily fractured boundary even as the particle drifts along the discontinuity. A new adiabatic invariant applies to the motion of these particles

  3. Plasma based charged-particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, R; Mendonca, J T; Shukla, P K

    2004-01-01

    Studies of charged-particle acceleration processes remain one of the most important areas of research in laboratory, space and astrophysical plasmas. In this paper, we present the underlying physics and the present status of high gradient and high energy plasma accelerators. We will focus on the acceleration of charged particles to relativistic energies by plasma waves that are created by intense laser and particle beams. The generation of relativistic plasma waves by intense lasers or electron beams in plasmas is important in the quest for producing ultra-high acceleration gradients for accelerators. With the development of compact short pulse high brightness lasers and electron positron beams, new areas of studies for laser/particle beam-matter interactions is opening up. A number of methods are being pursued vigorously to achieve ultra-high acceleration gradients. These include the plasma beat wave accelerator mechanism, which uses conventional long pulse (∼100 ps) modest intensity lasers (I ∼ 10 14 -10 16 W cm -2 ), the laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA), which uses the new breed of compact high brightness lasers ( 10 18 W cm -2 , the self-modulated LWFA concept, which combines elements of stimulated Raman forward scattering, and electron acceleration by nonlinear plasma waves excited by relativistic electron and positron bunches. In the ultra-high intensity regime, laser/particle beam-plasma interactions are highly nonlinear and relativistic, leading to new phenomena such as the plasma wakefield excitation for particle acceleration, relativistic self-focusing and guiding of laser beams, high-harmonic generation, acceleration of electrons, positrons, protons and photons. Fields greater than 1 GV cm -1 have been generated with particles being accelerated to 200 MeV over a distance of millimetre. Plasma wakefields driven by positron beams at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center facility have accelerated the tail of the positron beam. In the near future

  4. Charge-fluctuation-induced heating of dust particles in a plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaulina, O S; Khrapak, S A; Nefedov, A P; Petrov, O F

    1999-11-01

    Random charge fluctuations are always present in dusty plasmas due to the discrete nature of currents charging the dust particle. These fluctuations can be a reason for the heating of the dust particle system. Such unexpected heating leading to the melting of the dust crystals was observed recently in several experiments. In this paper we show by analytical evaluations and numerical simulation that charge fluctuations provide an effective source of energy and can heat the dust particles up to several eV, in conditions close to experimental ones.

  5. Charged Particle Diffusion in Isotropic Random Magnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subedi, P.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Chuychai, P.; Parashar, T. N.; Chhiber, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Sonsrettee, W. [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Panyapiwat Institute of Management, Nonthaburi 11120 (Thailand); Blasi, P. [INAF/Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi, 5—I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Ruffolo, D. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Montgomery, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Dmitruk, P. [Departamento de Física Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Wan, M. [Department of Mechanics and Aerospace Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518055 (China)

    2017-03-10

    The investigation of the diffusive transport of charged particles in a turbulent magnetic field remains a subject of considerable interest. Research has most frequently concentrated on determining the diffusion coefficient in the presence of a mean magnetic field. Here we consider the diffusion of charged particles in fully three-dimensional isotropic turbulent magnetic fields with no mean field, which may be pertinent to many astrophysical situations. We identify different ranges of particle energy depending upon the ratio of Larmor radius to the characteristic outer length scale of turbulence. Two different theoretical models are proposed to calculate the diffusion coefficient, each applicable to a distinct range of particle energies. The theoretical results are compared to those from computer simulations, showing good agreement.

  6. Charge collection efficiency of GaAs detectors studied with low-energy heavy charged particles

    CERN Document Server

    Bates, R; Linhart, V; O'Shea, V; Pospísil, S; Raine, C; Smith, K; Sinor, M; Wilhelm, I

    1999-01-01

    Epitaxially grown GaAs layers have recently been produced with sufficient thickness and low enough free carrier concentration to permit their use as radiation detectors. Initial tests have shown that the epi-material behaves as a classical semiconductor as the depletion behaviour follows the square root dependency on the applied bias. This article presents the results of measurements of the growth of the active depletion depth with increasing bias using low-energy protons and alpha particles as probes for various depths and their comparison to values extrapolated from capacitance measurements. From the proton and alpha particle spectroscopic measurements, an active depth of detector material that collects 100% of the charge generated inside it was determined. The consistency of these results with independent capacitance measurements supports the idea that the GaAs epi-material behaves as a classical semiconductor. (author)

  7. Assessment of Sub-Micron Particles by Exploiting Charge Differences with Dielectrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria F. Romero-Creel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis, separation, and enrichment of submicron particles are critical steps in many applications, ranging from bio-sensing to disease diagnostics. Microfluidic electrokinetic techniques, such as dielectrophoresis (DEP have proved to be excellent platforms for assessment of submicron particles. DEP is the motion of polarizable particles under the presence of a non-uniform electric field. In this work, the polarization and dielectrophoretic behavior of polystyrene particles with diameters ranging for 100 nm to 1 μm were studied employing microchannels for insulator based DEP (iDEP and low frequency (<1000 Hz AC and DC electric potentials. In particular, the effects of particle surface charge, in terms of magnitude and type of functionalization, were examined. It was found that the magnitude of particle surface charge has a significant impact on the polarization and dielectrophoretic response of the particles, allowing for successful particle assessment. Traditionally, charge differences are exploited employing electrophoretic techniques and particle separation is achieved by differential migration. The present study demonstrates that differences in the particle’s surface charge can also be exploited by means of iDEP; and that distinct types of nanoparticles can be identified by their polarization and dielectrophoretic behavior. These findings open the possibility for iDEP to be employed as a technique for the analysis of submicron biological particles, where subtle differences in surface charge could allow for rapid particle identification and separation.

  8. The motion of a charged particle in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludvigsen, M.

    1979-01-01

    A new approach to the problem of the motion of a self-interacting massive charged particle in general relativity is presented. A charged Robinson-Trautman solution is used as a general relativistic model of such a particle. Such a solution is shown to generate a unique world line in its own H space, which is interpreted as the world line of the particle. Using the R-T dynamical relations, the equation of motion of the particle is derived, which, in the limiting case of zero curvature, is shown to be the same as the classical Lorentz-Dirac equation of motion. (author)

  9. Charged particle confinement in magnetic mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bora, D.; John, P.I.; Saxena, Y.C.; Varma, R.K.

    1982-01-01

    The behaviour of single charged particle trapped in a magnetic mirror has been investigated experimentally. The particle injected off axis and trapped in a magnetic mirror, leak out of the mirror with the leakage characterized by multiple decay times. The observed decay times are in good agreement with predictions of a ''wave mechanical like'' model by Varma, over a large range of relevant parameters. (author)

  10. Measurement of double differential cross sections of charged particle emission reactions by incident DT neutrons. Correction for energy loss of charged particle in sample materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Hiroyuki; Terada, Yasuaki; Murata, Isao; Takahashi, Akito

    2000-01-01

    In the measurement of charged particle emission spectrum induced by neutrons, correcting the energy loss of charged particle in sample materials becomes a very important inverse problem. To deal with this inverse problem, we have applied the Bayesian unfolding method to correct the energy loss, and tested the performance of the method. Although this method is very simple, it was confirmed from the test that the performance was not inferior to other methods at all, and therefore the method could be a powerful tool for charged particle spectrum measurement. (author)

  11. Measurement of charged particle spectra at the LHC at 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2094899

    The measurement of charged particle spectra is performed for centre-of-mass energy \\sqrt(s) = 13 TeV in experiment ATLAS. It is an inclusive measurement aiming at fast comparison of particle activity between data and theoretical model. Data are acquired with minimal model dependence avoiding unnecessary bias. Various efficiencies and fractions are determined in order to correct reconstructed spectra of tracks in the Inner Detector to distributions of primary particles. Correction of certain distributions involves more sophisticated methods, such as Bayesian unfolding. The corrected distributions are compared to Monte Carlo generators - Pythia 8 (A2 and Monash tunes), Herwig++, EPOS and QGSJET. Though no generator describes measured data perfectly, in many cases the differences are within few percent. The measured average number of charged particles per unit of pseudorapidity is 2.876 ± 0.001922(stat.) ± 0.03526(syst.) and is found to be in a good agreement with EPOS generator. Apart from the analysis, an in...

  12. Repetitive heterocoagulation of oppositely charged particles for enhancement of magnetic nanoparticle loading into monodisperse silica particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hideki; Nagao, Daisuke; Konno, Mikio

    2010-03-16

    Oppositely charged particles were repetitively heterocoagulated to fabricate highly monodisperse magnetic silica particles with high loading of magnetic nanoparticles. Positively charged magnetic nanoparticles prepared by surface modification with N-trimethoxysilylpropyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium chloride (TSA) were used to heterocoagulate with silica particles under basic conditions to give rise to negative silica surface charge and prevent the oxidation of the magnetic nanoparticles. The resultant particles of silica core homogeneously coated with the magnetic nanoparticles were further coated with thin silica layer with sodium silicate in order to enhance colloidal stability and avoid desorption of the magnetic nanoparticles from the silica cores. Five repetitions of the heterocoagulation and the silica coating could increase saturation magnetization of the magnetic silica particles to 27.7 emu/g, keeping the coefficient of variation of particle sizes (C(V)) less than 6.5%. Highly homogeneous loading of the magnetic component was confirmed by measuring Fe-to-Si atomic ratios of individual particles with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

  13. Charging of mesospheric aerosol particles: the role of photodetachment and photoionization from meteoric smoke and ice particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rapp

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Time constants for photodetachment, photoemission, and electron capture are considered for two classes of mesospheric aerosol particles, i.e., meteor smoke particles (MSPs and pure water ice particles. Assuming that MSPs consist of metal oxides like Fe2O3 or SiO, we find that during daytime conditions photodetachment by solar photons is up to 4 orders of magnitude faster than electron attachment such that MSPs cannot be negatively charged in the presence of sunlight. Rather, even photoemission can compete with electron capture unless the electron density becomes very large (>>1000 cm−3 such that MSPs should either be positively charged or neutral in the case of large electron densities. For pure water ice particles, however, both photodetachment and photoemission are negligible due to the wavelength characteristics of its absorption cross section and because the flux of solar photons has already dropped significantly at such short wavelengths. This means that water ice particles should normally be negatively charged. Hence, our results can readily explain the repeated observation of the coexistence of positive and negative aerosol particles in the polar summer mesopause, i.e., small MSPs should be positively charged and ice particles should be negatively charged. These results have further important implications for our understanding of the nucleation of mesospheric ice particles as well as for the interpretation of incoherent scatter radar observations of MSPs.

  14. Neutron-Induced Charged Particle Studies at LANSCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Young; Haight, Robert C.

    2014-09-01

    Direct measurements on neutron-induced charged particle reactions are of interest for nuclear astrophysics and applied nuclear energy. LANSCE (Los Alamos Neutron Science Center) produces neutrons in energy of thermal to several hundreds MeV. There has been an effort at LANSCE to upgrade neutron-induced charged particle detection technique, which follows on (n,z) measurements made previously here and will have improved capabilities including larger solid angles, higher efficiency, and better signal to background ratios. For studying cross sections of low-energy neutron induced alpha reactions, Frisch-gridded ionization chamber is designed with segmented anodes for improving signal-to-noise ratio near reaction thresholds. Since double-differential cross sections on (n,p) and (n,a) reactions up to tens of MeV provide important information on deducing nuclear level density, the ionization chamber will be coupled with silicon strip detectors (DSSD) in order to stop energetic charged particles. In this paper, we will present the status of this development including the progress on detector design, calibrations and Monte Carlo simulations. This work is funded by the US Department of Energy - Los Alamos National Security, LLC under Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  15. Current and future accelerator technologies for charged particle therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, Hywel, E-mail: hywel.owen@manchester.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Cockcroft Institute for Accelerator Science and Technology, Daresbury Science and Innovation Campus, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Lomax, Antony [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Department of Physics, ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Jolly, Simon [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-11

    The past few years have seen significant developments both of the technologies available for proton and other charged particle therapies, and of the number and spread of therapy centres. In this review we give an overview of these technology developments, and outline the principal challenges and opportunities we see as important in the next decade. Notable amongst these is the ever-increasing use of superconductivity both in particle sources and for treatment delivery, which is likely to greatly increase the accessibility of charged particle therapy treatments to hospital centres worldwide.

  16. Nuclear data needs in nuclear astrophysics: Charged-particle reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Michael S.

    2001-01-01

    Progress in understanding a diverse range of astrophysical phenomena - such as the Big Bang, the Sun, the evolution of stars, and stellar explosions - can be significantly aided by improved compilation, evaluation, and dissemination of charged-particle nuclear reaction data. A summary of the charged-particle reaction data needs in these and other astrophysical scenarios is presented, along with recommended future nuclear data projects. (author)

  17. Determination of chlorine in high purity materials by charged particle activation analysis using deuteron beam from VEC accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, S.; Datta, J.; Chowdhury, D.P.; Verma, R.

    2015-01-01

    The quantitative determination of chlorine by conventional methods viz., AAS, ICP-OES is difficult and erroneous at times due to gaseous nature of elemental chlorine. It is possible to determine chlorine by NAA and charged particle activation analysis (CPAA) producing activation product 38 Cl (t 1/2 = 37.2 min, 1642 (32.8 %), 2168 keV (44 %)). Fast INAA method has been applied to determine Cl in concentration ranges 10 mgkg -1 in some suitable matrices in PCF of DHRUVA reactor with a neutron flux of 10 13 cm -2 s -1 with a detection limit of Cl of ∼1 mgkg -1

  18. Interaction of free charged particles with a chirped electromagnetic pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khachatryan, A.G.; Goor, F.A. van; Boller, K.-J.

    2004-01-01

    We study the effect of chirp on electromagnetic (EM) pulse interaction with a charged particle. Both the one-dimensional (1D) and 3D cases are considered. It is found that, in contrast to the case of a nonchirped pulse, the charged particle energy can be changed after the interaction with a 1D EM chirped pulse. Different types of chirp and pulse envelopes are considered. In the case of small chirp, an analytical expression is found for arbitrary temporal profiles of the chirp and the pulse envelope. In the 3D case, the interaction with a chirped pulse results in a polarization-dependent scattering of charged particles

  19. Charging of mesospheric aerosol particles: the role of photodetachment and photoionization from meteoric smoke and ice particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rapp

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Time constants for photodetachment, photoemission, and electron capture are considered for two classes of mesospheric aerosol particles, i.e., meteor smoke particles (MSPs and pure water ice particles. Assuming that MSPs consist of metal oxides like Fe2O3 or SiO, we find that during daytime conditions photodetachment by solar photons is up to 4 orders of magnitude faster than electron attachment such that MSPs cannot be negatively charged in the presence of sunlight. Rather, even photoemission can compete with electron capture unless the electron density becomes very large (>>1000 cm−3 such that MSPs should either be positively charged or neutral in the case of large electron densities. For pure water ice particles, however, both photodetachment and photoemission are negligible due to the wavelength characteristics of its absorption cross section and because the flux of solar photons has already dropped significantly at such short wavelengths. This means that water ice particles should normally be negatively charged. Hence, our results can readily explain the repeated observation of the coexistence of positive and negative aerosol particles in the polar summer mesopause, i.e., small MSPs should be positively charged and ice particles should be negatively charged. These results have further important implications for our understanding of the nucleation of mesospheric ice particles as well as for the interpretation of incoherent scatter radar observations of MSPs.

  20. [Interaction of protein with charged colloidal particles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durdenko, E V; Kuznetsova, S M; Basova, L V; Tikhonenko, S A; Saburova, E A

    2011-01-01

    The functional state of three proteins of different molecular weight (urease, lactate dehydrogenase, and hemoglobin) in the presence of the linear polyelectrolytes poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAA) and sodium poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS) in the dissolved state and of the same polyelectrolytes bound to the surface of microspheres has been investigated. Microspheres were prepared by consecutive absorption of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes so that the outer layer of the shell was PAA for the acidic protein urease, and PSS for the alkaline proteins LDH and hemoglobin. It was shown that the dissolved polyelectrolyte completely inactivates all three proteins within one minute with a slight difference in the time constant. (By Hb inactivation are conventionally meant changes in the heme environment observed from the spectrum in the Soret band.) In the presence of microspheres, the proteins were adsorbed on their surface; in this case, more than 95% of the activity was retained within two hours. The proportion of the protein adsorbed on microspheres accounted for about 98% for urease, 72% for Hb, and 35% for LDH, as determined from the tryptophan fluorescence data. The interaction of hemoglobin with another type of charged colloidal particles, phospholipid vesicles, leads to the destruction of the tertiary structure of the protein, which made itself evident in the optical absorption spectra in the Soret band, as well as the spectra of tryptophan fluorescence and circular dichroism. In this case, according to circular dichroism, the percentage of alpha-helical structure of Hb was maintained. The differences in the physical and chemical mechanisms of interaction of proteins with these two types of charged colloidal particles that leads to differences in the degree of denaturing effects are discussed.

  1. Particle-based simulation of charge transport in discrete-charge nano-scale systems: the electrostatic problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Claudio; Gillespie, Dirk; Eisenberg, Robert S; Fiegna, Claudio

    2012-02-16

    The fast and accurate computation of the electric forces that drive the motion of charged particles at the nanometer scale represents a computational challenge. For this kind of system, where the discrete nature of the charges cannot be neglected, boundary element methods (BEM) represent a better approach than finite differences/finite elements methods. In this article, we compare two different BEM approaches to a canonical electrostatic problem in a three-dimensional space with inhomogeneous dielectrics, emphasizing their suitability for particle-based simulations: the iterative method proposed by Hoyles et al. and the Induced Charge Computation introduced by Boda et al.

  2. Multistage charged particle accelerator, with high-vacuum insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holl, P.

    1976-01-01

    A multistage charged-particle accelerator for operating with accelerating voltages higher than 150 kV is described. The device consists essentially of a high-voltage insulator, a source for producing charged particles, a Wehnelt cylinder, an anode, and a post-accelerating tube containing stack-wise positioned post-accelerating electrodes. A high vacuum is used for insulating the parts carrying the high voltages, and at least one cylindrical screen surrounding these parts is interposed between them and the vacuum vessel, which can itself also function as a cylindrical screen

  3. Effect of seeds of heavy charged particles of galactic cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimova, Y.N.

    1985-01-01

    The experiments were carried out on Lactuca sativa seeds exposed for 20, 66, 123 and 308 days in a biostack also containing physical detectors of heavy charged particles. The yield of aberrant cells and its dependence on the exposure time and the site where particles hit the object were measured. The cytogenetic examination demonstrated a significant difference between the seeds that were or were not hit by heavy charged particles. A significant contribution of galactic cosmic radiation to the radiobiological effect is indicated. The yield of aberrant cells as a function of the localization of heavy charged particles in the seed is established. The most sensitive target is the root meristem

  4. Random ray-tracing and graphic analysing of charged particle trajectories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Xiaomei; Mao Naifeng; Chen Jingxian

    1990-01-01

    In order to describe the optical properties of a charged particle beam realistically, the random sampling of initial conditions of particles in ray-tracing is discussed. The emission surface of particles may be a plane, a cylindrical surface or a spherical surface. The distribution functions may be expressed analytically or numerically. In order to analyse the properties of the charged particle beam systematically by use of the results from ray-tracing efficiently, the graphic processing and analysing of particle trajectories are also discussed, including the spline function fitting of trajectories, the graphic drafting of trajectories and beam envelopes, the determining of image dimensions and the correspinding positions, and also the graphic drafting of particle distributions on arbitrary cross sections

  5. First- and second-order charged particle optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.L.; Servranckx, R.V.

    1984-07-01

    Since the invention of the alternating gradient principle there has been a rapid evolution of the mathematics and physics techniques applicable to charged particle optics. In this publication we derive a differential equation and a matrix algebra formalism valid to second-order to present the basic principles governing the design of charged particle beam transport systems. A notation first introduced by John Streib is used to convey the essential principles dictating the design of such beam transport systems. For example the momentum dispersion, the momentum resolution, and all second-order aberrations are expressed as simple integrals of the first-order trajectories (matrix elements) and of the magnetic field parameters (multipole components) characterizing the system. 16 references, 30 figures

  6. Sources for charged particles; Les sources de particules chargees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arianer, J.

    1997-09-01

    This document is a basic course on charged particle sources for post-graduate students and thematic schools on large facilities and accelerator physics. A simple but precise description of the creation and the emission of charged particles is presented. This course relies on every year upgraded reference documents. Following relevant topics are considered: electronic emission processes, technological and practical considerations on electron guns, positron sources, production of neutral atoms, ionization, plasma and discharge, different types of positive and negative ion sources, polarized particle sources, materials for the construction of ion sources, low energy beam production and transport. (N.T.).

  7. Motion of charged test particles in Reissner-Nordstroem spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugliese, Daniela; Quevedo, Hernando; Ruffini, Remo

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the circular motion of charged test particles in the gravitational field of a charged mass described by the Reissner-Nordstroem spacetime. We study in detail all the spatial regions where circular motion is allowed around either black holes or naked singularities. The effects of repulsive gravity are discussed by finding all the circles at which a particle can have vanishing angular momentum. We show that the geometric structure of stable accretion disks, made of only test particles moving along circular orbits around the central body, allows us to clearly distinguish between black holes and naked singularities.

  8. 6th International Conference on Trapped Charged Particles and Fundamental Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Schury, Peter; Ichikawa, Yuichi

    2017-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the International Conference on Trapped Charged Particles and Fundamental Physics (TCP 14). It presents recent developments in the theoretical and experimental research on trapped charged particles and related fundamental physics and applications. The content has been divided topic-wise covering basic questions of Fundamental Physics, Quantum and QED Effects, Plasmas and Collective Behavior and Anti-Hydrogen. More technical issues include Storage Ring Physics, Precision Spectroscopy and Frequency Standards, Highly Charged Ions in Traps, Traps for Radioactive Isotopes and New Techniques and Facilities. An applied aspect of ion trapping is discussed in section devoted to Applications of Particle Trapping including Quantum Information and Processing. Each topic has a more general introduction, but also more detailed contributions are included. A selection of contributions exemplifies the interdisciplinary nature of the research on trapped charged particles worldwide. Repri...

  9. Interaction of free charged particles with a chirped electromagnetic pulse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khachatryan, A.G.; van Goor, F.A.; Boller, Klaus J.

    2004-01-01

    We study the effect of chirp on electromagnetic (EM) pulse interaction with a charged particle. Both the one-dimensional (1D) and 3D cases are considered. It is found that, in contrast to the case of a nonchirped pulse, the charged particle energy can be changed after the interaction with a 1D EM

  10. Detecting charging state of ultra-fine particles: instrumental development and ambient measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Laakso

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of ion-induced nucleation in the lower atmosphere has been discussed for a long time. In this article we describe a new instrumental setup – Ion-DMPS – which can be used to detect contribution of ion-induced nucleation on atmospheric new particle formation events. The device measures positively and negatively charged particles with and without a bipolar charger. The ratio between "charger off" to "charger on" describes the charging state of aerosol particle population with respect to equilibrium. Values above one represent more charges than in an equilibrium (overcharged state, and values below unity stand for undercharged situation, when there is less charges in the particles than in the equilibrium. We performed several laboratory experiments to test the operation of the instrument. After the laboratory tests, we used the device to observe particle size distributions during atmospheric new particle formation in a boreal forest. We found that some of the events were clearly dominated by neutral nucleation but in some cases also ion-induced nucleation contributed to the new particle formation. We also found that negative and positive ions (charged particles behaved in a different manner, days with negative overcharging were more frequent than days with positive overcharging.

  11. Discrimination of Charged Particles in a Neutral Beam Line by Using a Solid Scintillation Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Jong-Kwan; Ko, Jewou; Liu, Dong [Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    In the past several decades, many studies have been conducted to search for non-baryonic dark matter, such as weakly interactive massive particles (WIMPs). In the search for WIMPs, charged particles incident on the detector are background particles because WIMPs are neutral. Charged particles originate from various sources, such as cosmic rays and laboratory materials surrounding the main detector. Therefore, a veto that discriminates charged particles can improve the particle detection efficiency of the entire experiment for detecting WIMPs. Here, we investigate in the thickness range of 1 mm to 5 mm, the optimal thickness of a polystyrene scintillator as a charged particle veto detector. We found that 3-mm-thick polystyrene provides the best performance to veto charged particles and the charged-particle background in the search for the WIMP signal. Furthermore, we fabricated 3-mm-thick and 5-mm-thick polystyrene charged particle veto detectors that will be used in an underground laboratory in the search for WIMP dark matter. After exposing those detectors are the actual beam line, we compared the rate of charged particles measured using those detectors and the rate simulated through a Monte Carlo simulation.

  12. Sound from charged particles in liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askar'yan, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    Two directions of sound application appearing during the charged particles passing through liquid - in biology and for charged particles registration are considered. Application of this sound in radiology is determined by a contribution of its hypersound component (approximately 10 9 Hz) to radiology effect of ionizing radiation on micro-organisms and cells. Large amplitudes and pressure gradients in a hypersound wave have a pronounced destructive breaking effect on various microobjects (cells, bacteria, viruses). An essential peculiarity of these processes is the possibility of control by choosing conditions changing hypersound generation, propagation and effect. This fact may lead not only to the control by radiaiton effects but also may explain and complete the analogy of ionizing radiation and ultrasound effect on bioobjects. The second direction is acoustic registration of passing ionizing particles. It is based on the possibility of guaranteed signal reception from a shower with 10 15 -10 16 eV energy in water at distances of hundreds of meters. Usage of acoustic technique for neutrino registration in the DUMAND project permits to use a detecting volume of water with a mass of 10 9 t and higher

  13. Role of stochastic fluctuations in the charge on macroscopic particles in dusty plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaulina, O.S.; Nefedov, A.P.; Petrov, O.F.; Khrapak, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    The currents which charge a macroscopic particle placed in a plasma consist of discrete charges; hence, the charge can undergo random fluctuations about its equilibrium value. These random fluctuations can be described by a simple model which, if the mechanisms for charging of macroscopic particles are known, makes it possible to determine the dependence of the temporal and amplitude characteristics of the fluctuations on the plasma parameters. This model can be used to study the effect of charge fluctuations on the dynamics of the macroscopic particles. The case of so-called plasma-dust crystals (i.e., highly ordered structures which develop because of strong interactions among macroscopic particles) in laboratory gaseous discharge plasmas is considered as an example. The molecular dynamics method shows that, under certain conditions, random fluctuations in the charge can effectively heat a system of macroscopic particles, thereby impeding the ordering process

  14. Determination of oxygen content in high T/sub c/ superconductors by a charged particle activation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Z.; Alburger, D.E.; Jones, K.W.; Yao, Y.D.; Kao, Y.H.

    1988-01-01

    A new method for determining the oxygen content in high T/sub c/ superconductors has been demonstrated using a charged particle activation technique. This method allows a measurement of the concentration of 16 O atoms in the superconducting material by detection of the 17 F produced with the 16 O(d,n) 17 F nuclear reaction. By way of example, this technique is applied to the determination of oxygen content in a series of high T/sub c/ Y-Ba-Cu-O samples in which the stoichiometry is varied by reducing the copper concentration. The stabilized oxygen content shows a nonlinear dependence on the copper deficiency in these specimens

  15. Effect of heavy charged particles of galactic cosmic radiation on seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimova, E.N.

    1985-01-01

    The experiments were carried out on Lactuca sativa seeds exposed for 20, 66, 123 and 308 days in a biostack also containing physical detectors of heavy charged particles. The puppose of the experiments was to measure the yield of abberrant cells and its dependence on the exposure time and the site where particles hit the object. The cytogenetic examination demonstrated a significant difference between the seeds that were or were not hit by heavy charged particles. This is indicative of a significant contribution of galactic cosmic radiation to the radiobiological effect. The yield of aberrant cells as a function of the localization of heavy charged particles in the seed was established. The most sensitive target was the root meristem

  16. Construction of the radiation oncology teaching files system for charged particle radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masami, Mukai; Yutaka, Ando; Yasuo, Okuda; Naoto, Takahashi; Yoshihisa, Yoda; Hiroshi, Tsuji; Tadashi, Kamada

    2013-01-01

    Our hospital started the charged particle therapy since 1996. New institutions for charged particle therapy are planned in the world. Our hospital are accepting many visitors from those newly planned medical institutions and having many opportunities to provide with the training to them. Based upon our experiences, we have developed the radiation oncology teaching files system for charged particle therapy. We adopted the PowerPoint of Microsoft as a basic framework of our teaching files system. By using our export function of the viewer any physician can create teaching files easily and effectively. Now our teaching file system has 33 cases for clinical and physics contents. We expect that we can improve the safety and accuracy of charged particle therapy by using our teaching files system substantially.

  17. Carbon analysis in MOCVD grown HgCdMnTe by charged particle activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stannard, W.B.; Walker, S.R.; Johnston, P.N.; Bubb, I.F.

    1994-01-01

    Charged Particle Activation Analysis (CPAA) has been used for the determination of the concentration of carbon in HgCdMnTe grown by Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition (MOCVD). The samples were irradiated with a beam of 3.0 MeV 3 He ions. 11 C is produced by the reaction 12 C( 3 He, α) 11 C and is a positron (β + ) emitting radionuclide with a half-life of 20.38 min. At the same time the reaction 16 O( 3 He, p) 18 F produces 18 F which is also a β + emitter and has a half-life of 109.72 min. A post-irradiation etching technique has been developed to enable removal of surface contaminants. The radioactivity is determined by a β + spectrometer consisting of two NaI γ-ray detectors (3x3 in.) oriented at 180 . The two coincident 511 keV γ-rays emitted at 180 during the positron annihilation are detected. The initial 11 C and 18 F activities, and hence the oxygen and carbon contributions, can be separated by analysis of the count rate versus time. Analysis shows significant carbon levels in the HgCdMnTe samples. ((orig.))

  18. Design of Magnetic Charged Particle Lens Using Analytical Potential Formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Batat, A. H.; Yaseen, M. J.; Abbas, S. R.; Al-Amshani, M. S.; Hasan, H. S.

    2018-05-01

    In the current research was to benefit from the potential of the two cylindrical electric lenses to be used in the product a mathematical model from which, one can determine the magnetic field distribution of the charged particle objective lens. With aid of simulink in matlab environment, some simulink models have been building to determine the distribution of the target function and their related axial functions along the optical axis of the charged particle lens. The present study showed that the physical parameters (i.e., the maximum value, Bmax, and the half width W of the field distribution) and the objective properties of the charged particle lens have been affected by varying the main geometrical parameter of the lens named the bore radius R.

  19. Hybrid finite element and Brownian dynamics method for charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Gary A., E-mail: ghuber@ucsd.edu; Miao, Yinglong [Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0365 (United States); Zhou, Shenggao [Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Center for Interdiscipline Research, Soochow University, 1 Shizi Street, Suzhou, 215006 Jiangsu (China); Li, Bo [Department of Mathematics and Quantitative Biology Graduate Program, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093-0112 (United States); McCammon, J. Andrew [Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0365 (United States); Department of Pharmacology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0636 (United States)

    2016-04-28

    Diffusion is often the rate-determining step in many biological processes. Currently, the two main computational methods for studying diffusion are stochastic methods, such as Brownian dynamics, and continuum methods, such as the finite element method. A previous study introduced a new hybrid diffusion method that couples the strengths of each of these two methods, but was limited by the lack of interactions among the particles; the force on each particle had to be from an external field. This study further develops the method to allow charged particles. The method is derived for a general multidimensional system and is presented using a basic test case for a one-dimensional linear system with one charged species and a radially symmetric system with three charged species.

  20. Charged particles as Kaluza-Klein monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, H.-M.; Tsou, S.T.

    1984-05-01

    The authors describe some explorations into the possibility of treating charged particles as monopoles in a Kaluza-Klein world. Such considerations may be useful in the future for constructing model theories in which both matter and gauge structure emerge as consequences of space-time geometry. (author)

  1. Effective potential in the problem of scattering of three charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvitsinskii, A.A.; Merkur'ev, S.P.

    1988-01-01

    We study the effective interaction potential in the scattering of a charged particle by a bound state of two other charged particles. Scattering by both the ground and excited states of the target is considered. Explicit representations describing the asymptotic structure of effective potentials are proved

  2. Production of leading charged particles and leading charged-particle jets at small transverse momenta in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Ochesanu, Silvia; Rougny, Romain; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dobur, Didar; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Léonard, Alexandre; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Perniè, Luca; Randle-conde, Aidan; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Zenoni, Florian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Crucy, Shannon; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Poyraz, Deniz; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Dos Reis Martins, Thiago; Molina, Jorge; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santaolalla, Javier; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Genchev, Vladimir; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Marinov, Andrey; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Zheng; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Filipovic, Nicolas; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Skovpen, Kirill; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Brochet, Sébastien; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Xiao, Hong; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Bontenackels, Michael; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heister, Arno; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Preuten, Marius; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behr, Joerg; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nayak, Aruna; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Roland, Benoit; Ron, Elias; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Vargas Trevino, Andrea Del Rocio; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Junkes, Alexandra; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Pöhlsen, Thomas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Seidel, Markus; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Frensch, Felix; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Müller, Thomas; Nürnberg, Andreas; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Agapitos, Antonis; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Tziaferi, Eirini; Aslanoglou, Xenofon; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Makovec, Alajos; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mittal, Monika; Nishu, Nishu; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Modak, Atanu; Mukherjee, Swagata; Roy, Debarati; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Sharma, Seema; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Goldouzian, Reza; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Sharma, Archana; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Ferretti, Roberta; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellato, Marco; Dall'Osso, Martino; Dorigo, Tommaso; Fantinel, Sergio; Gonella, Franco; Gozzelino, Andrea; Gulmini, Michele; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Montecassiano, Fabio; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pegoraro, Matteo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Sgaravatto, Massimo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Ventura, Sandro; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fedi, Giacomo; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Moon, Chang-Seong; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Vernieri, Caterina; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Soffi, Livia; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Casasso, Stefano; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Dattola, Domenico; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Tamponi, Umberto; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Schizzi, Andrea; Umer, Tomo; Zanetti, Anna; Chang, Sunghyun; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Park, Hyangkyu; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Ryu, Min Sang; Kim, Jae Yool; Moon, Dong Ho; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kyong Sei; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Reucroft, Steve; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Khein, Lev; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Lukina, Olga; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Ekmedzic, Marko; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Graziano, Alberto; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benaglia, Andrea; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Bondu, Olivier; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Colafranceschi, Stefano; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Dorney, Brian; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Eugster, Jürg; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Marrouche, Jad; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Plagge, Michael; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Treille, Daniel; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Wollny, Heiner; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Marionneau, Matthieu; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meister, Daniel; Mohr, Niklas; Musella, Pasquale; Nägeli, Christoph; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrozzi, Luca; Peruzzi, Marco; Quittnat, Milena; Rebane, Liis; Rossini, Marco; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Amsler, Claude; Canelli, Maria Florencia; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Lange, Clemens; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Pinna, Deborah; Robmann, Peter; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Taroni, Silvia; Yang, Yong; Cardaci, Marco; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Ferro, Cristina; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartek, Rachel; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Petrakou, Eleni; Tsai, Jui-fa; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Asavapibhop, Burin; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Gamsizkan, Halil; Isildak, Bora; Karapinar, Guler; Ocalan, Kadir; Sekmen, Sezen; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Yetkin, Taylan; Cankocak, Kerem; Vardarlı, Fuat Ilkehan; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Burton, Darren; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Dunne, Patrick; Elwood, Adam; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Kenzie, Matthew; Lane, Rebecca; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mathias, Bryn; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Kasmi, Azeddine; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Scarborough, Tara; Wu, Zhenbin; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Lawson, Philip; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; St John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Alimena, Juliette; Berry, Edmund; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Christopher, Grant; Cutts, David; Demiragli, Zeynep; Dhingra, Nitish; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Heintz, Ulrich; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Sagir, Sinan; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Swanson, Joshua; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Cousins, Robert; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Rakness, Gregory; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Ivova PANEVA, Mirena; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Malberti, Martina; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wimpenny, Stephen; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Klein, Daniel; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Welke, Charles; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Barge, Derek; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Danielson, Thomas; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Flowers, Kristen; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Mccoll, Nickolas; Mullin, Sam Daniel; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Duarte, Javier; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Pierini, Maurizio; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carlson, Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Krohn, Michael; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Eggert, Nicholas; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Skinnari, Louise; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Kwan, Simon; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena Ingrid; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitbeck, Andrew; Whitmore, Juliana; Yang, Fan; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Hugon, Justin; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Shchutska, Lesya; Snowball, Matthew; Sperka, David; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Jordon Rowe; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Kurt, Pelin; O'Brien, Christine; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Silkworth, Christopher; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sen, Sercan; Tan, Ping; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Anderson, Ian; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Bruner, Christopher; Gray, Julia; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Majumder, Devdatta; Malek, Magdalena; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Sekaric, Jadranka; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Bierwagen, Katharina; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Klute, Markus; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zanetti, Marco; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Rusack, Roger; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Keller, Jason; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Meier, Frank; Ratnikov, Fedor; Snow, Gregory R; Zvada, Marian; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Sung, Kevin; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Chan, Kwok Ming; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Musienko, Yuri; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Smith, Geoffrey; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Antonelli, Louis; Brinson, Jessica; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Luo, Wuming; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Winer, Brian L; Wolfe, Homer; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Koay, Sue Ann; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Brownson, Eric; Malik, Sudhir; Mendez, Hector; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bortoletto, Daniela; Gutay, Laszlo; Hu, Zhen; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Kurt; Kress, Matthew; Leonardo, Nuno; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Primavera, Federica; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shi, Xin; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Zablocki, Jakub; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Korjenevski, Sergey; Petrillo, Gianluca; Verzetti, Mauro; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Kaplan, Steven; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; York, Andrew; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Kunori, Shuichi; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wolfe, Evan; Wood, John; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Friis, Evan; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Levine, Aaron; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ross, Ian; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Vuosalo, Carl; Woods, Nathaniel

    2015-12-01

    The per-event yield of the highest transverse momentum charged particle and charged-particle jet, integrated above a given $p_{\\mathrm{T}}^{\\mathrm{min}}$ threshold starting at $p_{\\mathrm{T}}^{\\mathrm{min}} = $ 0.8 and 1 GeV, respectively, is studied in PbPb collisions at $\\sqrt{s} =$ 8 TeV. The particles and the jets are measured for absolute pseudorapidities lower than 2.4 and 1.9, respectively. The data are sensitive to the momentum scale at which parton densities saturate in the proton, to multiple partonic interactions, and other key aspects of the transition between the soft and hard QCD regimes in hadronic collisions.

  3. Charged spinning black holes as particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Shaowen; Liu Yuxiao; Guo Heng; Fu Chune

    2010-01-01

    It has recently been pointed out that the spinning Kerr black hole with maximal spin could act as a particle collider with arbitrarily high center-of-mass energy. In this paper, we will extend the result to the charged spinning black hole, the Kerr-Newman black hole. The center-of-mass energy of collision for two uncharged particles falling freely from rest at infinity depends not only on the spin a but also on the charge Q of the black hole. We find that an unlimited center-of-mass energy can be approached with the conditions: (1) the collision takes place at the horizon of an extremal black hole; (2) one of the colliding particles has critical angular momentum; (3) the spin a of the extremal black hole satisfies (1/√(3))≤(a/M)≤1, where M is the mass of the Kerr-Newman black hole. The third condition implies that to obtain an arbitrarily high energy, the extremal Kerr-Newman black hole must have a large value of spin, which is a significant difference between the Kerr and Kerr-Newman black holes. Furthermore, we also show that, for a near-extremal black hole, there always exists a finite upper bound for center-of-mass energy, which decreases with the increase of the charge Q.

  4. Explicit symplectic algorithms based on generating functions for charged particle dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruili; Qin, Hong; Tang, Yifa; Liu, Jian; He, Yang; Xiao, Jianyuan

    2016-07-01

    Dynamics of a charged particle in the canonical coordinates is a Hamiltonian system, and the well-known symplectic algorithm has been regarded as the de facto method for numerical integration of Hamiltonian systems due to its long-term accuracy and fidelity. For long-term simulations with high efficiency, explicit symplectic algorithms are desirable. However, it is generally believed that explicit symplectic algorithms are only available for sum-separable Hamiltonians, and this restriction limits the application of explicit symplectic algorithms to charged particle dynamics. To overcome this difficulty, we combine the familiar sum-split method and a generating function method to construct second- and third-order explicit symplectic algorithms for dynamics of charged particle. The generating function method is designed to generate explicit symplectic algorithms for product-separable Hamiltonian with form of H (x ,p ) =pif (x ) or H (x ,p ) =xig (p ) . Applied to the simulations of charged particle dynamics, the explicit symplectic algorithms based on generating functions demonstrate superiorities in conservation and efficiency.

  5. A CVD diamond beam telescope for charged particle tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Bergonzo, P; de Boer, Wim; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; D'Angelo, P; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Dulinski, W; Doroshenko, J; Doucet, M; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fischer, P; Fizzotti, F; Kania, D R; Gan, K K; Grigoriev, E; Hallewell, G D; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kaplon, J; Kass, R; Keil, M; Knöpfle, K T; Koeth, T W; Krammer, Manfred; Meuser, S; Lo Giudice, A; MacLynne, L; Manfredotti, C; Meier, D; Menichelli, D; Mishina, M; Moroni, L; Noomen, J; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Pernicka, Manfred; Perera, L P; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Rudge, A; Russ, J; Sala, S; Sampietro, M; Schnetzer, S; Sciortino, S; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Trischuk, W; Tromson, D; Vittone, E; Weilhammer, Peter; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; Zeuner, W; Zöller, M

    2002-01-01

    CVD diamond is a radiation hard sensor material which may be used for charged particle tracking near the interaction region in experiments at high luminosity colliders. The goal of the work described here is to investigate the use of several detector planes made of CVD diamond strip sensors for charged particle tracking. Towards this end a tracking telescope composed entirely of CVD diamond planes has been constructed. The telescope was tested in muon beams and its tracking capability has been investigated.

  6. Medium energy charged particle spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, E.; Wilken, B.; Richer, K.; Umlauft, G.; Fischer, K.; Winterhoff, H.P.

    1976-10-01

    The charged particle spectrometer E8 on HELIOS A and B will be described in some detail. It covers proton energies from 80 keV to 6 MeV, electrons from 20 keV to 2 MeV, and positrons from 150 to 550 keV. Its flight performance will be discussed. From examples of measurements the capability of the instrument will be demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  7. Electromagnetic radiation of charged particles in stochastic motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harko, Tiberiu [Babes-Bolyai University, Department of Physics, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom); Mocanu, Gabriela [Astronomical Institute of the Romanian Academy, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2016-03-15

    The study of the Brownian motion of a charged particle in electric and magnetic fields has many important applications in plasma and heavy ions physics, as well as in astrophysics. In the present paper we consider the electromagnetic radiation properties of a charged non-relativistic particle in the presence of electric and magnetic fields, of an exterior non-electromagnetic potential, and of a friction and stochastic force, respectively. We describe the motion of the charged particle by a Langevin and generalized Langevin type stochastic differential equation. We investigate in detail the cases of the Brownian motion with or without memory in a constant electric field, in the presence of an external harmonic potential, and of a constant magnetic field. In all cases the corresponding Langevin equations are solved numerically, and a full description of the spectrum of the emitted radiation and of the physical properties of the motion is obtained. The power spectral density of the emitted power is also obtained for each case, and, for all considered oscillating systems, it shows the presence of peaks, corresponding to certain intervals of the frequency. (orig.)

  8. Study of talcum charging status in parallel plate electrostatic separator based on particle trajectory analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunxiao, CAO; Zhiqiang, WANG; Jinjun, WANG; Guofeng, LI

    2018-05-01

    Electrostatic separation has been extensively used in mineral processing, and has the potential to separate gangue minerals from raw talcum ore. As for electrostatic separation, the particle charging status is one of important influence factors. To describe the talcum particle charging status in a parallel plate electrostatic separator accurately, this paper proposes a modern images processing method. Based on the actual trajectories obtained from sequence images of particle movement and the analysis of physical forces applied on a charged particle, a numerical model is built, which could calculate the charge-to-mass ratios represented as the charging status of particle and simulate the particle trajectories. The simulated trajectories agree well with the experimental results obtained by images processing. In addition, chemical composition analysis is employed to reveal the relationship between ferrum gangue mineral content and charge-to-mass ratios. Research results show that the proposed method is effective for describing the particle charging status in electrostatic separation.

  9. Charge of a macroscopic particle in a plasma sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarian, A.A.; Vladimirov, S.V.

    2003-01-01

    Charging of a macroscopic body levitating in a rf plasma sheath is studied experimentally and theoretically. The nonlinear charge vs size dependence is obtained. The observed nonlinearity is explained on the basis of an approach taking into account different plasma conditions for the levitation positions of different particles. The importance of suprathermal electrons' contribution to the charging process is demonstrated

  10. Infinite stochastic acceleration of charged particles from non-relativistic initial energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buts, V.A.; Manujlenko, O.V.; Turkin, Yu.A.

    1997-01-01

    Stochastic charged particle acceleration by electro-magnetic field due to overlapping of non-linear cyclotron resonances is considered. It was shown that non-relativistic charged particles are involved in infinitive stochastic acceleration regime. This effect can be used for stochastic acceleration or for plasma heating by regular electro-magnetic fields

  11. Dependence of charge transfer phenomena during solid-air two-phase flow on particle disperser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanoue, Ken-ichiro; Suedomi, Yuuki; Honda, Hirotaka; Furutani, Satoshi; Nishimura, Tatsuo; Masuda, Hiroaki

    2012-12-01

    An experimental investigation of the tribo-electrification of particles has been conducted during solid-air two-phase turbulent flow. The current induced in a metal plate by the impact of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) particles in a high-speed air flow was measured for two different plate materials. The results indicated that the contact potential difference between the particles and a stainless steel plate was positive, while for a nickel plate it was negative. These results agreed with theoretical contact charge transfer even if not only the particle size but also the kind of metal plate was changed. The specific charge of the PMMA particles during solid-air two-phase flow using an ejector, a stainless steel branch pipe, and a stainless steel straight pipe was measured using a Faraday cage. Although the charge was negative in the ejector, the particles had a positive specific charge at the outlet of the branch pipe, and this positive charge increased in the straight pipe. The charge decay along the flow direction could be reproduced by the charging and relaxation theory. However, the proportional coefficients in the theory changed with the particle size and air velocity. Therefore, an unexpected charge transfer occurred between the ejector and the branch pipe, which could not be explained solely by the contact potential difference. In the ejector, an electrical current in air might have been produced by self-discharge of particles with excess charge between the nickel diffuser in the ejector and the stainless steel nozzle or the stainless steel pipe due to a reversal in the contact potential difference between the PMMA and the stainless steel. The sign of the current depended on the particle size, possibly because the position where the particles impacted depended on their size. When dual coaxial glass pipes were used as a particle disperser, the specific charge of the PMMA particles became more positive along the particle flow direction due to the contact

  12. Entrance channel dependent light-charged particle emission of the 156Er compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, J.F.; Bierman, J.D.; Kelly, M.P.; Sonzogni, A.A.; Vandenbosch, R.; van Schagen, J.P.S.

    1996-01-01

    Light-charged particle decay from the 156 Er compound nucleus, populated by 12 C+ 144 Sm and 60 Ni+ 96 Zr at the same excitation energy, were measured in coincidence with the evaporation residues. The high energy slope of charged particle spectra for the 60 Ni-induced reaction is steeper than for the 12 C-induced reaction. Model calculations including particle evaporation during compound nucleus formation result in good agreement with the data. This suggests that the difference in the charged particle spectra between the two entrance channels is due to a longer formation time in the 60 Ni-induced reaction. 14 refs., 3 figs

  13. Automatic analysis of charged particle spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seres, Z.; Kiss, A.

    1975-11-01

    A computer program system is developed for off-line automatic analysis of a series of charged particle spectra measured by solid-state detectors and collected on magnetic tapes. The procedure results in complete angular distributions for the excited levels of the final nucleus up to about 15 MeV. (orig.) [de

  14. Developing Antimatter Containment Technology: Modeling Charged Particle Oscillations in a Penning-Malmberg Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, S.; Martin, J. J.; Pearson, J. B.; Lewis, R. A.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA MSFC Propulsion Research Center (PRC) is conducting a research activity examining the storage of low energy antiprotons. The High Performance Antiproton Trap (HiPAT) is an electromagnetic system (Penning-Malmberg design) consisting of a 4 Tesla superconductor, a high voltage confinement electrode system, and an ultra high vacuum test section; designed with an ultimate goal of maintaining charged particles with a half-life of 18 days. Currently, this system is being experimentally evaluated using normal matter ions which are cheap to produce and relatively easy to handle and provide a good indication of overall trap behavior, with the exception of assessing annihilation losses. Computational particle-in-cell plasma modeling using the XOOPIC code is supplementing the experiments. Differing electrode voltage configurations are employed to contain charged particles, typically using flat, modified flat and harmonic potential wells. Ion cloud oscillation frequencies are obtained experimentally by amplification of signals induced on the electrodes by the particle motions. XOOPIC simulations show that for given electrode voltage configurations, the calculated charged particle oscillation frequencies are close to experimental measurements. As a two-dimensional axisymmetric code, XOOPIC cannot model azimuthal plasma variations, such as those induced by radio-frequency (RF) modulation of the central quadrupole electrode in experiments designed to enhance ion cloud containment. However, XOOPIC can model analytically varying electric potential boundary conditions and particle velocity initial conditions. Application of these conditions produces ion cloud axial and radial oscillation frequency modes of interest in achieving the goal of optimizing HiPAT for reliable containment of antiprotons.

  15. Motions of charged particles in Goedel-type spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, Bartolomeu D.B.

    1996-10-01

    Goedel-type spacetimes in Hehl's non propagating torsion theory are reconsidered by supposing that the curvature source is a Weyssenhoff-Raab fluid and an electromagnetic field. The electromagnetic field implies space time homogeneity and admits a dual interpretation. From the trajectories of the test particles, it is shown that there is a class of such spacetimes for which charged particles can reach regions inaccessible to neutral particles or even photons. (author). 21 refs., 1 fig

  16. Charged NUT field : [Part] I. Motion of test particles and [Part] II. Cosmic censorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krori, K.D.

    1981-01-01

    Some properties of the charged NUT field are studied. In the first part of the paper, some general aspects of the charged NUT field have been investigated using uncharged and charged particles. The behaviour of the particles near the singularity has also been considered. In the second part of the paper, the charged NUT sources in the context of cosmic censorship hypothesis are studied. Motion of charged particles in the equatorial plane and along the axis is considered. From this investigation the interesting result is discovered that by such a bombardment of charged test particles, the existing event horizons cannot be destroyed but, in contrast to the Reissner-Nordstrom field, naked singularities do not get enveloped by event horizons. (author)

  17. CHARGED PARTICLE MULTIPLICITIES IN ULTRA-RELATIVISTIC AU+AU AND CU+CU COLLISIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.; Alver, B.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Chetluru, V.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Harnarine, I.; Hauer, M.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Holynski, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Li, W.; Lin, W. T.; Loizides, C.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Reed, C.; Richardson, E.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Seals, H.; Sedykh, I.; Smith, C. E.; Stankiewicz, M. A.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Szostak, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; Vannieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Walters, P.; Wenger, E.; Willhelm, D.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.; Wyngaardt, S.; Wyslouch, B.

    The PHOBOS collaboration has carried out a systematic study of charged particle multiplicities in Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. A unique feature of the PHOBOS detector is its ability to measure charged particles over a very wide angular range from 0.5° to 179.5° corresponding to |η| <5.4. The general features of the charged particle multiplicity distributions as a function of pseudo-rapidity, collision energy and centrality, as well as system size, are discussed.

  18. Charged-particle inclusive distributions from hadronic Z0 decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Shaughnessy, K.

    1990-05-01

    We have measured inclusive distributions for charged particles in hadronic decays of the Z boson. The variables chosen for study were the mean charged-particle multiplicity (left-angle n ch right-angle), scaled momentum (x), and momenta transverse to the sphericity axes (p perpendicular in and p perpendicular out ). The distributions have been corrected for detector effects and are compared with data from e + e - annihilation at lower energies and with the predictions of several QCD-based models. The data are in reasonable agreement with expectations. 12 refs., 2 figs

  19. Real-time energy detector for relativistic charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piestrup, A.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of the research is to investigate the use of coherent transition radiation to measure the energy of ultra-relativistic charged particles. The research has possible applications for the detection and identification of these particles. It can also be used for beam diagnostics for both high-repetition-rate and single-pulse, high-current accelerators. The device is low cost and can operate in situ while causing little or no perturbation to the beam. Three such coherent radiators have been constructed and tested at two accelerators using electron beam energies ranging from 50 to 228 MeV. Soft x-ray emission (1 keV to 4 keV) was emitted in a circularly symmetrical annulus with half-angle divergence of 2.5 to 9.0 mr. By selecting foil thickness and spacing, it is possible to design radiators whose angle of emission varies radically over a range of charge-particle energies

  20. Anisotropy-Driven Instability in Intense Charged Particle Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Startsev, Edward; Qin, Hong

    2005-01-01

    In electrically neutral plasmas with strongly anisotropic distribution functions, free energy is available to drive different collective instabilities such as the electrostatic Harris instability and the transverse electromagnetic Weibel instability. Such anisotropies develop naturally in particle accelerators and may lead to a detoriation of beam quality. We have generalized the analysis of the classical Harris and Weibel instabilities to the case of a one-component intense charged particle beam with anisotropic temperature including the important effects of finite transverse geometry and beam space-charge. For a long costing beam, the delta-f particle-in-cell code BEST and the eighenmode code bEASt have been used to determine detailed 3D stability properties over a wide range of temperature anisotropy and beam intensity. A theoretical model is developed which describes the essential features of the linear stage of these instabilities. Both, the simulations and analytical theory, clearly show that moderately...

  1. Treatment of cancer with heavy charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    The clinical radiotherapy trial has accured 243 patients irradiated with particles and 13 patients irradiated as controls in randomized studies. Of the 243 particle patients, 194 have been treated with helium ions, either solely or in combination with photon irradiation, and 49 have received all or part of their irradiation with one of the heavier particles, either carbon, neon, or argon ions. The project thus can be divided into two general phases: (1) evaluation of improved dose distribution without significant biologic advantage by use of helium ion irradiation; and (2) evaluation of improved dose distribution and enhanced biologic effect by irradiation with heavy charged particles such as carbon, neon, and argon ions

  2. Radiobiology of heavy charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, G.

    1996-11-01

    The increase in the biological efficiency is the major motivation to use ions heavier than protons for therapy. Therefore, the detailed understanding of the radiobiological potential of heavy ions like carbon or oxygen is the basic condition of a proper application of these ions in therapy. But also for the lightest ion, the proton, evidence accumulates that changes in the radiobiological properties at the end of the particle range influence the therapeutic effect. Compared to sparsely ionizing radiation heavy charged particles exhibit a different physical interaction with the target material: The highly charged ions interact mostly via Coulomb forces with the electrons of the target material producing a track of ionizations and highly kinetic electrons along the path of the primary ion. In these tracks damage to the biological structures like the DNA occurs in a non stochastic, but spatially correlated way yielding a dramatic variation in the biological severity of the created damage. In cell-experiments the variation in the relative biological efficiency has been measured for many biological reactions like cell inactivation, chromosome aberrations and DNA damage. An overview on the inactivation data will be given and theoretical approaches will be discussed and compared to experimental data. (orig.)

  3. Numerical computation of discrete differential scattering cross sections for Monte Carlo charged particle transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, Jonathan A.; Palmer, Todd S.; Urbatsch, Todd J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Generation of discrete differential scattering angle and energy loss cross sections. • Gauss–Radau quadrature utilizing numerically computed cross section moments. • Development of a charged particle transport capability in the Milagro IMC code. • Integration of cross section generation and charged particle transport capabilities. - Abstract: We investigate a method for numerically generating discrete scattering cross sections for use in charged particle transport simulations. We describe the cross section generation procedure and compare it to existing methods used to obtain discrete cross sections. The numerical approach presented here is generalized to allow greater flexibility in choosing a cross section model from which to derive discrete values. Cross section data computed with this method compare favorably with discrete data generated with an existing method. Additionally, a charged particle transport capability is demonstrated in the time-dependent Implicit Monte Carlo radiative transfer code, Milagro. We verify the implementation of charged particle transport in Milagro with analytic test problems and we compare calculated electron depth–dose profiles with another particle transport code that has a validated electron transport capability. Finally, we investigate the integration of the new discrete cross section generation method with the charged particle transport capability in Milagro.

  4. Instrumental charged-particle activation analysis of several selected elements in biological materials using the internal standard method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, M.; Masumoto, K.

    1987-01-01

    In order to study instrumental charged-particle activation analysis using the internal standard method, simultaneous determinations of several selected elements such as Ca, Ti, V, Fe, Zn, As, Sr, Zr and Mo, in oyster tissue, brewer's yeast and mussel were carried out by using the respective (p, n) reactions and a personal computer-based gamma-ray spectrometer equipped with a micro-robot for sample changing. In the determination constant amounts of Y and La were added to the sample and comparative standard as exotic internal standards. As a result, it was demonstrated that concentrations of the above elements could be determined accurately and precisely. (author)

  5. Search for free fractional electric charge elementary particles using an automated millikan oil drop technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halyo; Kim; Lee; Lee; Loomba; Perl

    2000-03-20

    We have carried out a direct search in bulk matter for free fractional electric charge elementary particles using the largest mass single sample ever studied-about 17.4 mg of silicone oil. The search used an improved and highly automated Millikan oil drop technique. No evidence for fractional charge particles was found. The concentration of particles with fractional charge more than 0. 16e ( e being the magnitude of the electron charge) from the nearest integer charge is less than 4.71x10(-22) particles per nucleon with 95% confidence.

  6. Measurement of triboelectric charging of moving micro particles by means of an inductive cylindrical probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesterov, A; Loeffler, F; Koenig, K; Trunk, U; Leibe, K; Felgenhauer, T; Bischoff, F R; Breitling, F; Lindenstruth, V; Stadler, V; Hausmann, M

    2007-01-01

    We present a method based on induced currents in a cylindrical probe which allows analysis of the micro-particle charging processes in an aerosol. The micro particles were triboelectrically charged by passing through a dielectric tube coaxially mounted into the probe. The cylindrical probe enabled the quantification of particle charging without prior calibration of the probe. An analytic model was developed for the description of the measured induced currents and implemented into a computer simulation program. The combination of model simulations and an appropriate experimental setup revealed comprehensive data for the determination of the particles' electric charge against time of flight through the tube. In methodological proof of principle experiments, the formations of particle clouds with charges of different signs were observed using magnetite micro particles

  7. Design of asymmetric particles containing a charged interior and a neutral surface charge: comparative study on in vivo circulation of polyelectrolyte microgels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Xu, Jing; Luft, J Christopher; Tian, Shaomin; Raval, Jay S; DeSimone, Joseph M

    2014-07-16

    Lowering the modulus of hydrogel particles could enable them to bypass in vivo physical barriers that would otherwise filter particles with similar size but higher modulus. Incorporation of electrolyte moieties into the polymer network of hydrogel particles to increase the swelling ratio is a straightforward and quite efficient way to decrease the modulus. In addition, charged groups in hydrogel particles can also help secure cargoes. However, the distribution of charged groups on the surface of a particle can accelerate the clearance of particles. Herein, we developed a method to synthesize highly swollen microgels of precise size with near-neutral surface charge while retaining interior charged groups. A strategy was employed to enable a particle to be highly cross-linked with very small mesh size, and subsequently PEGylated to quench the exterior amines only without affecting the internal amines. Acidic degradation of the cross-linker allows for swelling of the particles to microgels with a desired size and deformability. The microgels fabricated demonstrated extended circulation in vivo compared to their counterparts with a charged surface, and could potentially be utilized in in vivo applications including as oxygen carriers or nucleic acid scavengers.

  8. Motions of charged particles in Goedel-type spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Bartolomeu D.B. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1996-10-01

    Goedel-type spacetimes in Hehl`s non propagating torsion theory are reconsidered by supposing that the curvature source is a Weyssenhoff-Raab fluid and an electromagnetic field. The electromagnetic field implies space time homogeneity and admits a dual interpretation. From the trajectories of the test particles, it is shown that there is a class of such spacetimes for which charged particles can reach regions inaccessible to neutral particles or even photons. (author). 21 refs., 1 fig.

  9. The search for fractional charge elemental particles and very massive particles in bulk matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perl, M.

    2000-01-01

    The authors describe their ongoing work on, and future plans for, searches in bulk matter for fractional charge elementary particles and very massive elementary particles. Their primary interest is in searching for such particles that may have been produced in the early universe and may be found in the more primeval matter available in the solar system: meteorites, material from the moon's surface, and certain types of ancient terrestrial rocks. In the future the authors are interested in examining material brought back by sample return probes from asteroids. The authors will describe their experimental methods that are based on new modifications of the Millikan liquid drop technique and modern technology: micromachining, CCD cameras, and desktop computers. Extensions of the experimental methods and technology allow searches for very massive charged particles in primeval matter; particles with masses greater than 1,013 GeV. In the first such searches carried out on earth there will be uncertainties in the mass search range. Therefore the authors will also discuss the advantages of eventually carrying out such searches directly on an asteroid

  10. Test-particle motion in Einstein's unified field theory. III. Magnetic monopoles and charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    In a previous paper (paper I), we developed a method for finding the exact equations of structure and motion of multipole test particles in Einstein's unified field theory: the theory of the nonsymmetric field. In that paper we also applied the method and found in Einstein's unified field theory the equations of structure and motion of neutral pole-dipole test particles possessing no electromagnetic multipole moments. In a second paper (paper II), we applied the method and found in Einstein's unified field theory the exact equations of structure and motion of charged test particles possessing no magnetic monopole moments. In the present paper (paper III), we apply the method and find in Einstein's unified field theory the exact equations of structure and motion of charged test particles possessing magnetic monopole moments. It follows from the form of these equations of structure and motion that in general in Einstein's unified field theory a test particle possessing a magnetic monopole moment in a background electromagnetic field must also possess spin

  11. Search for charged-particle d-d fusion products in an encapsulated Pd thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, E.; Neuhauser, B.; Ziemba, F.; Jackson, J.; Mapoles, E.; McVittie, J.; Powell, R.

    1991-01-01

    Motivated by reports by Fleischmann and Pons and also Jones et al. of nuclear fusion occurring at room temperature, we attempted to look for charged particle reaction products from d-d fusion in a deuterated palladium thin film. A silicon nitride encapsulated palladium thin film (340 nanometers thick and one square centimeter in area) was fabricated on top of a semiconductor particle detector and implanted with an 80 keV D 2 + beam. The purpose of the nitride cap was to prevent deuterium from diffusing out or from being sputtered away during implantation. The detector temperature was maintained below 200 K in order to reduce pressure on the cap. During the first run of this experiment, after the ion implanter had been turned off, apparent charged particle pulses as well as bursts of activity in two nearby Geiger counters were observed with the film loaded to a nominal 150% deuterium-to-palladium ratio and a 1.3% does of 6 Li. No spectrum was obtained because of equipment malfunction. In a second run no apparent charged particles pulses were observed, but a record of the neutron flux due to induced fusion during implantation suggested that the nitride cap had failed. More experimental runs are expected in the near future

  12. Fractional dynamics of charged particles in magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronel-Escamilla, A.; Gómez-Aguilar, J. F.; Alvarado-Méndez, E.; Guerrero-Ramírez, G. V.; Escobar-Jiménez, R. F.

    2016-02-01

    In many physical applications the electrons play a relevant role. For example, when a beam of electrons accelerated to relativistic velocities is used as an active medium to generate Free Electron Lasers (FEL), the electrons are bound to atoms, but move freely in a magnetic field. The relaxation time, longitudinal effects and transverse variations of the optical field are parameters that play an important role in the efficiency of this laser. The electron dynamics in a magnetic field is a means of radiation source for coupling to the electric field. The transverse motion of the electrons leads to either gain or loss energy from or to the field, depending on the position of the particle regarding the phase of the external radiation field. Due to the importance to know with great certainty the displacement of charged particles in a magnetic field, in this work we study the fractional dynamics of charged particles in magnetic fields. Newton’s second law is considered and the order of the fractional differential equation is (0;1]. Based on the Grünwald-Letnikov (GL) definition, the discretization of fractional differential equations is reported to get numerical simulations. Comparison between the numerical solutions obtained on Euler’s numerical method for the classical case and the GL definition in the fractional approach proves the good performance of the numerical scheme applied. Three application examples are shown: constant magnetic field, ramp magnetic field and harmonic magnetic field. In the first example the results obtained show bistability. Dissipative effects are observed in the system and the standard dynamic is recovered when the order of the fractional derivative is 1.

  13. Numerical analysis of the influence of particle charging on the fume formation process in arc welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashiro, Shinichi; Matsui, Sho; Tanaka, Manabu; Murphy, Anthony B

    2013-01-01

    In order to clarify the influence of electrostatic forces caused by charging of particles on the coagulation process in fume formation in arc welding, a previously developed fume formation model is modified to consider the influence of charging, for both local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and non-LTE conditions. The model takes into account formation of the particles from metal vapour by nucleation, growth of the particles by condensation of metal vapour and coagulation of the particles by collisions to form secondary particles. Results are obtained for both ballistic and Brownian motion of the particles. It is found that the growth of secondary particles is suppressed when the average particle charge becomes significant, because charging of the particle hinders collisions among secondary particles through the strong repulsive electrostatic force. Furthermore, deviations from LTE strongly affect the coagulation process, because the increased electron density at a given gas temperature increases the charging of particles. Brownian motion leads to larger secondary particles, since the average particle speed is increased. The influence of Brownian motion and particle charging cancel each other to a large extent, particularly when deviations from LTE are considered. (paper)

  14. Coherent electromagnetic radiation of a modulated beam of charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankratov, S G [The State Committee of Standards of the USSR, Moscow, USSR

    1977-12-27

    The intensity of electromagnetic radiation produced by a modulated beam of charged particles is estimated. The coherence effect is due to the modulation, i.e. to periodicity in the particles distribution.

  15. Solitary Model of the Charge Particle Transport in Collisionless Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonchik, L.V.; Trukhachev, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    The one-dimensional MHD solitary model of charged particle transport in plasma is developed. It is shown that self-consistent electric field of ion-acoustic solitons can displace charged particles in space, which can be a reason of local electric current generation. The displacement amount is order of a few Debye lengths. It is shown that the current associated with soliton cascade has pulsating nature with DC component. Methods of built theory verification in dusty plasma are proposed

  16. Medical radiation dosimetry theory of charged particle collision energy loss

    CERN Document Server

    McParland, Brian J

    2014-01-01

    Accurate radiation dosimetry is a requirement of radiation oncology, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. It is necessary so as to satisfy the needs of patient safety, therapeutic and diagnostic optimisation, and retrospective epidemiological studies of the biological effects resulting from low absorbed doses of ionising radiation. The radiation absorbed dose received by the patient is the ultimate consequence of the transfer of kinetic energy through collisions between energetic charged particles and atoms of the tissue being traversed. Thus, the ability of the medical physicist to both measure and calculate accurately patient dosimetry demands a deep understanding of the physics of charged particle interactions with matter. Interestingly, the physics of charged particle energy loss has an almost exclusively theoretical basis, thus necessitating an advanced theoretical understanding of the subject in order to apply it appropriately to the clinical regime. ​ Each year, about one-third of the worl...

  17. General classification of charged test particle circular orbits in Reissner-Nordstroem spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugliese, D. [Silesian University in Opava, Institute of Physics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Opava (Czech Republic); Quevedo, H. [Universita di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, ICRA, Rome (Italy); Icranet-Pescara, Pescara (Italy); Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Kazakh National University, Department of Theoretical and Nuclear Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Ruffini, R. [Universita di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, ICRA, Rome (Italy); Icranet-Pescara, Pescara (Italy)

    2017-04-15

    We investigate charged particles' circular motion in the gravitational field of a charged mass distribution described by the Reissner-Nordstroem spacetime. We introduce a set of independent parameters completely characterizing the different spatial regions in which circular motion is allowed. We provide a most complete classification of circular orbits for different sets of particle and source charge-to-mass ratios. We study both black holes and naked singularities and show that the behavior of charged particles depend drastically on the type of source. Our analysis shows in an alternative manner that the behavior of circular orbits can in principle be used to distinguish between black holes and naked singularities. From this analysis, special limiting values for the dimensionless charge of black hole and naked singularity emerge, namely, Q/M = 1/2, Q/M = √(13)/5 and Q/M = √(2/3) for the black hole case and Q/M = 1, Q/M = 5/(2√(6)), Q/M = 3√(6)/7, and finally Q/M = √(9/8) for the naked singularity case. Similarly and surprisingly, analogous limits emerge for the orbiting particles charge-to-mass ratio ε, for positive charges ε = 1, ε = 2 and ε = M/Q. These limits play an important role in the study of the coupled electromagnetic and gravitational interactions, and the investigation of the role of the charge in the gravitational collapse of compact objects. (orig.)

  18. Internal Structure of Charged Particles in a GRT Gravitational Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlestkov, Yu. A.; Sukhanova, L. A.

    2018-05-01

    With the help of an exact solution of the Einstein and Maxwell equations, the internal structure of a multiply connected space of wormhole type with two unclosed static throats leading out of it into two parallel vacuum spaces or into one space is investigated in GRT for a free electric field and dust-like matter. The given geometry is considered as a particle-antiparticle pair with fundamental constants arising in the form of first integrals in the solution of the Cauchy problem - electric charges ±e of opposite sign in the throats and rest mass m0 - the total gravitational mass of the inner world of the particle in the throat. With the help of the energy conservation law, the unremovable rotation of the internal structure is included and the projection of the angular momentum of which onto the rotation axis is identified with the z-projection of the spin of the charged particle. The radius of 2-Gaussian curvature of the throat R* is identified with the charge radius of the particle, and the z-projection of the magnetic moment and the g-factor are found. The feasibility of the given gravitational model is confirmed by the found condition of independence of the spin quantum number of the electron and the proton s = 1/2 of the charge radius R* and the relativistic rest mass m* of the rotating throat, which is reliably confirmed experimentally, and also by the coincidence with high accuracy of the proton radius calculated in the model R*p = 0.8412·10-13 cm with the value of the proton charge radius obtained experimentally by measuring the Lamb shift on muonic hydrogen. The electron in the given model also turns out to be a structured particle with radius R*e = 3.8617·10-11 cm.

  19. Simulation of distributed parameter system consisting of charged and neutral particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, P.S.; Sinha, K.V.

    1986-01-01

    The time-dependent behavior of positively charged light particles have been simulated in an assembly of heavy gas atoms. The system is formulated in terms of partial differential equation. The stability and convergence of the numerical algorithm has been examined. Using this formulation effects of external electric field and temperature have been investigated on the lifetime and distribution function characteristics of charged particles

  20. Moment approach to charged particle beam dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channell, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    We have derived the hierarchy of moment equations that describes the dynamics of charged-particle beams in linear accelerators and can truncate the hierarchy at any level either by discarding higher moments or by a cumulant expansion discarding only correlation functions. We have developed a procedure for relating the density expansion linearly to the moments to any order. The relation of space-charge fields to the density has been derived; and an accurate, systematic, and computationally convenient expansion of the resultant integrals has been developed

  1. Systematics of experimental charge radii of elements and elementary particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antony, M.S.; Britz, J.

    1987-02-01

    The systematics of experimental charge radii of elements and elementary particles ..pi../sup -/, K/sup -/, K/sup 0/, p and n is discussed. The root-meansquare charge radius of a quark core in nucleous derived from the systematics is estimated to be 0.3 fm. Charge radii evaluated from Coulomb displacement energies are also tabulated.

  2. Indirect Charged Particle Detection: Concepts and a Classroom Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Nicholas B.; Horányi, Mihály; Collette, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    We describe the principles of macroscopic charged particle detection in the laboratory and their connections to concepts taught in the physics classroom. Electrostatic dust accelerator systems, capable of launching charged dust grains at hypervelocities (1-100 km/s), are a critical tool for space exploration. Dust grains in space typically have…

  3. Constraints on rapidity-dependent initial conditions from charged-particle pseudorapidity densities and two-particle correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Weiyao; Moreland, J. Scott; Bernhard, Jonah E.; Bass, Steffen A.

    2017-10-01

    We study the initial three-dimensional spatial configuration of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions using centrality and pseudorapidity-dependent measurements of the medium's charged particle density and two-particle correlations. A cumulant-generating function is first used to parametrize the rapidity dependence of local entropy deposition and extend arbitrary boost-invariant initial conditions to nonzero beam rapidities. The model is then compared to p +Pb and Pb + Pb charged-particle pseudorapidity densities and two-particle pseudorapidity correlations and systematically optimized using Bayesian parameter estimation to extract high-probability initial condition parameters. The optimized initial conditions are then compared to a number of experimental observables including the pseudorapidity-dependent anisotropic flows, event-plane decorrelations, and flow correlations. We find that the form of the initial local longitudinal entropy profile is well constrained by these experimental measurements.

  4. Constraints on dark matter particles charged under a hidden gauge group from primordial black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, De-Chang; Stojkovic, Dejan; Freese, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    In order to accommodate increasingly tighter observational constraints on dark matter, several models have been proposed recently in which dark matter particles are charged under some hidden gauge group. Hidden gauge charges are invisible for the standard model particles, hence such scenarios are very difficult to constrain directly. However black holes are sensitive to all gauge charges, whether they belong to the standard model or not. Here, we examine the constraints on the possible values of the dark matter particle mass and hidden gauge charge from the evolution of primordial black holes. We find that the existence of the primordial black holes with reasonable mass is incompatible with dark matter particles whose charge to mass ratio is of the order of one. For dark matter particles whose charge to mass ratio is much less than one, we are able to exclude only heavy dark matter in the mass range of 10 11 GeV–10 16 GeV. Finally, for dark matter particles whose charge to mass ratio is much greater than one, there are no useful limits coming from primordial black holes

  5. High gradient lens for charged particle beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Jiuan

    2014-04-29

    Methods and devices enable shaping of a charged particle beam. A dynamically adjustable electric lens includes a series of alternating a series of alternating layers of insulators and conductors with a hollow center. The series of alternating layers when stacked together form a high gradient insulator (HGI) tube to allow propagation of the charged particle beam through the hollow center of the HGI tube. A plurality of transmission lines are connected to a plurality of sections of the HGI tube, and one or more voltage sources are provided to supply an adjustable voltage value to each transmission line of the plurality of transmission lines. By changing the voltage values supplied to each section of the HGI tube, any desired electric field can be established across the HGI tube. This way various functionalities including focusing, defocusing, acceleration, deceleration, intensity modulation and others can be effectuated on a time varying basis.

  6. Challenging the weak cosmic censorship conjecture with charged quantum particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richartz, Mauricio; Saa, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by the recent attempts to violate the weak cosmic censorship conjecture for near-extreme black holes, we consider the possibility of overcharging a near-extreme Reissner-Nordstroem black hole by the quantum tunneling of charged particles. We consider the scattering of spin-0 and spin-(1/2) particles by the black hole in a unified framework and obtain analytically, for the first time, the pertinent reflection and transmission coefficients without any small charge approximation. Based on these results, we propose some gedanken experiments that could lead to the violation of the weak cosmic censorship conjecture due to the (classically forbidden) absorption of small energy charged particles by the black hole. As for the case of scattering in Kerr spacetimes, our results demonstrate explicitly that scalar fields are subject to (electrical) superradiance phenomenon, while spin-(1/2) fields are not. Superradiance impose some limitations on the gedanken experiments involving spin-0 fields, favoring, in this way, the mechanisms for creation of a naked singularity by the quantum tunneling of spin-(1/2) charged fermions. We also discuss the implications that vacuum polarization effects and quantum statistics might have on these gedanken experiments. In particular, we show that they are not enough to prevent the absorption of incident small energy particles and, consequently, the formation of a naked singularity.

  7. Bmad: A relativistic charged particle simulation library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagan, D.

    2006-01-01

    Bmad is a subroutine library for simulating relativistic charged particle beams in high-energy accelerators and storage rings. Bmad can be used to study both single and multi-particle beam dynamics using routines to track both particles and macroparticles. Bmad has various tracking algorithms including Runge-Kutta and symplectic (Lie algebraic) integration. Various effects such as wakefields, and radiation excitation and damping can be simulated. Bmad has been developed in a modular, object-oriented fashion to maximize flexibility. Interface routines allow Bmad to be called from C/C++ as well as Fortran programs. Bmad is well documented. Every routine is individually annotated, and there is an extensive manual

  8. Trapped charged particles a graduate textbook with problems and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Madsen, Niels; Thompson, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    At Les Houches in January 2015, experts in the field of particle trapping came together to discuss the fundamental physics of traps and the different types of applications. This textbook collates the lectures delivered there; the Second Winter School on Physics with Trapped Charged Particles. Taken as a whole, the book gives an overview of why traps for charged particles are important, how they work, their special features and limitations, and their application in areas such as precision measurements, mass spectrometry, optical clocks, plasma physics, antihydrogen creation, quantum simulation and quantum information processing. Chapters from various world experts include those on the basic properties of Penning traps, RF traps and particle accelerators, as well as those covering important practical aspects such as vacuum systems, detection techniques, and different types of particle cooling including laser cooling. Finally, individual chapters deal with the different areas of application listed above. Each ...

  9. A facility for low energy charged particle induced reaction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilaithong, T.; Singkarat, S.; Yu, L.D.; Intarasiri, S.; Tippawan, U.

    2000-01-01

    In Chiang Mai, a highly stable low energy ion accelerator (0 - 350 kV) facility is being established. A subnano-second pulsing system will be incorporated into the beam transport line. The detecting system will consist of a time-of-flight charged particle spectrometer and a high resolution gamma-ray system. The new facility will be used in the studies of low energy heavy ion backscattering and charged particle induced cross section measurement in the interests of material characterization and nucleosynthesis. (author)

  10. Search for fractionally charged particles in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aguilo, Ernest; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Christine; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Luyckx, Sten; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Staykova, Zlatka; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Reis, Thomas; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Marcken, Gil; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Garcia, Guillaume; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Ceard, Ludivine; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Schul, Nicolas; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Soares Jorge, Luana; Sznajder, Andre; Souza Dos Anjos, Tiago; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Khalil, Shaaban; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Karjalainen, Ahti; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Millischer, Laurent; Nayak, Aruna; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Shreyber, Irina; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Benhabib, Lamia; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Daci, Nadir; Dahms, Torsten; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Juillot, Pierre; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Anagnostou, Georgios; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Caudron, Julien; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Olschewski, Mark; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Weber, Martin; Bontenackels, Michael; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Lingemann, Joschka; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Costanza, Francesco; Dammann, Dirk; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Glushkov, Ivan; Gunnellini, Paolo; Habib, Shiraz; Hauk, Johannes; Hellwig, Gregor; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Novgorodova, Olga; Olzem, Jan; Perrey, Hanno; Petrukhin, Alexey; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Riedl, Caroline; Ron, Elias; Rosin, Michele; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stein, Matthias; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Draeger, Jula; Enderle, Holger; Erfle, Joachim; Gebbert, Ulla; Görner, Martin; Hermanns, Thomas; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Lange, Jörn; Mura, Benedikt; Nowak, Friederike; Peiffer, Thomas; Pietsch, Niklas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Seidel, Markus; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Vanelderen, Lukas; Barth, Christian; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Guthoff, Moritz; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Nürnberg, Andreas; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Ratnikova, Natalia; Röcker, Steffen; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Zeise, Manuel; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Ntomari, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Karancsi, János; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Kaur, Manjit; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mehta, Pourus; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Aziz, Tariq; Ganguly, Sanmay; Guchait, Monoranjan; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Hesari, Hoda; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Singh, Gurpreet; Venditti, Rosamaria; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Tosi, Silvano; Benaglia, Andrea; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Cavallo, Nicola; De Cosa, Annapaola; Dogangun, Oktay; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Romeo, Francesco; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Taroni, Silvia; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Fanelli, Cristiano; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Sigamani, Michael; Soffi, Livia; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Costa, Marco; Demaria, Natale; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Marone, Matteo; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Schizzi, Andrea; Heo, Seong Gu; Kim, Tae Yeon; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Chang, Sunghyun; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Ro, Sang-Ryul; Son, Dong-Chul; Son, Taejin; Kim, Jae Yool; Kim, Zero Jaeho; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Cho, Yongjin; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Min Suk; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Bilinskas, Mykolas Jurgis; Grigelionis, Ignas; Janulis, Mindaugas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Martínez-Ortega, Jorge; Sánchez-Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A; Krofcheck, David; Bell, Alan James; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Reucroft, Steve; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Ansari, Muhammad Hamid; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Almeida, Nuno; Bargassa, Pedrame; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Savina, Maria; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Evstyukhin, Sergey; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Erofeeva, Maria; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kossov, Mikhail; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Popov, Andrey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Ekmedzic, Marko; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Senghi Soares, Mara; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Graziano, Alberto; Jorda, Clara; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benitez, Jose F; Bernet, Colin; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; De Roeck, Albert; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dobson, Marc; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Frisch, Benjamin; Funk, Wolfgang; Georgiou, Georgios; Giffels, Manuel; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Giunta, Marina; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Govoni, Pietro; Gowdy, Stephen; Guida, Roberto; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hartl, Christian; Harvey, John; Hegner, Benedikt; Hinzmann, Andreas; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kaadze, Ketino; Karavakis, Edward; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Lecoq, Paul; Lee, Yen-Jie; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Lourenco, Carlos; Magini, Nicolo; Maki, Tuula; Malberti, Martina; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Musella, Pasquale; Nesvold, Erik; Orimoto, Toyoko; Orsini, Luciano; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Perez, Emmanuelle; Perrozzi, Luca; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Polese, Giovanni; Quertenmont, Loic; Racz, Attila; Reece, William; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovelli, Chiara; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Santanastasio, Francesco; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sekmen, Sezen; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Worm, Steven; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; Bäni, Lukas; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Deisher, Amanda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Mohr, Niklas; Moortgat, Filip; Nägeli, Christoph; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Starodumov, Andrei; Stieger, Benjamin; Takahashi, Maiko; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Urscheler, Christina; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Wehrli, Lukas; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Otiougova, Polina; Robmann, Peter; Snoek, Hella; Tupputi, Salvatore; Verzetti, Mauro; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Zong-Kai; Lu, Yun-Ju; Mekterovic, Darko; Singh, Anil; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Shi, Xin; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wan, Xia; Wang, Minzu; Asavapibhop, Burin; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karaman, Turker; Karapinar, Guler; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Yildirim, Eda; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Cankocak, Kerem; Levchuk, Leonid; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Kreczko, Lukasz; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Jackson, James; Kennedy, Bruce W; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Mathias, Bryn; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Stoye, Markus; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardle, Nicholas; Whyntie, Tom; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Charaf, Otman; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; St John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; Sulak, Lawrence; Alimena, Juliette; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Cutts, David; Demiragli, Zeynep; Ferapontov, Alexey; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Houtz, Rachel; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Mall, Orpheus; Miceli, Tia; Pellett, Dave; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Rutherford, Britney; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Yohay, Rachel; Andreev, Valeri; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Duris, Joseph; Erhan, Samim; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Plager, Charles; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Traczyk, Piotr; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Giordano, Ferdinando; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Mangano, Boris; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lowette, Steven; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Chen, Yi; Di Marco, Emanuele; Duarte, Javier; Gataullin, Marat; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Rogan, Christopher; Spiropulu, Maria; Timciuc, Vladlen; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Drell, Brian Robert; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bloch, Ingo; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Green, Dan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Kilminster, Benjamin; Klima, Boaz; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Hugon, Justin; Kim, Bockjoo; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Park, Myeonghun; Remington, Ronald; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Sellers, Paul; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Snowball, Matthew; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Gaultney, Vanessa; Hewamanage, Samantha; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Lacroix, Florent; Malek, Magdalena; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Strom, Derek; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Tan, Ping; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Kenny Iii, Raymond Patrick; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Tinti, Gemma; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Barfuss, Anne-Fleur; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kirn, Malina; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Peterman, Alison; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Twedt, Elizabeth; Apyan, Aram; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Krajczar, Krisztian; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Velicanu, Dragos; Wenger, Edward Allen; Wolf, Roger; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cooper, Seth; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Franzoni, Giovanni; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Keller, Jason; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Haley, Joseph; Nash, David; Trocino, Daniele; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Chan, Kwok Ming; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Vuosalo, Carl; Williams, Grayson; Winer, Brian L; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hunt, Adam; Jindal, Pratima; Lopes Pegna, David; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Raval, Amita; Safdi, Ben; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Brownson, Eric; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Everett, Adam; Hu, Zhen; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Kress, Matthew; Laasanen, Alvin T; Leonardo, Nuno; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Guragain, Samir; Parashar, Neeti; Adair, Antony; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Li, Wei; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Malik, Sarah; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Rekovic, Vladimir; Robles, Jorge; Rose, Keith; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Seitz, Claudia; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Sengupta, Sinjini; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Roh, Youn; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Florez, Carlos; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Belknap, Donald; Borrello, Laura; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Friis, Evan; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Palmonari, Francesco; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Swanson, Joshua

    2013-05-21

    A search is presented for free heavy long-lived fractionally charged particles produced in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV. The data sample was recorded by the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 inverse femtobarns. Candidate fractionally charged particles are identified by selecting tracks with associated low charge measurements in the silicon tracking detector. Observations are found to be consistent with expectations for background processes. The results of the search are used to set upper limits on the cross section for pair production of fractionally charged, massive spin-1/2 particles that are neutral under SU(3)$_C$ and SU(2)$_L$. We exclude at 95% confidence level such particles with electric charge ±2e/3 with masses below 310 GeV, and those with charge ±e/3 with masses below 140 GeV.

  11. Charged particles in external electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovannini, N.P.D.

    1976-01-01

    The present study contains a general theoretical group analysis of the problem of a charged massive particle moving in an (arbitrary) classical external electromagnetic field. This analysis is essentially based on the space-time symmetry properties of e.m. fields and e.m. field equations, as well as the fact that the considered equations of motion depend on the field via a potential

  12. The charged particle accelerators subsystems modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averyanov, G P; Kobylyatskiy, A V

    2017-01-01

    Presented web-based resource for information support the engineering, science and education in Electrophysics, containing web-based tools for simulation subsystems charged particle accelerators. Formulated the development motivation of Web-Environment for Virtual Electrophysical Laboratories. Analyzes the trends of designs the dynamic web-environments for supporting of scientific research and E-learning, within the framework of Open Education concept. (paper)

  13. A Generalized Boltzmann Fokker-Planck Method for Coupled Charged Particle Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prinja, Anil K

    2012-01-09

    The goal of this project was to develop and investigate the performance of reduced-physics formulations of high energy charged particle (electrons, protons and heavier ions) transport that are computationally more efficient than not only analog Monte Carlo methods but also the established condensed history Monte Carlo technique. Charged particles interact with matter by Coulomb collisions with target nuclei and electrons, by bremsstrahlung radiation loss and by nuclear reactions such as spallation and fission. Of these, inelastic electronic collisions and elastic nuclear collisions are the dominant cause of energy-loss straggling and angular deflection or range straggling of a primary particle. These collisions are characterized by extremely short mean free paths (sub-microns) and highly peaked, near-singular differential cross sections about forward directions and zero energy loss, with the situation for protons and heavier ions more extreme than for electrons. For this reason, analog or truephysics single-event Monte Carlo simulation, while possible in principle, is computationally prohibitive for routine calculation of charged particle interaction phenomena.

  14. Energetic charged particles above thunderclouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullekrug, Martin; Diver, Declan; Pincon, Jean-Louis; Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Phelps, Alan D.R.; Bourdon, Anne; Helling, Christiane; Blanc, Elisabeth; Honary, Farideh; Kosch, Mike; Harrison, Giles; Sauvaud, Jean-Andre; Lester, Mark; Rycroft, Michael; Kosch, Mike; Horne, Richard B.; Soula, Serge; Gaffet, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    The French government has committed to launch the satellite TARANIS to study transient coupling processes between the Earth's atmosphere and near-Earth space. The prime objective of TARANIS is to detect energetic charged particles and hard radiation emanating from thunderclouds. The British Nobel prize winner C. T. R. Wilson predicted lightning discharges from the top of thunderclouds into space almost a century ago. However, new experiments have only recently confirmed energetic discharge processes which transfer energy from the top of thunderclouds into the upper atmosphere and near-Earth space; they are now denoted as transient luminous events, terrestrial gamma-ray flashes and relativistic electron beams. This meeting report builds on the current state of scientific knowledge on the physics of plasmas in the laboratory and naturally occurring plasmas in the Earth's atmosphere to propose areas of future research. The report specifically reflects presentations delivered by the members of a novel Franco-British collaboration during a meeting at the French Embassy in London held in November 2011. The scientific subjects of the report tackle ionization processes leading to electrical discharge processes, observations of transient luminous events, electromagnetic emissions, energetic charged particles and their impact on the Earth's atmosphere. The importance of future research in this area for science and society, and towards spacecraft protection, is emphasized. (authors)

  15. Coulomb Fourier transformation: A novel approach to three-body scattering with charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alt, E.O.; Levin, S.B.; Yakovlev, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    A unitary transformation of the three-body Hamiltonian which describes a system of two charged and one neutral particles is constructed such that the Coulomb potential which acts between the charged particles is explicitly eliminated. The transformed Hamiltonian and, in particular, the transformed short-range pair interactions are worked out in detail. Thereby it is found that, after transformation, the short-range potentials acting between the neutral and either one of the charged particles become simply Fourier transformed but, in addition, multiplied by a function that represents the Coulombic three-body correlations originating from the action of the other charged particle on the considered pair. This function which is universal as it does not depend on any property of the short-range interaction is evaluated explicitly and its singularity structure is described in detail. In contrast, the short-range potential between the charged particles remains of two-body type but occurs now in the 'Coulomb representation'. Specific applications to Yukawa and Gaussian potentials are given. Since the Coulomb-Fourier-transformed Hamiltonian does no longer contain the Coulomb potential or any other effective interaction of long range, standard methods of short-range few-body scattering theory are applicable

  16. Search for stable mutli-charged particles with the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, S

    2013-01-01

    A search for stable massive particles with electric charges of $|q|=2e$ to $|q|=6e$ is performed with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. A dataset of 4.4$\\, \\text{fb}^{-1}$ is searched for highly ionization muon signatures. No deviation from the standard model expectations is observed and 95% CL upper cross section limits on the order of $\\mathcal{O}(0.01 - 0.1\\, \\text{pb})$ are set. This result represents the first limit on the production cross section of stable massive particles with charges $|q|=2e$ to $|q|=5e$ published by the ATLAS collaboration and improves a previous limit on particles with $|q|=6e$ by two orders of magnitude.

  17. Mass analysis of charged aerosol particles in NLC and PMSE during the ECOMA/MASS campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Robertson

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available MASS (Mesospheric Aerosol Sampling Spectrometer is a multichannel mass spectrometer for charged aerosol particles, which was flown from the Andøya Rocket Range, Norway, through NLC and PMSE on 3 August 2007 and through PMSE on 6 August 2007. The eight-channel analyzers provided for the first time simultaneous measurements of the charge density residing on aerosol particles in four mass ranges, corresponding to ice particles with radii <0.5 nm (including ions, 0.5–1 nm, 1–2 nm, and >3 nm (approximately. Positive and negative particles were recorded on separate channels. Faraday rotation measurements provided electron density and a means of checking charge density measurements made by the spectrometer. Additional complementary measurements were made by rocket-borne dust impact detectors, electric field booms, a photometer and ground-based radar and lidar. The MASS data from the first flight showed negative charge number densities of 1500–3000 cm−3 for particles with radii >3 nm from 83–88 km approximately coincident with PMSE observed by the ALWIN radar and NLC observed by the ALOMAR lidar. For particles in the 1–2 nm range, number densities of positive and negative charge were similar in magnitude (~2000 cm−3 and for smaller particles, 0.5–1 nm in radius, positive charge was dominant. The occurrence of positive charge on the aerosol particles of the smallest size and predominately negative charge on the particles of largest size suggests that nucleation occurs on positive condensation nuclei and is followed by collection of negative charge during subsequent growth to larger size. Faraday rotation measurements show a bite-out in electron density that increases the time for positive aerosol particles to be neutralized and charged negatively. The larger particles (>3 nm are observed throughout the NLC region, 83–88 km, and the smaller particles are observed primarily at the high end of the range, 86–88 km

  18. Mass analysis of charged aerosol particles in NLC and PMSE during the ECOMA/MASS campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Robertson

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available MASS (Mesospheric Aerosol Sampling Spectrometer is a multichannel mass spectrometer for charged aerosol particles, which was flown from the Andøya Rocket Range, Norway, through NLC and PMSE on 3 August 2007 and through PMSE on 6 August 2007. The eight-channel analyzers provided for the first time simultaneous measurements of the charge density residing on aerosol particles in four mass ranges, corresponding to ice particles with radii <0.5 nm (including ions, 0.5–1 nm, 1–2 nm, and >3 nm (approximately. Positive and negative particles were recorded on separate channels. Faraday rotation measurements provided electron density and a means of checking charge density measurements made by the spectrometer. Additional complementary measurements were made by rocket-borne dust impact detectors, electric field booms, a photometer and ground-based radar and lidar. The MASS data from the first flight showed negative charge number densities of 1500–3000 cm−3 for particles with radii >3 nm from 83–88 km approximately coincident with PMSE observed by the ALWIN radar and NLC observed by the ALOMAR lidar. For particles in the 1–2 nm range, number densities of positive and negative charge were similar in magnitude (~2000 cm−3 and for smaller particles, 0.5–1 nm in radius, positive charge was dominant. The occurrence of positive charge on the aerosol particles of the smallest size and predominately negative charge on the particles of largest size suggests that nucleation occurs on positive condensation nuclei and is followed by collection of negative charge during subsequent growth to larger size. Faraday rotation measurements show a bite-out in electron density that increases the time for positive aerosol particles to be neutralized and charged negatively. The larger particles (>3 nm are observed throughout the NLC region, 83–88 km, and the smaller particles are observed primarily at the high end of the range, 86–88 km. The second flight into

  19. Thermodynamics with pressure and volume under charged particle absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwak, Bogeun

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the variation of the charged anti-de Sitter black hole under charged particle absorption by considering thermodynamic volume. When the energy of the particle is considered to contribute to the internal energy of the black hole, the variation exactly corresponds to the prediction of the first law of thermodynamics. Nevertheless, we find the decrease of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy for extremal and near-extremal black holes under the absorption, which is an irreversible process. This violation of the second law of thermodynamics is only found when considering thermodynamic volume. We test the weak cosmic censorship conjecture affected by the violation. Fortunately, the conjecture is still valid, but extremal and near-extremal black holes do not change their configurations when any particle enters the black hole. This result is quite different from the case in which thermodynamic volume is not considered.

  20. Design of a device for simultaneous particle size and electrostatic charge measurement of inhalation drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kewu; Ng, Wai Kiong; Shen, Shoucang; Tan, Reginald B H; Heng, Paul W S

    2008-11-01

    To develop a device for simultaneous measurement of particle aerodynamic diameter and electrostatic charge of inhalation aerosols. An integrated system consisting of an add-on charge measurement device and a liquid impinger was developed to simultaneously determine particle aerodynamic diameter and electrostatic charge. The accuracy in charge measurement and fine particle fraction characterization of the new system was evaluated. The integrated system was then applied to analyze the electrostatic charges of a DPI formulation composed of salbutamol sulphate-Inhalac 230 dispersed using a Rotahaler. The charge measurement accuracy was comparable with the Faraday cage method, and incorporation of the charge measurement module had no effect on the performance of the liquid impinger. Salbutamol sulphate carried negative charges while the net charge of Inhalac 230 and un-dispersed salbutamol sulphate was found to be positive after being aerosolized from the inhaler. The instantaneous current signal was strong with small noise to signal ratio, and good reproducibility of charge to mass ratio was obtained for the DPI system investigated. A system for simultaneously measuring particle aerodynamic diameter and aerosol electrostatic charges has been developed, and the system provides a non-intrusive and reliable electrostatic charge characterization method for inhalation dosage forms.

  1. Cataract production in mice by heavy charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsworth, E.H.; Jose, J.; Yang, V.V.; Barker, M.E.

    1981-03-01

    The cataractogenic effects of heavy charged particles have been evaluated in mice in relation to dose and ionization density (LET/sub infinity/). The study was undertaken due to the high potential for eye exposures to HZE particles among SPS personnel working in outer space. This has made it imperative that the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) in relation to LET/sub infinity/ for various particles be defined so that appropriate quality factors (Q) could be assigned for estimation of risk. Although mice and men differ in susceptibility to radiation-induced cataracts, the results from this project should assist in defining appropriate quality factors in relation to LET/sub infinity/, particle mass, charge, or velocity. Evaluation of results indicated that : (1) low single doses (5 to 20 rad) of iron ( 56 Fe) or argon ( 40 Ar) particles are cataractogenic at 11 to 18 months after irradiation; (2) onset and density of the opacification are dose related; (3) cataract density (grade) at 9, 11, 13, and 16 months after irradiation shows partial LET/sub infinity/-dependence; and (4) the severity of cataracts is reduced significantly when 417 rad of 60 Co gamma radiation is given in 24 weekly 17 rad fractions compared to giving this radiation as a single dose, but cataract severity is not reduced by fractionation of 12 C doses over 24 weeks

  2. Display of charged ionizing particles; Visualizacion de particulas cargadas ionizantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano S, D.; Ortiz A, M. D.; Amarillas S, L. E.; Vega C, H. R., E-mail: qfbcano@gmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98060 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2017-10-15

    The human being is exposed to sources of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation, both of natural or anthropogenic origin. None of these, except non-ionizing such as visible light and infrared radiation, can be detected by the sense of sight and touch respectively. The sun emits charged particles with speeds close to the light that interact with the atoms of the gases present in the atmosphere, producing nuclear reactions that in turn produce other particles that reach the surface of the Earth and reach the living beings. On Earth there are natural radioisotopes that, when they disintegrate, emit ionizing radiation that contributes to the dose we receive. A very old system that allows the visualization of the trajectories of the charged ionizing particles is the Fog Chamber that uses a saturated steam that when crossed by particles with mass and charge, as alpha and beta particles produce condensation centers along its path leaves a trace that can be seen. The objective of this work was to build a fog chamber using easily accessible materials. To measure the functioning of the fog chamber, cosmic rays were measured, as well as a source of natural metal uranium. The fog chamber allowed seeing the presence of traces in alcohol vapor that are produced in a random way. Introducing the uranium foil inside the fog chamber, traces of alpha particles whose energy varies from 4 to 5 MeV were observed. (Author)

  3. Radiobiology with heavy charged particles: a historical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skarsgard, L.D.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation will attempt to briefly review some of radiobiological data on the effects of heavy charged particles and to discuss the influence of those studies on the clinical application which followed. (orig./MG)

  4. Radiobiology with heavy charged particles: a historical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skarsgard, L D [Dept. of Medical Biophysics, B.C. Cancer Research Centre and TRIUMF, Vancouver (Canada)

    1997-09-01

    The presentation will attempt to briefly review some of radiobiological data on the effects of heavy charged particles and to discuss the influence of those studies on the clinical application which followed. (orig./MG)

  5. Theoretical Evaluation of the Escape Rate of Charged Particles Trapped in a Potential Energy Well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Yongbin; Ordonez, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    In various types of charged particle sources and traps, charged particles are temporarily trapped within a potential energy well. In the work reported, a theoretical evaluation of the escape rate of trapped charged particles is carried out. As a specific example, the loss rate is evaluated for trapped plasma particles that are undergoing both collisions among themselves and collisions with particles of a different plasma species having a different temperature. Conditions are considered in which both species are confined within a nested Penning trap

  6. Penetration of charged particles through ordered isotropic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigmund, P.

    1977-01-01

    A brief summary of some new results on fluctuation phenomena in particle penetration is presented. The results include collision statistics, positive and negative correlations and a framework for the treatment of cumulative effects in particle penetration. Incorporation of projectile and target states in the description and energy-loss straggling are discussed. Small-angle multiple scattering is considered and a comment made on ionic charge states. (B.R.H.)

  7. Charged particle and photon acceleration by wakefield plasma waves in non-uniform plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulanov, S.V.; Kirsanov, V.I.; Sakharov, A.S.; Pegoraro, F.

    1993-01-01

    We discuss the acceleration of charged particles and the upshift of the frequency of short wave packets of laser radiation. The acceleration and the upshift are caused by wake plasma waves excited by a strong laser pulse in a non-uniform plasma. We show that unlimited acceleration of charged particles is possible for specific spatial dependencies of the plasma density. In this unlimited acceleration regime, particles have a fixed phase relationship with respect to the plasma wave, while their energy increases with time. When the wave breaking limit is approached and surpassed, the efficiency of the acceleration of the charged particles and of the frequency upshift of the photons can be increased significantly. (author) 3 refs

  8. Nonstationary stochastic charge fluctuations of a dust particle in plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shotorban, B

    2011-06-01

    Stochastic charge fluctuations of a dust particle that are due to discreteness of electrons and ions in plasmas can be described by a one-step process master equation [T. Matsoukas and M. Russell, J. Appl. Phys. 77, 4285 (1995)] with no exact solution. In the present work, using the system size expansion method of Van Kampen along with the linear noise approximation, a Fokker-Planck equation with an exact Gaussian solution is developed by expanding the master equation. The Gaussian solution has time-dependent mean and variance governed by two ordinary differential equations modeling the nonstationary process of dust particle charging. The model is tested via the comparison of its results to the results obtained by solving the master equation numerically. The electron and ion currents are calculated through the orbital motion limited theory. At various times of the nonstationary process of charging, the model results are in a very good agreement with the master equation results. The deviation is more significant when the standard deviation of the charge is comparable to the mean charge in magnitude.

  9. Influence of radioactivity on surface charging and aggregation kinetics of particles in the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Ha; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Lee, Ida; McFarlane, Joanna; Tsouris, Costas

    2014-01-01

    Radioactivity can influence surface interactions, but its effects on particle aggregation kinetics have not been included in transport modeling of radioactive particles. In this research, experimental and theoretical studies have been performed to investigate the influence of radioactivity on surface charging and aggregation kinetics of radioactive particles in the atmosphere. Radioactivity-induced charging mechanisms have been investigated at the microscopic level, and heterogeneous surface potential caused by radioactivity is reported. The radioactivity-induced surface charging is highly influenced by several parameters, such as rate and type of radioactive decay. A population balance model, including interparticle forces, has been employed to study the effects of radioactivity on particle aggregation kinetics in air. It has been found that radioactivity can hinder aggregation of particles because of similar surface charging caused by the decay process. Experimental and theoretical studies provide useful insights into the understanding of transport characteristics of radioactive particles emitted from severe nuclear events, such as the recent accident of Fukushima or deliberate explosions of radiological devices.

  10. Reference Cross Sections for Charged-particle Monitor Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanne, A.; Ignatyuk, A. V.; Capote, R.; Carlson, B. V.; Engle, J. W.; Kellett, M. A.; Kibédi, T.; Kim, G.; Kondev, F. G.; Hussain, M.; Lebeda, O.; Luca, A.; Nagai, Y.; Naik, H.; Nichols, A. L.; Nortier, F. M.; Suryanarayana, S. V.; Takács, S.; Tárkányi, F. T.; Verpelli, M.

    2018-02-01

    Evaluated cross sections of beam-monitor reactions are expected to become the de-facto standard for cross-section measurements that are performed over a very broad energy range in accelerators in order to produce particular radionuclides for industrial and medical applications. The requirements for such data need to be addressed in a timely manner, and therefore an IAEA coordinated research project was launched in December 2012 to establish or improve the nuclear data required to characterise charged-particle monitor reactions. An international team was assembled to recommend more accurate cross-section data over a wide range of targets and projectiles, undertaken in conjunction with a limited number of measurements and more extensive evaluations of the decay data of specific radionuclides. Least-square evaluations of monitor-reaction cross sections including uncertainty quantification have been undertaken for charged-particle beams of protons, deuterons, 3He- and 4He-particles. Recommended beam monitor reaction data with their uncertainties are available at the IAEA-NDS medical portal http://www-nds.iaea.org/medical/monitor_reactions.html.

  11. Modelling of prompt losses of high energy charged particles in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillner, Oe.; Anderson, D.; Hamnen, H.; Lisak, M.

    1990-01-01

    A simple analytical expression for the total prompt loss fraction of high energy charged particles in an axisymmetric Tokamak is derived. The results are compared with predictions obtained from numerical simulations and show good agreement. An application is made to sawtooth induced changes in the losses of fusion generated high energy charged particles. Particular emphasis is given to the importance of sawtooth induced profile changes of the background ion densities and temperature as well as to redistribution of particles which have accumulated during the sawtooth rise but are being lost by redistribution at the sawtooth crash. (au)

  12. Effect of net surface charge on particle sizing and material recognition by using phase Doppler anemometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jun; Xie Li

    2011-01-01

    By taking net surface charge into consideration, the scattering field of particles illuminated by dual laser beams of phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) is computed based on Mie's theory, and the effect of net surface charge on the phase-diameter relationship and the phase ratio is studied. It is found that the phase-diameter relationship and the relationship between the phase ratio and the refractive index of charged particles could be significantly different from those of uncharged particles, which would lead to errors in particle sizing and the measurement of refractive indices. A method of recognizing charged particles and determining the value of their surface conductivity, which is related to net surface charge, is proposed by utilizing the effect of net surface charge on the measurement of refractive indices using PDA.

  13. Effect of net surface charge on particle sizing and material recognition by using phase Doppler anemometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Jun; Xie Li

    2011-01-20

    By taking net surface charge into consideration, the scattering field of particles illuminated by dual laser beams of phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) is computed based on Mie's theory, and the effect of net surface charge on the phase-diameter relationship and the phase ratio is studied. It is found that the phase-diameter relationship and the relationship between the phase ratio and the refractive index of charged particles could be significantly different from those of uncharged particles, which would lead to errors in particle sizing and the measurement of refractive indices. A method of recognizing charged particles and determining the value of their surface conductivity, which is related to net surface charge, is proposed by utilizing the effect of net surface charge on the measurement of refractive indices using PDA.

  14. High energy particle detectors utilizing cryogenic charge storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coon, D; Engels, E Jr; Plants, D; Shepard, P F; Yang, Y [Pittsburgh Univ., PA (USA); Sopira, M; Papania, R [Westinghouse Research and Development Labs., Monroeville, PA (USA)

    1984-09-15

    The mechanism of cryogenic charge storage as a method of particle detection is reviewed. A description of a simple multielement strip detector operated in this mode is given, and partial results on its operating characteristics presented.

  15. Approximate, analytic solutions of the Bethe equation for charged particle range

    OpenAIRE

    Swift, Damian C.; McNaney, James M.

    2009-01-01

    By either performing a Taylor expansion or making a polynomial approximation, the Bethe equation for charged particle stopping power in matter can be integrated analytically to obtain the range of charged particles in the continuous deceleration approximation. Ranges match reference data to the expected accuracy of the Bethe model. In the non-relativistic limit, the energy deposition rate was also found analytically. The analytic relations can be used to complement and validate numerical solu...

  16. Determination of charged particle beam parameters with taking into account of space charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishkhanov, B.S.; Poseryaev, A.V.; Shvedunov, V.I.

    2005-01-01

    One describes a procedure to determine the basic parameters of a paraxial axially-symmetric beam of charged particles taking account of space charge contribution. The described procedure is based on application of the general equation for beam envelope. Paper presents data on its convergence and resistance to measurement errors. The position determination error of crossover (stretching) and radius of beam in crossover is maximum 15% , while the emittance determination error depends on emittance and space charge correlation. The introduced procedure was used to determine parameters of the available electron gun 20 keV energy beam with 0.64 A current. The derived results turned to agree closely with the design parameters [ru

  17. Production of charged Higgs particles in W+- decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, M.A.; Soriano, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that the recent detection by the UA1 collaboration of six candidates events for the semileptonic decays of the t quark would if confirmed exclude the existence of pointlike charged scalar particles H +- , includng charged Higgs bosons and charged hyperpions, with mass lower than the reported t-quark mass. This result comes from the fact that, if m/sub H/ + , which in turn implies that the branching ratio for the decay mode W +- →tb-bar(t-barb)→bb-barH +- can be as large as a few percent if the H +- -fermion conpling is proportional to the mass of the heaviest fermion available

  18. Charged massive particle at rest in the field of a Reissner-Nordstroem black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bini, D.; Geralico, A.; Ruffini, R.

    2007-01-01

    The interaction of a Reissner-Nordstroem black hole and a charged massive particle is studied in the framework of perturbation theory. The particle backreaction is taken into account, studying the effect of general static perturbations of the hole following the approach of Zerilli. The solutions of the combined Einstein-Maxwell equations for both perturbed gravitational and electromagnetic fields to first order of the perturbation are exactly reconstructed by summing all multipoles, and are given explicit closed form expressions. The existence of a singularity-free solution of the Einstein-Maxwell system requires that the charge-to-mass ratios of the black hole and of the particle satisfy an equilibrium condition which is in general dependent on the separation between the two bodies. If the black hole is undercritically charged (i.e. its charge-to-mass ratio is less than one), the particle must be overcritically charged, in the sense that the particle must have a charge-to-mass ratio greater than one. If the charge-to-mass ratios of the black hole and of the particle are both equal to one (so that they are both critically charged, or 'extreme'), the equilibrium can exist for any separation distance, and the solution we find coincides with the linearization in the present context of the well-known Majumdar-Papapetrou solution for two extreme Reissner-Nordstroem black holes. In addition to these singularity-free solutions, we also analyze the corresponding solution for the problem of a massive particle at rest near a Schwarzschild black hole, exhibiting a strut singularity on the axis between the two bodies. The relations between our perturbative solutions and the corresponding exact two-body solutions belonging to the Weyl class are also discussed

  19. A systematic review of publications on charged particle therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igaki, Hiroshi; Mizumoto, Masashi; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kokudo, Norihiro; Sakurai, Hideyuki

    2018-06-01

    Charged particle therapy (proton beam therapy and carbon ion therapy) is a form of radiotherapy which has the unique characteristic of superior depth dose distribution, and has been used for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a limited number of patients, especially in Japan. We undertook a systematic review to define the clinical utility of charged particle therapy for patients with HCC. We searched the MEDLINE database from 1983 to June 2016 to identify clinical studies on charged particle therapy for HCC. Primary outcomes of interest were local control, overall survival, and late radiation morbidities. A total of 13 cohorts from 11 papers were selected from an initial dataset of 78 papers. They included a randomized controlled trial comparing proton beam therapy with transarterial chemoembolization, 9 phase I or II trials and 2 retrospective studies. The reported actuarial local control rates ranged from 71.4-95% at 3 years, and the overall survival rates ranged from 25-42.3% at 5 years. Late severe radiation morbidities were uncommon, and a total of 18 patients with grade ≥3 late adverse events were reported among the 787 patients included in this analysis. Charged particle therapy for HCC was associated with good local control with limited probability of severe morbidities. The cost-effectiveness and the distinctive clinical advantages of charged particle therapies should be clarified in order to become a socially accepted treatment modality for HCC.

  20. Charged-particle magnetic-quadrupole spectrometer for neutron induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haight, R.C.; Grimes, S.M.; Tuckey, B.J.; Anderson, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    A spectrometer has been developed for measuring the charged particle production cross sections and spectra in neutron-induced reactions. The spectrometer consists of a magnetic quadrupole doublet which focuses the charged particles onto a silicon surface barrier detector telescope which is 2 meters or more from the irradiated sample. Collimators, shielding, and the large source-to-detector distance reduce the background enough to use the spectrometer with a 14-MeV neutron source producing 4 . 10 12 n/s. The spectrometer has been used in investigations of proton, deuteron, and alpha particle production by 14-MeV neutrons incident on various materials. Protons with energies as low as 1.1 MeV have been measured. The good resolution of the detectors has also made possible an improved measurement of the neutron- neutron scattering length from the 0 0 proton spectrum from deuteron breakup by 14-MeV neutrons

  1. Massless charged particles: Cosmic censorship, and the third law of black hole mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairoos, C.; Ghosh, Avirup; Sarkar, Sudipta

    2017-10-01

    The formulation of the laws of Black hole mechanics assumes the stability of black holes under perturbations in accordance with the "cosmic censorship hypothesis" (CCH). CCH prohibits the formation of a naked singularity by a physical process from a regular black hole solution with an event horizon. Earlier studies show that naked singularities can indeed be formed leading to the violation of CCH if a near-extremal black hole is injected with massive charged particles and the backreaction effects are neglected. We investigate the validity of CCH by considering the infall of charged massless particles as well as a charged null shell. We also discuss the issue of the third law of Black hole mechanics in the presence of null charged particles by considering various possibilities.

  2. Light charged particle emission in heavy-ion reactions – What have ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    coincidence with gamma rays, fission products, evaporation residues have yielded interesting results which bring out the influence of nuclear structure, nuclear mean field and dynamics on the emission of these particles. Keywords. Light charged particles; heavy-ion induced reactions; particle spectra and angular distri-.

  3. Acceleration of low energy charged particles by gravitational waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyatzis, G. [University of Thessaloniki, Department of Physics, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)]. E-mail: voyatzis@auth.gr; Vlahos, L. [University of Thessaloniki, Department of Physics, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Ichtiaroglou, S. [University of Thessaloniki, Department of Physics, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Papadopoulos, D. [University of Thessaloniki, Department of Physics, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2006-04-03

    The acceleration of charged particles in the presence of a magnetic field and gravitational waves is under consideration. It is shown that the weak gravitational waves can cause the acceleration of low energy particles under appropriate conditions. Such conditions may be satisfied close to the source of the gravitational waves if the magnetized plasma is in a turbulent state.

  4. Acceleration of low energy charged particles by gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voyatzis, G.; Vlahos, L.; Ichtiaroglou, S.; Papadopoulos, D.

    2006-01-01

    The acceleration of charged particles in the presence of a magnetic field and gravitational waves is under consideration. It is shown that the weak gravitational waves can cause the acceleration of low energy particles under appropriate conditions. Such conditions may be satisfied close to the source of the gravitational waves if the magnetized plasma is in a turbulent state

  5. Drift mechanism for energetic charged particles at shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.M.; Axford, W.I.; Terasawa, T.

    1983-01-01

    The energy changes of energetic charged particles at a plane shock due to the so-called drift mechanism are analyzed by using the ''adiabatic treatment.'' The analysis shows that for a fast MHD shock, particles lose energy owing to acceleration (curvature) drift in the magnetic field at the shock with the drift velocity being antiparallel to the electric field, and they gain energy owing to gradient drift parallel to the electric field. It is shown that particles with pitch angles aligned along the magnetic field which pass through the shock tend to lose energy owing to acceleration drift, whereas particles with pitch angles nonaligned to the magnetic field gain energy owing to gradient drift. Particles that are reflected by the shock always gain energy. Slow-mode shocks may be similarly analyzed, but in this case curvature drifts give rise to particle energy gains, and gradient drifts result in particle energy losses

  6. Universal behavior of charged particle production in heavy ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phobos Collaboration; Steinberg, Peter A.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2003-03-01

    The PHOBOS experiment at RHIC has measured the multiplicity of primary charged particles as a function of centrality and pseudorapidity in Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 19.6, 130 and 200 GeV. Two kinds of universal behavior are observed in charged particle production in heavy ion collisions. The first is that forward particle production, over a range of energies, follows a universal limiting curve with a non-trivial centrality dependence. The second arises from comparisons with pp/pbar-p and e+e- data. N_tot/(N_part/2) in nuclear collisions at high energy scales with sqrt(s) in a similar way as N_tot in e+e- collisions and has a very weak centrality dependence. This feature may be related to a reduction in the leading particle effect due to the multiple collisions suffered per participant in heavy ion collisions.

  7. Numerical simulation of the interaction of charged particles with oblique magnetohydrodynamic shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, G.L.

    1975-01-01

    The motion of high energy charged particles in ideal oblique MHD shocks, characteristic of the interplanetary medium, has been studied extensively. The shock is treated as a plane surface across which the tangential component of magnetic field changes discontinuously. The orbits of charged particles can be solved exactly from Lorentz force equation and initial conditions of particles in each region, pre- and post-shock, separately. The essential procedure is to determine the crossings and that has been achieved by solving numerically for the times when the particle meets the shock. The position and velocity vectors are continuous across the shock. An ensemble of 1972 monoenergetic particles distributed isotropically in the shock frame are chosen to obtain collective results

  8. Charged point particles with magnetic moment in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, R.; Tiomno, J.

    1977-01-01

    Halbwachs Lagrangean formalism for the theory of charged point particles with spin (g = 2) is generalized and formulated in General Relativity for particles of arbitrary charge and magnetic moment. Equations are obtained, both corresponding to Frenkel's condition Ssub(μν)Xsup(ν) = 0 and to Nakano's condition Ssub(μν)Psup(ν) = 0. With the later condition the exact equations are highly coupled and non linear. When linearized in the electromagnetic and gravitational fields they coincide with de Groot-Suttorp equations for vanishing gravitational fields and with Dixon-Wald equations in the absence of electromagnetic field. The equations corresponding to Frenkel's condition, when linearized in Ssub(μν), coincide with Papapetrou's and Frenkel's equations in the corresponding limits [pt

  9. Quantum aspects of charged-particle beam optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Sameen Ahmed, E-mail: rohelakhan@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics and Sciences, College of Arts and Applied Sciences, Dhofar University, Salalah, Sultanate of Oman (Oman)

    2016-06-10

    The classical treatments have been successful in designing numerous charged-particle devices. It is natural to develop a quantum prescription, since all systems are fundamentally quantum mechanical in nature. The quantum theory leads to new insights accompanied with wavelength-dependent contributions. The action of a magnetic quadrupole is derived from the Dirac equation.

  10. Geodesics of electrically and magnetically charged test particles in the Reissner-Nordstroem space-time: Analytical solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunau, Saskia; Kagramanova, Valeria

    2011-01-01

    We present the full set of analytical solutions of the geodesic equations of charged test particles in the Reissner-Nordstroem space-time in terms of the Weierstrass weierp, σ, and ζ elliptic functions. Based on the study of the polynomials in the θ and r equations, we characterize the motion of test particles and discuss their properties. The motion of charged test particles in the Reissner-Nordstroem space-time is compared with the motion of neutral test particles in the field of a gravitomagnetic monopole. Electrically or magnetically charged particles in the Reissner-Nordstroem space-time with magnetic or electric charges, respectively, move on cones similar to neutral test particles in the Taub-NUT space-times.

  11. Experimental central nervous system injury after charged-particle irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, A.; Levy, R.P.; Fabrikant, J.I.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of definite paralytic signs, used as an endpoint for the determination of latent periods, which reflect the presence of damage but do not reveal its pathologic characteristics. Paralysis was a nonstochastic effect for which both the probability and severity vary with dose and for which a threshold of dose-response existed. Histologically the primary lesion induced by both charged-particle irradiation and X- or γ-radiation was demyelination and necrosis of the white matter. This has been attributed generally to damage to the oligodendrocytes. The spinal cord tolerance toward fractionated helium radiation was similar to X- or γ-radiation, but the spinal cord was much more sensitive to heavier charged-particle radiation. There was much less sparing and decreased tissue tolerance in the high-LET spread Bragg peak regions of carbon- and neon-ion beams that in the plateau regions. A radiologic model for effects in CNS after charged-particle radiation indicated that the α/β values, a measure of tissue repair capacity, increased with LET as predicted. The α/β values for spinal cord injury with neon range from 2.52 to 12.0 depending on the LET; for helium, the α/β value was 1.52, similar to values for X rays

  12. Motion of charged particle in Reissner-Nordstroem spacetime. A Jacobi-metric approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Praloy; Sk, Ripon; Ghosh, Subir [Indian Statistical Institute, Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Kolkata (India)

    2017-11-15

    The present work discusses motion of neutral and charged particles in Reissner-Nordstroem spacetime. The constant energy paths are derived in a variational principle framework using the Jacobi metric which is parameterized by conserved particle energy. Of particular interest is the case of particle charge and Reissner-Nordstroem black hole charge being of same sign, since this leads to a clash of opposing forces - gravitational (attractive) and Coulomb (repulsive). Our paper aims to complement the recent work of Pugliese et al. (Eur Phys J C 77:206. arXiv:1304.2940, 2017; Phys Rev D 88:024042. arXiv:1303.6250, 2013). The energy dependent Gaussian curvature (induced by the Jacobi metric) plays an important role in classifying the trajectories. (orig.)

  13. Charged particle interaction with a chirped electromagnetic pulse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khachatryan, A.G.; Boller, Klaus J.; van Goor, F.A.

    2003-01-01

    It is found that a charged particle can get a net energy gain from the interaction with an electromagnetic chirped pulse. Theoretically, the energy gain increases with the pulse amplitude and with the relative frequency variation in the pulse.

  14. Search for highly interacting fractionally charged particles at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wlodzimierz, G.

    1982-01-01

    Fractionally charged, highly interacting particles produced in e + e - annihilation at 20 GeV c.m. energy have been search for. The experiment was performed at the positron electron storage ring (PEP) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). The search used in the innermost part of the two-arm Free Quark Search (FQS) detector. This part was called the Thin Front End (TFE) and it covered 1/3 of the full solid angle. Each of its arms consisted of five multiwire proportional chambers (MWPC's), used for tracking and dE/dx measurement, and three hodoscopes of 0.16 cm thick Pilot F scintillator. The total thickness of the five MWPC's and the beam pipe was 0.007 hadronic collision lengths (lambda/sub c/). No candidates for fractionally charged particles were found. Upper limits on R/sub q anti q/ = sigma(e + e - →q anti q)/sigma(e + e - →μμ) are between: (1) 0.7% to 7% for quark interaction lengths (lambda/sub q/) equal to lambda/sub c/ and between 3% and 33% for lambda/sub q/ = 100lambda/sub c/ for Q = 1/3e quark charge and for quark masses up to 13 GeV/c 2 ; (2) 2% to 38% for lambda/sub q/ - lambda/sub c/ and from 7% to 160% for lambda/sub q/ = 100lambda/sub c/ for Q = 2/3e quark charge and for masses up to 8 GeV/c 2 . In the inclusive production channel the upper limits on R/sub q/ = sigma(e + e - →qqX)/sigma(e + e - →μμ) are for charge 1/3e only. R/sub q/ varies from 2% to 11% for lambda/sub q/ = lambda/sub c/ and from 3% to 16% for lambda/sub q/ = 100lambda/sub c/ and for quark masses up to 6.5 GeV/c 2 . These are the first limits on the production of fractionally charged particles with lambda/sub q/ = 100lambda/sub c/

  15. A Charged Particle Veto Wall for the Large Area Neutron Array (LANA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, K.; Chajecki, Z.; Anderson, C.; Bromell, J.; Brown, K.; Crosby, J.; Kodali, S.; Lynch, W. G.; Morfouace, P.; Sweany, S.; Tsang, M. B.; Tsang, C.; Brett, J. J.; Swaim, J. L.

    2017-09-01

    Comparison of neutrons and protons emitted in heavy ion collisions is one of the observables to probe symmetry energy, which is related to the properties of neutron star. In general, neutrons are difficult to measure and neutron detectors are not as easy to use or as widely available as charged particle detectors. Two neutron walls (NW) called LANA exist at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory. Although the NSCL NW attains excellent discrimination of γ rays and neutron, it fails to discriminate charged particles from neutrons. To ensure near 100% rejection of charged particles, a Charged Particle Veto Wall (VW) is being jointly built by Michigan State University and Western Michigan University. It will be placed in front of one NW. To increase efficiency in detecting neutrons, the second neutron wall is stacked behind it. In this presentation, I will discuss the design, construction and testing of the VW together with the LANA in preparation of two approved NSCL experiments to probe the density and momentum dependence of the symmetry energy potentials in the equation state of the asymmetric nuclear matter. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY 1565546.

  16. Electromagnetic energy and momentum from a charged particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, E.

    1975-01-01

    The flux of the stress-energy tensor across a tube surrounding the world line of a charged particle is computed. By slight modifications of the definition of the Coulomb energy-momentum, the resulting expression contains the radiation reaction term (proportional to the square of the four-acceleration) but not the Schott term (proportional to the derivative of the acceleration). The equation of motion for the particle derived from this expression implies a variable rest mass. (author)

  17. Dust particle charge and screening in the collisional RF plasma sheath

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, J.; Trienekens, D.J.M.; Kroesen, G.M.W.; Sprouse, G.D.

    2012-01-01

    Once immersed in plasma, a dust particle gathers a highly negative charge due to the net collection of free electrons. In most plasma's on earth and with particle sizes is in the micrometer range, the gravitational force is dominant and consequently the particle ends up within the plasma sheath

  18. Forward-backward correlations and charged-particle azimuthal distributions in $pp$ interactions using the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Akiyama, Kunihiro; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; 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Fazio, Salvatore; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Woiciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Fellmann, Denis; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Ferland, Jonathan; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrer, Maria Lorenza; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filippas, Anastasios; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fischer, Peter; Fisher, Matthew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Fokitis, Manolis; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Forbush, David Alan; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Foster, Joe; Fournier, Daniel; Foussat, Arnaud; Fowler, Andrew; Fowler, Ken; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Felix; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Gan, KK; Gao, Yongsheng; Gapienko, Vladimir; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garberson, Ford; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Garvey, John; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gayde, Jean-Christophe; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gilbert, Laura; Gilewsky, Valentin; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giunta, Michele; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Göpfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gössling, Claus; Göttfert, Tobias; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; Gonidec, Allain; Gonzalez, Saul; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gorokhov, Serguei; Goryachev, Vladimir; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Manfred; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guarino, Victor; Guest, Daniel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guida, Angelo; Guindon, Stefan; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Ambreesh; Gusakov, Yury; Gushchin, Vladimir; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hahn, Ferdinand; Haider, Stefan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Hall, David; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Hongguang; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Karl; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Hatch, Mark; Hauff, Dieter; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawes, Brian; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hawkins, Donovan; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Hazen, Eric; He, Mao; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Henry-Couannier, Frédéric; Hensel, Carsten; Henß, Tobias; Medina Hernandez, Carlos; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Hershenhorn, Alon David; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Daniel; Hill, John; Hill, Norman; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Homma, Yasuhiro; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horazdovsky, Tomas; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Houlden, Michael; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Howell, David; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hruska, Ivan; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Guang Shun; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huettmann, Antje; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Hughes-Jones, Richard; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurst, Peter; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Ichimiya, Ryo; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuri; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Imori, Masatoshi; Ince, Tayfun; Inigo-Golfin, Joaquin; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishino, Masaya; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jankowski, Ernest; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jelen, Kazimierz; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jenni, Peter; Jeremie, Andrea; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Ge; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Lars; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tegid; Jones, Tim; Jonsson, Ove; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joseph, John; Jovicevic, Jelena; Jovin, Tatjana; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kabachenko, Vasily; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kaiser, Steffen; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagounis, Michael; Karagoz, Muge; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karr, Kristo; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Kennedy, John; Kenney, Christopher John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Kholodenko, Anatoli; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Nikolai; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kirsch, Lawrence; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiver, Andrey; Kladiva, Eduard; Klaiber-Lodewigs, Jonas; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knecht, Neil; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knobloch, Juergen; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Köpke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kokott, Thomas; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollefrath, Michael; Kolya, Scott; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kootz, Andreas; Koperny, Stefan; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Koreshev, Victor; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotamäki, Miikka Juhani; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, James; Kraus, Jana; Kreisel, Arik; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruth, Andre; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kundu, Nikhil; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Labbe, Julien; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lamanna, Massimo; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lane, Jenna; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larionov, Anatoly; Larner, Aimee; Lasseur, Christian; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorini, Vincenzo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Lazarev, Alexandre; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Maner, Christophe; Le Menedeu, Eve; Lebel, Céline; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Leger, Annie; LeGeyt, Benjamin; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Leltchouk, Mikhail; Lemmer, Boris; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lesser, Jonas; Lester, Christopher; Leung Fook Cheong, Annabelle; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levitski, Mikhail; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Lifshitz, Ronen; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipinsky, Lukas; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Loken, James; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Losty, Michael; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lutz, Gerhard; Lynn, David; Lys, Jeremy; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Macana Goia, Jorge Andres; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahalalel, Yair; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjavidze, Ioseb; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Manz, Andreas; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Robin; Marshall, Zach; Martens, Kalen; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Andrew; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Franck Francois; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Philippe; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matricon, Pierre; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maugain, Jean-Marie; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; May, Edward; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; McGlone, Helen; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McLaren, Robert Andrew; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehdiyev, Rashid; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Menot, Claude; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Meyer, W Thomas; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Miralles Verge, Lluis; Misiejuk, Andrzej; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitrofanov, Gennady; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mockett, Paul; Moed, Shulamit; Moeller, Victoria; Mönig, Klaus; Möser, Nicolas; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Mohrdieck-Möck, Susanne; Moisseev, Artemy; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molina-Perez, Jorge; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montesano, Simone; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moorhead, Gareth; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Morin, Jerome; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morozov, Sergey; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Müller, Thomas; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Muir, Alex; Munwes, Yonathan; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Narayan, Rohin; Nash, Michael; Nation, Nigel; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nebot, Eduardo; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Silke; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen Thi Hong, Van; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicolas, Ludovic; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Niinikoski, Tapio; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolaev, Kirill; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishiyama, Tomonori; Nisius, Richard; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nordberg, Markus; Nordkvist, Bjoern; Norton, Peter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neale, Steve; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakes, Louise Beth; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; 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Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sevior, Martin; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaver, Leif; Shaw, Kate; Sherman, Daniel; Sherwood, Peter; Shibata, Akira; Shichi, Hideharu; Shimizu, Shima; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shiyakova, Maria; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simmons, Brinick; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Skvorodnev, Nikolai; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Sloper, John erik; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Douglas; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snuverink, Jochem; Snyder, Scott; Soares, Mara; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Soni, Nitesh; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spila, Federico; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; 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Svatos, Michal; Sviridov, Yuri; Swedish, Stephen; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Szeless, Balazs; Sánchez, Javier; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tamsett, Matthew; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanaka, Yoshito; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tappern, Geoffrey; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tatarkhanov, Mous; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teinturier, Marthe; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Thadome, Jocelyn; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thioye, Moustapha; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tic, Tomáš; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tipton, Paul; Tique Aires Viegas, Florbela De Jes; Tisserant, Sylvain; Toczek, Barbara; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokunaga, Kaoru; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Guoliang; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torchiani, Ingo; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Trinh, Thi Nguyet; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trivedi, Arjun; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuggle, Joseph; Turala, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turlay, Emmanuel; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Tzanakos, George; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Uhrmacher, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Underwood, David; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Usai, Giulio; Uslenghi, Massimiliano; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valenta, Jan; Valente, Paolo; Valentinetti, Sara; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; van der Graaf, Harry; van der Kraaij, Erik; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Poel, Egge; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; van Kesteren, Zdenko; van Vulpen, Ivo; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vandoni, Giovanna; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Varela Rodriguez, Fernando; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Vegni, Guido; Veillet, Jean-Jacques; Vellidis, Constantine; Veloso, Filipe; Veness, Raymond; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virchaux, Marc; Virzi, Joseph; Vitells, Ofer; Viti, Michele; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vlasov, Nikolai; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; Volpini, Giovanni; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Loeben, Joerg; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobiev, Alexander; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Voss, Thorsten Tobias; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahlen, Helmut; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walbersloh, Jorg; Walch, Shannon; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Joshua C; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Warsinsky, Markus; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; 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Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wong, Wei-Cheng; Wooden, Gemma; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Catherine; Wright, Michael; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wunstorf, Renate; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xie, Song; Xie, Yigang; Xu, Chao; Xu, Da; Xu, Guofa; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamaoka, Jared; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Yushu; Yasu, Yoshiji; Ybeles Smit, Gabriel Valentijn; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Riktura; Young, Charles; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaets, Vassilli; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zajacova, Zuzana; Zanello, Lucia; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeller, Michael; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zendler, Carolin; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zenz, Seth; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhan, Zhichao; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zheng, Shuchen; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zieminska, Daria; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Živković, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zolnierowski, Yves; Zsenei, Andras; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2012-01-01

    Using inelastic proton-proton interactions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 900 GeV and 7 TeV, recorded by the ATLAS detector at the LHC, measurements have been made of the correlations between forward and backward charged-particle multiplicities and, for the first time, between forward and backward charged-particle summed transverse momentum. In addition, jet-like structure in the events is studied by means of azimuthal distributions of charged particles relative to the charged particle with highest transverse momentum in a selected kinematic region of the event. The results are compared with predictions from tunes of the PYTHIA and HERWIG++ Monte Carlo generators, which in most cases are found to provide a reasonable description of the data.

  19. Track-structure simulations for charged particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingfelder, Michael

    2012-11-01

    Monte Carlo track-structure simulations provide a detailed and accurate picture of radiation transport of charged particles through condensed matter of biological interest. Liquid water serves as a surrogate for soft tissue and is used in most Monte Carlo track-structure codes. Basic theories of radiation transport and track-structure simulations are discussed and differences compared to condensed history codes highlighted. Interaction cross sections for electrons, protons, alpha particles, and light and heavy ions are required input data for track-structure simulations. Different calculation methods, including the plane-wave Born approximation, the dielectric theory, and semi-empirical approaches are presented using liquid water as a target. Low-energy electron transport and light ion transport are discussed as areas of special interest.

  20. Cosmic censorship in overcharging a Reissner-Nordstroem black hole via charged particle absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isoyama, Soichiro; Sago, Norichika; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    There is a claim that a static-charged black hole (Reissner-Nordstroem black hole) can be overcharged by absorbing a charged test particle. If it is true, it might give a counter example to the weak cosmic censorship conjecture, which states that spacetime singularities are never observed by a distant observer. However, so far the proposed process has only been analyzed within a test particle approximation. Here, we claim that the backreaction effects of a charged particle cannot be neglected when judging whether the suggested process is really a counter example to the cosmic censorship conjecture. Furthermore, we argue that all the backreaction effects can be properly taken into account when we consider the trajectory of a particle on the border between the plunge and bounce orbits. In such marginal cases, we find that the Reissner-Nordstroem black hole can never be overcharged via the absorption of a charged particle. Since all the plunge orbits are expected to have a higher energy than the marginal orbit, we conclude that there is no supporting evidence that indicates the violation of the cosmic censorship in the proposed overcharging process.

  1. P-matrix description of charged particles interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babenko, V.A.; Petrov, N.M.

    1992-01-01

    The paper deals with formalism of the P-matrix description of two charged particles interaction. Separation in the explicit form of the background part corresponding to the purely Coulomb interaction in the P-matrix is proposed. Expressions for the purely Coulomb P-matrix, its poles, residues and purely Coulomb P-matrix approach eigenfunctions are obtained. (author). 12 refs

  2. Atomic interactions of charged particles with matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bichsel, H.

    1993-01-01

    Ideas about the interactions of charged particles with matter are discussed. First, some experimental information is presented. Concepts related to collision cross sections and the Bethe model for them are given. The stopping power is derived and applied to the discussion of depth dose functions ('Bragg curves'). Some details of the energy loss in microscopic volumes are discussed

  3. Course Notes: United States Particle Accelerator School Beam Physics with Intense Space-Charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, J.J.; Lund, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this course is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the physics of beams with intense space charge. This course is suitable for graduate students and researchers interested in accelerator systems that require sufficient high intensity where mutual particle interactions in the beam can no longer be neglected. This course is intended to give the student a broad overview of the dynamics of beams with strong space charge. The emphasis is on theoretical and analytical methods of describing the acceleration and transport of beams. Some aspects of numerical and experimental methods will also be covered. Students will become familiar with standard methods employed to understand the transverse and longitudinal evolution of beams with strong space charge. The material covered will provide a foundation to design practical architectures. In this course, we will introduce you to the physics of intense charged particle beams, focusing on the role of space charge. The topics include: particle equations of motion, the paraxial ray equation, and the Vlasov equation; 4-D and 2-D equilibrium distribution functions (such as the Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij, thermal equilibrium, and Neuffer distributions), reduced moment and envelope equation formulations of beam evolution; transport limits and focusing methods; the concept of emittance and the calculation of its growth from mismatches in beam envelope and from space-charge non-uniformities using system conservation constraints; the role of space-charge in producing beam halos; longitudinal space-charge effects including small amplitude and rarefaction waves; stable and unstable oscillation modes of beams (including envelope and kinetic modes); the role of space charge in the injector; and algorithms to calculate space-charge effects in particle codes. Examples of intense beams will be given primarily from the ion and proton accelerator communities with applications from, for example, heavy-ion fusion, spallation

  4. Emission of high-energy charged particles at 00 in Ne-induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borcea, C.; Gierlik, E.; Kalinin, A.M.; Kalpakchieva, R.; Oganessia, Yu.Ts.; Pawlat, T.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.E.; Ryakhlyuk, A.V.

    1982-01-01

    Inclusive energy spectra have been measured for light charged particles emitted in the bombardment of 232 Th, 181 Ta, sup(nat)Ti and 12 C targets by 22 Ne ions at 178 MeV and sup(nat)Ti target by 20 Ne ions at 196 MeV. The reaction products were analysed and detected by means of a ΔE-E telescope placed in the focal plane of a magnetic spectrometer located at an angle of 0 deg with respect to the beam direction. In all the reactions studied light charged particles with an energy close to the respective calculated kinematic limit for a two-body exit channel are produced with relatively great probability. The results obtained make it possible to draw some conclusions about the reaction mechanism involving the emission of light charged particles

  5. Equilibrium distributions of free charged particles and molecules in systems with non-plane boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usenko, A.S.

    1995-01-01

    The equilibrium space-inhomogeneous distributions of free and pair bound charged particles are calculated in the dipole approximation for the plasma-molecular cylinder and sphere. It is shown that the space and orientational distributions of charged particles and molecules in these systems are similar to those in the cases of plasma-molecular system restricted by one or two parallel planes. The influence of the parameters of outer medium and a plasma-molecular system on the space and orientational distributions of charged particles and molecules is studied in detail

  6. Charged particle spectra in π-p,π-d and π-C interactions at 38 GeV/c with single-particle high pT trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boos, E.G.; Mosienko, A.M.; Baerwolff, H.

    1987-01-01

    Angular momentum distributions of charged secondaries from 38 GeV/c π - p, π - d and π - C interactions triggered on at least one particle with p T >or approx. 1 GeV/c at an 90 deg πN c.m.s angle have been investigated with the spectrometer RISK (a streamer chamber placed into a magnet). Transversal momentum spectra of secondaries in the 0.4-2.4 GeV/c p T -range including triggering particles are quite well fitted with the exponential function for all nuclei studied and for particles of different charges. The azimuthal angle distribution of secondaries (an angle relative to the p T -tilde of the triggering particle) for both trigger-like and trigger-unlike charges is anisotropic, preferring the direction away from the triggering particle. The mean charge distribution of associated particles is discussed. A small fraction of triggering particles is due to neutral strange particle decays. Many Λ 0 -hyperons were detected among those neutral strange triggers

  7. Infrared light extinction by charged dielectric core-coat particles

    OpenAIRE

    Thiessen, Elena; Heinisch, Rafael L.; Bronold, Franz X.; Fehske, Holger

    2014-01-01

    We study the effect of surplus electrons on the infrared extinction of dielectric particles with a core-coat structure and propose to use it for an optical measurement of the particle charge in a dusty plasma. The particles consist of an inner core with negative and an outer coat with positive electron affinity. Both the core and the coat give rise to strong transverse optical phonon resonances, leading to anomalous light scattering in the infrared. Due to the radial profile of the electron a...

  8. The fall of charged particles under gravity: a study of experimental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darling, T.W.; Rossi, F.; Moorhead, G.F.

    1990-01-01

    There are currently several proposals to study the motion of antiprotons, negative hydrogen ions, positrons and electrons under gravity. The motions of such charged particles are affected by residual gas, radiation, electric and magnetic fields, as well as gravity. The electric fields are particularly sensitive to the state of the 'shielding' container. In this paper the physics of these extraneous influences on the motion of charged particles under gravity is reviewed. The effects considered include: residual gas scattering, wall potentials due to patches, stress, thermal gradients, contamination states, and image-charge induced dissipation. 51 refs., 6 figs

  9. General decay law for emission of charged particles and exotic cluster radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, Basudeb; Paira, Ramkrishna; Rath, Biswanath

    2013-01-01

    For the emission of charged particles from metastable nuclei, a general decay formula is developed based on the basic phenomenon of resonances occurring in quantum scattering process under Coulomb-nuclear potential. It relates the half-lives of monopole radioactive decays with the Q-values of the outgoing elements in different angular momentum states as well as the masses and charges of the nuclei involved in the decay. The relation is found to be a generalization of the Geiger–Nuttall law in α radioactivity and it explains well all known emission of charged particles including clusters, alpha and proton carrying angular momenta

  10. Physical properties of charged particle beams for use in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, E.A.

    1975-01-01

    The physical properties of the possible charged particle beams used for cancer radiotherapy are reviewed. Each property is discussed for all interesting particles (π, p, α, Ne ion) and the differences are emphasized. This is followed by a short discussion of the several beam delivery systems used in particle therapy today, emphasizing the differences in the problems for the several different radiations, particularly the differences between the accelerated particle beams and those of a secondary nature. Dose calculation techniques are described

  11. Maximizing Ion Current by Space Charge Neutralization using Negative Ions and Dust Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, A.; Raitses, Y.; Fisch, N.J.

    2005-01-01

    Ion current extracted from an ion source (ion thruster) can be increased above the Child-Langmuir limit if the ion space charge is neutralized. Similarly, the limiting kinetic energy density of the plasma flow in a Hall thruster might be exceeded if additional mechanisms of space charge neutralization are introduced. Space charge neutralization with high-mass negative ions or negatively charged dust particles seems, in principle, promising for the development of a high current or high energy density source of positive light ions. Several space charge neutralization schemes that employ heavy negatively charged particles are considered. It is shown that the proposed neutralization schemes can lead, at best, only to a moderate but nonetheless possibly important increase of the ion current in the ion thruster and the thrust density in the Hall thruster

  12. Electrostatic plasma lens for focusing negatively charged particle beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, A A; Dobrovolskiy, A M; Dunets, S M; Litovko, I V; Gushenets, V I; Oks, E M

    2012-02-01

    We describe the current status of ongoing research and development of the electrostatic plasma lens for focusing and manipulating intense negatively charged particle beams, electrons, and negative ions. The physical principle of this kind of plasma lens is based on magnetic isolation electrons providing creation of a dynamical positive space charge cloud in shortly restricted volume propagating beam. Here, the new results of experimental investigations and computer simulations of wide-aperture, intense electron beam focusing by plasma lens with positive space charge cloud produced due to the cylindrical anode layer accelerator creating a positive ion stream towards an axis system is presented.

  13. Coulomb ionization of inner shells by heavy charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapicki, G.

    1975-01-01

    The theory of inner-shell Coulomb ionization by heavy charged particles, of atomic number small compared to the target atomic number, is developed through the extension of work by Brandt and his coworkers for K shells to L shells. In slow collisions relative to the characteristic times of the inner shell electrons, the quantum-mechanical predictions in the plane-wave Born approximation (PWBA) can exceed experimental cross sections by orders of magnitude. The effects of the perturbation of the atom by and the Coulomb deflection of the particle during collisions are included in the theory. The perturbed atomic states amount to a binding of the inner-shell electrons to the moving particle in slow collisions, and to a polarization of the inner shells by the particle passing at large impact parameters during nonadiabatic collisions. These effects, not contained in the PWBA, are treated in the framework of the perturbed stationary state (PSS) theory for slow collisions and in terms of the harmonic oscillator model of Ashley, Brandt, and Ritchie for stopping powers in fast collisions. The effect of the Coulomb deflection of the particle in the field of the target nucleus on the cross sections is incorporated in the semiclassical approximation of Bang and Hansteen. Except for the lightest target atoms, the contribution of electron capture by the particles to inner-shell ionizations is shown to be negligible. The theory as developed earlier for the K shell, and here for L shells, agrees well with the vast body of experimental data on inner-shell Coulomb ionization by heavy charged particles

  14. High-speed scattering of charged and uncharged particles in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, K.

    1985-01-01

    After a brief consideration of the high-speed scattering of two point charges high-speed scattering is thoroughly discussed for a charged particle by a fixed mass and of two uncharged particles of comparable masses. Perturbation technique is used over Minkowski spacetime in the de Donder gauge and the field equations and the resulting equations of motion (which take the reaction of the particles' quasistatic self-field into account) are solved by iteration. The obtained energy-momentum conservation laws allow the computation of second-order corrections for the scattering angle and the cross section. The asymptotic structure of the far-field indicates synchrotron radiation (electromagnetic and gravitational, respectively) which causes an energy loss whose reaction on the motion is briefly considered in the low-velocity limit including bound motion. (For neutral particles this is a third-order effect.) (author)

  15. An improved search for elementary particles with fractional electric charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.R.

    1996-08-01

    The SLAC Quark Search Group has demonstrated successful operation of a low cost, high mass throughput Millikan apparatus designed to search for fractionally charged particles. About six million silicone oil drops were measured with no evidence of fractional charges. A second experiment is under construction with 100 times greater throughput which will utilize optimized search fluids

  16. Long-range two-particle correlations of strange hadrons with charged particles in pPb and PbPb collisions at LHC energies

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Luyckx, Sten; Ochesanu, Silvia; Rougny, Romain; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dobur, Didar; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Léonard, Alexandre; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Perniè, Luca; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Zenoni, Florian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Crucy, Shannon; Dildick, Sven; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Dos Reis Martins, Thiago; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Pol, Maria Elena; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santaolalla, Javier; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Marinov, Andrey; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Zheng; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Filipovic, Nicolas; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Brochet, Sébastien; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Xiao, Hong; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Bontenackels, Michael; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Hindrichs, Otto; Klein, Katja; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Weber, Martin; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Heister, Arno; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Horton, Dean; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nayak, Aruna; Novgorodova, Olga; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Roland, Benoit; Ron, Elias; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Saxena, Pooja; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Vargas Trevino, Andrea Del Rocio; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Lange, Jörn; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Pöhlsen, Thomas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Seidel, Markus; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Frensch, Felix; Giffels, Manuel; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Nürnberg, Andreas; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Röcker, Steffen; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Aslanoglou, Xenofon; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mittal, Monika; Nishu, Nishu; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Modak, Atanu; Mukherjee, Swagata; Roy, Debarati; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Goldouzian, Reza; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Singh, Gurpreet; Venditti, Rosamaria; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Ferretti, Roberta; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellato, Marco; Biasotto, Massimo; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; Dorigo, Tommaso; Fanzago, Federica; Galanti, Mario; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Giubilato, Piero; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Romeo, Francesco; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Moon, Chang-Seong; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Vernieri, Caterina; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Grassi, Marco; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Soffi, Livia; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Casasso, Stefano; Costa, Marco; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Ortona, Giacomo; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Tamponi, Umberto; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Schizzi, Andrea; Umer, Tomo; Zanetti, Anna; Chang, Sunghyun; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Park, Hyangkyu; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Kim, Jae Yool; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kyong Sei; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Reucroft, Steve; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michał; Wolszczak, Weronika; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Korotkikh, Vladimir; Lokhtin, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Vardanyan, Irina; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Ekmedzic, Marko; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Graziano, Alberto; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benaglia, Andrea; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Bernet, Colin; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Bondu, Olivier; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Colafranceschi, Stefano; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Eugster, Jürg; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Marrouche, Jad; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Musella, Pasquale; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Perrozzi, Luca; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Plagge, Michael; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Treille, Daniel; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Wollny, Heiner; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meister, Daniel; Mohr, Niklas; Nägeli, Christoph; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Quittnat, Milena; Rebane, Liis; Rossini, Marco; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Amsler, Claude; Canelli, Maria Florencia; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Lange, Clemens; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Robmann, Peter; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Taroni, Silvia; Verzetti, Mauro; Yang, Yong; Cardaci, Marco; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Ferro, Cristina; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wilken, Rachel; Asavapibhop, Burin; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Gamsizkan, Halil; Karapinar, Guler; Ocalan, Kadir; Sekmen, Sezen; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Cankocak, Kerem; Vardarlı, Fuat Ilkehan; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Burton, Darren; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Dunne, Patrick; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Kenzie, Matthew; Lane, Rebecca; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mathias, Bryn; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Kasmi, Azeddine; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Lawson, Philip; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; St John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Alimena, Juliette; Berry, Edmund; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Christopher, Grant; Cutts, David; Demiragli, Zeynep; Dhingra, Nitish; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Heintz, Ulrich; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Swanson, Joshua; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Miceli, Tia; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Searle, Matthew; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Cousins, Robert; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Rakness, Gregory; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Malberti, Martina; Nguyen, Harold; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Evans, David; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Klein, Daniel; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Welke, Charles; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Barge, Derek; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Danielson, Thomas; Dishaw, Adam; Flowers, Kristen; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Mccoll, Nickolas; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Duarte, Javier; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Rogan, Christopher; Spiropulu, Maria; Timciuc, Vladlen; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carlson, Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Eggert, Nicholas; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Skinnari, Louise; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Kaadze, Ketino; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Kwan, Simon; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena Ingrid; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitbeck, Andrew; Whitmore, Juliana; Yang, Fan; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Carver, Matthew; Cheng, Tongguang; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Hugon, Justin; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Shchutska, Lesya; Snowball, Matthew; Sperka, David; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Kurt, Pelin; Moon, Dong Ho; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Duru, Firdevs; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sen, Sercan; Tan, Ping; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Swartz, Morris; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Bruner, Christopher; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Malek, Magdalena; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Sekaric, Jadranka; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Barfuss, Anne-Fleur; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Shrestha, Shruti; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Bauer, Gerry; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Dutta, Valentina; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Klute, Markus; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zanetti, Marco; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Keller, Jason; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malik, Sudhir; Meier, Frank; Snow, Gregory R; Zvada, Marian; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Haley, Joseph; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Sung, Kevin; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Chan, Kwok Ming; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Antonelli, Louis; Brinson, Jessica; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Smith, Geoffrey; Winer, Brian L; Wolfe, Homer; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hebda, Philip; Hunt, Adam; Koay, Sue Ann; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Brownson, Eric; Mendez, Hector; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Gutay, Laszlo; Hu, Zhen; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Kurt; Kress, Matthew; Leonardo, Nuno; Lopes Pegna, David; Maroussov, Vassili; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shi, Xin; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Kaplan, Steven; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; York, Andrew; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Kunori, Shuichi; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Friis, Evan; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Levine, Aaron; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ross, Ian; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Verwilligen, Piet; Vuosalo, Carl; Woods, Nathaniel

    2015-03-06

    Measurements of two-particle angular correlations between an identified strange hadron (${\\rm K}^0_{\\rm S}$ or $\\Lambda$/$\\overline{\\Lambda}$) and a charged particle, emitted in pPb collisions, are presented over a wide range in pseudorapidity and full azimuth. The data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of approximately 35 nb$^{-1}$, were collected at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy ($\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$) of 5.02 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC. The results are compared to semi-peripheral PbPb collision data at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV, covering similar charged-particle multiplicities in the events. The observed azimuthal correlations at large relative pseudorapidity are used to extract the second-order ($v_2$) and third-order ($v_3$) anisotropy harmonics of ${\\rm K}^0_{\\rm S}$ and $\\Lambda$/$\\overline{\\Lambda}$ particles. These quantities are studied as a function of the charged-particle multiplicity in the event and the transverse momentum of the particles. For high-multiplicity pPb event...

  17. Ponderomotive enhancement of charged particle beam limiting current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grebogi, C.; Uhm, H.S.

    1987-01-01

    The space charge limiting current problem is investigated for a magnetized particle beam propagating in a cylindrical drift tube and in presence of a waveguide mode. It is shown that with a proper choice of a waveguide mode, the limiting current can be greatly enhanced due to ponderomotive effects. Physically, this is accomplished by using the ponderomotive energy to reduce the potential depression due to the beam's self space charge field. Formulas for the limiting current as a function of beam energy and waveguide r.f. field for solid and hollow beams are derived. It is found from these formulas that, in appropriate parameter regimes, the space charge limiting current, say, of a 250kV bem can be enhanced by 70%

  18. Factors influencing the cytotoxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles: particle size and surface charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, M; Kim, M K; Cho, H J; Lee, J A; Yu, J; Chung, H E; Choi, S J

    2011-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle is one of the most important materials in diverse applications, since it has UV light absorption, antimicrobial, catalytic, semi-conducting, and magnetic properties. However, there is little information about the toxicological effects of ZnO nanoparticles with respect to physicochemical properties. The aim of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the relationships between cytotoxicity and physicochemical properties of ZnO nanoparticle such as particle size and surface charge in human lung cells. Two different sizes of ZnO nanoparticles (20 and 70 nm) were prepared with positive (+) or negative (-) charge, and then, cytotoxicity of different ZnO nanoparticles was evaluated by measuring cell proliferation in short-term and long-term, membrane integrity, and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The results demonstrated that smaller particles exhibited high cytotoxic effects compared to larger particles in terms of inhibition of cell proliferation, membrane damage, and ROS generation. In addition, positively charged ZnO showed greater ROS production than ZnO with negative charge. These findings suggest that the cytoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles are strongly affected by their particle size and surface charge, highlighting the role of the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles to understand and predict their potential adverse effects on human.

  19. Factors influencing the cytotoxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles: particle size and surface charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, M; Kim, M K; Cho, H J; Lee, J A; Yu, J; Chung, H E; Choi, S J, E-mail: sjchoi@swu.ac.kr [Department of Food Science and Technology, Seoul Women' s University, 126 Gongneung 2-dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139-774 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-06

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle is one of the most important materials in diverse applications, since it has UV light absorption, antimicrobial, catalytic, semi-conducting, and magnetic properties. However, there is little information about the toxicological effects of ZnO nanoparticles with respect to physicochemical properties. The aim of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the relationships between cytotoxicity and physicochemical properties of ZnO nanoparticle such as particle size and surface charge in human lung cells. Two different sizes of ZnO nanoparticles (20 and 70 nm) were prepared with positive (+) or negative (-) charge, and then, cytotoxicity of different ZnO nanoparticles was evaluated by measuring cell proliferation in short-term and long-term, membrane integrity, and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The results demonstrated that smaller particles exhibited high cytotoxic effects compared to larger particles in terms of inhibition of cell proliferation, membrane damage, and ROS generation. In addition, positively charged ZnO showed greater ROS production than ZnO with negative charge. These findings suggest that the cytoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles are strongly affected by their particle size and surface charge, highlighting the role of the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles to understand and predict their potential adverse effects on human.

  20. The measurement and modeling of alpha-particle-induced charge collection in dynamic memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldiges, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis addresses the problem of α-particle-induced charge collection in high-density dynamic random access memories. A novel technique for the measurement of charge collection in high-density memory cells and bit lines due to α-particle strikes was developed. The technique involves D.C. tests on simple test structures with an α-particle source on the device package as a lid. The advantages of this new measurement technique are: the method allows for in-situ measurements of charge collection on both MOS capacitors and bit lines found in present-day memories; the on-chip measurement technique minimizes errors due to external probes loading the device under test; the measurements can be controlled by a personal computer, with the data being able to be reduced on the same machine. Results obtained using this new measurement technique show that the charge collection is found to depend upon test-structure size and the configuration of its neighbors. Results of two-dimensional simulations of charge flow along the surface of an MOS capacitor from current injection due to an α-particle strike indicate that a spatial potential variation of 0.5V may occur between the point of current injection and capacitor edge for a 1M dRAM capacitor

  1. Particle-based simulation of charge transport in discrete-charge nano-scale systems: the electrostatic problem

    OpenAIRE

    Berti, Claudio; Gillespie, Dirk; Eisenberg, Robert S; Fiegna, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    The fast and accurate computation of the electric forces that drive the motion of charged particles at the nanometer scale represents a computational challenge. For this kind of system, where the discrete nature of the charges cannot be neglected, boundary element methods (BEM) represent a better approach than finite differences/finite elements methods. In this article, we compare two different BEM approaches to a canonical electrostatic problem in a three-dimensional space with inhomogeneous...

  2. Numerical Study of Charged Inertial Particles in Turbulence using a Coupled Fluid-P3M Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuan; Capecelatro, Jesse

    2017-11-01

    Non-trivial interactions between charged particles and turbulence play an important role in many engineering and environmental flows, including clouds, fluidized bed reactors, charged hydrocarbon sprays and dusty plasmas. Due to the long-range nature of electrostatic forces, Coulomb interactions in systems with many particles must be handled carefully to avoid O(N2) computations. The particle-mesh (PM) method is typically employed in Eulerian-Lagrangian (EL) simulations as it avoids computing direct pairwise sums, but it fails to capture short-range interactions that are anticipated to be important when particles cluster. In this presentation, the particle-particle-particle-mesh (P3M) method that scales with O(NlogN) is implemented within a EL framework to simulate charged particles accurately in a tractable manner. The EL-P3M method is used to assess the competition between drag and Coulomb forces for a range of Stokes numbers and charges. Simulations of like- and oppositely-charged particles suspended in a two-dimensional Taylor-Green vortex and three-dimensional homogeneous isotropic turbulence are reported. One-point and two-point statistics obtained using PM and P3M are compared to assess the effect of added accuracy on collision rate and clustering.

  3. Relativistic scattering theory of charged spinless particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alt, E.O.; Hannemann, M.

    1986-01-01

    In the context of relativistic quantum mechanics the scattering is discussed of two and three charged spinless particles. The corresponding transition operators are shown to satisfy four-dimensional Lippmann-Schwinger and eight-dimensional Faddeev-type equations, respectively. A simplified model of two particles with Coulomb interaction can be solved exactly. Calculations have been made of (i) the partial wave S-matrix from which the bound state spectrum has been extracted; the latter agrees with a fourth-order result of Schwinger; (ii) the full scattering amplitude which in the weak-field limit coincides with the expression derived by Fried et al. from eikonalized QED. (author)

  4. Transverse-structure electrostatic charged particle beam lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, M.J.

    1998-10-13

    Electrostatic particle-beam lenses using a concentric co-planar array of independently biased rings can be advantageous for some applications. Traditional electrostatic lenses often consist of axial series of biased rings, apertures, or tubes. The science of lens design has devoted much attention to finding axial arrangements that compensate for the substantial optical aberrations of the individual elements. Thus, as with multi-element lenses for light, a multi-element charged-particle lens can have optical behavior that is far superior to that of the individual elements. Transverse multiple-concentric-ring lenses achieve high performance, while also having advantages in terms of compactness and optical versatility. 7 figs.

  5. Charge exchange in a divertor plasma with excited particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasheninnikov, S.I.; Lisitsa, V.S.; Pigarov, A.Y.

    1988-01-01

    A model is constructed for the dynamics of neutral atoms and multicharged ions in a tokamak plasma. The influence of cascade excitation on charge exchange and ionization is taken into account. The effective rates of the resonant charge exchange of a proton with a hydrogen atom, the nonresonant charge exchange of a helium atom with a proton, and that of an α particle with atomic hydrogen are calculated as functions of the parameters of the divertor plasma in a tokamak. The charge exchange H + +He→H+He + can represent a significant fraction (∼30%) of the total helium ionization rate. Incorporating the charge exchange of He 2+ with atomic hydrogen under the conditions prevailing in the divertor plasma of the INTOR reactor can lead to substantial He 2+ →He + conversion and thereby reduce the sputtering of the divertor plates by helium ions

  6. Spatiotemporal kinetics of γ-H2AX protein on charged particles induced DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, H., E-mail: hniu@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chang, H.C. [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Cho, I.C. [Institute for Radiological Research, Chang Gung University and Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chen, C.H. [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Liu, C.S. [Cancer Center of Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chou, W.T. [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Charged particles can induce more complex DNA damages, and these complex damages have higher ability to cause the cell death or cell carcinogenesis. • In this study, we used γ-H2AX protein to investigate the spatiotemporal kinetics of DNA double strand breaks in particle irradiated HeLa cells. • The HeLa cells were irradiated by 400 keV alpha-particles in four different dosages. • The result shows that a good linear relationship can be observed between foci number and radiation dose. • The data shows that the dissolution rate of γ-H2AX foci agree with the two components DNA repairing model, and it was decreasing as the radiation dose increased. • These results suggest that charged particles can induce more complex DNA damages and causing the retardation of DNA repair. - Abstract: In several researches, it has been demonstrated that charged particles can induce more complex DNA damages. These complex damages have higher ability to cause the cell death or cell carcinogenesis. For this reason, clarifying the DNA repair mechanism after charged particle irradiation plays an important role in the development of charged particle therapy and space exploration. Unfortunately, the detail spatiotemporal kinetic of DNA damage repair is still unclear. In this study, we used γ-H2AX protein to investigate the spatiotemporal kinetics of DNA double strand breaks in alpha-particle irradiated HeLa cells. The result shows that the intensity of γ-H2AX foci increased gradually, and reached to its maximum at 30 min after irradiation. A good linear relationship can be observed between foci intensity and radiation dose. After 30 min, the γ-H2AX foci intensity was decreased with time passed, but remained a large portion (∼50%) at 48 h passed. The data show that the dissolution rate of γ-H2AX foci agreed with two components DNA repairing model. These results suggest that charged particles can induce more complex DNA damages and causing the retardation of DNA

  7. Detection of charged particles with a methylammonium lead tribromide perovskite single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Qiang [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Wei, Haotong; Wei, Wei [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Chuirazzi, William; DeSantis, Dylan [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Huang, Jinsong, E-mail: jhuang2@unl.edu [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Cao, Lei, E-mail: cao.152@osu.edu [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2017-03-11

    Methylammonium lead tribromide (MAPbBr{sub 3}) perovskite crystals have attracted significant attention due to their attractive performance in various optoelectronic applications such as solar cells, light-emitting devices, photodetectors, and recently in X-ray detectors. In this study, we demonstrate a possible use of perovskite-based devices for detection of charged particles (which can be applied in basic scientific research, health physics, and environmental analysis) and investigate the mechanism of fundamental charge transport inside perovskite crystals. It was found that inexpensive MAPbBr{sub 3} single crystals could be used for measuring the energy spectrum of charged particles through direct collection of the produced charge. After fitting the plot of the centroid peak position versus voltage with the Hecht equation for single-polarity charge transport, the obtained hole mobility-lifetime product was in the range of (0.4–1.6)×10{sup −3} cm{sup 2}/V.

  8. Detection of charged particles with a methylammonium lead tribromide perovskite single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Qiang; Wei, Haotong; Wei, Wei; Chuirazzi, William; DeSantis, Dylan; Huang, Jinsong; Cao, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Methylammonium lead tribromide (MAPbBr_3) perovskite crystals have attracted significant attention due to their attractive performance in various optoelectronic applications such as solar cells, light-emitting devices, photodetectors, and recently in X-ray detectors. In this study, we demonstrate a possible use of perovskite-based devices for detection of charged particles (which can be applied in basic scientific research, health physics, and environmental analysis) and investigate the mechanism of fundamental charge transport inside perovskite crystals. It was found that inexpensive MAPbBr_3 single crystals could be used for measuring the energy spectrum of charged particles through direct collection of the produced charge. After fitting the plot of the centroid peak position versus voltage with the Hecht equation for single-polarity charge transport, the obtained hole mobility-lifetime product was in the range of (0.4–1.6)×10"−"3 cm"2/V.

  9. Japan Charged-Particle Nuclear Reaction Data Group (JCPRG). Progress report. P10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Executive Committee of JCPRG

    2001-01-01

    In 2000 the following activities were carried out: compilation of the CNDP (Charged Particle Nuclear Reaction Data); translation of NRDF data into EXFOR data; making of the retrieval systems using Internet and Intelligent Pad for the CPND in both NRDF and EXFOR; distributing the CPND and promoting utilization in Japan; making a new system to transform from NRDF to EXFOR. Preliminary version of a new editing system for compiling and inputting the NRDF data was completed

  10. Study on two-particle correlations between charged particles in semiinclusive PI-n interactions at a pulse 40 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semerdzhiev, Kh.

    1982-01-01

    The two-particle correlations between secondary charged particles in a PI-n-interactions with PI-mesons at 40 GeV/c are studied in the frame of semiinclusive approach. For rapidity correlations two correlation functions are used and they are evaluated for four different multiplicities - 3, 5, 7 and >- 9. The obtained results are presented. Within the twofold (double) error limit the correlation function values at zero rapidities are non-zero and are vanishing with the multiplicity increase. The values for the particle with like charges are almost equal but are smaller than the values for opposite charges. It is concluded that the correlation function at zero rapidities does not depend on the target (p or n). For the first time semiinclusive azimuthal correlations in PI-n-interactions are investigated. The asymmetry coefficients are determined and the obtained values are given. It is shown that the asymmetry coefficient values for opposite charges are greater than ones for equal charges at rapidity differences (ΔY) smaller than 2. (author)

  11. Aggregation and charging of sulfate and amidine latex particles in the presence of oxyanions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Takuya; Cao, Tianchi; Szilagyi, Istvan; Borkovec, Michal; Trefalt, Gregor

    2018-08-15

    Electrophoretic mobility and time resolved light scattering are used to measure the effect on charging and aggregation of amidine and sulfate latex particles of different oxyanions namely, phosphate, arsenate, sulfate, and selenate. In the case of negatively charged sulfate latex particles oxyanions represent the coions, while they represent counterions in the case of the positively charged amidine latex. Repulsive interaction between the sulfate latex surface and the coions results in weak ion specific effects on the charging and aggregation. On the other hand the interaction of oxyanions with the amidine latex surface is highly specific. The monovalent dihydrogen phosphate ion strongly adsorbs to the positively charged surface and reverses the charge of the particle. This charge reversal leads also to the restabilization of the amidine latex suspension at the intermediate phosphate concentrations. In the case of dihydrogen arsenate the adsorption to amidine latex surface is weaker and no charge reversal and restabilization occurs. Similar differences are seen between the sulfate and selenate analogues, where selenate adsorbs more strongly to the surface as compared to the sulfate ion and invokes charge reversal. The present results indicate that ion specificity is much more pronounced in the case of counterions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Flowable Conducting Particle Networks in Redox-Active Electrolytes for Grid Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatzell, K. B.; Boota, M.; Kumbur, E. C.; Gogotsi, Y.

    2015-01-01

    This study reports a new hybrid approach toward achieving high volumetric energy and power densities in an electrochemical flow capacitor for grid energy storage. The electrochemical flow capacitor suffers from high self-discharge and low energy density because charge storage is limited to the available surface area (electric double layer charge storage). Here, we examine two carbon materials as conducting particles in a flow battery electrolyte containing the VO2+/VO2+ redox couple. Highly porous activated carbon spheres (CSs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are investigated as conducting particle networks that facilitate both faradaic and electric double layer charge storage. Charge storage contributions (electric double layer and faradaic) are distinguished for flow-electrodes composed of MWCNTs and activated CSs. A MWCNT flow-electrode based in a redox-active electrolyte containing the VO2+/VO2+ redox couple demonstrates 18% less self-discharge, 10 X more energy density, and 20 X greater power densities (at 20 mV s-1) than one based on a non-redox active electrolyte. Furthermore, a MWCNT redox-active flow electrode demonstrates 80% capacitance retention, and >95% coulombic efficiency over 100 cycles, indicating the feasibility of utilizing conducting networks with redox chemistries for grid energy storage.

  13. The search for highly relativistic broken-charge particles in the cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krisor, K.

    1974-01-01

    As an introduction, the quark model of the elementary particles and the present state of the quark search is gone into. The theory of the energy loss of charged particles in the passage through matter and the set-up of the experiment (proportional counter hodoscope, electronics, on-line computer and off-line analysis of the data) are dealt with in detail. The following upper limits are given with 90% confidence: charge 1/3e -11 cm -2 sr -1 s -1 charge 2/3e -11 cm -2 sr -1 s -1 for the flow of unaccompanied quarks at sea level. (BJ/LH) [de

  14. Charged Particle, Photon Multiplicity, and Transverse Energy Production in High-Energy Heavy-Ion Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghunath Sahoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the charged particle and photon multiplicities and transverse energy production in heavy-ion collisions starting from few GeV to TeV energies. The experimental results of pseudorapidity distribution of charged particles and photons at different collision energies and centralities are discussed. We also discuss the hypothesis of limiting fragmentation and expansion dynamics using the Landau hydrodynamics and the underlying physics. Meanwhile, we present the estimation of initial energy density multiplied with formation time as a function of different collision energies and centralities. In the end, the transverse energy per charged particle in connection with the chemical freeze-out criteria is discussed. We invoke various models and phenomenological arguments to interpret and characterize the fireball created in heavy-ion collisions. This review overall provides a scope to understand the heavy-ion collision data and a possible formation of a deconfined phase of partons via the global observables like charged particles, photons, and the transverse energy measurement.

  15. Particle trapping by nonlinear resonances and space charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franchetti, G.; Hofmann, I.

    2006-01-01

    In the FAIR [C.D.R. http://www.gsi.de/GSI Future/cdr/] facility planned at GSI high space charge effects and nonlinear dynamics may play an important role for limiting nominal machine performance. The most relevant interplay of these two effects on the single particle dynamics has been proposed in terms of trapping of particles into stable islands [G. Franchetti, I. Hofmann, AIP Conf. Proc. 642 (2002) 260]. Subsequent numerical studies and dedicated experiments have followed [G. Franchetti et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 6 (2003) 124201; G. Franchetti et al., AIP Conf. Proc. 773 (2005) 137]. We present here the effect of the chromaticity on the mechanisms of halo formation induced by particle trapping into resonances

  16. A 2-D Implicit, Energy and Charge Conserving Particle In Cell Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPherson, Allen L.; Knoll, Dana A.; Cieren, Emmanuel B.; Feltman, Nicolas; Leibs, Christopher A.; McCarthy, Colleen; Murthy, Karthik S.; Wang, Yijie

    2012-01-01

    Recently, a fully implicit electrostatic 1D charge- and energy-conserving particle-in-cell algorithm was proposed and implemented by Chen et al ([2],[3]). Central to the algorithm is an advanced particle pusher. Particles are moved using an energy conserving scheme and are forced to stop at cell faces to conserve charge. Moreover, a time estimator is used to control errors in momentum. Here we implement and extend this advanced particle pusher to include 2D and electromagnetic fields. Derivations of all modifications made are presented in full. Special consideration is taken to ensure easy coupling into the implicit moment based method proposed by Taitano et al [19]. Focus is then given to optimizing the presented particle pusher on emerging architectures. Two multicore implementations, and one GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) implementation are discussed and analyzed.

  17. A 2-D Implicit, Energy and Charge Conserving Particle In Cell Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPherson, Allen L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Knoll, Dana A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cieren, Emmanuel B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Feltman, Nicolas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Leibs, Christopher A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; McCarthy, Colleen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Murthy, Karthik S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Yijie [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-09-10

    Recently, a fully implicit electrostatic 1D charge- and energy-conserving particle-in-cell algorithm was proposed and implemented by Chen et al ([2],[3]). Central to the algorithm is an advanced particle pusher. Particles are moved using an energy conserving scheme and are forced to stop at cell faces to conserve charge. Moreover, a time estimator is used to control errors in momentum. Here we implement and extend this advanced particle pusher to include 2D and electromagnetic fields. Derivations of all modifications made are presented in full. Special consideration is taken to ensure easy coupling into the implicit moment based method proposed by Taitano et al [19]. Focus is then given to optimizing the presented particle pusher on emerging architectures. Two multicore implementations, and one GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) implementation are discussed and analyzed.

  18. Heavy charged particle radiobiology: using enhanced biological effectiveness and improved beam focusing to advance cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Christopher; Borak, Thomas B; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Nickoloff, Jac A

    2011-06-03

    Ionizing radiation causes many types of DNA damage, including base damage and single- and double-strand breaks. Photons, including X-rays and γ-rays, are the most widely used type of ionizing radiation in radiobiology experiments, and in radiation cancer therapy. Charged particles, including protons and carbon ions, are seeing increased use as an alternative therapeutic modality. Although the facilities needed to produce high energy charged particle beams are more costly than photon facilities, particle therapy has shown improved cancer survival rates, reflecting more highly focused dose distributions and more severe DNA damage to tumor cells. Despite early successes of charged particle radiotherapy, there is room for further improvement, and much remains to be learned about normal and cancer cell responses to charged particle radiation. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Measurement of the electrostatic charge in airborne particles: I - development of the equipment and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marra Jr. W.D.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The design and construction of a equipment capable of measuring the electrostatic charges in aerosols, named the electrostatic charge classifier, were carried out. They were based on the concept of particle electromobility and the charge classifier was intended to classify the nature and the distribution of electrostatic charges as a function of particle size. The resulting piece of equipment is easy to dismount, which facilitates its cleaning and transport, and easy to operate. Early results indicate that the values of electrostatic charge measured on test particles are inside the range reported in the literature, indicating the adequacy of the technique utilized.

  20. Controlling Charged Particles with Inhomogeneous Electrostatic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Federico A. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An energy analyzer for a charged-particle spectrometer may include a top deflection plate and a bottom deflection plate. The top and bottom deflection plates may be non-symmetric and configured to generate an inhomogeneous electrostatic field when a voltage is applied to one of the top or bottom deflection plates. In some instances, the top and bottom deflection plates may be L-shaped deflection plates.

  1. Pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles in Pb–Pb collisions ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The multiplicity and the angular distribution of charged particles are measured in a wide acceptance ... the framework of the Glauber model with the Woods–Saxon nuclear density parametriza- tion and ... First some quality cuts .... Page 6 ...

  2. Scaling of charged particle production in d+Au collisions at √(sNN)=200GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Becker, B.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Harrington, A. S.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lee, J. W.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sedykh, I.; Skulski, W.; Smith, C. E.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S.; Sukhanov, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wolfs, F. L.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wysłouch, B.; Zhang, J.

    2005-09-01

    The measured pseudorapidity distributions of primary charged particles over a wide pseudorapidity range of |η|≤5.4 and integrated charged particle multiplicities in d+Au collisions at √(sNN)=200GeV are presented as a function of collision centrality. The longitudinal features of d+Au collisions at √(sNN)=200GeV are found to be very similar to those seen in p+A collisions at lower energies. The total multiplicity of charged particles is found to scale with the total number of participants according to NdAuch=1/2Nppch, and the energy dependence of the density of charged particles produced in the fragmentation region exhibits extended longitudinal scaling.

  3. Charge-coupled devices for particle detection with high spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farley, F.J.; Damerell, C.J.S.; Gillman, A.R.; Wickens, F.J.

    1980-10-01

    The results of a study of the possible application of a thin microelectronic device (the charge-coupled device) to high energy physics as particle detectors with good spatial resolution which can distinguish between tracks emerging from the primary vertex and those from secondary vertices due to the decay of short lived particles with higher flavours, are reported. Performance characteristics indicating the spatial resolution, particle discrimination, time resolution, readout time and lifetime of such detectors have been obtained. (U.K.)

  4. DART: a simulation code for charged particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.C.; Barr, W.L.; Moir, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents a recently modified verion of the 2-D DART code designed to simulate the behavior of a beam of charged particles whose paths are affected by electric and magnetic fields. This code was originally used to design laboratory-scale and full-scale beam direct converters. Since then, its utility has been expanded to allow more general applications. The simulation technique includes space charge, secondary electron effects, and neutral gas ionization. Calculations of electrode placement and energy conversion efficiency are described. Basic operation procedures are given including sample input files and output. 7 refs., 18 figs

  5. Charged particle multiplicity distributions in e+e--annihilation processes in the LEP experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlyapnikov, P.V.

    1992-01-01

    Results of studies of the charged particle multiplicity distributions in the process of e + e - -annihilation into hadrons obtained in experiments at LEP accelerator in CERN are reviewed. Universality in energy dependence of the average charged particle multiplicity in e + e - and p ± p collisions, evidence for KNO-scaling in e + e - data, structure in multiplicity distribution and its relation to the jet structure of events, average particle multiplicities or quark and gluon jets, 'clan' picture and other topics are discussed. 73 refs.; 20 figs.; 3 tabs

  6. Application of CTOF method to detect secondly charged particle from 2 GeV electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kazutoshi; Sanami, Toshiya; Ban, Syuichi; Lee, Hee-Seok; Sato, Tatsuhiko

    2002-01-01

    To design a shield and evaluate leakage radiation at high energy electron accelerators, the energy and angular data of secondary particle from the reaction of electrons with structural materials are required. Secondly neutron spectrum from structural materials has been measured by using electron accelerator in PAL (Pohang Accelerator Laboratory). In the neutron measurement, the electronics with Multi-hit TDC (MHTDC) was adopted to measure Time of Flight of every particles (TOFs) emitted from the reactions by each single electron bunch. The measurements are extended to secondly charged particles. For the charged particles measurement, the pulse height data for every particles are indispensable to distinguish charged particles by Δ E-E method. A new system which can measure pulse height for every particle is required instead of the MHTDC system. For this requirement, the method which can take output current from detectors was developed by using digital storage oscilloscope system is named ''Current Time of Flight method'' (CTOF). The CTOF method is able to measure pulse height and TOF for every particles produced by single electron bunch. Electrons are accelerated to 2.04 GeV and the repetition rate is 10 Hz. These electrons bombard thin disk samples of Cu 1mm, Al 4 mm and W 0.5 mm. Secondly charged particles, proton and deuteron, are produced in the samples by photonuclear reaction. Two dimensional of Δ E-E spectrum for each the samples measured by CTOF shows separation between proton and deuteron perfectly. Thus, proton and deuteron spectrum are obtained from this data. (M. Suetake)

  7. Emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization produces highly charged, monodisperse particles for near infrared photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Chad E; Asher, Sanford A

    2002-04-01

    We have developed emulsifier-free, emulsion polymerization recipes for the synthesis of highly charged, monodisperse latex particles of diameters between 500 and 1100 nm. These latexes consist of poly[styrene-(co-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)] spherical particles whose surfaces are functionalized with sulfate and carboxylic acid groups. These highly charged, monodisperse particles readily self-assemble into robust, three-dimensionally ordered crystalline colloidal array photonic crystals that Bragg diffract light in the near infrared spectral region. By altering the particle number density, the diffraction wavelength can be tuned from approximately 1000 to approximately 4000 nm.

  8. Behaviour of Charged Spinning Massless Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Morales

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We revisit the classical theory of a relativistic massless charged point particle with spin and interacting with an external electromagnetic field. In particular, we give a proper definition of its kinetic energy and its total energy, the latter being conserved when the external field is stationary. We also write the conservation laws for the linear and angular momenta. Finally, we find that the particle’s velocity may differ from c as a result of the spin—electromagnetic field interaction, without jeopardizing Lorentz invariance.

  9. Moment-Preserving Computational Approach for High Energy Charged Particle Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-16

    posed, but with modified cross sections such that the resulting single-event Monte Carlo simulation is computationally efficient (minutes vs . days...configurations, which are all characteristics of real world applications. In other words , it is possible to simulate real, physical phenomena using charged...0 < 0.95) ~ 1 2() ≫ 1, (3) Demonstrating that scattering is highly forward peaked. Thus, the picture of charged particle interactions

  10. Charged particle spectra in different final states at √(s)=13 TeV with the CMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grados Luyando, Juan Manuel

    2017-12-01

    In this thesis, measurements of different charged-particle distributions performed with the CMS detector in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy √(s)=13 TeV are presented. In particular, the charged-particle pseudorapidity distributions, also referred to as charged-particle pseudorapidity densities, the multiplicity distributions of charged particles per event, and different transverse-momentum distributions corresponding to all charged particles, the leading charged-particle, and the integrated spectrum of the latter are presented. The charged-particles are selected with transverse momenta p T >0.5 GeV in the range vertical stroke η vertical stroke <2.4. The data are corrected for the different detector effects such as resolution and efficiency. The measured distributions are presented for four different samples corresponding to an Inclusive event sample, an Inelastic-enhanced event sample, a sample dominated by non-single diffractive dissociation events (NSD-enhanced sample), and a sample enriched by single-diffractive dissociation events (SD-enhanced sample). The measurements presented in this thesis provide extensive and unique insights into low energy exchange processes that dominate the proton-proton interactions. The rich variety of distributions presented for different event samples, especially those enhanced in diffractive processes, are valuable sources of information to understand the transition from the perturbative to the non-perturbative regions and to adjust the model parameters present in modern MC event generators.

  11. Charged particle spectra in different final states at √(s)=13 TeV with the CMS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grados Luyando, Juan Manuel

    2017-12-15

    In this thesis, measurements of different charged-particle distributions performed with the CMS detector in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy √(s)=13 TeV are presented. In particular, the charged-particle pseudorapidity distributions, also referred to as charged-particle pseudorapidity densities, the multiplicity distributions of charged particles per event, and different transverse-momentum distributions corresponding to all charged particles, the leading charged-particle, and the integrated spectrum of the latter are presented. The charged-particles are selected with transverse momenta p{sub T}>0.5 GeV in the range vertical stroke η vertical stroke <2.4. The data are corrected for the different detector effects such as resolution and efficiency. The measured distributions are presented for four different samples corresponding to an Inclusive event sample, an Inelastic-enhanced event sample, a sample dominated by non-single diffractive dissociation events (NSD-enhanced sample), and a sample enriched by single-diffractive dissociation events (SD-enhanced sample). The measurements presented in this thesis provide extensive and unique insights into low energy exchange processes that dominate the proton-proton interactions. The rich variety of distributions presented for different event samples, especially those enhanced in diffractive processes, are valuable sources of information to understand the transition from the perturbative to the non-perturbative regions and to adjust the model parameters present in modern MC event generators.

  12. Coherent and Semiclassical States of a Charged Particle in Electromagnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    In the present article, we extend our study (Bagrov et al., Braz. J. Phys. 45, 369, 2015) of generalized coherent states (GCS) of a one-dimensional particle considering such important physical system as a three-dimensional charged particle in electric and magnetic fields. Constructing GCS in a many-dimensional case, we meet technical complications that make the consideration nontrivial and instructive. The GCS of the system under consideration are constructed. We study the properties of this GCS such as completeness relations, minimization of uncertainty relations, and so on. We point out which family of the obtained GCS of a charged particle in a magnetic field is related to the CS constructed first by Malkin and Man'ko. We obtain conditions under which some of the GCS can be considered as semiclassical states (SS).

  13. Study of a charge-coupled device for high-energy-particle detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuiya, A.H.

    1983-05-01

    This presentation is based on measurements made to evaluate the application of charge-coupled devices as detectors of high-energy particles. The experiment was performed with a Fairchild Linear 256-Cell CCD111 array (size 8μm x 17 μm/cell), utilizing a light source instead of a particle beam. It was observed that the minimum detectable signal was limited to approx. 488 electrons at -50 0 C, where the readout and exposure times were about 260 ms and 400 ms respectively. The transfer inefficiency of the CCD111 was determined to be approx. 10 -4 . It has been concluded that at a lower temperature (approx. -100 0 C) or with faster readout (approx. 10 ms), the CCD111 would be able to detect the total deposited energy of minimum-ionizing charged particles

  14. Coherent and Semiclassical States of a Charged Particle in Electromagnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A. S.

    2018-06-01

    In the present article, we extend our study (Bagrov et al., Braz. J. Phys. 45, 369, 2015) of generalized coherent states (GCS) of a one-dimensional particle considering such important physical system as a three-dimensional charged particle in electric and magnetic fields. Constructing GCS in a many-dimensional case, we meet technical complications that make the consideration nontrivial and instructive. The GCS of the system under consideration are constructed. We study the properties of this GCS such as completeness relations, minimization of uncertainty relations, and so on. We point out which family of the obtained GCS of a charged particle in a magnetic field is related to the CS constructed first by Malkin and Man'ko. We obtain conditions under which some of the GCS can be considered as semiclassical states (SS).

  15. Fluorescent nuclear track images of Ag-activated phosphate glass irradiated with photons and heavy charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurobori, Toshio, E-mail: kurobori@staff.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Yanagida, Yuka [Oarai Research Center, Chiyoda Technol Corporation, Oarai-machi, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Kodaira, Satoshi [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Shirao, Taichi [Nikon Instech Co., Ltd., Tanakanishi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8221 (Japan)

    2017-05-21

    In this paper we report about the demonstration of the nuclear track imaging capabilities of Ag-activated phosphate glass. A 375 nm laser and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) were respectively used for track excitation and detection. Specifically, the blue and orange radiophotoluminescent (RPL) tracks and dose distributions observed after irradiation with soft X-rays, gamma rays and heavy charged particles (HCPs) are examined. In addition, the origins of the reductions in RPL efficiency for high-dose X-ray irradiation and for irradiation with HCPs with high linear energy transfer (LET) values are investigated via a CLSM and a conventional fluorescent reader and discussed. - Highlights: • 3D track images are demonstrated using a confocal laser microscopy. • Fluorescent track detectors are based on RPL Ag-doped phosphate glass. • The dose distributions are examined for X-ray, gamma ray and HCP irradiations. • The origins of the reduction in RPL efficiency are investigated and discussed.

  16. Fluorescent nuclear track images of Ag-activated phosphate glass irradiated with photons and heavy charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurobori, Toshio; Yanagida, Yuka; Kodaira, Satoshi; Shirao, Taichi

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we report about the demonstration of the nuclear track imaging capabilities of Ag-activated phosphate glass. A 375 nm laser and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) were respectively used for track excitation and detection. Specifically, the blue and orange radiophotoluminescent (RPL) tracks and dose distributions observed after irradiation with soft X-rays, gamma rays and heavy charged particles (HCPs) are examined. In addition, the origins of the reductions in RPL efficiency for high-dose X-ray irradiation and for irradiation with HCPs with high linear energy transfer (LET) values are investigated via a CLSM and a conventional fluorescent reader and discussed. - Highlights: • 3D track images are demonstrated using a confocal laser microscopy. • Fluorescent track detectors are based on RPL Ag-doped phosphate glass. • The dose distributions are examined for X-ray, gamma ray and HCP irradiations. • The origins of the reduction in RPL efficiency are investigated and discussed.

  17. CHARGED PARTICLE MOTION IN AN EXPLOSIVELY GENERATED IONIZING SHOCK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boswell, Christopher J.; O'Connor, Patrick D.

    2009-01-01

    Different aspects of the plasma generated in a gas contained in a tube due to detonation of a small explosive charge located at one end of the tube are presented. The motion of the charged particles within the plasma is monitored using Rogowski coils. Using time-resolved emission spectroscopy the temperature and species in the detonation products and compressed gas behind the shock wave are recorded. From the spectral lines of the emission profiles the temperatures and electron density were evaluated to be in the vicinity of 7,000 K and 5x10 22 m -3 . An ultra fast wave traveling down the guide tube ahead of the hydrodynamic shock and causing any charged particles there to move fast enough to be detected by the Rogowski coils was recorded. From the measurements the phase velocity of the wave was calculated at 525 km/s when krypton filled the tube, and 1300 km/s in the case of argon. The temperature and density measurements are consistent with the data reported in the literature for similar tests. The electrostatic pulse measurements are a new phenomena not previously observed.

  18. An electrostatic charge measurement of blowing snow particles focusing on collision frequency to the snow surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omiya, S.; Sato, A.

    2010-12-01

    Blowing snow particles are known to have an electrostatic charge. This charge may be a contributing factor in the formation of snow drifts and snow cornices and changing of the trajectory of blowing snow particles. These formations and phenomena can cause natural disaster such as an avalanche and a visibility deterioration, and obstruct transportation during winter season. Therefore, charging phenomenon of the blowing snow particles is an important issue in terms of not only precise understanding of the particle motion but disaster prevention. The primary factor of charge accumulation to the blowing snow particles is thought to be due to “saltation” of them. The “saltation” is one of movement forms of blowing snow: when the snow particles are transported by the wind, they repeat frictional collisions with the snow surface. In previous studies, charge-to-mass ratios measured in the field were approximately -50 to -10 μC/kg, and in the wind tunnel were approximately -0.8 to -0.1 μC/kg. While there were qualitatively consistent in sign, negative, there were huge gaps quantitatively between them. One reason of those gaps is speculated to be due to differences in fetch. In other words, the difference of the collision frequency of snow particles to the snow surface has caused the gaps. But it is merely a suggestion and that has not been confirmed. The purpose of this experiment is to measure the charge of blowing snow particles focusing on the collision frequency and clarify the relationship between them. Experiments were carried out in the cryogenic wind tunnel of Snow and Ice Research Center (NIED, JAPAN). A Faraday cage and an electrometer were used to measure the charge of snow particles. These experiments were conducted over the hard snow surface condition to prevent the erosion of the snow surface and the generation of new snow particles from the surface. The collision frequency of particle was controlled by changing the wind velocity (4.5 to 7 m/s) under

  19. Theory of charged particle heating by low-frequency Alfven waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Zehua; Crabtree, Chris; Chen, Liu

    2008-01-01

    The heating of charged particles by a linearly polarized and obliquely propagating shear Alfven wave (SAW) at frequencies a fraction of the charged particle cyclotron frequency is demonstrated both analytically and numerically. Applying Lie perturbation theory, with the wave amplitude as the perturbation parameter, the resonance conditions in the laboratory frame are systematically derived. At the lowest order, one recovers the well-known linear cyclotron resonance condition k parallel v parallel -ω-nΩ=0, where v parallel is the particle velocity parallel to the background magnetic field, k parallel is the parallel wave number, ω is the wave frequency, Ω is the gyrofrequency, and n is any integer. At higher orders, however, one discovers a novel nonlinear cyclotron resonance condition given by k parallel v parallel -ω-nΩ/2=0. Analytical predictions on the locations of fixed points, widths of resonances, and resonance overlapping criteria for global stochasticity are also found to agree with those given by computed Poincare surfaces of section

  20. External meeting: From charged-particle multiplicities to the top quark

    CERN Multimedia

    Université de Genève

    2011-01-01

    UNIVERSITE DE GENEVE Ecole de physique Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENEVE 4 Tél: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Wednesday 9 March 2011 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17.00 hrs – Stückelberg Auditorium From charged-particle multiplicities to the top quark Par Dr. William Bell (DPNC), Université de Genève     A series of key experimental results from the ATLAS detector at the LHC are presented. These results include the first measurements of charged-particle multiplicities from inelastic proton-proton collisions, W boson production, and recent top cross-section results. The measurements were performed using part or most of the 2010 proton-proton data set, corresponding to a total luminosity of 45pb-1. The experimental methods involved in these measurements are discussed. Results are compared with recent theoretical predictions and possible 2011 measurements a...

  1. Pseudorapidity and transverse-momentum distributions of charged particles in proton–proton collisions at s=13 TeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Adam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The pseudorapidity (η and transverse-momentum (pT distributions of charged particles produced in proton–proton collisions are measured at the centre-of-mass energy s=13 TeV. The pseudorapidity distribution in |η|<1.8 is reported for inelastic events and for events with at least one charged particle in |η|<1. The pseudorapidity density of charged particles produced in the pseudorapidity region |η|<0.5 is 5.31±0.18 and 6.46±0.19 for the two event classes, respectively. The transverse-momentum distribution of charged particles is measured in the range 0.15charged particle in |η|<1. The evolution of the transverse momentum spectra of charged particles is also investigated as a function of event multiplicity. The results are compared with calculations from PYTHIA and EPOS Monte Carlo generators.

  2. Small-scale gradients of charged particles in the heliospheric magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Fan; Giacalone, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Using numerical simulations of charged-particles propagating in the heliospheric magnetic field, we study small-scale gradients, or 'dropouts,' in the intensity of solar energetic particles seen at 1 AU. We use two turbulence models, the foot-point random motion model and the two-component model, to generate fluctuating magnetic fields similar to spacecraft observations at 1 AU. The turbulence models include a Kolmogorov-like magnetic field power spectrum containing a broad range of spatial scales from those that lead to large-scale field-line random walk to small scales leading to resonant pitch-angle scattering of energetic particles. We release energetic protons (20 keV-10 MeV) from a spatially compact and instantaneous source. The trajectories of energetic charged particles in turbulent magnetic fields are numerically integrated. Spacecraft observations are mimicked by collecting particles in small windows when they pass the windows at a distance of 1 AU. We show that small-scale gradients in the intensity of energetic particles and velocity dispersions observed by spacecraft can be reproduced using the foot-point random motion model. However, no dropouts are seen in simulations using the two-component magnetic turbulence model. We also show that particle scattering in the solar wind magnetic field needs to be infrequent for intensity dropouts to form.

  3. Plasma current sustained by fusion charged particles in a field reversed configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, H.L.; Momota, H.; Tajima, T.

    1987-04-01

    The distribution of energetic charged particles generated by thermonuclear fusion reactions in a field reversed configuration (FRC) are studied analytically and numerically. A fraction of the charged fusion products escapes directly while the others are trapped to form a directed particle flow parallel to the plasma current. It is shown that the resultant current density produced by these fusion charged particles can be comparable to background plasma current density that produces the original field reversed configuration in a D- 3 He reactor. Self-consistent equilibria arising from the currents of the background plasma and proton fusion products are constructed where the Larmor radius of the fusion product is of arbitrary size. Reactor relevant parameters are examined, such as how the fusion reactivity rate varies as a result of supporting the pressure associated with the fusion products. We also model the synchrotron emission from various pressure profiles and quantitatively show how synchrotron losses vary with different pressure profiles in an FRC configuration

  4. Generation of narrow peaks in spectroscopy of charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubbers, Dirk, E-mail: dubbers@physi.uni-heidelberg.de; Schmidt, Ulrich, E-mail: ulrich.schmidt@physi.uni-heidelberg.de

    2016-11-21

    In spectroscopy of charged particles, narrow peaks may appear in continuous spectra if magnetic transport of the particles is involved. These artefacts, which so far have escaped the attention of investigators, can develop whenever geometric detection efficiency is less than 100%. As such peaks may be misinterpreted as new physics, their generation is investigated, both analytically and experimentally, for various detector configurations, including those used in searches for the spontaneous decay of the vacuum in heavy-ion collisions.

  5. Multigroup constants for charged particle elastic nuclear (plus interference) scattering of light isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, D.E.; Perkins, S.T.

    1977-01-01

    Multi-group averaged reaction rates and transfer matrices were calculated for charged particle induced elastic nuclear (plus interference) scattering. Results are presented using a ten group structure for all twenty-five permutations of projectile and target for the following charged particles: p, d, t, 3 He and alpha. Transfer matrices are presented in a simplified form for both incident projectile and the knock-ons; these matrices explicitly conserve energy

  6. NNDC evaluated charged particle reaction data library (1975)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearlstein, S

    1985-09-01

    The US National Nuclear Data Center developed a `starter` library for charged particle induced nuclear reaction data in a trial ENDF/B format. It was issued in June 1974 and corrected in August 1975. It includes integral cross-section data for 306 nuclides between Z = 21 and 83 for the following reactions in the energy range from 0 to 20 MeV: (p,n); (p,2n); (p,3n); (d,n); (d,2n); (d,3n); (d,p); ({alpha},n); ({alpha},2n); ({alpha},3n); ({alpha},p) and ({alpha},np). The data were calculated following the nuclear systematics developed by J. Lange and H. Muenzel [KFK-767, May 19681]. The library serves to provide unmeasured cross sections and information that usually compares within an order of magnitude with actual data. It also serves as a convenient source for those requiring charged particle data in computerized form. The library contains 38,584 records. The following documentation is a reprint of a report by S. Pearlstein, BNL-19148, May 1974. (author) 6 refs, 12 figs

  7. Dynamics of Charged Particles and their Radiation Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poisson, E

    2006-01-01

    The motion of a charged particle interacting with its own electromagnetic field is an area of research that has a long history. On the one hand the theory ought to be straightforward to formulate: one has Maxwell's equations that tell the field how to behave and one has the Lorentz-force law that tells the particle how to move (given the field). On the other hand the theory is fundamentally ambiguous because of the field singularities that necessarily come with a point particle. While each separate sub-problem can easily be solved, to couple the field to the particle in a self-consistent treatment turns out to be tricky. I believe it is this dilemma that has been the main source of the endless fascination. For them it is also rooted in the fact that the electromagnetic self-force problem is deeply analogous to the gravitational self-force problem, which is of direct relevance to future gravitational wave observations. The motion of point particles in curved spacetime has been the topic of a recent Topical Review, and it was the focus of a recent Special Issue. Exceptions are Rohrlich's excellent text, which makes a very useful introduction to radiation reaction, and the Landau and Lifshitz classic, which contains what is probably the most perfect summary of the foundational ideas. It is therefore with some trepidation that I received Herbert Spohn's book, which covers both the classical and quantum theories of a charged particle coupled to its own field (the presentation is limited to flat spacetime). Is this the text that graduate students and researchers should turn to in order to get a complete and accessible education in radiation reaction? My answer is that while the book does indeed contain a lot of useful material, it is not a very accessible source of information, and it is certainly not a student-friendly textbook. Instead, the book presents a technical account of the author's personal take on the theory, and represents a culminating summary of the author

  8. High-frequency asymptotics of the emission spectrum of moving charged particles in classical electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasov, I.I.; Bolotovskij, B.M.; Davydov, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiation appears as a result of a charged particle movement in free space and also in heterogeneous and non-stationary medium. The radiation spectrum depends on the charged particle motion law, as well as on the law of the medium property chage in space and time. The asymptotics of radiation spectrum, i.e. behaviour of spectral intensity at high frequencies, is studied. It is shown that if a charged particle moves along smooth trajectory or if the change in the medium properties takes place accordng to the law described by a smooth function, the radiation spectrum at high frequencies decreases according to exponential law. Thus, radiation spectrum of a charged particle moving along a smooth trajectory in the medium with gradual heterogeneity and (or) instability is rapidly cut, starting from a certain frequency value. The smooth trajectory means that the charge moves according to the law r = r(t), where vector-function r(t) is continuous with all its derivatives. In much the same way the medium with gradual heterogeneities (or with gradual instability) is described by the functions which are continuous with all their derivatives of any order. The method permitting to determine the upper boundary of radiation spectra is presented

  9. The charged particle trigger of the CELLO-detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, V.

    1981-01-01

    The fast charged particle trigger of the CELLO-detector at the PETRA e + e - storage ring (DESY) is a fast software programmable hardware processor. It is using multiwire chamber signals as inputs and takes a decision on charged tracks coming from the interaction region in less than 1 μsec. The input signals are addressing Random Access Memory devices in which the mask schemes of all meaningful physical tracks are stored. The RAM output signals give information about the numbers and shapes of the valid masks found. This information is used for fast event acquisition and online data analysis done by a PDP 11 computer. (orig.)

  10. Two-dimensional position sensitive silicon photodiode as a charged particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacevic, K.; Zadro, M.

    1999-01-01

    A two-dimensional position sensitive silicon photodiode has been tested for measurement of position and energy of charged particles. Position nonlinearity and resolution, as well as energy resolution and ballistic deficit were measured for 5.486 MeV α-particles. The results obtained for different pulse shaping time constants are presented

  11. Charged-particle multiplicity at mid-rapidity in Au–Au collisions at ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The particle density at mid-rapidity is an essential global variable for the characterization of nuclear collisions at ultra-relativistic energies. It provides information about the initial conditions and energy density reached in these collisions. The pseudorapidity densities of charged particles at mid-rapidity in Au + Au collisions at ...

  12. Higher-order geodesic deviation for charged particles and resonance induced by gravitational waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari-Fard, M.; Hasani, S. N.

    We generalize the higher-order geodesic deviation for the structure-less test particles to the higher-order geodesic deviation equations of the charged particles [R. Kerner, J. W. van Holten and R. Colistete Jr., Class. Quantum Grav. 18 (2001) 4725]. By solving these equations for charged particles moving in a constant magnetic field in the spacetime of a gravitational wave, we show for both cases when the gravitational wave is parallel and perpendicular to the constant magnetic field, a magnetic resonance appears at wg = Ω. This feature might be useful to detect the gravitational wave with high frequencies.

  13. In vitro cellular transformation induced by charged particles of defined LET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hei, T.K.; Hall, E.J.; Komatsu, K.; Goldhagen, P.

    1985-01-01

    Cytotoxicity and neoplastic transformation were scored in the C/sub 3/H 10T1/2 cell system following irradiation with protons, deuterons and helium-3 ions of defined LET in the track segment mode. The charged particles were accelerated at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility at the Nevis Laboratories of Columbia University and provided a range of LET values from 10 to 175 keV/μm. Exponential phase cultures of C3H 10T1/2 cells, growing on a thin mylar surface were irradiated with charged particles of various LET values and subsequently replated onto commercial plastic petri dishes. The cultures were incubated for six weeks at which time they were fixed, stained and type II and III scored as transformants. Over the range of LET values studied thus far, it was found that as the LET of the charged particles increased, the shoulder of the survival curves decreased and approached an exponential function of dose at LET values of 100 keV/μm and above. The transformation incidence, likewise, showed a direct correlation with LET over the dose ranges examined

  14. Inclusive charged particle distributions in deep inelastic scattering events at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.

    1995-11-01

    A measurement of inclusive charged particle distributions in deep inelastic ep scattering for γ * p centre-of-mass energies 75 2 2 from the ZEUS detector at HERA is presented. The differential charged particle rates in the γ*p centre-of-mass system as a function of the scaled longitudinal momentum, x F , and of the transverse momentum, p* t and t 2 >, as a function of x F , W and Q 2 are given. Separate distributions are shown for events with (LRG) and without (NRG) a rapidity gap with respect to the proton direction. The data are compared with results from experiments at lower beam energies, with the naive quark parton model and with parton models including perturbative QCD corrections. The comparison shows the importance of the higher order QCD processes. Significant differences of the inclusive charged particle rates between NRG and LRG events at the same W are observed. The value of t 2 > for LRG events with a hadronic mass M X , which excludes the forward produced baryonic system, is similar to the t 2 > value observed in fixed target experiments at W∼M X . (orig.)

  15. High-energy charged particles in space at one astronomical unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feynman, J.; Gabriel, S.B.

    1996-01-01

    Single-event effects and many other spacecraft anomalies are caused by positively charged high-energy particles impinging on the vehicle and its component parts. Here, the authors review the current knowledge of the interplanetary particle environment in the energy ranges that are most important for these effects. State-of-the-art engineering models are described briefly along with comments on the future work required in this field

  16. Charged Particle Tracking with the Timepix ASIC

    CERN Document Server

    Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Collins, P; Crossley, M; Dumps, R; Gersabeck, M; Gligorov, Vladimir V; Llopart, X; Nicol, M; Poikela, T; Cabruja, Enric; Fleta, C; Lozano, M; Pellegrini, G; Bates, R; Eklund, L; Hynds, D; Ferre Llin, L; Maneuski, D; Parkes, C; Plackett, R; Rodrigues, E; Stewart, G; Akiba, K; van Beuzekom, M; Heijne, V; Heijne, E H M; Gordon, H; John, M; Gandelman, M; Esperante, D; Gallas, A; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Bayer, F; Michel, T; Needham, M; Artuso, M; Badman, R; Borgia, A; Garofoli, J; Wang, J; Xing, Z; Buytaert, Jan; Leflat, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    A prototype particle tracking telescope has been constructed using Timepix and Medipix ASIC hybrid pixel assemblies as the six sensing planes. Each telescope plane consisted of one 1.4 cm2 assembly, providing a 256x256 array of 55 micron square pixels. The telescope achieved a pointing resolution of 2.3 micron at the position of the device under test. During a beam test in 2009 the telescope was used to evaluate in detail the performance of two Timepix hybrid pixel assemblies; a standard planar 300 micron thick sensor, and 285 micron thick double sided 3D sensor. This paper describes a detailed charge calibration study of the pixel devices, which allows the true charge to be extracted, and reports on measurements of the charge collection characteristics and Landau distributions. The planar sensor achieved a best resolution of 4.0 micron for angled tracks, and resolutions of between 4.4 and 11 micron for perpendicular tracks, depending on the applied bias voltage. The double sided 3D sensor, which has signific...

  17. Theoretical and Computational Investigation of Periodically Focused Intense Charged-Particle Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chiping [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center

    2013-06-26

    The purpose of this report is to summarize results of theoretical and computational investigations of periodically focused intense charged-particle beams in parameter regimes relevant to the development of advanced high-brightness, high-power accelerators for high-energy physics research. The breakthroughs and highlights in our research in the period from April 1, 2010 to March 30, 2013 were: a) Theory and simulation of adiabatic thermal Child-Langmuir flow; b) Particle-in-cell simulations of adiabatic thermal beams in periodic solenoidal focusing field; c)Dynamics of charged particles in an adiabatic thermal beam equilibrium in a periodic solenoidal focusing field; d) Training of undergraduate researchers and graduate student in accelerator and beam physics. A brief introduction and summary is presented. Detailed descriptions of research results are provided in an appendix of publications at the end of the report.

  18. Search for new charged massive stable particles at CDF

    Science.gov (United States)

    CDF Collaboration

    1996-05-01

    We report on a general search at CDF for new particles which are electrically charged and sufficiently long-lived to allow detection (γ c τ >= 1m). Examples of such particles include free quarks, 4th generation leptons which are lighter than their neutrino, and sextet quarks. Their signature would be particles with high momentum but relatively low velocity, β Fisica Nucleare; the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture of Japan; the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada; the National Science Council of the Republic of China; and the A. P. Sloan Foundation. Supported by U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-76CH03000.

  19. Charged particle beam monitoring by means of synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panasyuk, V.S.; Anevskij, S.I.

    1984-01-01

    Optical methods for monitoring the number of accelerated electrons and electron energy by means of beam synchrotron radiation (SR) as well as peculiarities of SR characteristics of beams with a small radius of the orbit are considered. Optical methods for charged particle beam monitoring are shown to ensure operative and precise monitoring the number of particles and particle energy. SR sources with large axial dimensions of an electron beam have specific spectral angular and polarization characteristics. If electron angular distribution at deflection from the median plane is noticeably wider than angular distribution of SR of a certain electron, relative SR characteristics of these soUrces are calculated with high accuracy

  20. Quenching of scintillation in BaF2 for light charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matulewicz, T.

    1992-01-01

    Detectors made of a barium fluoride (BaF 2 ) crystal have recently become popular in the spectroscopy of photons and light charged particles at intermediate energies. The quenching of the scintillation light of BaF 2 crystals is described in the framework of Birks law for light charged particles in the energy range of 20-100 A MeV. Based on the recently published data, the analysis yields a value of Birks constant equal to 1.8±0.3 mg MeV -1 cm -2 and a scintillation efficiency equal to 0.79±0.05 MeV ee MeV -1 . (R.P.) 10 refs.; 2 figs

  1. Charge identification of highly ionizing particles in desensitized nuclear emulsion using high speed read-out system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshito, T.; Kodama, K.; Yusa, K.; Ozaki, M.; Amako, K.; Kameoka, S.; Murakami, K.; Sasaki, T.; Aoki, S.; Ban, T.; Fukuda, T.; Naganawa, N.; Nakamura, T.; Natsume, M.; Niwa, K.; Takahashi, S.; Kanazawa, M.; Kanematsu, N.; Komori, M.; Sato, S.; Asai, M.; Koi, T.; Fukushima, C.; Ogawa, S.; Shibasaki, M.; Shibuya, H.

    2006-01-01

    We performed an experimental study of charge identification of heavy ions from helium to carbon having energy of about 290MeV/u using an emulsion chamber. Emulsion was desensitized by means of forced fading (refreshing) to expand a dynamic range of response to highly charged particles. For the track reconstruction and charge identification, the fully automated high speed emulsion read-out system, which was originally developed for identifying minimum ionizing particles, was used without any modification. Clear track by track charge identification up to Z=6 was demonstrated. The refreshing technique has proved to be a powerful technique to expand response of emulsion film to highly ionizing particles

  2. Stochastic-hydrodynamic model of halo formation in charged particle beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Cufaro Petroni

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The formation of the beam halo in charged particle accelerators is studied in the framework of a stochastic-hydrodynamic model for the collective motion of the particle beam. In such a stochastic-hydrodynamic theory the density and the phase of the charged beam obey a set of coupled nonlinear hydrodynamic equations with explicit time-reversal invariance. This leads to a linearized theory that describes the collective dynamics of the beam in terms of a classical Schrödinger equation. Taking into account space-charge effects, we derive a set of coupled nonlinear hydrodynamic equations. These equations define a collective dynamics of self-interacting systems much in the same spirit as in the Gross-Pitaevskii and Landau-Ginzburg theories of the collective dynamics for interacting quantum many-body systems. Self-consistent solutions of the dynamical equations lead to quasistationary beam configurations with enhanced transverse dispersion and transverse emittance growth. In the limit of a frozen space-charge core it is then possible to determine and study the properties of stationary, stable core-plus-halo beam distributions. In this scheme the possible reproduction of the halo after its elimination is a consequence of the stationarity of the transverse distribution which plays the role of an attractor for every other distribution.

  3. Lorentz invariance from classical particle paths in quantum field theory of electric and magnetic charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, R.A.; Neri, F.; Zwanziger, D.

    1979-01-01

    We establish the Lorentz invariance of the quantum field theory of electric and magnetic charge. This is a priori implausible because the theory is the second-quantized version of a classical field theory which is inconsistent if the minimally coupled charged fields are smooth functions. For our proof we express the generating functional for the gauge-invariant Green's functions of quantum electrodynamics: with or without magnetic charge: as a path integral over the trajectories of classical charged point particles. The electric-electric and electric-magnetic interactions contribute factors exp(JDJ) and exp(JD'K), where J and K are the electric and magnetic currents of classical point particles and D is the usual photon propagator. The propagator D' involves the Dirac string but exp(JD'K) depends on it only through a topological integer linking string and classical particle trajectories. The charge quantization condition e/sub i/g/sub j/ - g/sub i/e/sub j/ = integer then suffices to make the gauge-invariant Green's functions string independent. By implication our formulation shows that if the Green's functions of quantum electrodynamics are expressed as usual as functional integrals over classical charged fields, the smooth field configurations have measure zero and all the support of the Feynman measure lies on the trajectories of classical point particles

  4. Force fields of charged particles in micro-nanofluidic preconcentration systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Lingyan; Ouyang, Wei; Li, Zirui; Han, Jongyoon

    2017-12-01

    Electrokinetic concentration devices based on the ion concentration polarization (ICP) phenomenon have drawn much attention due to their simple setup, high enrichment factor, and easy integration with many subsequent processes, such as separation, reaction, and extraction etc. Despite significant progress in the experimental research, fundamental understanding and detailed modeling of the preconcentration systems is still lacking. The mechanism of the electrokinetic trapping of charged particles is currently limited to the force balance analysis between the electric force and fluid drag force in an over-simplified one-dimensional (1D) model, which misses many signatures of the actual system. This letter studies the particle trapping phenomena that are not explainable in the 1D model through the calculation of the two-dimensional (2D) force fields. The trapping of charged particles is shown to significantly distort the electric field and fluid flow pattern, which in turn leads to the different trapping behaviors of particles of different sizes. The mechanisms behind the protrusions and instability of the focused band, which are important factors determining overall preconcentration efficiency, are revealed through analyzing the rotating fluxes of particles in the vicinity of the ion-selective membrane. The differences in the enrichment factors of differently sized particles are understood through the interplay between the electric force and convective fluid flow. These results provide insights into the electrokinetic concentration effect, which could facilitate the design and optimization of ICP-based preconcentration systems.

  5. Charged particle measurements from a rocket-borne electron accelerator experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duprat, G.R.J.; McNamara, A.G.; Whalen, B.A.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter presents charged particle observations which relate to the spatial distribution of energetic (keV) charged particles surrounding the accelerator during gun firings, the energy distribution of energetic electrons produced in the plasma by the electron beam, and the dependence of these characteristics on the beam energy, current, and injection angle. The primary objective of the flight of the Nike Black Brant rocket (NUB-06) was to use an electron beam to probe the auroral field lines for electric fields parallel to the magnetic field. The secondary objectives were to study electron beam interactions in the ionosphere and spacecraft charging effects. It is demonstrated that during high current (greater than or equal to 10ma electron beam firings, an intense suprathermal as well as energetic electron population is created on flux tubes near the beam. Certain similarities exist between these measurements and corresponding ones made in the Houston vacuum tank suggesting that the same instability observed in the laboratory is occurring at high altitudes in the ionosphere

  6. A search for relativistic particles with fractional electric charge at the Cern collider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banner, M.; Kofoed-Hansen, O.

    1983-01-01

    A search for relativistic particles with fractional electric charge has been performed at the CERN collider using a telescope of scintillation counters to detect particles with abnormally low ionisation. The thickness of the detector (40 gr cm−2) limits this search to particles without strong...

  7. Radiation effects in the polycarbonate of bisphenol-A. Thermoluminescence electron spin resonance and charged particle track studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edmonds, E.A.

    1978-09-01

    A detailed investigation is presented of the thermoluminescence observable above room temperature from the polycarbonate of bisphenol-A after its exposure to different radiations. A correlation study is described by which features of the complex thermoluminescence glow curve from a commercial grade of the polycarbonate of bisphenol-A are related to the etchability of charged particle damage trails and the radiogenic ESR signal. A model is presented whereby the etchability of charged particle damage trails is associated with chain scission caused by the high local dose of radiation in the vicinity of the trajectories of charged particles. Methods by which activation constants controlling the thermoluminescence glow curve can be evaluated are discussed and results are presented. It is concluded that glow peaks associated with the ESR signal or enhanced etchability are related to small-scale motions in the molecular matrix of the polycarbonate of bisphenol-A. These motions are thermally activated in accord with the simple Boltzmann relation usually incorporated into theories of thermoluminescence. Another component glow peak of the thermoluminescence glow curve is shown to be associated with the glass-rubber transition in the polycarbonate of bisphenol-A. Different features of the thermoluminescence glow curve can be related to relaxations of the polymer matrix and decomposition of the matrix. It is confirmed that the dominant bulk effect of radiation in the polycarbonate of bisphenol-A exposed to large doses of radiation is chain scission. (author)

  8. Motion of charged particle in Reissner-Nordström spacetime: a Jacobi-metric approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Praloy; Sk, Ripon; Ghosh, Subir

    2017-11-01

    The present work discusses motion of neutral and charged particles in Reissner-Nordström spacetime. The constant energy paths are derived in a variational principle framework using the Jacobi metric which is parameterized by conserved particle energy. Of particular interest is the case of particle charge and Reissner-Nordström black hole charge being of same sign, since this leads to a clash of opposing forces—gravitational (attractive) and Coulomb (repulsive). Our paper aims to complement the recent work of Pugliese et al. (Eur Phys J C 77:206. arXiv:1304.2940, 2017; Phys Rev D 88:024042. arXiv:1303.6250, 2013). The energy dependent Gaussian curvature (induced by the Jacobi metric) plays an important role in classifying the trajectories.

  9. Physical aspects of heavy charged particle beams for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Katsuhiro

    1989-01-01

    Physical properties of heavy ion beams are discussed to improve the physical dose distributions in view of radiotherapy. Preservation of the structural and functional integrity of adjacent normal tissue is required to achieve great probability of tumor control. This will be accomplished with the reduction of irradiated volume of normal tissues and with greater relative biological effectiveness (RBE) on tumor cells than that on surrounding normal cells. This suggests the use of heavy ion beams as new source of radiation that increases the therapeutic ratio. The basis of the improvement in the physical dose distribution by use of heavy charged particles is due to the finite range of the beams and to the less multiple coulomb scattering of the particles having a heavier atomic mass than proton. The depth dose distributions and dose profiles of heavy particle beams are discussed in this article. The lateral sharpness of heavy charged particles is comparable to the penumbra of high energy photon and electron beams and is not of clinical concern due to less coulomb scattering of heavy ions to lateral direction in traversing a medium. The dose gradient at the end of range of primary beam is dependent upon the energy spread and range straggling of the particles. The magnitude of range straggling is nearly proportional to the range and inversely proportional to the inverse square root of the particle mass. Heavy ion beams also undergo nuclear interactions, in which the primary beam may produce lower atomic number particles. Therefore, the dose beyond the Bragg peak is due to those fragments. Fragmentation increases as a function of the atomic mass to the 2/3 power and with the energy of the particles. Thus, the production of fragments diminishes the depth dose advantages of heavy ions. The choice of ion for radiotherapy may depend on evaluation of important parameter for tumor control. (J.P.N.)

  10. Moving charged particles in lattice Boltzmann-based electrokinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuron, Michael; Rempfer, Georg; Schornbaum, Florian; Bauer, Martin; Godenschwager, Christian; Holm, Christian; de Graaf, Joost

    2016-12-01

    The motion of ionic solutes and charged particles under the influence of an electric field and the ensuing hydrodynamic flow of the underlying solvent is ubiquitous in aqueous colloidal suspensions. The physics of such systems is described by a coupled set of differential equations, along with boundary conditions, collectively referred to as the electrokinetic equations. Capuani et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 121, 973 (2004)] introduced a lattice-based method for solving this system of equations, which builds upon the lattice Boltzmann algorithm for the simulation of hydrodynamic flow and exploits computational locality. However, thus far, a description of how to incorporate moving boundary conditions into the Capuani scheme has been lacking. Moving boundary conditions are needed to simulate multiple arbitrarily moving colloids. In this paper, we detail how to introduce such a particle coupling scheme, based on an analogue to the moving boundary method for the pure lattice Boltzmann solver. The key ingredients in our method are mass and charge conservation for the solute species and a partial-volume smoothing of the solute fluxes to minimize discretization artifacts. We demonstrate our algorithm's effectiveness by simulating the electrophoresis of charged spheres in an external field; for a single sphere we compare to the equivalent electro-osmotic (co-moving) problem. Our method's efficiency and ease of implementation should prove beneficial to future simulations of the dynamics in a wide range of complex nanoscopic and colloidal systems that were previously inaccessible to lattice-based continuum algorithms.

  11. KNO type scaling of secondary charged particles produced in 4.5 a GeV 12C-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khushnood, H.; Singh, Prithipal; Shukla, Praveen Prakash; Saleem Khan, M.

    2011-01-01

    Study of the secondary charged particles produced in heavy ion collisions is attracting a great deal of attention during the recent years. It is reported that the multiplicity distribution of secondary charged particles produced in high energy hadron-hadron and hadron-nucleus collisions Obey Koba, Nielson and Olesen (KNO) scaling. However, no attention has been paid to study the nature of the multiplicity distribution of secondary charged particles produced in relativistic heavy ions reactions. Thus, an attempt has been made to study the multiplicity distribution of secondary charged particles produced in 4.5 A GeV 12 C-nucleus interactions

  12. Some peculiarity of element analysis using charged particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobzev, A.P.; Abu-Alazm, S.M.; Helal, A.I.; Zahran, N.F.

    2002-01-01

    Multilayer structures, SiC -layers at Si substrate, have been analyzed by RBS, NR, ERD and PIXE methods using the charged particle beams from EG-5 Van de Graaff accelerator of JINR. The depth profiles of the based deposited layers were obtained for the multilayer structures

  13. Motion of Charged Particles in Electromagnetic Fields and Special

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    charged particles as seen from different inertial frames of reference. ... is solved for various initial conditions of the values of q,. --t -+. -+ m,o, E, v and B to be .... on the choice of the particular frame of reference that is employed to describe the ...

  14. Charges collection induced in APS by heavy particles: influence of design parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belredon, Xavier

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the design parameters influence on heavy ions-induced charge collection physics in APS. The goal is to determine the key parameters for an optimised space environment 'particle detector' APS design. It appears that diffusion is the dominant charge collection mechanism in all the studied technology types, with a smaller magnitude in case of epitaxial technologies. Following proton irradiation, a delayed charge collection and loss of collected charges have been observed. These phenomena are explained by the combination of carriers diffusion and action of the traps generated in the device. Even if they cannot be avoid in space applications, these effects are reduced in case of epitaxial technologies. This work led to the design parameters definition of an optimized APS 'particle detector' and to its fabrication. The results obtained on this APS confirm the previous conclusions and let us define the detection range of such detectors from 0.03 to 50 MeV.cm 2 .mg -1 . (author) [fr

  15. Charged particle spectroscopy with solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunyadi, I.; Somogyi, G.

    1984-01-01

    Some of earlier and recent methods for differentiation of charged particles according to their energy, based on the use of polymeric etch-track detectors (CN, CA, PC and CR-39) are outlined. The principle of three track methods suitable for nuclear spectroscopy is discussed. These are based on the analysis of the diameter, surface size and shape of etch-track 'cones' produced by charged particles in polymers, after using shorter or longer chemical etching processes. Examples are presented from the results of the last decade in ATOMKI, Debrecen, Hungary, concerning the application of nuclear track spectroscopy to different low-energy nuclear reaction studies, angular distribution and excitation function measurements. These involve the study of (d,α) reaction on sup(14)N, sup(19)F and sup(27)Al nuclei, (sup(3)He,α) reactions on sup(15)N, (p,α) reaction on sup(27)Al and the process sup(12)C(sup(12)C, sup(8)Be)sup(16)O. (author)

  16. Transverse energy and charged particle production in heavy-ion collisions: from RHIC to LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Raghunath; Mishra, Aditya Nath

    2014-01-01

    We study the charged particle and transverse energy production mechanism from AGS, SPS, Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) to Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energies in the framework of nucleon and quark participants. At RHIC and LHC energies, the number of nucleons-normalized charged particle and transverse energy density in pseudorapidity, which shows a monotonic rise with centrality, turns out to be an almost centrality independent scaling behavior when normalized to the number of participant quarks. A universal function which is a combination of logarithmic and power-law, describes well the charged particle and transverse energy production both at nucleon and quark participant level for the whole range of collision energies. Energy dependent production mechanisms are discussed both for nucleonic and partonic level. Predictions are made for the pseudorapidity densities of transverse energy, charged particle multiplicity and their ratio (the barometric observable, [dE T /dη]/[dN ch /dη] ≡ E T /N ch ) at mid-rapidity for Pb + Pb collisions at √s NN = 5.5 TeV. A comparison with models based on gluon saturation and statistical hadron gas is made for the energy dependence of E T /N ch . (author)

  17. Classical radiation theory of charged particles moving in electromagnetic fields in nonabsorbable isotropic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinovich, A.V.; Melnychuk, S.V.; Konstantinovich, I.A.

    2002-01-01

    The integral expressions for spectral-angular and spectral distributions of the radiation power of heterogeneous charged particles system moving on arbitrary trajectory in nonabsorbable isotropic media media with ε≠1 , μ≠1 are obtained using the Lorentz's self-interaction method. In this method a proper electromagnetic field, acting on electron, is defined as a semi difference between retarded and advanced potentials (Dirac, 1938). The power spectrum of Cherenkov radiation for the linear uniformly moving heterogeneous system of charged particles are obtained. It is found that the expression for the radiation power of heterogeneous system of charged particles becomes simplified when a system of charged particles is homogeneous. In this case the radiation power includes the coherent factor. It is shown what the redistribution effects in energy of the radiation spectrum of the studied system are caused by the coherent factor. The radiation spectrum of the system of electrons moving in a circle in this medium is discrete. The Doppler effect causes the appearance of the new harmonics for the system of electrons moving in a spiral. These harmonics form the region of continuous radiation spectrum. (authors)

  18. Transverse Motion of a Particle with an Oscillating Charge and Variable Mass in a Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alisultanov, Z. Z.; Ragimkhanov, G. B.

    2018-03-01

    The problem of motion of a particle with an oscillating electric charge and variable mass in an uniform magnetic field has been solved. Three laws of mass variation have been considered: linear growth, oscillations, and stepwise growth. Analytical expressions for the particle velocity at different time dependences of the particle mass are obtained. It is established that simultaneous consideration of changes in the mass and charge leads to a significant change in the particle trajectory.

  19. Large Acceptance Measurement of Photons and Charged Particles in Heavy Ion Reactions

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % WA98 \\\\ \\\\ The aim of the experiment is the high statistics study of photons and neutral hadrons, as well as of charged particles, and their correlations in Pb~-~Pb collisions. The photons are measured by: \\begin{enumerate}[-] \\item a 10~000 module LEADGLASS SPECTROMETER yielding high precision data on $ \\pi ^0 $ and $ \\eta $ at midrapidity (with transverse momenta 0.3 GeV/c $>$ p$ _{T} $ $>$ 4.5 GeV/c for $\\pi ^0 $ and 1.5~GeV/c~$>$~p$ _{T}~$ $>$~4.0~GeV/c for $ \\eta $ covering the $^{\\prime\\prime}$thermal$^{\\prime\\prime}$ as well as the $^{\\prime\\prime}$hard scattering$^{\\prime\\prime}$ regime beyond 3~GeV/c) and determination of the thermal and direct photon to $ \\pi ^0 $ ratio. \\item a pad preshower PHOTON MULTIPLICITY DETECTOR which, by comparing with the charged particle multiplicity measurement allows to determine the photon enrichment in an event or event class. \\end{enumerate}\\\\ \\\\The charged particle setup contains:\\\\ \\\\\\begin{enumerate}[-] \\item a 4000 element SILICON PAD DETECTOR and a 4-inch SIL...

  20. Deflection system for charged-particle beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, T

    1982-01-13

    A system is described for achromatically deflecting a beam of charged particles without producing net divergence of the beam comprising three successive magnetic deflection means which deflect the beam alternately in opposite directions; the first and second deflect by angles of less than 50/sup 0/ and the third by an angle of at least 90/sup 0/. Particles with different respective energies are transversely spaced as they enter the third deflection means, but emerge completely superimposed in both position and direction and may be brought to a focus in each of two mutually perpendicular planes, a short distance thereafter. Such a system may be particularly compact, especially in the direction in which the beam leaves the system. It is suitable for deflecting a beam of electrons from a linear accelerator so producing a vertical beam of electron (or with an X-ray target, of X-rays) which can be rotated about a horizontal patient for radiation therapy.

  1. Transverse energy and charged particle multiplicity in 14.6 GeV/c proton-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Gang

    1995-01-01

    Transverse energy and charged particle multiplicity produced in 14.6 GeV/c p + Al and p + Pb collisions have been studied using the E814 set-up at the BNL-AGS. Measurements of dσ/dE T , dE T /dη,dσ/dN c , and dN c /dη are presented. From the present data the mean transverse energy per particle is obtained and it is compared to values observed in Si induced collisions at the same energy In contrast to what is observed in nucleus-nucleus collisions, a very weak correlation is found between the transverse energy and the charged particle multiplicity. These results are compared to the predictions of various theoretical models used to describe heavy-ion collisions. The event generators RQMD and HIJET reproduce well the pseudorapidity distribution of both the transverse energy and charged particle multiplicity, whereas FRITIOF fails to reproduce the measured distributions. Contrary to what had been suggested previously in a Si + A study, the present study shows that the pseudorapidity dependence of charged particle multiplicity distributions do not follow KNO scaling. (author)

  2. Charged particle multiplicity distributions in Au-Au collisions at RHIC-BNL energies (BRAHMS Experiment)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argintaru, D.; Bearden, I.G.; Beavis, D.

    2002-01-01

    The BRAHMS Experiment (Broad RAnge Hadronic Magnetic Spectrometers) takes place at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) from Brookhaven National Laboratory and searches for a transition of matter into a new phase called quark-gluon plasma (QGP), a phase transition that appears in extreme conditions of nuclear matter densities and temperatures. Important signals for this transition are related to dependencies of the charged particle multiplicity distributions on the pseudorapidity range. The charged particle multiplicity distributions in Au-Au collisions at RHIC energies are obtained from the global detector measurements. These detectors are: - An array of Si strip detectors and scintillation tiles placed around the interaction region; they cover the range η < 2 in pseudorapidity, measuring the majority of charged particles; - Two systems of Cerenkov detectors (Beam-Beam Counters) placed both sides of the nominal interaction point at 220 cm and cover the range 3 < η < 4.3 in pseudorapidity. These detectors are used for vertex determination and supply a level zero trigger for the entire experiment; - Zero Degree Calorimeters placed at zero degree with respect to the beam axis, both sides of the vertex, measuring the spectator neutrons from the nuclear reactions. These detectors supplies information about the reaction centrality and could estimate the interaction vertex. The paper presents some results on charged particle multiplicities in different pseudorapidity ranges at different impact parameters. Interesting dependencies of the average charged particle multiplicities on the pseudorapidity range, impact parameters and total available energy in the centre of mass system. Some comparisons with the simulation codes predictions and theoretical model estimations are included, too. (authors)

  3. On Influence of Neutrals on Dust Particle Charging in Complex Plasmas in the Presence of Electromagnetic Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopnin, S. I.; Morzhakova, A. A.; Popel, S. I.; Shukla, P. K.

    2011-01-01

    Effects associated with neutral component of complex (dusty) ionospheric plasmas which affect dust particle charging are studied. Microscopic ion currents on dust particles with taking into account ion-neutral interaction are presented. Calculations are performed both for the case of negative charges of dust particles, when the influence of Solar radiation on dust particle charging processes is negligible, and for the case of positive charges which is realized in the presence of sufficiently intensive UV or X-ray radiation. We also carry out investigation of the electron heating due to the photoelectric effect. We show that the efficiency of electron heating depends on the density of neutral component of the plasma. As result, we determine altitudes where the influence of the neutral plasma component on dust particle charging processes as well as the electron heating effect are significant and should be taken into account under consideration of the ionospheric complex plasmas. In particular, we show that the effects considered could be important for the description of noctilucent clouds, polar mesosphere summer echoes, and some other physical phenomena associated with dust particles in the ionosphere.

  4. Charged-particle multiplicities in pp interactions measured with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, G.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B.S.; Ackers, M.; Adams, D.L.; Addy, T.N.; Adelman, J.; Aderholz, M.; Adomeit, S.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Akesson, T.P.A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A.V.; Alam, M.S.; Alam, M.A.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I.N.; Aleppo, M.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P.P.; Allwood-Spiers, S.E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, J.; Alviggi, M.G.; Amako, K.; Amaral, P.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V.V.; Amorim, A.; Amoros, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C.F.; Anderson, K.J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M-L.; Anduaga, X.S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonelli, S.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A.T.H.; Archambault, J.P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J-F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A.J.; Arms, K.E.; Armstrong, S.R.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, S.; Silva, J.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Aubert, B.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M.A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A.M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Bachy, G.; Backes, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahinipati, S.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D.C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J.T.; Baker, O.K.; Baker, S.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H.S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S.P.; Barashkou, A.; Barbaro Galtieri, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E.L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D.Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B.M.; Barnett, R.M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barr, A.J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A.E.; Bartsch, D.; Bates, R.L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J.R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Battistoni, G.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H.S.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P.H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H.P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K.H.; Beddall, A.J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V.A.; Bee, C.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P.K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P.J.; Bell, W.H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, G.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Benchouk, C.; Bendel, M.; Benedict, B.H.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benjamin, D.P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J.R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernardet, K.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Bertinelli, F.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M.I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R.M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K.M.; Blair, R.E.; Blanchard, J.B.; Blanchot, G.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bobrovnikov, V.B.; Bocci, A.; Bock, R.; Boddy, C.R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Boser, S.; Bogaerts, J.A.; Bogdanchikov, A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boonekamp, M.; Boorman, G.; Booth, C.N.; Booth, P.; Booth, J.R.A.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Botterill, D.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E.V.; Boulahouache, C.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I.R.; Bozhko, N.I.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Brambilla, E.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G.W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J.E.; Braun, H.M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Breton, D.; Brett, N.D.; Bright-Thomas, P.G.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F.M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T.J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W.K.; Brown, G.; Brubaker, E.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P.A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Buanes, T.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchanan, N.J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckingham, R.M.; Buckley, A.G.; Buda, S.I.; Budagov, I.A.; Budick, B.; Buscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Buira-Clark, D.; Buis, E.J.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C.P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J.M.; Buttar, C.M.; Butterworth, J.M.; Buttinger, W.; Byatt, T.; Cabrera Urban, S.; Caccia, M.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L.P.; Caloi, R.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camard, A.; Camarri, P.; Cambiaghi, M.; Cameron, D.; Cammin, J.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Capasso, L.; Capeans Garrido, M.D.M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capriotti, D.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Caramarcu, C.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carpentieri, C.; Carrillo Montoya, G.D.; Carron Montero, S.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M.P.; Cascella, M.; Caso, C.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N.F.; Cataldi, G.; Cataneo, F.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J.R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cavallari, A.; Cavalleri, P.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Cazzato, A.; Ceradini, F.; Cerna, C.; Cerqueira, A.S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cetin, S.A.; Cevenini, F.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K.; Chapleau, B.; Chapman, J.D.; Chapman, J.W.; Chareyre, E.; Charlton, D.G.; Chavda, V.; Cheatham, S.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S.V.; Chelkov, G.A.; Chen, H.; Chen, L.; Chen, S.; Chen, T.; Chen, X.; Cheng, S.; Cheplakov, A.; Chepurnov, V.F.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Cheung, S.L.; Chevalier, L.; Chevallier, F.; Chiefari, G.; Chikovani, L.; Childers, J.T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chizhov, M.V.; Choudalakis, G.; Chouridou, S.; Christidi, I.A.; Christov, A.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M.L.; Chudoba, J.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A.K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciobotaru, M.D.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirilli, M.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, P.J.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J.C.; Clement, B.; Clement, C.; Clifft, R.W.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coe, P.; Cogan, J.G.; Coggeshall, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cojocaru, C.D.; Colas, J.; Colijn, A.P.; Collard, C.; Collins, N.J.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Collot, J.; Colon, G.; Coluccia, R.; Comune, G.; Conde Muino, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Conidi, M.C.; Consonni, M.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conventi, F.; Cook, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B.D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Cooper-Smith, N.J.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Correard, S.; Corriveau, F.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M.J.; Costanzo, D.; Costin, T.; Cote, D.; Coura Torres, R.; Courneyea, L.; Cowan, G.; Cowden, C.; Cox, B.E.; Cranmer, K.; Cristinziani, M.; Crosetti, G.; Crupi, R.; Crepe-Renaudin, S.; Cuenca Almenar, C.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cuneo, S.; Curatolo, M.; Curtis, C.J.; Cwetanski, P.; Czirr, H.; Czyczula, Z.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; D'Orazio, A.; Da Rocha Gesualdi Mello, A.; Da Silva, P.V.M.; Da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dahlhoff, A.; Dai, T.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dallison, S.J.; Dam, M.; Dameri, M.; Damiani, D.S.; Danielsson, H.O.; Dankers, R.; Dannheim, D.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darlea, G.L.; Daum, C.; Dauvergne, J.P.; Davey, W.; Davidek, T.; Davidson, N.; Davidson, R.; Davies, M.; Davison, A.R.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Dawson, J.W.; Daya, R.K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Castro, S.; De Cecco, S.; de Graat, J.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; De La Taille, C.; De Lotto, B.; De Mora, L.; De Nooij, L.; De Oliveira Branco, M.; De Pedis, D.; de Saintignon, P.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J.B.; Dean, S.; Dedes, G.; Dedovich, D.V.; Degenhardt, J.; Dehchar, M.; Deile, M.; Del Papa, C.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delpierre, P.; Delruelle, N.; Delsart, P.A.; Deluca, C.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demirkoz, B.; Deng, J.; Denisov, S.P.; Dennis, C.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J.E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Devetak, E.; Deviveiros, P.O.; Dewhurst, A.; DeWilde, B.; Dhaliwal, S.; Dhullipudi, R.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Luise, S.; Di Mattia, A.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Diaz, M.A.; Diblen, F.; Diehl, E.B.; Dietl, H.; Dietrich, J.; Dietzsch, T.A.; Diglio, S.; Dindar Yagci, K.; Dingfelder, J.; Dionisi, C.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djilkibaev, R.; Djobava, T.; do Vale, M.A.B.; Do Valle Wemans, A.; Doan, T.K.O.; Dobbs, M.; Dobinson, R.; Dobos, D.; Dobson, E.; Dobson, M.; Dodd, J.; Dogan, O.B.; Doglioni, C.; Doherty, T.; Doi, Y.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolenc, I.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B.A.; Dohmae, T.; Donadelli, M.; Donega, M.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dos Anjos, A.; Dosil, M.; Dotti, A.; Dova, M.T.; Dowell, J.D.; Doxiadis, A.D.; Doyle, A.T.; Drasal, Z.; Drees, J.; Dressnandt, N.; Drevermann, H.; Driouichi, C.; Dris, M.; Drohan, J.G.; Dubbert, J.; Dubbs, T.; Dube, S.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Dudarev, A.; Dudziak, F.; Duhrssen, M.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Duflot, L.; Dufour, M-A.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Duxfield, R.; Dwuznik, M.; Dydak, F.; Dzahini, D.; Duren, M.; Ebke, J.; Eckert, S.; Eckweiler, S.; Edmonds, K.; Edwards, C.A.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Ehrich, T.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Ellis, K.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Ely, R.; Emeliyanov, D.; Engelmann, R.; Engl, A.; Epp, B.; Eppig, A.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Eriksson, D.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Ernwein, J.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Escobar, C.; Espinal Curull, X.; Esposito, B.; Etienne, F.; Etienvre, A.I.; Etzion, E.; Evangelakou, D.; Evans, H.; Fabbri, L.; Fabre, C.; Facius, K.; Fakhrutdinov, R.M.; Falciano, S.; Falou, A.C.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farley, J.; Farooque, T.; Farrington, S.M.; Farthouat, P.; Fasching, D.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Fatholahzadeh, B.; Favareto, A.; Fayard, L.; Fazio, S.; Febbraro, R.; Federic, P.; Fedin, O.L.; Fedorko, I.; Fedorko, W.; Fehling-Kaschek, M.; Feligioni, L.; Fellmann, D.; Felzmann, C.U.; Feng, C.; Feng, E.J.; Fenyuk, A.B.; Ferencei, J.; Ferguson, D.; Ferland, J.; Fernandes, B.; Fernando, W.; Ferrag, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrara, V.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrer, M.L.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Ferretto Parodi, A.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipcic, A.; Filippas, A.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Fiolhais, M.C.N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, G.; Fischer, P.; Fisher, M.J.; Fisher, S.M.; Flammer, J.; Flechl, M.; Fleck, I.; Fleckner, J.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleischmann, S.; Flick, T.; Flores Castillo, L.R.; Flowerdew, M.J.; Fohlisch, F.; Fokitis, M.; Fonseca Martin, T.; Forbush, D.A.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Fortin, D.; Foster, J.M.; Fournier, D.; Foussat, A.; Fowler, A.J.; Fowler, K.; Fox, H.; Francavilla, P.; Franchino, S.; Francis, D.; Frank, T.; Franklin, M.; Franz, S.; Fraternali, M.; Fratina, S.; French, S.T.; Froeschl, R.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J.A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gadfort, T.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; 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Papadelis, A.; Papadopoulou, Th.D.; Paramonov, A.; Park, S.J.; Park, W.; Parker, M.A.; Parodi, F.; Parsons, J.A.; Parzefall, U.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passeri, A.; Pastore, F.; Pastore, Fr.; Pasztor, G.; Pataraia, S.; Patel, N.; Pater, J.R.; Patricelli, S.; Pauly, T.; Pecsy, M.; Pedraza Morales, M.I.; Peleganchuk, S.V.; Peng, H.; Pengo, R.; Penson, A.; Penwell, J.; Perantoni, M.; Perez, K.; Perez Cavalcanti, T.; Perez Codina, E.; Perez Garcia-Estan, M.T.; Perez Reale, V.; Peric, I.; Perini, L.; Pernegger, H.; Perrino, R.; Perrodo, P.; Persembe, S.; Perus, P.; Peshekhonov, V.D.; Peters, O.; Petersen, B.A.; Petersen, J.; Petersen, T.C.; Petit, E.; Petridis, A.; Petridou, C.; Petrolo, E.; Petrucci, F.; Petschull, D.; Petteni, M.; Pezoa, R.; Phan, A.; Phillips, A.W.; Phillips, P.W.; Piacquadio, G.; Piccaro, E.; Piccinini, M.; Pickford, A.; Piegaia, R.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pilkington, A.D.; Pina, J.; Pinamonti, M.; Pinfold, J.L.; Ping, J.; Pinto, B.; Pirotte, O.; Pizio, C.; Placakyte, R.; Plamondon, M.; Plano, W.G.; Pleier, M.A.; Pleskach, A.V.; Poblaguev, A.; Poddar, S.; Podlyski, F.; Poggioli, L.; Poghosyan, T.; Pohl, M.; Polci, F.; Polesello, G.; Policicchio, A.; Polini, A.; Poll, J.; Polychronakos, V.; Pomarede, D.M.; Pomeroy, D.; Pommes, K.; Pontecorvo, L.; Pope, B.G.; Popeneciu, G.A.; Popovic, D.S.; Poppleton, A.; Portell Bueso, X.; Porter, R.; Posch, C.; Pospelov, G.E.; Pospisil, S.; Potrap, I.N.; Potter, C.J.; Potter, C.T.; Poulard, G.; Poveda, J.; Prabhu, R.; Pralavorio, P.; Prasad, S.; Pravahan, R.; Prell, S.; Pretzl, K.; Pribyl, L.; Price, D.; Price, L.E.; Price, M.J.; Prichard, P.M.; Prieur, D.; Primavera, M.; Prokofiev, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Protopopescu, S.; Proudfoot, J.; Prudent, X.; Przysiezniak, H.; Psoroulas, S.; Ptacek, E.; Purdham, J.; Purohit, M.; Puzo, P.; Pylypchenko, Y.; Qian, J.; Qian, Z.; Qin, Z.; Quadt, A.; Quarrie, D.R.; Quayle, W.B.; Quinonez, F.; Raas, M.; Radescu, V.; Radics, B.; Rador, T.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Rahimi, A.M.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rajek, S.; Rammensee, M.; 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Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J.M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Seliverstov, D.M.; Sellden, B.; Sellers, G.; Seman, M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sevior, M.E.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L.Y.; Shank, J.T.; Shao, Q.T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P.B.; Shaver, L.; Shaw, C.; Shaw, K.; Sherman, D.; Sherwood, P.; Shibata, A.; Shimizu, S.; Shimojima, M.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Shochet, M.J.; Short, D.; Shupe, M.A.; Sicho, P.; Sidoti, A.; Siebel, A.; Siegert, F.; Siegrist, J.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silbert, O.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S.B.; Simak, V.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simmons, B.; Simonyan, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N.B.; Sipica, V.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A.N.; Sivoklokov, S.Yu.; Sjolin, J.; Sjursen, T.B.; Skinnari, L.A.; Skovpen, K.; Skubic, P.; Skvorodnev, N.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Sloan, T.J.; Sloper, J.; Smakhtin, V.; Smirnov, S.Yu.; Smirnova, L.N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, B.C.; Smith, D.; Smith, K.M.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A.A.; Snow, S.W.; Snow, J.; Snuverink, J.; Snyder, S.; Soares, M.; Sobie, R.; Sodomka, J.; Soffer, A.; Solans, C.A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Soldevila, U.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Solodkov, A.A.; Solovyanov, O.V.; Sondericker, J.; Soni, N.; Sopko, V.; Sopko, B.; Sorbi, M.; Sosebee, M.; Soukharev, A.; Spagnolo, S.; Spano, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spila, F.; Spiriti, E.; Spiwoks, R.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Spurlock, B.; St. Denis, R.D.; Stahl, T.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R.W.; Stanescu, C.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E.A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staude, A.; Stavina, P.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steele, G.; Steinbach, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stekl, I.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H.J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stevenson, K.; Stewart, G.A.; Stockmanns, T.; Stockton, M.C.; Stoerig, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stonjek, S.; Strachota, P.; Stradling, A.R.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strang, M.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Strohmer, R.; Strom, D.M.; Strong, J.A.; Stroynowski, R.; Strube, J.; Stugu, B.; Stumer, I.; Stupak, J.; Sturm, P.; Soh, D.A.; Su, D.; Subramania, S.; Sugaya, Y.; Sugimoto, T.; Suhr, C.; Suita, K.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V.V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J.E.; Suruliz, K.; Sushkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M.R.; Suzuki, Y.; Sviridov, Yu.M.; Swedish, S.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Szeless, B.; Sanchez, J.; Ta, D.; Tackmann, K.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taga, A.; Taiblum, N.; Takahashi, Y.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A.; Tamsett, M.C.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, Y.; Tani, K.; Tannoury, N.; Tappern, G.P.; Tapprogge, S.; Tardif, D.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G.F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tassi, E.; Tatarkhanov, M.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, F.E.; Taylor, G.; Taylor, G.N.; Taylor, W.; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K.K.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P.K.; Tennenbaum-Katan, Y.D.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terwort, M.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R.J.; Tevlin, C.M.; Thadome, J.; Therhaag, J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thioye, M.; Thoma, S.; Thomas, J.P.; Thompson, E.N.; Thompson, P.D.; Thompson, P.D.; Thompson, A.S.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thun, R.P.; Tic, T.; Tikhomirov, V.O.; Tikhonov, Y.A.; Timmermans, C.J.W.P.; Tipton, P.; Tique Aires Viegas, F.J.; Tisserant, S.; Tobias, J.; Toczek, B.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokar, S.; Tokunaga, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tonazzo, A.; Tong, G.; Tonoyan, A.; Topfel, C.; Topilin, N.D.; Torchiani, I.; Torrence, E.; Torro Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D.R.; Traynor, D.; Trefzger, T.; Treis, J.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I.M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Trinh, T.N.; Tripiana, M.F.; Triplett, N.; Trischuk, W.; Trivedi, A.; Trocme, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J.C-L.; Tsiakiris, M.; Tsiareshka, P.V.; 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Varvell, K.E.; Vassilakopoulos, V.I.; Vazeille, F.; Vegni, G.; Veillet, J.J.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Ventura, S.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J.C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M.C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Viehhauser, G.H.A.; Viel, S.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M.G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V.B.; Virchaux, M.; Viret, S.; Virzi, J.; Vitale, A.; Vitells, O.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Loeben, J.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobiev, A.P.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T.T.; Vossebeld, J.H.; Vovenko, A.S.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, W.; Wagner, P.; Wahlen, H.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walbersloh, J.; Walch, S.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Waller, P.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.C.; Wang, R.; Wang, S.M.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C.P.; Warsinsky, M.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, M.F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A.T.; Waugh, B.M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.; Weber, M.S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A.R.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P.S.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Wessels, M.; Whalen, K.; Wheeler-Ellis, S.J.; Whitaker, S.P.; White, A.; White, M.J.; White, S.; Whitehead, S.R.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F.J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik, L.A.M.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M.A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H.G.; Will, J.Z.; Williams, E.; Williams, H.H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J.A.; Wilson, M.G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winkelmann, S.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M.W.; Wolters, H.; Wooden, G.; Wosiek, B.K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M.J.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S.L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wulf, E.; Wunstorf, R.; Wynne, B.M.; Xaplanteris, L.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xie, Y.; Xu, C.; Xu, D.; Xu, G.; Yabsley, B.; Yamada, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U.K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yanush, S.; Yao, W-M.; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaets, V.G.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A.M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zalite, Yo.K.; Zanello, L.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zaytsev, A.; Zdrazil, M.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zema, P.F.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, A.V.; Zenin, O.; Zenis, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G.; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, S.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C.G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zieminska, D.; Zilka, B.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Zivkovic, L.; Zmouchko, V.V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zolnierowski, Y.; Zsenei, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.; Zwalinski, L.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements are presented from proton-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of sqrt(s) = 0.9, 2.36 and 7 TeV recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Events were collected using a single-arm minimum-bias trigger. The charged-particle multiplicity, its dependence on transverse momentum and pseudorapidity and the relationship between the mean transverse momentum and charged-particle multiplicity are measured. Measurements in different regions of phase-space are shown, providing diffraction-reduced measurements as well as more inclusive ones. The observed distributions are corrected to well-defined phase-space regions, using model-independent corrections. The results are compared to each other and to various Monte Carlo models, including a new AMBT1 PYTHIA 6 tune. In all the kinematic regions considered, the particle multiplicities are higher than predicted by the Monte Carlo models. The central charged-particle multiplicity per event and unit of pseudorapidity, for tracks with pT >100 MeV, is...

  5. Numerical studies of emittance exchange in 2-D charged-particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guy, F.W.

    1986-01-01

    We describe results obtained from a two-dimensional particle-following computer code that simulates a continuous, nonrelativistic, elliptical charged-particle beam with linear continuous focusing. Emittances and focusing strengths can be different in the two transverse directions. The results can be applied, for example, for a quadrupole transport system in a smooth approximation to a real beam with unequal emittances in the two planes. The code was used to study emittance changes caused by kinetic-energy exchange between transverse directions and by shifts in charge distributions. Simulation results for space-charge-dominated beams agree well with analytic formulas. From simulation results, an empirical formula was developed for a ''partition parameter'' (the ratio of kinetic energies in the two directions) as a function of initial conditions and beamline length. Quantitative emittance changes for each transverse direction can be predicted by using this parameter. Simulation results also agree with Hofmann's generalized differential equation relating emittance and field energy

  6. Measurement of charged-particle distributions sensitive to the underlying event in √s=13 TeV proton-proton collisions with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaboud, M. [Faculté des Sciences, Université Mohamed Premier and LPTPM, Oujda (Morocco); Aad, G. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Université and CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Abbott, B. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman OK, United States of America (United States); Abdallah, J. [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington TX, United States of America (United States); Collaboration: The ATLAS collaboration; and others

    2017-03-29

    We present charged-particle distributions sensitive to the underlying event, measured by the ATLAS detector in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, in low-luminosity Large Hadron Collider fills corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.6 nb{sup −1}. The distributions were constructed using charged particles with absolute pseudorapidity less than 2.5 and with transverse momentum greater than 500 MeV, in events with at least one such charged particle with transverse momentum above 1 GeV. These distributions characterise the angular distribution of energy and particle flows with respect to the charged particle with highest transverse momentum, as a function of both that momentum and of charged-particle multiplicity. The results have been corrected for detector effects and are compared to the predictions of various Monte Carlo event generators, experimentally establishing the level of underlying-event activity at LHC Run 2 energies and providing inputs for the development of event generator modelling. The current models in use for UE modelling typically describe this data to 5% accuracy, compared with data uncertainties of less than 1%.

  7. Secondary charging effects due to icy dust particle impacts on rocket payloads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kassa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We report measurements of dust currents obtained with a small probe and a larger probe during the flight of the ECOMA-4 rocket through the summer polar mesosphere. The payload included two small dust probes behind a larger dust probe located centrally at the front. For certain phases of the payload rotation, the current registered by one of the small dust probes was up to 2 times the current measured with the larger probe, even though the effective collection area of the larger probe was 4 times that of the small one. We analyze the phase dependence of the currents and their difference with a model based on the assumption that the small probe was hit by charged dust fragments produced in collisions of mesospheric dust with the payload body. Our results confirm earlier findings that secondary charge production in the collision of a noctilucent cloud/Polar Summer Mesospheric Echo (NLC/PMSE dust particle with the payload body must be several orders of magnitude larger than might be expected from laboratory studies of collisions of pure ice particles with a variety of clean surfaces. An important consequence is that for some payload configurations, one should not assume that the current measured with a detector used to study mesospheric dust is simply proportional to the number density of ambient dust particles. The higher secondary charge production may be due to the NLC/PMSE particles containing multiple meteoric smoke particles.

  8. CHARGE-2/C, Flux and Dose Behind Shield from Electron, Proton, Heavy Particle Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ucker, W.R.; Lilley, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: The CHARGE code computes flux spectra, dose and other response rates behind a multilayered spherical or infinite planar shield exposed to isotopic fluxes of electrons, protons and heavy charged particles. The doses, or other responses, to electron, primary proton, heavy particle, electron Bremsstrahlung, secondary proton, and secondary neutron radiations are calculated as a function of penetration into the shield; the materials of each layer may be mixtures of elements contained in the accompanying data library, or supplied by the user. The calculation may optionally be halted before the entire shield is traversed by specifying a minimum total dose rate; the computation stops when the dose drops below this value. The ambient electron, proton and heavy particle spectra may be specified in tabular or functional form. These incident charged particle spectra are divided into energy bands or groups, the number or spacing of which are controlled by input data. The variation of the group boundary energies and group spectra as a function of shield penetration uniquely determines charged particle dose rates and secondary particle production rates. The charged particle shielding calculation is essentially the integration of the range- energy equation which expresses the variation of particle energy wit distance travelled. 2 - Method of solution: The 'straight-ahead' approximation is used throughout, that is the changes in particle direction of motion due to elastic scattering are ignored. This approximation is corrected, in the case of electrons, by applying transmission factors obtained from Monte Carlo calculations. Inelastic scattering between protons and the shielding material is assumed to produce two classes of secondaries 1) Cascade protons and neutrons, emitted in the same direction as the primaries 2) Evaporation neutrons, emitted isotropically. The transmission of secondary protons is analyzed in exactly the same way as the

  9. Pseudorapidity Distribution of Charged Particles in d+Au Collisions at √(sNN)=200 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Becker, B.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Harrington, A. S.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lee, J. W.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sedykh, I.; Skulski, W.; Smith, C. E.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S.; Sukhanov, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wolfs, F. L.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wysłouch, B.; Zhang, J.

    2004-08-01

    The measured pseudorapidity distribution of primary charged particles in minimum-bias d+Au collisions at √(sNN)=200 GeV is presented for the first time. This distribution falls off less rapidly in the gold direction as compared to the deuteron direction. The average value of the charged particle pseudorapidity density at midrapidity is ∣η∣≤0.6=9.4±0.7(syst) and the integrated primary charged particle multiplicity in the measured region is 82±6(syst). Estimates of the total charged particle production, based on extrapolations outside the measured pseudorapidity region, are also presented. The pseudorapidity distribution, normalized to the number of participants in d+Au collisions, is compared to those of Au+Au and p+p¯ systems at the same energy. The d+Au distribution is also compared to the predictions of the parton saturation model, as well as microscopic models.

  10. 3D Silicon Coincidence Avalanche Detector (3D-SiCAD) for charged particle detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignetti, M. M.; Calmon, F.; Pittet, P.; Pares, G.; Cellier, R.; Quiquerez, L.; Chaves de Albuquerque, T.; Bechetoille, E.; Testa, E.; Lopez, J.-P.; Dauvergne, D.; Savoy-Navarro, A.

    2018-02-01

    Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) are p-n junctions operated in Geiger Mode by applying a reverse bias above the breakdown voltage. SPADs have the advantage of featuring single photon sensitivity with timing resolution in the picoseconds range. Nevertheless, their relatively high Dark Count Rate (DCR) is a major issue for charged particle detection, especially when it is much higher than the incoming particle rate. To tackle this issue, we have developed a 3D Silicon Coincidence Avalanche Detector (3D-SiCAD). This novel device implements two vertically aligned SPADs featuring on-chip electronics for the detection of coincident avalanche events occurring on both SPADs. Such a coincidence detection mode allows an efficient discrimination of events related to an incoming charged particle (producing a quasi-simultaneous activation of both SPADs) from dark counts occurring independently on each SPAD. A 3D-SiCAD detector prototype has been fabricated in CMOS technology adopting a 3D flip-chip integration technique, and the main results of its characterization are reported in this work. The particle detection efficiency and noise rejection capability for this novel device have been evaluated by means of a β- strontium-90 radioactive source. Moreover the impact of the main operating parameters (i.e. the hold-off time, the coincidence window duration, the SPAD excess bias voltage) over the particle detection efficiency has been studied. Measurements have been performed with different β- particles rates and show that a 3D-SiCAD device outperforms single SPAD detectors: the former is indeed capable to detect particle rates much lower than the individual DCR observed in a single SPAD-based detectors (i.e. 2 to 3 orders of magnitudes lower).

  11. The implication of charged particle lateral distribution function for extensive air shower studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomin, Yu.A.; Kalmykov, N.N.; Kempa, J.; Kulikov, G.V.; Sulakov, V.P.

    2008-01-01

    The knowledge of charged particle lateral distribution function (LDF) is of prime importance in extensive air shower (EAS) investigations. This function is necessary for the determination of the total number of particles as well as some other classification parameters. The Nishimura-Kamata-Greisen (NKG) function is being actively employed by many researchers in spite of the fact that it was derived under rather crude assumptions (in so-called B Approximation of the electromagnetic cascade theory). Our paper discusses the dependence of the EAS size spectrum on the LDF form adopted and compares two LDFs: the traditional NKG-function and the scaling function suggested recently. Prominence is given to the EAS MSU data but the results of other EAS arrays (AGASA, Yakutsk and KASCADE) are also considered

  12. Theses of XX International Seminar on charged particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papkovich, V.G.; Rakivnenko, L.M.

    2007-01-01

    Published abstracts of reports of the XX International Seminar on charged particle accelerators have interest for specialists in the fields of linear accelerator physics and technology, VHF uses systems of beam diagnostics and autometed control, new acceleration methods and for theses who use electrophysical devices in industry, medicine and research

  13. Charged particle density distributions in Au + Au collisions at ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Charged particle pseudorapidity distributions have been measured in Au + Au collisions using the BRAHMS detector at RHIC. The results are presented as a function of the collision centrality and the center of mass energy. They are compared to the predictions of different parton scattering models and the important role of ...

  14. The programme library for numerical simulation of charged particle dynamics in transportation lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, V.S.; Shevtsov, V.F.; Shirkov, G.D.; Batygin, Yu.K.

    1998-01-01

    The description of a PC codes library to simulate the beam transportation of charged particles is presented. The codes are realized on IBM PC in Visual Basic common interface. It is destined for the simulation and optimization of beam dynamics and based on the successive and consistent use of two methods: the momentum method of distribution functions (RMS technique) and the particle-particle method (PP-Method). The library allows to calculate the RMS parameters of electron and ion beams, passing through a set of quadrupoles, solenoids, bends, accelerating sections. The RMS code is a fast code very suitable for the first test, design and optimization of the beam line parameters. The PP code requires more time for execution but provides a high accuracy of simulation taking into account the space charge effects, aberrations and beam losses. One of the main advantages of PP code presented here is an ability to simulate a real multicomponent beam of different masses and charged states of ions from ion sources

  15. The CNCSN: one, two- and three-dimensional coupled neutral and charged particle discrete ordinates code package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voloschenko, A.M.; Gukov, S.V.; Kryuchkov, V.P.; Dubinin, A.A.; Sumaneev, O.V.

    2005-01-01

    The CNCSN package is composed of the following codes: -) KATRIN-2.0: a three-dimensional neutral and charged particle transport code; -) KASKAD-S-2.5: a two-dimensional neutral and charged particle transport code; -) ROZ-6.6: a one-dimensional neutral and charged particle transport code; -) ARVES-2.5: a preprocessor for the working macroscopic cross-section format FMAC-M for transport calculations; -) MIXERM: a utility code for preparing mixtures on the base of multigroup cross-section libraries in ANISN format; -) CEPXS-BFP: a version of the Sandia National Lab. multigroup coupled electron-photon cross-section generating code CEPXS, adapted for solving the charged particles transport in the Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck formulation with the use of discrete ordinate method; -) SADCO-2.4: Institute for High-Energy Physics modular system for generating coupled nuclear data libraries to provide high-energy particles transport calculations by multigroup method; -) KATRIF: the post-processor for the KATRIN code; -) KASF: the post-processor for the KASKAD-S code; and ROZ6F: the post-processor for the ROZ-6 code. The coding language is Fortran-90

  16. Zinc oxide nanoparticles and monocytes: Impact of size, charge and solubility on activation status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prach, Morag [Edinburgh Napier University, School of Life, Sport and Social Science, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Stone, Vicki [Heriot-Watt University, School of Life Sciences, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Proudfoot, Lorna, E-mail: l.proudfoot@napier.ac.uk [Edinburgh Napier University, School of Life, Sport and Social Science, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) particle induced cytotoxicity was dependent on size, charge and solubility, factors which at sublethal concentrations may influence the activation of the human monocytic cell line THP1. ZnO nanoparticles (NP; average diameter 70 nm) were more toxic than the bulk form (< 44 μm mesh) and a positive charge enhanced cytotoxicity of the NP despite their relatively high dissolution. A positive charge of the particles has been shown in other studies to have an influence on cell viability. Centrifugal filtration using a cut off of 5 kDa and Zn element analysis by atomic absorption spectroscopy confirmed that exposure of the ZnO particles and NP to 10% foetal bovine serum resulted in a strong association of the Zn{sup 2+} ion with protein. This association with protein may influence interaction of the ZnO particles and NP with THP1 cells. After 24 h exposure to the ZnO particles and NP at sublethal concentrations there was little effect on immunological markers of inflammation such as HLA DR and CD14, although they may induce a modest increase in the adhesion molecule CD11b. The cytokine TNFα is normally associated with proinflammatory immune responses but was not induced by the ZnO particles and NP. There was also no effect on LPS stimulated TNFα production. These results suggest that ZnO particles and NP do not have a classical proinflammatory effect on THP1 cells. -- Highlights: ► ZnO is cytotoxic to THP-1 monocytes. ► ZnO nanoparticles are more toxic than the bulk form. ► Positive charge enhances ZnO nanoparticle cytotoxicity. ► Sublethal doses of ZnO particles do not induce classical proinflammatory markers.

  17. Charged particle track reconstruction using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glover, C.; Fu, P.; Gabriel, T.; Handler, T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the current state of our research in developing and applying artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm described here is based on a crude model of the retina. It takes as input the coordinates of each charged particle's interaction point (''hit'') in the tracking chamber. The algorithm's output is a set of vectors pointing to other hits that most likely to form a track

  18. An upper limit on the branching ratio for $\\tau$ decays into seven charged particles

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerstaff, K; Allison, J; Altekamp, N; Anderson, K J; Anderson, S; Arcelli, S; Asai, S; Axen, D A; Azuelos, Georges; Ball, A H; Barberio, E; Barlow, R J; Bartoldus, R; Batley, J Richard; Baumann, S; Bechtluft, J; Beeston, C; Behnke, T; Bell, A N; Bell, K W; Bella, G; Bentvelsen, Stanislaus Cornelius Maria; Berlich, P; Bethke, Siegfried; Biebel, O; Biguzzi, A; Bird, S D; Blobel, Volker; Bloodworth, Ian J; Bloomer, J E; Bobinski, M; Bock, P; Bonacorsi, D; Boutemeur, M; Bouwens, B T; Braibant, S; Brigliadori, L; Brown, R M; Burckhart, Helfried J; Burgard, C; Bürgin, R; Capiluppi, P; Carnegie, R K; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Chrisman, D; Clarke, P E L; Cohen, I; Conboy, J E; Cooke, O C; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; Dallapiccola, C; Dallavalle, G M; De Jong, S; del Pozo, L A; Desch, Klaus; Dixit, M S; do Couto e Silva, E; Doucet, M; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Eatough, D; Edwards, J E G; Estabrooks, P G; Evans, H G; Evans, M; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Fanti, M; Faust, A A; Fiedler, F; Fierro, M; Fischer, H M; Fleck, I; Folman, R; Fong, D G; Foucher, M; Fürtjes, A; Futyan, D I; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Gascon, J; Gascon-Shotkin, S M; Geddes, N I; Geich-Gimbel, C; Geralis, T; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Giacomelli, R; Gibson, V; Gibson, W R; Gingrich, D M; Glenzinski, D A; Goldberg, J; Goodrick, M J; Gorn, W; Grandi, C; Gross, E; Grunhaus, Jacob; Gruwé, M; Hajdu, C; Hanson, G G; Hansroul, M; Hapke, M; Hargrove, C K; Hart, P A; Hartmann, C; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Hemingway, Richard J; Herndon, M; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hildreth, M D; Hill, J C; Hillier, S J; Hilse, T; Hobson, P R; Homer, R James; Honma, A K; Horváth, D; Howard, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Igo-Kemenes, P; Imrie, D C; Ingram, M R; Ishii, K; Jawahery, A; Jeffreys, P W; Jeremie, H; Jimack, Martin Paul; Joly, A; Jones, C R; Jones, G; Jones, M; Jost, U; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Karlen, D A; Kartvelishvili, V G; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Keeler, Richard K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Kirk, J; Klier, A; Kluth, S; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Koetke, D S; Kokott, T P; Kolrep, M; Komamiya, S; Kress, T; Krieger, P; Von Krogh, J; Kyberd, P; Lafferty, G D; Lahmann, R; Lai, W P; Lanske, D; Lauber, J; Lautenschlager, S R; Layter, J G; Lazic, D; Lee, A M; Lefebvre, E; Lellouch, Daniel; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Long, G D; Losty, Michael J; Ludwig, J; Macchiolo, A; MacPherson, A L; Mannelli, M; Marcellini, S; Markus, C; Martin, A J; Martin, J P; Martínez, G; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McDonald, W J; McKenna, J A; McKigney, E A; McMahon, T J; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Menke, S; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Meyer, J; Michelini, Aldo; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Mincer, A; Mir, R; Mohr, W; Montanari, A; Mori, T; Morii, M; Müller, U; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Neal, H A; Nellen, B; Nisius, R; O'Neale, S W; Oakham, F G; Odorici, F; Ögren, H O; Oldershaw, N J; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pálinkás, J; Pásztor, G; Pater, J R; Patrick, G N; Patt, J; Pearce, M J; Petzold, S; Pfeifenschneider, P; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, James L; Plane, D E; Poffenberger, P R; Poli, B; Posthaus, A; Przysiezniak, H; Rees, D L; Rigby, D; Robertson, S; Robins, S A; Rodning, N L; Roney, J M; Rooke, A M; Ros, E; Rossi, A M; Rosvick, M; Routenburg, P; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Runólfsson, O; Ruppel, U; Rust, D R; Rylko, R; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sbarra, C; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharf, F; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schenk, P; Schieck, J; Schleper, P; Schmitt, B; Schmitt, S; Schöning, A; Schröder, M; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Schulz, M; Schumacher, M; Schwick, C; Scott, W G; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Sherwood, P; Siroli, G P; Sittler, A; Skillman, A; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Snow, G A; Sobie, Randall J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Springer, R W; Sproston, M; Stephens, K; Steuerer, J; Stockhausen, B; Stoll, K; Strom, D; Szymanski, P; Tafirout, R; Talbot, S D; Tanaka, S; Taras, P; Tarem, S; Teuscher, R; Thiergen, M; Thomson, M A; Von Törne, E; Towers, S; Trigger, I; Tsur, E; Turcot, A S; Turner-Watson, M F; Utzat, P; Van Kooten, R; Verzocchi, M; Vikas, P; Vokurka, E H; Voss, H; Wäckerle, F; Wagner, A; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wermes, N; White, J S; Wilkens, B; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wolf, G; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Yekutieli, G; Zacek, V; Zer-Zion, D

    1997-01-01

    We have searched for decays of the tau lepton into seven or more charged particles, using data collected with the OPAL detector from 1990 to 1995 in e^+e^- collisions at sqrt(s) ~ M_Z. No candidate events were found and an upper limit on the branching ratio for tau decays into seven charged particles of 1.8 x 10^-5 at the 95% confidence level was determined.

  19. Mixtures of latex particles and the surfactant of opposite charge used as interface stabilizers--influence of particle contact angle, zeta potential, flocculation and shear energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleurence, Rémi; Parneix, Caroline; Monteux, Cécile

    2014-09-28

    We investigate the stabilization of air-water interfaces by mixtures of negatively charged latex particles (sulfate polystyrene) and cationic surfactants (alkyl trimethylammonium bromides). First we report results concerning the binding of surfactant molecules to the latex particles. As the surfactant concentration increases, the charge of the particles reverses, from negative to positive, because CnTAB first binds electrostatically to the latex particles and then through hydrophobic interaction with the monolayer already adsorbed on the particles as well as directly with the hydrophobic surface of the latex. Over a large range of surfactant concentrations around the charge inversion, a strong flocculation is observed and 100 μm large aggregates form in the suspension. Unlike previous studies published on mixtures of inorganic particles with oppositely charged surfactants, we show that we can vary the sign of the zeta potential of the particles without changing the contact angle of the particles over a large range of surfactant concentrations. Indeed, the latex particles that we study are more hydrophobic than inorganic particles, hence adding moderate concentrations of the surfactant results in a weak variation of the contact angle while the charge of the particles can be reversed. This enables decoupling of the effect of zeta potential and contact angle on the interfacial properties of the mixtures. Our study shows that the contact angle and the charge of the particles are not sufficient parameters to control the foam properties, and the key-parameters are the flocculation state and the shear energy applied to produce the foam. Indeed, flocculated samples, whatever the sign of the zeta potential, enable production of a stable armour at the interface. The large aggregates do not adsorb spontaneously at the interface because of their large size, however when a large shear energy is used to produce the foam very stable foam is obtained, where particles are trapped

  20. Cell and tissue kinetics of the subependymal layer in mouse brain following heavy charged particle irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manley, N.B.

    1988-01-01

    The following studies investigate the cellular response and cell population kinetics of the subependymal layer in the mouse brain exposed to heavy charged particle irradiation. Partial brain irradiation with helium and neon ions was confined to one cortex of the brain. Both the irradiated and the unirradiated contralateral cortex showed similar disturbances of the cell and tissue kinetics in the subependymal layers. The irradiated hemisphere exhibited histological damage, whereas the unirradiated side appeared normal histologically. The decrease in the values of the labeling indices 1 week after charged particle irradiation was dose- and ion-dependent. Mitotic indices 1 week after 10 and 25 Gy helium and after 10 Gy neon were the same as those seen in the control mice. Analysis of cell kinetics 1 week after 10 Gy helium and 10 Gy neon irradiation suggests the presence of a progenitor subpopulation that is proliferating with a shorter cell cycle. Comparison of the responses to the different charged particle beams indicates that neon ions are more effective in producing direct cellular damage than the helium ions, but the surviving proliferating cells several divisions later continue to maintain active cell renewal. Based on the 1 week post-irradiation H 3 -TdR labeling indices, a rough estimate of the RBE for neon ions is at least 2.5 when compared to helium ions

  1. Techniques used for charged particle nuclear data evaluation at CNDC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Youxiang; Sun Zuxun

    1993-01-01

    The methods and techniques used for Charged Particle Nuclear Data (CPND) evaluation at Chinese Nuclear Data Center (CNDC) are summarized, including compilation and evaluation of experimental data, nuclear reaction theory and model calculation, systematics research and comprehensive recommendation etc

  2. Standard Practice for Measurement of Mechanical Properties During Charged-Particle Irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1996-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers the performance of mechanical tests on materials being irradiated with charged particles. These tests are designed to simulate or provide understanding of, or both, the mechanical behavior of materials during exposure to neutron irradiation. Practices are described that govern the test material, the particle beam, the experimental technique, and the damage calculations. Reference should be made to other ASTM standards, especially Practice E 521. Procedures are described that are applicable to creep and creep rupture tests made in tension and torsion test modes. 1.2 The word simulation is used here in a broad sense to imply an approximation of the relevant neutron irradiation environment. The degree of conformity can range from poor to nearly exact. The intent is to produce a correspondence between one or more aspects of the neutron and charged particle irradiations such that fundamental relationships are established between irradiation or material parameters and the material respons...

  3. On the secondary charging effects and structure of mesospheric dust particles impacting on rocket probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havnes, O.; Naesheim, L.I. [Inst. of Physics, Univ. of Tromso (Norway)

    2007-07-01

    The dust probe DUSTY, first launched during the summer of 1994 (flights ECT-02 and ECT-07) from Andoeya Rocket Range, northern Norway, was the first probe to unambiguously detect heavy charged mesospheric aerosols, from hereon referred to as dust. In ECT-02 the probe detected negatively charged dust particles in the height interval of 83 to 88.5 km. In this flight, the lower grid in the detector (Grid 2) measures both positive and negative currents in various regions, and we find that the relationship between the current measurements of Grid 2 and the bottom plate can only be explained by influence from secondary charge production on Grid 2. In ECT-07, which had a large coning, positive currents reaching the top grid of the probe were interpreted as due to the impact of positively charged dust particles. We have now reanalyzed the data from ECT-07 and arrived at the conclusion that the measured positive currents to this grid must have been mainly due to secondary charging effects from the impacting dust particles. The grid consists of a set of parallel wires crossed with an identical set of wires on top of it, and we find that if the observed currents were created from the direct impact of charged dust particles, then they should be very weakly modulated at four times the rocket spin rate {omega}{sub R}. Observations show, however, that the observed currents are strongly modulated at 2{omega}{sub R}. We cannot reproduce the observed large modulations of the impact currents in the dust layer if the currents are due only to the transfer of the charges on the impacted dust particles. Based on the results of recent ice cluster impact secondary charging experiments by Tomsic (2003), which found that a small fraction of the ice clusters, when impacting with nearly grazing incidence, carried away one negative charge - 1e, we have arrived at the conclusion that similar, but significantly more effective, charging effects must be predominantly responsible for the positive

  4. Trajectory of Charged Particle in Combined Electric and Magnetic Fields Using Interactive Spreadsheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambade, Popat S.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this article is to graphically illustrate to the students the physical phenomenon of motion of charged particle under the action of simultaneous electric and magnetic fields by simulating particle motion on a computer. Differential equations of motions are solved analytically and path of particle in three-dimensional space are…

  5. A study of the interpretations of charm particle decays into three charged particles in NA16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moa, T.

    1984-03-01

    The variation of the kinematic fit probability as a function of the mass of the decaying particle is studied for all hypotheses tried for the three prong charged decays in the NA16 LECB-EHS experiment. (author)

  6. Matrix-operator method for calculation of dynamics of intense beams of charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapchinskij, M.I.; Korenev, I.L.; Rinskij, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    Calculation algorithm for particle dynamics in high-current cyclic and linear accelerators is suggested. Particle movement in six-dimensional phase space is divided into coherent and incoherent components. Incoherent movement is described by envelope method; particle cluster is considered to be even-charged by tri-axial ellipsoid. Coherent movement is described in para-axial approximation; each structure element of the accelerator transport channel is characterized by six-dimensional matrix of phase coordinate transformation of cluster centre and by shift vector resulting from deviation of focusing element parameters from calculated values. Effect of space charge reflected forces is taken into account in the element matrix. Algorithm software is realized using well-known TRANSPORT program

  7. Development of utility system of charged particle Nuclear Reaction Data on Unified Interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Shigeyoshi; Ohbayashi, Yosihide; Kato, Kiyoshi; Masui, Hiroshi; Ohnishi, Akira; Chiba, Masaki

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a utility system, WinNRDF, for a nuclear charged particle reaction data of NRDF (Nuclear Reaction Data File) on a unified interface of Windows95, 98/NT. By using the system, we can easily search the experimental data of a charged particle reaction in NRDF and also see the graphic data on GUI (Graphical User Interface). Furthermore, we develop a mechanism of making a new index of keywords in order to include the time developing character of the NRDF database. (author)

  8. Theses of XIX International Seminar on charged particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2005-01-01

    Published abstracts of reports of the XIX International Seminar on charged particle accelerators have interest for specialists in the fields of linear accelerator physics and technology, VHF uses, systems of beam diagnostics and automated control, new acceleration methods, as well as for theses who use electrophysical devices in industry, medicine and research

  9. Electromagnetic scattering by a polydispersion of small charged cosmic dust particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kocifaj

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Some recent studies on extended red emissions suggest the presence of very small dust particles in the Universe. The sizes of these particles vary from 1 nm to some tens of nanometers, thus situating them deeply in the Rayleigh region if computations are made for visible or near infrared. The optical response of such particles can be a function of the surface charge. In this study we analyse the effect of surface electric potential on the total optical thickness and scattering phase function of the cosmic dust particles. The results are compared with those obtained for electrically neutral dust.

  10. DART: A simulation code for charged particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.C.; Barr, W.L.; Moir, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a recently modified version of the 2-D code, DART, which can simulate the behavior of a beam of charged particles whose trajectories are determined by electric and magnetic fields. This code was originally used to design laboratory-scale and full-scale beam direct converters. Since then, its utility has been expanded to allow more general applications. The simulation includes space charge, secondary electrons, and the ionization of neutral gas. A beam can contain up to nine superimposed beamlets of different energy and species. The calculation of energy conversion efficiency and the method of specifying the electrode geometry are described. Basic procedures for using the code are given, and sample input and output fields are shown. 7 refs., 18 figs

  11. Measuring charged particle multiplicity with early ATLAS public data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Üstün, G; Barut, E; Bektaş, E; Özcan, V E

    2017-01-01

    We study 100 images of early LHC collisions that were recorded by the ATLAS experiment and made public for outreach purposes, and extract the charged particle multiplicity as a function of momentum for proton–proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. As these collisions have already been pre-processed by the ATLAS Collaboration, the particle tracks are visible, but are available to the public only in the form of low-resolution bitmaps. We describe two separate image processing methods, one based on the industry-standard OpenCV library and C++, another based on self-developed algorithms in Python. We present our analysis of the transverse momentum and azimuthal angle distributions of the particles, in agreement with the literature. (paper)

  12. Measuring charged particle multiplicity with early ATLAS public data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üstün, G.; Barut, E.; Bektaş, E.; Özcan, V. E.

    2017-07-01

    We study 100 images of early LHC collisions that were recorded by the ATLAS experiment and made public for outreach purposes, and extract the charged particle multiplicity as a function of momentum for proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. As these collisions have already been pre-processed by the ATLAS Collaboration, the particle tracks are visible, but are available to the public only in the form of low-resolution bitmaps. We describe two separate image processing methods, one based on the industry-standard OpenCV library and C++, another based on self-developed algorithms in Python. We present our analysis of the transverse momentum and azimuthal angle distributions of the particles, in agreement with the literature.

  13. Influence of initial velocity on trajectories of a charged particle in uniform crossed electric and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khotimah, Siti Nurul; Viridi, Sparisoma; Widayani

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic and electric fields can cause a charged particle to form interesting trajectories. In general, each trajectory is discussed separately in university physics textbooks for undergraduate students. In this work, a solution of a charged particle moving in a uniform electric field at right angles to a uniform magnetic field (uniform crossed electric and magnetic fields) is reported; it is limited to particle motion in a plane. Specific solutions and their trajectories are obtained only by varying the initial particle velocity. The result shows five basic trajectory patterns, i.e., straight line, sinusoid-like, cycloid, cycloid-like with oscillation, and circle-like. The region of each trajectory is also mapped in the initial velocity space of the particle. This paper is intended for undergraduate students and describes further the trajectories of a charged particle through the regions of electric and magnetic fields influenced by initial condition of the particle, where electromagnetic radiation of an accelerated particle is not considered. (paper)

  14. Geant4-based simulations of charge collection in CMOS Active Pixel Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, M.; Allinson, N.M.; Price, T.; Anaxagoras, T.

    2017-01-01

    Geant4 is an object-oriented toolkit for the simulation of the interaction of particles and radiation with matter. It provides a snapshot of the state of a simulated particle in time, as it travels through a specified geometry. One important area of application is the modelling of radiation detector systems. Here, we extend the abilities of such modelling to include charge transport and sharing in pixelated CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APSs); though similar effects occur in other pixel detectors. The CMOS APSs discussed were developed in the framework of the PRaVDA consortium to assist the design of custom sensors to be used in an energy-range detector for proton Computed Tomography (pCT). The development of ad-hoc classes, providing a charge transport model for a CMOS APS and its integration into the standard Geant4 toolkit, is described. The proposed charge transport model includes, charge generation, diffusion, collection, and sharing across adjacent pixels, as well as the full electronic chain for a CMOS APS. The proposed model is validated against experimental data acquired with protons in an energy range relevant for pCT.

  15. Universal behavior of charged particle production in heavy ion collisions at RHIC energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Peter A.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Holyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.; Phobos Collaboration

    2003-04-01

    The PHOBOS experiment at RHIC has measured the multiplicity of primary charged particles as a function of centrality and pseudorapidity in Au+Au collisions at √ SNN = 19.6, 130 and 200 GeV. Two kinds of universal behavior are observed in charged particle production in heavy ion collisions. The first is that forward particle production, over a range of energies, follows a universal limiting curve with a non-trivial centrality dependence. The second arises from comparisons with pp/ overlinepp and e +e - data. / in nuclear collisions at high energy scales with √ s in a similar way as Nch in e +e - collisions and has a very weak centrality dependence. This feature may be related to a reduction in the leading particle effect due to the multiple collisions suffered per participant in heavy ion collisions.

  16. Charged-particle distributions in $\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV $pp$ interactions measured with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abeloos, Baptiste; Aben, Rosemarie; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abraham, Nicola; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Agricola, Johannes; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allen, Benjamin William; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Armitage, Lewis James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Artz, Sebastian; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Balunas, William Keaton; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barranco Navarro, Laura; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; 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Berlendis, Simon; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertram, Iain Alexander; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bielski, Rafal; Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biondi, Silvia; Bjergaard, David Martin; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanco, Jacobo Ezequiel; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Blunier, Sylvain; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boehler, Michael; Boerner, Daniela; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogavac, Danijela; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortoletto, Daniela; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Bossio Sola, Jonathan David; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Boutle, Sarah Kate; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Breaden Madden, William Dmitri; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Broughton, James; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Brunt, Benjamin; Bruschi, Marco; Bruscino, Nello; Bryant, Patrick; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bullock, Daniel; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgard, Carsten Daniel; Burghgrave, Blake; Burka, Klaudia; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Buzykaev, Aleksey; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cairo, Valentina; Cakir, Orhan; Calace, Noemi; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Calvet, Thomas Philippe; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Camincher, Clement; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Carbone, Ryne Michael; Cardarelli, Roberto; Cardillo, Fabio; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Casper, David William; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavallaro, Emanuele; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerda Alberich, Leonor; Cerio, Benjamin; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chan, Stephen Kam-wah; Chan, Yat Long; Chang, Philip; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, Dave; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Che, Siinn; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Shion; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Huajie; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chomont, Arthur Rene; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; 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Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Geng, Cong; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghasemi, Sara; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghneimat, Mazuza; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giannetti, Paola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gignac, Matthew; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Giuli, Francesco; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; Gongadze, Alexi; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Goudet, Christophe Raymond; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Gozani, Eitan; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; Grafström, Per; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Grefe, Christian; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Grevtsov, Kirill; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Sabrina; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guan, Wen; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Yicheng; Gupta, Shaun; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Hadef, Asma; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Haney, Bijan; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Jochen Jens; Heinrich, Lukas; Heinz, Christian; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hinman, Rachel Reisner; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohlfeld, Marc; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Homann, Michael; Hong, Tae Min; Hooberman, Benjamin Henry; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Qipeng; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ito, Fumiaki; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jain, Vivek; Jakobi, Katharina Bianca; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanneau, Fabien; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Hai; Jiang, Yi; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Johnson, William Joseph; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Sarah; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Köhler, Markus Konrad; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kaluza, Adam; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneti, Steven; Kanjir, Luka; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kasahara, Kota; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawade, Kentaro; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knapik, Joanna; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolb, Mathis; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewska, Anna Bozena; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuechler, Jan Thomas; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lammers, Sabine; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Lazzaroni, Massimo; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; Le Quilleuc, Eloi; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Lerner, Giuseppe; Leroy, Claude; Lesage, Arthur; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Qi; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Hongbin; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanlin; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loew, Kevin Michael; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Longo, Luigi; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lopez Solis, Alvaro; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Haonan; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luedtke, Christian; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Lyubushkin, Vladimir; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Ma, Yanhui; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeda, Junpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Maneira, José; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Manzoni, Stefano; Mapelli, Livio; Marceca, Gino; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mc Fadden, Neil Christopher; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McClymont, Laurie; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mistry, Khilesh; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Monden, Ryutaro; Mondragon, Matthew Craig; Mönig, Klaus; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montalbano, Alyssa; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Mori, Daniel; Mori, Tatsuya; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Mortensen, Simon Stark; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Muskinja, Miha; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Narrias Villar, Daniel Isaac; Naryshkin, Iouri; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Nechansky, Filip; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Norjoharuddeen, Nurfikri; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Rourke, Abigail Alexandra; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onogi, Kouta; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Adam Jackson; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pascuzzi, Vincent; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Penwell, John; Peralva, Bernardo; Perego, Marta Maria; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petroff, Pierre; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrov, Mariyan; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Peyaud, Alan; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pin, Arnaud Willy J; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pires, Sylvestre; Pirumov, Hayk; Pitt, Michael; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Pluth, Daniel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Puddu, Daniele; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Raine, John Andrew; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Ratti, Maria Giulia; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reichert, Joseph; Reisin, Hernan; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rifki, Othmane; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Rizzi, Chiara; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodina, Yulia; Rodriguez Perez, Andrea; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Daniel; Roe, Shaun; Rogan, Christopher Sean; Røhne, Ole; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Jonatan; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryu, Soo; Ryzhov, Andrey; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Saha, Puja; Sahinsoy, Merve; Saimpert, Matthias; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Salazar Loyola, Javier Esteban; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sammel, Dirk; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sato, Koji; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schmitz, Simon; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schwegler, Philipp; Schweiger, Hansdieter; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Sessa, Marco; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shaikh, Nabila Wahab; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyedruhollah; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidebo, Per Edvin; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Dorian; Simon, Manuel; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sioli, Maximiliano; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Slovak, Radim; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Matthew; Smith, Russell; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Sokhrannyi, Grygorii; Solans Sanchez, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Son, Hyungsuk; Song, Hong Ye; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosa, David; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Sowden, Benjamin; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spangenberg, Martin; Spanò, Francesco; Sperlich, Dennis; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stabile, Alberto; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; S