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Sample records for charged nickel additions

  1. Anharmonicity of lattice vibrations induced by charged nickel additions in A sup 2 B sup 6 semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Sokolov, V I; Shirokov, E A; Kislov, A N

    2002-01-01

    Paper presents the results of investigations into lattice vibrations induced by nickel impurities charged negatively as to the lattice in ZnSe:Ni, ZnO:Ni, ZnS:Ni, CdS:Ni semiconductors. To investigate into vibrations one applies a sensitive technique of field exciton-oscillation spectroscopy. One observes experimentally oscillating reiterations of the impurity exciton head line including the intensive peaks of combined repetitions up to the 8-th order. The experimental results are discussed on the basis of the model estimations of oscillations of a lattice with a charged impurity centre, as well as, on the ground of calculations for oscillations of monoatomic chain with high anharmonicity. Charged impurity centres are shown to induce new oscillations of lattice - impurity anharmonic modes

  2. Nickel-cadmium cell residual charge analyser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, W.G.; Leek, R.; Hampson, N.A.; Lovelock, G.R.

    1984-09-01

    This paper describes a portable unit for measuring the charge remaining in nickel-cadmium secondary cells. Exhaustive frequency response tests have confirmed that cell impedance varies very little with charge state, with the possible exception of that at very low frequencies (< 50 mHz). In the interim before further work in this area is carried out, a microprocessor-based test unit has been built which uses a current pulse discharge method to arrive at a residual charge reading. When the cell is discharged according to a particular regime, the unit produces results accurate to within 10-15% over the entire range of charge. Further development involving the inclusion of cell history parameters promises to make the unit useful for military and other applications.

  3. Effect of Lu2O3 on Charge/discharge Performances of Spherical Nickel Hydroxide at High Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Nickel-metal hydride (Ni/MH) batteries are one of promising batteries for electric vehicle applications, but at high temperature the charge efficiency of nickel electrode is very low. In order to improve the high-temperature-efficiency of nickel electrode, spherical nickel hydroxide mixed with various ratios of Lu2O3 was used as active material of pasted nickel electrodes. The results of charge/discharge experiments, cyclic voltammetric measurements and XRD characterizations have shown that after addition of Lu2O3, the oxygen evolution overpotential is elevated much, the charge efficiency of nickel electrode at high temperature is greatly improved and the content of β-NiOOH phase increases in charged electrodes. In addition, the mixed ratio of Lu2O3 has different effects on high temperature performances of nickel electrode at different charge/discharge currents, 3.5 % is the optimum mixed ratio, and the action of Lu2O3 on high temperature electrochemical behaviors is more apparent when nickel electrodes are charged at small current than large current.

  4. Charge stripes and antiferromagnetism in insulating nickelates and superconducting cuprates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranquada, J.

    1998-10-01

    Neutron and X-ray scattering studies have provided strong evidence for coupled spatial modulations of charge and spin densities in layered nickelates and cuprates. The accumulated results for La(2-x)Sr(x)NiO(4+d) are consistent with the strongly-modulated topological-stripe concept. Clues from Nd-doped La(2-x)Sr(x)CuO(4) suggest similar behavior for the cuprates. The experimental results are summarized, and features that conflict with an interpretation based on a Fermi-surface instability are emphasized. A rationalization for the differences in transport properties between the cuprates and nickelates is given.

  5. A nickel-cadmium cell residual charge analyser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, W. G.; Leek, R.; Hampson, N. A.; Lovelock, G. R.

    1984-09-01

    This paper describes a portable unit for measuring the charge remaining in nickel-cadmium secondary cells. Exhaustive frequency response tests have confirmed that cell impedance varies very little with charge state, with the possible exception of that at very low frequencies (less than 50 mHz). In the interim before further work in this area is carried out, a microprocessor-based test unit has been built which uses a current pulse discharge method to arrive at a residual charge reading. When the cell is discharged according to a particular regime, the unit produces results accurate to within 10-15 percent over the entire range of charge. Further development involving the inclusion of cell history parameters promises to make the unit useful for military and other applications.

  6. Barodynamic determination of the current yield in the charging of a sealed nickel-cadmium battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsenter, B.T.; Boldin, R.V.; Levinzon, L.M.

    1982-02-10

    The current yield (n) in charging a sealed nickel-cadmium battery is an important parameter determining such characteristics as the charge, heat regime, and energy supply. This work presents a method for determining n relative to barodynamic measurements in charging and storing sealed nickel-cadmium battery.

  7. Charge Stripes and Antiferromagnetism in Insulating Nickelates and Superconducting Cuprates

    OpenAIRE

    Tranquada, J. M.

    1998-01-01

    Neutron and X-ray scattering studies have provided strong evidence for coupled spatial modulations of charge and spin densities in layered nickelates and cuprates. The accumulated results for La(2-x)Sr(x)NiO(4+d) are consistent with the strongly-modulated topological-stripe concept. Clues from Nd-doped La(2-x)Sr(x)CuO(4) suggest similar behavior for the cuprates. The experimental results are summarized, and features that conflict with an interpretation based on a Fermi-surface instability are...

  8. Ultrafast charge localization in a stripe-phase nickelate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coslovich, Giacomo; Huber, Bernhard; Lee, Wei-Sheng; Sasagawa, Takao; Hussain, Zahid; Bechtel, Hans A.; Martin, Michael C.; Shen, Zhi-Xun; W. Schoenlein, Robert; A. Kaindl, Robert

    2013-08-30

    Self-organized electronically-ordered phases are a recurring feature in correlated materials, resulting in e.g. fluctuating charge stripes whose role in high-Tc superconductivity is under debate. However, the relevant cause-effect relations between real-space charge correlations and low-energy excitations remain hidden in time-averaged studies. Here, we reveal ultrafast charge localization and lattice vibrational coupling as dynamical precursors of stripe formation in the model compound La1.75Sr0.25NiO4, using ultrafast and equilibrium mid-infrared spectroscopy. The opening of a pseudogap at a crossover temperature T* far above long-range stripe formation establishes the onset of electronic localization which is accompanied by an enhanced Fano asymmetry of Ni-O stretch vibrations. Ultrafast excitation triggers a sub-picosecond dynamics exposing the synchronous modulation of electron-phonon coupling and charge localization. These results illuminate the role of localization in forming the pseudogap in nickelates, opening a path to understanding this mysterious phase in a broad class of complex oxides.

  9. The Effects of Additives on the Physical Properties of Electroformed Nickel and on the Stretch of Photoelectroformed Nickel Components

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, D; Garbutt, I; Saumer, M; Dhum, Ch; Schmitt, M; Hoffmann, J E

    2007-01-01

    The process of nickel electroforming is becoming increasingly important in the manufacture of MST products, as it has the potential to replicate complex geometries with extremely high fidelity. Electroforming of nickel uses multi-component electrolyte formulations in order to maximise desirable product properties. In addition to nickel sulphamate (the major electrolyte component), formulation additives can also comprise nickel chloride (to increase nickel anode dissolution), sulphamic acid (to control pH), boric acid (to act as a pH buffer), hardening/levelling agents (to increase deposit hardness and lustre) and wetting agents (to aid surface wetting and thus prevent gas bubbles and void formation). This paper investigates the effects of some of these variables on internal stress and stretch as a function of applied current density.

  10. Chlorination of nickel ore by gaseous chlorine in the presence of active additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Ilija B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of chemical reactions occurring during chlorination with and without additives for both nickel oxides and nickel ferrites, which are component parts of nickel ore. The experimental research investigated the influence of temperature in the range from 600 up to 1000 °C and time (up to 3 h on the chlorination degree of nickel ores with and without additives. It was found that the introduction of additives such as C, S, BaS and NaCl intensified the chlorination of nickel ore. The results can be applied and may help determine the optimal conditions for the chlorination of low-grade ferrous nickel ores.

  11. The application of Co-Al-hydrotalcite as a novel additive of positive material for nickel-metal hydride secondary cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhaobin; Yang, Zhanhong; Yang, Bin; Zhang, Zheng; Xie, Xiaoe

    2014-11-01

    Co-Al-CO3 layered double hydroxide (LDH) with the different Co/Al molar ration is synthesized by hydrothermal method and investigated as an additive for positive material of the Ni-MH cells. The Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) show the Co-Al-LDH with Co/Al = 4:1 (molar ration) is well-crystallized and hexagon structure. The electrochemical performances of the nickel electrode added with different Co/Al molar ration Co-Al-LDH, the pure nickel electrode and the nickel electrode added with CoO are investigated by the cyclic voltammograms (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements, and AC electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Compared with the pure nickel electrode and the nickel electrode added with CoO, the nickel electrode added with Co/Al = 4:1 (molar ration) Co-Al-LDH has higher discharge capacity and more stable cycling performances. This cell can undergo at least 400 charge-discharge cycles at constant current of 1 C. The discharge capacity of this cell remains about 287 mAh g-1 after the 400th cycle. Meanwhile, compared with the pure electrode, the nickel electrode added with Co/Al = 4:1 (molar ration) Co-Al-LDH possess a higher rate capability to meet the needs of high-storage applications.

  12. Frictional properties of lubrication greases with the addition of nickel nanoparticles in pneumatic cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho; Lan, Chou-Wei; Guo, Jia-Bin

    2011-12-01

    This paper studies the influence of addition of 100 nm diameter nickel nano-particles on the friction properties of synthetic grease (Li base, VG100) in pneumatic cylinder. The friction force test of pneumatic cylinder equipment measures the frictional force between seal and cylinder bore in pneumatic cylinders. The lubricants with addition of nickel nano-particles were used for lubricating the contact interface between seal and cylinder bore. The friction force test equipment employ a load cell force sensor to measure the friction force between seals and cylinder bores. Results obtained from experimental tests are compared to determine the friction force between seals and cylinder bore in pneumatic cylinders. The study leads to the conclusion that the addition of nickel nano-particles to synthetic grease results in a decrease in friction force between seals and cylinder bores in pneumatic cylinder. This tribological behavior is closely related to the deposition of nano-particles on the rubbing surfaces

  13. Effect of silver addition on the properties of nickel-titanium alloys for dental application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Keun-Taek; Joo, Uk-Hyon; Park, Gee-Ho; Hwang, Chung-Ju; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2006-02-01

    Equiatomic and near-equiatomic nickel-titanium alloys exhibit a shape-memory effect and superelasticity. However, the properties of such alloys are extremely sensitive to the precise nickel-titanium ratio and the addition of alloying elements. High corrosion resistance is necessary for biomedical applications, especially orthodontic. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of silver addition to nickel-titanium alloys for dental and medical application. Arc melting, homogenization, hot rolling, and solution heat treatment were performed to prepare the nickel-titanium-silver (NiTi-Ag) specimens. The properties of the ternary NiTi-Ag alloys such as phase-transformation temperature, microstructure, microhardness, corrosion resistance, and cytotoxicity were investigated. The NiTi-Ag alloys showed low silver recovery rate for the cast alloy, due to silver's low evaporation temperature, and low silver solubility in nickel-titanium. Silver addition to nickel-titanium increased the transition temperature range to 100 degrees C and stabilized the martensitic phase (monoclinic structure) at room temperature, because the martensitic transformation starting temperature (Ms) was above room temperature. Martensitic and austenitic phases existed in X-ray diffraction patterns of solution-annealed NiTi-Ag alloys. The silver addition was considered to improve the corrosion resistance and form a stable passive film. Significantly, the mechanical properties of the silver-added alloys were dependent upon the amount of alloying addition. There was no toxicity in the NiTi-Ag alloys, as the response index showed none or mild levels.

  14. Analytical assessment of the thermal behavior of nickel-metal hydride batteries during fast charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Peyman; Yazdanpour, Maryam; Bahrami, Majid

    2014-01-01

    A novel distributed transient thermal model is proposed to investigate the thermal behavior of nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) batteries under fast-charging processes at constant currents. Based on the method of integral transformation, a series-form solution for the temperature field inside the battery core is obtained that takes account for orthotropic heat conduction, transient heat generation, and convective heat dissipation at surfaces of the battery. The accuracy of the developed theoretical model is confirmed through comparisons with numerical and experimental data for a sample 30 ampere-hour NiMH battery. The comparisons show that even the first term of the series solution fairly predicts the temperature field with the modest numerical cost. The thermal model is also employed to define an efficiency for charging processes. Our calculations confirm that the charging efficiency decreases as the charging current increases.

  15. Texture and microstructure evolution in nickel electrodeposited from an additive-free Watts electrolyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alimadadi, Hossein; da Silva Fanta, Alice Bastos; Kasama, Takeshi;

    2016-01-01

    Nickel layers with 〈100〉, 〈210〉, 〈110〉 and 〈211〉 fiber textures were electrodeposited from additive-free Watts type electrolytes by adjusting both the pH and the applied current density. Quantitative crystallographic texture analysis by XRD was supplemented by micro-texture analysis applying EBSD...

  16. Catalytic role of nickel in the decarbonylative addition of phthalimides to alkynes

    KAUST Repository

    Poater, Albert

    2013-11-11

    Density functional theory calculations have been used to investigate the catalytic role of nickel(0) in the decarbonylative addition of phthalimides to alkynes. According to Kurahashi et al. the plausible reaction mechanism involves a nucleophilic attack of nickel at an imide group, giving a six-membered metallacycle, followed by a decarbonylation and insertion of an alkyne leading to a seven-membered metallacycle. Finally a reductive elimination process produces the desired product and regenerates the nickel(0) catalyst. In this paper, we present a full description of the complete reaction pathway along with possible alternative pathways, which are predicted to display higher upper barriers. Our computational results substantially confirm the proposed mechanism, offering a detailed geometrical and energetical understanding of all the elementary steps. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  17. Polyelectrolyte decomplexation via addition of salt: charge correlation driven zipper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antila, Hanne S; Sammalkorpi, Maria

    2014-03-20

    We report the first atomic scale studies of polyelectrolyte decomplexation. The complex between DNA and polylysine is shown to destabilize and spontaneously open in a gradual, reversible zipper-like mechanism driven by an increase in solution salt concentration. Divalent CaCl2 is significantly more effective than monovalent NaCl in destabilizing the complex due to charge correlations and water binding capability. The dissociation occurs accompanied by charge reversal in which charge correlations and ion binding chemistry play a key role. Our results are in agreement with experimental work on complex dissociation but in addition show the underlying microstructural correlations driving the behavior. Comparison of our full atomic level detail and dynamics results with theoretical works describing the PEs as charged, rigid rods reveals that although charge correlation involved theories provide qualitatively similar responses, considering also specific molecular chemistry and molecular level water contributions provides a more complete understanding of PE complex stability and dynamics. The findings may facilitate controlled release in gene delivery and more in general tuning of PE membrane permeability and mechanical characteristics through ionic strength.

  18. Stacked charge stripes in the quasi-2D trilayer nickelate La4Ni3O8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junjie; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Phelan, D.; Zheng, Hong; Norman, M. R.; Mitchell, J. F.

    2016-08-01

    The quasi-2D nickelate La4Ni3O8 (La-438), consisting of trilayer networks of square planar Ni ions, is a member of the so-called T' family, which is derived from the Ruddlesden-Popper (R-P) parent compound La4Ni3O10-x by removing two oxygen atoms and rearranging the rock salt layers to fluorite-type layers. Although previous studies on polycrystalline samples have identified a 105-K phase transition with a pronounced electronic and magnetic response but weak lattice character, no consensus on the origin of this transition has been reached. Here, we show using synchrotron X-ray diffraction on high-pO2 floating zone-grown single crystals that this transition is associated with a real space ordering of charge into a quasi-2D charge stripe ground state. The charge stripe superlattice propagation vector, q = (2/3, 0, 1), corresponds with that found in the related 1/3-hole doped single-layer R-P nickelate, La5/3Sr1/3NiO4 (LSNO-1/3; Ni2.33+), with orientation at 45° to the Ni-O bonds. The charge stripes in La-438 are weakly correlated along c to form a staggered ABAB stacking that reduces the Coulomb repulsion among the stripes. Surprisingly, however, we find that the charge stripes within each trilayer of La-438 are stacked in phase from one layer to the next, at odds with any simple Coulomb repulsion argument.

  19. Nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    The agricultural significance of nickel (Ni) is becoming increasingly apparent; yet, relative few farmers, growers, specialists or researchers know much about its function in crops, nor symptoms of deficiency or toxicity. The body of knowledge is reviewed regarding Ni’s background, uptake, transloc...

  20. Bond disproportionation and dynamical charge fluctuations in the perovskite rare-earth nickelates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R. J.; Haverkort, M. W.; Sawatzky, G. A.

    2016-11-01

    We present a theory describing the local electronic properties of the perovskite rare-earth nickelates—materials which have negative charge transfer energies, strong O 2 p - Ni 3 d covalence, and breathing-mode lattice distortions at the origin of highly studied metal-insulator and antiferromagnetic ordering transitions. Utilizing a full-orbital, full-correlation double-cluster approach, we find strong charge fluctuations, in agreement with a bond disproportionation interpretation. The double-cluster formulation permits the inclusion of necessary orbital degeneracies and Coulomb interactions to calculate resonant x-ray spectral responses, with which we find excellent agreement with well-established experimental results. This previously absent, crucial link between theory and experiment provides validation of the recently proposed bond disproportionation theory, and provides an analysis methodology for spectroscopic studies of engineered phases of nickelates and other high-valence transition-metal compounds.

  1. The effect of tungsten addition on metallurgical state and solute content in nanocrystalline electrodeposited nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakibi Nia, N., E-mail: niusha.shakibi_nia@univ-lr.fr; Creus, J.; Feaugas, X.; Savall, C.

    2014-10-01

    Highlights: • The contamination in Ni and Ni–W deposited alloys is influenced by the elaboration conditions. • In nickel deposits the light elements contamination increased with grain size refinement. • According to SIMS analysis, H and O were distributed almost uniformly in Ni–W deposited alloys. • A maximum contamination for H, O and N around 10 at.% of W was found by the hot extraction method. - Abstract: It is usually difficult to control the incorporation of foreign species in electrodeposited coatings originating from the solvent or the chemical species used for the electrodeposition bath. However, the presence of these impurities can modify their physicochemical properties. In the present study, complementary analytical techniques were used to evaluate the chemical contamination in nickel and nickel–tungsten alloys, electrodeposited from additive free baths. In order to better understand the relationship between impurity content and grain size refinement, the concentration of light elements (H, O and N) was systematically quantified by hot extraction analysis. Also, the distribution of contaminants was evaluated by SIMS analysis. We have shown that in nanocrystalline electrodeposited nickel the grain size refinement and the impurity contents are strongly related. However, in Ni–W alloys the evolution of the contamination is more complex, with a maximum amount for W contents around 10 at.%.

  2. Nickel Electroplating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toru Murakami; Yasuo Uchikoshiki; Kazutoshi Komori

    2004-01-01

    Nickel electroplating has been used practically for decades, is easy to plate, but there is an unknown interest in it.Nickel electroplating as a basis of surface treatment is shown practically from basics to the applied electronics use. At first the basics of nickel electroplating, for example, purpose, use, merit & demerit, nickel plating solution, current efficiency,limiting current density, additional agents and their behaviors are surveyed. And the points of nickel deposition already practically used such as decorative nickel plating, satin nickel plating and functional nickel plating, which has very high throwing power and has been used for electronics, are described in detail.

  3. Nickel Electroplating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ToruMurakami; YasuoUchikoshiki; KazutoshiKomori

    2004-01-01

    Nickel electroplating has been used practically for decades, is easy to plate, but there is an unknown interest in it. Nickel electroplating as a basis of surface treatment is shown practically from basics to the applied electronics use. At first the basics of nickel electroplating, for example, purpose, use, merit & demerit, nickel plating solution, current efficiency, limiting current density, additional agents and their behaviors are surveyed. And the points of nickel deposition already practically used such as decorative nickel plating, satin nickel plating and functional nickel plating, which has very high throwing power and has been used for electronics, are described in detail.

  4. Effect of Addition of Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and Silicon Carbide (SiC) on Properties of Electroless Nickel Alloy Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yu-cheng; HU Xiao-ye; WANG Wen-fang; HUANG Xin-min

    2004-01-01

    Electroless nickel (copper)-phosphorus-silicon carbide (SiC)-polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) composite coatings were prepared by adding SiC and PTFE into electroless nickel (copper)-phosphorus alloy baths. The effects of addition of SiC and PTFE on depositing rate, microhardness, wear resistance and anti-friction of the resulted composite coatings were studied. The results indicated that electroless nickel (copper)-phosphorus alloy coatings were greatly improved in depositing rate, microhardness, wear resistance and antifriction by co-deposited proper amount of SiC and PTFE.

  5. Apparent anti-Woodward-Hoffmann addition to a nickel bis(dithiolene) complex: the reaction mechanism involves reduced, dimetallic intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Li; Shibl, Mohamed F; Yang, Xinzheng; Harrison, Daniel J; Alak, Aiman; Lough, Alan J; Fekl, Ulrich; Brothers, Edward N; Hall, Michael B

    2013-04-01

    Nickel dithiolene complexes have been proposed as electrocatalysts for alkene purification. Recent studies of the ligand-based reactions of Ni(tfd)2 (tfd = S2C2(CF3)2) and its anion [Ni(tfd)2](-) with alkenes (ethylene and 1-hexene) showed that in the absence of the anion, the reaction proceeds most rapidly to form the intraligand adduct, which decomposes by releasing a substituted dihydrodithiin. However, the presence of the anion increases the rate of formation of the stable cis-interligand adduct, and decreases the rate of dihydrodithiin formation and decomposition. In spite of both computational and experimental studies, the mechanism, especially the role of the anion, remained somewhat elusive. We are now providing a combined experimental and computational study that addresses the mechanism and explains the role of the anion. A kinetic study (global analysis) for the reaction of 1-hexene is reported, which supports the following mechanism: (1) reversible intraligand addition, (2) oxidation of the intraligand addition product prior to decomposition, and (3) interligand adduct formation catalyzed by Ni(tfd)2(-). Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed on the Ni(tfd)2/Ni(tfd)2(-)/ethylene system to shed light on the selectivity of adduct formation in the absence of anion and on the mechanism in which Ni(tfd)2(-) shifts the reaction from intraligand addition to interligand addition. Computational results show that in the neutral system the free energy of activation for intraligand addition is lower than that for interligand addition, in agreement with the experimental results. The computations predict that the anion enhances the rate of the cis-interligand adduct formation by forming a dimetallic complex with the neutral complex. The [(Ni(tfd)2)2](-) dimetallic complex then coordinates ethylene and isomerizes to form a Ni,S-bound ethylene complex, which then rapidly isomerizes to the stable interligand adduct but not to the intraligand adduct

  6. Structure and Bonding in Nickel-Thiolate-Iodine Charge-Transfer Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Norman; Steinfeld, Gunther; Lozan, Vasile; Naumov, Sergej; Flyunt, Roman; Abel, Bernd; Kersting, Berthold

    2017-02-16

    The dinuclear nickel complexes [Ni2 L(μ-O2 CR)](ClO4 ) [R=Me (4), R=OMe (6)], where L(2-) is a 24-membered macrocyclic N6 S2 ligand, react readily with excess I2 in MeCN solution at 4 °C to form stable mono-(I2 ) and bis-(I2 ) charge-transfer (CT) adducts of the type [Ni2 L(μ-O2 CR)(I2 )n ](+) (n=1 or 2) containing linear RS-I-I linkages. Three new CT compounds, namely, [Ni2 L(OAc)(I2 )](I2 )(I3 ) (5), [Ni2 L(O2 COMe)(I2 )](I5 )⋅MeCN (7⋅MeCN), and [Ni2 L(O2 COMe)(I2 )2 ](I5 )⋅MeCN (8⋅MeCN) as well as the triiodide salt [Ni2 L(OAc)](I3 ) (9) were synthesized and fully characterized. A common feature of the CT adducts is a polyiodide matrix, which surrounds the individual complex molecules, stabilized by secondary I⋅⋅⋅I interactions with the CT linkages. The scatter in both the RS-I (2.6 to 3.0 Å) and the I-I bond lengths (2.7 to 3.0 Å) is indicative of both a variable strength of the RS(-) →I2 bond and a varying degree of charge transfer. An analysis of the structural parameters was undertaken accompanied by DFT calculations to quantify the donating ability of the bridging thiolate functions and to shed more light on the bonding in this rare sort of charge-transfer complexes. The stability of the CT complexes and the results of preliminary transport measurements are also reported.

  7. Structural and electrochemical studies on the utilization of Cerium (Ce3+ as an additive for nickel hydroxide electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Vidotti

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes electrochemical and spectroscopic studies on the utilization of cerium atoms as additives for nickel hydroxide electrodes. Thin films were galvanostatically grown with different amounts of cerium and mixed electrodes were studied by electrochemical measurements and the spectroscopic technique. The electrochromic behavior was investigated by “in situ” experiments , while the amount of species was determined by ICP-OES. The addition of cerium to nickel hydroxide electrodes increases durability, due to modifications in the structural properties, as seen by Raman spectras.

  8. Conductivity and Space Charges in PE with Additives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim; Henriksen, Mogens; Hjerrild, J.

    2003-01-01

    Temperature dependent conductivity and space charge formation was measured in metallocene catalyst polymerized polyethylene samples of planar geometry with semiconductive electrodes. The temperature dependence of the conductivity was determined based on leakage current measurements at variable te...

  9. Density functional theory study of the effects of alloying additions on sulfur adsorption on nickel surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyi, Oleksandr I.; Chen, Zhong; Kulish, Vadym V.; Bai, Kewu; Wu, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Reactions of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) with Nickel/Ytrria-doped zirconia (Ni/YDZ) anode materials might cause degradation of the performance of solid oxide fuel cells when S containing fuels are used. In this paper, we employ density functional theory to investigate S adsorption on metal (M)-doped and undoped Ni(0 0 1) and Ni(1 1 1) surfaces. Based on the performed calculations, we analyze the effects of 12 alloying additions (Ag, Au, Al, Bi, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Sn, Sb, V, and Zn) on the temperature of transition between clean (S atoms do not adsorb on the surfaces) and contaminated (S atoms can adsorb on the surfaces spontaneously) M-doped Ni surfaces for different concentrations of H2S in the fuel. Predicted results are consistent with many experimental studies relevant to S poisoning of both Ni/YDZ and M-doped Ni/YDZ anode materials. This study is important to understand S poisoning phenomena and to develop new S tolerant anode materials.

  10. Adsorption edge study about cadmium, copper, nickel and zinc adsorption by variable charge soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, J. C.; Mouta, E. R.; Soares, M. R.

    2009-04-01

    The improper discharge of industrial and urban residues and the inadvertent use of fertilizers and pesticides can result in soil and water pollution and improve the potential of trace metals to enter in the human food chain. Adsorption reactions occur at the solid/liquid interface and are the most important mechanisms for controlling the activity of metal ions in soil solution. In a complex system with amphoteric behavior, the comprehension of the mobility, availability and fate of pollutants in the soil system is crucial for the prediction of the environmental consequences and for development of prevention/remediation strategies. A comparative study of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) adsorption by highly weathered soils was carried out. Surface (0-0.2m) and subsoil (B horizon) samples were taken from a Rhodic Kandiudalf (RH), an Anionic "Xanthic" Acrudox (XA) and an Anionic "Rhodic" Acrudox (RA), located in brazilian humid tropical area. As the pH and the ionic strength are important environmental factors influencing the solution chemistry of heavy metals in variable charge systems, adsorption envelopes, in a batch adsorption experiment, were elaborated by reacting, for 24 h, soil samples with individual 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 mol L-1 Ca(NO3)2 aqueous solutions containing nitrate salts of the adsorptive heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn) at the initial concentration of 5 mg L-1, with an increasing pH value from 3.0 to 8.0. pH50-100%, the difference between the pH of 100 and 50 percent metal adsorption was determined. A sharp increase of adsorption density (adsorption edge) was observed within a very narrow pH range, usually less than two pH units. Commonly, the relative affinity of a soil for a metal cation increases with the tendency of the cation to form inner-sphere surface complexes. This may be caused by differences in extent of hydrolysis of Cu ions and in affinity of adsorption sites for Cu. In general, subsurface samples showed low pH50

  11. The Influence of Nickel and Tin Additives on the Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider T. Naeem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of nickel and nickel combined tin additions on mechanical properties and microstructural evolutions of aluminum-zinc-magnesium-copper alloys were investigated. Aluminum alloys containing Ni and Sn additives were homogenized at different temperatures conditions and then aged at 120°C for 24 h (T6 and retrogressed at 180°C for 30 min and then reaged at 120°C for 24 h (RRA. Comparison of the ultimate tensile strength (UTS of as-quenched Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Ni and Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Ni-Sn alloys with that of similar alloys which underwent aging treatment at T6 temper showed that gains in tensile strengths by 385 MPa and 370 MPa were attained, respectively. These improvements are attributed to the precipitation hardening effects of the alloying element within the base alloy and the formation of nickel/tin-rich dispersoid compounds. These intermetallic compounds retard the grain growth, lead to grain refinement, and result in further strengthening effects. The outcomes of the retrogression and reaging processes which were carried on aluminum alloys indicate that the mechanical strength and Vickers hardness have been enhanced much better than under the aging at T6 temper.

  12. Gamma Prime Morphology and Creep Properties of Nickel Based Superalloys With Platinum Group Metal Additions (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    creep resistance. Polycrystalline superalloy MAR - M247 can sustain a creep rate of 10-8 s-1 at 982°C at a stress of 172 MPa [44], while the alloys...Nathal, R.D. Maier, and L.J. Ebert, “The Influence of Cobalt on the Tensile and Stress Rupture Properties of the Nickel-Base Superalloy MAR - M247 ,” Metallurgical Transactions A, 13 (A) (1982), 1767-1774.           10

  13. High Temperature Performances of Spherical Nickel Hydroxide with Additive Y2O3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米欣; 叶茂; 阎杰; 魏进平; 高学平

    2004-01-01

    The effect of Y2O3 as additive to the positive electrode on the high-temperature performances of the Ni-MH batteries was studied. The specific capacities of the positive electrode in Ni-MH battery at higher temperatures are much lower than usual. In order to improve high-temperature performances, charge/discharge curves of the Ni(OH)2 electrodes with different amounts of Y2O3 at different temperatures were studied. It is found that the specific capacities of the spherical Ni(OH)2 with Y2O3 as additive are much higher than those of the regular at higher temperatures. The specific capacity of Ni(OH)2 containing 1% Y2O3 at 0.2C C/D rate is 35% higher than that of the regular. The specific capacity of Ni(OH)2 containing 0.2% Y2O3 at 1C C/D rate is 15% higher than that of the regular. Mechanism of Y2O3 improving high temperature performances of Ni(OH)2 electrode was also discussed in detail.

  14. Ultrafast Mid-infrared Spectroscopy of the Charge- and Spin-Ordered Nickelate La1.75Sr0.25NiO4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Z.-X.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present the first ultrafast mid-infrared study of charge and spin-ordered nickelates. A sub-picosecond modulation of the optical reflectivity is observed, indicating the filling and subsequent re-establishment of the pseudogap in the time-domain.

  15. Effect of Addition of Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and Silicon Carbide (SIC) on Properties of Electroless Nickel AHoy Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUYu-cheng; HUXiao-ye; WANGWen.fang; HUANGXin-min

    2004-01-01

    Electroless nickel (copper)-phosphorus-silicon carbide (SiC)-polytetrafluorocthylene(PTFE) composite coatigs were prepared by adding SiC and PTFE into electroless nickel(copper)-phosphorus alloy baths.The effects of addition of SiC and PTFE on depositing rate.microhardness.wear resistance and anti-fiction of the resulted composite coatings were studied.The results indicated that electroless nickel(copper).phosphorus alloy coatings were grealty improved in depositing rate,microhardness,wear resistance and antifriction by co-deposited proper amount of SiC and PTFE.

  16. Addition of a nickel aluminide coating to Inconel 600 using a solar furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawers, J.C.; Alman, D.E.; Lewandowski, A.; Petty, A.V.; Pitts, J. (Bureau of Mines, Albany, OR (United States). Albany Research Center)

    1994-11-15

    Three different coating application techniques have been investigated for placing a nickel-aluminium coating onto an Inconel 600 substrate using a solar furnace. In the first, a sheet of pure aluminium was melted onto the substrate. A duplex sheet of pure aluminium was melted onto the substrate. A duplex surface coating resulted, the outer layer being a mixture of pure aluminium and NiAl[sub 3], the inner layer being pure NiAl[sub 3] firmly bonded to the substrate. The second method involved melting pre-alloyed NiAl powder onto the substrate and gave a firmly bonded composite mixture of NiAl and Ni[sub 2]Al[sub 3] intermetallics. The third method was less successful. Elemental Al and Ni powders did not wet the substrate when melted and resulted only in poorly bonded intermetallic balls. Given the right technique, however, it has been demonstrated that solar radiation can be very effective in rapidly heating and melting a surface coating onto a processed bulk material with minimal thermal damage. (5 figures, 7 references). (UK)

  17. Flatbed scanners as a source of imaging. Brightness assessment and additives determination in a nickel electroplating bath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, M; Amigo, J M; Bro, R; Ostra, M; Ubide, C; Zuriarrain, J

    2011-05-23

    Desktop flatbed scanners are very well-known devices that can provide digitized information of flat surfaces. They are practically present in most laboratories as a part of the computer support. Several quality levels can be found in the market, but all of them can be considered as tools with a high performance and low cost. The present paper shows how the information obtained with a scanner, from a flat surface, can be used with fine results for exploratory and quantitative purposes through image analysis. It provides cheap analytical measurements for assessment of quality parameters of coated metallic surfaces and monitoring of electrochemical coating bath lives. The samples used were steel sheets nickel-plated in an electrodeposition bath. The quality of the final deposit depends on the bath conditions and, especially, on the concentration of the additives in the bath. Some additives become degraded with the bath life and so is the quality of the plate finish. Analysis of the scanner images can be used to follow the evolution of the metal deposit and the concentration of additives in the bath. Principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to find significant differences in the coating of sheets, to find directions of maximum variability and to identify odd samples. The results found are favorably compared with those obtained by means of specular reflectance (SR), which is here used as a reference technique. Also the concentration of additives SPB and SA-1 along a nickel bath life can be followed using image data handled with algorithms such as partial least squares (PLS) regression and support vector regression (SVR). The quantitative results obtained with these and other algorithms are compared. All this opens new qualitative and quantitative possibilities to flatbed scanners.

  18. Quenching and partitioning response of carbon-manganese-silicon sheet steels containing nickel, molybdenum, aluminum and copper additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahkonen, Joonas

    . Retained austenite fractions up to 28 pct and UTS levels exceeding 1500, 1600, and 1700 MPa with TE levels of 20, 17 and 12 pct respectively were measured for the 0.3C-5Mn-1.6Si alloy. Molybdenum and aluminum additions to a 0.3C-3Mn-1.5Si alloy were not observed to significantly affect the resulting tensile properties at a partitioning temperature of 400 °C. Partitioning at 450 °C increased the TE levels of the 0.3C-3Mn-1.5Si-0.25Mo-0.85Al alloy and decreased the TE levels of the 0.3C-3Mn-1.5Si-0.25Mo alloy while similar UTS levels were measured in both alloys. The aluminum addition potentially increased strain hardening. RA fractions were observed to be close to predicted levels in both alloys. Copper and nickel additions were not observed to increase the resulting maximum UTS˙TE levels. Copper and nickel additions increased RA levels and the measured RA levels were observed to be close to the predicted values.

  19. Phase fluctuations and the absence of topological defects in photo-excited charge ordered nickelate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W.S.; Chuang, Y.D.; Moore, R.G.; Zhu, Y.; Patthey, L.; Trigo, M.; Lu, D.H.; Kirchmann, P.S.; Krupin, O.; Yi, M.; Langner, M.; Huse, N.; Robinson, J.S.; Chen, Y.; Zhou, S.Y.; Coslovich, G.; Huber, B.; Reis, D.A.; Kaindl, R.A.; Schoenlein, R.W.; Doering, D.; Denes, P.; Schlotter, W.F.; Turner, J.J.; Johnson, S.L.; F& #246; rst, M.; Sasagawa, T.; Kung, Y.F.; Sorini, A.P.; Kemper, A.F.; Moritz, B.; Devereaux, T.P.; Lee, D.-H.; Shen, Z.X.; Hussain, Z.

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics of an order parameter's amplitude and phase determines the collective behaviour of novel states emerging in complex materials. Time- and momentum-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy, by virtue of measuring material properties at atomic and electronic time scales out of equilibrium, can decouple entangled degrees of freedom by visualizing their corresponding dynamics in the time domain. Here we combine time-resolved femotosecond optical and resonant X-ray diffraction measurements on charge ordered La1.75Sr0.25NiO4 to reveal unforeseen photoinduced phase fluctuations of the charge order parameter. Such fluctuations preserve long-range order without creating topological defects, distinct from thermal phase fluctuations near the critical temperature in equilibrium. Importantly, relaxation of the phase fluctuations is found to be an order of magnitude slower than that of the order parameter's amplitude fluctuations, and thus limits charge order recovery. This new aspect of phase fluctuations provides a more holistic view of the phase's importance in ordering phenomena of quantum matter.

  20. Phase Fluctuations and the Absence of Topological Defects in Photo-excited Charge Ordered Nickelate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W.S.; Chuang, Y.D.; Moore, R.G.; Zhu, Y.; Patthey, L.; Trigo, M.; Lu, D.H.; Kirchmann, P.S.; Krupin, O.; Yi, M.; Langner, M.; Huse, N.; Robinson, J.S.; Chen, Y.; Zhou, S.Y.; Coslovich, G.; Huber, B.; Reis, D.A.; Kaindl, R.A.; Schoenlein, R.W.; Doering, D.

    2012-05-15

    The dynamics of an order parameter's amplitude and phase determines the collective behaviour of novel states emerging in complex materials. Time- and momentum-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy, by virtue of measuring material properties at atomic and electronic time scales out of equilibrium, can decouple entangled degrees of freedom by visualizing their corresponding dynamics in the time domain. Here we combine time-resolved femotosecond optical and resonant X-ray diffraction measurements on charge ordered La{sub 1.75}Sr{sub 0.25}NiO{sub 4} to reveal unforeseen photoinduced phase fluctuations of the charge order parameter. Such fluctuations preserve long-range order without creating topological defects, distinct from thermal phase fluctuations near the critical temperature in equilibrium. Importantly, relaxation of the phase fluctuations is found to be an order of magnitude slower than that of the order parameter's amplitude fluctuations, and thus limits charge order recovery. This new aspect of phase fluctuations provides a more holistic view of the phase's importance in ordering phenomena of quantum matter.

  1. 13 CFR 107.1130 - Leverage fees and additional charges payable by Licensee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leverage fees and additional charges payable by Licensee. 107.1130 Section 107.1130 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage)...

  2. Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Mixed Additives on Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chao; JI Chang-wei; HE Chao; LI Yun-zhe; HE Hong; SHEN Zi-you

    2008-01-01

    The experimental investigation of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) process is carried out on a 4-cylinder diesel engine. One of the cylinders is modified for HCCI combustion with mixed additives. The influence of mixed additives on the HCCI combustion process is investigated. The experimental results indicate that the mixed additives are better than the single additives for HCCI fuel, causing ignition and heat release to be advanced and the peak of heat release rate to increase under the condition of different engine speeds and steady HCCI combustion. Moreover, with the increase in engine speed, the influence of mixed additives on HCCI combustion is more obvious. In addition, the mixed additives are beneficial to improve HCCI engine misfire at a high engine speed and make the engine operate stable.

  3. Improved bioactivity of antimicrobial peptides by addition of amino-terminal copper and nickel (ATCUN) binding motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libardo, M Daben; Cervantes, Jorge L; Salazar, Juan C; Angeles-Boza, Alfredo M

    2014-08-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising candidates to help circumvent antibiotic resistance, which is an increasing clinical problem. Amino-terminal copper and nickel (ATCUN) binding motifs are known to actively form reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon metal binding. The combination of these two peptidic constructs could lead to a novel class of dual-acting antimicrobial agents. To test this hypothesis, a set of ATCUN binding motifs were screened for their ability to induce ROS formation, and the most potent were then used to modify AMPs with different modes of action. ATCUN binding motif-containing derivatives of anoplin (GLLKRIKTLL-NH2), pro-apoptotic peptide (PAP; KLAKLAKKLAKLAK-NH2), and sh-buforin (RAGLQFPVGRVHRLLRK-NH2) were synthesized and found to be more active than the parent AMPs against a panel of clinically relevant bacteria. The lower minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for the ATCUN-anoplin peptides are attributed to the higher pore-forming activity along with their ability to cause ROS-induced membrane damage. The addition of the ATCUN motifs to PAP also increases its ability to disrupt membranes. DNA damage is the major contributor to the activity of the ATCUN-sh-buforin peptides. Our findings indicate that the addition of ATCUN motifs to AMPs is a simple strategy that leads to AMPs with higher antibacterial activity and possibly to more potent, usable antibacterial agents.

  4. Two-electron and one-photon transitions in highly charged nickel-like ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Lu-You; Dong Chen-Zhong; Jiang Jun; Wan Jian-Jie; Yan Jun

    2008-01-01

    This paper calculates the transition wavelengths and probabilities of the two-electron and one-photon(TEOP) transition from the(38-11/24dj)J:1,2 to(3p-13/24s1/2)J=1 and the(3p-11/2481/2)J=1 to(3d-1j4dj1)J=1,2 for highly charged Ni-like ions with atomic number Z in the range 47≤Z≤92.In the calculations,the multi-configuration Dirac-Fock method and corresponding program packages GRASP92 and REOS99 were used,and the relativistic effects,correlation effects and relaxation effects were considered systematically.It is found that the TEOP transitions are very sensitive to the correlation of electrons,and the probabilities will be enhanced sharply in some special Z regions along the isoelectronic sequence.The present TEOP transition wavelengths are compared with the available data from some previous publications,good agreement is obtained.

  5. (+)-camphor-derived tri- and tetradentate amino alcohols; synthesis and application as ligands in the nickel catalyzed enantioselective conjugate addition of diethylzinc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, André H.M. de; Imbos, Rosalinde; Feringa, Bernard

    1997-01-01

    Several novel tri- and tetradentate amino alcohol ligands, all derived from (+)-camphor, have been synthesized by using specific N-alkylation procedures. The amino alcohols were employed as chiral ligands in the nickel catalyzed conjugate additions of diethylzine to chalcone and cyclohexenone as mod

  6. Nickel Dermatitis - Nickel Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menné, T.; Thorboe, A.

    1976-01-01

    Nickel excretion in urine in four females -sensitive to nickel with an intermittent dyshidrotic eruption was measured with flameless atomic absorption. Excretion of nickel was found to be increased in association with outbreaks of vesicles. The results support the idea that the chronic condition...... was maintained by ingestion of nickel in food....

  7. The sintering of uranium carbide and of uranium-plutonium carbide, and the role of nickel as a sintering additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, S.; Yates, G.; Bramman, J. I.; Finlayson, Moira B.

    1980-04-01

    A comparison of the experimentally determined sintering kinetics for uranium and uranium-plutonium carbides of different stoichiometries with calculations for various theoretical models has been used to indicate probable sintering mechanisms. A bulk diffusion model with activation energies approximating to those for chemical diffusion under a concentration gradient is thought to apply. Ceramography has been used to study the influence of changes in composition and sintering atmosphere on grain size and microstructure, with the conclusion that grain growth is impeded by the presence of a grain-boundary second phase. The role of nickel as a sintering aid has also been investigated using, in addition to the above techniques, electron microprobe analysis and X-ray diffraction for chemical identification of phases. It is concluded that the first stage of sintering is one of particle rearrangement in a binary metallic liquid phase (U-Ni), followed by a solution-precipitation process. On prolonged annealing ternary U-C-Ni phases are produced, dominated by the composition U 2NiC 3.

  8. Electrolyte additive enabled fast charging and stable cycling lithium metal batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jianming; Engelhard, Mark H.; Mei, Donghai; Jiao, Shuhong; Polzin, Bryant J.; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xu, Wu

    2017-03-01

    Lithium (Li) metal battery is an attractive energy storage system owing to the ultrahigh specific capacity and the lowest redox potential of Li metal anode. However, safety concern associated with dendrite growth and limited cycle life especially at a high charge current density are two critical challenges hindering the practical applications of rechargeable Li metal batteries. Here, we report for the first time that an optimal amount (0.05 M) of LiPF6 as additive in the LiTFSI-LiBOB dual-salt/carbonate-based electrolyte can significantly enhance the charging capability and the long-term cycle life of Li metal batteries with a moderately high cathode loading of 1.75 mAh cm-2. Unprecedented stable-cycling (97.1% capacity retention after 500 cycles) along with very limited increase in electrode over-potential has been achieved at a high current density of 1.75 mA cm-2. This unparalleled fast charging and stable cycling performance is contributed from both the stabilized Al cathode current collector, and, more importantly, the robust and conductive SEI layer formed on Li metal anode in the presence of the LiPF6 additive.

  9. Carbon Nanotube/Conductive Additive/Space Durable Polymer Nanocomposite Films for Electrostatic Charge Dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joseph G., Jr.; Watson, Kent A.; Delozier, Donavon M.; Connell, John W.

    2003-01-01

    Thin film membranes of space environmentally stable polymeric materials possessing low color/solar absorptivity (alpha) are of interest for potential applications on Gossamer spacecraft. In addition to these properties, sufficient electrical conductivity is required in order to dissipate electrostatic charge (ESC) build-up brought about by the charged orbital environment. One approach to achieve sufficient electrical conductivity for ESC mitigation is the incorporation of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). However, when the SWNTs are dispersed throughout the polymer matrix, the nanocomposite films tend to be significantly darker than the pristine material resulting in a higher alpha. The incorporation of conductive additives in combination with a decreased loading level of SWNTs is one approach for improving alpha while retaining conductivity. Taken individually, the low loading level of conductive additives and SWNTs is insufficient in achieving the percolation level necessary for electrical conductivity. When added simultaneously to the film, conductivity is achieved through a synergistic effect. The chemistry, physical, and mechanical properties of the nanocomposite films will be presented.

  10. Additional considerations about the role of ion size in charge reversal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Molina, A; Hidalgo-Alvarez, R [Grupo de Fisica de Fluidos y Biocoloides, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Granada 18071 (Spain); Quesada-Perez, M, E-mail: almartin@ugr.e [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Jaen, Escuela Politecnica Superior de Linares, 23700 Linares, Jaen (Spain)

    2009-10-21

    The effect of the ion size on the charge reversal process is studied via canonical Monte Carlo simulation. To this end, a primitive model of electrolyte is used to analyze the electric double layer formed by an asymmetric electrolyte in the presence of a charged planar wall. Different values of ion diameters and surface charge densities are used so as to determine the conditions at which the charge reversal first occurs. For each case, the apparent surface charge density is calculated as a function of the distance from the charged wall for the different electrolyte concentrations in order to establish the minimal salt concentration required for the charge reversal. We will refer to this electrolyte concentration as the reversal concentration and will show how it depends on the surface charge density and on the ion size. From the apparent surface charge density profiles, the distance from the wall at which the charge reversal arises as well as its intensity can be also inferred.

  11. Triethylborate as an electrolyte additive for high voltage layered lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide cathode of lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zaisheng; Xing, Lidan; Li, JianHui; Xu, Mengqing; Li, Weishan

    2016-03-01

    Triethylborate (TEB) is used as an electrolyte additive to improve the electrochemical performances of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (LNCM) upon cycling at 4.5 V vs. Li/Li+. Charge/discharge tests demonstrate that the cyclic stability of LNCM at room and elevated temperature can be improved effectively by TEB. With addition of 10 wt. % TEB into STD electrolyte (1.0 M LiPF6/EC:EMC:DEC), LNCM achieves a capacity retention of 99.8% after 150 cycles and 94.7% after 120 cycles at room and elevated temperature, respectively, comparing to that of 68.9% and 68.8% of STD electrolyte. In addition, 10 wt. % TEB also improves the rate capability of LNCM at room temperature. Physical and electrochemical characterizations from XRD, SEM, TEM, XPS, ICP-MS, LSV, CA, and EIS reveal that the preferential oxidative reaction of TEB generates a thin, uniform and low interfacial resistance film on the LNCM surface. This film not only suppresses the subsequent decomposition of STD electrolyte, but also prevents the dissolution of transition metal ions from LNCM, resulting in improved cyclic stability and rate capability of LNCM.

  12. Ground-state oxygen holes and the metal-insulator transition in the negative charge-transfer rare-earth nickelates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisogni, Valentina; Catalano, Sara; Green, Robert J.; Gibert, Marta; Scherwitzl, Raoul; Huang, Yaobo; Strocov, Vladimir N.; Zubko, Pavlo; Balandeh, Shadi; Triscone, Jean-Marc; Sawatzky, George; Schmitt, Thorsten

    2016-10-01

    The metal-insulator transition and the intriguing physical properties of rare-earth perovskite nickelates have attracted considerable attention in recent years. Nonetheless, a complete understanding of these materials remains elusive. Here we combine X-ray absorption and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) spectroscopies to resolve important aspects of the complex electronic structure of rare-earth nickelates, taking NdNiO3 thin film as representative example. The unusual coexistence of bound and continuum excitations observed in the RIXS spectra provides strong evidence for abundant oxygen holes in the ground state of these materials. Using cluster calculations and Anderson impurity model interpretation, we show that distinct spectral signatures arise from a Ni 3d8 configuration along with holes in the oxygen 2p valence band, confirming suggestions that these materials do not obey a conventional positive charge-transfer picture, but instead exhibit a negative charge-transfer energy in line with recent models interpreting the metal-insulator transition in terms of bond disproportionation.

  13. A New Charging Method for Li-ion Batteries: Dependence of the charging time on the Direction of an Additional Oscillating Field

    CERN Document Server

    Hamad, I Abou; Wipf, D O; Rikvold, P A

    2010-01-01

    We have recently proposed a new method for charging Li-ion batteries based on large-scale molecular dynamics studies (I. Abou Hamad et al, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 12, 2740 (2010)). Applying an additional oscillating electric field in the direction perpendicular to the graphite sheets of the anode showed an exponential decrease in charging time with increasing amplitude of the applied oscillating field. Here we present new results exploring the effect on the charging time of changing the orientation of the oscillating field. Results for oscillating fields in three orthogonal directions are compared.

  14. Non-additive sputtering of niobium and tantalum as neutral and charged clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Belykh, S F; Veryovkin, I V; Adriaens, A; Adams, F

    2003-01-01

    An analysis of available literature data on both positive ion emission from Nb and Ta bombarded with 6 keV/atom Au sub m sup - atomic and molecular ions (m=1, 2, 3) and positive ionization probabilities of Nb sub n and Ta sub n neutral clusters sputtered from the same metals by 5 keV Ar sup + ions has been conducted. Dependencies of cluster yields Y sub n sub , sub m (regardless of charge state) on the number of atoms n in a sputtered particles were found to follow a power law as Y sub n sub , sub m approx n sup - supsigma sup sub m where sigma sub m decreases with an increase of m. A non-linear enhancement of yields for large Nb sub n sup + and Ta sub n sup + cluster ions (n>4) appeared to be a result of a non-additive process of sputtering rather than of a non-additive process of their ionization. A manifestation of the non-additive sputtering in kinetic energy distribution of secondary ions was found to be different for atomic and cluster ions.

  15. Improving cyclic stability of lithium nickel manganese oxide cathode at elevated temperature by using dimethyl phenylphosphonite as electrolyte additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Shaowei; Xu, Mengqing; Liao, Xiaolin; Xing, Lidan; Li, Weishan

    2015-01-01

    A novel electrolyte additive, dimethyl phenylphosphonite (DMPP), is reported in this paper to be able to improve significantly the cyclic stability of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode of high voltage lithium ion battery at elevated temperature. When experiencing charge/discharge cycling at 50 °C with 1C (1C = 146.7 mAh g-1) rate in a standard (STD) electrolyte (1.0 M LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate (EC)/dimethyl carbonate (DMC), EC/DMC = 1/2 in volume), LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 suffers serious discharge capacity decaying, with a capacity retention of 42% after 100 cycles. With adding 0.5% DMPP into the STD electrolyte, the capacity retention is increased to 91%. This improvement can be ascribed to the preferential oxidation of DMPP to the STD electrolyte and the subsequent formation of a protective film on LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, which suppresses the electrolyte decomposition and protects LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 from destruction. Theoretical calculations together with voltammetric analyses demonstrate the preferential oxidation of DMPP and the consequent suppression of electrolyte decomposition, while the observations from scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirm the protection that DMPP provides for LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4.

  16. 4-(Trifluoromethyl)-benzonitrile: A novel electrolyte additive for lithium nickel manganese oxide cathode of high voltage lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenna; Xing, Lidan; Wang, Yating; Xu, Mengqing; Li, Weishan; Xie, Fengchao; Xia, Shengan

    2014-12-01

    In this work, 4-(Trifluoromethyl)-benzonitrile (4-TB) is used as a novel electrolyte additive for LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode of high voltage lithium ion battery. Charge-discharge tests show that the cyclic stability of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 is significantly improved by using 0.5 wt.% 4-TB. With using 4-TB, LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 delivers an initial capacity of 133 mAh g-1 and maintains 121 mAh g-1 after 300 cycles with a capacity retention of 91%, compared to the 75% of that using base electrolyte (1 M LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate(EC)/dimethyl carbonate(DMC)). The results from linear sweep voltammetry, density functional theory calculations, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared, and inductively coupled plasma, indicate that 4-TB has lower oxidative stability than EC and DMC, and is preferentially oxidized on LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 forming a low-impedance protective film, which prevents the subsequent oxidation decomposition of the electrolyte and suppresses the manganese dissolution from LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4.

  17. Addition of RDX/HMX on the Ignition Behaviour of Boron-Potassium Nitrate Pyrotechnic Charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.R. Rani Krishnan

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Boron-potassium nitrate (B-KNO3 (25/75 is a well-known pyrotechnic composition whichfinds application as energy-release system for small-calibre rockets and pyrogen igniters forlarger motors. The decomposition of the oxidiser in this composition is endothermic which canbe activated by the addition of high explosives, which decompose exothermically. This paperdescribes the influence of two nitramine explosives, RDX and HMX, on the ignition characteristicsof B-KNO3 composition using thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, heat andpressure output measurements. Different compositions were prepared by varying the amount ofRDX/HMX from 10 per cent to 50 per cent. Thermal studies on the B-KNO3/high explosivemixtures reveal that these undergo two-stage decomposition. The first stage corresponds to thedecomposition of high explosive and the second stage corresponds to that of the reaction betweenB and KNO3. Kinetic parameters were calculated for both the stages of TG curves using Coats-Redfern and Mac Callum-Tanner methods. Ignition temperature of B-KNO3 decreases on theaddition of RDX/HMX while the onset of RDX or HMX decomposition is not significantly affectedby B-KNO3. The pressure output of B-KNO3 increases on adding RDX/HMX. The heat outputof B-KNO3 is not much affected by the addition of RDX or HMX, even though the heat ofexplosion of RDX and HMX are low. This is due to the reaction between the combustion productsof RDX/HMX and reaction products of B-KNO3 to form more exothermic products like B2O3,releasing extra heat. The flame temperature of the charge increases while the average molecularweight of the products of combustion decreases as the RDX/HMX content increases. Thus, thecharge, on addition of RDX or HMX, produces higher pressure output, maintaining the heatoutput at comparable levels.

  18. Prediction of State-of-Health for Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries by a Curve Model Based on Charge-Discharge Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Yang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on charge-discharge cycle tests for commercial nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH batteries, a nonlinear relationship is found between the discharging capacity (Cdischarge, Ah and the voltage changes in 1 s occurring at the start of the charging process (ΔVcharge, mV. This nonlinear relationship between Cdischarge and ΔVcharge is described with a curve equation, which can be determined using a nonlinear least-squares method. Based on the curve equation, a curve model for the state-of-health (SOH prediction is constructed without battery models and cycle numbers. The validity of the curve model is verified using (Cdischarge, ΔVcharge data groups obtained from the charge-discharge cycle tests at different rates. The results indicate that the curve model can be effectively applied to predict the SOH of the Ni-MH batteries and the best prediction root-mean-square error (RMSE can reach upto 1.2%. Further research is needed to confirm the application of this empirical curve model in practical fields.

  19. Charge ordering in Ni1 +/Ni2 + nickelates: La4Ni3O8 and La3Ni2O6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botana, Antia S.; Pardo, Victor; Pickett, Warren E.; Norman, Michael R.

    2016-08-01

    Ab initio calculations allow us to establish a close connection between the Ruddlesden-Popper layered nickelates and cuprates not only in terms of filling of d levels (close to d9) but also because they show Ni1 +(S =1 /2 ) /Ni2 +(S =0 ) stripe ordering. The insulating charge-ordered ground state is obtained from a combination of structural distortions and magnetic order. The Ni2 + ions are in a low-spin configuration (S =0 ) yielding an antiferromagnetic arrangement of Ni1 + S =1 /2 ions like the long-sought spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic insulator analog of the cuprate parent materials. The analogy extends further with the main contribution to the bands near the Fermi energy coming from hybridized Ni dx2-y2 and O p states.

  20. 钙质添加剂对密封可充锌镍电池性能的影响%Effects of calcium additive agents to the performance of sealed alkaline rechargeable nickel-zinc battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭志勇; 杨占红; 倪霞; 申松胜

    2012-01-01

    Calcium additive could react with Zn(OH)42- to form Ca[Zn(OH)3]2 with stable electrochemical performance, which could prolong the life of zinc anode, improve the high temperature storage performance of nickel-zinc battery, enhance the charge retention rate and prolong the discharge time. The capacity of zinc anode with calcium additive hardly reduced in 100 cycles. The charge retention rate of battery with Ca(0H)2,calcium lignosulfonate and without calcium additive was 68.69%,57.05% and 52.32%,respectively,the discharge time was 34.00 min,39.09 min and 31.29 min,respectively.%钙质添加剂与锌酸根形成难溶的Ca[Zn(OH)3]2,可延长锌负极的寿命,改善锌镍电池的高温存放性能,提高荷电保持率并延长放电时间.加入钙质添加剂的锌负极循环100次的容量几乎不衰减.添加氢氧化钙、木质素磺酸钙及无钙质添加剂的电池,荷电保持率分别为68.69%、57.05%和52.32%,放电时间分别为34.00 min、39.09 min和31.29 min.

  1. Design of intelligent management system for nickel-cadmium charging battery based on AT89S52%基于AT89S52的镍镉充电电池智能管理系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈继栋; 施崇阳; 周乐意

    2011-01-01

    As a kind of alkaline battery, nickel-cadmium charging battery has special requirments for using, management and maintenance. It would result in aging, losing efficacy or even abandonment without good using, management and timely maintenance. This item is designed for nickel-cadmium charging batteries which are used widely and stored centrally in army and factory. Using single chip processor control technology, the system can achieve intelligent battery management of nickel-cadmium charging battery such as automatic state examination, charge and discharge management, function maintenance, etc. Through automatic management of nickel-cadmium charging battery, it is able to eliminate blindness and arbitrariness in using and management of nickel-cadmium charging battery effectively, it improves the efficiency of nickel-cadmium charging battery and lengthens its service life.%镍镉充电电池作为一种碱性电池,对使用、管理和维护有特殊要求,如果管理不善、使用不当、维护不及时,很容易导致电池老化、失效甚至报废。针对部队、厂矿大量使用并集中存放的不同种类镍镉充电电池,运用单片微型计算机控制技术,设计了电池智能管理系统,对镍镉充电电池进行状态自动检测、充放电管理、性能维护等智能化管理。通过对镍镉充电电池的自动管理,有效消除镍镉充电电池使用管理上的盲目性和随意性,提高镍镉充电电池的使用效能,延长镍镉充电电池的使用寿命。

  2. Oligosaccharides and glycolipids addition in charged lamellar phases; Addition d`oligosaccharides et de glycolipides dans des phases lamellaires chargees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricoul, F

    1997-09-26

    The aim of this work is to study the addition of oligosaccharides and glycolipids in lamellar phases of the cationic surfactant DDAB (di-dodecyl-dimethyl-ammonium bromide). Two steps have been followed: the determination of phases prisms and the thermodynamic interpretation in terms of molecular interactions. In order to characterize these systems, two new experimental small angle scattering methods have been perfected: 1) a neutron scattering contrast variation method which allows to study the adsorption of aqueous solution in bilayers and 2) a capillary concentration gradient method to establish directly and quantitatively the phases diagrams of ternary systems by X rays scattering. It has been pointed out that the oligosaccharides induce a depletion attractive force on the lamellar-lamellar equilibrium of the DDAB when they are excluded of the most concentrated phase. For the two studied glycolipids: 2-O lauroyl-saccharose and N-lauroyl N-nonyl lactitol, the ternary phase diagrams water-DDAB-glycolipid have been established in terms of temperature. Critical points at ambient temperature have been given. The osmotic pressure in concentrated lamellar phases has been measured. It has been shown that glycolipids increase the hydration repulsion at short distance and that the electrostatic repulsion is outstanding and unchanged at high distance if there is at less 1 mole percent of ionic surfactant. In a dilute solution, glycolipids decrease the maximum swelling of lamellar phases, with a competition between the lamellar phase and the micellae dilute phase for water. (O.M.). 165 refs.

  3. Effects of sol-gel method and lanthanum addition on catalytic performances of nickel-based catalysts for methane reforming with carbon dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiancai; HU Quanhong; YANG Yifeng; CHEN Juanrong; LAI Zhihua

    2008-01-01

    The nickel-based catalysts were prepared by the sol-gel method and used for the CH4 reforming with CO2. The effects of the sol-gel method on the specific surface area, catalytic activity, desorption, and reduction performances of catalysts were investigated with BET, TPR, and TPD. Compared with the catalyst prepared by the impregnation method, the results indicated that the catalysts prepared by the sol-gel method had larger specific surface area, showing higher catalytic activities and exhibiting perfect desorption and reduction per-formances. In addition, the modification effects of adding La were studied, and it was found that the 0.75NLBT catalyst constituted of 5wt.%Ni-0.75wt.%La was optimal.

  4. Phase fluctuations and the absence of topological defects in a photo-excited charge-ordered nickelate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W. S.; Chuang, Y. D.; Moore, R. G.; Zhu, Y.; Patthey, L.; Trigo, M.; Lu, D. H.; Kirchmann, P. S.; Krupin, O.; Yi, M.; Langner, M.; Huse, N.; Robinson, J. S.; Chen, Y.; Zhou, S. Y.; Coslovich, G.; Huber, B.; Reis, D. A.; Kaindl, R. A.; Schoenlein, R. W.; Doering, D.; Denes, P.; Schlotter, W. F.; Turner, J. J.; Johnson, S. L.; Först, M.; Sasagawa, T.; Kung, Y. F.; Sorini, A. P.; Kemper, A. F.; Moritz, B.; Devereaux, T. P.; Lee, D. -H.; Shen, Z. X.; Hussain, Z.

    2012-05-15

    The dynamics of an order parameter's amplitude and phase determines the collective behaviour of novel states emerging in complex materials. Time- and momentum-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy, by virtue of measuring material properties at atomic and electronic time scales out of equilibrium, can decouple entangled degrees of freedom by visualizing their corresponding dynamics in the time domain. Here we combine time-resolved femotosecond optical and resonant X-ray diffraction measurements on charge ordered La1.75Sr0.25NiO4 to reveal unforeseen photoinduced phase fluctuations of the charge order parameter. Such fluctuations preserve long-range order without creating topological defects, distinct from thermal phase fluctuations near the critical temperature in equilibrium. Importantly, relaxation of the phase fluctuations is found to be an order of magnitude slower than that of the order parameter's amplitude fluctuations, and thus limits charge order recovery. This new aspect of phase fluctuations provides a more holistic view of the phase's importance in ordering phenomena of quantum matter.

  5. Semiconducting boron carbides with better charge extraction through the addition of pyridine moieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverria, Elena; Dong, Bin; Peterson, George; Silva, Joseph P.; Wilson, Ethiyal R.; Sky Driver, M.; Jun, Young-Si; Stucky, Galen D.; Knight, Sean; Hofmann, Tino; Han, Zhong-Kang; Shao, Nan; Gao, Yi; Mei, Wai-Ning; Nastasi, Michael; Dowben, Peter A.; Kelber, Jeffry A.

    2016-09-01

    The plasma-enhanced chemical vapor (PECVD) co-deposition of pyridine and 1,2 dicarbadodecaborane, 1,2-B10C2H12 (orthocarborane) results in semiconducting boron carbide composite films with a significantly better charge extraction than plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited semiconducting boron carbide synthesized from orthocarborane alone. The PECVD pyridine/orthocarborane based semiconducting boron carbide composites, with pyridine/orthocarborane ratios ~3:1 or 9:1 exhibit indirect band gaps of 1.8 eV or 1.6 eV, respectively. These energies are less than the corresponding exciton energies of 2.0 eV-2.1 eV. The capacitance/voltage and current/voltage measurements indicate the hole carrier lifetimes for PECVD pyridine/orthocarborane based semiconducting boron carbide composites (3:1) films of ~350 µs compared to values of  ⩽35 µs for the PECVD semiconducting boron carbide films fabricated without pyridine. The hole carrier lifetime values are significantly longer than the initial exciton decay times in the region of ~0.05 ns and 0.27 ns for PECVD semiconducting boron carbide films with and without pyridine, respectively, as suggested by the time-resolved photoluminescence. These data indicate enhanced electron-hole separation and charge carrier lifetimes in PECVD pyridine/orthocarborane based semiconducting boron carbide and are consistent with the results of zero bias neutron voltaic measurements indicating significantly enhanced charge collection efficiency.

  6. Characterization and assessment of dermal and inhalable nickel exposures in nickel production and primary user industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughson, G W; Galea, K S; Heim, K E

    2010-01-01

    electrolytic processes for nickel recovery (GM = 0.04 mg m(-3) total nickel, containing 82% soluble nickel) and those jobs involving contact with soluble nickel compounds (GM = 0.02 mg m(-3) total nickel content, containing 76% soluble nickel). The stainless steel workers were exposed to low concentrations of relatively insoluble airborne nickel species (GM = 0.03 mg m(-3) total nickel, containing 1% soluble nickel). A statistically significant correlation was observed between dermal exposures for all anatomical areas across all tasks. In addition, the dermal and inhalable (total) nickel exposures were similarly associated. Overall, dermal exposures to nickel, nickel compounds, and nickel alloys were relatively low. However, exposures were highly variable, which can be explained by the inconsistent use of personal protective equipment, varying working practices, and different standards of automation and engineering controls within each exposure category.

  7. The effects of nanoparticles and organic additives with controlled dispersion on dielectric properties of polymers: Charge trapping and impact excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanhui; Wu, Ke; Bell, Michael; Oakes, Andrew; Ratcliff, Tyree; Lanzillo, Nicholas A.; Breneman, Curt; Benicewicz, Brian C.; Schadler, Linda S.

    2016-08-01

    This work presents a comprehensive investigation into the effects of nanoparticles and organic additives on the dielectric properties of insulating polymers using reinforced silicone rubber as a model system. TiO2 and ZrO2 nanoparticles (d = 5 nm) were well dispersed into the polymer via a bimodal surface modification approach. Organic molecules with the potential of voltage stabilization were further grafted to the nanoparticle to ensure their dispersion. These extrinsic species were found to provide deep traps for charge carriers and exhibited effective charge trapping properties at a rather small concentration (˜1017 cm-3). The charge trapping is found to have the most significant effect on breakdown strength when the electrical stressing time is long enough that most charges are trapped in the deep states. To establish a quantitative correlation between the trap depth and the molecular properties, the electron affinity and ionization energy of each species were calculated by an ab initio method and were compared with the experimentally measured values. The correlation however remains elusive and is possibly complicated by the field effect and the electronic interactions between different species that are not considered in this computation. At high field, a super-linear increase of current density was observed for TiO2 filled composites and is likely caused by impact excitation due to the low excitation energy of TiO2 compared to ZrO2. It is reasoned that the hot charge carriers with energies greater than the excitation energy of TiO2 may excite an electron-hole pair upon collision with the NP, which later will be dissociated and contribute to free charge carriers. This mechanism can enhance the energy dissipation and may account for the retarded electrical degradation and breakdown of TiO2 composites.

  8. Additional Information on Heavy Quark Parameters from Charged Lepton Forward-Backward Asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Turczyk, Sascha

    2016-01-01

    The determination of $|V_{cb}|$ using inclusive and exclusive (semi-)leptonic decays exhibits a long-standing tension of varying ${\\cal O}(3 \\sigma)$ significance. For the inclusive determination the decay rate is expanded in $1/m_b$ using heavy quark expansion, and from moments of physical observables the higher order heavy quark parameters are extracted from experimental data in order to assess $|V_{cb}|$ from the normalisation. The drawbacks are high correlations both theoretically as well as experimentally among these observables. We will scrutinise the inclusive determination in order to add a new and less correlated observable. This observable is related to the decay angle of the charged lepton and can help to constrain the important heavy quark parameters in a new way. It may validate the current seemingly stable extraction of $|V_{cb}|$ from inclusive decays or hints to possible issues, and even may be sensitive to New Physics operators.

  9. Solvent additive to achieve highly ordered nanostructural semicrystalline DPP copolymers: toward a high charge carrier mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Tae Kyu; Kang, Il; Yun, Hui-jun; Cha, Hyojung; Hwang, Jihun; Park, Seonuk; Kim, Jiye; Kim, Yu Jin; Chung, Dae Sung; Kwon, Soon-Ki; Kim, Yun-Hi; Park, Chan Eon

    2013-12-23

    A facile spin-coating method in which a small percentage of the solvent additive, 1-chloronaphthalene (CN), is found to increase the drying time during film deposition, is reported. The field-effect mobility of a PDPPDBTE film cast from a chloroform-CN mixed solution is 0.46 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). The addition of CN to the chloroform solution facilitates the formation of highly crystalline polymer structures.

  10. Charge transport in light emitting devices based on colloidal quantum dots and a solution-processed nickel oxide layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huu Tuan; Jeong, Huiseong; Park, Ji-Yong; Ahn, Y H; Lee, Soonil

    2014-05-28

    We fabricated hybrid light emitting devices based on colloidal CdSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots and a solution-processed NiO layer. The use of a sol-gel NiO layer as a hole injection layer (HIL) resulted in overall improvement in device operation compared to a control device with a more conventional poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) HIL. In particular, luminous efficiency increased substantially because of the suppression of excessive currents and became as large as 2.45 cd/A. To manifest the origin of current reduction, temperature- and electric field-dependent variations of currents with respect to bias voltages were investigated. In a low bias voltage range below the threshold for luminance turn-on, the Poole-Frenkel (PF) emission mechanism was responsible for the current-density variation. However, the space-charge-limited current modified with PF-type mobility ruled the current-density variation in high bias voltage range above the threshold.

  11. Addition of Electrostatic Forces to EDEM with Applications to Triboelectrically Charged Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Michael D.; Calle, Carlos; Curry, David

    2008-01-01

    Tribocharging of particles is common in many processes including fine powder handling and mixing, printer toner transport and dust extraction. In a lunar environment with its high vacuum and lack of water, electrostatic forces are an important factor to consider when designing and operating equipment. Dust mitigation and management is critical to safe and predictable performance of people and equipment. The extreme nature of lunar conditions makes it difficult and costly to carryout experiments on earth which are necessary to better understand how particles gather and transfer charge between each other and with equipment surfaces. DEM (Discrete Element Modeling) provides an excellent virtual laboratory for studying tribocharging of particles as well as for design of devices for dust mitigation and for other purposes related to handling and processing of lunar regolith. Theoretical and experimental work has been performed pursuant to incorporating screened Coulombic electrostatic forces into EDEM Tm, a commercial DEM software package. The DEM software is used to model the trajectories of large numbers of particles for industrial particulate handling and processing applications and can be coupled with other solvers and numerical models to calculate particle interaction with surrounding media and force fields. In this paper we will present overview of the theoretical calculations and experimental data and their comparison to the results of the DEM simulations. We will also discuss current plans to revise the DEM software with advanced electrodynamic and mechanical algorithms.

  12. Effect of additions of Cr, Mo, W and/or Si on the technological properties of aluminum-iron-nickel bronze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. P. Pisarek

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of additives of Cr, Mo, W and / or Si CuAl10Fe5Ni5 bronze, cast into sand moulds, the bronze technological properties such as: porosity, volumetric shrinkage Sv, linear shrinkage s and prone hot to cracking. The study relate to the newly developed grades aluminum-iron-nickel bronze, with additions of Cr, Mo, W and/or Si. In order to determine the technological properties of the test castings were made in the form of moulding sand, which made the mould cavities designed patterns. To evaluate the porosity and volumetric shrinkage was used for digital image analysis method. Volumetric shrinkage was determined using developed, the new method, the surface shrinkage Svp designation, and then converting it to the volumetric shrinkage, using prepared relation Sv=f(Djs*Svp. It was found that made the bronze alloy additions to reduce the size of pores surface area of gas and shrinkage in the test bronze. The probability of microporosity with an area of 0.002560÷0.120647 mm2 can be described by gamma distribution. Changing the chemical composition of the grades tested bronze strongly alter the first volumetric shrinkage Sv, and less to change the linear shrinkage s. The increase in gas porosity and shrink in bronze reduces the volumetric shrinkage and linear. The addition of Cr, Mo, W and/or Si to the bronze CuAl10Fe5Ni5 does not change its prone to hot cracking.

  13. Overview of the Design, Development, and Application of Nickel-hydrogen Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaller, Lawrence H.; Zimmerman, Albert H.

    2003-01-01

    This document provides an overview of the design, development, and application of nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) battery technology for aerospace applications. It complements and updates the information presented in NASA RP-1314, NASA Handbook for Nickel- Hydrogen Batteries, published in 1993. Since that time, nickel-hydrogen batteries have become widely accepted for aerospace energy storage requirements and much more has been learned. The intent of this document is to capture some of that additional knowledge. This document addresses various aspects of nickel-hydrogen technology including the electrochemical reactions, cell component design, and selection considerations; overall cell and battery design considerations; charge control considerations; and manufacturing issues that have surfaced over the years that nickel-hydrogen battery technology has been the major energy storage technology for geosynchronous and low-Earth-orbiting satellites.

  14. AN ELECTROPLATING METHOD OF FORMING PLATINGS OF NICKEL, COBALT, NICKEL ALLOYS OR COBALT ALLOYS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    An electroplating method of forming platings of nickel, cobalt, nickel alloys or cobalt alloys with reduced stresses in an electrodepositing bath of the type: Watt's bath, chloride bath or a combination thereof, by employing pulse plating with periodic reverse pulse and a sulfonated naphthalene...... additive. This method makes it possible to deposit nickel, cobalt, nickel or cobalt platings without internal stresses....

  15. The effects of platinum on nickel electrodes in the nickel hydrogen cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Albert H.

    1991-01-01

    Interactions of platinum and platinum compounds with the nickel electrode that are possible in the nickel hydrogen cell, where both the nickel electrode and a platinum catalyst hydrogen electrode are in intimate contact with the alkaline electrolyte, are examined. Additionally, a mechanism of nickel cobalt oxyhydroxide formation in NiH2 cells is presented.

  16. Ground-state oxygen holes and the metal–insulator transition in the negative charge-transfer rare-earth nickelates

    OpenAIRE

    Bisogni, Valentina; Catalano, Sara; Green, Robert J.; Gibert, Marta; Scherwitzl, Raoul; Huang, Yaobo; Strocov, Vladimir N.; Zubko, Pavlo; Balandeh, Shadi; Triscone, Jean-Marc; Sawatzky, George; Schmitt, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    The metal-insulator transitions and the intriguing physical properties of rare-earth perovskite nickelates have attracted considerable attention in recent years. Nonetheless, a complete understanding of these materials remains elusive. Here, taking a NdNiO3 thin film as a representative example, we utilize a combination of x-ray absorption and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) spectroscopies to resolve important aspects of the complex electronic structure of the rare-earth nickelates...

  17. Nickel Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Most plants find nickel to be pretty nasty stuff, and they won’t grow in soils rich in the metal.Streptanthus polygaloides. on the other hand.loves nickel.This member of the mustard family grows only in high-nickel soil in the shadow of the Sierra Nevada,in central California.Streptanthus is a rare type of plant known as a "hyperaccumulator." All plants take up nutrients

  18. Influence of Addition of Briquettes with Dust Content into the Charge of Electric Induction Furnace on Cast Iron Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pribulová

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Foundry dust from blasting and grinding of castings contain a high amount of iron, ergo it is possible its recycling in foundry process.Dust was compacted by briquetting, two kinds of briquettes were prepared (A contained 95% magnetic part of dust from casting blasting+5% bentonite and B contained 95% mixture of dust from casting grinding and magnetic part of dust from casting blasting + 5%bentonite and used as a part of charge into the electric induction furnace. It was found that addition of briquettes has had an influence of a chemical composition of cast iron above all on content of sulphur, phosphorus and silicon. It was not reflected in decrease in tensile strength and in microstructure. Yield of metal from briquettes was not lower then 70%.

  19. Rotational self-diffusion in suspensions of charged particles: simulations and revised Beenakker-Mazur and pairwise additivity methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makuch, Karol; Heinen, Marco; Abade, Gustavo Coelho; Nägele, Gerhard

    To the present day, the Beenakker-Mazur (BM) method is the most comprehensive statistical physics approach to the calculation of short-time transport properties of colloidal suspensions. A revised version of the BM method with an improved treatment of hydrodynamic interactions is presented and evaluated regarding the rotational short-time self-diffusion coefficient, $D^r$ , of suspensions of charged particles interacting by a hard-sphere plus screened Coulomb (Yukawa) pair potential. To assess the accuracy of the method, elaborate simulations of $D^r$ have been performed, covering a broad range of interaction parameters and particle concentrations. The revised BM method is compared in addition with results by a simplifying pairwise additivity (PA) method in which the hydrodynamic interactions are treated on a two-body level. The static pair correlation functions re- quired as input to both theoretical methods are calculated using the Rogers-Young integral equation scheme. While the revised BM method reproduces the general trends of the simulation results, it systematically and significantly underestimates the rotational diffusion coefficient. The PA method agrees well with the simulation data at lower volume fractions, but at higher concentrations $D^r$ is likewise underestimated. For a fixed value of the pair potential at mean particle distance comparable to the thermal energy, $D^r$ increases strongly with increasing Yukawa potential screening parameter.

  20. Corrosion behavior of Fe3Al intermetallics with addition of lithium, cerium and nickel in 2.5 % SO2+N2 at 900 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Rodríguez, J. G.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behavior of Fe3Al-type intermetallic alloys with addition of 1 at. % cerium, lithium and nickel at high temperature has been studied. The various alloys were exposed to an environment composed of 2.5 % SO2+N2 at 900 °C for 48 h. For all the intermetallic tested, the corrosion kinetics showed a parabolic behavior. The alloy, which showed less corrosion rate, was the Fe3AlNi alloy, being Fe3AlCeLi the alloy with the highest corrosion rate. For the various alloys, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, EDS, on the developed scale only detected aluminum, oxygen, and traces of iron and cerium, suggesting the formation of alumina as main component. The intermetallic alloys showed oxide cracking and spalling. The intermetallic chemical composition played an important role in defining the oxide scale morphology and the extent of damage.Se estudió el comportamiento a la corrosión a alta temperatura de intermetálicos tipo Fe3Al con adición de 1at. % de cerio, litio y níquel. Las diferentes aleaciones fueron expuestas bajo un ambiente compuesto de 2,5 % SO2+N2 a 900 °C durante 48 h. Para todos los intermetálicos ensayados, la cinética de corrosión presentó un comportamiento parabólico. La aleación que mostró la menor velocidad de corrosión fue el intermetálico Fe3AlNi, siendo el intermetálico Fe3AlCeLi el de mayor velocidad de corrosión. Los análisis mediante espectroscopía de dispersión de rayos X, EDS, sobre la costra formada identificaron únicamente aluminio, oxígeno y trazas de hierro y cerio, lo que sugiere la formación de alúmina como el componente principal. Los intermetálicos mostraron agrietamiento y desprendimiento de la costra de óxido. La composición química de los intermetálicos tuvo un papel importante en la definición de la morfología del óxido formado y el grado de daño.

  1. The role of emissive charge transfer states in two polymer-fullerene organic photovoltaic blends : tuning charge photogeneration through the use of processing additives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clarke, Tracey M.; Peet, Jeff; Lungenschmied, Christoph; Drolet, Nicolas; Lu, Xinhui; Ocko, Benjamin M.; Mozer, Attila J.; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    2014-01-01

    The role of charge transfer (CT) states in organic photovoltaic systems has been debated in the recent literature. In this paper the device performances of two structurally analogous polymers PDTSiTTz (also known as KP115) and PCPDTTTz blended with PCBM are investigated, focusing on the effect the p

  2. Nickel metal hydride LEO cycle testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Eric

    1995-01-01

    The George C. Marshall Space Flight Center is working to characterize aerospace AB5 Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) cells. The cells are being evaluated in terms of storage, low earth orbit (LEO) cycling, and response to parametric testing (high rate charge and discharge, charge retention, pulse current ability, etc.). Cells manufactured by Eagle Picher are the subjects of the evaluation. There is speculation that NiMH cells may become direct replacements for current Nickel Cadmium cells in the near future.

  3. Rotational self-diffusion in suspensions of charged particles: simulations and revised Beenakker-Mazur and pairwise additivity methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makuch, Karol; Heinen, Marco; Abade, Gustavo Coelho; Nägele, Gerhard

    2015-07-14

    We present a comprehensive joint theory-simulation study of rotational self-diffusion in suspensions of charged particles whose interactions are modeled by the generic hard-sphere plus repulsive Yukawa (HSY) pair potential. Elaborate, high-precision simulation results for the short-time rotational self-diffusion coefficient, D(r), are discussed covering a broad range of fluid-phase state points in the HSY model phase diagram. The salient trends in the behavior of D(r) as a function of reduced potential strength and range, and particle concentration, are systematically explored and physically explained. The simulation results are further used to assess the performance of two semi-analytic theoretical methods for calculating D(r). The first theoretical method is a revised version of the classical Beenakker-Mazur method (BM) adapted to rotational diffusion which includes a highly improved treatment of the salient many-particle hydrodynamic interactions. The second method is an easy-to-implement pairwise additivity (PA) method in which the hydrodynamic interactions are treated on a full two-body level with lubrication corrections included. The static pair correlation functions required as the only input to both theoretical methods are calculated using the accurate Rogers-Young integral equation scheme. While the revised BM method reproduces the general trends of the simulation results, it significantly underestimates D(r). In contrast, the PA method agrees well with the simulation results for D(r) even for intermediately concentrated systems. A simple improvement of the PA method is presented which is applicable for large concentrations.

  4. Influence of an Additive-Free Particle Spreading Method on Interactions between Charged Colloidal Particles at an Oil/Water Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Yi, Zonglin; Xing, Xiaochen; Ngai, To; Jin, Fan

    2016-05-17

    The assembly and manipulation of charged colloidal particles at oil/water interfaces represent active areas of fundamental and applied research. Previously, we have shown that colloidal particles can spontaneously generate unstable residual charges at the particle/oil interface when spreading solvent is used to disperse them at an oil/water interface. These residual charges in turn affect the long-ranged electrostatic repulsive forces and packing of particles at the interface. To further uncover the influence arising from the spreading solvents on interfacial particle interactions, in the present study we utilize pure buoyancy to drive the particles onto an oil/water interface and compare the differences between such a spontaneously adsorbed particle monolayer to the spread monolayer based on solvent spreading techniques. Our results show that the solvent-free method could also lead particles to spread well at the interface, but it does not result in violent sliding of particles along the interface. More importantly, this additive-free spreading method can avoid the formation of unstable residual charges at the particle/oil interface. These findings agree well with our previous hypothesis; namely, those unstable residual charges are triboelectric charges that arise from the violently rubbing of particles on oil at the interface. Therefore, if the spreading solvents could be avoided, then we would be able to get rid of the formation of residual charges at interfaces. This finding will provide insight for precisely controlling the interactions among colloidal particles trapped at fluid/fluid interfaces.

  5. 化学镀Ni层中的添加剂对焊料接合可靠性的影响%The Inlfuence of additives in electroless nickel plating on the reliability of solder joint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡积庆(译)

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the inlfuence of trace additives(Pb•s) concentration in electroless nickel plating on the deposit speed, corrosion resistance, solder wetting and solder joint reliabilily of electroless Ni/Pd/Au plating.%  概述了化学镀镍层中的微量添加剂(PDIS)浓度对化学镀Ni/Pa/Au镀层的析出速度、耐蚀性、焊料湿润性和焊料接合可靠性的影响。

  6. Corrosion behavior of Fe3Al intermetallics with addition of lithium, cerium and nickel in 2.5 % SO2+N2 at 900 °C

    OpenAIRE

    González-Rodríguez, J. G.; Martínez-Villafane, A.; Porcayo-Calderón, J.; Luna-Ramírez, A.; J. G. Chacón-Nava

    2012-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of Fe3Al-type intermetallic alloys with addition of 1 at. % cerium, lithium and nickel at high temperature has been studied. The various alloys were exposed to an environment composed of 2.5 % SO2+N2 at 900 °C for 48 h. For all the intermetallic tested, the corrosion kinetics showed a parabolic behavior. The alloy, which showed less corrosion rate, was the Fe3AlNi alloy, being Fe3AlCeLi the alloy with the highest corrosion rate. For the various alloys, energy dispersive...

  7. Nickel metallomics: general themes guiding nickel homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydor, Andrew M; Zamble, Deborah B

    2013-01-01

    The nickel metallome describes the distribution and speciation of nickel within the cells of organisms that utilize this element. This distribution is a consequence of nickel homeostasis, which includes import, storage, and export of nickel, incorporation into metalloenzymes, and the modulation of these and associated cellular systems through nickel-regulated transcription. In this chapter, we review the current knowledge of the most common nickel proteins in prokaryotic organisms with a focus on their coordination environments. Several underlying themes emerge upon review of these nickel systems, which illustrate the common principles applied by nature to shape the nickel metallome of the cell.

  8. Extraordinary Diversity of Immune Response Proteins among Sea Urchins: Nickel-Isolated Sp185/333 Proteins Show Broad Variations in Size and Charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Lauren S; Schrankel, Catherine S; Brown, Kristy J; Smith, L Courtney

    2015-01-01

    Effective protection against pathogens requires the host to produce a wide range of immune effector proteins. The Sp185/333 gene family, which is expressed by the California purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus in response to bacterial infection, encodes a highly diverse repertoire of anti-pathogen proteins. A subset of these proteins can be isolated by affinity to metal ions based on multiple histidines, resulting in one to four bands of unique molecular weight on standard Western blots, which vary depending on the individual sea urchin. Two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) of nickel-isolated protein samples followed by Western blot was employed to detect nickel-isolated Sp185/333 (Ni-Sp185/333) proteins and to evaluate protein diversity in animals before and after immune challenge with marine bacteria. Ni-Sp185/333 proteins of the same molecular weight on standard Western blots appear as a broad complex of variants that differ in pI on 2DE Western blots. The Ni-Sp185/333 protein repertoire is variable among animals, and shows a variety of changes among individual sea urchins in response to immune challenges with both the same and different species of bacteria. The extraordinary diversity of the Ni-Sp185/333 proteins may provide significant anti-pathogen capabilities for sea urchins that survive solely on innate immunity.

  9. Simultaneous determination of nickel and copper by H-point standard addition method-first-order derivative spectrophotometry in plant samples after separation and preconcentration on modified natural clinoptilolite as a new sorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohparvar, Rasool; Taher, Mohammad Ali; Mohadesi, Alireza

    2008-01-01

    For the simultaneous determination of nickel(ll) and copper(ll) in plant samples, a rapid and accurate method was developed. In this method, solid-phase extraction (SPE) and first-order derivative spectrophotometry (FDS) are combined, and the result is coupled with the H-point standard addition method (HPSAM). Compared with normal spectrophotometry, derivative spectrophotometry offers the advantages of increased selectivity and sensitivity. As there is no need for carrying out any pretreatment of the sample, the spectrophotometry method is easy, but because of a high detection limit, it is not so practical. In order to decrease the detection limit, it is suggested to combine spectrophotometry with a preconcentration method such as SPE. In the present work, after separation and preconcentration of Ni(ll) and Cu(ll) on modified clinoptilolite zeolite that is loaded with 2-[1-(2-hydroxy-5-sulforphenyl)-3-phenyl-5-formaza-no]-benzoic acid monosodium salt (zincon) as a selective chromogenic reagent, FDS-HPSAM, which is a simple and selective spectrophotometric method, has been applied for simultaneous determination of these ions. With optimum conditions, the detection limit in original solutions is 0.7 and 0.5 ng/mL, respectively, for nickel and copper. The linear concentration ranges in the proposed method for nickel and copper ions in original solutions are 1.1 to 3.0 x 10(3) and 0.9 to 2.0 x 10(3) ng/mL, respectively. The recommended procedure is applied to successful determination of Cu(ll) and Ni(ll) in standard and real samples.

  10. Performance model of a recirculating stack nickel hydrogen cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Albert H.

    1994-01-01

    A theoretical model of the nickel hydrogen battery cell has been utilized to describe the chemical and physical changes during charge and overcharge in a recirculating stack nickel hydrogen cell. In particular, the movement of gas and electrolyte have been examined as a function of the amount of electrolyte put into the cell stack during cell activation, and as a function of flooding in regions of the gas screen in this cell design. Additionally, a two-dimensional variation on this model has been utilized to describe the effects of non-uniform loading in the nickel-electrode on the movement of gas and electrolyte within the recirculating stack nickel hydrogen cell. The type of nonuniform loading that has been examined here is that associated with higher than average loading near the surface of the sintered nickel electrode, a condition present to some degree in many nickel electrodes made by electrochemical impregnation methods. The effects of high surface loading were examined primarily under conditions of overcharge, since the movement of gas and electrolyte in the overcharging condition was typically where the greatest effects of non-uniform loading were found. The results indicate that significant changes in the capillary forces between cell components occur as the percentage of free volume in the stack filled by electrolyte becomes very high. These changes create large gradients in gas-filled space and oxygen concentrations near the boundary between the separator and the hydrogen electrode when the electrolyte fill is much greater than about 95 percent of the stack free volume. At lower electrolyte fill levels, these gaseous and electrolyte gradients become less extreme, and shift through the separator towards the nickel electrode. Similarly, flooding of areas in the gas screen cause higher concentrations of oxygen gas to approach the platinum/hydrogen electrode that is opposite the back side of the nickel electrode. These results illustrate the need for

  11. Capacity fade in nickel cadmium and nickel hydrogen cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Tim; Hayden, Jeff; Pickett, David F.; Abrams-Blakemore, Bruce; Liptak, ED

    1993-01-01

    Research and operational experience with capacity fade in nickel cadmium and nickel hydrogen cells are summarized in outline form. The theoretical causes of capacity fade are reviewed and the role of cell storage, positive electrodes, and cobalt additives are addressed. Three examples of observed capacity fade are discussed: INTELSAT 5, INTELSAT 6, and an Explorer platform. Finally, prevention and recovery methods are addressed and the current status of Eagle Picher/Hughes research is discussed.

  12. Nickel-induced cytokine production from mononuclear cells in nickel-sensitive individuals and controls. Cytokine profiles in nickel-sensitive individuals with nickel allergy-related hand eczema before and after nickel challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, L; Christensen, J M; Kristiansen, J

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to nickel is a major cause of allergic contact dermatitis which is considered to be an inflammatory response induced by antigen-specific T cells. Here we describe the in vitro analysis of the nickel-specific T-cell-derived cytokine response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 35...... was somewhat of a surprise, since previous studies have suggested a Th1 response in nickel-mediated allergic contact dermatitis. Subsequently, the nickel-allergic individuals were randomized to experimental exposure to nickel or vehicle in a double-blind design. A daily 10-min exposure of one finger to 10 ppm...... nickel solution for 1 week followed by 100 ppm for an additional week evoked a clinical response of hand eczema in the nickel-exposed group. Blood samples were drawn on days 7 and 14 after the start of this exposure to occupationally relevant concentrations of nickel. No statistically significant...

  13. Composite Nickel Coatings Produced on 6XXX Series Aluminium Alloys with the Addition of Vanadium / Kompozytowe Powłoki Niklowe Wytwarzane Na Stopach Aluminum Serii 6XXX Z Dodatkiem Wanadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies of composite nickel coatings electrolytically deposited on aluminium alloys with different content of vanadium were described. Composite coatings were deposited from a Watts bath containing fine-dispersed SiC powder particles in an amount of 20 g/l and organic matters such as saccharin and sodium laurate. The morphology, structure and thickness of the obtained composite coatings were presented. The corrosion resistance of produced coatings was examined by electrochemical method. Basing on the results of studies it was found that coatings obtained with the sole addition of saccharin were characterized by numerous surface defects. The addition of sodium laurate eliminated the occurrence of defects caused by hydrogen evolution and the resulting coatings were continuous with good adhesion to the substrate. The distribution of the ceramic SiC phase in coatings was fairly uniform for all the examined variants of aluminium alloys. SEM examinations did not reveal the phenomenon of the ceramic particles agglomeration.

  14. Transient Influx of nickel in root mitochondria modulates organic acid and reactive oxygen species production in nickel hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Bhavana; Czymmek, Kirk J; Sparks, Donald L; Bais, Harsh P

    2013-03-08

    Mitochondria are important targets of metal toxicity and are also vital for maintaining metal homeostasis. Here, we examined the potential role of mitochondria in homeostasis of nickel in the roots of nickel hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum murale. We evaluated the biochemical basis of nickel tolerance by comparing the role of mitochondria in closely related nickel hyperaccumulator A. murale and non-accumulator Alyssum montanum. Evidence is presented for the rapid and transient influx of nickel in root mitochondria of nickel hyperaccumulator A. murale. In an early response to nickel treatment, substantial nickel influx was observed in mitochondria prior to sequestration in vacuoles in the roots of hyperaccumulator A. murale compared with non-accumulator A. montanum. In addition, the mitochondrial Krebs cycle was modulated to increase synthesis of malic acid and citric acid involvement in nickel hyperaccumulation. Furthermore, malic acid, which is reported to form a complex with nickel in hyperaccumulators, was also found to reduce the reactive oxygen species generation induced by nickel. We propose that the interaction of nickel with mitochondria is imperative in the early steps of nickel uptake in nickel hyperaccumulator plants. Initial uptake of nickel in roots results in biochemical responses in the root mitochondria indicating its vital role in homeostasis of nickel ions in hyperaccumulation.

  15. Recent advances in homogeneous nickel catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasker, Sarah Z; Standley, Eric A; Jamison, Timothy F

    2014-05-15

    Tremendous advances have been made in nickel catalysis over the past decade. Several key properties of nickel, such as facile oxidative addition and ready access to multiple oxidation states, have allowed the development of a broad range of innovative reactions. In recent years, these properties have been increasingly understood and used to perform transformations long considered exceptionally challenging. Here we discuss some of the most recent and significant developments in homogeneous nickel catalysis, with an emphasis on both synthetic outcome and mechanism.

  16. Polymer-templated mesoporous carbons synthesized in the presence of nickel nanoparticles, nickel oxide nanoparticles, and nickel nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choma, Jerzy; Jedynak, Katarzyna; Marszewski, Michal; Jaroniec, Mietek

    2012-02-01

    Mesoporous carbon composites, containing nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles, were obtained by soft-templating method. Samples were synthesized under acidic conditions using resorcinol and formaldehyde as carbon precursors, poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) triblock co-polymer Lutrol F127 as a soft template and nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles, and nickel nitrate as metal precursors. In addition, a one set of samples was obtained by impregnation of mesoporous carbons with a nickel nitrate solution followed by further annealing at 400 °C. Wide angle X-ray powder diffraction along with thermogravimetric analysis proved the presence of nickel nanoparticles in the final composites obtained using nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles, and Ni(NO3)2 solution. Whereas, the impregnation of carbons with a nickel nitrate solution followed by annealing at 400 °C resulted in needle-like nickel oxide nanoparticles present inside the composites’ pores. Low-temperature (-196 °C) nitrogen physisorption, X-ray powder diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis confirmed good adsorption and structural properties of the synthesized nickel-carbon composites, in particular, the samples possessed high surface areas (>600 m2/g), large total pore volumes (>0.50 cm3/g), and maxima of pore size distribution functions at circa 7 nm. It was found that the composites were partially graphitized during carbonization process at 850 °C. The samples are stable in an air environment below temperature of 500 °C. All these features make the synthesized nickel-carbon composites attractive materials for adsorption, catalysis, energy storage, and environmental applications.

  17. Nickel inhibits mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppala, Radha; McKinney, Richard W; Brant, Kelly A; Fabisiak, James P; Goetzman, Eric S

    2015-08-07

    Nickel exposure is associated with changes in cellular energy metabolism which may contribute to its carcinogenic properties. Here, we demonstrate that nickel strongly represses mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation-the pathway by which fatty acids are catabolized for energy-in both primary human lung fibroblasts and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. At the concentrations used, nickel suppresses fatty acid oxidation without globally suppressing mitochondrial function as evidenced by increased glucose oxidation to CO2. Pre-treatment with l-carnitine, previously shown to prevent nickel-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in neuroblastoma cells, did not prevent the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. The effect of nickel on fatty acid oxidation occurred only with prolonged exposure (>5 h), suggesting that direct inhibition of the active sites of metabolic enzymes is not the mechanism of action. Nickel is a known hypoxia-mimetic that activates hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF1α). Nickel-induced inhibition of fatty acid oxidation was blunted in HIF1α knockout fibroblasts, implicating HIF1α as one contributor to the mechanism. Additionally, nickel down-regulated the protein levels of the key fatty acid oxidation enzyme very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) in a dose-dependent fashion. In conclusion, inhibition of fatty acid oxidation by nickel, concurrent with increased glucose metabolism, represents a form of metabolic reprogramming that may contribute to nickel-induced carcinogenesis.

  18. Hydrogen evolution at catalytically-modified nickel foam in alkaline solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierozynski, Boguslaw; Mikolajczyk, Tomasz; Kowalski, Ireneusz M.

    2014-12-01

    This work reports on hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) studied at catalytically modified nickel foam material. The HER was examined in 0.1 M NaOH solution on as received, as well as for Pd and Ru-activated nickel foam catalyst materials, produced via spontaneous deposition of trace amounts of these elements. Catalytic modification of nickel foam results in significant facilitation of the HER kinetics, as manifested through considerably reduced, a.c. impedance-derived values of charge-transfer resistance parameter and substantially altered Tafel polarization slopes. The presence of catalytic additives is clearly revealed through hydrogen underpotential deposition (H UPD) phenomenon, as well as spectroscopically from SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) analysis.

  19. Thermodynamic aspects of nickel humic acid interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warwick, P.; Hall, A.; King, S.J.; Zhu, J. [Loughborough Univ. (United Kingdom); Van der Lee, J. [Ecole des Mines de Paris, Centre d`Inforamtique Geologique, Fontainebleu (France)

    1998-12-31

    NiHA stability constants ({beta} values) have been derived at different temperatures from the amounts of nickel (Ni{sup 2+}) and nickel humate (NiHA), determined to be present, in equilibrated nickel humic acid mixtures at 4 C, 20 C, 40 C, 60 C and 80 C. The constants were deduced using (i) a simple Scatchard plot, (ii) a metal-humic acid charge neutralisation model and (iii) an electrostatic/discrete site complexation model as implemented in the CHESS geochemical speciation code. The derived values depended on whether bulk solution (Scatchard and Charge Neutralisation Approaches) or humic surface metal concentrations (Electrostatic Approach) were employed in the calculations. The Scatchard and Charge Neutralisation approaches were found to be mathematically equivalent. The differently derived constants and their temperature dependencies have been used to calculate corresponding thermodynamic {Delta}H, {Delta}G and {Delta}S values. The values obtained are compared and features of thermodynamic significance discussed. (orig.)

  20. Beneficial effect of propane sultone and tris(trimethylsilyl) borate as electrolyte additives on the cycling stability of the lithium rich nickel manganese cobalt (NMC) oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birrozzi, Agnese; Laszczynski, Nina; Hekmatfar, Maral; von Zamory, Jan; Giffin, Guinevere A.; Passerini, Stefano

    2016-09-01

    This study reports the investigation of several compounds as electrolyte additives for Li[Li0.2Mn0.56 Ni0.16 Co0.08]O2 (a.k.a lithium rich NMC) cathode material. Among the compounds investigated via electrochemical and ex-situ analytical techniques, i.e. XRD, XPS and RAMAN spectroscopy, only 1,3-propane sultone and tris(trimethylsilyl) borate show a beneficial effect on the capacity retention and coulombic efficiency of the layered cathode. The results suggest that the improved capacity retention of the cells containing the two above-mentioned additives mainly originates from their participation in the formation of the cathode passive layer, which prevents the dissolution of the metals from the cathode material. Additionally, the borate additive reduces the lithium consumption upon the passive layer formation thus leaving a higher amount of lithium available in the electrolyte. Graphite/Li[Li0.2Mn0.56 Ni0.16 Co0.08]O2 cells containing the borate additive in the electrolyte showed 85% capacity retention after 485 cycles, confirming the feasibility of its employment for practical applications.

  1. Crystallographic orientations and twinning of electrodeposited nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alimadadi, Hossein; da Silva Fanta, Alice Bastos; Somers, Marcel A. J.;

    2014-01-01

    A series of nickel layers was electrodeposited at different current densities from a Watts type electrolyte containing the additive 2-butyne-1,4-diol in various concentrations. The internal structure of the nickel electrodeposits was systematically investigated applying complementary microscopic...

  2. Additive effect of Ce, Mo and K to nickel-cobalt aluminate supported solid oxide fuel cell for direct internal reforming of methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Bu Ho; Park, Jungdeok; Yoon, Heechul; Kim, Hyeon Hui; Kim, Lim; Chung, Jong Shik [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    Direct internal reforming of methane (steam/carbon=0.031, 850 .deg. C) is tested using button cells of Ni-YSZ/YSZ/LSM in which the anode layer is supported either on Ni-YSZ or on Ni-CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The Ni-CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} supported cell shows little degradation with operating time, as a result of higher resistance against carbon deposition, whereas the Ni-YSZ supported cell deactivates quickly and suffers fracture in 50 h. Upon incorporation of additives such as K, Ce, or Mo into the Ni-CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} support, cells with 0.5 wt% CeO{sub 2} exhibit the best stable performance as a result of reduced coke formation. Cells with 0.5 wt% Mo exhibit the lowest performance. Although no carbon deposit is detected in the cells with K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} additives, their performance is worse than that in the CeO{sub 2} case, and, in constant-current mode, there is a sudden voltage drop to zero after a certain period of time; this time becomes shorter with increasing K content. The injection of potassium into the anode side facilitates the generation of OH{sup -} and CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} in the anode and promotes the diffusion of these ions to the cathode. Increased polarization resistance at the cathode and increased electrolyte resistance result in such a sudden failure.

  3. Wetlife Study of Nickel Hydrogen Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the residual Nickel Precharge, and to understand the Performance and Cycle Life of Aged Nickel Hydrogen cells that were in cold storage up to thirteen (13) years. Comsat Technical Services, Aerospace Corporation, and NSWC/Crane test data to date indicate a nominal electrical performance with a small second plateau and the presence of Nickel Precharge in the cells: Cell Teardown, Plate (active Nickel Precharge determination), and Electrolyte Analyses are in progress. Preliminary Thermal Imaging data indicates that older the cell greater the heat generation, but cell over charge (capacity) could dominate heat generation. U.S. Govt. cells has completed 1150 nominal 60% LEO cycles. The completion date for this study is January 31, 2008.

  4. Structural transformation of nickel hydroxide films during anodic oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crocker, R.W.; Muller, R.H.

    1992-05-01

    The transformation of anodically formed nickel hydroxide/oxy-hydroxide electrodes has been investigated. A mechanism is proposed for the anodic oxidation reaction, in which the reaction interface between the reduced and oxidized phases of the electrode evolves in a nodular topography that leads to inefficient utilization of the active electrode material. In the proposed nodular transformation model for the anodic oxidation reaction, nickel hydroxide is oxidized to nickel oxy-hydroxide in the region near the metal substrate. Since the nickel oxy-hydroxide is considerably more conductive than the surrounding nickel hydroxide, as further oxidation occurs, nodular features grow rapidly to the film/electrolyte interface. Upon emerging at the electrolyte interface, the reaction boundary between the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases spreads laterally across the film/electrolyte interface, creating an overlayer of nickel oxy-hydroxide and trapping uncharged regions of nickel hydroxide within the film. The nickel oxy-hydroxide overlayer surface facilitates the oxygen evolution side reaction. Scanning tunneling microscopy of the electrode in its charged state revealed evidence of 80 {endash} 100 Angstrom nickel oxy-hydroxide nodules in the nickel hydroxide film. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometer measurements of films held at various constant potentials agree quantitatively with optical models appropriate to the nodular growth and subsequent overgrowth of the nickel oxy-hydroxide phase. A two-dimensional, numerical finite difference model was developed to simulate the current distribution along the phase boundary between the charged and uncharged material. The model was used to explore the effects of the physical parameters that govern the electrode behavior. The ratio of the conductivities of the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases was found to be the dominant parameter in the system.

  5. Nickel and nickel-phosphorous matrix composite electrocoatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nicolas SPYRELLIS; Evangelia A. PAVLATOU; Styliani SPANOU; Alexandros ZOIKIS-KARATHANASIS

    2009-01-01

    Nickel and nickel-phosphorous matrix composite coatings reinforced by TiO2, SiC and WC particles were produced under direct and pulse current conditions from an additive-free Watts' type bath. The influence of the variable electrolysis parameters (type of current, frequency of current pulses and current density) and the reinforcing particles properties (type, size and concentration in the bath) on the surface morphology and the structure of the deposits was examined. It is demonstrated that the embedding of ceramic particles modifies in various ways the nickel electrocrystallisation process. On the other hand, Ni-P amorphous matrix is not affected by the occlusion of the particles. Overall, the imposition of pulse current conditions leads to composite coatings with increased embedded percentage and more homogenous distribution of particles in the matrix than coatings produced under direct current regime.

  6. Electroless Co-Zn Surface-modified Nickel Hydroxide as an Active Material for Pasted Nickel Electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Quan-sheng(宋全生); TANG Zhi-yuan(唐致远); GUO He-tong(郭鹤桐); CHAN S L I

    2004-01-01

    Chemically precipitated β-type nickel hydroxide powder was surface-modified by electroless deposition of Co-Zn coatings,and physical properties of both the modified and unmodified nickel hydroxide were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), specific surface area (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It has been found that Co and Zn components of the surface electroless coatings exist in the oxidized state. Electrochemical performances of pasted nickel electrodes using the modified nickel hydroxide as an active material were investigated, and compared with those of the electrodes prepared with the unmodified nickel hydroxide. Charge/discharge tests show that the modified nickel hydroxide electrodes exhibit better performances in the charge efficiency, specific discharge capacity and active material utilization. Their resistance to swelling with cycling is also superior to that of the unmodified nickel hydroxide electrodes. Cyclic voltammetric (CV) studies indicate that the modified electrodes have a higher electrochemical activity, and the porous pasted nickel electrodes have some distinguished CV characteristics in comparison with those of the thin film nickel electrodes.

  7. Study of Supported Nickel Catalysts Prepared by Aqueous Hydrazine Method. Hydrogenating Properties and Hydrogen Storage: Support Effect. Silver Additive Effect; Catalyseurs de nickel supportes prepares par la methode de l'hydrazine aqueuse. Proprietes hydrogenantes et stockage d'hydrogene. Effet du support. Effet de l'ajout d'argent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojcieszak, R

    2006-06-15

    We have studied Ni or NiAg nano-particles obtained by the reduction of nickel salts (acetate or nitrate) by hydrazine and deposited by simple or EDTA-double impregnation on various supports ({gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, amorphous or crystallized SiO{sub 2}, Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, CeO{sub 2} and carbon). Prepared catalysts were characterized by different methods (XRD, XPS, low temperature adsorption and desorption of N{sub 2}, FTIR and FTIR-Pyridine, TEM, STEM, EDS, H{sub 2}-TPR, H{sub 2}-adsorption, H{sub 2}-TPD, isopropanol decomposition) and tested in the gas phase hydrogenation of benzene or as carbon materials in the hydrogen storage at room temperature and high pressure. The catalysts prepared exhibited better dispersion and activity than classical catalysts. TOF's of NiAg/SiO{sub 2} or Ni/carbon catalysts were similar to Pt catalysts in benzene hydrogenation. Differences in support acidity or preparation method and presence of Ag as metal additive play a crucial role in the chemical reduction of Ni by hydrazine and in the final properties of the materials. Ni/carbon catalysts could store significant amounts of hydrogen at room temperature and high pressure (0.53%/30 bars), probably through the hydrogen spillover effect. (author)

  8. The Review of Nickel Market in China for 2007 and the Expectation for 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The year of 2007 is not an ordinary year for nickel market in China.Both the single day price and the annual average price have hit the record high.On the supply of nickel,the com- mon refined nickel products have experienced decreased supply,in addition to the discourag- ing and unfavorable situation of the supply of nickel-containing pig iron.For the 2nd half of 2007,the industrial chain of nickel-containing pig iron has been sluggish from the import of nickel concentrate to domestic sales and further to the sales of nickel-containing pig iron.

  9. The influence hydrogen atom addition has on charge switching during motion of the metal atom in endohedral Ca@C60H4 isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggi, G; Besley, E; Stace, A J

    2016-09-13

    Density functional theory has been applied in a study of charge transfer between an endohedral calcium atom and the fullerene cage in Ca@C60H4 and [Ca@C60H4](+) isomers. Previous calculations on Ca@C60 have shown that the motion of calcium within a fullerene is accompanied by large changes in electron density on the carbon cage. Based on this observation, it has been proposed that a tethered endohedral fullerene might form the bases of a nanoswitch. Through the addition of hydrogen atoms to one hemisphere of the cage it is shown that, when compared with Ca@C60, asymmetric and significantly reduced energy barriers can be generated with respect to motion of the calcium atom. It is proposed that hydrogen atom addition to a fullerene might offer a route for creating a bi-stable nanoswitch that can be fine-tuned through the selection of an appropriate isomer and number of atoms attached to the cage of an endohedral fullerene.This article is part of the themed issue 'Fullerenes: past, present and future, celebrating the 30th anniversary of Buckminster Fullerene'.

  10. Addition of positively charged tripeptide to N-terminus of the Fos basic region leucine zipper domain: implications on DNA bending, affinity, and specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, T; Sarkar, B

    1999-09-01

    GKH-Fos(139-211)/Jun(248-334) (GKH: glycine-lysine-histidine) is a modified Fos/Jun heterodimer designed to contain a metal binding motif in the form of a GKH tripeptide at the amino terminus of Fos bZIP domain dimerized with the Jun basic region leucine zipper (bZIP) domain. We examined the effect of the addition of positively charged GKH motif to the N-terminus of Fos(139-211) on the DNA binding characteristics of the Fos(139-211)/Jun(248-334) heterodimer. Binding studies indicate that while the nonspecific DNA binding affinity of the GKH modified heterodimer increases 4-fold, it specifically binds the activating protein-1 (AP-1) site 6-fold less tightly than the control unmodified counterpart. Furthermore, helical phasing analysis indicates that GKH-Fos(139-211)/Jun(248-334) and control Fos(139-211)/Jun(248-334) both bend the DNA at the AP-1 site toward the minor groove. However, due to the presence of the positively charged GKH motif on Fos, the degree of the induced bend by GKH- Fos(139-211)/Jun(248-334) is greater than that induced by the unmodified Fos/Jun heterodimer. Our results suggest that the unfavorable energetic cost of the increased DNA bending by GKH-Fos(139-211)/Jun(248-334) results in a decrease in both specificity and affinity of binding of the heterodimer to the AP-1 site. These findings may have important implications in protein design as well in our understanding of DNA bending and factors responsible for the functional specificity of different members of the bZIP family of transcription factors.

  11. Impact Behavior and Fracture Mechanism of Ductile Cast Iron with Minor Nickel Addition at Low Temperature%低镍球墨铸铁低温冲击性能及断裂机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈江; 黄兴民; 高杰维; 董海; 戴光泽

    2012-01-01

    使用激光共聚焦显微镜、扫描电镜和示波冲击等实验手段研究了镍元素(0.0%~0.9%,质量分数,下同)对球墨铸铁的微观组织和低温冲击性能的影响,对低温断裂机理进行了探讨.结果表明:含镍0.7%退火态球墨铸铁的韧脆转变温度低于-60℃,其-70℃下冲击功高于12J;适量镍元素添加能有效地细化晶粒和强化基体,改善球墨铸铁的低温冲击性能.%Utilizing laser confocal microscopy, SEM, instrumented impact and other experimental methods, the influence of nickel content(0. 0%-0. 9%,mass fraction, the same below) on the micro-structure and low temperature impact toughness of ductile cast iron(DCI) was investigated. The fracture mechanism of DCIs was studied further at different temperatures by using scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The results show that ductile-to-brittle transition temperature of as-annealed DCIs with 0. 7% Ni content is lower than —60℃ , the impact energy of Charpy-type test is still higher than 12J at —70℃. Minor Ni addition of proper quantities might favor the grain refinement and matrix strengthen, low temperature impact toughness properties of DCIs are markedly improved.

  12. Burp Charging Nickel Metal Hydride Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcy, Eric; Pollard, Richard

    1997-01-01

    The SKYNET 4 constellation consists of three spacecraft which were launched between December 1988 and August 1990. The spacecraft are three-axis stabilized geostationary earth-orbiting military communications satellites with a design life of seven years on station. With the mission objective achieved all the batteries continue to give excellent performance. This paper presents a review of the history of the six batteries from cell procurement to the end of their design life and beyond. Differences in operational strategies are discussed and the lifetime trends in performance are analyzed. The combination of procurement acceptance criteria and the on-station battery management strategy utilized are presented as the prime factors in achieving completely successful battery performance throughout the mission.

  13. Nickel transfer by fingers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isnardo, D; Vidal, J; Panyella, D; Vilaplana, J

    2015-06-01

    We investigated fingers as a potential source of nickel transfer to the face in patients with allergic contact dermatitis to nickel and a history of facial dermatitis. Samples were collected from the fingers and cheeks of volunteers using the stripping method with standard adhesive tape, and nickel levels were quantified using mass spectrometry. Fingers and cheeks of individuals who had handled coins were both positive for nickel, with levels ranging from 14.67 to 58.64 ppm and 1.28 to 8.52 ppm, respectively. The levels in a control group were considerably and significantly lower. Transfer of nickel from a person's fingers to their face after handling a nickel-containing object could explain the presence of facial dermatitis in patients with nickel hypersensitivity.

  14. Perfluorodiethoxymethane on nickel and nickel oxide surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Joyce [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1994-03-03

    The interaction of perfluorodiethoxymethane with a nickel single crystal, Ni(100); a nickel crystal with chemisorbed oxygen, Ni(100)-c(2x2)O; and a nickel crystal with nickel oxide crystallites, NiO(100) is investigated in an ultra high vacuum environment using thermal desorption spectroscopy and high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy. Nickel, a component of hard disk drives and stainless steel, is used to represent metal surfaces in these "real" systems. Perfluorodiethoxymethane is used in this study as a model compound of industrial perfluoropolyether lubricants. These lubricants are known for their exceptional stability, except in the presence of metals. Perfluorodiethoxymethane contains the acetal group (-OCF2O-), believed to be particularly vulnerable to attack in the presence of Lewis acids. Since the surfaces studied show increasing Lewis acidity at the nickel atom sites, one might expect to see increasing decomposition of perfluorodiethoxymethane due to acidic attack of the acetal group. No decomposition of perfluorodiethoxymethane is observed on the clean Ni(100) surface, while more research is needed to determine whether a small decomposition pathway is observed on the oxygenated surfaces, or whether sample impurities are interfering with results. The strength of the bonding of perfluorodiethoxymethane to the surface is found to increase as the nickel atoms sites become more acidic in moving from Ni(100) to Ni (100)-c(2x2)O to NiO (100).

  15. Thermomagnetic analysis of hydrogenated nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, S. S. M.; Miraglia, S.; Lafuente, A.; Fruchart, D.

    2002-04-01

    The effect of hydrogen inserted by electrolytic charging on the magnetic properties of nickel is discussed by taking into account the thermomagnetic analysis (TMA), X-ray diffraction and saturation magnetization results. After hydrogenation, thin foils of nickel presented a biphasic structure of metastable β-NiH x ( x=0.67±0.07) and α-Ni (with <0.03 at% H). During room temperature aging the β-NiH x hydride decomposes into α-Ni and H 2. The TMA heating curves obtained just after hydrogenation show two magnetic transitions, the first one in the range 100-120°C and the second that of Curie point of Ni. Between the first and the second transition an abrupt increase of magnetization is observed, which is due to the formation of more ferromagnetic nickel from the hydride decomposition. On the other hand, the first transition of the TMA curve can only be attributed to the ferromagnetism of some regions of phase β.

  16. Investigation of the Thermal Stability and Tribological Behavior of Nickel-oxythiomolybdate as Solid Lubricant or Lubricating Oil Additive%硫代钼酸镍的热稳定性及其摩擦学性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈金荣; 李曙; 叶萍萍; 姜晓霞; 李诗卓; 杨生荣

    2001-01-01

    采用X射线衍射和电子探针鉴定了硫代钼酸镍的结构及其经不同温度加热或高温摩擦磨损试验后磨损表面产物的结构和成分,用热重法对其热稳定性进行了评价.在四球摩擦磨损试验机和销-盘式高温摩擦磨损试验机上考察了其作为油品添加剂及固体润滑剂的摩擦学特性,探讨了其作为固体润滑剂在升温过程中可能发生的化学变化及其对润滑性能的影响.结果表明:硫代钼酸镍在氮气流中表现出较好的热稳定性,在空气中于350℃左右开始发生氧化分解;其高温氧化分解产物MoO3和MoS2具有明显的减摩作用,因此硫代钼酸镍可用作室温到高温(20~800℃)下的固体润滑剂.%The thermal stability of nickel oxythiomolybdate (NiMoO2S2) andthe elemental composition of its thermally decomposed products were examined by means of electron probe micro-analysis and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The tribological behavior of NiMoO2S2 powder as a solid lubricant or lubricating oil additive was investigated on a pin-on-disc friction and wear tester and a four-ball machine. As the results, NiMoO2S2 shows good thermal stability in N2, while it starts to decompose at 350 ℃ in air. It has good friction-reduction and antiwear ability either as a solid lubricant or lubricating oil additive at elevated temperature. This is attributed to its tribochemical products MoO3 and MoS2 during high temperature friction and wear test.

  17. Effect of cobalt hydroxide addition on performance of nickel hydroxide as a positive material for supercapacitor%掺杂Co(OH)2对超级电容器正极材料Ni(OH)2性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨一明; 于维平

    2011-01-01

    采用电化学共沉积法在泡沫镍基体上制备了掺杂Co(OH)2的纳米级Ni(OH)2电极.采用XRD、SEM、EDS等分析表征了电极材料的晶体结构、成分和形貌;采用恒流充放电、循环伏安及交流阻抗等方法测试了其电化学性能.结果表明,电化学共沉积法可以制备定量掺杂Co(OH)2的α-Ni(OH)2,该电极材料具有三维纳米花状结构;适当掺杂Co(OH)2的α-Ni(OH)2可以显著提高电极的比容量和循环性能,还提高了放电电位和氧气析出过电位,同时提高了其质子扩散系数和降低了扩散阻抗.%Nanostructural nickel hydroxide electrode doped with cobalt hydroxide was prepared by directly depositing nickel hydroxide on the surface of foam nickel using electrochemical deposition technology. The characterization of the nickel hydroxide electrode was studied by X-ray diffraction ( XRD ), scanning electron microscopy ( SEM ), energy-dispersive spectrometry ( EDS ), and constant-current chargedischarge, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and AC impedance (IMP). The results show that α-type nickel hydroxide doped with quantitative cobalt hydroxide can be prepared by electrochemical co-deposition method, the samples are composed of many uniform 3D flowerlike nanostructures formed by dozens of flakelike nanopetals or nanowires,moderate cobalt hydroxide additive can significantly improve specific capacitance and cycle performance of α-type nickel hydroxide electrode. The study also found that nickel hydroxide electrode with cobalt hydroxide has higher discharge potential and the overpotential of oxygen precipitation, and also has higher proton diffusion coefficient and lower diffusion impedance.

  18. Beneficial effects of activated carbon additives on the performance of negative lead-acid battery electrode for high-rate partial-state-of-charge operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jiayuan; Ding, Ping; Zhang, Hao; Wu, Xianzhang; Chen, Jian; Yang, Yusheng

    2013-11-01

    Experiments are made with negative electrode of 2 V cell and 12 V lead-acid battery doped with typical activated carbon additives. It turns out that the negative electrode containing tens-of-micron-sized carbon particles in NAM exhibits markedly increased HRPSoC cycle life than the one containing carbon particles with much smaller size of several microns or the one containing no activated carbon. The improved performance is mainly attributed to the optimized NAM microstructure and the enhanced electrode reaction kinetics by introducing appropriate activated carbon. The beneficial effects can be briefly summarized from three aspects. First, activated carbon acts as new porous-skeleton builder to increase the porosity and active surface of NAM, and thus facilitates the electrolyte diffusion from surface to inner and provides more sites for crystallization/dissolution of lead sulfate; second, activated carbon plays the role of electrolyte supplier to provide sufficient H2SO4 in the inner of plate when the diffusion of H2SO4 from plate surface cannot keep pace of the electrode reaction; Third, activated carbon acts as capacitive buffer to absorb excess charge current which would otherwise lead to insufficient NAM conversion and hydrogen evolution.

  19. Significantly improved electrochemical hydrogen storage properties of magnesium nickel hydride modified with nano-nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Zhu, Yunfeng; Yang, Chen; Zhang, Jiguang; Li, Menghuai; Li, Liquan

    2015-04-01

    Magnesium nickel hydride (Mg2NiH4) used as negative electrode material in nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) secondary battery is modified by nano-nickel via mechanical milling. In this paper, we systematically investigate the microstructure and electrochemical properties of the modified system with different milling durations. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analyses confirm the amorphous transformation of Mg2Ni-based hydride and a novel NiH0.75 nanocrystalline with a diameter of about 5 nm embedding or covering on the surface of the base particle has been observed. Its formation mechanism and positive effects on electrochemical properties of the Mg2NiH4 have also been elaborated. Electrochemical measurements show that the 5 h milled composite possesses markedly increased discharge capacity up to 896 mAh g-1. With prolonging the milling duration from 5 h to 40 h, the discharge capacity at the 10th cycle increases from 99 mAh g-1 to 359 mAh g-1. Besides, the discharging procedure changes from stepwise processes to one single-step process with increasing the milling duration. Tafel polarization test shows that the nano-nickel modified system exhibits a much better anti-corrosion ability during charging/discharging cycles. Meanwhile, both the charge-transfer reaction on the alloy surface and hydrogen diffusion inside the alloy bulk are enhanced with nano-nickel modification.

  20. Surfactant-free synthesis of nickel nanoparticles in near-critical water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hald, Peter; Bremholm, Martin; Iversen, Steen Brummerstedt; Iversen, Bo Brummerstedt

    2008-10-01

    Nickel nanoparticles have been produced by combining two well-tested methods: (i) the continuous flow supercritical reactor and (ii) the reduction of a nickel salt with hydrazine. The normal precipitation of a nickel-hydrazine complex, which would complicate pumping and mixing of the precursor, was controlled by the addition of ammonia to the precursor solution, and production of nickel nanoparticles with average sizes from 40 to 60 nm were demonstrated. The method therefore provides some size control and enables the production of nickel nanoparticles without the use of surfactants. The pure nickel nanoparticles can be easily isolated using a magnet.

  1. Nickel Curie Point Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaverina, Chris; Lisensky, George

    2014-01-01

    Ferromagnetic materials such as nickel, iron, or cobalt lose the electron alignment that makes them attracted to a magnet when sufficient thermal energy is added. The temperature at which this change occurs is called the "Curie temperature," or "Curie point." Nickel has a Curie point of 627 K, so a candle flame is a sufficient…

  2. Polarized Neutron Reflectometry of Nickel Corrosion Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Mary H; Welbourn, Rebecca J L; Zarbakhsh, Ali; Gutfreund, Philipp; Clarke, Stuart M

    2015-06-30

    Polarized neutron reflectometry has been used to investigate the detailed adsorption behavior and corrosion inhibition mechanism of two surfactants on a nickel surface under acidic conditions. Both the corrosion of the nickel surface and the structure of the adsorbed surfactant layer could be monitored in situ by the use of different solvent contrasts. Layer thicknesses and roughnesses were evaluated over a range of pH values, showing distinctly the superior corrosion inhibition of one negatively charged surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate) compared to a positively charged example (dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide) due to its stronger binding interaction with the surface. It was found that adequate corrosion inhibition occurs at significantly less than full surface coverage.

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Monodisperse Nickel Nanoparticles by Polyol Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Peng; GUAN Jianguo; ZHANG Qingjie; ZHAO Wenyu

    2005-01-01

    Polymer-protected monodisperse nickel nanoparticles were synthesized by a modified polyol reduction method in the presence of poly ( N-vinyl- 2-pyrrolidone ). These nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X- ray diffraction ( XRD ), selected area electron diffraction ( SAED ), as well as vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The experimental results show that the addition of PVP and the concentration of NaOH have strong influences on the size, agglomeration and uniformity of nanoparticles. In the presence of PVP and NaOH with low concentrations, monodisperse nickel nanoparticles with average diameters about 42 nm were obtained and characterized to be pure nickel crystalline with fcc structure. Secondary structures such as clusters, loops, and strings resulted from magnetic interactions between particles were observed. The chemical interaction between the PVP and nickel nanoparticles was found by FTIR. The saturation magnetization ( Ms ), remanent magnetization (Mr) and coercivity ( Hc ) of these nickel nanoparticles are lower than those of bulk nickel.

  4. Enhancement of anaerobic hydrogen production by iron and nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karadag, Dogan; Puhakka, Jaakko A. [Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere (Finland)

    2010-08-15

    The effects of iron and nickel on hydrogen (H{sub 2}) production were investigated in a glucose-fed anaerobic Continuous Flow Stirred Tank Reactor (ACSTR). Both iron and nickel improved the reactor performance and H{sub 2} production was enhanced by 71% with the sole iron or nickel supplementation. In all cases, H{sub 2} production yield was increased by lowering both ethanol and total metabolites production and increasing butyrate production. Furthermore, iron and nickel slightly increased biomass production while glucose degradation decreased with the supplementation of nickel. Dynamic changes in bacterial composition as analyzed by 16S rRNA gene-targeted denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) revealed that hydrogen was produced mainly by Clostridium butyricum strains and that nickel addition decreased the microbial diversity. (author)

  5. Toxicity of nickel-spiked freshwater sediments to benthic invertebrates-Spiking methodology, species sensitivity, and nickel bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, John M.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Kemble, Nile E.; Ivey, Chris D.; Kunz, James L.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Rudel, David

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes data from studies of the toxicity and bioavailability of nickel in nickel-spiked freshwater sediments. The goal of these studies was to generate toxicity and chemistry data to support development of broadly applicable sediment quality guidelines for nickel. The studies were conducted as three tasks, which are presented here as three chapters: Task 1, Development of methods for preparation and toxicity testing of nickel-spiked freshwater sediments; Task 2, Sensitivity of benthic invertebrates to toxicity of nickel-spiked freshwater sediments; and Task 3, Effect of sediment characteristics on nickel bioavailability. Appendices with additional methodological details and raw chemistry and toxicity data for the three tasks are available online at http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2011/5225/downloads/.

  6. Increased charge transfer of PVDF-HFP based electrolyte by addition of graphite nanofiber and its application in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xing Guan; Jin, En Mei; Gu, Hal-Bon

    2013-12-01

    The PEO and PVDF-HFP mixtures were used as polymer electrolytes in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Correlation between the ionic conductivity and cell performance by varying the composition of polymer electrolytes was investigated to elucidate the importance of the ionic conductivity in determining the charge transfer and energy conversion efficiency of solid-state DSSCs. In this work, for increasing the ionic conductivity and charge transfer, GNF was added to the polymer electrolyte. The ionic conductivity of polymer electrolyte containing GNF (0.005 g) is 8.67 × 10-4 S cm-1 and pristine polymer electrolyte is 3.81 × 10-4 S cm-1. The charge transfer of GNF (0.005 g) added DSSCs is faster than the other samples, the electron transport time is 1.53 ms and electron life time is 27.20 ms. The increase of current density with the polymer electrolyte containing GNF (0.005 g) can be possibly attributed to the direct contact between dye/TiO2 and I/I3- that will improve the charge transportation. The highest energy conversion efficiency of 4.60% is obtained for polymer electrolyte containing GNF (0.005 g).

  7. Increased charge transfer of PVDF-HFP based electrolyte by addition of graphite nanofiber and its application in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xing Guan; Jin, En Mei; Gu, Hal-Bon, E-mail: hbgu@chonnam.ac.kr

    2013-12-15

    The PEO and PVDF-HFP mixtures were used as polymer electrolytes in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Correlation between the ionic conductivity and cell performance by varying the composition of polymer electrolytes was investigated to elucidate the importance of the ionic conductivity in determining the charge transfer and energy conversion efficiency of solid-state DSSCs. In this work, for increasing the ionic conductivity and charge transfer, GNF was added to the polymer electrolyte. The ionic conductivity of polymer electrolyte containing GNF (0.005 g) is 8.67 × 10{sup −4} S cm{sup −1} and pristine polymer electrolyte is 3.81 × 10{sup −4} S cm{sup −1}. The charge transfer of GNF (0.005 g) added DSSCs is faster than the other samples, the electron transport time is 1.53 ms and electron life time is 27.20 ms. The increase of current density with the polymer electrolyte containing GNF (0.005 g) can be possibly attributed to the direct contact between dye/TiO{sub 2} and I{sup −}/I{sub 3}{sup −} that will improve the charge transportation. The highest energy conversion efficiency of 4.60% is obtained for polymer electrolyte containing GNF (0.005 g)

  8. The electronic structure of the adducts of nickel(II) and cobalt(II) acetylacetonate with 2,2ʹ-dipyridyl by the method of quantum chemical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komissarov, A. A.; Korochentsev, V. V.; Vovna, V. I.

    2016-02-01

    The electronic structure of the nickel(II) and cobalt(II) bis-acetylacetonate with the additional 2,2ʹ-dipyridyl ligand is investigated using density functional theory calculations and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Additional ligand effect on geometry, charges, electronic structure and X-ray photoelectron spectrum is studied. Our calculations show that the electron-donating ability of the 2,2ʹ-dipyridyl ligand is low. The computed data is compared with experimental data.

  9. Electroplated tin-nickel coatings as a replacement for nickel to eliminate nickel dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Per; Boyce, Jan M.; Nielsen, Lars Pleth

    2013-01-01

    Nickel dermatitis (skin allergy) is a growing problem in numerous countries. The alarming frequency of sensitization to nickel especially in the US caused nickel to be selected as the "Allergen of the Year" in 2008 by the American Contact Dermatitis Society. Nickel as coating in contact with skin...

  10. NICKEL – ENVIRONMENTAL ALLERGEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryka Langauer-Lewowicka

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Nickel (Ni is ubiquitus in our biosphere because of its emission from natural and anthropogenic sources. Its toxic and carcinogenic properties are well recognised only in workers exposed to high Ni concentrations. Nickel allergy is the most common form of cutaneus hypersensitivity in general population and also in occupationally exposed groups. As sensitizing agent Ni has a high prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis. The most important known risk factor associated with nickel allergy is ear piercing and use of other jewelry in females. In general population 17 % adults and 8 % children have Ni allergy symptoms. Permanently growing Ni allergy is regarded as serious risk for public health.

  11. Thermophysical properties of Incoloy 800 and five additional FeNiCr-base high temperature alloys in comparison with the nickel-base alloy Nimonic 86 between 20 and 1000deg C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, F. (Mannesmann-Forschungsinstitut GmbH, Duisburg (Germany, F.R.))

    1991-05-01

    The most important physical properties of the following high temperature alloys have been determined in the temperature range between 20 and 1000deg C: Incoloy 800, Incoloy 800 H, Incoloy 802, Incoloy 802 Nb, Manaurite 36 X, IN 519 and Nimonic 86. It is shown that these materials differ only a little in some of the properties. These properties include thermal expansion, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity. Owing to a substantially higher nickel content, the density of the nickel-base alloy Nimonic 86 differs significantly from that of the other materials investigated. The differences in the elastic properties of the materials are to be attributed to the differences in their crystallographic texture. Incoly 800 was very highly textured compared to other materials. The temperature dependence of the coefficient of linear thermal expansion and electrical resistivity of these materials is different from the normal behaviour of pure metals and alloys. The discrepancies observed are attributable to short range ordering processes in the case of Nimonic 86 and to temperature-induced electron transitons in the case of the other materials investigated, as known for austenitic Cr-Ni steels. (orig.).

  12. Effect of key parameters on the selective acid leach of nickel from mixed nickel-cobalt hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Kelly; Hawker, William; Vaughan, James

    2017-01-01

    Mixed nickel-cobalt hydroxide precipitate (MHP) is a relatively recent intermediate product in primary nickel production. The material is now being produced on a large scale (approximately 60,000 t/y Ni as MHP) at facilities in Australia (Ravensthorpe, First Quantum Minerals) and Papua New Guinea (Ramu, MCC/Highlands Pacific). The University of Queensland Hydrometallurgy research group developed a new processing technology to refine MHP based on a selective acid leach. This process provides a streamlined route to obtaining a high purity nickel product compared with conventional leaching / solvent extraction processes. The selective leaching of nickel from MHP involves stabilising manganese and cobalt into the solid phase using an oxidant. This paper describes a batch reactor study investigating the timing of acid and oxidant addition on the rate and extent of nickel, cobalt, manganese leached from industrial MHP. For the conditions studied, it is concluded that the simultaneous addition of acid and oxidant provide the best process outcomes.

  13. Synthesis, structure characterization and catalytic activity of nickel tungstate nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmortazavi, Seied Mahdi; Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Mehdi; Khalilian-Shalamzari, Morteza; Zahedi, Mir Mahdi; Hajimirsadeghi, Seiedeh Somayyeh; Omrani, Ismail

    2012-12-01

    Taguchi robust design was applied to optimize experimental parameters for controllable, simple and fast synthesis of nickel tungstate nanoparticles. NiWO4 nanoparticles were synthesized by precipitation reaction involving addition of nickel ion solution to the tungstate aqueous reagent and then formation of nickel tungstate nucleolus which are insoluble in aqueous media. Effects of various parameters such as nickel and tungstate concentrations, flow rate of reagent addition and reactor temperature on diameter of synthesized nickel tungstate nanoparticles were investigated experimentally by the aid of orthogonal array design. The results for analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that particle size of nickel tungstate can be effectively tuned by controlling significant variables involving nickel and tungstate concentrations and flow rate; while, temperature of the reactor has a no considerable effect on the size of NiWO4 particles. The ANOVA results proposed the optimum conditions for synthesis of nickel tungstate nanoparticles via this technique. Also, under optimum condition nanoparticles of NiWO4 were prepared and their structure and chemical composition were characterized by means of EDAX, XRD, SEM, FT-IR spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, and photoluminescence. Finally, catalytic activity of the nanoparticles in a cycloaddition reaction was examined.

  14. Important Parameters and Applications for Nickel Electroforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben; Benzon, Michael Eis; Rasmussen, J.P.;

    1996-01-01

    Electroforming is versatile process that is being used more and more, although the basic idea is almost a hundred years old. This paper will concentrate on the important mechanical properties and electrolyte parameters of nickel electroforming. Electrolyte parameters such as current density, p......H-value, temperature and the use of pulse plating and additives will be examined with respect to mechanical properties such as internal stress, material distribution and hardness. Pulse plating in a chloride and Watts nickel bath and DC plating in sulphamate bath will be discussed, as well as different methods...

  15. Atmospheric leaching of nickel and cobalt from nickel saprolite ores using the Starved Acid Leaching Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreisinger, David

    2017-01-01

    There is great potential to recover nickel from below cut-off grade nickel saprolite ores using the Starved Acid Leach Technology (SALT). Nickel saprolite ores are normally mined as feed to Fe-Ni smelters or Ni matte smelting operations. The smelting processes typically require high Ni cut-off grades of 1.5 to 2.2% Ni, depending on the operation. These very high cutoff grades result in a significant portion of the saprolite profile being regarded as "waste" and hence having little to no value. The below cut-off grade (waste) material can be processed by atmospheric acid leaching with "starvation" levels of acid addition. The leached nickel and cobalt may be recovered as a mixed hydroxide (or alternate product). The mixed hydroxide may be added to the saprolite smelting operation feed system to increase the nickel production of the smelter or may be refined separately. The technical development of the SALT process will be described along with an economic summary. The SALT process has great potential to treat many Indonesian Nickel ores that are too low a grade for current technology.

  16. Pulse Reversal Plating of Nickel and Nickel Alloys for MEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben

    2001-01-01

    and material distribution is even more important. Using a bath consisting mostly of nickel chloride, pulse reversal plating of both pure nickel and nickel-cobalt alloys has been used to fabricate tools for micro-injection molding. Pulse reversal plating of ternary soft-magnetic alloys, comprising 45-65 percent...

  17. Preparation of ultrafine nickel powder by wet chemical process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Rui-ying; ZHOU Kang-gen

    2006-01-01

    The main technical problems of nickel powder for multiplayer ceramic capacitors are particle size controlling, the agglomeration and tap density. Ultrafine nickel powders with submicron size and spherical shape were synthesized by the hydrazine reduction of nickel sulfate in ethanol-water solvent. The effects of reaction temperature, nucleator and flow rate of nickel sulfate solution on nickel powders properties were investigated. The nickel particles synthesized were characterized by SEM and TGA. The results show that the average particle size changes from 0.1 to 0.7 μm by adjusting reaction temperature (53-73 ℃) and flow rate of nickel sulfate solution (50-100 mL/min). Moreover, temperature below 60 ℃ and appropriate flow rate of nickel sulfate solution (85 mL/min) are in favor of obtaining particles with high tap density (>3.0 g/cm3). In addition, the introduction of nucleator is useful to obtaining particles with narrow size distribution.

  18. The cost of nickel allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Carsten R; Hamann, Dathan; Hamann, Curtis

    2013-01-01

    Background. Nickel is widely used in coins; nickel may cause contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis in those who handle them. Objectives. To investigate alloy use, coin composition and nickel and cobalt release for a worldwide selection of currently circulating coins. Materials and methods...

  19. NICKEL-BASE ALLOY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inouye, H.; Manly, W.D.; Roche, T.K.

    1960-01-19

    A nickel-base alloy was developed which is particularly useful for the containment of molten fluoride salts in reactors. The alloy is resistant to both salt corrosion and oxidation and may be used at temperatures as high as 1800 deg F. Basically, the alloy consists of 15 to 22 wt.% molybdenum, a small amount of carbon, and 6 to 8 wt.% chromium, the balance being nickel. Up to 4 wt.% of tungsten, tantalum, vanadium, or niobium may be added to strengthen the alloy.

  20. Baterias de níquel-hidreto metálico, uma alternativa para as baterias de níquel-cádmio Nickel-metal hydride batteries, an alternative for the nickel-cadmium batteries

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH) batteries have emerged as an alternative for replacement of nickel-cadmium batteries, because of their more environmental compatibility and high energy capacity. In this article, we described the properties and applications for Ni-MH batteries, giving some emphasis on the metal-hydride electrode, including the description of composition, the charge storage capacity and the discharge profile. The key component of the nickel-metal hydride electrode is a hydrogen sto...

  1. Phytoremediation of soil polluted by nickel using agricultural crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordani, Cesare; Cecchi, Stefano; Zanchi, Camillo

    2005-11-01

    Soil pollution due to heavy metals is widespread; on the world scale, it involves about 235 million hectares. The objectives of this research were to establish the uptake efficiency of nickel by some agricultural crops. In addition, we wanted to establish also in which part of plants the metal is stored for an eventual use of biomass or for recycling the metal. The experiments included seven herbaceous crops such as: barley (Hordeum vulgaris), cabbage (Brassica juncea), spinach (Spinacea oleracea), sorghum (Sorgum vulgare), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and ricinus (Ricinus communis). We used three levels of treatment (150, 300, and 600 ppm) and one control. At the end of the biological cycle of the crops, the different parts of plants, i.e., roots, stems, leaves, fruits, or seeds, were separately collected, oven dried, weighed, milled, and separately analysed. The leaves and stems of spinach showed a very good nickel storage capacity. The ricinus too proved to be a very good nickel storer. The ability of spinach and ricinus to store nickel was observed also in the leaves of cabbage, even if with a lower storage capacity. The bean, barley, and tomato, in decreasing order of uptake and storage capacity, showed a high concentration of nickel in leaves and stems, whereas the sorghum evidenced a lesser capacity to uptake and store nickel in leaves and stems. The bean was the most efficient in storing nickel in fruits or grains. Tomato, sorghum, and barley have shown a storage capacity notably less than bean. The bean appeared to be the most efficient in accumulating nickel in the roots, followed in decreasing order by sorghum, ricinus, and tomato. With regard to the removal of nickel, spinach was the most efficient as it contains the highest level of this metal per gram of dry matter. The ricinus, cabbage, bean, sorghum, barley, and tomato evidenced a progressively decreasing efficiency in the removal of nickel.

  2. Nickel in tap water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Nielsen, G D; Flyvholm, Morten

    1983-01-01

    Nickel analyses of tap water from several sources in Copenhagen gave up to 490 X 10(-6) g X 1(-1) in the first 250 ml portions. Hot water gave higher values than cold water. After flushing for 5 min, low values were found. Considerable variation from time to time and from tap to tap was found...

  3. Iron induced nickel deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is increasingly apparent that economic loss due to nickel (Ni) deficiency likely occurs in horticultural and agronomic crops. While most soils contain sufficient Ni to meet crop requirements, situations of Ni deficiency can arise due to antagonistic interactions with other metals. This study asse...

  4. Microstructure and Performances of Nanocrystalline Zinc-nickel Alloy Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guang-yu; LIAN Jian-she; NIU Li-yuan; JIANG Zhong-hao

    2004-01-01

    Nanocrystalline zinc-nickel alloy coatings were deposited from an alkaline zincate bath contained an organic additive that can reduce polarization and a complexing agent. SEM and TEM observations and XRD analysis were performed to examine the microstructure and phase composition of the coatings. The nickel content in deposits is 12.0~14.7% and the coating is consisted of single nanocrystalline γ-phase structure (Ni5Zn21), with grain average grain size about 15nm. The nanocrystalline zinc-nickel alloy coatings have better corrosion resistance, less brittleness and higher microhardness than the conventional zinc coatings.

  5. Microstructure and Performances of Nanocrystalline Zinc-nickel Alloy Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIGuang-yu; LIANJian-she; NIULi-yuan; JIANGZhong-hao

    2004-01-01

    Nanocrystalline zinc-nickel alloy coatings were deposited from an alkaline zincate bath contained an organic additive that can reduce polarization and a complexing agent. SEM and TEM observations and XRD analysis were performed to examine the microstructure and phase composition of the coatings. The nickel content in deposits is 12.0-14.7% and the coating is consisted of single nanectystalline γ-phase structure (Ni5Zn21), with grain average grain size about 15nm. The nanocrystalline zinc-nickel alloy coatings have better corrosion resistance, less brittleness and higher microhardness than the conventional zinc coatings.

  6. AC impedance study of degradation of porous nickel battery electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, Stephen J.; Macdonald, D. D.; Pound, B. G.

    1987-01-01

    AC impedance spectra of porous nickel battery electrodes were recorded periodically during charge/discharge cycling in concentrated KOH solution at various temperatures. A transmission line model (TLM) was adopted to represent the impedance of the porous electrodes, and various model parameters were adjusted in a curve fitting routine to reproduce the experimental impedances. Degradation processes were deduced from changes in model parameters with electrode cycling time. In developing the TLM, impedance spectra of planar (nonporous) electrodes were used to represent the pore wall and backing plate interfacial impedances. These data were measured over a range of potentials and temperatures, and an equivalent circuit model was adopted to represent the planar electrode data. Cyclic voltammetry was used to study the characteristics of the oxygen evolution reaction on planar nickel electrodes during charging, since oxygen evolution can affect battery electrode charging efficiency and ultimately electrode cycle life if the overpotential for oxygen evolution is sufficiently low.

  7. Electrocatalytic oxidation of some anti-inflammatory drugs on a nickel hydroxide-modified nickel electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajjizadeh, M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, P.O. Box 16315-1618, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jabbari, A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, P.O. Box 16315-1618, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: jabbari@kntu.ac.ir; Heli, H.; Moosavi-Movahedi, A.A. [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Haghgoo, S. [Center of Quality Control of Drug, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-12-31

    The electrocatalytic oxidation of several anti-inflammatory drugs (mefenamic acid, diclofenac and indomethacin) was investigated on a nickel hydroxide-modified nickel (NHMN) electrode in alkaline solution. This oxidation process and its kinetics were studied using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. Voltammetric studies indicated that in the presence of drugs, the anodic peak current of low-valence nickel species increases, followed by a decrease in the corresponding cathodic current. This pattern indicates that drugs were oxidized on the redox mediator immobilized on the electrode surface via an electrocatalytic mechanism. A mechanism based on the electrochemical generation of Ni(III) active sites and their subsequent consumption by drugs was also investigated. The corresponding rate law under the control of charge transfer was developed and kinetic parameters were derived. In this context, the charge-transfer resistance accessible both theoretically and through impedancemetry was used as a criterion. The rate constants of the catalytic oxidation of drugs and the electron-transfer coefficients are reported. A sensitive, simple and time-saving amperometric procedure was developed for the analysis of these drugs in bulk form and for the direct assay of tablets, using the NHMN electrode.

  8. Numeric simulation of the mixing process inside the steel converter. Effect of the additions charging method; Simulacion numerica del proceso de mezcla en el convertidor de acero. Efecto del metodo de carga de los aditivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, M.; Garcia, M.E. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo (Spain)

    1996-08-01

    Due to the similarity of the mixing and reaction times in the processes inside a steel converter, it is important to study the mixing times in the vessel. Owing to the high temperature, the direct determination id difficult, and mathematical models that approach the problem are very useful. In the present work, a simple mathematical model based on Network of zones that do not need too much mathematical apparatus for the solution of the mixing problem is proposed. Finally, the different behaviour of the mixing as a function of the additions charging method is analysed. (Author) 13 refs.

  9. 49 CFR 173.198 - Nickel carbonyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nickel carbonyl. 173.198 Section 173.198... Nickel carbonyl. (a) Nickel carbonyl must be packed in specification steel or nickel cylinders as prescribed for any compressed gas except acetylene. A cylinder used exclusively for nickel carbonyl may...

  10. Nickel isotopes and methanogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubeck, A.; Ivarsson, M.

    2013-12-01

    Methanogens require Ni for their growth and as a consequence the microbial fractionation of Ni isotopes can be used as a biomarker for activity of methanogenic communities1. Anaerobic laboratory experiments was performed using methanogens to investigate methanogenic growth in a modified nutrient media2 with olivine Fo91 (5g/l) added as an additional mineral nutrient source and as the only H2 provider. One of the investigated methanogens showed an increased growth in the experiments with added olivine. There were also a close relationship between the mobilized Ni and the growth of the methanogen. Ni is an element that previously has been neglected in the study of fossilized microorganisms and their interaction with mineral substrates and, thus, there are no records or published data of Ni in association with microfossils. However, we have detected enrichments of Ni in fossilized microorganisms and ichno-fossils, respectively, from three separate locations. Ni is not present in the host rock in any of the samples. Thus, Ni is present in association with fossilized microorganisms from environments and more extensive analysis is required to understand the magnitude, uptake, preservation and fractionation of Ni in microfossils. In order to analyze Ni isotope fractionation from microbe-mineral interaction, we plan to use a high-resolution Laser-Ablation Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (LMS)3. In situ profile ablation will provide detailed and localized data on fractionation patterns between microfossils and their host rock. Also, this technique will allow us to identify the change in Ni isotopic fractionation in rock samples caused by abiotic and biogenic processes in a faster and easier way and with less risk for contamination compared to the wet chemistry analyses of Ni isotopes. 1. Cameron, V., Vance, D., Archer, C. & House, C. H. A biomarker based on the stable isotopes of nickel. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106, 10944-10948 (2009). 2. Schn

  11. Nickel Promotes Biofilm Formation by Escherichia coli K-12 Strains That Produce Curli▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Claire; Briandet, Romain; Jubelin, Gregory; Lejeune, Philippe; Mandrand-Berthelot, Marie-Andrée; Rodrigue, Agnès; Dorel, Corinne

    2009-01-01

    The survival of bacteria exposed to toxic compounds is a multifactorial phenomenon, involving well-known molecular mechanisms of resistance but also less-well-understood mechanisms of tolerance that need to be clarified. In particular, the contribution of biofilm formation to survival in the presence of toxic compounds, such as nickel, was investigated in this study. We found that a subinhibitory concentration of nickel leads Escherichia coli bacteria to change their lifestyle, developing biofilm structures rather than growing as free-floating cells. Interestingly, whereas nickel and magnesium both alter the global cell surface charge, only nickel promotes biofilm formation in our system. Genetic evidence indicates that biofilm formation induced by nickel is mediated by the transcriptional induction of the adhesive curli-encoding genes. Biofilm formation induced by nickel does not rely on efflux mechanisms using the RcnA pump, as these require a higher concentration of nickel to be activated. Our results demonstrate that the nickel-induced biofilm formation in E. coli is an adaptational process, occurring through a transcriptional effect on genes coding for adherence structures. The biofilm lifestyle is obviously a selective advantage in the presence of nickel, but the means by which it improves bacterial survival needs to be investigated. PMID:19168650

  12. Nickel promotes biofilm formation by Escherichia coli K-12 strains that produce curli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Claire; Briandet, Romain; Jubelin, Gregory; Lejeune, Philippe; Mandrand-Berthelot, Marie-Andrée; Rodrigue, Agnès; Dorel, Corinne

    2009-03-01

    The survival of bacteria exposed to toxic compounds is a multifactorial phenomenon, involving well-known molecular mechanisms of resistance but also less-well-understood mechanisms of tolerance that need to be clarified. In particular, the contribution of biofilm formation to survival in the presence of toxic compounds, such as nickel, was investigated in this study. We found that a subinhibitory concentration of nickel leads Escherichia coli bacteria to change their lifestyle, developing biofilm structures rather than growing as free-floating cells. Interestingly, whereas nickel and magnesium both alter the global cell surface charge, only nickel promotes biofilm formation in our system. Genetic evidence indicates that biofilm formation induced by nickel is mediated by the transcriptional induction of the adhesive curli-encoding genes. Biofilm formation induced by nickel does not rely on efflux mechanisms using the RcnA pump, as these require a higher concentration of nickel to be activated. Our results demonstrate that the nickel-induced biofilm formation in E. coli is an adaptational process, occurring through a transcriptional effect on genes coding for adherence structures. The biofilm lifestyle is obviously a selective advantage in the presence of nickel, but the means by which it improves bacterial survival needs to be investigated.

  13. Synthesis, structure characterization and catalytic activity of nickel tungstate nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourmortazavi, Seied Mahdi, E-mail: pourmortazavi@yahoo.com [Faculty of Material and Manufacturing Technologies, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Mehdi, E-mail: rahiminasrabadi@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Imam Hossein University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khalilian-Shalamzari, Morteza [Department of Chemistry, Imam Hossein University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zahedi, Mir Mahdi; Hajimirsadeghi, Seiedeh Somayyeh [Islamic Azad University, Varamin Pishva Branch, Varamin (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Omrani, Ismail [Department of Chemistry, Imam Hossein University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: NiWO{sub 4} nanoparticles were prepared via precipitation technique. Experimental parameters of procedure were optimized statistically. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiWO{sub 4} spherical nanoparticles were synthesized via direct precipitation method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Taguchi robust design was used for optimization of synthesis reaction parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composition and structural properties of NiWO{sub 4} nanoparticles were characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EDAX, XRD, SEM, FT-IR, UV-vis and photoluminescence techniques were employed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Catalytic activity of the product in a cyclo-addition reaction was investigated. - Abstract: Taguchi robust design was applied to optimize experimental parameters for controllable, simple and fast synthesis of nickel tungstate nanoparticles. NiWO{sub 4} nanoparticles were synthesized by precipitation reaction involving addition of nickel ion solution to the tungstate aqueous reagent and then formation of nickel tungstate nucleolus which are insoluble in aqueous media. Effects of various parameters such as nickel and tungstate concentrations, flow rate of reagent addition and reactor temperature on diameter of synthesized nickel tungstate nanoparticles were investigated experimentally by the aid of orthogonal array design. The results for analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that particle size of nickel tungstate can be effectively tuned by controlling significant variables involving nickel and tungstate concentrations and flow rate; while, temperature of the reactor has a no considerable effect on the size of NiWO{sub 4} particles. The ANOVA results proposed the optimum conditions for synthesis of nickel tungstate nanoparticles via this technique. Also, under optimum condition nanoparticles of NiWO{sub 4} were prepared and their structure and chemical composition were characterized by means of EDAX, XRD, SEM, FT-IR spectroscopy, UV

  14. Influence of expander components on the processes at the negative plates of lead-acid cells on high-rate partial-state-of-charge cycling. Part II. Effect of carbon additives on the processes of charge and discharge of negative plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlov, D.; Nikolov, P.; Rogachev, T. [Institute of Electrochemistry and Energy Systems, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. Georgi Bonchev Street, bl. 10, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria)

    2010-07-15

    Lead-acid batteries operated in the high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) duty rapidly lose capacity on cycling, because of sulfation of the negative plates. As the battery operates from a partially discharged state, the small PbSO{sub 4} crystals dissolve and precipitate onto the bigger crystals. The latter have low solubility and hence PbSO{sub 4} accumulates progressively in the negative plates causing capacity loss. In order to suppress this process, the rate of the charge process should be increased. In a previous publication of ours we have established that reduction of Pb{sup 2+} ions to Pb may proceed on the surface of both Pb and carbon black particles. Hence, the reversibility of the charge-discharge processes improves, which leads to improved cycle life performance of the batteries in the HRPSoC mode. However, not all carbon forms accelerate the charge processes. The present paper discusses the electrochemical properties of two groups of carbon blacks: Printex and active carbons. The influence of Vaniseprse A and BaSO{sub 4} (the other two components of the expander added to the negative plates) on the reversibility of the charge-discharge processes on the negative plates is also considered. It has been established that lignosulfonates are adsorbed onto the lead surface and retard charging of the battery. BaSO{sub 4} has the opposite effect, which improves the reversibility of the processes on cycling and hence prolongs battery life in the HRPSoC duty. It has been established that the cycle life of lead-acid cells depends on the type of carbon black or active carbon added to the negative plates. When the carbon particles are of nano-sizes (<180 nm), the HRPSoC cycle life is between 10,000 and 20,000 cycles. Lignosulfonates suppress this beneficial effect of carbon black and activated carbon additives to about 10,000 cycles. Cells with active carbons have the longest cycle life when they contain also BaSO{sub 4} but no lignosulfonate. A summary of

  15. Nickel: makes stainless steel strong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Maeve A.

    2012-01-01

    Nickel is a silvery-white metal that is used mainly to make stainless steel and other alloys stronger and better able to withstand extreme temperatures and corrosive environments. Nickel was first identified as a unique element in 1751 by Baron Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, a Swedish mineralogist and chemist. He originally called the element kupfernickel because it was found in rock that looked like copper (kupfer) ore and because miners thought that "bad spirits" (nickel) in the rock were making it difficult for them to extract copper from it. Approximately 80 percent of the primary (not recycled) nickel consumed in the United States in 2011 was used in alloys, such as stainless steel and superalloys. Because nickel increases an alloy's resistance to corrosion and its ability to withstand extreme temperatures, equipment and parts made of nickel-bearing alloys are often used in harsh environments, such as those in chemical plants, petroleum refineries, jet engines, power generation facilities, and offshore installations. Medical equipment, cookware, and cutlery are often made of stainless steel because it is easy to clean and sterilize. All U.S. circulating coins except the penny are made of alloys that contain nickel. Nickel alloys are increasingly being used in making rechargeable batteries for portable computers, power tools, and hybrid and electric vehicles. Nickel is also plated onto such items as bathroom fixtures to reduce corrosion and provide an attractive finish.

  16. Lightweight Electrode For Nickel/Hydrogen Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1994-01-01

    Improved substrate for nickel electrode increases specific energy of nickel/hydrogen cell. Consists of 50 percent by weight nickel fiber, 35 percent nickel powder, and 15 percent cobalt powder. Porosity and thickness of nickel electrodes affect specific energy, initial performance, and cycle life of cell. Substrate easily manufactured with much larger porosities than those of heavy-sintered state-of-art nickel substrate.

  17. The accumulation of nickel in human lungs.

    OpenAIRE

    Edelman, D A; Roggli, V L

    1989-01-01

    Using data from published studies, lung concentrations of nickel were compare for persons with and without occupational exposure to nickel. As expected, the concentrations were much higher for persons with occupational exposure. To estimate the effects of nickel-containing tobacco smoke and nickel in the ambient air on the amount of nickel accumulated in lungs over time, a model was derived that took into account various variables related to the deposition of nickel in lungs. The model predic...

  18. Grafting iminodiacetic acid on silica nanoparticles for facilitated refolding of like-charged protein and its metal-chelate affinity purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hu; Dong, Xiaoyan; Sun, Yan

    2016-01-15

    A series of highly charged nanoscale chelators were fabricated by grafting of poly(glycidyl methacrylate-iminodiacetic acid) (pGI) chains with iminodiacetic acid (IDA) chelating group on silica nanoparticles (SNPs) via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The nanoscale chelators, denoted as SNPs-pGI, possessed a nickel ion chelating capacity as high as 2800 μmol/g, 50 times higher than the IDA-modified Sepharose FF (IDA-Sepharose) resin reported in literature and offered a high affinity binding capacity for hexahistidine-tagged enhanced green fluorescence protein (6 × His-EGFP) after nickel ion loading. More importantly, the anionic SNPs-pGI of high charge densities displayed much better performance than IDA-Sepharose in facilitating the refolding of like-charged 6 × His-EGFP from inclusion bodies (IBs). For example, for 0.2mg/mL 6 × His-EGFP IB refolding, addition of 6.2 μL/mL SNPs-pGI with the highest charge density led to a refolding yield of 90%, over 43% higher than that obtained with 460 μL/mL IDA-Sepharose. It is notable that the much higher efficiency of the nanoscale chelator was obtained with a chelator consumption corresponding to only 1.4% of IDA-Sepharose. Moreover, the highly charged SNPs-pGI could efficiently facilitate the refolding of 6 × His-EGFP at higher IB concentrations (0.4 and 0.8 mg/mL). After refolding, nickel ions addition led to the recovery of the refolded 6 × His-EGFP with high yield (80%), purity (96%) and enrichment ratio (1.8). All the results suggest that the SNPs-pGI of high charge densities were promising for cost-effective recovery of His-tagged proteins expressed as IBs with the integrative like-charge facilitated refolding and metal-chelate affinity purification strategy.

  19. Nickel Excretion in Urine after Oral Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menne, T.; Mikkelsen, H. I.; Solgaard, Per Bent

    1978-01-01

    In recent years the importance of internal exposure to nickel in patients with recurrent hand eczema and nickel allergy has become evident. The present study was performed in order to investigate the value of urinary nickel determinations as an index of oral nickel intake. After oral administration...... of 5.6 mg nickel (as the sulfate), increased nickel excretion was found over the following 2-3 days. We conclude that consecutive urinary nickel determinations are able to disclose variations in oral intake of nickel....

  20. Electrolytic Recovery of Nickel from Spent Electroless Nickel Bath Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Idhayachander

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plating industry is one of the largest polluting small scale industries and nickel plating is among the important surface finishing process in this industry. The waste generated during this operation contains toxic nickel. Nickel removal and recovery is of great interest from spent bath for environmental and economic reasons. Spent electroless nickel solution from a reed relay switch manufacturing industry situated in Chennai was taken for electrolytic recovery of nickel. Electrolytic experiment was carried out with mild steel and gold coated mild steel as cathode and the different parameters such as current density, time, mixing and pH of the solution were varied and recovery and current efficiency was studied. It was noticed that there was an increase in current efficiency up to 5 A/dm2 and after that it declines. There is no significant improvement with mixing but with modified cathode there was some improvement. Removal of nickel from the spent electroless nickel bath was 81.81% at 5 A/dm2 and pH 4.23. Under this condition, the content of nickel was reduced to 0.94 g/L from 5.16 g/L. with 62.97% current efficiency.

  1. Nickel release from nickel-plated metals and stainless steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haudrechy, P; Foussereau, J; Mantout, B; Baroux, B

    1994-10-01

    Nickel release from nickel-plated metals often induces allergic contact dermatitis, but, for nickel-containing stainless steels, the effect is not well-known. In this paper, AISI 304, 316L, 303 and 430 type stainless steels, nickel and nickel-plated materials were investigated. 4 tests were performed: patch tests, leaching experiments, dimethylglyoxime (DMG) spot tests and electrochemical tests. Patch tests showed that 96% of the patients were intolerant to Ni-plated samples, and 14% to a high-sulfur stainless steel (303), while nickel-containing stainless steels with a low sulfur content elicited no reactions. Leaching experiments confirmed the patch tests: in acidic artificial sweat, Ni-plated samples released about 100 micrograms/cm2/week of nickel, while low-sulfur stainless steels released less than 0.03 microgram/cm2/week of nickel, and AISI 303 about 1.5 micrograms/cm2/week. Attention is drawn to the irrelevance of the DMG spot test, which reveals Ni present in the metal bulk but not its dissolution rate. Electrochemical experiments showed that 304 and 316 grades remain passive in the environments tested, while Ni-plated steels and AISI 303 can suffer significant cation dissolution. Thus, Ni-containing 304 and 316 steels should not induce contact dermatitis, while 303 should be avoided. A reliable nitric acid spot test is proposed to distinguish this grade from other stainless steels.

  2. Removal of nickel from spent electroless nickel-plating bath with nickel foam cathode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于秀娟; 郑彤; 魏杰; 周定

    2002-01-01

    The electrochemical method was used to remove nickel ion from spent electroless nickel plating bath(pH = 5.3). An electrolytic cell was composed of a porous nickel foam cathode and an inert RuO2/Ti anode.Nickel ions were reduced and deposited on the surface of the nickel foam cathode. The effect of current density(i), linear velocity of wastewater (v), gap between cathode and anode (dc/A) and reaction time (t) on nickelremoval rate and current efficiency were studied. As reaction time prolonged, nickel removal rate increasedwhile current efficiency decreased. And larger v and smaller dc/A can enhance nickel removal rate and increasecurrent efficiency by promoting mass transfer and dropping concentration polarization. The effect of current den-sity on nickel removal by electrochemistry was related to other parameters. After three hours' electrolysis withi = 1.0 A/dm2, v = 18.5 cm/min and dc/A = 0. 5 cm, nickel removal rate and current efficiency reached85.6% and 29. 1%, respectively.

  3. Nickel, cobalt, and their alloys

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive guide to the compositions, properties, processing, performance, and applications of nickel, cobalt, and their alloys. It includes all of the essential information contained in the ASM Handbook series, as well as new or updated coverage in many areas in the nickel, cobalt, and related industries.

  4. Nickel: Impact on horticultural characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowledge by practitioners regarding the potential impact of nickel nutritional physiology on pecan orchard profitability is a limiting factor in optimization of physiological efficiency of orchard enterprises. Knowledge by farmers and extension specialists about the role of nickel, a newly recogni...

  5. Nickel: Relevance to orchard profitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nutritional physiology of essential micronutrients in pecan, especially that of nickel, is a limiting factor in optimization of physiological efficiency of orchard enterprises. Knowledge by farmers and extension specialists about the role of nickel, a newly recognized micronutrient, is meager. ...

  6. Huanghua Port Nickel-Iron Project Deferred to the End of 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>The Huanghua Port nickel-iron project in Cangzhou of Hebei Province,with a joint in- vestment of 1.8 billion Yuan by Sinosteel and Baosteel,will be deferred to the end of 2009 and even won’t be put into production until 2010,due to the sliding nickel price and low demand in the stainless steel market.PhaseⅠof the project has a productivity of 16,000 tons of nickel.In addition,Qingshan Group’s nickel-

  7. Research, development and demonstration of nickel-zinc batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    Progress achieved under ANL Contract No. 31-109-38-4248 from 16 August 1978 to 16 August 1979 is reported. The first segment of the overall program, component development, consists of four basic tasks proceeding in parallel: nickel electrode development, zinc electrode development, separator development, and sealed cell development. Each of these tasks is reported herein on a self-contained basis. System engineering is the second major subdivision of the effort. It includes the design and testing of all cells, the investigation of charge control devices and techniques, and the complete analysis of all cells for failure modes. It also encompasses the accelerated testing of 20-Ah cells. To date, large numbers of these cells (incorporating separator variations, active material additives and internal design variations) have been subjected to this type of testing. 48 figures, 47 tables. (RWR)

  8. Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Nickel Allergy: What Is the Role of the Low Nickel Diet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Angela; Nucera, Eleonora; Laterza, Lucrezia; Gaetani, Eleonora; Valenza, Venanzio; Corbo, Giuseppe M; Inchingolo, Riccardo; Buonomo, Alessandro; Schiavino, Domenico; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is characterized by chronic abdominal pain or discomfort accompanied by abnormal bowel movements. In sensitized subjects, ingested nickel (Ni) may induce gastrointestinal symptoms similar to IBS, in addition to typical systemic cutaneous lesions (systemic nickel allergy syndrome [SNAS]). A low nickel diet could improve the systemic manifestations. We evaluated prevalence of nickel allergy in IBS and effects of low Ni diet on (1) gastrointestinal symptoms control, (2) intestinal barrier function, (3) quality of life, and (4) psychological status of patients with IBS and Ni-sensitized patients. Methods Twenty consecutive patients affected by IBS and suspected SNAS underwent intestinal permeability tests. Gastrointestinal symptoms were evaluated using the visual analogue scale before and after 3 months low Ni diet. Subjects with increased intestinal permeability at baseline repeated nuclear examination after the diet. Results The most frequent profile was diarrhea-predominant IBS (8/20). The low Ni diet induced a significant and constant improvement of gastrointestinal symptoms and an equally significant improvement of visual analogue scale. Mean urinary output of 51Chromium ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetate (51Cr-EDTA) was 5.91%/24 hr (± 2.08), significantly different from the control group (2.20%/24 hr ± 0.60, P < 0.0001). Conclusion This pilot study shows that low Ni diet improves gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with IBS and SNAS. PMID:28049864

  9. Adição de níquel na solução nutritiva para o cultivo de mudas de umbuzeiro Addition of nickel to nutrient solution for cultivating spondias tuberose tree seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Sílvio Caires Neves

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência da adição de Ni na solução nutritiva de Hoagland & Arnon sobre o crescimento e a nutrição mineral de mudas de umbuzeiro, realizou-se este trabalho. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições e seis doses de Ni (0; 0,0005; 0,05; 0,1; 0,5 e 1,0 mmol L-1. Observou-se que o Ni, em pequenas concentrações, estimula o crescimento de mudas de umbuzeiro em solução nutritiva; para o cultivo destas em solução nutritiva de Hoagland & Arnon, recomenda-se a adição de 0,03 mmol L-1 de Ni.This study evaluated the influence of Ni addition to Hoagland - Arnon nutrient solution on the growth and mineral nutrition of Umbu (Spondias tuberose tree seedlings. The experiment was in a completely randomized design with four replications and six Ni doses (0; 0.0005; 0.05; 0.1; 0.5; and 1.0 mmol L-1. Low Ni concentrations in the nutrient solution stimulated Umbu seedlings growth. The application of 0.03 mmol L-1 of Ni is recommended for the cultivation of Umbu seedlings in Hoagland - Arnon nutrient solution.

  10. Nickel removal from nickel-5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphine using supercritical water in absence of catalyst: a basic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Pradip Chandra; Wahyudiono; Sasaki, Mitsuru; Goto, Motonobu

    2011-03-15

    Reactions of nickel-5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphine (Ni-TPP) were studied in supercritical water in the presence of toluene without the addition of any catalyst, H(2) or H(2)S that is called a green process. The objective of this study was to remove nickel from Ni-TPP, the most common metal compound present in heavy crude, in high extent at low reaction time. All experiments were carried out in an 8.8 mL batch reactor fabricated from hastelloy C-276. The ability of supercritical water (SCW) to remove nickel from Ni-TPP was studied at temperatures of 450-490 °C and water partial pressures of 25-35 MPa. Water partial pressure had no effect on overall conversion at temperatures of 450 °C and a reaction time of 60 min. The overall Ni-TPP conversion was 89.80%, a figure above that of previous catalytic studies. The percentage of nickel removal was estimated as a function of reaction time and temperature. It were temperature 490 °C and pressure 25 MPa at reaction time 90 min where 65.68% nickel were removed by the action of SCW and toluene, as a co-solvent. It was determined that Ni-TPP undergoes a series of reactions, ending in demetallation and ring fragmentation. The obtained results suggest that supercritical water has a capability to remove nickel from Ni-TPP.

  11. Nickel-hydrogen cell reversal characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, Charles

    1994-01-01

    Nickel-hydrogen cell reversal characteristics are being studied as part of a TRW program directed towards development of a high current battery cell bypass switch. The following are discussed: cell bypass switch; nickel-hydrogen cell reversal characteristics; and nickel-hydrogen cell chemistry: discharge/reversal and overdischarge (reversal) with nickel and hydrogen precharge.

  12. Nickel-Free Alternatives Raise Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Hannah; Goldenberg, Alina; Sheehan, Michael Patrick; Patel, Amy; Jacob, Sharon E

    2015-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis to nickel is a global health problem. Worldwide, nickel continues to be the most prevalent and relevant contact allergen detected in tested populations for the last 30 years. Thus, the need for nickel-free products is palpable. We present a sustainable resource to aid providers and consumers in locating a wide variety of nickel free alternatives.

  13. 医生工作站电子申请检验项目时附加费用的智能收取%Additional fees charged intelligently while test items electronically applied for on Doctor workstation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范久波; 刘海菊; 刘晓东

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the realization and the value of additional fees charged intelligently while test items electronically applied for on Doctor workstation. Methods: The single item or combination tests grouped into many types. In each group first the cost for blood collection and materials expenses to be added one time into list and then compare sample type between each items in the group and that been added previously. If different, the material expense is added again. When there are multiple groups, the material expense is added one time for each group first, and then each subjected to the same judgment process. Results: When clinicians select the test items, the cost for blood collection and materials expenses needed be added into Doctor's advice automatically. When removing an item, only need deleting the item directly, additional fees needed to retain for the remaining items determined by judgment program, unnecessary deleted automatically. In special circumstances additional fees charged according to actual situation. Conclusion: Additional fees charged intelligently while test items electronically applied for on Doctor workstation, indicates that while pays great attention on big and complete function in His construction, also needs to pay more attention on small and the fine detail, in order to facilitate the daily work.%目的:探讨医生工作站电子申请检验项目时附加费用的智能收取的实现及应用价值.方法:检验单项和检验组套进行分组;每组内先根据标本类型收取采血费和一次卫材费,然后将标本类型同组内样本类型进行比较,不同则加收一次.有多个分组时,每组先加收一次卫材费,然后组内判断循环同上.特殊情况设置特殊的处理方案.结果:临床医生选中检验项目时,采样所需要收取的卫材费及采血费,自动添加到医嘱中.当去掉某一项目时只需删除项目,卫材费及采血费由收费程序判断保留,多余的自动删

  14. Investigation of hydrogen evolution activity for the nickel, nickel-molybdenum nickel-graphite composite and nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinlong, Lv; Tongxiang, Liang; Chen, Wang

    2016-03-01

    The nickel, nickel-molybdenum alloy, nickel-graphite and nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coatings were obtained by the electrodeposition technique from a nickel sulfate bath. Nanocrystalline molybdenum, graphite and reduced graphene oxide in nickel coatings promoted hydrogen evolution reaction in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution at room temperature. However, the nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coating exhibited the highest electrocatalytic activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution at room temperature. A large number of gaps between 'cauliflower' like grains could decrease effective area for hydrogen evolution reaction in slight amorphous nickel-molybdenum alloy. The synergistic effect between nickel and reduced graphene oxide promoted hydrogen evolution, moreover, refined grain in nickel-reduced graphene oxide composite coating and large specific surface of reduced graphene oxide also facilitated hydrogen evolution reaction.

  15. Mechanical electrodeposition of bright nanocrystalline nickel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU ZengWei; ZHU Di; QU NingSong

    2008-01-01

    A new mechanical electrodeposition technology was proposed,and nanocrystal-line nickel deposit with bright and smooth surface was prepared in the bath without any additive agents.Unlike traditional methods,the novel technology employed dynamical hard particles to continuously polish the cathode surface and disturb the nearby solution during electrodepositing.Experimental results showed that the polishing effect of hard particles can effectively prevent the hydrogen bubbles and impurities from adhering on the deposit surface and avoid the production of pits,pinholes and nodules.Furthermore,comparing with the deposit prepared by tradi-tional methods,the one prepared by the novel technology was substantially refined with grain size ranging from 30 to 80 nm.Every diffraction peak's intensity of the deposit was reduced,the preferential orientation degree of (200) decreased and those of (111) and (220) increased.The microhardness notably increased.The magnetic properties were also changed with decreased saturation magnetization and increased coercive force.It was also found that variation of current density and cathode rotational speed could affect the structure and properties of the nickel deposits prepared by this technology.Key.words:electrodeposition,electroforming,hard particle,nanocrystalline,bright nickel deposits prepared by this technology.

  16. Mathematical modeling of the nickel/metal hydride battery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paxton, Blaine Kermit [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-09-01

    A group of compounds referred to as metal hydrides, when used as electrode materials, is a less toxic alternative to the cadmium hydroxide electrode found in nickel/cadmium secondary battery systems. For this and other reasons, the nickel/metal hydride battery system is becoming a popular rechargeable battery for electric vehicle and consumer electronics applications. A model of this battery system is presented. Specifically the metal hydride material, LaNi{sub 5}H{sub 6}, is chosen for investigation due to the wealth of information available in the literature on this compound. The model results are compared to experiments found in the literature. Fundamental analyses as well as engineering optimizations are performed from the results of the battery model. In order to examine diffusion limitations in the nickel oxide electrode, a ``pseudo 2-D model`` is developed. This model allows for the theoretical examination of the effects of a diffusion coefficient that is a function of the state of charge of the active material. It is found using present data from the literature that diffusion in the solid phase is usually not an important limitation in the nickel oxide electrode. This finding is contrary to the conclusions reached by other authors. Although diffusion in the nickel oxide active material is treated rigorously with the pseudo 2-D model, a general methodology is presented for determining the best constant diffusion coefficient to use in a standard one-dimensional battery model. The diffusion coefficients determined by this method are shown to be able to partially capture the behavior that results from a diffusion coefficient that varies with the state of charge of the active material.

  17. 21 CFR 184.1537 - Nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Nickel. 184.1537 Section 184.1537 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1537 Nickel. (a) Elemental nickel (CAS Reg. No. 7440-02-0) is obtained from nickel ore by transforming it to nickel sulfide (Ni3S2). The sulfide is roasted in air to give...

  18. Long Life Nickel Electrodes for Nickel-Hydrogen Cells: Fiber Substrates Nickel Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Howard H.

    2000-01-01

    Samples of nickel fiber mat electrodes were investigated over a wide range of fiber diameters, electrode thickness, porosity and active material loading levels. Thickness' were 0.040, 0.060 and 0.080 inches for the plaque: fiber diameters were primarily 2, 4, and 8 micron and porosity was 85, 90, and 95%. Capacities of 3.5 in. diameter electrodes were determined in the flooded condition with both 26 and 31% potassium hydroxide solution. These capacity tests indicated that the highest capacities per unit weight were obtained at the 90% porosity level with a 4 micron diameter fiber plaque. It appeared that the thinner electrodes had somewhat better performance, consistent with sintered electrode history. Limited testing with two-positive-electrode boiler plate cells was also carried out. Considerable difficulty with constructing the cells was encountered with short circuits the major problem. Nevertheless, four cells were tested. The cell with 95% porosity electrodes failed during conditioning cycling due to high voltage during charge. Discharge showed that this cell had lost nearly all of its capacity. The other three cells after 20 conditioning cycles showed capacities consistent with the flooded capacities of the electrodes. Positive electrodes made from fiber substrates may well show a weight advantage of standard sintered electrodes, but need considerably more work to prove this statement. A major problem to be investigated is the lower strength of the substrate compared to standard sintered electrodes. Problems with welding of leads were significant and implications that the electrodes would expand more than sintered electrodes need to be investigated. Loading levels were lower than had been expected based on sintered electrode experiences and the lower loading led to lower capacity values. However, lower loading causes less expansion and contraction during cycling so that stress on the substrate is reduced.

  19. Nickel oxide-hydrogen secondary cell. Nickel sankabutsu suiso niji denchi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugano, Keneichi; Kanda, Motoki; Sato, Yuji; Hayashida, Hirotaka.

    1989-11-15

    In a nickel oxide - hydrogen secondary cell, if a nickel electrode, which is not chemically treated, is used as a positive electrode, hydrogen will accummulates in a negative electrode consisting of a hydrogen storage alloy in the early stage of charge/discharge cycle, thus reducing the life of the cell. In this invention, by letting the electrolytic solution of the cell contain a compound which supplies the dissolved oxygen to the electrolyte, and reacting the hydrogen in the negative electrode while in the initial charging with dissolved oxygen in the electrolyte solution, accummulation of hydrogen in the negative electrode is prevented. The dissolved oxygen ddoner is an oxides or peroxides which generate oxygen by decomposition. The example is KO {sub 2}, O {sub 3}, H {sub 2} O {sub 2}, BaO {sub 2}, CaO {sub 2}, MgO {sub 2}, K {sub 2} O {sub 2} and Na {sub 2} O {sub 2}. It is preferred that these oxides or peroxides are contained in a microcapsule, gel or porous membrane. 4 figs.

  20. Promotion Effects of Nickel Catalysts of Dry Reforming with Methane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN,Zi-Feng(阎子峰); DING,Rong-Gang(丁荣刚); LIU,Xin-Mei(刘欣梅); SONG,Lin-Hua(宋林花)

    2001-01-01

    The promotion effects of nickel catalyst of dry reforming with methane were extensively investigated by means of XRD,SEM, EDX, N2-adsorption and H2-adsorption. XRD characterization indicated that good dispersion of nickel oxide and MgO promoter is achieved over γ-Al2O3 support. Addition of MgO promoter effectively retards the formation of NiS12O4 phase. SEM and EDX analysis exhibited that the addition ofrare-earth metal oxide CeO2 effectively promotes the Ni metal dispersion on the surface of the catalysts despite of undesirable self-dispersion of CeO2 promoter. Furthermore, the nickel component is gradually dispersed on the surface of the support following the exposure to reaction gas mixture for a period of time. The addition of MgO inhibited the self-dispersion and promotion effect of CeO2 on Ni dispersion on the catalysts. H2 chemisorption revealed that the addition of the alkaline oxide MgO promoter significantly prohibits the metal dispersion on the catalyst. Inappropriate promoter addition can result in sharp decrease of the metal dispersion. N2-adsorption indicated that oxide promoter was mostly concentrated on the outer layer of the alumina support while the nickel metal was generally dispersed in the support pores. Addition of promoters contributed to more reduction in mesopore volume.

  1. Adding nickel formate in alkali lignin to increase contents of alkylphenols and aromatics during fast pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jing; Wang, Wen-Liang; Yu, Yu-Xiang; Chang, Jian-Min; Cai, Li-Ping; Shi, Sheldon Q

    2017-03-01

    The composition of pyrolysis vapors obtained from alkali lignin pyrolysis with the additive of nickel formate was examined using the pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). Characterization of bio-chars was performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Results showed that the nickel formate significantly increased liquid yield, simplified the types of alkali lignin pyrolysis products and increased individual component contents. The additive of nickel formate increased contents of alkylphenols and aromatics from alkali lignin pyrolysis. With an increase in temperature, a greater amount of the relative contents can be achieved. The nickel formate was thermally decomposed to form hydrogen, resulting in hydrodeoxygenation of alkali lignin during pyrolysis. It was also found that Ni is in favor of producing alkylphenols. The analysis based on the experimental result provided evidences used to propose reaction mechanism for pyrolysis of nickel formate-assisted alkali lignin.

  2. Novel one pot stoichiometric synthesis of nickel sulfide nanomaterials as counter electrodes for QDSSCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mani, A. Daya; Deepa, Melepurath [Department of Chemistry, IIT Hyderabad, Yeddumailaram 502 205 (India); Xanthopoulos, N. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-Lausanne (Switzerland); Subrahmanyam, Ch, E-mail: csubbu@iith.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, IIT Hyderabad, Yeddumailaram 502 205 (India)

    2014-11-14

    Solution combustion synthesis has been used for the first time to synthesize metal sulfide nanomaterials. Selective stoichiometric synthesis of nickel sulfide nanomaterials was achieved in a single step by using combustion synthesis under ambient conditions and the samples were tested as counter electrodes in a typical quantum dot sensitized solar cell (QDSSC). By varying the oxidant/fuel ratio, different stoichiometric nickel sulfide nanomaterials were obtained. Interestingly, a maximum of fourfold increase in efficiency (1.1%) was achieved with nickel sulfide counter electrode when compared to the Pt counter electrode (0.25%). This can be attributed to the less charge transfer resistance offered by nickel sulfide samples compared to Pt, which was confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Among different stoichiometric compositions of nickel sulfide, Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2} was found to exhibit the least charge transfer resistance and superior solar cell efficiency. The present study describes a novel selective stoichiometric synthetic approach and facile fabrication procedure for low cost counter electrode materials in QDSSCs. - Highlights: • Novel and facile phase selective synthesis of nickel sulfide nanomaterials. • A different sensitization approach of TiO{sub 2} with CdS. • A simple paint approach for working and counter electrode fabrication. • Fourfold increase of efficiency with Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2} compared to the conventional Pt.

  3. Excessive nickel release from mobile phones--a persistent cause of nickel allergy and dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Johansen, Jeanne D; Zachariae, Claus;

    2011-01-01

    phones, we showed that eight (19.5%) of 41 mobile phones marketed in Denmark between 2003 and 2007 released nickel in concentrations that may result in nickel allergy and dermatitis. In 2009, the EU Nickel Directive was revised to include nickel-releasing mobile phones.......Despite the political intention to limit nickel allergy and dermatitis in Europeans, nickel allergy remains frequent. There are several explanations for the persistence of nickel allergy and dermatitis, including the increasing use of mobile phones. Before regulation of nickel release from mobile...

  4. Excessive nickel release from mobile phones--a persistent cause of nickel allergy and dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Johansen, Jeanne D; Zachariae, Claus;

    2011-01-01

    Despite the political intention to limit nickel allergy and dermatitis in Europeans, nickel allergy remains frequent. There are several explanations for the persistence of nickel allergy and dermatitis, including the increasing use of mobile phones. Before regulation of nickel release from mobile...... phones, we showed that eight (19.5%) of 41 mobile phones marketed in Denmark between 2003 and 2007 released nickel in concentrations that may result in nickel allergy and dermatitis. In 2009, the EU Nickel Directive was revised to include nickel-releasing mobile phones....

  5. Nickel-Magnesia Cermet Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1952-06-01

    alumin " oxide cermet. To develop a bond between these tw components it in first necessary to produce a controlled film of Cr 203 on the Cr grains...somewhat more refractory. A cobalt - magnesia cermet may be made in the same way as the nickel - magnesia cermet, the bond being through the agency...of the oxide CoO. However, cobalt is not as oxidation resistant as nickel and is more strategic. Iron will wet probably all oxides and silicates and

  6. Nickel, copper and cobalt coalescence in copper cliff converter slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation is to assess the effect of various additives on coalescence of nickel, copper and cobalt from slags generated during nickel extraction. The analyzed fluxes were silica and lime while examined reductants were pig iron, ferrosilicon and copper-silicon compound. Slag was settled at the different holding temperatures for various times in conditions that simulated the industrial environment. The newly formed matte and slag were characterized by their chemical composition and morphology. Silica flux generated higher partition coefficients for nickel and copper than the addition of lime. Additives used as reducing agents had higher valuable metal recovery rates and corresponding partition coefficients than fluxes. Microstructural studies showed that slag formed after adding reductants consisted of primarily fayalite, with some minute traces of magnetite as the secondary phase. Addition of 5 wt% of pig iron, ferrosilicon and copper-silicon alloys favored the formation of a metallized matte which increased Cu, Ni and Co recoveries. Addition of copper-silicon alloys with low silicon content was efficient in copper recovery but coalescence of the other metals was low. Slag treated with the ferrosilicon facilitated the highest cobalt recovery while copper-silicon alloys with silicon content above 10 wt% resulted in high coalescence of nickel and copper, 87 % and 72 % respectively.

  7. Pulse electrodeposited nickel using sulphamate electrolyte for hardness and corrosion resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivasakthi, P.; Sekar, R.; Bapu, G.N.K.Ramesh, E-mail: bapu2657@yahoo.com

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Nickel deposits from sulphamate solutions using pulse method are prepared. • Effect of duty cycle and frequency are studied. • XRD, SEM and AFM of the nickel deposits are characterized. • Corrosion characteristics of the nickel deposit are reported. - Abstract: Nickel deposits have been obtained on mild steel substrate by pulse current (PC) electrodeposition method using nickel sulphamate electrolyte. Micro hardness values increased with decreasing duty cycle and pulse frequency. X-ray diffraction studies revealed that (2 0 0) plane was predominant and the nickel deposit obtained at low duty cycle and low frequency has the smallest grain size. The surface morphology of the coatings was explored by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy. These studies showed that the microstructure of the nickel coatings changed from pyramidal structure to homogeneous structure with increasing duty cycle and pulse frequencies. The corrosion resistance of coatings was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance studies in 3.5 wt% sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions. An enhancement of the corrosion resistance, charge-transfer resistance and wear resistance has been obtained at low duty cycle and low frequencies.

  8. Study of Co-Ce coating and surface on pasted nickel electrodes substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dianlong; WANG Chunyu; DAI Changsong; SUN Dezhi

    2006-01-01

    The process of electroplating Co-Ce alloys on the nickel foam framework surface can improve electro-conductivity for active materials and nickelsubstrate interface. The results of inductive coupled plasma emission spectrometer (ICP), cyclic voltammetry (CV), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) indicate that the Co-Ce coating chemical content of rare earth Ce 0.19wt.%-0.28wt.% can not only alter the microstructure of electroplating coating, but also accelerate the oxidation reaction of Co and improve its transfer rate of electric current conductivity to the active material particles. The grads-like distributing electro-conductive network of CoOOH is formed on the nickel substrate surface, which improves reversibility of pasted nickel electrode. The charging receptivity is improved by Co-Ce coating on the pasted nickel electrode substrate, and its specific discharging capacity is improved by 50%.

  9. New separators for nickel-zinc batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibley, D. W.

    1976-01-01

    Flexible separators consisting of a substrate coated with a mixture of a polymer and organic and inorganic additives were cycle tested in nickel-zinc cells. By substituting a rubber-based resin for polyphenylene oxide in the standard inorganic-organic separator, major improvements in both cell life and flexibility were made. Substituting newsprint for asbestos as the substrate shows promise for use on the zinc electrode and reduces separator cost. The importance of ample electrolyte in the cells was noted. Cycle lives and the characteristics of these flexible, low-cost separators were compared with those of a standard microporous polypropylene separator.

  10. Experiments shed new light on nickel-fluorine reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, J.; Gunther, W.; Jarry, R. L.

    1967-01-01

    Isotopic tracer experiments and scale-impingement experiments show fluorine to be the migrating species through the nickel fluoride scale formed during the fluorination of nickel. This is in contrast to nickel oxide scales, where nickel is the migrating species.

  11. Standard Specification for Copper-Aluminum-Silicon-Cobalt Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Silicon-Magnesium Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Silicon Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Aluminum-Magnesium Alloy, and Copper-Nickel-Tin Alloy Sheet and Strip

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2015-01-01

    Standard Specification for Copper-Aluminum-Silicon-Cobalt Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Silicon-Magnesium Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Silicon Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Aluminum-Magnesium Alloy, and Copper-Nickel-Tin Alloy Sheet and Strip

  12. Nanocrystalline nickel ferrite particles synthesized by non-hydrolytic sol-gel method and their composite with biodegradable polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, H; Casey, P S; Chow, G M

    2012-11-01

    Targeted drug delivery has been one of the most important biomedical applications for magnetic particles. Such applications require magnetic particles to have functionalized surfaces/surface coatings that facilitate their incorporation into a polymer matrix to produce a polymer composite. In this paper, nanocrystalline nickel ferrite particles with an oleic acid surface coating were synthesized using a non-hydrolytic sol-gel method and incorporated into a biodegradable polymer matrix, poly(D,L-lactide) PLA prepared using a double emulsion method. As-synthesized nickel ferrite particles had a multi-crystalline structure with chemically adsorbed oleic acid on their surface. After forming the PLA composite, nickel ferrite particles were encapsulated in PLA microspheres. At low nickel ferrite concentrations, composites showed very similar surface charges to that of PLA. The composites were magnetically responsive and increasing the nickel ferrite concentration was found to increase magnetization of the composite.

  13. Nickel aluminide alloy for high temperature structural use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chain T.; Sikka, Vinod K.

    1991-01-01

    The specification discloses nickel aluminide alloys including nickel, aluminum, chromium, zirconium and boron wherein the concentration of zirconium is maintained in the range of from about 0.05 to about 0.35 atomic percent to improve the ductility, strength and fabricability of the alloys at 1200.degree. C. Titanium may be added in an amount equal to about 0.2 to about 0.5 atomic percent to improve the mechanical properties of the alloys and the addition of a small amount of carbon further improves hot fabricability.

  14. Pulse reversal plating of nickel-cobalt alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben; Jaskula, M.; Kubiczek, M.

    2009-01-01

    Electroforming, as a versatile process for fabrication of durable tools, is experiencing an increasing interest with the start of commercial use of products with micro or nanofeatures. Electroformed tools can be utilised for polymer, glass and metal replication processes and, in addition, when...... extreme demands, in terms of tool accuracy, process temperature and tool wear, are requested. In order to meet these demands, electroforming of hard nickel alloys is an obvious way forward. This paper presents several electrolytes from which it is possible to deposit nickel-cobalt alloys with high...

  15. Oxidation resistant, thoria-dispersed nickel-chromium-aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranow, S.; Klingler, L. J.

    1973-01-01

    Modified thoria-dispersed nickel-chromium alloy has been developed that exhibits greatly improved resistance to high-temperature oxidation. Additions of aluminum have been made to change nature of protective oxide scale entirely and to essentially inhibit oxidation at temperatures up to 1260 C.

  16. Elucidating the mechanisms of nickel compound uptake: A review of particulate and nano-nickel endocytosis and toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz, Alexandra; Costa, Max, E-mail: Max.Costa@nyumc.org

    2012-04-01

    Nickel (Ni) is a worldwide pollutant and contaminant that humans are exposed to through various avenues resulting in multiple toxic responses — most alarming is its clear carcinogenic nature. A variety of particulate Ni compounds persist in the environment and can be distinguished by characteristics such as solubility, structure, and surface charge. These characteristics influence cellular uptake and toxicity. Some particulate forms of Ni are carcinogenic and are directly and rapidly endocytized by cells. A series of studies conducted in the 1980s observed this process, and we have reanalyzed the results of these studies to help elucidate the molecular mechanism of particulate Ni uptake. Originally the process of uptake observed was described as phagocytosis, however in the context of recent research we hypothesize that the process is macropinocytosis and/or clathrin mediated endocytosis. Primary considerations in determining the route of uptake here include calcium dependence, particle size, and inhibition through temperature and pharmacological approaches. Particle characteristics that influenced uptake include size, charge, surface characteristics, and structure. This discussion is relevant in the context of nanoparticle studies and the emerging interest in nano-nickel (nano-Ni), where toxicity assessments require a clear understanding of the parameters of particulate uptake and where establishment of such parameters is often obscured through inconsistencies across experimental systems. In this regard, this review aims to carefully document one system (particulate nickel compound uptake) and characterize its properties.

  17. Modeling and simulation of the zinc-nickel single flow batteries based on MATLAB/Simulink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shouguang; Liao, Peng; Xiao, Min; Cheng, Jie; He, Ke

    2016-12-01

    Based on the working principle of the zinc-nickel single flow batteries (ZNBs), this paper builds the electrochemical model and mechanical model, analyzes the effect of electrolyte flux on the battery performance and obtains a single cell with a 216 Ah charge-discharge capacity as an example, and thereafter conducts a simulation to obtain several results under the condition of constant current charge and discharge. The simulation results are well matched in comparison with the experimental results. An optimal flux exists during the charge and discharge, which indicates that the model can well simulate the charge and discharge characteristics of the ZNBs under the condition of constant current.

  18. Electrically charged targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Ronald K.; Hunt, Angus L.

    1984-01-01

    Electrically chargeable laser targets and method for forming such charged targets in order to improve their guidance along a predetermined desired trajectory. This is accomplished by the incorporation of a small amount of an additive to the target material which will increase the electrical conductivity thereof, and thereby enhance the charge placed upon the target material for guidance thereof by electrostatic or magnetic steering mechanisms, without adversely affecting the target when illuminated by laser energy.

  19. Controlled electroplating and electromigration in nickel electrodes for nanogap formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Los Santos Valladares, Luis; Mitrelias, Thanos; Sfigakis, Francois; Barnes, Crispin H W [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Leon Felix, Lizbet; Bustamante Dominguez, Angel [Laboratorio de Ceramicos y Nanomateriales, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Ap. Postal 14-0149, Lima (Peru); Khondaker, Saiful I [NanoScience Technology Center and Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32826 (United States); Majima, Yutaka, E-mail: ld301@cam.ac.uk, E-mail: luisitodv@yahoo.es [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)

    2010-11-05

    We report the fabrication of nickel nanospaced electrodes by electroplating and electromigration for nanoelectronic devices. Using a conventional electrochemical cell, nanogaps can be obtained by controlling the plating time alone and after a careful optimization of electrodeposition parameters such as electrolyte bath, applied potential, cleaning, etc. During the process, the gap width decreases exponentially with time until the electrode gaps are completely bridged. Once the bridge is formed, the ex situ electromigration technique can reopen the nanogap. When the gap is {approx} 1 nm, tunneling current-voltage characterization shows asymmetry which can be corrected by an external magnetic field. This suggests that charge transfer in the nickel electrodes depends on the orientation of magnetic moments.

  20. Controlled electroplating and electromigration in nickel electrodes for nanogap formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, Luis De Los Santos; Felix, Lizbet Leon; Dominguez, Angel Bustamante; Mitrelias, Thanos; Sfigakis, Francois; Khondaker, Saiful I; Barnes, Crispin H W; Majima, Yutaka

    2010-11-01

    We report the fabrication of nickel nanospaced electrodes by electroplating and electromigration for nanoelectronic devices. Using a conventional electrochemical cell, nanogaps can be obtained by controlling the plating time alone and after a careful optimization of electrodeposition parameters such as electrolyte bath, applied potential, cleaning, etc. During the process, the gap width decreases exponentially with time until the electrode gaps are completely bridged. Once the bridge is formed, the ex situ electromigration technique can reopen the nanogap. When the gap is ∼ 1 nm, tunneling current-voltage characterization shows asymmetry which can be corrected by an external magnetic field. This suggests that charge transfer in the nickel electrodes depends on the orientation of magnetic moments.

  1. Nickel-aluminium complex: a simple and effective precursor for nickel aluminate (NiAl2O4 spinel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apirat Laobuthee

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A reaction of aluminium hydroxide, nickel nitrate and triethanolamine in ethylene glycol provided, in one step, a simple and effective nickel-aluminium complex precursor for NiAl2O4 spinel. On the basis of 1H-, 13C-NMR spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry, the possible structure of the complex was proposed as a trimetallic double alkoxide consisting of two four-coordinate TEA-Al (alumatrane moieties linked via a bridging TEA group enfolding the Ni2+ cation. Transformation of the nickel-aluminium complex to pure spinel occurred when the complex precursor was pyrolysed at 1000C for 5 h. The BET surface area of the pyrolysed product was found to be 31 m2/g. In addition, the morphology of the powder product was examined by SEM.

  2. Nickel and cobalt allergy before and after nickel regulation--evaluation of a public health intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan

    2011-09-01

    Over the 20th century, the frequent use of nickel in consumer products resulted in an increasing prevalence of nickel allergy. Risk items included suspenders in the 1950s-1960s; buttons, zippers and rivets in the 1970s; and ear-piercing jewellery in the 1980s. When subjects allergic to nickel were exposed to nickel in high concentrations, it often resulted in allergic nickel contact dermatitis and hand eczema. In 1990, the Danish government began to regulate consumer nickel exposure as a response to the increasing nickel allergy problem. In 1994, the EU Nickel Directive was passed, a regulation that was based on the Danish and Swedish nickel regulations. These major public health interventions were expected to change the epidemiology of nickel allergy and dermatitis in Europe. Furthermore, it was debated whether nickel would be replaced by cobalt in inexpensive jewellery and result in higher prevalence of cobalt allergy. An evaluation of the possible effects of the European nickel regulations is of importance to ensure protection of consumers and dermatitis patients. This doctoral thesis aimed to evaluate the effects of regulatory interventions on nickel exposure by investigating the development of nickel allergy and dermatitis before and after nickel regulation. Furthermore, a change in the association between nickel allergy and hand eczema was evaluated. The nickel spot test was validated to determine its value when used for screening purposes. Possible explanations for the persistence of nickel allergy were explored including genetic predisposition and consumer nickel exposure from jewellery and accessories. A cobalt spot test was developed and validated. Finally, it was evaluated whether a cobalt allergy epidemic had replaced the nickel allergy epidemic after nickel regulation in terms of increasing cobalt sensitization and cobalt exposure. The thesis showed that the prevalence of nickel allergy decreased significantly after nickel regulation in young Danish

  3. Nickel-responsive transcriptional regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musiani, Francesco; Zambelli, Barbara; Bazzani, Micaela; Mazzei, Luca; Ciurli, Stefano

    2015-09-01

    Nickel is an essential micronutrient for a large number of living organisms, but it is also a toxic metal ion when it accumulates beyond the sustainable level as it may result if and when its cellular trafficking is not properly governed. Therefore, the homeostasis and metabolism of nickel is tightly regulated through metal-specific protein networks that respond to the available Ni(II) concentration. These are directed by specific nickel sensors, able to couple Ni(II) binding to a change in their DNA binding affinity and/or specificity, thus translating the cellular level of Ni(II) into a modification of the expression of the proteins devoted to modulating nickel uptake, efflux and cellular utilization. This review describes the Ni(II)-dependent transcriptional regulators discovered so far, focusing on their structural features, metal coordination modes and metal binding thermodynamics. Understanding these properties is essential to comprehend how these sensors correlate nickel availability to metal coordination and functional responses. A broad and comparative study, described here, reveals some general traits that characterize the binding stoichiometry and Ni(II) affinity of these metallo-sensors.

  4. Nickel hydrogen battery cell storage matrix test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, James R.; Dodson, Gary W.

    1993-01-01

    Test were conducted to evaluate post storage performance of nickel hydrogen cells with various design variables, the most significant being nickel precharge versus hydrogen precharge. Test procedures and results are presented in outline and graphic form.

  5. The EU Nickel Directive revisited--future steps towards better protection against nickel allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Uter, Wolfgang; McFadden, John;

    2011-01-01

    In July 2001, the EU Nickel Directive came into full force to protect European citizens against nickel allergy and dermatitis. Prior to this intervention, Northern European governments had already begun to regulate consumer nickel exposure. According to part 2 of the EU Nickel Directive...... and the Danish nickel regulation, consumer items intended to be in direct and prolonged contact with the skin were not allowed to release more than 0.5 µg nickel/cm2/week. It was considered unlikely that nickel allergy would disappear altogether as a proportion of individuals reacted below the level defined...... by the EU Nickel Directive. Despite this, the EU Nickel Directive part 2 was expected to work as an operational limit that would sufficiently protect European consumers against nickel allergy and dermatitis. This review presents the accumulation of epidemiological studies that evaluated the possible effect...

  6. The Deactivation of Nickel Hydroxide to Hypophosphite Electrooxidation on a Nickel Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue ZENG; Min MO; Jian Long YI; Xin Jun TANG; Hui Xian WANG

    2004-01-01

    The deactivation of nickel hydroxide to the electrooxidation of hypophosphite on a nickel electrode was studied by means of in situ UV-Vis subtractive reflectance spectroscopy. The experimental results show that when the potential is lower than -1.0 V (SCE), the surface on nickel electrode is free of nickel hydroxide, on which hypophosphite is active. When the potential moves positively to about-0.75V, two absorbency bands around 300 nm and 550 nm, which were ascribed to the formation of α-nickel hydroxide, were observed, nickel is oxidized to α-nickel hydroxide.Severe deactivation of the surface occurs when the nickel surface is covered with nickel hydroxide,which separates the hypophosphite ion from nickel substrate.

  7. The EU Nickel Directive revisited--future steps towards better protection against nickel allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Uter, Wolfgang; McFadden, John;

    2011-01-01

    and the Danish nickel regulation, consumer items intended to be in direct and prolonged contact with the skin were not allowed to release more than 0.5 µg nickel/cm2/week. It was considered unlikely that nickel allergy would disappear altogether as a proportion of individuals reacted below the level defined......In July 2001, the EU Nickel Directive came into full force to protect European citizens against nickel allergy and dermatitis. Prior to this intervention, Northern European governments had already begun to regulate consumer nickel exposure. According to part 2 of the EU Nickel Directive...... by the EU Nickel Directive. Despite this, the EU Nickel Directive part 2 was expected to work as an operational limit that would sufficiently protect European consumers against nickel allergy and dermatitis. This review presents the accumulation of epidemiological studies that evaluated the possible effect...

  8. Pulse reversal plating of nickel alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben

    2007-01-01

    ), internal stress and material distribution are even more important. With baths based upon nickel chloride, and nickel and cobalt chlorides, pulse reversal plating of both pure nickel and nickel-cobalt alloys has been used to fabricate tools for microinjection moulding. Pulse reversal plating of ternary soft...... magnetic alloys, comprising 45-65%Co, 15-35%Fe and 15-35%Ni, is also reported....

  9. Nickel may be released from laptop computers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Møller, Per

    2012-01-01

    Consumer nickel sensitization and dermatitis is caused by prolonged or repeated skin exposure to items that release nickel, for example jewellery, belts, buttons, watches, and mobile phones (1–3). We recently described a patient in whom primary nickel contact sensitization and dermatitis develope...... following the use of an Apple laptop computer (4). To estimate nickel release from Apple laptop computers, we investigated a random sample of 20 devices....

  10. CHARGE syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Chitra

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract CHARGE syndrome was initially defined as a non-random association of anomalies (Coloboma, Heart defect, Atresia choanae, Retarded growth and development, Genital hypoplasia, Ear anomalies/deafness. In 1998, an expert group defined the major (the classical 4C's: Choanal atresia, Coloboma, Characteristic ears and Cranial nerve anomalies and minor criteria of CHARGE syndrome. Individuals with all four major characteristics or three major and three minor characteristics are highly likely to have CHARGE syndrome. However, there have been individuals genetically identified with CHARGE syndrome without the classical choanal atresia and coloboma. The reported incidence of CHARGE syndrome ranges from 0.1–1.2/10,000 and depends on professional recognition. Coloboma mainly affects the retina. Major and minor congenital heart defects (the commonest cyanotic heart defect is tetralogy of Fallot occur in 75–80% of patients. Choanal atresia may be membranous or bony; bilateral or unilateral. Mental retardation is variable with intelligence quotients (IQ ranging from normal to profound retardation. Under-development of the external genitalia is a common finding in males but it is less apparent in females. Ear abnormalities include a classical finding of unusually shaped ears and hearing loss (conductive and/or nerve deafness that ranges from mild to severe deafness. Multiple cranial nerve dysfunctions are common. A behavioral phenotype for CHARGE syndrome is emerging. Mutations in the CHD7 gene (member of the chromodomain helicase DNA protein family are detected in over 75% of patients with CHARGE syndrome. Children with CHARGE syndrome require intensive medical management as well as numerous surgical interventions. They also need multidisciplinary follow up. Some of the hidden issues of CHARGE syndrome are often forgotten, one being the feeding adaptation of these children, which needs an early aggressive approach from a feeding team. As the child

  11. Nickel toxicity on seed germination and growth in radish (Raphanus sativus) and its recovery using copper and boron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Shiv Shankar; Shukla, Rajni; Sharma, Y K

    2009-05-01

    Effect of various concentrations of nickel (100, 200, 500 and 1000 microM) and recovery treatments of boron (50 and 100 microM) and copper (15 and 75 microM) each with 200 microM and 500 microM of nickel on germination, growth, biomass, chlorophyll, carotenoids, pheophytin, amylase, protein, sugar as well as activity of catalase and peroxidase were studied in radish (Raphanus sativus cv. Early menu) seedlings. Nickel treatments caused a considerable reduction in germination percentage, growth and biomass. The different pigments were also decreased with nickel treatments. However boron addition with nickel recovered the negative effect on pigment contents. Among biochemical estimations, amylase activity and total proteins were found to be reduced in nickel treatments. Peroxidase and catalase activity were induced other than higher total sugar with nickel treatments. The combination of nickel with boron resulted into increased protein contents. This combination also reduced the catalase and peroxidase activity. The influence of nickel with copper failed to produce significant recovery except 200 microM nickel in combination with 15 microM copper with regard to catalase and peroxidase activity. The effect of nickel on hydrolyzing enzyme amylase was observed to be inhibitory resulting into poor germination followed by poor seedlings growth. The stress protecting enzymes peroxidase and catalase seem to be induced under the influence of nickel, and providing protection to the seedlings. The application of boron with nickel showed improved germination and growth. The level of catalase and peroxidase were found to be significantly reduced showing normal growth and biomass of seedlings.

  12. Nickel electrode for alkaline batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charkey, A.; Januszkiewicz, S.

    1985-10-08

    A nickel electrode including a conductive support and a layer on the support including a mixture of a nickel active material and a graphite diluent containing a spinel type oxide, the spinel type oxide having the formula M/sub 2/Co/sub 2/O/sub 4/, where M/sub 2/ is Co, Ni, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn or Cd, or combinations thereof, and having a weight which is in the range of 1-30 percent of the weight of the diluent.

  13. Electrochemical Characterisation of Nanocrystalline Nickel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Sachdeva

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Nanocry stalline nickel (nc-Ni coatings were produced by pulse electro deposition using Watts bath with sodium citrate and saccharin added as grain refining agents. The electrochemical nature of nc-Ni coatings, evaluated in 1M H2SO4 solution by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The corrosion rate of bulk nickel was lower than that of nc-Ni after stabilisation of free corrosion potential.Defence Science Journal, 2008, 58(4, pp.525-530, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.58.1673

  14. Submicron-Scale Heterogeneities in Nickel Sorption of Various Cell-Mineral Aggregates Formed by Fe(II)-Oxidizing Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Gregor; Zeitvogel, Fabian; Hao, Likai; Ingino, Pablo; Adaktylou, Irini; Eickhoff, Merle; Obst, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria form biogenic cell-mineral aggregates (CMAs) composed of microbial cells, extracellular organic compounds, and ferric iron minerals. CMAs are capable of immobilizing large quantities of heavy metals, such as nickel, via sorption processes. CMAs play an important role for the fate of heavy metals in the environment, particularly in systems characterized by elevated concentrations of dissolved metals, such as mine drainage or contaminated sediments. We applied scanning transmission (soft) X-ray microscopy (STXM) spectrotomography for detailed 3D chemical mapping of nickel sorbed to CMAs on the submicron scale. We analyzed different CMAs produced by phototrophic or nitrate-reducing microbial Fe(II) oxidation and, in addition, a twisted stalk structure obtained from an environmental biofilm. Nickel showed a heterogeneous distribution and was found to be preferentially sorbed to biogenically precipitated iron minerals such as Fe(III)-(oxyhydr)oxides and, to a minor extent, associated with organic compounds. Some distinct nickel accumulations were identified on the surfaces of CMAs. Additional information obtained from scatter plots and angular distance maps, showing variations in the nickel-iron and nickel-organic carbon ratios, also revealed a general correlation between nickel and iron. Although a high correlation between nickel and iron was observed in 2D maps, 3D maps revealed this to be partly due to projection artifacts. In summary, by combining different approaches for data analysis, we unambiguously showed the heterogeneous sorption behavior of nickel to CMAs.

  15. Charged Leptons

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, J; Babu, K; Bernstein, R H; Blum, T; Brown, D N; Casey, B C K; Cheng, C -h; Cirigliano, V; Cohen, A; Deshpande, A; Dukes, E C; Echenard, B; Gaponenko, A; Glenzinski, D; Gonzalez-Alonso, M; Grancagnolo, F; Grossman, Y; Harnik, R; Hitlin, D G; Kiburg, B; Knoepfe, K; Kumar, K; Lim, G; Lu, Z -T; McKeen, D; Miller, J P; Ramsey-Musolf, M; Ray, R; Roberts, B L; Rominsky, M; Semertzidis, Y; Stoeckinger, D; Talman, R; Van De Water, R; Winter, P

    2013-01-01

    This is the report of the Intensity Frontier Charged Lepton Working Group of the 2013 Community Summer Study "Snowmass on the Mississippi", summarizing the current status and future experimental opportunities in muon and tau lepton studies and their sensitivity to new physics. These include searches for charged lepton flavor violation, measurements of magnetic and electric dipole moments, and precision measurements of the decay spectrum and parity-violating asymmetries.

  16. Enterobacter asburiae KUNi5, a Nickel Resistant Bacterium for Possible Bioremediation of Nickel Contaminated Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Anirudha; Mukherjee, Samir Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Nickel resistant bacterial strain Enterobacter asburiae KUNi5 was isolated and showed resistance up to 15 mM and could remove Ni optimally better at 37 degrees C and pH 7. Maximum removal was found at initial concentration of 0.5 to 2 mM, however, growth and Ni removal were affected by other heavy metals. Major amount of the metal was accumulated in the membrane fractions and certain negatively charged groups were found responsible for Ni binding. KUNi5 could also produce 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase, indole-acetic acid and siderophore. It seems that KUNi5 could be a possible candidate for Ni detoxification and plant growth promotion in Ni-contaminated field.

  17. First-principles calculations of the diffusion of atomic oxygen in nickel: thermal expansion contribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megchiche, E H; Amarouche, M; Mijoule, C

    2007-07-25

    Within the framework of density functional theory using the projector augmented-wave (PAW) method, we present some energetic properties of atomic oxygen interstitials in crystalline Ni, i.e. the insertion and activation energies of the O diffusion. Concerning the activation energy, two pathways for the migration process are studied. The charge transfer process between atomic oxygen and nickel atoms is analysed in the interstitial sites. We find that the interstitial octahedral site (O site) is lower in energy than the tetrahedral site (T site). The most favourable pathway for the migration between two octahedral sites corresponds to an intermediate metastable state located in a tetrahedral site. Concerning the charge transfers we find that the atomic oxygen ionizes as O(-) and that the electron migrates essentially from the Ni nearest neighbours of atomic oxygen. In addition, the thermal expansion contribution through the dilatation of the solid is studied. When the thermal expansion is introduced, we show that the insertion process is stabilized and that the tetrahedral insertion energy becomes nearly equal to the octahedral ones. However, the activation energy decreases with the dilatation. Taking into account the thermal expansion effects, our results are consistent with the more reliable experimental data.

  18. Nickel cadmium battery evaluation, modeling, and application in an electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, William Alfred

    A battery testing facility was set up in the battery evaluation laboratory. This system includes a set of current regulators which were fabricated in the UMASS. Lowell labs and a PC based data acquisition system. Batteries were charged or discharged at any rate within system ratings, and data including battery voltage, current, temperature and impedance were stored by a PC. STM5.140 type nickel-cadmium electric vehicle batteries were subjected to various test procedures using the battery testing facility. The results from these tests were used to determine battery characteristics. An electrical component battery model was also developed using the test data. The validity of the battery model was verified through experimental testing, and it was found to be accurate. Additionally, improved battery charging algorithms were developed which resulted in significant improvements in battery efficiency. Electric car operation with STM5.140 type of batteries was evaluated. Realistic road test data were analyzed experimentally and using the battery model. No battery abuse was found under EV driving conditions. The performance of the STM5.140 battery under abuse conditions was evaluated and it was found that it performs reasonably well under all abuse conditions tested. The model and test methodologies may be incorporated into complete electric vehicle models in order to assist in the design and operation of current and future electric vehicles.

  19. Microscopical characterizations of nanofiltration membranes for the removal of nickel ions from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agboola, Oluranti; Maree, Jannie; Mbaya, Richard; Kolesnikov, Andrei; Sadiku, Rotimi [Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Verliefde, Arne; D' Haese, Arnout [Ghent University, Gent (Belgium)

    2015-04-15

    The nanofiltration (NF) process is electrostatically governed and the surface free energy plays a key role in the separation of particulates, macromolecules, and dissolved ionic species. Streaming potential measurement and the surface charge mapping by Kelvin probe atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been carried out. Forces of interaction near the surface of nanofiltration membranes were further studied by a force spectroscopy using atomic force microscopy. The two membranes used are more negatively charged at high pH values; hence the higher the solution chemistry, the higher and faster will be adhesion of ions on the surface of the nanofiltration membranes. It was observed that the three acquired signals from non-contact AFM (contact potential difference, amplitude and phase) were rigorously connected to the surface structure of the nanofiltration membranes. In addition to the surface structure (roughness), electrostatic interactions can also enhance initial particle adhesion to surfaces of nanofiltration membranes. The performance of the NF membranes was further investigated for the removal of nickel ions from aqueous solution, and the results were correlated to the mechanical responses of the nanofiltration membranes obtained from AFM and the streaming potential measurement.

  20. The influence of nickel slag aggregate concentration to compressive and flexural strength on fly ash-based geopolymer composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujiono, E. H.; Setiawan, A.; Husain, H.; Irhamsyah, A.; Samnur, S.; Subaer, S.

    2016-04-01

    Fly ash-based geopolymer with nickel slag aggregate has been successfully produced. Fly ash and nickel slag were obtained from Bosowa Jeneponto Power Plant and PT. Vale Indonesia, respectively. This research aims to investigate the influence of nickel slag concentration to compressive strength, flexural strength, and microstructure of geopolymer composite. The increment of nickel slag aggregate on fly ash was relative to the weight of samples. Geopolymer composite were synthesized by using alkali activated method, cured at temperature of 70 °C for 1 hour. The resulting composites were left at room temperature for 14 days, before compressive and flexural strength were performed. The results showed that the addition of nickel slag aggregate was found to increase the compressive strength of the material. The optimum compressive strength was 14.81 MPa with the addition of 10% aggregate. The optimum flexural strength was 2.63 MPa with the addition of 15% aggregate.

  1. Effect of nickel and magnesium on zinc electrowinning using sulfate solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. C Lins

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Zinc electrowinning is performed with the application of a current through insoluble electrodes (Pb - Ag, causing the electrolysis of zinc sulfate, with or without impurities, and zinc deposition on the cathode of aluminum. The impurities can reduce the current efficiency and increase the energy consumption in zinc electrolysis. In this work, the effect of nickel and magnesium on zinc electrodeposition was studied using the electrochemical techniques of galvanostatic deposition and cyclic voltammetry. Additions of nickel, magnesium or both cations in zinc sulfate electrolyte resulted in a marginal increase in current efficiency. Addition of nickel or magnesium polarizes the cathode; however, the extent of polarization in the presence of magnesium is more than that of nickel. Addition of magnesium to the zinc electrolyte caused zinc reduction at a more negative potential. The addition of nickel to the zinc electrolyte increased the current density of the anodic peaks, thus increasing the dissolution of zinc and hydrogenated phases. The addition of nickel to the zinc and magnesium solutions decreased the nucleation loop, facilitating zinc deposition.

  2. Research, development, and demonstration of nickel-zinc batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    Progress in the development of nickel-zinc batteries for electric vehicles is reported. Information is presented on nickel electrode preparation and testing; zinc electrode preparation with additives and test results; separator development and the evaluation of polymer-blend separator films; sealed Ni-Zn cells; and the optimization of electric vehicle-type Ni-Zn cells. (LCL)

  3. Assaying environmental nickel toxicity using model nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rudel

    Full Text Available Although nickel exposure results in allergic reactions, respiratory conditions, and cancer in humans and rodents, the ramifications of excess nickel in the environment for animal and human health remain largely undescribed. Nickel and other cationic metals travel through waterways and bind to soils and sediments. To evaluate the potential toxic effects of nickel at environmental contaminant levels (8.9-7,600 µg Ni/g dry weight of sediment and 50-800 µg NiCl2/L of water, we conducted assays using two cosmopolitan nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans and Pristionchus pacificus. We assayed the effects of both sediment-bound and aqueous nickel upon animal growth, developmental survival, lifespan, and fecundity. Uncontaminated sediments were collected from sites in the Midwestern United States and spiked with a range of nickel concentrations. We found that nickel-spiked sediment substantially impairs both survival from larval to adult stages and adult longevity in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, while aqueous nickel showed no adverse effects on either survivorship or longevity, we observed a significant decrease in fecundity, indicating that aqueous nickel could have a negative impact on nematode physiology. Intriguingly, C. elegans and P. pacificus exhibit similar, but not identical, responses to nickel exposure. Moreover, P. pacificus could be tested successfully in sediments inhospitable to C. elegans. Our results add to a growing body of literature documenting the impact of nickel on animal physiology, and suggest that environmental toxicological studies could gain an advantage by widening their repertoire of nematode species.

  4. Assaying environmental nickel toxicity using model nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudel, David; Douglas, Chandler; Huffnagle, Ian; Besser, John M.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    Although nickel exposure results in allergic reactions, respiratory conditions, and cancer in humans and rodents, the ramifications of excess nickel in the environment for animal and human health remain largely undescribed. Nickel and other cationic metals travel through waterways and bind to soils and sediments. To evaluate the potential toxic effects of nickel at environmental contaminant levels (8.9-7,600 µg Ni/g dry weight of sediment and 50-800 µg NiCl2/L of water), we conducted assays using two cosmopolitan nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans and Pristionchus pacificus. We assayed the effects of both sediment-bound and aqueous nickel upon animal growth, developmental survival, lifespan, and fecundity. Uncontaminated sediments were collected from sites in the Midwestern United States and spiked with a range of nickel concentrations. We found that nickel-spiked sediment substantially impairs both survival from larval to adult stages and adult longevity in a concentration-dependent manner. Further, while aqueous nickel showed no adverse effects on either survivorship or longevity, we observed a significant decrease in fecundity, indicating that aqueous nickel could have a negative impact on nematode physiology. Intriguingly, C. elegansand P. pacificus exhibit similar, but not identical, responses to nickel exposure. Moreover, P. pacificus could be tested successfully in sediments inhospitable to C. elegans. Our results add to a growing body of literature documenting the impact of nickel on animal physiology, and suggest that environmental toxicological studies could gain an advantage by widening their repertoire of nematode species.

  5. Coin exposure may cause allergic nickel dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Gawkrodger, David J; White, Ian R;

    2012-01-01

    Nickel is used in coins because the metal has beneficial properties, including price, colour, weight, and corrosion resistance, and also because it is easy to stamp. It has often been claimed that the duration of skin contact with coins is too short to cause nickel release and dermatitis. However......, it is well known by dermatologists specialized in occupational skin diseases, and by their nickel-allergic patients, that hand eczema in cashiers and other professionals who handle coins may be caused or aggravated by nickel release from coins. In this review, we present evidence from past studies showing...... that nickel-containing coins can indeed pose a risk for those who handle them. For protection of the health of consumers, cashiers, and other workers who handle coins, it is suggested that coins without nickel release should be used as a substitute for the high nickel-releasing coins currently in widespread...

  6. Nickel-titanium alloys: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo do Amaral Ferreira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: A systematic review on nickel-titanium wires was performed. The strategy was focused on Entrez-PubMed-OLDMEDLINE, Scopus and BioMed Central from 1963 to 2008. METHODS: Papers in English and French describing the behavior of these wires and laboratorial methods to identify crystalline transformation were considered. A total of 29 papers were selected. RESULTS: Nickel-titanium wires show exceptional features in terms of elasticity and shape memory effects. However, clinical applications request a deeper knowledge of these properties in order to allow the professional to use them in a rational manner. In addition, the necessary information regarding each alloy often does not correspond to the information given by the manufacturer. Many alloys called "superelastic" do not present this effect; they just behave as less stiff alloys, with a larger springback if compared to the stainless steel wires. CONCLUSIONS: Laboratory tests are the only means to observe the real behavior of these materials, including temperature transition range (TTR and applied tensions. However, it is also possible to determine in which TTR these alloys change the crystalline structure.

  7. Mechanical electrodeposition of bright nanocrystalline nickel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A new mechanical electrodeposition technology was proposed, and nanocrystalline nickel deposit with bright and smooth surface was prepared in the bath without any additive agents. Unlike traditional methods, the novel technology employed dynamical hard particles to continuously polish the cathode surface and disturb the nearby solution during electrodepositing. Experimental results showed that the polishing effect of hard particles can effectively prevent the hydrogen bubbles and impurities from adhering on the deposit surface and avoid the production of pits, pinholes and nodules. Furthermore, comparing with the deposit prepared by traditional methods, the one prepared by the novel technology was substantially refined with grain size ranging from 30 to 80 nm. Every diffraction peak’s intensity of the deposit was reduced, the preferential orientation degree of (200) decreased and those of (111) and (220) increased. The microhardness notably increased. The magnetic properties were also changed with decreased saturation magnetization and increased coercive force. It was also found that variation of current density and cathode rotational speed could affect the structure and properties of the nickel deposits prepared by this technology.

  8. Nickel in nails, hair and plasma from nickel-hypersensitive women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Veien, Niels

    1990-01-01

    The concentrations of nickel in finger-nails, toe-nails, hair and plasma from 71 nickel-hypersensitive women and 20 non-hypersensitive women were determined. Nickel concentrations in finger-nails were significantly higher than in toe-nails in both the nickel-hypersensitive group and the control...... group. Nickel-sensitive women had significantly higher levels of nickel in toe-nails, hair and plasma than had control subjects, whereas there was no significant difference in nickel concentration in finger-nails between the two groups. No correlation could be demonstrated between nickel levels in any...... combination of nails, hair and plasma in the nickel-hypersensitive or in the control group....

  9. Electrochemical and CMT measurements of the anomalous dissolution of nickel in solutions containing oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Nielsen, Gregers; de Fontenay, Frank; Poulsen, Henning

    1997-01-01

    potential. When passivation was approached (spontaneously or by anodic polarization) the true rate of dissolution approached the rate of anodic reaction. During cathodic polarization there was still a significant rate of dissolution. The true rate of dissolution was determined by CMT measurements (Corrosion......In addition to single nickel crystals also nickel samples produced by dc and pr (pulse-reversal) plating were examined. As previously reported the true rate of dissolution of nickel in solutions containing oxygen was found to be as much as three times the electrochemical rate at the corrosion...... Measurements by Titration). Electrochemical measurements (EC) indicating the rate of electrochemical reactions were made simultaneously....

  10. Response of microbial communities to phytoremediation of nickel contaminated soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Xinde; QIU Rongliang; CHEN Guizhu; ZENG Xiaowen; FANG Xiaohang

    2007-01-01

    Through pot experiment,effects ofphytoremediation on microbial communities in soils at different nickel treatment levels were studied.Two Ni hyperaccumulating and one Ni tolerant species were planted in paddy soils different in Ni concentration,ranging from 100 to 1 600 mg/kg.After 110 days of incubation,soil microbial activities were analyzed.Results showed that populations of bacteria,fungus,and actinomycetes and biomass of the microorganisms were stimulated when nickel was added at a rate of 100 mg/kg in non-rhizospheric soil.When the rate was over 100 mg/kg in the soil,adverse effects on the soil microbial communities were observed.The plantation of Ni hyperaccumulating species could increase both the population and biomass of soil microorganisms,because,by absorbing nickel from the soil and excreting root exudates,the plants reduced nickel toxicity and improved the living environment of the microbes.However,different plant species had different effects on microorganisms in soil.Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) with five primers was used in this study in 25 soil samples of four types of soils.A total of 947 amplified bands were obtained,including 888 polymorphic bands and 59 non-polymorphic bands.The results indicated that the composition of microbial DNA sequences had changed because of the addition of nickel to the treated soils.Shannon-Weaver index of soil microbial DNA sequences reduced in the nickel contaminated soils with increasing nickel concentration.The changes in ShannonWeaver index in the four types of soils ranged from 1.65 to 2.32 for Alyssum corsicum,1.37 to 2.27 for Alyssum murale,1.37 to 1.96 for Brassicajuncea,and 1.19 to 1.85 for nonrhizospheric soil.With the same amount of nickel added to soils,the Shannon-Weaver index in rhizospheric soil with plants was higher than that in non-rhizospheric soil.

  11. Electrowinning of Nickel from ammonical sulphate bath and effect of acetone on morphology of nickel deposit and its correlation with kinetic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borikar, D. K.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrodeposition of nickel from nickel sulphate bath was studied in ammonia medium. The electrolytic conditions for nickel deposition was optimized at room temperature. The effect of acetone on current efficiency, morphology, stability and particle size of deposited nickel powder was studied. The effect of organic additive Tribenzyl ammonium chloride (TBAC on the morphology of nickel powder was also studied. The kinetics of electrodeposition was studied and the results were utilized in developing mathematical model. During electrodeposition the current efficiency was found to increase with increase in acetone concentration up to 15% V/V in bath solution. On further increase of acetone concentration in bath solution current efficiency decreases. The stability of the electrowon deposited nickel powder was found to be in the range of 85 to 89 %. Powder morphology was found to be dentritic, porous and irregular. The morphology was also found to be underdeveloped dentritic to rounded aggregate as the concentration of organic additive TBAC increases. The average particle size of the deposited powder was found to be decreasing as the concentration of the acetone increases. The average size of the particle is in the range of 13-16 m.

  12. Development of process technologies for improvement of electroless nickel coatings properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba-Pingarrón, A.; Bolarín-Miró, A.; Sánchez – de Jesús, F.; Vargas-Mendoza, L.; Trujillo-Barragán, M.; Molera-Sola, P.; Hernandez-Gallegos, M. A.; Valdez-Navarro, R.

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes research and technology developments that enable to improve nickel electroless coating properties. This work deals with: (a) different methods in order to achieve Ni-P-Mo coatings. (b) Other development is related with coatings with addition of hard particles such as SiC, WC or Al2O3,(c) Electroless nickel deposits on PBT and austempered ductile iron (ADI). (d) In addition, nickel coatings were deposited on powder metallic pieces and finally, electroless nickel coatings, in conjunction with layers from thermal spray process were formed. Characterization of all coatings by means of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, micro-hardness, wear and corrosion tests were carried out. Results indicate positive increment in both mechanical and electrochemical properties which enhance field applications in Mexican industry.

  13. Improving Charging-Breeding Simulations with Space-Charge Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilek, Ryan; Kwiatkowski, Ania; Steinbrügge, René

    2016-09-01

    Rare-isotope-beam facilities use Highly Charged Ions (HCI) for accelerators accelerating heavy ions and to improve measurement precision and resolving power of certain experiments. An Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) is able to create HCI through successive electron impact, charge breeding trapped ions into higher charge states. CBSIM was created to calculate successive charge breeding with an EBIT. It was augmented by transferring it into an object-oriented programming language, including additional elements, improving ion-ion collision factors, and exploring the overlap of the electron beam with the ions. The calculation is enhanced with the effects of residual background gas by computing the space charge due to charge breeding. The program assimilates background species, ionizes and charge breeds them alongside the element being studied, and allows them to interact with the desired species through charge exchange, giving fairer overview of realistic charge breeding. Calculations of charge breeding will be shown for realistic experimental conditions. We reexamined the implementation of ionization energies, cross sections, and ion-ion interactions when charge breeding.

  14. Food additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002435.htm Food additives To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Food additives are substances that become part of a food ...

  15. Moringa oleifera Supplemented Diets Prevented Nickel-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Adeyemi, O. S.; Elebiyo, T. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The Moringa oleifera plant has been implicated for several therapeutic potentials. Objective. To evaluate whether addition of M. oleifera to diet has protective effect against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methodology. Male Wistar rats were assigned into six groups of five. The rats were given oral exposure to 20 mg/kg nickel sulphate (NiSO4) in normal saline and sustained on either normal diet or diets supplemented with Moringa oleifera at different concentrations for 21...

  16. Material and Energy Flows Associated with Select Metals in GREET 2. Molybdenum, Platinum, Zinc, Nickel, Silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benavides, Pahola T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dai, Qiang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sullivan, John L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kelly, Jarod C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we analyzed the material and energy consumption from mining to production of molybdenum, platinum, zinc, and nickel. We also analyzed the production of solar- and semiconductor-grade silicon. We described new additions to and expansions of the data in GREET 2. In some cases, we used operating permits and sustainability reports to estimate the material and energy flows for molybdenum, platinum, and nickel, while for zinc and silicon we relied on information provided in the literature.

  17. Flat Absorber Phosphorous Black Nickel Coatings for Space Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V. Maria Shalini; P. Arockiasamy; R. Urna Rani; A.K. Sharma

    2012-01-01

    A new process of flat absorber black nickel alloy coating tion from a bath containing nickel, zinc and ammonium was developed on stainless steel by electrodeposi- sulphates; thiocyanate and sodium hypophosphite for space applications. Coating process was optimized by investigating the effects of plating parameters, viz concentration of bath constituents, current density, temperature, pH and plating time on the optical properties of the black deposits. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed the inclusion of about 6% phosphorous in the coating. The scanning electron microscopy studies revealed the amorphous nature of the coating. The corrosion resistance of the coatings was evaluated by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and linear polarization (LP) techniques. The results revealed that, phosphorous addition confers better corro- sion resistance in comparison to conventional black nickel coatings. The black nickel coating obtained from hypophosphite bath provides high solar absorptance (αs) and infrared emittance (εIR) of the order of 0.93. Environmental stability to space applications was established by the humidity and thermal cycling tests.

  18. Nickel nanofibers synthesized by the electrospinning method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Yi [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Anhui 230000 (China); Zhang, Xuebin, E-mail: zzhhxxbb@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Anhui 230000 (China); Zhu, Yajun; Li, Bin; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Jingcheng; Feng, Yi [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Anhui 230000 (China)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: ► The nickel nanofibers have been obtained by electrospinning method. ► The nickel nanofibers had rough surface which was consisted of mass nanoparticles. ► The average diameter of nickel nanofibers is about 135 nm and high degree of crystallization. ► The Hc, Ms, and Mr were estimated to be 185 Oe, 51.9 and 16.9 emu/g respectively. - Abstract: In this paper, nickel nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning polyvinyl alcohol/nickel nitrate precursor solution followed by high temperature calcination in air and deoxidation in hydrogen atmosphere. The thermal stability of the as-electrospun PVA/Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} composite nanofibers were characterized by TG–DSC. The morphologies and structures of the as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field-emission scanning electronmicroscope (FE-SEM) and field-emission transmission electron microscopy (FE-TEM). The hysteresis loops (M–H loops) were measured by Physical Property Measurement System (PPMS). The results indicate that: the PVA and the nickel nitrate were almost completely decomposed at 460 °C and the products were pure nickel nanofibers with face-centered cubic (fcc) structure. Furthermore, the as-prepared nickel nanofibers had a continuous structure with rough surface and high degree of crystallization. The average diameter of nickel nanofibers was about 135 nm. The nanofibers showed a stronger coercivity of 185 Oe than value of bulk nickel.

  19. [Removal of nickel from aqueous solutions using complexation-ultrafiltration process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shu; Shao, Jia-Hui; He, Yi-Liang; Li, Wen-Xi

    2012-04-01

    Polyacrylate (PAANa) and polyethylenimine (PEI) were used as complexing agents to combine with nickel ions. This complexation solution was transferred to the ultrafiltration cell and the separation by polyethersulfone (PES) ultrafiltration membranes was carried out under the pressure of 0.1 MPa. Effects of solution pH and polymer/Ni2+ mass ratio on nickel removal were investigated. The complex reaction equilibrium constants were calculated according to Langmuir isotherm model. Effects of concentration time on nickel removal and membrane flux were also studied. With PAANa as a polymer, the removal rate of nickel went the highest to 99.5% at pH 8 with PAANa/Ni2+ ratio of 5. When PEI was used, the removal rate of nickel ions went highest to 93.0% at pH 7 with PEI/Ni2+ ratio of 5. Best-fit complexation equilibrium constants at different pH values showed that pH 7 was most beneficial to the complex reaction. In addition, the number of nickel ions bound to a single monomer complexing agent increased with increase of pH value. During 12 h ultrafiltration process, the decline of membrane flux was less than 10% with PAANa as the complexing agent, while the membrane flux remains the same when PEI was used. The removal rates of Ni2+ kept constant with both complexing agents. Results showed that complexation-ultrafiltration can effectively remove nickel from aqueous solution at appropriate conditions.

  20. Preparation of Graphene Oxide Stabilized Nickel Nanoparticles with Thermal Effusivity Properties by Laser Ablation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Reza Sadrolhosseini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel nanoparticles were dispersed uniformly in a graphene oxide solution, using a laser ablation technique with different ablation times that ranged from 5 to 20 minutes. The results indicate that the nickel nanoparticle sizes inside the graphene oxide decreased, and the volume fraction for the nickel nanoparticles in the graphene oxide increased with an increasing ablation time. Further, using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, the nickel nanoparticles in the graphene oxide demonstrate greater stability from possible agglomeration when the nanoparticle was capped with oxygen from the carboxyl group of the graphene oxide. The thermal effusivity of the graphene oxide and nickel nanoparticle graphene oxide composite was measured using a photoacoustic technique. The concentration of graphene oxide shifted from 0.05 mg/L to 2 mg/L, and the thermal effusivity increased from 0.153 W·s1/2·cm−2·K−1 to 0.326 W·s1/2·cm−2·K−1. In addition, the thermal effusivity of the nickel nanoparticles graphene oxide composite increased with an increase in the volume fraction of nickel nanoparticles from 0.1612 W·s1/2·cm−2·K−1 to 0.228 W·s1/2·cm−2·K−1.

  1. THE EFFECT OF SINGLE NICKEL AND COMBINED NICKEL AND ZINC PERORAL ADMINISTRATION ON HAEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Emrichová

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of single nickel (NiCl2 and nickel in combination with zinc (ZnCl2 on selected haematological parameters of rabbits: white blood cell, red blood cell, haemoglobin, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, platelets, mean platelet volume, red cell distribution width, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, neutrophils, basophils. Twenty rabbits of broiler line Californian were used in this experiment. The animals were divided into the five groups, four animals in each ones (control group K and experimental groups E1, E2, E3 and E4. Animals were fed ad libitum using KKV1 feeding mixture (FM with or without nickel and zinc addition for 90 days follows: group E1 received 17.5 g of NiCl2.100 kg-1 FM; group E2 35 g NiCl2.100 kg-1 FM; group E3 17.5 g NiCl2 + 30 g ZnCl2.100 kg-1 FM and group E4 35 g NiCl2 + 30 g ZnCl2.100 kg-1 FM. The parameters were analysed using Advia – 120. Blood was collected into tubes containing anticoagulant agents K – EDTA. Statistical analyse showed a significant changes (P 0.05. Nickel has negative effect on some haematological parameters, but zinc can eliminates its influence.

  2. Electroless nickel plating on optical fiber probe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Huang; Zhoufeng Wang; Zhuomin Li; Wenli Deng

    2009-01-01

    As a component of near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM),optical fiber probe is an important factor influncing the equipment resolution.Electroless nickel plating is introduced to metallize the optical fiber probe.The optical fibers are etched by 40% HF with Turner etching method.Through pretreatment,the optical fiber probe is coated with Ni-P film by clectrolcss plating in a constant temperature water tank.Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS),scanning electron microscopy (SEM),and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDXS) are carried out to charaeterizc the deposition on fiber probe.We have rcproducibly fabricated two kinds of fiber probes with a Ni-P fihn:aperture probe and apertureless probe.In addition,reductive particle transportation on the surface of fiber probe is proposed to explain the cause of these probes.

  3. Biocorrosion study of titanium-nickel alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern Lin, J H; Lo, S J; Ju, C P

    1996-02-01

    The present study provides results of the corrosion behaviour in Hank's physiological solution and some other properties of three Ti-Ni alloys with 18, 25 and 28.4 wt% Ni, respectively. Results indicate that alpha-titanium and Ti2Ni were the two major phases in all three Ti-Ni alloys. The relative amount of the Ti2Ni phase increased with additional Ni content. Hardness of the Ti-Ni alloys also increased with added nickel content, ranging from 310 to 390 VHN, similar to the hardness of enamel. Melting temperatures of the Ti-Ni alloys were all lower than that of pure titanium by least 600 degrees C. The three Ti-Ni alloys behaved almost identically when potentiodynamically polarized in Hank's solution at 37 degrees C. The critical anodic current densities of the alloys were nearly 30 microA/cm2 and the breakdown potentials were all above 1100 mV (SCE).

  4. Absorption and retention of nickel from drinking water in relation to food intake and nickel sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, G D; Søderberg, U; Jørgensen, Poul Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    Two studies were performed to examine the influence of fasting and food intake on the absorption and retention of nickel added to drinking water and to determine if nickel sensitization played any role in this regard. First, eight nonallergic male volunteers fasted overnight before being given...... nickel in drinking water (12 micrograms Ni/kg) and, at different time intervals, standardized 1400-kJ portions of scrambled eggs. When nickel was ingested in water 30 min or 1 h prior to the meal, peak nickel concentrations in serum occurred 1 h after the water intake, and the peak was 13-fold higher...... than the one seen 1 h after simultaneous intake of nickel-containing water and scrambled eggs. In the latter case, a smaller, delayed peak occurred 3 h after the meal. Median urinary nickel excretion half-times varied between 19.9 and 26.7 h. Within 3 days, the amount of nickel excreted corresponded...

  5. Low patch test reactivity to nickel in unselected adolescents tested repeatedly with nickel in infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Elisabeth Soegaard; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is questionable how repeated patch tests with nickel sulphate in infancy affect nickel patch test reactivity at a later age. METHODS: The DARC cohort encompasses 562 infants invited to a clinical examination including patch tests with nickel sulphate 6 times during the first 36...... months of life. At the follow-up investigation at 14 years of age (2013-14) participants were offered re-patch tests with nickel sulphate. The TOACS cohort encompasses 1501 schoolchildren evaluated for the first time at 14 years of age (1995-96) including clinical examination and nickel sulphate patch...... tests. The prevalence of nickel sensitization in the DARC cohort was compared to the prevalence in the TOACS cohort at 14 years of age. RESULTS: Nickel sulphate sensitization was found in 1.2% of the participants from the DARC cohort tested repeatedly with nickel sulphate in early childhood and retested...

  6. Repeated patch testing to nickel during childhood do not induce nickel sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard Christiansen, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previously, patch test reactivity to nickel sulphate in a cohort of unselected infants tested repeatedly at 3-72 months of age has been reported. A reproducible positive reaction at 12 and 18 months was selected as a sign of nickel sensitivity, provided a patch test with an empty Finn...... chamber was negative. The objective of this study is to follow-up on infants with suspected nickel sensitivity. Methods: A total of 562 infants were included in the cohort and patch tested with nickel sulphate. The 26 children with a positive patch test to nickel sulphate at 12 and 18 months were offered...... repeated patch test to nickel sulphate at 3 (36 months), 6 (72 months) and 14 years of age. Results: At 3 years, 24 of 26 nickel sensitive children were retested and a positive reaction was seen in 7 children, a negative reaction in 16 and 1 child was excluded due to reaction to both nickel and the empty...

  7. Holographic charge density waves

    CERN Document Server

    Donos, Aristomenis

    2013-01-01

    We show that strongly coupled holographic matter at finite charge density can exhibit charge density wave phases which spontaneously break translation invariance while preserving time-reversal and parity invariance. We show that such phases are possible within Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory in general spacetime dimensions. We also discuss related spatially modulated phases when there is an additional coupling to a second vector field, possibly with non-zero mass. We discuss how these constructions, and others, should be associated with novel spatially modulated ground states.

  8. Holographic charge density waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donos, Aristomenis; Gauntlett, Jerome P.

    2013-06-01

    We show that strongly coupled holographic matter at finite charge density can exhibit charge density wave phases which spontaneously break translation invariance while preserving time-reversal and parity invariance. We show that such phases are possible within Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory in general spacetime dimensions. We also discuss related spatially modulated phases when there is an additional coupling to a second vector field, possibly with nonzero mass. We discuss how these constructions, and others, should be associated with novel spatially modulated ground states.

  9. Absolute Stability Limit for Relativistic Charged Spheres

    CERN Document Server

    Giuliani, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    We find an exact solution for the stability limit of relativistic charged spheres for the case of constant gravitational mass density and constant charge density. We argue that this provides an absolute stability limit for any relativistic charged sphere in which the gravitational mass density decreases with radius and the charge density increases with radius. We then provide a cruder absolute stability limit that applies to any charged sphere with a spherically symmetric mass and charge distribution. We give numerical results for all cases. In addition, we discuss the example of a neutral sphere surrounded by a thin, charged shell.

  10. Pulsed laser deposited Ag nanoparticles on nickel hydroxide nanosheet arrays for highly sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Yuting; Wang, Huanwen; Chen, Xiao [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wang, Xuefeng, E-mail: xfwang@tongji.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wei, Huige [Integrated Composites Laboratory (ICL), Dan F. Smith Department of Chemical Engineering, Lamar University, Beaumont, Texas 77710 (United States); Guo, Zhanhu, E-mail: zhanhu.guo@lamar.edu [Integrated Composites Laboratory (ICL), Dan F. Smith Department of Chemical Engineering, Lamar University, Beaumont, Texas 77710 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Silver nanoparticles (NPs) were deposited on nickel hydroxide nanosheet (NS) arrays by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy. • The Ag/Ni(OH){sub 2} composite film exhibits very high Raman scattering enhancement ability, possessing an enhancement factor as high as 5 × 10{sup 6}. • The enhancement ability of the substrate was strongly dependent on the size and interparticle gap of Ag NPs. • The 3D structure of Ni(OH){sub 2} NS arrays and the charge transfer of Ag NPs may be responsible for this high sensitivity Raman phenomenon. - Abstract: In the present work, silver nanoparticles (NPs) were deposited on nickel hydroxide nanosheet (NS) arrays by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy. The effective high specific surface area with silver NPs decorated on the NS arrays was revealed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The microstructure and optical property of this three-dimensional (3D) substrate were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV–vis spectra, respectively. Using rhodamine 6G (R6G) as probe molecules with the concentration down to 10{sup −5} M, the Ag/Ni(OH){sub 2} composite film exhibits very high Raman scattering enhancement ability, possessing an enhancement factor as high as 5 × 10{sup 6}. It has been found that the enhancement ability of the substrate was strongly dependent on the size and interparticle gap of Ag NPs rather than the testing position on the film surface. In addition, the 3D structure of Ni(OH){sub 2} NS arrays and the charge transfer of Ag NPs may be responsible for this high sensitivity Raman phenomenon.

  11. Defect induced nickel, nitrogen-codoped mesoporous TiO2 microspheres with enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Mingming; Feng, Lu; Ganeshraja, Ayyakannu Sundaram; Xiong, Fengqiang; Yang, Minghui

    2016-10-01

    Nickel, nitrogen-codoped mesoporous TiO2 microspheres (Ni-N-TiO2) with high surface area, and an effective direct band gap energy of ∼2.58 eV. Nickel sulfate used as the Ni source and ammonia gas as the N source here. The efficiency of the as-prepared samples was investigated by monitoring the degradation of Rhodamine B under visible light irradiation. The experimental results indicate that Ni-doped mesoporous TiO2 microspheres show higher photocatalytic activity than mesoporous TiO2 microspheres under visible light irradiation. It mainly due to that the electron trap level (Ni2+/Ni+) promoting the separation of charge carriers and the oxygen vacancies inducing the visible light absorption. In addition, Ni-N-TiO2 shows enhanced activity compared with Ni-TiO2. Codopants and dopants are found to be uniformly distributed in TiO2 matrix. Among the all samples the 0.5% molar quantity of Ni dopant and 500 °C 2 h nitriding condition gives the highest photocatalytic activity. The treatment of ammonia gas on Ni-TiO2 sample induced oxygen vancancies, substitutional and interstitial N. A suitable treatment by ammonia gas also promote separation of charge carriers and the absorption of visible light. The active species generated in the photocatalytic system were also investigated. The strategy presented here gives a promising route towards the development of a metal and non-metal codoped semiconductor materials for applied photocatalysis and related applications.

  12. Electrodeposition of Manganese-Nickel Oxide Films on a Graphite Sheet for Electrochemical Capacitor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Min Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Manganese-nickel (Mn-Ni oxide films were electrodeposited on a graphite sheet in a bath consisting of manganese acetate and nickel chloride, and the structural, morphological, and electrochemical properties of these films were investigated. The electrodeposited Mn-Ni oxide films had porous structures covered with nanofibers. The X-ray diffractometer pattern revealed the presence of separate manganese oxide (g-MnO2 and nickel oxide (NiO in the films. The electrodeposited Mn-Ni oxide electrode exhibited a specific capacitance of 424 F/g in Na2SO4 electrolyte. This electrode maintained 86% of its initial specific capacitance over 2000 cycles of the charge-discharge operation, showing good cycling stability.

  13. Recent Advances in the Synthesis and Stabilization of Nickel and Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles: A Green Adeptness

    OpenAIRE

    Imran Din, Muhammad; Rani, Aneela

    2016-01-01

    Green protocols for the synthesis of nanoparticles have been attracting a lot of attention because they are eco-friendly, rapid, and cost-effective. Nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized by green routes and characterized for impact of green chemistry on the properties and biological effects of nanoparticles in the last five years. Green synthesis, properties, and applications of nickel and nickel oxide nanoparticles have been reported in the literature. This review summa...

  14. 40 CFR 415.470 - Applicability; description of the nickel salts production subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... nickel salts production subcategory. 415.470 Section 415.470 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel Salts Production Subcategory § 415.470 Applicability; description of the nickel... nickel salts, including (a) nickel sulfate, nickel chloride, nickel nitrate, and nickel fluoborate,...

  15. Global land-use change hidden behind nickel consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Kenichi; Nansai, Keisuke; Matsubae, Kazuyo; Tomita, Makoto; Takayanagi, Wataru; Nagasaka, Tetsuya

    2017-05-15

    Economic growth is associated with a rapid rise in the use of natural resources within the economy, and has potential environmental impacts at local and/or global scales. In today's globalized economy, each country has indirect flows supporting its economic activities, and natural resource consumption through supply chains influences environmental impacts far removed from the place of consumption. One way to control environmental impacts associated with consumption of natural resources is to identify the consumption of natural resources and the associated environmental impacts through the global supply chain. In this study, we used a global link input-output model (GLIO, a hybrid multiregional input-output model) to detect the linkages between national nickel consumption and mining-associated global land-use changes. We focused on nickel, whose global demand has risen rapidly in recent years, as a case study. The estimated area of land-use change around the world caused by nickel mining in 2005 was 1.9km(2), and that induced by Japanese final demand for nickel was 0.38km(2). Our modeling also revealed that the areas of greatest land-use change associated with nickel mining were concentrated in only a few countries and regions far removed from the place of consumption. For example, 57.7% of the world's land-use changes caused by nickel mining were concentrated in five countries in 2005: Australia, 13.7%; Russia, 12.9%; Indonesia, 12.5%; New Caledonia, 10.4%; and Colombia, 8.2%. The mining-associated land-use change induced by Japanese final demand accounted for 19.5% of the total area affected by land-use change caused by nickel mining. The top three countries accounted for 70.6% (Indonesia: 47.0%, New Caledonia: 16.0%, and Australia: 7.7%), and the top five accounted for 82.4% (the Philippines: 7.5%, and Canada: 4.3%, in addition to the top three countries and regions).

  16. EOS-AM1 Nickel Hydrogen Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles W.; Keys, Denney J.; Rao, Gopalakrishna M.; Wannemacher, Hari E.; Vaidyanathan, Harry

    1997-01-01

    This paper reports the interim results of the Earth Observing System AM-1 project (EOS-AM-1) nickel hydrogen cell life test being conducted under contract to National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) at the Lockheed Martin Missile and Space (LMMS) facility in East Windsor, NJ; and at COMSAT Labs., Clarksburg, MD. The purpose of die tests is to verify that the EOS-AM-1 cell design can meet five years of real-time Low Earth Orbit (LEO) cycling. The tests include both real-time LEO and accelerated stress tests. At LMMS, the first real-time LEO simulated 99 minute orbital cycle started on February 7, 1994 and the test has been running continuously since that time, with 18,202 LEO cycles completed as of September 1, 1997. Each cycle consists of a 64 minute charge (VT at 1.507 volts per cell, 1.06 C/D ratio, followed by 0.6 ampere trickle charge) and a 35 minute constant power discharge at 177 watts (22.5% DOD). At COMSAT, the accelerated stress test consists of 90 minute orbital cycles at 60% DOD with a 30 minute discharge at 60 amperes and a 60 minute charge at 40 amperes (VT at 1.54 volts per cell to 1.09 C/D ratio, followed by 0.6 ampere trickle charge). The real-time LEO life test battery consists of seven, 50AH (nameplate rating) Eagle-Picher, Inc. (EPI) Mantech cells manufactured into three, 3-cell pack assemblies (there are two place holder cells that are not part of the life test electrical circuit). The test pack is configured to simulate the conductive thermal design of the spacecraft battery, including: conductive aluminum sleeves, 3-cell pack aluminum baseplate, and honeycomb panel all mounted to a liquid (-5 C) cold plate. The entire assembly is located in a thermal chamber operating at +30 C. The accelerated stress test unit consists of five cells mounted in machined aluminum test sleeves and is operating at +10 C. The real-time LEO life test battery has met all performance requirements through the first 18

  17. Assessment of functional integrity of liver among workers exposed to soluble nickel compounds during nickel plating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalahasthi Ravi Babu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the functional integrity of liver among workers exposed to nickel during nickel-plating process. The functional integrity of liver was assessed in 69 workers who are exposed to nickel during nickel plating and considered as nickel-exposed workers; and 50 administrative workers residing in same city, but away from the place of work of study group, were considered as control group. The level of urine nickel was measured by using a flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Using kits supplied by Bayer Diagnostics, we determined serum markers of liver function tests. Results: The levels of urine nickel were significantly increased in high-and moderate-exposure groups as compared to control group. The levels of serum transaminases -viz, alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase-were significantly increased in nickel-exposed workers, who had high urine nickel levels as compared to control group. The level of serum albumin was negatively correlated with urine nickel levels. The levels of serum transaminases and serum g- glutamyl- transpeptidase were positively and significantly correlated with urine nickel levels. Conclusion: Results indicate that workers who had high urine nickel levels had a consistent effect on hepatic inflammatory function.

  18. Cycle life test and failure model of nickel-hydrogen cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithrick, J. J.

    1983-01-01

    Six ampere hour individual pressure vessel nickel hydrogen cells were charge/discharge cycled to failure. Failure as used here is defined to occur when the end of discharge voltage degraded to 0.9 volts. They were cycled under a low earth orbit cycle regime to a deep depth of discharge (80 percent of rated ampere hour capacity). Both cell designs were fabricated by the same manufacturer and represent current state of the art. A failure model was advanced which suggests both cell designs have inadequate volume tolerance characteristics. The limited existing data base at a deep depth of discharge (DOD) was expanded. Two cells of each design were cycled. One COMSAT cell failed at cycle 1712 and the other failed at cycle 1875. For the Air Force/Hughes cells, one cell failed at cycle 2250 and the other failed at cycle 2638. All cells, of both designs, failed due to low end of discharge voltage (0.9 volts). No cell failed due to electrical shorts. After cell failure, three different reconditioning tests (deep discharge, physical reorientation, and open circuit voltage stand) were conducted on all cells of each design. A fourth reconditioning test (electrolyte addition) was conducted on one cell of each design. In addition post cycle cell teardown and failure analysis were performed on the one cell of each design which did not have electrolyte added after failure. Previously announced in STAR as N83-25038

  19. Mineral resource of the month: nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuck, Peter H.

    2006-01-01

    Together with chromium, nickel makes steel more resistant to corrosion. Stainless steel thus accounts for more than 65 percent of primary nickel consumption in the world. One of the more common grades of stainless steel is Type 304, which contains 18 to 20 percent chromium and 10.5 to 12 percent nickel. Owing to their high corrosion resistance, nickel-bearing stainless steels are widely used in the transportation sector, the energy sector, the food preparation and processing industry, the beverage industry, the pharmaceutical industry and the medical community.

  20. Preparation of Nickel Materials with Fractal Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A way of manufacturing nickel material with fractal structure has been studied. Some algae with natural fractalstructure were used as the basic substrates. The nickel was coated on the substrates by both electroless depositionand electrodeposition. After elimination of the foundational algae by erosion, dissolution etc, the pure nickel materialswith fractal structure were obtained. At last, the specific surface area was analyzed by BET analyses and the fractaldimension of the nickel material was calculated by means of box-counting technique. The comparison of fractaldimension between Ni structure and natural algae was also given.

  1. Sintering of nickel steam reforming catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Jens; Larsen, Niels Wessel; Falsig, Hanne;

    2014-01-01

    . In this paper, particle migration and coalescence in nickel steam reforming catalysts is studied. Density functional theory calculations indicate that Ni-OH dominate nickel transport at nickel surfaces in the presence of steam and hydrogen as Ni-OH has the lowest combined energies of formation and diffusion...... compared to other potential nickel transport species. The relation between experimental catalyst sintering data and the effective mass diffusion constant for Ni-OH is established by numerical modelling of the particle migration and coalescence process. Using this relation, the effective mass diffusion...

  2. On the reflectivity of nickel neutron mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adib, M.; Maayouf, R.M.A.; Abdel-Kawy, A.; Habib, N. (Atomic Energy Establishment, Cairo (Egypt). Reactor and Neutron Physics Dept.); Kenawy, M.A.; Wahba, M.; Ashry, A.H. (Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt))

    1991-02-01

    Neutron reflectivities were determined for 300 nm thick films of natural nickel and nickel 58 coated on glass plates. The measurements were performed at glancing angles between 40' and 60'. The incident neutron beam from one of the ET-RR-1 reactor horizontal channels covered neutron wavelengths between 0.55 and 0.80 nm. It was found that nickel 58, because of the high value of its critical glancing angle, is more efficient as a neutron mirror than natural nickel. (orig.).

  3. Kinetics of nickel electrodeposition from low electrolyte concentration and at a narrow interelectrode gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widayatno, Tri

    2015-12-01

    Electrodeposition of nickel onto copper in a system of low Ni2+ concentration and at a narrow interelectrode gap has been carried out. This electrochemical system was required for maskless pattern transfer through electroplating (Enface technique). Kinetics of Electrochemical reaction of Nickel is relatively slow, where such electrochemical system has never been used in this technology. Study on the kinetics of the electrochemical reaction of nickel in such system is essential due to the fact that the quality of an electrodeposited nickel is affected by kinetics. Analytical and graphical methods were utilised to determine kinetic parameters. The kinetic model was approximated by Butler-Volmer and j-η equation. Kinetic parameters such as exchange current density (j0) and charge transfer coefficient (α) were also graphically determined using the plot of η vs. log|j| known as Tafel plot. The polarisation data for an unstirred 0.19 M nickel sulfamate solution at 0.5 mV/s scan rate and RDE system was used. The results indicate that both methods are fairly accurate. For the analytical, the Tafel slope, the exchange current density, and charge transfer coefficient were found to be 149 mV/dec, 1.60 × 10-4 mA/cm2, and 0.39 respectively, whilst for the graphical method were 159 mV/dec, 3.16 × 10-4 mA/cm2, and 0.37. The kinetics parameters in this current study were also compared to those in literature. Significant differences were observed which might be due to the effect of composition and concentration of the electrolytes, operating temperature, and pH leading to the different reaction mechanism. However, the results obtained in this work are in the range of acceptable values. These kinetic parameters will then be used in further study of nickel deposition by modelling and simulation

  4. Elevated Temperature Properties of Titanium Carbide Base Ceramals Containing Nickel or Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, A L; Colteryahn, L E

    1951-01-01

    Elevated-temperature properties of titanium carbide base ceramals containing nickel or iron were determined in oxidation, modulus of rupture, tensile strength, and thermal-shock resistance. These materials followed the general growth law and exhibited two stages in oxidation. The following tensile strengths were found at 2000 degrees F: 13.3 weight percent nickel, 16, 150 pounds per square inch; 11.8 weight percent iron, 12,500 pounds per square inch; unalloyed titanium carbide, 16,450 pounds per square inch. Nickel or iron additions to titanium carbide improved the thermal-shock resistance, nickel more. The path of fracture in tensile and thermal-shock specimens was found to progress approximately 50 percent intergranularly and 50 percent transgranularly.

  5. Fabrication, lattice strain, corrosion resistance and mechanical strength of nanocrystalline nickel films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Nanocrystalline nickel films of 17-40 nm grain sizes were prepared using pulsejet electrodeposition. Structure, corrosion and lattice strain were analysed by transmission electron microscope, electrochemical workstation and X-ray diffraction, revealing that with decreasing of grain size, the lattice strain, corrosion rate of the films are enhanced. The observations can be consistently understood in terms of the bond-order-length-strength correlation mechanism indicating that the shortened and strengthened bonds between the under-coordinated atoms modify the energy density and the atomic cohesive energy in the surface skins of the grains.The surface energy density gain is responsible for the residual atomic cohesive energy for the activation energy of corrosion.Additionally, a novel algorithm was proposed to extract the elastic-plastic properties of nickel films and results that the nickel film has much higher yield strength than bulk nickel.

  6. Recovery Of Electrodic Powder From Spent Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries (NiMH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin S.M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was focused on recycling process newly proposed to recover electrodic powder enriched in nickel (Ni and rare earth elements (La and Ce from spent nickel-metal hydride batteries (NiMH. In addition, this new process was designed to prevent explosion of batteries during thermal treatment under inert atmosphere. Spent nickel metal hydride batteries were heated over range of 300°C to 600°C for 2 hours and each component was completely separated inside reactor after experiment. Electrodic powder was successfully recovered from bulk components containing several pieces of metals through sieving operation. The electrodic powder obtained was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX and image of the powder was taken by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. It was finally found that nickel and rare earth elements were mainly recovered to about 45 wt.% and 12 wt.% in electrodic powder, respectively.

  7. High-performance MgCo2O4 nanocone arrays grown on three-dimensional nickel foams: Preparation and application as binder-free electrode for pseudo-supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lifeng; Huang, Lihua; Ji, Min; Wang, Yangang; Shi, Huancong; Zuo, Yuanhui; Kang, Shifei

    2016-11-01

    Uniform MgCo2O4 nanocone arrays (NCAs) grown radially on three-dimensional (3D) nickel foams were fabricated through a facile hydrothermal process. These MgCo2O4 NCAs were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, N2 adsorption Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The MgCo2O4 NCAs were directly used as a binder-free integrated electrode for electrochemical pseudocapacitors. The electrode yielded a high specific capacitance of 750 F g-1 with high cycling ability at a charge-discharge current density of 1 A g-1 (84.0% of initial specific capacitance was remained after 1000cycles) and it was much higher compared with the powder MgCo2O4 (320 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1). Evidently, MgCo2O4 NCAs achieved excellent electrochemical performance owing to the unique 3D nickel-foam-based in-situ self-assembly, which accelerated electron transport and diffusion as well as intimate electrode/electrolyte contact. The remarkable performance of the aqueous symmetric supercapacitor device without addition of binders or conductive additive is attributed to the close-knit combination of MgCo2O4 nanocone with highly-conductive origin nickel foam, as well as the enlarged specific surface area (335.8 m2 g-1). This study approves the future applications of the MgCo2O4 NCAs inspired large-scale supercapacitor grown on low-cost nickel foams.

  8. Charge Breeding of Radioactive Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Wenander, F J C

    2013-01-01

    Charge breeding is a technique to increase the charge state of ions, in many cases radioactive ions. The singly charged radioactive ions, produced in an isotope separator on-line facility, and extracted with a low kinetic energy of some tens of keV, are injected into a charge breeder, where the charge state is increased to Q. The transformed ions are either directed towards a dedicated experiment requiring highly charged ions, or post-accelerated to higher beam energies. In this paper the physics processes involved in the production of highly charged ions will be introduced, and the injection and extraction beam parameters of the charge breeder defined. A description of the three main charge-breeding methods is given, namely: electron stripping in gas jet or foil; external ion injection into an electron-beam ion source/trap (EBIS/T); and external ion injection into an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). In addition, some preparatory devices for charge breeding and practical beam delivery aspects ...

  9. An electrochemical acetylcholine sensor based on lichen-like nickel oxide nanostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattarahmady, N; Heli, H; Vais, R Dehdari

    2013-10-15

    Lichen-like nickel oxide nanostructure was synthesized by a simple method and characterized. The nanostructure was then applied to modify a carbon paste electrode and for the fabrication of a sensor, and the electrocatalytic oxidation of acetylcholine (ACh) on the modified electrode was investigated. The electrocatalytic efficiency of the nickel oxide nanostructure was compared with nickel micro- and nanoparticles, and the lichen-like nickel oxide nanostructure showed the highest efficiency. The mechanism and kinetics of the electrooxidation process were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, steady-state polarization curve and chronoamperometry. The catalytic rate constant and the charge transfer coefficient of ACh electrooxidation by the active nickel species, and the diffusion coefficient of ACh were reported. A sensitive and time-saving hydrodynamic amperometry method was developed for the determination of ACh. ACh was determined with a sensitivity of 392.4 mA M⁻¹ cm⁻² and a limit of detection of 26.7 μM. The sensor had the advantages of simple fabrication method without using any enzyme or reagent and immobilization step, high electrocatalytic activity, very high sensitivity, long-term stability, and antifouling surface property toward ACh and its oxidation product.

  10. Towards a full understanding of the nature of Ni(II) species and hydroxyl groups over highly siliceous HZSM-5 zeolite supported nickel catalysts prepared by a deposition-precipitation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bao-Hui; Chao, Zi-Sheng; He, Hao; Huang, Chen; Liu, Ya-Juan; Yi, Wen-Jun; Wei, Xue-Ling; An, Jun-Fang

    2016-02-14

    Highly siliceous HZSM-5 zeolite supported nickel catalysts prepared by a deposition-precipitation (D-P) method were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), hydrogen temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2-absorption/desorption, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and (27)Al magic-angle nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) techniques. The results showed that the D-P of nickel species occurred predominantly on the internal surface of highly siliceous HZSM-5 zeolite, in which the internal silanol groups located on the hydroxylated mesopores or nanocavities played a key role. During the D-P process, nickel hydroxide was first deposited-precipitated via olation/polymerization of neutral hydroxoaqua nickel species over the HZSM-5 zeolite. With the progress of the D-P process, 1 : 1 nickel phyllosilicate was formed over the HZSM-5 via the hetero-condensation/polymerization between charged hydroxoaqua nickel species and monomer silicic species generated due to the partial dissolution of the HZSM-5 framework. The 1 : 1 nickel phyllosilicate could also be generated via the hydrolytic adsorption of hydroxoaqua nickel species and their subsequent olation condensation. After calcination, the deposited-precipitated nickel hydroxide was decomposed into nickel oxide, while the 1 : 1 nickel phyllosilicate was transformed into 2 : 1 nickel phyllosilicate. According to the above mechanism, Ni(ii) species were present both in the form of nickel oxide and 2 : 1 nickel phyllosilicate, which were mutually separated from each other, being highly dispersed over HZSM-5 zeolite.

  11. Facile preparation of nickel/carbonized wood nanocomposite for environmentally friendly supercapacitor electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaddanapudi, Haritha Sree; Tian, Kun; Teng, Shiang; Tiwari, Ashutosh

    2016-09-01

    We are reporting a facile way to prepare nickel/carbon nanocomposites from wood as a novel electrode material for supercapacitors. The surface morphology and the structure of the as-prepared electrodes were studied by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicate that after high-temperature carbonization process, the wood is converted into graphitic carbon with nickel nanoparticles uniformly distributed within the three dimensional structure of the wood. Electrochemical characterization such as cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements were conducted. These results showed that the introduction of nickel into the carbonized wood improves the specific capacitance and the cyclic stability of the nanocomposite electrode over that of the pure carbonized wood electrode. The composite electrode displayed an enhanced capacitive performance of 3616 F/g at 8 A/g, and showed an excellent capacitance retention after 6000 charge-discharge cycles. These results endow the nickel nanoparticles impregnated carbonized wood with a great potential for future application in supercapacitors.

  12. Nanoscale nickel oxide/nickel heterostructures for active hydrogen evolution electrocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ming; Zhou, Wu; Tsai, Mon-Che; Zhou, Jigang; Guan, Mingyun; Lin, Meng-Chang; Zhang, Bo; Hu, Yongfeng; Wang, Di-Yan; Yang, Jiang; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Hwang, Bing-Joe; Dai, Hongjie

    2014-08-01

    Active, stable and cost-effective electrocatalysts are a key to water splitting for hydrogen production through electrolysis or photoelectrochemistry. Here we report nanoscale nickel oxide/nickel heterostructures formed on carbon nanotube sidewalls as highly effective electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction with activity similar to platinum. Partially reduced nickel interfaced with nickel oxide results from thermal decomposition of nickel hydroxide precursors bonded to carbon nanotube sidewalls. The metal ion-carbon nanotube interactions impede complete reduction and Ostwald ripening of nickel species into the less hydrogen evolution reaction active pure nickel phase. A water electrolyzer that achieves ~20 mA cm-2 at a voltage of 1.5 V, and which may be operated by a single-cell alkaline battery, is fabricated using cheap, non-precious metal-based electrocatalysts.

  13. Controlled synthesis and magnetic properties of nickel phosphide and bimetallic iron-nickel phosphide nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Bhupendra; Ho, Chia-Ling [National Cheng Kung University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Taiwan (China); Tseng, Yuan-Chieh [National Chiao Tung University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiwan (China); Lo, Chieh-Tsung, E-mail: tsunglo@mail.ncku.edu.tw [National Cheng Kung University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Taiwan (China)

    2012-02-15

    Nickel phosphide (Ni{sub 2}P) and bimetallic iron-nickel phosphides [(Fe{sub x}Ni{sub y}){sub 2}P] nanorods were fabricated by a seeded growth strategy. This strategy utilized pre-synthesized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles as seeds and the thermal decomposition of metal precursors by multiple injections in a solution containing trioctylphosphine and didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB). The nanorods were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and magnetic measurements were carried out using superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). The rod length was tunable, ranging from 10 to 110 nm depending on the number of injections, whereas the diameter of the rods was nearly 6 nm. It was found that the rod size increased with the number of injections under the constant total injection concentration and reaction time. In addition, the effect of the DDAB quantity used as a co-surfactant was studied, which showed that an optimum quantity was required to achieve uniform nanorods. Magnetic characterizations were performed over the two kinds of nanorods to identify their respective magnetic phases. The results demonstrated that the Ni{sub 2}P nanorods were defined as a Curie-Weiss paramagnet, whereas the (Fe{sub x}Ni{sub y}){sub 2}P nanorods exhibited superparamagnetic characteristics.

  14. Additivity dominance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rozin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Judgments of naturalness of foods tend to be more influenced by the process history of a food, rather than its actual constituents. Two types of processing of a ``natural'' food are to add something or to remove something. We report in this study, based on a large random sample of individuals from six countries (France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, UK and USA that additives are considered defining features of what makes a food not natural, whereas ``subtractives'' are almost never mentioned. In support of this, skim milk (with major subtraction of fat is rated as more natural than whole milk with a small amount of natural vitamin D added. It is also noted that ``additives'' is a common word, with a synonym reported by a native speaker in 17 of 18 languages, whereas ``subtractive'' is lexicalized in only 1 of the 18 languages. We consider reasons for additivity dominance, relating it to omission bias, feature positive bias, and notions of purity.

  15. Nickel: Impact on leaf morphology and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nutritional physiology of essential micronutrients in pecan, especially that of nickel, is a limiting factor in optimization of physiological efficiency of orchard enterprises. Knowledge by farmers and extension specialists about the role of nickel, a newly recognized micronutrient, is meager. ...

  16. Novel material for nickel recuperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. da Rocha Filho

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Graft polymerization of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone with chitin was studied using hydrogen peroxide for initiation. The capacity of the obtained VP-g-Ch graft copolymer for adsorption of nickel was examined. The effect of temperature, pH and solute concentration on the chelating properties of the grafted and ungrafted chitin were determined. The thermal profiles obtained showed higher thermal resistance for the VP-g-Ch than chitin. The results indicate that the obtained graft copolymer under investigation is a potentially powerful ion exchanger that can be employed for heavy metals removal from wastewater effluents.

  17. Lead-nickel electrochemical batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Glaize, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The lead-acid accumulator was introduced in the middle of the 19th Century, the diverse variants of nickel accumulators between the beginning and the end of the 20th Century. Although old, these technologies are always very present on numerous markets. Unfortunately they are still not used in optimal conditions, often because of the misunderstanding of the internal electrochemical phenomena.This book will show that batteries are complex systems, made commercially available thanks to considerable amounts of scientific research, empiricism and practical knowledge. However, the design of

  18. APT characterization of high nickel RPV steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M. K.; Sokolov, M. A.; Nanstad, R. K.; Russell, K. F.

    2006-06-01

    The microstructures of three high nickel content pressure vessel steels have been characterized by atom probe tomography to investigate the influence of high nickel levels on the response to neutron irradiation of high and low copper pressure vessel steels. The high-nickel, low-manganese, low-copper VVER-1000 weld and forging exhibited lower than predicted levels of embrittlement during neutron irradiation. The Palisades weld exhibits a Δ T41 J of 102 °C which was significantly lower than the value of 154 °C predicted by Reg. Guide 1.99 Rev. 2. Atom probe tomography revealed nickel-, manganese-, and silicon-enriched precipitates in both the VVER-1000 base and weld materials after neutron irradiation. A high number density of copper-, nickel-, manganese-, silicon- and phosphorus-enriched precipitates were observed in the Palisades weld after neutron irradiation. Atom probe tomography also revealed high levels of phosphorus segregation to the dislocations in all three materials.

  19. Aluminium and nickel in human albumin solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Sandberg, E

    1989-01-01

    Five different brands of commercially available human albumin solutions for infusion were analysed for their aluminium and nickel contents by atomic absorption spectrometry. The aluminium concentrations ranged from 12 micrograms/l to 1109 micrograms/l and the nickel concentrations ranged from 17...... micrograms/l to 77 micrograms/l. Examination of the aluminium and nickel contents of the constituents for the production of one brand showed too low levels to explain the final contamination of the product. By following the aluminium and nickel concentrations of the same brand during the production...... of a batch of albumin solution, filtration was shown to contribute to contamination, although the largest increase in aluminium as well as nickel concentrations appeared during the bulk concentrating process. To avoid health risks to certain patients, regulations should be established requiring aluminium...

  20. Enhanced optical absorbance and fabrication of periodic arrays on nickel surface using nanosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jinxiang; Liang, Hao; Zhang, Jingyuan; Wang, Yibo; Liu, Yannan; Zhang, Zhiyan; Lin, Xuechun

    2017-04-01

    A hundred-nanosecond pulsed laser was employed to structure the nickel surface. The effects of laser spatial filling interval and laser scanning speed on the optical absorbance capacity and morphologies on the nickel surface were experimentally investigated. The black nickel surface covered with dense micro/nanostructured broccoli-like clusters with strong light trapping capacity ranging from the UV to the near IR was produced at a high laser scanning speed up to v=100 mm/s. The absorbance of the black nickel is as high as 98% in the UV range of 200-400 nm, more than 97% in the visible spectrum, ranging from 400 to 800 nm, and over 90% in the IR between 800 and 2000 nm. In addition, when the nickel surface was irradiated in two-dimensional crossing scans by laser with different processing parameters, self-organized and shape-controllable structures of three-dimensional (3D) periodic arrays can be fabricated. Compared with ultrafast laser systems previously used for such processing, the nanosecond fiber laser used in this work is more cost-effective, compact and allows higher processing rates. This nickel surface structured technique may be applicable in optoelectronics, batteries industry, solar/wave absorbers, and wettability materials.

  1. First-principles calculations of the diffusion of atomic oxygen in nickel: thermal expansion contribution

    OpenAIRE

    Megchiche, El Hocine; Amarouche, Mohand; Mijoule, Claude

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Within the framework of density functional theory using the projector augmented-wave (PAW) method, we present some energetic properties of atomic oxygen interstitials in crystalline Ni, i.e. the insertion and activation energies of the O diffusion. Concerning the activation energy, two pathways for the migration process are studied. The charge transfer process between atomic oxygen and nickel atoms is analysed in the interstitial sites. We find that the interstitial oc...

  2. Potlining Additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  3. Additivity dominance

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Judgments of naturalness of foods tend to be more influenced by the process history of a food, rather than its actual constituents. Two types of processing of a ``natural'' food are to add something or to remove something. We report in this study, based on a large random sample of individuals from six countries (France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, UK and USA) that additives are considered defining features of what makes a food not natural, whereas ``subtractives'' are almost never mentioned....

  4. Reclaim nickel and remove organics from the spent electroless nickel-plating bath by electrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xiu-juan; SHEN Jin; MENG Xian-lin; LI Shu-qin; YAN Lei; ZHOU Ding

    2006-01-01

    Typical wastes from nickel plating operations include excess drag-out solution. An electrochemical approach was made to recover the nickel and remove the organic pollutants from the spent electroless nickelplating bath. An electrolyte cell which was constructed by the cathode of porous nickel foam and the anode of Ti/RuO2 was used. During electrolysis, the nickel ion was electrodeposited at the cathode and the oxidation of the organics in the bath was conducted at the anode. The current ( i), time ( t), temperature (T) and pH of the solution affected the recovery efficiency of nickel with constant potential electrolysis. With the optimum experimental conditions of pH = 7. 6, i = 0.45 A, T = 65℃ and t = 2 h, the concentration of nickel ion was reduced from 2. 09 g/L to 0. 053 g/L and the recovery rate of nickel, the current efficiency and the consumed energy were 97.5%, 17.1%, 12.2 kWh/kg Ni, respectively. Meanwhile, total organic carbon (TOC) of the bath was reduced from 5 800 mg/L to 152. 5 mg/L and the removal efficiency of TOC was 97.3%. The recovery rate of nickel could keep to about 97% when electrodeposit was used to recover nickel for 40 hours in a laboratory batch reactor containing the spent bath. Dull nickel containing phosphorus was obtained on the cathode.

  5. Scalable Preparation of Ternary Hierarchical Silicon Oxide-Nickel-Graphite Composites for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Bao, Wurigumula; Ma, Lu; Tan, Guoqiang; Su, Yuefeng; Chen, Shi; Wu, Feng; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil

    2015-12-01

    Silicon monoxide is a promising anode candidate because of its high theoretical capacity and good cycle performance. To solve the problems associated with this material, including large volume changes during charge-discharge processes, we report a ternary hierarchical silicon oxide-nickel-graphite composite prepared by a facile two-step ball-milling method. The composite consists of nano-Si dispersed silicon oxides embedded in nano-Ni/graphite matrices (Si@SiOx /Ni/graphite). In the composite, crystalline nano-Si particles are generated by the mechanochemical reduction of SiO by ball milling with Ni. These nano-Si dispersed oxides have abundant electrochemical activity and can provide high Li-ion storage capacity. Furthermore, the milled nano-Ni/graphite matrices stick well to active materials and interconnect to form a crosslinked framework, which functions as an electrical highway and a mechanical backbone so that all silicon oxide particles become electrochemically active. Owing to these advanced structural and electrochemical characteristics, the composite enhances the utilization efficiency of SiO, accommodates its large volume expansion upon cycling, and has good ionic and electronic conductivity. The composite electrodes thus exhibit substantial improvements in electrochemical performance. This ternary hierarchical Si@SiOx /Ni/graphite composite is a promising candidate anode material for high-energy lithium-ion batteries. Additionally, the mechanochemical ball-milling method is low cost and easy to reproduce, indicating potential for the commercial production of the composite materials.

  6. Microstructure design of metal composite for active material in sodium nickel-iron chloride battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Cheol-Woo; Kim, Mangi; Hahn, Byung-Dong; Hong, Inchul; Kim, Woosung; Moon, Goyoung; Lee, Heesoo; Jung, Keeyoung; Park, Yoon-Cheol; Choi, Joon-Hwan

    2016-10-01

    In this manuscript, it is reported how the microstructure of metal composites can be designed to obtain excellent cycle performance in Na-(Ni,Fe)Cl2 battery. The microstructure consists of an active material and a conducting material. The conducting material is an active material as well as a conducting chain (an electron path). In Na-(Ni,Fe)Cl2 cells, it is preferable that Ni is selected as the conducting material, since the nickel chloride is not formed on the surface of Ni particles during the electrochemical reaction of Fe particles. In addition, the particle size of Ni should be smaller than that of Fe, in order to ensure that the conducting chain is well-connected. Through this design, the cycle performance of a Na-(Ni,Fe)Cl2 cell was significantly improved, compared to that of a Na-NiCl2 cell. At the 100th cycle, the charge/discharge capacity of a Na-(Ni,Fe)Cl2 cell was much higher than that of a Na-NiCl2 cell, approximately 42%.

  7. Study of alumina-trichite reinforcement of a nickel-based matric by means of powder metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walder, A.; Hivert, A.

    1982-01-01

    Research was conducted on reinforcing nickel based matrices with alumina trichites by using powder metallurgy. Alumina trichites previously coated with nickel are magnetically aligned. The felt obtained is then sintered under a light pressure at a temperature just below the melting point of nickel. The halogenated atmosphere technique makes it possible to incorporate a large number of additive elements such as chromium, titanium, zirconium, tantalum, niobium, aluminum, etc. It does not appear that going from laboratory scale to a semi-industrial scale in production would create any major problems.

  8. Toxicodynamic and toxicokinetic descriptors of combined chromium (VI) and nickel toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minigaliyeva, Ilzira A; Katsnelson, Boris A; Privalova, Larisa I; Gurvich, Vladimir B; Panov, Vladimir G; Varaksin, Anatoly N; Makeyev, Oleg H; Sutunkova, Marina P; Loginova, Nadezhda V; Kireyeva, Ekaterina P; Grigoryeva, Ekaterina V; Slyshkina, Tatyana V; Ganebnykh, Eugenia V; Grebenkina, Svetlana V

    2014-01-01

    After repeated intraperitoneal injections of nickel and chromium (VI) salts to rats, we found, and confirmed by mathematical modeling, that their combined subchronic toxicity can either be of additive type or depart from it (predominantly toward subadditivity) depending on the effect assessed. Against the background of moderate systemic toxicity, the combination under study proved to possess a marked additive genotoxicity assessed by means of the random amplification of polymorphic DNA test. We also demonstrated that chromium and nickel reciprocally influenced the retention of these metals in some organs (especially in the spleen) but not their urinary excretion in this study.

  9. CHARGE Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semanti Chakraborty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present here a case of 17-year-old boy from Kolkata presenting with obesity, bilateral gynecomastia, mental retardation, and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. The patient weighed 70 kg and was of 153 cm height. Facial asymmetry (unilateral facial palsy, gynecomastia, decreased pubic and axillary hair, small penis, decreased right testicular volume, non-palpable left testis, and right-sided congenital inguinal hernia was present. The patient also had disc coloboma, convergent squint, microcornea, microphthalmia, pseudohypertelorism, low set ears, short neck, and choanalatresia. He had h/o VSD repaired with patch. Laboratory examination revealed haemoglobin 9.9 mg/dl, urea 24 mg/dl, creatinine 0.68 mg/dl. IGF1 77.80 ng/ml (decreased for age, GH <0.05 ng/ml, testosterone 0.25 ng/ml, FSH-0.95 ΅IU/ml, LH 0.60 ΅IU/ml. ACTH, 8:00 A.M cortisol, FT3, FT4, TSH, estradiol, DHEA-S, lipid profile, and LFT was within normal limits. Prolactin was elevated at 38.50 ng/ml. The patient′s karyotype was 46XY. Echocardiography revealed ventricularseptal defect closed with patch, grade 1 aortic regurgitation, and ejection fraction 67%. Ultrasound testis showed small right testis within scrotal sac and undescended left testis within left inguinal canal. CT scan paranasal sinuses revealed choanalatresia and deviation of nasal septum to the right. Sonomammography revealed bilateral proliferation of fibroglandular elements predominantly in subareoalar region of breasts. MRI of brain and pituitary region revealed markedly atrophic pituitary gland parenchyma with preserved infundibulum and hypothalamus and widened suprasellar cistern. The CHARGE association is an increasingly recognized non-random pattern of congenital anomalies comprising of coloboma, heart defect, choanal atresia, retarded growth and development, genital hypoplasia, ear abnormalities, and/or deafness. [1] These anomalies have a higher probability of occurring together. In this report, we have

  10. Search For Iron, Nickel, and Fluorine in PG1159 Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Reiff, E; Werner, K; Kruk, J W; Koesterke, L

    2008-01-01

    A possible origin of the iron-deficiency in PG1159 stars could be neutron captures on Fe nuclei. A nickel overabundance would corroborate this idea. Consequently we are looking for nickel lines in PG1159 stars. Prime targets are relatively cool objects, because Ni VI is the dominant ionisation stage and the spectral lines of this ion are accessible with UV observations. We do not find such lines in the coolest PG1159 star observed by FUSE (PG1707+427, Teff = 85,000 K) and conclude that the nickel abundance is not enhanced. Hence, the Fe-deficiency in PG1159 stars remains unexplained. In addition, we present results of a wind analysis of the hybrid-PG1159 star NGC 7094 and the [WC]-PG1159 transition-type object Abell 78 in order to derive F abundances from the F VI 1139.5 Angstrom line. In both cases, we find F overabundances, in agreement with results of photospheric analyses of many PG1159 stars. Surprisingly, we find indications for a very low O abundance in NGC 7094.

  11. Electrogenerative leaching of nickel sulfide concentrate with ferric chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王少芬; 方正; 王云燕; 陈阳国

    2004-01-01

    In order to utilize the chemical energy in hydrometallurgical process of sulfide minerals reasonably and to simplify the purifying process, the electrogenerative process was applied and a dual cell system was introduced to investigate FeCl3 leaching of nickel sulfide concentrate. Some factors influencing the electrogenerative leaching, such as electrode structure, temperature and solution concentration were studied. The results show that a certain quantity of electrical energy accompanied with the leached products can be acquired in the electrogenerative leaching process.The output current and power increase with the addition of acetylene black to the electrode. Varying the components of electrode just affects the polarization degree of anode. Increasing FeCl3 concentration results in a sharp increase in the output of the leaching cell when c(FeCl3) is less than 0.1 mol/L. The optimum value of NaCl concentration for electrogenerative leaching nickel sulfide concentrate with FeCl3 is 3.0 mol/L. Temperature influences electrogenerative leaching by affecting anodic and cathodic polarization simultaneously. The apparent activation energy is determined to be 34.63 kJ/mol in the range of 298 K to 322 K. The leaching rate of Ni2+ is 29.3% after FeCl3 electrogenerative leaching of nickel sulfide concentrate for 620 min with a filter bag electrode.

  12. Mechanical properties of several iron-nickel meteorites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulford, Roberta N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; El - Dasher, Bassem [LLNL

    2011-01-06

    Iron-nickel meteorites exhibit a unique lamellar microstructure, consisting of small regions with steep-iron-nickel composition gradients. The microstructure arises as a result of slow cooling in a planetary core or other large mass. The microstructure is further influenced by variable concentrations of other elements such as phosphorous which may have influenced cooling and phase separation. Mechanical properties of these composite structures have been investigated using Vickers and spherical indentation, x-ray fluorescence, and EBSD. Direct observation of mechanical properties in these highly structured materials provides a valuable supplement to bulk measurements, which frequently exhibit large variation in dynamic properties, even within a single sample. Previous studies of the mechanical properties of a typical iron-nickel meteorite, a Diablo Canyon specimen, indicated that the strength of the composite was higher by almost an order of magnitude than values obtained from laboratory-prepared specimens. This was ascribed to the extreme work-hardening evident in the EBSD measurements. Additional specimens from the Canyon Diablo fall (type IAB, coarse octahedrite) and several fine octahedrite meteorites, from the Muonionalusta meteorite (IVA) and Gibeon fall (IVA), have been examined to establish a range of error on the previously measured yield, to determine the extent to which deformation upon reentry contributes to yield, and to establish the degree to which the strength varies as a function of microstructure.

  13. Nickel on the Swedish market: follow-up 10 years after entry into force of the EU Nickel Directive.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesterbos, J.W.H.; Yazar, K.; Liden, C.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The EU Nickel Directive, aimed at primary and secondary prevention of nickel allergy by limitation of nickel release from certain items, came fully into force in July 2001. OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence on the market of items with nickel release and to compare the outcome with pre

  14. Development of a Micro-Fiber Nickel Electrode for Nickel-Hydrogen Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1996-01-01

    The development of a high specific energy battery is one of the objectives of the lightweight nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) program at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The approach has been to improve the nickel electrode by continuing combined in-house and contract efforts to develop a more efficient and lighter weight electrode for the nickel-hydrogen fuel cell. Small fiber diameter nickel plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These plaques are commercial products and have an advantage of increased surface area available for the deposition of active materials. Initial tests include activation and capacity measurements at different discharge levels followed by half-cell cycle testing at 80 percent depth-of-discharge in a low Earth orbit regime. The electrodes that pass the initial tests are life cycle tested in a boiler plate nickel-hydrogen cell before flightweight designs are built and tested.

  15. Microwave dielectric properties of nanostructured nickel ferrite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    John Jacob; M Abdul Khadar; Anil Lonappan; K T Mathew

    2008-11-01

    Nickel ferrite is one of the important ferrites used in microwave devices. In the present work, we have synthesized nanoparticles of nickel ferrite using chemical precipitation technique. The crystal structure and grain size of the particles are studied using XRD. The microwave dielectric properties of nanostructured nickel ferrite samples of three different average grain sizes and those of two sintered samples were studied. The parameters like dielectric constant, dielectric loss and heating coefficient of the nanoparticles samples are studied in the frequency range from 2.4 to 4 GHz. The values of these parameters are compared with those of sintered pellets of the same samples. All these parameters show size dependent variations.

  16. Nickel coated graphite fiber conductive composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, R.E.; Hall, D.E.; Luxon, B.A.

    1986-07-01

    Nickel coated graphite (NCG) fiber, consisting of a thin continuous plating of high purity nickel over an aerospace-grade graphite core, offers performance added features by combining the lightweight and high structural reinforcement of graphite fiber with the thermal and electrical conductivity of nickel. These NCG filaments, which are composite constructions in their own right, can be processed and impregnated with thermosetting or thermoplastic resins in the same manner that graphite fiber tows are processed and impregnated to produce roving, tape or fabric prepreg. Therefore, NCG fibers can be readily integrated into structural laminate assemblies using established composites-manufacturing practices.

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Electrodeposited Nanocrystalline Nickel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Pin-qiang; YU Hui, LI Qiang

    2004-01-01

    Nanocrystalline nickel was synthesize d by direct current electrodeposition from a modified Watts-type bath. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope were used to characterize the microstructure of nickel deposits. The results show that nanocrytalline nickel with grain sizes in the range 20~50nm can be synthesized from saccharin-containing Watts-type baths with current density range 5~30A/dm2. There existed preferred orientation in the deposits and it changed progressively from a (200) fibre texture to a (111) (200) double fibre texture as saccharin concentration increased. The hardness of the deposits increased prominently as grain size decreased to nanometer range.

  18. Determination of electroless deposition by chemical nickeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Badida

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing of technical level and reliability of machine products in compliance with the economical and ecological terms belongs to the main trends of the industrial development. During the utilisation of these products there arise their each other contacts and the interaction with the environment. That is the reason for their surface degradation by wear effect, corrosion and other influences. The chemical nickel-plating allows autocatalytic deposition of nickel from water solutions in the form of coherent, technically very profitable coating without usage of external source of electric current. The research was aimed at evaluating the surface changes after chemical nickel-plating at various changes of technological parameters.

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Electrodeposited Nanocrystalline Nickel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAIPin-qiang; YUHui; LIQiang

    2004-01-01

    Nanocrystalline nickel was synthesized by direct current electrodeposition from a modified Watts-type bath. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope were used to characterize the microstructure of nickel deposits. The results show that nanocrytalline nickel with grain sizes in the range 20-50nm can be synthesized from saccharin-containing Watts-type baths with current density range 5-30A/dm2. There existed preferred orientation in the deposits and it changed progressively from a (200) fibre texture to a (111) (200) double fibre texture as saccharin concentration increased. The hardness of the deposits increased prominently as grain size decreased to nanometer range.

  20. Charge density waves in solids

    CERN Document Server

    Gor'kov, LP

    2012-01-01

    The latest addition to this series covers a field which is commonly referred to as charge density wave dynamics.The most thoroughly investigated materials are inorganic linear chain compounds with highly anisotropic electronic properties. The volume opens with an examination of their structural properties and the essential features which allow charge density waves to develop.The behaviour of the charge density waves, where interesting phenomena are observed, is treated both from a theoretical and an experimental standpoint. The role of impurities in statics and dynamics is considered and an

  1. Research, development, and demonstration of nickel-zinc batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    Progress in work at Exide in three main development areas, i.e., battery design and development, nickel cathode study, and electrochemical studies is reported. Battery design and development concentrated on the optimization of design parameters, including electrode spacing, charging methods, electrolyte concentration, the design and fabrication of prototype cells and modules, and testing to verify these parameters. Initial experiments indicated that an interelectrode spacing of 2.5 mm was optimum when normal (D.C.) charging is used. It was during these experiments that a high rate charging technique was developed to deposit a dense active zinc which did not shed during vibration. A 4 cell - 300 Ah experimental module was built and sent to NBTL for testing. Initial testing on this module and a 300 Ah cell are reported. Experiments on electrolyte concentration indicate that higher concentrations of KOH (8M, 9M or 10M) are beneficial to capacity maintenance. Available nickel cathodes were evaluated for possible use in the VIBROCEL. These included pocket, sintered plaque impregnated, nickel plated steel wool impregnated, plastic bonded and CMG (multifoil) electrodes. These electrodes have Coulombic densities ranging from 70 Ah/Kg for pocket plates to 190 Ah/Kg for CMG electrodes. Detailed test data are presented for each type including rate capability, effect of zincate on performance, and capacity maintenance with cycling. Work on zinc deposition emphasized the special charging technique. This is a deposition using special waveforms of charging current, to deposit dense crystalline zinc on the anode substrate.

  2. High-rate/high-temperature capability of a single-layer zicar-separator nickel-hydrogen cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, James R.

    1995-01-01

    A 50 Ampere-hour nickel-hydrogen cell with a single-layer Zircar separator stack design was fully charged and then discharged at a 2C current rate to an end voltage of 1 volt. This extreme test resulted in high temperatures which were recorded at three locations on the cell, i.e., the cell wall, the boss (barrel of the compression seal), and a terminal. The results provide new information about the high-temperature and high-discharge-rate capabilities of nickel-hydrogen cells. This information also adds to the growing data base for single-layer zirconium-oxide-cloth (Zircar) separator cell designs.

  3. Indonesia Prohibited Export of Laterite Nickel Ore, China’s Nickel Industry Responded Calmly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>On January 12,the Indonesia government implemented new mining regulation to prohibit export of laterite nickel ore and other crude ores.This may cause certain impact on China’s nickel industry which is in a rapid development period.What countermeasures to adopt has become the hot spot and focal point of the nickel industry and iron & steel industry including stainless steel industry.Recently,when receiving interview from reporters of the

  4. Growth of Carbon Encapsulated Long Nickel Nanorods on Bulk Nickel Substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BIN Xiaobei; CHEN Jiazang; XUE Jun; WANG Xuehua; TU Wenmao; CAO Hong

    2011-01-01

    Carbon nanotube encapsulated nickel nanorods were catalytic grown via pyrolysis of oil on a bulk nickel wire substrate. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were employed to characterize the as-prepared sample. The results show that, carbon nanotubes possess several microns in length, the filled metallic nickel nanorods with a uniform diameter of 35 nm were tightly encapsulated by the carbon capsules. The detailed formation mechanism for the carbon nanotubes encapsulated nickel nanorods were discussed briefly.

  5. The Nuts and Bolts of Zinc-Nickel: OEM Zinc Nickel Implementation on Fasteners - Getting It Into Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Blake Simpson Louie Tran The Nuts and Bolts of Zinc- Nickel OEM Zinc Nickel Implementation on Fasteners – Getting It Into Production Report...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Nuts and Bolts of Zinc- Nickel : OEM Zinc Nickel Implementation on...currently in production 2. Problem at Hand – Hexavalent Chromates 3. Transition to Zinc- Nickel 4. Preliminary Testing 5. Plan moving forward for

  6. Selected Test Results from the Encell Technology Nickel Iron Battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Summer Kamal Rhodes [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Power Sources R& D; Baca, Wes Edmund [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Power Sources R& D; Avedikian, Kristan [Encell Technology, Alachua, FL (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The performance of the Encell Nickel Iron (NiFe) battery was measured. Tests included capacity, capacity as a function of rate, capacity as a function of temperature, charge retention (28-day), efficiency, accelerated life projection, and water refill evaluation. The goal of this work was to evaluate the general performance of the Encell NiFe battery technology for stationary applications and demonstrate the chemistry's capabilities in extreme conditions. Test results have indicated that the Encell NiFe battery technology can provide power levels up to the 6C discharge rate, ampere-hour efficiency above 70%. In summary, the Encell batteries have met performance metrics established by the manufacturer. Long-term cycle tests are not included in this report. A cycle test at elevated temperature was run, funded by the manufacturer, which Encell uses to predict long-term cycling performance, and which passed their prescribed metrics.

  7. Nonequilibrium lattice-driven dynamics of stripes in nickelates using time-resolved x-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W.S.; Kung, Y.F.; Moritz, B.; Coslovich, G.; Kaindl, R.A.; Chuang, Y.D.; Moore, R.G.; Lu, D.H.; Kirchmann, P.S.; Robinson, J.S.; Minitti, M.P.; Dakovski, G.; Schlotter, W.F.; Turner, J.J.; Gerber, S.; Sasagawa, T.; Hussain, Z.; Shen, Z.X.; Devereaux, T.P.

    2017-03-13

    We investigate the lattice coupling to the spin and charge orders in the striped nickelate, La 1.75 Sr 0.25 NiO 4 , using time-resolved resonant x-ray scattering. Lattice-driven dynamics of both spin and charge orders are observed when the pump photon energy is tuned to that of an E u bond- stretching phonon. We present a likely scenario for the behavior of the spin and charge order parameters and its implications using a Ginzburg-Landau theory.

  8. Preparation of nickel nanoparticles in emulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG You-xian; FU Wen-jie; AN Xue-qin

    2008-01-01

    The nickel nanoparticles with different sizes and spherical shape were prepared by the reduction of nickel sulfate with sodium borohydride in the water-in-oil emulsions of water/SDBS(sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate)/n-pentanol/n-heptane. The effects of aging time, molar ratio of water to SDBS(R) and the concentration of nickel sulfate on the size of particles were studied. The samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy(TEM) and inductively coupled plasma spectrometry(ICP). The results show that the average particle size changes from 20 to 40 nm by adjusting aging time (15-30 min) and R (9-11.5). The concentration of nickel sulfate of 1.0 mol/L is the favorite condition.

  9. The NTS-2 nickel-hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, F.

    1977-01-01

    Features of the first operational nickel hydrogen battery are described as well as experiences encountered during its testing and installation. Battery performance since launching of the NTS-2 satellite is discussed.

  10. Standard Specification for Low-Carbon Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum, Low-Carbon Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Copper, Low-Carbon Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Tantalum, Low-Carbon Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Tungsten, and Low-Carbon Nickel-Molybdenum-Chromium Alloy Plate, Sheet, and Strip

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2015-01-01

    Standard Specification for Low-Carbon Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum, Low-Carbon Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Copper, Low-Carbon Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Tantalum, Low-Carbon Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Tungsten, and Low-Carbon Nickel-Molybdenum-Chromium Alloy Plate, Sheet, and Strip

  11. Standard Specification for Low-Carbon Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum, Low-Carbon Nickel-Molybdenum-Chromium, Low-Carbon Nickel-Molybdenum-Chromium-Tantalum, Low-Carbon Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Copper, and Low-Carbon Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Tungsten Alloy Rod

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2015-01-01

    Standard Specification for Low-Carbon Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum, Low-Carbon Nickel-Molybdenum-Chromium, Low-Carbon Nickel-Molybdenum-Chromium-Tantalum, Low-Carbon Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Copper, and Low-Carbon Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Tungsten Alloy Rod

  12. Some Aspects of Sealed Nickel Cadmium Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Saha

    1967-11-01

    Full Text Available Sealed Nickel Cadmium Cell system is termed till today as the most reliable power pack for electronic apparatus specially in low temperature use. This paper brings out the development and production of sealed nickel cadmium cells of pocket plate construction. The author who has gained experience in production of Ni-Cd cells in East Germany discusses also the major problems faced by the battery manufactures of to-day.

  13. Nickel hydroxide precipitation from aqueous sulfate media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sist, Cinziana; Demopoulos, George P.

    2003-08-01

    Hydrometallurgical processing of laterite ores constitutes a major industrial and R&D activity in extractive metallurgy. In some of the process flowsheets, nickel hydroxide precipitation is incorporated. For these operations, the optimization of nickel hydroxide precipitation is important to assure efficiency and product quality. The main objective of this investigation was to study and improve the precipitation characteristics of Ni(OH)2 in a sulfate system using supersaturation controlled precipitation.

  14. Workplace Charging. Charging Up University Campuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, Carrie [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Ryder, Carrie [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Lommele, Stephen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This case study features the experiences of university partners in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Workplace Charging Challenge with the installation and management of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging stations.

  15. Nickel foam-supported polyaniline cathode prepared with electrophoresis for improvement of rechargeable Zn battery performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yang; Zhu, Derong; Si, Shihui; Li, Degeng; Wu, Sen

    2015-06-01

    Porous nickel foam is used as a substrate for the development of rechargeable zinc//polyaniline battery, and the cathode electrophoresis of PANI microparticles in non-aqueous solution is applied to the fabrication of Ni foam supported PANI electrode, in which the corrosion of the nickel foam substrate is prohibited. The Ni foam supported PANI cathode with high loading is prepared by PANI electrophoretic deposition, and followed by PANI slurry casting under vacuum filtration. The electrochemical charge storage performance for PANI material is significantly improved by using nickel foam substrate via the electrophoretic interlayer. The specific capacity of the nickel foam-PANI electrode with the electrophoretic layer is higher than the composite electrode without the electrophoretic layer, and the specific capacity of PANI supported by Ni foam reaches up to 183.28 mAh g-1 at the working current of 2.5 mA cm-2. The present electrophoresis deposition method plays the facile procedure for the immobilization of PANI microparticles onto the surface of non-platinum metals, and it becomes feasible to the use of the Ni foam supported PANI composite cathode for the Zn/PANI battery in weak acidic electrolyte.

  16. Chemoorganotrophic Bioleaching of Olivine for Nickel Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wai Chiang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioleaching of olivine, a natural nickel-containing magnesium-iron-silicate, was conducted by applying chemoorganotrophic bacteria and fungi. The tested fungus, Aspergillus niger, leached substantially more nickel from olivine than the tested bacterium, Paenibacillus mucilaginosus. Aspergillus niger also outperformed two other fungal species: Humicola grisae and Penicillium chrysogenum. Contrary to traditional acid leaching, the microorganisms leached nickel preferentially over magnesium and iron. An average selectivity factor of 2.2 was achieved for nickel compared to iron. The impact of ultrasonic conditioning on bioleaching was also tested, and it was found to substantially increase nickel extraction by A. niger. This is credited to an enhancement in the fungal growth rate, to the promotion of particle degradation, and to the detachment of the stagnant biofilm around the particles. Furthermore, ultrasonic conditioning enhanced the selectivity of A. niger for nickel over iron to a value of 3.5. Pre-carbonating the olivine mineral, to enhance mineral liberation and change metal speciation, was also attempted, but did not result in improvement as a consequence of the mild pH of chemoorganotrophic bioleaching.

  17. Electronic structure and local atomic arrangement of transition metal ions in nanoporous iron-substituted nickel phosphates, VSB-1 and VSB-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Woo; Oh, Eun-Jin; Jhung, Sung Hwa; Chang, Jong-San; Hwang, Seong-Ju

    2010-01-01

    The electronic structure and local atomic arrangement of transition metal ions in nanoporous iron-substituted nickel phosphates VSB-1 and VSB-5 have been investigated using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy at Fe K- and Ni K-edges. The Fe K-edge XANES study clearly demonstrated that substituted iron ions were stabilized in octahedral nickel sites of nanoporous nickel phosphate lattice. A comparison with several Fe-references revealed that the substituted irons have mixed Fe2+/Fe3+ oxidation state with the average valence of +2.8-3.0. According to the Ni K-edge XANES analysis, the aliovalent substitution of Ni2+ with Fe2+/Fe3+ induced a slight reduction of divalent nickel ions in VSB-5 to meet a charge balance. On the contrary, Fe substitution for the VSB-1 phase did not cause notable decrease in the oxidation state of nickel ions, which would be related either to the accompanying decrease of pentavalent phosphorus cations or to the increase of oxygen anions. In conclusion, the present findings clearly demonstrated that the nanoporous lattice of nickel phosphate can accommodate effectively iron ions in its octahedral nickel sites.

  18. Nickel acts as an adjuvant during cobalt sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld, Charlotte Menne; Nielsen, Morten Milek; Vennegaard, Marie T.

    2015-01-01

    Metal allergy is the most frequent form of contact allergy with nickel and cobalt being the main culprits. Typically, exposure comes from metal-alloys where nickel and cobalt co-exist. Importantly, very little is known about how co-exposure to nickel and cobalt affects the immune system. We...... investigated these effects by using a recently developed mouse model. Mice were epicutaneously sensitized with i) nickel alone, ii) nickel in the presence of cobalt, iii) cobalt alone, or iv) cobalt in the presence of nickel, and then followed by challenge with either nickel or cobalt alone. We found...... that sensitization with nickel alone induced more local inflammation than cobalt alone as measured by increased ear-swelling. Furthermore, the presence of nickel during sensitization to cobalt led to a stronger challenge response to cobalt as seen by increased ear-swelling and increased B and T cell responses...

  19. Nickel biopathways in tropical nickel hyperaccumulating trees from Sabah (Malaysia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ent, Antony; Callahan, Damien L.; Noller, Barry N.; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, Jolanta; Przybylowicz, Wojciech J.; Barnabas, Alban; Harris, Hugh H.

    2017-02-01

    The extraordinary level of accumulation of nickel (Ni) in hyperaccumulator plants is a consequence of specific metal sequestering and transport mechanisms, and knowledge of these processes is critical for advancing an understanding of transition element metabolic regulation in these plants. The Ni biopathways were elucidated in three plant species, Phyllanthus balgooyi, Phyllanthus securinegioides (Phyllanthaceae) and Rinorea bengalensis (Violaceae), that occur in Sabah (Malaysia) on the Island of Borneo. This study showed that Ni is mainly concentrated in the phloem in roots and stems (up to 16.9% Ni in phloem sap in Phyllanthus balgooyi) in all three species. However, the species differ in their leaves – in P. balgooyi the highest Ni concentration is in the phloem, but in P. securinegioides and R. bengalensis in the epidermis and in the spongy mesophyll (R. bengalensis). The chemical speciation of Ni2+ does not substantially differ between the species nor between the plant tissues and transport fluids, and is unambiguously associated with citrate. This study combines ion microbeam (PIXE and RBS) and metabolomics techniques (GC-MS, LC-MS) with synchrotron methods (XAS) to overcome the drawbacks of the individual techniques to quantitatively determine Ni distribution and Ni2+ chemical speciation in hyperaccumulator plants.

  20. Preparation of fine nickel powders via reduction of nickel hydrazine complex precursors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Guo-yong; XU Sheng-ming; XU Gang; LI Lin-yan; ZHANG Li-feng

    2009-01-01

    Fine nickel(Ni) powders with controllable particle sizes were synthesized via the reduction of nickel hydrazine complex precursors of pure [Ni(N2H4)2]Cl2 and a mixture of [Ni(N2H4)2]Cl2 and [Ni(N2H4)3]Cl2 in aqueous solution. The mechanism of the formation of metallic Ni powders experiences the reduction of nickel hydroxide by hydrazine released from the ligand exchange reaction between nickel hydrazine complex and NaOH. In comparison with the method of preparing Ni powders from nickel salts, the method of making Ni powders via the reduction of nickel hydrazine complex precursors shows the advantages of using half dosage of hydrazine for complete reduction of nickel ions in solution, and the obtained Ni particles show less agglomeration and better dispersibility. Moreover, the average particle size of nickel powders can be controlled from 180 to 260 nm by adjusting the reaction molar ratio and concentration.

  1. Urinary and fecal elimination of nickel in relation to air-borne nickel in a battery factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassler, E.; Lind, B.; Nilsson, B.; Piscator, M.

    Nickel in urine and in air from the breathing zone of 18 male workers in a battery factory was determined weekly during 11 consecutive weeks. The study started immediately following three weeks of Christmas vacation. The nickel levels in air varied but did not increase with time. The average urinary excretion of nickel showed an increase during the first weeks, after which a steady state seemed to have been reached. There was a considerable individual variation in both exposure levels and urine nickel levels. However, a correlation between the averages of nickel in air and urine could be demonstrated on a group basis. In a second study, during one week, measurements of nickel in air and feces were made on 15 of the workers. A significant correlation was found between nickel in air and fecal nickel. Smoking habits did not seem to influence neither urinary nor fecal nickel concentrations.

  2. Urinary and fecal elimination of nickel in relation to air-borne nickel in a battery factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, E; Lind, B; Nilsson, B; Piscator, M

    1983-01-01

    Nickel in urine and in air from the breathing zone of 18 male workers in a battery factory was determined weekly during 11 consecutive weeks. The study started immediately following three weeks of Christmas vacation. The nickel levels in air varied but did not increase with time. The average urinary excretion of nickel showed an increase during the first weeks, after which a steady state seemed to have been reached. There was a considerable individual variation in both exposure levels and urine nickel levels. However, a correlation between the averages of nickel in air and urine could be demonstrated on a group basis. In a second study, during one week, measurements of nickel in air and feces were made on 15 of the workers. A significant correlation was found between nickel in air and fecal nickel. Smoking habits did not seem to influence neither urinary nor fecal nickel concentrations.

  3. Nickel allergy from adolescence to adulthood in the TOACS cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortz, Charlotte G; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2013-01-01

    Background In 1995, we established a cohort of 1501 unselected eighth-grade schoolchildren to investigate the course of nickel allergy into adult life. Objectives To follow the course of nickel allergy and clinically relevant nickel dermatitis over 15 years from adolescence to adulthood, and the ......Background In 1995, we established a cohort of 1501 unselected eighth-grade schoolchildren to investigate the course of nickel allergy into adult life. Objectives To follow the course of nickel allergy and clinically relevant nickel dermatitis over 15 years from adolescence to adulthood...

  4. Bioassay of environmental nickel dusts in a particle feeding ciliate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith-Sonneborn, J.; Leibovitz, B.; Donathan, R.; Fisher, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    The ciliated protozoan Paramecium was used to quantitate cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of nickel particles. The biological response of these eukaryotic cells to pure nickel powder and iron-nickel powder was assayed and compared to the effect of the inorganic carcinogen nickel subsulfide. Cytotoxicity was determined by the percent survival of treated cells. Genotoxicity was indicated by significant increases in the fraction of nonviable offspring (presumed index of lethal mutations) found after self-fertilization (autogamy) in parents from the nickel-treated versus neutral control groups. The cells were exposed to the dusts and the biological effects determined. Only the nickel subsulfide consistently showed a significant increase in offspring lethality.

  5. Synthesis of p-type and n-type nickel ferrites and associated electrical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Šutka, Andris, E-mail: andris.sutka@rtu.lv [Faculty of Material Science and Applied Chemistry, Riga Technical University, Paula Valdena 3, Riga, LV-1048 (Latvia); Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila 14c, 50411, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Pärna, Rainer [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila 14c, 50411, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Estonian Nanotechnology Competence Centre, Ravila 14c, 50411, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Käämbre, Tanel [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila 14c, 50411, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Kisand, Vambola [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Ravila 14c, 50411, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Estonian Nanotechnology Competence Centre, Ravila 14c, 50411, 51014 Tartu (Estonia)

    2015-01-01

    We used sol–gel auto combustion to synthesize nickel ferrites of p-type and n-type conductivity by controlling the relative amounts of nickel and iron during synthesis. The obtained samples have been characterized by XRD, FE-SEM, electrical measurements and XPS. We observe huge differences in the effect of grain size on the electrical resistivity between the p-type and the n-type material when the grain size increases from nano to micro scale during annealing at temperatures from 900 {sup o}C to 1300 {sup o}C. The observed resistivity decrease (due to grain size) is four orders of magnitude in the n-type nickel ferrite, whereas the p-type material remains virtually unaffected. We rationalize this drastic difference to stem from a reverse contrast of the surface (grain shell) versus bulk (grain core) conductivity between p- and n-type ferrite. With the grain shells in p-type the easier charge carrier path the effect of scatter at grain boundaries is accordingly diminished, whereas in the n-type charge transport properties are controlled by (the number of) grain boundaries in a conduction path.

  6. Surface behavior of pasted nickel electrodes with electrodeposited Co-Ce on substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dian-long; WANG Chun-yu; DAI Chang-song; JIANG Zhao-hua

    2006-01-01

    MH/Ni battery for electro-vehicle has become a hot topic of studies. The Co-Ce alloys were electrodeposited on the nickel substrate to modify pasted nickel electrode substrate. SEM and XRD results show that the surface of the substrate contains Co(OH)2 and CoOOH film, and CV shows that modified film can improve electron conductivity capability. The state of charge (SOC) or state of discharge (SOD) curves indicate that Co-Ce modified substrate can enhance Ni electrode charge and discharge performance at high rate. The surface analysis by XPS shows that, the Co(Ⅱ)/Co(Ⅲ) ratio is 76.80/23.19 at the SOD, but the Co(Ⅱ)/Co(Ⅲ) ratio is 57.79/42.21 at the SOC, which indicates that the conductibility of electrodeposited Co-Ce alloys on the nickel substrate is enhanced because CoOOH and Co(OH)2 are created on the substrate surface. The modified surface with CoOOH and Co(OH)2 can enhance the conductibility of electrons between the substrate and active materials, and improve the high rate SOC and SOD ability.

  7. Integrative refolding and purification of histidine-tagged protein by like-charge facilitated refolding and metal-chelate affinity adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hu; Du, Wen-Jie; Dong, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Yan

    2014-05-30

    This work proposed an integrative method of protein refolding and purification by like-charged resin facilitated refolding and metal-chelate affinity adsorption. Hexahistidine-tagged enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) was overexpressed in Escherichia coli as inclusion bodies (IBs), and then the protein was refolded and purified from urea-solubilized IBs by this method. A metal-chelating resin was fabricated by coupling iminodiacetic acid (IDA) to agarose gel (Sepharose FF). The anionic resin was used to facilitate the refolding of like-charged EGFP from IBs. After refolding, nickel ions were introduced for the affinity purification of the target protein by metal-chelating adsorption. It was found that the resin was effective in facilitating EGFP refolding. For 0.1mg/mL EGFP IBs refolding, the fluorescence recovery (FR) by direct dilution was only 64%; addition of only 0.05 g/mL resin increased the FR to over 90%. Moreover, the FR increased with increasing resin concentration. Owning to the shielding effect of the oppositely charged impurities embedded in IBs on the surface charges of the IDA resin, more resin particles were required to exert an aggregation inhibition effect in the IBs protein refolding. Additionally, compared with direct-dilution refolding, inclusion of like-charged resins not only offered an enhanced FR of EGFP, but also bound some opposite-charged contaminant proteins, leading to a preliminary purification effect. Afterwards, the refolded EGFP was recovered by metal-chelating adsorption at an FR of 85% and purity of 93%. This work has thus extended the like-charge facilitated protein refolding strategy to the integrative protein refolding and purification.

  8. A mathematical model of the nickel converter: Part I. Model development and verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyllo, A. K.; Richards, G. G.

    1991-04-01

    A mathematical model of the nickel converter has been developed. The primary assumption of the model is that the three phases in the converter are in thermal and chemical equilibrium. All matte, slag, and gas in the converter is brought to equilibrium at the end of each of a series of short time steps throughout an entire charge. An empirical model of both the matte and slag is used to characterize the activity coefficients in each phase. Two nickel sulfide species were used to allow for the modeling of sulfur-deficient mattes. A heat balance is carried out over each time step, considering the major heat flows in the converter. The model was validated by a detailed comparison with measured data from six industrial charges. The overall predicted mass balance was shown to be close to that seen in actual practice, and the heat balance gave a good fit of converter temperature up to the last two or three blows of a charge. At this point, reactions in the converter begin to deviate strongly from “equilibrium,” probably due to the converter reactions coming under liquid-phase mass-transfer control. While the equilibrium assumption does work, it is not strictly valid, and the majority of the charge is probably under gas-phase mass-transfer control.

  9. Strategies for Charging Electric Vehicles in the Electricity Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nina; Pantuso, Giovanni; Iversen, Jan Emil Banning

    2015-01-01

    a model of four alternative charging strategies. We think of them as increasing in sophistication from dumb via delayed to deterministic and stochastic model-based charging. We show that 29% of the total savings from ‘dumb’ are due to delayed charging and that substantial additional gains come charging...

  10. Syntheses, X-ray crystal structures, and spectroscopic properties of new nickel dithiolenes and related compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigoli, F.; Pellinghelli, M.A. [Universita degli Studi di Parma (Italy); Deplano, P. [Universita degli Studi di Cagliari (Italy)] [and others

    1997-03-12

    The direct addition of nickel powder to the reaction mixtures of 1,3-dialkyl-4,5-dioxoimidazolidine-2-thione (1) with the thionation Lawesson reagent produces [Ni{sup II}(R{sub 2}timdt{sup -}){sub 2}] (R{sub 2}timdt = 1,3-dialkylmidazolidine-2,4,5-trithione). These complexes belong to a new class of nickel-dithiolenes, showing remarkably high absorption ({epsilon} {approx} 80 000 dm{sup 3} mol{sup -1} cm{sup -1}, {lambda} {approx} 1000 nm) in the near-infrared region (near-IR), accompanied by high photochemical stability that makes these complexes promising near-IR dyes.

  11. Flight Weight Design Nickel-Hydrogen Cells Using Lightweight Nickel Fiber Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Doris L.; Willis, Bob; Pickett, David F.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this program is to develop a lightweight nickel electrode for advanced aerospace nickel-hydrogen cells and batteries with improved specific energy and specific volume. The lightweight nickel electrode will improve the specific energy of a nickel-hydrogen cell by >50%. These near-term advanced batteries will reduce power system mass and volume, while decreasing the cost, thus increasing mission capabilities and enabling small spacecraft missions. This development also offers a cost savings over the traditional sinter development methods for fabrication. The technology has been transferred to Eagle-Picher, a major aerospace battery manufacturer, who has scaled up the process developed at NASA GRC and fabricated electrodes for incorporation into flight-weight nickel-hydrogen cells.

  12. Adsorption of Thiourea and Formation of Nickel-thiourea Complexes at Initial Stage of Nickel Deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Guang-hui; WU Hui-huang; YANG Fang-zu; LIU Xin-yu

    2004-01-01

    The effect of thiourea(TU) on the nickel deposition process was analyzed by means of linear-sweep voltammetry. Raman spectroscopy and infrared reflectance spectroscopy were used to investigate the adsorption of TU and the formation of nickel-TU complexes on copper surface. The experimental results indicate that the nucleation and the preceding conversion step are involved in the deposition of nickel on copper electrodes. TU makes the onset nucleation potential negative due to the formation of nickel-TU complexes, which can accelerate the nickel deposition. Moreover, the S atom in the TU molecule adsorbed on copper surface facilitates the coordination of TU to Ni2+. Meanwhile, TU might be adsorbed at a flatter orientation if no Ni2+ is on the surface, while at a perpendicular orientation when Ni2+ is coadsorbed.

  13. Electrodeposition of nickel powder from nickel sulphate solution in presence of glycerol and sulphuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Viswanath

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nickel powder was obtained by electrodeposition of nickel from boric acid, glycerol and sulphuric acid. The morphology and particle size of these powders were studied. Spongy, irregular, flaky, fibrous and aggregate particles were obtained. Size of more than 85% particles was smaller than 384µm. From XRD graphs, it was found that the smaller particles are in the range of 106 and 373 nm. The apparent density of nickel powder decreased with increase in concentration of glycerol. The stability of the powder and current efficiency were also studied. In absence of nickel sulphate there was some nickel deposition on the cathode. The effect was discussed in present work. New definition for electrodeposition was suggested.

  14. Precise tuning in platinum-nickel/nickel sulfide interface nanowires for synergistic hydrogen evolution catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengtang; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Jin; Wan, Sheng; Guo, Shaojun; Lu, Gang; Yao, Jianlin; Huang, Xiaoqing

    2017-01-01

    Comprising abundant interfaces, multicomponent heterostructures can integrate distinct building blocks into single entities and yield exceptional functionalities enabled by the synergistic components. Here we report an efficient approach to construct one-dimensional metal/sulfide heterostructures by directly sulfuring highly composition-segregated platinum-nickel nanowires. The heterostructures possess a high density of interfaces between platinum-nickel and nickel sulfide components, which cooperate synergistically towards alkaline hydrogen evolution reaction. The platinum-nickel/nickel sulfide heterostructures can deliver a current density of 37.2 mA cm−2 at an overpotential of 70 mV, which is 9.7 times higher than that of commercial Pt/C. The heterostructures also offer enhanced stability revealed by long-term chronopotentiometry measurements. The present work highlights a potentially powerful interface-engineering strategy for designing multicomponent heterostructures with advanced performance in hydrogen evolution reaction and beyond. PMID:28239145

  15. Computer simulations of martensitic transformations in iron-nickel and nickel-aluminium alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, R J

    1998-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the martensitic transformations in iron-nickel and nickel-aluminum alloys. Molecular-dynamics simulations have been done, employing potentials based on the so-called embedded-atom method (EAM). These potentials were obtained by a fit of parameterized functions to experimental data of the elements iron, nickel, and aluminum as well as the intermetallic compound NiAl. Many aspects of the austenitic transformation in iron-nickel alloys and both, the martensitic and austenitic transformations, in nickel-aluminum alloys were reproduced well by the simulations. The results allow to draw conclusions on the reasons of differences and similarities in the behavior of both alloy systems.

  16. Comparison of chromium and nickel uptake of plants grown in different soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vago, I. [University of Agriculture, Faculty of Agronomy, H-4015 Debrecen, P.O. Box 36 (Hungary); Gyoeri, Z. [University of Agriculture, Faculty of Agronomy, H-4015 Debrecen, P.O. Box 36 (Hungary); Loch, J. [University of Agriculture, Faculty of Agronomy, H-4015 Debrecen, P.O. Box 36 (Hungary)

    1996-03-01

    The chromium and nickel uptake of ryegrass has been examined in pot experiments in extremely different soils, poor sandy and fertile black chernozem. The effect of calcium carbonate doses and nitrogen supply on heavy metal uptake of the plant has been studied for chromium and nickel loadings (0-100 mg/kg Cr{sup 3+} or Ni{sup 2+}) applied as inorganic salts. The ability to uptake Cr{sup 3+} and Ni{sup 2+} differs significantly and is highly affected by the characteristics of soils, and depends on the metal investigated. The heavy metal uptake of the plant differs significantly in acid, colloid deficient sandy soils; while artificial chromium contamination did not modify the dry-matter production in the pots in either soil, a large quantity of nickel reduced the yields significantly. Nitrogen application did not change significantly the uptake of heavy metals. Lime application reduced the Ni{sup 2+} uptake of plants considerably, especially in sandy soil. In case of a calcium carbonate addition the dry-matter production of the plant was not affected by nickel. In chernozem soil the effect of lime application - i.e., the reduction of nickel uptake - was of a lesser degree. The significantly lesser Cr{sup 3+} uptake was further limited by a calcium carbonate application for both soils studied. A graphic presentation of these effects is given. (orig.). With 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Effect of nickel introduced by electroplating on pyrocarbon deposition of carbon-fiber preforms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Yancai; Shi Xiaohong; Li Hejun; Li Kezhi; Zhang Xin

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the deposition rate and microstructure of pyrocarbon, nickel was introduced by electroplating on carbon fibers and used as a catalyst during the deposition of pyro-carbon at 1000 ?C using methane as a precursor gas. The distribution of nickel catalyst and the microstructure of pyrocarbon were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman micro-spectrometry. Results show that nano-sized nickel particles could be well distributed on carbon fibers and the pyrocarbon deposited catalytically had a smaller d002 value and a higher graphitization degree compared with that without catalyst. In addition, the deposition rate of pyrocarbon in each hour was measured. The deposition rate of pyrocarbon in the first hour was more than 10 times when carbon cloth substrates were doped with nickel catalysts as compared to the pure carbon cloths. The pyrocarbon gained by rapid deposition may include two parts, which are generation directly on the nickel catalyst and formation with the carbon nanofibers as crystal nucleus.

  18. Electrodeposition of macroporous nickel coating by employing nano-silica as template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lijian; Chen, Baizhen; Du, Jingjing

    2012-09-01

    A novel method of preparing the macrporous nickel coating was described. The macrporous nickel coating was fabricated by employing nano-silica as the template. The effects of technological conditions and the concentration of the additives on the surface quality of coating were investigated, the nano-silica was characterized transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and laser particle size analyzer, and the macrporous nickel coating was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The experimental results showed that nano-silica particles were about 100 nm, the optimal technological conditions of electrodepositing nickel were that the cathode current density was 12 A/dm2, the temperature was 30 degrees C and the pH value was 2.0, the concentration of lauryl sodium sulfate was 0.15 g/L and the concentration of glucide was 3 g/L, the macrporous nickel coating was obtained when the adding nano-SiO2 content in the electroplating bath was 6 g/L and its structure was crystalline.

  19. Effect of nickel introduced by electroplating on pyrocarbon deposition of carbon-fiber preforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Yancai

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the deposition rate and microstructure of pyrocarbon, nickel was introduced by electroplating on carbon fibers and used as a catalyst during the deposition of pyrocarbon at 1000 °C using methane as a precursor gas. The distribution of nickel catalyst and the microstructure of pyrocarbon were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and Raman micro-spectrometry. Results show that nano-sized nickel particles could be well distributed on carbon fibers and the pyrocarbon deposited catalytically had a smaller d002 value and a higher graphitization degree compared with that without catalyst. In addition, the deposition rate of pyrocarbon in each hour was measured. The deposition rate of pyrocarbon in the first hour was more than 10 times when carbon cloth substrates were doped with nickel catalysts as compared to the pure carbon cloths. The pyrocarbon gained by rapid deposition may include two parts, which are generation directly on the nickel catalyst and formation with the carbon nanofibers as crystal nucleus.

  20. High speed fabrication of absorbance-enhanced micro-nanostructures on nickel surface using hundred-nanosecond pulsed laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jinxiang; Zhang, Jingyuan; Liang, Hao; Wang, Yibo; Zhang, Zhiyan; Liu, Yannan; Lin, Xuechun

    2017-01-01

    We report the generation of micro-nanostructures on nickel surface using a pulsed laser with pulse duration of 100/200 ns. The blacken nickel, which is covered with dense broccoli-like clusters having strong light trapping capacity covering broad spectrum (200-2000 nm), can be produced at a high laser scanning speed up to 100 mm/s. The absorbance of the blacken nickel can be over 98% in the UV, more than 97% in the visible, and over 90% in the near IR. In addition, by treating the nickel surface with two crossing scans of the laser, highly organized and shape-controllable periodic arrays of hump-craters can be fabricated.

  1. Two cases with nickel-induced oral mucosal hyperplasia: a rare clinical form of allergic contact stomatitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkaya, Esen; Babuna, Goncagül

    2011-03-15

    Allergic contact stomatitis (ACS) can occur with variable clinical presentations such as erythematous, erosive, and lichenoid forms. Burning mouth symptoms may also be a result of allergic contact stomatitis. Additionally, gingival hyperplasia has been reported in exceptional cases of ACS caused by dental metals. Here, two rare cases are presented of nickel-induced oral mucosal hyperplasia with gingival and upper palatal involvement from metal-porcelain crowns and metal-acrylic upper denture, respectively. In both cases the diagnosis was made on the basis of the positive patch test results to nickel sulfate and the regression of the lesions after removing the nickel containing dental materials. Nickel-induced ACS should be borne in mind in every case of oral mucosal hyperplasia appearing after dental procedures, especially in the presence of previous allergies and sensitization risks such as ear piercing. It might be further suggested to include this variant within the clinical forms of ACS.

  2. Extraction of nickel from nickel limonite ore using dissolved gaseous SO2 - air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulandari, Winny; Soerawidjaja, Tatang Hernas; Joshua, Stephen; Isradi, Hashfi Rijal

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports a method of extracting nickel from nickel limonite by using dissolved SO2-air in ambient pressure. This method has been reported in the literature to be having advantages of a high selectivity of nickel towards iron, and can be conducted at ambient condition. The purpose of this study is to determine the good condition of nickel extraction from limonite ore by conducting pre-treatment and varying temperature and pH. The experiments were carried out in a five-neck reactor and comprised of three steps: pre-treatment of sample by pre-heating at 650 °C, leaching of the pre-treated sample, and analysis. The leaching solution was analyzed by using AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectrometer) method to determine the concentration of nickel and iron in the solution. The operating parameters included the acidity pH level of 3, 4, or 5 and the temperature of 30, 55, and 80 °C. The leaching was carried out up to 180 min. The mineralogical analysis of the ore was conducted by using XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) analysis. It is found that the good condition was obtained at pH 3, temperature of 80 °C, and 180 min leaching time, with nickel leaching efficiency of 21% from original nickel content. The selectivity nickel towards iron, defined by the extracted nickel (%) divided by extracted iron (%), has been found up to 2743. This method shows that nickel extraction can be carried out at very mild condition, including low temperature, atmospheric pressure and low pH.

  3. Human leukocyte mobilization and morphology in nickel contact allergy using a skin chamber technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, A; Bisgaard, H; Christensen, J D

    1981-01-01

    An improved skin chamber technique has been devised and used for quantitative evaluation of the leukocyte mobilization rate (LMR). The method was applied in 10 nickel-hypersensitive patients exposed to nickel sulphate. Each patient served as his own control and for additional control purpose, 5...... healthy individuals without nickel hypersensitivity were studied. The kinetics of the mobilized leukocytes were followed over a 48-hour period. After an initial lag phase of 2-4 hours, maximum migration was observed from the 24th to the 48th hour, with a wide interindividual variability in the number...... is a valuable means for quantitative evaluation of leukocyte mobilization and morphology in skin exudates during exposure to an allergen in delayed hypersensitivity reactions....

  4. Torsional properties of stainless-steel and nickel-titanium files after multiple autoclave sterilizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilt, B R; Cunningham, C J; Shen, C; Richards, N

    2000-02-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that multiple sterilizations of endodontic stainless-steel and nickel-titanium files will lead to a continuous decrease in the resistance of files to separation by torsion. One hundred stainless-steel and 100 nickel-titanium #30 K-type files were divided into 20 groups of 10 and sterilized in increments of 10 cycles, using a full cycle and a fast cycle autoclave. These files were tested by twisting each of them in a clockwise direction until fracture (torque g-cm). Samples of the fractured files were embedded in an epoxy resin and polished for Knoop hardness tests. In addition, the samples were chemically etched to reveal changes in microstructure. The findings of this study indicate that neither the number of sterilization cycles nor the type of autoclave sterilization used affects the torsional properties, hardness, and microstructure of stainless-steel and nickel-titanium files.

  5. Cobalt release from inexpensive jewellery: has the use of cobalt replaced nickel following regulatory intervention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Jellesen, Morten S; Menné, Torkil

    2010-01-01

    Before the introduction of the EU Nickel Directive, concern was raised that manufacturers of jewellery might turn from the use of nickel to cobalt following the regulatory intervention on nickel exposure.......Before the introduction of the EU Nickel Directive, concern was raised that manufacturers of jewellery might turn from the use of nickel to cobalt following the regulatory intervention on nickel exposure....

  6. Characterization of zinc–nickel alloy electrodeposits obtained from sulphamate bath containing substituted aldehydes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Visalakshi Ravindran; V S Muralidharan

    2006-06-01

    Zinc alloy offers superior sacrificial protection to steel as the alloy dissolves more slowly than pure zinc. The degree of protection and the rate of dissolution depend on the alloying metal and its composition. Zinc-nickel alloy may also serve as at less toxic substitute for cadmium. In this paper the physico-chemical characterization of zinc-nickel electrodeposits obtained from sulphamate bath containing substituted aldehydes was carried out using hardness testing, X-ray diffraction, and corrosion resistance measurements. The corrosion behaviour of these samples in a 3.5% NaCl solution was examined. The decrease in corr and high charge transfer resistance indicated the improved corrosion resistance of these deposits.

  7. Nickel-Hydrogen Cell Testing Experience, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Gopalakrishna M.

    1999-01-01

    The objectives of the project were to test the Nickel-Hydrogen Cell to: (1) verify the Aerospace Cell Flight Worthiness, (2) Elucidate the Aerospace Cell Thermal Behavior, (3) Develop the Aerospace Battery Assembly Design(s) and In-orbit Battery Management plan(s) and (4) Understand the Aerospace Cell Failure Mechanism. The tests included the LEO and GEO Life cycle tests, Calorimetric Analysis, Destructive Physical analysis, and special tests. Charts show the Mission Profile Cycling Data, Stress Cycling Data. The test data complies with the mission requirements, validating the flight worthiness of batteries. The nominal stress and mission profile cycling performance test shows the charge voltage as high as 1.60V and recharge ratio greater than 1.05. It is apparent that the electrochemical signatures alone do not provide conclusive proof for Nickel precharge. The researchers recommend a gas and positive plate analyses for further confirmation.

  8. Layer-dependent supercapacitance of graphene films grown by chemical vapor deposition on nickel foam

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei

    2013-03-01

    High-quality, large-area graphene films with few layers are synthesized on commercial nickel foams under optimal chemical vapor deposition conditions. The number of graphene layers is adjusted by varying the rate of the cooling process. It is found that the capacitive properties of graphene films are related to the number of graphene layers. Owing to the close attachment of graphene films on the nickel substrate and the low charge-transfer resistance, the specific capacitance of thinner graphene films is almost twice that of the thicker ones and remains stable up to 1000 cycles. These results illustrate the potential for developing high-performance graphene-based electrical energy storage devices. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A flower-like nickel oxide nanostructure: synthesis and application for choline sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattarahmady, N; Heli, H; Dehdari Vais, R

    2014-02-01

    Flower-like nickel oxide nanostructure was synthesized by a simple desolvation method. The nanostructure was then employed as the modifier of a carbon paste electrode to fabricate a choline sensor. The mechanism and kinetics of the electrocatalytic oxidation of choline on the modified electrode surface were studied by cyclic voltammetry, steady-state polarization curve, and chronoamperometry. The catalytic rate constant and the charge transfer coefficient of the choline electrooxidation process by an active nickel species, and the diffusion coefficient of choline were reported. An amperometric method was developed for determination of choline with a sensitivity of 60.5 mA mol(-1)Lcm(-2) and a limit of detection of 25.4 μmol L(-1). The sensor had the advantages of high electrocatalytic activity and sensitivity, and long-term stability toward choline, with a simple fabrication method without complications of immobilization steps and using any enzyme or reagent.

  10. Degradation Behavior of Electrochemical Performance of Sealed-Type Nickel/Metal Hydride Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽; 吴锋; 杨凯

    2003-01-01

    The degradation mechanism of electrochemical performance of sealed-type nickel/metal hydride batteries was investigated. The results indicate that the degradation behavior of Ni/MH battery is not only owing to the lack of electrolyte, but also the deterioration of the active materials on the positive and negative electrodes of Ni/MH batteries. Scanning electron micrographs (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and laser granularity analyses are presented. The particle pulverization and oxidation during charge/discharge are identified as the main causes for deterioration of the negative and positive electrode in nickel/metal hydride batteries, as well as the cross-section cracking of both anode and cathode.

  11. A genome-wide deletion mutant screen identifies pathways affected by nickel sulfate in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Wei

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The understanding of the biological function, regulation, and cellular interactions of the yeast genome and proteome, along with the high conservation in gene function found between yeast genes and their human homologues, has allowed for Saccharomyces cerevisiae to be used as a model organism to deduce biological processes in human cells. Here, we have completed a systematic screen of the entire set of 4,733 haploid S. cerevisiae gene deletion strains (the entire set of nonessential genes for this organism to identify gene products that modulate cellular toxicity to nickel sulfate (NiSO4. Results We have identified 149 genes whose gene deletion causes sensitivity to NiSO4 and 119 genes whose gene deletion confers resistance. Pathways analysis with proteins whose absence renders cells sensitive and resistant to nickel identified a wide range of cellular processes engaged in the toxicity of S. cerevisiae to NiSO4. Functional categories overrepresented with proteins whose absence renders cells sensitive to NiSO4 include homeostasis of protons, cation transport, transport ATPases, endocytosis, siderophore-iron transport, homeostasis of metal ions, and the diphthamide biosynthesis pathway. Functional categories overrepresented with proteins whose absence renders cells resistant to nickel include functioning and transport of the vacuole and lysosome, protein targeting, sorting, and translocation, intra-Golgi transport, regulation of C-compound and carbohydrate metabolism, transcriptional repression, and chromosome segregation/division. Interactome analysis mapped seven nickel toxicity modulating and ten nickel-resistance networks. Additionally, we studied the degree of sensitivity or resistance of the 111 nickel-sensitive and 72 -resistant strains whose gene deletion product has a similar protein in human cells. Conclusion We have undertaken a whole genome approach in order to further understand the mechanism(s regulating the cell

  12. Recycling of Spent Nickel-Cadmium Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A technique for recycling spent nickel-cadmium batteries, which makes separation of cadmium and nickel possible, is developed by laboratory-scale experiments. NH3-H2CO3 aqueous solution was used in this leaching technique. Since neutralization and/or solvent extraction were not required in the separation procedure of nickel and cadmium, the closed systemization of the process becomes possible. Experimental results show that, (1) if the NH3 concentration of leaching solution is sufficiently high and the ratio of H2CO3 to NH3 is properly adjusted, both Ni(OH)2 and Cd(OH)2 react with NH3 and quickly dissolve into leaching solution, and (2) Ni(OH)2 can be converted into insoluble NiO by calcination at 500€癈, and CdO from Cd(OH)2 by calcination maintains good solubility in NH3-H2CO3 aqueous solution. As a conclusion, the recycling technique characterized by two step leaching can be developed based on such changes in dissolution behavior by calcination. Meanwhile, the yields of 99.8% for nickel and 97.6% for cadmium are obtained, and the purities of recovered nickel and cadmium are 99.9% and 98.6%, respectively.

  13. NICKEL AS AN ALTERNATIVE AUTOMOTIVE BODY MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Joseph Sahaya Anand

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of the thermal, chemical and mechanical properties of pure nickel as an alternative automotive body material is presented in this paper. Current automotive components mainly use steel as the body material. Due to the increasing demand for high performance and related issues, interest is moving towards alternative materials to steel. The hardness values of both heat-treated and non-heat treated pure nickel do not change after annealing; the hardness values are in the range of 118 to 123 HV. As the annealing temperature increases, the ultimate tensile strength, yield strength and Young’s modulus decrease, which indicates that the ductility increases. The highest ultimate tensile strength of pure nickel at 300 °C annealed temperature is 758.78 MPa. X-ray diffraction (XRD studies confirmed pure nickel as a face centred cubic (FCC structure with a lattice constant measured as 0.3492 nm for the unannealed sample, which increases to 0.3512 nm for the annealed samples. The corrosion rate of both annealed and non-heat treated pure nickel is in the range of 0.0266 to 0.048 mm/year.

  14. Sarks as additional fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Jyoti; Frampton, Paul H.; Jack Ng, Y.; Nishino, Hitoshi; Yasuda, Osamu

    1991-03-01

    An extension of the standard model is proposed. The gauge group is SU(2) X ⊗ SU(3) C ⊗ SU(2) S ⊗ U(1) Q, where all gauge symmetries are unbroken. The colour and electric charge are combined with SU(2) S which becomes strongly coupled at approximately 500 GeV and binds preons to form fermionic and vector bound states. The usual quarks and leptons are singlets under SU(2) X but additional fermions, called sarks. transform under it and the electroweak group. The present model explains why no more than three light quark-lepton families can exist. Neutral sark baryons, called narks, are candidates for the cosmological dark matter having the characteristics designed for WIMPS. Further phenomenological implications of sarks are analyzed i including electron-positron annihilation. Z 0 decay, flavor-changing neutral currents. baryon-number non-conservation, sarkonium and the neutron electric dipole moment.

  15. Mechanical Properties of Electrolyte Jet Electrodeposited Nickel Foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsong Chen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Principles of the preparation of nickel foam by electrolyte jet electrodeposition were introduced, Nickel foam samples with different porosity were fabricated. Effect of different porosity on microhardness and uniaxial tensile properties of nickel foam was discussed. The results show that the microhardness of nickel foam is 320~400 HV, lower than entitative metal clearly. The lower the porosity of nickel foam, the higher the microhardness is. During the process of uniaxial tensile, nickel foam is characterized by three distinct regions, e.g. elastic deforming region, plastic plateau region and densification region. The higher the porosity of nickel foam, the lower the plastic plateau and the poorer the strength of nickel foam, accordingly

  16. Effects of repeated skin exposure to low nickel concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N H; Menné, T; Kristiansen, J

    1999-01-01

    and nickel allergy, either on normal or on SLS-treated forearm skin. The present study strongly suggests that the changes observed were specific to nickel exposure. Standardized methods to assess trace to moderate nickel exposure on the hands, and the associated effects in nickel-sensitized subjects......We studied the effects of repeated daily exposure to low nickel concentrations on the hands of patients with hand eczema and nickel allergy. The concentrations used were chosen to represent the range of trace to moderate occupational nickel exposure. The study was double-blinded and placebo...... with a group of patients who immersed a finger into water. The nickel concentrations used also provoked significant inflammatory skin changes on sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS)-treated forearm skin of the patients, whereas inflammatory skin changes were not observed in healthy volunteers without hand eczema...

  17. Zunyi Molybdenum & Nickel Mining Enterprises Are Still in Suspension Status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    According to the 2015 mid-year report of Tiancheng Holding,because Guizhou Province is still enforcing policy regulation&environmental; protection policy for molybdenum&nickel; mining industry,currently all molybdenum and nickel mining

  18. Environmentally Assisted Cracking of Nickel Alloys - A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebak, R

    2004-07-12

    Nickel can dissolve a large amount of alloying elements while still maintaining its austenitic structure. That is, nickel based alloys can be tailored for specific applications. The family of nickel alloys is large, from high temperature alloys (HTA) to corrosion resistant alloys (CRA). In general, CRA are less susceptible to environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) than stainless steels. The environments where nickel alloys suffer EAC are limited and generally avoidable by design. These environments include wet hydrofluoric acid and hot concentrated alkalis. Not all nickel alloys are equally susceptible to cracking in these environments. For example, commercially pure nickel is less susceptible to EAC in hot concentrated alkalis than nickel alloyed with chromium (Cr) and molybdenum (Mo). The susceptibility of nickel alloys to EAC is discussed by family of alloys.

  19. THE LOCAL LASER-STIMULATED ELECTRODEPOSITION OF THE NICKEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Zabludovskyi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The mask-free method for obtaining the local nickel coatings using laser radiation is developed. The parameters of local nickel coatings are calculated. The rate of electroplating process is estimated.

  20. Homocoupling of Aryl Bromides Catalyzed by Nickel Chloride in Pyridine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO, Xiao-Chun; ZHOU, Wei; ZHANG, Yue-Ping; DAI, Chun-ya; SHEN, Dong; HUANG, Mei

    2006-01-01

    Pyridine was used as a solvent for homocoupling of aryl bromides catalyzed by nickel chloride/triarylphosphine in the presence of zinc and recycled easily. Triphenylphosphine was the best ligand for nickel in this coupling reaction.

  1. Battery charging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carollo, J.A.; Kalinsky, W.A.

    1984-02-21

    A battery charger utilizes three basic modes of operation that includes a maintenance mode, a rapid charge mode and time controlled limited charging mode. The device utilizes feedback from the battery being charged of voltage, current and temperature to determine the mode of operation and the time period during which the battery is being charged.

  2. Structural and Electrochemical Performance of Additives-doped α-Ni(OH)2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhongju; ZHU Yanjuan; BAO Jie; ZHOU Zhuojun; LIN Xiaoran; ZHENG Hanzong

    2012-01-01

    The additives-doped α-nickel hydroxides were prepared by supersonic co-precipitation method.The crystal structure and grain size of the prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Particle size distribution (PSD),respectively.Cyclic voltammetry (CV) tests show that Al-Co-Y doped Ni(OH)2 has better reaction reversibility,higher proton diffusion coefficient than those of Al-Co doped Ni(OH)2.Al-Co-Y doped Ni(OH)2 also has lower charge-transfer resistance as shown by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS).Charge/discharge tests show that the discharge capacity of Al-Co-Y doped Ni(OH)2 reaches 328 mAh/g at 0.2 C and 306 mAh/g at 0.5 C,while A1-Co doped Ni(OH)2 can only discharge a capacity of 308 mAl/g at 0.2 C and 267 mAh/g at 0.5 C.

  3. Moringa oleifera Supplemented Diets Prevented Nickel-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, O S; Elebiyo, T C

    2014-01-01

    Background. The Moringa oleifera plant has been implicated for several therapeutic potentials. Objective. To evaluate whether addition of M. oleifera to diet has protective effect against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methodology. Male Wistar rats were assigned into six groups of five. The rats were given oral exposure to 20 mg/kg nickel sulphate (NiSO4) in normal saline and sustained on either normal diet or diets supplemented with Moringa oleifera at different concentrations for 21 days. 24 hours after cessation of treatments, all animals were sacrificed under slight anesthesia. The blood and kidney samples were collected for biochemical and histopathology analyses, respectively. Results. NiSO4 exposure reduced the kidney-to-body weight ratio in rats and caused significant elevation in the levels of plasma creatinine, urea, and potassium. Also, the plasma level of sodium was decreased by NiSO4 exposure. However, addition of M. oleifera to diets averted the nickel-induced alteration to the level of creatinine and urea. The histopathology revealed damaged renal tubules and glomerular walls caused by NiSO4 exposure. In contrast, the damages were ameliorated by the M. oleifera supplemented diets. Conclusion. The addition of M. oleifera to diet afforded significant protection against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity.

  4. Moringa oleifera Supplemented Diets Prevented Nickel-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Adeyemi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Moringa oleifera plant has been implicated for several therapeutic potentials. Objective. To evaluate whether addition of M. oleifera to diet has protective effect against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methodology. Male Wistar rats were assigned into six groups of five. The rats were given oral exposure to 20 mg/kg nickel sulphate (NiSO4 in normal saline and sustained on either normal diet or diets supplemented with Moringa oleifera at different concentrations for 21 days. 24 hours after cessation of treatments, all animals were sacrificed under slight anesthesia. The blood and kidney samples were collected for biochemical and histopathology analyses, respectively. Results. NiSO4 exposure reduced the kidney-to-body weight ratio in rats and caused significant elevation in the levels of plasma creatinine, urea, and potassium. Also, the plasma level of sodium was decreased by NiSO4 exposure. However, addition of M. oleifera to diets averted the nickel-induced alteration to the level of creatinine and urea. The histopathology revealed damaged renal tubules and glomerular walls caused by NiSO4 exposure. In contrast, the damages were ameliorated by the M. oleifera supplemented diets. Conclusion. The addition of M. oleifera to diet afforded significant protection against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity.

  5. Coupling of stripes to lattice distortions in cuprates and nickelates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huecker, M. [Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)], E-mail: huecker@bnl.gov; Gu, G.D.; Tranquada, J.M. [Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Zimmermann, M. von [Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor HASYLAB at Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Klauss, H.-H. [Institut fuer Physik der Kondensierten Materie, TU Braunschweig, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Curro, N.J. [Condensed Matter and Thermal Physics, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Braden, M. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln, 50937 Cologne (Germany); Buechner, B. [Leibniz-Institute for Solid State and Materials Research, IFW Dresden, 01171 Dresden (Germany)

    2007-09-01

    In recent X-ray diffraction experiments on orthorhombic nickelates, we have observed a significant coupling between the stripe correlations and the lattice distortion. In particular, the diagonal charge stripes of this insulating material exhibit a preferred orientation parallel to the orthorhombic a-axis, similar to the diagonal spin stripes in La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} below the metal-insulator transition. In the light of this finding, we draw a comparison between the lightly doped parts of the phase diagrams of La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} with low-temperature orthorhombic (LTO) structure, and La{sub 1.8-x}Eu{sub 0.2}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} with low-temperature tetragonal (LTT) structure. In La{sub 1.8-x}Eu{sub 0.2}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4}, a local minimum in the Sr dependence of the LTO/LTT transition temperature, as well as reduced spin-glass transition temperatures, may be indicators for the presence of diagonal charge correlations. Above the metal-insulator transition the LTT phase is suited to pin parallel stripes, while below that transition the LTT phase seems instead to compete with the formation of diagonal stripes.

  6. Coupling of stripes to lattice distortions in cuprates and nickelates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hücker, M.; Gu, G. D.; Tranquada, J. M.; Zimmermann, M. v.; Klauss, H.-H.; Curro, N. J.; Braden, M.; Büchner, B.

    2007-09-01

    In recent X-ray diffraction experiments on orthorhombic nickelates, we have observed a significant coupling between the stripe correlations and the lattice distortion. In particular, the diagonal charge stripes of this insulating material exhibit a preferred orientation parallel to the orthorhombic a-axis, similar to the diagonal spin stripes in La2-xSrxCuO4 below the metal-insulator transition. In the light of this finding, we draw a comparison between the lightly doped parts of the phase diagrams of La2-xSrxCuO4 with low-temperature orthorhombic (LTO) structure, and La1.8-xEu0.2SrxCuO4 with low-temperature tetragonal (LTT) structure. In La1.8-xEu0.2SrxCuO4, a local minimum in the Sr dependence of the LTO/LTT transition temperature, as well as reduced spin-glass transition temperatures, may be indicators for the presence of diagonal charge correlations. Above the metal-insulator transition the LTT phase is suited to pin parallel stripes, while below that transition the LTT phase seems instead to compete with the formation of diagonal stripes.

  7. Isotopes of cosmic ray elements from neon to nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, C. J.; Freier, P. S.; Fickle, R. K.; Brewster, N. R.

    1981-01-01

    Results obtained from a balloon exposure of a cosmic ray detector flown in 1977 are reported. The charge resolution ranged from 0.19 to 0.21 charge units between neon and nickel and the mass resolution for nuclei stopped in the emulsions ranged from 0.40 to 0.70 amu for A between 20 and 60 amu. This was enough to correctly identify almost all nuclei, but not to uniquely resolve neighboring mass peaks. Both Ne and Mg show evidence for neutron enrichment relative to the solar system abundance. Si and S are consistent with solar abundances, while Ar has no significant source abundances. P, Cl and K have essentially no primary component and the isotopic distribution observed is quite consistent with that expected from propagation. An excess of Ca-44 at the source is shown, indicating high metallicity in the source. The abundance of Fe-58 is nine percent or less, and Ni shows a one-to-one ratio for Ni-58 to 60, implying intermediate metallicity.

  8. An advanced perspective on twin growth in Nickel-Titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezaz, Tawhid

    2011-12-01

    This work presents an energetic approach to investigate the attributes of twinning in Nickel-Titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy. In particular, atomistic mechanisms of twin growth in two different phases of NiTi are characterized with barrier energy in this thesis. In addition, energetics of dislocation twin boundary interactions in a face centered cubic (fcc) metal (Copper) that contributes to strengthening is investigated. Density Functional Theory based ab initio calculation and Molecular dynamics (MD) correspond to the right length and time scale for these events, and utilized in this study. The first part of the work elucidates the details of twinning in martensite (B19') and austenite (B2) as the major deformation mode in NiTi undergoing thermoelastic phase transformation. Combined shears, shuffles and interface shifts are operative in a complicated way to generate different twin modes in these two phases. Along with the growth mechanism, we report on generalized planar fault energy and generalized stacking fault energy barriers in NiTi shape memory alloys in the monoclinic martensite state and cubic austenitic state. Specifically, in martensitic regime, we report energy barriers for (001), (100) and (201) type twin nucleation and growth with atomistic details of combined shear and shuffle. Our energetic approach successfully predicts the evolution of deformation twins in martensite that are observed in experimental studies. In addition, we investigate the (112) and (114) deformation twin formation mechanism in austenitic NiTi that provides enhanced ductility in this intermetallic compound. The entire potential energy surface (PES) and mean energy path (MEP) during twinning is an outcome of our simulations, providing the needed insight to the atomistic processes. We suggest that the results provide a quantitative methodology in development of new shape memory alloys where twinning can occur at stress levels far below that corresponding to plastic deformation

  9. Capacity Management and Walkdown During LEO Cycling of Nickel-Hydrogen Cells and Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaller, Lawrence H.; Zimmerman, Albert H.; To, Gloria

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation discusses the following topics: 1) Capacity walkdown defined and illustrated; 2) Importance of capacity walkdown: 3) Four approaches to understanding the phenomenon - Pressure Trend, Charging Curve, Electrochemical Voltage Spectroscopy, and Destructive Physical Analysis Studies; 4) Results of the interrelated studies; 5) Suggested mechanism for capacity walkdown; and 6) Charging protocols to avoid the problem. In summary: 1) capacity walkdown is a consequence of the inability to maintain a high state of charge; 2) Capacity loss is typically 35% which would be expected by the valence difference between gamma and beta nickel oxyhydroxide; 3) Cycling at -5 degrees facilitates the formation of the gamma phase; 4) Excessive overcharge can also facilitate gamma phase formation at the expense of cycle life; and 5) Conditions can now be suggested to help minimize capacity walkdown.

  10. Metallic nickel nano- and fine particles induce JB6 cell apoptosis through a caspase-8/AIF mediated cytochrome c-independent pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castranova Vincent

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carcinogenicity of nickel compounds has been well documented. However, the carcinogenic effect of metallic nickel is still unclear. The present study investigates metallic nickel nano- and fine particle-induced apoptosis and the signal pathways involved in this process in JB6 cells. The data obtained from this study will be of benefit for elucidating the pathological and carcinogenic potential of metallic nickel particles. Results Using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay, we found that metallic nickel nanoparticles exhibited higher cytotoxicity than fine particles. Both metallic nickel nano- and fine particles induced JB6 cell apoptosis. Metallic nickel nanoparticles produced higher apoptotic induction than fine particles. Western-blot analysis showed an activation of proapoptotic factors including Fas (CD95, Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD, caspase-8, death receptor 3 (DR3 and BID in apoptotic cells induced by metallic nickel particles. Immunoprecipitation (IP western blot analysis demonstrated the formation of the Fas-related death-inducing signaling complex (DISC in the apoptotic process. Furthermore, lamin A and beta-actin were cleaved. Moreover, we found that apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF was up-regulated and released from mitochondria to cytoplasm. Interestingly, although an up-regulation of cytochrome c was detected in the mitochondria of metallic nickel particle-treated cells, no cytochrome c release from mitochondria to cytoplasm was found. In addition, activation of antiapoptotic factors including phospho-Akt (protein kinase B and Bcl-2 was detected. Further studies demonstrated that metallic nickel particles caused no significant changes in the mitochondrial membrane permeability after 24 h treatment. Conclusion In this study, metallic nickel nanoparticles caused higher cytotoxicity and apoptotic induction than fine particles in JB6 cells. Apoptotic cell death

  11. Nickel concentrations in fingernails as a measure of occupational exposure to nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, K; Gammelgaard, Bente; Menné, T

    1991-01-01

    The nickel concentration in fingernails from 2 groups of people occupationally exposed to nickel was determined. In one group, comprising 83 persons moderately exposed to nickel, the mean +/- standard deviation (SD) was 29.2 micrograms/g +/- 56.7 micrograms/g and the median 13.8 micrograms/g (range...... 0.926-396 micrograms/g). In the other group, comprising 51 persons heavily exposed to nickel, the mean +/- SD was 123 micrograms/g +/- 289 micrograms/g and the median 29.9 micrograms/g (range 1.95-1770 micrograms/g). Both levels were significantly different from the normal nickel concentration...... in nails (p less than 0.001). The difference between the 2 levels was also significant (p less than 0.001). No correlation between the nickel concentration in fingernails and the duration of exposure could be demonstrated. It was concluded that the higher the nickel level in the fingernails, the greater...

  12. Organic devices based on nickel nanowires transparent electrode

    OpenAIRE

    Jeongmo Kim; Wilson Jose da Silva; Abd. Rashid bin Mohd Yusoff; Jin Jang

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we demonstrate a facile approach to synthesize long nickel nanowires and discuss its suitability to replace our commonly used transparent electrode, indium-tin-oxide (ITO), by a hydrazine hydrate reduction method where nickel ions are reduced to nickel atoms in an alkaline solution. The highly purified nickel nanowires show high transparency within the visible region, although the sheet resistance is slightly larger compared to that of our frequently used transparent electrode, ITO. A...

  13. Nickel acts as an adjuvant during cobalt sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonefeld, Charlotte Menné; Nielsen, Morten Milek; Vennegaard, Marie T; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Geisler, Carsten; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2015-03-01

    Metal allergy is the most frequent form of contact allergy with nickel and cobalt being the main culprits. Typically, exposure comes from metal-alloys where nickel and cobalt co-exist. Importantly, very little is known about how co-exposure to nickel and cobalt affects the immune system. We investigated these effects by using a recently developed mouse model. Mice were epicutaneously sensitized with i) nickel alone, ii) nickel in the presence of cobalt, iii) cobalt alone, or iv) cobalt in the presence of nickel, and then followed by challenge with either nickel or cobalt alone. We found that sensitization with nickel alone induced more local inflammation than cobalt alone as measured by increased ear-swelling. Furthermore, the presence of nickel during sensitization to cobalt led to a stronger challenge response to cobalt as seen by increased ear-swelling and increased B and T cell responses in the draining lymph nodes compared to mice sensitized with cobalt alone. In contrast, the presence of cobalt during nickel sensitization only induced an increased CD8(+) T cell proliferation during challenge to nickel. Thus, the presence of nickel during cobalt sensitization potentiated the challenge response against cobalt more than the presence of cobalt during sensitization to nickel affected the challenge response against nickel. Taken together, our study demonstrates that sensitization with a mixture of nickel and cobalt leads to an increased immune response to both nickel and cobalt, especially to cobalt, and furthermore that the adjuvant effect appears to correlate with the inflammatory properties of the allergen.

  14. Direct electroless nickel plating on silicon surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Guanghui; WU Huihuang; YANG Fangzu

    2004-01-01

    Direct electroless nickel plating on n-Si(100)wafers in alkaline solutions was demonstrated without any activation procedure in advance, the effect of pH and temperature of the solutions on size of metal particles in deposits was examined, and also the element contents of deposits were analyzed by energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS). The results indicated that the size of metal particles increases with increasing temperature or decreasing pH. The possible mechanism of nickel deposition on n-Si(100) was discussed in terms of semiconductor electrochemistry, and the formation of nickel seed crystal on Si was mainly attributed to the generation of atomic hydrogen by electron capture of water molecule from the semiconductor in alkaline solutions.

  15. Nickel release from inexpensive jewelry and hair clasps purchased in an EU country - Are consumers sufficiently protected from nickel exposure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nickel allergic subjects are at risk factor of acquiring hand eczema. In 1990 and 1994, respectively, Denmark and member states in the EU regulated nickel release from selected consumer products. The intention was that the nickel epidemic could be controlled and prevented if the general...... population was protected from high cutaneous nickel concentrations. Despite a decrease, the prevalence of nickel allergy remains high as nearly 10% of young women are nickel allergic. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to perform dimethylglyoxime (DMG) testing of inexpensive jewelry and hair clasps purchased from...... random stores in Copenhagen, Denmark to detect the proportion of items that may result in nickel allergy. METHODS: Inexpensive jewelry and hair clasps were purchased from 36 stores and street vendors in Copenhagen and were later tested for nickel release using the DMG test. RESULTS: The study showed...

  16. Contribution to the knowledge of nickel hydroxide electrodes. 5. Analysis and electrochemical behavior of cadmium nickel hydroxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, H.; Dennstedt, W.

    1981-01-01

    Electrochemical experiments performed at sintered and bulk electrodes show that beta nickel hydroxide contains an electrochemically inactive proportion of cadmium hydroxide of up to 10%. The electrochemically ineffective cadmium hydroxide is homogeneously dissolved in beta nickel hydroxide.

  17. Electrospinning of nickel oxide nanofibers: Process parameters and morphology control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, Abdullah, E-mail: akhalil@masdar.ac.ae; Hashaikeh, Raed, E-mail: rhashaikeh@masdar.ac.ae

    2014-09-15

    In the present work, nickel oxide nanofibers with varying morphology (diameter and roughness) were fabricated via electrospinning technique using a precursor composed of nickel acetate and polyvinyl alcohol. It was found that the diameter and surface roughness of individual nickel oxide nanofibers are strongly dependent upon nickel acetate concentration in the precursor. With increasing nickel acetate concentration, the diameter of nanofibers increased and the roughness decreased. An optimum concentration of nickel acetate in the precursor resulted in the formation of smooth and continuous nickel oxide nanofibers whose diameter can be further controlled via electrospinning voltage. Beyond an optimum concentration of nickel acetate, the resulting nanofibers were found to be ‘flattened’ and ‘wavy’ with occasional cracking across their length. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that the obtained nanofibers are polycrystalline in nature. These nickel oxide nanofibers with varying morphology have potential applications in various engineering domains. - Highlights: • Nickel oxide nanofibers were synthesized via electrospinning. • Fiber diameter and roughness depend on nickel acetate concentration used. • With increasing nickel acetate concentration the roughness of nanofibers decreased. • XRD and TEM revealed a polycrystalline structure of the nanofibers.

  18. The Prospects of China’s Nickel Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>After years of efforts since the 1950s, China’s development and use of the nickel resources has gained rapid progress with a relatively complete industry system established. In 2004, China’s refined nickel production reached nearly 80,000 tons, which made China the fifth largest nickel producer in the world. China’s

  19. Standard Specification for Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Columbium Alloy (UNS N06625), Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Silicon Alloy (UNS N06219), and Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Tungsten Alloy (UNS N06650) Rod and Bar

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2014-01-01

    Standard Specification for Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Columbium Alloy (UNS N06625), Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Silicon Alloy (UNS N06219), and Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Tungsten Alloy (UNS N06650) Rod and Bar

  20. Risk assessment for nickel contact allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonchai, Waranya; Chaiwanon, Onjuta; Kasemsarn, Pranee

    2014-12-01

    Nickel is one of the most common allergens causing allergic contact dermatitis worldwide. The aim of the study was to evaluate the contributing factors to nickel contact allergy (NiCA) in Asians who have a unique culture and lifestyle. We randomly selected 324 previously patch-tested patients, 162 nickel patch test (PT)-positive patients and 162 nickel PT-negative patients. The patients were telephone interviewed for their lifestyle information. Most of the nickel PT-positive patients (93.2%) were female with a mean age of 38.9 ± 13.3 years compared with the other group of nickel PT-negative patients who had a smaller proportion of females (76.5%) with an older mean age of 44.1 ± 14.9 years (P = 0.001). Multivariate analysis was able to establish that the significant risk factors for NiCA were female sex (odds ratio [OR], 6.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.15-18.94), young age (OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.96-1.00), occupation with long periods of exposure to metal (OR, 3.08; 95% CI, 1.18-8.02), seafood (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.17-3.27) and canned food consumption (OR, 3.12; 95% CI, 1.17-8.33) (P < 0.05). The adjusted factors found to associate with NiCA were female sex, young age, occupation with long periods of exposure to metal, seafood and canned food consumption.

  1. Application of ultrasound in solvent extraction of nickel and gallium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesic, B.

    1996-07-01

    The effects of ultrasound on the rate of solvent extraction of nickel with Lix 65N and Lix 70, and gallium with Kelex 100 were investigated. These solvent extraction systems are noted by their sluggish nature. Low frequency (20 kHz) ultrasound increased the rates of extraction of nickel by factors of four to seven. The ultrasound had no effect on the final chemical equilibrium. Gallium extraction rates were enhanced with the use of ultrasound by as much as a factor of 15. Again, the ultrasound had no effect on extraction equilibrium. For both nickel and gallium, the enhanced rates were attributed to increased interfacial surface area associated with ultrasonically induced cavitation and microdroplet formation. The stability of the microdroplets permitted intermittent application of ultrasound with corresponding decreases in ultrasonic energy requirements. The lowest energy consumption was observed with short (0.25 to 5 s) bursts of high power (41 to 61 W) ultrasonic inputs. The study also provided insight into the factors that affect the complex extraction of gallium from sodium aluminate solutions. The rate controlling step was found to be the dehydration of the gallate ion, Ga(OH)4, and the first complex formation between gallium and Kelex 100. Sodium was found to enhance the extraction rate up to a point, beyond which increased concentration was detrimental. Increasing aluminum concentration was found to slow extraction rates. Modifiers and diluents were shown to markedly affect extraction rates even without ultrasound. Ketone modifiers, particularly 2-undecanone, when used with Kermac 470B or Escaid 200 diluents enhanced extraction rates of gallium to the point that the use of ultrasound provided no additional benefits. The positive effects of ketone modifiers for the solvent extraction of gallium had not been previously reported.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of the structural and electrochemical properties of Nd-Al codoped amorphous nickel hydroxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长久; 陈世娟; 李延伟

    2010-01-01

    Nd-Al codoped amorphous nickel hydroxide powders were synthesized by microemulsion precipitation method combined with rapid freezing technique.The microstructure of the prepared samples was analyzed with X-ray diffractometer(XRD),scanning electron microscopy(SEM),and Raman spectroscopy.The electrochemical performances of the prepared samples were characterized with charge/discharge test,cyclic voltammetry,and electrochemical impedance spectra.The results showed that the codoping of Nd-Al resulted in more st...

  3. Lithium Ion Batteries—Development of Advanced Electrical Equivalent Circuit Models for Nickel Manganese Cobalt Lithium-Ion

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, advanced equivalent circuit models (ECMs) were developed to model large format and high energy nickel manganese cobalt (NMC) lithium-ion 20 Ah battery cells. Different temperatures conditions, cell characterization test (Normal and Advanced Tests), ECM topologies (1st and 2nd Order Thévenin model), state of charge (SoC) estimation techniques (Coulomb counting and extended Kalman filtering) and validation profiles (dynamic discharge pulse test (DDPT) and world harmonized light v...

  4. Estimation of the diameter-charge distribution in polydisperse electrically charged sprays of electrically insulating liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigit, A. R. H.; Shrimpton, John S.

    2009-06-01

    The majority of scientific and industrial electrical spray applications make use of sprays that contain a range of drop diameters. Indirect evidence suggests the mean drop diameter and the mean drop charge level are usually correlated. In addition, within each drop diameter class there is every reason to suspect a distribution of charge levels exist for a particular drop diameter class. This paper presents an experimental method that uses the joint PDF of drop velocity and diameter, obtained from phase Doppler anemometry measurements, and directly obtained spatially resolved distributions of the mass and charge flux to obtain a drop diameter and charge frequency distribution. The method is demonstrated using several data-sets obtained from experimental measurements of steady poly-disperse sprays of an electrically insulating liquid produced with the charge injection technique. The space charge repulsion in the spray plume produces a hollow cone spray structure. In addition an approximate self-similarity is observed, with the maximum radial mass and charge flow occurring at r/ d ~ 200. The charge flux profile is slightly offset from the mass flux profile, and this gives direct evidence that the spray specific charge increases from approximately 20% of the bulk mean spray specific charge on the spray axis to approximately 200% of the bulk mean specific charge in the periphery of the spray. The results from the drop charge estimation model suggest a complex picture of the correlation between drop charge and drop diameter, with spray specific charge, injection velocity and orifice diameter all contributing to the shape of the drop diameter-charge distribution. Mean drop charge as a function of the Rayleigh limit is approximately 0.2, and is invariant with drop diameter and also across the spray cases tested.

  5. Threshold-Based Random Charging Scheme for Decentralized PEV Charging Operation in a Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojin Kwon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Smart grids have been introduced to replace conventional power distribution systems without real time monitoring for accommodating the future market penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs. When a large number of PEVs require simultaneous battery charging, charging coordination techniques have become one of the most critical factors to optimize the PEV charging performance and the conventional distribution system. In this case, considerable computational complexity of a central controller and exchange of real time information among PEVs may occur. To alleviate these problems, a novel threshold-based random charging (TBRC operation for a decentralized charging system is proposed. Using PEV charging thresholds and random access rates, the PEVs themselves can participate in the charging requests. As PEVs with a high battery state do not transmit the charging requests to the central controller, the complexity of the central controller decreases due to the reduction of the charging requests. In addition, both the charging threshold and the random access rate are statistically calculated based on the average of supply power of the PEV charging system that do not require a real time update. By using the proposed TBRC with a tolerable PEV charging degradation, a 51% reduction of the PEV charging requests is achieved.

  6. Magnetic charge quantisation and fractionally charged quarks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooft, G. 't

    1976-01-01

    If magnetic monopoles with Schwinger's value of the magnetic charge would exist then that would pose serious restrictions on theories with fractionally charged quarks, even if they are confined. Weak and electromagnetic interactions must be unified with color, leading to a Weinberg angle w close to

  7. Nanocrystalline MgO supported nickel-based bimetallic catalysts for carbon dioxide reforming of methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meshkani, Fereshteh [Catalyst and Advanced Materials Research Laboratory, Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran); Rezaei, Mehran [Catalyst and Advanced Materials Research Laboratory, Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran); Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran)

    2010-10-15

    Nanocrystalline magnesium oxide with high surface area and plate-like shape was employed as catalyst support for preparation of nickel-based bimetallic catalysts in methane reforming with carbon dioxide. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} adsorption (BET), Temperature programmed oxidation and desorption (TPO-TPD), Thermal gravimetric and differential thermal gravimetric (TGA-DTG), H{sub 2} chemisorption and Transmission and electron microscopies (TEM and SEM) analyses. CO{sub 2}-TPD data showed the high CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity of catalysts which improves the resistance of catalysts against the carbon formation. The H{sub 2} chemisorption results also indicated that the addition of Pt to nickel catalyst improved the nickel dispersion. The obtained results revealed that the prepared catalysts showed a high activity and stability during the reaction with a low amount of deposited carbon. Addition of Pt to nickel catalyst improved both the activity and resistivity against carbon formation. (author)

  8. Nickel doped zinc oxide nanoparticles produced by hydrothermal decomposition of nickel-doped zinc hydroxide nitrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Yeganeh Ghotbi

    2012-01-01

    Zinc hydroxide nitrate,an anionic exchanger layered material,undoped as well as doped with 2-10% nickel,was synthesized by using a pH-controlled precipitation method.The layered materials were then used to produce the undoped and nickel-doped zinc oxides by hydrothermal-treatment.X-ray diffraction,Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy confirmed the formation of pure phase undoped and nickel-doped layered materials,as well as the products of the hydrothermaltreated materials,nanostructured zinc oxides.Optical studies of the nanostructured zinc oxides showed a decrease in band gap with increasing content of the doping agent,nickel.

  9. Reduced frequency of nickel allergy upon oral nickel contact at an early age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hoogstraten, I M; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Von Blomberg, B M;

    1991-01-01

    be an effective way to prevent undesired T cell-mediated immune functions, such as playing a role in allograft reaction, autoimmune and allergic diseases. In the present study allergic contact hypersensitivity (ACH) to nickel, currently presenting the most frequent contact allergy in man, was chosen to establish...... the feasibility of oral prevention of undesired T cell-mediated immunity in man. Potentially tolerizing (oral nickel contacts via orthodontic braces) as well as sensitizing (ear piercing) events were studied retrospectively in 2176 patients attending nine European patch test clinics. Patients were interviewed...... by means of a confidential questionnaire. The results show that ear piercing strongly favoured development of nickel ACH. More importantly, patients having had oral contacts with nickel-releasing appliances (dental braces) at an early age, but only if prior to ear piercing, showed a reduced frequency...

  10. Nickel phosphate molecular sieve as electrochemical capacitors material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing-He; Tan, Juan; Ma, Ding

    2014-08-01

    The nickel phosphate molecular sieve VSB-5 as an electrode material for supercapacitors is investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronopotentiometry in alkaline media. The VSB-5 shows high specific capacitance and excellent cycling stability. The specific capacitance of VSB-5 is 2740 F g-1 at a current density of 3 A g-1 and there is no significant reduction in Coulombic efficiency after 3000 cycles at 30 A g-1. In comparison with mesoporous nickel phosphate NiPO, porous nickel hydroxide and mesoporous nickel oxide, this remarkable electrochemical performance of VSB-5 will make nickel phosphate material a promising new electrode material for high performance supercapacitors.

  11. A Mineralogical study of nickel mattes from the kalgoorlie nickel smelter, kalgoorlie, western australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Michael L.

    1982-06-01

    The mineralogy of mattes from Western Mining Corporation Limited’s new nickel flash furnace at Kalgoorlie, Western Australia, are dominated by pentlandite, heazlewoodite and awaruite (Ni-Fe alloy). Magnetite, bornite solid-solution, chromite, and fayalite constitute the minor and trace phases. The optical and scanning electron microscopes, electron microprobe, and the X-ray diffractometer were used to examine the matte samples. Pentlandite and awaruite form subhedral to skeletal crystals and are commonly surrounded by complex intergrowths, some showing exsolution textures, of pentlandite, heazlewoodite, and sometimes bornite. In comparison to products from the old flash furnace, which had separate slag cleaning electric furnaces, these new mattes contain much larger quantities of alloy. The large alloy content results from the incorporation of the slag-cleaning electrodes and the addition of coke to the flash furnace, which produce the strong reducing conditions necessary for significant alloy growth. Matte chemistry not only controls which phases are present, but to some extent also influences the composition of these phases. Even though pentlandite-heazlewooditeawaruite-bornite is the equilibrium assemblage in the Ni-Fe-Cu-S system at temperatures below 550 °C, the variation in mineral composition suggests that disequilibrium was present during crystallization of the samples.

  12. Bioleaching of Nickel and Cobalt from Spent Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries by Acidithiobacilli spp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans(At.f) and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans (At.t) were used in bio-dissolution experiments of heavy metals in spent MH/Ni batteries. The influences of the initial pH value, the concentration of electrode materials, the temperature and substrate concentration on the leaching rate of heavy metal Ni, Co have been investigated. The obtained results indicate that the efficiency of nickel extraction and cobalt extraction is dependent on all of the mentioned factors. Especially, the initial pH value and the temperature have more effect than other factors for these microorganisms. In addition, the results show that the optimal leaching rate of Ni and Co in the spent MH/Ni batteries reaches to 95.7% and 72.4% respectively after 20 days under the conditions of the initial pH value 1.0, concentration of electrode materials 1.0%, temperature 30℃ and substrate(sulfur) concentration 4.0g·L-1.

  13. The application of nickel molybdate and nickel vanadates as photoanodes in a photoelectrochemical cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haart, L.G.J. De; Blasse, G.

    1985-01-01

    The application of nickel molybdate, NiMoO4, and the nickel vanadates NiV2O6, Ni2V2O7 and Ni3V2O8 as photoanodes in a photoelectrochemical cell is investigated. Based on the optical and structural properties reported and discussed, NiV2O6 would be a good candidate, but attempts to prepare dense pell

  14. Structure of ultradisperse nickel particles produced by the thermolysis of nickel formate-monoethanol amine complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khvorov, M.M.; Dudchenko, A.K.; Khimchenko, IU.I.

    1986-05-01

    Histograms of the size distribution of ultradisperse nickel particles produced by the thermolysis of amine complexes are plotted using dark-field and light-field electron microscopy data. It is found that the size distribution can be adequately approximated by logarithmically probabilistic functions. The ultradisperse nickel particles feature several types of structure, i.e., faceted stable single crystals coated by an organic film, small aggregates of such crystals, large stable globules, and hexahedral and trihedral crystals. 8 references.

  15. Nickel patch test reactivity and the menstrual cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohold, A E; Halkier-Sørensen, L; Thestrup-Pedersen, K;

    1994-01-01

    Premenstrual exacerbation of allergic contact dermatitis and varying allergic patch test responses have been reported at different points of the period. Using a dilution series of nickel sulphate, we studied the variation in patch test reactivity in nickel allergic women in relation...... to the menstrual cycle. Twenty women with regular periods were tested on day 7-10 and on day 20-24. Ten nickel patch tests with different concentrations were applied using the TRUE test assay, and the threshold concentration of nickel sulphate eliciting an erythematous reaction was determined. Half of the women...... an increased nickel sensitivity at the second patch test (0.02 nickel sulphate patch tests premenstrually in 20 nickel allergic women, but we found that elicitation...

  16. Progress in the Development of Lightweight Nickel Electrode for Nickel-Hydrogen Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1999-01-01

    Development of a high specific energy battery is one of the objectives of the lightweight nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) program at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The approach has been to improve the nickel electrode by continuing combined in-house and contract efforts to develop a lighter weight electrode for the nickel-hydrogen cell. Small fiber diameter nickel plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These plaques are commercial products and have an advantage of increased surface area available for the deposition of active material. Initial tests include activation and capacity measurements at five different discharge levels, C/2, 1.0 C, 1.37 C, 2.0 C, and 2.74 C. The electrodes are life cycle tested using a half-cell configuration at 40 and 80% depths-of-discharge (DOD) in a low-Earth-orbit regime. The electrodes that pass the initial tests are life cycle-tested in a boiler plate nickel-hydrogen cell before flight weight design are built and tested.

  17. Cytotoxic effects of nickel nanowires in human fibroblasts

    KAUST Repository

    Felix Servin, Laura P.

    2016-03-09

    The increasing interest in the use of magnetic nanostructures for biomedical applications necessitates rigorous studies to be carried out in order to determine their potential toxicity. This work attempts to elucidate the cytotoxic effects of nickel nanowires (NWs) in human fibroblasts WI-38 by a colorimetric assay (MTT) under two different parameters: NW concentration and exposure time. This was complemented with TEM and confocal images to assess the NWs internalization and to identify any changes in the cell morphology. Ni NWs were fabricated by electrodeposition using porous alumina templates. Energy dispersive X-Ray analysis, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy imaging were used for NW characterization. The results showed decreased cell metabolic activity for incubation times longer than 24 hours and no negative effects for exposure times shorter than that. The cytotoxicity effects for human fibroblasts were then compared with those reported for HCT 116 cells, and the findings point out that it is relevant to consider the cellular size. In addition, the present study compares the toxic effects of equivalent amounts of nickel in the form of its salt to those of NWs and shows that the NWs are more toxic than the salts. Internalized NWs were found in vesicles inside of the cells where their presence induced inflammation of the endoplasmic reticulum.

  18. Nickel Extraction from Olivine: Effect of Carbonation Pre-Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael M. Santos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we explore a novel mineral processing approach using carbon dioxide to promote mineral alterations that lead to improved extractability of nickel from olivine ((Mg,Fe2SiO4. The precept is that by altering the morphology and the mineralogy of the ore via mineral carbonation, the comminution requirements and the acid consumption during hydrometallurgical processing can be reduced. Furthermore, carbonation pre-treatment can lead to mineral liberation and concentration of metals in physically separable phases. In a first processing step, olivine is fully carbonated at high CO2 partial pressures (35 bar and optimal temperature (200 °C with the addition of pH buffering agents. This leads to a powdery product containing high carbonate content. The main products of the carbonation reaction include quasi-amorphous colloidal silica, chromium-rich metallic particles, and ferro-magnesite ((Mg1−x,FexCO3. Carbonated olivine was subsequently leached using an array of inorganic and organic acids to test their leaching efficiency. Compared to leaching from untreated olivine, the percentage of nickel extracted from carbonated olivine by acid leaching was significantly increased. It is anticipated that the mineral carbonation pre-treatment approach may also be applicable to other ultrabasic and lateritic ores.

  19. Deformation strain inhomogeneity in columnar grain nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, G.L.; Godfrey, A.; Juul Jensen, D.

    2005-01-01

    A method is presented for determination of the local deformation strain of individual grains in the bulk of a columnar grain sample. The method, based on measurement of the change in grain area of each grain, is applied to 12% cold rolled nickel. Large variations are observed in the local strain...

  20. Tests Of Advanced Nickel/Hydrogen Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithrick, John J.; Hall, Stephen W.

    1994-01-01

    Individual-pressure-vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen technology adanced with intention of improving cycle life and performance. One advancement to use 26 percent potassium hydroxide electrolyte to improve cycle life. Another to modify state-of-art cell design to eliminate identified failure modes.

  1. Delayed Nickel Decay in Gamma Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    McLaughlin, G C

    2002-01-01

    Recently observed emission lines in the X-ray afterglow of gamma ray bursts suggest that iron group elements are either produced in the gamma ray burst, or are present nearby. If this material is the product of a thermonuclear burn, then such material would be expected to be rich in Nickel-56. If the nickel remains partially ionized, this prevents the electron capture reaction normally associated with the decay of Nickel-56, dramatically increasing the decay timescale. Here we examine the consequences of rapid ejection of a fraction of a solar mass of iron group material from the center of a collapsar/hypernova. The exact rate of decay then depends on the details of the ionization and therefore the ejection process. Future observations of iron, nickel and cobalt lines can be used to diagnose the origin of these elements and to better understand the astrophysical site of gamma ray bursts. In this model, the X-ray lines of these iron-group elements could be detected in suspected hypernovae that did not produce ...

  2. Surface magnetism in iron, cobalt, and nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alde´n, M.; Mirbt, S.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1992-01-01

    We have calculated magnetic moments, work functions, and surface energies for several of the most closely packed surfaces of iron, cobalt, and nickel by means of a spin-polarized Green’s-function technique based on the linear muffin-tin orbitals method within the tight-binding and atomic sphere...

  3. Large Scale Evaluation fo Nickel Aluminide Rolls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-09-01

    This completed project was a joint effort between Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Bethlehem Steel (now Mittal Steel) to demonstrate the effectiveness of using nickel aluminide intermetallic alloy rolls as part of an updated, energy-efficient, commercial annealing furnace system.

  4. Zirconium modified nickel-copper alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittenberger, J. D. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An improved material for use in a catalytic reactor which reduces nitrogen oxide from internal combustion engines is in the form of a zirconium-modified, precipitation-strengthened nickel-copper alloy. This material has a nominal composition of Ni-30 Cu-0.2 Zr and is characterized by improved high temperature mechanical properties.

  5. Ir Spectroscopy and Nickel (II) Hexammines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedijk, J.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Describes an experiment, for the general chemistry laboratory, intended to introduce the student to infrared spectroscopy. After being introduced to the theory of molecular vibrations on an elementary level, each student receives a list of 5-7 nickel (II) ammines to be prepared, analyzed and characterized by infrared spectoscopy. (MLH)

  6. Suppression of pecan scab by nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    The economic cost of scab, caused by Fusicladium effusum, can substantially limit the profitability of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] cultivation in humid environments. Field and greenhouse experiments assessed the influence of nickel (Ni) on scab severity on fruit and foliage of Ni...

  7. Iron-induced nickel deficiency in pecan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economic loss due to nickel (Ni) deficiency can occur in horticultural and agronomic crops. This study assesses impact of excessive iron (Fe) on expression of Ni deficiency in pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch]. Field and greenhouse experiments found Ni deficiency to be inducible by ei...

  8. Nickel electrodeposition from novel citrate bath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A new type of electroplating bath suitable for nickel electrodeposition was developed. Trisodium citrate was used as a complexing agent and a buffer in the bath. The buffering capacity between trisodium citrate and boric acid were compared. The effects were investigated under different conditions of bath composition, current density, pH and temperature on the potentiodynamic cathodic polarization curves, cathodic current efficiency and throwing index, as well as the electrical conductivity of these baths. The optimum conditions for producing sound and satisfactory nickel deposits were: NiSO4·6H2O 350 g/L, NiC12·6H2O 45 g/L and Na3C6H5O7 30 g/L at pH=4 and 55 ℃. The surface morphology of the as-plated Ni deposit was examined by SEM. The results reveal that the nickel deposition obtained from the optimum conditions are composed of compact, non-porous fine grains covering the entire surface. X-ray analysis shows that nickel deposits obtained from the citrate bath have a fine crystal structure compared with deposits from the Watts bath.

  9. Nickel hydroxide modified electrodes for urea determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Dall´Antonia

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Nickel hydroxide films were prepared by electrodeposition from a solution Ni(NO32 0,05 mol L ?¹ on ITO electrodes (Tin oxide doped with Indium on PET-like plastic film, applying a current of - 0,1 A cm ?² during different time intervals between 1800 and 7200 s. The electrochemical behavior of the nickel hydroxide electrode was investigated through a cyclic voltammogram, in NaOH 1,0 mol L ?¹, where it was observed two peaks in the profile in 0,410 and 0,280 V, corresponding to redox couple Ni(II/Ni(III. A sensor for urea presenting a satisfactory answer can be obtained when, after the deposit of the film of Ni(OH2 on the electrode of nickel, it is immersed in a solution of NaOH 1,0 mol L ?¹ and applying a potential of + 0,435 V, where the maximum of the anodic current occurs in the cyclic voltammogram. Analyzing the results it can be observed that, for a range of analite concentration between 5 to 50 m mol L ?¹, the behavior is linear and the sensibility found was of 20,3 mA cm?² (mol L?¹?¹, presenting reproducibility confirming the nickel hydroxide electrodes utilization for the determination of urea.

  10. Synthesis of Ni3S2 nanotube arrays on nickel foam by catalysis of thermal reduced graphene for hydrogen evolution reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinlong, Lv; Miura, Hideo; Meng, Yang; Tongxiang, Liang

    2017-03-01

    The thermal reduced graphene oxide deposition on nickel foam was successfully synthesized by ultrasonic and subsequent thermal reduction process. Ultrathin mesoporous Ni3S2 was formed on the bare nickel foam after hydrothermal process, while Ni3S2 nanotube arrays were formed on the surface of nickel foam with the thermal reduced graphene oxide due to catalysis action of thermal reduced graphene oxide. The resulting Ni3S2 nanotube arrays exhibited higher catalytic activity than ultrathin mesoporous Ni3S2 for hydrogen evolution reaction. In addition, and excellent stability was also obtained in Ni3S2 nanotube arrays.

  11. Structure and physical properties of gallium selenide laser-intercalated with nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokladok, N. T.; Grygorchak, I. I.; Lukiyanets, B. A.; Popovich, D. I.

    2007-04-01

    Intercalated crystals of indium and gallium selenide are prepared. It is shown that laser intercalation of nickel into GaSe samples leads to a giant magnetoresistive effect whose magnitude and sign depend on the concentration of the guest component. The giant magnetoresistive effect in the InSe intercalation compounds is considerably weaker and does not exceed 5%. The experimental data obtained are explained in terms of magnetic delocalization (localization) of charge carriers with the participation of states of intercalated magnetically active atoms in the vicinity of the Fermi level.

  12. A biokinetic model for nickel released from cardiovascular devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, David M; Adidharma, Lingga; Fisher, Jeffrey W; Brown, Ronald P

    2016-10-01

    Many alloys used in cardiovascular device applications contain high levels of nickel, which if released in sufficient quantities, can lead to adverse health effects. While nickel release from these devices is typically characterized through the use of in-vitro immersion tests, it is unclear if the rate at which nickel is released from a device during in-vitro testing is representative of the release rate following implantation in the body. To address this uncertainty, we have developed a novel biokinetic model that combines a traditional toxicokinetic compartment model with a physics-based model to estimate nickel release from an implanted device. This model links the rate of in-vitro nickel release from a cardiovascular device to serum nickel concentrations, an easily measured endpoint, to estimate the rate and extent of in-vivo nickel release from an implanted device. The model was initially parameterized using data in the literature on in-vitro nickel release from a nickel-containing alloy (nitinol) and baseline serum nickel levels in humans. The results of this first step were then used to validate specific components of the model. The remaining unknown quantities were fit using serum values reported in patients following implantation with nitinol atrial occluder devices. The model is not only consistent with levels of nickel in serum and urine of patients following treatment with the atrial occluders, but also the optimized parameters in the model were all physiologically plausible. The congruity of the model with available data suggests that it can provide a framework to interpret nickel biomonitoring data and use data from in-vitro nickel immersion tests to estimate in-vivo nickel release from implanted cardiovascular devices.

  13. In vitro dermal penetration of nickel nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosera, Matteo; Adami, Gianpiero; Mauro, Marcella; Bovenzi, Massimo; Baracchini, Elena; Larese Filon, Francesca

    2016-02-01

    Nickel nanoparticles (NiNPs) represent a new type of occupational exposure because, due to the small size/high surface, they can release more Ni ions compared to bulk material. It has been reported a case of a worker who developed sensitization while handling nickel nanopowder without precautions. Therefore there is the need to assess whether the skin absorption of NiNPs is higher compared to bulk nickel. Two independent in vitro experiments were performed using Franz diffusion cells. Eight cells for each experiment were fitted using intact and needle-abraded human skin. The donor phase was a suspension of NiNPs with mean size of 77.7 ± 24.1 nm in synthetic sweat. Ni permeated both types of skin, reaching higher levels up to two orders of magnitude in the damaged skin compared to intact skin (5.2 ± 2.0 vs 0.032 ± 0.010 μg cm(-2), p = 0.006) at 24 h. Total Ni amount into the skin was 29.2 ± 11.2 μg cm(-2) in damaged skin and 9.67 ± 2.70 μg cm(-2) in intact skin (mean and SD, p = 0.006). Skin abrasions lead to doubling the Ni amount in the epidermis and to an increase of ten times in the dermis. This study demonstrated that NiNPs applied on skin surface cause an increase of nickel content into the skin and a significant permeation flux through the skin, higher when a damaged skin protocol was used. Preventive measures are needed when NiNPs are produced and used due to their higher potential to enter in our body compared to bulk nickel.

  14. Environmentally Assisted Cracking of Nickel Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebak, R B

    2004-02-06

    Environmentally Assisted Cracking (EAC) is a general term that includes phenomena such as stress corrosion cracking (SCC), hydrogen embrittlement (HE), sulfide stress cracking (SSC), liquid metal embrittlement (LME), etc. EAC refers to a phenomenon by which a normally ductile metal looses its toughness (e.g. elongation to rupture) when it is subjected to mechanical stresses in presence of a specific corroding environment. For EAC to occur, three affecting factors must be present simultaneously. These include: (1) Mechanical tensile stresses, (2) A susceptible metal microstructure and (3) A specific aggressive environment. If any of these three factors is removed, EAC will not occur. That is, to mitigate the occurrence of EAC, engineers may for example eliminate residual stresses in a component or limit its application to certain chemicals (environment). The term environment not only includes chemical composition of the solution in contact with the component but also other variables such as temperature and applied potential. Nickel alloys are in general more resistant than stainless steels to EAC. For example, austenitic stainless steels (such as S30400) suffer SCC in presence of hot aqueous solutions containing chloride ions. Since chloride ions are ubiquitous in most industrial applications, the use of stressed stainless steels parts is seriously limited. On the other hand, nickel alloys (such as N10276) are practically immune to SCC in presence of hot chloride solutions and therefore an excellent alternative to replace the troubled stainless steels. Nonetheless, nickel alloys are not immune to other types of EAC. There are several environments (such as hot caustic and hot hydrofluoric acid) that may produce embrittlement in nickel alloys (Crum et al, 2000) (Table 1). The conditions where nickel alloys suffer EAC are highly specific and therefore avoidable by the proper design of the industrial components.

  15. Nickel accumulation and its effects on the survival rate of Spodoptera litura Fabricius under continuous nickel stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN HongXia; SHU YingHua; TANG WenCheng; WANG Qi; ZHOU Qiang; ZHANG GuRen

    2007-01-01

    The artificial diets mixed with various concentrations of nickel were offered to the larvae of the phytophagous insect Spodoptera litura Fabricius for 3 generations. Nickel accumulations in the 6th instar larvae, pupae and newly emerged adults of the corresponding generations of S. litura were investigated by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES), and the effects of nickel accumulations on the survival rate of S. litura were also evaluated by individual rearing. The results showed that nickel accumulated in the 6th instar larvae, pupae and adults of S. litura, and the accumulated nickel in all the tested developmental stages within a generation increased with the increase of the nickel doses in the treated diets and showed significant dose-dependent relationship with the nickel doses in the artificial diets. The results also indicated that the nickel accumulations in the 6th instar larvae, pupae, and newly emerged adults from the 3rd generation were higher than those from the 2nd generation, which were also higher than those from the 1st generation. Nickel concentrations in pupae and adults were significantly lower than those in larvae, which indicated that the excessive nickel might be excreted during metamorphosis. Furthermore, larval survival rate, pupation rate and eclosion rate of S. litura in the tested three generations all decreased with the increase of the nickel doses in the treated diets.

  16. 中国系统重要性银行附加资本计提机制研究基于 Copula-CoVaR 模型%Research on Charge Mechanism of Additional Capital of Systemically Important Banks Based on Copula-CoVaR Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘凌遥; 蒋晓泉; 费紫微

    2015-01-01

    This paper establishes an additional risk capital charge mechanism of systemically impor-tant banks on the basis of CoVaR risk measurement framework,aiming at the capital being able to cover the risk spillover accurately.We use the Copula-CoVaR model to measure commercial banks'risk spillo-ver effects and then determine their capital adequacy based on controlling each bank's systematic risk spillover consistently.Finally,according to its capital adequacy situation,the corresponding systemically im ortant banks additional ca ital char e ercenta e is determined.%在 CoVaR 风险度量框架的基础上建立系统重要性银行附加资本计提机制,旨在将风险溢出与资本计提挂钩。运用 Copula-CoVaR 模型测算商业银行对银行体系的风险溢出效应,考虑到额外的资本对溢出风险吸收作用,在控制每一家银行对银行系统的风险溢出一致的基础上确定银行的资本充足水平,进而确定对应的系统重要性银行附加资本的计提比例。

  17. Nickel allergy in patch-tested female hairdressers and assessment of nickel release from hairdressers' scissors and crochet hooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Milting, Kristina; Bregnhøj, Anne;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hand eczema as well as nickel contact allergy is prevalent among hairdressers. Recently, two female hairdressers were diagnosed with nickel contact allergy-related hand eczema following prolonged skin contact with scissors and crochet hooks used during work. OBJECTIVES: To determine...... the proportion of hairdressers' scissors and crochet hooks that released an excessive amount of nickel and to determine the prevalence of nickel allergy among patch-tested female hairdressers. MATERIALS: Random hairdressers' stores in Copenhagen were visited. The dimethylglyoxime (DMG) test was used to assess...... excessive nickel release. The prevalence of nickel allergy among female hairdressers from the database at Gentofte Hospital was compared with the prevalence of nickel allergy among other consecutively patch-tested dermatitis patients. RESULTS: DMG testing showed that 1 (0.5%; 95% CI = 0 - 2.0) of 200 pairs...

  18. Investigations of defects after indiffusion of iron and nickel into float-zone silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saring, Philipp; Hildebrand, Nils; Falkenberg, Marie Aylin; Seibt, Michael [IV. Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universitaet, Goettingen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The electrical properties of silicon are strongly influenced by fast diffusing transition metal impurities such as iron, nickel and copper, which are unintentionally brought into and distributed inside the material during high temperature treatments. Under certain conditions these metals cluster by forming recombination active silicide precipitates. Whereas homogeneous precipitation has been observed for nickel or copper, iron precipitation generally requires the presence of pre-existing nucleation sites. Recent studies deal with the simultaneous coprecipitation of these elements. In this work we focus on the distribution of the electrically active defects after indiffusion of nickel and iron into float-zone silicon. We investigate the recombination properties of these defects by LBIC- and EBIC-measurements as well as their concentration and majority charge carrier kinetics by DLTS experiments. By suitable annealing conditions we established quite small concentrations of precipitates (<10{sup 8} cm{sup -3}) and metal denuded zones below the sample surfaces. Single precipitates were extracted by Focussed-Ion-Beam technique for TEM-investigations.

  19. Preparation of non-spherical hollow carbon nanocapsules from nickel nanoprecursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Ray-Tung; Chiang, Ray-Kuang; Shieu, Fuh-Sheng

    2012-08-01

    Hollow carbon nanocapsules (NCs) are prepared from nickel nanoplate precursors through carburizing, decomposition, and leaching steps. The carburizing step was carried out by heating the nickel nanoplates in oleylamine at 250 °C for 4 h. Decomposition was then performed in a nitrogen atmosphere at 530 °C for 3 min. Characterization of the resulting product of the first two steps shows the intermediates to be Ni3C/Ni-C alloy and Ni/C core-shell nanostructures. Hollow carbon NCs are recovered from the products by leaching the Ni/C core-shell nanostructures in concentrated nitric acid. The NCs are found to have a high specific surface area (1081 m2 g-1) and a mesoporous structure (i.e., a pore volume of 2.81 cm3/g and a narrow pore size distribution of 2.9-3.4 nm). In addition, it is found that the hollow carbon NCs retained the same morphology as the original nickel precursors; demonstrating the robustness of the nickel templates and the ability of the carbon shells to maintain a non-spherical shape.

  20. Electrocatalysis and electroanalysis of nickel, its oxides, hydroxides and oxyhydroxides toward small molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yuqing; Ouyang, Lei; Zhou, Shilin; Xu, Lina; Yang, Zhuoyuan; Xiao, Mingshu; Ouyang, Ruizhuo

    2014-03-15

    The electrocatalysis toward small molecules, especially small organic compounds, is of importance in a variety of areas. Nickel based materials such as nickel, its oxides, hydroxides as well as oxyhydroxides exhibit excellent electrocatalysis performances toward many small molecules, which are widely used for fuel cells, energy storage, organic synthesis, wastewater treatment, and electrochemical sensors for pharmaceutical, medical, food or environmental analysis. Their electrocatalytic mechanisms are proposed from three aspects such as Ni(OH)2/NiOOH mediated electrolysis, direct electrocatalysis of Ni(OH)2 or NiOOH. Under exposure to air or aqueous solution, two distinct layers form on the Ni surface with a Ni hydroxide layer at the air-oxide interface and an oxide layer between the metal substrate and the outer hydroxide layer. The transformation from nickel or its oxides to hydroxides or oxyhydroxides could be further speeded up in the strong alkaline solution under the cyclic scanning at relatively high positive potential. The redox transition between Ni(OH)2 and NiOOH is also contributed to the electrocatalytic oxidation of Ni and its oxides toward small molecules in alkaline media. In addition, nickel based materials or nanomaterials, their preparations and applications are also overviewed here.

  1. Chelating tris(amidate) ligands: versatile scaffolds for nickel(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Matthew B; Newell, Brian S; Hoffert, Wesley A; Hardcastle, Kenneth I; Shores, Matthew P; MacBeth, Cora E

    2010-01-14

    The synthesis and characterization of nickel complexes supported by a family of open-chain, tetradentate, tris(amidate) ligands, [N(o-PhNC(O)R)(3)](3-) ([L(R)](3-) where R = (i)Pr, (t)Bu, and Ph) is described. The complexes [Ni(L(iPr))](-), [Ni(L(tBu))](-), and [Ni(L(Ph))(CH(3)CN)](-) have been characterized by solution-state spectroscopic methods and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Each ligand gives rise to a different primary coordination sphere about the nickel centre. These studies indicate that the ligands' acyl substituents can be used to regulate the coordination mode of the amidate donors to nickel and the coordination number of the nickel centres. In addition, the ability of these complexes to bind cyanide has been explored. These experiments demonstrate that only one of these complexes, [Ni(L(iPr))](-), is able to irreversibly bind cyanide and can be used to assemble [Et(4)N](3)[Ni(L(iPr))(mu(2)-CN)Co(L(iPr))], a cyanide bridged, heterobimetallic complex. The synthesis and characterization of the cyanide containing complexes, including magnetic susceptibility studies, are described.

  2. 40 CFR 421.240 - Applicability: Description of the secondary nickel subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... secondary nickel subcategory. 421.240 Section 421.240 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Secondary Nickel Subcategory § 421.240 Applicability: Description of the secondary nickel... nickel by secondary nickel facilities processing slag, spent acids, or scrap metal raw materials....

  3. Electrodynamics of Radiating Charges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øyvind Grøn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The theory of electrodynamics of radiating charges is reviewed with special emphasis on the role of the Schott energy for the conservation of energy for a charge and its electromagnetic field. It is made clear that the existence of radiation from a charge is not invariant against a transformation between two reference frames that has an accelerated motion relative to each other. The questions whether the existence of radiation from a uniformly accelerated charge with vanishing radiation reaction force is in conflict with the principle of equivalence and whether a freely falling charge radiates are reviewed. It is shown that the resolution of an electromagnetic “perpetuum mobile paradox” associated with a charge moving geodetically along a circular path in the Schwarzschild spacetime requires the so-called tail terms in the equation of motion of a charged particle.

  4. Nickel recycling in the United States in 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2009-01-01

    As one of a series of reports that describe the recycling of metal commodities in the United States, this report discusses the flow of nickel from production through distribution and use, with particular emphasis on the recycling of industrial scrap (new scrap) and used products (old scrap) in 2004. This materials flow study includes a description of nickel supply and demand for the United States to illustrate the extent of nickel recycling and to identify recycling trends. Understanding how materials flow from a source through disposition can aid in improving the management of natural resource delivery systems. In 2004, the old scrap recycling efficiency for nickel was estimated to be 56.2 percent. In 2004, nickel scrap consumption in the United States was as follows: new scrap containing 13,000 metric tons (t) of nickel (produced during the manufacture of products), 12 percent; and old scrap containing 95,000 t of nickel (articles discarded after serving a useful purpose), 88 percent. The recycling rate for nickel in 2004 was 40.9 percent, and the percentage of nickel in products attributed to nickel recovered from nickel-containing scrap was 51.6 percent. Furthermore, U.S. nickel scrap theoretically generated in 2004 had the following distribution: scrap to landfills, 24 percent; recovered and used scrap, 50 percent; and unaccounted for scrap, 26 percent. Of the 50 percent of old scrap generated in the United States that was recovered and then used in 2004, about one-third was exported and two-thirds was consumed in the domestic production of nickel-containing products.

  5. Life cycle assessment of five batteries for electric vehicles under different charging regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantik, M. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Transportation and Logistics

    1999-12-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology is used in this study to assess the environmental impact of five candidate batteries for electric vehicles under different conditions of charging. The entire lifetime of a passenger electric vehicle is considered as the basis for all batteries. Five different battery systems are considered. The four of them are electrically recharged - Lead-Acid, Nickel-Cadmium, Nickel-Metal hydride and Sodium-Nickel chloride whereas one system comprises batteries that are recharged mechanically (Zinc-Air). One specific battery from these five systems is selected. The results are representative of these particular batteries and not of the battery systems to which they belong. The study includes three scenarios, the basic scenario and two fast charging scenarios. The difference between the scenarios is in the phase of the battery's use and involves the charging regimes. Consequently, the other stages of the battery's life are identical in all three scenarios. The basic scenario implies normal overnight charging is used during the entire lifetime of an electric vehicle. In the first fast charging scenario, fast charging is combined with normal charging. The second fast charging scenario involves the exclusive use of fast charging. In both fast charging scenarios the user's behaviour is considered. In this study, it is believed that it is the violation of fast charging rules, set by the battery manufacturer rather than the fast charging technique, that will be critical for the cycle life of the battery. Due to low energy efficiency of the batteries and losses in the charging procedure, the use of energy for operating the electric vehicle seems to be a major contributor to the total environmental impact of the system. Significant resource constraints may prevent mass production of certain batteries or lead to increased prices of others. Use of fast charging increases the number of batteries used during the lifetime of the electric

  6. Sonochemical fabrication of petal array-like copper/nickel oxide composite foam as a pseudocapacitive material for energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, Namachivayam; Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel; Sethuraman, Mathur Gopalakrishnan; Lee, Yong Rok

    2017-02-01

    Copper/nickel oxide composite foam (Cu/Ni) with petal array-like textures were successfully fabricated via a facile sonochemical approach, and its applications as a pseudocapacitive material for energy storage were examined. The nickel foam was immersed into a mixture of copper chloride (CuCl2) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) and subsequently sonicated for 30 min at 60 °C. As a result of galvanic replacement, nickel was oxidized while copper was reduced, and the walls of the nickel foam were coated with copper particles. Studies using field emission scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analyses confirmed the morphology and chemical structure of the as-obtained Cu/Ni oxide composite foam. The supercapacitive performance of the as-fabricated Cu/Ni oxide composite foam was evaluated in 2 M KOH by employing cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analyses. Cyclic voltammograms revealed that the Cu/Ni oxide composite foam exhibited pseudocapacitive behavior and delivered a high specific capacitance of 1773 F g-1 at a scan rate of 5 mV s-1. This improvement may be attributed to the morphology, surface functionalization with heteroatoms, hydrogen evolution, and high conductivity, along with the low resistance due to short path lengths for electron transportation.

  7. High-performance nickel-cobalt-boron material for an asymmetric supercapacitor with an ultrahigh energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rongna; Liu, Lei; Zhou, Junshuang; Hou, Li; Gao, Faming

    2017-02-01

    Nickel-cobalt-borons are synthesized using a facile and cost-effective reduction method. The effects of Ni/Co molar ratios and crystallinity on its supercapacitive performance are systematically investigated. It was found that nickel-cobalt-borons with the Ni/Co ratio being 2:1 and amorphous structure manifest the optimum specific capacitance of 2226.96 F/g at a current density of 1 A/g and still remain 1879.2 F/g with a high discharge current density of 20 A/g. An asymmetric supercapacitor device (ASC) has been fabricated with nickel-cobalt-borons (Ni-Co-B) as the positive electrode and commercial activated carbon (CAC) as the negative electrode material. The Ni-Co-B//CAC delivers an ultrahigh energy density of 66.40 Wh/kg at a power density of 788.91 W/kg. This ASC remains 85.76% of its initial capacitance even after 5000 charge-discharge cycles. The results demonstrate that amorphous nickel-cobalt-boron material is a promising candidate for energy storage application.

  8. Copper, Aluminum and Nickel: A New Monocrystalline Orthodontic Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierenga, Mark

    Introduction: This study was designed to evaluate, via tensile and bend testing, the mechanical properties of a newly-developed monocrystalline orthodontic archwire comprised of a blend of copper, aluminum, and nickel (CuAlNi). Methods: The sample was comprised of three shape memory alloys; CuAlNi, copper nickel titanium (CuNiTi), and nickel titanium (NiTi); from various orthodontic manufacturers in both 0.018" round and 0.019" x 0.025" rectangular dimensions. Additional data was gathered for similarly sized stainless steel and beta-titanium archwires as a point of reference for drawing conclusions about the relative properties of the archwires. Measurements of loading and unloading forces were recorded in both tension and deflection testing. Repeated-measure ANOVA (alpha= 0.05) was used to compare loading and unloading forces across wires and one-way ANOVA (alpha= 0.05) was used to compare elastic moduli and hysteresis. To identify significant differences, Tukey post-hoc comparisons were performed. Results: The modulus of elasticity, deflection forces, and hysteresis profiles of CuAlNi were significantly different than the other superelastic wires tested. In all tests, CuAlNi had a statistically significant lower modulus of elasticity compared to the CuNiTi and NiTi wires (P <0.0001). The CuAlNi wire exhibited significantly lower loading and unloading forces than any other wire tested. In round wire tensile tests, loading force at all deflections was significantly lower for CuAlNi than CuNiTi or NiTi (P <0.0001). In tensile testing, the CuAlNi alloy was able to recover from a 7 mm extension (10% elongation) without permanent deformation and with little to no loss in force output. In large-deflection bend tests at 4, 5, and 6 mm deflection, CuAlNi showed the significantly lowest loading forces across the three wire materials (P <0.0001). The NiTi wires showed up to 12 times the amount of energy loss due to hysteresis compared to CuAlNi. CuAlNi showed a hysteresis

  9. Ripple formation on nickel irradiated with radially polarized femtosecond beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsibidis, George D; Skoulas, Evangelos; Stratakis, Emmanuel

    2015-11-15

    We report on the morphological effects induced by the inhomogeneous absorption of radially polarized femtosecond laser irradiation of nickel (Ni) in sub-ablation conditions. A theoretical prediction of the morphology profile is performed, and the role of surface plasmon excitation in the production of self-formed periodic ripple structures is evaluated. Results indicate a smaller periodicity of the ripples profile compared to that attained under linearly polarized irradiation conditions. A combined hydrodynamical and thermoelastic model is presented in laser beam conditions that lead to material melting. The simulation results are presented to be in good agreement with the experimental findings. The ability to control the size of the morphological changes via modulating the beam polarization may provide an additional route for controlling and optimizing the outcome of laser micro-processing.

  10. Electrophoretic deposition of nickel zinc ferrite nanoparticles into microstructured patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan J. Kelly

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Using DC electric fields, nickel-zinc ferrite (Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles (Dh =16.6 ± 3.6 nm are electrophoretically deposited onto silicon substrates to form dense structures defined by photoresist molds. Parameters such as electric field, bath composition, and deposition time are tuned to produce films ranging in thickness from 177 to 805 nm. The deposited films exhibit soft magnetic properties with a saturation magnetization of 60 emu/g and a coercivity of 2.6 kA/m (33 Oe. Additionally, the influence of the photoresist mold on the deposit profile is studied, and patterned films with different shapes (lines, squares, circles, etc. are demonstrated with feature sizes down to 5 μm.

  11. Ceramic filters for bulk inoculation of nickel alloy castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Binczyk

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The work includes the results of research on production technology of ceramic filters which, besides the traditional filtering function, playalso the role of an inoculant modifying the macrostructure of cast nickel alloys. To play this additional role, filters should demonstratesufficient compression strength and ensure proper flow rate of liquid alloy. The role of an inoculant is played by cobalt aluminateintroduced to the composition of external coating in an amount from 5 to 10 wt.% . The required compression strength (over 1MPa isprovided by the supporting layers, deposited on the preform, which is a polyurethane foam. Based on a two-level fractional experiment24-1, the significance of an impact of various technological parameters (independent variables on selected functional parameters of theready filters was determined. Important effect of the number of the supporting layers and sintering temperature of filters after evaporationof polyurethane foam was stated.

  12. Isolation and Characterization of Nickel Uptake by Nickel Resistant Bacterial Isolate (NiRBI)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JAGDISH S PATEL; PRERNA C PATEL; KIRAN KALIA

    2006-01-01

    Bioremediation technology has gained importance because microbes could be the convenient source of bio-absorption/bioaccumulation of metals from effluent streams. Methods The nickel-resistant bacterial isolates (NiRBI)were selected from various bacterial isolates from industrial effluent and grown in nutrient broth containing different concentrations of nickel sulfate (0.3-3.0 mmol/L) and their capability of accumulating metal from the medium. Results Well-defined growth of NiRBI was observed in the medium containing up to 2.5 mmol/L of nickel. The isolate was identified using 16S rRNA and closely related to Pseudomonas fragi. Maximum accumulation of nickel (0.59 mg/g dry weight of bacterial cells) was observed when NiRBI was grown in media containing 2 mmol/L of nickel. The protein profile of the NiRBI cellular extract by SDS-PAGE showed two metal stress-induced proteins of molecular weight 48 KD and 18 KD with a simultaneous down regulation of four proteins of 46.7 KD, 42.2 KD, 19.7 KD, and 4.0 KD. Conclusion 48 KD and 18 KD proteins play a role in metal resistance mechanism by NiRBI.

  13. Feasibility of Electrochemical Deposition of Nickel/Silicon Carbide Fibers Composites over Nickel Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosio, E. P.; Abdul Karim, M. R.; Pavese, M.; Biamino, S.; Badini, C.; Fino, P.

    2017-02-01

    Nickel superalloys are typical materials used for the hot parts of engines in aircraft and space vehicles. They are very important in this field as they offer high-temperature mechanical strength together with a good resistance to oxidation and corrosion. Due to high-temperature buckling phenomena, reinforcement of the nickel superalloy might be needed to increase stiffness. For this reason, it was thought to investigate the possibility of producing composite materials that might improve properties of the metal at high temperature. The composite material was produced by using electrochemical deposition method in which a composite with nickel matrix and long silicon carbide fibers was deposited over the nickel superalloy. The substrate was Inconel 718, and monofilament continuous silicon carbide fibers were chosen as reinforcement. Chemical compatibility was studied between Inconel 718 and the reinforcing fibers, with fibers both in an uncoated condition, and coated with carbon or carbon/titanium diboride. Both theoretical calculations and experiments were conducted, which suggested the use of a carbon coating over the fibers and a buffer layer of nickel to avoid unwanted reactions between the substrate and silicon carbide. Deposition was then performed, and this demonstrated the practical feasibility of the process. Yield strength was measured to detect the onset of interface debonding between the substrate and the composite layer.

  14. Recovery Of Nickel From Spent Nickel-Cadmium Batteries Using A Direct Reduction Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin D.J.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Most nickel is produced as Ferro-Nickel through a smelting process from Ni-bearing ore. However, these days, there have been some problems in nickel production due to exhaustion and the low-grade of Ni-bearing ore. Moreover, the smelting process results in a large amount of wastewater, slag and environmental risk. Therefore, in this research, spent Ni-Cd batteries were used as a base material instead of Ni-bearing ore for the recovery of Fe-Ni alloy through a direct reduction process. Spent Ni-Cd batteries contain 24wt% Ni, 18.5wt% Cd, 12.1% C and 27.5wt% polymers such as KOH. For pre-treatment, Cd was vaporized at 1024K. In order to evaluate the reduction conditions of nickel oxide and iron oxide, pre-treated spent Ni-Cd batteries were experimented on under various temperatures, gas-atmospheres and crucible materials. By a series of process, alloys containing 75 wt% Ni and 20 wt% Fe were produced. From the results, the reduction mechanism of nickel oxide and iron oxide were investigated.

  15. NICKEL SPECIES EMISSION INVENTORY FOR OIL-FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Richard L. Schulz; Donald L. Toman; Carolyn M. Nyberg

    2004-01-01

    Representative duplicate fly ash samples were obtained from the stacks of 400-MW and 385-MW utility boilers (Unit A and Unit B, respectively) using a modified U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 17 sampling train assembly as they burned .0.9 and 0.3 wt% S residual oils, respectively, during routine power plant operations. Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) samples were analyzed for nickel (Ni) concentrations and speciation using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD), and a water-soluble Ni extraction method. ROFA water extraction residues were also analyzed for Ni speciation using XAFS and XRD. Total Ni concentrations in the ROFAs were similar, ranging from 1.3 to 1.5 wt%; however, stack gas Ni concentrations in the Unit A were {approx}990 {micro}g/Nm{sup 3} compared to {approx}620 {micro}g/Nm{sup 3} for Unit B because of the greater residual oil feed rates employed at Unit A to attain higher load (i.e., MW) conditions with a lower heating value oil. Ni speciation analysis results indicate that ROFAs from Unit A contain about 3 wt% NiSO{sub 4} {center_dot} xH{sub 2}O (where x is assumed to be 6 for calculation purposes) and a Ni-containing spinel compound, similar in composition to (Mg,Ni)(Al,Fe){sub 2}O{sub 4}. ROFAs from Unit B contain on average 2.0 wt% NiSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O and 1.1 wt% NiO. XAFS and XRD analyses did not detect any nickel sulfide compounds, including nickel subsulfide (Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2}) (XAFS detection limit is 5% of the total Ni concentration). In addition, XAFS measurements indicated that inorganic sulfate and organic thiophene species account for >97% of the total sulfur in the ROFAs. The presence of NiSO{sub 4} {center_dot} xH{sub 2}O and nickel oxide compound mixtures and lack of carcinogenic Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2} or nickel sulfide compounds (e.g., NiS, NiS{sub 2}) in ROFAs stack-sampled from 400- and 385-MW boilers are contrary

  16. Control Algorithms Charge Batteries Faster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    On March 29, 2011, NASA s Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft beamed a milestone image to Earth: the first photo of Mercury taken from orbit around the solar system s innermost planet. (MESSENGER is also the first spacecraft to orbit Mercury.) Like most of NASA s deep space probes, MESSENGER is enabled by a complex power system that allows its science instruments and communications to function continuously as it travels millions of miles from Earth. "Typically, there isn't one particular power source that can support the entire mission," says Linda Taylor, electrical engineer in Glenn Research Center s Power Systems Analysis Branch. "If you have solar arrays and you are in orbit, at some point you re going to be in eclipse." Because of this, Taylor explains, spacecraft like MESSENGER feature hybrid power systems. MESSENGER is powered by a two-panel solar array coupled with a nickel hydrogen battery. The solar arrays provide energy to the probe and charge the battery; when the spacecraft s orbit carries it behind Mercury and out of the Sun s light, the spacecraft switches to battery power to continue operations. Typically, hybrid systems with multiple power inputs and a battery acting alternately as storage and a power source require multiple converters to handle the power flow between the devices, Taylor says. (Power converters change the qualities of electrical energy, such as from alternating current to direct current, or between different levels of voltage or frequency.) This contributes to a pair of major concerns for spacecraft design. "Weight and size are big drivers for any space application," Taylor says, noting that every pound added to a space vehicle incurs significant costs. For an innovative solution to managing power flows in a lightweight, cost-effective manner, NASA turned to a private industry partner.

  17. Preparation and characterization of polystyrene based Nickel molybdate composite membrane electrical–electrochemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urfi Ishrat

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The functional properties of the polystyrene based Nickel Molybdate composite membrane prepared by applying 70 MPa pressure are described. The fabricated membrane was characterized by using Fourier Transform Infrared, X-ray diffraction, particle size analyzer and Scanning electron microscopy technique and has been investigated for its functional, diffusive, electrochemical and electrical properties. The impedance data of membrane having capacitive and resistive components are plotted, which show the sequence of semicircles representing an electrical phenomenon due to grain material, grain boundary and interfacial phenomenon. The diffusion of electrolytes was determined by the TMS method revealing dependence of membrane potential on the charge on the membrane matrix, charge and size of permeating ions. The membrane determined the activity of cations with good accuracy in the higher concentration range and shows a great selectivity for K+. Other electrochemical properties like transport number have been discussed its selectivity.

  18. Characterization testing of a 40 ampere hour bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Jeffrey C.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Gemeiner, Russel P.

    1990-01-01

    Extensive characterization testing has been done on a second 40-ampere hour (A h), 10-cell, bipolar nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) battery, to study the effects of operating parameters such as charge and discharge rates, temperature, and pressure on capacity, A h and watt hour (W h) efficiencies, and end-of-charge and midpoint discharge voltages. Testing to date has produced many interesting results, with the battery performing well throughout the test matrix except during the high-rate (5 C and 10 C) discharges, where poorer than expected results were observed. The exact cause of this poor performance is, as yet, unknown. Small scale 2 in. x 2 in. battery tests are to be used in studying this problem. Low earth orbit cycle life testing at a 40-percent depth of discharge and 10 C is scheduled to follow the characterization testing.

  19. Characterization testing of a 40 AHR bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Jeffrey C.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Gemeiner, Russel P.

    1989-01-01

    Extensive characterization testing has been done on a second 40 amp-hour (Ahr), 10-cell bipolar nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) battery to study the effects of such operating parameters as charge and discharge rates, temperature, and pressure, on capacity, Ahr and watt-hour (Whr) efficiencies, end-of-charge (EOC) and mid-point discharge voltages. Testing to date has produced many interesting results, with the battery performing well throughout all of the test matrix except during the high-rate (5C and 10C) discharges, where poorer than expected results were observed. The exact cause of this poor performance is, as yet, unknown. Small scale 2 x 2 inch battery tests are to be used in studying this problem. Low earth orbit (LEO) cycle life testing at a 40 percent depth of discharge (DOD) and 10 C is scheduled to follow the characterization testing.

  20. Polynitroaniline as brightener for zinc–nickel alloy plating from non-cyanide sulphate bath

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H P Sachin; Ganesha Achary; Y Arthoba Naik; T V Venkatesha

    2007-02-01

    Electro-polymerization of orthonitroaniline was carried out on graphite electrode in hydrochloric acid medium. Zinc–nickel alloy deposition was carried out in the presence of polynitroaniline in acid sulphate bath. The bath constituent and bath variables were optimized through Hull cell experiments. The current efficiency and throwing power were measured. High shift of potential towards more cathodic direction was observed in presence of addition agent. Corrosion resistance test revealed good protection of base metal by zinc–nickel coating obtained from the developed electrolyte. SEM photomicrograph shows fine-grained deposit in the presence of addition agent. The consumption of brightener in the lab-scale was 0.01 gL-1 for 1000 amp-h.

  1. Thermal conductivity of nanoscale thin nickel films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Shiping; JIANG Peixue

    2005-01-01

    The inhomogeneous non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) scheme is applied to model phonon heat conduction in thin nickel films. The electronic contribution to the thermal conductivity of the film is deduced from the electrical conductivity through the use of the Wiedemann-Franz law. At the average temperature of T = 300 K, which is lower than the Debye temperature ()D = 450 K,the results show that in a film thickness range of about 1-11 nm, the calculated cross-plane thermal conductivity decreases almost linearly with the decreasing film thickness, exhibiting a remarkable reduction compared with the bulk value. The electrical and thermal conductivities are anisotropic in thin nickel films for the thickness under about 10 nm. The phonon mean free path is estimated and the size effect on the thermal conductivity is attributed to the reduction of the phonon mean free path according to the kinetic theory.

  2. Ultrafast reduction of exchange splitting in ferromagnetic nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G. P.; Bai, Y. H.; George, Thomas F.

    2016-06-01

    A decade ago Rhie et al (2003 Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 247201) reported that when ferromagnetic nickel is subject to an intense ultrashort laser pulse, its exchange splitting is reduced quickly. But to simulate such reduction remains a big challenge. The popular rigid band approximation (RBA), where both the band structure and the exchange splitting are held fixed before and after laser excitation, is unsuitable for this purpose, while the time-dependent density functional theory could be time-consuming. To overcome these difficulties, we propose a time-dependent Liouville and density functional theory (TDLDFT) that integrates the time-dependent Liouville equation into the density functional theory. As a result, the excited charge density is reiterated back into the Kohn-Sham equation, and the band structure is allowed to change dynamically. Even with the ground-state density functional, a larger demagnetization than RBA is found; after we expand Ortenzi’s spin scaling method into an excited-state (laser) density functional, we find that the exchange splitting is indeed strongly reduced, as seen in the experiment. Both the majority and minority bands are shifted toward the Fermi level, but the majority shifts a lot more. The ultrafast reduction in exchange splitting occurs concomitantly with demagnetization. While our current theory is still unable to yield the same percentage loss in the spin moment as observed in the experiment, it predicts a correct trend that agrees with the experiments. With a better functional, we believe that our results can be further improved.

  3. Microscopy Techniques for Analysis of Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Graham J C; Wronski, Zbigniew

    2015-12-01

    With the need for improvements in the performance of rechargeable batteries has come the necessity to better characterize cell electrodes and their component materials. Electron microscopy has been shown to reveal many important features of microstructure that are becoming increasingly important for understanding the behavior of the components during the many charge/discharge cycles required in modern applications. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of how the full suite of techniques available using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy was applied to the case of materials for the positive electrode in nickel metal hydride rechargeable battery electrodes. Embedding and sectioning of battery-grade powders with an ultramicrotome was used to produce specimens that could be readily characterized by TEM. Complete electrodes were embedded after drying, and also after dehydration from the original wet state, for examination by optical microscopy and using focused ion beam techniques. Results of these studies are summarized to illustrate the significance of the microstructural information obtained.

  4. Development of nickel-metal hydride cell: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwajima, S.; Kusawake, Hiroaki; Nakatani, Kensuke; Yano, Y.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents in viewgraph format an overview of NASDA's evaluation of commercial nickel metal-hydride (Ni-MH) cells and the development and testing of Ni-MH cells for use in space. The commercial cells are concluded to be feasible and suitable for use in LEO; for GEO, the durability for overcharge is needed because long-term charge retention is required. For the aerospace Ni-MH cell design, two activation procedures are applied to evaluate the effect of the difference in the amount of overcharge protection and precharge. Specific energy of the Ni-MH cell is nearly accomplished at 50 Wh/kg. Initial characteristics indicate the effect derived from precharge. Thirty-five amp-hour class Ni-MH cells have good performance for LEO cycle of 25 and 40 percent DOD up to 3000 cycles as similar to commercial cells. The effect of the difference in the amount of overcharge protection will appear in life test.

  5. Nickel-free austenitic stainless steels for medical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Yang and Yibin Ren

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The adverse effects of nickel ions being released into the human body have prompted the development of high-nitrogen nickel-free austenitic stainless steels for medical applications. Nitrogen not only replaces nickel for austenitic structure stability but also much improves steel properties. Here we review the harmful effects associated with nickel in medical stainless steels, the advantages of nitrogen in stainless steels, and emphatically, the development of high-nitrogen nickel-free stainless steels for medical applications. By combining the benefits of stable austenitic structure, high strength and good plasticity, better corrosion and wear resistances, and superior biocompatibility compared to the currently used 316L stainless steel, the newly developed high-nitrogen nickel-free stainless steel is a reliable substitute for the conventional medical stainless steels.

  6. Amine reactivity with charged sulfuric acid clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzdek, B. R.; Ridge, D. P.; Johnston, M. V.

    2011-08-01

    The distribution of charged species produced by electrospray of an ammonium sulfate solution in both positive and negative polarities is examined using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS). Positively-charged ammonium bisulfate cluster composition differs significantly from negatively-charged cluster composition. For positively-charged clusters all sulfuric acid is neutralized to bisulfate, whereas for negatively-charged clusters the degree of sulfuric acid neutralization is cluster size-dependent. With increasing cluster size (and, therefore, a decreasing role of charge), both positively- and negatively-charged cluster compositions converge toward ammonium bisulfate. The reactivity of negatively-charged sulfuric acid-ammonia clusters with dimethylamine and ammonia is also investigated by FTICR-MS. Two series of negatively-charged clusters are investigated: [(HSO4)(H2SO4)x]- and [(NH4)x(HSO4)x+1(H2SO4)3]-. Dimethylamine substitution for ammonia in [(NH4) x(HSO4) x+1(H2SO4)3]- clusters is nearly collision-limited, and subsequent addition of dimethylamine to neutralize H2SO4 to bisulfate is within one order of magnitude of the substitution rate. Dimethylamine addition to [(HSO4) (H2SO4) x]- clusters is either not observed or very slow. The results of this study indicate that amine chemistry will be evident and important only in large ambient negative ions (>m/z 400), whereas amine chemistry may be evident in small ambient positive ions. Addition of ammonia to unneutralized clusters occurs at a rate that is ~2-3 orders of magnitude slower than incorporation of dimethylamine either by substitution or addition. Therefore, in locations where amine levels are within a few orders of magnitude of ammonia levels, amine chemistry may compete favorably with ammonia chemistry.

  7. Methane Tri-reforming over nickel catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    García Vargas, José Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The present work is part of a research program carried out in the Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Castilla-La Mancha, focused in the preparation, characterization and evaluation of catalysts that can be applied in industrially relevant reactions. In this way, the PhD work reported here was aimed to study and improve nickel catalysts applied to the tri-reforming process, evaluating the role of support, precursor and promoter and optimizing the catalyst preparation. Furt...

  8. Magnetic crossover effect in Nickel nanowire arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghaddar, A. [Laboratoire de Magnetisme de Bretagne, CNRS-FRE 3117, C.S. 93837, 29238 Brest, Cedex (France); Gloaguen, F. [Laboratoire de Chimie, Electrochimie Moleculaire et Chimie Analytique, CNRS-UMR 6521, C. S. 93837 Brest Cedex 3 (France); Gieraltowski, J. [Laboratoire de Magnetisme de Bretagne, CNRS-FRE 3117, C.S. 93837, 29238 Brest, Cedex (France); Tannous, C., E-mail: tannous@univ-brest.f [Laboratoire de Magnetisme de Bretagne, CNRS-FRE 3117, C.S. 93837, 29238 Brest, Cedex (France)

    2011-05-01

    A crossover effect in the magnetic reversal mechanism within arrays of Nickel nanowires whose diameter varies from 15 to 100 nm is observed around 50 nm. Hysteresis loops and FMR measurements confirm that nanowire diameter controls effectively the nanowire easy axis as well as the magnetization reversal mechanism. This might be very interesting for spintronic devices based on current-induced domain motion such as non-volatile magnetic memory elements (MRAM) and low Ohmic loss devices.

  9. Strategies for Charging Electric Vehicles in the Electricity Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nina; Pantuso, Giovanni; Iversen, Jan Emil Banning;

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses different charging strategies for a fleet of electric vehicles. Along with increasing the realism of the strategies, the opportunity for acting on the regulating market is also included. We test the value of a vehicle owner that can choose when and how to charge; by presenting...... a model of four alternative charging strategies. We think of them as increasing in sophistication from dumb via delayed to deterministic and stochastic model-based charging. We show that 29% of the total savings from ‘dumb’ are due to delayed charging and that substantial additional gains come charging...... optimally in response to predicted spot prices, and – in some settings – additional gains from using the up and down regulating prices. Particularly, strategies are chosen from uncontrolled charging through deterministic optimization, to modelling the charging and bidding problem with stochastic programming...

  10. Communication between the Zinc and Nickel Sites in Dimeric HypA: Metal Recognition and pH Sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, R.; Perovic, I; Martin-Diaconescu, V; O’Brien, K; Chivers, P; Sondej Pochapsky, S; Pochapsky, T; Maroney, M

    2010-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori, a pathogen that colonizes the human stomach, requires the nickel-containing metalloenzymes urease and NiFe-hydrogenase to survive this low pH environment. The maturation of both enzymes depends on the metallochaperone, HypA. HypA contains two metal sites, an intrinsic zinc site and a low-affinity nickel binding site. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) shows that the structure of the intrinsic zinc site of HypA is dynamic and able to sense both nickel loading and pH changes. At pH 6.3, an internal pH that occurs during acid shock, the zinc site undergoes unprecedented ligand substitutions to convert from a Zn(Cys){sub 4} site to a Zn(His){sub 2}(Cys){sub 2} site. NMR spectroscopy shows that binding of Ni(II) to HypA results in paramagnetic broadening of resonances near the N-terminus. NOEs between the {beta}-CH{sub 2} protons of Zn cysteinyl ligands are consistent with a strand-swapped HypA dimer. Addition of nickel causes resonances from the zinc binding motif and other regions to double, indicating more than one conformation can exist in solution. Although the structure of the high-spin, 5-6 coordinate Ni(II) site is relatively unaffected by pH, the nickel binding stoichiometry is decreased from one per monomer to one per dimer at pH = 6.3. Mutation of any cysteine residue in the zinc binding motif results in a zinc site structure similar to that found for holo-WT-HypA at low pH and is unperturbed by the addition of nickel. Mutation of the histidines that flank the CXXC motifs results in a zinc site structure that is similar to holo-WT-HypA at neutral pH (Zn(Cys){sub 4}) and is no longer responsive to nickel binding or pH changes. Using an in vitro urease activity assay, it is shown that the recombinant protein is sufficient for recovery of urease activity in cell lysate from a HypA deletion mutant, and that mutations in the zinc-binding motif result in a decrease in recovered urease activity. The results are interpreted in terms of a model

  11. Study of a New Quick-Charging Strategy for Electric Vehicles in Highway Charging Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixing Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem, because of which conventional quick-charging strategies (CQCS cannot meet the requirements of quick-charging for multiple types of electric vehicles (EV on highways where vehicle inflow is excessive, this paper proposed a new quick-charging strategy (NQCS for EVs: on the premise of not affecting those EVs being charged, the remaining power of the quick-charging pile with multiple power output interfaces is used to provide a synchronous charging service for EVs waiting in the queue. To verify the effectiveness of this strategy, a power distribution model of charging pile and a queuing model of charging station (CS were constructed. In addition, based on an actual highway service area where vehicle inflow is excessive during the simulation period (0:00–24:00, charging situations of CQCS and NQCS were respectively simulated in a charging station (CS, with different number of chargers, by basic queuing algorithm and an improved queuing algorithm. The simulation results showed that when the relative EV inflow is excessive, compared to CQCS, NQCS not only can reduce user waiting time, charging time, and stay time, but also can improve the utilisation rate of charging infrastructure and service capacity of CS and reduce the queue length of CS. At the same time, NQCS can reduce the impact on the power grid. In addition, in NQCS, the on-demand power distribution method is more efficient than the average power distribution method. Therefore, NQCS is more suitable for quick-charging for multiple types of EVs on highways where vehicle inflow is excessive.

  12. QUASICONTINUUM SIMULATION OF NANOINDENTATION OF NICKEL FILM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng Fanlin; Sun Yi

    2006-01-01

    A large-scale atom simulation of nanoindentation into a thin nickel film using the quasicontinuum method was performed. The initial stages of the plasticity deformation of nickel were studied. Several useful results were obtained as follows: (1) The response of the load versus indentation depth - on the load versus indentation depth curve, besides the straight parts corresponding to the elastic property of nickel, the sudden drop of the load occurred several times;(2) The phenomena of dislocation nucleation - the dislocation nucleation took place when the load descended, which makes it clear that dislocation nucleation causes the drop of the load; (3)The mechanism of the dislocation emission - the Peierls-Nabarro dislocation model and a powerful criterion were used to analyze the dislocation emission. And the computational value was in good agreement with the predict value; (4) The density of geometrically necessary dislocations.A simple model was used to obtain the density of geometrically necessary dislocations beneath the indenter. Furthermore, the influence of the boundary conditions on the simulation results was discussed.

  13. Physics of Ultrathin Films and Heterostructures of Rare-Earth Nickelates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middey, S.; Chakhalian, J.; Mahadevan, P.; Freeland, J. W.; Millis, A. J.; Sarma, D. D.

    2016-07-01

    The electronic structure of transition metal oxides featuring correlated electrons can be rationalized within the Zaanen-Sawatzky-Allen framework. Following a brief description of the present paradigms of electronic behavior, we focus on the physics of rare-earth nickelates as an archetype of complexity emerging within the charge transfer regime. The intriguing prospect of realizing the physics of high-Tc cuprates through heterostructuring resulted in a massive endeavor to epitaxially stabilize these materials in ultrathin form. A plethora of new phenomena unfolded in such artificial structures due to the effect of epitaxial strain, quantum confinement, and interfacial charge transfer. Here we review the present status of artificial rare-earth nickelates in an effort to uncover the interconnection between the electronic and magnetic behavior and the underlying crystal structure. We conclude by discussing future directions to disentangle the puzzle regarding the origin of the metal-insulator transition, the role of oxygen holes, and the true nature of the antiferromagnetic spin configuration in the ultrathin limit.

  14. Performance of a combined capacitor based on ultrafine nickel oxide/carbon nanotubes composite electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofeng Wang; Yanqiu Cao; Yiqiang Lu; Qiqian Sha; Ji Liang

    2004-01-01

    A new sol-gel process for the preparation of ultrafine nickel hydroxide electrode materials was developed. The composite electrodes consisting of carbon nanotubes and Ni(OH)2 were developed by mixing the hydroxide and carbon nanotubes together in different mass ratios. In order to enhance energy density, a combined type pseudocapacitor/electric double layer capacitor was considered and its electrochemical properties were characterized by cyclic voltammetry and dc charge/discharge test. The combined capacitor shows excellent capacitor behavior with an operating voltage up to 1.6 V in KOH aqueous electrolyte. Stable charge/discharge behaviors were observed with much higher specific capacitance values of 24 F/g compared with that of EDLC (12F/g) by introducing 60% Ni(OH)2 in the anode material. By using the modified anode of a Ni(OH)2/carbon nanotubes composite electrode, the specific capacitance of the cell was less sensitive to discharge current density compared with that of the capacitor employing pure nickel hydroxide as anode. The combined capacitor in this study exhibits high energy density and stable power characteristics.

  15. Electrical and magnetic properties of electrodeposited nickel incorporated diamond-like carbon thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, B., E-mail: pandey.beauty@yahoo.com [Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004 (India); Das, D. [UGC-DAE CSR, Sector III/LB-8, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700098 (India); Kar, A.K. [Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004 (India)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Electrical and magnetic properties of DLC and Ni-DLC thin films are studied. • The ohmicity and conductivity of DLC films rise with nickel addition. • The ohmicity of Ni-DLC is enhanced with increase in dilution of electrolyte. • Dielectric loss is high for Ni-DLC and decreases with frequency till 100 kHz. • (m–H) and (m–T) curves of Ni-DLC indicate superparamagnetic behavior. - Abstract: Nanocomposite diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films have been synthesized by incorporating nickel (Ni) nanoparticles in DLC matrix with varying concentration of nickel. DLC and Ni-DLC thin films have been deposited on ITO coated glass substrates employing low voltage electrodeposition method. Electrical properties of the samples were studied by measuring current–voltage characteristics and dielectric properties. The current approaches toward an ohmic behavior with metal addition. This tendency of increasing ohmicity is enhanced with increase in dilution of the electrolyte. The conductivity increases with Ni addition and interestingly it continues to increase with dilution of Ni concentration in the electrolyte in the range of our study. Magnetic properties for DLC and Ni-DLC thin film samples were examined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements and Super Conducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) measurements. g-Value for DLC is 2.074, whereas it decreases to 2.055 with Ni addition in the electrolyte. This decrement arises from the increased sp{sup 2} content in DLC matrix. The magnetic moment vs. magnetic field (m–H) curves of Ni-DLC indicate superparamagnetic behavior which may be due to ferromagnetic contribution from the incorporated nickel nanoparticles in the DLC matrix. The ZFC curve of Ni-DLC after the blocking temperature shows a combined contribution of ferromagnetic, superparamagnetic and paramagnetic nature of the materials persisting up to 300 K.

  16. Nickel nanoparticles: A highly efficient catalyst for one pot synthesis of tetraketones and biscoumarins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jitender M Khurana; Kanika Vij

    2012-07-01

    A novel and practically useful protocol has been designed wherein, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) stabilized nickel nanoparticles have been used as a catalyst for promoting the synthesis of 2,2'-aryl-methylene bis(3-hydroxy-5,5-dimethyl-2-cyclohexene-1-one), 2,2'-aryl-methylene bis(3-hydroxy-2-cyclohexene-1-one), also known as tetraketones, and biscoumarins via Knoevenagel condensation followed by rapid Michael addition.

  17. Predicting Soluble Nickel in Soils Using Soil Properties and Total Nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoqing; Li, Jumei; Wei, Dongpu; Li, Bo; Ma, Yibing

    2015-01-01

    Soil soluble nickel (Ni) concentration is very important for determining soil Ni toxicity. In the present study, the relationships between soil properties, total and soluble Ni concentrations in soils were developed in a wide range of soils with different properties and climate characteristics. The multiple regressions showed that soil pH and total soil Ni concentrations were the most significant parameters in predicting soluble Ni concentrations with the adjusted determination coefficients (Radj2) values of 0.75 and 0.68 for soils spiked with soluble Ni salt and the spiked soils leached with artificial rainwater to mimic field conditions, respectively. However, when the soils were divided into three categories (pH 8), they obtained better predictions with Radj2 values of 0.78–0.90 and 0.79–0.94 for leached and unleached soils, respectively. Meanwhile, the other soil properties, such as amorphous Fe and Al oxides and clay, were also found to be important for determining soluble Ni concentrations, indicating that they were also presented as active adsorbent surfaces. Additionally, the whole soil speciation including bulk soil properties and total soils Ni concentrations were analyzed by mechanistic speciation models WHAM VI and Visual MINTEQ3.0. It was found that WHAM VI provided the best predictions for the soils with pH 8. The Visual MINTEQ3.0 could provide better estimation for pH 8. These results indicated the possibility and applicability of these models to predict soil soluble Ni concentration by soil properties. PMID:26217951

  18. Corrosion and biofouling resistance evaluation of 90-10 copper-nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, Carol [Consultant to Copper Development Association, UK, Square Covert, Caynham, Ludlow, Shropshire (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Copper-nickel alloys for marine use were developed for naval applications in the early part of the 20. century with a view to improving the corrosion resistance of condenser tubes and seawater piping. They still enjoy widespread use today not only for many navies but also in commercial shipping, floating production, storage and off loading vessels (FPSOs), and in multistage flash desalination. The two popular alloys contain 90% or 70% copper and differ in strength and maximum sea water velocity levels they can handle but it is the 90-10 copper-nickel (CuNi10Fe1Mn) which is the more economic and extensively used. An additional benefit of this alloy is its high resistance to biofouling: in recent years this has led to sheathing developments particularly for structures and boat hulls. This paper provides a review of the corrosion and biofouling resistance of 90-10 copper-nickel based on laboratory test data and documented experience of the alloy in marine environments. Particular attention is given to exposure trials over 8 years in Langstone Harbour, UK, which have recently been completed by Portsmouth University on behalf of the Nickel Institute. These examined four sheathing products; plate and foil as well as two composite products with rubber backing. The latter involved copper-nickel granules and slit sheet. The trial results are consistent with the behaviour of the alloy in the overall review. There is an inherent high resistance to marine biofouling when freely exposed. Prolonged exposure to quiet conditions can result in some growth of marine organisms but this is loosely attached and can readily be removed by wiping or a light scraping. The good corrosion resistance of 90-10 copper-nickel in sea water is also confirmed and associated with the formation of a thin, complex, protective and predominantly cuprous oxide surface film, which forms and matures naturally on exposure to seawater. Sound initial oxide film formation is also known to help protect against

  19. Effect of KOH concentration on LEO cycle life of IPV nickel-hydrogen flight cell - Update II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithrick, John J.; Hall, Stephen W.

    1992-01-01

    An update of validation test results confirming the breakthrough in LEO cycle life of nickel-hydrogen cells containing 26 percent KOH electrolyte is presented. A breakthrough in the LEO cycle life of individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen cells has been previously reported. The cycle life of boiler plate cells containing 26 percent potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte was about 40,000 LEO cycles, compared to 3500 cycles for cells containing 31 percent KOH. The cycle regime was a stressful accelerated LEO, which consisted of a 27.5 min charge followed by a 17.5 min discharge (2X normal rate). The depth-of-discharge was 80 percent. Six 48-Ah Hughes recirculation design IPV nickel-hydrogen flight battery cells are being evaluated. Three of the cells contain 26 percent KOH (test cells), and three contain 31 percent KOH (control cells). They are undergoing real time LEO cycle life testing. The cycle regime is a 90-min LEO orbit consisting of a 54-min charge followed by a 36-min discharge. The depth-of-discharge is 80 percent. The cell temperature is maintained at 10 C. The three 31 percent KOH cells failed (cycles 3729, 4165, and 11355). One of the 26 percent KOH cells failed at cycle 15314. The other two 26 percent KOH cells were cycled for over 16,000 cycles during the continuing test.

  20. Exploring the main function of reduced graphene oxide nano-flakes in a nickel cobalt sulfide counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Man-Ning; Lin, Jeng-Yu; Wei, Tzu-Chien

    2016-11-01

    Addition of carbonaceous materials into transition metal sulfide counter electrode (CE) of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is a common method to improve the performance of the CE and consequent photovoltaic performance. This improvement is almost without exception attributed to the improvement of overall conductivity after the carbonaceous material addition; however, the root function of these carbonaceous materials in promoting the solar cell efficiency is seldom discussed. In this study, highly crystallized nickel cobalt sulfide (NCS) micro-particles were mixed with a small portion of home-made reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nano-flakes. This NCS/rGO hybrid is subjected to extensive characterizations including X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It is found that the rGO acts bi-functionally including a co-catalyst in accelerating the tri-iodide reduction for the main NCS catalysts, conductivity promotor to decrease the series resistance of the CE. Proved by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, it is confirmed that the decrease in series resistance is less insignificant than that in charge transfer resistance, indicating rGO functions more profoundly as a co-catalyst than as a conductivity promotor. Moreover, an argument to highlight the requirement of a CE in a dim-light optimized DSSC is also proposed.

  1. Dust Charging in Electronegative SiH4 Plasmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Ping; WANG Zheng-Xiong; LIU Yue; LIU Jin-Yuan; WANG Xiao-Gang

    2005-01-01

    @@ We theoretically investigate the dust charging in electronegative silane (SiH4) plasmas, taking into account the effects of UV photodetachment. It is found that UV photodetachment could significantly lower the dust negative charge and even makes dust grains be positively charged under some special conditions. In addition, the other parameters, involving the negative ion and dust number densities, electron temperature and dust radius, have great effects upon the dust charging.

  2. Electrostatic charge on spray droplets of aqueous surfactant solutions

    OpenAIRE

    POLAT, Mehmet; Polat, Hürriyet; Chander, Subhash

    2000-01-01

    Electrostatic charges on individual spray droplets were measured using a refined form of the Millikan oil drop method. The measurement system consisted of three main sections; a droplet generation cell, a settling column and a charge measurement chamber. The trajectories required for calculation of charge were determined using a high-speed motion analyzer coupled to a long-focal-length microscope. Charges on droplets were manipulated by the addition of surface-active agents into the spray sol...

  3. A study of nickel silicide in a conventional furnace for Ni/Cu contact monocrystalline-silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Seon Kyu; Lee, Soo Hong

    2013-01-01

    High-conductivity contacts in place of screen-printed contacts are in demand for commercial solar cells. Also, simplifying the process steps is required for commercial solar cells. In addition, very expensive metals are necessary improved efficiency without using scarce. In this research, we replaced screen-printed contacts with Ni/Cu contacts in passivated emitter solar cells. A layer of nickel was used as the seed and the adhesion layer. The main contact was formed by plating with copper. Firing conditions in a conventional furnace were varied so as to form nickel silicide. The best cell showed a solar cell efficiency of 18.76%.

  4. Response of nickel surface to pulsed fusion plasma radiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niranjan, Ram; Rout, R. K.; Srivastava, R.; Chakravarthy, Y.; Patel, N. N.; Alex, P.; Gupta, Satish C.

    2014-04-01

    Nickel based alloys are being projected as suitable materials for some components of the next generation fusion reactor because of compatible thermal, electrical and mechanical properties. Pure nickel material is tested here for possibility of similar application purpose. Nickel samples (> 99.5 % purity) are exposed here to plasma radiations produced due to D-D fusion reaction inside an 11.5 kJ plasma focus device. The changes in the physical properties of the nickel surface at microscopic level which in turn change the mechanical properties are analyzed using scanning electron microscope, optical microscope, glancing incident X-ray diffractometer and Vicker's hardness gauge. The results are reported here.

  5. Nickel clusters embedded in carbon nanotubes as high performance magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiozawa, Hidetsugu; Briones-Leon, Antonio; Domanov, Oleg; Zechner, Georg; Sato, Yuta; Suenaga, Kazu; Saito, Takeshi; Eisterer, Michael; Weschke, Eugen; Lang, Wolfgang; Peterlik, Herwig; Pichler, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Ensembles of fcc nickel nanowires have been synthesized with defined mean sizes in the interior of single-wall carbon nanotubes. The method allows the intrinsic nature of single-domain magnets to emerge with large coercivity as their size becomes as small as the exchange length of nickel. By means of X-ray magnetic circular dichroism we probe electronic interactions at nickel-carbon interfaces where nickel exhibit no hysteresis and size-dependent spin magnetic moment. A manifestation of the interacting two subsystems on a bulk scale is traced in the nanotube’s magnetoresistance as explained within the framework of weak localization.

  6. Nickel-Based Superalloy Resists Embrittlement by Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan; Chen, PoShou

    2008-01-01

    A nickel-based superalloy that resists embrittlement by hydrogen more strongly than does nickel alloy 718 has been developed. Nickel alloy 718 is the most widely used superalloy. It has excellent strength and resistance to corrosion as well as acceptably high ductility, and is recognized as the best alloy for many high-temperature applications. However, nickel alloy 718 is susceptible to embrittlement by hydrogen and to delayed failure and reduced tensile properties in gaseous hydrogen. The greater resistance of the present nickel-based superalloy to adverse effects of hydrogen makes this alloy a superior alternative to nickel alloy 718 for applications that involve production, transfer, and storage of hydrogen, thereby potentially contributing to the commercial viability of hydrogen as a clean-burning fuel. The table shows the composition of the present improved nickel-based superalloy in comparison with that of nickel alloy 718. This composition was chosen to obtain high resistance to embrittlement by hydrogen while maintaining high strength and exceptional resistance to oxidation and corrosion. The most novel property of this alloy is that it resists embrittlement by hydrogen while retaining tensile strength greater than 175 kpsi (greater than 1.2 GPa). This alloy exhibits a tensile elongation of more than 20 percent in hydrogen at a pressure of 5 kpsi (approximately equal to 34 MPa) without loss of ductility. This amount of elongation corresponds to 50 percent more ductility than that exhibited by nickel alloy 718 under the same test conditions.

  7. Ab initio coordination chemistry for nickel chelation motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudan, R Jesu Jaya; Kumari, J Lesitha Jeeva; Sudandiradoss, C

    2015-01-01

    Chelation therapy is one of the most appreciated methods in the treatment of metal induced disease predisposition. Coordination chemistry provides a way to understand metal association in biological structures. In this work we have implemented coordination chemistry to study nickel coordination due to its high impact in industrial usage and thereby health consequences. This paper reports the analysis of nickel coordination from a large dataset of nickel bound structures and sequences. Coordination patterns predicted from the structures are reported in terms of donors, chelate length, coordination number, chelate geometry, structural fold and architecture. The analysis revealed histidine as the most favored residue in nickel coordination. The most common chelates identified were histidine based namely HHH, HDH, HEH and HH spaced at specific intervals. Though a maximum coordination number of 8 was observed, the presence of a single protein donor was noted to be mandatory in nickel coordination. The coordination pattern did not reveal any specific fold, nevertheless we report preferable residue spacing for specific structural architecture. In contrast, the analysis of nickel binding proteins from bacterial and archeal species revealed no common coordination patterns. Nickel binding sequence motifs were noted to be organism specific and protein class specific. As a result we identified about 13 signatures derived from 13 classes of nickel binding proteins. The specifications on nickel coordination presented in this paper will prove beneficial for developing better chelation strategies.

  8. Nickel powders recycled from invar scrap by magnesiothermic reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Seok; Lee, Dong-Won; Lee, Hak-Sung; Yun, Jung-Yeul; Wang, Jei-Pil

    2014-12-01

    A study on the recovery of nickel from Fe-Ni alloy scrap was conducted using molten magnesium by dissolving only Ni component and then removing Mg using vacuum distillation method. The recovering faction of nickel higher than 99% was achieved at temperatures above 1,073 K and 99.5% of purity level of nickel was successfully obtained under vacuum degree of 10(-5) torr at temperatures above 1,273 K. The purity, phase, and recovery rate of nickel were examined by scanning electron microscopy, elemental analyser, and X-ray diffraction.

  9. Ab initio coordination chemistry for nickel chelation motifs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Jesu Jaya Sudan

    Full Text Available Chelation therapy is one of the most appreciated methods in the treatment of metal induced disease predisposition. Coordination chemistry provides a way to understand metal association in biological structures. In this work we have implemented coordination chemistry to study nickel coordination due to its high impact in industrial usage and thereby health consequences. This paper reports the analysis of nickel coordination from a large dataset of nickel bound structures and sequences. Coordination patterns predicted from the structures are reported in terms of donors, chelate length, coordination number, chelate geometry, structural fold and architecture. The analysis revealed histidine as the most favored residue in nickel coordination. The most common chelates identified were histidine based namely HHH, HDH, HEH and HH spaced at specific intervals. Though a maximum coordination number of 8 was observed, the presence of a single protein donor was noted to be mandatory in nickel coordination. The coordination pattern did not reveal any specific fold, nevertheless we report preferable residue spacing for specific structural architecture. In contrast, the analysis of nickel binding proteins from bacterial and archeal species revealed no common coordination patterns. Nickel binding sequence motifs were noted to be organism specific and protein class specific. As a result we identified about 13 signatures derived from 13 classes of nickel binding proteins. The specifications on nickel coordination presented in this paper will prove beneficial for developing better chelation strategies.

  10. Nickel-Catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura Cross-Coupling in a Green Alcohol Solvent for an Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hie, Liana; Chang, Jonah J.; Garg, Neil K.

    2015-01-01

    A modern undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory experiment involving the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling is reported. Although Suzuki-Miyaura couplings typically employ palladium catalysts in environmentally harmful solvents, this experiment features the use of inexpensive nickel catalysis, in addition to a "green" alcohol solvent. The…

  11. Enantioselective Nickel-Catalyzed anti-Carbometallative Cyclizations of Alkynyl Electrophiles Enabled by Reversible Alkenylnickel E/Z Isomerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Nickel-catalyzed additions of arylboronic acids to alkynes, followed by enantioselective cyclizations of the alkenylnickel species onto tethered ketones or enones, are reported. These reactions are reliant upon the formal anti-carbonickelation of the alkyne, which is postulated to occur by the reversible E/Z isomerization of an alkenylnickel species. PMID:27333360

  12. Columns formed by multiple twinning in nickel layers—An approach of grain boundary engineering by electrodeposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alimadadi, Hossein; da Silva Fanta, Alice Bastos; Somers, Marcel A. J.;

    2013-01-01

    Complementary microscopic and diffraction based methods revealed a peculiar microstructure of electrodeposited nickel. For the as-deposited layer, thus, without any additional treatment, multiple twinning yields a high population of Σ3n boundaries, which interrupts the network of normal high angle...

  13. Homogeneous catalysis for the production of fine chemicals. Palladium- and nickel-catalysed aromatic carbon–carbon bond formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucker, Charles E.; Vries, Johannes G. de

    2002-01-01

    In this article we describe our recent efforts in the area of palladium- and nickel-catalysed aromatic substitution reactions. Main focus is on low cost and low waste production methods. The use of aromatic carboxylic anhydrides in the Heck reaction leads to a waste-free protocol. In addition these

  14. Effect of experimental factors on magnetic properties of nickel nanoparticles produced by chemical reduction method using a statistical design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaezi, M.R. [Division of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Materials and Energy Research Center, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Barzgar Vishlaghi, M., E-mail: mahsabarzgar@gmail.com [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Koç University, Rumeli Feneri Yolu, Sarıyer, Istanbul 34450 (Turkey); Farzalipour Tabriz, M. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Koç University, Rumeli Feneri Yolu, Sarıyer, Istanbul 34450 (Turkey); Mohammad Moradi, O. [Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Sabancı University, Tuzla/Orhanli, Istanbul 34956 (Turkey)

    2015-06-25

    Highlights: • Superparamagnetic nickel nanoparticles are synthesized by wet chemical reduction. • Effects of synthesis parameters on magnetic properties are studied. • Central composite experimental design is used for building an empirical model. • Solvents ratio was more influential than reactants mixing rate. - Abstract: Nickel nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical reduction method in the absence of any surface capping agent. The effect of reactants mixing rate and the volume ratio of methanol/ethanol as solvent on the morphology and magnetic properties of nickel nanoparticles were studied by design of experiment using central composite design. X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were utilized to characterize the synthesized nanoparticles. Size distribution of particles was studied by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) technique and magnetic properties of produced nanoparticles were investigated by Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) apparatus. The results showed that the magnetic properties of nickel nanoparticles were more influenced by volume ratio of methanol/ethanol than the reactants mixing rate. Super-paramagnetic nickel nanoparticles with size range between 20 and 50 nm were achieved when solvent was pure methanol and the reactants mixing rate was kept at 70 ml/h. But addition of more ethanol to precursor solvent leads to the formation of larger particles with broader size distribution and weak ferromagnetic or super-paramagnetic behavior.

  15. THE INVESTIGATION OF INFLUENCE OF LASER RADIATION ON THE STRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITE ELECTROLYTIC NICKEL COATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Zabludovsky

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Investigation of laser radiation effect on the structure and mechanical properties of electrodeposited nickel composite coatings containing ultrafine diamonds. Methodology. Electrodeposition of nickel films was carried out with the addition of a standard solution of ultrafine diamonds (UFD on laser-electrolytic installation, built on the basis of the gas-discharge CO2 laser. Mechanical testing the durability of coatings were performed on a machine with reciprocating samples in conditions of dry friction against steel. The spectral microanalysis of the elemental composition of the film - substrate was performed on REMMA-102-02. Findings. Research of nickel coatings and modified ultrafine diamond electrodeposited under external stimulation laser demonstrated the dependence of the structure and mechanical properties of composite electrolytic coating (CEC, and the qualitative and quantitative distribution of nanodiamond coprecipitated from an electrodeposition method. Originality. The effect of laser light on the process of co-precipitation of the UFD, which increases the micro-hardness and wear resistance of electrolytic nickel coatings was determined. Practical value. The test method of laser-stimulated composite electrolytic nickel electrodeposition coating is an effective method of local increase in wear resistance of metal coatings, which provides durability save performance (functional properties of the surface.

  16. Mercury and nickel contents in fish meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Toth

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of our work was to identify the content of mercury and nickel in selected fish species. Consumers today are increasingly aware of the association between diet and health, and thus in Europe consume more and more fish. Fish is a valuable source of high quality protein, minerals and vitamins, and fatty fish are also rich in omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are normally considered to be beneficial to health. In our work we determined content of mercury and nickel harvested fish in particular were the following species: Common goldfish (Carassius auratus, L., Common roach (Rutilus rutilus, L. and Common bream (Abramis brama, L. Concentrations of mercury and nickel was analyzed and results evaluated according to current standards and compared to the values ​​established by the Codex Alimentarius of the Slovak Republic and the EU Commission Regulation no. 1881/2006, as well as in the EU Commission Regulation no. 420/2011 and no. 269/2008. In our research area we analysed 19 samples of fish muscle. Samples were taken from two water reservoirs – Golianovo and Vráble.  The highest mercury content was in sample Rutilus 1 - 0.052632 mg/kg. Lowest mercury content was in sample Abramis 2  - 0.010431 mg/kg. Largest nickel content was in meat of Abramis  - sample 2  - 0.78 mg/kg. Minimum content of nickel was in sample Carassius 1  - 0.11 mg/kg. We got out of the limit values ​​specified: Codex Alimentarius SR - Mercury 0.5 mg/kg and  Regulation of the EU Commission no. 1881/2006, no. 420/2011 and no. 629/2008. To optimize the protection of the population, it is necessary to continue to monitor the concentration of mercury in fish and fish products. Risk management strategy must focus on reducing potential exposure derived from consumption of fish. In particular, the definition of maximum levels for methylmercury, advising consumers and environmental activities oriented to reduce contamination.

  17. Combination nickel foam expanded nickel screen electrical connection supports for solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Robert; Prevish, Thomas; Bronson, Angela; George, Raymond A.

    2007-01-02

    A solid oxide fuel assembly is made, wherein rows (14, 25) of fuel cells (17, 19, 21, 27, 29, 31), each having an outer interconnection (20) and an outer electrode (32), are disposed next to each other with corrugated, electrically conducting expanded metal mesh member (22) between each row of cells, the corrugated mesh (22) having top crown portions and bottom portions, where the top crown portion (40) have a top bonded open cell nickel foam (51) which contacts outer interconnections (20) of the fuel cells, said mesh and nickel foam electrically connecting each row of fuel cells, and where there are no more metal felt connections between any fuel cells.

  18. Electrolyte Management Considerations in Modern Nickel Hydrogen and Nickel Cadmium Cell and Battery Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaller, Lawrence H.; Zimmerman, Albert H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews three general areas where the potassium ion content can impact the performance and life of nickel hydrogen and nickel cadmium cells. Sample calculations of the concentration or volume changes that can take place within operating cells are presented. With the aid of an accurate model of an operating cell or battery, the impact of changes of potassium ion content within a potential cell design can be estimated. All three of these areas are directly related to the volume tolerance and pore size engineering aspects of the components used in the cell or battery design.

  19. Physical metallurgy of nickel aluminides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G K Dey

    2003-02-01

    A description of the important physical metallurgy aspects of Ni$_3Al and NiAl encompassing structure, crystallographic defects, slip systems and phase stability has been presented in this article. The microstructures generated in the two alloys by conventional as well as novel processing techniques have been discussed. The effect of alloying additions on the microstructure has been enumerated. Besides description of the aforementioned physical metallurgy aspects, an important purpose of this review is to focus on the reasons of brittleness in the two alloys and means of alleviating this problem primarily by alloying. The effect of alloying on the slip behaviour has also been described.

  20. Study on Coke Formation and Stability of Nickel-Based Catalysts in CO2 Reforming of CH4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎先财; 吴敏; 杨沂凤; 何琲

    2004-01-01

    CO2 reforming of CH4 over nickel-based catalysts was investigated by using a fixed-bed reactor. Catalytic activity and amount of carbon deposition effects by nickel loading content, rare earth promoter and promoter contents were evaluated. It is found that nickel loading as well as reaction temperature can influence the activity and carbon deposition amounts,and with the addition of rare earth promoter, it can greatly improve the catalytic activity and exert a strong effect on the anticoking performance of the catalysts. The 5.0%(mass fraction)Ni-0.75%La-BaTiO3 catalyst shows great resistance to coke formation and higher thermal stability as well as the catalytic activity.

  1. Electroanalysis of tetracycline using nickel-implanted boron-doped diamond thin film electrode applied to flow injection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treetepvijit, Surudee; Chuanuwatanakul, Suchada; Einaga, Yasuaki; Sato, Rika; Chailapakult, Orawon

    2005-05-01

    The electrochemical analysis of tetracycline was investigated using nickel-implanted boron-doped diamond thin film electrode by cyclic voltammetry and amperometry with a flow injection system. Cyclic voltammetry was used to study the electrochemical oxidation of tetracycline. Comparison experiments were carried out using as-deposited boron-doped diamond thin film electrode (BDD). Nickel-implanted boron-doped diamond thin film electrode (Ni-DIA) provided well-resolved oxidation irreversible cyclic voltammograms. The current signals were higher than those obtained using the as-deposited BDD electrode. Results using nickel-implanted boron-doped diamond thin film electrode in flow injection system coupled with amperometric detection are presented. The optimum potential for tetracycline was 1.55 V versus Ag/AgCl. The linear range of 1.0 to 100 microM and the detection limit of 10 nM were obtained. In addition, the application for drug formulation was also investigated.

  2. Corrosion resistance of nickel and nickel alloys. (Latest citations from Information Services in Mechanical Engineering database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the corrosion resistance of nickel and nickel alloys used in electrical and structural materials and chemical processes. Topics include susceptibility of nickel to high temperature sulfidation, normal exposure to saline and other high chloride environments, pitting corrosion, and metal coatings. Special cases of corrosion of weld-filler metal combinations are also included. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  3. Efficient Utilization of Nickel Laterite to Produce Master Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaodong; Cui, Zhixiang; Zhao, Baojun

    2016-12-01

    To lower the smelting temperature associated with the carbothermic reduction processing of laterite, the optimization of slag and alloy systems was investigated to enable the reduction of laterite ore in the molten state at 1723 K. The master Fe-Ni-Mo alloy was successfully produced at a lower temperature (1723 K). The liquidus of the slag decreased with the addition of oxide flux (Fe2O3 and CaO) and that of the ferronickel alloy decreased with the addition of Mo/MoO3. More effective metal-slag separation was achieved at 1723 K, which reduces the smelting temperature by 100 K compared with the current electric furnace process. A small addition of Mo/MoO3 not only decreased the melting point of ferronickel alloys but also served as a collector to aggregate the ferronickel sponges allowing them to grow larger. The FeO concentration in the slag and the nickel grade of the alloy decreased with increasing graphite reductant addition.

  4. Charge exchange and energy loss of slow highly charged ions in 1 nm thick carbon nanomembranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Richard A; Gruber, Elisabeth; Ritter, Robert; Heller, René; Facsko, Stefan; Aumayr, Friedrich

    2014-04-18

    Experimental charge exchange and energy loss data for the transmission of slow highly charged Xe ions through ultrathin polymeric carbon membranes are presented. Surprisingly, two distinct exit charge state distributions accompanied by charge exchange dependent energy losses are observed. The energy loss for ions exhibiting large charge loss shows a quadratic dependency on the incident charge state indicating that equilibrium stopping force values do not apply in this case. Additional angle resolved transmission measurements point on a significant contribution of elastic energy loss. The observations show that regimes of different impact parameters can be separated and thus a particle's energy deposition in an ultrathin solid target may not be described in terms of an averaged energy loss per unit length.

  5. Surface Charging and Points of Zero Charge

    CERN Document Server

    Kosmulski, Marek

    2009-01-01

    Presents Points of Zero Charge data on well-defined specimen of materials sorted by trademark, manufacturer, and location. This text emphasizes the comparison between particular results obtained for different portions of the same or very similar material and synthesizes the information published in research reports over the past few decades

  6. Metallothionein expression induced by nickel accumulation in the midgut of Spodoptera litura Fabricius larvae exposed to nickel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Metallothionein expression induced by nickel accumulation in the midgut of Spodoptera litura Fabricius larvae was investigated by exposing S. litura larvae to the artificial diets amended with different doses of nickel for 3 generations. Nickel accumulations in the midgut of 6th instar larvae were detected by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES), and the induced metallothionein expression in the midgut of 5th and 6th instar larvae in 120 h were quantified using cadmium-hemoglobin total saturation methods. The accumulated nickel in the midgut of the 6th instar larvae within a generation increased with the increase of the nickel doses in the treated diets and showed significant dose-dependence with the nickel doses in diets. Metallothioneins induced by nickel accumulated in the larval midgut also increased with nickel doses in diets and with the increasing stressing time in a generation. Results also suggested that the metallothionein expression was different with the time of S. litura larvae stressed by nickel.

  7. Plants sensitivity on nickel under different conditions of iron or calcium concentration in the nutrient medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Matraszek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of six vegetable plants on nickel at early stages of their growth was investigated by index of tolerance. Besides the possibility of nickel fitostabilization by additional application of iron or calcium was tested. The experiment was conducted on Petri dishes. Different concentrations of nickel (0; 0,03; 0,06mM Ni as nickel sulphate, iron (0,05; O,OlmM Fe as Fe2+ citrate and calcium (0,50; 0,75; lmM Ca as calcium carbonate were added. Taking into consideration the sensitivity, investigated vegetables can be ordered in the following way: Cucurbita pepo conv. giromontiina L.>Lactuca sativa L.>Sinapis alba L.>Spinacia oleracea L.=Zea mays var. saccharata Kcke.>Phaseolus vulgaris L. Positive, statistically significant effect ofnickel fitostabilization (0,03 or 0,06mM Ni on elongative growth by the iron application (0,10mM Fe was shown for Zea mays var. saccharata Kcke independently of Ni concentration in the nutrient medium as well as for Sinapis alba L. and Phaseolus vulgaris L. in 0,06mM Ni. Addition as much as 0,75mM Ca in the presence 0,03mM Ni had positive result on Sinapis alba L and Phaseolus vulgaris L. seedlings as well as on Zea mays var. saccharata Kcke and Lactuca sativa L. roots and Cucurbita pepo convar. giromontiina L. shoots. Addition of 0,75mM Ca in the presence 0,06mM Ni promoted elongative growth of Zea mays var. saccharata Kcke seedlings. Application lmM Ca resulted in the promotion of elongative growth of Zea mays var. saccharata Kcke. roots (0,03mM Ni as well as Spinacia oleracea L. roots (0,06mM Ni.

  8. Biomass Catalytic Pyrolysis on Ni/ZSM-5: Effects of Nickel Pretreatment and Loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yung, Matthew M.; Starace, Anne K.; Mukarakate, Calvin; Crow, Allison M.; Leshnov, Marissa A.; Magrini, Kimberly A.

    2016-07-21

    In this work, Ni/ZSM-5 catalysts with varied nickel loadings were evaluated for their ability to produce aromatic hydrocarbons by upgrading of pine pyrolysis vapors. The effect of catalyst pretreatment by hydrogen reduction was also investigated. Results indicate that the addition of nickel increases the yield of aromatic hydrocarbons while simultaneously increasing the conversion of oxygenates, relative to ZSM-5, and these effects are more pronounced with increasing nickel loading. Additionally, while initial activity differences were observed between the oxidized and reduced forms of nickel on ZSM-5 (i.e., NiO/ZSM-5 versus Ni/ZSM-5), the activity of both catalysts converges with increasing time on stream. These reaction results coupled with characterization of pristine and spent catalysts suggest that the catalysts reach similar active states during catalytic pyrolysis, regardless of pretreatment, as NiO undergoes in situ reduction to Ni by biomass pyrolysis vapors. This reduction of NiO to Ni was confirmed by reaction results and characterization by NH3 temperature-programmed desorption, temperature-programmed reduction, and X-ray diffraction. This finding is significant in that the ability to reduce or eliminate the need for a pre-reaction H2 reduction of Ni-modified zeolite catalysts could reduce process complexity and operating costs in a biorefinery-based vapor-phase upgrading process to produce biomass-derived fuels and chemicals. The ability to monitor catalyst activity in real time with a molecular beam mass spectrometer used to measure uncondensed, hot pyrolysis vapors allows for an improved understanding of the mechanism for improved activity with Ni addition to ZSM-5, which is attributed to the ability to prevent deactivation by deposition of coke and capping of zeolite micropores.

  9. Evolution of solidification texture during additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, H L; Mazumder, J; DebRoy, T

    2015-11-10

    Striking differences in the solidification textures of a nickel based alloy owing to changes in laser scanning pattern during additive manufacturing are examined based on theory and experimental data. Understanding and controlling texture are important because it affects mechanical and chemical properties. Solidification texture depends on the local heat flow directions and competitive grain growth in one of the six preferred growth directions in face centered cubic alloys. Therefore, the heat flow directions are examined for various laser beam scanning patterns based on numerical modeling of heat transfer and fluid flow in three dimensions. Here we show that numerical modeling can not only provide a deeper understanding of the solidification growth patterns during the additive manufacturing, it also serves as a basis for customizing solidification textures which are important for properties and performance of components.

  10. Infrared spectroscopic investigation of CO adsorption on SBA-15- and KIT-6-supported nickel phosphide hydrotreating catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korányi, Tamás I; Pfeifer, Eva; Mihály, Judith; Föttinger, Karin

    2008-06-12

    The infrared (IR) spectra of CO adsorbed on 10, 20, and 30 wt % nickel phosphide-containing reduced SBA-15 and KIT-6 mesoporous silica-supported catalysts have been studied at 300-473 K. On the catalysts containing a stoichiometric amount of phosphorus with 20 wt % loading, the most intense IR absorption band was observed at 2097-2099 cm(-1), which was assigned to CO terminally bonded to coordinatively unsaturated Ni(delta+) (0 hydrotreating catalytic activity. The modified Ni-P charge distribution, the mode of CO adsorption on surface nickel phosphide sites, as well as the acidity can be directly connected to the catalytic activity of these mesoporous silica-supported catalysts.

  11. Effects of preparation methods of support on the properties of nickel catalyst for hydrogenation of m-dinitrobenzene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yingxin; WEI Zuojun; CHEN Jixiang; ZHANG Jiyan

    2007-01-01

    Using tetraethyl orthosilicate(TEOS) as the precursor of silica,the silica aerogel and xerogel,which were used as supports of nickel-based catalysts for liquid hydrogenation of m-dinitrobenzene to m-phenylenediamine,were prepared by the sol-gel method combined with supercritical drying(SCD)and conventional drying,respectively.Then,a series of nickel-based catalyst samples supported on these supports were prepared by the incipient wetness impregnation method with an aqueous solution of nickel nitrate as well as lanthanum nitrate as impregnation liquids.Based on the characterization results of nitrogen adsorption-desorption (BET),X-ray diffraction(XRD),temperature programmed reduction(TPR),temperature-programmed desorption of hydrogen(H2-TPD),and catalytic activity evaluation,the physico-chemical properties and catalytic performances of the catalysts were investigated.The results show that the nickel crystallites on the binary nickel catalyst using silica aerogel as support are of smaller particle size.However,compared with the sample supported on silica xerogel,the nickel catalyst supported on the silica aerogel exhibits lower activity and selectivity for the hydrogenation of m-dinitrobenzene because it has a lesser amount of active sites and weaker absorption ability to reactants caused by sintering of the nickel crystallites.The addition of promoter La2O3 could increase the activity and selectivity of the catalysts.Among all the nickel-based catalyst samples prepared,the La2O3 promoted ternary nickel-based catalyst supported on silica xerogel exhibits the highest activity and selectivity for the hydrogenation of m-dinitrobenzene to m-phenylenediamine,which could be attributed to its highest active surfacc area and appropriate absorption strength to reactants.Over this promising catalyst,me conversion of m-dinitrobenzene and the yield of m-phenylenediamine could reach 97.0%and 93.1%,respectively,under proper reaction conditions of hydrogen pressure 2.6 MPa

  12. Method for forming electrically charged laser targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Ronald K.; Hunt, Angus L.

    1979-01-01

    Electrically chargeable laser targets and method for forming such charged targets in order to improve their guidance along a predetermined desired trajectory. This is accomplished by the incorporation of a small amount of an additive to the target material which will increase the electrical conductivity thereof, and thereby enhance the charge placed upon the target material for guidance thereof by electrostatic or magnetic steering mechanisms, without adversely affecting the target when illuminated by laser energy.

  13. Improved charge amplifier using hybrid hysteresis compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin-Shahidi, Darya; Trumper, David L.

    2013-08-01

    We present a novel charge amplifier, with a robust feedback circuit and a method for compensating piezoelectric actuator's hysteresis at low frequencies. The amplifier uses a modified feedback circuit which improves robustness to the addition of series load impedance such as in cabling. We also describe a hybrid hysteresis compensation method for enabling the charge amplifier to reduce hysteresis at low frequencies. Experimental results demonstrate the utility of the new amplifier design.

  14. Rain Drop Charge Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Sreekanth T.

    begin{center} Large Large Rain Drop Charge Sensor Sreekanth T S*, Suby Symon*, G. Mohan Kumar (1) , S. Murali Das (2) *Atmospheric Sciences Division, Centre for Earth Science Studies, Thiruvananthapuram 695011 (1) D-330, Swathi Nagar, West Fort, Thiruvananthapuram 695023 (2) Kavyam, Manacaud, Thiruvananthapuram 695009 begin{center} ABSTRACT To study the inter-relations with precipitation electricity and precipitation microphysical parameters a rain drop charge sensor was designed and developed at CESS Electronics & Instrumentation Laboratory. Simultaneous measurement of electric charge and fall speed of rain drops could be done using this charge sensor. A cylindrical metal tube (sensor tube) of 30 cm length is placed inside another thick metal cover opened at top and bottom for electromagnetic shielding. Mouth of the sensor tube is exposed and bottom part is covered with metal net in the shielding cover. The instrument is designed in such a way that rain drops can pass only through unhindered inside the sensor tube. When electrically charged rain drops pass through the sensor tube, it is charged to the same magnitude of drop charge but with opposite polarity. The sensor tube is electrically connected the inverted input of a current to voltage converter operational amplifier using op-amp AD549. Since the sensor is electrically connected to the virtual ground of the op-amp, the charge flows to the ground and the generated current is converted to amplified voltage. This output voltage is recorded using a high frequency (1kHz) voltage recorder. From the recorded pulse, charge magnitude, polarity and fall speed of rain drop are calculated. From the fall speed drop diameter also can be calculated. The prototype is now under test running at CESS campus. As the magnitude of charge in rain drops is an indication of accumulated charge in clouds in lightning, this instrument has potential application in the field of risk and disaster management. By knowing the charge

  15. Induced Charge Capacitive Deionization

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, S; Biesheuvel, P M; Bercovici, M

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the phenomenon of induced-charge capacitive deionization (ICCDI) that occurs around a porous and conducting particle immersed in an electrolyte, under the action of an external electrostatic field. The external electric field induces an electric dipole in the porous particle, leading to capacitive charging of its volume by both cations and anions at opposite poles. This regime is characterized both by a large RC charging time and a small electrochemical charge relaxation time, which leads to rapid and significant deionization of ionic species from a volume which is on the scale of the particle. We show by theory and experiment that the transient response around a cylindrical particle results in spatially non-uniform charging and non-steady growth of depletion regions which emerge around the particle's poles. Potentially, ICCDI can be useful in applications where fast concentration changes of ionic species are required over large volumes.

  16. Is nickel allergy an occupational disease? Discussion of the occupational relevance of a type IV allergy to nickel (II) sulfate using case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanko, Zita; Diepgen, Thomas L; Weisshaar, Elke

    2008-05-01

    Type IV sensitization to nickel (II) sulfate is common in the general population. Nickel can be found in different metals leading to occupational exposition in industrial professions. The individual clinical relevance of nickel allergy can easily be identified but it can be difficult to assess if nickel allergy was acquired privately or occupationally. The problem if nickel allergy fulfills the criteria of an occupational skin disease is presented in three case reports. The occupational relevance of a type IV sensitization to nickel in a chemical laboratory assistant, a flight attendant and a cashier are discussed. Important conditions for acquiring nickel allergy are contact with nickel-plated and nickel-releasing materials, the kind of skin contact, the status of the epidermal barrier, and the individual working conditions with an increased bioavailability of nickel. In cases of type IV sensitization to nickel, the affected person cannot continue to work in metal plating or with contact to nickel-plated metals. The causal relationship between the type IV sensitization to nickel and the occupation needs to be clarified in each individual case. In general, occupationally caused nickel allergy is rare and the occupational relevance of nickel allergy is often overestimated.

  17. Dissolution of Nickel in Copper Residue Generated from Nickel Matte Refining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The dissolution behavior of nickel during the oxygen-chloride leaching of the copper residue was investigated.Technological variables of the leaching,including oxygen flow rate,concentrations of chloride and sulfuric acid,and temperature,were discussed.

  18. Effect of initial nickel particle size on stability of nickel catalysts for aqueous phase reforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasterecht, Van Tomas; Swart, Marten; Jong, De Krijn P.; Bitter, J.H.

    2016-01-01

    The deactivation behavior by crystallite growth of nickel nanoparticles on various supports (carbon nanofibers, zirconia, SiC, α-Al2O3 and γ-Al2O3) was investigated in the aqueous phase reforming of ethylene glycol. Supported Ni catalysts of ∼10 wt% were prepared by impregnation of carbon nanofibers

  19. Spectroscopic Investigations of Highly Charged Ions using X-Ray Calorimeter Spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorn, Daniel Bristol [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2008-11-19

    Spectroscopy of K-shell transitions in highly charged heavy ions, like hydrogen-like uranium, has the potential to yield information about quantum electrodynamics (QED) in extremely strong nuclear fields as well as tests of the standard model, specifically parity violation in atomic systems. These measurements would represent the 'holy grail' in high-Z atomic spectroscopy. However, the current state-of-the-art detection schemes used for recording the K-shell spectra from highly charged heavy ions does not yet have the resolving power to be able to attain this goal. As such, to push the field of high-Z spectroscopy forward, new detectors must be found. Recently, x-ray calorimeter spectrometers have been developed that promise to make such measurements. In an effort to make the first steps towards attaining the 'holy grail', measurements have been performed with two x-ray calorimeter spectrometers (the XRS/EBIT and the ECS) designed and built at Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. The calorimeter spectrometers have been used to record the K-shell spectra of highly charged ions produced in the SuperEBIT electron beam ion trap at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, CA. Measurements performed with the XRS/EBIT calorimeter array found that the theoretical description of well-above threshold electron-impact excitation cross sections for hydrogen-like iron and nickel ions are correct. Furthermore, the first high-resolution spectrum of hydrogen-like through carbon-like praseodymium ions was recorded with a calorimeter. In addition, the new high-energy array on the EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer (ECS) was used to resolve the K-shell x-ray emission spectrum of highly charged xenon ions, where a 40 ppm measurement of the energy of the K-shell resonance transition in helium-like xenon was achieved. This is the highest precision result, ever, for an element with such high atomic number. In addition, a first-of-its-kind measurement of

  20. Effect of 3-Amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole on Electroless Nickel Deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The effects of organic additive, 3-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole (AMTA) on bath stability, deposition rate,reaction activation energy, and Ni-P coating composition in acidic electroless nickel plating were investigated.Polarization curve method and infrared reflection spectroscopy were used to analyze the mechanism of the effect of AMTA on electroless nickel deposition. It was observed that AMTA improved bath stability, decreased the deposition rate, and increased the reaction activation energy. It was also revealed that AMTA decreased the phosphorus content and increased the sulfur content in Ni-P coating. In addition, AMTA inhibited the anodic oxidation of hypophosphite and accelerated the cathodic reduction of Ni2+. Infrared reflection spectroscopy result indicates that AMTA was adsorbed on the surface of Ni-P and interacted with Ni2+ to form an AMTA-Ni2+ compound. On the basis of the results of this study,the mechanism of the effect of AMTA on electroless nickel deposition was deduced.