WorldWideScience

Sample records for charged head groups

  1. Transfer Pricing; Charging of head office costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Joergen

    1998-07-01

    The key issues discussed in this presentation are (1) What are head office costs?, (2) Why is the charging an area of concern for international companies?, (3) Which part of head office costs should be charged?, (4) OECD guidelines on charging. Head office costs are classified as Shareholder costs, Stewardship costs, Costs related to a specific subsidiary or group of subsidiaries (on call), and Costs related to operational activities in the parent company. The OECD reports of 1984 and 1996 are discussed. In Norsk Hydro's experience, the practising of the OECD guidelines by national authorities are confusing and not consistent over time or across borders. To get a better understanding of how charging of corporate head office costs are dealt with on an international level, Norsk Hydro asked Deloitte and Touche in London to carry out a study on international companies' behaviour. Their conclusions are included.

  2. Steam Generator Group Project. Task 6. Channel head decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, R.P.; Clark, R.L.; Reece, W.D.

    1984-08-01

    The Steam Generator Group Project utilizes a retired-from-service pressurized-water-reactor steam generator as a test bed and source of specimens for research. An important preparatory step to primary side research activities was reduction of the radiation field in the steam generator channel head. This task report describes the channel head decontamination activities. Though not a programmatic research objective it was judged beneficial to explore the use of dilute reagent chemical decontamination techniques. These techniques presented potential for reduced personnel exposure and reduced secondary radwaste generation, over currently used abrasive blasting techniques. Two techniques with extensive laboratory research and vendors prepared to offer commercial application were tested, one on either side of the channel head. As indicated in the report, both techniques accomplished similar decontamination objectives. Neither technique damaged the generator channel head or tubing materials, as applied. This report provides details of the decontamination operations. Application system and operating conditions are described

  3. Direct quantification of negatively charged functional groups on membrane surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Tiraferri, Alberto

    2012-02-01

    Surface charge plays an important role in membrane-based separations of particulates, macromolecules, and dissolved ionic species. In this study, we present two experimental methods to determine the concentration of negatively charged functional groups at the surface of dense polymeric membranes. Both techniques consist of associating the membrane surface moieties with chemical probes, followed by quantification of the bound probes. Uranyl acetate and toluidine blue O dye, which interact with the membrane functional groups via complexation and electrostatic interaction, respectively, were used as probes. The amount of associated probes was quantified using liquid scintillation counting for uranium atoms and visible light spectroscopy for the toluidine blue dye. The techniques were validated using self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiols with known amounts of charged moieties. The surface density of negatively charged functional groups of hand-cast thin-film composite polyamide membranes, as well as commercial cellulose triacetate and polyamide membranes, was quantified under various conditions. Using both techniques, we measured a negatively charged functional group density of 20-30nm -2 for the hand-cast thin-film composite membranes. The ionization behavior of the membrane functional groups, determined from measurements with toluidine blue at varying pH, was consistent with published data for thin-film composite polyamide membranes. Similarly, the measured charge densities on commercial membranes were in general agreement with previous investigations. The relative simplicity of the two methods makes them a useful tool for quantifying the surface charge concentration of a variety of surfaces, including separation membranes. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Patients who reattend after head injury: a high risk group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, M.; Knottenbelt, J. D.; Peden, M. M.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess risk factors for important neurosurgical effects in patients who reattend after head injury. DESIGN--Retrospective study. SUBJECTS--606 patients who reattended a trauma unit after minor head injury. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Intracranial abnormality detected on computed tomography or the need for neurosurgical intervention. RESULTS--Five patients died: two from unrelated causes and three from raised intracranial pressure. On multiple regression analysis the only significant predictor for both abnormality on computed tomography (14.4% of reattenders) and the need for operation (5% of reattenders) was vault fracture seen on the skull radiograph (P personality change, and seizures were significantly associated only with abnormality on computed tomography. Headache, dizziness, nausea, and vomiting were common in reattenders but were found to have no independent significance. CONCLUSIONS--All patients who reattend after head injury should undergo computed tomography as at least 14% of scans can be expected to yield positive results. Where this facility is not available patients with predictors for operation should be urgently referred for neurosurgical opinion. Other patients can be readmitted and need referral only if symptoms persist despite symptomatic treatment or there is neurological deterioration while under observation. These patients are a high risk group and should be treated seriously. PMID:8520273

  5. Reirradiation for recurrent head and neck cancers using charged particle or photon radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Hideya; Demizu, Yusuke; Okimoto, Tomoaki; Ogita, Mikio; Himei, Kengo; Nakamura, Satoaki; Suzuki, Gen; Yoshida, Ken; Kotsuma, Tadayuki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Oh, Ryoongjin

    2017-07-01

    To examine the outcomes of reirradiation for recurrent head and neck cancers using different modalities. This retrospective study included 26 patients who received charged particle radiotherapy (CP) and 150 who received photon radiotherapy (117 CyberKnife radiotherapy [CK] and 36 intensity-modulated radiotherapy [IMRT]). Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) involving propensity scores was used to reduce background selection bias. Higher prescribed doses were used in CP than photon radiotherapy. The 1‑year overall survival (OS) rates were 67.9% for CP and 54.1% for photon radiotherapy (p = 0.15; 55% for CK and 51% for IMRT). In multivariate Cox regression, the significant prognostic factors for better survival were nasopharyngeal cancer, higher prescribed dose, and lower tumor volume. IPTW showed a statistically significant difference between CP and photon radiotherapy (p = 0.04). The local control rates for patients treated with CP and photon radiotherapy at 1 year were 66.9% (range 46.3-87.5%) and 67.1% (range 58.3-75.9%), respectively. A total of 48 patients (27%) experienced toxicity grade ≥3 (24% in the photon radiotherapy group and 46% in the CP group), including 17 patients with grade 5 toxicity. Multivariate analysis revealed that younger age and a larger planning target volume (PTV) were significant risk factors for grade 3 or worse toxicity. CP provided superior survival outcome compared to photon radiotherapy. Tumor volume, primary site (nasopharyngeal), and prescribed dose were identified as survival factors. Younger patients with a larger PTV experienced toxicity grade ≥3.

  6. Working Group 2 summary: Space charge effects in bending systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohn, C.L.; Emma, P.J.

    2000-01-01

    At the start of the Workshop, the authors asked the Working Group 2 participants to concentrate on three basic goals: (1) survey the status of how comprehensively the physics concerning space-charge effects in bends is understood and how complete is the available ensemble of analytic and computational tools; (2) guided by data from experiments and operational experience, identify sources of, and cures for, beam degradation; and (3) review space-charge physics in rings and the limitations it introduces. As the Workshop unfolded, the third goal naturally folded into the other two goals, and these goals, they believe, were fulfilled in that the Working Group was able to compile an end product consisting of a set of recommendations for potentially fruitful future work. This summary constitutes an overview of the deliberations of the Working Group, and it is their hope that the summary clarifies the motivation for the recommended work listed at the end. The summary is organized according to the two aforementioned goals, and the prime topics of discussion appear as subsections under these goals

  7. Head Start’s Impact is Contingent on Alternative Type of Care in Comparison Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Waldfogel, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Using data (n = 3,790 with 2,119 in the 3-year-old cohort and 1,671 in the 4-year-old cohort) from 353 Head Start centers in the Head Start Impact Study, the only large-scale randomized experiment in Head Start history, this paper examined the impact of Head Start on children’s cognitive and parent-reported social-behavioral outcomes through first grade contingent on the child care arrangements used by children who were randomly assigned to the control group (i.e., parental care, relative/non-relative care, another Head Start program, or other center-based care). A principal score matching approach was adopted to identify children assigned to Head Start who were similar to children in the control group with a specific care arrangement. Overall, the results showed that the effects of Head Start varied substantially contingent on the alternative child care arrangements. Compared to children in parental care and relative/non-relative care, Head Start participants generally had better cognitive and parent-reported behavioral development, with some benefits of Head Start persisting through first grade; in contrast, few differences were found between Head Start and other center-based care. The results have implications regarding the children for whom Head Start is most beneficial as well as how well Head Start compares to other center-based programs. PMID:25329552

  8. Charged Particle Tracking and Vertex Detection Group summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, G.; Meyer, D.

    1984-09-01

    Charged particle tracking is essential in order to investigate the new physics expected at the SSC. The Tracking Group studied radiation damage and rate limitations to tracking devices, vertex detectors, and central tracking. The Group concluded that silicon strips and large wire tracking chambers with small cells can probably survive at the design luminosity of 10 33 cm -2 sec -1 ; however, the presently designed electronics for silicon strip vertex detectors can withstand a luminosity of only 10 31 cm -2 sec -1 . Wire chambers at a radius of less than about 25 cm can withstand a luminosity of less than or equal to 10 32 cm -2 sec -1 only. Actual tracking and pattern recognition in central tracking chambers at a luminosity of 10 33 cm -2 sec -1 will be very difficult because of multiple interactions within the resolving time of the chambers; detailed simulations are needed in order to decide whether tracking is indeed possible at this luminosity. Scintillating glass fibers are an interesting possibility both for vertex detectors and for central trackers, but much research and development is still needed both on the fibers themselves and on the readout

  9. Relationship between ABO blood groups and head and neck cancer among Greek patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakava, Kassiani; Karelas, Ioannis; Koutrafouris, Ioannis; Damianidis, Savvas; Stampouloglou, Paulos; Papadakis, Georgios; Xenos, Antonios; Krania, Foteini; Sarof, Paulos; Tasopoulos, Georgios; Petridis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    We examined the association of ABO blood groups with the different types of head and neck cancers. 195 diagnosed cases and 801 controls were selected from a Greek tertiary cancer center. Information regarding type of head and neck cancer and ABO blood group was collected and registered. The O blood group was found to be most prevalent followed by A, B and AB among the controls, whereas blood group A followed by O, B and AB was most prevalent among cancer patients. The difference among the distribution between the cases and controls was statistically significant in blood group A (pblood group A had 1.52-fold higher risk of developing head and neck cancer compared to people of other blood groups. Blood group A was found to be a potential risk factor for the development of head and neck cancers.

  10. Reirradiation for recurrent head and neck cancers using charged particle or photon radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Hideya [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto (Japan); Soseikai General Hospital, CyberKnife Center, Shimotoba Fushimi-ku, Kyoto (Japan); Demizu, Yusuke; Okimoto, Tomoaki [Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Tatsuno, Hyogo (Japan); Ogita, Mikio [Fujimoto Hayasuzu Hospital, Radiotherapy Department, Miyakonojo, Miyazaki (Japan); Himei, Kengo [Japanese Red Cross Okayama Hospital, Department of Radiology, Okayama, Okayama (Japan); Nakamura, Satoaki; Suzuki, Gen [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto (Japan); Yoshida, Ken; Kotsuma, Tadayuki [National Hospital Organization Osaka National Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka, Osaka (Japan); Yoshioka, Yasuo [Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Oh, Ryoongjin [Miyakojima IGRT Clinic, Osaka (Japan)

    2017-07-15

    To examine the outcomes of reirradiation for recurrent head and neck cancers using different modalities. This retrospective study included 26 patients who received charged particle radiotherapy (CP) and 150 who received photon radiotherapy (117 CyberKnife radiotherapy [CK] and 36 intensity-modulated radiotherapy [IMRT]). Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) involving propensity scores was used to reduce background selection bias. Higher prescribed doses were used in CP than photon radiotherapy. The 1-year overall survival (OS) rates were 67.9% for CP and 54.1% for photon radiotherapy (p = 0.15; 55% for CK and 51% for IMRT). In multivariate Cox regression, the significant prognostic factors for better survival were nasopharyngeal cancer, higher prescribed dose, and lower tumor volume. IPTW showed a statistically significant difference between CP and photon radiotherapy (p = 0.04). The local control rates for patients treated with CP and photon radiotherapy at 1 year were 66.9% (range 46.3-87.5%) and 67.1% (range 58.3-75.9%), respectively. A total of 48 patients (27%) experienced toxicity grade ≥3 (24% in the photon radiotherapy group and 46% in the CP group), including 17 patients with grade 5 toxicity. Multivariate analysis revealed that younger age and a larger planning target volume (PTV) were significant risk factors for grade 3 or worse toxicity. CP provided superior survival outcome compared to photon radiotherapy. Tumor volume, primary site (nasopharyngeal), and prescribed dose were identified as survival factors. Younger patients with a larger PTV experienced toxicity grade ≥3. (orig.) [German] Bestimmung der Ergebnisse einer Rebestrahlung von wiederkehrenden Kopf-Hals-Tumoren mittels verschiedener Modalitaeten. Die retrospektive Studie umfasst 26 Patienten, die mit der Ionenstrahlentherapie (CP), und 150 Patienten, die mit der Photonenstrahlentherapie (117 Stereotaxien [CK] und 36 intensitaetsmodulierte Strahlentherapien [IMRT]) behandelt

  11. Structure-transfection activity relationships in a series of novel cationic lipids with heterocyclic head-groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Ekaterina A; Maslov, Mikhail A; Kabilova, Tatyana O; Puchkov, Pavel A; Alekseeva, Anna S; Boldyrev, Ivan A; Vlassov, Valentin V; Serebrennikova, Galina A; Morozova, Nina G; Zenkova, Marina A

    2013-11-07

    Cationic liposomes are promising candidates for the delivery of various therapeutic nucleic acids. Here, we report a convenient synthesis of carbamate-type cationic lipids with various hydrophobic domains (tetradecanol, dialkylglycerol, cholesterol) and positively charged head-groups (pyridinium, N-methylimidazolium, N-methylmorpholinium) and data on the structure-transfection activity relationships. It was found that single-chain lipids possess high surface activity, which correlates with high cytotoxicity due to their ability to disrupt the cellular membrane by combined hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. Liposomes containing these lipids also display high cytotoxicity with respect to all cell lines. Irrespective of chemical structures, all cationic lipids form liposomes with similar sizes and surface potentials. The characteristics of complexes composed of cationic liposomes and nucleic acids depend mostly on the type of nucleic acid and P/N ratios. In the case of oligodeoxyribonucleotide delivery, the transfection activity depends on the type of cationic head-group regardless of the type of hydrophobic domain: all types of cationic liposomes mediate efficient oligonucleotide transfer into 80-90% of the eukaryotic cells, and liposomes based on lipids with N-methylmorpholinium cationic head-group display the highest transfection activity. In the case of plasmid DNA and siRNA, the type of hydrophobic domain determines the transfection activity: liposomes composed of cholesterol-based lipids were the most efficient in DNA transfer, while liposomes containing glycerol-based lipids exhibited reasonable activity in siRNA delivery under serum-free conditions.

  12. When Two Heads Aren't Better than One: Conformity in a Group Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fender, C. Melissa; Stickney, Lisa T.

    2017-01-01

    Group and team class decision-making activities often focus on demonstrating that "two heads are better than one." Typically, students solve a problem or complete an assessment individually, then in a group. Generally, the group does better and that is what the students learn. However, if that is all such an activity conveys, then a…

  13. On the nature of hydrogen bonding between the phosphatidylcholine head group and water and dimethylsulfoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabkowska, Aleksandra P.; Lawrence, M. Jayne; McLain, Sylvia E.; Lorenz, Christian D.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to provide a detailed investigation of the hydrogen bond networks around the phosphatidylcholine (PC) head group in 1,2-dipropionyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine in pure water, 10 mol.% and 30 mol.% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)-water solutions. Specifically, it is observed that DMSO replaces those water molecules that are within the first solvation shell of the choline, phosphate and ester groups of the PC head group, but are not hydrogen-bonded to the group. The effect of the presence of DMSO on the hydrogen bond network around the PC head groups of the lipid changes with the concentration of DMSO. In comparison to the hydrogen bond network observed in the pure water system, the number of hydrogen-bonded chains of solvent molecules increases slightly for the 10 mol.% DMSO system, while, in the 30 mol.% DMSO system, the number of hydrogen-bonded chains of solvent molecules decreases.

  14. Direct quantification of negatively charged functional groups on membrane surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Tiraferri, Alberto; Elimelech, Menachem

    2012-01-01

    groups at the surface of dense polymeric membranes. Both techniques consist of associating the membrane surface moieties with chemical probes, followed by quantification of the bound probes. Uranyl acetate and toluidine blue O dye, which interact

  15. Influence of functional groups on charge transport in molecular junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowbray, Duncan; Jones, Glenn; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2008-01-01

    Using density functional theory (DFT), we analyze the influence of five classes of functional groups, as exemplified by NO2, OCH3, CH3, CCl3, and I, on the transport properties of a 1,4-benzenedithiolate (BDT) and 1,4-benzenediamine (BDA) molecular junction with gold electrodes. Our analysis...... demonstrates how ideas from functional group chemistry may be used to engineer a molecule's transport properties, as was shown experimentally and using a semiempirical model for BDA [Nano Lett. 7, 502 (2007)]. In particular, we show that the qualitative change in conductance due to a given functional group can...... be predicted from its known electronic effect (whether it is sigma/pi donating/withdrawing). However, the influence of functional groups on a molecule's conductance is very weak, as was also found in the BDA experiments. The calculated DFT conductances for the BDA species are five times larger than...

  16. Who's in charge: role clarity in a Midwestern watershed group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floress, Kristin; Prokopy, Linda Stalker; Ayres, Janet

    2011-10-01

    Studies of collaborative watershed groups show that effective leadership is an important factor for success. This research uses data from in-depth interviews and meeting observation to qualitatively examine leadership in a Midwestern collaborative watershed group operating with government funding. One major finding was a lack of role definition for volunteer steering-committee members. Lack of role clarity and decision-making processes led to confusion regarding project management authority among the group, paid project staff members, and agency personnel. Given the important role of government grants for funding projects to protect water quality, this study offers insight into leadership issues that groups with Clean Water Act Section 319 (h) funds may face and suggestions on how to resolve them.

  17. Head rubbing and licking reinforce social bonds in a group of captive African lions, Panthera leo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoba, Tomoyuki; Kutsukake, Nobuyuki; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2013-01-01

    Many social animals have a species-specific repertoire of affiliative behaviours that characterise individualised relationships within a group. To date, however, quantitative studies on intragroup affiliative behaviours in social carnivores have been limited. Here, we investigated the social functions of the two most commonly observed affiliative behaviours in captive African lions (Panthera leo): head rubbing and licking. We conducted behavioural observations on a captive group of lions composed of 7 males and 14 females, and tested hypotheses regarding three social functions: tension reduction, social bonding, and social status expression. Disproportionately frequent male-male and female-to-male head rubbing was observed, while more than 95% of all licking interactions occurred in female-female dyads. In accordance with the social bond hypothesis, and in disagreement with the social status expression hypothesis, both head rubbing and licking interactions were reciprocal. After controlling for spatial association, the dyadic frequency of head rubbing was negatively correlated with age difference while licking was positively correlated with relatedness. Group reunion after daily separation did not affect the frequencies of the affiliative behaviours, which was in disagreement with the predictions from the tension reduction hypothesis. These results support the social bond hypothesis for the functions of head rubbing and licking. Different patterns of affiliative behaviour between the sexes may reflect differences in the relationship quality in each sex or the differential predisposition to licking due to its original function in offspring care.

  18. Head rubbing and licking reinforce social bonds in a group of captive African lions, Panthera leo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Matoba

    Full Text Available Many social animals have a species-specific repertoire of affiliative behaviours that characterise individualised relationships within a group. To date, however, quantitative studies on intragroup affiliative behaviours in social carnivores have been limited. Here, we investigated the social functions of the two most commonly observed affiliative behaviours in captive African lions (Panthera leo: head rubbing and licking. We conducted behavioural observations on a captive group of lions composed of 7 males and 14 females, and tested hypotheses regarding three social functions: tension reduction, social bonding, and social status expression. Disproportionately frequent male-male and female-to-male head rubbing was observed, while more than 95% of all licking interactions occurred in female-female dyads. In accordance with the social bond hypothesis, and in disagreement with the social status expression hypothesis, both head rubbing and licking interactions were reciprocal. After controlling for spatial association, the dyadic frequency of head rubbing was negatively correlated with age difference while licking was positively correlated with relatedness. Group reunion after daily separation did not affect the frequencies of the affiliative behaviours, which was in disagreement with the predictions from the tension reduction hypothesis. These results support the social bond hypothesis for the functions of head rubbing and licking. Different patterns of affiliative behaviour between the sexes may reflect differences in the relationship quality in each sex or the differential predisposition to licking due to its original function in offspring care.

  19. Renormalization-group flows and charge transmutation in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlando, D.; Petropoulos, P.M.; Sfetsos, K.

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the behaviour of heterotic squashed-Wess-Zumino-Witten backgrounds under renormalization-group flow. The flows we consider are driven by perturbation creating extra gauge fluxes. We show how the conformal point acts as an attractor from both the target-space and world-sheet points of view. We also address the question of instabilities created by the presence of closed time-like curves in string backgrounds. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. High Charge Mobility of a Perylene Bisimide Dye with Hydrogen-bond Formation Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A perylene bisimide dye covalently bonded with a hydrogen-bond formation group of 1,3, 5-triazine-2, 4-diamine has been synthesized. Its casting films show a charge carrier mobility over 10-3 cm2/Vs, which is in the range of the highest values found for other promising charge transport materials suitable for solution processable technique.

  1. Relative Risk of Various Head and Neck Cancers among Different Blood Groups: An Analytical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Khushboo; Kote, Sunder; Patthi, Basavaraj; Singla, Ashish; Singh, Shilpi; Kundu, Hansa; Jain, Swati

    2014-04-01

    Cancer is a unique disease characterized by abnormal growth of cells which have the ability to invade the adjacent tissues and sometimes even distant organs. The limited and contrasting evidence regarding the association of ABO blood groups with the different types of head and neck cancers in the Indian population warrants the need for the present study. To assess the relative risk of various Head & Neck cancers among different blood groups. Three hundred sixty two diagnosed cases of different type of head and neck cancers and 400 controls were selected from four hospitals of New Delhi, India. The information regarding the type of head and neck cancer was obtained from the case sheets of the patients regarding their socio demographic profile, dietary history using a structured performa. The information regarding type of cancer (cases only), ABO blood group was collected. Statistical Tests: The data was analysed using the SPSS 19 version. Chi square test and odd ratios were calculated. The level of significance was fixed at 5%. The O blood group was found to be most prevalent followed by B, A and AB among the cases as well as the controls. Oral cancer patients showed maximum number in blood group O followed by B, A and AB. Significant pattern of distribution was seen among the patients of esophageal cancer, laryngeal cancer and salivary gland cancer as well (p= 0.003, p=0.000 p=0.112 respectively. The present study reveals that there is an inherited element in the susceptibility or protection against different types of head and neck cancers. Blood group A was found to be a potential risk factor for the development of oral cancers, esophageal cancers and salivary gland cancers while blood group B was found to be a potential risk factor for laryngeal cancers.

  2. Relative Risk of Various Head and Neck Cancers among Different Blood Groups: An Analytical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kote, Sunder; Patthi, Basavaraj; Singla, Ashish; Singh, Shilpi; Kundu, Hansa; Jain, Swati

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cancer is a unique disease characterized by abnormal growth of cells which have the ability to invade the adjacent tissues and sometimes even distant organs. The limited and contrasting evidence regarding the association of ABO blood groups with the different types of head and neck cancers in the Indian population warrants the need for the present study. Aim and Objective: To assess the relative risk of various Head & Neck cancers among different blood groups. Materials and Method: Three hundred sixty two diagnosed cases of different type of head and neck cancers and 400 controls were selected from four hospitals of New Delhi, India. The information regarding the type of head and neck cancer was obtained from the case sheets of the patients regarding their socio demographic profile, dietary history using a structured performa. The information regarding type of cancer (cases only), ABO blood group was collected. Statistical Tests: The data was analysed using the SPSS 19 version. Chi square test and odd ratios were calculated. The level of significance was fixed at 5%. Results: The O blood group was found to be most prevalent followed by B, A and AB among the cases as well as the controls. Oral cancer patients showed maximum number in blood group O followed by B, A and AB. Significant pattern of distribution was seen among the patients of esophageal cancer, laryngeal cancer and salivary gland cancer as well (p= 0.003, p=0.000 p=0.112 respectively. Conclusion: The present study reveals that there is an inherited element in the susceptibility or protection against different types of head and neck cancers. Blood group A was found to be a potential risk factor for the development of oral cancers, esophageal cancers and salivary gland cancers while blood group B was found to be a potential risk factor for laryngeal cancers. PMID:24959511

  3. Separate groups of dopamine neurons innervate caudate head and tail encoding flexible and stable value memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung F Kim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine neurons are thought to be critical for reward value-based learning by modifying synaptic transmissions in the striatum. Yet, different regions of the striatum seem to guide different kinds of learning. Do dopamine neurons contribute to the regional differences of the striatum in learning? As a first step to answer this question, we examined whether the head and tail of the caudate nucleus of the monkey (Macaca mulatta receive inputs from the same or different dopamine neurons. We chose these caudate regions because we previously showed that caudate head neurons learn values of visual objects quickly and flexibly, whereas caudate tail neurons learn object values slowly but retain them stably. Here we confirmed the functional difference by recording single neuronal activity while the monkey performed the flexible and stable value tasks, and then injected retrograde tracers in the functional domains of caudate head and tail. The projecting dopaminergic neurons were identified using tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry. We found that two groups of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta project largely separately to the caudate head and tail. These groups of dopamine neurons were mostly separated topographically: head-projecting neurons were located in the rostral-ventral-medial region, while tail-projecting neurons were located in the caudal-dorsal-lateral regions of the substantia nigra. Furthermore, they showed different morphological features: tail-projecting neurons were larger and less circular than head-projecting neurons. Our data raise the possibility that different groups of dopamine neurons selectively guide learning of flexible (short-term and stable (long-term memories of object values.

  4. Multiple group radiator and hybrid test heads, possibilities of combining the array technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuestenberg, H.

    1993-01-01

    This article is intended to show the important considerations, which led to the development of the multichannel group radiator technique. Trends in development and the advantages and disadvantages of the different possibilities are introduced, against the background of experience now available for these configurative variants of ultrasonic test heads. For this reason, a series of experiences and arguments is reported, from the point of view of the developer of the multi-channel group radiator technique. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Comparison of micelle structure of glycolipids with different head groups by small angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Lizhong; Middelberg, Anton; Hartmann, Thorsten; Niemeyer, Bernd; Garamus, V.M.; Willumeit, Regine

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Glycolipids such as n-alkyl- beta-D-glucopyranoside and n-alkyl- beta-D-maltopyranoside can self-assemble into different structures depending on solution conditions. Their amphiphilic properties enable them to serve as biosurfactants in biology and biotechnology, especially for solubilizing membrane proteins. The physicochemical properties of glycolipids have attracted attentions from several research groups, aiming to better understand their application in biological and environmental processes. For example, small angle neutron and X-ray scattering have been used to study micelle structures formed by glycolipids. Our previous work has shown that n-octyl-beta- D-glucopyranoside and n-octyl- beta-D-maltopyranoside form micelles with different structure, suggesting an important role of the sugar head group in micelle formation. In the present work, we further compare micelle structures of n-octyl- beta-Dglucopyranoside and n-octyl- beta-D-galactopyranoside. These two glycolipids have the same hydrophobic tail and their head sugar groups differ only in the conformation with one hydroxyl group pointing to different direction. Our SANS data together with phase behaviours reported by other group have suggested that a slight alteration of head group conformation can significantly affect self-assembly of glycolipids. (authors)

  6. A confining and asymptotically free solution for the renormalization group invariant charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellett, B.H.

    1978-01-01

    The central role of the invariant charge in applications of the renormalization group to quantum chromodynamics is discussed. The general structure of the invariant charge is examined, and it is shown to be a non-singular function of q 2 for all finite non-zero q 2 . At q 2 = 0 and q 2 = +or- infinity shows that QCD is asymptotically free. Some applications of these general results are discussed

  7. The Aromatic Head Group of Spider Toxin Polyamines Influences Toxicity to Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David; Boyle, Glen M; McIntyre, Lachlan; Nolan, Matthew J; Parsons, Peter G; Smith, Jennifer J; Tribolet, Leon; Loukas, Alex; Liddell, Michael J; Rash, Lachlan D; Daly, Norelle L

    2017-10-27

    Spider venoms constitute incredibly diverse libraries of compounds, many of which are involved in prey capture and defence. Polyamines are often prevalent in the venom and target ionotropic glutamate receptors. Here we show that a novel spider polyamine, PA 366 , containing a hydroxyphenyl-based structure is present in the venom of several species of tarantula, and has selective toxicity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells. By contrast, a polyamine from an Australian funnel-web spider venom, which contains an identical polyamine tail to PA 366 but an indole-based head-group, is only cytotoxic at high concentrations. Our results suggest that the ring structure plays a role in the cytotoxicity and that modification to the polyamine head group might lead to more potent and selective compounds with potential as novel cancer treatments.

  8. The Aromatic Head Group of Spider Toxin Polyamines Influences Toxicity to Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Wilson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Spider venoms constitute incredibly diverse libraries of compounds, many of which are involved in prey capture and defence. Polyamines are often prevalent in the venom and target ionotropic glutamate receptors. Here we show that a novel spider polyamine, PA366, containing a hydroxyphenyl-based structure is present in the venom of several species of tarantula, and has selective toxicity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells. By contrast, a polyamine from an Australian funnel-web spider venom, which contains an identical polyamine tail to PA366 but an indole-based head-group, is only cytotoxic at high concentrations. Our results suggest that the ring structure plays a role in the cytotoxicity and that modification to the polyamine head group might lead to more potent and selective compounds with potential as novel cancer treatments.

  9. Constraints on dark matter particles charged under a hidden gauge group from primordial black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, De-Chang; Stojkovic, Dejan; Freese, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    In order to accommodate increasingly tighter observational constraints on dark matter, several models have been proposed recently in which dark matter particles are charged under some hidden gauge group. Hidden gauge charges are invisible for the standard model particles, hence such scenarios are very difficult to constrain directly. However black holes are sensitive to all gauge charges, whether they belong to the standard model or not. Here, we examine the constraints on the possible values of the dark matter particle mass and hidden gauge charge from the evolution of primordial black holes. We find that the existence of the primordial black holes with reasonable mass is incompatible with dark matter particles whose charge to mass ratio is of the order of one. For dark matter particles whose charge to mass ratio is much less than one, we are able to exclude only heavy dark matter in the mass range of 10 11 GeV–10 16 GeV. Finally, for dark matter particles whose charge to mass ratio is much greater than one, there are no useful limits coming from primordial black holes

  10. Radiographic study of bone deformans on charged condylar head position in TMJ arthrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Dong Soo

    1983-01-01

    The author analyzed the morphologic changes of bone structure from 848 radiographics (424 joints) of 212 patients with temporomandibular joint arthrosis, which were obtained by the oblique-lateral transcranial projection and ortho pantomography. The interrelation of the bone changes and condylar head positions the results were as follows: 1. In the 212 patients with TMJ arthrosis, 210 patients (99.05%) show the condylar positional changes. Among them, 187 patients (89.05%) show the bone changes. 2. In TMJ arthrosis patients with bone changes, 108 patients (57.75%) show both the condylar positional changes and bone changes. 66 patients show the condylar positional changes bilaterally and bone changes unilaterally. On the other hand, 11 patients (5.88%) show the condylar positional changes unilaterally and bone change bilaterally. 3. The bone changes in the TMJ arthrosis patients with the condylar positional changes were as follows: There were the flattening of articular surface in 103 cases (26.55%) the erosion in 99 cases (25.52%), and the erosion in 88 cases (22.68%). There were not much differences among the three types of bone changes. And the deformity in 70 cases (18.04%), the sclerosis in 22 cases (5.67%), the marginal proliferation in 6 cases (1.55%) were seen. 4. The regions of bone changes in TMJ arthrosis patients with condylar positional changes were as follows: They occurred at the condyle head (51.04%), the articular eminence (39.20%) and the articular fossa (9.60%) in that order. The condylar positional changes and bone changes according to the regions were as follows: a) In the bone changes at the condylar head, the flattening (34.63%) was a most frequent finding and the deformity (27.63%) the erosion (34.63%) in the order. In the condylar positional changes, the downward positioning of condyle (41.44%) was a most frequent finding in the mouth closed state and the restricted movement within the articular fossa (35.46%) in the mouth open state. b) In

  11. Radiographic study of bone deformans on charged condylar head position in TMJ arthrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Dong Soo [Department of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-11-15

    The author analyzed the morphologic changes of bone structure from 848 radiographics (424 joints) of 212 patients with temporomandibular joint arthrosis, which were obtained by the oblique-lateral transcranial projection and ortho pantomography. The interrelation of the bone changes and condylar head positions the results were as follows: 1. In the 212 patients with TMJ arthrosis, 210 patients (99.05%) show the condylar positional changes. Among them, 187 patients (89.05%) show the bone changes. 2. In TMJ arthrosis patients with bone changes, 108 patients (57.75%) show both the condylar positional changes and bone changes. 66 patients show the condylar positional changes bilaterally and bone changes unilaterally. On the other hand, 11 patients (5.88%) show the condylar positional changes unilaterally and bone change bilaterally. 3. The bone changes in the TMJ arthrosis patients with the condylar positional changes were as follows: There were the flattening of articular surface in 103 cases (26.55%) the erosion in 99 cases (25.52%), and the erosion in 88 cases (22.68%). There were not much differences among the three types of bone changes. And the deformity in 70 cases (18.04%), the sclerosis in 22 cases (5.67%), the marginal proliferation in 6 cases (1.55%) were seen. 4. The regions of bone changes in TMJ arthrosis patients with condylar positional changes were as follows: They occurred at the condyle head (51.04%), the articular eminence (39.20%) and the articular fossa (9.60%) in that order. The condylar positional changes and bone changes according to the regions were as follows: a) In the bone changes at the condylar head, the flattening (34.63%) was a most frequent finding and the deformity (27.63%) the erosion (34.63%) in the order. In the condylar positional changes, the downward positioning of condyle (41.44%) was a most frequent finding in the mouth closed state and the restricted movement within the articular fossa (35.46%) in the mouth open state. b) In

  12. Anchor-dependent lipofection with non-glycerol based cytofectins containing single 2-hydroxyethyl head groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Srilakshmi, Gollapudi; Sen, Joyeeta; Chaudhuri, Arabinda; Ramadas, Yerramsetti; Madhusudhana Rao, Nalam

    2002-02-15

    Detailed structure-activity investigations aimed at probing the anchor chain length dependency for glycerol-based lipofectins have been reported previously. Herein, we report on the first detailed investigation on the anchor-dependent transfection biology of non-glycerol based simple monocationic cytofectins containing single 2-hydroxyethyl head group functionality using 11 new structural analogs of our previously published first generation of non-glycerol based transfection lipids (lipids 1-11). The C-14 and C-16 analogs of DOMHAC (lipids 4 and 5, respectively) were found to be remarkably efficient in transfecting COS-1 cells. In addition, the present anchor-dependency investigation also revealed that the C-14 analog of DOHEMAB (lipid 10) is significantly efficient in transfecting both COS-1 and NIH3T3 cells. Our results also indicate that too strong lipid-DNA interactions might result in weaker transfection for non-glycerol based cationic lipids. In summary, the anchor-dependence investigations presented here convincingly demonstrate that non-glycerol based cationic lipids containing a single hydroxyethyl head group and hydrophobic C-14 or C-16 anchors are promising non-toxic cationic transfection lipids for future use in liposomal gene delivery.

  13. Effects of concentration, head group, and structure of surfactants on the degradation of phenanthrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Danyue; Jiang Xia; Jing Xin; Ou Ziqing

    2007-01-01

    The effects of concentration, polar/ionic head group, and structure of surfactants on the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the aqueous phase, as well as their effects on the bacterial activity were investigated. The toxicity ranking of studied surfactants is: non-ionic surfactants (Tween 80, Brij30, 10LE and Brij35) -1 ) served the sole carbon and energy resource. However, the degradation of 14 C-phenanthrene showed either a decrease or no obvious change with the surfactants present at all tested concentrations (5-40 mg L -1 ). Thus, the surfactant addition is not beneficial to the removal of phenanthrene or other PAH contaminants due presumably to the preferential utilization of surfactants at low levels as the non-toxic nutrient resource and to the high toxicity of the surfactants at high levels to the microorganism activity. Biodegradation of phenanthrene was also influenced by the surfactant concentration, head group type, and structure. Much more research has yet to be completed on the use of surfactants for soil remediation due to the surfactant toxicity or biodegradation effect

  14. Exploratory study of nuclear reaction data utility framework of Japan charged particle reaction data group (JCPRG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masui, Hiroshi; Ohnishi, Akira; Kato, Kiyoshi; Ohbayasi, Yosihide; Aoyama, Shigeyoshi; Chiba, Masaki

    2002-01-01

    Compilation, evaluation and dissemination are essential pieces of work for the nuclear data activities. We, Japan charged particle data group, have researched the utility framework for the nuclear reaction data on the basis of recent progress of computer and network technologies. These technologies will be not only for the data dissemination but for the compilation and evaluation assistance among the many corresponding researchers of all over the world. In this paper, current progress of our research and development is shown. (author)

  15. Ricinus communis agglutinin-mediated agglutination and fusion of glycolipid-containing phospholipid vesicles: effect of carbohydrate head group size, calcium ions, and spermine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, D; Düzgüneş, N

    1986-03-25

    The glycolipids galactosylcerebroside (GalCer), lactosylceramide (LacCer), and trihexosylceramide (Gb3) were inserted into phospholipid vesicles, consisting of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidic acid. The extent to which their carbohydrate head groups protruded beyond the vesicle surface and their interference with membrane approach were examined by determining vesicle susceptibility toward type I Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA1) induced agglutination and Ca2+- and spermine-induced aggregation and fusion either in the presence or in the absence of the lectin. The initial agglutination rates increased in the order GalCer much less than LacCer less than Gb3, while a reversed order was obtained for Ca2+- and spermine-induced aggregation and fusion, indicating an enhanced steric interference on close approach of bilayers with increasing head group size. The lectin-mediated agglutination rates for LacCer- and Gb3-containing vesicles increased by an order of magnitude when Ca2+ was also included in the medium, at a concentration that did not induce aggregation per se. Charge neutralization could not account for this observation as the polyvalent cation spermine did not display this synergistic effect with RCA1. Addition of Ca2+ to preagglutinated vesicles substantially reduced the threshold cation concentration for fusion (micromolar vs. millimolar). Quantitatively, this concentration decreased with decreasing carbohydrate head group size, indicating that the head group protrusion determined the interbilayer distance within the vesicle aggregate. The distinct behavior of Ca2+ vs. spermine on RCA1-induced agglutination on the one hand and fusion on the other indicated that Ca2+ regulates the steric orientation of the carbohydrate head group, which appears to be related to its ability to dehydrate the bilayer. As a result, lectin agglutinability becomes enhanced while fusion will be interrupted as the interbilayer distance increases, the threshold head group size

  16. Head Start's Impact Is Contingent on Alternative Type of Care in Comparison Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Waldfogel, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Using data ("n" = 3,790 with 2,119 in the 3-year-old cohort and 1,671 in the 4-year-old cohort) from 353 Head Start centers in the Head Start Impact Study, the only large-scale randomized experiment in Head Start history, this article examined the impact of Head Start on children's cognitive and parent-reported social-behavioral outcomes…

  17. The effect of charged groups on hydrophilic monolithic stationary phases on their chromatographic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haibin; Liu, Chusheng; Wang, Qiqin; Zhou, Haibo; Jiang, Zhengjin

    2016-10-21

    In order to investigate the effect of charged groups present in hydrophilic monolithic stationary phases on their chromatographic properties, three charged hydrophilic monomers, i.e. N,N-dimethyl-N-acryloyloxyethyl-N-(3-sulfopropyl)ammonium betaine (SPDA), [2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride (AETA), and 3-sulfopropyl acrylate potassium salt (SPA) were co-polymerized with the crosslinker N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA), respectively. The physicochemical properties of the three resulting charged hydrophilic monolithic columns were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, ζ-potential analysis and micro-HPLC. High column efficiency was obtained on the three monolithic columns at a linear velocity of 1mm/s using thiourea as test compound. Comparative characterization of the three charged HILIC phases was then carried out using a set of model compounds, including nucleobases, nucleosides, benzoic acid derivatives, phenols, β-blockers and small peptides. Depending on the combination of stationary phase/mobile phase/solute, both hydrophilic interaction and other potential secondary interactions, including electrostatic interaction, hydrogen-bonding interaction, molecular shape selectivity, could contribute to the over-all retention of the analytes. Because of the strong electrostatic interaction provided by the quaternary ammonium groups in the poly (AETA-co-MBA) monolith, this cationic HILIC monolith exhibited the strongest retention for benzoic acid derivatives and small peptides with distorted peak shapes and the weakest retention for basic β-blockers. The sulfonyl groups on the poly (SPA-co-MBA) hydrophilic monolith could provide strong electrostatic attraction and hydrogen bonding for positively charged analytes and hydrogen-donor/acceptor containing analytes, respectively. Therefore, basic drugs, nucleobases and nucleotides exhibited the strongest retention on this anionic monolith. Because of the weak but distinct cation exchange properties of

  18. Survival benefit of pancreaticoduodenectomy in a Japanese fashion for a limited group of patients with pancreatic head cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Sonshin; Shinchi, Hiroyuki; Maemura, Kosei; Kurahara, Hiroshi; Natsugoe, Shoji; Aikou, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical benefit of pancreaticoduodenectomy in a Japanese fashion for patients with pancreatic head cancer. One hundred and one patients underwent pancreatectomy for pancreatic head cancer between 1980 and 2001. Of these, 40 patients in the extended resection (ER) group had an extended lymphadenectomy and neural plexus dissection as a Japanese fashion, while 61 patients in the conventional resection (CR) group. Tumor status, morbidity, mortality, survival and pattern of recurrence were retrospectively studied. The incidence of R0 operations in the ER group was higher than that in the CR group (pJapanese fashion with an adequate extended resection might bring a survival benefit for patients with pStage IIA or IIB pancreatic head cancer.

  19. The Effectiveness of Group Social Work Intervention With Developmental Approach on Psychosocial Empowerment of Female-Headed Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Torabi Momen

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion According to the study results, group social work intervention sessions with psychosocial developmental approach to empowering female-headed households is effective. The wider use of this type of intervention by professionals can empower and improve the lives of this group of people.

  20. Charge transfer through amino groups-small molecules interface improving the performance of electroluminescent devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havare, Ali Kemal; Can, Mustafa; Tozlu, Cem; Kus, Mahmut; Okur, Salih; Demic, Şerafettin; Demirak, Kadir; Kurt, Mustafa; Icli, Sıddık

    2016-05-01

    A carboxylic group functioned charge transporting was synthesized and self-assembled on an indium tin oxide (ITO) anode. A typical electroluminescent device [modified ITO/TPD (50 nm)/Alq3 (60 nm)/LiF (2 nm)/(120 nm)] was fabricated to investigate the effect of the amino groups-small molecules interface on the characteristics of the device. The increase in the surface work function of ITO is expected to facilitate the hole injection from the ITO anode to the Hole Transport Layer (HTL) in electroluminescence. The modified electroluminescent device could endure a higher current and showed a much higher luminance than the nonmodified one. For the produced electroluminescent devices, the I-V characteristics, optical characterization and quantum yields were performed. The external quantum efficiency of the modified electroluminescent device is improved as the result of the presence of the amino groups-small molecules interface.

  1. Resting position of the head and malocclusion in a group of patients with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Mihi, Victoria; Orellana, Lorena M.; Silvestre-Rangil, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral palsy are found as a result of these disorders, along with associated neuromuscular functional alterations that affect the resting position of the head. In this context, the resting position of the head could be responsible for several skeletal and dental occlusal disorders among patients with cerebral palsy. Objective: To assess the presence of malocclusions in patients with cerebral palsy, define the most frequent types of malocclusions, and evaluate how the resting position of the head may be implicated in the development of such malocclusions. Study design: Forty-four patients aged between 12-55 years (18 males and 26 females) were studied. Occlusal conditions, the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI), changes in the resting position of the head, and breathing and swallowing functions were assessed. Results: Orthodontic treatment was required by 70.8% of the patients, the most frequent malocclusions being molar class II, open bite and high overjet. These individuals showed altered breathing and swallowing functions, as well as habit and postural disorders. The resting position of the head, especially the hyperextended presentation, was significantly correlated to high DAI scores. Conclusions: The results obtained suggest that patients with cerebral palsy are more susceptible to present malocclusions, particularly molar class II malocclusion, increased open bite, and high overjet. Such alterations in turn are more common in patients with a hyperextended position of the head. Key words:Cerebral palsy, malocclusion, head position, disabled patients. PMID:24596627

  2. Ethnic Group Differences in Early Head Start Parents Parenting Beliefs and Practices and Links to Children's Early Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keels, Micere

    2009-01-01

    Data from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation study were used to examine the extent to which several factors mediate between- and within-ethnic-group differences in parenting beliefs and behaviors, and children's early cognitive development (analysis sample of 1198 families). The findings indicate that Hispanic-, European-, and…

  3. Pretreatment quality of life predicts for locoregional control in head and neck cancer patients : A radiation therapy oncology group analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siddiqui, Farzan; Pajak, Thomas F.; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah; Konski, Andre A.; Coyne, James C.; Gwede, Clement K.; Garden, Adam S.; Spencer, Sharon A.; Jones, Christopher; Movsas, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the prospectively collected health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) data from patients enrolled in two Radiation Therapy Oncology Group randomized Phase III head and neck cancer trials (90-03 and 91-11) to assess their value as an independent prognostic factor for locoregional

  4. Controlling Thermodynamic Properties of Ferromagnetic Group-IV Graphene-Like Nanosheets by Dilute Charged Impurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmohammadi, Mohsen; Mirabbaszadeh, Kavoos

    2017-05-01

    Using the Kane-Mele Hamiltonian, Dirac theory and self-consistent Born approximation, we investigate the effect of dilute charged impurity on the electronic heat capacity and magnetic susceptibility of two-dimensional ferromagnetic honeycomb structure of group-IV elements including silicene, germanene and stanene within the Green’s function approach. We also find these quantities in the presence of applied external electric field. Our results show that the silicene (stanene) has the maximum (minimum) heat capacity and magnetic susceptibility at uniform electric fields. From the behavior of theses quantities, the band gap has been changed with impurity concentration, impurity scattering strength and electric field. The analysis on the impurity-dependent magnetic susceptibility curves shows a phase transition from ferromagnetic to paramagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases. Interestingly, electronic heat capacity increases (decreases) with impurity concentration in silicene (germanene and stanene) structure.

  5. Dependence of micelle size and shape on detergent alkyl chain length and head group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan C Oliver

    Full Text Available Micelle-forming detergents provide an amphipathic environment that can mimic lipid bilayers and are important tools for solubilizing membrane proteins for functional and structural investigations in vitro. However, the formation of a soluble protein-detergent complex (PDC currently relies on empirical screening of detergents, and a stable and functional PDC is often not obtained. To provide a foundation for systematic comparisons between the properties of the detergent micelle and the resulting PDC, a comprehensive set of detergents commonly used for membrane protein studies are systematically investigated. Using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS, micelle shapes and sizes are determined for phosphocholines with 10, 12, and 14 alkyl carbons, glucosides with 8, 9, and 10 alkyl carbons, maltosides with 8, 10, and 12 alkyl carbons, and lysophosphatidyl glycerols with 14 and 16 alkyl carbons. The SAXS profiles are well described by two-component ellipsoid models, with an electron rich outer shell corresponding to the detergent head groups and a less electron dense hydrophobic core composed of the alkyl chains. The minor axis of the elliptical micelle core from these models is constrained by the length of the alkyl chain, and increases by 1.2-1.5 Å per carbon addition to the alkyl chain. The major elliptical axis also increases with chain length; however, the ellipticity remains approximately constant for each detergent series. In addition, the aggregation number of these detergents increases by ∼16 monomers per micelle for each alkyl carbon added. The data provide a comprehensive view of the determinants of micelle shape and size and provide a baseline for correlating micelle properties with protein-detergent interactions.

  6. Snake cytotoxins bind to membranes via interactions with phosphatidylserine head groups of lipids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia G Konshina

    Full Text Available The major representatives of Elapidae snake venom, cytotoxins (CTs, share similar three-fingered fold and exert diverse range of biological activities against various cell types. CT-induced cell death starts from the membrane recognition process, whose molecular details remain unclear. It is known, however, that the presence of anionic lipids in cell membranes is one of the important factors determining CT-membrane binding. In this work, we therefore investigated specific interactions between one of the most abundant of such lipids, phosphatidylserine (PS, and CT 4 of Naja kaouthia using a combined, experimental and modeling, approach. It was shown that incorporation of PS into zwitterionic liposomes greatly increased the membrane-damaging activity of CT 4 measured by the release of the liposome-entrapped calcein fluorescent dye. The CT-induced leakage rate depends on the PS concentration with a maximum at approximately 20% PS. Interestingly, the effects observed for PS were much more pronounced than those measured for another anionic lipid, sulfatide. To delineate the potential PS binding sites on CT 4 and estimate their relative affinities, a series of computer simulations was performed for the systems containing the head group of PS and different spatial models of CT 4 in aqueous solution and in an implicit membrane. This was done using an original hybrid computational protocol implementing docking, Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations. As a result, at least three putative PS-binding sites with different affinities to PS molecule were delineated. Being located in different parts of the CT molecule, these anion-binding sites can potentially facilitate and modulate the multi-step process of the toxin insertion into lipid bilayers. This feature together with the diverse binding affinities of the sites to a wide variety of anionic targets on the membrane surface appears to be functionally meaningful and may adjust CT action against

  7. Proton migration along the membrane surface in the absence of charged or titratable groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Springer, A.

    2011-01-01

    Proton diffusion along membrane surfaces is thought to be essential for many cellular processes such as energy transduction. For example, proton diffusion along membrane surfaces is considered to be the dominant mechanism of proton exchange between membrane sites of high and low proton concentrations. For the investigation of this mechanism, kinetic experiments on proton diffusion are evaluated to determine the ability of lipid membranes to retain protons on their surfaces. Experiments on different lipid bilayer membranes (DPhPC, DPhPE and GMO) are performed under the influence of two types of mobile buffer molecules (Capso, NH4CL). During these experiments the surface diffusion of photolytically released protons is visualized in terms of fluorescence changes of a lipid bound pH-sensitive dye (DHPE +fluorescein). The protons under investigation are released by flash photolysis of a hydrophobic caged compound (DMCM, caged diethyl phosphate). The experimental data confirm the existence of an energy barrier, which prevents the protons from escaping into the bulk. So far this effect was attributed to the proton binding to titrateable groups (e.g. ethanolamine) or electrostatic forces created by charged moieties (e.g. phosphate groups) on the membrane/water interface. However, upon removal of the titrateable groups and charged moieties from the membrane surface, a significant energy barrier remained as indicated by the experiments with glycerol monooleate (GMO) bilayers. To estimate the size of the barrier a semi-analytical model is presented that describes the two and three dimensional proton diffusion and the related physical and chemical processes. Common models describe surface proton diffusion as a series of subsequent hopping processes between membrane-anchored buffer molecules. Our experiments provide evidence for an alternative model. We released membrane-bound caged protons by UV flashes and monitored their arrival at distant sites s by fluorescence

  8. Thermodynamics on the micellization of various pure and mixed surfactants: Effects of head- and tail-groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Nam-Min; Lee, Byung-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The values of critical micelle concentration of various pure and mixed surfactants are measured. • Thermodynamic parameters’ values are calculated to analyze the effects of head- and tail-groups on the micellization. • All the thermodynamic parameters’ values are decreasing with the increase of temperature. • The thermodynamic parameters’ values are depending severely on the chain length of alkyl group. - Abstract: The values of critical micelle concentration (CMC) for the micellization of various pure and mixed surfactants are determined by the UV–Vis spectrophotometric method. And the effects of temperature on the CMC values have been measured and thermodynamic parameters’ values are calculated to analyse the effects of head- and tail-groups on the micellization of surfactant molecules. The results show that the values of ΔG"o are negative and those of ΔS"o are positive for the micellization of all the surfactants within the measured temperature range. But the values of ΔH"o are positive or negative, depending on the kinds of surfactants. All these thermodynamic parameters’ values are decreasing together with the increase of temperature for all the surfactants. And these thermodynamic parameters’ values are depending severely on the chain length of alkyl group also as much as on the head-groups of surfactant molecules.

  9. Generation of conductivity through transfer charge properties, for polyesters and polyamides with characteristic functional groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Carmen; Tagle, Luis Hernan; Terraza, Claudio A.; Barriga, Andres; Cabrera, A. L.; Volkmann, Ulrich G.

    2011-03-01

    Electro-optic properties of σ -conjugated polymers, as polysilylene; are associated with electron conjugation in the silicon atom, which allows a significant delocalization of electrons along of the chain. Thus, the conductivity is intimately connected to the mobility of charge carriers, which in turn depends on the structure and morphology of the system. We report the characterization of polyesters (PEFs) and polyamides (PAFs). Film thicknesses were obtained by ellipsometry. The vibration frequencies of the groups were determined by FT-IR and corroborated by Raman spectroscopy. Structural information was obtained from X-Ray diffraction (XRD). The structural and surface morphology were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Electrical conductivity of the polymers was measured before and after exposure to iodine vapor, for films of different thicknesses. Morphological differentiation was studied by energy dispersive microscopy (EDX), showing a regular distribution of iodine within the polymer. Preliminary conductivity measurements showed adverse effects when oxidation of the polymer films is induced These effects are related to a certain grade of disorder within the system

  10. Nature of the Charged-Group Effect on the Stability of the C-Peptide Helix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Kevin R.; Kim, Peter S.; Brems, David N.; Marqusee, Susan; York, Eunice J.; Chaiken, Irwin M.; Stewart, John M.; Baldwin, Robert L.

    1985-04-01

    The residues responsible for the pH-dependent stability of the helix formed by the isolated C-peptide (residues 1-13 of ribonuclease A) have been identified by chemical synthesis of analogues and measurement of their helix-forming properties. Each of the residues ionizing between pH 2 and pH 8 has been replaced separately by an uncharged residue. Protonation of Glu-2- is responsible for the sharp decrease in helix stability between pH 5 and pH 2, and deprotonation of His-12+ causes a similar decrease between pH 5 and pH 8. Glu-9- is not needed for helix stability. The results cannot be explained by the Zimm-Bragg model and host-guest data for α -helix formation, which predict that the stability of the C-peptide helix should increase when Glu-2- is protonated or when His-12+ is deprotonated. Moreover, histidine+ is a strong helix-breaker in host-guest studies. In proteins, acidic and basic residues tend to occur at opposite ends of α -helices: acidic residues occur preferentially near the NH2-terminal end and basic residues near the COOH-terminal end. A possible explanation, based on a helix dipole model, has been given [Blagdon, D. E. & Goodman, M. (1975) Biopolymers 14, 241-245]. Our results are consistent with the helix dipole model and they support the suggestion that the distribution of charged residues in protein helices reflects the helix-stabilizing propensity of those residues. Because Glu-9 is not needed for helix stability, a possible Glu-9-\\cdots His-12+ salt bridge does not contribute significantly to helix stability. The role of a possible Glu-2-\\cdots Arg-10+ salt bridge has not yet been evaluated. A charged-group effect on α -helix stability in water has also been observed in a different peptide system [Ihara, S., Ooi, T. & Takahashi, S. (1982) Biopolymers 21, 131-145]: block copolymers containing (Ala)20 and (Glu)20 show partial helix formation at low temperatures, pH 7.5, where the glutamic acid residues are ionized. (Glu)20(Ala)20Phe forms a

  11. Photogeneration of free charge carriers in .pi.-conjugated polymers with bulky side groups

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Menšík, Miroslav; Jex, M.; Pfleger, Jiří; Jung, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 404, 24 August (2012), s. 48-55 ISSN 0301-0104 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/10/2280; GA MŠk(CZ) OC10007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : photogeneration of free charge carriers * charge transfer states * localized excitation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.957, year: 2012

  12. Social Determinants of Tooth Loss among a Group of Iranian Female Heads of Household

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taraneh Movahhed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Tooth loss may lead to mastication disability, which in turn has important impact on individual’s quality of life. Social and psychological factors have been shown to be associated with tooth loss. This study aimed to in-vestigate the social determinants and prevalence of tooth loss, and presence of functional dentition among female heads of household under support of Welfare Organization in Mashhad, Iran. Materials and methods. In current study 556 participants aged 16-76 years were recruited. Sociodemographic character-istics (age, level of education, family size, and monthly income were collected using interviewer-led questionnaire. Data about number of teeth and functional dentition were obtained by oral examination. The data were analyzed using Chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis, T-test and binary logistic regression analysis. Results. Four percent of participants were edentulous. Tooth loss was significantly associated with level of education, age and family size (P < 0.001. There was no significant association between level of income and tooth loss (P = 0.88. Only 37.5% of dentate subjects had functional dentition (anterior and premolar teeth. Women older than 40 years were 0.63 times less likely to have functional dentition than those younger than 40 years. Females with at least a high-school diploma were six times more likely to have functional dentition than their illiterate counterparts. Conclusion. Social determinants of functional dentition should be taken into account when planning oral health promoting programs for female heads of household. For reducing oral health inequalities access to dental services should be facilitated.

  13. Epidemiology and management of head injury in paediatric age group in North-Eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Y Chinda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Paediatric head injury (HI is the single most common cause of death and permanent disability in children world over, and this is increasingly becoming worrisome in our society because of increased risks and proneness to road traffic accidents on our highways and streets. The study set to determine causes and management of HI among children in our society. Patients and Methods: A retrospective review of all children aged 0-15 years with traumatic head injury (THIs who were managed at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital between July, 2006 and August, 2008. Results: A total of 45 children with THIs presented to the casualty unit of the hospital; 30 (66.7% were boys and 15 (33.3% were girls. Three (6.7% children were less than 1 year of age, 21 (46.7% were between 1 years and 6 years while 16 (35.6% and 5 (11.0% were aged 7-11 years and 12-15 years respectively. Thirty six (80.0% of the children were pedestrians, 6 (13.4% fell from a height, while 2 (4.4% and 1 (2.2% were as a result of home accident and assault, respectively. Twenty one patients (46.7% had mild HI, while 53.3% had moderate to severe category. Forty one (91.1% of children were managed as in-patients, mostly (95.1% by conservative non-operative management, while 4 (8.9% were treated on the out-patient basis. The mortality rate was 17.8%. Conclusion: H1 among children is of a great concern, because of its incremental magnitude, due to increasing child labour and interstate religious discipleship among children, with attendant high mortality and permanent disabilities. Necessary laws and legislations should be formulated and implemented with organized campaigns and public enlightenment to prevent and mitigate this menace.

  14. Pretreatment Quality of Life Predicts for Locoregional Control in Head and Neck Cancer Patients: A Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, Farzan; Pajak, Thomas F.; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah; Konski, Andre A.; Coyne, James C.; Gwede, Clement K.; Garden, Adam S.; Spencer, Sharon A.; Jones, Christopher; Movsas, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the prospectively collected health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) data from patients enrolled in two Radiation Therapy Oncology Group randomized Phase III head and neck cancer trials (90-03 and 91-11) to assess their value as an independent prognostic factor for locoregional control (LRC) and/or overall survival (OS). Methods and Materials: HRQOL questionnaires, using a validated instrument, the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Head and Neck (FACT-H and N), version 2, were completed by patients before the start of treatment. OS and LRC were the outcome measures analyzed using a multivariate Cox proportional hazard model. Results: Baseline FACT-H and N data were available for 1,093 patients and missing for 417 patients. No significant difference in outcome was found between the patients with and without baseline FACT-H and N data (p = 0.58). The median follow-up time was 27.2 months for all patients and 49 months for surviving patients. Multivariate analyses were performed for both OS and LRC. Beyond tumor and nodal stage, Karnofsky performance status, primary site, cigarette use, use of concurrent chemotherapy, and altered fractionation schedules, the FACT-H and N score was independently predictive of LRC (but not OS), with p = 0.0038. The functional well-being component of the FACT-H and N predicted most significantly for LRC (p = 0.0004). Conclusions: This study represents, to our knowledge, the largest analysis of HRQOL as a prognostic factor in locally advanced head and neck cancer patients. The results of this study have demonstrated the importance of baseline HRQOL as a significant and independent predictor of LRC in patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer

  15. National trends of incidence, treatment, and hospital charges of isolated C-2 fractures in three different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukreja, Sunil; Kalakoti, Piyush; Murray, Richard; Nixon, Menarvia; Missios, Symeon; Guthikonda, Bharat; Nanda, Anil

    2015-04-01

    Incidence of C-2 fracture is increasing in elderly patients. Patient age also influences decision making in the management of these fractures. There are very limited data on the national trends of incidence, treatment interventions, and resource utilization in patients in different age groups with isolated C-2 fractures. The aim of this study is to investigate the incidence, treatment, complications, length of stay, and hospital charges of isolated C-2 fracture in patients in 3 different age groups by using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database. The data were obtained from NIS from 2002 to 2011. Data on patients with closed fractures of C-2 without spinal cord injury were extracted using ICD-9-CM diagnosis code 805.02. Patients with isolated C-2 fractures were identified by excluding patients with other associated injuries. The cohort was divided into 3 age groups: 80 years. Incidence, treatment characteristics, inpatient/postoperative complications, and hospital charges (mean and total annual charges) were compared between the 3 age groups. A total of 10,336 patients with isolated C-2 fractures were identified. The majority of the patients were in the very elderly age group (> 80 years; 42.3%) followed by 29.7% in the 65- to 80-year age group and 28% in age group. From 2002 to 2011, the incidence of hospitalization significantly increased in the 65- to 80-year and > 80-year age groups (p age group (p = 0.287). Overall, 21% of the patients were treated surgically, and 12.2% of the patients underwent nonoperative interventions (halo and spinal traction). The rate of nonoperative interventions significantly decreased over time in all age groups (p age groups had a greater risk of inpatient/postoperative complications, nonroutine discharges, and longer hospitalization. The mean hospital charges were significantly higher in older age groups (p age groups. Simultaneously, there has been a steadily decreasing trend in the preference for nonoperative

  16. More heads choose better than one: Group decision making can eliminate probability matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Christin; Newell, Ben R

    2016-06-01

    Probability matching is a robust and common failure to adhere to normative predictions in sequential decision making. We show that this choice anomaly is nearly eradicated by gathering individual decision makers into small groups and asking the groups to decide. The group choice advantage emerged both when participants generated responses for an entire sequence of choices without outcome feedback (Exp. 1a) and when participants made trial-by-trial predictions with outcome feedback after each decision (Exp. 1b). We show that the dramatic improvement observed in group settings stands in stark contrast to a complete lack of effective solitary deliberation. These findings suggest a crucial role of group discussion in alleviating the impact of hasty intuitive responses in tasks better suited to careful deliberation.

  17. Breath-hold monitoring and visual feedback for radiotherapy using a charge-coupled device camera and a head-mounted display. System development and feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshitake, Tadamasa; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present the technical aspects of the breath-hold technique with respiratory monitoring and visual feedback and to evaluate the feasibility of this system in healthy volunteers. To monitor respiration, the vertical position of the fiducial marker placed on the patient's abdomen was tracked by a machine vision system with a charge-coupled device camera. A monocular head-mounted display was used to provide the patient with visual feedback about the breathing trace. Five healthy male volunteers were enrolled in this study. They held their breath at the end-inspiration and the end-expiration phases. They performed five repetitions of the same type of 15-s breath-holds with and without a head-mounted display, respectively. A standard deviation of five mean positions of the fiducial marker during a 15-s breath-hold in each breath-hold type was used as the reproducibility value of breath-hold. All five volunteers well tolerated the breath-hold maneuver. For the inspiration breath-hold, the standard deviations with and without visual feedback were 1.74 mm and 0.84 mm, respectively (P=0.20). For the expiration breath-hold, the standard deviations with and without visual feedback were 0.63 mm and 0.96 mm, respectively (P=0.025). Our newly developed system might help the patient achieve improved breath-hold reproducibility. (author)

  18. The effect of the head group on branched-alkyl chain surfactants in glycolipid/n-octane/water ternary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nainggolan, Irwana; Radiman, Shahidan; Hamzah, Ahmad Sazali; Hashim, Rauzah

    2009-10-01

    Two novel glycolipids have been synthesized and their phase behaviour studied. They have been characterized using FT-IR, FAB and 13C NMR and 1H NMR to ensure the purity of novel glycolipids. The two glycolipids are distinguished based on the head group of glycolipids (monosaccharide/glucose and disaccharide/maltose). These two novel glycolipids have been used as surfactant to perform two phase diagrams. Phase behaviours that have been investigated are 2-hexyldecyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2-HDG)/n-octane/water ternary system and 2-hexyldecyl-beta-D-maltoside (2-HDM)/n-octane/water ternary system. SAXS and polarizing optical microscope have been used to study the phase behaviours of these two surfactants in ternary phase diagram. Study of effect of the head group on branched-alkyl chain surfactants in ternary system is a strategy to derive the structure-property relationship. For comparison, 2-HDM and 2-HDG have been used as surfactant in the same ternary system. The phase diagram of 2-hexyldecyl-beta-D-maltoside/n-octane/water ternary system exhibited a Lalpha phase at a higher concentration regime, followed with two phases and a micellar solution region in a lower concentration regime. The phase diagram of 2-HDG/water/n-octane ternary system shows hexagonal phase, cubic phase, rectangular ribbon phase, lamellar phase, cubic phase as the surfactant concentration increase.

  19. Japan Charged-Particle Nuclear Reaction Data Group (JCPRG). Progress report. P10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Executive Committee of JCPRG

    2001-01-01

    In 2000 the following activities were carried out: compilation of the CNDP (Charged Particle Nuclear Reaction Data); translation of NRDF data into EXFOR data; making of the retrieval systems using Internet and Intelligent Pad for the CPND in both NRDF and EXFOR; distributing the CPND and promoting utilization in Japan; making a new system to transform from NRDF to EXFOR. Preliminary version of a new editing system for compiling and inputting the NRDF data was completed

  20. Dramatic inversion of charge polarity in diketopyrrolopyrrole-based organic field-effect transistors via a simple nitrile group substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hui-Jun; Kang, Seok-Ju; Xu, Yong; Kim, Seul Ong; Kim, Yun-Hi; Noh, Yong-Young; Kwon, Soon-Ki

    2014-11-19

    A record-breaking high electron mobility of 7.0 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) for n-channel polymer OFETs is reported. By the incorporation of only one nitrile group as an electron-withdrawing function in the vinyl linkage of the DPP-based copolymer, a dramatic inversion of majority charge-carriers from holes to electrons is achieved. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Macroporous modified poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogels with charged groups for tissue engineering: Preparation and in vitro evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozdova, Maria G., E-mail: drozdovamg@gmail.com [Polymers for Biology Laboratory, Shemyakin & Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry of Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 16/10, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Zaytseva-Zotova, Daria S. [Polymers for Biology Laboratory, Shemyakin & Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry of Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 16/10, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Akasov, Roman A. [Polymers for Biology Laboratory, Shemyakin & Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry of Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 16/10, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Trubetskaya str., 8/2, Moscow 119048 (Russian Federation); Golunova, Anna S.; Artyukhov, Alexander A. [D. Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, Miusskaya Square 9, Moscow 125047 (Russian Federation); Udartseva, Olga O.; Andreeva, Elena R. [Institute of Biomedical Problems of Russian Academy of Sciences, Khoroshevskoe Shosse 76a, Moscow 123007 (Russian Federation); Lisovyy, Denis E.; Shtilman, Michael I. [D. Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, Miusskaya Square 9, Moscow 125047 (Russian Federation); Markvicheva, Elena A. [Polymers for Biology Laboratory, Shemyakin & Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry of Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 16/10, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation)

    2017-06-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogels are widely employed for various biomedical applications, including tissue engineering, due to their biocompatibility, high water solubility, low protein adsorption, and chemical stability. However, non-charged surface of PVA-based hydrogels is not optimal for cell adhesion and spreading. Here, cross-linked macroporous hydrogels based on low molecular weight acrylated PVA (Acr-PVA) was synthesized by modification of the pendant alcohol groups on the PVA with glycidyl methacrylate (GMA). To enhance cell affinity, charged groups were introduced to the hydrogel composition. For this purpose, Acr-PVA was copolymerized with either negatively charged acrylic acid (AA) or positively charged 2-(diethylamino) ethyl methacrylate (DEAEMA) monomers. A surface charge of the obtained hydrogels was found to be in function of the co-monomer type and content. Confocal microscopy observations confirmed that adhesion and spreading of both mouse fibroblasts (L929) and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) on the modified Acr-PVA-AA and Acr-PVA-DEAEMA hydrogels were better than those on the non-modified Acr-PVA hydrogel. The increase of DEAEMA monomer content from 5 to 15 mol% resulted in the enhancement of cell viability which was 1.5-fold higher for Acr-PVA-DEAEMA-15 hydrogel than that of the non-modified Acr-PVA hydrogel sample. - Highlights: • To enhance cell affinity, acrylated PVA hydrogel was modified with AA or DEAEMA monomers. • Cell adhesion and spreading were found to depend on the co-monomer type and content. • Proliferation of L929 fibroblasts and stem cells increased on the modified hydrogels.

  2. Macroporous modified poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogels with charged groups for tissue engineering: Preparation and in vitro evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdova, Maria G.; Zaytseva-Zotova, Daria S.; Akasov, Roman A.; Golunova, Anna S.; Artyukhov, Alexander A.; Udartseva, Olga O.; Andreeva, Elena R.; Lisovyy, Denis E.; Shtilman, Michael I.; Markvicheva, Elena A.

    2017-01-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogels are widely employed for various biomedical applications, including tissue engineering, due to their biocompatibility, high water solubility, low protein adsorption, and chemical stability. However, non-charged surface of PVA-based hydrogels is not optimal for cell adhesion and spreading. Here, cross-linked macroporous hydrogels based on low molecular weight acrylated PVA (Acr-PVA) was synthesized by modification of the pendant alcohol groups on the PVA with glycidyl methacrylate (GMA). To enhance cell affinity, charged groups were introduced to the hydrogel composition. For this purpose, Acr-PVA was copolymerized with either negatively charged acrylic acid (AA) or positively charged 2-(diethylamino) ethyl methacrylate (DEAEMA) monomers. A surface charge of the obtained hydrogels was found to be in function of the co-monomer type and content. Confocal microscopy observations confirmed that adhesion and spreading of both mouse fibroblasts (L929) and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) on the modified Acr-PVA-AA and Acr-PVA-DEAEMA hydrogels were better than those on the non-modified Acr-PVA hydrogel. The increase of DEAEMA monomer content from 5 to 15 mol% resulted in the enhancement of cell viability which was 1.5-fold higher for Acr-PVA-DEAEMA-15 hydrogel than that of the non-modified Acr-PVA hydrogel sample. - Highlights: • To enhance cell affinity, acrylated PVA hydrogel was modified with AA or DEAEMA monomers. • Cell adhesion and spreading were found to depend on the co-monomer type and content. • Proliferation of L929 fibroblasts and stem cells increased on the modified hydrogels.

  3. Theoretical studies on the effect of benzene and thiophene groups on the charge transport properties of Isoindigo and its derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xu-Bo; Wei, Hui-Ling; Shi, Ya-Ting; Shi, Ya-Rui; Liu, Yu-Fang

    2017-12-01

    In this work, the charge transport properties of Isoindigo (II) and its derivatives which have the same hexyl chain were theoretically investigated by the Marcus-Hush theory combined with density functional theory (DFT). Here we demonstrate that the changes of benzene and thiophene groups in molecular structure have an important influence on the charge transport properties of organic semiconductor. The benzene rings of II are replaced by thiophenes to form the thienoisoindigo (TII), and the addition of benzene rings to the TII form the benzothienoisoindigo (BTII). The results show that benzene rings and thiophenes change the chemical structure of crystal molecules, which lead to different molecule stacking, thus, the length of hydrogen bond was changed. A shorter intermolecular hydrogen bond lead to tighter molecular stacking, which reduces the center-to-center distance and enhances the ability of charge transfer. At the same time, we theoretically demonstrated that II and BTII are the ambipolar organic semiconductor. BTII has better carrier mobility. The hole mobility far greater than electron mobility in TII, which is p-type organic semiconductor. Among all hopping path, we find that the distance of face-to-face stacking in II is the shortest and the electron-transport electronic coupling Ve is the largest, but II has not a largest anisotropic mobility, because the reorganization energy has a greater influence on the mobility than the electronic coupling. This work is helpful for designing ambipolar organic semiconductor materials with higher charge transport properties by introducing benzene ring and thiophene.

  4. Predicting Heats of Explosion of Nitroaromatic Compounds through NBO Charges and 15N NMR Chemical Shifts of Nitro Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Infante-Castillo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a new quantitative model to predict the heat of explosion of nitroaromatic compounds using the natural bond orbital (NBO charge and 15N NMR chemical shifts of the nitro groups (15NNitro as structural parameters. The values of the heat of explosion predicted for 21 nitroaromatic compounds using the model described here were compared with experimental data. The prediction ability of the model was assessed by the leave-one-out cross-validation method. The cross-validation results show that the model is significant and stable and that the predicted accuracy is within 0.146 MJ kg−1, with an overall root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP below 0.183 MJ kg−1. Strong correlations were observed between the heat of explosion and the charges (R2 = 0.9533 and 15N NMR chemical shifts (R2 = 0.9531 of the studied compounds. In addition, the dependence of the heat of explosion on the presence of activating or deactivating groups of nitroaromatic explosives was analyzed. All calculations, including optimizations, NBO charges, and 15NNitro NMR chemical shifts analyses, were performed using density functional theory (DFT and a 6-311+G(2d,p basis set. Based on these results, this practical quantitative model can be used as a tool in the design and development of highly energetic materials (HEM based on nitroaromatic compounds.

  5. The experts from the Review of LHC Superconducting Cables and Magnet Production, accompanied by the committee's secretary and the Head of the Magnets and Superconductors Group.

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    From left to right: Ron Scanlan (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, US), Taka Shintomi (KEK Laboratory, Japan), Claudine Bosteels (Secretary of the Review, AT-MAS Group, CERN), Lucio Rossi (Head of AT-MAS Group, CERN), Ettore Salpietro (EDFA-Iter project), Bruce Strauss (US Department of Energy, Chairman of the committee), and Pierre Vedrine (CEA-DAPNIA-SACM, France).

  6. Knowledge of human papillomavirus and its association with head and neck benign and malignant lesions in a group of dental patients in pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gichki, Abdul Samad; Buajeeb, Waranun; Doungudomdacha, Sombhun; Khovidhunkit, Siribang-On Pibooniyom

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) remain a serious world health problem due to their association with cervical and head and neck cancers. While over 100 HPV types have been identified, only a few subtypes are associated with malignancies. HPV 16 and 18 are the most prevalent oncogenic types in head and neck cancers. Although it has been proven that some subsets of benign and malignant head and neck lesions are associated with HPV, the general population have very little awareness and knowledge of their association with HPV. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge of HPV and its links with head and neck benign and malignant lesions in a group of Pakistani dental patients who attended the Dental Department of the Sandeman provincial hospital in Quetta, Pakistan. One hundred and ninety-two patients were recruited and requested to answer a questionnaire. It was revealed that there was a low level of knowledge about HPV and its association with head and neck benign and malignant lesions among the participants. This result suggested that more education regarding the relationship of HPV in inducing head and neck benign and malignant lesions is required in this group of patients.

  7. Effect of glass-forming biopreservatives on head group rotational dynamics in freeze-dried phospholipid bilayers: A 31P NMR study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, P.; Sen, S.; Risbud, S. H.

    2009-07-01

    P31 NMR spectroscopy has been used to elucidate the role of glass-forming sugars in the preservation of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) lipid bilayers. P31 wideline NMR spectra of freeze-dried pure DPPC, DPPC/trehalose, DPPC/glucose, and DPPC/hydroxyethyl starch (HES) mixtures collected in the temperature range of 25-80 °C have been simulated to obtain quantitative information about rotational dynamics and orientation of the lipid head groups in these media. In the case of pure DPPC, DPPC/glucose, and DPPC/HES, the gel-to-liquid crystalline phase transition of DPPC bilayer is characterized by a sudden increase in the rate of rotational diffusion of the PO4 head groups near 40 °C. The corresponding rotational jump frequency increases from a few kilohertz in the gel phase to at least several megahertz in the liquid crystalline phase. On the other hand, in the case of DPPC/trehalose mixture the temperature of this onset of rapid head group dynamics is increased by ˜10 °C. Trehalose reduces the lipid head group motions most effectively in the temperature range of T ≤50 °C relevant for biopreservation. Additionally, and possibly more importantly, trehalose is found to strongly restrict any change in the orientation of the diffusion axis of the PO4 head groups during the phase transformation. This unique ability of trehalose to maintain the dynamical and orientational rigidity of lipid head groups is likely to be responsible for its superior ability in biopreservation.

  8. c-function and central charge of the sine-Gordon model from the non-perturbative renormalization group flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bacsó

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the c-function of the sine-Gordon model taking explicitly into account the periodicity of the interaction potential. The integration of the c-function along trajectories of the non-perturbative renormalization group flow gives access to the central charges of the model in the fixed points. The results at vanishing frequency β2, where the periodicity does not play a role, are retrieved and the independence on the cutoff regulator for small frequencies is discussed. Our findings show that the central charge obtained integrating the trajectories starting from the repulsive low-frequencies fixed points (β2<8π to the infra-red limit is in good quantitative agreement with the expected Δc=1 result. The behavior of the c-function in the other parts of the flow diagram is also discussed. Finally, we point out that including also higher harmonics in the renormalization group treatment at the level of local potential approximation is not sufficient to give reasonable results, even if the periodicity is taken into account. Rather, incorporating the wave-function renormalization (i.e. going beyond local potential approximation is crucial to get sensible results even when a single frequency is used.

  9. Effect of Cationic Surfactant Head Groups on Synthesis, Growth and Agglomeration Behavior of ZnS Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta SK

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Colloidal nanodispersions of ZnS have been prepared using aqueous micellar solution of two cationic surfactants of trimethylammonium/pyridinium series with different head groups i.e., cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC and cetyltrimethylpyridinium chloride (CPyC. The role of these surfactants in controlling size, agglomeration behavior and photophysical properties of ZnS nanoparticles has been discussed. UV–visible spectroscopy has been carried out for determination of optical band gap and size of ZnS nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering were used to measure sizes and size distribution of ZnS nanoparticles. Powder X-ray analysis (Powder XRD reveals the cubic structure of nanocrystallite in powdered sample. The photoluminescence emission band exhibits red shift for ZnS nanoparticles in CTAC compared to those in CPyC. The aggregation behavior in two surfactants has been compared using turbidity measurements after redispersing the nanoparticles in water. In situ evolution and growth of ZnS nanoparticles in two different surfactants have been compared through time-dependent absorption behavior and UV irradiation studies. Electrical conductivity measurements reveal that CPyC micelles better stabilize the nanoparticles than that of CTAC.

  10. Risk-group definition by recursive partitioning analysis of patients with squamous cell head and neck carcinoma treated with surgery and postoperative radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langendijk, JA; Slotman, BJ; van der Waal, [No Value; Doornaert, P; Berkof, J; Leemans, CR

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The objective of this study was to define different prognostic groups with regard to locoregional control (LRC) derived from recursive partitioning analysis (RPA). METHODS. Eight hundred one patients with squamous cell head and neck carcinoma underwent with primary surgery and received

  11. Clinical Value of High Mobility Group Box 1 and the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-products in Head and Neck Cancer: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen, Austin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction High mobility group box 1 is a versatile protein involved in gene transcription, extracellular signaling, and response to inflammation. Extracellularly, high mobility group box 1 binds to several receptors, notably the receptor for advanced glycation end-products. Expression of high mobility group box 1 and the receptor for advanced glycation end-products has been described in many cancers. Objectives To systematically review the available literature using PubMed and Web of Science to evaluate the clinical value of high mobility group box 1 and the receptor for advanced glycation end-products in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Data synthesis A total of eleven studies were included in this review. High mobility group box 1 overexpression is associated with poor prognosis and many clinical and pathological characteristics of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas patients. Additionally, the receptor for advanced glycation end-products demonstrates potential value as a clinical indicator of tumor angiogenesis and advanced staging. In diagnosis, high mobility group box 1 demonstrates low sensitivity. Conclusion High mobility group box 1 and the receptor for advanced glycation end-products are associated with clinical and pathological characteristics of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Further investigation of the prognostic and diagnostic value of these molecules is warranted.

  12. Adsorption of the Inflammatory Mediator High-Mobility Group Box 1 by Polymers with Different Charge and Porosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Tripisciano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1 is a conserved protein with a variety of biological functions inside as well as outside the cell. When released by activated immune cells, it acts as a proinflammatory cytokine. Its delayed release has sparked the interest in HMGB1 as a potential therapeutic target. Here, we studied the adsorption of HMGB1 to anionic methacrylate-based polymers as well as to neutral polystyrene-divinylbenzene copolymers. Both groups of adsorbents exhibited efficient binding of recombinant HMGB1 and of HMGB1 derived from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The adsorption characteristics depended on particle size, porosity, accessibility of the pores, and charge of the polymers. In addition to these physicochemical parameters of the adsorbents, modifications of the molecule itself (e.g., acetylation, phosphorylation, and oxidation, interaction with other plasma proteins or anticoagulants (e.g., heparin, or association with extracellular microvesicles may influence the binding of HMGB1 to adsorbents and lead to preferential depletion of HMGB1 subsets with different biological activity.

  13. Head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogl, S.E.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 10 chapters. Some of the titles are: Combined Surgical Resection and Irradiation for Head and Neck Cancers; Analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Head and Neck Database: Identification of Prognostic Factors and the Re-evaluation of American Joint Committee Stages; Combined Modality Approach to Head and Neck Cancer; Induction Combination Chemotherapy of Regionally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer; and Outcome after Complete Remission to Induction Chemotherapy in Head and Neck Cancer

  14. Charging machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medlin, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    A charging machine for loading fuel slugs into the process tubes of a nuclear reactor includes a tubular housing connected to the process tube, a charging trough connected to the other end of the tubular housing, a device for loading the charging trough with a group of fuel slugs, means for equalizing the coolant pressure in the charging trough with the pressure in the process tubes, means for pushing the group of fuel slugs into the process tube and a latch and a seal engaging the last object in the group of fuel slugs to prevent the fuel slugs from being ejected from the process tube when the pusher is removed and to prevent pressure liquid from entering the charging machine. 3 claims, 11 drawing figures

  15. Nighttime oxidation of surfactants at the air-water interface: effects of chain length, head group and saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastiani, Federica; Campbell, Richard A.; Rastogi, Kunal; Pfrang, Christian

    2018-03-01

    Reactions of the key atmospheric nighttime oxidant NO3 with organic monolayers at the air-water interface are used as proxies for the ageing of organic-coated aqueous aerosols. The surfactant molecules chosen for this study are oleic acid (OA), palmitoleic acid (POA), methyl oleate (MO) and stearic acid (SA) to investigate the effects of chain length, head group and degree of unsaturation on the reaction kinetics and products formed. Fully and partially deuterated surfactants were studied using neutron reflectometry (NR) to determine the reaction kinetics of organic monolayers with NO3 at the air-water interface for the first time. Kinetic modelling allowed us to determine the rate coefficients for the oxidation of OA, POA and MO monolayers to be (2.8±0.7) × 10-8, (2.4±0.5) × 10-8and (3.3±0.6) × 10-8 cm2 molecule-1 s-1 for fitted initial desorption lifetimes of NO3 at the closely packed organic monolayers, τd, NO3, 1, of 8.1±4.0, 16±4.0 and 8.1±3.0 ns, respectively. The approximately doubled desorption lifetime found in the best fit for POA compared to OA and MO is consistent with a more accessible double bond associated with the shorter alkyl chain of POA facilitating initial NO3 attack at the double bond in a closely packed monolayer. The corresponding uptake coefficients for OA, POA and MO were found to be (2.1±0.5) × 10-3, (1.7±0.3) × 10-3 and (2.1±0.4) × 10-3, respectively. For the much slower NO3-initiated oxidation of the saturated surfactant SA we estimated a loss rate of approximately (5±1) × 10-12 cm2 molecule-1 s-1, which we consider to be an upper limit for the reactive loss, and estimated an uptake coefficient of ca. (5±1) × 10-7. Our investigations demonstrate that NO3 will contribute substantially to the processing of unsaturated surfactants at the air-water interface during nighttime given its reactivity is ca. 2 orders of magnitude higher than that of O3. Furthermore, the relative contributions of NO3 and O3 to the oxidative

  16. Nighttime oxidation of surfactants at the air–water interface: effects of chain length, head group and saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sebastiani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Reactions of the key atmospheric nighttime oxidant NO3 with organic monolayers at the air–water interface are used as proxies for the ageing of organic-coated aqueous aerosols. The surfactant molecules chosen for this study are oleic acid (OA, palmitoleic acid (POA, methyl oleate (MO and stearic acid (SA to investigate the effects of chain length, head group and degree of unsaturation on the reaction kinetics and products formed. Fully and partially deuterated surfactants were studied using neutron reflectometry (NR to determine the reaction kinetics of organic monolayers with NO3 at the air–water interface for the first time. Kinetic modelling allowed us to determine the rate coefficients for the oxidation of OA, POA and MO monolayers to be (2.8±0.7 × 10−8, (2.4±0.5 × 10−8and (3.3±0.6 × 10−8 cm2 molecule−1 s−1 for fitted initial desorption lifetimes of NO3 at the closely packed organic monolayers, τd, NO3, 1, of 8.1±4.0, 16±4.0 and 8.1±3.0 ns, respectively. The approximately doubled desorption lifetime found in the best fit for POA compared to OA and MO is consistent with a more accessible double bond associated with the shorter alkyl chain of POA facilitating initial NO3 attack at the double bond in a closely packed monolayer. The corresponding uptake coefficients for OA, POA and MO were found to be (2.1±0.5 × 10−3, (1.7±0.3 × 10−3 and (2.1±0.4 × 10−3, respectively. For the much slower NO3-initiated oxidation of the saturated surfactant SA we estimated a loss rate of approximately (5±1 × 10−12 cm2 molecule−1 s−1, which we consider to be an upper limit for the reactive loss, and estimated an uptake coefficient of ca. (5±1 × 10−7. Our investigations demonstrate that NO3 will contribute substantially to the processing of unsaturated surfactants at the air–water interface during nighttime given its reactivity is ca. 2 orders of magnitude higher

  17. Social skills training and play group intervention for children with oppositional-defiant disorders/conduct disorder: Mediating mechanisms in a head-to-head comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzmann, Josepha; Goertz-Dorten, Anja; Hautmann, Christopher; Doepfner, Manfred

    2018-01-19

    Social-cognitive information processing, social skills, and social interactions are problem-maintaining variables for aggressive behavior in children. We hypothesized that these factors may be possible mediators of the mechanism of change in the child-centered treatment of conduct disorders (CDs). The aim of the present study (Clinical trials.gov Identifier: NCT01406067) was to examine putative mechanisms of change for the decrease in oppositional-defiant behavior resulting from child-centered treatment of patients with oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) or CD. 91 children (age 6-12 years) with ODD/CD were randomized to receive either social skills training or to a resource activating play group. Mediator analyses were conducted using path analyses. The assumed mediating effects were not significant. However, alternative models with the putative mediators and outcome in reversed positions showed significant indirect effects of the oppositional-defiant symptoms as mediator for the decrease of disturbance of social-information processing, social skills, and social interactions. The proposed model for mechanisms of change could not be confirmed, with the results pointing to a reversed causality. Variables other than those hypothesized must be responsible for mediating the effects of the intervention on child oppositional-defiant behavior. Possible mechanisms of change were discussed.

  18. Strategic Plans to Promote Head and Neck Cancer Translational Research Within the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group: A Report From the Translational Research Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Christine H.; Wong, Stuart; Ang, K. Kian; Hammond, Elizabeth H.; Dicker, Adam P.; Harari, Paul M.; Le, Quynh-Thu

    2007-01-01

    Head and neck cancer is the fifth most common cancer in the United States, with an overall survival rate of approximately 40-50%. In an effort to improve patient outcomes, research efforts designed to maximize benefit and reduce toxicities of therapy are in progress. Basic research in cancer biology has accelerated this endeavor and provided preclinical data and technology to support clinically relevant advances in early detection, prognostic and predictive biomarkers. Recent completion of the Human Genome Project has promoted the rapid development of novel 'omics' technologies that allow more broad based study from a systems biology perspective. However, clinically relevant application of resultant gene signatures to clinical trials within cooperative groups has advanced slowly. In light of the large numbers of variables intrinsic to biomarker studies, validation of preliminary data for clinical implementation presents a significant challenge and may only be realized with large trials that involve significant patient numbers. The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) Head and Neck Cancer Translational Research Program recognizes this problem and brings together three unique features to facilitate this research: (1) availability of large numbers of clinical specimens from homogeneously treated patients through multi-institutional clinical trials; (2) a team of physicians, scientists, and staff focused on patient-oriented head-and-neck cancer research with the common goal of improving cancer care; and (3) a funding mechanism through the RTOG Seed Grant Program. In this position paper we outline strategic plans to further promote translational research within the framework of the RTOG

  19. Heads Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Connect with Us HEADS UP Apps Reshaping the Culture Around Concussion in Sports Get HEADS UP on Your Web Site Concussion ... HEADS UP on your web site! Create a culture of safety for young athletes Officials, learn how you can ... UP to Providers HEADS UP to Youth Sports HEADS UP to School Sports HEADS UP to ...

  20. Characteristics of the groups of charged particles in bar pp,pp and K-p interactions at 32 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogolubsky, M.Yu.; Levitsky, M.S.; Maksimov, V.V.

    1995-01-01

    In the clan model, a method is developed for determining the following characteristics of the groups of charged particles: group multiplicity in an interval, particle multiplicity in a group, and width distribution of groups. Distribution densities are obtained for particles originating from clans produced at a given rapidity point with given width in bar pp, K - p, and pp interactions at 32 GeV/c. It is shown that the differences in the rate of growth of factorial moments in bar pp and K - p interactions are due to a difference in the relative contributions of small-width clans. 12 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Recent works carried out at the IDIEM by the group in charge of probabilistic strength of materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittl, P.

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available This updating review describes, from the conceptual standpoint, all the research works so far carried out at the IDIEM by the group in charge of Probabilistic Strength of Materials as well as research activities under way at present. This description considers three aspects. First, the general purposes of the commented discipline and the discussion of its theoretical foundations are presented. In the second place, an analysis is conducted in connection with materials subjected to diverse stresses of tension, compression, shearing, bending, torsion, eccentrical bending, and also subjected to buckling, eccentrical compressive and eccentrical tensile stresses: in all these cases the pertaining parameters of Weibull's function are determined. Thirdly, sundry engineering applications of said discipline are set out in such fields as, for example, soil mechanics, rock mechanics, seismology, nuclear reactors industry, fatigue, and concrete pavements. At last a brief description of research work now in progress is given.

    Se describen, desde un punto de vista conceptual, todos los trabajos desarrollados hasta la fecha por el grupo de Resistencia Probabilística de Materiales del IDIEM así como los que están actualmente en ejecución. Se consideran tres aspectos en la descripción. En primer lugar, se comentan los objetivos generales de la disciplina discutiendo su fundamentación teórica. En segundo lugar, se analizan casos de materiales sometidos a esfuerzos de tracción, compresión, corte, flexión, torsión, flexión excéntrica, pandeo, compresión y tracción excéntricas y la consecuente determinación de los parámetros de la función de Weibull en todos ellos. En tercer lugar, se mencionan las aplicaciones que esta disciplina tiene en la ingeniería, tales como en: mecánica de suelos, mecánica de rocas, fatiga, pavimentos de hormigón, sismología, industria nuclear, entre otras. Por último, se hace una sucinta descripción de los

  2. If two heads are better than one, why do I have bruises on my forehead? Managing the group process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, F C

    1991-01-01

    Managers are using groups more frequently for solving complex organizational problems because of numerous organizational and environmental factors. Yet, many managers see group decision-making meetings as more of a problem than a solution. This article discusses situations where groups should and should not be used and recommends specific skills a leader can use to improve the effectiveness of group decision making. Emphasis is placed on managing the group process to achieve a satisfactory outcome. An exercise to test the validity of the suggestions is provided.

  3. The 4-pyridylmethyl ester as a protecting group for glutamic and aspartic acids: 'flipping' peptide charge states for characterization by positive ion mode ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garapati, Sriramya; Burns, Colin S

    2014-03-01

    Use of the 4-pyridylmethyl ester group for side-chain protection of glutamic acid residues in solid-phase peptide synthesis enables switching of the charge state of a peptide from negative to positive, thus making detection by positive ion mode ESI-MS possible. The pyridylmethyl ester moiety is readily removed from peptides in high yield by hydrogenation. Combining the 4-pyridylmethyl ester protecting group with benzyl ester protection reduces the number of the former needed to produce a net positive charge and allows for purification by RP HPLC. This protecting group is useful in the synthesis of highly acidic peptide sequences, which are often beset by problems with purification by standard RP HPLC and characterization by ESI-MS. Copyright © 2014 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Influence of length and conformation of saccharide head groups on the mechanics of glycolipid membranes: Unraveled by off-specular neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Akihisa, E-mail: ayamamoto@icems.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: tanaka@uni-heidelberg.de; Tanaka, Motomu, E-mail: ayamamoto@icems.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: tanaka@uni-heidelberg.de [Physical Chemistry of Biosystems, Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences (iCeMS), Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Abuillan, Wasim; Körner, Alexander [Physical Chemistry of Biosystems, Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Burk, Alexandra S. [Physical Chemistry of Biosystems, Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Institute of Toxicology and Genetics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Ries, Annika [Institute of Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, University of Göttingen, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Werz, Daniel B. [Institute of Organic Chemistry, Technische Universität Braunschweig, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Demé, Bruno [Institut Laue-Langevin, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9, Grenoble (France)

    2015-04-21

    The mechanical properties of multilayer stacks of Gb3 glycolipid that play key roles in metabolic disorders (Fabry disease) were determined quantitatively by using specular and off-specular neutron scattering. Because of the geometry of membrane stacks deposited on planar substrates, the scattered intensity profile was analyzed in a 2D reciprocal space map as a function of in-plane and out-of-plane scattering vector components. The two principal mechanical parameters of the membranes, namely, bending rigidity and compression modulus, can be quantified by full calculation of scattering functions with the aid of an effective cut-off radius that takes the finite sample size into consideration. The bulkier “bent” Gb3 trisaccharide group makes the membrane mechanics distinctly different from cylindrical disaccharide (lactose) head groups and shorter “bent” disaccharide (gentiobiose) head groups. The mechanical characterization of membranes enriched with complex glycolipids has high importance in understanding the mechanisms of diseases such as sphingolipidoses caused by the accumulation of non-degenerated glycosphingolipids in lysosomes or inhibition of protein synthesis triggered by the specific binding of Shiga toxin to Gb3.

  5. Heading and head injuries in soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkendall, D T; Jordan, S E; Garrett, W E

    2001-01-01

    In the world of sports, soccer is unique because of the purposeful use of the unprotected head for controlling and advancing the ball. This skill obviously places the player at risk of head injury and the game does carry some risk. Head injury can be a result of contact of the head with another head (or other body parts), ground, goal post, other unknown objects or even the ball. Such impacts can lead to contusions, fractures, eye injuries, concussions or even, in rare cases, death. Coaches, players, parents and physicians are rightly concerned about the risk of head injury in soccer. Current research shows that selected soccer players have some degree of cognitive dysfunction. It is important to determine the reasons behind such deficits. Purposeful heading has been blamed, but a closer look at the studies that focus on heading has revealed methodological concerns that question the validity of blaming purposeful heading of the ball. The player's history and age (did they play when the ball was leather and could absorb significant amounts of water), alcohol intake, drug intake, learning disabilities, concussion definition and control group use/composition are all factors that cloud the ability to blame purposeful heading. What does seem clear is that a player's history of concussive episodes is a more likely explanation for cognitive deficits. While it is likely that the subconcussive impact of purposeful heading is a doubtful factor in the noted deficits, it is unknown whether multiple subconcussive impacts might have some lingering effects. In addition, it is unknown whether the noted deficits have any affect on daily life. Proper instruction in the technique is critical because if the ball contacts an unprepared head (as in accidental head-ball contacts), the potential for serious injury is possible. To further our understanding of the relationship of heading, head injury and cognitive deficits, we need to: learn more about the actual impact of a ball on the

  6. Differences within the groups of physicians and managers in Dutch hospitals providing leads for intergroup cooperation : Running head: group differences in hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Harten, Willem H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Effective cooperation between physicians and managers is difficult to achieve but is an important factor in successfully implementing improvement initiatives in hospitals. Intergroup literature suggests that large differences between groups hinder effective cooperation. - Purposes:

  7. Xeroderma pigmentosum, complementation group D expression in H1299 lung cancer cells following benzo[a]pyrene exposure as well as in head and neck cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chang-Shen; Chiou, Wen-Yen; Lee, Ka-Wo; Chen, Tzu-Fen; Lin, Yuan-Jen; Huang, Jau-Ling

    2016-01-01

    DNA repair genes play critical roles in response to carcinogen-induced and anticancer therapy-induced DNA damage. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), the most carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), is classified as a group 1 carcinogen by International Agency for Research on Cancer. The aims of this study were to (1) evaluate the effects of BaP on DNA repair activity and expression of DNA repair genes in vitro and (2) examine the role of xeroderma pigmentosum, complementation group D (XPD) mRNA expression in human head and neck cancers. Host cell reactivation assay showed that BaP inhibited nucleotide excision repair in H1299 lung cancer cells. DNA repair through the non-homologous end-joining pathway was not affected by BaP. Real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot demonstrated that XPD was downregulated by BaP treatment. BaP exposure did not apparently affect expression of another 11 DNA repair genes. BaP treatment increased the DNA damage marker γ-H2AX and ultraviolet (UV) sensitivity, supporting an impairment of DNA repair in BaP-treated cells. XPD expression was also examined by quantitative RT-PCR in 68 head and neck cancers, and a lower XPD mRNA level was found in smokers' cancer specimens. Importantly, reduced XPD expression was correlated with patient 5-year overall survival rate (35 vs. 56%) and was an independent prognostic factor (hazard ratio: 2.27). Data demonstrated that XPD downregulation was correlated with BaP exposure and human head and neck cancer survival.

  8. Effects of Surface Charge and Functional Groups on the Adsorption and Binding Forms of Cu and Cd on Roots of indica and japonica Rice Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Dong Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This work was designed to understand the mechanisms of adsorption of copper (Cu and cadmium (Cd on roots of indica and japonica varieties of rice. Six varieties each of indica and japonica rice were grown in hydroponics and the chemical properties of the root surface were analyzed, including surface charges and functional groups (-COO- groups as measured by the streaming potential and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR. Binding forms of heavy metals adsorbed on rice roots were identified using sequential extraction methods. In rice roots exposed to Cu and Cd solutions, Cu existed mainly in both exchangeable and complexed forms, whereas Cd existed mainly in the exchangeable form. The amounts of exchangeable Cu and Cd and total adsorbed metal cations on the roots of indica varieties were significantly greater than those on the roots of japonica varieties, and the higher negative charges and the larger number of functional groups on the roots of indica varieties were responsible for their higher adsorption capacity and greater binding strength for Cu and Cd. Surface charge and functional groups on roots play an important role in the adsorption of Cu and Cd on the rice roots.

  9. Effects of heterocyclic-based head group modifications on the structure-activity relationship of tocopherol-based lipids for non-viral gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosangi, Mallikarjun; Mujahid, Thasneem Yoosuf; Gopal, Vijaya; Patri, Srilakshmi V

    2016-07-12

    Gene therapy, a promising strategy for the delivery of therapeutic nucleic acids, is greatly dependent on the development of efficient vectors. In this study, we designed and synthesized several tocopherol-based lipids varying in the head group region. Here, we present the structure-activity relationship of stable aqueous suspensions of lipids that were synthetically prepared and formulated with 1,2-dioleoyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine (DOPE) as the co-lipid. The physicochemical properties such as the hydrodynamic size, zeta potential, stability and morphology of these formulations were investigated. Interaction with plasmid DNA was clearly demonstrated through gel binding and EtBr displacement assays. Further, the transfection potential was examined in mouse neuroblastoma Neuro-2a, hepatocarcinoma HepG2, human embryonic kidney and Chinese hamster ovarian cell lines, all of different origins. Cell-uptake assays with N-methylpiperidinium, N-methylmorpholinium, N-methylimidazolium and N,N-dimethylaminopyridinium head group containing formulations evidently depicted efficient cell uptake as observed by particulate cytoplasmic fluorescence. Trafficking of lipoplexes using an endocytic marker and rhodamine-labeled phospholipid DHPE indicated that the lipoplexes were not sequestered in the lysosomes. Importantly, lipoplexes were non-toxic and mediated good transfection efficiency as analyzed by β-Gal and GFP reporter gene expression assays which established the superior activity of lipids whose structures correlate strongly with the transfection efficiency.

  10. Abundance of Jackfruit ( Artocarpus heterophyllus) Affects Group Characteristics and Use of Space by Golden-Headed Lion Tamarins ( Leontopithecus chrysomelas) in Cabruca Agroforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Leonardo C.; Neves, Leonardo G.; Raboy, Becky E.; Dietz, James M.

    2011-08-01

    Cabruca is an agroforest of cacao trees shaded by native forest trees. It is the predominant vegetation type throughout eastern part of the range of the golden-headed lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, an endangered primate endemic to Atlantic Forest. Understanding how lion tamarins use this agroforest is a conservation priority. To address this question, we documented the diet, home range size, group sizes and composition, density, number of litters and body condition of lion tamarins living in cabruca, and other habitats. Jackfruit, Artocarpus heterophyllus, was the most used species used by lion tamarins in cabruca and was widely available and used throughout the year. In cabruca, home range size was the smallest (22-28 ha) and density of lion tamarins was the highest (1.7 ind/ha) reported for the species. Group size averaged 7.4 individuals and was not significantly different among the vegetation types. In cabruca, groups produced one or two litters a year, and all litters were twins. Adult males in cabruca were significantly heavier than males in primary forest. Our study is the first to demonstrate that breeding groups of golden-headed lion tamarins can survive and reproduce entirely within cabruca agroforest. Jackfruit proved to be a keystone resource for lion tamarins in cabruca, and bromeliads were important as an animal prey foraging microhabitat. In cases where cabruca contains concentrated resources, such as jackfruit and bromeliads, lion tamarins may not only survive and reproduce but may fare better than in other forest types, at least for body condition and reproduction.

  11. Profitability recent open stock funds in Brazil: analysis of the performance of a management Funds Group active in relation to management fees charged for resource managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ricardo Mendes Vasconcelos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to evaluate the performance of a specific group of active management equity investments funds relating it to the management fees charged by managers in order to answer the following research problem: open equity funds with active management, that charge higher management fees, are those that provide the best returns for the investor? The objective was to test the hypothesis under which it is evident that the funds that charged the highest rates are those with the best performances evaluated according to the average yield of the last five years. To achieve this objective, a study of descriptive nature was carried out with a quantitative approach having as object of study the profitability of Brazilian Equity Fund ranked by the Brazilian Association of Financial and Capital Markets (Anbima as IBX Active Equity Funds in the period 2010 to 2014. The analyzed returns were calculated from the Information ratio index, which measures the risk-adjusted return of the asset class. The study found no correlation between the performance of the funds and charged management fees.

  12. Roles of head group architecture and side chain length on colorimetric response of polydiacetylene vesicles to temperature, ethanol and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenthai, Nipaphat; Pattanatornchai, Thanutpon; Wacharasindhu, Sumrit; Sukwattanasinitt, Mongkol; Traiphol, Rakchart

    2011-08-15

    In this contribution, we report the relationship between molecular structures of polydiacetylene (PDA) vesicles, fabricated by using three monomers, 10,12-tricosadiynoic acid (TCDA), 10,12-pentacosadiynoic acid (PCDA) and N-(2-aminoethyl)pentacosa-10,12-diynamide (AEPCDA), and their color-transition behaviors. The modification of side chain length and head group of the PDA vesicles strongly affects the colorimetric response to temperature, ethanol and pH. A shorter side chain of poly(TCDA) yields weaker inter- and intra-chain dispersion interactions in the bilayers compared to the system of poly(PCDA), which in turn results in a faster color transition upon exposure to all stimuli. A change of head group in poly(AEPCDA) slightly reduces the transition temperature. Interestingly, the colorimetric response of poly(AEPCDA) vesicles to the addition of ethanol is found to occur in a two-step fashion while the response of poly(PCDA) vesicles takes place in a one-step process. The amount of ethanol required for inducing complete color-transition of poly(AEPCDA) vesicles is also much higher, about 87% v/v. The increase of pH to ~9 and ~10 causes a color-transition of poly(TCDA) and poly(PCDA) vesicles, respectively. The poly(AEPCDA) vesicles, on the other hand, change color upon decreasing pH to ~0. The colorimetric response also occurs in a multi-step fashion. These discrepancies are attributed to the architecture of surface layers of poly(AEPCDA), constituting amine and amide groups separated by ethyl linkers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of femoral head osteonecrosis in two groups of patients: Legg-Perthes-Calve and Avascular necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, Betul Duran; Ozel, Deniz; Ozkan, Fuat; Halefoglu, Ahmet M

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the value of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) in patients with osteonecrosis. Patients were divided into two subgroups as avascular necrosis (AVN) of femoral head for adult group and Legg-Calvé-Perthes (LCP) patients for children. Seventeen patients with femoral head AVN (mean age 42.3 years) and 17 patients with LCP (mean age 8.2 years) were included in this study. Diagnosis confirmed with clinical and other imaging procedures among the patients complaining hip pain. DW images were obtained using the single-shot echo planar sequence and had b values of 0, 500, 1000 s/mm(2). The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were measured from ADC maps in epiphysis of patients with AVN, both from metaphysis and epiphysis in patients with LCP, respectively. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare ADC values. The mean ADC value of femoral heads (1.285 ± 0.204 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s) was increased in patients with AVN when compared to normal bone tissue (0.209 ± 0.214 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s) (p < 0.01). The mean ADC values (×10(-3) mm(2)/s) of both metaphysis (0.852 ± 0.293) and epiphysis (0.843 ± 0.332) were also increased in patients with LCP and differences were statistically significant (p < 0.01). As a result, osteonecrosis shows increased ADC values. But it is a controversial concept that DWI offers a valuable data to conventional MRI or not. However, as there are report states, there is a correlation between the stage of the disease with ADC values in the LCP disease. DWI is a fast, without-contrast administration technique and provides quantitative values additional to conventional MR techniques; we believe DWI may play an additional assistance to the diagnosis and treatment for LCP patients. Multicentric larger group studies may provide additional data to this issue.

  14. New porphyrins bearing positively charged peripheral groups linked by a sulfonamide group to meso-tetraphenylporphyrin: interactions with calf thymus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manono, Janet; Marzilli, Patricia A; Marzilli, Luigi G

    2009-07-06

    New water-soluble cationic meso-tetraarylporphyrins (TArP, Ar = 4-C(6)H(4)) and some metal derivatives have been synthesized and characterized. One main goal was to assess if N-methylpyridinium (N-Mepy) groups must be directly attached to the porphyrin core for intercalative binding of porphyrins to DNA. The new porphyrins have the general formula, [T(R(2)R(1)NSO(2)Ar)P]X(4/8) (R(1) = CH(3) or H and R(2) = N-Mepy-n-CH(2) with n = 2, 3, or 4; or R(1) = R(2) = Et(3)NCH(2)CH(2)). Interactions of selected porphyrins and metalloporphyrins (Cu(II), Zn(II)) with calf thymus DNA were investigated by visible circular dichroism (CD), absorption, and fluorescence spectroscopies. The DNA-induced changes in the porphyrin Soret region (a positive induced CD feature and, at high DNA concentration, increases in the Soret band and fluorescence intensities) indicate that the new porphyrins interact with DNA in an outside, non-self-stacking binding mode. Several new metalloporphyrins did not increase DNA solution viscosity and thus do not intercalate, confirming the conclusion drawn from spectroscopic studies. Porphyrins known to intercalate typically bear two or more N-Mepy groups directly attached to the porphyrin ring, such as the prototypical meso-tetra(N-Mepy)porphyrin tetracation (TMpyP(4)). The distances between the nitrogens of the N-Mepy group are estimated to be approximately 11 A (cis) and 16 A (trans) for the relatively rigid TMpyP(4). For the new flexible porphyrin, [T(N-Mepy-4-CH(2)(CH(3))NSO(2)Ar)P]Cl(4), the distances between the nitrogens are estimated to be able to span the range from approximately 9 to approximately 25 A. Thus, the N-Mepy groups in the new porphyrins can adopt the same spacing as in known intercalators such as TMpyP(4). The absence of intercalation by the new porphyrins indicates that the propensity for the N-Mepy group to facilitate DNA intercalation of cationic porphyrins requires direct attachment of N-Mepy groups to the porphyrin core.

  15. Treatment modalities of oral mucositis after radiation of head and neck cancers; Prise en charge des mucites apres radiotherapie des cancers des voies aerodigestives superieures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapeyre, M.; Charra-Brunaud, C.; Kaminsky, M.C.; Geoffrois, L.; Dolivet, G.; Pourel, N.; Marchal, C.; Bey, P.; Maire, F.; Simon, M. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Toussaint, B. [Hopital Central, Service de Chirurgie ORL, 54 - Nancy (France)

    2001-11-01

    Acute mucositis is common after radiotherapy for head and neck cancers. During the past 3 decades, there was a gradual evolution in the treatment modalities for locally advanced carcinomas (concomitant radio-chemotherapy, accelerated radiotherapy). These new strategies are accompanied by an increase in early mucosal reactions. At the present time, there is no widely accepted prophylaxis or effective treatment. Many traditional remedies or new agents seem ineffective (Sucralfate, Chlorhexidine, GM-CSF, Silver nitrate, Prostaglandin, anti-oxidants, Benzydamine hydrochloride), while others seem promising (Povidone-iodine, nonabsorbable antibiotic lozenges and anti-fungal, local GM-CSF, Glutamide, Low-energy laser, corticosteroids). Radioprotectors are controversial and should be only used in experimental protocols and not in routine practice. However, some recommendations can be proposed: general prevention and global care before cancer therapy should be systematic (oral hygiene, dental and periodontal treatment, advice to avoid the use of tobacco and alcohol); frequent oral rinsing with a bland mouthwash (Povidone-iodine or others) should be used at the start of treatment because there are significant modifications of the oral microflora increased by a disturbed salivary flow; these mouthwashes could be associated with nonabsorbable antibiotic lozenges or anti-fungal topical (bicarbonates, Amphotericine B); Systematic percutaneous fluoroscopic gastrostomy should be decided before any aggressive treatments (concomitant radio-chemotherapy, accelerated radiotherapy); pain should be controlled; finally, the radiation technique should be optimized (mucosal sparing block, conformal radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy). (authors)

  16. Sorption behavior of charged and neutral polar organic compounds on solid phase extraction materials: which functional group governs sorption?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bäuerlein, P.S.; Mansell, J.E.; ter Laak, T.L.; de Voogt, P.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous polar anthropogenic organic chemicals have been found in the aqueous environment. Solid phase extraction (SPE) has been applied for the isolation of these from aqueous matrices, employing various materials. Nevertheless, little is known about the influence of functional groups on the

  17. From fused aromatics to graphene-like nanoribbons: The effects of multiple terminal groups, length and symmetric pathways on charge transport

    KAUST Repository

    Bilić, Ante

    2011-11-17

    A class of molecular ribbons, with almost-ideal charge transmission, that is weakly dependent on the anchoring structure or electrode crystalline orientation and easy to synthesize has been identified. Charge transport through two sets of aromatic nanoribbons, based on the pyrene and perylene motifs, has been investigated using density functional theory combined with the nonequilibrium Green\\'s function method. The effects of wire length and multiple terminal thiolate groups at the junction with gold leads have been examined. For the oligopyrene series, an exponential drop in the conductance with the increase of the wire length is found. In contrast, the oligoperylene series of nanoribbons, with dual thiolate groups, exhibits no visible length dependence, indicating that the contacts are the principal source of the resistance. Between the Au(001) leads, the transmission spectra of the oligoperylenes display a continuum of highly conducting channels and the resulting conductance is nearly independent of the bias. The predictions are robust against artefacts from the exchange-correlation potential, as evidenced from the self-interaction corrected calculations. Therefore, oligoperylene nanoribbons show the potential to be the almost-ideal wires for molecular circuitry. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  18. From fused aromatics to graphene-like nanoribbons: The effects of multiple terminal groups, length and symmetric pathways on charge transport

    KAUST Repository

    Bilić, Ante; Gale, Julian D.; Sanvito, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    A class of molecular ribbons, with almost-ideal charge transmission, that is weakly dependent on the anchoring structure or electrode crystalline orientation and easy to synthesize has been identified. Charge transport through two sets of aromatic nanoribbons, based on the pyrene and perylene motifs, has been investigated using density functional theory combined with the nonequilibrium Green's function method. The effects of wire length and multiple terminal thiolate groups at the junction with gold leads have been examined. For the oligopyrene series, an exponential drop in the conductance with the increase of the wire length is found. In contrast, the oligoperylene series of nanoribbons, with dual thiolate groups, exhibits no visible length dependence, indicating that the contacts are the principal source of the resistance. Between the Au(001) leads, the transmission spectra of the oligoperylenes display a continuum of highly conducting channels and the resulting conductance is nearly independent of the bias. The predictions are robust against artefacts from the exchange-correlation potential, as evidenced from the self-interaction corrected calculations. Therefore, oligoperylene nanoribbons show the potential to be the almost-ideal wires for molecular circuitry. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  19. In silico design, synthesis, and assays of specific substrates for proteinase 3: influence of fluorogenic and charged groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narawane, Shailesh; Budnjo, Adnan; Grauffel, Cédric; Haug, Bengt Erik; Reuter, Nathalie

    2014-02-13

    Neutrophil serine proteases are specific regulators of the immune response, and proteinase 3 is a major target antigen in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis. FRET peptides containing 2-aminobenzoic acid (Abz) and N-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)ethylenediamine (EDDnp) as fluorophore and quencher groups, respectively, have been widely used to probe proteases specificity. Using in silico design followed by enzymatic assays, we show that Abz and EDDnp significantly contribute to substrate hydrolysis by PR3. We also propose a new substrate specific for PR3.

  20. Phospholipids chiral at phosphorus. Dramatic effects of phosphorus chirality on the deuterium NMR properties of the choline head group of phospholipids in the liquid crystalline phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loffredo, W.M.; Jiang, Rutai; Tsai, Mingdaw

    1990-01-01

    To probe the motional and conformational propertis of the choline head group of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-thiophosphocholine (DPPsC), the R p , S p , and R p + S p isomers of [α-D 2 ]DPPsC, [β-D 2 ]DPPsC, and [δ-D 9 ]DPPsC in the subgel, gel, and liquid crystalline phases were investigated with deuterium NMR, and the results were compared with those of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) labeled at the same positions. In the subgel phase (5 degree C) all isomers of [α-D 2 ]DPPsC and [β-D 2 ]DPPsC displayed amorphous line shapes characteristic of a restricted and disordered motional environment, whereas [δ-D 9 ]DPPsC showed narrower and symmetric line shapes indicating substantial motions. For all three labeled positions the apparent line width of the R p isomer is larger than those of S p and R p + S p isomers, and the amorphous line shape of the R p isomer also persists at 25 and 35 degree C. These results indicate that the motional and conformational properties of the C α -C β segment of DPPsC is very sensitive to the configuration at phosphorus. Structurally, this provides strong support for noncovalent interactions between the quaternary ammonium group of choline and the phosphate group of a neighboring molecule in the bilayers of phosphatidylcholine and suggests that such interactions are important to the motion of the choline chain

  1. Novel Emergency Medicine Curriculum Utilizing Self-Directed Learning and the Flipped Classroom Method: Head, Eyes, Ears, Nose and Throat Emergencies Small Group Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew King

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This curriculum created and implemented at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center was designed to educate our emergency medicine (EM residents, PGY-1 to PGY-3, as well as medical students and attending physicians. Introduction: Head, Eyes, Ears, Nose and Throat (HEENT complaints are very commonly seen in the Emergency Department. Numbers vary as to exact prevalence, but sources show that there are about 2 million annual emergency department (ED visits in the United States for non-traumatic dental problems, representing 1.5% of all ED visits.1 Other sources show that symptoms referable to the throat encompass 2,496,000 visits or 1.9% of total visits.2 Notably, about 8% of the written exam in emergency medicine covers the topic of head and neck complaints, making it the second most tested topic behind cardiovascular.3 Residents must be proficient in the differential diagnosis and management of the wide variety of HEENT emergencies. The flipped classroom curricular model emphasizes self-directed learning activities completed by learners, followed by small group discussions pertaining to the topic reviewed. The active learning fostered by this curriculum increases faculty and learner engagement and interaction time typically absent in traditional lecture-based formats.4-6 Studies have revealed that the application of knowledge through case studies, personal interaction with content experts, and integrated questions are effective learning strategies for emergency medicine residents.6-8 The Ohio State University EM Residency didactic curriculum recently transitioned to a “flipped classroom” approach.9-13 We created this innovative curriculum aimed to improve our residency education program and to share educational resources with other EM residency programs. Our curriculum utilizes an 18-month curricular cycle to cover the defined emergency medicine content. The flipped classroom curriculum maximizes didactic time and resident

  2. Biocompatibility, endocytosis, and intracellular trafficking of mesoporous silica and polystyrene nanoparticles in ovarian cancer cells: effects of size and surface charge groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekkapongpisit, Maneerat; Giovia, Antonino; Follo, Carlo; Caputo, Giuseppe; Isidoro, Ciro

    2012-01-01

    Background and methods Nanoparticles engineered to carry both a chemotherapeutic drug and a sensitive imaging probe are valid tools for early detection of cancer cells and to monitor the cytotoxic effects of anticancer treatment simultaneously. Here we report on the effect of size (10–30 nm versus 50 nm), type of material (mesoporous silica versus polystyrene), and surface charge functionalization (none, amine groups, or carboxyl groups) on biocompatibility, uptake, compartmentalization, and intracellular retention of fluorescently labeled nanoparticles in cultured human ovarian cancer cells. We also investigated the involvement of caveolae in the mechanism of uptake of nanoparticles. Results We found that mesoporous silica nanoparticles entered via caveolae-mediated endocytosis and reached the lysosomes; however, while the 50 nm nanoparticles permanently resided within these organelles, the 10 nm nanoparticles soon relocated in the cytoplasm. Naked 10 nm mesoporous silica nanoparticles showed the highest and 50 nm carboxyl-modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles the lowest uptake rates, respectively. Polystyrene nanoparticle uptake also occurred via a caveolae-independent pathway, and was negatively affected by serum. The 30 nm carboxyl-modified polystyrene nanoparticles did not localize in lysosomes and were not toxic, while the 50 nm amine-modified polystyrene nanoparticles accumulated within lysosomes and eventually caused cell death. Ovarian cancer cells expressing caveolin-1 were more likely to endocytose these nanoparticles. Conclusion These data highlight the importance of considering both the physicochemical characteristics (ie, material, size and surface charge on chemical groups) of nanoparticles and the biochemical composition of the cell membrane when choosing the most suitable nanotheranostics for targeting cancer cells. PMID:22904626

  3. Recovering function and surviving treatments are primary motivators for health behavior change in patients with head and neck cancer: Qualitative focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Melissa; Bdira, Ala; Cherba, Maria; Lambert, Sylvie; Carnevale, Franco A; MacDonald, Christina; Hier, Michael; Zeitouni, Anthony; Kost, Karen; Mlynarek, Alex; Black, Martin; Rosberger, Zeev; Frenkiel, Saul

    2016-08-01

    Against medical advice, head and neck cancer (HNC) patients have been shown to continue to smoke and misuse alcohol post-diagnosis and treatment. This study aimed to better understand the barriers to and facilitators of health behavior change (HBC) in HNC patients. We conducted nine focus groups following a standard protocol. Eligible patients were diagnosed less than three years previously with a primary HNC and selected using maximum variability sampling (gender, age, cancer stage, smoking, and alcohol misuse). Thematic analysis was conducted using NVivo 10 software. Participants were mostly men (79%), 65 years of age (SD = 10.1), and married/common-law (52%, n = 15). Mean time from diagnosis was 19 months (SD = 12.3, range = 5.0-44.5), and most had advanced cancer (65.5%, n = 19). Participants provided a larger than anticipated definition of health behaviors, encompassing both traditional (smoking, drinking, diet, exercise, UV protection) and HNC-related (e.g., dental hygiene, skin care, speech exercises, using a PEG, gaining weight). The main emerging theme was patient engagement, that is, being proactive in rehabilitation, informed by the medical team, optimistic, flexible, and seeking support when needed. Patients were primarily motivated to stay proactive and engage in positive health behaviors in order to return to normal life and reclaim function, rather than to prevent a cancer recurrence. Barriers to patient engagement included emotional aspects (e.g., anxiety, depression, trauma, demoralization), symptoms (e.g., fatigue, pain), lack of information about HBC, and healthcare providers' authoritarian approach in counseling on HBC. We found some commonalities in barriers and facilitators according to behavior type (i.e., smoking/drinking/UV protection vs. diet/exercise). This study underlines the key challenges in addressing health behaviors in head and neck oncology, including treatment-related functional impairments, symptom burden, and the disease

  4. Charge symmetry breaking via Δ I = 1 group theory or by the u-d quark mass difference and direct photon exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coon, S.A.; Scadron, M.D.

    2000-01-01

    Charge symmetry breaking (CSB) in the strong N N interaction is believed to have its origins at the quark level. However, the meson-exchange potentials which successfully describe the empirical CSB utilize instead values of the Δ I = 1 π η and ρ ω mixing obtained with the aid of group theory from a hadronic tadpole Hamiltonian introduced by Coleman and Glashow to describe electromagnetic mass splitting in hadronic isospin multiplets. We review i) the CSB N N potentials so constructed and their nuclear charge asymmetry effects, i i) the universal scale of the Coleman-Glashow tadpole, and i i i) the quark loop evaluation of both meson mass differences and meson mixing. The latter quark loop calculations, which use chiral symmetry to evaluate the integrals, demonstrate clearly that the u-d constituent quark mass difference, long suspected as the origin of CSB, does quantitatively yield the universal Coleman-Glashow tadpole scale which underlies the successful meson-exchange description of CSB in nuclear physics. (Author) 38 refs., 3 figs

  5. Metabolic Tumor Volume as a Prognostic Imaging-Based Biomarker for Head-and-Neck Cancer: Pilot Results From Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Protocol 0522

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, David L., E-mail: david.schwartz@utsw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern School of Medicine, Dallas, Texas (United States); Harris, Jonathan [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Yao, Min [Department of Radiation Oncology, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rosenthal, David I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Opanowski, Adam; Levering, Anthony [American College of Radiology Imaging Network, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Ang, K. Kian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Trotti, Andy M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida (United States); Garden, Adam S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Jones, Christopher U. [Sutter Medical Group, Sacramento, California (United States); Harari, Paul [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Foote, Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Holland, John [Department of Radiation Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Zhang, Qiang [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Le, Quynh-Thu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate candidate fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) imaging biomarkers for head-and-neck chemoradiotherapy outcomes in the cooperative group trial setting. Methods and Materials: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocol 0522 patients consenting to a secondary FDG-PET/CT substudy were serially imaged at baseline and 8 weeks after radiation. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), SUV peak (mean SUV within a 1-cm sphere centered on SUVmax), and metabolic tumor volume (MTV) using 40% of SUVmax as threshold were obtained from primary tumor and involved nodes. Results: Of 940 patients entered onto RTOG 0522, 74 were analyzable for this substudy. Neither high baseline SUVmax nor SUVpeak from primary or nodal disease were associated with poor treatment outcomes. However, primary tumor MTV above the cohort median was associated with worse local-regional control (hazard ratio 4.01, 95% confidence interval 1.28-12.52, P=.02) and progression-free survival (hazard ratio 2.34, 95% confidence interval 1.02-5.37, P=.05). Although MTV and T stage seemed to correlate (mean MTV 6.4, 13.2, and 26.8 for T2, T3, and T4 tumors, respectively), MTV remained a strong independent prognostic factor for progression-free survival in bivariate analysis that included T stage. Primary MTV remained prognostic in p16-associated oropharyngeal cancer cases, although sample size was limited. Conclusion: High baseline primary tumor MTV was associated with worse treatment outcomes in this limited patient subset of RTOG 0522. Additional confirmatory work will be required to validate primary tumor MTV as a prognostic imaging biomarker for patient stratification in future trials.

  6. Classical local U(1 gauge invariance in Weyl 2-spinor lenguage and charge quantization from irreducible representations of the gauge group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Buitrago

    Full Text Available A new classical 2-spinor approach to U(1 gauge theory is presented in which the usual four-potential vector field is replaced by a symmetric second rank spinor. Following a lagrangian formulation, it is shown that the four-rank spinor representing the Maxwell field tensor has a U(1 local gauge invariance in terms of the electric and magnetic field strengths. When applied to the magnetic field of a monopole, this formulation, via the irreducible representation condition for the gauge group, leads to a quantization condition differing by a factor 2 of the one predicted by Dirac without relying on any kind of singular vector potentials. Finally, the U(1 invariant spinor equations, are applied to electron magnetic resonance which has many applications in the study of materials. Keywords: Weyl 2-spinor lenguage, Dirac equation, Gauge theories, Charge quantization

  7. Biocompatibility, endocytosis, and intracellular trafficking of mesoporous silica and polystyrene nanoparticles in ovarian cancer cells: effects of size and surface charge groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekkapongpisit M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Maneerat Ekkapongpisit,1 Antonino Giovia,1 Carlo Follo,1 Giuseppe Caputo,2,3 Ciro Isidoro11Laboratory of Molecular Pathology and Nanobioimaging, Department of Health Sciences, Università del Piemonte Orientale “A Avogadro”, Novara, 2Dipartimento di Chimica dell’Università di Torino, Torino, 3Cyanine Technology SpA, Torino, ItalyBackground and methods: Nanoparticles engineered to carry both a chemotherapeutic drug and a sensitive imaging probe are valid tools for early detection of cancer cells and to monitor the cytotoxic effects of anticancer treatment simultaneously. Here we report on the effect of size (10–30 nm versus 50 nm, type of material (mesoporous silica versus polystyrene, and surface charge functionalization (none, amine groups, or carboxyl groups on biocompatibility, uptake, compartmentalization, and intracellular retention of fluorescently labeled nanoparticles in cultured human ovarian cancer cells. We also investigated the involvement of caveolae in the mechanism of uptake of nanoparticles.Results: We found that mesoporous silica nanoparticles entered via caveolae-mediated endocytosis and reached the lysosomes; however, while the 50 nm nanoparticles permanently resided within these organelles, the 10 nm nanoparticles soon relocated in the cytoplasm. Naked 10 nm mesoporous silica nanoparticles showed the highest and 50 nm carboxyl-modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles the lowest uptake rates, respectively. Polystyrene nanoparticle uptake also occurred via a caveolae-independent pathway, and was negatively affected by serum. The 30 nm carboxyl-modified polystyrene nanoparticles did not localize in lysosomes and were not toxic, while the 50 nm amine-modified polystyrene nanoparticles accumulated within lysosomes and eventually caused cell death. Ovarian cancer cells expressing caveolin-1 were more likely to endocytose these nanoparticles.Conclusion: These data highlight the importance of considering both the

  8. Head Lice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nits. You should also use hot water to wash any bed linens, towels, and clothing recently worn by the person who had head lice. Vacuum anything that can’t be washed, such as the couch, carpets, your child’s car seat, and any stuffed animals. Because head lice ...

  9. Anomalous carrier life-time relaxation mediated by head group interaction in surface anchored MnSe quantum dots conjugated with albumin proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarma, Runjun; Mohanta, Dambarudhar, E-mail: best@tezu.ernet.in

    2017-02-01

    We report on the radiative emission decay dynamics of a less known, γ-phase manganese selenide quantum dot system (MnSe QDs) subjected to bio-functionalization. A short-ligand thioglycolic acid (TGA), and a long-chain sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactants were used as surface anchors prior bioconjugation with albumin proteins (BSA). Time resolved photoluminescence (TR-PL) spectra of the QDs have revealed bi-exponential decay trends with the fast (τ{sub 1}) and slow (τ{sub 2}) decay parameters assigned to the core state recombination and surface trapped excitons; respectively. The average lifetime (τ{sub avg}) was found to get shortened from a value of ∼0.87 ns–0.72 ns in unconjugated and BSA conjugated MnSe-TGA QDs; respectively. Conversely, MnSe-SDS QDs with BSA conjugation exhibited nearly four-fold enhancement of τ{sub avg} with respect to its unconjugated counterpart. Moreover, a considerable amount of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) was found to occur from the TGA coated MnSe QDs to BSA and with an ensuing efficiency of ∼61%. The origin of anomalous carrier life-time relaxation features has also been encountered through a simplified model as regards head group interaction experienced by the MnSe QDs with different surfactant types. Exploiting luminescence decay characteristics of a magneto-fluorescent candidate could find immense scope in diverse biological applications including assays, labeling and imaging. - Highlights: • Surface anchored manganese selenide quantum dots (MnSe QDs) have been synthesized via a physico-chemical reduction route. • Time resolved luminescence spectra of the QDs have displayed bi-exponential decay trend. • Thioglycolic acid (TGA) coated QDs exhibited shorter lifetime as compared to sodium dodecyl sulfo-succinate (SDS) coated ones. • Upon BSA conjugation, the average life time is four-fold enhanced in MnSe-SDS QDs. • An efficient FRET process has been revealed in BSA conjugated TGA coated MnSe QDs.

  10. Overexpression of cyclin D1 correlates with recurrence in a group of forty-seven operable squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michalides, R.; van Veelen, N.; Hart, A.; Loftus, B.; Wientjens, E.; Balm, A.

    1995-01-01

    We evaluated the prognostic significance of overexpression of cyclin D1 in 47 patients with surgically resected squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. Overexpression of cyclin D1 was detected immunohistochemically using an affinity-purified polyclonal antibody directed against the

  11. Empowering Head Start African American and Latino Families: Promoting Strengths-Based Parenting Characteristics through Child Parent Relationship Training--An Evidence-Based Group Parenting Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheely-Moore, Angela I.; Ceballos, Peggy L.

    2011-01-01

    With the tendency of low-income African American and Latino children identified at-risk for school readiness and school success compared to their early-childhood counterparts, Head Start personnel are challenged to examine the role of family strengths in the promotion of academic success for these populations. This article provides a rationale for…

  12. Charge imbalance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.

    1981-01-01

    This article provides a long theoretical development of the main ideas of charge imbalance in superconductors. Concepts of charge imbalance and quasiparticle charge are introduced, especially in regards to the use of tunnel injection in producing and detecting charge imbalance. Various mechanisms of charge relaxation are discussed, including inelastic scattering processes, elastic scattering in the presence of energy-gap anisotropy, and various pair-breaking mechanisms. In each case, present theories are reviewed in comparison with experimental data

  13. DAHANCA 10 – Effect of darbepoetin alfa and radiotherapy in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. A multicenter, open-label, randomized, phase 3 trial by the Danish head and neck cancer group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Jens; Hoff, Camilla Molich; Hansen, Hanne Sand

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate if correction of low hemoglobin (Hb) levels by means of darbepoetin alfa improves the outcomes of radiotherapy in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC). Patients and methods: Patients eligible for primary radiotherapy and who had Hb values below 14.......0 g/dl were randomized to receive accelerated fractionated radiotherapy with or without darbepoetin alfa. Patients also received the hypoxic radiosensitizer nimorazole. Darbepoetin alfa was given weekly during radiotherapy or until the Hb value exceeded 15.5 g/dl. Results: Following a planned interim...... distributed according to the stratification parameters (gender, T and N staging, tumor site). Treatment with darbepoetin alfa increased the Hb level to the planned value in 81% of the patients. The compliance was good without excess serious adverse events. The results showed a poorer outcome with a 5-year...

  14. Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a severe blow to the head can still knock the brain into the side of the skull ... following certain precautions and taking a break from sports and other activities that make symptoms worse. Playing ...

  15. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a low incidence European area. A prospective observational analysis from the Head and Neck Study Group of the Italian Society of Radiation Oncology (AIRO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonoli, S.; Bruschieri, L. [Brescia University, Istituto del Radio, Brescia (Italy); Alterio, D. [European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Caspiani, O. [Isola Tiberina Hospital, Rome (Italy); Bacigalupo, A. [IRCCS A.O.U. San Martino IST Genoa, Genoa (Italy); Bunkheila, F. [S. Orsola Hospital, Bologna (Italy); Cianciulli, M. [S. Camillo Hospital, Rome (Italy); Merlotti, A. [Busto Arsizio Hospital, Busto Arsizio (Italy); Podhradska, A. [Milan University - Monza S. Gerardo Hospital, Milan (Italy); Rampino, M. [Turin University, Turin (Italy); Cante, D. [Treviglio Hospital, Treviglio (Italy); Gatta, R. [Brescia University, Istituto del Radio, Brescia (Italy); Prato Hospital, Prato (Italy); Magrini, S.M.

    2016-12-15

    To evaluate the outcomes with respect to long-term survival and toxicity in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated in a European country with low incidence. A prospective observational study carried out by the AIRO Head and Neck group in 12 Italian institutions included 136 consecutive patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) ± chemotherapy (CHT) for NPC (without distant metastasis) between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2010. The disease-specific survival (DSS), overall survival (OS), and disease-free survival (DFS) at 5 years were 92 (±2), 91 (±3), and 69 % (±5 %), respectively. Distant failure was the most frequent modality of relapse. The local, regional, and locoregional control at 5 years were 89 (±3), 93 (±3), and 84 % (±4 %), respectively. The incidence of acute and late toxicity and the correlations with different clinical/technical variables were analyzed. Neoadjuvant CHT prolongs radiotherapy overall treatment time (OTT) and decreases treatment adherence during concomitant chemoradiotherapy. An adequate minimum dose coverage to PTV(T) is a predictive variable well related to outcome. Our data do not substantially differ in terms of survival and toxicity outcomes from those reported in larger series of patients treated in countries with higher incidences of NPC. The T stage (TNM 2002 UICC classification) is predictive of DSS and OS. The GTV volume (T ± N) and an adequate minimum PTV(T) coverage dose (D95 %) were also identified as potential predictive variables. Sophisticated technologies of dose delivery (IMRT) with image-guided radiotherapy could help to obtain better minimum PTV(T) coverage dose with increased DFS; distant metastasis after treatment still remains an unresolved issue. (orig.) [German] Bewertung von langfristigem Ueberleben und Toxizitaet bei Patienten mit Nasopharynxkarzinom (NPC), die in einem europaeischen Land mit geringer Inzidenz behandelt wurden. Die prospektive Beobachtungsanalyse, durchgefuehrt von der

  16. Enzyme-polyelectrolyte complexes in water-ethanol mixtures: negatively charged groups artificially introduced into alpha-chymotrypsin provide additional activation and stabilization effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryashova, E V; Gladilin, A K; Vakurov, A V; Heitz, F; Levashov, A V; Mozhaev, V V

    1997-07-20

    Formation of noncovalent complexes between alpha-chymotrypsin (CT) and a polyelectrolyte, polybrene (PB), has been shown to produce two major effects on enzymatic reactions in binary mixtures of polar organic cosolvents with water. (i) At moderate concentrations of organic cosolvents (10% to 30% v/v), enzymatic activity of CT is higher than in aqueous solutions, and this activation effect is more significant for CT in complex with PB (5- to 7-fold) than for free enzyme (1.5- to 2.5-fold). (ii) The range of cosolvent concentrations that the enzyme tolerates without complete loss of catalytic activity is much broader. For enhancement of enzyme stability in the complex with the polycation, the number of negatively charged groups in the protein has been artificially increased by using chemical modification with pyromellitic and succinic anhydrides. Additional activation effect at moderate concentrations of ethanol and enhanced resistance of the enzyme toward inactivation at high concentrations of the organic solvent have been observed for the modified preparations of CT in the complex with PB as compared with an analogous complex of the native enzyme. Structural changes behind alterations in enzyme activity in water-ethanol mixtures have been studied by the method of circular dichroism (CD). Protein conformation of all CT preparations has not changed significantly up to 30% v/v of ethanol where activation effects in enzymatic catalysis were most pronounced. At higher concentrations of ethanol, structural changes in the protein have been observed for different forms of CT that were well correlated with a decrease in enzymatic activity. (c) 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 55: 267-277, 1997.

  17. Radiation therapy and concurrent cisplatin administration in locally advanced head and neck cancer. A Hellenic co-operative oncology group study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fountzilas, G.; Skarlos, D.; Kosmidis, P.; Samantas, E.; Kalogera-Fountzila, A.; Papaspyrou, S.; Tzitzikas, J.; Sridhar, K.S.; Makrantonakis, P.; Pantelakos, P.; Nikolaou, A.; Bacoyiannis, H.; Sinodinou, M.; Banis, C.; Daniilidis, J.

    1994-01-01

    In an attempt to improve local control of locally advanced head and neck cancer, radiation therapy was combined with cisplatin. Forty-eight patients entered into this study. All patients were irradiated with a 60 Co unit and according to the protocol they should receive 70 Gy in the tumor area and 45 Gy in the rest of neck. Cisplatin was administered at a dose of 100 mg/m 2 on days 2, 22 and 42. Thirty-seven (80%) patients received the total radiation dose as initially planned. Thirty-four (72%) patients achieved complete and 5 (10%) partial response. Grade 3-4 toxicities included vomiting (14%) stomatitis (4%), diarrhea (2%), myelotoxicity (14%), hoarseness (4%), dysphagia (30%), weight loss (32%), nephrotoxicity (4%) and dermatitis (2%). After a median follow-up of 26 (range, 18-33) months, 16 patients have died. Among the 35 complete responders 6 later on relapsed. Median relapse-free survival has not yet been reached. Combined radiation therapy and cisplatin appears to be a highly active treatment in patients with advanced head and neck cancer as far as primary locoregional response is concerned. (orig.)

  18. Fractional charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saminadayar, L.

    2001-01-01

    20 years ago fractional charges were imagined to explain values of conductivity in some materials. Recent experiments have proved the existence of charges whose value is the third of the electron charge. This article presents the experimental facts that have led theorists to predict the existence of fractional charges from the motion of quasi-particles in a linear chain of poly-acetylene to the quantum Hall effect. According to the latest theories, fractional charges are neither bosons nor fermions but anyons, they are submitted to an exclusive principle that is less stringent than that for fermions. (A.C.)

  19. Phonon and free-charge carrier properties in group-III nitride heterostructures investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry and optical Hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeche, Stefan

    The material class of group-III nitrides gained tremendous technological importance for optoelectronic and high-power/high-frequency amplification devices. Tunability of the direct band gap from 0.65 eV (InN) to 6.2 eV (AlN) by alloying, high breakthrough voltages and intrinsic mobilities, as well as the formation of highly mobile 2d electron gases (2DEG) at heterointerfaces make these compounds ideal for many applications. GaN and Ga-rich alloys are well studied and current research is mainly device-oriented. For example, choice and quality of the gate dielectric significantly influence device performance in high-electron mobility transistors (HEMT) which utilize highly mobile 2DEGs at heterointerfaces. Experimental access to the 2DEG channel properties without influence from parasitic currents or contact properties are desirable. In- and Al-rich ternary alloys are less explored than Ga-rich compounds. For InN and In-rich alloys, while many material parameters such as stiffness constants or effective mass values are largely unknown, reliable p-type doping is a major challenge, also because p-type conducting channels are buried within highly conductive n-type material formed at the surface and interfaces preventing electrical characterization. For AlN and high-Al content alloys, doping mechanisms are not understood and reliable fabrication of material with high free-charge carrier (FCC) concentrations was achieved just recently. Difficulties to form ohmic contacts impair electrical measurements and optical characterization is impeded by lack of high-energy excitation sources. In this work, spectroscopic ellipsometry over the wide spectral range from the THz to VUV in combination with optical Hall effect (generalized ellipsometry with applied magnetic field) from THz to MIR are applied in order to investigate the phonon modes and FCC properties in group-III nitride heterostructures. Adequate model descriptions and analysis strategies are introduced which allow

  20. 6th July 2010 - United Kingdom Science and Technology Facilities Council W. Whitehorn signing the guest book with Head of International relations F. Pauss, visiting the Computing Centre with Information Technology Department Head Deputy D. Foster, the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with Technology Department P. Strubin,the Centre Control Centre with Operation Group Leader M. Lamont and the CLIC/CTF3 facility with Project Leader J.-P. Delahaye.

    CERN Multimedia

    Teams : M. Brice, JC Gadmer

    2010-01-01

    6th July 2010 - United Kingdom Science and Technology Facilities Council W. Whitehorn signing the guest book with Head of International relations F. Pauss, visiting the Computing Centre with Information Technology Department Head Deputy D. Foster, the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with Technology Department P. Strubin,the Centre Control Centre with Operation Group Leader M. Lamont and the CLIC/CTF3 facility with Project Leader J.-P. Delahaye.

  1. Head Start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, Geri

    2000-01-01

    Discusses an art project in which students created drawings of mop heads. Explains that the approach of drawing was more important than the subject. States that the students used the chiaroscuro technique, used by Rembrandt and Caravaggio, in which light appears out of the darkness. (CMK)

  2. Heavy charged particle therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizoe, Jun-etsu

    1995-01-01

    A pilot study of heavy charged particles with heavy ion medical accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) for advanced H and N cancer has been carried out from June 1994 at National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). As of the beginning of August 1994, three patients were treated by 290 MeV carbon ions. The patients had adenocarcinoma of the cheek mucosa, squamous cell carcinoma of the ethmoid sinus and adenoid cystic carcinoma of the sublingual gland. Patients were immobilized by individual head coach and thermosplint facial shell. Individual collimators and bolus were also prepared for each ports. Dose fractionation for the initial pilot study group was 16.2 GyE/18 fractions/6 weeks, which would be equivalent to standard fractionation of 60.0 Gy/30 fractions/6 weeks with photons. This dose fractionation was considered to be 20% lesser than 75 GyE/37.5 fractions/7.5 weeks, which is estimated to be maximum tolerance dose for advanced H and N cancers. HIMAC worked well and there was no major trouble causing any treatment delay. Acute skin reactions of 3 patients were 2 cases of bright erythema with patchy moist desquamation and one of dull erythema, which were evaluated as equivalent reaction with irradiated dose. Acute mucosa reactions appeared to have lesser reaction than predicted mucositis. Tumor reactions of three patients were partial reaction (PR) at the end of treatment and nearly complete remission (CR) after 6 months of treatment. From October 1994, we started to treat patients with advanced H and N cancer with 10% high dose than previous dose. And new candidates of pilot study with non small cell lung cancer, brain tumor and carcinoma of the tongue were entered into pilot study. At the end of February 1995, a total of 21 patients were treated by carbon ions. (J.P.N.)

  3. Internal Charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.

    2014-01-01

    (1) High energy (>100keV) electrons penetrate spacecraft walls and accumulate in dielectrics or isolated conductors; (2) Threat environment is energetic electrons with sufficient flux to charge circuit boards, cable insulation, and ungrounded metal faster than charge can dissipate; (3) Accumulating charge density generates electric fields in excess of material breakdown strenght resulting in electrostatic discharge; and (4) System impact is material damage, discharge currents inside of spacecraft Faraday cage on or near critical circuitry, and RF noise.

  4. The rate of charge tunneling is insensitive to polar terminal groups in self-assembled monolayers in Ag(TS)S(CH2)(n)M(CH2)(m)T//Ga2O3/EGaIn junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyo Jae; Bowers, Carleen M; Baghbanzadeh, Mostafa; Whitesides, George M

    2014-01-08

    This paper describes a physical-organic study of the effect of uncharged, polar, functional groups on the rate of charge transport by tunneling across self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-based large-area junctions of the form Ag(TS)S(CH2)(n)M(CH2)(m)T//Ga2O3/EGaIn. Here Ag(TS) is a template-stripped silver substrate, -M- and -T are "middle" and "terminal" functional groups, and EGaIn is eutectic gallium-indium alloy. Twelve uncharged polar groups (-T = CN, CO2CH3, CF3, OCH3, N(CH3)2, CON(CH3)2, SCH3, SO2CH3, Br, P(O)(OEt)2, NHCOCH3, OSi(OCH3)3), having permanent dipole moments in the range 0.5 < μ < 4.5, were incorporated into the SAM. A comparison of the electrical characteristics of these junctions with those of junctions formed from n-alkanethiolates led to the conclusion that the rates of charge tunneling are insensitive to the replacement of terminal alkyl groups with the terminal polar groups in this set. The current densities measured in this work suggest that the tunneling decay parameter and injection current for SAMs terminated in nonpolar n-alkyl groups, and polar groups selected from common polar organic groups, are statistically indistinguishable.

  5. A comparison of swallowing dysfunction after three-dimensional conformal and intensity-modulated radiotherapy. A systematic review by the Italian Head and Neck Radiotherapy Study Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ursino, Stefano; Morganti, Riccardo; Cristaudo, Agostino; Paiar, Fabiola; D'Angelo, Elisa; Lohr, Frank; Mazzola, Rosario; Merlotti, Anna; Russi, Elvio Grazioso; Musio, Daniela; Alterio, Daniela; Bacigalupo, Almalina

    2017-01-01

    Dysphagia is one of the most important treatment-related side effects in head and neck cancer (HNC), as it can lead to severe life-threating complications such as aspiration pneumonia and malnutrition. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) could reduce swallowing dysfunction by producing a concave dose distribution and reducing doses to the swallowing-related organs at risk (SWOARs). The aim of this study was to review the current literature in order to compare swallowing outcomes between IMRT and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT). A search was conducted in the PubMed and Embase databases to identify studies on swallowing outcomes, both clinically and/or instrumentally assessed, after 3DCRT and IMRT. Dysphagia-specific quality of life and objective instrumental data are summarized and discussed. A total of 262 papers were retrieved from the searched databases. An additional 23 papers were retrieved by hand-searching the reference lists. Ultimately, 22 papers were identified which discussed swallowing outcomes after 3DCRT and IMRT for HNC. No outcomes from randomized trials were identified. Despite several methodological limitations, reports from the current literature seem to suggest better swallowing outcomes with IMRT compared to 3DCRT. Further improvements are likely to result from the increased use of IMRT plans optimized for SWOAR sparing. (orig.) [de

  6. Charge preamplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaminade, R.; Passerieux, J.P.

    1961-01-01

    We describe a charge preamplifier having the following properties: - large open loop gain giving both stable gain and large input charge transfer; - stable input grid current with aging and without any adjustment; - fairly fast rise; - nearly optimum noise performance; - industrial material. (authors)

  7. Charge Meter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 4. Charge Meter: Easy Way to Measure Charge and Capacitance: Some Interesting Electrostatic Experiments. M K Raghavendra V Venkataraman. Classroom Volume 19 Issue 4 April 2014 pp 376-390 ...

  8. Computer group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, H.; Black, I.; Heusler, A.; Hoeptner, G.; Krafft, F.; Lang, R.; Moellenkamp, R.; Mueller, W.; Mueller, W.F.; Schati, C.; Schmidt, A.; Schwind, D.; Weber, G.

    1983-01-01

    The computer groups has been reorganized to take charge for the general purpose computers DEC10 and VAX and the computer network (Dataswitch, DECnet, IBM - connections to GSI and IPP, preparation for Datex-P). (orig.)

  9. Genomic amplification of Fanconi anemia complementation group A (FancA) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC): Cellular mechanisms of radioresistance and clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Julia; Unger, Kristian; Orth, Michael; Schötz, Ulrike; Schüttrumpf, Lars; Zangen, Verena; Gimenez-Aznar, Igor; Michna, Agata; Schneider, Ludmila; Stamp, Ramona; Selmansberger, Martin; Braselmann, Herbert; Hieber, Ludwig; Drexler, Guido A; Kuger, Sebastian; Klein, Diana; Jendrossek, Verena; Friedl, Anna A; Belka, Claus; Zitzelsberger, Horst; Lauber, Kirsten

    2017-02-01

    Radio (chemo) therapy is a crucial treatment modality for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), but relapse is frequent, and the underlying mechanisms remain largely elusive. Therefore, novel biomarkers are urgently needed. Previously, we identified gains on 16q23-24 to be associated with amplification of the Fanconi anemia A (FancA) gene and to correlate with reduced progression-free survival after radiotherapy. Here, we analyzed the effects of FancA on radiation sensitivity in vitro, characterized the underlying mechanisms, and evaluated their clinical relevance. Silencing of FancA expression in HNSCC cell lines with genomic gains on 16q23-24 resulted in significantly impaired clonogenic survival upon irradiation. Conversely, overexpression of FancA in immortalized keratinocytes conferred increased survival accompanied by improved DNA repair, reduced accumulation of chromosomal translocations, but no hyperactivation of the FA/BRCA-pathway. Downregulation of interferon signaling as identified by microarray analyses, enforced irradiation-induced senescence, and elevated production of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) appeared to be candidate mechanisms contributing to FancA-mediated radioresistance. Data of the TCGA HNSCC cohort confirmed the association of gains on 16q24.3 with FancA overexpression and impaired overall survival. Importantly, transcriptomic alterations similar to those observed upon FancA overexpression in vitro strengthened the clinical relevance. Overall, FancA amplification and overexpression appear to be crucial for radiotherapeutic failure in HNSCC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Flued head replacement alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smetters, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses flued head replacement options. Section 2 discusses complete flued head replacement with a design that eliminates the inaccessible welds. Section 3 discusses alternate flued head support designs that can drastically reduce flued head installation costs. Section 4 describes partial flued head replacement designs. Finally, Section 5 discusses flued head analysis methods. (orig./GL)

  11. In vitro lipofection with novel series of symmetric 1,3-dialkoylamidopropane-based cationic surfactants containing single primary and tertiary amine polar head groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Mohammad; Feig, Jennifer; Gee, Becky; Li, Song; Savva, Michalakis

    2003-06-01

    A novel series of symmetric double-chained primary and tertiary 1,3-dialkoylamido monovalent cationic lipids were synthesized and evaluated for their transfection activities. In the absence of the helper lipid DOPE (1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine), only the primary and tertiary dioleoyl derivatives 1,3lmp5 and 1,3lmt5, respectively elicited transfection activity. This is a striking difference between symmetrical 1,2-diacyl glycerol-based monovalent cationic lipids that always found both dioleoyl and dimyristoyl analogues being efficient transfection reagents. In the presence of helper lipid, all cationic derivatives induced marker gene expression, except the dilauroyl analogues 1,3lmp1 and 1,3lmt1 that elicited no transfection activity. Combining electrophoretic mobility data of the lipoplexes at different charge ratios with transfection activity suggested two requirements for high transfection activity with monovalent double-chained cationic lipids, that is, binding/association of the lipid to the plasmid DNA and membrane fusion properties of the lipid layers surrounding the DNA.

  12. Goniometer head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhazairov-Kakhramanov, V.; Berger, V.D.; Kadyrzhanov, K.K.; Zarifov, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    The goniometer head is an electromechanical instrument that performs the independent transfer of a testing sample on three coordinate axes (X, Y, Z) within limits of ±8 mm and independent rotation relative of these directions. The instrument comprises a sample holder, bellows component and three electrometer drives. The sample holder rotates around the axes X and Y, and is installed on the central arm which rotates around axis Z. One characteristic of this instrument is its independence which allows its use in any camera for researches in the field of radiation physics. 2 figs

  13. Charge independence and charge symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, G A [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Physics; van Oers, W T.H. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Physics; [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1994-09-01

    Charge independence and charge symmetry are approximate symmetries of nature, violated by the perturbing effects of the mass difference between up and down quarks and by electromagnetic interactions. The observations of the symmetry breaking effects in nuclear and particle physics and the implications of those effects are reviewed. (author). 145 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.

  14. Charge independence and charge symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.A.

    1994-09-01

    Charge independence and charge symmetry are approximate symmetries of nature, violated by the perturbing effects of the mass difference between up and down quarks and by electromagnetic interactions. The observations of the symmetry breaking effects in nuclear and particle physics and the implications of those effects are reviewed. (author). 145 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs

  15. A comparison of swallowing dysfunction after three-dimensional conformal and intensity-modulated radiotherapy. A systematic review by the Italian Head and Neck Radiotherapy Study Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ursino, Stefano; Morganti, Riccardo; Cristaudo, Agostino; Paiar, Fabiola [University Hospital S. Chiara, Radiation Oncology, Pisa (Italy); D' Angelo, Elisa; Lohr, Frank [University Hospital, Radiation Oncology, Modena (Italy); Mazzola, Rosario [Sacro Cuore-Don Calabria Cancer Care Center, Radiation Oncology, Negrar-Verona (Italy); Merlotti, Anna; Russi, Elvio Grazioso [S. Croce e Carle Hospital, Radiation Oncology, Cuneo (Italy); Musio, Daniela [University Hospital La Sapienza, Radiation Oncology, Roma (Italy); Alterio, Daniela [European Institute of Oncology, Radiation Oncology, Advanced Radiotherapy Center, Milan (Italy); Bacigalupo, Almalina [AOU IRCCS San Martino - IST National Cancer Research Institute and University, Radiation Oncology, Genoa (Italy)

    2017-11-15

    Dysphagia is one of the most important treatment-related side effects in head and neck cancer (HNC), as it can lead to severe life-threating complications such as aspiration pneumonia and malnutrition. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) could reduce swallowing dysfunction by producing a concave dose distribution and reducing doses to the swallowing-related organs at risk (SWOARs). The aim of this study was to review the current literature in order to compare swallowing outcomes between IMRT and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT). A search was conducted in the PubMed and Embase databases to identify studies on swallowing outcomes, both clinically and/or instrumentally assessed, after 3DCRT and IMRT. Dysphagia-specific quality of life and objective instrumental data are summarized and discussed. A total of 262 papers were retrieved from the searched databases. An additional 23 papers were retrieved by hand-searching the reference lists. Ultimately, 22 papers were identified which discussed swallowing outcomes after 3DCRT and IMRT for HNC. No outcomes from randomized trials were identified. Despite several methodological limitations, reports from the current literature seem to suggest better swallowing outcomes with IMRT compared to 3DCRT. Further improvements are likely to result from the increased use of IMRT plans optimized for SWOAR sparing. (orig.) [German] Dysphagie ist eine der wichtigsten Nebenwirkungen bei der Behandlung von Kopf-Hals-Tumoren (HNC), da sie zu lebensbedrohlichen Komplikationen wie Aspirationspneumonien und Mangelernaehrung fuehren kann. Durch Erzeugung konkaver Dosisverteilungen und durch die Reduzierung der Dosis an schluckrelevanten Strukturen (SWOAR) kann die IMRT Schluckstoerungen moeglicherweise vermindern. Ziel dieser Studie war es, die gegenwaertige Literaturlage hinsichtlich der Schluckfunktion nach IMRT und konformaler dreidimensionaler Strahlentherapie (3DCRT) systematisch zu ueberpruefen. Studien, die die

  16. The impact of concurrent granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor on radiation-induced mucositis in head and neck cancer patients: A double-blind placebo-controlled prospective Phase III study by Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9901

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Janice K.; Swann, Suzanne; LeVeque, Francis; Scarantino, Charles W.; Johnson, Darlene J.; Chen, Allan; Fortin, Andre; Pollock, JonDavid; Kim, Harold; Ang, Kian K.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Based on early clinical evidence of potential mucosal protection by granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study to test the efficacy and safety of GM-CSF in reducing the severity and duration of mucosal injury and pain (mucositis) associated with curative radiotherapy (RT) in head-and-neck cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients included those with head-and-neck cancer with radiation ports encompassing >50% of oral cavity and/or oropharynx. Standard RT ports were used to cover the primary tumor and regional lymphatics at risk in standard fractionation to 60-70 Gy. Concurrent cisplatin chemotherapy was allowed. Patients were randomized to receive subcutaneous injection of GM-CSF 250 μg/m 2 or placebo 3 times a week. Mucosal reaction was assessed during the course of RT using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria and the protocol-specific scoring system. Results: Between October 2000 and September 2002, 130 patients from 36 institutions were accrued. Nine patients (7%) were excluded from the analysis, 3 as a result of drug unavailability. More than 80% of the patients participated in the quality-of-life endpoint of this study. The GM-CSF did not cause any increase in toxicity compared with placebo. There was no statistically significant difference in the average mean mucositis score in the GM-CSF and placebo arms by a t test (p = 0.4006). Conclusion: This placebo-controlled, randomized study demonstrated no significant effect of GM-CSF given concurrently compared with placebo in reducing the severity or duration of RT-induced mucositis in patients undergoing definitive RT for head-and-neck cancer

  17. Prognostic index for patients with parotid carcinoma - External validation using the nationwide 1985-1994 Dutch Head and Neck Oncology Cooperative Group database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vander Poorten, Vincent L. M.; Hart, Augustinus A. M.; van der Laan, Bernardus F. A. M.; Baatenburg de Jong, Robert J.; Manni, Johannes J.; Marres, Henri A. M.; Meeuwis, Cees A.; Lubsen, Herman; Terhaard, Chris H. J.; Balm, Alfonsus J. M.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Validation of the prognostic indices for the recurrence-free interval of patients with parotid carcinoma, the development of which was described in a previous report, is needed to be confident of their generalizability and justified prospective use. METHODS. The Dutch Cooperative Group

  18. A randomised trial of accelerated and conventional radiotherapy for stage III and IV squamous carcinoma of the head and neck: a Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulsen, Michael G.; Denham, James W.; Peters, Lester J.; Lamb, David S.; Spry, Nigel A.; Hindley, Andrew; Krawitz, Hedley; Hamilton, Chris; Keller, Jacqui; Tripcony, Lee; Walker, Quenten

    2001-01-01

    , with the exception of late mucosal effects. This trial has confirmed that tumour cell repopulation occurs during conventionally fractionated radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. However, it has also provided additional evidence that overall improvements in the therapeutic ratio using accelerated fractionation strategies are seriously constrained by the need to limit total doses to levels that do not exceed acute mucosal tolerance. The accelerated schedule tested has been shown in this trial to be an acceptable alternative to conventionally fractionated irradiation to 70 Gy

  19. Restitution report of the working group called 'access to the information' implemented in the framework of the public debate EPR ''head of series'' at Flamanville

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    The works realized by this working group show some strong conclusions. The citizen confidence in the information access availability must be reinforced. The existence of secrets protecting the industrialists and the Nation interests seems all the more legitimate since they are well limited.The respect of the industrial and commercial secret is not an opposition to a better access to the nuclear safety documents. The defense secret is an indispensable element of the nuclear safety but its role and limits must be debated. (A.L.B.)

  20. FORMING PROFESSIONAL SKILLS OF THE PROSPECTIVE HEADS OF CHILDREN'S DANCE GROUPS DURING THE CHOREOGRAPHIC ACTIVITIES IN THE COURSE "FOLK DANCE THEORY AND METHODOLOGY"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kotov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the urgent problem of contemporary art pedagogy – involvement to training future professional choreographic traditions of different nations. Addressing to this problem is caused by a number of socio-political events in Ukraine, mainstreaming of national and international education, integration of Ukrainian education with the European educational space, intensive development of domestic students’ intercultural communication with young people from different countries, which is the basis for updating national art education. Prospective choreographers, who are being training at pedagogical universities to manage children's dance groups, should actively be involved into creating their own productions of folk dance various genres. It promotes the formation of choreographers’ professional competence and pedagogical skills. The development of Georgian "Lezginka" is proposed – a joint creative work of the teacher and students who get higher education degree in SHEE “Donbass State Pedagogical University” (Bachelor's Degree. Development of the dance contains schematic drawings of dance figures, it is recommended for use in forming choreographers’ professional skills while studying the course "Folk Dance Theory and Methodology". The author admits that folklore material requires a cautious, respectful attitude. Therefore, modern folk stage dances are integrally to combine traditional choreographic manner with its new interpretations. The author believes the actual capture of different nations’ choreographic culture improves intercultural youth communication; involves future professionals into the traditions of different nations; form professional skills of managers of children’s dance groups. The author concluded that a dance always reflects consciousness of different nations; future choreographers should be aware of characteristic features of dances of different world nations so that on the basis of traditional

  1. N-terminal diproline and charge group effects on the stabilization of helical conformation in alanine-based short peptides: CD studies with water and methanol as solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Bhupesh; Srivastava, Kinshuk Raj; Durani, Susheel

    2017-06-01

    Protein folding problem remains a formidable challenge as main chain, side chain and solvent interactions remain entangled and have been difficult to resolve. Alanine-based short peptides are promising models to dissect protein folding initiation and propagation structurally as well as energetically. The effect of N-terminal diproline and charged side chains is assessed on the stabilization of helical conformation in alanine-based short peptides using circular dichroism (CD) with water and methanol as solvent. A1 (Ac-Pro-Pro-Ala-Lys-Ala-Lys-Ala-Lys-Ala-NH 2 ) is designed to assess the effect of N-terminal homochiral diproline and lysine side chains to induce helical conformation. A2 (Ac-Pro-Pro-Glu-Glu-Ala-Ala-Lys-Lys-Ala-NH 2 ) and A3 (Ac-dPro-Pro-Glu-Glu-Ala-Ala-Lys-Lys-Ala-NH 2 ) with N-terminal homochiral and heterochiral diproline, respectively, are designed to assess the effect of Glu...Lys (i, i + 4) salt bridge interactions on the stabilization of helical conformation. The CD spectra of A1, A2 and A3 in water manifest different amplitudes of the observed polyproline II (PPII) signals, which indicate different conformational distributions of the polypeptide structure. The strong effect of solvent substitution from water to methanol is observed for the peptides, and CD spectra in methanol evidence A2 and A3 as helical folds. Temperature-dependent CD spectra of A1 and A2 in water depict an isodichroic point reflecting coexistence of two conformations, PPII and β-strand conformation, which is consistent with the previous studies. The results illuminate the effect of N-terminal diproline and charged side chains in dictating the preferences for extended-β, semi-extended PPII and helical conformation in alanine-based short peptides. The results of the present study will enhance our understanding on stabilization of helical conformation in short peptides and hence aid in the design of novel peptides with helical structures. Copyright © 2017 European Peptide

  2. Is HEADS in our heads?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Kirsten A; Hertz, Pernille Grarup; Blix, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    contraception], Safety, Self-harm) interview is a feasible way of exploring health risk behaviors and resilience. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate how often HEADS topics were addressed according to young patients and staff in pediatric and adult outpatient clinics. METHODS: We conducted...... care professionals participated. We found only small reported differences between staff and young patients regarding whether home, education, and activity were addressed. However, staff reported twice the rate of addressing smoking, alcohol, illegal drugs, sexuality, and contraception compared to young...... patients. Young patients reported that smoking, alcohol, illegal drugs, sexuality, and contraception were addressed significantly more at adult clinics in comparison to pediatric clinics. After controlling for age, gender and duration of illness, according to young patients, adjusted odds ratios...

  3. Reviews Book: George's Cosmic Treasure Hunt Book: 50 Physics Ideas You Really Need to Know Book: Head First Physics Book: Force and Motion—An illustrated Guide to Newton's Laws Book: Froth! The Science of Beer Equipment: SEP Charge Indicator Book: How Mathematics Happened—The First 50,000 Years Web Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    WE RECOMMEND George's Cosmic Treasure Hunt Another science-based kids' adventure from the Hawkings 50 Physics Ideas You Really Need to Know Brief, accessible descriptions of some complex physics Head First Physics Mechanics-focused non-traditional textbook Force and Motion—An illustrated Guide to Newton's Laws An original text aimed at students Froth! The Science of Beer A tongue-in-cheek physics-heavy guide to brewery science SEP Charge Indicator Classroom equipment that is affordable, usable and works How Mathematics Happened—The First 50,000 Years An enjoyable read suitable for student or teacher WEB WATCH Simulators can be useful teaching aids, as long as you remain aware of their flaws

  4. Head Impact Laboratory (HIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The HIL uses testing devices to evaluate vehicle interior energy attenuating (EA) technologies for mitigating head injuries resulting from head impacts during mine/...

  5. Specific interactions within micelle microenvironment in different charged dye/surfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Roxana Petcu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The interactions of two ionic dyes, Crystal Violet and Methyl Orange, with different charged surfactants and also with a nonionic surfactant were investigated using surface tension measurements and visible spectroscopy in pre-micellar and post-micellar regions. It was found that for the water dominant phase systems the dye was localized between the polar heads, at the exterior of the direct micelle shells for all the systems. For the oil dominant phase systems, in case of the same charged dye/surfactant couples, the dye was localized in the micelle shell between the hydrocarbon chain of the surfactant nearby the hydrophilic head groups while for nonionic surfactant and oppositely charged dye/surfactant, localization of dye was between the oxyethylenic head groups towards the interior of the micelle core. Mixed aggregates of the dye and surfactant (below the critical micellar concentration of cationic surfactant, dye-surfactant ion pair and surfactant-micelles were present. The values of equilibrium constants (for TX-114/MO and TX-114/CV systems were 0.97 and 0.98, respectively, partition coefficients between the micellar and bulk water phases and standard free energy (for the nonionic systems were −12.59 kJ/mol for MO and −10.97 kJ/mol for CV were calculated for all the studied systems. The partition processes were exothermic and occurred spontaneously.

  6. irGPU.proton.Net: Irregular strong charge interaction networks of protonatable groups in protein molecules--a GPU solver using the fast multipole method and statistical thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantardjiev, Alexander A

    2015-04-05

    A cluster of strongly interacting ionization groups in protein molecules with irregular ionization behavior is suggestive for specific structure-function relationship. However, their computational treatment is unconventional (e.g., lack of convergence in naive self-consistent iterative algorithm). The stringent evaluation requires evaluation of Boltzmann averaged statistical mechanics sums and electrostatic energy estimation for each microstate. irGPU: Irregular strong interactions in proteins--a GPU solver is novel solution to a versatile problem in protein biophysics--atypical protonation behavior of coupled groups. The computational severity of the problem is alleviated by parallelization (via GPU kernels) which is applied for the electrostatic interaction evaluation (including explicit electrostatics via the fast multipole method) as well as statistical mechanics sums (partition function) estimation. Special attention is given to the ease of the service and encapsulation of theoretical details without sacrificing rigor of computational procedures. irGPU is not just a solution-in-principle but a promising practical application with potential to entice community into deeper understanding of principles governing biomolecule mechanisms. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Head Trauma: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Head trauma: First aid Head trauma: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff Most head trauma involves injuries that are minor and don't require ... 21, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-head-trauma/basics/ART-20056626 . Mayo ...

  8. Charge stabilization by reaction center protein immobilized to carbon nanotubes functionalized by amine groups and poly(3-thiophene acetic acid) conducting polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabo, T.; Magyar, M.; Nagy, L. [Department of Medical Physics and Informatics, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Nemeth, Z.; Hernadi, K. [Department of Applied and Environmental Chemistry, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Endrodi, B.; Bencsik, G.; Visy, Cs. [Department of Physical Chemistry and Materials Science, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Horvath, E.; Magrez, A.; Forro, L. [Institute of Physics of Complex Matter, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2012-12-15

    A large number of studies have indicated recently that photosynthetic reaction center proteins (RC) bind successfully to nanostructures and their functional activity is largely retained. The major goal of current research is to find the most efficient systems and conditions for the photoelectric energy conversion and for the stability of this bio-nanocomposite. In our studies, we immobilized the RC protein on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) through specific chemical binding to amine functional groups and through conducting polymer (poly(3-thiophene acetic acid), PTAA). Both structural (TEM, AFM) and functional (absorption change and conductivity) measurements has shown that RCs could be bound effectively to functionalized CNTs. The kinetics of the light induced absorption change indicated that RCs were still active in the composite and there was an interaction between the protein cofactors and the CNTs. The light generated photocurrent was measured in an electrochemical cell with transparent CNT electrode designed specially for this experiment. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Study of the cost-benefit analysis method for safety. Meeting of the Permanent Group in charge of nuclear reactors on the 5 July 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-07-01

    After a recall of the history of the issue of third decennial visit of the 900 MW reactors, of the IRSN preliminary analysis, of elements given to the Permanent Group, of requests made by the ASN, and a presentation of the analysis performed by the IRSN, this large report presents the cost-benefit analysis method and its potential applications (principle, cost assessment, safety assessment, examples) and reports international experience gained in this area: the risk-informed approach (within the IAEA, in the USA, France and other European countries, the specific cost-benefit approach), existing cost-benefit type methods (comparison between methods used in the USA, in France and in Canada), and monetary assessment of accidents. It reports the application of the cost-benefit method for safety and its limitations, and then its application to modifications which have been implemented after safety re-examinations. It discusses the use of level 1 and 2 safety probabilistic studies, and reports the use of a cost-benefit method for safety within the frame of safety re-examinations

  10. Net charge fluctuations and local charge compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Jinghua

    2006-01-01

    We propose net charge fluctuation as a measure of local charge correlation length. It is demonstrated that, in terms of a schematic multiperipheral model, net charge fluctuation satisfies the same Quigg-Thomas relation as satisfied by charge transfer fluctuation. Net charge fluctuations measured in finite rapidity windows depend on both the local charge correlation length and the size of the observation window. When the observation window is larger than the local charge correlation length, the net charge fluctuation only depends on the local charge correlation length, while forward-backward charge fluctuations always have strong dependence on the observation window size. Net charge fluctuations and forward-backward charge fluctuations measured in the present heavy ion experiments show characteristic features similar to those from multiperipheral models. But the data cannot all be understood within this simple model

  11. 12 December 2013 - Sir Konstantin Novoselov, Nobel Prize in Physics 2010, signing the guest book with International Relations Adviser E. Tsesmelis; visiting the ATLAS experimental cavern with Spokesperson D. Charlton; in the LHC tunnel with Technology Department Head F. Bordry. I. Antoniadis, CERN Theory Group Leader, accompanies throughout.

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia

    2013-01-01

    12 December 2013 - Sir Konstantin Novoselov, Nobel Prize in Physics 2010, signing the guest book with International Relations Adviser E. Tsesmelis; visiting the ATLAS experimental cavern with Spokesperson D. Charlton; in the LHC tunnel with Technology Department Head F. Bordry. I. Antoniadis, CERN Theory Group Leader, accompanies throughout.

  12. 9 April 2013 - Minister for Universities and Science United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland D. Willetts in the ATLAS experimental cavern with ATLAS Collaboration Spokesperson D. Charlton and in the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Beams Department Head P. Collier. Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers, Editor at the Communication Group K. Kahle and Beams Department Engineer R. Veness present.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2013-01-01

    9 April 2013 - Minister for Universities and Science United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland D. Willetts in the ATLAS experimental cavern with ATLAS Collaboration Spokesperson D. Charlton and in the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Beams Department Head P. Collier. Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers, Editor at the Communication Group K. Kahle and Beams Department Engineer R. Veness present.

  13. CSMC and CSIC charging tests successfully completed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, H.

    2000-01-01

    Dr. H. Tsuji, Head of the JAERI Superconducting Magnet Laboratory in Naka, Japan reports on the completion of all charging tests of the Central Solenoid Model Coil and the Insert Coil on 18 August 2000. A brief history of the development, fabrication and testing of the model coils is given

  14. Microvascular reconstruction and tracheotomy are significant determinants of resource utilization in head and neck surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J; Stock, M; Chan, B; Meininger, M; Wax, M; Andersen, P; Everts, E

    2000-08-01

    Successful "critical pathway" design and implementation are dependent on appropriate patient stratification according to those factors that are primary determinants of resource utilization. To test the validity of our previously reported critical pathway design and to determine whether tracheotomy and microvascular reconstruction (MR) are primary determinants of resource utilization. Cost-effectiveness analysis. Tertiary referral academic institution. Retrospective analysis of data from 133 head and neck surgery cases in which the treatment regimen was based on critical pathways over a 26-month period. Length of stay and total patient charges were used as indices of resource utilization. One-way analysis of variance and t tests were used for statistical analysis of significance. Ninety patients (67.7%) underwent MR; 43 (32. 3%) did not. Seventy-five patients (56.4%) underwent tracheotomy; 58 (43.6%) did not. Four patient groups were constructed in decreasing order of complexity as follows: group 1, patients who underwent both tracheotomy and MR (n = 58); group 2, patients who underwent MR alone (n = 32); group 3, patients who underwent tracheotomy alone (n = 17); and group 4, patients who did not undergo either procedure (n = 26). Both tracheotomy and MR were found to be independent determinants of resource utilization and were additive when both were present. The length of stay varied from 8.4 days (in patients who underwent both procedures) to 6.7 days (in patients who did not undergo either procedure), with intermediate values in cases in which only 1 procedure was performed. The total charges varied in a similar manner from a high of $33,371 to a low of $19,994. Subanalysis with respect to intensive care unit, ward, and operating room charges showed a similar stratification. Tracheotomy and MR are both significant determinants of charges and length of stay in head and neck surgery cases and must be considered in the design of strategies to promote efficient

  15. [Are Higher Prices for Larger Femoral Heads in Total Hip Arthroplasty Justified from the Perspective of Health Care Economics? An Analysis of Costs and Effects in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunert, R; Schleifenbaum, S; Möbius, R; Sommer, G; Zajonz, D; Hammer, N; Prietzel, T

    2017-02-01

    Background: In total hip arthroplasty (THA), femoral head diameter has not been regarded as a key parameter which should be restored when reconstructing joint biomechanics and geometry. Apart from the controversial discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of using larger diameter heads, their higher cost is another important reason that they have only been used to a limited extent. The goal of this study was to analyse the price structure of prosthetic heads in comparison to other components used in THA. A large group of patients with hip endoprostheses were evaluated with respect to the implanted socket diameter and thus the theoretically attainable head diameter. Materials and Methods: The relative prices of various THA components (cups, inserts, stems and ball heads) distributed by two leading German manufacturers were determined and analysed. Special attention was paid to different sizes and varieties in a series of components. A large patient population treated with THA was evaluated with respect to the implanted cup diameter and therefore the theoretically attainable head diameter. Results: The pricing analysis of the THA components of two manufacturers showed identical prices for cups, inserts and stems in a series. In contrast to this, the prices for prosthetic heads with a diameter of 36-44 mm were 11-50 % higher than for 28 mm heads. Identical prices for larger heads were the exception. The distribution of the head diameter in 2719 THA cases showed significant differences between the actually implanted and the theoretically attainable heads. Conclusion: There are proven advantages in using larger diameter ball heads in THA and the remaining problems can be solved. It is therefore desirable to correct the current pricing practice of charging higher prices for larger components. Instead, identical prices should be charged for all head diameters in a series, as is currently established practice for all other THA components. Thus when

  16. Acute toxicity and cost analysis of a phase III randomized trial of accelerated and conventional radiotherapy for squamous carcinoma of the head and neck: a trans- tasman radiation oncology group study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulsen, M.; Williamson, S.; Tripcony, L.; Spry, N.; Peters, L.; Penniment, M.; Lamb, D.; Krawitz, H.

    1999-01-01

    The primary purpose of the present analysis was to assess the feasibility and acute toxicity of a pure accelerated fractionation regimen in a cooperative group setting. This analysis included the first 320 patients entered on to the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG) randomized controlled trial which compared accelerated radiotherapy (ART) with conventional radiotherapy (CRT) in stage lIl and IV squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the head and neck. Patients were randomized to either 59.4 Gy in 33 fractions over 24 days (ART) or to 70 Gy 35 fractions over 49 days (CRT) after being stratified for site and stage. Accrual began in 1991 and the trial was closed on 3 April 1998 with the targeted 350 patients. The 3-year survival for the whole group was 54%, and the 3-year disease-free survival was 41%. Toxicity data were available on 303 patients (148 ART; 155 CRT). Mucosal toxicity was worse in the accelerated grup, and it peaked ∼ 3 weeks earlier than the conventional grup. Skin toxicity was equivalent but occurred ∼ 7 days earlier in the accelerated grup. Acute effects in both grups healed completely. Hospitalization was more common in the ART grup (71 vs 52 patients; P=0.01) but the total bed days in hospital was not greatly different (1707 bed days for ART and 1607 bed days for CRT). Patients were more likely to require nasogastric (NG) feeding in the ART grup (49 vs 33 patients; P = 0.02). There were 1157 NG feeding days for ART and 1154 NG feeding days for CRT. The average cost of radiation treatment per patient including hospitalisation, NG feeding and accommodation was $11 750 in the ART grup and $11 587 in the CRT grup. The accelerated grup has been shown to be a tolerable, practical and cost-equivalent regimen. The assessment of the therapeutic ratio of this accelerated protocol (ART) will be determined when the analysis of late effects and loco-regional control is made when the data are more mature. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  17. Head injury - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  18. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the head uses special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, dizziness, and other ... aneurysm, bleeding, stroke and brain tumors. It also helps your doctor to evaluate your face, sinuses, and ...

  19. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others American Stroke Association National Stroke Association ... Computer Tomography (CT) Safety During Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine ...

  20. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view ... Safety Images related to Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Videos related to Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Sponsored by ...

  1. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the limitations of CT Scanning of the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, ... than regular radiographs (x-rays). top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT ...

  2. Darlington NGD fuel handling head eight acceptance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skelton, P.H.; Sie, T.

    1996-01-01

    Darlington NGD requires eight fuelling machine heads to fuel the four 932 MW reactors. Six heads are used on the three fuelling machine trolleys for normal fuelling operations. A further two heads are required to allow for maintenance and to provide for such reactor face activities as PIPE and CIGAR. Seven heads were successfully delivered to site from the head supplier. During acceptance testing, stalls on the charge tube screw assembly of the eighth and final head prevented its delivery to site. Replacement of the charge tube screw with a spare screw did not alleviate the problem. An in depth series of tests were undertaken at site, at the supplier and at the screw sub-supplier to determine the root cause of the problem. These tests included taking torque measurements under different operating conditions and using different components to assess the effects of the changes on torque levels. An assessment of the effects of changing chemical conditions (particularly crud levels) was also made. To ensure that the results of the testing were well understood, additional torque testing was also completed on a head and screw assembly at site that was known to work well. Based on all of the above series of tests, a recommendation was made to re-machine the charge tube screw(s). The original charge tube screw from Head eight was subsequently returned to the sub-supplier for re-work. Follow-up torque measurements and acceptance testing showed that the screw rework was effective and that Head eight could be successfully delivered to site. This paper focuses on the results of the head/screw test program. Results of the acceptance testing are also discussed. (author). 2 refs., 4 figs

  3. Darlington NGD fuel handling head eight acceptance program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skelton, P H; Sie, T [Ontario Hydro, Bowmanville (Canada). Darlington Nuclear Generating Station; Pilgrim, J [Canadian General Electric Co. Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    Darlington NGD requires eight fuelling machine heads to fuel the four 932 MW reactors. Six heads are used on the three fuelling machine trolleys for normal fuelling operations. A further two heads are required to allow for maintenance and to provide for such reactor face activities as PIPE and CIGAR. Seven heads were successfully delivered to site from the head supplier. During acceptance testing, stalls on the charge tube screw assembly of the eighth and final head prevented its delivery to site. Replacement of the charge tube screw with a spare screw did not alleviate the problem. An in depth series of tests were undertaken at site, at the supplier and at the screw sub-supplier to determine the root cause of the problem. These tests included taking torque measurements under different operating conditions and using different components to assess the effects of the changes on torque levels. An assessment of the effects of changing chemical conditions (particularly crud levels) was also made. To ensure that the results of the testing were well understood, additional torque testing was also completed on a head and screw assembly at site that was known to work well. Based on all of the above series of tests, a recommendation was made to re-machine the charge tube screw(s). The original charge tube screw from Head eight was subsequently returned to the sub-supplier for re-work. Follow-up torque measurements and acceptance testing showed that the screw rework was effective and that Head eight could be successfully delivered to site. This paper focuses on the results of the head/screw test program. Results of the acceptance testing are also discussed. (author). 2 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Does Zinc Sulfate Prevent Therapy-Induced Taste Alterations in Head and Neck Cancer Patients? Results of Phase III Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial from the North Central Cancer Treatment Group (N01C4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halyard, Michele Y.; Jatoi, Aminah; Sloan, Jeff A.; Bearden, James D.; Vora, Sujay A.; Atherton, Pamela J.; Perez, Edith A.; Soori, Gammi; Zalduendo, Anthony C.; Zhu, Angela; Stella, Philip J.; Loprinzi, Charles L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Taste alterations (dysgeusia) are well described in head and neck cancer patients who undergo radiotherapy (RT). Anecdotal observations and pilot studies have suggested zinc may mitigate these symptoms. This multi-institutional, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to provide definitive evidence of this mineral's palliative efficacy. Methods and Materials: A total of 169 evaluable patients were randomly assigned to zinc sulfate 45 mg orally three times daily vs. placebo. Treatment was to be given throughout RT and for 1 month after. All patients were scheduled to receive ≥2,000 cGy of external beam RT to ≥30% of the oral cavity, were able to take oral medication, and had no oral thrush at study entry. Changes in taste were assessed using the previously validated Wickham questionnaire. Results: At baseline, the groups were comparable in age, gender, and planned radiation dose (<6,000 vs. ≥6,000 cGy). Overall, 61 zinc-treated (73%) and 71 placebo-exposed (84%) patients described taste alterations during the first 2 months (p = 0.16). The median interval to taste alterations was 2.3 vs. 1.6 weeks in the zinc-treated and placebo-exposed patients, respectively (p = 0.09). The reported taste alterations included the absence of any taste (16%), bitter taste (8%), salty taste (5%), sour taste (4%), sweet taste (5%), and the presence of a metallic taste (10%), as well as other descriptions provided by a write in response (81%). Zinc sulfate did not favorably affect the interval to taste recovery. Conclusion: Zinc sulfate, as prescribed in this trial, did not prevent taste alterations in cancer patients who were undergoing RT to the oral pharynx

  5. Single histidine residue in head-group region is sufficient to impart remarkable gene transfection properties to cationic lipids: evidence for histidine-mediated membrane fusion at acidic pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V V; Pichon, C; Refregiers, M; Guerin, B; Midoux, P; Chaudhuri, A

    2003-08-01

    Presence of endosome-disrupting multiple histidine functionalities in the molecular architecture of cationic polymers, such as polylysine, has previously been demonstrated to significantly enhance their in vitro gene delivery efficiencies. Towards harnessing improved transfection property through covalent grafting of endosome-disrupting single histidine functionality in the molecular structure of cationic lipids, herein, we report on the design, the synthesis and the transfection efficiency of two novel nonglycerol-based histidylated cationic amphiphiles. We found that L-histidine-(N,N-di-n-hexadecylamine)ethylamide (lipid 1) and L-histidine-(N,N-di-n-hexadecylamine,-N-methyl)ethylamide (lipid 2) in combination with cholesterol gave efficient transfections into various cell lines. The transfection efficiency of Chol/lipid 1 lipoplexes into HepG2 cells was two order of magnitude higher than that of FuGENE(TM)6 and DC-Chol lipoplexes, whereas it was similar into A549, 293T7 and HeLa cells. A better efficiency was obtained with Chol/lipid 2 lipoplexes when using the cytosolic luciferase expression vector (pT7Luc) under the control of the bacterial T7 promoter. Membrane fusion activity measurements using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique showed that the histidine head-groups of Chol/lipid 1 liposomes mediated membrane fusion in the pH range 5-7. In addition, the transgene expression results using the T7Luc expression vector convincingly support the endosome-disrupting role of the presently described mono-histidylated cationic transfection lipids and the release of DNA into the cytosol. We conclude that covalent grafting of a single histidine amino acid residue to suitable twin-chain hydrophobic compounds is able to impart remarkable transfection properties on the resulting mono-histidylated cationic amphiphile, presumably via the endosome-disrupting characteristics of the histidine functionalities.

  6. Multicenter Study of Carbon-Ion Radiation Therapy for Mucosal Melanoma of the Head and Neck: Subanalysis of the Japan Carbon-Ion Radiation Oncology Study Group (J-CROS) Study (1402 HN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koto, Masashi, E-mail: koto.masashi@qst.go.jp [Hospital of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Sciences and Technology, Chiba (Japan); Demizu, Yusuke [Department of Radiology, Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center, Tatsuno (Japan); Saitoh, Jun-ichi [Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center, Maebashi (Japan); Suefuji, Hiroaki [Ion Beam Therapy Center, SAGA-HIMAT Foundation, Tosu (Japan); Tsuji, Hiroshi [Hospital of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Sciences and Technology, Chiba (Japan); Okimoto, Tomoaki [Department of Radiology, Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center, Tatsuno (Japan); Ohno, Tatsuya [Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center, Maebashi (Japan); Shioyama, Yoshiyuki [Ion Beam Therapy Center, SAGA-HIMAT Foundation, Tosu (Japan); Takagi, Ryo [Hospital of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Sciences and Technology, Chiba (Japan); Nemoto, Kenji [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yamagata University Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata (Japan); Nakano, Takashi [Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center, Maebashi (Japan); Kamada, Tadashi [Hospital of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Sciences and Technology, Chiba (Japan)

    2017-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of carbon-ion radiation therapy (RT) for mucosal melanoma of the head and neck (MMHN) in the Japan Carbon-Ion Radiation Oncology Study Group study. Methods and Materials: Patients with MMHN with N0-1M0 status who were treated with carbon-ion RT at 4 institutions in Japan between November 2003 and December 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. Two hundred sixty patients (male, 111; female, 149; median age, 68 years) with histologically proven MMHN were enrolled. Results: Primary sites included the nasal cavity in 178 patients, paranasal sinuses in 43, oral cavity in 27, and pharynx in 12. Eighty-six patients had T3 tumors, 147 had T4a tumors, and 27 had T4b tumors. Two hundred fifty-one patients were diagnosed with N0 disease, and 9 with N1 disease. The median total dose and number of fractions were 57.6 Gy RBE (relative biological effectiveness) and 16, respectively. Chemotherapy including dimethyl traizeno imidazole carboxamide was used concurrently in 129 patients. The median follow-up duration was 22 months (range, 1-132 months). The 2-year overall survival and local control rates were 69.4% and 83.9%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that gross tumor volume and concurrent chemotherapy were significant prognostic factors for overall survival. Grade 3 and grade 4 late morbidities were observed in 27 and 7 patients (5 developed ipsilateral blindness, 1 mucosal ulcer, and 1 second malignant disease in the irradiated volume), respectively. No patients developed grade 5 late morbidities. Conclusion: Carbon-ion RT is a promising treatment option for MMHN.

  7. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray ... What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT ...

  8. CHARGE Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semanti Chakraborty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present here a case of 17-year-old boy from Kolkata presenting with obesity, bilateral gynecomastia, mental retardation, and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. The patient weighed 70 kg and was of 153 cm height. Facial asymmetry (unilateral facial palsy, gynecomastia, decreased pubic and axillary hair, small penis, decreased right testicular volume, non-palpable left testis, and right-sided congenital inguinal hernia was present. The patient also had disc coloboma, convergent squint, microcornea, microphthalmia, pseudohypertelorism, low set ears, short neck, and choanalatresia. He had h/o VSD repaired with patch. Laboratory examination revealed haemoglobin 9.9 mg/dl, urea 24 mg/dl, creatinine 0.68 mg/dl. IGF1 77.80 ng/ml (decreased for age, GH <0.05 ng/ml, testosterone 0.25 ng/ml, FSH-0.95 ΅IU/ml, LH 0.60 ΅IU/ml. ACTH, 8:00 A.M cortisol, FT3, FT4, TSH, estradiol, DHEA-S, lipid profile, and LFT was within normal limits. Prolactin was elevated at 38.50 ng/ml. The patient′s karyotype was 46XY. Echocardiography revealed ventricularseptal defect closed with patch, grade 1 aortic regurgitation, and ejection fraction 67%. Ultrasound testis showed small right testis within scrotal sac and undescended left testis within left inguinal canal. CT scan paranasal sinuses revealed choanalatresia and deviation of nasal septum to the right. Sonomammography revealed bilateral proliferation of fibroglandular elements predominantly in subareoalar region of breasts. MRI of brain and pituitary region revealed markedly atrophic pituitary gland parenchyma with preserved infundibulum and hypothalamus and widened suprasellar cistern. The CHARGE association is an increasingly recognized non-random pattern of congenital anomalies comprising of coloboma, heart defect, choanal atresia, retarded growth and development, genital hypoplasia, ear abnormalities, and/or deafness. [1] These anomalies have a higher probability of occurring together. In this report, we have

  9. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  10. Maccoby's Head/Heart Traits: Marketing versus Accounting Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochunny, C. M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Nineteen head/heart traits derived from Maccoby's business ethics work were rated on importance to future careers by 148 marketing and 178 accounting students. Both groups rated head traits as most important. Marketing majors are not as "games" oriented as social stereotypes would indicate. The apparent imbalance between head and heart traits…

  11. San Francisco Bay Area CHARG: Coastal Hazards Adaptation Resiliency Group, a Multi-Jurisdictional Collaboration to Develop Innovative Regional Solutions to Address Sea Level Rise and Improve Shoreline Resiliency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, R.

    2017-12-01

    For a challenge as complex and far-reaching as sea level rise and improving shoreline resiliency, strong partnerships between scientists, elected officials, decision-makers, and the general public are the only way that effective solutions can be developed. The San Francisco Bay, like many similar sheltered water coastal environments (for example, Galveston Bay, Tampa Bay, or Venetian Lagoon) offers a unique opportunity for multiple jurisdictions to collaborate to address sea level rise on a regional basis. For the San Francisco Bay, significant scientific progress has been made in building a real-time simulation model for riverine and Bay hydrodynamics. Other major scientific initiatives, such as morphology mapping, shoreline mapping, and a sediment budget are also underway. In 2014, leaders from the Bay Area science, engineering, planning, policy, elected, and regulatory communities representing jurisdictions around the Bay joined together to address sea level rise. The group includes people from local, regional, state, and federal agencies and organizations. Together, CHARG (Coastal Hazards Adaptation Resiliency Group) established a collective vision and approach to implementing regional solutions. Decision-makers within many Bay Area jurisdictions are motivated to show demonstrable progress toward addressing sea level rise. However, the cost to implement shoreline resiliency solutions will be very large, and must be founded on strong science.CHARG is now tackling several key technical challenges. One is to develop science-based guidelines for local jurisdictions to determine when a project is local, sub-regional, or regional. Concurrently, several organizations are planning or implementing pilot shoreline resiliency projects and other programs. Many creative regional solutions are possible in a sheltered water environment that simply would not be feasible along the open coast. By definition, these solutions cannot be undertaken by one entity alone. Large

  12. Workplace Charging. Charging Up University Campuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, Carrie [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Ryder, Carrie [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Lommele, Stephen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This case study features the experiences of university partners in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Workplace Charging Challenge with the installation and management of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging stations.

  13. Randomized Phase III Trial to Test Accelerated Versus Standard Fractionation in Combination With Concurrent Cisplatin for Head and Neck Carcinomas in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0129 Trial: Long-Term Report of Efficacy and Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Tan, Phuc Felix; Zhang, Qiang; Ang, K. Kian; Weber, Randal S.; Rosenthal, David I.; Soulieres, Denis; Kim, Harold; Silverman, Craig; Raben, Adam; Galloway, Thomas J.; Fortin, André; Gore, Elizabeth; Westra, William H.; Chung, Christine H.; Jordan, Richard C.; Gillison, Maura L.; List, Marcie; Le, Quynh-Thu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We tested the efficacy and toxicity of cisplatin plus accelerated fractionation with a concomitant boost (AFX-C) versus standard fractionation (SFX) in locally advanced head and neck carcinoma (LA-HNC). Patients and Methods Patients had stage III to IV carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, or larynx. Radiation therapy schedules were 70 Gy in 35 fractions over 7 weeks (SFX) or 72 Gy in 42 fractions over 6 weeks (AFX-C). Cisplatin doses were 100 mg/m2 once every 3 weeks for two (AFX-C) or three (SFX) cycles. Toxicities were scored by using National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria 2.0 and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer criteria. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rates were estimated by using the Kaplan-Meier method and were compared by using the one-sided log-rank test. Locoregional failure (LRF) and distant metastasis (DM) rates were estimated by using the cumulative incidence method and Gray's test. Results In all, 721 of 743 patients were analyzable (361, SFX; 360, AFX-C). At a median follow-up of 7.9 years (range, 0.3 to 10.1 years) for 355 surviving patients, no differences were observed in OS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.96; 95% CI, 0.79 to 1.18; P = .37; 8-year survival, 48% v 48%), PFS (HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.24; P = .52; 8-year estimate, 42% v 41%), LRF (HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.38; P = .78; 8-year estimate, 37% v 39%), or DM (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.56 to 1.24; P = .16; 8-year estimate, 15% v 13%). For oropharyngeal cancer, p16-positive patients had better OS than p16-negative patients (HR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.42; P < .001; 8-year survival, 70.9% v 30.2%). There were no statistically significant differences in the grade 3 to 5 acute or late toxicities between the two arms and p-16 status. Conclusion When combined with cisplatin, AFX-C neither improved outcome nor increased late toxicity in patients with LA-HNC. Long-term high survival

  14. Quick spacecraft charging primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, Brian Arthur

    2014-01-01

    This is a presentation in PDF format which is a quick spacecraft charging primer, meant to be used for program training. It goes into detail about charging physics, RBSP examples, and how to identify charging.

  15. Head CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... scan - orbits; CT scan - sinuses; Computed tomography - cranial; CAT scan - brain ... head size in children Changes in thinking or behavior Fainting Headache, when you have certain other signs ...

  16. Bottom head assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fife, A.B.

    1998-01-01

    A bottom head dome assembly is described which includes, in one embodiment, a bottom head dome and a liner configured to be positioned proximate the bottom head dome. The bottom head dome has a plurality of openings extending there through. The liner also has a plurality of openings extending there through, and each liner opening aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. A seal is formed, such as by welding, between the liner and the bottom head dome to resist entry of water between the liner and the bottom head dome at the edge of the liner. In the one embodiment, a plurality of stub tubes are secured to the liner. Each stub tube has a bore extending there through, and each stub tube bore is coaxially aligned with a respective liner opening. A seat portion is formed by each liner opening for receiving a portion of the respective stub tube. The assembly also includes a plurality of support shims positioned between the bottom head dome and the liner for supporting the liner. In one embodiment, each support shim includes a support stub having a bore there through, and each support stub bore aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. 2 figs

  17. Single-Bunch Stability With Direct Space Charge

    CERN Multimedia

    Oeftiger, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown the suppressing effect of direct space charge on impedance-driven head-tail instabilities. The present work investigates transverse stability for the HL-LHC scenario based on our macro-particle simulation tool PyHEADTAIL using realistic bunch distributions. The impact of selfconsistent modelling is briefly discussed for non-linear space charge forces. We study how space charge pushes the instability threshold for the transverse mode coupling instability (TMCI) occurring between mode 0 and -1. Next we consider finite chromaticity: in absence of space charge, the impedance model predicts head-tail instabilities. For a selected case below TMCI threshold at Q0 = 5, we demonstrate the stabilising effect of space charge. Finally, we compare simulation results to past LHC measurements.

  18. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray equipment ... story here Images × Image Gallery Patient undergoing computed tomography (CT) scan. View full size with caption Pediatric Content ...

  19. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, ... is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images or pictures of the inside ...

  20. Micellar solubilization of ibuprofen: influence of surfactant head groups on the extent of solubilization Solubilização micelar do ibuprofeno: influência do grupo polar dos tensoativos no grau de solubilização

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlota O. Rangel-Yagui

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available An important property of micelles with particular significance in pharmacy is their ability to increase the solubility of poorly soluble drugs in water, thus increasing their bioavailability. In this work, the solubilization of ibuprofen (IBU was studied in micellar solutions of three surfactants possessing the same hydrocarbon tail but different hydrophilic head groups, namely sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS, dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB, and n-dodecyl octa(ethylene oxide (C12EO8. The results showed that, irrespective of the surfactant type, the solubility of IBU increased linearly with increasing surfactant concentration, as a consequence of the association between the drug and the micelles. The 80 mM DTAB and the 80 mM C12EO8 micellar solutions resulted in a 16-fold increase in solubility of IBU when compared to the buffer solution, whereas the 80 mM SDS micellar solution resulted in a 5.5-fold increase in IBU solubility. The highest value of molar solubilization capacity (chi was obtained with DTAB, chi = 0.97, followed by C12EO8 ,chi = 0.72, and finally SDS, chi = 0.23. However, due to the stronger tendency of the nonionic surfactant in forming micelles in solution, at the same surfactant concentration, we obtained the same solubility of IBU in both DTAB and C12EO8.Uma propriedade importante das micelas, do ponto de vista farmacêutico, refere-se ao potencial destas em solubilizar fármacos pouco solúveis em água, aumentando sua biodisponibilidade. No presente trabalho, estudou-se a solubilização de ibuprofeno (IBU em soluções micelares constituídas de três tensoativos apresentando a mesma cauda apolar, porém diferentes grupos hidrofílicos. Os tensoativos estudados foram dodecil sulfato de sódio (SDS, brometo de dodeciltrimetilamônio (DTAB e óxido de n-dodecil octaetileno (C12EO8. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, a solubilidade do IBU aumentou linearmente com o aumento da concentração de todos os tensoativos

  1. Reactor head shielding apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schukei, G.E.; Roebelen, G.J.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor head shielding apparatus for mounting on spaced reactor head lifting members radially inwardly of the head bolts. It comprises a frame of sections for mounting on the lifting members and extending around the top central area of the head, mounting means for so mounting the frame sections, including downwardly projecting members on the frame sections and complementary upwardly open recessed members for fastening to the lifting members for receiving the downwardly projecting members when the frame sections are lowered thereto with lead shielding supported thereby on means for hanging lead shielding on the frame to minimize radiation exposure or personnel working with the head bolts or in the vicinity thereof

  2. Femoral head avascular necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrysikopoulos, H.; Sartoris, D.J.; Resnick, D.L.; Ashburn, W.; Pretorius, T.

    1988-01-01

    MR imaging has been shown to be more sensitive and specific than planar scintigraphy for avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head. However, experience with single photon emission CT (SPECT) is limited. The authors retrospectively compared 1.5-T MR imaging with SPECT in 14 patients with suspected femoral head AVN. Agreement between MR imaging and SPECT was present in 24 femurs, 14 normal and ten with AVN. MR imaging showed changes of AVN in the remaining four femoral heads. Of these, one was normal and the other three inconclusive for AVN by SPECT. The authors conclude that MR imaging is superior to SPECT for the evaluation of AVN of the hip

  3. Protective head of sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liska, K.; Anton, P.

    1987-01-01

    The discovery concerns the protective heads of diagnostic assemblies of nuclear power plants for conductors of the sensors from the fuel and control parts of the said assemblies. A detailed description is presented of the design of the protective head which, as compared with the previous design, allows quick and simple assembly with reduced risk of damaging the sensors. The protective head may be used for diagnostic assemblies both in power and in research reactors and it will be used for WWER reactor assemblies. (A.K.). 3 figs

  4. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you! Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story here Images × Image Gallery ... Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to ...

  5. Exploding head syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpless, Brian A

    2014-12-01

    Exploding head syndrome is characterized by the perception of abrupt, loud noises when going to sleep or waking up. They are usually painless, but associated with fear and distress. In spite of the fact that its characteristic symptomatology was first described approximately 150 y ago, exploding head syndrome has received relatively little empirical and clinical attention. Therefore, a comprehensive review of the scientific literature using Medline, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, and PubMed was undertaken. After first discussing the history, prevalence, and associated features, the available polysomnography data and five main etiological theories for exploding head syndrome are summarized. None of these theories has yet reached dominance in the field. Next, the various methods used to assess and treat exploding head syndrome are discussed, as well as the limited outcome data. Finally, recommendations for future measure construction, treatment options, and differential diagnosis are provided. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medically necessary because of potential risk to the baby. This risk is, however, minimal with head CT ... intravenous contrast indicate mothers should not breastfeed their babies for 24-48 hours after contrast medium is ...

  7. Early Head Start Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Early Head Start or community services as usual;direct assessments and...

  8. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for ... Tomography (CT) - Head Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ...

  9. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic ... white on the x-ray; soft tissue, such as organs like the heart or liver, shows up ...

  10. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... microphone. top of page How does the procedure work? In many ways CT scanning works very much ... head CT scanning. Manufacturers of intravenous contrast indicate mothers should not breastfeed their babies for 24-48 ...

  11. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... rays). top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT scanning of the head ... is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. ...

  12. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... rays). top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT scanning of the head ... community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The ...

  13. Head Start Impact Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Nationally representative, longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Head Start or community services as usual;direct...

  14. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Stroke Brain Tumors Computer Tomography (CT) Safety During Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to Computed Tomography (CT) - ...

  15. TCGA head Neck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investigators with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network have discovered genomic differences – with potentially important clinical implications – in head and neck cancers caused by infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV).

  16. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your doctor to evaluate your face, sinuses, and skull or to plan radiation therapy for brain cancer. ... typically used to detect: bleeding, brain injury and skull fractures in patients with head injuries. bleeding caused ...

  17. The exploding head syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M W

    2001-06-01

    This article reviews the features of an uncommon malady termed "the exploding head syndrome." Sufferers describe terrorizing attacks of a painless explosion within their head. Attacks tend to occur at the onset of sleep. The etiology of attacks is unknown, although they are considered to be benign. Treatment with clomipramine has been suggested, although most sufferers require only reassurance that the spells are benign in nature.

  18. GPK heading machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krmasek, J.; Novosad, K.

    1981-01-01

    This article evaluates performance tests of the Soviet made GPK heading machine carried out in 4 coal mines in Czechoslovakia (Ostrava-Karvina region and Kladno mines). GPK works in coal seams and rocks with compression strength of 40 to 50 MPa. Dimensions of the tunnel are height 1.8 to 3.8 m and width 2.6 to 4.7 m, tunnel gradient plus to minus 10 degrees. GPK weighs 16 t, its conical shaped cutting head equipped with RKS-1 cutting tools is driven by an electric motor with 55 kW capacity. Undercarriage of the GPK, gathering-arm loader, hydraulic system, electric system and dust supression system (water spraying or pneumatic section) are characterized. Specifications of GPK heading machines are compared with PK-3r and F8 heading machines. Reliability, number of failures, dust level, noise, productivity depending on compression strength of rocks, heading rate in coal and in rocks, energy consumption, performance in inclined tunnels, and cutting tool wear are evaluated. Tests show that GPK can be used to drive tunnels in coal with rock constituting up to 50% of the tunnel crosscut, as long as rock compression strength does not exceed 50 MPa. In rocks characterized by higher compression strength cutting tool wear sharply increases. GPK is characterized by higher productivity than that of the PK-3r heading machine. Among the weak points of the GPK are: unsatisfactory reliability and excessive wear of its elements. (4 refs.) (In Czech)

  19. Monopole charges in unified gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Chan Hong Mo

    1981-01-01

    Monopole charges, being global quantities, depend on the gauge group of a theory, which in turn is determined by the representations of all its fields. For example, chromodynamics in its present form when combined with electrodynamics has as its gauge group not SU(3)*U(1) but a 'smaller' group U(3). The specification of monopole charges for a theory can thus be quite intricate. The authors report the result of an investigation in several current gauge theories. Of particular interest is the possible existence in some theories of monopoles carrying multiplicative charges. As a by-product, some earlier assertions seem to be incorrect, are clarified. (16 refs).

  20. Age and marital status linked to quality of life of long term survivors of head and neck or prostate cancer: report from a survey of radiation therapy oncology group patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, C.; Stern, J.; Asbell, S.; Osborne, D.; Peer, J.; Wasserman, T.; Hinrich, S.; Paulus, R.; Scarantino, C.; Bruner, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: This research project was designed to evaluate the QOL of prostate cancer survivors (PCS) or head and neck cancer survivors (HNCS) enrolled on RTOG clinical trials. Materials and Methods: Patients alive >4 years from registration on RTOG clinical trials were eligible to participate. Potential PCS or HNCS were identified in the RTOG database and institutions (INST) that agreed to participate were sent surveys and a list of eligible survivors. All eligible PCS or HNCS at that INST were given an informed consent and a survey. The survey consists of questionnaires on QOL, insurance issues, mood, sexual function, alcohol and tobacco use, and mental status. Results: To date, 460 survivors were approached from 40 INST and 276 (60%) have signed the informed consent. Twenty-one percent are HNCS. Sixteen percent of PCS are African American, as are 12% in HNCS. The current average age of PCS is 75 (range of 55-91 years); 65 (41-84) for HNCS. PCS were less likely to be current smokers (8%) compared to HNCS (15%, p=0.057). In HNCS age was associated with speech impairment: 61% under 65 had normal speech vs. 88%>65, p=0.023. Elderly HNCS reported less disfigurement (p=0.037) and greater spiritual well-being than younger survivors (p=0.0005). HNCS reported greater distress from illness (p=0.002) and anger (p=0.03) than PCS. HNCS reported more sexual dysfunction than PCS (p=0.017). In PCS married survivors had greater sexual dysfunction than non-married survivors (p=0.04). Conclusion: Survivors over age 65 that had head and neck cancer had less chronic effects of disease and treatment than their younger counterparts. They also had greater spiritual well-being. Survivors of head and neck cancer had greater sexual dysfunction than prostate cancer survivors, likely linked to their younger age. In addition, sexual function was of greater interest to married patients; therefore, of greater consequence with dysfunction. Younger patients report more long term effects of disease

  1. The CHARGE Association: Implications for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Thomas W.; Dunne, Michele T.

    1988-01-01

    CHARGE association is described as a diagnostic label for a group of congenital malformations, including coloboma, heart defects, atresia choanae, retarded postnatal growth/central nervous system defects, genital hypoplasia, and ear deformities. Etiology and characteristics of the CHARGE association are discussed, along with implications for…

  2. On Dust Charging Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Tsintsadze, Nodar L.; Tsintsadze, Levan N.

    2008-01-01

    A general derivation of the charging equation of a dust grain is presented, and indicated where and when it can be used. A problem of linear fluctuations of charges on the surface of the dust grain is discussed.

  3. Phase 3 Trial of Domiciliary Humidification to Mitigate Acute Mucosal Toxicity During Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer: First Report of Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG) 07.03 RadioHUM Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macann, Andrew; Fua, Tsien; Milross, Chris G.; Porceddu, Sandro V.; Penniment, Michael; Wratten, Chris; Krawitz, Hedley; Poulsen, Michael; Tang, Colin I.; Morton, Randall P.; Hay, K. David; Thomson, Vicki; Bell, Melanie L.; King, Madeleine T.; Fraser-Browne, Carol L.; Hockey, Hans-Ulrich P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of domicile-based humidification on symptom burden during radiation therapy (RT) for head-and-neck (H and N) cancer. Methods and Materials: From June 2007 through June 2011, 210 patients with H and N cancer receiving RT were randomized to either a control arm or to receive humidification using the Fisher and Paykel Healthcare MR880 humidifier. Humidification commenced on day 1 of RT and continued until Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 3.0, clinical mucositis (CMuc) grade ≤1 occurred. Forty-three patients (42%) met a defined benchmark for humidification compliance and contributed to per protocol (PP) analysis. Acute toxicities, hospitalizations, and feeding tube events were recorded prospectively. The McMaster University Head and Neck Radiotherapy Questionnaire (HNRQ) was used for patient-reported outcomes. The primary endpoint was area under the curve (AUC) for CMuc grade ≥2. Results: There were no significant differences in AUC for CMuc ≥2 between the 2 arms. Humidification patients had significantly fewer days in hospital (P=.017). In compliant PP patients, the AUC for CTCAE functional mucositis score (FMuc) ≥2 was significantly reduced (P=.009), and the proportion who never required a feeding tube was significantly greater (P=.04). HNRQ PP analysis estimates also in the direction favoring humidification with less symptom severity, although differences at most time points did not reach significance. Conclusions: TROG 07.03 has provided efficacy signals consistent with a role for humidification in reducing symptom burden from mucositis, but the influence of humidification compliance on the results moderates recommendations regarding its practical utility

  4. Phase 3 Trial of Domiciliary Humidification to Mitigate Acute Mucosal Toxicity During Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer: First Report of Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG) 07.03 RadioHUM Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macann, Andrew, E-mail: amacann@adhb.govt.nz [Department of Radiation Oncology, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand); Fua, Tsien [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Milross, Chris G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, New South Wales (Australia); Porceddu, Sandro V. [Oncology Services, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Woolloongabba, Queensland (Australia); Penniment, Michael [Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Wratten, Chris [Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle, Waratah, New South Wales (Australia); Krawitz, Hedley [Department of Radiation Oncology, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand); Poulsen, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radiation Oncology Mater Centre, South Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Tang, Colin I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia (Australia); Morton, Randall P. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Middlemore Hospital, Otahuhu, Auckland (New Zealand); Hay, K. David [Department of Oral Health, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand); Thomson, Vicki [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand); Bell, Melanie L.; King, Madeleine T. [Psycho-oncology Cooperative Research Group, Univerity of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Fraser-Browne, Carol L. [Adult Oncology Research Centre, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand); Hockey, Hans-Ulrich P. [Biometrics Matters Ltd, Hamilton (New Zealand)

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of domicile-based humidification on symptom burden during radiation therapy (RT) for head-and-neck (H and N) cancer. Methods and Materials: From June 2007 through June 2011, 210 patients with H and N cancer receiving RT were randomized to either a control arm or to receive humidification using the Fisher and Paykel Healthcare MR880 humidifier. Humidification commenced on day 1 of RT and continued until Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 3.0, clinical mucositis (CMuc) grade ≤1 occurred. Forty-three patients (42%) met a defined benchmark for humidification compliance and contributed to per protocol (PP) analysis. Acute toxicities, hospitalizations, and feeding tube events were recorded prospectively. The McMaster University Head and Neck Radiotherapy Questionnaire (HNRQ) was used for patient-reported outcomes. The primary endpoint was area under the curve (AUC) for CMuc grade ≥2. Results: There were no significant differences in AUC for CMuc ≥2 between the 2 arms. Humidification patients had significantly fewer days in hospital (P=.017). In compliant PP patients, the AUC for CTCAE functional mucositis score (FMuc) ≥2 was significantly reduced (P=.009), and the proportion who never required a feeding tube was significantly greater (P=.04). HNRQ PP analysis estimates also in the direction favoring humidification with less symptom severity, although differences at most time points did not reach significance. Conclusions: TROG 07.03 has provided efficacy signals consistent with a role for humidification in reducing symptom burden from mucositis, but the influence of humidification compliance on the results moderates recommendations regarding its practical utility.

  5. Phase 3 trial of domiciliary humidification to mitigate acute mucosal toxicity during radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer: first report of Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG) 07.03 RadioHUM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macann, Andrew; Fua, Tsien; Milross, Chris G; Porceddu, Sandro V; Penniment, Michael; Wratten, Chris; Krawitz, Hedley; Poulsen, Michael; Tang, Colin I; Morton, Randall P; Hay, K David; Thomson, Vicki; Bell, Melanie L; King, Madeleine T; Fraser-Browne, Carol L; Hockey, Hans-Ulrich P

    2014-03-01

    To assess the impact of domicile-based humidification on symptom burden during radiation therapy (RT) for head-and-neck (H&N) cancer. From June 2007 through June 2011, 210 patients with H&N cancer receiving RT were randomized to either a control arm or to receive humidification using the Fisher & Paykel Healthcare MR880 humidifier. Humidification commenced on day 1 of RT and continued until Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 3.0, clinical mucositis (CMuc) grade ≤1 occurred. Forty-three patients (42%) met a defined benchmark for humidification compliance and contributed to per protocol (PP) analysis. Acute toxicities, hospitalizations, and feeding tube events were recorded prospectively. The McMaster University Head and Neck Radiotherapy Questionnaire (HNRQ) was used for patient-reported outcomes. The primary endpoint was area under the curve (AUC) for CMuc grade ≥2. There were no significant differences in AUC for CMuc ≥2 between the 2 arms. Humidification patients had significantly fewer days in hospital (P=.017). In compliant PP patients, the AUC for CTCAE functional mucositis score (FMuc) ≥2 was significantly reduced (P=.009), and the proportion who never required a feeding tube was significantly greater (P=.04). HNRQ PP analysis estimates also in the direction favoring humidification with less symptom severity, although differences at most time points did not reach significance. TROG 07.03 has provided efficacy signals consistent with a role for humidification in reducing symptom burden from mucositis, but the influence of humidification compliance on the results moderates recommendations regarding its practical utility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Linear shaped charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, David; Stofleth, Jerome H.; Saul, Venner W.

    2017-07-11

    Linear shaped charges are described herein. In a general embodiment, the linear shaped charge has an explosive with an elongated arrowhead-shaped profile. The linear shaped charge also has and an elongated v-shaped liner that is inset into a recess of the explosive. Another linear shaped charge includes an explosive that is shaped as a star-shaped prism. Liners are inset into crevices of the explosive, where the explosive acts as a tamper.

  7. Color and magnetic charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, B.R.

    1976-01-01

    Schwinger's conjecture that the color degree of freedom of a quark is equivalent to its degree of freedom of taking different magnetic charges provides a plausible motivation for extending color to leptons. Leptons are just quarks with zero magnetic charges. It is shown that baryon number and lepton number can be replaced by fermion number and magnetic charge

  8. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head uses a powerful ... the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that ...

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head uses a powerful ... the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that ...

  10. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  11. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  12. Double-blind, randomized phase 3 trial of low-dose 13-cis retinoic acid in the prevention of second primaries in head and neck cancer: Long-term follow-up of a trial of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group-ACRIN Cancer Research Group (C0590).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Aarti K; Lee, Ju-Whei; Pinto, Harlan A; Jacobs, Charlotte D; Limburg, Paul J; Rubin, Philip; Arusell, Robert M; Dunphy, Eamonn P; Khandekar, Janardan D; Reiner, Seth A; Baez-Diaz, Luis; Celano, Paul; Li, Shuli; Li, Yi; Burtness, Barbara A; Adams, George L; Pandya, Kishan J

    2017-12-01

    13-Cis retinoic acid (13-CRA) is a synthetic vitamin A derivative. High-dose 13-CRA in patients with squamous cell cancers of the head and neck (SCCHNs) reduces the incidence of second primary tumors (SPTs). The authors report long-term results from a phase 3 randomized trial that compared treatment with low-dose 13-CRA versus placebo for patients who had early stage SCCHN, with a focus on the development of SPTs and overall survival (OS). In total, 176 patients who received treatment for stage I/II SCCHN were randomized to receive either low-dose 13-CRA (weight-based dose of 7.5 mg or 10 mg) or placebo for 2 years. A competing-risk approach and the log-rank test were used to compare the time to SPT and OS, respectively, between groups. 13-CRA neither significantly reduced the cumulative incidence of SPT (P = .61) nor improved the time to SPT (hazard ratio [HR] for 13-CRA/placebo; 0.86; P = .61). Despite limited power, there was a trend toward improved OS for the 13-CRA arm (HR, 0.75; P = .14), particularly among patients whose index tumor was surgically excised (N = 26; HR, 0.50; P = .057) and among women (N = 39; HR, 0.44; P = .065) and never/former smokers (N = 129; HR, 0.61; P = .055), with a median follow-up of 16 years. The main 13-CRA related toxicities were dry skin and cheilitis. Treatment with low-dose 13-CRA for 2 years did not decrease the incidence of SPT; subset analysis indicates a potential survival advantage among patients who are women and never/former smokers. More targeted interventions based on clinical risk factors and molecular characterization of tumors may yield greater success in future prevention trials. Cancer 2017;123:4653-4662. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  13. PEDIATRIC HEAD INJURIES, MECHANISM TO MANAGEMENT: EXPERIENCE OF A SINGLE CENTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Head injury is very common in modern life. Patients of any age group may have head injury however mechanism of head injury, pathophysiology and outcome of head injury is quite different in adults as compared to children. Road traffic accident is a common mode of head injury in adults while fall from height and household abuse is common mode in children. In Western countries, there is a separate registry system for pediatric head injury but there is no such system exist in india. Our present study is focused on pediatric head injury and evaluation of factors that affect the final outcome in pediatric patients.

  14. Radiologic head CT interpretation errors in pediatric abusive and non-abusive head trauma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kralik, Stephen F.; Finke, Whitney; Wu, Isaac C.; Ho, Chang Y.; Hibbard, Roberta A.; Hicks, Ralph A.

    2017-01-01

    Pediatric head trauma, including abusive head trauma, is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this research was to identify and evaluate radiologic interpretation errors of head CTs performed on abusive and non-abusive pediatric head trauma patients from a community setting referred for a secondary interpretation at a tertiary pediatric hospital. A retrospective search identified 184 patients <5 years of age with head CT for known or potential head trauma who had a primary interpretation performed at a referring community hospital by a board-certified radiologist. Two board-certified fellowship-trained neuroradiologists at an academic pediatric hospital independently interpreted the head CTs, compared their interpretations to determine inter-reader discrepancy rates, and resolved discrepancies to establish a consensus second interpretation. The primary interpretation was compared to the consensus second interpretation using the RADPEER trademark scoring system to determine the primary interpretation-second interpretation overall and major discrepancy rates. MRI and/or surgical findings were used to validate the primary interpretation or second interpretation when possible. The diagnosis of abusive head trauma was made using clinical and imaging data by a child abuse specialist to separate patients into abusive head trauma and non-abusive head trauma groups. Discrepancy rates were compared for both groups. Lastly, primary interpretations and second interpretations were evaluated for discussion of imaging findings concerning for abusive head trauma. There were statistically significant differences between primary interpretation-second interpretation versus inter-reader overall and major discrepancy rates (28% vs. 6%, P=0.0001; 16% vs. 1%, P=0.0001). There were significant differences in the primary interpretation-second interpretation overall and major discrepancy rates for abusive head trauma patients compared to non-abusive head trauma

  15. Radiologic head CT interpretation errors in pediatric abusive and non-abusive head trauma patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kralik, Stephen F.; Finke, Whitney; Wu, Isaac C.; Ho, Chang Y. [Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Hibbard, Roberta A.; Hicks, Ralph A. [Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Section of Child Protection Programs, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2017-07-15

    Pediatric head trauma, including abusive head trauma, is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this research was to identify and evaluate radiologic interpretation errors of head CTs performed on abusive and non-abusive pediatric head trauma patients from a community setting referred for a secondary interpretation at a tertiary pediatric hospital. A retrospective search identified 184 patients <5 years of age with head CT for known or potential head trauma who had a primary interpretation performed at a referring community hospital by a board-certified radiologist. Two board-certified fellowship-trained neuroradiologists at an academic pediatric hospital independently interpreted the head CTs, compared their interpretations to determine inter-reader discrepancy rates, and resolved discrepancies to establish a consensus second interpretation. The primary interpretation was compared to the consensus second interpretation using the RADPEER trademark scoring system to determine the primary interpretation-second interpretation overall and major discrepancy rates. MRI and/or surgical findings were used to validate the primary interpretation or second interpretation when possible. The diagnosis of abusive head trauma was made using clinical and imaging data by a child abuse specialist to separate patients into abusive head trauma and non-abusive head trauma groups. Discrepancy rates were compared for both groups. Lastly, primary interpretations and second interpretations were evaluated for discussion of imaging findings concerning for abusive head trauma. There were statistically significant differences between primary interpretation-second interpretation versus inter-reader overall and major discrepancy rates (28% vs. 6%, P=0.0001; 16% vs. 1%, P=0.0001). There were significant differences in the primary interpretation-second interpretation overall and major discrepancy rates for abusive head trauma patients compared to non-abusive head trauma

  16. Factors affecting the electrostatic charge of ceramic powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorite, I.; Romero, J.; Fernandez, J. F.

    2011-01-01

    The phenomenon of electrostatic charge in ceramic powders takes place when the particle surfaces enter in contact between them or with the containers. The accumulation of electrostatic charge is of relevance in ceramic powders in view of their insulating character and the risk of explosions during the material handling. In this work the main factors that affect the appearance of intrinsic charge and tribo-charge in ceramic powder have been studied. In ceramic powders of alumina it has been verified that the smallest particle sizes present an increase of the electrostatic charge of negative polarity. A correlation has been observed between the nature of the OH -surface groups and the electrostatic charge. The intrinsic charge and the tribocharge in ceramic powders can be diminished by compensating the surface groups that support the charge. The dry dispersion of nanoparticles on microparticles allows surface charge compensation with a noticeable modification of the powder agglomeration. (Author) 19 refs.

  17. Space Charge Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrario, M.; Palumbo, L.

    2014-12-19

    The space charge forces are those generated directly by the charge distribution, with the inclusion of the image charges and currents due to the interaction of the beam with a perfectly conducting smooth pipe. Space charge forces are responsible for several unwanted phenomena related to beam dynamics, such as energy loss, shift of the synchronous phase and frequency , shift of the betatron frequencies, and instabilities. We will discuss in this lecture the main feature of space charge effects in high-energy storage rings as well as in low-energy linacs and transport lines.

  18. Charged particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, R.D.

    1975-01-01

    A device for detecting the emission of charged particles from a specimen is described. The specimen is placed within an accumulator means which statically accumulates any charged particles emitted from the specimen. The accumulator means is pivotally positioned between a first capacitor plate having a positive electrical charge and a second capacitor plate having a negative electrical charge. The accumulator means is attracted to one capacitor plate and repelled from the other capacitor plate by an amount proportional to the amount and intensity of charged particles emitted by the specimen. (auth)

  19. Treatment, patient and tumor characteristics impact quality of life (QOL) in patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer: Report of the radiation therapy oncology group (RTOG) trial 90-03

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, J.; Scott, C.; Fu, K.; Trotti, A.; Spencer, S.; Garden, A.; Phillips, T.; Movsas, B.; Byhardt, R.; Ang, K.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To determine factors that effect QOL in patients with locally advanced squamous cell cancer of the head and neck randomized to standard fractionation radiotherapy (SFX), hyperfractionation (HFX), Accelerated Fractionation with Split (AFX-S) and Accelerated Fractionation with Concomitant Boost (AFX-C). Materials and Methods: RTOG 90-03 used the Head and Neck Performance Status Scale (HNPSS) and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT-H and N), version 2 to assess QOL. The HNPSS has three components Normalcy of Diet, Eating in Public, and Understandability of Speech. The FACT-H and N has two components: a global QOL questionnaire (FACT-G) consisting of 4 domains; Physical Well Being (PWB), Social Well Being (SWB), Emotional Well Being (EWB), Functional Well Being (FWB), and an additional H and N specific questionnaire (AC). Between 3/92 and 8/97, 1113 pts. were randomized; 718 completed a pretreatment FACT-H and N. Pts. completed the HNPSS and FACT-H and N; pretreatment, 4 weeks post-RT, every 3 months for 1 year. Results: Prior to the start of radiotherapy (RT) 48% of pts had normal diets, 64% had normal public eating, and 77% had normal speech. Age ( 60), KPS, tumor site (oral cavity vs. other), T-stage (T3+T4 vs. T1+T2+TX), N-stage (N0 vs. other), Race (Non-White vs. White), and marital status (single vs. married), FACT-G, PWB, EWB, FWB, AC, use of oral nutrient supplements, feeding tube, and parenteral nutrition predicted for pretreatment diet, public eating, and speech. During the acute toxicity phase diet, eating, and speech were related to the intensity of RT (HFX or AFX-C), marital status (single), tumor site (oral cavity), use of oral nutrient supplements, and feeding tube. At one-year oral cavity tumors, AFX-C, oral nutrient supplements, feeding tube, and single patients had worse diet, eating, and speech. Conclusion: Pretreatment patient and tumor characteristics impact on QOL prior to the initiation of therapy. Intensification of

  20. Massachusetts State Police Special Tactical Operations Team User Focus Group Report - Law Enforcement Advanced Protection (LEAP) Duty Uniforms, Integrated Head Protection, Chemical/Biological Protection and Human Systems Integration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Creighton, II, Thomas E; Hibbard, Bradley; Doherty, Stephen; McManus, Kelly

    2008-01-01

    ...) from representatives within the law enforcement community. This focus group consisted exclusively of personnel assigned to the Massachusetts State Police Special Tactical Operations (STOP) Team...

  1. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to you, revolve around you during the imaging process. You will be alone in the exam room ... possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed regularly by a ...

  2. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... need to be taken 12 hours prior to administration of contrast material. To avoid unnecessary delays, contact ... understanding of the possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed ...

  3. Head first Ajax

    CERN Document Server

    Riordan, Rebecca M

    2008-01-01

    Ajax is no longer an experimental approach to website development, but the key to building browser-based applications that form the cornerstone of Web 2.0. Head First Ajax gives you an up-to-date perspective that lets you see exactly what you can do -- and has been done -- with Ajax. With it, you get a highly practical, in-depth, and mature view of what is now a mature development approach. Using the unique and highly effective visual format that has turned Head First titles into runaway bestsellers, this book offers a big picture overview to introduce Ajax, and then explores the use of ind

  4. Head First Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Dawn

    2009-01-01

    Wouldn't it be great if there were a statistics book that made histograms, probability distributions, and chi square analysis more enjoyable than going to the dentist? Head First Statistics brings this typically dry subject to life, teaching you everything you want and need to know about statistics through engaging, interactive, and thought-provoking material, full of puzzles, stories, quizzes, visual aids, and real-world examples. Whether you're a student, a professional, or just curious about statistical analysis, Head First's brain-friendly formula helps you get a firm grasp of statistics

  5. Coulombic charge ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClarty, P. A.; O'Brien, A.; Pollmann, F.

    2014-05-01

    We consider a classical model of charges ±q on a pyrochlore lattice in the presence of long-range Coulomb interactions. This model first appeared in the early literature on charge order in magnetite [P. W. Anderson, Phys. Rev. 102, 1008 (1956), 10.1103/PhysRev.102.1008]. In the limit where the interactions become short ranged, the model has a ground state with an extensive entropy and dipolar charge-charge correlations. When long-range interactions are introduced, the exact degeneracy is broken. We study the thermodynamics of the model and show the presence of a correlated charge liquid within a temperature window in which the physics is well described as a liquid of screened charged defects. The structure factor in this phase, which has smeared pinch points at the reciprocal lattice points, may be used to detect charge ice experimentally. In addition, the model exhibits fractionally charged excitations ±q/2 which are shown to interact via a 1/r potential. At lower temperatures, the model exhibits a transition to a long-range ordered phase. We are able to treat the Coulombic charge ice model and the dipolar spin ice model on an equal footing by mapping both to a constrained charge model on the diamond lattice. We find that states of the two ice models are related by a staggering field which is reflected in the energetics of these two models. From this perspective, we can understand the origin of the spin ice and charge ice ground states as coming from a dipolar model on a diamond lattice. We study the properties of charge ice in an external electric field, finding that the correlated liquid is robust to the presence of a field in contrast to the case of spin ice in a magnetic field. Finally, we comment on the transport properties of Coulombic charge ice in the correlated liquid phase.

  6. Caregivers' attitudes regarding portion size served to Head Start children

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to identify caregivers' attitudes regarding amounts and types of foods served to Head Start preschoolers using qualitative methods. Researchers conducted 8 focus groups (4 African American; 4 Hispanic) with 33 African American and 29 Hispanic Head Start caregivers. Mode...

  7. Not All Female-Headed Families Are Created Equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besharov, Douglas J.; Quin, Alison J.

    1987-01-01

    Changes in parenting behavior have led to the troubling situation called the "feminization of poverty." Families headed by divorced women are doing better than is commonly supposed. Families headed by never-married women are doing worse. Public policy should reflect the differing needs of these two groups. (VM)

  8. Ghost Head Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Looking like a colorful holiday card, a new image from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope reveals a vibrant green and red nebula far from Earth. The image of NGC 2080, taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is available online at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc . Images like this help astronomers investigate star formation in nebulas. NGC 2080, nicknamed 'The Ghost Head Nebula,' is one of a chain of star-forming regions lying south of the 30 Doradus nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud. 30 Doradus is the largest star-forming complex in the local group of galaxies. This 'enhanced color' picture is composed of three narrow-band-filter images obtained by Hubble on March 28, 2000. The red and blue light come from regions of hydrogen gas heated by nearby stars. The green light on the left comes from glowing oxygen. The energy to illuminate the green light is supplied by a powerful stellar wind, a stream of high-speed particles coming from a massive star just outside the image. The central white region is a combination of all three emissions and indicates a core of hot, massive stars in this star-formation region. Intense emission from these stars has carved a bowl-shaped cavity in surrounding gas. In the white region, the two bright areas (the 'eyes of the ghost') - named A1 (left) and A2 (right) -- are very hot, glowing 'blobs' of hydrogen and oxygen. The bubble in A1 is produced by the hot, intense radiation and powerful stellar wind from one massive star. A2 contains more dust and several hidden, massive stars. The massive stars in A1 and A2 must have formed within the last 10,000 years, since their natal gas shrouds are not yet disrupted by the powerful radiation of the newborn stars. The Space Telescope Science Institute is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA, under contract with the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. The

  9. 76 FR 72134 - Annual Charges for Use of Government Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... the fact that power output is the result of many factors (e.g., water rights, head, project structures... inappropriate annual charge given the peculiar characteristics of particular projects. 33. Encumbrance Factor... factor between 30 and 50 percent for all project areas occupying Federal lands. 35. SCE believes that a...

  10. Environmental Sensitivity in Nuclear Emergencies in Rural and Semi-natural Environments. Report of Working Group 8, Environmental Sensitivity of EMRAS II Topical Heading Approaches for Assessing Emergency Situations. Environmental Modelling for RAdiation Safety (EMRAS II) Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-11-01

    Environmental assessment models are used for evaluating the radiological impact of actual and potential releases of radionuclides to the environment. They are essential tools for use in the regulatory control of routine discharges to the environment and also in planning measures to be taken in the event of accidental releases. They are also used for predicting the impact of releases which may occur far into the future, for example, from underground radioactive waste repositories. It is important to verify, to the extent possible, the reliability of the predictions of such models by comparison with measured values in the environment or by comparing them with the predictions of other models. The IAEA has been organizing programmes of international model testing since the 1980s. The programmes have contributed to a general improvement in models, in transfer data and in the capabilities of modellers in Member States. IAEA publications on this subject over the past three decades demonstrate the comprehensive nature of the programmes and record the associated advances which have been made. From 2009 to 2011, the IAEA organized a programme entitled Environmental Modelling for RAdiation Safety (EMRAS II), which concentrated on the improvement of environmental transfer models and the development of reference approaches to estimate the radiological impacts on humans, as well as on flora and fauna, arising from radionuclides in the environment. The following topics were addressed in nine working groups: Reference Approaches for Human Dose Assessment - Working Group 1: Reference Methodologies for Controlling Discharges of Routine Releases; - Working Group 2: Reference Approaches to Modelling for Management and Remediation at NORM and Legacy Sites; - Working Group 3: Reference Models for Waste Disposal Reference Approaches for Biota Dose Assessment; - Working Group 4: Biota Modelling; - Working Group 5: Wildlife Transfer Coefficient Handbook; - Working Group 6: Biota Dose

  11. Silva as the Head

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    2015-01-01

    The head of the performance design programme is substituted by a sister's academy delegate. this performance situation formed part of a week of semesterstart where the students and professors visited Sister's Academy, Malmø. I participated in the Sister's Academy as visiting researcher and here i...

  12. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head ...

  13. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are present in the paranasal sinuses. plan radiation therapy for cancer of the brain or other tissues. guide the ... RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others American Stroke Association National Stroke Association top ...

  14. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams Blood Clots CT Perfusion of the Head CT Angiography ( ...

  15. The Twente humanoid head

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reilink, Rob; Visser, L.C.; Bennik, J.; Carloni, Raffaella; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    This video shows the results of the project on the mechatronic development of the Twente humanoid head. The mechanical structure consists of a neck with four degrees of freedom (DOFs) and two eyes (a stereo pair system) which tilt on a common axis and rotate sideways freely providing a three more

  16. Jet Vertex Charge Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Nektarijevic, Snezana; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    A newly developed algorithm called the jet vertex charge tagger, aimed at identifying the sign of the charge of jets containing $b$-hadrons, referred to as $b$-jets, is presented. In addition to the well established track-based jet charge determination, this algorithm introduces the so-called \\emph{jet vertex charge} reconstruction, which exploits the charge information associated to the displaced vertices within the jet. Furthermore, the charge of a soft muon contained in the jet is taken into account when available. All available information is combined into a multivariate discriminator. The algorithm has been developed on jets matched to generator level $b$-hadrons provided by $t\\bar{t}$ events simulated at $\\sqrt{s}$=13~TeV using the full ATLAS detector simulation and reconstruction.

  17. Charge Islands Through Tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Daryl C.

    2002-01-01

    It has been recently reported that the electrical charge in a semiconductive carbon nanotube is not evenly distributed, but rather it is divided into charge "islands." This paper links the aforementioned phenomenon to tunneling and provides further insight into the higher rate of tunneling processes, which makes tunneling devices attractive. This paper also provides a basis for calculating the charge profile over the length of the tube so that nanoscale devices' conductive properties may be fully exploited.

  18. Head injury in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Makoto; Mori, Nobuhiko; Yokosuka, Reiko; Yamamoto, Masaaki; Imanaga, Hirohisa

    1981-01-01

    Findings of computerized tomography (CT) in 183 cases of head injury in children were investigated with special reference to CT findings of mild head injury. As was expected, CT findings of mild head injury fell within the normal range, in almost all cases. However, abnormal findings were noticed in 4 out of 34 cases (12%) in acute stage and 7 out of 76 cases (9%) in chronic stage. They were 3 cases of localized low density area in acute stage and 6 cases of mild cerebral atrophy in chronic stage, etc. There were some cases of mild head injury in which CT findings were normal while EEG examination revealed abnormality. Also in some cases, x-ray study demonstrated linear skull fracture which CT failed to show. These conventional techniques could be still remained as useful adjunct aid in diagnosis of head injury. CT findings of cases of cerebral contusion in their acute stage were divided as follows; normal, low density, small ventricle and ventricular and/or cisternal hemorrhage, frequency of incidence being 38, 17, 22, 11% respectively. These findings were invariably converted to cerebral atrophy from 10 days to 2 months after the impacts. In the cases with intracranial hematoma revealed by CT, only 32% of them showed clinical signs of Araki's type IV in their acute stage and 63% of them showed no neurological defects, that is Araki's type I and II. A case of extreme diffuse cerebral atrophy which followed acute subdural hematoma caused by tear of bridging veins without cortical contusion was presented. (author)

  19. Contractor Software Charges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul

    1994-01-01

    .... Examples of computer software costs that contractors charge through indirect rates are material management systems, security systems, labor accounting systems, and computer-aided design and manufacturing...

  20. Head and Neck Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Head and neck cancer overview What are my ... and neck cancer. For updated information on new cancer treatments that are available, you should discuss these issues ...

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others : American Stroke Association National Stroke Association ... MRA) Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging ( ...

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of MRI of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging ( ... brain) in routine clinical practice. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR ...

  3. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed with ... and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed with ...

  4. Head Lice: Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and General Public. Contact Us Parasites Home Prevention & Control Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... that can be taken to help prevent and control the spread of head lice: Avoid head-to- ...

  5. Computational methods working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, T.A.

    1997-09-01

    During the Cold Moderator Workshop several working groups were established including one to discuss calculational methods. The charge for this working group was to identify problems in theory, data, program execution, etc., and to suggest solutions considering both deterministic and stochastic methods including acceleration procedures.

  6. Charge Screening in a Charged Condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabadadze, Gregory; Rosen, Rachel A.

    2009-01-01

    We consider a highly dense system of helium-4 nuclei and electrons in which the helium-4 nuclei have condensed. We present the condensation mechanism in the framework of low energy effective field theory and discuss the screening of electric charge in the condensate.

  7. Surface Charging and Points of Zero Charge

    CERN Document Server

    Kosmulski, Marek

    2009-01-01

    Presents Points of Zero Charge data on well-defined specimen of materials sorted by trademark, manufacturer, and location. This text emphasizes the comparison between particular results obtained for different portions of the same or very similar material and synthesizes the information published in research reports over the past few decades

  8. Electric vehicle battery charging controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention provides an electric vehicle charging controller. The charging controller comprises a first interface connectable to an electric vehicle charge source for receiving a charging current, a second interface connectable to an electric vehicle for providing the charging current...... to a battery management system in the electric vehicle to charge a battery therein, a first communication unit for receiving a charging message via a communication network, and a control unit for controlling a charging current provided from the charge source to the electric vehicle, the controlling at least...... in part being performed in response to a first information associated with a charging message received by the first communication unit...

  9. Anne-Sylvie Catherin, Head of the Human Resources Department

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Anne-Sylvie Catherin has been appointed Head of the Human Resources Department with effect from 1 August 2009. Mrs Catherin is a lawyer specialized in International Administration and joined CERN in 1996 as legal advisor within the Office of the HR Department Head. After having been promoted to the position of Group Leader responsible for social and statutory conditions in 2000, Mrs Catherin was appointed Deputy of the Head of the Human Resources Department and Group Leader responsible for Strategy, Management and Development from 2005 to date. Since 2005, she has also served as a member of CCP and TREF. In the execution of her mandate as Deputy HR Department Head, Mrs Catherin closely assisted the HR Department Head in the organization of the Department and in devising new HR policies and strategies. She played an instrumental role in the last five-yearly review and in the revision of the Staff Rules and Regulations.

  10. Design verification for reactor head replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwivedy, K.K.; Whitt, M.S.; Lee, R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper outlines the challenges of design verification for reactor head replacement for PWR plants and the program for qualification from the prospective of the utility design engineering group. This paper is based on the experience with the design confirmation of four reactor head replacements for two plants, and their interfacing components, parts, appurtenances, and support structures. The reactor head replacement falls under the jurisdiction of the applicable edition of the ASME Section XI code, with particular reference to repair/replacement activities. Under any repair/replacement activities, demands may be encountered in the development of program and plan for replacement due to the vintage of the original design/construction Code and the design reports governing the component qualifications. Because of the obvious importance of the reactor vessel, these challenges take on an added significance. Additional complexities are introduced to the project, when the replacement components are fabricated by vendors different from the original vendor. Specific attention is needed with respect to compatibility with the original design and construction of the part and interfacing components. The program for reactor head replacement requires evaluation of welding procedures, applicable examination, test, and acceptance criteria for material, welds, and the components. Also, the design needs to take into consideration the life of the replacement components with respect to the extended period of operation of the plant after license renewal and other plant improvements. Thus, the verification of acceptability of reactor head replacement provides challenges for development and maintenance of a program and plan, design specification, design report, manufacturer's data report and material certification, and a report of reconciliation. The technical need may also be compounded by other challenges such as widely scattered global activities and organizational barriers, which

  11. Dosimeter charging apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, F.A.; Moorman, Ch.J.

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus for charging a dosimeter which has a capacitor connected between first and second electrodes and a movable electrode in a chamber electrically connected to the first electrode. The movable electrode deflects varying amounts depending upon the charge present on said capacitor. The charger apparatus includes first and second charger electrodes couplable to the first and second dosimeter electrodes. To charge the dosimeter, it is urged downwardly into a charging socket on the charger apparatus. The second dosimeter electrode, which is the dosimeter housing, is electrically coupled to the second charger electrode through a conductive ring which is urged upwardly by a spring. As the dosimeter is urged into the socket, the ring moves downwardly, in contact with the second charger electrode. As the dosimeter is further urged downwardly, the first dosimeter electrode and first charger electrode contact one another, and an insulator post carrying the first and second charger electrodes is urged downwardly. Downward movement of the post effects the application of a charging potential between the first and second charger electrodes. After the charging potential has been applied, the dosimeter is moved further into the charging socket against the force of a relatively heavy biasing spring until the dosimeter reaches a mechanical stop in the charging socket

  12. Spacecraft Surface Charging Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    Charging of Large Spwc Structure• . in Polut Otbil.’" Prweedings of thre Air For’e Grespykirs fitrano, W4r4 nop em Natural Charging of large Space Stru, ures...3, p. 1433- 1440, 1991. Bowman, C., Bogorad, A., Brucker, G., Seehra, S., and Lloyd, T., "ITO-Coated RF Transparent Materials for Antenna Sunscreen

  13. Unilateral CHARGE association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trip, J; van Stuijvenberg, M; Dikkers, FG; Pijnenburg, MWH

    A case with a predominantly unilateral CHARGE association is reported. The CHARGE association refers to a combination of congenital malformations. This boy had left-sided anomalies consisting of choanal atresia. coloboma and peripheral facial palsy. The infant had a frontal encephalocele. an anomaly

  14. Nondissipative optimum charge regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, R.; Vitebsky, J. N.

    1970-01-01

    Optimum charge regulator provides constant level charge/discharge control of storage batteries. Basic power transfer and control is performed by solar panel coupled to battery through power switching circuit. Optimum controller senses battery current and modifies duty cycle of switching circuit to maximize current available to battery.

  15. MRI in head trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jin Kyo [Shin Wha Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-02-15

    In the diagnosis of head injury, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), like CT, is an effective method of distinguishing between intracerebral and extracerebral lesions. In our experience of MRI, early hematomas are almost isointense by Saturation Recovery (SR) method, so these must be performed with Spin Echo (SE) method for better visualization of hematomas. Isodense subdural hematomas, which is a diagnostic dilemma on CT images, are clearly seen on MRI. Delayed hematomas or residual parenchymal lesions are better demonstrated on MRI than on CT. Direct cornal, sagittal images and multiplanar facility of MRI provides excellent visualization of the the location and shape of extracerebral collection of hematoma. For the screening of head traumas, SE method is a technique of choice because of its excellent sensitivity within limited time.

  16. Where is Russia heading?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Pliskevič

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The author examines the proceedings from the collection Where is Russia Heading? (= Куда идёт Россия?, published between 1994 and 1998 in connection with the international symposium held under this name each year in Moscow. The symposia and their proceeding, involving leading Russian and foreign experts, were significant in that they encompassed a wide range of themes – social, economic, political, legislative, cultural and other transformations that have been occurring in Russia during the past decades. The author, however, limits her review to contributions dealing with ethno-political and socio-cultural transformations in Russia. She concludes that the question – “Where is Russia heading?” – still remains open to answers.

  17. MRI in head trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jin Kyo

    1986-01-01

    In the diagnosis of head injury, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), like CT, is an effective method of distinguishing between intracerebral and extracerebral lesions. In our experience of MRI, early hematomas are almost isointense by Saturation Recovery (SR) method, so these must be performed with Spin Echo (SE) method for better visualization of hematomas. Isodense subdural hematomas, which is a diagnostic dilemma on CT images, are clearly seen on MRI. Delayed hematomas or residual parenchymal lesions are better demonstrated on MRI than on CT. Direct cornal, sagittal images and multiplanar facility of MRI provides excellent visualization of the the location and shape of extracerebral collection of hematoma. For the screening of head traumas, SE method is a technique of choice because of its excellent sensitivity within limited time.

  18. "Head versus heart"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rozin

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Most American respondents give ``irrational,'' magical responses in a variety of situations that exemplify the sympathetic magical laws of similarity and contagion. In most of these cases, respondents are aware that their responses (usually rejections, as of fudge crafted to look like dog feces, or a food touched by a sterilized, dead cockroach are not ``scientifically'' justified, but they are willing to avow them. We interpret this, in some sense, as ``heart over head.'' We report in this study that American adults and undergraduates are substantially less likely to acknowledge magical effects when the judgments involve money (amount willing to pay to avoid an ``unpleasant'' magical contact than they are when using preference or rating measures. We conclude that in ``head-heart'' conflicts of this type, money tips the balance towards the former, or, in other words, that money makes the mind less magical.

  19. Charged corpuscular beam detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hikawa, H; Nishikawa, Y

    1970-09-29

    The present invention relates to a charged particle beam detector which prevents transient phenomena disturbing the path and focusing of a charged particle beam travelling through a mounted axle. The present invention provides a charged particle beam detector capable of decreasing its reaction to the charge in energy of the charged particle beam even if the relative angle between the mounted axle and the scanner is unstable. The detector is characterized by mounting electrically conductive metal pieces of high melting point onto the face of a stepped, heat-resistant electric insulating material such that the pieces partially overlap each other and individually provide electric signals, whereby the detector is no longer affected by the beam. The thickness of the metal piece is selected so that an eddy current is not induced therein by an incident beam, thus the incident beam is not affected. The detector is capable of detecting a misaligned beam since the metal pieces partially overlap each other.

  20. [The exploding head syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, K M; ter Bruggen, J P; Franke, C L

    1991-04-06

    The case is reported of a 47-year old female suffering from the exploding head syndrome. This syndrome consists of a sudden awakening due to a loud noise shortly after falling asleep, sometimes accompanied by a flash of light. The patient is anxious and experiences palpitations and excessive sweating. Most patients are more than fifty years of age. Further investigations do not reveal any abnormality. The pathogenesis is unknown, and no therapy other than reassurance is necessary.

  1. Where are we heading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noto, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    The present paper deals with different aspects connected to the global petroleum industry by discussing the way of heading. The aspects cover themes like new frontiers, new relationships, sanctions, global climate change, new alliances and new technology. New frontiers and relationships concern domestic policy affecting the industry, and sanctions are discussed in connection with trade. The author discusses the industry's participation in the global environmental policy and new alliances to provide greater opportunity for developing new technology

  2. "Head versus heart"

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Rozin; Heidi Grant; Stephanie Weinberg; Scott Parker

    2007-01-01

    Most American respondents give ``irrational,'' magical responses in a variety of situations that exemplify the sympathetic magical laws of similarity and contagion. In most of these cases, respondents are aware that their responses (usually rejections, as of fudge crafted to look like dog feces, or a food touched by a sterilized, dead cockroach) are not ``scientifically'' justified, but they are willing to avow them. We interpret this, in some sense, as ``heart over head.'' We report in this ...

  3. Head segmentation in vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Kuratani, Shigeru; Schilling, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Classic theories of vertebrate head segmentation clearly exemplify the idealistic nature of comparative embryology prior to the 20th century. Comparative embryology aimed at recognizing the basic, primary structure that is shared by all vertebrates, either as an archetype or an ancestral developmental pattern. Modern evolutionary developmental (Evo-Devo) studies are also based on comparison, and therefore have a tendency to reduce complex embryonic anatomy into overly simplified patterns. Her...

  4. Head injuries in snowboarders compared with head injuries in skiers. A prospective analysis of 1076 patients from 1994 to 1999 in Niigata, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, O; Takaba, M; Saito, T; Endo, S

    2001-01-01

    We investigated snowboarding-related head injury cases and skiing-related head injury cases during five ski seasons at one resort area. There were 634 snowboarding-related head injuries and 442 skiing-related head injuries. The number of snowboarding head injuries increased rapidly over the study period. More male snowboarders than female snowboarders suffered head injuries. For both snowboarders and skiers, head injuries frequently occurred on the easy and middle slopes. Falls were the most frequent causes of injury in both groups. Jumping was a more frequent cause of injury in the snowboarders (30%) than in the skiers (2.5%). Injury to the occipital region predominated in the snowboarders as compared with the skiers. There were 49 organic lesions in 37 snowboarders and 46 organic lesions in 33 skiers. Subdural hematoma was frequent in the snowboarding head injury group, and fracture was frequent in the skiing head injury group compared with the snowboarding group (not significant). Subdural hematoma was likely to be caused by a fall rather than by a collision, and bone fracture was likely to be caused by a collision rather than by a fall. Four snowboarders and one skier died as a result of their head injuries. Our data suggest that snowboarding head injuries may be prevented by protection of the occipital region and refraining from jumping by beginners.

  5. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... understanding of the possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed regularly by a physician with ... not responsible for the content contained on the web pages found at these links. About Us | Contact ...

  6. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... understanding of the possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed regularly by a physician with expertise ... not responsible for the content contained on the web pages found at these links. About Us | Contact Us | ...

  7. High-LET charged particle radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, J.R.; California Univ., San Francisco, CA

    1991-07-01

    The Department of Radiation Oncology at UCSF Medical Center and the Radiation Oncology Department at UC Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory have been evaluating the use of high LET charged particle radiotherapy in a Phase 1--2 research trial ongoing since 1979. In this clinical trail, 239 patients have received at least 10 Gy (physical) minimum tumor dose with neon ions, meaning that at least one-half of their total treatment was given with high-LET charged particle therapy. Ninety-one patients received all of their therapy with neon ions. Of the 239 patients irradiated, target sites included lesions in the skin, subcutaneous tissues, head and neck such as paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx and salivary glands (major and minor), skull base and juxtaspinal area, GI tract including esophagus, pancreas and biliary tract, prostate, lung, soft tissue and bone. Analysis of these patients has been carried out with a minimum followup period of 2 years

  8. Group Capability Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejarski, Michael; Appleton, Amy; Deltorchio, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The Group Capability Model (GCM) is a software tool that allows an organization, from first line management to senior executive, to monitor and track the health (capability) of various groups in performing their contractual obligations. GCM calculates a Group Capability Index (GCI) by comparing actual head counts, certifications, and/or skills within a group. The model can also be used to simulate the effects of employee usage, training, and attrition on the GCI. A universal tool and common method was required due to the high risk of losing skills necessary to complete the Space Shuttle Program and meet the needs of the Constellation Program. During this transition from one space vehicle to another, the uncertainty among the critical skilled workforce is high and attrition has the potential to be unmanageable. GCM allows managers to establish requirements for their group in the form of head counts, certification requirements, or skills requirements. GCM then calculates a Group Capability Index (GCI), where a score of 1 indicates that the group is at the appropriate level; anything less than 1 indicates a potential for improvement. This shows the health of a group, both currently and over time. GCM accepts as input head count, certification needs, critical needs, competency needs, and competency critical needs. In addition, team members are categorized by years of experience, percentage of contribution, ex-members and their skills, availability, function, and in-work requirements. Outputs are several reports, including actual vs. required head count, actual vs. required certificates, CGI change over time (by month), and more. The program stores historical data for summary and historical reporting, which is done via an Excel spreadsheet that is color-coded to show health statistics at a glance. GCM has provided the Shuttle Ground Processing team with a quantifiable, repeatable approach to assessing and managing the skills in their organization. They now have a common

  9. Late xerostomia after intensity-modulated conformational radiotherapy of upper aero-digestive tract cancers: study 2004-03 by the head and neck oncology and radiotherapy Group (Gortec)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledano, I.; Lapeyre, M.; Graff, P.; Serre, C.; Bensadoun, R.J.; Bensadoun, R.J.; Ortholan, C.; Calais, G.; Alfonsi, M.; Giraud, P.; Racadot, S.

    2010-01-01

    The authors report a retrospective assessment of late xerostomia according to the RTOG (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group) classification of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) among patients treated by intensity-modulated conformational radiotherapy (IMRT) and suffering from upper aero-digestive tract carcinomas of different stages. Some of these patients have bee operated, and some have been treated by chemotherapy. It appears that the IMRT results in a reduction of late xerostomia, and even in an absence of salivary toxicity. Short communication

  10. Otolith function in patients with head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Dae; Park, Moo Kyun; Lee, Byung Don; Park, Ji Yun; Lee, Tae Kyung; Sung, Ki-Bum

    2011-10-01

    This study evaluates the otolith function of patients with head trauma, postulating that otolith dysfunction is a cause of nonspecific dizziness after head trauma. We prospectively enrolled 28 patients referred within 3 months after head trauma between March 2007 and December 2009. Pure tone audiometry, caloric testing and otolith function tests, including cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) and subjective visual vertical (SVV) tests, were performed on all patients. The relationship between otolith function and otologic symptoms was analyzed. Of the 28 patients with head trauma, 18 complained of dizziness and 12 experienced hearing loss, including 6 patients who complained of both. On defining otolith dysfunction as an abnormal cVEMP or abnormal SVV, a significant difference in otolith dysfunction existed between the groups with and without dizziness [72 (13/18) vs. 20% (2/10)]. In contrast, no significant difference in otolith dysfunction was detected between the abnormal and normal hearing groups. A significant number of the patients who complained of nonspecific dizziness after trauma had abnormal otolith function. After trauma, when patients complain of dizziness, vestibular function tests, including otolith function tests, should be considered.

  11. Self-excitation of space charge waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyuksyutov, Sergei; Buchhave, Preben; Vasnetsov, Mikhail

    1997-01-01

    We report a direct observation of space charge waves in photorefractive crystals with point group 23 (sillenites) based on their penetration into an area with uniform light illumination. It is shown experimentally that the quality factor of the waves increases substantially with respect to what c...... current theory predicts [B. Sturman el al., Appl. Phys. A 55, 235 (1992)]. This results in the appearance of strong spontaneous beams caused by space charge wave self-excitation....

  12. Color-charge algebras in Adler's chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvitanovic, P.; Gonsalves, R.J.; Neville, D.E.

    1978-01-01

    We show that the color-charge algebra in the three-quark sector generated by the matrices of the fundamental representation of U(n) does not have the trace properties required in Adler's extension of chromodynamics. We also discuss a diagrammatic representation of algebras generated by quark and antiquark charges in general, and an embedding of the N-quark algebra in the symmetric group S/sub N/+1

  13. Caregivers' attitudes regarding portion sizes served to children at Head Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head Start caregivers are responsible for educating and feeding preschoolers enrolled in the Head Start program. Amongst pre-school aged children, portion size served is positively associated with intake of those foods. Researchers conducted eight focus groups with Hispanic and African American Head...

  14. Charge gradient microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Andreas; Hong, Seungbum

    2018-02-06

    A method for rapid imaging of a material specimen includes positioning a tip to contact the material specimen, and applying a force to a surface of the material specimen via the tip. In addition, the method includes moving the tip across the surface of the material specimen while removing electrical charge therefrom, generating a signal produced by contact between the tip and the surface, and detecting, based on the data, the removed electrical charge induced through the tip during movement of the tip across the surface. The method further includes measuring the detected electrical charge.

  15. Charging equipment. Ladegeraet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, E

    1981-09-17

    The invention refers to a charging equipment, particularly on board charging equipment for charging traction batteries of an electric vehicle from the AC mains supply, consisting of a DC converter, which contains a controlled power transistor, a switching off unloading circuit and a power transmitter, where the secondary winding is connected in series with a rectifier diode, and a smoothing capacitor is connected in parallel with this series circuit. A converter module is provided, which consists of two DC voltage converters, whose power transistors are controlled by a control circuit in opposition with a phase displacement of 180/sup 0/.

  16. Modelling of Biota Dose Effects. Report of Working Group 6 Biota Dose Effects Modelling of EMRAS II Topical Heading Reference Approaches for Biota Dose Assessment. Environmental Modelling for RAdiation Safety (EMRAS II) Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-07-01

    Environmental assessment models are used for evaluating the radiological impact of actual and potential releases of radionuclides to the environment. They are essential tools for use in the regulatory control of routine discharges to the environment and in planning the measures to be taken in the event of accidental releases. They are also used for predicting the impact of releases which may occur far into the future, for example, from underground radioactive waste repositories. It is important to verify, to the extent possible, the reliability of the predictions of such models by a comparison with measured values in the environment or with the predictions of other models. The IAEA has been organizing programmes on international model testing since the 1980s. These programmes have contributed to a general improvement in models, in the transfer of data and in the capabilities of modellers in Member States. IAEA publications on this subject over the past three decades demonstrate the comprehensive nature of the programmes and record the associated advances which have been made. From 2009 to 2011, the IAEA organized a project entitled Environmental Modelling for RAdiation Safety (EMRAS II), which concentrated on the improvement of environmental transfer models and the development of reference approaches to estimate the radiological impacts on humans, as well as on flora and fauna, arising from radionuclides in the environment. Different aspects were addressed by nine working groups covering three themes: reference approaches for human dose assessment, reference approaches for biota dose assessment and approaches for addressing emergency situations. This publication describes the work of the Biota Effects Modelling Working Group

  17. Transfer of Tritium in the Environment after Accidental Releases from Nuclear Facilities. Report of Working Group 7 Tritium Accidents of EMRAS II Topical Heading Approaches for Assessing Emergency Situations. Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety (Emras II) Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-07-01

    Environmental assessment models are used for evaluating the radiological impact of actual and potential releases of radionuclides to the environment. They are essential tools for use in the regulatory control of routine discharges to the environment and also in planning measures to be taken in the event of accidental releases. They are also used for predicting the impact of releases which may occur far into the future, for example, from underground radioactive waste repositories. It is important to verify, to the extent possible, the reliability of the predictions of such models by a comparison with measured values in the environment or with predictions of other models. The IAEA has been organizing programmes of international model testing since the 1980s. These programmes have contributed to a general improvement in models, in the transfer of data and in the capabilities of modellers in Member States. IAEA publications on this subject over the past three decades demonstrate the comprehensive nature of the programmes and record the associated advances which have been made. From 2009 to 2011, the IAEA organized a programme entitled Environmental Modelling for RAdiation Safety (EMRAS II), which concentrated on the improvement of environmental transfer models and the development of reference approaches to estimate the radiological impacts on humans, as well as on flora and fauna, arising from radionuclides in the environment. Different aspects were addressed by nine working groups covering three themes: reference approaches for human dose assessment, reference approaches for biota dose assessment and approaches for assessing emergency situations. This publication describes the work of the Tritium Accidents Working Group

  18. Modelling of Biota Dose Effects. Report of Working Group 6 Biota Dose Effects Modelling of EMRAS II Topical Heading Reference Approaches for Biota Dose Assessment. Environmental Modelling for RAdiation Safety (EMRAS II) Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-15

    Environmental assessment models are used for evaluating the radiological impact of actual and potential releases of radionuclides to the environment. They are essential tools for use in the regulatory control of routine discharges to the environment and in planning the measures to be taken in the event of accidental releases. They are also used for predicting the impact of releases which may occur far into the future, for example, from underground radioactive waste repositories. It is important to verify, to the extent possible, the reliability of the predictions of such models by a comparison with measured values in the environment or with the predictions of other models. The IAEA has been organizing programmes on international model testing since the 1980s. These programmes have contributed to a general improvement in models, in the transfer of data and in the capabilities of modellers in Member States. IAEA publications on this subject over the past three decades demonstrate the comprehensive nature of the programmes and record the associated advances which have been made. From 2009 to 2011, the IAEA organized a project entitled Environmental Modelling for RAdiation Safety (EMRAS II), which concentrated on the improvement of environmental transfer models and the development of reference approaches to estimate the radiological impacts on humans, as well as on flora and fauna, arising from radionuclides in the environment. Different aspects were addressed by nine working groups covering three themes: reference approaches for human dose assessment, reference approaches for biota dose assessment and approaches for addressing emergency situations. This publication describes the work of the Biota Effects Modelling Working Group.

  19. Charge splitters and charge transport junctions based on guanine quadruplexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Ruojie; Xiang, Limin; Liu, Chaoren; Balaeff, Alexander; Zhang, Yuqi; Zhang, Peng; Li, Yueqi; Beratan, David N.; Tao, Nongjian; Seeman, Nadrian C.

    2018-04-01

    Self-assembling circuit elements, such as current splitters or combiners at the molecular scale, require the design of building blocks with three or more terminals. A promising material for such building blocks is DNA, wherein multiple strands can self-assemble into multi-ended junctions, and nucleobase stacks can transport charge over long distances. However, nucleobase stacking is often disrupted at junction points, hindering electric charge transport between the two terminals of the junction. Here, we show that a guanine-quadruplex (G4) motif can be used as a connector element for a multi-ended DNA junction. By attaching specific terminal groups to the motif, we demonstrate that charges can enter the structure from one terminal at one end of a three-way G4 motif, and can exit from one of two terminals at the other end with minimal carrier transport attenuation. Moreover, we study four-way G4 junction structures by performing theoretical calculations to assist in the design and optimization of these connectors.

  20. Association between temporomandibular disorders and abnormal head postures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Francisco FAULIN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the possible correlation between the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD and different head postures in the frontal and sagittal planes using photographs of undergraduate students in the School of Dentistry at the Universidade de Brasília - UnB, Brazil. In this nonrandomized, cross-sectional study, the diagnoses of TMD were made with the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC/TMD axis I. The craniovertebral angle was used to evaluate forward head posture in the sagittal plane, and the interpupillary line was used to measure head tilt in the frontal plane. The measurements to evaluate head posture were made using the Software for the Assessment of Posture (SAPO. Students were divided into two study groups, based on the presence or absence of TMD. The study group comprised 46 students and the control group comprised 80 students. Data about head posture and TMD were analyzed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 13. Most cases of TMD were classified as degenerative processes (group III, followed by disk displacement (group II and muscle disorders (group I. There was no sex predominance for the type of disorder. No association was found between prevalence rates for head postures in the frontal plane and the occurrence of TMD. The same result was found for the association of TMD diagnosis with craniovertebral angle among men and women, and the group that contained both men and women. Abnormal head postures were common among individuals both with and without TMD. No association was found between head posture evaluated in the frontal and sagittal planes and TMD diagnosis with the use of RDC/TMD.

  1. Kinematics of the AM-50 heading machine cutting head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, W; Bak, K; Klich, R [Politechnika Slaska, Gliwice (Poland). Instytut Mechanizacji Gornictwa

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes motion of the cutter head of the AM-50 heading machine. Two types of head motion are comparatively evaluated: planar motion and spatial motion. The spatial motion consists of the head rotational motion and horizontal or vertical feed motion, while planar motion consists of rotational motion and vertical feed motion. Equations that describe head motion under conditions of cutter vertical or horizontal feed motion are derived. The angle between the cutting speed direction and working speed direction is defined. On the basis of these formulae variations of cutting speed depending on the cutting tool position on a cutter head are calculated. Calculations made for 2 extreme cutting tools show that the cutting speed ranges from 1,205 m/s to 3,512 m/s. 4 refs.

  2. Pion double charge exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.D.

    1978-01-01

    The pion double charge exchange data on the oxygen isotopes is reviewed and new data on 9 Be, 12 C, 24 Mg, and 28 Si are presented. Where theoretical calculations exist, they are compared to the data. 9 references

  3. Water Quality Protection Charges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The Water Quality Protection Charge (WQPC) is a line item on your property tax bill. WQPC funds many of the County's clean water initiatives including: • Restoration...

  4. EV Charging Infrastructure Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karner, Donald [Electric Transportation Inc., Rogers, AR (United States); Garetson, Thomas [Electric Transportation Inc., Rogers, AR (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-08-01

    As highlighted in the U.S. Department of Energy’s EV Everywhere Grand Challenge, vehicle technology is advancing toward an objective to “… produce plug-in electric vehicles that are as affordable and convenient for the average American family as today’s gasoline-powered vehicles …” [1] by developing more efficient drivetrains, greater battery energy storage per dollar, and lighter-weight vehicle components and construction. With this technology advancement and improved vehicle performance, the objective for charging infrastructure is to promote vehicle adoption and maximize the number of electric miles driven. The EV Everywhere Charging Infrastructure Roadmap (hereafter referred to as Roadmap) looks forward and assumes that the technical challenges and vehicle performance improvements set forth in the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge will be met. The Roadmap identifies and prioritizes deployment of charging infrastructure in support of this charging infrastructure objective for the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge

  5. Space-Charge Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvin, N

    2013-01-01

    First, this chapter introduces the expressions for the electric and magnetic space-charge internal fields and forces induced by high-intensity beams. Then, the root-mean-square equation with space charge is derived and discussed. In the third section, the one-dimensional Child-Langmuir law, which gives the maximum current density that can be extracted from an ion source, is exposed. Space-charge compensation can occur in the low-energy beam transport lines (located after the ion source). This phenomenon, which counteracts the spacecharge defocusing effect, is explained and its main parameters are presented. The fifth section presents an overview of the principal methods to perform beam dynamics numerical simulations. An example of a particles-in-cells code, SolMaxP, which takes into account space-charge compensation, is given. Finally, beam dynamics simulation results obtained with this code in the case of the IFMIF injector are presented. (author)

  6. Space-Charge Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Chauvin, N.

    2013-12-16

    First, this chapter introduces the expressions for the electric and magnetic space-charge internal fields and forces induced by high-intensity beams. Then, the root-mean-square equation with space charge is derived and discussed. In the third section, the one-dimensional Child-Langmuir law, which gives the maximum current density that can be extracted from an ion source, is exposed. Space-charge compensation can occur in the low-energy beam transport lines (located after the ion source). This phenomenon, which counteracts the spacecharge defocusing effect, is explained and its main parameters are presented. The fifth section presents an overview of the principal methods to perform beam dynamics numerical simulations. An example of a particles-in-cells code, SolMaxP, which takes into account space-charge compensation, is given. Finally, beam dynamics simulation results obtained with this code in the case of the IFMIF injector are presented.

  7. EV Charging Infrastructure Roadmap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karner, Donald; Garetson, Thomas; Francfort, Jim

    2016-01-01

    As highlighted in the U.S. Department of Energy's EV Everywhere Grand Challenge, vehicle technology is advancing toward an objective to ''... produce plug-in electric vehicles that are as affordable and convenient for the average American family as today's gasoline-powered vehicles ...'' [1] by developing more efficient drivetrains, greater battery energy storage per dollar, and lighter-weight vehicle components and construction. With this technology advancement and improved vehicle performance, the objective for charging infrastructure is to promote vehicle adoption and maximize the number of electric miles driven. The EV Everywhere Charging Infrastructure Roadmap (hereafter referred to as Roadmap) looks forward and assumes that the technical challenges and vehicle performance improvements set forth in the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge will be met. The Roadmap identifies and prioritizes deployment of charging infrastructure in support of this charging infrastructure objective for the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge

  8. Head First Web Design

    CERN Document Server

    Watrall, Ethan

    2008-01-01

    Want to know how to make your pages look beautiful, communicate your message effectively, guide visitors through your website with ease, and get everything approved by the accessibility and usability police at the same time? Head First Web Design is your ticket to mastering all of these complex topics, and understanding what's really going on in the world of web design. Whether you're building a personal blog or a corporate website, there's a lot more to web design than div's and CSS selectors, but what do you really need to know? With this book, you'll learn the secrets of designing effecti

  9. Head first C#

    CERN Document Server

    Stellman, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Head First C# is a complete learning experience for object-oriented programming, C#, and the Visual Studio IDE. Built for your brain, this book covers C# 3.0 and Visual Studio 2008, and teaches everything from language fundamentals to advanced topics including garbage collection, extension methods, and double-buffered animation. You'll also master C#'s hottest and newest syntax, LINQ, for querying SQL databases, .NET collections, and XML documents. By the time you're through, you'll be a proficient C# programmer, designing and coding large-scale applications. Every few chapters you will come

  10. Head first C#

    CERN Document Server

    Stellman, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    You want to learn C# programming, but you're not sure you want to suffer through another tedious technical book. You're in luck: Head First C# introduces this language in a fun, visual way. You'll quickly learn everything from creating your first program to learning sophisticated coding skills with C# 4.0, Visual Studio 2010 and .NET 4, while avoiding common errors that frustrate many students. The second edition offers several hands-on labs along the way to help you build and test programs using skills you've learned up to that point. In the final lab, you'll put everything together. From o

  11. Head First Python

    CERN Document Server

    Barry, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Ever wished you could learn Python from a book? Head First Python is a complete learning experience for Python that helps you learn the language through a unique method that goes beyond syntax and how-to manuals, helping you understand how to be a great Python programmer. You'll quickly learn the language's fundamentals, then move onto persistence, exception handling, web development, SQLite, data wrangling, and Google App Engine. You'll also learn how to write mobile apps for Android, all thanks to the power that Python gives you. We think your time is too valuable to waste struggling with

  12. Head First Mobile Web

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, Lyza; Grigsby, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Despite the huge number of mobile devices and apps in use today, your business still needs a website. You just need it to be mobile. Head First Mobile Web walks you through the process of making a conventional website work on a variety smartphones and tablets. Put your JavaScript, CSS media query, and HTML5 skills to work-then optimize your site to perform its best in the demanding mobile market. Along the way, you'll discover how to adapt your business strategy to target specific devices. Navigate the increasingly complex mobile landscapeTake both technical and strategic approaches to mobile

  13. 5 February 2010: Romanian Former Minister of Justice V. Stoica (4th from left) visiting SM18 with, from left to right, University of Bucharest Faculty of Physics A. Costescu, DESY Hamburg C. Diaconu; Mrs Valeriu Stoica; Université de Montpellier II S. Ciulli; Technology Department Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings group S. Ilie; Technology Department Head F. Bordry and Adviser for Russian Federation, Central and Eastern Europe T. Kurtyka.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    5 February 2010: Romanian Former Minister of Justice V. Stoica (4th from left) visiting SM18 with, from left to right, University of Bucharest Faculty of Physics A. Costescu, DESY Hamburg C. Diaconu; Mrs Valeriu Stoica; Université de Montpellier II S. Ciulli; Technology Department Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings group S. Ilie; Technology Department Head F. Bordry and Adviser for Russian Federation, Central and Eastern Europe T. Kurtyka.

  14. Reactor vessel head permanent shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankinson, M.F.; Leduc, R.J.; Richard, J.W.; Malandra, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    A nuclear reactor is described comprising: a nuclear reactor pressure vessel closure head; control rod drive mechanisms (CRDMs) disposed within the closure head so as to project vertically above the closure head; cooling air baffle means surrounding the control rod drive mechanisms for defining cooling air paths relative to the control rod drive mechanisms; means defined within the periphery of the closure head for accommodating fastening means for securing the closure head to its associated pressure vessel; lifting lugs fixedly secured to the closure head for facilitating lifting and lowering movements of the closure head relative to the pressure vessel; lift rods respectively operatively associated with the plurality of lifting lugs for transmitting load forces, developed during the lifting and lowering movements of the closure head, to the lifting lugs; upstanding radiation shield means interposed between the cooling air baffle means and the periphery of the enclosure head of shielding maintenance personnel operatively working upon the closure head fastening means from the effects of radiation which may emanate from the control rod drive mechanisms and the cooling air baffle means; and connecting systems respectively associated with each one of the lifting lugs and each one of the lifting rods for connecting each one of the lifting rods to a respective one of each one of the lifting lugs, and for simultaneously connecting a lower end portion of the upstanding radiation shield means to each one of the respective lifting lugs

  15. Charged weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turlay, R.

    1979-01-01

    In this review of charged weak currents I shall concentrate on inclusive high energy neutrino physics. There are surely still things to learn from the low energy weak interaction but I will not discuss it here. Furthermore B. Tallini will discuss the hadronic final state of neutrino interactions. Since the Tokyo conference a few experimental results have appeared on charged current interaction, I will present them and will also comment on important topics which have been published during the last past year. (orig.)

  16. Relativistic charged Bose gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hines, D.F.; Frankel, N.E.

    1979-01-01

    The charged Bose has been previously studied as a many body problem of great intrinsic interest which can also serve as a model of some real physical systems, for example, superconductors, white dwarf stars and neutron stars. In this article the excitation spectrum of a relativistic spin-zero charged Bose gas is obtained in a dielectric response formulation. Relativity introduces a dip in the spectrum and consequences of this dip for the thermodynamic functions are discussed

  17. TROPIX plasma interactions group report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Joel L.; Chock, Ricaurte

    1993-10-01

    The purpose is to summarize the spacecraft charging analysis conducted by the plasma interactions group during the period from April 1993 to July 1993, on the proposed TROPIX spacecraft, and to make design recommendations which will limit the detrimental effects introduced by spacecraft charging. The recommendations were presented to the TROPIX study team at a Technical Review meeting held on 15 July 1993.

  18. Primary tendinitis of the long head of the biceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, M; Benca, P

    1989-09-01

    Seventeen patients with chronic painful shoulders who showed evidence of isolated bicipital tendinitis involving only the extracapsular, intertubercular portion of the long head of the biceps were chosen for surgical treatment when conservative treatment failed. The patients were thought to have primary bicipital tendinitis. The latter condition is secondary to other shoulder pathologies. Thirteen patients had tenodeses and four patients had transfer of the long head of the biceps to the origin of the conjoined tendon. Overall, excellent and good results were noted in 94% of both groups of patients when the long head of the biceps was tenodesed or transferred. Whether or not the long head of the biceps is a significant depressor of the humeral head requires further investigation.

  19. MOSFET Electric-Charge Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Paul A., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Charged-particle probe compact and consumes little power. Proposed modification enables metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) to act as detector of static electric charges or energetic charged particles. Thickened gate insulation acts as control structure. During measurements metal gate allowed to "float" to potential of charge accumulated in insulation. Stack of modified MOSFET'S constitutes detector of energetic charged particles. Each gate "floats" to potential induced by charged-particle beam penetrating its layer.

  20. Comparison of Toxicity Associated With Early Morning Versus Late Afternoon Radiotherapy in Patients With Head-and-Neck Cancer: A Prospective Randomized Trial of the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group (HN3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjarnason, Georg A.; MacKenzie, Robert G.; Nabid, Abdenour; Hodson, Ian D.; El-Sayed, Samy; Grimard, Laval; Brundage, Michael; Wright, James; Hay, John; Ganguly, Pradip; Leong, Carson; Wilson, Jane; Jordan, Richard C.K.; Walker, Melanie; Tu Dongsheng; Parulekar, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Based on our demonstration of a circadian rhythm in the human oral mucosa cell cycle, with most cells in the G 1 phase in the morning and M phase at night, we hypothesized that morning radiotherapy (RT) would lead to less oral mucositis than afternoon RT. Methods and Materials: A total of 216 patients were randomized to morning (8-10 AM) vs. afternoon (4-6 PM) RT and stratified by radiation dose, smoking status, and center. Patients receiving primary or postoperative RT alone were eligible. Oral mucositis was scored using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) criteria and a validated scoring system. Results: Of 205 evaluable patients, 52.9% vs. 62.4% developed RTOG Grade 3 or greater mucositis after morning vs. afternoon RT, respectively (p = 0.17). Morning RT was also associated with significantly less weight loss after 5 months (p = 0.024). In a subgroup of 111 patients treated to a dose of 66-70 Gy in 33-35 fractions, exploratory analyses revealed a significant reduction in Grade 3 or greater mucositis with morning RT (44.6% vs. 67.3%, p = 0.022) and a longer interval to the development of Grade 3 or greater mucositis (median, >7.9 vs. 5.6 weeks, p = 0.033). In 53 patients, who smoked during therapy, a significant reduction was found in Grade 3 or greater mucositis with morning RT (42.9% vs. 76%, p = 0.025). Conclusion: In this proof of principle study, morning RT was associated with significantly less weight loss after 5 months and an apparent reduction in oral mucositis in a subset of patients receiving ≥66 Gy and in patients who smoked during therapy

  1. Big break for charge symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, G.A. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle (United States); Kolck, U. van [Department of Physics, University of Arizona, Tucson (United States)

    2003-06-01

    production of neutral pi-mesons (pions) when a neutron is captured by a proton in a hydrogen target to form a deuteron. The probability, or cross-section, for this n + p {yields} d + {pi}{sup 0} reaction to occur depends on the angle between the momentum of the outgoing pion and that of the incident neutron beam. Another experimental team, led by Andy Bacher and Ed Stephenson at Indiana University in the US. Since the 1950s experimentalists have been trying to detect the formation of a neutral pion and an alpha particle in the fusion of two deuterons, d + d {yields} {alpha} +{pi}{sup 0}. The experiment was approved and everything was set and ready, except for the fact that the IUCF was already scheduled to be transformed into a materials and medical research facility. Bacher and Stephenson's team worked frantically for two months and finally produced two separate observations of a beautiful peak at exactly the right pion energy. Their experimental cross-section is almost the same as our estimate, and this measurement of such a small charge-symmetry-breaking probability is an immense technical achievement. Now the ball is back in the theorists' court. A large group, including Antonio Fonseca at the University of Lisbon in Portugal, Anders Gardestig and Chuck Horowitz at Indiana University, Andreas Nogga at the University of Arizona, and the present authors, is carrying out the task of turning the initial estimate of the cross-section of the d + d {yields} {alpha} +{pi}{sup 0} reaction into a reliable calculation. The same charge-symmetry-breaking mechanisms contribute to both the TRIUMF and IUCF experiments, which means that together they can provide important information on the mass difference between up and down quarks. The origin of the quark masses is not fully understood. In the Standard Model of particle physics, the Higgs mechanism allows the generation of such masses but it cannot predict the actual mass values. This is like having a recipe to make cookies

  2. Make dark matter charged again

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Prateek; Cyr-Racine, Francis-Yan; Randall, Lisa; Scholtz, Jakub, E-mail: prateekagrawal@fas.harvard.edu, E-mail: fcyrraci@physics.harvard.edu, E-mail: randall@physics.harvard.edu, E-mail: jscholtz@physics.harvard.edu [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-05-01

    We revisit constraints on dark matter that is charged under a U(1) gauge group in the dark sector, decoupled from Standard Model forces. We find that the strongest constraints in the literature are subject to a number of mitigating factors. For instance, the naive dark matter thermalization timescale in halos is corrected by saturation effects that slow down isotropization for modest ellipticities. The weakened bounds uncover interesting parameter space, making models with weak-scale charged dark matter viable, even with electromagnetic strength interaction. This also leads to the intriguing possibility that dark matter self-interactions within small dwarf galaxies are extremely large, a relatively unexplored regime in current simulations. Such strong interactions suppress heat transfer over scales larger than the dark matter mean free path, inducing a dynamical cutoff length scale above which the system appears to have only feeble interactions. These effects must be taken into account to assess the viability of darkly-charged dark matter. Future analyses and measurements should probe a promising region of parameter space for this model.

  3. Catalogue of tooth brush head designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Marsha A; Bayne, Stephen C; Liu, Ying; Walker, Mary P

    2013-06-01

    Manual toothbrushes (MTBs) and power toothbrushes (PTBs) are effective oral physiotherapy aids for plaque removal. End-rounded bristles are safer and reduce damage to oral tissues. Nylon bristles are more effective in plaque removal because the bristle is stiffer than natural bristles. In the last 10 years the number of options for MTBs and PTBs has expanded significantly and there is very little information providing a reference frame for the design characteristics of the heads. The present in vitro study characterized a variety of MTB and PTB heads to provide a reference library for other research comparisons which might be made. Various commercial MTB and PTB heads were used to characterize the following: bristle size, shape, diameter, number of tufts, number of bristles per tuft and surface characteristics. Photographs were collected from the side, at 45 degrees and the top of each toothbrush (TB) head using a scanning electron microscope and digital camera. Images were analyzed (Soft Imaging System) for bristle features and designs. One-way ANOVA (p ≤ 0.05) was performed to detect differences among TB types within MTB and PTB groups and between pooled values for MTB and PTB groups. There were significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in toothbrush bristle diameter and bristle shape. In contrast, there were no significant differences between PTB vs. MTB in regards to bristle diameter, bristle count and tuft count. The results suggest that although there are wide variations in toothbrush head designs, significant differences were found only in relation to bristle diameter and shape.

  4. Mild head injury and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasle, Veronique; Riffaud, Laurent; Longuet, Romain; Martineau-Curt, Marie; Collet, Yann; Le Fournier, Luc; Pladys, Patrick

    2016-12-01

    Post-concussion syndrome is a well-described complication following moderate and severe head trauma but whether it occurs after mild head injury in children remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether exposure to mild head injury with potential additional risk factors (non-surgical lesion on computed tomographic, high kinetic trauma, or Glasgow Coma Scale <15) is associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) after the head trauma. This study was performed in an emergency department on children admitted between 2009 and 2013. It compared victims of mild head injury aged 6-16 years with matched children presenting isolated non-surgical forearm fracture (ratio1/2). ADHD was assessed using Conners' Global Index-Parent short version 3-40 months after the trauma. The patients were compared using chi-square test or Fisher's exact test, t test or u-test as appropriate with a p value set at 0.05. During the study period, 676 patients were admitted for mild head injury. Among them, 34 (5 %) fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were compared with 64 matched patients admitted for a forearm fracture. The groups were comparable. ADHD was observed in both groups (18 % in the mild head injury group, 11 % in the control group) with no significant differences between groups. The prevalence was high when compared to an expected frequency of 3.5-5.6 % in children aged 6-12 years in the general population. These results suggest that pre-existing ADHD may have contributed to injury proneness in both groups and does not argue for a specific risk of ADHD induced by mild head injury. The diagnosis of ADHD should be evoked at admission of children aged 6-16 years presenting with a trauma.

  5. Charging Graphene for Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jun

    2014-10-06

    Since 2004, graphene, including single atomic layer graphite sheet, and chemically derived graphene sheets, has captured the imagination of researchers for energy storage because of the extremely high surface area (2630 m2/g) compared to traditional activated carbon (typically below 1500 m2/g), excellent electrical conductivity, high mechanical strength, and potential for low cost manufacturing. These properties are very desirable for achieving high activity, high capacity and energy density, and fast charge and discharge. Chemically derived graphene sheets are prepared by oxidation and reduction of graphite1 and are more suitable for energy storage because they can be made in large quantities. They still contain multiply stacked graphene sheets, structural defects such as vacancies, and oxygen containing functional groups. In the literature they are also called reduced graphene oxide, or functionalized graphene sheets, but in this article they are all referred to as graphene for easy of discussion. Two important applications, batteries and electrochemical capacitors, have been widely investigated. In a battery material, the redox reaction occurs at a constant potential (voltage) and the energy is stored in the bulk. Therefore, the energy density is high (more than 100 Wh/kg), but it is difficult to rapidly charge or discharge (low power, less than 1 kW/kg)2. In an electrochemical capacitor (also called supercapacitors or ultracapacitor in the literature), the energy is stored as absorbed ionic species at the interface between the high surface area carbon and the electrolyte, and the potential is a continuous function of the state-of-charge. The charge and discharge can happen rapidly (high power, up to 10 kW/kg) but the energy density is low, less than 10 Wh/kg2. A device that can have both high energy and high power would be ideal.

  6. Charge determination of nuclei with the AMS-02 silicon tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Alpat, B; Azzarello, P; Battiston, R; Bene, P; Bertucci, B; Bizzaglia, S; Bizzarri, M; Blasko, S; Bourquin, M; Bouvier, P; Burger, W J; Capell, M; Cecchi, C; Chang, Y H; Cortina, E; Dinu, N; Esposito, G; Fiandrini, E; Haas, D; Hakobyan, H; Ionica, M; Ionica, R; Kounine, A; Koutsenko, V F; Lebedev, A; Lechanoine-Leluc, C; Lin, C H; Masciocchi, F; Menichelli, M; Natale, S; Paniccia, M; Papi, A; Pauluzzi, M; Perrin, E; Pohl, M; Rapin, D; Richeux, J P; Wallraff, W; Willenbrock, M; Zuccon, P

    2005-01-01

    The silicon tracker of the AMS-02 detector measures the trajectory in three dimensions of electrons, protons and nuclei to high precision in a dipole magnetic field and thus measures their rigidity (momentum over charge) and the sign of their charge. In addition, it measures the specific energy loss of charged particles to determine the charge magnitude. Ladders from the AMS-02 tracker have been exposed to ion beams at CERN and GSI to study their response to nuclei from helium up to the iron group. The longest ladder, 72 multiplied by 496mm2, verified in the tests contains 12 sensors. Good charge resolution is observed up to iron.

  7. Management of common head and neck masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Thomas F; Muratore, Christopher S

    2007-02-01

    Head and neck masses are a common clinical concern in infants, children, and adolescents. The differential diagnosis for a head or neck mass includes congenital, inflammatory, and neoplastic lesions. An orderly and thorough examination of the head and neck with an appropriate directed workup will facilitate the diagnosis. The most common entities occur repeatedly within the various age groups and can be differentiated with a clear understanding of embryology and anatomy of the region, and an understanding of the natural history of a specific lesion. Congenital lesions most commonly found in the pediatric population include the thyroglossal duct cyst and the branchial cleft and arch anomalies. The inflammatory masses are secondary to local or systemic infections. The most common etiology for cervical adenopathy in children is reactive lymphadenopathy following a viral or bacterial illness. Persistent adenopathy raises more concerns, especially enlarged lymph nodes within the posterior triangle or supraclavicular space, nodes that are painless, firm, and not mobile, or a single dominant node that persists for more than 6 weeks should all heighten concern for malignancy. In this review, we discuss the current principles of surgical management of the most common head and neck masses that present to pediatricians and pediatric surgeons.

  8. Femoral head vitality after intracapsular hip fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroemqvist, B.

    1983-01-01

    Femoral head vitality before, during and at various intervals from the operation was determined by tetracycline labeling and/or 99 sp (m)Tc-MDP scintimetry. In a three-year follow-up, healing prognosis could be determined by scintimetry 3 weeks from operation; deficient femoral head vitality predicting healing complications and retained vitality predicting uncomplicated healing. A comparison between pre- and postoperative scintimetry indicated that further impairment of the femoral head vitality could be caused by the operative procedure, and as tetracycline labeling prior to and after fracture reduction in 370 fractures proved equivalent, it was concluded that the procedure of osteosynthesis probably was responsible for capsular vessel injury, using a four-flanged nail. The four-flanged nail was compared with a low-traumatic method of osteosynthesis, two hook-pins, in a prospective randomized 14 month study, and the postoperative femoral head vitality was significantly better in the hook-pin group. This was also clearly demonstrated in a one-year follow-up for the fractures included in the study. Parallel to these investigations, the reliability of the methods of vitality determination was found satisfactory in methodologic studies. For clinical purpose, primary atraumatic osteosynthesis, postoperative prognostic scintimetry and early secondary arthroplasty when indicated, was concluded to be the appropriate approach to femoral neck fracture treatment. (Author)

  9. Adaptive algorithm of magnetic heading detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gong-Xu; Shi, Ling-Feng

    2017-11-01

    Magnetic data obtained from a magnetic sensor usually fluctuate in a certain range, which makes it difficult to estimate the magnetic heading accurately. In fact, magnetic heading information is usually submerged in noise because of all kinds of electromagnetic interference and the diversity of the pedestrian’s motion states. In order to solve this problem, a new adaptive algorithm based on the (typically) right-angled corridors of a building or residential buildings is put forward to process heading information. First, a 3D indoor localization platform is set up based on MPU9250. Then, several groups of data are measured by changing the experimental environment and pedestrian’s motion pace. The raw data from the attached inertial measurement unit are calibrated and arranged into a time-stamped array and written to a data file. Later, the data file is imported into MATLAB for processing and analysis using the proposed adaptive algorithm. Finally, the algorithm is verified by comparison with the existing algorithm. The experimental results show that the algorithm has strong robustness and good fault tolerance, which can detect the heading information accurately and in real-time.

  10. Methodological approach of the North-Cotentin radioecological group in charge of the evaluation of doses and risks due to the radiations exposure of the North-Cotentin population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugierr, A.

    1999-01-01

    The group has evaluated and validated the list and quantities of radioelements release(source term) for each of the four nuclear installations of the North Cotentin since their beginning of operation (the reprocessing plant of Cogema la Hague, the Flamanville nuclear power plant, the Manche storage plant and the arsenal of the Cherbourg harbour). The gathering of data relative to radionuclides in environment of the north Cotentin has allowed from one hand the publication of samples inventory and types of radioactivity measurements and in an other hand an analysis of the results. The intercomparison of transfer models in environment and the confrontation of their results with the measures have been used for the doses calculations to the references groups and to the children troop from the Beaumont-Hague district. Finally, the elements necessary to the doses and risks estimation have been itemized and validated. One of the questions that stands out of these works is this one of the aims of the surveillance and measurements in environment according to the different organisms that realize them. It is important to make the distinction between the routine measurements ( to be sure of the correct operation of the facility and that the authorized release limits are well respected) and the measurements that allow to reconstitute the dose to population groups. (N.C.)

  11. Is there a relationship between head posture and craniomandibular pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, C M; De Boer, W; Lobbezoo, F; Habets, L L M H; Naeije, M

    2002-11-01

    An often-suggested factor in the aetiology of craniomandibular disorders (CMD) is an anteroposition of the head. However, the results of clinical studies to the relationship between CMD and head posture are contradictory. Therefore, the first aim of this study was to determine differences in head posture between well-defined CMD pain patients with or without a painful cervical spine disorder and healthy controls. The second aim was to determine differences in head posture between myogenous and arthrogenous CMD pain patients and controls. Two hundred and fifty persons entered the study. From each person, a standardized oral history was taken and blind physical examinations of the masticatory system and of the neck were performed. The participants were only included into one of the subgroups when the presence or absence of their symptoms was confirmed by the results of the physical examination. Head posture was quantified using lateral photographs and a lateral radiograph of the head and the cervical spine. After correction for age and gender effects, no difference in head posture was found between any of the patient and non-patient groups (P > 0.27). Therefore, this study does not support the suggestion that painful craniomandibular disorders, with or without a painful cervical spine disorder, are related to head posture.

  12. A preliminary examination of neurocognitive performance and symptoms following a bout of soccer heading in athletes wearing protective soccer headbands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbin, R J; Beatty, Amanda; Covassin, Tracey; Schatz, Philip; Hydeman, Ana; Kontos, Anthony P

    2015-01-01

    This study compared changes in neurocognitive performance and symptom reports following an acute bout of soccer heading among athletes with and without protective soccer headgear. A total of 25 participants headed a soccer ball 15 times over a 15-minute period, using a proper linear heading technique. Participants in the experimental group completed the heading exercise while wearing a protective soccer headband and controls performed the heading exercise without wearing the soccer headband. Neurocognitive performance and symptom reports were assessed before and after the acute bout of heading. Participants wearing the headband showed significant decreases on verbal memory (p = 0.02) compared with the no headband group, while the no headband group demonstrated significantly faster reaction time (p = 0.03) than the headband group following the heading exercise. These findings suggest that protective soccer headgear likely does not mitigate the subtle neurocognitive effects of acute soccer heading.

  13. Working Group Report: Neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Gouvea, A.; Pitts, K.; Scholberg, K.; Zeller, G. P. [et al.

    2013-10-16

    This document represents the response of the Intensity Frontier Neutrino Working Group to the Snowmass charge. We summarize the current status of neutrino physics and identify many exciting future opportunities for studying the properties of neutrinos and for addressing important physics and astrophysics questions with neutrinos.

  14. Representation of heading direction in far and near head space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poljac, E.; Berg, A.V. van den

    2003-01-01

    Manipulation of objects around the head requires an accurate and stable internal representation of their locations in space, also during movements such as that of the eye or head. For far space, the representation of visual stimuli for goal-directed arm movements relies on retinal updating, if eye

  15. Head trauma and CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samejima, Kanji; Yoshii, Nobuo; Tobari, Chitoshi

    1979-01-01

    In our cases of acute and subacute subdural hematoma, the use of CT was evaluated. In our department of surgery, acute subdural hematoma was found in 46 of 388 patients of head trauma who underwent CT. Acute subdural hematoma, like epidural hematoma was usually visualized as a high-density area along the cranial inner table, and this was easily differenciated from epidural hematoma because of difference in shape from the other. The picture of acute subdural hematoma was occasionally confused with that of intracerebral hematoma or cerebral contusion. Single use of CT does not differenciate subacute subdural hematoma from chronic subdural hematoma. However, CT usually visualized acute hematoma as a high-density area, showing the extent of hematoma. Comparison of the thickness of hematoma with the axis deviation of the median part such as the 3rd cerebral ventricle suggested severity of cerebral edema. CT also revealed bilateral or multiple lesions of cerebral contusion or intracerebral hematoma. (Ueda, J.)

  16. Chryse 'Alien Head'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    26 January 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an impact crater in Chryse Planitia, not too far from the Viking 1 lander site, that to seems to resemble a bug-eyed head. The two odd depressions at the north end of the crater (the 'eyes') may have formed by wind or water erosion. This region has been modified by both processes, with water action occurring in the distant past via floods that poured across western Chryse Planitia from Maja Valles, and wind action common occurrence in more recent history. This crater is located near 22.5oN, 47.9oW. The 150 meter scale bar is about 164 yards long. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left/lower left.

  17. Lower head failure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rempe, J.L.; Thinnes, G.L.; Allison, C.M.; Cronenberg, A.W.

    1991-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring a lower vessel head research program to investigate plausible modes of reactor vessel failure in order to determine (a) which modes have the greatest likelihood of occurrence during a severe accident and (b) the range of core debris and accident conditions that lead to these failures. This paper presents the methodology and preliminary results of an investigation of reactor designs and thermodynamic conditions using analytic closed-form approximations to assess the important governing parameters in non-dimensional form. Preliminary results illustrate the importance of vessel and tube geometrical parameters, material properties, and external boundary conditions on predicting vessel failure. Thermal analyses indicate that steady-state temperature distributions will occur in the vessel within several hours, although the exact time is dependent upon vessel thickness. In-vessel tube failure is governed by the tube-to-debris mass ratio within the lower head, where most penetrations are predicted to fail if surrounded by molten debris. Melt penetration distance is dependent upon the effective flow diameter of the tube. Molten debris is predicted to penetrate through tubes with a larger effective flow diameter, such as a boiling water reactor (BWR) drain nozzle. Ex-vessel tube failure for depressurized reactor vessels is predicted to be more likely for a BWR drain nozzle penetration because of its larger effective diameter. At high pressures (between ∼0.1 MPa and ∼12 MPa) ex-vessel tube rupture becomes a dominant failure mechanism, although tube ejection dominates control rod guide tube failure at lower temperatures. However, tube ejection and tube rupture predictions are sensitive to the vessel and tube radial gap size and material coefficients of thermal expansion

  18. Quick charge battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parise, R.J.

    1998-07-01

    Electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) will become a significant reality in the near future of the automotive industry. Both types of vehicles will need a means to store energy on board. For the present, the method of choice would be lead-acid batteries, with the HEV having auxiliary power supplied by a small internal combustion engine. One of the main drawbacks to lead-acid batteries is internal heat generation as a natural consequence of the charging process as well as resistance losses. This limits the re-charging rate to the battery pack for an EV which has a range of about 80 miles. A quick turnaround on recharge is needed but not yet possible. One of the limiting factors is the heat buildup. For the HEV the auxiliary power unit provides a continuous charge to the battery pack. Therefore heat generation in the lead-acid battery is a constant problem that must be addressed. Presented here is a battery that is capable of quick charging, the Quick Charge Battery with Thermal Management. This is an electrochemical battery, typically a lead-acid battery, without the inherent thermal management problems that have been present in the past. The battery can be used in an all-electric vehicle, a hybrid-electric vehicle or an internal combustion engine vehicle, as well as in other applications that utilize secondary batteries. This is not restricted to only lead-acid batteries. The concept and technology are flexible enough to use in any secondary battery application where thermal management of the battery must be addressed, especially during charging. Any battery with temperature constraints can benefit from this advancement in the state of the art of battery manufacturing. This can also include nickel-cadmium, metal-air, nickel hydroxide, zinc-chloride or any other type of battery whose performance is affected by the temperature control of the interior as well as the exterior of the battery.

  19. Charge transfer in astrophysical nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    Charge transfer has become a standard ingredient in models of ionized nebulae, supernovae remnants and active galactic nuclei. Charge transfer rate coefficients and the physics of ionized nebulae are considered. Charge transfer is applied to the ionization structure and line emission of ionized nebulae. Photoionized nebulae observations are used to test theoretical predictions of charge transfer rates. (author)

  20. Sources for charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arianer, J.

    1997-01-01

    This document is a basic course on charged particle sources for post-graduate students and thematic schools on large facilities and accelerator physics. A simple but precise description of the creation and the emission of charged particles is presented. This course relies on every year upgraded reference documents. Following relevant topics are considered: electronic emission processes, technological and practical considerations on electron guns, positron sources, production of neutral atoms, ionization, plasma and discharge, different types of positive and negative ion sources, polarized particle sources, materials for the construction of ion sources, low energy beam production and transport. (N.T.)

  1. Charge pulse preamplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libs, Gerard.

    1973-01-01

    A charge pulse preamplifier with very low background noise is described. The inlet stage of that preamplifier comprises a cooled field-effect transistor receiving the signal to be amplified at its gate input. Preferably, the charge resistor of said transistor is a field effect transistor, the source inlet of which is connected to the drain inlet of the former transistor through a self-induction coil and a resistor mounted in series. This can be applied to the treatment of the signals delivered by a particle detector in the form of a semi-conductor [fr

  2. The immunologic considerations in human head transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Mark A; Furr, Allen; Barret, Juan P; Barker, John H

    2017-05-01

    The idea of head transplantation appears at first as unrealistic, unethical, and futile. Here we discuss immunological considerations in human head transplantation. In a separate accompanying article we discuss surgical, ethical, and psychosocial issues concerned in body-to-head transplantation (BHT) [1]. The success of such an unusual allograft, where the donor and the recipient can reject each other, depends on prevention of complex immunologic reactions, especially rejection of the head by the body (graft-vs-host) or probably less likely, the possibility of the head rejecting the total body allograft (host-vs-graft). The technical and immunologic difficulties are enormous, especially since rapid nerve and cord connections and regeneration have not yet been possible to achieve. In this article we begin by briefly reviewing neuro-immunologic issues that may favor BHT such as the blood brain barrier (BBB) and point out its shortcomings. And we touch on the cellular and humoral elements in the brain proper that differ in some respects from those in other organs and in the periphery. Based on recent successes in vascular composite allografts (VCAs), we will elaborate on potential specific advantages and difficulties in BHT of various available immunosuppressive medications already utilized in VCAs. The risk/benefit ratio of these drugs will be emphasized in relation to direct brain toxicity such as seizure disorders, interference, or promotion of nerve regeneration, and potentiation of cerebral viral infections. The final portion of this article will focus on pre-transplant immunologic manipulation of the deceased donor body along with pretreatment of the recipient. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Merkel cell carcinoma of the head and neck: poorer prognosis than non-head and neck sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morand, G B; Madana, J; Da Silva, S D; Hier, M P; Mlynarek, A M; Black, M J

    2016-04-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare, aggressive neurocutaneous malignancy. This study investigated whether patients with Merkel cell carcinoma in the head and neck had poorer outcomes than patients with Merkel cell carcinoma located elsewhere. A retrospective study was performed of patients with Merkel cell carcinoma treated at the Jewish General Hospital in Montréal, Canada, from 1993 to 2013. Associations between clinicopathological characteristics and disease-free and disease-specific survival rates were examined according to the Kaplan-Meier method. Twenty-seven patients were identified. Although basic clinicopathological characteristics and treatments were similar between head and neck and non-head and neck Merkel cell carcinoma groups, disease-free and disease-specific survival rates were significantly lower in the head and neck Merkel cell carcinoma group (log-rank test; p = 0.043 and p = 0.001, respectively). Mortality was mainly due to distant metastasis. Patients with head and neck Merkel cell carcinoma had poorer survival rates than patients with non-head and neck Merkel cell carcinoma in our study. The tendency to obtain close margins, a less predictable metastatic pattern, and/or intrinsic tumour factors related to the head and neck may explain this discrepancy.

  4. The head-mounted microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Dailey, Seth H; Naze, Sawyer A; Jiang, Jack J

    2012-04-01

    Microsurgical equipment has greatly advanced since the inception of the microscope into the operating room. These advancements have allowed for superior surgical precision and better post-operative results. This study focuses on the use of the Leica HM500 head-mounted microscope for the operating phonosurgeon. The head-mounted microscope has an optical zoom from 2× to 9× and provides a working distance from 300 mm to 700 mm. The headpiece, with its articulated eyepieces, adjusts easily to head shape and circumference, and offers a focus function, which is either automatic or manually controlled. We performed five microlaryngoscopic operations utilizing the head-mounted microscope with successful results. By creating a more ergonomically favorable operating posture, a surgeon may be able to obtain greater precision and success in phonomicrosurgery. Phonomicrosurgery requires the precise manipulation of long-handled cantilevered instruments through the narrow bore of a laryngoscope. The head-mounted microscope shortens the working distance compared with a stand microscope, thereby increasing arm stability, which may improve surgical precision. Also, the head-mounted design permits flexibility in head position, enabling operator comfort, and delaying musculoskeletal fatigue. A head-mounted microscope decreases the working distance and provides better ergonomics in laryngoscopic microsurgery. These advances provide the potential to promote precision in phonomicrosurgery. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. Independents' group posts loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, V.; Price, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    Low oil gas prices and special charges caused the group of 50 U.S. independent producers Oil and Gas Journal tracks to post a combined loss in first half 1992. The group logged a net loss of $53 million in the first half compared with net earnings of $354 million in first half 1991, when higher oil prices during the Persian Gulf crisis buoyed earnings in spite of crude oil and natural gas production declines. The combined loss in the first half follows a 45% drop in the group's earnings in 1991 and compares with the OGJ group of integrated oil companies whose first half 1992 income fell 47% from the prior year. Special charges, generally related to asset writedowns, accounted for most of the almost $560 million in losses posted by about the third of the group. Nerco Oil and Gas Inc., Vancouver, Wash., alone accounted for almost half that total with charges related to an asset writedown of $238 million in the first quarter. Despite the poor first half performance, the outlook is bright for sharply improved group earnings in the second half, assuming reasonably healthy oil and gas prices and increased production resulting from acquisitions and in response to those prices

  6. Modular reactor head shielding system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, E. B.

    1985-01-01

    An improved modular reactor head shielding system is provided that includes a frame which is removably assembled on a reactor head such that no structural or mechanical alteration of the head is required. The shielding system also includes hanging assemblies to mount flexible shielding pads on trolleys which can be moved along the frame. The assemblies allow individual pivoting movement of the pads. The pivoting movement along with the movement allowed by the trolleys provides ease of access to any point on the reactor head. The assemblies also facilitate safe and efficient mounting of the pads directly to and from storage containers such that workers have additional shielding throughout virtually the entire installation and removal process. The flexible shielding pads are designed to interleave with one another when assembled around the reactor head for substantially improved containment of radiation leakage

  7. Charging and Screening in Nonpolar Solutions of Nonionizable Surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Sven

    2010-03-01

    Nonpolar liquids do not easily accommodate electric charges, but surfactant additives are often found to dramatically increase the solution conductivity and promote surface charging of suspended colloid particles. Such surfactant-mediated electrostatic effects have been associated with equilibrium charge fluctuations among reverse surfactant micelles and in some cases with the statistically rare ionization of individual surfactant molecules. Here we present experimental evidence that even surfactants without any ionizable group can mediate charging and charge screening in nonpolar oils, and that they can do so at surfactant concentrations well below the critical micelle concentration (cmc). Precision conductometry, light scattering, and Karl-Fischer titration of sorbitan oleate solutions in hexane, paired with electrophoretic mobility measurements on suspended polymer particles, reveal a distinctly electrostatic action of the surfactant. We interpret our observations in terms of a charge fluctuation model and argue that the observed charging processes are likely facilitated, but not limited, by the presence of ionizable impurities.

  8. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-18

    Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck; Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Cancer; Head and Neck Sarcoma; Paraganglioma of Head and Neck; Chordoma of Head and Neck; Chondrosarcoma of Head and Neck; Angiofibroma of Head and Neck

  9. Computed tomography use in minor head injury: attitudes and practices of emergency physicians, neurosurgeons, and radiologists in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özan, Ebru; Ataç, Gökçe Kaan

    2018-03-01

    We aimed to determine the attitudes and practices of emergency physicians (EPs), neurosurgeons, and radiologists in Turkey regarding computed tomography (CT) use for adults with minor head injury (MHI). This cross-sectional study was conducted between August 2015 and October 2016 after obtaining the approval of the institutional ethical committee. The purpose of this study was disclosed to the participants prior to beginning the survey. The study was performed conducting a questionnaire via e-mail on three groups of participants including EPs, neurosurgeons, and radiologists. Participants comprised academic staff at university hospitals as well as department chiefs, specialists, and residents working at university, government, and private hospitals, all of whom are in charge of evaluating MHI patients. A total of 607 participants including 201 (33.1%) EPs, 179 (29.5%) neurosurgeons, and 227 (37.4%) radiologists responded to the survey; 31% of the participants reported awareness and 27.3% reported use of head CT rules in MHI. Awareness and use of the rules were most prominent in EPs group, while the lowest rates were observed in radiologists group (pprotection or on patient dose from imaging are the common reasons for this practice pattern.

  10. Charge transport problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.P.

    1977-01-01

    In a recent report (UCID 17346, ''Relativistic Particle Beam in a Semi-Infinite Axially Symmetric conducting channel extending from a perfectly conducting plane,'' Dec. 13, 1976) Cooper and Neil demonstrate that the net charge transported by a beam pulse injected into a channel of finite conductivity equals the charge of the beam itself. The channel is taken to be infinite in the positive z direction, has finite radius and is terminated by a conducting ground plane at z =0. This result is not an obvious one, and it is restricted in its applicability by the special model assumed for the channel. It is the purpose to explain the result of Cooper and Neil in more qualitative terms and to make similar calculations using several other channel models. It must be emphasized that these calculations are not concerned with the fate of the transported charge after the pulse has stopped, but rather with how much charge leaves the ground plane assuming the pulse does not stop

  11. Resonance charge exchange processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duman, E.L.; Evseev, A.V.; Eletskij, A.V.; Radtsig, A.A.; Smirnov, B.M.

    1979-01-01

    The calculation results for the resonance charge exchange cross sections for positive and negative atomic and molecular ions are given. The calculations are performed on the basis of the asymptotic theory. The factors affecting the calculation accuracy are analysed. The calculation data for 28 systems are compared with the experiment

  12. Charged particle beams

    CERN Document Server

    Humphries, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    Detailed enough for a text and sufficiently comprehensive for a reference, this volume addresses topics vital to understanding high-power accelerators and high-brightness-charged particle beams. Subjects include stochastic cooling, high-brightness injectors, and the free electron laser. Humphries provides students with the critical skills necessary for the problem-solving insights unique to collective physics problems. 1990 edition.

  13. Charged fluids with symmetries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is possible to introduce many types of symmetries on the manifold which restrict the ... metric tensor field and generate constants of the motion along null geodesics .... In this analysis we have studied the role of symmetries for charged perfect ...

  14. Charged singularities: repulsive effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Felice, F; Nobili, L [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Calvani, M [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia

    1980-07-01

    The repulsive phenomena which a particle experiences in the vicinity of a naked singularity are investigated in the Kerr-Newman space-time. The aim is to extend the knowledge of this fact to charged solutions and to have a direct indication of how, in these situations, the gravitational and electrostatic interactions are competing.

  15. Fractional charge search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innes, W.; Klein, S.; Perl, M.; Price, J.C.

    1982-06-01

    A device to search for fractional charge in matter is described. The sample is coupled to a low-noise amplifier by a periodically varying capacitor and the resulting signal is synchronously detected. The varying capacitor is constructed as a rapidly spinning wheel. Samples of any material in volumes of up to 0.05 ml may be searched in less than an hour

  16. Turbidity Current Head Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, David; Sanchez, Miguel Angel; Medina, Pablo

    2010-05-01

    A laboratory experimental set - up for studying the behaviour of sediment in presence of a turbulent field with zero mean flow is compared with the behaviour of turbidity currents [1] . Particular interest is shown on the initiation of sediment motion and in the sediment lift - off. The behaviour of the turbidity current in a flat ground is compared with the zero mean flow oscilating grid generated turbulence as when wave flow lifts off suspended sediments [2,3]. Some examples of the results obtained with this set-up relating the height of the head of the turbidity current to the equilibrium level of stirred lutoclines are shown. A turbulent velocity u' lower than that estimated by the Shield diagram is required to start sediment motion. The minimum u' required to start sediment lift - off, is a function of sediment size, cohesivity and resting time. The lutocline height depends on u', and the vorticity at the lutocline seems constant for a fixed sediment size [1,3]. Combining grid stirring and turbidty current head shapes analyzed by means of advanced image analysis, sediment vertical fluxes and settling speeds can be measured [4,5]. [1] D. Hernandez Turbulent structure of turbidity currents and sediment transport Ms Thesis ETSECCPB, UPC. Barcelona 2009. [2] A. Sánchez-Arcilla; A. Rodríguez; J.C. Santás; J.M. Redondo; V. Gracia; R. K'Osyan; S. Kuznetsov; C. Mösso. Delta'96 Surf-zone and nearshore measurements at the Ebro Delta. A: International Conference on Coastal Research through large Scale Experiments (Coastal Dynamics '97). University of Plymouth, 1997, p. 186-187. [3] P. Medina, M. A. Sánchez and J. M. Redondo. Grid stirred turbulence: applications to the initiation of sediment motion and lift-off studies Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Part B: Hydrology, Oceans and Atmosphere. 26, Issue 4, 2001, Pages 299-304 [4] M.O. Bezerra, M. Diez, C. Medeiros, A. Rodriguez, E. Bahia., A. Sanchez-Arcilla and J.M. Redondo. Study on the influence of waves on

  17. Postmortem CT of severe head injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Masaru; Tsukahara, Yoshio; Nagaseki, Yoshishige; Horikoshi, Satoru; Yodonawa, Masahiko

    1983-01-01

    CT findings of fatal head injuries were analysed for the cause of death. Postmortem CT examinations were undertaken on 14 cases who died before reaching the hospital or shortly after arrival at the hospital (immediate death group). CT were also examined in non-operative 20 cases who were comatose and who died within 24 hours after severe head injuries (early death group). In the immediate death group, the following findings were demonstrated: a huge amount of free intracranial and intraventricular air in 8 cases; traumatic basal subarachnoid hemorrhage in 3 cases; a mixture of pneumocephalus and subarachnoid hemorrhage in 2 cases, and intracranial hematoma in 1 case. In the early death group: a mixture of pneumocephalus and subarachnoid hemorrhage in 2 cases; traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage in 5 cases; intracranial hematoma in 11 cases, and brain contusion in 2 cases. The huge amount of intracranial free air due to the severe fracture of the skull base will make the CNS collapse immediately. Basal subarachnoid hemorrhage with signs of brain-stem injuries may result in instantaneous death. Acute subdural hematoma with contusion and edema in elderly patients was the most frequent cause of death in the early death group. (author)

  18. Electrode configuration effects on the electrification and voltage variation in an electrostatic inkjet printing head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kyung Hyun; Ali, Adnan; Rahman, Ahsan; Malik Mohammad, Nauman; Rahman, Khalid; Khan, Arshad; Khan, Saleem; Kim, D S

    2010-01-01

    The electrode configuration of an electrostatic inkjet printing head is under study. This paper introduces the development of a new electrostatic inkjet head with an improved electrode configuration as compared to the conventional configuration. Two tungsten electrodes, connected in parallel, are inserted into the electrostatic print head at a certain angle from opposite sides. The aim of this double-side inserted angular electrodes (DSIAEs) head is to intensify the electrification of the fluid inside the head at minimum suitable exposure of the electrode, which results in maximizing surface charge density. The main advantage of the DSIAEs head is to get a very stable meniscus at low applied voltage for printing. This stable meniscus is transformed to a very stable jet by increasing the applied voltage. Therefore, printed patterns obtained with this DSIAEs head are more uniform because of a more stable meniscus and jet as compared to a conventional electrostatic vertically inserted single electrode head. Also, with this DSIAEs configuration, the life of the electrostatic inkjet printing head is increased.

  19. Femoral head necrosis; Hueftkopfnekrose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, J.; Scheurecker, G.; Scheurecker, A.; Stoeger, A.; Huber, A. [Roentgeninstitut am Schillerpark, Linz (Austria); Hofmann, S. [Orthopaedisches Landeskrankenhaus Stolzalpe (Austria)

    2009-05-15

    The epidemiology and pathohistogenesis of avascular femoral head necrosis has still not been clarified in detail. Because the course of the disease runs in stages and over a long time period nearly always culminates in the necessity for a total hip prosthesis, an exact radiological evaluation is of paramount importance for the treatment. There is a need for a common staging system to enable comparison of different therapy concepts and especially their long-term results. In this article the ARCO staging system is described in full detail, which includes all radiological modalities as well as histopathological alterations. (orig.) [German] Bei der avaskulaeren Femurkopfnekrose handelt es sich um ein Krankheitsbild, dessen Ursachen noch immer nicht vollstaendig geklaert sind. Da die Erkrankung stadienhaft verlaeuft und ueber einen laengeren Zeitraum betrachtet nahezu immer in einem prothetischen Hueftersatz muendet, ist eine genaue radiologische Abklaerung fuer die Behandlung von enormer Bedeutung. Um Langzeiterfolge verschiedener Therapiekonzepte vergleichen zu koennen, sind eine exakte Beschreibung und darauf basierend die Verwendung einer einheitlichen Stadieneinteilung wuenschenswert. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird die ARCO-Stadieneinteilung im Detail beschrieben, die alle bildgebenden Methoden beruecksichtigt und histopathologische Veraenderungen mit einbezieht. (orig.)

  20. Head trauma and CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samejima, Kanji; Yoshii, Nobuo; Tobari, Chitoshi

    1979-01-01

    It has been said that chronic subdural hematoma cannot be diagnosed by CT. In our cases, CT was used, and the results were described. According to the density of the picture, CT findings of chronic subdural hematoma could be classified into 3 types, those of higher density than that of the cerebral paranchyma, those of isodensity, and those of lower density than that of the cerebral parenchyma. The difference among them appeared to be due to variation in the fluid in hematoma, especially that in hemoglobin concentration. Chronic subdural hematoma was found in 27 of 388 cases of head trauma in which CT was undertaken in our department of surgery for last 2 years. It is difficult to differenciate this disease from subdural edema or subarachnoideal retention of the cerebrospinal fluid. In many cases, use of contrast medium added no change to the CT picture. Cerebral angiography is necessary for definite diagnosis of the disease. Chronic subdural hematoma gives more varieties of findings than other intracranial hematomas. However, if the film is very carefully read, CT is still useful for diagnosing this disease in spite of initially remarked difficulties. (Ueda, J.)

  1. 32 CFR 220.8 - Reasonable charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CHAMPUS Diagnosis Related Group (DRG) payment system rates under 32 CFR 199.14(a)(1). Certain adjustments are made to reflect differences between the CHAMPUS payment system and the Third Party Collection Program billing system. Among these are to include in the inpatient hospital service charges adjustments...

  2. Understanding colloidal charge renormilization from surface chemistry : experiment and theory

    OpenAIRE

    Gisler, Thomas; Schulz, S. F.; Borkovec, Michal; Sticher, Hans; Schurtenberger, Peter; D'Aguanno, Bruno; Klein, Rudolf

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we report on the charging behavior of latex particles in aqueous suspensions. We use static light scattering and acid-base titrations as complementary techniques to observe both effective and bare particle charges. Acid-base titrations at various ionic strengths provide the pH dependent charging curves. The surface chemical parameters (dissociation constant of the acidic carboxylic groups, total density of ionizable sites and Stem capacitance) are determined from tits of a Stem ...

  3. Scintillation Detectors for Charged Particles and Photons

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoq, P

    2011-01-01

    Scintillation Detectors for Charged Particles and Photons in 'Charged Particle Detectors - Particle Detectors and Detector Systems', part of 'Landolt-Börnstein - Group I Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, Volume 21B1: Detectors for Particles and Radiation. Part 1: Principles and Methods'. This document is part of Part 1 'Principles and Methods' of Subvolume B 'Detectors for Particles and Radiation' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Subsection '3.1.1 Scintillation Detectors for Charged Particles and Photons' of Section '3.1 Charged Particle Detectors' of Chapter '3 Particle Detectors and Detector Systems' with the content: 3.1.1 Scintillation Detectors for Charged Particles and Photons 3.1.1.1 Basic detector principles and scintillator requirements 3.1.1.1.1 Interaction of ionizing radiation with scintillator material 3.1.1.1.2 Important scint...

  4. Improving the interpersonal competences of head nurses through Peplau's theoretical active learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhariyanto; Hariyati, Rr Tutik Sri; Ungsianik, Titin

    2018-02-01

    Effective interpersonal skills are essential for head nurses in governing and managing their work units. Therefore, an active learning strategy could be the key to enhance the interpersonal competences of head nurses. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Peplau's theoretical approach of active learning on the improvement of head nurses' interpersonal skills. This study used a pre-experimental design with one group having pretests and posttests, without control group. A total sample of 25 head nurses from inpatient units of a wellknown private hospital in Jakarta was involved in the study. Data were analyzed using the paired t-test. The results showed a significant increase in head nurses' knowledge following the training to strengthen their interpersonal roles (P=.003). The results also revealed significant increases in the head nurses' skills in playing the roles of leader (P=.006), guardian (P=.014), and teacher/speaker (P=.015). Nonetheless, the results showed no significant increases in the head nurses' skills in playing the roles of counselor (P=.092) and stranger (P=.182). Training in strengthening the interpersonal roles of head nurses significantly increased the head nurses' knowledge and skills. The results of the study suggested the continuation of active learning strategies to improve the interpersonal abilities of head nurses. Furthermore, these strategies could be used to build the abilities of head nurses in other managerial fields. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Anaphylaxis Due to Head Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruner, Heather C.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Both anaphylaxis and head injury are often seen in the emergency department, but they are rarely seen in combination. We present a case of a 30-year-old woman who presented with anaphylaxis with urticaria and angioedema following a minor head injury. The patient responded well to intramuscular epinephrine without further complications or airway compromise. Prior case reports have reported angioedema from hereditary angioedema during dental procedures and maxillofacial surgery, but there have not been any cases of first-time angioedema or anaphylaxis due to head injury. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(3:435–437.

  6. Anaphylaxis due to head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Heather C; Bruner, David I

    2015-05-01

    Both anaphylaxis and head injury are often seen in the emergency department, but they are rarely seen in combination. We present a case of a 30-year-old woman who presented with anaphylaxis with urticaria and angioedema following a minor head injury. The patient responded well to intramuscular epinephrine without further complications or airway compromise. Prior case reports have reported angioedema from hereditary angioedema during dental procedures and maxillofacial surgery, but there have not been any cases of first-time angioedema or anaphylaxis due to head injury.

  7. Boxing-related head injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarao, Mayur; Chin, Lawrence S; Cantu, Robert C

    2010-10-01

    Fatalities in boxing are most often due to traumatic brain injury that occurs in the ring. In the past 30 years, significant improvements in ringside and medical equipment, safety, and regulations have resulted in a dramatic reduction in the fatality rate. Nonetheless, the rate of boxing-related head injuries, particularly concussions, remains unknown, due in large part to its variability in clinical presentation. Furthermore, the significance of repeat concussions sustained when boxing is just now being understood. In this article, we identify the clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, and management of boxing-related head injuries, and discuss preventive strategies to reduce head injuries sustained by boxers.

  8. Head-positioning scintillation camera and head holder therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, T.D.

    1976-01-01

    A holder for immobilizing the head of a patient undergoing a vertex brain scan by a Gamma Scintillation Camera is described. The holder has a uniquely designed shape capable of comfortably supporting the head. In addition, this holder can be both adjustably and removably utilized in combination with the scintillation camera so as to enable the brain scan operation to take place while the patient is in the seated position

  9. Irrational Charge from Topological Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moessner, R.; Sondhi, S. L.

    2010-10-01

    Topological or deconfined phases of matter exhibit emergent gauge fields and quasiparticles that carry a corresponding gauge charge. In systems with an intrinsic conserved U(1) charge, such as all electronic systems where the Coulombic charge plays this role, these quasiparticles are also characterized by their intrinsic charge. We show that one can take advantage of the topological order fairly generally to produce periodic Hamiltonians which endow the quasiparticles with continuously variable, generically irrational, intrinsic charges. Examples include various topologically ordered lattice models, the three-dimensional resonating valence bond liquid on bipartite lattices as well as water and spin ice. By contrast, the gauge charges of the quasiparticles retain their quantized values.

  10. Effects of Discrete Charge Clustering in Simulations of Charged Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grime, John M A; Khan, Malek O

    2010-10-12

    A system of counterions between charged surfaces is investigated, with the surfaces represented by uniform charged planes and three different arrangements of discrete surface charges - an equispaced grid and two different clustered arrangements. The behaviors of a series of systems with identical net surface charge density are examined, with particular emphasis placed on the long ranged corrections via the method of "charged slabs" and the effects of the simulation cell size. Marked differences are observed in counterion distributions and the osmotic pressure dependent on the particular representation of the charged surfaces; the uniformly charged surfaces and equispaced grids of discrete charge behave in a broadly similar manner, but the clustered systems display a pronounced decrease in osmotic pressure as the simulation size is increased. The influence of the long ranged correction is shown to be minimal for all but the very smallest of system sizes.

  11. Trap-controlled charge transport in corona-charged Teflon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, B.; Giacometti, J.A.; Ferreira, G.F.L.; Moreno A, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    The stability of negatively charged Teflon electrets is discussed. It is stated that it can only be explained by the assumption that the transport of excess charge is trap - controlled rather than mobility - controlled. (I.C.R.) [pt

  12. Charge exchange cross-sections for multiply charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midha, J.M.; Gupta, S.C.

    1990-01-01

    A new empirical relation for charge exchange cross-section has been proposed for different charge states of C, N and O colliding with neutral hydrogen. Results are compared with the experimental data. (Author)

  13. Lepton charges and lepton mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontecorvo, B.

    1978-01-01

    A review is given of theoretical and experimental investigations of lepton charges and lepton mixing known to the author at the time of the Budapest Conference, July 1970. The review is more biased towards experiment than theory. The recent and relevant expermental limits on possible lepton charge non-conservation are summarized, which were obtained by measuring probabilities of various processes. The status of the lepton mixing theory in the case when the only neutral leptons are neutrinos is reviewed, the main points being the μ→eγ decay and neutrino oscillations. The ''solar neutrino puzzle'' is discussed. A model of the μ→eγ and μ→3e decays is given as an example of drastic effects of heavy lepton mixing, and the relation between processes like μ→eγ, etc., and neutrino oscillations is considered. Recent papers on lepton nonconservation effects are then classified in groups, the related literature being presented extensively, if not fully

  14. Measurement of Neutrino Induced, Charged Current, Charged Pion Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilking, Michael Joseph [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Neutrinos are among the least understood particles in the standard model of particle physics. At neutrino energies in the 1 GeV range, neutrino properties are typically determined by observing the outgoing charged lepton produced in a charged current quasi-elastic interactions. The largest charged current background to these measurements comes from charged current pion production interactions, for which there is very little available data.

  15. Effects of Macroion Geometry and Charge Discretization in Charge Reversal

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Arup K.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of discrete macroion surface charge distribution and valences of these surface charges and counterions on charge reversal have been studied for macroions of three different geometries and compared with those of continuous surface charge distributions. The geometry of the macroion has been observed to play an important role in overcharging in these cases. The interplay of valences of discrete microions and counterions have noticeable effects on overcharging efficiency. For some val...

  16. Charged particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ress, T.I.; Nolde, G.V.

    1974-01-01

    A charged particle accelerator is described. It is made of an enclosure arranged for channeling a stream of charged particles along a predetermined path, and propelling means juxtaposed to said enclosure for generating therein a magnetic field moving in a predetermined direction with respect to each point of said path, the magnetic flux vector of that field being transverse to that path at every point, which gives the particles, along said path, a velocity connected to that of the mobile field by a predetermined relation. This can be applied to the fast production of chemical compounds, to the emission of neutrons and of thermal energy, and to the production of mechanical energy for propelling space ships [fr

  17. Charged particle accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ress, T I; Nolde, G V

    1974-11-25

    A charged particle accelerator is described. It is made of an enclosure arranged for channeling a stream of charged particles along a predetermined path, and propelling means juxtaposed to the enclosure for generating a magnetic field moving in a predetermined direction with respect to each point of the path, the magnetic flux vector of that field being transverse to that path at every point, which gives the particles, along said path, a velocity connected to that of the mobile field by a predetermined relation. This can be applied to the fast production of chemical compounds, to the emission of neutrons and of thermal energy, and to the production of mechanical energy for propelling space ships.

  18. High Voltage Charge Pump

    KAUST Repository

    Emira, Ahmed A.; Abdelghany, Mohamed A.; Elsayed, Mohannad Yomn; Elshurafa, Amro M; Salama, Khaled N.

    2014-01-01

    Various embodiments of a high voltage charge pump are described. One embodiment is a charge pump circuit that comprises a plurality of switching stages each including a clock input, a clock input inverse, a clock output, and a clock output inverse. The circuit further comprises a plurality of pumping capacitors, wherein one or more pumping capacitors are coupled to a corresponding switching stage. The circuit also comprises a maximum selection circuit coupled to a last switching stage among the plurality of switching stages, the maximum selection circuit configured to filter noise on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage, the maximum selection circuit further configured to generate a DC output voltage based on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage.

  19. High Voltage Charge Pump

    KAUST Repository

    Emira, Ahmed A.

    2014-10-09

    Various embodiments of a high voltage charge pump are described. One embodiment is a charge pump circuit that comprises a plurality of switching stages each including a clock input, a clock input inverse, a clock output, and a clock output inverse. The circuit further comprises a plurality of pumping capacitors, wherein one or more pumping capacitors are coupled to a corresponding switching stage. The circuit also comprises a maximum selection circuit coupled to a last switching stage among the plurality of switching stages, the maximum selection circuit configured to filter noise on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage, the maximum selection circuit further configured to generate a DC output voltage based on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage.

  20. Spacecraft Charge Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goembel, L.

    2003-12-01

    We are currently developing a flight prototype Spacecraft Charge Monitor (SCM) with support from NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The device will use a recently proposed high energy-resolution electron spectroscopic technique to determine spacecraft floating potential. The inspiration for the technique came from data collected by the Atmosphere Explorer (AE) satellites in the 1970s. The data available from the AE satellites indicate that the SCM may be able to determine spacecraft floating potential to within 0.1 V under certain conditions. Such accurate measurement of spacecraft charge could be used to correct biases in space plasma measurements. The device may also be able to measure spacecraft floating potential in the solar wind and in orbit around other planets.

  1. The quasilocalized charge approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalman, G J; Golden, K I; Donko, Z; Hartmann, P

    2005-01-01

    The quasilocalized charge approximation (QLCA) has been used for some time as a formalism for the calculation of the dielectric response and for determining the collective mode dispersion in strongly coupled Coulomb and Yukawa liquids. The approach is based on a microscopic model in which the charges are quasilocalized on a short-time scale in local potential fluctuations. We review the conceptual basis and theoretical structure of the QLC approach and together with recent results from molecular dynamics simulations that corroborate and quantify the theoretical concepts. We also summarize the major applications of the QLCA to various physical systems, combined with the corresponding results of the molecular dynamics simulations and point out the general agreement and instances of disagreement between the two

  2. Head and Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Toshiki; Imanishi, Yorihisa

    2008-01-01

    The limitation of concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CCRT) in head and neck cancer (HNC) as the primary treatment is described based on recent findings. Limits in the application/indication involve factors of age, performance status (PS) and renal function. The first is that, as deaths in >71 years old patients are derived from other causes (41%) than HNC, CCRT is only useful for younger population; the second, patients with PS 0-1 or Karnofsky performance score >60-70 can be indicated; and third, contraindicated are those with creatinine clearance (CCr) <60 mL/min as the key drug cisplatin in CCRT has a high renal toxicity. It should be recognized that completion rates of chemotherapy and RT are as low as 66-85% and 84-92%, respectively, in CCRT. CCRT has such limiting adverse events as mucitis, dry mouth, dysohagia, weight loss, neutropenia, sepsis, etc., which are most important in CCRT application. CCRT is recommended for the primary cancers of larynx and hypopharynx because they are significantly better conserved than middle pharyngeal, oral and upper jaw cancers. Evidence of CCRT is poor for cancers in paranasal sinuses. Planned neck dissection (PND) is for the cervical metastatic lymph nodes and conducted 6-12 weeks after CCRT regardless to its outcome. In fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) negative cases, PND can be omitted. Necessity of PND is possibly inversely proportional to CCRT intensity performed. For control of remote metastasis, CCRT has obvious limits and inductive chemotherapy before it is currently considered. Salvage surgery post CCRT does not always yield a relief because of complication. Patients with advanced laryngeal cancer can be selected either to surgery or CCRT depending on results of the inductive chemotherapy. To predict the sensitivity to CCRT, some biomarkers like HPV, EGFR and VEGF have been suggested to be useful by retrospective studies. Understanding the limitation is as important as knowing the usefulness in

  3. Extremally charged line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryzner, Jirí; Žofka, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the properties of a static, cylindrically symmetric Majumdar–Papapetrou-type solution of Einstein–Maxwell equations. We locate its singularities, establish its algebraic type, find its asymptotic properties and weak-field limit, study the structure of electrogeodesics, and determine the mass and charge of its sources. We provide an interpretation of the spacetime and discuss the parameter appearing in the metric. (paper)

  4. Hidden charged dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Jonathan L.; Kaplinghat, Manoj; Tu, Huitzu; Yu, Hai-Bo

    2009-01-01

    Can dark matter be stabilized by charge conservation, just as the electron is in the standard model? We examine the possibility that dark matter is hidden, that is, neutral under all standard model gauge interactions, but charged under an exact (\\rm U)(1) gauge symmetry of the hidden sector. Such candidates are predicted in WIMPless models, supersymmetric models in which hidden dark matter has the desired thermal relic density for a wide range of masses. Hidden charged dark matter has many novel properties not shared by neutral dark matter: (1) bound state formation and Sommerfeld-enhanced annihilation after chemical freeze out may reduce its relic density, (2) similar effects greatly enhance dark matter annihilation in protohalos at redshifts of z ∼ 30, (3) Compton scattering off hidden photons delays kinetic decoupling, suppressing small scale structure, and (4) Rutherford scattering makes such dark matter self-interacting and collisional, potentially impacting properties of the Bullet Cluster and the observed morphology of galactic halos. We analyze all of these effects in a WIMPless model in which the hidden sector is a simplified version of the minimal supersymmetric standard model and the dark matter is a hidden sector stau. We find that charged hidden dark matter is viable and consistent with the correct relic density for reasonable model parameters and dark matter masses in the range 1 GeV ∼ X ∼< 10 TeV. At the same time, in the preferred range of parameters, this model predicts cores in the dark matter halos of small galaxies and other halo properties that may be within the reach of future observations. These models therefore provide a viable and well-motivated framework for collisional dark matter with Sommerfeld enhancement, with novel implications for astrophysics and dark matter searches

  5. Controlling charge on levitating drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilger, Ryan T; Westphall, Michael S; Smith, Lloyd M

    2007-08-01

    Levitation technologies are used in containerless processing of materials, as microscale manipulators and reactors, and in the study of single drops and particles. Presented here is a method for controlling the amount and polarity of charge on a levitating drop. The method uses single-axis acoustic levitation to trap and levitate a single, initially neutral drop with a diameter between 400 microm and 2 mm. This drop is then charged in a controllable manner using discrete packets of charge in the form of charged drops produced by a piezoelectric drop-on-demand dispenser equipped with a charging electrode. The magnitude of the charge on the dispensed drops can be adjusted by varying the voltage applied to the charging electrode. The polarity of the charge on the added drops can be changed allowing removal of charge from the trapped drop (by neutralization) and polarity reversal. The maximum amount of added charge is limited by repulsion of like charges between the drops in the trap. This charging scheme can aid in micromanipulation and the study of charged drops and particles using levitation.

  6. Charge states of ions, and mechanisms of charge ordering transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Warren E.; Quan, Yundi; Pardo, Victor

    2014-07-01

    To gain insight into the mechanism of charge ordering transitions, which conventionally are pictured as a disproportionation of an ion M as 2Mn+→M(n+1)+ + M(n-1)+, we (1) review and reconsider the charge state (or oxidation number) picture itself, (2) introduce new results for the putative charge ordering compound AgNiO2 and the dual charge state insulator AgO, and (3) analyze the cationic occupations of the actual (not formal) charge, and work to reconcile the conundrums that arise. We establish that several of the clearest cases of charge ordering transitions involve no disproportion (no charge transfer between the cations, and hence no charge ordering), and that the experimental data used to support charge ordering can be accounted for within density functional-based calculations that contain no charge transfer between cations. We propose that the charge state picture retains meaning and importance, at least in many cases, if one focuses on Wannier functions rather than atomic orbitals. The challenge of modeling charge ordering transitions with model Hamiltonians isdiscussed.

  7. Search for fractional charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    A search was made for fractional charges of the form Z plus two-thirds e, where Z is an integer. It was assumed that the charges exist in natural form bound with other fractional charges in neutral molecules. It was further assumed that these neutral molecules are present in air. Two concentration schemes were employed. One sample was derived from the waste gases from a xenon distillation plant. This assumes that high mass, low vapor pressure components of air are concentrated along with the xenon. The second sample involved ionizing air, allowing a brief recombination period, and then collecting residual ions on the surface of titanium discs. Both samples were analyzed at the University of Rochester in a system using a tandem Van de Graff to accelerate particles through an essentially electrostatic beam handling system. The detector system employed both a Time of Flight and an energy-sensitive gas ionization detector. In the most sensitive mode of analysis, a gas absorber was inserted in the beam path to block the intense background. The presence of an absorber limited the search to highly penetrating particles. Effectively, this limited the search to particles with low Z and masses greater than roughly fifty GeV. The final sensitivities attained were on the order of 1 x 10 -20 for the ionized air sample and 1 x 10 -21 for the gas sample. A discussion of the caveats that could reduce the actual level of sensitivity is included

  8. Charged Particle Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Chris

    2004-01-01

    The Coulomb multiple scattering of charged particles as they pass through material allows them to be used as a radiographic probe. This forms the basis for a new kind of radiography that is finding application where conventional x-ray radiography is limited by flux or backgrounds. Charged-particle radiography is providing a versatile new probe that has advantages over conventional x-ray radiography for some unique application. Proton radiography has been used to make quantitative motion pictures of high explosive driven experiments and proves to be of great value for radiographing experiments that mock up nuclear weapon primaries for stockpile certification. By taking advantage of magnetic lens to magnify images and by using the very bright beams that can be made with electrons, charged-particle radiography may be useful for studying the fine spatial detail and very fast motion in laser driven implosion experiments at the National Ignition Facility. Finally, radiographs can be made using cosmic-ray muons for searching vehicles and cargo containers for surreptitious cargo of high z materials such as uranium or plutonium.

  9. Sheep head frame validation for CT and MRI studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    marco trovatelli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract   Introductions Aim of EDEN 2020 project’s Milestone 5 is the development of a steerable catheter for CED system in glioblastoma therapy. The VET group is involved in realization and validation of the proper animal model. Materials and methods In this part of the study two fresh sheep’s head from the local slaughter were used. The heads were located into an ad hoc Frame system based on anatomical measures and CT images, producted by Renishaw plc partner in this project. The frame was adapted and every components were checked for the ex vivo validation tests. CT imaging was taken in Lodi at Università degli studi di Milano, Facoltà di Medicina Veterinaria, with CT scanner and MRI imaging was taken in La Cittadina, Cremona Results System validation was approved by the ex vivo trial. The frame system doesn’t compromise the imaging acquisition in MRI and CT systems. Every system components are functional to their aims. Discussion The Frame system is adapted to the sheep head. It is composed by elements able to lock the head during the imaging acquisition. Frame system is characterized by a support base helpings the animals to keep the head straight forward during imaging time, under general anesthesia. The design of these device support the airways anatomy, avoiding damaging or obstruction of airflows during anesthesia period. The role of elements like mouth bar and ovine head pins is to lock the head in a stable position during imaging acquisition; fixing is guaranteed by V shape head pins, that are arranged against the zygomatic arches. Lateral compression forces to the cranium, and the V shape pins avoid the vertical shifting of the head and any kind of rotations. (fig. 1

  10. Sports-related Head Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and head gear come in many sizes and styles for many sports and must properly fit to ... to play or practice." The "Concussion Diagnosis and Management" section details circumstances in which an athlete should ...

  11. Heater head for stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, John A.

    1985-07-09

    A monolithic heater head assembly which augments cast fins with ceramic inserts which narrow the flow of combustion gas and obtains high thermal effectiveness with the assembly including an improved flange design which gives greater durability and reduced conduction loss.

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it may cause some medical devices to malfunction. Most orthopedic implants pose no risk, but you should ... a digital cloud server. Currently, MRI is the most sensitive imaging test of the head (particularly the ...

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and may add approximately 15 minutes to the total exam time. top of page What will I ... the limitations of MRI of the Head? High-quality images are assured only if you are able ...

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the head (particularly the brain) in routine clinical practice. top of page What are some common uses ... gadolinium contrast material except when absolutely necessary for medical treatment. See the MRI Safety page for more ...

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is not harmful, but it may cause some medical devices to malfunction. Most orthopedic implants pose no ... Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that physicians use to diagnose medical conditions. ...

  16. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oral Surgeries Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Injury / Trauma Surgery Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Oral, Head and Neck Pathology TMJ and Facial Pain Wisdom Teeth Management Procedures Anesthesia Anesthesia Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are ...

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org : Radiation Therapy for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for ... Imaging (MRI) - Head Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ...

  18. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... It can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out more. Who We ... It can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out more. Oral, Head ...

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the head (particularly the brain) in routine clinical practice. top of page What are some common uses ... may follow your regular daily routine and take food and medications as usual. Some MRI examinations may ...

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... practice. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR imaging of the head ... gadolinium contrast, it may still be possible to use it after appropriate pre-medication. Patient consent will ...

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or headphones during the exam. MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played ... the limitations of MRI of the Head? High-quality images are assured only if you are able ...

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... practice. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR imaging of the head ... is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. ...

  3. American Head and Neck Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... research and insights. Comments This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged. This iframe ... and Announcements Copyright ©2016 · American Head and Neck Society · Privacy and Return Policy Managed by BSC Management, ...

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... practice. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR imaging of the head ... for immediate assistance. Manufacturers of intravenous contrast indicate mothers should not breastfeed their babies for 24-48 ...

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MRI) of the head uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed ... there’s a possibility you are pregnant. The magnetic field is not harmful, but it may cause some ...

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by the interpreting radiologist. Frequently, the differentiation of abnormal (diseased) tissue from normal tissues is better with ... Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Alzheimer's Disease Head Injury Brain Tumors Images related to Magnetic ...

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medically necessary. MRI may not always distinguish between cancer tissue and fluid, known as edema . MRI typically ... Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others : American Stroke Association National Stroke Association top ...

  8. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a computer to produce detailed pictures of the brain and other cranial structures that are clearer and ... sensitive imaging test of the head (particularly the brain) in routine clinical practice. top of page What ...

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... practice. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR imaging of the head ... community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The ...

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played through the headphones to help ... page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org : Radiation Therapy for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and ...

  11. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... teeth or become infected. It can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out ... and surgically treating cancer of the head, neck and mouth. The Oral Cancer Foundation estimates that close to ...

  12. Eye-based head gestures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardanbegi, Diako; Witzner Hansen, Dan; Pederson, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A novel method for video-based head gesture recognition using eye information by an eye tracker has been proposed. The method uses a combination of gaze and eye movement to infer head gestures. Compared to other gesture-based methods a major advantage of the method is that the user keeps the gaze...... mobile phone screens. The user study shows that the method detects a set of defined gestures reliably.......A novel method for video-based head gesture recognition using eye information by an eye tracker has been proposed. The method uses a combination of gaze and eye movement to infer head gestures. Compared to other gesture-based methods a major advantage of the method is that the user keeps the gaze...

  13. An improved search for elementary particles with fractional electric charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.R.

    1996-08-01

    The SLAC Quark Search Group has demonstrated successful operation of a low cost, high mass throughput Millikan apparatus designed to search for fractionally charged particles. About six million silicone oil drops were measured with no evidence of fractional charges. A second experiment is under construction with 100 times greater throughput which will utilize optimized search fluids

  14. Multiple Drosophila Tracking System with Heading Direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudith Sirigrivatanawong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Machine vision systems have been widely used for image analysis, especially that which is beyond human ability. In biology, studies of behavior help scientists to understand the relationship between sensory stimuli and animal responses. This typically requires the analysis and quantification of animal locomotion. In our work, we focus on the analysis of the locomotion of the fruit fly D r o s o p h i l a m e l a n o g a s t e r , a widely used model organism in biological research. Our system consists of two components: fly detection and tracking. Our system provides the ability to extract a group of flies as the objects of concern and furthermore determines the heading direction of each fly. As each fly moves, the system states are refined with a Kalman filter to obtain the optimal estimation. For the tracking step, combining information such as position and heading direction with assignment algorithms gives a successful tracking result. The use of heading direction increases the system efficiency when dealing with identity loss and flies swapping situations. The system can also operate with a variety of videos with different light intensities.

  15. Topiramate Responsive Exploding Head Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Palikh, Gaurang M.; Vaughn, Bradley V.

    2010-01-01

    Exploding head syndrome is a rare phenomenon but can be a significant disruption to quality of life. We describe a 39-year-old female with symptoms of a loud bang and buzz at sleep onset for 3 years. EEG monitoring confirmed these events occurred in transition from stage 1 sleep. This patient reported improvement in intensity of events with topiramate medication. Based on these results, topiramate may be an alternative method to reduce the intensity of events in exploding head syndrome.

  16. Topiramate responsive exploding head syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palikh, Gaurang M; Vaughn, Bradley V

    2010-08-15

    Exploding head syndrome is a rare phenomenon but can be a significant disruption to quality of life. We describe a 39-year-old female with symptoms of a loud bang and buzz at sleep onset for 3 years. EEG monitoring confirmed these events occurred in transition from stage 1 sleep. This patient reported improvement in intensity of events with topiramate medication. Based on these results, topiramate may be an alternative method to reduce the intensity of events in exploding head syndrome.

  17. Submerged AUV Charging Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.; Chao, Yi; Curtin, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are becoming increasingly important for military surveillance and mine detection. Most AUVs are battery powered and have limited lifetimes of a few days to a few weeks. This greatly limits the distance that AUVs can travel underwater. Using a series of submerged AUV charging stations, AUVs could travel a limited distance to the next charging station, recharge its batteries, and continue to the next charging station, thus traveling great distances in a relatively short time, similar to the Old West “Pony Express.” One solution is to use temperature differences at various depths in the ocean to produce electricity, which is then stored in a submerged battery. It is preferred to have the upper buoy submerged a reasonable distance below the surface, so as not to be seen from above and not to be inadvertently destroyed by storms or ocean going vessels. In a previous invention, a phase change material (PCM) is melted (expanded) at warm temperatures, for example, 15 °C, and frozen (contracted) at cooler temperatures, for example, 8 °C. Tubes containing the PCM, which could be paraffin such as pentadecane, would be inserted into a container filled with hydraulic oil. When the PCM is melted (expanded), it pushes the oil out into a container that is pressurized to about 3,000 psi (approx equals 20.7 MPa). When a valve is opened, the high-pressure oil passes through a hydraulic motor, which turns a generator and charges a battery. The low-pressure oil is finally reabsorbed into the PCM canister when the PCM tubes are frozen (contracted). Some of the electricity produced could be used to control an external bladder or a motor to the tether line, such that depth cycling is continued for a very long period of time. Alternatively, after the electricity is generated by the hydraulic motor, the exiting low-pressure oil from the hydraulic motor could be vented directly to an external bladder on the AUV, such that filling of the bladder

  18. Gravitational field of charged gyratons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frolov, Valeri P [Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2J1 (Canada); Zelnikov, Andrei [Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2J1 (Canada); Lebedev Physics Institute, Leninsky prospect 53, 119 991, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2006-03-21

    We study relativistic gyratons which carry an electric charge. The Einstein-Maxwell equations in arbitrary dimensions are solved exactly in the case of a charged gyraton propagating in an asymptotically flat metric.

  19. Superrotation charge and supertranslation hair on black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawking, Stephen W.; Perry, Malcolm J. [DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge,Wilberforce Road, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Strominger, Andrew [Center for the Fundamental Laws of Nature, Harvard University,17 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2017-05-31

    It is shown that black hole spacetimes in classical Einstein gravity are characterized by, in addition to their ADM mass M, momentum P-vector , angular momentum J-vector and boost charge K-vector , an infinite head of supertranslation hair. The distinct black holes are distinguished by classical superrotation charges measured at infinity. Solutions with supertranslation hair are diffeomorphic to the Schwarzschild spacetime, but the diffeomorphisms are part of the BMS subgroup and act nontrivially on the physical phase space. It is shown that a black hole can be supertranslated by throwing in an asymmetric shock wave. A leading-order Bondi-gauge expression is derived for the linearized horizon supertranslation charge and shown to generate, via the Dirac bracket, supertranslations on the linearized phase space of gravitational excitations of the horizon. The considerations of this paper are largely classical augmented by comments on their implications for the quantum theory.

  20. Superrotation charge and supertranslation hair on black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawking, Stephen W.; Perry, Malcolm J.; Strominger, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    It is shown that black hole spacetimes in classical Einstein gravity are characterized by, in addition to their ADM mass M, momentum P-vector , angular momentum J-vector and boost charge K-vector , an infinite head of supertranslation hair. The distinct black holes are distinguished by classical superrotation charges measured at infinity. Solutions with supertranslation hair are diffeomorphic to the Schwarzschild spacetime, but the diffeomorphisms are part of the BMS subgroup and act nontrivially on the physical phase space. It is shown that a black hole can be supertranslated by throwing in an asymmetric shock wave. A leading-order Bondi-gauge expression is derived for the linearized horizon supertranslation charge and shown to generate, via the Dirac bracket, supertranslations on the linearized phase space of gravitational excitations of the horizon. The considerations of this paper are largely classical augmented by comments on their implications for the quantum theory.

  1. Superrotation charge and supertranslation hair on black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, Stephen W.; Perry, Malcolm J.; Strominger, Andrew

    2017-05-01

    It is shown that black hole spacetimes in classical Einstein gravity are characterized by, in addition to their ADM mass M, momentum \\overrightarrow{P} , angular momentum \\overrightarrow{J} and boost charge \\overrightarrow{K} , an infinite head of supertranslation hair. The distinct black holes are distinguished by classical superrotation charges measured at infinity. Solutions with super-translation hair are diffeomorphic to the Schwarzschild spacetime, but the diffeomorphisms are part of the BMS subgroup and act nontrivially on the physical phase space. It is shown that a black hole can be supertranslated by throwing in an asymmetric shock wave. A leading-order Bondi-gauge expression is derived for the linearized horizon supertranslation charge and shown to generate, via the Dirac bracket, supertranslations on the linearized phase space of gravitational excitations of the horizon. The considerations of this paper are largely classical augmented by comments on their implications for the quantum theory.

  2. Space charge effects of CSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yong; Xia Jiawen; Xu Xiangyang; Lu Xiaowen; Wu Junli

    2000-01-01

    Cooler Storage Ring (CSR), and upgrading program planned at the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL), will supply beams with higher quality and intensity. Space charge effects should be considered due to this magnitude of intensity in CSR. The concept and some phenomena of space charge effects are discussed. Space charge intensity limit and space charge tune shift of normal CSR operation are given. It is of significance for the construction and operation of the future facility

  3. Charging Users for Library Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Michael D.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the question of instituting direct charges for library service, using on-line bibliographic searching as an example, and contrasts this with the current indirect charging system where services are paid for by taxes. Information, as a merit good, should be supplied with or without direct charges, depending upon user status. (CWM)

  4. Tools for charged Higgs bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staal, Oscar

    2010-12-01

    We review the status of publicly available software tools applicable to charged Higgs physics. A selection of codes are highlighted in more detail, focusing on new developments that have taken place since the previous charged Higgs workshop in 2008. We conclude that phenomenologists now have the tools ready to face the LHC data. A new web page collecting charged Higgs resources is presented. (orig.)

  5. Charge orders in organic charge-transfer salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Ryui; Valentí, Roser; Tocchio, Luca F; Becca, Federico

    2017-01-01

    Motivated by recent experimental suggestions of charge-order-driven ferroelectricity in organic charge-transfer salts, such as κ -(BEDT-TTF) 2 Cu[N(CN) 2 ]Cl, we investigate magnetic and charge-ordered phases that emerge in an extended two-orbital Hubbard model on the anisotropic triangular lattice at 3/4 filling. This model takes into account the presence of two organic BEDT-TTF molecules, which form a dimer on each site of the lattice, and includes short-range intramolecular and intermolecular interactions and hoppings. By using variational wave functions and quantum Monte Carlo techniques, we find two polar states with charge disproportionation inside the dimer, hinting to ferroelectricity. These charge-ordered insulating phases are stabilized in the strongly correlated limit and their actual charge pattern is determined by the relative strength of intradimer to interdimer couplings. Our results suggest that ferroelectricity is not driven by magnetism, since these polar phases can be stabilized also without antiferromagnetic order and provide a possible microscopic explanation of the experimental observations. In addition, a conventional dimer-Mott state (with uniform density and antiferromagnetic order) and a nonpolar charge-ordered state (with charge-rich and charge-poor dimers forming a checkerboard pattern) can be stabilized in the strong-coupling regime. Finally, when electron–electron interactions are weak, metallic states appear, with either uniform charge distribution or a peculiar 12-site periodicity that generates honeycomb-like charge order. (paper)

  6. Transformational leadership training programme for charge nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duygulu, Sergul; Kublay, Gulumser

    2011-03-01

    This paper is a report of an evaluation of the effects of a transformational leadership training programme on Unit Charge Nurses' leadership practices. Current healthcare regulations in the European Union and accreditation efforts of hospitals for their services mandate transformation in healthcare services in Turkey. Therefore, the transformational leadership role of nurse managers is vital in determining and achieving long-term goals in this process. The sample consisted of 30 Unit Charge Nurses with a baccalaureate degree and 151 observers at two university hospitals in Turkey. Data were collected using the Leadership Practices Inventory-Self and Observer (applied four times during a 14-month study process from December 2005 to January 2007). The transformational leadership training programme had theoretical (14 hours) and individual study (14 hours) in five sections. Means, standard deviations and percentages, repeated measure tests and two-way factor analysis were used for analysis. According the Leadership Practices Inventory-Self and Observer ratings, leadership practices increased statistically significantly with the implementation of the programme. There were no significant differences between groups in age, length of time in current job and current position. The Unit Charge Nurses Leadership Practices Inventory self-ratings were significantly higher than those of the observers. There is a need to develop similar programmes to improve the leadership skills of Unit Charge Nurses, and to make it mandatory for nurses assigned to positions of Unit Charge Nurse to attend this kind of leadership programme. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Microscopic entropy of the charged BTZ black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadoni, Mariano; Melis, Maurizio; Setare, Mohammad R

    2008-01-01

    The charged BTZ black hole is characterized by a power-law curvature singularity generated by the electric charge of the hole. The curvature singularity produces ln r terms in the asymptotic expansion of the gravitational field and divergent contributions to the boundary terms. We show that these boundary deformations can be generated by the action of the conformal group in two dimensions and that an appropriate renormalization procedure allows for the definition of finite boundary charges. In the semiclassical regime the central charge of the dual CFT turns out to be that calculated by Brown and Henneaux, whereas the charge associated with time translation is given by the renormalized black hole mass. We then show that the Cardy formula reproduces exactly the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the charged BTZ black hole

  8. Personality change following head injury: assessment with the NEO Five-Factor Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannoo, E; de Deyne, C; Colardyn, F; de Soete, G; Jannes, C

    1997-11-01

    We evaluated personality change following head injury in 68 patients at 6 months postinjury using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory to assess the five personality dimensions of the Five-Factor Model of Personality. All items had to be rated twice, once for the preinjury and once for the current status. Twenty-eight trauma patients with injuries to other parts of the body than the head were used as controls. For the head-injured group, 63 relatives also completed the questionnaire. The results showed no differences between the ratings of head-injured patients and the ratings of trauma control patients. Both groups showed significant change in the personality dimensions Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Conscientiousness. Compared to their relatives, head-injured patients report a smaller change in Extraversion and Conscientiousness. Changes were not reported on the Openness and Agreeableness scales, by neither the head-injured or their relatives, nor by the trauma controls.

  9. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head in HIV infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Almeida Matos

    Full Text Available Avascular necrosis (AVN of the femoral head is an emerging complication in HIV infected patients. It has been suggested that the increased incidence of AVN in this population may be caused by an increased prevalence of predisposing factors for osteonecrosis, including protease inhibitors, hyperlipidemia, corticosteroid use, alcohol and intravenous drug abuse. The aim of this study was to assess the risk factors for avascular necrosis developing in the femoral head of HIV infected individuals. This study consisted of meta-analysis of the secondary data extracted from current literature. The selected articles allowed two study groups to be drawn up for comparison. Group 1 comprised 324 individuals infected by the HIV virus, who did not present femoral head AVN. Group 2 comprised 32 HIV positive patients, who presented femoral head AVN. The parameters used for analysis were as follows: age, gender, sexual preference, use of intravenous drugs, time of diagnosis, CD4+ cell count, use of antiretroviral agents and duration, serum cholesterol and serum triglycerides. The present study found a statistically significant association between hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, sexual preference and intravenous drug abuse. The authors concluded that femoral head osteonecrosis is associated with hyperlipidemia (hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia and intravenous drug abuse. This study supports the hypothesis that protease inhibitors play a role in the development of osteonecrosis through a tendency to cause hyperlipidemia.

  10. Charge sniffer for electrostatics demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinca, Mihai P.

    2011-02-01

    An electronic electroscope with a special design for demonstrations and experiments on static electricity is described. It operates as an electric charge sniffer by detecting slightly charged objects when they are brought to the front of its sensing electrode. The sniffer has the advantage of combining high directional sensitivity with a logarithmic bar display. It allows for the identification of electric charge polarity during charge separation by friction, peeling, electrostatic induction, batteries, or secondary coils of power transformers. Other experiments in electrostatics, such as observing the electric field of an oscillating dipole and the distance dependence of the electric field generated by simple charge configurations, are also described.

  11. Heading for a fall? Management of head injury in infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Williamson, M

    2010-09-01

    Head injury is one of the commonest reasons for infants (< 1 year) to attend the Emergency Department (ED). Clinical management varies considerably and concern about non accidental injury results in a high admission rate in some hospitals. Information was obtained on 103 children under one year of age presenting to the ED with head injury in a prospective study. The average age was 6.7 months and 57% of patients were male. Twenty eight babies had skull x rays with 1 skull fracture diagnosed. None required CT brain scan. Ninety eight (94%) were discharged home from the ED. There were no unplanned returns, readmissions or adverse events. The incidence of traumatic brain injury in children under one year of age presenting with head injury is low and the majority can be safely discharged home.

  12. Charge reversal at a planar boundary between two dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Despite the ubiquitous character and relevance of the electric double layer in the entire realm of interface and colloid science, very little is known of the effect that surface heterogeneity exerts on the underlying mechanisms of ion adsorption. Herein, computer simulations offer a perspective that, in sharp contrast to the homogeneously charged surface, discrete groups promote multivalent counterion binding, leading to charge reversal but possibly having not a sign change of the electrophoretic mobility. Counterintuitively, the introduction of dielectric images yields a significantly greater accumulation of counterions, which further facilitates the magnitude of charge reversal. The reported results are very sensitive to both the degree of ion hydration and the representation of surface charges. Our findings shed light on the mechanism for charge reversal over a broad range of coupling regimes operating the adsorption of counterions through surface group bridging attraction with their own images and provide opportunities for experimental studies and theoretical development.

  13. Mummified trophy heads from Peru: diagnostic features and medicolegal significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verano, John W

    2003-05-01

    Several forms of mummified human trophy heads were produced by prehistoric and historic native groups in South America. This paper describes the diagnostic features of trophy heads produced by the Nasca culture of ancient Peru. A growing interest in these mummified heads among collectors of Pre-Columbian art and antiquities has led to their illegal exportation from Peru, in violation of national and international antiquities laws. Requests from the Peruvian government to protect its cultural patrimony led the United States in 1997 to declare these heads as items subject to U.S. import restriction, along with six other categories of human remains. Despite such restrictions, Nasca trophy heads continue to reach private collectors outside of Peru and thus may be encountered by local, state, or federal law enforcement officials unfamiliar with their characteristic features and origin. The objective of this paper is to describe the features that allow Nasca trophy heads to be identified and distinguished from other archaeological and forensic specimens that may be submitted to a forensic anthropologist for identification.

  14. Fuel charging machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchikawa, Sadao.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To enable continuous fuel discharging and charging steps in a bwr type reactor by effecting positioning only for once by providing a plurality of fuel assembly grippers and their drives co-axially on a rotatable surface. Constitution: A plurality of fuel assembly grippers and their drives are provided co-axially on a rotatable surface. For example, a gripper A, a drive B, a gripper C and a drive D are arranged co-axially in symmetric positions on a disk rotated on rails by wheels and rotational drives. A new fuel in a fuel pool is gripped by the gripper A and transported above the reactor core. Then, the disk is positioned so that the gripper C can grip the spent fuel in the core, and the fuel to be discharged is gripped and raised by the gripper C. Then the disk is rotated by 180 0 and the new fuel in the gripper A is charged into the position from which the old fuel has been discharged and, finally, the discharged fuel is sent to the fuel pool for storage. (Seki, T.)

  15. Study of the action of blast deck charge in rocky soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boiko V.V.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Blasting (B in the industry, including the mining extraction of minerals, are carried out mostly with the use of blasthole charges that systematically distributed on the block that is undermined, by individual groups. The latter are blasted according to the scheme of short-delay firing (SDF through the intervals that are accepted not less than 20 Ms. Thus, the seismic effect of group charge explosion, consisting of individual blasthole charges and that actually is a group located charge determined by the formula of concentrated charge. Blast deck charges are effectively used in the driving of the trenches in the mining, formation of screens and cracks near the security objects. Only this method of performing blasting allows to define seismic effect in the transition from one diameter of a charge to another, as well as to determine the actual number of detonated charges in one group, which may differ from the calculated in drilling and blasting project. The work analyzes the physical essence of processes happened while blasting of blast deck charges. The effect of the orientation of the seismic action of blasting of blast deck charges towards the allocation line of charges is investigated. The results of generalized dependence of the speed of the displacement of the ground by the blast parameters and epicentral distance are obtained. We demonstrate with specific examples that blast deck charges that blasting simultaneously make a major chain of the career massive explosions at mining. Keywords: seismic fluctuations; the number of charges; the interaction of charges; the distance between the charges; the coefficients of the seismicity and the attenuation of the intensity of the waves; the unit charge; blast deck and blasthole charges; phase shifting; effective charge.

  16. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffner, Francis K [Richland, WA; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. [Richland, WA; Hammerstrom, Donald J [West Richland, WA; Pratt, Richard M [Richland, WA

    2012-05-22

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  17. Assessment of forward head posture in females: observational and photogrammetry methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salahzadeh, Zahra; Maroufi, Nader; Ahmadi, Amir; Behtash, Hamid; Razmjoo, Arash; Gohari, Mahmoud; Parnianpour, Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    There are different methods to assess forward head posture (FHP) but the accuracy and discrimination ability of these methods are not clear. Here, we want to compare three postural angles for FHP assessment and also study the discrimination accuracy of three photogrammetric methods to differentiate groups categorized based on observational method. All Seventy-eight healthy female participants (23 ± 2.63 years), were classified into three groups: moderate-severe FHP, slight FHP and non FHP based on observational postural assessment rules. Applying three photogrammetric methods - craniovertebral angle, head title angle and head position angle - to measure FHP objectively. One - way ANOVA test showed a significant difference in three categorized group's craniovertebral angle (P< 0.05, F=83.07). There was no dramatic difference in head tilt angle and head position angle methods in three groups. According to Linear Discriminate Analysis (LDA) results, the canonical discriminant function (Wilks'Lambda) was 0.311 for craniovertebral angle with 79.5% of cross-validated grouped cases correctly classified. Our results showed that, craniovertebral angle method may discriminate the females with moderate-severe and non FHP more accurate than head position angle and head tilt angle. The photogrammetric method had excellent inter and intra rater reliability to assess the head and cervical posture.

  18. [Probabilistic calculations of biomolecule charge states that generate mass spectra of multiply charged ions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raznikova, M O; Raznikov, V V

    2015-01-01

    In this work, information relating to charge states of biomolecule ions in solution obtained using the electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of different biopolymers is analyzed. The data analyses have mainly been carried out by solving an inverse problem of calculating the probabilities of retention of protons and other charge carriers by ionogenic groups of biomolecules with known primary structures. The approach is a new one and has no known to us analogues. A program titled "Decomposition" was developed and used to analyze the charge distribution of ions of native and denatured cytochrome c mass spectra. The possibility of splitting of the charge-state distribution of albumin into normal components, which likely corresponds to various conformational states of the biomolecule, has been demonstrated. The applicability criterion for using previously described method of decomposition of multidimensional charge-state distributions with two charge carriers, e.g., a proton and a sodium ion, to characterize the spatial structure of biopolymers in solution has been formulated. In contrast to known mass-spectrometric approaches, this method does not require the use of enzymatic hydrolysis or collision-induced dissociation of the biopolymers.

  19. Wheelchair control by head motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajkanović Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric wheelchairs are designed to aid paraplegics. Unfortunately, these can not be used by persons with higher degree of impairment, such as quadriplegics, i.e. persons that, due to age or illness, can not move any of the body parts, except of the head. Medical devices designed to help them are very complicated, rare and expensive. In this paper a microcontroller system that enables standard electric wheelchair control by head motion is presented. The system comprises electronic and mechanic components. A novel head motion recognition technique based on accelerometer data processing is designed. The wheelchair joystick is controlled by the system’s mechanical actuator. The system can be used with several different types of standard electric wheelchairs. It is tested and verified through an experiment performed within this paper.

  20. OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS OF HEAD INJURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanukollu Venkata Madusudana Rao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND This prospective study aimed to evaluate the incidence of ocular manifestations in head injury and their correlation with the intracranial lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 108 consecutive cases of closed head injury admitted in the neurosurgical ward of a tertiary teaching hospital underwent a thorough ophthalmic assessment. Clinical examination, radiological imaging and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS were applied to grade the severity of injury. RESULTS Total number of 108 patients of head injury were examined of which 38 patients had ocular manifestations (35.18%. Of these, 85.18% were males, 84% of injuries were due to road traffic accidents and 16% were due to fall from a height. The ocular manifestations were as follows- Orbital complications were seen in 6 patients (15.8%. Anterior segment manifestations included black eyes seen in 10 patients (26.3%, subconjunctival haemorrhage in 10.5% of patients (4 patients, corneal involvement in 21% of patients (8 patients and pupillary involvement in 50% of patients (19 patients. Posterior segment manifestations were seen in 26.3% of patients (10 patients and were as follows- Purtscher’s retinopathy in 2 patients and optic atrophy in 5 patients. Cranial nerve palsies were seen in 15 patients (39.47% and supranuclear movement disorders were seen in 3 patients (8%. CONCLUSION Even though, neurosurgeons perform comprehensive clinical examination including eye examination, the main purpose is limited to aid topical diagnosis of neurological lesions. This study emphasises the importance of a detailed eye examination by an ophthalmologist to prevent irreversible visual loss in addition to aiding in the neurological diagnosis. Pupillary involvement, papilloedema and ocular motor paresis pointed to a more severe head injury. This observational prospective study helped us to correlate the severity of head injuries in association with ocular findings in patients admitted in neurosurgical ward

  1. Assessment of femoral head perfusion by dynamic MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochi, Ryuya; Nakano, Tetsuo; Miyazono, Kazuki; Tsurugami, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Tomohiro; Inaba, Daisuke; Takada, Koji

    2004-01-01

    We studied femoral head perfusion in 21 femoral neck fractures using dynamic MR imaging (MRI) between November 2001 and July 2002. MRI patterns divided into four groups when the results between the fractured side and unaffected side were compared. Femoral head perfusion at the fractured side was normal in Type A, about half in Type B, and absent in Type C. When perfusion at both the fractured side and unaffected side was absent, Exceptional Type was suspected. The Garden I group consisted of one Type B. The Garden II group consisted of one Type A, six Type B, one Type C, and two Exceptional Type. The Garden III group consisted of two Type B and one Type C, and the Garden IV group consisted of six Type C and one Exceptional Type. Post operations of by internal fixation confirmed the incidence of aseptic necrosis using MRI. (author)

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... These items include: jewelry, watches, credit cards and hearing aids, all of which can be damaged pins, ... or your insurance provider to get a better understanding of the possible charges you will incur. Web ...

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a CD or uploaded to a digital cloud server. Currently, MRI is the most sensitive imaging test ... understanding of the possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed ...

  4. Restitution report of the working group called 'access to the information' implemented in the framework of the public debate EPR ''head of series'' at Flamanville; Rapport de restitution du groupe de travail dit ''Acces a l'information'' Groupe de travail mis en place dans le cadre du debat public EPR ''tete de serie'' a Flamanville

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    The works realized by this working group show some strong conclusions. The citizen confidence in the information access availability must be reinforced. The existence of secrets protecting the industrialists and the Nation interests seems all the more legitimate since they are well limited.The respect of the industrial and commercial secret is not an opposition to a better access to the nuclear safety documents. The defense secret is an indispensable element of the nuclear safety but its role and limits must be debated. (A.L.B.)

  5. Surface charge compensation for a highly charged ion emission microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.W.; Hamza, A.V.; Newman, M.W.; Holder, J.P.; Schneider, D.H.G.; Schenkel, T.

    2003-01-01

    A surface charge compensation electron flood gun has been added to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) highly charged ion (HCI) emission microscope. HCI surface interaction results in a significant charge residue being left on the surface of insulators and semiconductors. This residual charge causes undesirable aberrations in the microscope images and a reduction of the Time-Of-Flight (TOF) mass resolution when studying the surfaces of insulators and semiconductors. The benefits and problems associated with HCI microscopy and recent results of the electron flood gun enhanced HCI microscope are discussed

  6. Head First 2D Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Fallow), Stray

    2009-01-01

    Having trouble with geometry? Do Pi, The Pythagorean Theorem, and angle calculations just make your head spin? Relax. With Head First 2D Geometry, you'll master everything from triangles, quads and polygons to the time-saving secrets of similar and congruent angles -- and it'll be quick, painless, and fun. Through entertaining stories and practical examples from the world around you, this book takes you beyond boring problems. You'll actually use what you learn to make real-life decisions, like using angles and parallel lines to crack a mysterious CSI case. Put geometry to work for you, and

  7. Ophthalmic manifestations of head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, L

    1992-02-01

    Head injuries are frequently associated with ophthalmic problems. The commonest problems seen in this series of 161 patients with head injury were problems with poor accommodation (16% of patients; 58% of these persisted), convergence (14% of patients; 35% of these persisted), pseudomyopia (19%; 55% persisted) and optic atrophy (26% of the patients; 78% of these were mild and easily missed on routine testing, and 22% were severe). Motility disorders were common, especially cranial nerve palsies. Other less frequent motility disturbances included apparent inferior oblique palsy, comitant esotropia, and exotropia which was often of the convergence insufficiency type.

  8. Sequential charged particle reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Jun-ichi; Ochiai, Kentaro; Sato, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Michinori; Nishitani, Takeo

    2004-01-01

    The effective cross sections for producing the sequential reaction products in F82H, pure vanadium and LiF with respect to the 14.9-MeV neutron were obtained and compared with the estimation ones. Since the sequential reactions depend on the secondary charged particles behavior, the effective cross sections are corresponding to the target nuclei and the material composition. The effective cross sections were also estimated by using the EAF-libraries and compared with the experimental ones. There were large discrepancies between estimated and experimental values. Additionally, we showed the contribution of the sequential reaction on the induced activity and dose rate in the boundary region with water. From the present study, it has been clarified that the sequential reactions are of great importance to evaluate the dose rates around the surface of cooling pipe and the activated corrosion products. (author)

  9. Charge parity exotic mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burden, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Evidence for a meson with exotic quantum numbers J PC 1 -+ , the ρ(1405), has been observed at the AGS at Brookhaven and Crystal Barrel at CERN. This meson is exotic to the extent that its quantum numbers are not consistent with the generalised Pauli exclusion principle applied to the naive constituent quark model. In a fully relativistic field theoretic treatment, however, there is nothing in principle to preclude the existence of charge parity exotics. Using our earlier covariant Bethe-Salpeter model of light-quark mesons with no new parameter fitting we demonstrate the existence of a q - q-bar bound state with the quantum numbers of the ρ

  10. Battery charging stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergey, M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper discusses the concept of battery charging stations (BCSs), designed to service rural owners of battery power sources. Many such power sources now are transported to urban areas for recharging. A BCS provides the opportunity to locate these facilities closer to the user, is often powered by renewable sources, or hybrid systems, takes advantage of economies of scale, and has the potential to provide lower cost of service, better service, and better cost recovery than other rural electrification programs. Typical systems discussed can service 200 to 1200 people, and consist of stations powered by photovoltaics, wind/PV, wind/diesel, or diesel only. Examples of installed systems are presented, followed by cost figures, economic analysis, and typical system design and performance numbers.

  11. Reactor fuel charging equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, Elman.

    1977-01-01

    In many types of reactor fuel charging equipment, tongs or a grab, attached to a trolley, housed in a guide duct, can be used for withdrawing from the core a selected spent fuel assembly or to place a new fuel assembly in the core. In these facilities, the trolley may have wheels that roll on rails in the guide duct. This ensures the correct alignment of the grab, the trolley and fuel assembly when this fuel assembly is being moved. By raising or lowering such a fuel assembly, the trolley can be immerged in the coolant bath of the reactor, whereas at other times it can be at a certain level above the upper surface of the coolant bath. The main object of the invention is to create a fuel handling apparatus for a sodium cooled reactor with bearings lubricated by the sodium coolant and in which the contamination of these bearings is prevented [fr

  12. Charged particles in external electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovannini, N.P.D.

    1976-01-01

    The present study contains a general theoretical group analysis of the problem of a charged massive particle moving in an (arbitrary) classical external electromagnetic field. This analysis is essentially based on the space-time symmetry properties of e.m. fields and e.m. field equations, as well as the fact that the considered equations of motion depend on the field via a potential

  13. Morphometric findings in avascular necrosis of the femoral head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Diana; Trăistaru, Rodica; Alexandru, D O; Kamal, C K; Pirici, D; Pop, O T; Mălăescu, D Gh

    2012-01-01

    Avascular necrosis of the femoral head is an illness with a controversial etiology, the trigger event being the suppression of blood flow to the femoral head. The disease affects mostly young adults within their third and fifth decade, the majority of the patients being men. The main risk factors are trauma, chronic alcohol consumption, smoking, corticotherapy. The main goal of our study is to describe the morphometric changes found in the bone tissue of patients diagnosed with avascular necrosis of the femoral head, with different risk factors, by comparing the area of bone trabeculae inside the area of necrosis with that from the adjacent viable tissue. The morphometric study used biological material from 16 patients with ages between 29 and 57 years, who underwent surgery for avascular necrosis of the femoral head. They were admitted in the Orthopedics Department at the Emergency County Hospital in Craiova between 2010 and 2011 and were split into four groups. Group I presented trauma as the main risk factor, Group II had corticotherapy as the defining risk factor, Group III presented chronic alcohol consumption and Group IV was represented by the patients who smoked and exhibited chronic alcohol consumption. There was not a significant statistical difference between the areas of bone trabeculae of the four groups when we compared viable bone tissue to the necrotized one. Knowing the risk factors of the avascular necrosis of the femoral head is critical to the management of the disease, because diagnosing it in an early stage is a necessity for obtaining a good result for conservative treatment.

  14. CT findings and outcome in head injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaura, Akira

    1984-12-01

    CT findings and outcome were discussed in head injuries. Parenchymal findings were classified into 5 categories; ''normal'', ''hemispheric (isodense) swelling'', ''hemorrhagic lesions'', ''diffuse cerebral swelling'', and ''low density''. The worst outcome (73% mortality) was seen in ''hemispheric swelling''. This abnormality was quite often associated with acute subdural hematoma. Multiple ''hemorrhagic lesions'' were associated with much poorer outcome than single lesions. The older groups had more acute subdural hematomas and more ''hemorrhagic lesions''. And ''hemorrhagic lesions'' were more often multiple and larger in the older group. (author).

  15. Early rehabilitation in Resurfacing, standard and large head THA patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, Jeannette Østergaard; Varmarken, Jens-Erik; Ovesen, Ole

    2009-01-01

    in the resurfacing patient may impair the early rehabilitation. We aimed to investigate early differences in rehabilitation parameters amongst the different groups. Materials and methods We randomized to resurfacing (n=20), standard 28 mm THA (n=19) and large head MoM THA (n=12). We recorded operation time, blood...

  16. Recovery versus retest effects in attention after closed head injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spikman, J.M.; Timmerman, M.E.; van Zomeren, A.H; Deelman, B.G.

    1999-01-01

    Recovery in 60 patients with a closed-head injury (CHI) in the first year posttrauma was assessed repeatedly with a series of attention tests. A matched group of healthy subjects was tested at the same intervals to allow us to control for practice effects. The results of a multilevel analysis for

  17. Group Psychotherapy in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannone, Francesca; Giordano, Cecilia; Di Blasi, Maria

    2015-10-01

    This article describes the history and the prevailing orientations of group psychotherapy in Italy (psychoanalytically oriented, psychodrama, CBT groups) and particularly group analysis. Provided free of charge by the Italian health system, group psychotherapy is growing, but its expansion is patchy. The main pathways of Italian training in the different group psychotherapy orientations are also presented. Clinical-theoretical elaboration on self development, psychopathology related to group experiences, and the methodological attention paid to objectives and methods in different clinical groups are issues related to group therapy in Italy. Difficulties in the relationship between research and clinical practice are discussed, as well as the empirical research network that tries to bridge the gap between research and clinical work in group psychotherapy. The economic crisis in Italy has led to massive cuts in health care and to an increasing demand for some forms of psychological treatment. For these reasons, and because of its positive cost-benefit ratio, group psychotherapy is now considered an important tool in the national health care system to expand the clinical response to different forms of psychological distress.

  18. Solar Charged Stand Alone Inverter

    OpenAIRE

    M.Vasugi; Prof R.Jayaraman

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with solar powered stand alone inverter which converts the variable dc output of a photovoltaic solar panel into ac that can be fed to loads. Stand alone inverters are used in systems where the inverter get its energy from batteries charged by photo voltaic arrays. A charge controller limits the rate at which electric current is added to or drawn from electric batteries. This charge discharge controller is needed to prevent the battery from being overcharged o...

  19. Incidence and clinical findings of benign, inflammatory disease in patients resected for presumed pancreatic head cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gulik, T. M.; Reeders, J. W.; Bosma, A.; Moojen, T. M.; Smits, N. J.; Allema, J. H.; Rauws, E. A.; Offerhaus, G. J.; Obertop, H.; Gouma, D. J.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The differentiation between cancer and benign disease in the pancreatic head is difficult. The aim of this study was to examine common features in a group of patients that had undergone pancreatoduodenectomy for a benign, inflammatory lesion misdiagnosed as pancreatic head cancer.

  20. A Study of Standardized Headings for Warranties. Technical Report No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrow, Veda R.; Redish, Janice C.

    A study was conducted (1) to discover whether using standardized headings on warranties would increase or decrease people's speed and accuracy in understanding the terms of warranties and (2) to determine what effect headings would have on people's attitudes toward warranties. Subjects were 48 adult consumers who read groups of four warranties for…

  1. Trabeculectomy and optic nerve head topography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Paranhos Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate changes in optic nerve head parameters, measured by confocal laser tomography, before and after trabeculectomy in order to identify outcome measures for the management of glaucoma. The optic nerve head of 22 eyes (22 patients was analyzed by confocal laser tomography with the Heidelberg retinal tomogram (HRT before and after trabeculectomy. The median time between the first HRT and surgery was 4.6 months (mean: 7.7 ± 8.3 and the median time between surgery and the second HRT was 10.8 months (mean: 12.0 ± 6.8. The patients were divided into two groups, i.e., those with the highest (group A and lowest (group B intraocular pressure (IOP change after surgery. Differences in the 12 standard topographic parameters before and after surgery for each group were evaluated by the Wilcoxon signed rank test and the differences in these parameters between the two groups were compared by the Mann-Whitney rank sum test. Multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the influence of the change in IOP (deltaIOP and deltaIOP% and the changes in the other parameters. There were significant differences in the HRT measures before and after surgery in group A only for cup volume. In group B, no parameter was statistically different. The changes in group A were not significantly different than those in group B for any parameter (P > 0.004, Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. deltaIOP and deltaIOP% had a statistically significant effect on delta cup disk area, delta cup volume and delta mean cup depth. Changes in cup shape size were influenced significantly only by deltaIOP. Some optic disc parameters measured by HRT presented a significant improvement after filtering surgery, depending on the amount of IOP reduction. Long-term studies are needed to determine the usefulness of these findings as outcome measures in the management of glaucoma.

  2. Experiments on Dust Grain Charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M. N.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; Tankosic, D.; LeClair, A.; West, E. A.

    2004-01-01

    Dust particles in various astrophysical environments are charged by a variety of mechanisms generally involving collisional processes with other charged particles and photoelectric emission with UV radiation from nearby sources. The sign and the magnitude of the particle charge are determined by the competition between the charging processes by UV radiation and collisions with charged particles. Knowledge of the particle charges and equilibrium potentials is important for understanding of a number of physical processes. The charge of a dust grain is thus a fundamental parameter that influences the physics of dusty plasmas, processes in the interplanetary medium and interstellar medium, interstellar dust clouds, planetary rings, cometary and outer atmospheres of planets etc. In this paper we present some results of experiments on charging of dust grains carried out on a laboratory facility capable levitating micron size dust grains in an electrodynamic balance in simulated space environments. The charging/discharging experiments were carried out by exposing the dust grains to energetic electron beams and UV radiation. Photoelectric efficiencies and yields of micron size dust grains of SiO2, and lunar simulates obtained from NASA-JSC will be presented.

  3. Fractional Charge Definitions and Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldhaber, A.S.

    2004-06-04

    Fractional charge is known through theoretical and experimental discoveries of isolable objects carrying fractions of familiar charge units--electric charge Q, spin S, and the difference of baryon and lepton numbers B-L. With a few simple assumptions all these effects may be described using a generalized version of charge renormalization for locally conserved charges, in which medium correlations yield familiar adiabatic, continuous renormalization, or sometimes nonadiabatic, discrete renormalization. Fractional charges may be carried by fundamental particles or fundamental solitons. Either picture works for the simplest fractional-quantum-Hall-effect quasiholes, though the particle description is far more general. The only known fundamental solitons in three or fewer space dimensions d are the kink (d = 1), the vortex (d = 2), and the magnetic monopole (d = 3). Further, for a charge not intrinsically coupled to the topological charge of a soliton, only the kink and the monopole may carry fractional values. The same reasoning enforces fractional values of B-L for electrically charged elementary particles.

  4. Fractional charge definitions and conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, Alfred Scharff

    2003-01-01

    The phenomenon of fractional charge has come to prominence in recent decades through theoretical and experimental discoveries of isolable objects which carry fractions of familiar charge units--electric charge Q, spin S, baryon number B and lepton number L. It is shown here on the basis of a few simple assumptions that all these effects may be described using a generalized version of charge renormalization for locally conserved charges, in which many-body correlations can produce familiar adiabatic, continuous renormalization, and in some circumstances nonadiabatic, discrete renormalization. The fractional charges may be carried either by fundamental particles or by fundamental solitons. This excludes nontopological solitons and also skyrmions: The only known fundamental solitons in three or fewer space dimensions d are the kink (d=1), the vortex (d=2), and the magnetic monopole (d=3). Further, for a charge which is not intrinsically coupled to the topological charge of a soliton, only the kink and the monopole may carry fractional values. The same reasoning enforces fractional local values of B-L for electrically charged elementary particles

  5. Fractional Charge Definitions and Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, A.S.

    2004-01-01

    Fractional charge is known through theoretical and experimental discoveries of isolable objects carrying fractions of familiar charge units--electric charge Q, spin S, and the difference of baryon and lepton numbers B-L. With a few simple assumptions all these effects may be described using a generalized version of charge renormalization for locally conserved charges, in which medium correlations yield familiar adiabatic, continuous renormalization, or sometimes nonadiabatic, discrete renormalization. Fractional charges may be carried by fundamental particles or fundamental solitons. Either picture works for the simplest fractional-quantum-Hall-effect quasiholes, though the particle description is far more general. The only known fundamental solitons in three or fewer space dimensions d are the kink (d = 1), the vortex (d = 2), and the magnetic monopole (d = 3). Further, for a charge not intrinsically coupled to the topological charge of a soliton, only the kink and the monopole may carry fractional values. The same reasoning enforces fractional values of B-L for electrically charged elementary particles

  6. Low-charge-state linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.; Kim, J.W.

    1995-08-01

    A design is being developed for a low-charge-state linac suitable for injecting ATLAS with a low-charge-state, radioactive beam. Initial work indicates that the existing ATLAS interdigital superconducting accelerating structures, together with the superconducting quadrupole transverse focussing element discussed above, provides a basis for a high-performance low-charge-state linac. The initial 2 or 3 MV of such a linac could be based on a normally-conducting, low-frequency RFQ, possibly combined with 24-MHz superconducting interdigital structures. Beam dynamics studies of the whole low-charge-state post-accelerator section were carried out in early FY 1995.

  7. Bactericidal and Hemocompatible Coating via the Mixed-Charged Copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiao-Li; Hu, Mi; Qin, Zhi-Hui; Wang, Jing; Chen, Xia-Chao; Lei, Wen-Xi; Ye, Wan-Ying; Jin, Qiao; Ren, Ke-Feng; Ji, Jian

    2018-03-28

    Cationic antibacterial coating based on quaternary ammonium compounds, with an efficient and broad spectrum bactericidal property, has been widely used in various fields. However, the high density of positive charges tends to induce weak hemocompatibility, which hinders the application of the cationic antibacterial coating in blood-contacting devices and implants. It has been reported that a negatively charged surface can reduce blood coagulation, showing improved hemocompatibility. Here, we describe a strategy to combine the cationic and anionic groups by using mixed-charged copolymers. The copolymers of poly (quaternized vinyl pyridine- co- n-butyl methacrylate- co-methacrylate acid) [P(QVP- co- nBMA- co-MAA)] were synthesized through free radical copolymerization. The cationic group of QVP, the anionic group of MAA, and the hydrophobic group of nBMA were designed to provide bactericidal capability, hemocompatibility, and coating stability, respectively. Our findings show that the hydrophilicity of the copolymer coating increased, and its zeta potential decreased from positive charge to negative charge with the increase of the anionic/cationic ratio. Meanwhile, the bactericidal property of the copolymer coating was kept around a similar level compared with the pure quaternary ammonium copolymer coating. Furthermore, the coagulation time, platelet adhesion, and hemolysis tests revealed that the hemocompatibility of the copolymer coating improved with the addition of the anionic group. The mixed-charged copolymer combined both bactericidal property and hemocompatibility and has a promising potential in blood-contacting antibacterial devices and implants.

  8. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... examination poses almost no risk to the average patient when appropriate safety guidelines are followed. If sedation is used, there ... have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story here Images ... Disease Head Injury Brain Tumors Images related ...

  9. Womanhood in Bessie Head's fiction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rain Cloud~· Gather ( 1969), Maru ( 1972) and A Question of Power ( 1974 ),. Head addresses and ... Yet as is the case in most literature by black women from Africa and the. Caribbean .... womanhood comes into play in the principal's decision to get rid of her: "she ... which tl}e principal intends to use to his advantage.

  10. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cancer of the head, neck and mouth. The Oral Cancer Foundation estimates that close to 42,000 Americans ... diagnosed with oral or pharyngeal cancer this year. Oral cancer’s mortality is particularly high, not because it is ...

  11. Blunt Head Trauma and Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B Chelse

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigators from New York Presbyterian Morgan Stanley Children’s Hospital examined whether having an isolated headache following minor blunt head trauma was suggestive of traumatic brain injury (TBI among a large cohort of children 2-18 years of age.

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... very early stage by mapping the motion of water molecules in the tissue. This water motion, known as diffusion, is impaired by most ... the limitations of MRI of the Head? High-quality images are assured only if you are able ...

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... structures of the brain and can also provide functional information (fMRI) in selected cases. MR images of ... Articles and Media MR Angiography (MRA) Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Brain ...

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of which shows a thin slice of the body. The images can then be studied from different angles by ... information please consult the ACR Manual on Contrast Media and its references. top of page What are the limitations of MRI of the Head? High-quality images are assured only if you are able to ...

  15. Return of the talking heads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinecke Hansen, Kenneth; Bro, Peter; Andersson, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    . In order to analyze the latest development entering the third wave, we propose a theoretically based dramaturgical model for the television news item. The analysis concludes that, with the current ‘return’ of the talking heads format, the pre-produced and pre-packaged bulletin program about past events...

  16. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oral, Head and Neck Pathology TMJ and Facial Pain Wisdom Teeth Management Procedures Anesthesia Anesthesia Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are ... more. TMJ and Facial Pain TMJ and Facial ... Teeth Management Wisdom Teeth Management An impacted wisdom tooth can ...

  17. Head Start Center Design Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Head Start Bureau.

    This guide contains suggested criteria for planning, designing, and renovating Head Start centers so that they are safe, child-oriented, developmentally appropriate, beautiful, environmentally sensitive, and functional. The content is based on the U.S. General Services Administration's Child Care Center Design Guide, PBS-P140, which was intended…

  18. Analytical modelling of soccer heading

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... game is that the players are permitted to use their head to direct the ball during ... method in assessing the cognitive functions that can be applied not only to ... It is attached to a spring (stiffness, k1) and a dashpot (damping coefficient, c1).

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the head uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed pictures of the brain and other cranial structures that are clearer and more detailed than other imaging methods. This exam does not use ionizing radiation and may require an injection of a ...

  20. Design of constant current charging power supply for J-TEXT ohmic field capacitor banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Shudong; Zhang Ming; Rao Bo; Yu Kexun; Yang Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The charging characteristic of the capacitor charging power supply was analyzed with practical series resonant topology. The method that setting two current taps and regulating PWM switching frequency was putted forward with close loop controlling algorithm to charge the multi-group capacitor banks with constant current. A capacitor charging power supply with the max output current 6.5 A and the max output voltage 2000 V is designed. Experimental results show that, this power supply can charge the four capacitor banks to any four different voltages in 1 minute with charging accuracy less than 1%, and meet the requirements of J-TEXT ohmic field power system. (authors)

  1. Understanding colloidal charge renormalization from surface chemistry: Experiment and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisler, T.; Schulz, S. F.; Borkovec, M.; Sticher, H.; Schurtenberger, P.; D'Aguanno, B.; Klein, R.

    1994-12-01

    In this paper we report on the charging behavior of latex particles in aqueous suspensions. We use static light scattering and acid-base titrations as complementary techniques to observe both effective and bare particle charges. Acid-base titrations at various ionic strengths provide the pH dependent charging curves. The surface chemical parameters (dissociation constant of the acidic carboxylic groups, total density of ionizable sites and Stern capacitance) are determined from fits of a Stern layer model to the titration data. We find strong evidence that the dissociation of protons is the only specific adsorption process. Effective particle charges are determined by fits of integral equation calculations of the polydisperse static structure factor to the static light scattering data. A generalization of the Poisson-Boltzmann cell model including the dissociation of the acidic surface groups and the autodissociation of water is used to predict effective particle charges from the surface chemical parameters determined by the titration experiments. We find that the light scattering data are best described by a model where a small fraction of the ionizable surface sites are sulfate groups which are completely dissociated at moderate pH. These effective charges are comparable to the predictions by a basic cell model where charge regulation is absent.

  2. Charge migration and charge transfer in molecular systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Jakob Wörner

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The transfer of charge at the molecular level plays a fundamental role in many areas of chemistry, physics, biology and materials science. Today, more than 60 years after the seminal work of R. A. Marcus, charge transfer is still a very active field of research. An important recent impetus comes from the ability to resolve ever faster temporal events, down to the attosecond time scale. Such a high temporal resolution now offers the possibility to unravel the most elementary quantum dynamics of both electrons and nuclei that participate in the complex process of charge transfer. This review covers recent research that addresses the following questions. Can we reconstruct the migration of charge across a molecule on the atomic length and electronic time scales? Can we use strong laser fields to control charge migration? Can we temporally resolve and understand intramolecular charge transfer in dissociative ionization of small molecules, in transition-metal complexes and in conjugated polymers? Can we tailor molecular systems towards specific charge-transfer processes? What are the time scales of the elementary steps of charge transfer in liquids and nanoparticles? Important new insights into each of these topics, obtained from state-of-the-art ultrafast spectroscopy and/or theoretical methods, are summarized in this review.

  3. Bounds on charged lepton mixing with exotic charged leptons Ф

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    imposing the constraints that the amplitude should not exceed the perturbative unitarity limit at high energy (. Ф. × = A), we obtain bounds on light heavy charged lepton mixing parameter sin. 2. (2 a. L) where a. L is the mixing angle of the ordinary charged lepton with its exotic partner. For A = 1 TeV, no bound is obtained on ...

  4. Charge Pricing Optimization Model for Private Charging Piles in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingping Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a charge pricing model for private charging piles (PCPs by considering the environmental and economic effects of private electric vehicle (PEV charging energy sources and the impact of PCP charging load on the total load. This model simulates users’ responses to different combinations of peak-valley prices based on the charging power of PCPs and user charging transfer rate. According to the regional power structure, it calculates the real-time coal consumption, carbon dioxide emissions reduction, and power generation costs of PEVs on the power generation side. The empirical results demonstrate that the proposed peak-valley time-of-use charging price can not only minimize the peak-valley difference of the total load but also improve the environmental effects of PEVs and the economic income of the power system. The sensitivity analysis shows that the load-shifting effect of PCPs will be more obvious when magnifying the number of PEVs by using the proposed charging price. The case study indicates that the proposed peak, average, and valley price in Beijing should be 1.8, 1, and 0.4 yuan/kWh, which can promote the large-scale adoption of PEVs.

  5. Leadership in nursing: analysis of the process of choosing the heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Gisela Maria Schebella Souto; de Magalhaes, Ana Maria Müller; Dall'agnol, Clarice Maria; Juchem, Beatriz Cavalcanti; Marona, Daniela dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    The process of choosing heads can be strategic to achieve desired results in nursing care. This study presents an exploratory and descriptive research that aims to analyze the process of choosing heads for the ward, in the nursing area of a teaching hospital in Porto Alegre. Data was collected from registered nurses, technicians and nursing auxiliaries through a semi-structured interview technique and free choice of words. Three theme categories emerged from content analysis: process of choosing heads, managerial competences of the head-to-be and team articulation. Leadership was the word most frequently associated with the process of choosing heads. The consultation process for the choice of the leader also contributes to the success of the manager, as it makes the team members feel co-responsible for the results achieved and legitimizes the head-to-be in their group.

  6. Charge regulation at semiconductor-electrolyte interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleharty, Mark E; van Swol, Frank; Petsev, Dimiter N

    2015-07-01

    The interface between a semiconductor material and an electrolyte solution has interesting and complex electrostatic properties. Its behavior will depend on the density of mobile charge carriers that are present in both phases as well as on the surface chemistry at the interface through local charge regulation. The latter is driven by chemical equilibria involving the immobile surface groups and the potential determining ions in the electrolyte solution. All these lead to an electrostatic potential distribution that propagate such that the electrolyte and the semiconductor are dependent on each other. Hence, any variation in the charge density in one phase will lead to a response in the other. This has significant implications on the physical properties of single semiconductor-electrolyte interfaces and on the electrostatic interactions between semiconductor particles suspended in electrolyte solutions. The present paper expands on our previous publication (Fleharty et al., 2014) and offers new results on the electrostatics of single semiconductor interfaces as well as on the interaction of charged semiconductor colloids suspended in electrolyte solution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Charge Transport Processes in Molecular Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher Eugene

    Molecular electronics (ME) has evolved into a rich area of exploration that combines the fields of chemistry, materials, electronic engineering and computational modeling to explore the physics behind electronic conduction at the molecular level. Through studying charge transport properties of single molecules and nanoscale molecular materials the field has gained the potential to bring about new avenues for the miniaturization of electrical components where quantum phenomena are utilized to achieve solid state molecular device functionality. Molecular junctions are platforms that enable these studies and consist of a single molecule or a small group of molecules directly connected to electrodes. The work presented in this thesis has built upon the current understanding of the mechanisms of charge transport in ordered junctions using self-assembled monolayer (SAM) molecular thin films. Donor and acceptor compounds were synthesized and incorporated into SAMs grown on metal substrates then the transport properties were measured with conducting probe atomic force microscopy (CP-AFM). In addition to experimentally measured current-voltage (I-V) curves, the transport properties were addressed computationally and modeled theoretically. The key objectives of this project were to 1) investigate the impact of molecular structure on hole and electron charge transport, 2) understand the nature of the charge carriers and their structure-transport properties through long (chemically gated to modulate the transport. These results help advance our understanding of transport behavior in semiconducting molecular thin films, and open opportunities to engineer improved electronic functionality into molecular devices.

  8. Intrinsic space charge resonances and the space charge limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzen, G.

    1990-01-01

    A study has been done of the dependence of the space charge limit on the choice of ν-values using a simulation program. This study finds a strong dependence of the space charge limit on the location of the ν-values relative to the intrinsic space charge resonances, which are driven by the space charge forces due to the beam itself. Four accelerators were studied. For some of these accelerators the study suggest that the space charge limit can be increased by about a factor of 2 proper choice of the ν-values. The lower order 1/2 and 1/4 intrinsic resonances appear to be the important resonances. There is some evidence for effects due to the 1/6 and 1/8 intrinsic resonances, particularly for larger synchrotrons. 5 figs

  9. Bond charges and electronic charge transfer in ternary semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietsch, U.

    1986-01-01

    By means of a simple molecule-theoretic model of 'linear superposition of two-electron molecules' the bond charges between nearest neighbours and the effective charges of ions are calculated for ternary zinc-blende structure alloys as well as chalcopyrite semiconductors. Taking into account both, the charge transfer among the ions caused by the differences of electronegativities of atoms used and between the bonds created by the internal stress of the lattice a nearly unvaried averaged bond charge amount of the alloy is found, but rather dramatically changed local bond charge parameters in comparison with the respective values of binary compounds used. This fact should influence the noncentral force interaction in such semiconductors. (author)

  10. Radiation by moving charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2017-04-01

    It is generally accepted that in order to describe the dynamics of relativistic particles in the laboratory (lab) frame it is sufficient to take into account the relativistic dependence of the particle momenta on the velocity. This solution of the dynamics problem in the lab frame makes no reference to Lorentz transformations. For this reason they are not discussed in particle tracking calculations in accelerator and plasma physics. It is generally believed that the electrodynamics problem can be treated within the same ''single inertial frame'' description without reference to Lorentz transformations. In particular, in order to evaluate radiation fields arising from charged particles in motion we need to know their velocities and positions as a function of the lab frame time t. The relativistic motion of a particle in the lab frame is described by Newton's second law ''corrected'' for the relativistic dependence of momentum on velocity. It is assumed in all standard derivations that one can perform identification of the trajectories in the source part of the usual Maxwell's equations with the trajectories vector x(t) measured (or calculated by using the corrected Newton's second law) in the lab frame. This way of coupling fields and particles is considered since more than a century as the relativistically correct procedure.We argue that this procedure needs to be changed, and we demonstrate the following, completely counterintuitive statement: the results of conventional theory of radiation by relativistically moving charges are not consistent with the principle of relativity. In order to find the trajectory of a particle in the lab frame consistent with the usual Maxwell's equations, one needs to solve the dynamic equation inmanifestly covariant form by using the coordinate-independent proper time τ to parameterize the particle world-line in space-time. We show that there is a difference between ''true'' particle trajectory vector x(t) calculated or measured in

  11. Magnetically charged calorons with non-trivial holonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Takumi; Nakamula, Atsushi; Takesue, Koki

    2018-06-01

    Instantons in pure Yang-Mills theories on partially periodic space R^3× {S}^1 are usually called calorons. The background periodicity brings on characteristic features of calorons such as non-trivial holonomy, which plays an essential role for confinement/deconfinement transition in pure Yang-Mills gauge theory. For the case of gauge group SU(2), calorons can be interpreted as composite objects of two constituent "monopoles" with opposite magnetic charges. There are often the cases that the two monopole charges are unbalanced so that the calorons possess net magnetic charge in R3. In this paper, we consider several mechanism how such net magnetic charges appear for certain types of calorons through the ADHM/Nahm construction with explicit examples. In particular, we construct analytically the gauge configuration of the (2 , 1)-caloron with U(1)-symmetry, which has intrinsically magnetic charge.

  12. Modeling charge transport properties of cyano-substituted PPV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, Helena M.G.; Ramos, Marta M.D.

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, poly (p-phenylenevinylene) (PPV) and its derivatives have attracted much interest due to their applications in light-emitting diodes (LEDs). One of the issues that determine device performance is the transport of charge carriers along the polymer strands. For that reason, we investigate the influence of cyano substitution on geometry and electronic behaviour of PPV chains using self-consistent quantum molecular dynamics simulations. Our results suggest that substitution by cyano groups induce distortion in the PPV chains and a charge rearrangement among the polymer atoms. Specifically addressed is the issue concerning estimates of charge (electron and hole) mobility by computer experiments. Significant differences have been found both in the strength of the electric field needed to move positive and negative charge carriers along the polymer chain as well as in charge mobility

  13. Effects of Sex and Event Type on Head Impact in Collegiate Soccer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Bryson B.; Patrie, James; Henry, Erich J.; Goodkin, Howard P.; Broshek, Donna K.; Wintermark, Max; Druzgal, T. Jason

    2017-01-01

    Background: The effects of head impact in sports are of growing interest for clinicians, scientists, and athletes. Soccer is the most popular sport worldwide, but the burden of head impact in collegiate soccer is still unknown. Purpose: To quantify head impact associated with practicing and playing collegiate soccer using wearable accelerometers. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: Mastoid patch accelerometers were used to quantify head impact in soccer, examining differences in head impact as a function of sex and event type (practice vs game). Seven female and 14 male collegiate soccer players wore mastoid patch accelerometers that measured head impacts during team events. Data were summarized for each athletic exposure, and statistical analyses evaluated the mean number of impacts, mean peak linear acceleration, mean peak rotational acceleration, and cumulative linear and rotational acceleration, each grouped by sex and event type. Results: There were no differences in the frequency or severity of head impacts between men’s and women’s soccer practices. For men’s soccer, games resulted in 285% more head impacts than practices, but there were no event-type differences in mean impact severity. Men’s soccer games resulted in more head impacts than practices across nearly all measured impact severities, which also resulted in men’s soccer games producing a greater cumulative impact burden. Conclusion: Similar to other sports, men’s soccer games have a greater impact burden when compared with practices, and this effect is driven by the quantity rather than severity of head impacts. In contrast, there were no differences in the quantity or severity of head impacts in men’s and women’s soccer practices. These data could prompt discussions of practical concern to collegiate soccer, such as understanding sex differences in head impact and whether games disproportionately contribute to an athlete’s head impact burden. PMID:28491885

  14. Group X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, Susannah

    2007-08-16

    This project is currently under contract for research through the Department of Homeland Security until 2011. The group I was responsible for studying has to remain confidential so as not to affect the current project. All dates, reference links and authors, and other distinguishing characteristics of the original group have been removed from this report. All references to the name of this group or the individual splinter groups has been changed to 'Group X'. I have been collecting texts from a variety of sources intended for the use of recruiting and radicalizing members for Group X splinter groups for the purpose of researching the motivation and intent of leaders of those groups and their influence over the likelihood of group radicalization. This work included visiting many Group X websites to find information on splinter group leaders and finding their statements to new and old members. This proved difficult because the splinter groups of Group X are united in beliefs, but differ in public opinion. They are eager to tear each other down, prove their superiority, and yet remain anonymous. After a few weeks of intense searching, a list of eight recruiting texts and eight radicalizing texts from a variety of Group X leaders were compiled.

  15. Initial charge reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyono, Takeshi

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To effectivity burn fuels and improve the economical performance in an inital charge reactor core of BWR type reactors or the likes. Constitution: In a reactor core constituted with a plurality of fuel assemblies which are to be partially replaced upon fuel replacement, the density of the fissionable materials and the moderator - fuel ratio of a fuel assembly is set corresponding to the period till that fuel assembly is replaced, in which the density of the nuclear fissionable materials is lowered and the moderator - fuel ratio is increased for the fuel assembly with a shorter period from the fueling to the fuel exchange and, while on the other hand, the density of the fissionable materials is increased and the moderator - fuel ratio is decreased for the fuel assembly with a longer period from the fueling to the replacement. Accordingly, since the moderator - fuel ratio is increased for the fuel assembly to be replaced in a shorter period, the neutrons moderating effect is increased to increase the reactivity. (Horiuchi, T.)

  16. Charged particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakawa, Kazuo.

    1969-01-01

    An accelerator is disclosed having a device which permits the electrodes of an accelerator tube to be readily conditioned in an uncomplicated manner before commencing operation. In particle accelerators, it is necessary to condition the accelerator electrodes before a stable high voltage can be applied. Large current accelerators of the cockcroft-walton type require a complicated manual operation which entails applying to the electrodes a low voltage which is gradually increased to induce a vacuum discharge and then terminated. When the discharge attains an extremely low level, the voltage is again impressed and again raised to a high value in low current type accelerators, a high voltage power supply charges the electrodes once to induce discharge followed by reapplying the voltage when the vacuum discharge reaches a low level, according to which high voltage is automatically applied. This procedure, however, requires that the high voltage power supply be provided with a large internal resistance to limit the current to within several milliamps. The present invention connects a high voltage power supply and an accelerator tube through a discharge current limiting resistor wired in parallel with a switch. Initially, the switch is opened enabling the power supply to impress a voltage limited to a prescribed value by a suitably chosen resistor. Conditioning is effected by allowing the voltage between electrodes to increase and is followed by closing the switch through which high voltage is applied directly to the accelerator for operation. (K.J. Owens)

  17. Quantum charged rigid membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordero, Ruben [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del I.P.N., Unidad Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Edificio 9, 07738 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Molgado, Alberto [Unidad Academica de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas Zac. (Mexico); Rojas, Efrain, E-mail: cordero@esfm.ipn.mx, E-mail: amolgado@fisica.uaz.edu.mx, E-mail: efrojas@uv.mx [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Fisica e Inteligencia Artificial, Universidad Veracruzana, 91000 Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2011-03-21

    The early Dirac proposal to model the electron as a charged membrane is reviewed. A rigidity term, instead of the natural membrane tension, involving linearly the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the membrane is considered in the action modeling the bubble in the presence of an electromagnetic field. We set up this model as a genuine second-order derivative theory by considering a non-trivial boundary term which plays a relevant part in our formulation. The Lagrangian in question is linear in the bubble acceleration and by means of the Ostrogradski-Hamiltonian approach, we observed that the theory comprises the management of both first- and second-class constraints. We thus show that our second-order approach is robust allowing for a proper quantization. We found an effective quantum potential which permits us to compute bounded states for the system. We comment on the possibility of describing brane world universes by invoking this kind of second-order correction terms.

  18. Quantum charged rigid membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordero, Ruben; Molgado, Alberto; Rojas, Efrain

    2011-01-01

    The early Dirac proposal to model the electron as a charged membrane is reviewed. A rigidity term, instead of the natural membrane tension, involving linearly the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the membrane is considered in the action modeling the bubble in the presence of an electromagnetic field. We set up this model as a genuine second-order derivative theory by considering a non-trivial boundary term which plays a relevant part in our formulation. The Lagrangian in question is linear in the bubble acceleration and by means of the Ostrogradski-Hamiltonian approach, we observed that the theory comprises the management of both first- and second-class constraints. We thus show that our second-order approach is robust allowing for a proper quantization. We found an effective quantum potential which permits us to compute bounded states for the system. We comment on the possibility of describing brane world universes by invoking this kind of second-order correction terms.

  19. Cathodic hydrogen charging of zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panagopoulos, C.N.; Georgiou, E.P.; Chaliampalias, D.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Incorporation of hydrogen into zinc and formation of zinc hydrides. •Investigation of surface residual stresses due to hydrogen diffusion. •Effect of hydrogen diffusion and hydride formation on mechanical properties of Zn. •Hydrogen embrittlement phenomena in zinc. -- Abstract: The effect of cathodic hydrogen charging on the structural and mechanical characteristics of zinc was investigated. Hardening of the surface layers of zinc, due to hydrogen incorporation and possible formation of ZnH 2 , was observed. In addition, the residual stresses brought about by the incorporation of hydrogen atoms into the metallic matrix, were calculated by analyzing the obtained X-ray diffraction patterns. Tensile testing of the as-received and hydrogen charged specimens revealed that the ductility of zinc decreased significantly with increasing hydrogen charging time, for a constant value of charging current density, and with increasing charging current density, for a constant value of charging time. However, the ultimate tensile strength of this material was slightly affected by the hydrogen charging procedure. The cathodically charged zinc exhibited brittle transgranular fracture at the surface layers and ductile intergranular fracture at the deeper layers of the material

  20. Filling of charged cylindrical capillaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Siddhartha; Chanda, Sourayon; Eijkel, J.C.T.; Tas, N.R.; Chakraborty, Suman; Mitra, Sushanta K.

    2014-01-01

    We provide an analytical model to describe the filling dynamics of horizontal cylindrical capillaries having charged walls. The presence of surface charge leads to two distinct effects: It leads to a retarding electrical force on the liquid column and also causes a reduced viscous drag force because

  1. Charge transport in organic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bässler, Heinz; Köhler, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Modern optoelectronic devices, such as light-emitting diodes, field-effect transistors and organic solar cells require well controlled motion of charges for their efficient operation. The understanding of the processes that determine charge transport is therefore of paramount importance for designing materials with improved structure-property relationships. Before discussing different regimes of charge transport in organic semiconductors, we present a brief introduction into the conceptual framework in which we interpret the relevant photophysical processes. That is, we compare a molecular picture of electronic excitations against the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger semiconductor band model. After a brief description of experimental techniques needed to measure charge mobilities, we then elaborate on the parameters controlling charge transport in technologically relevant materials. Thus, we consider the influences of electronic coupling between molecular units, disorder, polaronic effects and space charge. A particular focus is given to the recent progress made in understanding charge transport on short time scales and short length scales. The mechanism for charge injection is briefly addressed towards the end of this chapter.

  2. Geometric origin of central charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukierski, J.; Rytel, L.

    1981-05-01

    The complete set of N(N-1) central charge generators for D=4 N-extended super Poincare algebra is obtained by suitable contraction of OSp (2N; 4) superalgebra. The superspace realizations of the spinorial generators with central charges are derived. The conjugate set of N(N-1) additional bosonic superspace coordinates is introduced in an unique and geometric way. (author)

  3. Environmental charges in airline markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Fredrik [Goeteborg Univ., Dept. of Economics, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2002-07-01

    Over the last two decades many airline markets have been deregulated, resulting in increased competition and use of different types of networks. At the same time there has been an intense discussion on environmental taxation of airline traffic. It is likely that an optimal environmental charge and the effects of a charge differ between different types of aviation markets. In this paper, we derive optimal flight (environmental) charges for different types of airline markets. The first type of market is a multiproduct monopoly airline operating either a point-to-point network or a hub-and-spoke network. The optimal charge is shown to be similar in construction to an optimal charge for a monopolist. We also compare the environmental impact of the two types of networks. Given no differences in marginal damages between airports we find that an airline will always choose the network with the highest environmental damages. The second type of market we investigate is a multiproduct duopoly, where two airlines compete in both passengers and flights. The formulation of the optimal charge is similar to the optimal charge of a single product oligopoly. However, we also show that it is, because of strategic effects, difficult to determine the effects of the charge on the number of flights. (Author)

  4. Group Flow and Group Genius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Keith Sawyer views the spontaneous collaboration of group creativity and improvisation actions as "group flow," which organizations can use to function at optimum levels. Sawyer establishes ideal conditions for group flow: group goals, close listening, complete concentration, being in control, blending egos, equal participation, knowing…

  5. Preschool Facilities - MDC_HeadStart

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — A label (point) feature class of Head Start / Early Head Start/ Delegate Agencies/ Child Care Partnership & Family Day Care Homes Programs location in Miami-Dade...

  6. Heads Up to High School Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... submit" value="Submit" /> HEADS UP to School Sports Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir To help ... organizations, developed the HEADS UP: Concussion in School Sports initiative and materials. Specific Concussion Information for... Coaches ...

  7. Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with HEADS UP & CDC's Injury Center HEADS UP Resources File Formats Help: How do I view different ... 6348 Email CDC-INFO U.S. Department of Health & Human Services HHS/Open USA.gov Top

  8. Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Submit Button Connect with HEADS UP & CDC's Injury Center HEADS UP Resources File Formats Help: How do ... Page last updated: April 24, 2017 Content source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , National Center for ...

  9. Head and Neck Cancer—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head and neck cancers include cancers in the larynx (voice box), throat, lips, mouth, nose, and salivary glands. Start here to find information on head and neck cancer treatment in adults and children, causes and prevention, screening, research, and statistics.

  10. Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Training course: This page has moved Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This training course has been ... with HEADS UP & CDC's Injury Center HEADS UP Resources ... HHS/Open USA.gov Top

  11. Handedness and phenotypic characteristics of the head and face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Milena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Craniofacial characteristics are used to identify similarities and differences between human populations or within a single population. The aim of this study is to provide data on the differences/similarities between two groups of subjects, left-handed and right-handed children, based on the parameters that determine the phenotypic characteristics of the head and face: head dimensions, face dimensions, hair color, eye color and earlobe shape. The study participants included 1354 students aged 7 to 15 years from regular schools of southeastern Serbia. The instruments used include: the Edinburgh Handedness Questionnaire for handedness determination, the cephalometer, and the questionnaire. 135 students (9.97% were identified as left-handed, and the differences in the observed parameters were recorded between left-handed and right-handed girls in relation to the cephalic index, nasal index, head breadth, face breadth, and eye color.

  12. Head stabilization in whooping cranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinloch, M.R.; Cronin, T.W.; Olsen, Glenn H.; Chavez-Ramirez, Felipe

    2005-01-01

    The whooping crane (Grus americana) is the tallest bird in North America, yet not much is known about its visual ecology. How these birds overcome their unusual height to identify, locate, track, and capture prey items is not well understood. There have been many studies on head and eye stabilization in large wading birds (herons and egrets), but the pattern of head movement and stabilization during foraging is unclear. Patterns of head movement and stabilization during walking were examined in whooping cranes at Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland USA. Four whooping cranes (1 male and 3 females) were videotaped for this study. All birds were already acclimated to the presence of people and to food rewards. Whooping cranes were videotaped using both digital and Hi-8 Sony video cameras (Sony Corporation, 7-35 Kitashinagawa, 6-Chome, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, Japan), placed on a tripod and set at bird height in the cranes' home pens. The cranes were videotaped repeatedly, at different locations in the pens and while walking (or running) at different speeds. Rewards (meal worms, smelt, crickets and corn) were used to entice the cranes to walk across the camera's view plane. The resulting videotape was analyzed at the University of Maryland at Baltimore County. Briefly, we used a computerized reduced graphic model of a crane superimposed over each frame of analyzed tape segments by means of a custom written program (T. W. Cronin, using C++) with the ability to combine video and computer graphic input. The speed of the birds in analyzed segments ranged from 0.30 m/s to 2.64 m/s, and the proportion of time the head was stabilized ranged from 79% to 0%, respectively. The speed at which the proportion reached 0% was 1.83 m/s. The analyses suggest that the proportion of time the head is stable decreases as speed of the bird increases. In all cases, birds were able to reach their target prey with little difficulty. Thus when cranes are walking searching for food

  13. Charge Master: Friend or Foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Wenshuai; Itri, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Prices charged for imaging services can be found in the charge master, a catalog of retail list prices for medical goods and services. This article reviews the evolution of reimbursement in the United States and provides a balanced discussion of the factors that influence charge master prices. Reduced payments to hospitals have pressured hospitals to generate additional revenue by increasing charge master prices. An unfortunate consequence is that those least able to pay for health care, the uninsured, are subjected to the highest charges. Yet, differences in pricing also represent an opportunity for radiology practices, which provide imaging services that are larger in scope or superior in quality to promote product differentiation. Physicians, hospital executives, and policy makers need to work together to improve the existing reimbursement system to promote high-quality, low-cost imaging. Copyright © 2016 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Search for free fractional charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilig, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    Recent results of searches for free fractional charge have been null with the exception of the experiment at Stanford under the leadership of W. Fairbank. His experiment, while claiming the observation of free fractional charge, has yet to show that this observation was not spurious. The need for a confirming experiment with a different physical system is the motivation for the current work. A torsional pendulum has been constructed of a fused silica fiber with an attached fused silica crossbar. A transverse electric field is applied to the end of the crossbar, and the resulting deflection of the crossbar is used to measure the torque applied by the field. To date the limit of measurement for the charge on the crossbar (without sample) is 0 +/- 24 electronic charges. The history of this experiment is discussed, along with plans for pushing the limits of measurement to below the single-charge level

  15. A Pilot Study of Randomized, Head-to-Head of Metformin Versus Topiramate in Obese People With Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Po-Jui; Ho, Pei-Shen; Tsai, Chia-Kuang; Huang, San-Yuan; Liang, Chih-Sung

    A number of research studies support the weight loss effects of metformin and topiramate for obese people with schizophrenia. However, only a few studies have addressed the sustainability of the body weight reduction after discontinuation of these drugs. Moreover, head-to-head studies are still lacking. The study aims to evaluate and compare the efficacy of metformin and topiramate in weight reduction and weight maintenance after discontinuation of these drugs in obese people with schizophrenia. Twenty-two obese inpatients with schizophrenia were recruited and randomized into the metformin group (n = 11; daily dose, 1000 mg) and the topiramate group (n = 11; daily dose, 100 mg). A head-to-head, fixed-dose, and single-blinded design was used. Ten obese patients with schizophrenia of similar sex as that of the treated group were included as the control group. After a 4-month treatment, the metformin group showed a body weight reduction of 3.8 kg, and the topiramate group showed a reduction of 2.7 kg. However, the reduction could be sustained only in the metformin group at 3 and 9 months after metformin discontinuation. Interestingly, 3 months after treatment discontinuation, leptin levels showed a reduction in both metformin (baseline, 25.3 ± 14.7, week 7: 5.7 ± 3.7 ng/mL) and topiramate (baseline: 28.4 ± 16.1, week 7: 9.2 ± 15.5 ng/mL) groups. The trend of weight changes supports the superiority of metformin at 1000 mg/d over topiramate at 100 mg/d in weight reduction and weight maintenance.

  16. Portable refrigerant charge meter and method for determining the actual refrigerant charge in HVAC systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiming; Abdelaziz, Omar; LaClair, Tim L.

    2017-08-08

    A refrigerant charge meter and a method for determining the actual refrigerant charge in HVAC systems are described. The meter includes means for determining an optimum refrigerant charge from system subcooling and system component parameters. The meter also includes means for determining the ratio of the actual refrigerant charge to the optimum refrigerant charge. Finally, the meter includes means for determining the actual refrigerant charge from the optimum refrigerant charge and the ratio of the actual refrigerant charge to the optimum refrigerant charge.

  17. Radiation by moving charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    It is generally accepted that in order to describe the dynamics of relativistic particles in the laboratory (lab) frame it is sufficient to take into account the relativistic dependence of the particle momenta on the velocity. This solution of the dynamics problem in the lab frame makes no reference to Lorentz transformations. For this reason they are not discussed in particle tracking calculations in accelerator and plasma physics. It is generally believed that the electrodynamics problem can be treated within the same ''single inertial frame'' description without reference to Lorentz transformations. In particular, in order to evaluate radiation fields arising from charged particles in motion we need to know their velocities and positions as a function of the lab frame time t. The relativistic motion of a particle in the lab frame is described by Newton's second law ''corrected'' for the relativistic dependence of momentum on velocity. It is assumed in all standard derivations that one can perform identification of the trajectories in the source part of the usual Maxwell's equations with the trajectories vector x(t) measured (or calculated by using the corrected Newton's second law) in the lab frame. This way of coupling fields and particles is considered since more than a century as the relativistically correct procedure.We argue that this procedure needs to be changed, and we demonstrate the following, completely counterintuitive statement: the results of conventional theory of radiation by relativistically moving charges are not consistent with the principle of relativity. In order to find the trajectory of a particle in the lab frame consistent with the usual Maxwell's equations, one needs to solve the dynamic equation inmanifestly covariant form by using the coordinate-independent proper time τ to parameterize the particle world-line in space-time. We show that there is a difference between &apos

  18. 29 CFR 1918.103 - Head protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Head protection. 1918.103 Section 1918.103 Labor... must ensure that head protection complies with any of the following consensus standards: (i) ANSI Z89.1... as head protection devices that are constructed in accordance with one of the above consensus...

  19. 29 CFR 1915.155 - Head protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Head protection. 1915.155 Section 1915.155 Labor... helmets. (1) Head protection must comply with any of the following consensus standards: (i) ANSI Z89.1... as head protection devices that are constructed in accordance with one of the above consensus...

  20. 29 CFR 1910.135 - Head protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Head protection. 1910.135 Section 1910.135 Labor... head protection. (1) Head protection must comply with any of the following consensus standards: (i... consensus standards will be deemed to be in compliance with the requirements of this section. [59 FR 16362...