WorldWideScience

Sample records for charged current interactions

  1. Charged current weak interaction of polarized muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The polarization of the muon beam can be used to test the presence of right-handed couplings in charged current interaction of muons in process μ+N->#betta#+X. The experimental feasibility and the limits which can be obtained on the mass of right-handed intermediate boson are discussed. (orig.)

  2. Direct Neutrino Mass Experiments and Exotic Charged Current Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Ludl, Patrick Otto

    2016-01-01

    We study the effect of exotic charged current interactions on the electron energy spectrum in tritium decay, focussing on the KATRIN experiment and a possible modified setup that has access to the full spectrum. Both sub-eV and keV neutrino masses are considered. We perform a fully relativistic calculation and take all possible new interactions into account, demonstrating the possible sizable distortions in the energy spectrum.

  3. Measurement of D*+ production in charged-current neutrino interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the years 1994-1997, the emulsion target of the CHORUS detector was exposed to the wide-band neutrino beam of the CERN SPS of 27 GeV average neutrino energy. In total about 100-bar 000 charged-current neutrino interactions were located in the nuclear emulsion target and fully reconstructed. A high-statistics sample of neutrino interactions with a D0 in the final state was collected. Using the decay mode D*+->D0π+ a production cross-section measurement of the D*+ in neutrino-nucleon charged-current interactions was performed. The low Q-value of the decay was used to isolate a sample of candidate events containing a positive hadron with a small pT with respect to the D0 direction. A signal of 22.1+/-5.5D*+ events was obtained. The D*+ production cross-section relative to the D0 production cross-section, σ(D*+)/σ(D0), was estimated to be 0.38+/-0.09(stat)+/-0.05(syst). From this result, the fraction of D0's produced via the decay of a D* was deduced to be 0.63+/-0.17. The D*+ production cross-section relative to the νμ charged-current interaction, σ(D*+)/σ(CC), was estimated to be [1.02+/-0.25(stat)+/-0.15(syst)]%

  4. Strange particle production in neutrino-neon charged current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutral strange particle production in charged-current muon-neutrino interactions have been studied in the Fermilab 15-foot neon bubble chamber. Associated production is expected to be the major source of strange particles in charged-current neutrino interactions. σ-neutral and ξ-minus production by neutrinos was observed. The dependence on various leptonic and hadronic variables is investigated. A fit to single and associated production of s, s/anti-s, and c quarks is described based on the number of single and double strange particle production events. Inclusive neutral strange particle decays (V0) production rates as a fraction of all charged-current events are measured and are tabulated. The λ/K ratio is found to be 0.39 +- 0.04 and the fraction of λ coming from σ-neutral is (16 +- 5)%. The single- and double V0 production was used to determine the associated s anti-s production rate and single s-quark production rate. 13 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Sensitivities to charged-current nonstandard neutrino interactions at DUNE

    CERN Document Server

    Bakhti, Pouya

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the effects of charged-current nonstandard neutrino interactions (NSIs) at the source and at the detector in the simulated data for the planned Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE), while neglecting the neutral-current NSIs at the propagation. We study the effects of NSIs on the simultaneous measurements of $\\theta_{23}$ and $ \\delta _{CP} $ in the DUNE. The analysis reveals that 3$\\sigma $ C.L. measurement of the correct octant of $\\theta _{23}$ in the standard mixing scenario is spoiled if NSIs are taken into account. Likewise, the NSIs can deteriorate the uncertainty of the $\\delta _{CP}$ measurement by a factor of two relative to that in the standard oscillation scenario. We further show that the source and the detector NSIs can induce a significant amount of fake CP-violation and the no fake CP-violation case can be excluded by more than 99\\% C.L. We also find the potential of DUNE to constrain the relevant charged-current NSI parameters from the single parameter fits for both neutr...

  6. A study of inclusive charged current neutrino interactions in deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis the results of an analysis of inclusive neutrino and antineutrino interaction on deuterium nuclei are presented. The use of deuterium as a target provides a mean to study proton and neutron scattering separately. The presently accepted theory of electro-weak interactions is reviewed. Applications of the quark-parton model in the context of deep-inelastic neutrino interactions on nucleons are summarized. The concept of scaling and its consequences are treated, together with some sources of violation of scaling. The properties of the CERN wide-band neutrino beam and an overview of the elements of this beam are given. The method to determine the energy distribution and the composition of the neutrino and antineutrino beam is described. The technique employed to separate neutrino interactions on protons and neutrons is discussed. Results of the measurement of the total nucleon charged-current cross-sections and differential cross-sections are presented. The relative contributions of quarks and antiquarks to the neutrino cross-sections are deduced from y-distributions and compared to those obtained from the total cross-section measurements. Finally, the analysis of the structure functions is given. (Auth.)

  7. Measurement of charm production in neutrino charged-current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear emulsion target of the CHORUS detector was exposed to the wide-band neutrino beam of the CERN SPS of 27 GeV average neutrino energy from 1994 to 1997. In total, about 100 000 charged-current (CC) neutrino interactions with at least one identified muon were located in the emulsion target and fully reconstructed, using newly developed automated scanning systems. Charmed particles were searched for by a program recognizing particle decays. The observation of the decay in nuclear emulsion makes it possible to select a sample with very low background and minimal kinematical bias. In all, 2013 CC interactions with a charmed hadron candidate in the final state were selected and confirmed through visual inspection. The charm production rate induced by neutrinos relative to the CC cross-section is measured to be σ(νμN→μ-CX)/σ(CC)=(5.75 ± 0.32(stat)±0.30(syst))%. The charm production cross-section as a function of neutrino energy is also obtained. The results are in good agreement with previous measurements. The charm-quark hadronization produces the following charmed hadrons with relative fractions (in %): fD0=43.7±4.5, fΛc+=19.2±4.2, fD+=25.3±4.2 and fDs+=11.8±4.7.

  8. Charged current neutrino interactions below 30 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charged current data of spark chamber neutrino experiment at 70 GeV Serpukhov accelerator (10200 events in ν beam and 3600 events in anti ν beam with energies up to 30 GeV) have been analyzed. Total neutrino and antineutrino cross sections and v-distributions are obtained

  9. Charged current neutrino and antineutrino interactions in hydrogen and deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this dissertation results are presented of two different (anti-)neutrino experiments with the Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC) filled with hydrogen and deuterium successively and exposed to the wide band (anti-)neutrino beam at the SPS at CERN. Chapter 1 contains the description of the experimental set-up and in chapter 2 results of the experiment with BEBC filled with deuterium and exposed to the antineutrino beam are presented. The multiplicity distributions of the charged hadron shower produced in (anti-)neutrino interactions with protons and neutrons are studied and compared with the results from hadron-hadron experiments. In chapter 3 a study of the exclusive reaction γp→μ-pπ+ is presented, data being obtained from an exposure of BEBC filled with hydrogen to the wide band neutrino beam. The absolute cross-section of the dominant subchannel γp→μ-Δ++(1232) averaged over an energy range of Esub(γ) = 20-200 GeV is measured to be sigma = (0.59 +- 0.06) . 10-38 cm2. This value is in good agreement with the results of other experiments. The differential cross-section dsigma/dQ2, the Δ++ decay angular distributions and the density matrix elements are determined. The value of the axial mass determined using the Schreiner-Von Hippel parametrization of the Adler model by fitting the total cross-section is Msub(A) = 0.85 +- 0.10 GeV/c2. (Auth.)

  10. Determination of the neutral to charged current cross section ratio for neutrino interactions on protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 2000 neutral induced interactions observed inside the hydrogen filled TST in BEBC have been analysed. The data were obtained from an exposure to the vsub(μ) wide band beam at the CERN SPS. A separation of these events into charged current, neutral current and neutral hadron induced interactions have been achieved using a multidimensional kinematic analysis. The neutral to charged current cross section ratio for vsub(μ) interactions on free protons has been determined avoiding the drastic cuts on the data inherent in previous experiments. The result Rsub(P)sup(v)=0.47 +- 0.04 is compatible with those measurements and the prediction of the standard SU(2) x U(1) model for sinsub(THETA)2sub(W)=0.18 +- 0.04. (orig.)

  11. Determination of the neutral to charged current cross section ratio for neutrino interactions on protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armenise, N.; Calicchio, M.; Erriquez, O.; Fogli-Muciaccia, M.T.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Ruggieri, F. (Bari Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bari (Italy)); Belusevic, R.; Colley, D.C.

    1983-03-17

    About 2000 neutral induced interactions observed inside the hydrogen filled TST in BEBC have been analysed. The data were obtained from an exposure to the vsub(..mu..) wide band beam at the CERN SPS. A separation of these events into charged current, neutral current and neutral hadron induced interactions have been achieved using a multidimensional kinematic analysis. The neutral to charged current cross section ratio for vsub(..mu..) interactions on free protons has been determined avoiding the drastic cuts on the data inherent in previous experiments. The result Rsub(P)sup(v)=0.47 +- 0.04 is compatible with those measurements and the prediction of the standard SU(2) x U(1) model for sinsub(THETA)/sup 2/sub(W)=0.18 +- 0.04.

  12. Determination of the neutral to charged current cross-section ratio for antineutrino interactions on protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreels, J.; Van Doninck, W.; Alamatsaz, H.; Armenise, N.; Azemoon, T.; Bartley, J. H.; Baton, J. P.; Belusevic, R.; Bertrand, D.; Brisson, V.; Calicchio, M.; Colley, D. C.; Cooper, A. M.; Erriquez, O.; Fogli-muciaccia, M. T.; Gerbier, G.; Guy, J. G.; Jones, G. T.; Kochowski, C.; Michette, A. G.; Natali, S.; Neveu, M.; Nuzzo, S.; O'Neale, S.; Parker, M. A.; Petiau, P.; Ruggieri, F.; Sacton, J.; Sewell, S.; Tyndel, M.; Vander Velde, G.; Venus, W.; Vortuba, M. F.; BEBC TST Neutrino Collaboration

    1984-04-01

    An exposure of BEBC equipped with the hydrogen-filled TST to the overlinevμ wide band beam at the CERN SPS has been used to study overlinevμ interactions on free protons. About neutral induced interactions have been observed inside the hydrogen and separated into charged current, neutral current and neutral hadron interactions using a multivariate discriminant analysis based on the kinematics of the events. The neutral to charged current cross-section ratio has been determined to be R poverlinev = 0.33 ± 0.04 . When combined with the value of Rpv previously determined in the same experiment, the result is compatible with the prediction of the standard SU (2) × U (1) model for sin 2θW = 0.24 -0.08+0.06 and ρ = 1.07 -0.08+0.06. Fixing the parameter ρ = 1 yields sin 2θW = 0.18 ± 0.04.

  13. Determination of the neutral to charged current cross section ratio for neutrino interactions on protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenise, N.; Calicchio, M.; Erriquez, O.; Fogli-Muciaccia, M. T.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Ruggieri, F.; Belusevic, R.; Colley, D. C.; Jones, G. T.; O'Neale, S.; Sewell, S.; Votruba, M. F.; Bertrand, D.; Moreels, J.; Sacton, J.; Vander Velde-Wilquet, C.; Van Doninck, W.; Brisson, V.; Francois, T.; Petiau, P.; Cooper, A. M.; Guy, J. G.; Michette, A. G.; Tyndel, M.; Venus, W.; Baton, J. P.; Gerbier, G.; Kochowski, C.; Neveu, M.; Alamatsaz, H.; Azemoon, T.; Bartley, J. H.; Parker, M. A.; BEBC TST Neutrino Collaboration

    1983-03-01

    About 2000 neutral induced interactions observed inside the hydrogen filled TST in BEBC have been analysed. The data were obtained from an exposure to the vμ wide band beam at the CERN SPS. A separation of these events into charged current, neutral current and neutral hadron induced interactions have been achieved using a multidimensional kinematic analysis. The neutral to charged current cross section ratio for vμ interactions on free protons has been determined avoiding the drastic cuts on the data inherent in previous experiments. The result RPv = 0.47 ± 0.04 is compatible with those measurements and the prediction of the standard SU (2) × U (1) model for sin 2θW = 0.18 ± 0.04.

  14. Newton's laws for a biquaternionic model of the electro-gravimagnetic field, charges, currents and their interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Alexeyeva, Lyudmila

    2011-01-01

    With use the Hamiltonian form of the Maxwell's equations one biquaternionic model for electro-gravimagnetic (EGM) field is offered. The equations of the interaction of EGM-fields, which are generated by different charge and current, are built. The field analogs of three Newton's laws are offered for free and interacting charge-currents, as well as total field of interaction. The invariance of these equations at Lorentz transformation is investigated, and, in particular, of the charge-current ...

  15. Characterization of Final State Interaction Strength in Plastic Scintillator by Muon-Neutrino Charged Current Charged Pion Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberly, Brandon M. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Precise knowledge of neutrino-nucleus interactions is increasingly important as neutrino oscillation measurements transition into the systematics-limited era. In addition to modifying the initial interaction, the nuclear medium can scatter and absorb the interaction by-products through final state interactions, changing the types and kinematic distributions of particles seen by the detector. Recent neutrino pion production data from MiniBooNE is inconsistent with the final state interaction strength predicted by models and theoretical calculations, and some models fit best to the MiniBooNE data only after removing final state interactions entirely. This thesis presents a measurement of dσ/dTπ and dσ/dθπ for muon-neutrino charged current charged pion production in the MINER A scintillator tracker. MINER A is a neutrino-nucleus scattering experiment installed in the few-GeV NuMI beam line at Fermilab. The analysis is limited to neutrino energies between 1.5-10 GeV. Dependence on invariant hadronic mass W is studied through two versions of the analysis that impose the limits W < 1.4 GeV and W < 1.8 GeV. The lower limit on W increases compatibility with the MiniBooNE pion data. The shapes of the differential cross sections, which depend strongly on the nature of final state interactions, are compared to Monte Carlo and theoretical predictions. It is shown that the measurements presented in this thesis favor models that contain final state interactions. Additionally, a variety of neutrino-nucleus interaction models are shown to successfully reproduce the thesis measurements, while simultaneously failing to describe the shape of the MiniBooNE data.

  16. Determination of the neutral to charged current cross-section ratio for antineutrino interactions on protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An exposure of BEBC equipped with the hydrogen-filled TST to the anti νsub(μ) wide band beam at the CERN SPS has been used to study anti νsub(μ) interactions on free protons. About 700 neutral induced interactions on free protons. About 700 neutral induced interactions have been observed inside the hydrogen and separated into charged current, neutral current and neutral hadron interactions using a multivariate discriminant analysis based on the kinematics of the events. The neutral to charged current cross-section ratio has been determined to be Rsub(p)anti ν = 0.33 +- 0.04. When combined with the value of Rsub(p)sup(ν) previously determined in the same experiment, the result is compatible with the prediction of the standard SU(2) X U(1) model for sin2thetasub(W) = 0.24sub(-0.08)sup(+0.06) and rho = 1.07sub(-0.08)sup(+0.06). Fixing the parameter rho = 1 yields sin2thetasub(W) = 0.18 +- 0.04. (orig.)

  17. A Measurement of the charged-current interaction cross section of the tau neutrino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maher, Emily O' Connor; /Minnesota U.

    2005-01-01

    The Fermilab experiment E872 (DONUT) was designed to make the first observation of the tau neutrino charged-current interaction. Using a hybrid emulsion-spectrometer detector, the tau lepton was identified by its single-prong or trident decay. Six interactions were observed, of which five were in the deep inelastic scattering region. These five interaction were used to measure the charged-current cross section of the tau neutrino. To minimize uncertainties, the tau neutrino cross section was measured relative to the electron neutrino cross section. The result {sigma}{sub {nu}{sub {tau}}N}{sup const}/{sigma}{sub {nu}{sub e}N}{sup const} = 0.77 {+-} 0.39 is consistent with 1.0, which is predicted by lepton universality. The tau neutrino cross section was also measured for 115 GeV neutrinos, which was the average energy of the interacted tau neutrinos. The result {sigma}{sub {nu}{sub {tau}}N}{sup exp} = 45 {+-} 21 x 10{sup -38} cm{sup 2} is consistent with the standard model prediction calculated in this thesis, {sigma}{sub {tau}N}{sup SM} = 48 {+-} 5 x 10{sup -38} cm{sup 2}.

  18. Neutral strange particle production in neutrino and antineutrino charged-current interactions on neon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been made of neutral strange particle production in νμNe and bar νμNe charged-current interactions at a higher energy than any previous study. The experiment was done at the Fermilab Tevatron using the 15-ft. bubble chamber, and the data sample consists of 814(154) observed neutral strange particles from 6263(1115) ν(bar ν) charged-current events. For the ν beam (average event energy left-angle Eν right-angle=150 GeV), the average multiplicities per charged-current event have been measured to be 0.408±0.048 for K0, 0.127±0.014 for Λ, and 0.015±0.005 for bar Λ, which are significantly greater than for lower-energy experiments. The dependence of rates on kinematical variables has been measured, and shows that both K0 and Λ production increase strongly with Eν, W2, Q2, and yB. Compared to lower-energy experiments, single-particle distributions indicate that there is much more K0 production for xF>-0.2, and the enhanced Λ production spans most of the kinematic region. bar Λ production is mostly in the region |xF|F>-0.2 there is a significant excess of Λ production over the model's prediction. The Λ hyperons are found to be polarized in the production plane

  19. Anomalous Top Charged-current Contact Interactions in Single Top Production at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Bach, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    In an effective theory approach, the full minimal set of leading contributions to anomalous charged-current top couplings comprises various new trilinear tbW as well as quartic tbff' interaction vertices, some of which are related to one another by equations of motion. While much effort in earlier work has gone into the extraction of the trilinear couplings from single top measurements, we argue in this article that these structures can be assessed independently by other observables, while single top production forms a unique window to the four-fermion sector. An effective theory approach is employed to infer and classify the minimal set of such couplings from dimension six operators in the minimal flavor violation scheme. In the phenomenological analysis, we present a Monte Carlo study at detector level to quantify the expected performance of the next LHC run to bound as well as distinguish the various contact couplings. Special attention is directed towards differential final state distributions including d...

  20. QCD analysis of neutral and charged current cross sections and search for contact interactions at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirumov, Hayk

    2013-11-15

    A QCD analysis of the inclusive deep inelastic ep scattering cross section measured by the H1 experiment at HERA is presented. The data correspond to a total integrated luminosity of about 0.5 fb{sup -1} and covers a kinematic range of 0.5 GeV{sup 2} - 30000 GeV{sup 2} in the negative four-momentum transfer Q{sup 2} and 3 . 10{sup -5} - 0.65 in Bjorken x. The performed QCD analysis of the double differential neutral and charged current cross sections results in a set of parton distribution functions H1PDF 2012. The precise data from HERA II period in the kinematic region of high Q{sup 2} considerably improve the accuracy of the PDFs at the high x. In addition a search for signs of new physics using single differential neutral current cross section measurements at high Q{sup 2} is performed. The observed good agreement of the analysed data with the Standard Model predictions allows to set constraints on various new physics models within the framework of contact interactions. Limits are derived on the compositeness scale for general contact interactions, on the ratio of mass to the Yukawa coupling for heavy leptoquark models, on the effective Plank-mass scale in the large extra dimension models and on the quark radius.

  1. QCD analysis of neutral and charged current cross sections and search for contact interactions at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A QCD analysis of the inclusive deep inelastic ep scattering cross section measured by the H1 experiment at HERA is presented. The data correspond to a total integrated luminosity of about 0.5 fb-1 and covers a kinematic range of 0.5 GeV2 - 30000 GeV2 in the negative four-momentum transfer Q2 and 3 . 10-5 - 0.65 in Bjorken x. The performed QCD analysis of the double differential neutral and charged current cross sections results in a set of parton distribution functions H1PDF 2012. The precise data from HERA II period in the kinematic region of high Q2 considerably improve the accuracy of the PDFs at the high x. In addition a search for signs of new physics using single differential neutral current cross section measurements at high Q2 is performed. The observed good agreement of the analysed data with the Standard Model predictions allows to set constraints on various new physics models within the framework of contact interactions. Limits are derived on the compositeness scale for general contact interactions, on the ratio of mass to the Yukawa coupling for heavy leptoquark models, on the effective Plank-mass scale in the large extra dimension models and on the quark radius.

  2. Charged weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this review of charged weak currents we shall concentrate on inclusive high energy neutrino physics. The plan of this review is the following: general structure of charged current; new results on total cross-section; Callan-Gross relation; antiquark distribution; scaling violations and tests of QCD. At the end we will give a very short summary on multilepton physics

  3. Probing Neutrino Mass Hierarchy by Comparing the Charged-Current and Neutral-Current Interaction Rates of Supernova Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Kwang-Chang; Lee, Feng-Shiuh; Lin, Guey-Lin; Liu, Tsung-Che; Yang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The neutrino mass hierarchy is one of the neutrino fundamental properties yet to be determined. We introduce a method to determine neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the interaction rate of neutral current (NC) interactions, $\

  4. Anomalous top charged-current contact interactions in single top production at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, Fabian [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Ohl, Thorsten [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik

    2014-10-15

    In an effective theory approach, the full minimal set of leading contributions to anomalous charged-current top couplings comprises various new trilinear tbW as well as quartic tbff' interaction vertices, some of which are related to one another by equations of motion. While much effort in earlier work has gone into the extraction of the trilinear couplings from single top measurements, we argue in this article that these structures can be assessed independently by other observables, while single top production forms a unique window to the four-fermion sector. An effective theory approach is employed to infer and classify the minimal set of such couplings from dimension six operators in the minimal flavor violation scheme. In the phenomenological analysis, we present a Monte Carlo study at detector level to quantify the expected performance of the next LHC run to bound as well as distinguish the various contact couplings. Special attention is directed toward differential final state distributions including detector effects as a means to optimize the signal sensitivity as well as the discriminative power with respect to the possible coupling structures.

  5. Measurement of the Λ polarization in νμ charged current interactions in the NOMAD experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Λ polarization in νμ charged current interactions has been measured in the NOMAD experiment. The event sample (8087 reconstructed Λ 's) is more than an order of magnitude larger than that of previous bubble chamber experiments, while the quality of event reconstruction is comparable. We observe negative polarization along the W -boson direction which is enhanced in the target fragmentation region: Px(xFx(xF>0)=-0.09±0.06(stat)±0.03(sys) . These results provide a test of different models describing the nucleon spin composition and the spin transfer mechanisms. A significant transverse polarization (in the direction orthogonal to the Λ production plane) has been observed for the first time in a neutrino experiment: Py=-0.22±0.03(stat)±0.01(sys) . The dependence of the absolute value of Py on the Λ transverse momentum with respect to the hadronic jet direction is in qualitative agreement with the results from unpolarized hadron-hadron experiments

  6. Arbitrary mixture of two charged interacting particles in a magnetic Aharonov-Bohm ring: persistent currents and Berry's phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aharonov-Bohm physics at the two-particle level is investigated for distinguishable interacting charged particles through the exact solution of a toy model with confined states. The effect of the inaccessible magnetic flux is distributed between the center-of-mass and the internal pair level, and the nontrivial manner in which the two levels mutually affect each other demonstrates the interplay between interactions, the nontrivial topology, the Aharonov-Bohm flux and the characteristics of a charged quantal mixture. Analytical expressions for energy spectra, wavefunctions, (flux-dependent) critical interactions for binding and current densities are derived, and these offer the rare possibility of studying persistent currents from the point of view of an interacting nanoscopic system. Two cyclic adiabatic processes are identified, one coupled to the center-of-mass behavior and the other defined on the two-body interaction potential, with the associated Berry's phases also analytically determined; these are found to be directly linked to the electric and probability (persistent) currents in nontrivial ways that are shown to be universal (independent of the actual form of the interaction). The direct connection of the two-body Berry's phase to the electric current for a neutral system is found to disappear in the case of identical particles-hence revealing the character of a charged mixture as being crucial for exhibiting this universal behavior.

  7. Interaction of current filaments in dielectric barrier discharges with relation to surface charge distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stollenwerk, L [Institut fuer Plasmaforschung, Pfaffenwaldring 31, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)], E-mail: stollenwerk@ipf.uni-stuttgart.de

    2009-10-15

    In a planar, laterally extended dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) system operated in glow mode, a filamentary discharge is observed. The filaments tend to move laterally and hence tend to cause collisions. Thereby, usually one collision partner becomes destroyed. In this paper, the collision process and especially the preceding time period is investigated. Beside the luminescence density of the filaments, the surface charge density accumulated between the single breakdowns of the DBD is observed via an optical measurement technique based on the linear electro-optical effect (pockels effect). A ring-like substructure of the surface charge distribution of a single filament is found, which correlates to the filament interaction behaviour. Furthermore, a preferred filament distance is found, suggesting the formation of a filamentary quasi-molecule.

  8. Probing neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the charged-current and neutral-current interaction rates of supernova neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kwang-Chang; Lee, Fei-Fan; Lee, Feng-Shiuh; Lin, Guey-Lin; Liu, Tsung-Che; Yang, Yi

    2016-07-01

    The neutrino mass hierarchy is one of the neutrino fundamental properties yet to be determined. We introduce a method to determine neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the interaction rate of neutral current (NC) interactions, ν(bar nu) + p → ν(bar nu) + p, and inverse beta decays (IBD), bar nue + p → n + e+, of supernova neutrinos in scintillation detectors. Neutrino flavor conversions inside the supernova are sensitive to neutrino mass hierarchy. Due to Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effects, the full swapping of bar nue flux with the bar nux (x = μ, τ) one occurs in the inverted hierarchy, while such a swapping does not occur in the normal hierarchy. As a result, more high energy IBD events occur in the detector for the inverted hierarchy than the high energy IBD events in the normal hierarchy. By comparing IBD interaction rate with the mass hierarchy independent NC interaction rate, one can determine the neutrino mass hierarchy.

  9. Charged current review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental measurements of the τ lifetime and leptonic branching ratios are combined to give updated world averages for these quantities. The results are then used to test the universality of the electroweak charged current couplings to the three lepton species and are found to be consistent with Standard Model predictions at the level of 0.2%, permitting limits to be derived on non-Standard Model physics such as the mass of the τ neutrino

  10. Study of quasielastic scattering using charged-current nu_mu-iron interactions in the MINOS Near Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Adamson, P.; Anghel, I.; Aurisano, A.; Barr, G.; Bishai, M.; Blake, A.; Bock, G.J.; Bogert, D.; Cao, S. V.; Castromonte, C. M.; Childress, S.; Coelho, J. A. B.; Corwin, L.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; de Jong, J. K.

    2014-01-01

    Kinematic distributions from an inclusive sample of 1.41 x 10^6 charged-current nu_mu interactions on iron, obtained using the MINOS Near Detector exposed to a wide-band beam with peak flux at 3 GeV, are compared to a conventional treatment of neutrino scattering within a Fermi gas nucleus. Results are used to guide the selection of a subsample enriched in quasielastic nu_mu Fe interactions, containing an estimated 123,000 quasielastic events of incident energies 1 < E_nu < 8 GeV, with = 2.7...

  11. A Measurement of Neutrino Charged Current Interactions and a Search for Muon Neutrino Disappearance with the Fermilab Booster Neutrino Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Yasuhiro; /Kyoto U.

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, we report on a measurement of muon neutrino inclusive charged current interactions on carbon in the few GeV region, using the Fermilab Booster Neutrino Beam. The all neutrino mode data collected in the SciBooNE experiment is used for this analysis. We collected high-statistics CC interaction sample at SciBooNE, and extracted energy dependent inclusive charged current interaction rates and cross sections for a wide energy range from 0.25 GeV to {approx}3 GeV. We measure the interaction rates with 6-15% precision, and the cross sections with 10-30% precision. We also made an energy integrated measurements, with the precisions of 3% for the rate, and 8% for the cross section measurements. This is the first measurement of the CC inclusive cross section on carbon around 1 GeV. This inclusive interaction measurement is nearly free from effects of hadron re-interactions in the nucleus. Hence, it is complementary to other exclusive cross section measurements, and essential to understand the neutrino interaction cross sections in the few GeV region, which is relevant to ongoing and future neutrino oscillation experiments. This analysis also provides the normalization for SciBooNE's previous cross section ratio measurements for charged current coherent pion production and neutral current neutral pion production. Then, a precise comparison between our previous measurements and the model predictions becomes possible. The result of the interaction rate measurement is used to constrain the product of the neutrino flux and the cross section at the other experiment on the Fermilab Booster Neutrino Beam: Mini-BooNE. We conducted a search for short-baseline muon neutrino disappearance using data both from SciBooNE and MiniBooNE, to test a possible neutrino oscillation with sterile neutrinos which is suggested by the LSND experiment. With this constraint by SciBooNE, we significantly reduced the flux and the cross section uncertainties at MiniBooNE, and achieved

  12. Measurement of the Λ-bar polarization in νμ charged current interactions in the NOMAD experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a measurement of the polarization of Λ-bar hyperons produced in νμ charged current interactions. The full data sample from the NOMAD experiment has been analyzed using the same V0 identification procedure and analysis method reported in a previous paper [NOMAD Collaboration, Nucl. Phys. B 588 (2000) 3] for the case of Λ hyperons. The Λ-bar polarization has been measured for the first time in a neutrino experiment. The polarization vector is found to be compatible with zero

  13. Measurement of $D^0$ production in neutrino charged-current interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kayis-Topaksu, A; Van Dantzig, R; De Jong, M; Melzer, O; Oldeman, R G C; Pesen, E; Visschers, J L; Güler, M; Serin-Zeyrek, M; Sever, R; Tolun, P; Zeyrek, M T; Armenise, N; Catanesi, M G; De Serio, M; Ieva, M; Muciaccia, M T; Radicioni, E; Simone, S; Bülte, A; Winter, Klaus; El-Aidi, R; Van de Vyver, B; Vilain, P; Wilquet, G; Saitta, B; Di Capua, E; Ogawa, S; Shibuya, H; Artamonov, S A; Chizhov, M V; Doucet, M; Kolev, D; Meinhard, H; Panman, J; Papadopoulos, I M; Ricciardi, S; Rozanov, A N; Tsenov, R V; Uiterwijk, J W E; Zucchelli, P; Goldberg, J; Chikawa, M; Arik, E; Song, J S; Yoon, C S; Kodama, K; Ushida, N; Aoki, S; Hara, T; Delbar, T; Favart, D; Grégoire, G; Kalinin, S; Makhlyoueva, I V; Gorbunov, P; Khovanskii, V D; Shamanov, V V; Tsukerman, I; Bruski, N; Frekers, D; Hoshino, K; Komatsu, M; Miyanishi, M; Nakamura, M; Nakano, T; Narita, K; Niu, K; Niwa, K; Nonaka, N; Sato, O; Toshito, T; Buontempo, S; Castagneto, L; Cocco, A G; D'Ambrosio, N; De Lellis, G; Di Capua, F; De Rosa, G; Ereditato, A; Fiorillo, G; Kawamura, T; Messina, M; Migliozzi, P; Palladino, Vittorio; Strolin, P; Tioukov, V; Nakamura, K; Okusawa, T; Dore, U; Loverre, P F; Ludovici, L; Righini, P; Rosa, G; Santacesaria, R; Satta, A; Spada, F R; Barbuto, E; Bozza, C; Grella, G; Romano, G; Sirignano, C; Sorrentino, S; Sato, Y; Tezuka, I

    2002-01-01

    During the years 1994--1997, the emulsion target of the CHORUS detector was exposed to the Wide Band Neutrino Beam from the CERN-SPS. About 170,000 neutrino interactions were successfully located in the emulsion. Improvements in the automatic emulsion scanning systems and application of different criteria allowed the sample of located events to be used for studies of charm production. We present a measurement of the production rate of $D^0$ mesons based on a sample of 25693 located $\

  14. A study of strange particle production in νμ charged current interactions in the NOMAD experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of strange particle production in νμ charged current interactions has been performed using the data from the NOMAD experiment. Yields of neutral strange particles (K0s,Λ,Λ-bar) have been measured. Mean multiplicities are reported as a function of the event kinematic variables Eν, W2 and Q2 as well as of the variables describing particle behaviour within a hadronic jet: xF, z and pT2. Decays of resonances and heavy hyperons with identified K0s and Λ in the final state have been analyzed. Clear signals corresponding to K*±, Σ*±, Ξ- and Σ0 have been observed

  15. Bose-Einstein correlations in charged current muon-neutrino interactions in the NOMAD experiment at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose-Einstein correlations in one and two dimensions have been studied, with high statistics, in charged current muon-neutrino interaction events collected with the NOMAD detector at CERN. In one dimension the Bose-Einstein effect has been analyzed with the Goldhaber and the Kopylov-Podgoretskii phenomenological parametrizations. The Goldhaber parametrization gives the radius of the pion emission region RG=1.01±0.05(stat)+0.09-0.06(sys) fm and for the chaoticity parameter the value λ=0.40±0.03(stat)+0.01-0.06(sys). Using the Kopylov-Podgoretskii parametrization yields RKP=2.07±0.04(stat)+0.01-0.14(sys) fm and λKP=0.29±0.06(stat)+0.01-0.04(sys). Different parametrizations of the long-range correlations have been also studied. The two-dimensional shape of the source has been investigated in the longitudinal comoving frame. A significant difference between the transverse and the longitudinal dimensions is observed. The high statistics of the collected sample allowed the study of the Bose-Einstein correlations as a function of rapidity, charged particle multiplicity and hadronic energy. A weak dependence of both radius and chaoticity on multiplicity and hadronic energy is found

  16. Measurement of topological muonic branching ratios of charmed hadrons produced in neutrino-induced charged-current interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kayis-Topaksu, A; Van Dantzig, R; De Jong, M; Oldeman, R G C; Güler, M; Köse, U; Tolun, P; Catanesi, M G; Muciaccia, M T; Winter, Klaus; Van de Vyver, B; Vilain, P; Wilquet, G; Saitta, B; Di Capua, E; Ogawa, S; Shibuya, H; Hristova, I R; Kawamura, T; Kolev, D; Meinhard, H; Panman, J; Rozanov, A; Tsenov, R V; Uiterwijk, J W E; Zucchelli, P; Goldberg, J; Chikawa, M; Song, J S; Yoon, C S; Kodama, K; Ushida, N; Aoki, S; Hara, T; Delbar, T; Favart, D; Grégoire, G; Kalinin, S; Makhlyoueva, I V; Artamonov, A V; Gorbunov, P; Khovanskii, V D; Shamanov, V V; Tsukerman, I; Bruski, N; Frekers, D; Hoshino, K; Kawada, J; Komatsu, M; Myanishi, M; Nakamura, M; Nakano, T; Narita, K; Niu, K; Niwa, K; Nonaka, N; Sato, O; Toshito, T; Buontempo, S; Cocco, A G; D'Ambrosio, N; De Lellis, G; De Rosa, G; Di Capua, F; Fiorillo, G; Marotta, A; Messina, M; Migliozzi, P; Scotto-Lavina, L; Strolin, P; Tioukov, V; Okusawa, T; Dore, U; Loverre, P F; Ludovici, L; Rosa, G; Santacesaria, R; Satta, A; Spada, F R; Barbuto, E; Bozza, C; Grella, G; Romano, G; Sirignano, C; Sorrentino, S; Sato, Y; Tezuka, I

    2005-01-01

    From 1994 to 1997, the emulsion target of the CHORUS detector was exposed to the wideband neutrino beam of the CERN SPS. In total about 100 000 charged-current neutrino interactions were located in the nuclear emulsion target and fully reconstructed. From this sample of events based on the data acquired by new automatic scanning systems, 2013 charm-decay events were selected by a pattern recognition program. They were confirmed as decays through visual inspection. Based on these events, the effective branching ratio of charmed particles into muons was determined to be Bμ = [7.3 ± 0.8 (stat) ± 0.2 (syst)] × 10âˆ'2. In addition, the muonic branching ratios are presented for dominating charm decay topologies. Normalization of the muonic decays to chargedcurrent interactions provides _μâˆ'μ+/_cc = [3.16 ± 0.34 (stat) ± 0.09 (syst)] × 10âˆ'3. Selecting only events with visible energy greater than 30 GeV gives a value of Bμ that is less affected by the charm production threshold ...

  17. Experimental study of nonlinear interaction of plasma flow with charged thin current sheets: 2. Hall dynamics, mass and momentum transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Savin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Proceeding with the analysis of Amata et al. (2005, we suggest that the general feature for the local transport at a thin magnetopause (MP consists of the penetration of ions from the magnetosheath with gyroradius larger than the MP width, and that, in crossing it, the transverse potential difference at the thin current sheet (TCS is acquired by these ions, providing a field-particle energy exchange without parallel electric fields. It is suggested that a part of the surface charge is self-consistently produced by deflection of ions in the course of inertial drift in the non-uniform electric field at MP. Consideration of the partial moments of ions with different energies demonstrates that the protons having gyroradii of roughly the same size or larger than the MP width carry fluxes normal to MP that are about 20% of the total flow in the plasma jet under MP. This is close to the excess of the ion transverse velocity over the cross-field drift speed in the plasma flow just inside MP (Amata et al., 2005, which conforms to the contribution of the finite-gyroradius inflow across MP. A linkage through the TCS between different plasmas results from the momentum conservation of the higher-energy ions. If the finite-gyroradius penetration occurs along the MP over ~1.5 RE from the observation site, then it can completely account for the formation of the jet under the MP. To provide the downstream acceleration of the flow near the MP via the cross-field drift, the weak magnetic field is suggested to rotate from its nearly parallel direction to the unperturbed flow toward being almost perpendicular to the accelerated flow near the MP. We discuss a deceleration of the higher-energy ions in the MP normal direction due to the interaction with finite-scale electric field bursts in the magnetosheath flow frame, equivalent to collisions, providing a charge separation. These effective collisions, with a nonlinear frequency proxy of the order of the proton

  18. Bose-Einstein Correlations in Charged Current Muon-Neutrino Interactions in the NOMAD Experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Astier, Pierre; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baldo-Ceolin, Massimilla; Banner, M; Bassompierre, Gabriel; Benslama, K; Besson, N; Bird, I; Blumenfeld, B; Bobisut, F; Bouchez, J; Boyd, S; Bueno, A G; Bunyatov, S; Camilleri, L L; Cardini, A; Cattaneo, Paolo Walter; Cavasinni, V; Cervera-Villanueva, A; Challis, R C; Chukanov, A; Collazuol, G; Conforto, G; Conta, C; Contalbrigo, M; Cousins, R; Daniels, D; Degaudenzi, H M; Del Prete, T; De Santo, A; Dignan, T; Di Lella, L; do Couto e Silva, E; Dumarchez, J; Ellis, M; Feldman, G J; Ferrari, R; Ferrère, D; Flaminio, Vincenzo; Fraternali, M; Gaillard, J M; Gangler, E; Geiser, A; Geppert, D; Gibin, D; Gninenko, S N; Godley, A; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; Gosset, J; Gössling, C; Gouanère, M; Grant, A; Graziani, G; Guglielmi, A M; Hagner, C; Hernando, J A; Hubbard, D B; Hurst, P; Hyett, N; Iacopini, E; Joseph, C L; Juget, F R; Kent, N; Kirsanov, M M; Klimov, O; Kokkonen, J; Kovzelev, A; Krasnoperov, A V; Lacaprara, S; Lachaud, C; Lakic, B; Lanza, A; La Rotonda, L; Laveder, M; Letessier-Selvon, A A; Lévy, J M; Linssen, Lucie; Ljubicic, A; Long, J; Lupi, A; Lyubushkin, V V; Marchionni, A; Martelli, F; Méchain, X; Mendiburu, J P; Meyer, J P; Mezzetto, Mauro; Mishra, S R; Moorhead, G F; Naumov, D V; Nédélec, P; Nefedov, Yu A; Nguyen-Mau, C; Orestano, D; Pastore, F; Peak, L S; Pennacchio, E; Pessard, H; Petti, R; Placci, A; Polesello, G; Pollmann, D; Polyarush, A Yu; Popov, B; Poulsen, C; Rebuffi, L; Rico, J; Riemann, P; Roda, C; Rubbia, André; Salvatore, F; Schmidt, B; Schmidt, T; Sconza, A; Sevior, M E; Sillou, D; Soler, F J P; Sozzi, G; Steele, D; Stiegler, U; Stipcevic, M; Stolarczyk, T; Tareb-Reyes, M; Taylor, G; Tereshchenko, V V; Toropin, A N; Touchard, A M; Tovey, Stuart N; Tran, M T; Tsesmelis, E; Ulrichs, J; Vacavant, L; Valdata-Nappi, M; Valuev, V Yu; Vannucci, François; Varvell, K E; Veltri, M; Vercesi, V; Vidal-Sitjes, G; Vieira, J M; Vinogradova, T G; Weber, F V; Weisse, T; Wilson, F F; Winton, L J; Yabsley, B D; Zaccone, Henri; Zei, R; Zuber, K; Zuccon, P

    2004-01-01

    Bose-Einstein Correlations in one and two dimensions have been studied, with high statistics, in charged current muon-neutrino interaction events collected with the NOMAD detector at CERN. In one dimension the Bose-Einstein effect has been analyzed with the Goldhaber and the Kopylov-Podgoretskii phenomenological parametrizations. The Goldhaber parametrization gives the radius of the pion emission region R_G = 1.01+/-0.05(stat)+0.09-0.06(sys) fm and for the chaoticity parameter the value lambda = 0.40+/-0.03(stat)+0.01-0.06(sys). Using the Kopylov-Podgoretskii parametrization yields R_KP = 2.07+/-0.04(stat)+0.01-0.14(sys) fm and lambda_KP = 0.29+/-0.06(stat)+0.01-0.04(sys). Different parametrizations of the long-range correlations have been also studied. The two-dimensional shape of the source has been investigated in the longitudinal co-moving frame. A significant difference between the transverse and the longitudinal dimensions is observed. The high statistics of the collected sample allowed the study of the...

  19. Study of tau-neutrino production by measuring Ds -> tau events in 400 GeV proton interactions: Test of lepton universality in neutrino charged-current interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, S; Ariga, T; Kodama, K; Nakamura, M; Sato, O; CERN. Geneva. SPS and PS Experiments Committee; SPSC

    2016-01-01

    The muon-neutrino charged-current (CC) cross section has been measured by many experiments. However, there has been only one measurement of the tau-neutrino CC cross section by the DONuT experiment with a systematic uncertainty larger than 50%, mainly due to uncertainties in the Ds differential production cross section in high energy proton interaction. The evaluation of the tau-neutrino cross section would provide a test of lepton universality in neutrino CC interactions, which has never been well tested for tau-neutrinos. In this new program, we propose to study tau-neutrino production (Ds production fraction x decay branching ratio of Ds -> tau) and the energy distribution by analyzing Ds -> tau events in 400 GeV proton interactions. By employing the state-of-the-art emulsion particle detector technologies, we will analyze 10^8 proton interactions and detect the double kink topology of Ds -> tau -> X decays. Accomplishing this new measurement, we will re-evaluate the tau-neutrino cross section with the dat...

  20. A measurement of the muon neutrino charged current quasielastic-like cross section on a hydrocarbon target and final state interaction effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, Tammy [Hampton Univ., Hampton, VA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Presented is the analysis of the μ charged-current quasielastic-like interaction with a polystyrene (CH or hydrocarbon) target in the MINER A experiment, which was exposed to a neutrino beam that peaked at 3.5 GeV.

  1. Charged Dust Aggregate Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2015-11-01

    A proper understanding of the behavior of dust particle aggregates immersed in a complex plasma first requires a knowledge of the basic properties of the system. Among the most important of these are the net electrostatic charge and higher multipole moments on the dust aggregate as well as the manner in which the aggregate interacts with the local electrostatic fields. The formation of elongated, fractal-like aggregates levitating in the sheath electric field of a weakly ionized RF generated plasma discharge has recently been observed experimentally. The resulting data has shown that as aggregates approach one another, they can both accelerate and rotate. At equilibrium, aggregates are observed to levitate with regular spacing, rotating about their long axis aligned parallel to the sheath electric field. Since gas drag tends to slow any such rotation, energy must be constantly fed into the system in order to sustain it. A numerical model designed to analyze this motion provides both the electrostatic charge and higher multipole moments of the aggregate while including the forces due to thermophoresis, neutral gas drag, and the ion wakefield. This model will be used to investigate the ambient conditions leading to the observed interactions. This research is funded by NSF Grant 1414523.

  2. Analytical approximations for describing the interaction of charged particles with the emitter of a radioisotope current source

    CERN Document Server

    Altajskij, M V; Erokhin, N S; Zolnikova, N N; Mikhajlovskaya, L A; Moiseev, S S

    2002-01-01

    The approximation formulae for modeling the interaction of the fast alpha-particles and superthermal electrons with the solid-state plasma of the emitter films of the secondary emission radioisotope current source are developed. The evaluations of the interactions characteristic parameters, including the effective breaking efficiency of the emitter composite medium and the alpha-particles run, the emitter optimal thickness and maximum number of the current binary cells are accomplished on their basis. The obtained results may be used for optimizing the parameters of the experimental sample of such source and for the analysis of the problems, connected with its operation

  3. Single neutral pion production by charged-current ν¯μ interactions on hydrocarbon at 〈Eν〉=3.6 GeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Le

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Single neutral pion production via muon antineutrino charged-current interactions in plastic scintillator (CH is studied using the MINERvA detector exposed to the NuMI low-energy, wideband antineutrino beam at Fermilab. Measurement of this process constrains models of neutral pion production in nuclei, which is important because the neutral-current analog is a background for ν¯e appearance oscillation experiments. The differential cross sections for π0 momentum and production angle, for events with a single observed π0 and no charged pions, are presented and compared to model predictions. These results comprise the first measurement of the π0 kinematics for this process.

  4. Inclusive production of ρ0(770), f0(980) and f2(1270) mesons in νμ charged current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inclusive production of the meson resonances ρ0(770), f0(980) and f2(1270) in neutrino-nucleus charged current interactions has been studied with the NOMAD detector exposed to the wide band neutrino beam generated by 450 GeV protons at the CERN SPS. For the first time the f0(980) meson is observed in neutrino interactions. The statistical significance of its observation is 6 standard deviations. The presence of f2(1270) in neutrino interactions is reliably established. The average multiplicity of these three resonances is measured as a function of several kinematic variables. The experimental results are compared to the multiplicities obtained from a simulation based on the Lund model. In addition, the average multiplicity of ρ0(770) in antineutrino-nucleus interactions is measured

  5. Strange-particle production in high-energy nu-bar and ν charged-current interactions on protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the semi-inclusive reactions nu-barp→μ+V0X and νp→μ-V0X, and measured the fractional rate for producing one or more neutral strange particles in these reactions to be 0.16 +- 0.03 and 0.15 +- 0.04, respectively. We have observed K-(892) and Σ-(1385) production in nu-barp scattering at a few percent of the inclusive rate. No evidence for D0 production was seen in the K0/sub S/π+π- final state. The distributions in the standard deep-inelastic kinematic variables are presented for events with strange particles and compared to those for the other charged-current data. The fragmentation properties of events containing a K0/sub S/ are in agreement with results from electroproduction experiments, and we have measured ∫/sup 1.0//sub 0.3/(1/N/sub T/)(dN/dz)dz = 0.029 +- 0.005, which is smaller than the prediction of the Field and Feynman fragmentation model

  6. Coherent production of single pions and ρ mesons in charged-current interactions of neutrinos and antineutrinos on neon nuclei at the Fermilab Tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coherent production of π and ρ mesons in νμ(bar νμ)--neon charged-current interactions has been studied using the Fermilab 15-foot bubble chamber filled with a heavy Ne-H2 mix and exposed to the Teva- tron quadrupole triplet (anti)neutrino beam. The νμ (bar νμ) beam had an average energy of 80 GeV (70 GeV). From a sample corresponding to approximately 28 000 charged-current interactions, net signals of (53±9) μ±πminus-plus coherent events and (19±7) μ±πminus-plusπ0 coherent events are extracted. For E>10 GeV, the coherent pion production cross section is determined to be (3.2±0.7)x10-38 cm2 per neon nucleus whereas the coherent ρ production cross section is (2.1±0.8)x10-38 cm2 per neon nucleus. These cross sections and the kinematical characteristics of the coherent events at |t|2 are found to be in general agreement with the predictions of a model based on the hadron dominance and, in the pion case, on the partially conserved axial-vector current hypothesis. Also discussed is the coherent production of systems consisting of three pions

  7. Measurement of the neutral to charged current cross section ratios in neutrino and antineutrino nucleon interactions and determination of the Weinberg angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cross section ratios of neutral and charged current interactions induced by neutrinos and antineutrinos in iron have been measured in the 200 GeV narrow-band beam at the CERN SPS. We find Rsub(ν)=0.301+-0.007 and Rsub(anti ν)=0.363+-0.015 for a hadron energy cut of 10 GeV. The results are in agreement with the standard model of electroweak interactions. In the MS renormalization scheme at the scale of the W boson mass sin2Osub(w)(msub(w))=0.226+-0.012 is obtained, where the error represents the experimental uncertainty. The theoretical uncertainty is estimated to be Δ sind2Osub(w)=+-0.006. (orig.)

  8. The Axial Current in Electromagnetic Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Cheoun, M K; Cheon, I T; Cheoun, Myung Ki; Cheon, Il-Tong

    1998-01-01

    We discussed the possibility that the charged axial currents of matter fields could be non-conserved in electromagnetic interaction at $O(e) $ order. It means that chiral symmetry is broken explicitly by electromagnetic interaction. This explicit symmetry breaking of chiral symmetry is shown to lead the mass differences between the charged and neutral particles of matter fields.

  9. Determination of the nucleon structure functions in the study of the inclusive charged current interactions of neutrinos and antineutrinos in iron between 30 and 200 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the deep inelastic neutrino scattering experiment of the CERN-Dortmund-Heidelberg-Saclay collaboration realized on the CERN SPS narrow band beam, we have measured 23000 charged current neutrino and 6200 antineutrino interactions. The structure functions of the nucleon have been extracted from the differential cross sections on iron and compared with parton model predictions. The total cross sections and the fraction of momentum carried by the antiquarks in the nucleon have been measured as function of the neutrino energy. The structure functions obtained for different Q2 bins show significant deviations from scale invariance. The data are in agreement with QCD predictions for a value of the scale parameter Λ between 300 and 700 MeV

  10. Determination of total cross section of the charged current (anti) neutrino-nucleon interactions in an iron target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the measurements of the total cross section of (anti)neutrino-iron interactions, performed in 1982-83 with the detector of the CDHS collaboration, installed in a neutrino beam at the CERN SPS. We detail the set-up of the beam and the methods used to measure the flux of in-coming particles. The analysis of events recorded in the apparatus has permitted to verify that the total cross sections grow linearly with the energy of incident neutrinos, in agreement with the predictions of the naive quark-parton model. We have found for the slopes: σν/E = (.693 ±.026) 10-38 cm2/GeV σν-/E = (.327 ±.012) 10-38 cm2/GeV in the energy range 10-200 GeV. The systematical errors are discussed in detail. Finally, we compare our results with those obtained in other experiments. (author)

  11. Measurement of the Electron Neutrino Charged-current Interaction Rate on Water with the T2K ND280 pi-zero Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, K; Aihara, H; Andreopoulos, C; Aoki, S; Ariga, A; Assylbekov, S; Autiero, D; Barbi, M; Barker, G J; Barr, G; Bartet-Friburg, P; Bass, M; Batkiewicz, M; Bay, F; Berardi, V; Berger, B E; Berkman, S; Bhadra, S; Blaszczyk, F d M; Blondel, A; Bolognesi, S; Bordoni, S; Boyd, S B; Brailsford, D; Bravar, A; Bronner, C; Buchanan, N; Calland, R G; Caravaca, J; Cartwright, S L; Castillo, R; Catanesi, M G; Cervera, A; Cherdack, D; Christodoulou, G; Clifton, A; Coleman, J; Coleman, S J; Collazuol, G; Connolly, K; Cremonesi, L; Dabrowska, A; Das, R; Davis, S; de, P; De, G; Dealtry, T; Dennis, S R; Densham, C; Dewhurst, D; Di, F; Di, S; Dolan, S; Drapier, O; Duffy, K; Dumarchez, J; Dytman, S; Dziewiecki, M; Emery-Schrenk, S; Ereditato, A; Escudero, L; Feusels, T; Finch, A J; Fiorentini, G A; Friend, M; Fujii, Y; Fukuda, Y; Furmanski, A P; Galymov, V; Garcia, A; Giffin, S; Giganti, C; Gilje, K; Goeldi, D; Golan, T; Gonin, M; Grant, N; Gudin, D; Hadley, D R; Haegel, L; Haesler, A; Haigh, M D; Hamilton, P; Hansen, D; Hara, T; Hartz, M; Hasegawa, T; Hastings, N C; Hayashino, T; Hayato, Y; Helmer, R L; Hierholzer, M; Hignight, J; Hillairet, A; Himmel, A; Hiraki, T; Hirota, S; Holeczek, J; Horikawa, S; Huang, K; Ichikawa, A K; Ieki, K; Ieva, M; Ikeda, M; Imber, J; Insler, J; Irvine, T J; Ishida, T; Ishii, T; Iwai, E; Iwamoto, K; Iyogi, K; Izmaylov, A; Jacob, A; Jamieson, B; Jiang, M; Johnson, S; Jo, J H; Jonsson, P; Jung, C K; Kabirnezhad, M; Kaboth, A C; Kajita, T; Kakuno, H; Kameda, J; Kanazawa, Y; Karlen, D; Karpikov, I; Katori, T; Kearns, E; Khabibullin, M; Khotjantsev, A; Kielczewska, D; Kikawa, T; Kilinski, A; Kim, J; King, S; Kisiel, J; Kitching, P; Kobayashi, T; Koch, L; Koga, T; Kolaceke, A; Konaka, A; Kormos, L L; Korzenev, A; Koshio, Y; Kropp, W; Kubo, H; Kudenko, Y; Kurjata, R; Kutter, T; Lagoda, J; Lamont, I; Larkin, E; Laveder, M; Lawe, M; Lazos, M; Lindner, T; Lister, C; Litchfield, R P; Longhin, A; Lopez, J P; Ludovici, L; Magaletti, L; Mahn, K; Malek, M; Manly, S; Marino, A D; Marteau, J; Martin, J F; Martins, P; Martynenko, S; Maruyama, T; Matveev, V; Mavrokoridis, K; Mazzucato, E; McCarthy, M; McCauley, N; McFarland, K S; McGrew, C; Mefodiev, A; Metelko, C; Mezzetto, M; Mijakowski, P; Miller, C A; Minamino, A; Mineev, O; Missert, A; Miura, M; Moriyama, S; Mueller, Th A; Murakami, A; Murdoch, M; Murphy, S; Myslik, J; Nakadaira, T; Nakahata, M; Nakamura, K G; Nakamura, K; Nakayama, S; Nakaya, T; Nakayoshi, K; Nantais, C; Nielsen, C; Nirkko, M; Nishikawa, K; Nishimura, Y; Nowak, J; O'Keeffe, H M; Ohta, R; Okumura, K; Okusawa, T; Oryszczak, W; Oser, S M; Ovsyannikova, T; Owen, R A; Oyama, Y; Palladino, V; Palomino, J L; Paolone, V; Payne, D; Perevozchikov, O; Perkin, J D; Petrov, Y; Pickard, L; Pinzon, E S; Pistillo, C; Plonski, P; Poplawska, E; Popov, B; Posiadala-Zezula, M; Poutissou, J -M; Poutissou, R; Przewlocki, P; Quilain, B; Radicioni, E; Ratoff, P N; Ravonel, M; Rayner, M A M; Redij, A; Reeves, M; Reinherz-Aronis, E; Riccio, C; Rodrigues, P A; Rojas, P; Rondio, E; Roth, S; Rubbia, A; Ruterbories, D; Rychter, A; Sacco, R; Sakashita, K; S, F; Sato, F; Scantamburlo, E; Scholberg, K; Schoppmann, S; Schwehr, J; Scott, M; Seiya, Y; Sekiguchi, T; Sekiya, H; Sgalaberna, D; Shah, R; Shaker, F; Shaw, D; Shiozawa, M; Short, S; Shustrov, Y; Sinclair, P; Smith, B; Smy, M; Sobczyk, J T; Sobel, H; Sorel, M; Southwell, L; Stamoulis, P; Steinmann, J; Suda, Y; Suzuki, A; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, S Y; Suzuki, Y; Tacik, R; Tada, M; Takahashi, S; Takeda, A; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, H K; Tanaka, H A; Tanaka, M M; Terhorst, D; Terri, R; Thompson, L F; Thorley, A; Tobayama, S; Toki, W; Tomura, T; Totsuka, Y; Touramanis, C; Tsukamoto, T; Tzanov, M; Uchida, Y; Vacheret, A; Vagins, M; Vasseur, G; Wachala, T; Wakamatsu, K; Walter, C W; Wark, D; Warzycha, W; Wascko, M O; Weber, A; Wendell, R; Wilkes, R J; Wilking, M J; Wilkinson, C; Williamson, Z; Wilson, J R; Wilson, R J; Wongjirad, T; Yamada, Y; Yamamoto, K; Yanagisawa, C; Yano, T; Yen, S; Yershov, N; Yokoyama, M; Yoshida, K; Yuan, T; Yu, M; Zalewska, A; Zalipska, J; Zambelli, L; Zaremba, K; Ziembicki, M; Zimmerman, E D; Zito, M; Zmuda, J

    2015-01-01

    The first direct observation of the appearance of electron neutrinos in a muon neutrino beam through neutrino oscillation was recently reported by the T2K experiment. The main background in this observation was the presence of the electron neutrino component of the beam, which accounts for 1.2 % of the beam below the 1.2 GeV threshold. This paper presents a measurement of the charged current interaction rate of the electron neutrino beam component using the large fiducial mass of the T2K $\\pi^0$ detector. The measured ratio of the observed beam interaction rate to the predicted rate in the detector with water targets filled is 0.89 $\\pm$ 0.08 (stat.) $\\pm$ 0.11 (sys.), and with the water targets emptied is 0.90 $\\pm$ 0.09 (stat.) $\\pm$ 0.13 (sys.). The ratio obtained for the interactions on water only from an event subtraction method is 0.87 $\\pm$ 0.33 (stat.) $\\pm$ 0.21 (sys.). These are pioneering measurements of the $\

  12. Experimental study of nonlinear interaction of plasma flow with charged thin current sheets: 1. Boundary structure and motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Amata

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We study plasma transport at a thin magnetopause (MP, described hereafter as a thin current sheet (TCS, observed by Cluster at the southern cusp on 13 February 2001 around 20:01 UT. The Cluster observations generally agree with the predictions of the Gas Dynamic Convection Field (GDCF model in the magnetosheath (MSH up to the MSH boundary layer, where significant differences are seen. We find for the MP a normal roughly along the GSE x-axis, which implies a clear departure from the local average MP normal, a ~90 km thickness and an outward speed of 35 km/s. Two populations are identified in the MSH boundary layer: the first one roughly perpendicular to the MSH magnetic field, which we interpret as the "incident" MSH plasma, the second one mostly parallel to B. Just after the MP crossing a velocity jet is observed with a peak speed of 240 km/s, perpendicular to B, with MA=3 and β>10 (peak value 23. The magnetic field clock angle rotates by 70° across the MP. Ex is the main electric field component on both sides of the MP, displaying a bipolar signature, positive on the MSH side and negative on the opposite side, corresponding to a ~300 V electric potential jump across the TCS. The E×B velocity generally coincides with the perpendicular velocity measured by CIS; however, in the speed jet a difference between the two is observed, which suggests the need for an extra flow source. We propose that the MP TCS can act locally as an obstacle for low-energy ions (<350 eV, being transparent for ions with larger gyroradius. As a result, the penetration of plasma by finite gyroradius is considered as a possible source for the jet. The role of reconnection is briefly discussed. The electrodynamics of the TCS along with mass and momentum transfer across it are further discussed in the companion paper by Savin et al. (2006.

  13. Stabilization of electrostatic accelerator charging belt current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of improving reliability and quality of electrostatic accelerator basic parameters the stabilizer of charging belt current is developed. The stabilizer consists of two units: high-voltage unit and control unit. The charging rectifier assures voltage up to 60 kV at total current load of 750 μA. For the EG- 2.5 and the EGP-10 M accelerators supply circuits of charging device with an earth screen and posAitive voltage supply the needles. t the EGP-10-1 accelerator negative charging voltage is supplied to the screens of the charging device. ''Plus'' of the rectifier is earthed. Charging and recharging are performed by means of brushes slipping over the internal belt side. At all accelerators the stability of charging current mean value is not worse 0.1%. The highest response of the system are obtained at the EG-2.5 accelerator for account of rectifier load by charging current and instrument resistor from 140 to 400 MOhm

  14. A Measurement of the muon neutrino charged current quasielastic interaction and a test of Lorentz violation with the MiniBooNE experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katori, Teppei; /Indiana U.

    2008-12-01

    The Mini-Booster neutrino experiment (MiniBooNE) at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) is designed to search for {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} appearance neutrino oscillations. Muon neutrino charged-current quasi-elastic (CCQE) interactions ({nu}{sub {mu}} + n {yields} {mu} + p) make up roughly 40% of our data sample, and it is used to constrain the background and cross sections for the oscillation analysis. Using high-statistics MiniBooNE CCQE data, the muon-neutrino CCQE cross section is measured. The nuclear model is tuned precisely using the MiniBooNE data. The measured total cross section is {sigma} = (1.058 {+-} 0.003 (stat) {+-} 0.111 (syst)) x 10{sup -38} cm{sup 2} at the MiniBooNE muon neutrino beam energy (700-800 MeV). {nu}{sub e} appearance candidate data is also used to search for Lorentz violation. Lorentz symmetry is one of the most fundamental symmetries in modern physics. Neutrino oscillations offer a new method to test it. We found that the MiniBooNE result is not well-described using Lorentz violation, however further investigation is required for a more conclusive result.

  15. A Measurement of the muon neutrino charged current quasielastic interaction and a test of Lorentz violation with the MiniBooNE experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katori, Teppei [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2008-12-01

    The Mini-Booster neutrino experiment (MiniBooNE) at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) is designed to search for vμ → ve appearance neutrino oscillations. Muon neutrino charged-current quasi-elastic (CCQE) interactions (vμ + n → μ + p) make up roughly 40% of our data sample, and it is used to constrain the background and cross sections for the oscillation analysis. Using high-statistics MiniBooNE CCQE data, the muon-neutrino CCQE cross section is measured. The nuclear model is tuned precisely using the MiniBooNE data. The measured total cross section is σ = (1.058 ± 0.003 (stat) ± 0.111 (syst)) x 10-38 cm2 at the MiniBooNE muon neutrino beam energy (700-800 MeV). ve appearance candidate data is also used to search for Lorentz violation. Lorentz symmetry is one of the most fundamental symmetries in modern physics. Neutrino oscillations offer a new method to test it. We found that the MiniBooNE result is not well-described using Lorentz violation, however further investigation is required for a more conclusive result.

  16. Single neutral pion production by charged-current $\\bar{\

    CERN Document Server

    Aliaga, L; Bercellie, A; Bodek, A; Bravar, A; Brooks, W K; Butkevich, A; Caicedo, D A Martinez; Carneiro, M F; Christy, M E; Chvojka, J; da Motta, H; Devan, J; Dytman, S A; Díaz, G A; Eberly, B; Felix, J; Fields, L; Fine, R; Gago, A M; Gallagher, H; Gran, R; Harris, D A; Higuera, A; Hurtado, K; Kordosky, M; Le, T; Maher, E; Manly, S; Mann, W A; Marshall, C M; McFarland, K S; McGivern, C L; McGowan, A M; Miller, J; Morfín, J G; Mousseau, J; Nelson, J K; Norrick, A; Osta, J; Palomino, J L; Paolone, V; Park, J; Patrick, C E; Perdue, G N; Rakotondravohitra, L; Ramirez, M A; Ransome, R D; Ray, H; Ren, L; Rodrigues, P A; Ruterbories, D; Schellman, H; Schmitz, D W; Sobczyk, J T; Salinas, C J Solano; Tagg, N; Tice, B G; Valencia, E; Walton, T; Wolcott, J; Yepes-Ramirez, H; Zavala, G; Zhang, D; Ziemer, B P

    2015-01-01

    Single neutral pion production via muon antineutrino charged-current interactions in plastic scintillator (CH) is studied using the \\minerva detector exposed to the NuMI low-energy, wideband antineutrino beam at Fermilab. Measurement of this process constrains models of neutral pion production in nuclei, which is important because the neutral-current analog is a background for $\\bar{\

  17. Testing charged current quasi-elastic and multinucleon interaction models in the NEUT neutrino interaction generator with published datasets from the MiniBooNE and MINERνA experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, C.; Terri, R.; Andreopoulos, C.; Bercellie, A.; Bronner, C.; Cartwright, S.; de Perio, P.; Dobson, J.; Duffy, K.; Furmanski, A. P.; Haegel, L.; Hayato, Y.; Kaboth, A.; Mahn, K.; McFarland, K. S.; Nowak, J.; Redij, A.; Rodrigues, P.; Sánchez, F.; Schwehr, J. D.; Sinclair, P.; Sobczyk, J. T.; Stamoulis, P.; Stowell, P.; Tacik, R.; Thompson, L.; Tobayama, S.; Wascko, M. O.; Żmuda, J.

    2016-04-01

    There has been a great deal of theoretical work on sophisticated charged current quasi-elastic (CCQE) neutrino interaction models in recent years, prompted by a number of experimental results that measured unexpectedly large CCQE cross sections on nuclear targets. As the dominant interaction mode at T2K energies, and the signal process in oscillation analyses, it is important for the T2K experiment to include realistic CCQE cross section uncertainties in T2K analyses. To this end, T2K's Neutrino Interaction Working Group has implemented a number of recent models in NEUT, T2K's primary neutrino interaction event generator. In this paper, we give an overview of the models implemented and present fits to published νμ and ν¯ μ CCQE cross section measurements from the MiniBooNE and MINER ν A experiments. The results of the fits are used to select a default cross section model for future T2K analyses and to constrain the cross section uncertainties of the model. We find strong tension between datasets for all models investigated. Among the evaluated models, the combination of a modified relativistic Fermi gas with multinucleon CCQE-like interactions gives the most consistent description of the available data.

  18. Charged particle beam current monitoring tutorial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A tutorial presentation is made on topics related to the measurement of charged particle beam currents. The fundamental physics of electricity and magnetism pertinent to the problem is reviewed. The physics is presented with a stress on its interpretation from an electrical circuit theory point of view. The operation of devices including video pulse current transformers, direct current transformers, and gigahertz bandwidth wall current style transformers is described. Design examples are given for each of these types of devices. Sensitivity, frequency response, and physical environment are typical parameters which influence the design of these instruments in any particular application. Practical engineering considerations, potential pitfalls, and performance limitations are discussed

  19. Charged-Current and Neutral-Current Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering in a Relativistic Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Giusti, Carlotta; Pacati, Franco Davide

    2009-01-01

    Relativistic models developed for the exclusive and inclusive QuasiElastic (QE) electron scattering have been extended to Charged-Current (CC) and Neutral-Current (NC) neutrino-nucleus scattering. The results of different descriptions of Final-State Interactions (FSI) are compared.

  20. Electrostatic vibration energy harvester with increased charging current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of the operation of the electrostatic vibration energy harvester to charge self-contained power supply is carried out. An analytical expression to estimate the average charging current taking into account diode's reverse current is obtained. The ways to increase the charging current were found. The harvester with increased charging current containing no switches and inductive elements is suggested

  1. Decoherence of charge qubit coupled to interacting background charges

    OpenAIRE

    Yurkevich, I. V.; Baldwin, J.; Lerner, I. V.; Altshuler, B. L.

    2009-01-01

    The major contribution to decoherence of a double quantum dot or a Josephson junction charge qubit comes from the electrostatic coupling to fluctuating background charges hybridized with the conduction electrons in the reservoir. However, estimations according to previously developed theories show that finding a sufficient number of effective fluctuators in a realistic experimental layout is quite improbable. We show that this paradox is resolved by allowing for a short-range Coulomb interact...

  2. Measurement of $K^{+}$ production in charged-current $\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, C.M.; et al.

    2016-07-14

    Production of K+ mesons in charged-current νμ interactions on plastic scintillator (CH) is measured using MINERvA exposed to the low-energy NuMI beam at Fermilab. Timing information is used to isolate a sample of 885 charged-current events containing a stopping K+ which decays at rest. The differential cross section in K+ kinetic energy, dσ/dTK, is observed to be relatively flat between 0 and 500 MeV. Its shape is in good agreement with the prediction by the genie neutrino event generator when final-state interactions are included, however the data rate is lower than the prediction by 15%.

  3. Phospholipid and Hydrocarbon Interactions with a Charged Electrode Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Zachary A; DeNardis, Nadica Ivošević; Vernier, P Thomas

    2016-03-22

    Using a combination of molecular dynamics simulations and experiments we examined the interactions of alkanes and phospholipids at charged interfaces in order to understand how interfacial charge densities affect the association of these two representative molecules with electrodes. Consistent with theory and experiment, these model systems reveal interfacial associations mediated through a combination of Coulombic and van der Waals forces. van der Waals forces, in particular, mediate rapid binding of decane to neutral electrodes. No decane binding was observed at high surface charge densities because of interfacial water polarization, which screens hydrophobic attractions. The positively charged choline moiety of the phospholipid palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC) is primarily responsible for POPC attraction by a moderately negatively charged electrode. The hydrocarbon tails of POPC interact with the hydrophobic electrode interface similarly to decane. Previously reported electrochemical results confirm these findings by demonstrating bipolar displacement currents from PC vesicles adhering to moderately negatively charged interfaces, originating from the choline interactions observed in simulations. At more negatively charged interfaces, choline-to-surface binding was stronger. In both simulations and experiments the maximal interaction of anionic PS occurs with a positively charged interface, provided that the electrostatic forces outweigh local Lennard-Jones interactions. Direct comparisons between the binding affinities measured in experiments and those obtained in simulations reveal previously unobserved atomic interactions that facilitate lipid vesicle adhesion to charged interfaces. Moreover, the implementation of a charged interface in molecular dynamics simulations provides an alternative method for the generation of large electric fields across phospholipid bilayers, especially for systems with periodic boundary conditions, and may be useful for

  4. Electrostatic Interactions of Asymmetrically Charged Membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Yaakov, Dan; Burak, Yoram; Andelman, David; Safran, S. A.

    2007-01-01

    We predict the nature (attractive or repulsive) and range (exponentially screened or long-range power law) of the electrostatic interactions of oppositely charged and planar plates as a function of the salt concentration and surface charge densities (whose absolute magnitudes are not necessarily equal). An analytical expression for the crossover between attractive and repulsive pressure is obtained as a function of the salt concentration. This condition reduces to the high-salt limit of Parse...

  5. Field theoretic description of charge regulation interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Adzic, Natasa

    2014-01-01

    In order to find the exact form of the electrostatic interaction between two proteins with dissociable charge groups in aqueous solution, we have studied a model system composed of two macroscopic surfaces with charge dissociation sites immersed in a counterion-only ionic solution. Field-theoretic representation of the grand canonical partition function is derived and evaluated within the mean-field approximation, giving the Poisson-Boltzmann theory with the Ninham-Parsegian boundary condition. Gaussian fluctuations around the mean-field are then analyzed in the lowest order correction that we calculate analytically and exactly, using the path integral representation for the partition function of a harmonic oscillator with time-depended frequency. The first order (one loop) free energy correction gives the interaction free energy that reduces to the zero-frequency van der Waals form in the appropriate limit but in general gives rise to a mono-polar fluctuation term due to charge fluctuation at the dissociatio...

  6. Natural Limits for Currents in Charge Separated Pulsar Magnetospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Jessner, A; Kunzl, T A

    2002-01-01

    Rough estimates and upper limits on current and particle densities form the basis of most of the canonical pulsar models. Whereas the surface of the rotating neutron star is capable of supplying sufficient charges to provide a current that, given the polar cap potential, could easily fuel the observed energy loss processes, observational and theoretical constraints provide strict upper limits to the charge densities. The space charge of a current consisting solely of particles having only one sign creates a compensating potential that will make the maximum current dependent on potential and distance. In the non-relativistic case this fact is expressed in the familiar Child-Langmuir law. Its relativistic generalization and subsequent application to the inner pulsar magnetosphere provides clear limits on the strength and radial extension of charged currents originating on the polar cap. Violent Pierce-type oscillations set in, if one attempts to inject more current than the space charge limit into a given volum...

  7. Modeling of stored charge in metallized biaxially oriented polypropylene film capacitors based on charging current measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Wang, Bowen; Li, Zhiwei; Liu, De; Lin, Fuchang; Dai, Ling; Zhang, Qin; Chen, Yaohong

    2013-10-01

    Metallized biaxially oriented polypropylene film (BOPP) capacitors are widely used in pulsed power systems. When the capacitor is used as the energy storage equipment under high electric field, more charges should be provided to maintain the voltage of the capacitor. This should be ascribed to the completion of the slow polarization which may take several hours or even longer. This paper focuses on the stored charge in metallized BOPP film capacitors. The modeling of the stored charge by the equivalent conversion of circuits is conducted to analyse the slow polarization in the BOPP film. The 3-RC network is proposed to represent the time-dependent charge stored in the capacitor. A charging current measurement system is established to investigate the charge storage property of the capacitor. The measurement system can measure the long time charging current with a sampling rate of 300 Hz. The total charge calculated by the charging current indicates that the stored charge in the capacitor under the electric field of 400 V/μm is 13.5% larger than the product of the voltage and the capacitance measured by the AC bridge. The nonlinear effect of the electric field on the slow polarization charge is also demonstrated. And the simulation of charge storage based on the 3-RC network can match well with the trend of the stored charge increasing with the time. PMID:24182144

  8. Measurement of double-differential muon neutrino charged-current interactions on C$_8$H$_8$ without pions in the final state using the T2K off-axis beam

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, K; Antonova, M; Aoki, S; Ariga, A; Assylbekov, S; Autiero, D; Barbi, M; Barker, G J; Barr, G; Bartet-Friburg, P; Batkiewicz, M; Berardi, V; Berkman, S; Bhadra, S; Blondel, A; Bolognesi, S; Bordoni, S; Boyd, S B; Brailsford, D; Bravar, A; Bronner, C; Avanzini, M Buizza; Calland, R G; Cao, S; Rodríguez, J Caravaca; Cartwright, S L; Castillo, R; Catanesi, M G; Cervera, A; Cherdack, D; Chikuma, N; Christodoulou, G; Clifton, A; Coleman, J; Collazuol, G; Cremonesi, L; Dabrowska, A; De Rosa, G; Dealtry, T; Denner, P F; Dennis, S R; Densham, C; Dewhurst, D; Di Lodovico, F; Di Luise, S; Dolan, S; Drapier, O; Duffy, K E; Dumarchez, J; Dytman, S; Dziewiecki, M; Emery-Schrenk, S; Ereditato, A; Feusels, T; Finch, A J; Fiorentini, G A; Friend, M; Fujii, Y; Fukuda, D; Fukuda, Y; Furmanski, A P; Galymov, V; Garcia, A; Giffin, S G; Giganti, C; Gizzarelli, F; Gonin, M; Grant, N; Hadley, D R; Haegel, L; Haigh, M D; Hamilton, P; Hansen, D; Hara, T; Hartz, M; Hasegawa, T; Hastings, N C; Hayashino, T; Hayato, Y; Helmer, R L; Hierholzer, M; Hillairet, A; Himmel, A; Hiraki, T; Hirota, S; Hogan, M; Holeczek, J; Horikawa, S; Hosomi, F; Huang, K; Ichikawa, A K; Ieki, K; Ikeda, M; Imber, J; Insler, J; Intonti, R A; Irvine, T J; Ishida, T; Ishii, T; Iwai, E; Iwamoto, K; Izmaylov, A; Jacob, A; Jamieson, B; Jiang, M; Johnson, S; Jo, J H; Jonsson, P; Jung, C K; Kabirnezhad, M; Kaboth, A C; Kajita, T; Kakuno, H; Kameda, J; Karlen, D; Karpikov, I; Katori, T; Kearns, E; Khabibullin, M; Khotjantsev, A; Kielczewska, D; Kikawa, T; Kim, H; Kim, J; King, S; Kisiel, J; Knight, A; Knox, A; Kobayashi, T; Koch, L; Koga, T; Konaka, A; Kondo, K; Kopylov, A; Kormos, L L; Korzenev, A; Koshio, Y; Kropp, W; Kudenko, Y; Kurjata, R; Kutter, T; Lagoda, J; Lamont, I; Larkin, E; Lasorak, P; Laveder, M; Lawe, M; Lazos, M; Lindner, T; Liptak, Z J; Litchfield, R P; Li, X; Longhin, A; Lopez, J P; Ludovici, L; Lu, X; Magaletti, L; Mahn, K; Malek, M; Manly, S; Marino, A D; Marteau, J; Martin, J F; Martins, P; Martynenko, S; Maruyama, T; Matveev, V; Mavrokoridis, K; Ma, W Y; Mazzucato, E; McCarthy, M; McCauley, N; McFarland, K S; McGrew, C; Mefodiev, A; Mezzetto, M; Mijakowski, P; Minamino, A; Mineev, O; Mine, S; Missert, A; Miura, M; Moriyama, S; Mueller, Th A; Murphy, S; Myslik, J; Nakadaira, T; Nakahata, M; Nakamura, K G; Nakamura, K; Nakamura, K D; Nakayama, S; Nakaya, T; Nakayoshi, K; Nantais, C; Nielsen, C; Nirkko, M; Nishikawa, K; Nishimura, Y; Nowak, J; O'Keeffe, H M; Ohta, R; Okumura, K; Okusawa, T; Oryszczak, W; Oser, S M; Ovsyannikova, T; Owen, R A; Oyama, Y; Palladino, V; Palomino, J L; Paolone, V; Patel, N D; Pavin, M; Payne, D; Perkin, J D; Petrov, Y; Pickard, L; Pickering, L; Guerra, E S Pinzon; Pistillo, C; Popov, B; Posiadala-Zezula, M; Poutissou, J -M; Poutissou, R; Przewlocki, P; Quilain, B; Radicioni, E; Ratoff, P N; Ravonel, M; Rayner, M A M; Redij, A; Reinherz-Aronis, E; Riccio, C; Rojas, P; Rondio, E; Roth, S; Rubbia, A; Rychter, A; Sacco, R; Sakashita, K; Sánchez, F; Sato, F; Scantamburlo, E; Scholberg, K; Schoppmann, S; Schwehr, J; Scott, M; Seiya, Y; Sekiguchi, T; Sekiya, H; Sgalaberna, D; Shah, R; Shaikhiev, A; Shaker, F; Shaw, D; Shiozawa, M; Shirahige, T; Short, S; Smy, M; Sobczyk, J T; Sorel, M; Southwell, L; Stamoulis, P; Steinmann, J; Stewart, T; Suda, Y; Suvorov, S; Suzuki, A; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, S Y; Suzuki, Y; Tacik, R; Tada, M; Takahashi, S; Takeda, A; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, H K; Tanaka, H A; Terhorst, D; Terri, R; Thakore, T; Thompson, L F; Tobayama, S; Toki, W; Tomura, T; Touramanis, C; Tsukamoto, T; Tzanov, M; Uchida, Y; Vacheret, A; Vagins, M; Vallari, Z; Vasseur, G; Wachala, T; Wakamatsu, K; Walter, C W; Wark, D; Warzycha, W; Wascko, M O; Weber, A; Wendell, R; Wilkes, R J; Wilking, M J; Wilkinson, C; Wilson, J R; Wilson, R J; Yamada, Y; Yamamoto, K; Yamamoto, M; Yanagisawa, C; Yano, T; Yen, S; Yershov, N; Yokoyama, M; Yoshida, K; Yuan, T; Yu, M; Zalewska, A; Zalipska, J; Zambelli, L; Zaremba, K; Ziembicki, M; Zimmerman, E D; Zito, M; Żmuda, J

    2016-01-01

    We report the measurement of muon neutrino charged-current interactions on carbon without pions in the final state at the T2K beam energy using 5.734$\\times10^{20}$ protons on target. For the first time the measurement is reported as a flux-integrated, double-differential cross-section in muon kinematic variables ($\\cos\\theta_\\mu$, $p_\\mu$), without correcting for events where a pion is produced and then absorbed by final state interactions. Two analyses are performed with different selections, background evaluations and cross-section extraction methods to demonstrate the robustness of the results against biases due to model-dependent assumptions. The measurements compare favorably with recent models which include nucleon-nucleon correlations but, given the present precision, the measurement does not solve the degeneracy between different models. The data also agree with Monte Carlo simulations which use effective parameters that are tuned to external data to describe the nuclear effects. The total cross-sect...

  9. Structure of charged-current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of the quark mixing matrix is reviewed. New lower bounds on absolute value of sin delta and on sin β/sin THETA in the Maiani representation follow from a maximum top quark mass of 50 GeV. Recent data relevant to possible S, P, and T couplings are reviewed, and new results on muon decay parameters eta and delta are presented. A new measurement of xiP/sub μ/delta/rho by a different technique has confirmed the recently published stringent new limit. Constraints on a possible right-handed W and the effect of various assumptions concerning the associated right-handed neutrino are disucssed. 39 references

  10. Interactions of charged dust particles in clouds of charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundienkov, Vladimir; Yakovlenko, Sergey

    2004-03-01

    Two charged dust particles inside a cloud of charges are considered as Debye atoms forming a Debye molecule. Cassini coordinates are used for the numerical solution of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation for the charged cloud. The electric force acting on a dust particle by the other dust particle was determined by integrating the electrostatic pressure on the surface of the dust particle. It is shown that attractive forces appear when the following two conditions are satisfied. First, the average distance between dust particles should be approximately equal to two Debye radii. Second, attraction takes place when similar charges are concentrated predominantly on the dust particles. If the particles carry a small fraction of total charge of the same polarity, repulsion between the particles takes place at all distances. We apply our results to the experiments with thermoemission plasma and to the experiments with nuclear-pumped plasma.

  11. Modeling Dendrimers Charge Interaction in Solution: Relevance in Biosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Lombardo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dendrimers are highly branched macromolecules obtained by stepwise controlled, reaction sequences. The ability to be designed for specific applications makes dendrimers unprecedented components to control the structural organization of matter during the bottom-up synthesis of functional nanostructures. For their applications in the field of biotechnology the determination of dendrimer structural properties as well as the investigation of the specific interaction with guest components are needed. We show how the analysis of the scattering structure factor S(q, in the framework of current models for charged systems in solution, allows for obtaining important information of the interdendrimers electrostatic interaction potential. The finding of the presented results outlines the important role of the dendrimer charge and the solvent conditions in regulating, through the modulation of the electrostatic interaction potential, great part of the main structural properties. This charge interaction has been indicated by many studies as a crucial factor for a wide range of structural processes involving their biomedical application. Due to their easily controllable properties dendrimers can be considered at the crossroad between traditional colloids, associating polymers, and biological systems and represent then an interesting new technological approach and a suitable model system of molecular organization in biochemistry and related fields.

  12. Magnetohydrodynamics and charged currents in heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hot QCD matter produced in any heavy ion collision with a nonzero impact parameter is produced within a strong magnetic field. We study the imprint the magnetic fields produced in non-central heavy ion collisions leave on the azimuthal distributions and correlations of the produced charged hadrons. The magnetic field is time-dependent and the medium is expanding, which leads to the induction of charged currents due to the combination of Faraday and Hall effects. We find that these currents result in a charge-dependent directed flow v1 that is odd in rapidity and odd under charge exchange. It can be detected by measuring correlations between the directed flow of charged hadrons at different rapidities, 〈v1±(y1)v1±(y2)〉

  13. INTERACTION OF SIMILARLY CHARGED SURFACES MEDIATED BY NANOPARTICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Klemen Bohinc; Leo Lue

    2011-01-01

    We study the interaction between two like charged surfaces embedded in a solution of oppositely charged multivalent rod-like counterions. The counterions consist of two rigidly bonded point charges, each of valency Z. The strength of the electrostatic coupling increases with increasing surface charge density or valency of the charges. The system is analyzed by employing a self-consistent field theory, which treats the short and long range interactions of the counterions within different approximations. We find that in the weak coupling limit, the interactions are only repulsive. In the intermediate coupling regime, the multivalent rod-like counterions can mediate attractive interactions between the surfaces.For sufficiently long rods, bridging contributes to the attractive interaction. In the strong coupling limit, the charge correlations can contribute to the attractive interactions at short separations between the charged surfaces. Two minima can then appear in the force curve between surfaces.

  14. Interactions of charged spin-2 fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rham, Claudia; Matas, Andrew; Ondo, Nicholas A.; Tolley, Andrew J.

    2015-09-01

    In light of recent progress in ghost-free theories of massive gravity and multi-gravity, we reconsider the problem of constructing a ghost-free theory of an interacting spin-2 field charged under a U(1) gauge symmetry. Our starting point is the theory originally proposed by Federbush, which is essentially Fierz-Pauli generalized to include a minimal coupling to a U(1) gauge field. We show the Federbush theory with a dynamical U(1) field is in fact ghost-free and can be treated as a healthy effective field theory to describe a massive charged spin-2 particle. It can even potentially have healthy dynamics above its strong-coupling scale. We then construct candidate gravitational extensions to the Federbush theory both by using dimensional deconstruction, and by constructing a general nonlinear completion. However, we find that the U(1) symmetry forces us to modify the form of the Einstein-Hilbert kinetic term. By performing a constraint analysis directly in the first-order form, we show that these modified kinetic terms inevitably reintroduce the Boulware-Deser ghost. As a by-product of our analysis, we present a new proof for ghost-freedom of bi-gravity in 2+1 dimensions (also known as Zwei-Dreibein gravity). We also give a complementary algebraic argument that the Einstein-Hilbert kinetic term is incompatible with a U(1) symmetry, for a finite number of gravitons.

  15. Current noise of the interacting resonant level model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, T. J.; Kennes, D. M.; Meden, V.

    2016-02-01

    We study the zero-frequency current noise of the interacting resonant level model for arbitrary bias voltages using a functional renormalization group approach. For this we extend the existing nonequilibrium scheme by deriving and solving flow equations for the current-vertex functions. On-resonance artificial divergences of the latter found in lowest-order perturbation theory in the two-particle interaction are consistently removed. Away from resonance they are shifted to higher orders. This allows us to gain a comprehensive picture of the current noise in the scaling limit. At high bias voltages, the current noise exhibits a universal power-law decay, whose exponent is, to leading order in the interaction, identical to that of the current. The effective charge on resonance is analyzed in detail, employing properties of the vertex correction. We find that it is only modified to second or higher order in the two-particle interaction.

  16. Fluctuation-Induced Interaction between Randomly Charged Dielectrics

    OpenAIRE

    Naji, Ali; Dean, David S.; Sarabadani, Jalal; Horgan, Ron R.; Podgornik, Rudolf

    2009-01-01

    Monopolar charge disorder effects are studied in the context of fluctuation-induced interactions between neutral dielectric slabs. It is shown that quenched bulk charge disorder gives rise to an additive contribution to the net interaction force which decays as the inverse distance between the slabs and may thus completely mask the standard Casimir--van der Waals force at large separations. By contrast, annealed (bulk or surface) charge disorder leads to a net interaction force whose large-di...

  17. On the self-induced charge currents in electromagnetic materials and its effects in the torsion balance experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Jian Qi

    2003-01-01

    We concern ourselves with the self-induced charge currents in electromagnetic materials and some related topics on its effects in the present paper. The contribution of self-induced charge currents of metamaterial media to photon effective rest mass is briefly discussed. We concentrate primarily on the torque, which is caused by the interaction of self-induced charge currents in dilute plasma with interstellar magnetic fields, acting on the torsion balance in the torsion balance experiment. I...

  18. Research and design of a novel current mode charge pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xianrui; Lai Xinquan; Li Yushan; Ye Qiang

    2009-01-01

    To meet the demands for a number of LEDs, a novel charge pump circuit with current mode control is proposed. Regulation is achieved by operating the current mirrors and the output current of the operational transcon ductance amplifier. In the steady state, the input current from power voltage retains constant, so reducing the noise induced on the input voltage source and improving the output voltage ripple. The charge pump small-signal model is used to describe the device's dynamic behavior and stability. Analytical predictions were verified by Hspice sim ulation and testing. Load driving is up to 800 mA with a power voltage of 3.6 V, and the output voltage ripple is less than 45 mV. The output response time is less than 8 μs, and the load current jumps from 400 to 800 mA.

  19. Research and design of a novel current mode charge pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To meet the demands for a number of LEDs, a novel charge pump circuit with current mode control is proposed. Regulation is achieved by operating the current mirrors and the output current of the operational transconductance amplifier. In the steady state, the input current from power voltage retains constant, so reducing the noise induced on the input voltage source and improving the output voltage ripple. The charge pump small-signal model is used to describe the device's dynamic behavior and stability. Analytical predictions were verified by Hspice simulation and testing. Load driving is up to 800 mA with a power voltage of 3.6 V, and the output voltage ripple is less than 45 mV. The output response time is less than 8 μs, and the load current jumps from 400 to 800 mA.

  20. Meson Exchange Current (MEC) Models in Neutrino Interaction Generators

    CERN Document Server

    Katori, Teppei

    2013-01-01

    Understanding of the so-called 2 particle-2 hole (2p-2h) effect is an urgent program in neutrino interaction physics for current and future oscillation experiments. Such processes are believed to be responsible for the event excesses observed by recent neutrino experiments. The 2p-2h effect is dominated by the meson exchange current (MEC), and is accompanied by a 2-nucleon emission from the primary vertex, instead of a single nucleon emission from the charged-current quasi-elastic (CCQE) interaction. Current and future high resolution experiments can potentially nail down this effect. For this reason, there are world wide efforts to model and implement this process in neutrino interaction simulations. In these proceedings, I would like to describe how this channel is modeled in neutrino interaction generators.

  1. Electrodynamics as a theory of interacting complex charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we formulate a general theory of electrodynamics which incorporates both electric and magnetic charges. The mathematical origin of a second vector potential and magnetic charge is established. Electrodynamics is then reformulated in complex form as a theory of complex charges moving in a complex force field. This provides the framework for complex charged particle interactions as a generalization of Schwinger's theory of dyon-dyon interactions. The concept of duality transformation relating electric and magnetic charge spaces is developed within the general framework of electrodynamics in complex form. (author)

  2. Multibody-plasma interactions - Charging in the wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Leung, P.; Murphy, G.; Ruff, B.

    1993-01-01

    Multibody-plasma interactions refers to two or more charged bodies simultaneously interacting with the surrounding plasma as well as each other. This paper concerns a basic type of such interactions in space: the charging of a free flyer in the wake of a large structure. The conditions for severe charging are discussed quantitatively. Computer particle simulations are carried out to obtain the charging potentials in the wake of both floating and biased plate. It is shown that a severe charging zone exists in the near wake of a floating plate within which a free flyer is charged to the KV range under the sun shadow/auroral electron condition. Whether the plate is biased or floating, a large potential difference always exists between the plate and a docking free flyer in the wake. The effects of wake charging on spacecraft docking operations are discussed.

  3. PrP charge structure encodes interdomain interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Martínez; Rosa Sánchez; Milagros Castellanos; Natallia Makarava; Adriano Aguzzi; Baskakov, Ilia V; María Gasset

    2015-01-01

    Almost all proteins contain charged residues, and their chain distribution is tailored to fulfill essential ionic interactions for folding, binding and catalysis. Among proteins, the hinged two-domain chain of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) exhibits a peculiar charge structure with unclear consequences in its structural malleability. To decipher the charge design role, we generated charge-reverted mutants for each domain and analyzed their effect on conformational and metabolic features. W...

  4. Thermal energy and charge currents in multi-terminal nanorings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Tobias; Kreisbeck, Christoph; Riha, Christian; Chiatti, Olivio; Buchholz, Sven S.; Wieck, Andreas D.; Reuter, Dirk; Fischer, Saskia F.

    2016-06-01

    We study in experiment and theory thermal energy and charge transfer close to the quantum limit in a ballistic nanodevice, consisting of multiply connected one-dimensional electron waveguides. The fabricated device is based on an AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructure and is covered by a global top-gate to steer the thermal energy and charge transfer in the presence of a temperature gradient, which is established by a heating current. The estimate of the heat transfer by means of thermal noise measurements shows the device acting as a switch for charge and thermal energy transfer. The wave-packet simulations are based on the multi-terminal Landauer-Büttiker approach and confirm the experimental finding of a mode-dependent redistribution of the thermal energy current, if a scatterer breaks the device symmetry.

  5. Charged current top quark couplings at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The top quark plays an important role in current particle physics, from a theoretical point of view because of its uniquely large mass, but also experimentally because of the large number of top events recorded by the LHC experiments ATLAS and CMS, which makes it possible to directly measure the properties of this particle, for example its couplings to the other particles of the standard model (SM), with previously unknown precision. In this thesis, an effective field theory approach is employed to introduce a minimal and consistent parametrization of all anomalous top couplings to the SM gauge bosons and fermions which are compatible with the SM symmetries. In addition, several aspects and consequences of the underlying effective operator relations for these couplings are discussed. The resulting set of couplings has been implemented in the parton level Monte Carlo event generator WHIZARD in order to provide a tool for the quantitative assessment of the phenomenological implications at present and future colliders such as the LHC or a planned international linear collider. The phenomenological part of this thesis is focused on the charged current couplings of the top quark, namely anomalous contributions to the trilinear tbW coupling as well as quartic four-fermion contact interactions of the form tbff', both affecting single top production as well as top decays at the LHC. The study includes various aspects of inclusive cross section measurements as well as differential distributions of single tops produced in the t channel, bq → tq', and in the s channel, u anti d→t anti b. We discuss the parton level modelling of these processes as well as detector effects, and finally present the prospected LHC reach for setting limits on these couplings with 10 resp. 100 fb-1 of data recorded at √(s)=14 TeV.

  6. Charged current top quark couplings at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, Fabian

    2013-07-01

    The top quark plays an important role in current particle physics, from a theoretical point of view because of its uniquely large mass, but also experimentally because of the large number of top events recorded by the LHC experiments ATLAS and CMS, which makes it possible to directly measure the properties of this particle, for example its couplings to the other particles of the standard model (SM), with previously unknown precision. In this thesis, an effective field theory approach is employed to introduce a minimal and consistent parametrization of all anomalous top couplings to the SM gauge bosons and fermions which are compatible with the SM symmetries. In addition, several aspects and consequences of the underlying effective operator relations for these couplings are discussed. The resulting set of couplings has been implemented in the parton level Monte Carlo event generator WHIZARD in order to provide a tool for the quantitative assessment of the phenomenological implications at present and future colliders such as the LHC or a planned international linear collider. The phenomenological part of this thesis is focused on the charged current couplings of the top quark, namely anomalous contributions to the trilinear tbW coupling as well as quartic four-fermion contact interactions of the form tbff', both affecting single top production as well as top decays at the LHC. The study includes various aspects of inclusive cross section measurements as well as differential distributions of single tops produced in the t channel, bq {yields} tq', and in the s channel, u anti d{yields}t anti b. We discuss the parton level modelling of these processes as well as detector effects, and finally present the prospected LHC reach for setting limits on these couplings with 10 resp. 100 fb{sup -1} of data recorded at {radical}(s)=14 TeV.

  7. Improving performance of charge sensitive preamplifier in liquid scintillation counter using constant current technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are various charge constant current technologies for liquid scintillation circuit. The constant current technology, charge technology and their application to liquid scintillation counter are emphasized

  8. The relativistic Green's function model in charged-current quasielastic neutrino and antineutrino scattering at MINER$\

    OpenAIRE

    Meucci, Andrea; Giusti, Carlotta

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of charged-current quasielastic neutrino and antineutrino-nucleus scattering cross sections requires relativistic theoretical descriptions also accounting for the role of final-state interactions. We compare the results of the relativistic Green's function model with the data recently published by the MINER$\

  9. Energy mechanism of charges analyzed in real current environment

    CERN Document Server

    Ianconescu, R; Ianconescu, Reuven

    2003-01-01

    We analyze in this work the energy transfer process of accelerated charges, the mass fluctuations accompanying this process, and their inertial properties. Based on a previous work, we use here the dipole antenna, which is a very convenient framework for such analysis, for analyzing those characteristics. We show that the radiation process can be viewed by two energy transfer processes: one from the energy source to the charges and the second from the charges into the surrounding space. Those processes, not being in phase, result in mass fluctuations. The same principle is true during absorption. We show that in a transient period between absorption and radiation the dipole antenna gains mass according to the amount of absorbed energy and loses this mass as radiated energy. We rigorously prove that the gain of mass, resulting from electrical interaction has inertial properties in the sense of Newton's third low. We arrive to this result by modeling the reacting spacetime region by an electric dipole.

  10. Interaction of bacterial wall with electrically charged solid substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajaev, Vladimir

    2015-11-01

    Recent experimental studies indicate that the electrically charged substrates can exhibit antibacterial properties above a certain threshold value of the charge density. To explain these observations, we develop a mathematical model of interaction between a bacterial wall, described as a charge-regulating surface, and a charged solid substrate. Viscous flow in the aqueous film separating the two surfaces is described by a lubrication-type equation. Electrical charge transport is incorporated into the model and coupled to the flow. The complex interplay between charge transport, electrostatic interaction of the surfaces, and viscous flow leads to criteria for the critical charge density needed to achieve antibacterial properties for a range of different types of harmful bacteria.

  11. Effective dynamics of an electrically charged string with a current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazinski, P. O.

    2005-08-01

    Equations of motion for an electrically charged string with a current in an external electromagnetic field with regard to the first correction due to the self-action are derived. It is shown that the reparametrization invariance of the free action of the string imposes constraints on the possible form of the current. The effective equations of motion are obtained for an absolutely elastic charged string in the form of a ring (circle). Equations for the external electromagnetic fields that admit stationary states of such a ring are revealed. Solutions to the effective equations of motion of an absolutely elastic charged ring in the absence of external fields as well as in an external uniform magnetic field are obtained. In the latter case, the frequency at which one can observe radiation emitted by the ring is evaluated. A model of an absolutely nonstretchable charged string with a current is proposed. The effective equations of motion are derived within this model, and a class of solutions to these equations is found.

  12. Effective Dynamics of an Electrically Charged String with a Current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equations of motion for an electrically charged string with a current in an external electromagnetic field with regard to the first correction due to the self-action are derived. It is shown that the reparameterization invariance of the free action of the string imposes constraints on the possible form of the current. The effective equations of motion are obtained for an absolutely elastic charged string in the form of a ring (circle). Equations for the external electromagnetic fields that admit stationary states of such a ring are derived. Solutions to the effective equations of motion of an absolutely elastic charged ring in the absence of external fields as well as in an external uniform magnetic field are obtained. In the latter case, the frequency at which one can observe radiation emitted by the ring is evaluated. A model of an absolutely nonstretchable charged string with a current is proposed. The effective equations of motion are derived within this model, and a class of solutions to these equations is found

  13. Effective dynamics of an electrically charged string with a current

    CERN Document Server

    Kazinski, P O

    2005-01-01

    Equations of motion for an electrically charged string with a current in an external electromagnetic field with regard to the first correction due to the self-action are derived. It is shown that the reparametrization invariance of the free action of the string imposes constraints on the possible form of the current. The effective equations of motion are obtained for an absolutely elastic charged string in the form of a ring (circle). Equations for the external electromagnetic fields that admit stationary states of such a ring are revealed. Solutions to the effective equations of motion of an absolutely elastic charged ring in the absence of external fields as well as in an external uniform magnetic field are obtained. In the latter case, the frequency at which one can observe radiation emitted by the ring is evaluated. A model of an absolutely nonstretchable charged string with a current is proposed. The effective equations of motion are derived within this model, and a class of solutions to these equations ...

  14. Optical vortex driven charge current loop and optomagnetism in fullerenes

    CERN Document Server

    Wätzel, Jonas; Schäffer, Alexander; Berakdar, Jamal

    2016-01-01

    Endohedral molecular magnets, e.g. as realized in fullerenes containing $\\rm DySc_{2}N$, are promising candidates for molecular electronics and quantum information processing. For their functionalization an ultrafast local magnetization control is essential. Using full ab-initio quantum chemistry calculations we predict the emergence of charge current loops in fullerenes with an associated orbital magnetic moment upon irradiation with weak light vortex pulses that transfer orbital angular momentum. The generated current is controllable by the frequency, the vortex topological charge, and the intensity of the light. Numerical and analytical results show that an ultraviolet vortex femtosecond pulse with an intensity $\\sim10^{13}$ W/cm$^2$ generates non-invasively nA unidirectional surface current with an associated magnetic field of hundreds $\\mu$T at the center of the fullerene.

  15. Recent results on charged current and neutral current cross sections by the CFRR collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results on charged current and neutral current neutrino cross sections are presented. The charged current results are parametrized by sigma/sub ν//E = 0.719 +- 0.06 (+-0.036) x 10-38 cm2/GeV/nucleon and sigma/sub ν//E = 0.371 +- 0.04 (+- .019) x 10-38 cm2/GeV/nucleon. The neutral current data was analyzed using the Paschos-Wolfenstein technique and yields sin2 theta/sub w/ = 0.243 +- 0.016

  16. Extracting electrode space charge limited current: Charge injection into conjugated polyelectrolytes with a semiconductor electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ethan M.; Lonergan, Mark C.

    2016-05-01

    Conjugated polyelectrolytes and related mixed ionic-electronic conductors (MIECs) are being explored for energy applications including solid-state lighting and photovoltaics. Fundamental models of charge injection into MIECs have been primarily developed for MIECs contacted with highly conductive or metal electrodes (MEs), despite many potential applications involving semiconductors. We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate that an appropriate semiconductor electrode (SE), n-type for electron or p-type of hole injection, can limit injection into MIECs. When the SE is the injecting electrode and is under accumulation, there is little difference from a ME. When the SE acts as the extracting electrode, however, injection into the MIEC can be limited because a fraction of any applied bias must support charge depletion in the semiconductor rather than charge injection into the MIEC. In a ME/MIEC/SE system, this can lead to significant asymmetry in current-voltage and injected charge-voltage behavior.

  17. Aggregator-Based Interactive Charging Management System for Electric Vehicle Charging

    OpenAIRE

    Mingchao Xia; Qingying Lai; Yajiao Zhong; Canbing Li; Hsiao-Dong Chiang

    2016-01-01

    With the ongoing large-scale implementation of electric vehicles (EVs), the exploration of a more flexible approach to maintain fair interaction between EVs and the power grid is urgently required. This paper presents an aggregator-based interactive charging management scheme adopting interruptible load (IL) pricing, in which the EV aggregator will respond to the load control command of the grid in an EV interactive mode. Charging managements are carried out according to battery state-of-char...

  18. First Measurement of Muon Neutrino Charged Current Quasielastic (CCQE) Double Differential Cross Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high-statistics sample of charged-current muon neutrino scattering events collected with the MiniBooNE experiment is analyzed to extract the first measurement of the double differential cross section (d2σ/d Tμd cos θμ) for charged-current quasielastic (CCQE) scattering on carbon. This result features minimalmodel dependence and provides the most complete information on this process to date. The results are important input to characterize CCQE interaction for precision long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments.

  19. A Study of Charged Current Single Charged Pion Productions on Carbon in a Few-GeV Neutrino Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraide, Katsuki; /Kyoto U.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding single charged pion production via neutrino-nucleus charged current interaction in the neutrino energy region of a few GeV is essential for future neutrino oscillation experiments since this process is a dominant background for {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub x} oscillation measurements. There are two contributions to this process: single pion production via baryonic resonance ({nu}{sub {mu}}N {yields} {mu}{sup -} N{pi}{sup +}) and coherent pion production interacting with the entire nucleus ({nu}{sub {mu}}A {yields} {mu}{sup -} A{pi}{sup +}), where N is nucleon in the nucleus and A is the nucleus. The purpose of the study presented in this thesis is a precise measurement of charged current single charged pion productions, resonant and coherent pion productions, with a good final state separation in the neutrino energy region of a few GeV. In this thesis, we focus on the study of charged current coherent pion production from muon neutrinos scattering on carbon, {nu}{sub {mu}} {sup 12}C {yields} {mu}{sup -12}C{pi}{sup +}, in the SciBooNE experiment. This is motivated by the fact that without measuring this component first, the precise determination of resonant pion production cross section can not be achieved since the contribution of coherent pion production in the region of small muon scattering angle is not small. Furthermore, the coherent process is particularly interesting because it is deeply rooted in fundamental physics via Adler's partially conserved axial-vector current theorem. We took data from June 2007 until August 2008, in both the neutrino and antineutrino beam. In total, 2.52 x 10{sup 20} protons on target were collected. We have performed a search for charged current coherent pion production by using SciBooNE's full neutrino data set, corresponding to 0.99 x 10{sup 20} protons on target. No evidence for coherent pion production is observed. We set 90% confidence level upper limits on the cross section ratio of charged

  20. A Study of Charged Current Single Charged Pion Productions on Carbon in a Few-GeV Neutrino Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraide, Katsuki [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    2009-01-01

    Understanding single charged pion production via neutrino-nucleus charged current interaction in the neutrino energy region of a few GeV is essential for future neutrino oscillation experiments since this process is a dominant background for vμ → vx oscillation measurements. There are two contributions to this process: single pion production via baryonic resonance (vμN → μ-+) and coherent pion production interacting with the entire nucleus (vμA → μ-+), where N is nucleon in the nucleus and A is the nucleus. The purpose of the study presented in this thesis is a precise measurement of charged current single charged pion productions, resonant and coherent pion productions, with a good final state separation in the neutrino energy region of a few GeV. In this thesis, we focus on the study of charged current coherent pion production from muon neutrinos scattering on carbon, vμ 12C → μ-12+, in the SciBooNE experiment. This is motivated by the fact that without measuring this component first, the precise determination of resonant pion production cross section can not be achieved since the contribution of coherent pion production in the region of small muon scattering angle is not small. Furthermore, the coherent process is particularly interesting because it is deeply rooted in fundamental physics via Adler's partially conserved axial-vector current theorem. We took data from June 2007 until August 2008, in both the neutrino and antineutrino beam. In total, 2.52 x 1020 protons on target were collected. We have performed a search for charged current coherent pion production by using SciBooNE's full neutrino data set, corresponding to 0.99 x 1020 protons on target. No evidence for coherent pion production is observed. We set 90% confidence level upper limits on the cross section ratio

  1. Local Charge and Spin Currents in Magnetothermal Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Mathias; Althammer, Matthias; Czeschka, Franz D.; Huebl, Hans; Wagner, Martin S.; Opel, Matthias; Imort, Inga-Mareen; Reiss, Günter; Thomas, Andy; Gross, Rudolf; Goennenwein, Sebastian T. B.

    2012-03-01

    A scannable laser beam is used to generate local thermal gradients in metallic (Co2FeAl) or insulating (Y3Fe5O12) ferromagnetic thin films. We study the resulting local charge and spin currents that arise due to the anomalous Nernst effect (ANE) and the spin Seebeck effect (SSE), respectively. In the local ANE experiments, we detect the voltage in the Co2FeAl thin film plane as a function of the laser-spot position and external magnetic field magnitude and orientation. The local SSE effect is detected in a similar fashion by exploiting the inverse spin Hall effect in a Pt layer deposited on top of the Y3Fe5O12. Our findings establish local thermal spin and charge current generation as well as spin caloritronic domain imaging.

  2. Local charge and spin currents in magnetothermal landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Mathias; Althammer, Matthias; Czeschka, Franz D; Huebl, Hans; Wagner, Martin S; Opel, Matthias; Imort, Inga-Mareen; Reiss, Günter; Thomas, Andy; Gross, Rudolf; Goennenwein, Sebastian T B

    2012-03-01

    A scannable laser beam is used to generate local thermal gradients in metallic (Co2FeAl) or insulating (Y3Fe5O12) ferromagnetic thin films. We study the resulting local charge and spin currents that arise due to the anomalous Nernst effect (ANE) and the spin Seebeck effect (SSE), respectively. In the local ANE experiments, we detect the voltage in the Co2FeAl thin film plane as a function of the laser-spot position and external magnetic field magnitude and orientation. The local SSE effect is detected in a similar fashion by exploiting the inverse spin Hall effect in a Pt layer deposited on top of the Y3Fe5O12. Our findings establish local thermal spin and charge current generation as well as spin caloritronic domain imaging. PMID:22463435

  3. iSat Surface Charging and Thruster Plume Interactions Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, L. Neergaard; Willis, E. M.; Minow, J. I.

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing the electromagnetic interaction of a satellite in low Earth, high inclination orbit with the space plasma environment and identifying viable charging mitigation strategies is a critical mission design task. High inclination orbits expose the vehicle to auroral charging environments that can potentially charge surfaces to kilovolt potentials and electric thruster propulsion systems will interact with the ambient plasma environment throughout the orbit. NASA is designing the Iodine Satellite (iSAT) cubesat mission to demonstrate operations of an iodine electric thruster system. The spacecraft will be deployed as a secondary payload from a launch vehicle which has not yet been identified so the program must plan for the worst case environments over a range of orbital inclinations. We will first present results from a NASA and Air Force Charging Analyzer Program (Nascap) -2k surface charging calculation used to evaluate the effects of auroral charging on the spacecraft and to provide the charging levels at other locations in orbit for a thruster plume interaction analysis for the iSAT mission. We will then discuss results from the thruster interactions analysis using the Electric Propulsion Interactions Code (EPIC) with inputs from Nascap-2k. The results of these analyses are being used by the iSAT program to better understand how their spacecraft will interact with the space plasma environment in the range of environments that could be encountered when the final mission orbit is selected.

  4. QCD radiative corrections to charged current heavy quark production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The QCD radiative corrections to charged current heavy quark production are given in the limit that the weak partner is massless, i.e. using a bottom structure function for top quark production. The results for charm production in neutrino nucleon scattering agree with those published before, but our method enables us to study all outgoing particles. The corrections to top production at the proposed LEP/LHC electron-proton collider are discussed. (author). 18 refs.; 6 figs.; 2 tabs

  5. Nuclear electromagnetic charge and current operators in Chiral EFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girlanda, Luca [Università del Salento; Marcucci, Laura Elisa [Univ. Pisa; Pastore, Saori [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC; Piarulli, Maria [Department of Physics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA; Schiavilla, Rocco [Old Dominion U., JLAB; Viviani, Michele

    2013-08-01

    We describe our method for deriving the nuclear electromagnetic charge and current operators in chiral perturbation theory, based on time-ordered perturbation theory. We then discuss possible strategies for fixing the relevant low-energy constants, from the magnetic moments of the deuteron and of the trinucleons, and from the radiative np capture cross sections, and identify a scheme which, partly relying on {Delta} resonance saturation, leads to a reasonable pattern of convergence of the chiral expansion.

  6. Interactions Between Charged Macroions Mediated by Molecules with Rod-like Charged Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohinc, K.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A short review of recent theoretical advances in studies of the interaction between highly charged systems embedded in a solution of rod-like molecules is presented. The system is theoretically described by the functional density theory, where the correlations within the rod-like molecules are accounted for. We show that for sufficiently long molecules and large surface charge densities, an attractive force between like-charged surfaces arises due to the spatially distributed charges within the molecules. The added salt has an influence on the condition for the attractive force between like-charged surfaces. The theoretical results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations. Many phenomena motivate the study of the interaction between like-charged surfaces (DNA condensation, virus aggregation, yeast flocculation, cohesion of cement paste.

  7. Stochastic Coulomb interactions in space charge limited electron emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkerk, M.D.; Kruit, P.

    2004-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation tool, which was used to evaluate the influence of discrete space charge effects on self-consistent calculations of cathode-ray tube optics, was discussed. It was found that interactions in the space charge cloud affect the electron trajectories such that the velocity distrib

  8. Charged-Current Neutral Pion production at SciBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catala-Perez, J.; /Valencia U., IFIC

    2009-10-01

    SciBooNE, located in the Booster Neutrino Beam at Fermilab, collected data from June 2007 to August 2008 to accurately measure muon neutrino and anti-neutrino cross sections on carbon below 1 GeV neutrino energy. SciBooNE is studying charged current interactions. Among them, neutral pion production interactions will be the focus of this poster. The experimental signature of neutrino-induced neutral pion production is constituted by two electromagnetic cascades initiated by the conversion of the {pi}{sup 0} decay photons, with an additional muon in the final state for CC processes. In this poster, I will present how we reconstruct and select charged-current muon neutrino interactions producing {pi}{sup 0}'s in SciBooNE.

  9. Charged particle interaction with a chirped electromagnetic pulse

    OpenAIRE

    Khachatryan, A. G.; Boller, K. -J.; Goor, van, Fred

    2003-01-01

    It is found that a charged particle can get a net energy gain from the interaction with an electromagnetic chirped pulse. Theoretically, the energy gain increases with the pulse amplitude and with the relative frequency variation in the pulse.

  10. Charge exchange in solar wind - coometary interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors examine the effect of charge exchange between fast solar wind ions and slow cometary neutrals at the contact discontinuity separating the ionosphere of a comet from the solar wind flow. The continuity equations were solved analytically for a water-dominated cometary ionosphere, including both ionization and recombination processes. It was found that this new solution differs significantly from the one obtained by neglecting recombination. (author)

  11. Aggregator-Based Interactive Charging Management System for Electric Vehicle Charging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingchao Xia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With the ongoing large-scale implementation of electric vehicles (EVs, the exploration of a more flexible approach to maintain fair interaction between EVs and the power grid is urgently required. This paper presents an aggregator-based interactive charging management scheme adopting interruptible load (IL pricing, in which the EV aggregator will respond to the load control command of the grid in an EV interactive mode. Charging managements are carried out according to battery state-of-charge and the EV departure time in EV charging stations. A power-altering charging (PAC control method is proposed to dispatch the EVs charging fairly in a station and guarantee EV owners’ preferences. The method does not require classical iterative procedures or heavy computations; furthermore, it is beneficial for EVs to depart earlier than expected for reasons beyond keeping homeostatic charging. The proposed scheme, which is tested to charge individual EVs well according to its preference, was implemented as part of an “EV Beijing” project. The proposed management scheme provides new insight into EV charging strategy and provides another choice to EV users.

  12. Charge independence and charge symmetry breaking interactions and the Coulomb energy anomaly in isobaric analog states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of CIB (charge independence breaking) and CSB (charge symmetry breaking) interactions on the Coulomb displacement energies of isobaric analog states are investigated for 48Ca, 90Zr and 208Pb. Mass number dependence of the Coulomb energy anomalies is well explained when CIB and CSB interactions are used which reproduce the differences of the scattering lengths as well as those of the effective ranges of low energy nucleon-nucleon scattering. (author) 17 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Topological charge algebra of optical vortices in nonlinear interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanova, Alexandra A; Shutova, Mariia; Bahari, Aysan; Zhi, Miaochan; Sokolov, Alexei V

    2015-12-28

    We investigate the transfer of orbital angular momentum among multiple beams involved in a coherent Raman interaction. We use a liquid crystal light modulator to shape pump and Stokes beams into optical vortices with various integer values of topological charge, and cross them in a Raman-active crystal to produce multiple Stokes and anti-Stokes sidebands. We measure the resultant vortex charges using a tilted-lens technique. We verify that in every case the generated beams' topological charges obey a simple relationship, resulting from angular momentum conservation for created and annihilated photons, or equivalently, from phase-matching considerations for multiple interacting beams. PMID:26832066

  14. Space-charge-limited currents in polyimide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaham, Sombel; Locatelli, Marie-Laure

    2012-12-01

    Space-charge-limited currents have been identified in thin polyimide film capacitor structures as the main conduction process in the very high temperature range from 320 °C to 400 °C before the breakdown. The transition field between the trap-filled-limit conduction and the trap-free conduction is reported versus temperature. Assuming an exponential distribution of the traps in the forbidden gap, both the characteristic temperature and trap energy are obtained at 446 °C and 62 meV, respectively. The total trap density is accurately estimated at 1.5 × 1017 cm-3 using the Kumar approximation [Kumar et al., J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1283 (2003)]. Finally, the mobility temperature dependence of free charges is reported between 1.6 × 10-6 and 2.3 × 10-6 cm2 V-1 s-1 in the range from 340 °C to 400 °C.

  15. Electrostatic interaction between nonuniformly charged colloids: experimental and numerical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derot, Claire; Porcar, Lionel; Lee, YongJin; Pincus, Phillip A; Jho, YongSeok; In, Martin

    2015-02-10

    The influence of the surface charge distribution on the interaction between nanosized particles in water is reported. The distribution of charges at the surface of initially neutral microemulsion droplets has been modulated by additions of various oligomeric cationic surfactants. The osmotic compressibility of the doped microemulsions was measured by light and small-angle neutrons scattering and reveals that the overall effective interaction induced by the ionic groups is repulsive. However, particular charge distributions decrease the osmotic compressibility much less than others. Independent measurements of the activity of the bromide counterions with specific electrodes evidence a significant decrease in the effective charge, which, however, cannot account for the osmotic compressibility in the framework of the primitive model. The q dependence of the structure factor reveals an attractive contribution over a short distance. Numerical studies assign this attractive contribution to the overlap of hydration shells that are extended as a result of the charge localization. PMID:25587999

  16. Ga Nanoparticle/Graphene Platforms: Plasmonic and Charge Transfer Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Congwen; Kim, Tong-Ho; Yang, Yang; Losurdo, Maria; Brown, April S.

    2013-03-01

    Metal nanoparticle (NP) - graphene multifunctional platforms are of great interest for numerous applications, such as sensing and catalysis, and for fundamental studies on charge transfer and light-matter interactions. To understand platform-photon interactions, it is important to articulate the coupling of photon-based excitations, such as the interaction between plasmons in each of the material components, as well as their charge-based interactions dependent upon the energy alignment at the metal/graphene interface. Herein, we use liquid metal Ga nanoparticles, which can be deposited at 300K on graphene, to explore the surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy modulation induced by the NPs,. The localized charge transfer between Ga NPs and graphene are investigated, and enhancement of the graphene Raman modes is correlated with metal coverage the transfer of electrons from Ga to graphene creating local regions of enhanced electron concentration which modify the electron-phonon interaction in graphene.

  17. Electrostatic interaction of two charged macroparticles in an equilibrium plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, A. V.; Pal', A. F.; Starostin, A. N.

    2015-11-01

    This article is a critical review of publications devoted to studying the electrostatic interaction of two charged macroparticles in an equilibrium plasma. It is shown from an analysis of the force of interaction based on the Maxwell stress tensor that two macroparticles with identical charges in the Poisson-Boltzmann model always repel each other both in isothermal and nonisothermal plasmas. At distances between macroparticles for which the Boltzmann exponents can be linearized, the interaction between macroparticles is completely described by the Debye-Hückel model. The correction to free energy due to the electrostatic interaction in the system of two macroparticles is determined by integrating the correction to the internal energy and by direct calculation of the correction for entropy. It is shown that the free energy coincides with the Yukawa potential. The coincidence of the interaction energy obtained by integrating the force of interaction with the free energy leads to the conclusion about the potential nature of the force of interaction between two macroparticles in an equilibrium plasma. The effect of the outer boundary on the electrostatic interaction force is analyzed; it is shown that the type of interaction depends on the choice of the boundary conditions at the outer boundary. It is also shown that the accumulation of space charge near the outer boundary can lead to the attraction of similarly charged particles at distances comparable with the radius of the outer boundary.

  18. Electrostatic interaction of two charged macroparticles in an equilibrium plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is a critical review of publications devoted to studying the electrostatic interaction of two charged macroparticles in an equilibrium plasma. It is shown from an analysis of the force of interaction based on the Maxwell stress tensor that two macroparticles with identical charges in the Poisson–Boltzmann model always repel each other both in isothermal and nonisothermal plasmas. At distances between macroparticles for which the Boltzmann exponents can be linearized, the interaction between macroparticles is completely described by the Debye–Hückel model. The correction to free energy due to the electrostatic interaction in the system of two macroparticles is determined by integrating the correction to the internal energy and by direct calculation of the correction for entropy. It is shown that the free energy coincides with the Yukawa potential. The coincidence of the interaction energy obtained by integrating the force of interaction with the free energy leads to the conclusion about the potential nature of the force of interaction between two macroparticles in an equilibrium plasma. The effect of the outer boundary on the electrostatic interaction force is analyzed; it is shown that the type of interaction depends on the choice of the boundary conditions at the outer boundary. It is also shown that the accumulation of space charge near the outer boundary can lead to the attraction of similarly charged particles at distances comparable with the radius of the outer boundary

  19. Theory of Space Charge Limited Current in Fractional Dimensional Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Muhammad; Ang, L. K.

    The concept of fractional dimensional space has been effectively applied in many areas of physics to describe the fractional effects on the physical systems. We will present some recent developments of space charge limited (SCL) current in free space and solid in the framework of fractional dimensional space which may account for the effect of imperfectness or roughness of the electrode surface. For SCL current in free space, the governing law is known as the Child-Langmuir (CL) law. Its analogy in a trap-free solid (or dielectric) is known as Mott-Gurney (MG) law. This work extends the one-dimensional CL Law and MG Law for the case of a D-dimensional fractional space with 0 theory can be used to characterize the charge injection by the imperfectness or roughness of the surface in applications related to high current cathode (CL law), and organic electronics (MG law). In terms of operating regime, the model has included the quantum effects when the spacing between the electrodes is small.

  20. Periodic interactions of charged particles with spatially localized fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We derive and analyze a generic mapping for the spatially periodic interaction of charged particles with localized, coherent electric fields. For such interactions stochastic motion exists in a bounded region of phase-space. Conditions are determined for which diffusion can describe the dynamics in such a bounded, stochastic phase-space. (orig.)

  1. Space charge limited current emission for a sharp tip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Y. B., E-mail: zhuyingbin@gmail.com; Ang, L. K., E-mail: ricky-ang@sutd.edu.sg [Engineering Product Development, Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore 487372 (Singapore)

    2015-05-15

    In this paper, we formulate a self-consistent model to study the space charge limited current emission from a sharp tip in a dc gap. The tip is assumed to have a radius in the order of 10s nanometer. The electrons are emitted from the tip due to field emission process. It is found that the localized current density J at the apex of the tip can be much higher than the classical Child Langmuir law (flat surface). A scaling of J ∝ V{sub g}{sup 3/2}/D{sup m}, where V{sub g} is the gap bias, D is the gap size, and m = 1.1–1.2 (depending on the emission area or radius) is proposed. The effects of non-uniform emission and the spatial dependence of work function are presented.

  2. Space charge limited current emission for a sharp tip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we formulate a self-consistent model to study the space charge limited current emission from a sharp tip in a dc gap. The tip is assumed to have a radius in the order of 10s nanometer. The electrons are emitted from the tip due to field emission process. It is found that the localized current density J at the apex of the tip can be much higher than the classical Child Langmuir law (flat surface). A scaling of J ∝ Vg3/2/Dm, where Vg is the gap bias, D is the gap size, and m = 1.1–1.2 (depending on the emission area or radius) is proposed. The effects of non-uniform emission and the spatial dependence of work function are presented

  3. Space charge sheath in plasma-neutral gas interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataramani, N.; Mattoo, S. K.

    1986-04-01

    A space charge sheath is found to be formed whenever a high-velocity magnetized plasma stream penetrates a gas cloud. The sheath is always located at the head of the plasma stream, and its thickness is very small compared to the length of the plasma stream. Soon after the sheath is formed it quickly slows down to the Alfven critical velocity. The plasma behind the sheath continues to move at higher velocity until the whole plasma stream is retarded to the critical velocity. In the interaction at gas density of about 10 to the 19th/cu cm, the sheaths are observed to be accompanied by a single loop of current with current density of about 10,000 A/sq m. Maximum potential in the sheath ranges between 50 and 200 V. Presently available models for the sheath may explain the initiation of the sheath formation. Physical processes like heating of the electrons and ionization of the gas cloud which come into play at a later stage of the interaction are not included in these models. These processes considerably alter the potential structure in the sheath region. A schematic model of the observed sheath is presented. Experiments reveal a threshold value of the magnetic field for plasma retardation to occur. This seems to correspond to the threshold condition for excitation of the modified two-stream instability, which can lead to the electron heating. The observed currents are found sufficient to account for the plasma retardation at a gas density of about 10 to the 17th/cu m.

  4. Tribocharging and charged interaction in same-material, microscopic grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitukaitis, S.; Lee, V.; Jaeger, H.

    2015-10-01

    We experimentally address the causes and consequences of charging between same-material, microscopic grains. We confirm quantitatively that differences in grain size alone drive charging. By comparing our data to independent thermoluminescence measurements, we show that trapped electrons are not the charged species being transferred. We observe and quantify a zoology of interactions between grains, including attractive orbits and repulsive slingshot events, cluster growth and annihilation via collisions, and granular molecule formation. Our results highlight the important role played by grain polarizability in aggregation and have implications for the dynamics of dust particles in protoplanetary disks.

  5. Interchain interaction and fractionally charged solitons in a commensurate charge-density-wave system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mogens Høgh; Lomdahl, P. S.

    1982-01-01

    lower and higher charge than ±2e / 3. The effect of discreteness is taken into account and gives rise to chaotic deformed solitons as the interchain coupling increases. The model may be applied to tetrathiafulvalene tetracyanoquinodimethane (TTF-TCNQ) under 19-kbar pressure.......We have studied the effect of interchain interaction on thermally excited solitons in a charge-density wave for a Peierls system of commensurability 3. In such a system solitons with charges ±2e / 3 are expected. It is shown that the interchain coupling in some cases will generate solitons with...

  6. Measurement of the Inclusive Electron Neutrino Charged Current Cross Section on Carbon with the T2K Near Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, K; Aihara, H; Akiri, T; Andreopoulos, C; Aoki, S; Ariga, A; Assylbekov, S; Autiero, D; Barbi, M; Barker, G J; Barr, G; Bass, M; Batkiewicz, M; Bay, F; Berardi, V; Berger, B E; Berkman, S; Bhadra, S; Blaszczyk, F d M; Blondel, A; Bojechko, C; Bordoni, S; Boyd, S B; Brailsford, D; Bravar, A; Bronner, C; Buchanan, N; Calland, R G; Rodríguez, J Caravaca; Cartwright, S L; Castillo, R; Catanesi, M G; Cervera, A; Cherdack, D; Christodoulou, G; Clifton, A; Coleman, J; Coleman, S J; Collazuol, G; Connolly, K; Cremonesi, L; Dabrowska, A; Danko, I; Das, R; Davis, S; de Perio, P; De Rosa, G; Dealtry, T; Dennis, S R; Densham, C; Dewhurst, D; Di Lodovico, F; Di Luise, S; Drapier, O; Duboyski, T; Duffy, K; Dumarchez, J; Dytman, S; Dziewiecki, M; Emery-Schrenk, S; Ereditato, A; Escudero, L; Finch, A J; Friend, M; Fujii, Y; Fukuda, Y; Furmanski, A P; Galymov, V; Giffin, S; Giganti, C; Gilje, K; Goeldi, D; Golan, T; Gonin, M; Grant, N; Gudin, D; Hadley, D R; Haesler, A; Haigh, M D; Hamilton, P; Hansen, D; Hara, T; Hartz, M; Hasegawa, T; Hastings, N C; Hayato, Y; Hearty, C; Helmer, R L; Hierholzer, M; Hignight, J; Hillairet, A; Himmel, A; Hiraki, T; Hirota, S; Holeczek, J; Horikawa, S; Huang, K; Ichikawa, A K; Ieki, K; Ieva, M; Ikeda, M; Imber, J; Insler, J; Irvine, T J; Ishida, T; Ishii, T; Iwai, E; Iwamoto, K; Iyogi, K; Izmaylov, A; Jacob, A; Jamieson, B; Johnson, R A; Jo, J H; Jonsson, P; Jung, C K; Kabirnezhad, M; Kaboth, A C; Kajita, T; Kakuno, H; Kameda, J; Kanazawa, Y; Karlen, D; Karpikov, I; Katori, T; Kearns, E; Khabibullin, M; Khotjantsev, A; Kielczewska, D; Kikawa, T; Kilinski, A; Kim, J; Kisiel, J; Kitching, P; Kobayashi, T; Koch, L; Kolaceke, A; Konaka, A; Kormos, L L; Korzenev, A; Koshio, Y; Kropp, W; Kubo, H; Kudenko, Y; Kurjata, R; Kutter, T; Lagoda, J; Lamont, I; Larkin, E; Laveder, M; Lawe, M; Lazos, M; Lindner, T; Lister, C; Litchfield, R P; Longhin, A; Ludovici, L; Magaletti, L; Mahn, K; Malek, M; Manly, S; Marino, A D; Marteau, J; Martin, J F; Martynenko, S; Maruyama, T; Matveev, V; Mavrokoridis, K; Mazzucato, E; McCarthy, M; McCauley, N; McFarland, K S; McGrew, C; Metelko, C; Mijakowski, P; Miller, C A; Minamino, A; Mineev, O; Missert, A; Miura, M; Moriyama, S; Mueller, Th A; Murakami, A; Murdoch, M; Murphy, S; Myslik, J; Nakadaira, T; Nakahata, M; Nakamura, K; Nakayama, S; Nakaya, T; Nakayoshi, K; Nielsen, C; Nirkko, M; Nishikawa, K; Nishimura, Y; O'Keeffe, H M; Ohta, R; Okumura, K; Okusawa, T; Oryszczak, W; Oser, S M; Owen, R A; Oyama, Y; Palladino, V; Palomino, J L; Paolone, V; Payne, D; Perevozchikov, O; Perkin, J D; Petrov, Y; Pickard, L; Guerra, E S Pinzon; Pistillo, C; Plonski, P; Poplawska, E; Popov, B; Posiadala, M; Poutissou, J -M; Poutissou, R; Przewlocki, P; Quilain, B; Radicioni, E; Ratoff, P N; Ravonel, M; Rayner, M A M; Redij, A; Reeves, M; Reinherz-Aronis, E; Rodrigues, P A; Rojas, P; Rondio, E; Roth, S; Rubbia, A; Ruterbories, D; Sacco, R; Sakashita, K; Sánchez, F; Sato, F; Scantamburlo, E; Scholberg, K; Schoppmann, S; Schwehr, J; Scott, M; Seiya, Y; Sekiguchi, T; Sekiya, H; Sgalaberna, D; Shiozawa, M; Short, S; Shustrov, Y; Sinclair, P; Smith, B; Smy, M; Sobczyk, J T; Sobel, H; Sorel, M; Southwell, L; Stamoulis, P; Steinmann, J; Still, B; Suda, Y; Suzuki, A; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, S Y; Suzuki, Y; Tacik, R; Tada, M; Takahashi, S; Takeda, A; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, H K; Tanaka, H A; Tanaka, M M; Terhorst, D; Terri, R; Thompson, L F; Thorley, A; Tobayama, S; Toki, W; Tomura, T; Totsuka, Y; Touramanis, C; Tsukamoto, T; Tzanov, M; Uchida, Y; Vacheret, A; Vagins, M; Vasseur, G; Wachala, T; Waldron, A V; Walter, C W; Wark, D; Wascko, M O; Weber, A; Wendell, R; Wilkes, R J; Wilking, M J; Wilkinson, C; Williamson, Z; Wilson, J R; Wilson, R J; Wongjirad, T; Yamada, Y; Yamamoto, K; Yanagisawa, C; Yano, T; Yen, S; Yershov, N; Yokoyama, M; Yuan, T; Yu, M; Zalewska, A; Zalipska, J; Zambelli, L; Zaremba, K; Ziembicki, M; Zimmerman, E D; Zito, M; Żmuda, J

    2014-01-01

    The T2K off-axis near detector, ND280, is used to make the first differential cross-section measurements of electron neutrino charged current interactions at energies ~1 GeV as a function of electron momentum, electron scattering angle and four-momentum transfer of the interaction. The total flux-averaged $\

  7. Interaction of a magnet and a point charge: Unrecognized internal electromagnetic momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Timothy H.

    2015-05-01

    Whereas nonrelativistic mechanics always connects the total momentum of a system to the motion of the center of mass, relativistic systems, such as interacting electromagnetic charges, can have internal linear momentum in the absence of motion of the system's center of energy. This internal linear momentum of a system is related to the controversial concept of "hidden momentum." We suggest that the term "hidden momentum" be abandoned. Here, we use the relativistic conservation law for the center of energy to give an unambiguous definition of the "internal momentum of a system," and then we exhibit this internal momentum for the system of a magnet (modeled as a circular ring of moving charges) and a distant static point charge. The calculations provide clear illustrations of this system for three cases: (a) the moving charges of the magnet are assumed to continue in their unperturbed motion; (b) the moving charges of the magnet are free to accelerate but have no mutual interactions; and (c) the moving charges of the magnet are free to accelerate and also interact with each other. When the current-carrying charges of the magnet are allowed to interact, the magnet itself will contain internal electromagnetic linear momentum, something that has not been described clearly in the research and teaching literature.

  8. Measurement of charm in charged current at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, Tobias

    2008-12-15

    A measurement of charm production in charged current (CC) polarized electron-proton deep inelastic scattering processes with data from the H1 detector at the HERA collider is presented. This process in principle allows access to the strange quark density in the proton. In total 5460 CC candidate events in e{sup +}p and 6253 in e{sup -}p data are selected in the kinematic range Q{sup 2}>223 GeV{sup 2} and 0.03charge asymmetry. Muons originating from charmed hadron decays in CC events at HERA always have the same charge as the beam lepton. The extracted charm fractions in the selected CC candidate event samples are F{sub c}=9.5{+-}8.9{+-}3.0 % for e{sup +}p and F{sub c}=4.4{+-}6.9{+-}2.6 % for e{sup -}p. Due to the large statistical errors of the measured charm fractions, the strange quark density in the proton has not been extracted. (orig.)

  9. Measurement of charm in charged current at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A measurement of charm production in charged current (CC) polarized electron-proton deep inelastic scattering processes with data from the H1 detector at the HERA collider is presented. This process in principle allows access to the strange quark density in the proton. In total 5460 CC candidate events in e+p and 6253 in e-p data are selected in the kinematic range Q2>223 GeV2 and 0.03CC=(28.9± 1.4)+Pe.(28.6±4.7) pb for e+p and σCC=(49.2±2.3)-Pe.(42.5 ±6.8) pb for e-p, where Pe is the lepton beam polarization. While the measured cross section for e+p data is in agreement with the theoretical prediction, the cross section for e-p data shows a weaker dependence on Pe than predicted. The charm fractions in the selected CC candidate event samples are extracted using the muon charge asymmetry. Muons originating from charmed hadron decays in CC events at HERA always have the same charge as the beam lepton. The extracted charm fractions in the selected CC candidate event samples are Fc=9.5±8.9±3.0 % for e+p and Fc=4.4±6.9±2.6 % for e-p. Due to the large statistical errors of the measured charm fractions, the strange quark density in the proton has not been extracted. (orig.)

  10. Modeling of tunneling current in ultrathin MOS structure with interface trap charge and fixed oxide charge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Bo; Huang Shi-Hua; Wu Feng-Min

    2013-01-01

    A model based on analysis of the self-consistent Poisson-Schrodinger equation is proposed to investigate the tunneling current of electrons in the inversion layer of a p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structure.In this model,the influences of interface trap charge (ITC) at the Si-SiO2 interface and fixed oxide charge (FOC) in the oxide region are taken into account,and one-band effective mass approximation is used.The tunneling probability is obtained by employing the transfer matrix method.Further,the effects of in-plane momentum on the quantization in the electron motion perpendicular to the Si-SiO2 interface of a MOS device are investigated.Theoretical simulation results indicate that both ITC and FOC have great influence on the tunneling current through a MOS structure when their densities are larger than 1012 cm-2,which results from the great change of bound electrons near the Si-SiO2 interface and the oxide region.Therefore,for real ultrathin MOS structures with ITC and FOC,this model can give a more accurate description for the tunneling current in the inversion layer.

  11. Current and noise in interacting quantum pumps

    OpenAIRE

    Riwar, Roman-Pascal

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is a theoretical study of the current and zero-frequency noise through interacting quantum systems coupled to reservoirs. We investigate the electron transport between system and reservoirs, when both the system and (possibly) the reservoirs are subject to an external time-dependent driving. We focus on systems so small that the confinement gives rise to quantised energy levels, and quantum coherences become important in order to describe the transport. If only very few levels par...

  12. Charged-Current Neutral Pion production at SciBooNE

    OpenAIRE

    Catala-Perez, J.

    2009-01-01

    SciBooNE, located in the Booster Neutrino Beam at Fermilab, collected data from June 2007 to August 2008 to accurately measure muon neutrino and anti-neutrino cross sections on carbon below 1 GeV neutrino energy. SciBooNE is studying charged current interactions. Among them, neutral pion production interactions will be the focus of this poster. The experimental signature of neutrino-induced neutral pion production is constituted by two electromagnetic cascades initiated by the conversion of t...

  13. Neutral and charged current cross section measurements and searches for new physics at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Malden, N; Abramowicz, H; Adamczyk, L; Adamus, M; Adler, V; Aghuzumtsyan, G; Antonioli, P; Antonov, A; Arneodo, M; Bailey, D S; Bamberger, A; Barakbaev, A N; Barbagli, G; Barbi, M; Bari, G; Barreiro, F; Bartsch, D; Basile, M; Bauerdick, L A T; Behrens, U; Bell, M; Bellagamba, L; Benen, A; Bertolin, A; Bhadra, S; Bloch, I; Bodmann, B; Bold, T; Boos, E G; Borras, K; Boscherini, D; Brock, I; Brook, N H; Brugnera, R; Brümmer, N; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bussey, P J; Butterworth, J M; Bylsma, B; Caldwell, A; Capua, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carli, T; Carlin, R; Catterall, C D; Chekanov, S; Chiochia, V; Chwastowski, J; Ciborowski, J; Ciesielski, R; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Cloth, P; Cole, J E; Collins-Tooth, C; Contin, A; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Coppola, N; Cormack, C; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; Cottrell, A; D'Agostini, Giulio; Dal Corso, F; Danilov, P; Dannheim, D; De Pasquale, S; Dementiev, R K; Derrick, M; Deshpande, Abhay A; Devenish, R C E; Dhawan, S; Dolgoshein, B A; Doyle, A T; Drews, G; Durkin, L S; Dusini, S; Eisenberg, Y; Ermolov, P F; Eskreys, Andrzej; Ferrando, J; Ferrero, M I; Figiel, J; Filges, D; Foster, B; Foudas, C; Fourletov, S; Fourletova, J; Fricke, U; Fusayasu, T; Gabareen, A; Gallo, E; Garfagnini, A; Geiser, A; Genta, C; Gialas, I; Giusti, P; Gladilin, L K; Gladkov, D; Glasman, C; Gliga, S; Goers, S; Golubkov, Yu A; Goncalo, R; González, O; Göttlicher, P; Grabowska-Bold, I; Grijpink, S; Grzelak, G; Gutsche, O; Gwenlan, C; Haas, T; Hain, W; Hall-Wilton, R; Hamatsu, R; Hamilton, J; Hanlon, S; Hart, J C; Hartmann, H; Hartner, G; Hartner, G F; Heaphy, E A; Heath, G P; Heath, H F; Helbich, M; Heusch, C A; Hilger, E; Hillert, S; Hirose, T; Hochman, D; Holm, U; Iacobucci, G; Iga, Y; Inuzuka, M; Irrgang, P; Jakob, H P; Jones, T W; Kagawa, S; Kahle, B; Kaji, H; Kananov, S; Kappes, A; Kataoka, Y; Yamazaki, M; Katkov, I I; Katz, U F; Kcira, D; Khein, L A; Kim, J Y; Kim, Y K; Kind, O; Kisielewska, D; Kitamura, S; Klimek, K; Koffeman, E; Kohno, T; Kooijman, P; Koop, T; Korzhav, I A; Kotanski, A; Kötz, U; Kowal, A M; Kowal, M; Kowalski, H; Kowalski, T; Krakauer, D; Kramberger, G; Kreisel, A; Krumnack, N; Kuze, M; Kuzmin, V A; Labarga, L; Labes, H; Lainesse, J; Lammers, S; Lee, J H; Lee, S W; Lelas, D; Levchenko, B B; Levman, G M; Levy, A; Li, L; Lightwood, M S; Lim, H; Lim, I T; Limentani, S; Ling, T Y; Liu, X; Löhr, B; Lohrmann, E; Loizides, J H; Long, K R; Longhin, A; Lukina, O Yu; Lupi, A; Luzniak, P; Maddox, E; Magill, S; Mankel, R; Margotti, A; Marini, G; Martin, J F; Mastroberardino, A; Matsuzawa, K; Mattingly, M C K; McCubbin, N A; Mellado, B; Melzer-Pellmann, I A; Menary, S R; Metlica, F; Meyer, U; Milite, M; Mirea, A; Monaco, V; Montanari, A; Moritz, M; Musgrave, B; Nagano, K; Nania, R; Nguyen, C N; Nigro, A; Ning, Y; Nishimura, T; Notz, D; Nowak, R J; Oh, B Y; Olkiewicz, K; Pac, M Y; Padhi, S; Paganis, S; Palmonari, F; Parenti, A; Park, I H; Patel, S; Paul, E; Pavel, N; Pawlak, J M; Pelfer, P G; Pellegrino, A; Pesci, A; Petrucci, M C; Piotrzkowski, K; Plucinsky, P P; Pokrovskiy, N S; Polini, A; Posocco, M; Proskuryakov, A S; Przybycien, M B; Rautenberg, J; Raval, A; Reeder, D D; Ren, Z; Renner, R; Repond, J; Riveline, U; Karshon, M; Robins, S; Rodrigues, E; Rosin, M; Rurua, L; Ruspa, M; Sacchi, R; Salehi, H; Sartorelli, G; Savin, A A; Saxon, D H; Schagen, S; Schioppa, M; Schlenstedt, S; Schmidke, W B; Schneekloth, U; Sciulli, F; Scott, J; Selonke, F; Shcheglova, L M; Skillicorn, I O; Slominski, W; Smith, W H; Soares, M; Solano, A; Son, D; Sosnovtsev, V V; Stairs, D G; Stanco, L; Standage, J; Stifutkin, A; Stoesslein, U; Stonjek, S; Stopa, P; Straub, P B; Suchkov, S; Susinno, G; Suszycki, L; Sutton, M R; Sztuk, J; Szuba, D; Szuba, J; Tandler, J; Tapper, A D; Tapper, R J; Tassi, E; Tawara, T; Terron, J; Tiecke, H G; Tokushuku, K; Tsurugai, T; Turcato, M; Tymieniecka, T; Ukleja, A; Ukleja, J; Vázquez, M; Velthuis, J J; Vlasov, N N; Voss, K C; Walczak, R; Walsh, R; Wang, M; Weber, A; Wessoleck, H; West, B J; Whitmore, J J; Wick, K; Wiggers, L; Wills, H H; Wing, M; Wolf, G; Yamada, S; Yamashita, T; Yoshida, R; Youngman, C; Zawiejski, L; Zeuner, W; Zhautykov, B O; Zichichi, A; Ziegler, A; Zotkin, S A; De Wolf, E; Del Peso, J; Malden, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    HERA is the only high energy electron-proton collider in the world today and hence has unique opportunities both to probe the structure of the proton and to search for physics beyond the Standard Model. Results are presented for measurements of both neutral and charged current cross sections, and for searches for exotic processes involving direct electron-quark interactions (leptoquarks and R-parity violating SUSY), generic coupling models (contact interactions) and exclusive final states (isolated leptons and missing PT, single top production and pentaquarks). Exclusion limits on proposed models are set where no deviation from Standard Model predictions are found.

  14. Configurational temperatures and interactions in charge-stabilized colloid

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Yilong; Grier, David G.

    2004-01-01

    We demonstrate that the configurational temperature formalism can be derived from the classical hypervirial theorem, and introduce a hierarchy of hyperconfigurational temperature definitions, which are particularly well suited for experimental studies. We then use these analytical tools to probe the electrostatic interactions in monolayers of charge-stabilized colloidal spheres confined by parallel glass surfaces. The configurational and hyperconfigurational temperatures, together with a nove...

  15. First Measurement of the Muon Neutrino Charged Current Quasielastic Double Differential Cross Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A.A.; /Mexico U., CEN; Anderson, C.E.; /Yale U.; Bazarko, A.O.; /Princeton U.; Brice, S.J.; /Fermilab; Brown, B.C.; /Fermilab; Bugel, L.; /Columbia U.; Cao, J.; /Michigan U.; Coney, L.; /Columbia U.; Conrad, J.M.; /MIT; Cox, D.C.; /Indiana U.; Curioni, A.; /Yale U. /Columbia U.

    2010-02-01

    A high-statistics sample of charged-current muon neutrino scattering events collected with the MiniBooNE experiment is analyzed to extract the first measurement of the double differential cross section (d{sup 2}{sigma}/dT{sub {mu}}d cos {theta}{sub {mu}}) for charged-current quasielastic (CCQE) scattering on carbon. This result features minimal model dependence and provides the most complete information on this process to date. With the assumption of CCQE scattering, the absolute cross section as a function of neutrino energy ({sigma}[E{sub {nu}}]) and the single differential cross section (d{sigma}/dQ{sup 2}) are extracted to facilitate comparison with previous measurements. These quantities may be used to characterize an effective axial-vector form factor of the nucleon and to improve the modeling of low-energy neutrino interactions on nuclear targets. The results are relevant for experiments searching for neutrino oscillations.

  16. Current research with highly charged ions in EBIT-II and superEBIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using both the LLNL high-voltage electron beam ion trap, SuperEBIT, and its low-energy counterpart, EBIT-II, we are currently performing spectroscopic measurements with electron beam energies ranging from 150 eV to 150 keV on ions ranging from near neutral Ne to ions as highly charged as Tl80+. Our measurements span photon energies from visible light to hard X-rays and focus on electron-ion interaction cross sections, line identifications and QED measurements, the determination of nuclear parameters, the investigation of charge transfer reactions, and radiative transition rates. An overview of some of the new instrumentation and a subset of the current experiments is given. (orig.)

  17. Measurement of the $Z/A$ dependence of neutrino charged-current total cross-sections

    CERN Document Server

    Kayis-Topaksu, A; Van Dantzig, R; De Jong, M; Konijn, J; Melzer, O; Oldeman, R G C; Pesen, E; Van der Poel, C A F J; Spada, F R; Visschers, J L; Güler, M; Serin-Zeyrek, M; Kama, S; Sever, R; Tolun, P; Zeyrek, M T; Armenise, N; Catanesi, M G; De Serio, M; Ieva, M; Muciaccia, M T; Radicioni, E; Simone, S; Bülte, A; Winter, Klaus; El-Aidi, R; Van de Vyver, B; Vilian, P; Wilquet, G; Saitta, B; Di Capua, E; Ogawa, S; Shibuya, H; Artamonov, A V; Brunner, J; Chizhov, M; Cussans, D G; Doucet, M; Fabre, Jean-Paul; Hristova, I R; Kawamura, T; Kolev, D; Litmaath, M; Meinhard, H; Panman, J; Papadopoulos, I M; Ricciardi, S; Rozanov, A; Saltzberg, D; Tsenov, R V; Uiterwijk, J W E; Zucchelli, P; Goldberg, J; Chikawa, M; Arik, E; Song, J S; Yoon, C S; Kodama, K; Ushida, N; Aoki, S; Hara, T; Delbar, T; Favart, D; Grégoire, G; Kalinin, S; Makhlyoueva, I V; Gorbunov, P; Khovanskii, V D; Shamanov, V V; Tsukerman, I; Bruski, N; Frekers, D; Rondeshagen, D; Wolff, T; Hoshino, K; Kawada, J; Komatsu, M; Miyanishi, M; Nakamura, M; Nakano, T; Narita, K; Niu, K; Niwa, K; Nonaka, N; Sato, O; Toshito, T; Buontempo, S; Cocco, A G; D'Ambrosio, N; De Lellis, G; De Rosa, G; Di Capua, F; Ereditato, A; Fiorillo, G; Marotta, A; Messina, M; Migliozzi, P; Pistillo, C; Santorelli, R; Scotto-Lavina, L; Strolin, P; Tioukov, V; Nakamura, K; Okusawa, T; Dore, U; Loverre, P F; Ludovici, L; Maslennikov, A L; Righini, P; Rosa, G; Santacesaria, R; Satta, A; Barbuto, E; Bozza, C; Grella, G; Romano, G; Sirignano, C; Sorrentino, S; Sato, Y; Tezuka, I

    2003-01-01

    A relative measurement of total cross-sections is reported for polyethylene, marble, iron, and lead targets for the inclusive charged-current reaction nu_mu + N -> mu^- + X. The targets, passive blocks of ~100kg each, were exposed simultaneously to the CERN SPS wide-band muon-neutrino beam over a period of 18 weeks. Systematics effects due to differences in the neutrino flux and detector efficiency for the different target locations were minimised by changing the position of the four targets on their support about every two weeks. The relative neutrino fluxes on the targets were monitored within the same experiment using charged-current interactions in the calorimeter positioned directly downstream of the four targets. From a fit to the Z/A dependence of the total cross-sections a value is deduced for the effective neutron-to-proton cross-section ratio.

  18. Measurement of the Z/A dependence of neutrino charged-current total cross-sections

    CERN Document Server

    Kayis-Topasku, A; Dantzig, R V

    2003-01-01

    A relative measurement of total cross-sections is reported for polyethylene, marble, iron, and lead targets for the inclusive charged-current reaction nu submu + N -> mu sup - + X. The targets, passive blocks of propor to 100 kg each, were exposed simultaneously to the CERN SPS wide-band muon-neutrino beam over a period of 18 weeks. Systematic effects due to differences in the neutrino flux and detector efficiency for the different target locations were minimised by changing the position of the four targets on their support about every two weeks. The relative neutrino fluxes on the targets were monitored within the same experiment using charged-current interactions in the calorimeter positioned directly downstream of the four targets. From a fit to the Z/A dependence of the total cross-sections a value is deduced for the effective neutron-to-proton cross-section ratio. (orig.)

  19. Space-charge-limited current in DNA-surfactant complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I.-Ching; Lin, Ting-Yu; Hung, Yu-Chueh

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) biopolymers have attracted much research attention and been considered as a promising material when being employed in many optoelectronic devices. Since performance of many DNA biopolymer-based devices relies on carrier transport, it is crucial to study the carrier mobility of these DNA-surfactant complexes for practical implement. In this work, we present hole mobility characterization of cetyltrimethylammonium (CTMA)-modified DNA biopolymer by using space-charge-limited current (SCLC) method. Devices were fabricated using a sandwich structure with a buffer layer of MoO3 to enhance hole injection and achieve ohmic contact between the anode and the DNA layer. Current-voltage (I-V) curves of the devices were analyzed. A trap-free SCLC behavior can ultimately be achieved and a quadratic dependence in I-V curve was observed. With increasing electric field, a positive field-dependent mobility was demonstrated. The correlation between mobility and temperature was also investigated and a positive relation was found. The characterization results can be further utilized for DNA-based device design and applications.

  20. Implications of current constraints on parton charge symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. T. Londergan; A. W. Thomas

    2005-11-01

    For the first time, charge symmetry breaking terms in parton distribution functions have been included in a global fit to high energy data. We review the results obtained for both valence and sea quark charge symmetry violation and compare these results with the most stringent experimental upper limits on charge symmetry violation for parton distribution functions, as well as with theoretical estimates of charge symmetry violation. The limits allowed in the global fit would tolerate a rather large violation of charge symmetry. We discuss the implications of this for various observables, including extraction of the Weinberg angle in neutrino DIS and the Gottfried and Adler sum rules.

  1. In-source analysis of radiation curing of unsaturated polyester resin by charging current technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dielectric and conductive properties of unsaturated polyester (UP) resins undergo significant changes in the course of crosslinking reaction. In-source radiation curing of UP resins was studied by combining dielectric, thermal and charging current analyses. Dielectric permittivity (by stepwise changing of frequency) and charging current were measured in the course of cobalt-60 γ-irradiation at constant temperatures. The exothermic reaction could be monitored by differential thermal analysis (DTA), while the observed change of dielectric permittivity can show how the dielectric relaxation time distribution shifted through the experimental window represented by reaction temperature and by frequency range of dielectric spectrometer. The decrease in dielectric permittivity and in charging current may be mainly associated with the partial immobilization of permanent carbonyl and hydroxyl dipoles attached to the oligoester chain. The measurements of charging properties of UP resins during the curing seems very promising due to the ease with which the relaxation parameters and essential information on the molecular interactions and mobility can be derived. The electrical properties of UP resins are mainly determined by inter-and intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The shape of the charging current spectra during the curing of UP resins showed a heterogeneous nature of vitrification process. The results show that two relaxations occur: the first one is attributed to the increase in viscosity of liquid phase as oligoester chains are crosslinked prior to the gelation, and the second one to the further crosslinking in the gel phase, resulting in the vitrification of the system. The characteristic times to gelation and vitrification of UP resins in the course of radiation isothermal curing are decreasing functions of reaction temperature. (author)

  2. Investigations of interactions mediated by neutral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is devoted to four-fermion interactions mediated by the neutral currents. The results from the second phase of LEP are presented, when the production of two massive bosons was possible with the increased energy of the e+e- collisions. It enabled for a direct test of nonabelian structure of the electroweak theory. The results concern the four-fermion production of the pairs of the ZZ bosons, single Z and Zγ* production as well as search for anomalous gauge bosons couplings. The large part of the report is devoted to experimental techniques, physics analyses and discussion of results. (author)

  3. Charge pumping and noise in a one-dimensional wire with weak electron-electron interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Devillard, Pierre; Gasparian, Vladimir; Martin, Thierry

    2008-01-01

    We consider the adiabatic pumping of charge through a mesoscopic one dimensional wire in the presence of electron-electron interactions. A two-delta potential model is used to describe the wire, which allows to obtain exactly the scattering matrix coefficients, which are renormalized by the interactions. Two periodic drives, shifted one from another, are applied at two locations of the wire in order to drive a current through it in the absence of bias. Analytical expressions are obtained for ...

  4. Interaction modes between asymmetrically and oppositely charged rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antila, Hanne S.; Van Tassel, Paul R.; Sammalkorpi, Maria

    2016-02-01

    The interaction of oppositely and asymmetrically charged rods in salt—a simple model of (bio)macromolecular assembly—is observed via simulation to exhibit two free energy minima, separated by a repulsive barrier. In contrast to similar minima in the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory, the governing mechanism includes electrostatic attraction at large separation, osmotic repulsion at close range, and depletion attraction near contact. A model accounting for ion condensation and excluded volume is shown to be superior to a mean-field treatment in predicting the effect of charge asymmetry on the free-energy profile.

  5. Congestion charging mechanisms for roads : an evaluation of current practice

    OpenAIRE

    Hau, Timothy D.

    1992-01-01

    The author explores 20 criteria for a good road pricing system and presents case studies illustrating the costs, revenues, and benefits of alternative congestion charging mechanisms. The author finds that manual tollbooths are not suitable for congestion charging because they are land-, labor-, and time-intensive. Cordon pricing (as in the Bergen toll ring) can be an effective instrument for charging for congestion if half the toll lanes are reserved for seasonal pass holders traveling throug...

  6. Matter Effect on Neutrino Oscillations from the violation of Universality in Neutrino Neutral Current Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Honda, Minako; Okamura, Naotoshi; Takeuchi, Tatsu

    2006-01-01

    The violation of lepton-flavor-universality in the neutrino-Z interactions can lead to extra matter effects on neutrino oscillations at high energies, beyond that due to the usual charged-current interaction of the electron-neutrino. We show that the dominant effect of the violation is a shift in the effective value of \\theta_{23}. This is in contrast to the dominant effect of the charged-current interaction which shifts \\theta_{12} and \\theta_{13}. The shift in \\theta_{23} will be difficult ...

  7. Aggregation in charged nanoparticles solutions induced by different interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, S.; Kumar, Sugam; Aswal, V. K.; Kohlbrecher, J.

    2016-05-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to study the aggregation of anionic silica nanoparticles as induced through different interactions. The nanoparticle aggregation is induced by addition of salt (NaCl), cationic protein (lysozyme) and non-ionic surfactant (C12E10) employing different kind of interactions. The results show that the interaction in presence of salt can be explained using DLVO theory whereas non-DLVO forces play important role for interaction of nanoparticles with protein and surfactant. The presence of salt screens the repulsion between charged nanoparticles giving rise to a net attraction in the DLVO potential. On the other hand, strong electrostatic attraction between nanoparticle and oppositely charged protein leads to protein-mediated nanoparticle aggregation. In case of non-ionic surfactant, the relatively long-range attractive depletion interaction is found to be responsible for the particle aggregation. Interestingly, the completely different interactions lead to similar kind of aggregate morphology. The nanoparticle aggregates formed are found to have mass fractal nature having a fractal dimension (~2.5) consistent with diffusion limited type of fractal morphology in all three cases.

  8. Layer Charge of Clay Minerals; Selected papers from the Symposium on Current Knowledge on the Layer Charge of Clay Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Special issue contains papers based on the contributions presented during the workshop “Current Knowledge on the Layer Charge of Clay Minerals”, held on September 18 and 19, 2004, in the Smolenice Castle, Slovakia. Layer charge is one of the most important characteristics of clay minerals as it...

  9. Superscaling predictions for neutrino-induced charged-current charged pion production at MiniBooNE

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, M V; Antonov, A N; Caballero, J A; Barbaro, M B; de Guerra, E Moya

    2012-01-01

    Superscaling approximation (SuSA) predictions to neutrino-induced charged-current charged pion production in the \\Delta-resonance region are explored under MiniBooNE experimental conditions. The results obtained within SuSA for the flux-averaged double-differential cross sections of the \\pi+ production for the \

  10. DLVO theory for like-charged polyelectrolyte and surface interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism of adsorption of charged polymers onto like-charged surfaces has been a matter of debates in recent years. We propose a mean-field theory for the interactions of like-charged polyelectrolyte and a plane surface in the presence of 1:1 and 2:1 electrolyte, which takes into account long-range van der Waals and double-layer forces. The theory is able to predict the optimum conditions, such as solvent composition, pH and temperature, for polyelectrolyte adsorption on like-charged surfaces as well as to account for the conformational properties of a polymer at the surfaces. An excellent agreement of the predictions of the theory with the available experimental data suggests that it can be used as a simple tool for predicting the optimum conditions for studying various polyelectrolyte properties, including their biological activity, at the surfaces. Particularly simple expressions for the polymer/surface interaction energy have been obtained in the Debye-Huckel limit. The applicability of this approximation to the biological molecules at the surfaces is discussed

  11. Interaction of a Magnet and a Point Charge: Unrecognized Internal Electromagnetic Momentum Eliminates the Myth of Hidden Mechanical Momentum

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, Timothy H

    2014-01-01

    A model calculation using the Darwin Lagrangian is carried out for a magnet consisting of two current-carrying charges constrained by centripetal forces to move in a circular path in the presence of the electric field from a distant external point charge. In the limit that the magnet's two charges are non-interacting, the calculation recovers the only valid calculation for hidden mechanical momentum. However, if the magnet's charges are mutually interacting, then there is internal electromagnetic linear momentum associated with the perturbed magnet's electrostatic charge distribution and the motion of the magnet's charges. This internal electromagnetic momentum does not seem to be recognized as distinct from the familiar external electromagnetic momentum associated with the electric field of the external charge and the magnetic field of the unperturbed magnet. In the multiparticle limit, the hidden mechanical momentum becomes negligible while the internal electromagnetic momentum provides the compensating lin...

  12. Time dependence of the average charge and current in a dissipative mesoscopic circuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    嵇英华; 雷敏生; 欧阳楚英

    2002-01-01

    Taking into consideration the interactions between electrons and phonons, we have studied the temporal evolutionof the average charge and current in a dissipative mesoscopic RLC circuit. Our results show that a mesoscopic RLCcircuit can be treated as an interactive system between an electromagnetic harmonic oscillator and many lattice harmonicoscillators; this is called the bathing of the harmonic oscillators. The results also show that the quantum equation ofmotion of the linear mesoscopic RLC circuit is identical in form to its classical equation of motion, the only differencebetween them being their respective meanings.In order to thoroughly study the quantum properties of a dissipativemesoscopic circuit, we have to consider not only; the electromagnetic energy of the circuit, but also the crystal latticevibration energy and the interactive energy between electrons and phonons.

  13. PTCDA chemisorbed on Ag(110): Dispersion interactions and charge equilibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, Reinhard [Walter Schottky Institut, TU Muenchen (Germany); Abbasi, Afshin [Institut fuer Physik, TU Chemnitz (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The chemisorption of PTCDA on Ag(110) is analysed with 2{sup nd} order Moeller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), accounting therefore for the main part of the dispersion interactions at an ab initio level. Irrespective of the size of the rigid silver cluster used as a substrate model, the optimized geometry consists of a nearly flat perylene core, surrounded by carboxylic oxygens closer to the substrate, but with anhydride atoms at a larger height. The charge equilibration between adsorbate and substrate involves charge injection from the oxygen atoms into the substrate, and back transfer of two electrons into the former LUMO of the free molecule. Surprisingly, the resulting negative charge of the adsorbate has a very small contribution in the core region where the main part of the LUMO is localized, but instead accumulates on the end groups. It can be shown in detail that a rehybridization of molecular {sigma} and {pi} states results in a decoupling of several {pi} states on the oxygen atoms from the aromatic core, as opposed to the free molecule, where the {pi} states delocalize over the entire molecule. These decoupled {pi} states on the end groups are forming the binding Ag-O orbitals injecting electronic charge from the molecule into the substrate. Compared to the dominating mechanisms discussed above, the hybridization between orbitals in the core region and the underlying substrate plays only a minor role for the charge balance.

  14. Neutrino Induced Charged Current 1{pi}{sup +} Production From {sup 12}C At Intermediate Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athar, M. Sajjad [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202002 (India)]. E-mail: sajathar@rediffmail.com; Ahmad, Shakeb [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202002 (India)]. E-mail: lepp_s2001@rediffmail.com; Singh, S.K. [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202002 (India)]. E-mail: pht13sks@rediffmail.com

    2007-02-01

    The charged current one pion production induced by {nu}{sub {mu}} in {sup 12}C has been studied. The calculations have been done for the incoherent and the coherent pion production processes assuming {delta} dominance and take into account the effects of the Pauli blocking, Fermi motion, renormalization of the {delta} properties in a nuclear medium and the final state interaction effects of pions with the residual nucleus. The numerical results have been compared with the preliminary experimental results of the MiniBooNE collaboration in {sup 12}C.

  15. Neutrino Induced Charged Current 1π+ Production From 12C At Intermediate Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The charged current one pion production induced by νμ in 12C has been studied. The calculations have been done for the incoherent and the coherent pion production processes assuming Δ dominance and take into account the effects of the Pauli blocking, Fermi motion, renormalization of the Δ properties in a nuclear medium and the final state interaction effects of pions with the residual nucleus. The numerical results have been compared with the preliminary experimental results of the MiniBooNE collaboration in 12C

  16. Conformational transformations induced by the charge-curvature interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Gaididei, Yu B.; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Zakrzewski, W. J.

    2005-01-01

    A simple phenomenological model for describing the conformational dynamics of biological macromolecules via the nonlinearity-induced instabilities is proposed. It is shown that the interaction between charges and bending degrees of freedom of closed molecular aggregates may act as drivers giving impetus to conformational dynamics of biopolymers. It is demonstrated that initially circular aggregates may undergo transformation to polygonal shapes and possible application to aggregates of bacter...

  17. Continuum random phase approximation approach to charged-current neutrino-nucleus scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present continuum random phase approximation (CRPA) calculations for charged-current neutrino-nucleus scattering. The CRPA formalism is based on a Green's-function approach, and the calculations can be done in a self-consistent fashion when using an effective nucleon-nucleon force of the Skyrme type. We analyze the technical aspects related to the description of charge-exchange reactions within this approach, and study the sensitivity of the results to the single-particle characteristics of the formalism. Muon capture is studied as a test case. In applications of the formalism, we concentrate on neutrino-scattering off 12C and 16O, and pay attention to interactions of experimental interest

  18. Measurement of the Muon Neutrino Inclusive Charged Current Cross Section on Iron using the MINOS Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loiacono, Laura Jean [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) facility at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) produces an intense muon neutrino beam used by the Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS), a neutrino oscillation experiment, and the Main INjector ExpeRiment v-A, (MINERv A), a neutrino interaction experiment. Absolute neutrino cross sections are determined via σv = N vv , where the numerator is the measured number of neutrino interactions in the MINOS Detector and the denominator is the flux of incident neutrinos. Many past neutrino experiments have measured relative cross sections due to a lack of precise measurements of the incident neutrino flux, normalizing to better established reaction processes, such as quasielastic neutrino-nucleon scattering. But recent measurements of neutrino interactions on nuclear targets have brought to light questions about our understanding of nuclear effects in neutrino interactions. In this thesis the vμ inclusive charged current cross section on iron is measured using the MINOS Detector. The MINOS detector consists of alternating planes of steel and scintillator. The MINOS detector is optimized to measure muons produced in charged current vμ interactions. Along with muons, these interactions produce hadronic showers. The neutrino energy is measured from the total energy the particles deposit in the detector. The incident neutrino flux is measured using the muons produced alongside the neutrinos in meson decay. Three ionization chamber monitors located in the downstream portion of the NuMI beamline are used to measure the muon flux and thereby infer the neutrino flux by relation to the underlying pion and kaon meson flux. This thesis describes the muon flux instrumentation in the NuMI beam, its operation over the two year duration of this measurement, and the techniques used to derive the neutrino flux.

  19. Theory of configurational interaction in semiconductor space-charge layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A perturbation theory of the configurational interaction in semiconductor space-charge layers is presented. The theory treats the case when the ground and the first excited subbands of the conduction band interact with quasi-continuum of states of the valence band. This is a particular case of the Fano's configurational interaction between discrete and continuum states. An universal dimensionless equation is derived for calculating the energy shifts when starting from the unknown unperturbed case. It is shown that both the discrete and the quasi-continuum states change due to the configurational interaction. A rule is given to determine when the Fano's shift of the ground subband is positive. Numerical examples for the band-bending, the energy levels and the band-mixing strengths are presented, for different values of the physical parameters of inversion layers on the II-VI compound Hg1-xCdxTe. (author). 30 refs, 8 figs

  20. Self-interaction effects on charge-transfer collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Quashie, Edwin E; Andrade, Xavier; Correa, Alfredo A

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the role of the self-interaction error in the simulation of collisions using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) and Ehrenfest dynamics. We compare many different approximations of the exchange and correlation potential, using as a test system the collision of $\\mathrm{H^+ + CH_4}$ at $30~\\mathrm{eV}$. We find that semi-local approximations, like PBE, and even hybrid functionals, like B3LYP, produce qualitatively incorrect predictions for the scattering of the proton. This discrepancy appears because the self-interaction error allows the electrons to jump too easily to the proton, leading to radically different forces with respect to the non-self-interacting case. From our results, we conclude that using a functional that is self-interaction free is essential to properly describe charge-transfer collisions between ions and molecules in TDDFT.

  1. Detection of molecular charge dynamics through current noise in a GaAs-based nanowire FET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Shinya; Kuroda, Ryota; Yin, Xiang; Sato, Masaki; Kasai, Seiya

    2015-04-01

    The detection of static and dynamic molecular charge states using a GaAs-based nanowire field-effect transistor (FET) was investigated. Tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) was put on the device as target molecules. After coating TPP on the FET, the drain current clearly decreased. On the other hand, the current largely increased by 405-nm light irradiation, indicating that TPP worked as a photo-excited donor. The light irradiation on the FET also induced a Lorentzian noise component, which was superimposed onto conventional 1/f noise. These behaviors were not seen in the gateless nanowire even with TPP. The obtained results indicated that electrical interaction between TPP and the nanowire was enhanced when a metal gate existed, although the channel was protected from TPP by the gate metal. We discuss the observed behaviors on the basis of a model where only TPP in the gate periphery modulated the channel potential and the drain current.

  2. Josephson junction qubit network with current-controlled interaction

    OpenAIRE

    J. Lantz; Wallquist, M.; Shumeiko, V. S.; Wendin, G.

    2004-01-01

    We design and evaluate a scalable charge qubit chain network with controllable current-current coupling of neighbouring qubit loops via local dc-current gates. The network allows construction of general N-qubit gates. The proposed design is in line with current main stream experiments.

  3. Interaction of low-energy highly charged ions with matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thesis presented herein deals with experimental studies of the interaction between highly charged ions and neutral matter at low collision energies. The energy range investigated is of great interest for the understanding of both charge exchange reactions between ions comprising the solar wind and various astrophysical gases, as well as the creation of near-surface nanostructures. Over the course of this thesis an experimental setup was constructed, capable of reducing the kinetic energy of incoming ions by two orders of magnitude and finally focussing the decelerated ion beam onto a solid or gaseous target. A coincidence method was employed for the simultaneous detection of photons emitted during the charge exchange process together with the corresponding projectile ions. In this manner, it was possible to separate reaction channels, whose superposition presumably propagated large uncertainties and systematic errors in previous measurements. This work has unveiled unexpectedly strong contributions of slow radiative decay channels and clear evidence of previously only postulated decay processes in charge exchange-induced X-ray spectra. (orig.)

  4. Design of a CMOS Adaptive Charge Pump with Dynamic Current Matching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A novel structure for a charge pump circuit is proposed, in which the charge-pump (CP) current can adaptively regulated according to phase-locked loops (PLL) frequency synthesis demand. The current follow technology is used to make perfect current matching characteristics, and the two differential inverters are implanted to increase the speed of charge pump and decrease output spur due to theory of low voltage difference signal. Simulation results, with 1st silicon 0.25 μm 2.5 V complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) mixed-signal process, show the good current matching characteristics regardless of the charge pump output voltages.

  5. Measurement of the ratio of total and differential cross sections on neutrons and protons for charged-current neutrino events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenise, N.; Calicchio, M.; Erriquez, O.; Fogli-Muciaccia, M. T.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Romano, F.; Belusevic, R.; Colley, D. C.; Jones, G. T.; O'Neale, S.; Sewell, S. J.; Votruba, M. F.; Bertrand, D.; Moreels, J.; Sacton, J.; Vander Velde-Wilquet, C.; Van Doninck, W.; Wilquet, G.; Brisson, V.; Francois, T.; Petiau, P.; Cooper, A. M.; Guy, J. G.; Michette, A. G.; Tyndel, M.; Venus, W.; Alitti, J.; Baton, J. P.; Gerbier, G.; Iori, M.; Kochowski, C.; Neveu, M.; Azemoon, T.; Bartley, J. H.; Bullock, F. W.; Davis, D. H.; Jones, T. W.; Parker, M. A.; BEBC TST Neutrino Collaboration

    1981-06-01

    Charged-current neutrino interactions have been analysed in a sample of pictures from BEBC equipped with a TST. Using a method independent of both the neutrino flux and nuclear interaction corrections, the ratio R= σn/ σp has been measured. The result is R=1.98±0.19 for the ratio of total cross sections. Bjorken x distributions for proton and neutron targets and for u and d quarks are compared.

  6. Measurement of the ratio of total and differential cross sections on neutrinos and protons for charged-current neutrino events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charged-current neutrino interactions have been analysed in a sample of pictures from BEBC equipped with a TST. Using a method independent of both the neutrino flux and nuclear interaction corrections, the ration R = sigmasub(n)sub(/)sigmasub(p) has been measured. The result is R = 1.98 +- 0.19 for the ratio of total cross sections. Bjorken x distributions for proton and neutron targets and for u and d quarks are compared. (orig.)

  7. Charged current antineutrino reactions from 12C at MiniBooNE energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of charged current induced antineutrino interactions from nuclei has been done for the intermediate energy antineutrinos and applied to 12C, relevant for ongoing experiment by MiniBooNE collaboration. The calculations have been done for the quasielastic and inelastic lepton production as well as for the incoherent and the coherent pion production processes. The calculations are done in local density approximation. In the case of the quasielastic reaction the effects of Pauli blocking, Fermi motion effects, renormalization of weak transition strengths in nuclear medium and the Coulomb distortion of the outgoing lepton have been taken into account. For the inelastic processes the calculations have been done in the Δ dominance model and take into account the effect of Pauli blocking, Fermi motion of the nucleon, and renormalization of Δ properties in a nuclear medium. The effect of final state interactions of pions is also taken into account. The numerical results for the total cross sections for the charged current quasielastic scattering and incoherent pion production processes are compared with earlier experimental results available in freon and freon-propane. It is found that nuclear medium effects give strong reduction in the cross sections leading to satisfactory agreement with the available data

  8. Configuration interaction in charge exchange spectra of tin and xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charge-state-specific extreme ultraviolet spectra from both tin ions and xenon ions have been recorded at Tokyo Metropolitan University. The electron cyclotron resonance source spectra were produced from charge exchange collisions between the ions and rare gas target atoms. To identify unknown spectral lines of tin and xenon, atomic structure calculations were performed for Sn14+-Sn17+ and Xe16+-Xe20+ using the Hartree-Fock configuration interaction code of Cowan (1981 The Theory of Atomic Structure and Spectra (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press)). The energies of the capture states involved in the single-electron process that occurs in these slow collisions were estimated using the classical over-barrier model.

  9. Classical Interaction of a Magnet and a Point Charge: The Shockley-James Paradox

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, Timothy H

    2014-01-01

    It is pointed out that Coleman and Van Vleck make a major blunder in their discussion of the Shockly-James paradox by designating relativistic hidden mechanical momentum as the basis for resolution of the paradox. This blunder has had a wide influence in the current physics literature, including erroneous work on the Shockley-James paradox, on Mansuripur's paradox, on the motion of a magnetic moment, on the Aharonov-Bohm phase shift, and on the Aharonov-Casher phase shift. Although hidden mechanical momentum is indeed dominant for non-interacting particles moving in a closed orbit under the influence of an external electric field, the attention directed toward hidden mechanical momentum represents a fundamental misunderstanding of the classical electromagnetic interaction between a multiparticle magnet and an external point charge. In the interacting multiparticle situation, the external charge induces an electrostatic polarization of the magnet which leads to an internal electromagnetic momentum in the magne...

  10. Charged-current neutrino-nucleus reactions within the SuSAv2-MEC approach

    CERN Document Server

    Megias, G D; Barbaro, M B; Caballero, J A; Donnelly, T W; Simo, I Ruiz

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed study of charged-current (CC) neutrino-nucleus reactions in a fully relativis- tic framework and comparisons with recent experiments spanning an energy range from hundreds of MeV up to 100 GeV within the SuperScaling Approach, which is based on the analysis of electron- nucleus scattering data and has been recently improved with the inclusion of Relativistic Mean Field theory effects. We also evaluate and discuss the impact of two-particle two-hole meson-exchange currents (2p-2h MEC) on neutrino-nucleus interactions through the analysis of two-particle two-hole axial and vector contributions to weak response functions in a fully relativistic Fermi gas. The results show a fairly good agreement with experimental data over the whole range of neutrino energies.

  11. On the self-induced charge currents in electromagnetic materials and its effects in the torsion balance experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, J Q

    2003-01-01

    We concern ourselves with the self-induced charge currents in electromagnetic materials and some related topics on its effects in the present paper. The contribution of self-induced charge currents of metamaterial media to photon effective rest mass is briefly discussed. We concentrate primarily on the torque, which is caused by the interaction of self-induced charge currents in dilute plasma with interstellar magnetic fields, acting on the torsion balance in the torsion balance experiment. It is shown by our evaluation that the muons and alpha-particles in secondary cosmic rays will contribute an effective rest mass about 10^{-54} Kg to the photon, which is compared to the newly obtained upper limit on photon rest mass in Luo's rotating torsion balance experiment.

  12. Self-interaction and charge transfer in organic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerzdoerfer, Thomas

    2009-12-18

    This work concentrates on the problem of self-interaction, which is one of the most serious problems of commonly used approximative density functionals. As a major result of this work, it is demonstrated that self-interaction plays a decisive role for the performance of different approximative functionals in predicting accurate electronic properties of organic molecular semiconductors. In search for a solution to the self-interaction problem, a new concept for correcting commonly used density functionals for self-interaction is introduced and applied to a variety of systems, spanning small molecules, extended molecular chains, and organic molecular semiconductors. It is further shown that the performance of functionals that are not free from self-interaction can vary strongly for different systems and observables of interest, thus entailing the danger of misinterpretation of the results obtained from those functionals. The underlying reasons for the varying performance of commonly used density functionals are discussed thoroughly in this work. Finally, this thesis provides strategies that allow to analyze the reliability of commonly used approximations to the exchange-correlation functional for particular systems of interest. This cumulative dissertation is divided into three parts. Part I gives a short introduction into DFT and its time-dependent extension (TDDFT). Part II provides further insights into the self-interaction problem, presents a newly developed concept for the correction of self-interaction, gives an introduction into the publications, and discusses their basic results. Finally, the four publications on self-interaction and charge-transfer in extended molecular systems and organic molecular semiconductors are collected in Part III. (orig.)

  13. Development of Capacitor Charging Supply Based on Constant Current Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Jing-he; ZHANG; Li-feng; YANG; Sheng; TONG; Xun-hua; YU; Guo-long

    2013-01-01

    As the pulse power supply in electron linear accelerator,the line-type pulse modulator is used to produce the high voltage pulse which come into being when the pulse forming net(PFN)is discharged.The frequency and stability is related to the PFN charging system.The breakthrough in high power switch devices makes it possible that applying switch devices are into pulse power field.In line-type high voltage

  14. Information parameters for realization of adaptive charge of secondary chemical sources of a current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhitnik N. E.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A chrono-potentiometric method of control of the state of chemical sources of current (CSC is offered. The method allows from chrono-potentiogram (CPG, representing CSC reaction on the charge current impulse, to get practically all informative parameters, necessary for practical realization of adaptive charge.

  15. Nonrelativistic derivation of the charge current of the Pauli equation using velocity operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a single procedure, using velocity operators, for finding the charge current for both the Schroedinger and Dirac equations. However, this procedure is not directly applicable to the derivation of the charge current of the Pauli theory, which is usually carried out via non-relativistic approximation of the Dirac current. It is shown how the canonical velocity operator method does lead to the current of the Pauli theory when applied to a spin model of Bopp and Haag

  16. Charged Σ hyperon production by K- meson interactions at rest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubble chamber pictures have been scanned for the interactions of stopping K- mesons in hydrogen. New determinations of the ratios γ=K-p→Σ-π+/K-p→Σ+π-, Rsub(c)=K-p→charged particles/K-p→all final states, for K- meson interactions at rest, are presented, as well as the branching ratio B=Σ+→nπ+/Σ+→π+, pπ0. The values found for Rsub(c), 0.664+-0.011, and for B, 0.488+-0.008, are in agreement with previous results. On the other hand, two values, resulting from different methods of analysis, have been found for γ, namely 2.38+-0.04 and 2.35+-0.07. They agree with one of the two previous precise measurements but are inconsistent with the other. (Auth.)

  17. The Challenge of Incorporating Charged Dust in the Physics of Flowing Plasma Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Y.; Russell, C. T.; Ma, Y.; Lai, H.; Jian, L.; Toth, G.

    2013-12-01

    The presence of two oppositely charged species with very different mass ratios leads to interesting physical processes and difficult numerical simulations. The reconnection problem is a classic example of this principle with a proton-electron mass ratio of 1836, but it is not the only example. Increasingly we are discovering situations in which heavy, electrically charged dust particles are major players in a plasma interaction. The mass of a 1mm dust particle is about 2000 proton masses and of a 10 mm dust particle about 2 million proton masses. One example comes from planetary magnetospheres. Charged dust pervades Enceladus' southern plume. The saturnian magnetospheric plasma flows through this dusty plume interacting with the charged dust and ionized plume gas. Multiple wakes are seen downstream. The flow is diverted in one direction. The field aligned-current systems are elsewhere. How can these two wake features be understood? Next we have an example from the solar wind. When asteroids collide in a disruptive collision, the solar wind strips the nano-scale charged dust from the debris forming a dusty plasma cloud that may be over 106km in extent and containing over 100 million kg of dust accelerated to the solar wind speed. How does this occur, especially as rapidly as it appears to happen? In this paper we illustrate a start on understanding these phenomena using multifluid MHD simulations but these simulations are only part of the answer to this complex problem that needs attention from a broader range of the community.

  18. Charged group surface accessibility determines micelleplexes formation and cellular interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Liu, Yang; Sen, Soumyo; Král, Petr; Gemeinhart, Richard A.

    2015-04-01

    Micelleplexes are a class of nucleic acid carriers that have gained acceptance due to their size, stability, and ability to synergistically carry small molecules. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA gene regulator that is consists of 19-22 nucleotides. Altered expression of miRNAs plays an important role in many human diseases. Using a model 22-nucleotide miRNA sequence, we investigated the interaction between charged groups on the micelle surface and miRNA. The model micelle system was formed from methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactide) (mPEG-PLA) mixed with methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactide)-b-oligoarginine (mPEG-PLA-Rx, x = 8 or 15). Surface properties of the micelles were varied by controlling the oligoarginine block length and conjugation density. Micelles were observed to have a core-shell conformation in the aqueous environment where the PLA block constituted the hydrophobic core, mPEG and oligoarginine formed a hydrophilic corona. Significantly different thermodynamic behaviors were observed during the interaction of single stranded miRNA with micelles of different surface properties, and the resulting micelleplexes mediated substantial cellular association. Depending upon the oligoarginine length and density, micelles exhibited miRNA loading capacity directly related to the presentation of charged groups on the surface. The effect of charged group accessibility of cationic micelle on micelleplex properties provides guidance on future miRNA delivery system design.Micelleplexes are a class of nucleic acid carriers that have gained acceptance due to their size, stability, and ability to synergistically carry small molecules. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA gene regulator that is consists of 19-22 nucleotides. Altered expression of miRNAs plays an important role in many human diseases. Using a model 22-nucleotide miRNA sequence, we investigated the interaction between charged groups on the micelle surface and miRNA. The

  19. Anti-Neutrino Charged Current Quasi-Elastic Scattering in MINER$\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chvojka, Jesse John [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of neutrino oscillation is becoming increasingly understood with results from accelerator-based and reactor-based experiments, but unanswered questions remain. The proper ordering of the neutrino mass eigenstates that compose the neutrino avor eigenstates is not completely known. We have yet to detect CP violation in neutrino mixing, which if present could help explain the asymmetry between matter and anti-matter in the universe. We also have not resolved whether sterile neutrinos, which do not interact in any Standard Model interaction, exist. Accelerator-based experiments appear to be the most promising candidates for resolving these questions; however, the ability of present and future experiments to provide answers is likely to be limited by systematic errors. A significant source of this systematic error comes from limitations in our knowledge of neutrino-nucleus interactions. Errors on cross-sections for such interactions are large, existing data is sometimes contradictory, and knowledge of nuclear effects is incomplete. One type of neutrino interaction of particular interest is charged current quasi-elastic (CCQE) scattering, which yields a final state consisting of a charged lepton and nucleon. This process, which is the dominant interaction near energies of 1 GeV, is of great utility to neutrino oscillation experiments since the incoming neutrino energy and the square of the momentum transferred to the final state nucleon, Q2, can be reconstructed using the final state lepton kinematics. To address the uncertainty in our knowledge of neutrino interactions, many experiments have begun making dedicated measurements. In particular, the MINER A experiment is studying neutrino-nucleus interactions in the few GeV region. MINERvA is a fine-grained, high precision, high statistics neutrino scattering experiment that will greatly improve our understanding of neutrino cross-sections and nuclear effects that affect the final state particles

  20. Influence of the ash content of a solid fuel on the formation of charged particles on its combustion in a current of air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakharov, A.G.; Fialkov, B.S.; Khvan, L.A.; Mel' nichuk, A.Yu.

    1982-01-01

    An increase in the ash content of a fuel leads to a linear decrease in the amount of charges generated on its combustion. In the combustion of a fuel in a current of air, charged particles are generated in processes taking place on the interaction of the carbon with oxygen.

  1. Probing Interactions at the Nanoscale by Ion Current through Nanopores and Nanovoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Trevor Patrick

    Polymer nanopores offer themselves as excellent test beds for study of phenomena that occur on the nano-scale, such as Debye layer formation, surface charge modulation, current saturation, and rectification. Studying ions interactions within the Debye layer, for example, is not possible on the micro-scale, where the pore diameter can be 100 times the size of the zone where interactions of interest occur. However, in our nanopores with an opening diameter less than 10 nm, a slight change of the Debye length can lead to drastic changes of the recorded ion current. Here we present our nanopores' use as a tool to study geometrical and electrochemical properties of porous manganese oxide. There is great value in studying nano-scale properties of this material because of its importance in lithium ion batteries and newly developed nano-architectures within supercapacitors. We electrodeposited manganese oxide wires into our cylindrical nanopores, filling them completely. In this use, nanopores became a template to probe properties of the embedded material such as surface charge, ion selectivity, and porosity. This information was then reported to the Energy Frontier Research Center (EFRC) collaboration, so that other groups can incorporate these recently discovered characteristics into future their nano-architecture design. Additionally, we constructed conical nanopores to study interactions between the surface charges found on the walls and alkali metal ions. In particular we looked at lithium, as it is the electrochemically active ion during charge cycling in EFRC energy storage devices. We attempted to reveal lithium ion's affinity to bind to surface charges. We found this binding led to lowering of the effective surface charge of the pore walls, while also decreasing lithium's ability to move through channels or voids that have charged walls. In connection to manganese oxide, a porous, charged material with voids, information on lithium's interaction with these charges

  2. Maximizing Ion Current by Space Charge Neutralization using Negative Ions and Dust Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion current extracted from an ion source (ion thruster) can be increased above the Child-Langmuir limit if the ion space charge is neutralized. Similarly, the limiting kinetic energy density of the plasma flow in a Hall thruster might be exceeded if additional mechanisms of space charge neutralization are introduced. Space charge neutralization with high-mass negative ions or negatively charged dust particles seems, in principle, promising for the development of a high current or high energy density source of positive light ions. Several space charge neutralization schemes that employ heavy negatively charged particles are considered. It is shown that the proposed neutralization schemes can lead, at best, only to a moderate but nonetheless possibly important increase of the ion current in the ion thruster and the thrust density in the Hall thruster

  3. Ohmic contact and space-charge-limited current in molybdenum oxide modified devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Zhaoyue; Deng, Zhenbo; Zheng, Jianjie; Zou, Ye; Chen, Zheng; Xu, Denghui; Wang, Yongsheng

    2009-10-01

    The effect of indium-tin oxide (ITO) surface treatment on hole injection of devices with molybdenum oxide (MoO 3) as a buffer layer on ITO was studied. The Ohmic contact is formed at the metal/organic interface due to high work function of MoO 3. Hence, the current is due to space charge limited when ITO is positively biased. The hole mobility of N, N‧-bis-(1-napthyl)-N, N‧-diphenyl-1, 1‧biphenyl-4, 4‧-diamine (NPB) at various thicknesses (100-400 nm) has been estimated by using space-charge-limited current measurements. The hole mobility of NPB, 1.09×10 -5 cm 2/V s at 100 nm is smaller than the value of 1.52×10 -4 cm 2/V s at 400 nm at 0.8 MV/cm, which is caused by the interfacial trap states restricted by the surface interaction. The mobility is hardly changed with NPB thickness for the effect of interfacial trap states on mobility which can be negligible when the thickness is more than 300 nm.

  4. Precision test of charge independence of hadronic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broken symmetries are among the richest sources of information about the fundamental interactions: the renewed interest in the study of isospin non-conservation by strong forces is closely related to the effort of understanding some properties of nuclear systems in terms of their basic degrees of freedom. The hope is to be able to relate the pattern of the dynamical breaking of this symmetry to the mass spectrum of light quarks: to this purpose a more detailed phenomenological knowledge must be provided by a new generation of experiments. These considerations motivated a precision test of charge independence of strong nuclear interactions through a measurement of the parameters ΔA/sub y/0(θ) = A/sub y/0(θ,3H) - A/sub y/0(θ,3He), (the difference in analyzing power), and R identical with dσ(θ3H)/dσ(θ,3He) for the two reactions: vector p + d → 3H + π+, vector p + d → 3He + π0. The observable ΔA/sub y/0 is particularly relevant as it probes the spin dependent term of the symmetry breaking interaction, on which so far almost no empirical evidence is available. The experiment has been performed at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility, using the N-type polarized proton beam (T/sub vector p/ = 733 MeV), and detecting the charged heavy particle in the HRS magnetic spectrometer. The final results are: ΔA/sub y/0 = A/sub y/0(3H) - A/sub y/0(3He) = 0.3930 - 0.3996 = -0.0066 +- 0.0040 +- (0.0018) and R = 2.193 +- 0.007 +- (0.027), where the first errors are statistical and the second systematic. 107 refs., 23 tabs., 63 figs

  5. Current feedback operational amplifiers as fast charge sensitive preamplifiers for photomultiplier read out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast charge sensitive preamplifiers were built using commercial current feedback operational amplifiers for fast read out of charge pulses from a photomultiplier tube. Current feedback opamps prove to be particularly well suited for this application where the charge from the detector is large, of the order of one million electrons, and high timing resolution is required. A proper circuit arrangement allows very fast signals, with rise times down to one nanosecond, while keeping the amplifier stable. After a review of current feedback circuit topology and stability constraints, we provide a 'recipe' to build stable and very fast charge sensitive preamplifiers from any current feedback opamp by adding just a few external components. The noise performance of the circuit topology has been evaluated and is reported in terms of equivalent noise charge.

  6. Maximum time-dependent space-charge limited diode currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, M. E.; Fisch, N. J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent papers claim that a one dimensional (1D) diode with a time-varying voltage drop can transmit current densities that exceed the Child-Langmuir (CL) limit on average, apparently contradicting a previous conjecture that there is a hard limit on the average current density across any 1D diode, as t → ∞, that is equal to the CL limit. However, these claims rest on a different definition of the CL limit, namely, a comparison between the time-averaged diode current and the adiabatic average of the expression for the stationary CL limit. If the current were considered as a function of the maximum applied voltage, rather than the average applied voltage, then the original conjecture would not have been refuted.

  7. Maximum time-dependent space-charge limited diode currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griswold, M. E. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States); Fisch, N. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Recent papers claim that a one dimensional (1D) diode with a time-varying voltage drop can transmit current densities that exceed the Child-Langmuir (CL) limit on average, apparently contradicting a previous conjecture that there is a hard limit on the average current density across any 1D diode, as t → ∞, that is equal to the CL limit. However, these claims rest on a different definition of the CL limit, namely, a comparison between the time-averaged diode current and the adiabatic average of the expression for the stationary CL limit. If the current were considered as a function of the maximum applied voltage, rather than the average applied voltage, then the original conjecture would not have been refuted.

  8. Adler-type sum rule, charge symmetry and neutral current in general multi-triplet model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We derive Adler-type sum rule extended to general multi-triplet model. Paying attention to roles of the colour degree of freedom, we discuss the charge symmetry property of the weak charged current and the structure functions for ν(ν-)+N→l(l-)+X, and also the structure of the neutral current. A comment is given on implications in our theory of Koike and Konuma's result on the neutral hadronic current. (auth.)

  9. Study of high-energy neutrino neutral-current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From an exposure of the Fermilab 15-foot bubble chamber to the Tevatron quadrupole triplet neutrino beam, we have determined the ratio of neutral-current (NC) to charged-current (CC) interactions to be 0.288±0.032 for events with visible hadron momentum above 10 GeV/c. The mean ν(bar ν) event energy is 150 (110) GeV, which is higher than that for any previous beam. This result agrees with those from previous experiments at lower energies. The NC/CC ratio is derived for a combined sample of ν and bar ν events. A value of 0.274±0.038 is obtained for the dominant ν component assuming bar ν NC/CC=0.39±0.08. For events with visible hadron momentum above 25 GeV/c, where the neutral hadron contamination remaining in the NC sample is assumed to be negligible, the combined NC/CC is 0.323±0.025 and the K0 production rates are 0.375±0.064 per CC and 0.322±0.073 per NC event. The corresponding Λ rates are 0.161±0.030 per CC and 0.113±0.030 per NC event. The K0 and Λ distributions of the fractional hadron energy variable z in NC events are consistent with those in CC events

  10. Persistent currents and critical magnetic field in planar dynamics of charged bosons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dariescu, Marina-Aura; Dariescu, Ciprian

    2007-06-01

    The aim of the present paper is the analysis from both quantum mechanics and thermodynamic points of view of the Hall-type behaviour of a relativistic charged scalar particle. Starting with the Euler-Lagrange equation, we obtain the solution and the Landau-type energy levels which exhibit a general dependence on the exterior electric and magnetic fields and on the particle momentum. For an ultra-relativistic particle, the characteristic function allows us to derive the so-called persistent currents, the state equation and the magnetization. In the last section, we add a self-interacting contribution to the Lagrangian and we get the critical magnetic induction values when the symmetry of the model is restored.

  11. Persistent currents and critical magnetic field in planar dynamics of charged bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present paper is the analysis from both quantum mechanics and thermodynamic points of view of the Hall-type behaviour of a relativistic charged scalar particle. Starting with the Euler-Lagrange equation, we obtain the solution and the Landau-type energy levels which exhibit a general dependence on the exterior electric and magnetic fields and on the particle momentum. For an ultra-relativistic particle, the characteristic function allows us to derive the so-called persistent currents, the state equation and the magnetization. In the last section, we add a self-interacting contribution to the Lagrangian and we get the critical magnetic induction values when the symmetry of the model is restored

  12. Electrostatic interactions in charged nanoslits within an explicit solvent theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within a dipolar Poisson–Boltzmann theory including electrostatic correlations, we consider the effect of explicit solvent structure on solvent and ion partition confined to charged nanopores. We develop a relaxation scheme for the solution of this highly non-linear integro-differential equation for the electrostatic potential. The scheme is an extension of the approach previously introduced for simple planes (Buyukdagli and Blossey 2014 J. Chem. Phys. 140 234903) to nanoslit geometry. We show that the reduced dielectric response of solvent molecules at the membrane walls gives rise to an electric field significantly stronger than the field of the classical Poisson–Boltzmann equation. This peculiarity associated with non-local electrostatic interactions results in turn in an interfacial counterion adsorption layer absent in continuum theories. The observation of this enhanced counterion affinity in the very close vicinity of the interface may have important impacts on nanofluidic transport through charged nanopores. Our results indicate the quantitative inaccuracy of solvent implicit nanofiltration theories in predicting the ionic selectivity of membrane nanopores. (paper)

  13. Electrostatic interactions in charged nanoslits within an explicit solvent theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukdagli, Sahin

    2015-11-01

    Within a dipolar Poisson-Boltzmann theory including electrostatic correlations, we consider the effect of explicit solvent structure on solvent and ion partition confined to charged nanopores. We develop a relaxation scheme for the solution of this highly non-linear integro-differential equation for the electrostatic potential. The scheme is an extension of the approach previously introduced for simple planes (Buyukdagli and Blossey 2014 J. Chem. Phys. 140 234903) to nanoslit geometry. We show that the reduced dielectric response of solvent molecules at the membrane walls gives rise to an electric field significantly stronger than the field of the classical Poisson-Boltzmann equation. This peculiarity associated with non-local electrostatic interactions results in turn in an interfacial counterion adsorption layer absent in continuum theories. The observation of this enhanced counterion affinity in the very close vicinity of the interface may have important impacts on nanofluidic transport through charged nanopores. Our results indicate the quantitative inaccuracy of solvent implicit nanofiltration theories in predicting the ionic selectivity of membrane nanopores.

  14. Interactions between domain walls and spin currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaui, M.; Laufenberg, M.; Backes, D.; Buhrer, W.; Rudiger, U.; Vila, L.; Vouille, C.; Faini, G.

    2006-03-01

    A promising novel approach for switching magnetic nanostructures is current-induced domain wall propagation (CIDP), where due to a spin torque effect, electrons transfer angular momentum to a head-to-head domain wall and thereby push it in the direction of the electron flow without any externally applied fields. This effect has been observed with a variety of techniques including MFM [1] and spin polarized scanning electron microscopy [2] to directly observe current-induced domain wall propagation in ferromagnetic nanostructures and magnetoresistance measurements to systematically probe the critical current densities as a function of the geometry [3]. The observed wall velocities and critical current densities, where wall motion sets in at room temperature, do not agree well with theoretical 0K calculations [4]. We have therefore measured the critical current densities as a function of the sample temperature. We find that the spin torque effect becomes more efficient at low temperatures, which could account for some of the observed discrepancies between the 300K experiment and the 0K simulation. [1] A. Yamaguchi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 77205 (2004); [2] M. Klaui et al., PRL 95, 26601 (2005); [3] M. Klaui et al., PRL 94, 106601 (2005); [4] A. Thiaville et al., EPL 69, 990 (2005); G. Tatara et al., APL 86, 252509 (2005);

  15. Quantum inductive circuits under ac and dc fields: Current manifestations of charge discreteness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that the electrical current of a quantum inductive circuits with charge discreteness qe displays Bloch-like oscillations (frequency ωB=qeεd-bar ) under a dc external voltage (εd). Here we consider the effect of a superposed ac voltage in the circuit. Resonances are explicitly found. In the limit of small external frequency (ω-bar ωB), the electrical (one-period-averaged) current exist and has always the same sign. This gives us an experimental method to measure discrete charge effects in (quantum) nanometric circuits since the established current is depending on charge discreteness

  16. Optimization of Charging Current and SOH Estimation for Lead Acid Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Rezaei Pish Robat

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new model-based approach is used to optimize the charging current of lead acid batteries for use in hybrid electric. The used model is a dynamical nonlinear model and so steepest descent, as a nonlinear optimization technique, is used to design the desired current profile. To verify the results, Unscented Kalman Filter is used to estimate battery capacity as a criterion of the state of health of the battery. Simulation results show that in comparison with multi level charging current, the proposed approach improves the state of health of the battery, up to 2.5% in the first 100 charge/discharge cycle

  17. Directional interactions between current and prior saccades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Anne Holland Jones

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One way to explore how prior sensory and motor events impact eye movements is to ask someone to look to targets located about a central point, returning gaze to the central point after each eye movement. Concerned about the contribution of this return to centre movement, Anderson et al. (2008 used a sequential saccade paradigm in which participants made a continuous series of saccades to peripheral targets that appeared to the left or right of the currently fixated location in a random sequence (the next eye movement began from the last target location. Examining the effects of previous saccades (n-x on current saccade latency (n, they found that saccadic reaction times (RT were reduced when the direction of the current saccade matched that of a preceding saccade (e.g. two left saccades, even when the two saccades in question were separated by multiple saccades in any direction. We examined if this pattern extends to conditions in which targets appear inside continuously marked locations that provide stable visual features (i.e. target ‘placeholders’ and when saccades are prompted by central arrows. Participants completed 3 conditions: peripheral targets (PT; continuous, sequential saccades to peripherally presented targets without placeholders; PT with placeholders; and centrally presented arrows (CA; left or right pointing arrows at the currently fixated location instructing participants to saccade to the left or right. We found reduced saccadic RT when the immediately preceding saccade (n-1 was in the same (vs. opposite direction in the PT without placeholders and CA conditions. This effect varied when considering the effect of the previous 2-5 (n-x saccades on current saccade latency (n. The effects of previous eye movements on current saccade latency may be determined by multiple, time-varying mechanisms related to sensory (i.e., retinotopic location, motor (i.e., saccade direction, and environmental (i.e., persistent visual objects

  18. Current Situation in the Neutrino (and Charged-Lepton) Sector

    CERN Document Server

    de Govea A.

    2010-01-01

    Neutrino masses are nonzero. Theoretically, we are still in the process of un- derstanding what these tiny masses and the pattern of lepton mixing mean, and how they Þt into a new and improved standard model. Nonetheless, the very successful parameterization of the new neutrino sector (three neutrino masses plus a 3 × 3 unitary leptonic mixing matrix) allows one to identify what we know we donÕt know about neutrinos and to deÞne a rich experimen- tal program in neutrino physics. This experimental program must not only answer these Òneutrino questions,Ó but also test the underlying three-active- ßavors paradigm and point the way toward a deeper understanding of neutri- nos (and particle physics). Given what we learned about neutrinos, searches for charged-lepton ßavor-violating phenomena are poised to Þnd new heavy physics at the weak scale (or well above) and provide vital clues regarding the neutrino mass mystery.

  19. Interaction-Induced Enhancement and Oscillations of the Persistent Current

    OpenAIRE

    Stafford, C. A.; Wang, D. F.

    1997-01-01

    The persistent current $I$ in integrable models of multichannel rings with both short- and long-ranged interactions is investigated. $I$ is found to oscillate in sign and increase in magnitude with increasing interaction strength due to interaction-induced correlations in the currents contributed by different channels. For sufficiently strong interactions, the contributions of all channels are found to add constructively, leading to a giant enhancement of $I$. Numerical results confirm that t...

  20. Profiling of the injected charge drift current transients by cross-sectional scanning technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaubas, E.; Ceponis, T.; Pavlov, J.; Baskevicius, A.

    2014-02-01

    The electric field distribution and charge drift currents in Si particle detectors are analyzed. Profiling of the injected charge drift current transients has been implemented by varying charge injection position within a cross-sectional boundary of the particle detector. The obtained profiles of the induction current density and duration of the injected charge drift pulses fit well the simulated current variations. Induction current transients have been interpreted by different stages of the bipolar and monopolar drift of the injected carriers. Profiles of the injected charge current transients registered in the non-irradiated and neutron irradiated Si diodes are compared. It has been shown that the mixed regime of the competing processes of drift, recombination, and diffusion appears in the measured current profiles on the irradiated samples. The impact of the avalanche effects can be ignored based on the investigations presented. It has been shown that even a simplified dynamic model enabled us to reproduce the main features of the profiled transients of induced charge drift current.

  1. Profiling of the injected charge drift current transients by cross-sectional scanning technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electric field distribution and charge drift currents in Si particle detectors are analyzed. Profiling of the injected charge drift current transients has been implemented by varying charge injection position within a cross-sectional boundary of the particle detector. The obtained profiles of the induction current density and duration of the injected charge drift pulses fit well the simulated current variations. Induction current transients have been interpreted by different stages of the bipolar and monopolar drift of the injected carriers. Profiles of the injected charge current transients registered in the non-irradiated and neutron irradiated Si diodes are compared. It has been shown that the mixed regime of the competing processes of drift, recombination, and diffusion appears in the measured current profiles on the irradiated samples. The impact of the avalanche effects can be ignored based on the investigations presented. It has been shown that even a simplified dynamic model enabled us to reproduce the main features of the profiled transients of induced charge drift current

  2. Profiling of the injected charge drift current transients by cross-sectional scanning technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaubas, E., E-mail: eugenijus.gaubas@ff.vu.lt; Ceponis, T.; Pavlov, J.; Baskevicius, A. [Institute of Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio av. 9-III, LT-10222 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2014-02-07

    The electric field distribution and charge drift currents in Si particle detectors are analyzed. Profiling of the injected charge drift current transients has been implemented by varying charge injection position within a cross-sectional boundary of the particle detector. The obtained profiles of the induction current density and duration of the injected charge drift pulses fit well the simulated current variations. Induction current transients have been interpreted by different stages of the bipolar and monopolar drift of the injected carriers. Profiles of the injected charge current transients registered in the non-irradiated and neutron irradiated Si diodes are compared. It has been shown that the mixed regime of the competing processes of drift, recombination, and diffusion appears in the measured current profiles on the irradiated samples. The impact of the avalanche effects can be ignored based on the investigations presented. It has been shown that even a simplified dynamic model enabled us to reproduce the main features of the profiled transients of induced charge drift current.

  3. Charged Current Coherent Pion Production in Neutrino Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We summarise here the main differences of three models of neutrino-induced coherent pion production, namely the Rein-Sehgal and Berger-Sehgal models based on the Partially Conserved Axial Current theorem and the Alvarez-Ruso \\textit{et al.} model which is using a microscopic approach. Their predictions in the event generators are compared against recent experimental measurements for a neutrino energy from 0.5 to 20 GeV.

  4. Simulation of space charge effects in electron optical systems based on the calculation of current density

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zelinka, Jiří; Oral, Martin; Radlička, Tomáš

    Brno: Institute of Scientific Instruments AS CR, v. v. i, 2014. s. 91. ISBN 978-80-87441-11-4. [International Conference on Charged Parrticle Optics /9./. 31.08.2014-05.09.2014, Brno] Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : space charge * current density evaluation * self-consistent computation * remeshing * FEM Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  5. Shot noises of spin and charge currents in a ferromagnet-quantum-dot-ferromagnet system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-kang ZHAO; Jian WANG

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated the shot noises of charge and spin current by considering the spin polarized electron tunneling through a ferromagnet-quantum-dotferromagnet system.We have derived the spin polarized current noise matrix,from which we can derive general expressions of shot noises associated with charge and spin currents.The spin and charge currents are intimately related to the polarization angles,and they behave quite differently from each other.The shot noise of charge current is symmetric about the gate voltage whose structure is modified by the Zeeman field considerably.There exists oscillations in spin current shot noise in the absence of source-drain bias at zero temperature,and it is asym metric in the positive and negative regimes of sourcedrain voltage. The shot noise of spin current behaves quite differently from the shot noise of charge current,since the spin current components Isx,Isy oscillate sinusoidally with the frequency ωγ in the γth lead,while the Isz component of spin current is independent of time.

  6. Simulation of the interaction of positively charged beams and electron clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markovik, Aleksandar

    2013-10-28

    The incoherent (head-tail) effect on the bunch due to the interaction with electron clouds (e-clouds) leads to a blow up of the transverse beam size in storage rings operating with positively charged beams. Even more the e-cloud effects are considered to be the main limiting factor for high current, high-brightness or high-luminosity operation of future machines. Therefore the simulation of e-cloud phenomena is a highly active field of research. The main focus in this work was set to a development of a tool for simulation of the interaction of relativistic bunches with non-relativistic parasitic charged particles. The result is the Particle-In-Cell Program MOEVE PIC Tracking which can track a 3D bunch under the influence of its own and external electromagnetic fields but first and foremost it simulates the interaction of relativistic positively charged bunches and initially static electrons. In MOEVE PIC Tracking the conducting beam pipe can be modeled with an arbitrary elliptical cross-section to achieve more accurate space charge field computations for both the bunch and the e-cloud. The simulation of the interaction between positron bunches and electron clouds in this work gave a detailed insight of the behavior of both particle species during and after the interaction. Further and ultimate goal of this work was a fast estimation of the beam stability under the influence of e-clouds in the storage ring. The standard approach to simulate the stability of a single bunch is to track the bunch particles through the linear optics of the machine by multiplying the 6D vector of each particle with the transformation matrices describing the lattice. Thereby the action of the e-cloud on the bunch is approximated by a pre-computed wake kick which is applied on one or more points in the lattice. Following the idea of K.Ohmi the wake kick was pre-computed as a two variable function of the bunch part exiting the e-cloud and the subsequent parts of a bunch which receive a

  7. Simulation of the interaction of positively charged beams and electron clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incoherent (head-tail) effect on the bunch due to the interaction with electron clouds (e-clouds) leads to a blow up of the transverse beam size in storage rings operating with positively charged beams. Even more the e-cloud effects are considered to be the main limiting factor for high current, high-brightness or high-luminosity operation of future machines. Therefore the simulation of e-cloud phenomena is a highly active field of research. The main focus in this work was set to a development of a tool for simulation of the interaction of relativistic bunches with non-relativistic parasitic charged particles. The result is the Particle-In-Cell Program MOEVE PIC Tracking which can track a 3D bunch under the influence of its own and external electromagnetic fields but first and foremost it simulates the interaction of relativistic positively charged bunches and initially static electrons. In MOEVE PIC Tracking the conducting beam pipe can be modeled with an arbitrary elliptical cross-section to achieve more accurate space charge field computations for both the bunch and the e-cloud. The simulation of the interaction between positron bunches and electron clouds in this work gave a detailed insight of the behavior of both particle species during and after the interaction. Further and ultimate goal of this work was a fast estimation of the beam stability under the influence of e-clouds in the storage ring. The standard approach to simulate the stability of a single bunch is to track the bunch particles through the linear optics of the machine by multiplying the 6D vector of each particle with the transformation matrices describing the lattice. Thereby the action of the e-cloud on the bunch is approximated by a pre-computed wake kick which is applied on one or more points in the lattice. Following the idea of K.Ohmi the wake kick was pre-computed as a two variable function of the bunch part exiting the e-cloud and the subsequent parts of a bunch which receive a

  8. Distribution of counterions and interaction between two similarly charged dielectric slabs: Roles of charge discreteness and dielectric inhomogeneity

    CERN Document Server

    Pezeshkian, Weria; Norouzi, Davood; Mohammad-Rafiee, Farshid; Fazli, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of counterions and the electrostatic interaction between two similarly charged dielectric slabs is studied in the strong coupling limit. Dielectric inhomogeneities and discreteness of charge on the slabs have been taken into account. It is found that the amount of dielectric constant difference between the slabs and the environment, and the discreteness of charge on the slabs have opposing effects on the equilibrium distribution of the counterions. At small inter-slab separations, increasing the amount of dielectric constant difference increases the tendency of the counterions toward the middle of the intersurface space between the slabs and the discreteness of charge pushes them to the surfaces of the slabs. In the limit of point charges, independent of the strength of dielectric inhomogeneity, counterions distribute near the surfaces of the slabs. The interaction between the slabs is attractive at low temperatures and its strength increases with the dielectric constant difference. At room t...

  9. Correlations of heat and charge currents in quantum-dot thermoelectric engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze the noise properties of both electric charge and heat currents as well as their correlations in a quantum-dot based thermoelectric engine. The engine is a three-terminal conductor with crossed heat and charge flows where heat fluctuations can be monitored by a charge detector. We investigate the mutual influence of charge and heat dynamics and how it is manifested in the current and noise properties. In the presence of energy-dependent tunneling, operating conditions are discussed where a charge current can be generated by heat conversion. In addition, heat can be pumped into the hot source by driving a charge current in the coupled conductor. An optimal configuration is found for structures in which the energy dependence of tunneling maximizes asymmetric transmission with maximal charge–heat cross-correlations. Remarkably, at a voltage that stalls the heat engine we find that in the optimal case the non-equilibrium state is maintained by fluctuations in the heat and charge currents only. (paper)

  10. Currents, charges, and canonical structure of pseudodual chiral models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the pseudodual chiral model to illustrate a class of two-dimensional theories which have an infinite number of conservation laws but allow particle production, at variance with naive expectations. We describe the symmetries of the pseudodual model, both local and nonlocal, as transmutations of the symmetries of the usual chiral model. We refine the conventional algorithm to more efficiently produce the nonlocal symmetries of the model, and we discuss the complete local current algebra for the pseudodual theory. We also exhibit the canonical transformation which connects the usual chiral model to its fully equivalent dual, further distinguishing the pseudodual theory

  11. Measurement of the inclusive electron neutrino charged current cross section on carbon with the T2K near detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, K; Adam, J; Aihara, H; Akiri, T; Andreopoulos, C; Aoki, S; Ariga, A; Assylbekov, S; Autiero, D; Barbi, M; Barker, G J; Barr, G; Bass, M; Batkiewicz, M; Bay, F; Berardi, V; Berger, B E; Berkman, S; Bhadra, S; Blaszczyk, F d M; Blondel, A; Bojechko, C; Bordoni, S; Boyd, S B; Brailsford, D; Bravar, A; Bronner, C; Buchanan, N; Calland, R G; Caravaca Rodríguez, J; Cartwright, S L; Castillo, R; Catanesi, M G; Cervera, A; Cherdack, D; Christodoulou, G; Clifton, A; Coleman, J; Coleman, S J; Collazuol, G; Connolly, K; Cremonesi, L; Dabrowska, A; Danko, I; Das, R; Davis, S; de Perio, P; De Rosa, G; Dealtry, T; Dennis, S R; Densham, C; Dewhurst, D; Di Lodovico, F; Di Luise, S; Drapier, O; Duboyski, T; Duffy, K; Dumarchez, J; Dytman, S; Dziewiecki, M; Emery-Schrenk, S; Ereditato, A; Escudero, L; Finch, A J; Friend, M; Fujii, Y; Fukuda, Y; Furmanski, A P; Galymov, V; Giffin, S; Giganti, C; Gilje, K; Goeldi, D; Golan, T; Gonin, M; Grant, N; Gudin, D; Hadley, D R; Haesler, A; Haigh, M D; Hamilton, P; Hansen, D; Hara, T; Hartz, M; Hasegawa, T; Hastings, N C; Hayato, Y; Hearty, C; Helmer, R L; Hierholzer, M; Hignight, J; Hillairet, A; Himmel, A; Hiraki, T; Hirota, S; Holeczek, J; Horikawa, S; Huang, K; Ichikawa, A K; Ieki, K; Ieva, M; Ikeda, M; Imber, J; Insler, J; Irvine, T J; Ishida, T; Ishii, T; Iwai, E; Iwamoto, K; Iyogi, K; Izmaylov, A; Jacob, A; Jamieson, B; Johnson, R A; Jo, J H; Jonsson, P; Jung, C K; Kabirnezhad, M; Kaboth, A C; Kajita, T; Kakuno, H; Kameda, J; Kanazawa, Y; Karlen, D; Karpikov, I; Katori, T; Kearns, E; Khabibullin, M; Khotjantsev, A; Kielczewska, D; Kikawa, T; Kilinski, A; Kim, J; Kisiel, J; Kitching, P; Kobayashi, T; Koch, L; Kolaceke, A; Konaka, A; Kormos, L L; Korzenev, A; Koshio, Y; Kropp, W; Kubo, H; Kudenko, Y; Kurjata, R; Kutter, T; Lagoda, J; Lamont, I; Larkin, E; Laveder, M; Lawe, M; Lazos, M; Lindner, T; Lister, C; Litchfield, R P; Longhin, A; Ludovici, L; Magaletti, L; Mahn, K; Malek, M; Manly, S; Marino, A D; Marteau, J; Martin, J F; Martynenko, S; Maruyama, T; Matveev, V; Mavrokoridis, K; Mazzucato, E; McCarthy, M; McCauley, N; McFarland, K S; McGrew, C; Metelko, C; Mijakowski, P; Miller, C A; Minamino, A; Mineev, O; Missert, A; Miura, M; Moriyama, S; Mueller, Th A; Murakami, A; Murdoch, M; Murphy, S; Myslik, J; Nakadaira, T; Nakahata, M; Nakamura, K; Nakayama, S; Nakaya, T; Nakayoshi, K; Nielsen, C; Nirkko, M; Nishikawa, K; Nishimura, Y; O'Keeffe, H M; Ohta, R; Okumura, K; Okusawa, T; Oryszczak, W; Oser, S M; Owen, R A; Oyama, Y; Palladino, V; Palomino, J L; Paolone, V; Payne, D; Perevozchikov, O; Perkin, J D; Petrov, Y; Pickard, L; Pinzon Guerra, E S; Pistillo, C; Plonski, P; Poplawska, E; Popov, B; Posiadala, M; Poutissou, J-M; Poutissou, R; Przewlocki, P; Quilain, B; Radicioni, E; Ratoff, P N; Ravonel, M; Rayner, M A M; Redij, A; Reeves, M; Reinherz-Aronis, E; Rodrigues, P A; Rojas, P; Rondio, E; Roth, S; Rubbia, A; Ruterbories, D; Sacco, R; Sakashita, K; Sánchez, F; Sato, F; Scantamburlo, E; Scholberg, K; Schoppmann, S; Schwehr, J; Scott, M; Seiya, Y; Sekiguchi, T; Sekiya, H; Sgalaberna, D; Shiozawa, M; Short, S; Shustrov, Y; Sinclair, P; Smith, B; Smy, M; Sobczyk, J T; Sobel, H; Sorel, M; Southwell, L; Stamoulis, P; Steinmann, J; Still, B; Suda, Y; Suzuki, A; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, S Y; Suzuki, Y; Tacik, R; Tada, M; Takahashi, S; Takeda, A; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, H K; Tanaka, H A; Tanaka, M M; Terhorst, D; Terri, R; Thompson, L F; Thorley, A; Tobayama, S; Toki, W; Tomura, T; Totsuka, Y; Touramanis, C; Tsukamoto, T; Tzanov, M; Uchida, Y; Vacheret, A; Vagins, M; Vasseur, G; Wachala, T; Waldron, A V; Walter, C W; Wark, D; Wascko, M O; Weber, A; Wendell, R; Wilkes, R J; Wilking, M J; Wilkinson, C; Williamson, Z; Wilson, J R; Wilson, R J; Wongjirad, T; Yamada, Y; Yamamoto, K; Yanagisawa, C; Yano, T; Yen, S; Yershov, N; Yokoyama, M; Yuan, T; Yu, M; Zalewska, A; Zalipska, J; Zambelli, L; Zaremba, K; Ziembicki, M; Zimmerman, E D; Zito, M; Żmuda, J

    2014-12-12

    The T2K off-axis near detector ND280 is used to make the first differential cross-section measurements of electron neutrino charged current interactions at energies ∼1  GeV as a function of electron momentum, electron scattering angle, and four-momentum transfer of the interaction. The total flux-averaged ν(e) charged current cross section on carbon is measured to be ⟨σ⟩(ϕ)=1.11±0.10(stat)±0.18(syst)×10⁻³⁸ cm²/nucleon. The differential and total cross-section measurements agree with the predictions of two leading neutrino interaction generators, NEUT and GENIE. The NEUT prediction is 1.23×10⁻³⁸ cm²/nucleon and the GENIE prediction is 1.08×10⁻³⁸ cm²/nucleon. The total ν(e) charged current cross-section result is also in agreement with data from the Gargamelle experiment. PMID:25541766

  12. Search for neutrino charged current coherent pion production at SciBooNE

    OpenAIRE

    Hiraide, K.

    2009-01-01

    SciBooNE is a neutrino experiment measuring the neutrino cross sections on carbon in the one GeV region. We have performed a search for charged current coherent pion production from muon neutrinos scattering on carbon, \

  13. Characterization and control of wafer charging effects during high-current ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EEPROM-based sense and memory devices provide direct measures of the charge flow and potentials occurring on the surface of wafers during ion beam processing. Sensor design and applications for high current ion implantation are discussed

  14. Charge and spin currents in normal metal sandwiched by tow p-wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Rahnavard

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Charge and spin transport properties of a clean $SNS$ Josephson junction (triplet superconductor-normal metal-triplet superconductor are studied using the quasiclassical Eilenberger equation of Green’s function. Our system consists of two p-wave superconducting crystals separated by a Copper nano layer. Effects of thickness of normal layer between superconductors on the spin and charge currents are investigated. Also misorientation between triplet superconductors which creates the spin current is another subject of this paper.

  15. Single Charge Current in a Normal Mesoscopic Region Attached to Superconductor Leads via a Coupled Poisson Nonequilibrium Green Function Formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, F. P.

    2014-01-01

    We study the I-V characteristic of mesoscopic systems or quantum dot (QD) attached to a pair of superconducting leads. Interaction effects in the QD are considered through the charging energy of the QD; that is, the treatment of current transport under a voltage bias is performed within a coupled Poisson nonequilibrium Green function (PNEGF) formalism. We derive the expression for the current in full generality but consider only the regime where transport occurs only via a single particle current. We show for this case and for various charging energies values U 0 and associated capacitances of the QD the effect on the I-V characteristic. Also the influence of the coupling constants on the I-V characteristic is investigated. Our approach puts forward a novel interpretation of experiments in the strong Coulomb regime. PMID:24977220

  16. Characterization of Charging Control of a Single Wafer High Current Spot Beam Implanter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on the characterization of charging control of an Axcelis Optima HD single wafer high current spot beam implanter using MOS capacitors with attached antennas of different size and shape. Resist patterns are implemented on Infineon Technologies own charging control wafers to investigate the influence of photo resist on charging damage. Compared to batch high current implanters the design of the beamline and the beam shape are comparable to single wafer high current spot beam implanters, however due to the different scanning architecture the dose rate of the single wafer high current spot beam implanters is significantly higher compared to the batch tools. Therefore, the risk of charging damage will be higher. The charging damage was studied as a function of the energy, the beam current and the most important plasma flood gun parameters. The results have shown that for very high antenna ratios the charging damage for single wafer implanters, even spot or ribbon beam implanters, is higher than for high current batch implanters.

  17. Reducing capacity fade in vanadium redox flow batteries by altering charging and discharging currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agar, Ertan; Benjamin, A.; Dennison, C. R.; Chen, D.; Hickner, M. A.; Kumbur, E. C.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the operation of a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) under asymmetric current conditions (i.e., different current densities during charge and discharge) was investigated as a technique to reduce its capacity loss. Two different membrane types (a convection-dominated membrane and a diffusion-dominated membrane) were analyzed. In these analyses, the charging current density was varied while the discharging current was held constant. For both membranes, it was found that increasing the charging current decreases the net convective crossover of vanadium ions, which reduces the capacity loss of the battery. When the tested membranes were compared, the improvement in capacity retention was found to be larger for the diffusion-dominated membrane (12.4%) as compared to the convection-dominated membrane (7.1%). The higher capacity retention in the diffusion-dominated membrane was attributed to the reduction in the cycling time (and hence, suppressed contribution of diffusion) due to the increased charging current. While asymmetric current operation helps reduce capacity loss, it comes at the expense of a reduction in the voltage efficiencies. Increasing the charging current was found to increase the ohmic losses, which lead to a decrease of 6% and 4.3% in the voltage efficiencies of the convection-dominated and diffusion-dominated membranes, respectively.

  18. Theoretical evidence of charge transfer interaction between SO₂ and deep eutectic solvents formed by choline chloride and glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongping; Chang, Yonghui; Zhu, Wenshuai; Wang, Changwei; Wang, Chao; Yin, Sheng; Zhang, Ming; Li, Huaming

    2015-11-21

    The nature of the interaction between deep eutectic solvents (DESs), formed by ChCl and glycerol, and SO2 has been systematically investigated using the M06-2X density functional combined with cluster models. Block-localized wave function energy decomposition (BLW-ED) analysis shows that the interaction between SO2 and DESs is dominated by a charge transfer interaction. After this interaction, the SO2 molecule becomes negatively charged, whereas the ChCl-glycerol molecule is positively charged, which is the result of Lewis acid-base interaction. The current result affords a theoretical proof that it is highly useful and efficient to manipulate the Lewis acidity of absorbents for SO2 capture. Moreover, hydrogen bonding as well as electrostatic interactions may also contribute to the stability of the complex. Structure analysis shows that solvent molecules will adjust their geometries to interact with SO2. In addition, the structure of SO2 is barely changed after interaction. The interaction energy between different cluster models and SO2 ranges from -6.8 to -14.4 kcal mol(-1). It is found that the interaction energy is very sensitive to the solvent structure. The moderate interaction between ChCl-glycerol and SO2 is consistent with the concept that highly efficient solvents for SO2 absorption should not only be solvable but also regenerable. PMID:26446782

  19. Mass Charge Interactions for Visualizing the Quantum Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Wolfgang

    Our goal is to integrate the objective and subjective aspects of our personal experience into a single complete theory of reality. To further this endeavor we replace elementary particles with elementary events as the building blocks of an event oriented description of that reality. The simplest event in such a conception is an adaptation of A. Wheeler's primitive explanatory--measurement cycle between internal observations experienced by an observer and their assumed physical causes. We will show how internal forces between charge and mass are required to complete the cyclic sequence of activity. This new formulation of internal material is easier to visualize and map to cognitive experiences than current formulations of sub-atomic physics. In our formulation, called Cognitive Action Theory, such internal forces balance the external forces of gravity-inertia and electricity-magnetism. They thereby accommodate outside influences by adjusting the internal structure of material from which all things are composed. Such accommodation is interpreted as the physical implementation of a model of the external physical world in the brain of a cognitive being or alternatively the response mechanism to external influences in the material of inanimate objects. We adopt the deBroglie-Bohm causal interpretation of QT to show that the nature of space in our model is mathematically equivalent to a field of clocks. Within this field small oscillations form deBroglie waves. This interpretation allows us to visualize the underlying structure of empty space with a charge-mass separation field in equilibrium, and objects appearing in space with quantum wave disturbances to that equilibrium occurring inside material. Space is thereby associated with the internal structure of material and quantum mechanics is shown to be, paraphrasing Heisenberg, the physics of the material that knows the world.

  20. High ion charge states in a high-current, short-pulse, vacuum ARC ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, A.; Brown, I.; MacGill, R.; Dickinson, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Ions of the cathode material are formed at vacuum arc cathode spots and extracted by a grid system. The ion charge states (typically 1-4) depend on the cathode material and only little on the discharge current as long as the current is low. Here the authors report on experiments with short pulses (several {mu}s) and high currents (several kA); this regime of operation is thus approaching a more vacuum spark-like regime. Mean ion charge states of up to 6.2 for tungsten and 3.7 for titanium have been measured, with the corresponding maximum charge states of up to 8+ and 6+, respectively. The results are discussed in terms of Saha calculations and freezing of the charge state distribution.

  1. Covariant Spectator Theory of np scattering: Isoscalar interaction currents

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, Franz

    2014-01-01

    Using the Covariant Spectator Theory (CST), one boson exchange (OBE) models have been found that give precision fits to low energy np scattering and the deuteron binding energy. The boson-nucleon vertices used in these models contain a momentum dependence that requires a new class of interaction currents for use with electromagnetic interactions. Current conservation requires that these new interaction currents satisfy a two-body Ward-Takahashi identity, and using principals of simplicity and picture independence, these currents can be uniquely determined. The results lead to general formulae for a two-body current that can be expressed in terms of relativistic np wave functions, Psi, and two convenient truncated wave functions, ${\\it \\Psi}^{(2)}$ and $\\widehat {\\it \\Psi}$, which contain all of the information needed for the explicit evaluation of the contributions from the interaction current. These three wave functions can be calculated from the CST bound or scattering state equations (and their off-shell e...

  2. Persistent Spin and Charge Currents in Open Conducting Ring Subjected to Rashba Spin-Orbit Coupling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xi-Sua; XIONG Shi-Jie

    2008-01-01

    We investigate persistent charge and spin currents of a one-dimensional ring with Rashba spin-orbit coupling and connected asymmetrically to two external leads spanned with angle (φ)0.Because of the asymmetry of the structure and the spin-reflection,the persistent charge and spin currents can be induced.The magnification of persistent currents can be obtained when tuning the energy of incident electron to the sharp zero and sharp resonance of transmission depending on the Aharonov-Casher (AC) phase due to the spin-orbit coupling and the angle spanned by two leads (φ)0.The general dependence of the charge and spin persistent currents on these parameters is obtained.This suggests a possible method of controlling the magnitude and direction of persistent currents by tuning the AC phase and (φ)0,without the electromagnetic flux though the ring.

  3. Persistent Spin and Charge Currents in Open Conducting Ring Subjected to Rashba Spin—Orbit Coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate persistent charge and spin currents of a one-dimensional ring with Rashba spin—orbit coupling and connected asymmetrically to two external leads spanned with angle φ0. Because of the asymmetry of the structure and the spin-reflection, the persistent charge and spin currents can be induced. The magnification of persistent currents can be obtained when tuning the energy of incident electron to the sharp zero and sharp resonance of transmission depending on the Aharonov–Casher (AC) phase due to the spin—orbit coupling and the angle spanned by two leads φ0. The general dependence of the charge and spin persistent currents on these parameters is obtained. This suggests a possible method of controlling the magnitude and direction of persistent currents by tuning the AC phase and φ0, without the electromagnetic flux though the ring. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  4. Impact of Electric Current Fluctuations Arising from Power Supplies on Charged-Particle Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Yoon, P S

    2008-01-01

    Electric current fluctuations are one type of unavoidable machine imperfections,and induce magnetic-field perturbations as a source of instabilities in accelerators. This paper presents measurement-based methodology of modeling the fluctuating electric current arising from the power system of Fermilab's Booster synchrotron to discuss the ramifications of the presence of ripple current and space-charge defocusing effects. We also present the method of generating stochastic noise and the measurement and analysis methods of ripple current and offending electromagnetic interferences residing in the Booster power system. This stochastic noise model, accompanied by a suite of beam diagnostic calculations, manifests that the fluctuating power-supply current, when coupled to space charge and impinging upon a beam, can substantially enhance beam degradation phenomena--such as emittance growth and halo formation--during the Booster injection period. With idealized and uniform charge-density distribution, fractional gro...

  5. Insulator charging limits direct current across tunneling metal-insulator-semiconductor junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilan, Ayelet

    2016-01-01

    Molecular electronics studies how the molecular nature affects the probability of charge carriers to tunnel through the molecules. Nevertheless, transport is also critically affected by the contacts to the molecules, an aspect that is often overlooked. Specifically, the limited ability of non-metallic contacts to maintain the required charge balance across the fairly insulating molecule often have dramatic effects. This paper shows that in the case of lead/organic monolayer-silicon junctions, a charge balance is responsible for an unusual current scaling, with the junction diameter (perimeter), rather than its area. This is attributed to the balance between the 2D charging at the metal/insulator interface and the 3D charging of the semiconductor space-charge region. A derivative method is developed to quantify transport across tunneling metal-insulator-semiconductor junctions; this enables separating the tunneling barrier from the space-charge barrier for a given current-voltage curve, without complementary measurements. The paper provides practical tools to analyze specific molecular junctions compatible with existing silicon technology, and demonstrates the importance of contacts' physics in modeling charge transport across molecular junctions.

  6. Insulator charging limits direct current across tunneling metal-insulator-semiconductor junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular electronics studies how the molecular nature affects the probability of charge carriers to tunnel through the molecules. Nevertheless, transport is also critically affected by the contacts to the molecules, an aspect that is often overlooked. Specifically, the limited ability of non-metallic contacts to maintain the required charge balance across the fairly insulating molecule often have dramatic effects. This paper shows that in the case of lead/organic monolayer-silicon junctions, a charge balance is responsible for an unusual current scaling, with the junction diameter (perimeter), rather than its area. This is attributed to the balance between the 2D charging at the metal/insulator interface and the 3D charging of the semiconductor space-charge region. A derivative method is developed to quantify transport across tunneling metal-insulator-semiconductor junctions; this enables separating the tunneling barrier from the space-charge barrier for a given current-voltage curve, without complementary measurements. The paper provides practical tools to analyze specific molecular junctions compatible with existing silicon technology, and demonstrates the importance of contacts' physics in modeling charge transport across molecular junctions

  7. Insulator charging limits direct current across tunneling metal-insulator-semiconductor junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilan, Ayelet [Department of Materials and Interfaces, Weizmann Institute of Science, POB 26, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

    2016-01-07

    Molecular electronics studies how the molecular nature affects the probability of charge carriers to tunnel through the molecules. Nevertheless, transport is also critically affected by the contacts to the molecules, an aspect that is often overlooked. Specifically, the limited ability of non-metallic contacts to maintain the required charge balance across the fairly insulating molecule often have dramatic effects. This paper shows that in the case of lead/organic monolayer-silicon junctions, a charge balance is responsible for an unusual current scaling, with the junction diameter (perimeter), rather than its area. This is attributed to the balance between the 2D charging at the metal/insulator interface and the 3D charging of the semiconductor space-charge region. A derivative method is developed to quantify transport across tunneling metal-insulator-semiconductor junctions; this enables separating the tunneling barrier from the space-charge barrier for a given current-voltage curve, without complementary measurements. The paper provides practical tools to analyze specific molecular junctions compatible with existing silicon technology, and demonstrates the importance of contacts' physics in modeling charge transport across molecular junctions.

  8. Interaction of a charge with a thin plasma sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of the electromagnetic field with a two-dimensional plasma sheet intended to describe the pi-electrons of a carbon nanotube or a C60 molecule is investigated. By first integrating out the displacement field of the plasma or the electromagnetic field, different representations for quantities like the Casimir energy are derived which are shown to be consistent with one another. Starting from the covariant gauge for the electromagnetic field, it is shown that the matching conditions to which the presence of the plasma sheet can be reduced are different from the commonly used ones. The difference in the treatments does not show up in the Casimir force between two parallel sheets, but it is present in the Casimir-Polder force between a charge or a neutral atom and a sheet. At once, since the plasma sheet is a regularization of the conductor boundary conditions, this sheds light on the difference in physics found earlier in the realization of conductor boundary conditions as 'thin' or 'thick' boundary conditions in Phys. Rev. D 70, 085010 (2004)

  9. A Measurement of Neutrino-Induced Charged-Current Neutral Pion Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Robert H. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This work presents the first comprehensive measurement of neutrino-induced charged-current neutral pion production (CCπ0) off a nuclear target. The Mini Booster Neutrino Experiment (MiniBooNE) and Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB) are discussed in detail. MiniBooNE is a high-statistics (~ 1, 000, 000 interactions) low-energy (Evϵ 2 0.5 - 2.0 GeV) neutrino experiment located at Fermilab. The method for selecting and reconstructing CCπ0 events is presented. The π0 and μ- are fully reconstructed in the final state allowing for the measurement of, among other things, the neutrino energy. The total observable CCπ0 cross-section is presented as a function of neutrino energy, along with five differential cross-sections in terms of the final state kinematics and Q2. The results are combined to yield a flux-averaged total cross-section of <σ>Φ = (9.2 ± 0.3stat. ± 1.5syst.) × 10-39 cm2/CH2 at energy 965 MeV. These measurements will aid future neutrino experiments with the prediction of their neutrino interaction rates.

  10. A Measurement of Neutrino-Induced Charged-Current Neutral Pion Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Robert H.; /Colorado U.

    2010-04-01

    This work presents the first comprehensive measurement of neutrino-induced charged-current neutral pion production (CC{pi}{sup 0}) off a nuclear target. The Mini Booster Neutrino Experiment (MiniBooNE) and Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB) are discussed in detail. MiniBooNE is a high-statistics ({approx} 1,000,000 interactions) low-energy (E{sub {nu}} {element_of} 0.5-2.0 GeV) neutrino experiment located at Fermilab. The method for selecting and reconstructing CC{pi}{sup 0} events is presented. The {pi}{sup 0} and {mu}{sup -} are fully reconstructed in the final state allowing for the measurement of, among other things, the neutrino energy. The total observable CC{pi}{sup 0} cross-section is presented as a function of neutrino energy, along with five differential cross-sections in terms of the final state kinematics and Q{sup 2}. The results are combined to yield a flux-averaged total cross-section of <{sigma}>{sub {Phi}} = (9.2 {+-} 0.3{sub stat.} {+-} 1.5{sub syst}.) x 10{sup -39} cm{sup 2}/CH{sub 2} at energy 965 MeV. These measurements will aid future neutrino experiments with the prediction of their neutrino interaction rates.

  11. Charge regulation in ionic solutions: thermal fluctuations and Kirkwood-Schumaker interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Adzic, Natasa

    2014-01-01

    We study the behavior of two macroions with dissociable charge groups, regulated by local variables such as pH and electrostatic potential, immersed in a mono-valent salt solution, considering cases where the net charge can either change sign or remain of the same sign depending on these local parameters. The charge regulation, in both cases, is described with the proper free energy function for each of the macroions, while the coupling between the charges is evaluated on the approximate Debye-H\\"uckel level. The charge correlation functions and the ensuing charge fluctuation forces are calculated analytically and numerically. Strong attraction between like-charged macroions is found close to the point of zero charge, specifically due to asymmetric, anticorrelated charge fluctuations of the macroion charges. The general theory is then implemented for a system of two protein-like macroions, generalizing the form and magnitude of the Kirkwood-Schumaker interaction.

  12. First Measurement of the Muon Anti-Neutrino Charged Current Quasielastic Double-Differential Cross-Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grange, Joseph M. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents the first measurement of the muon antineutrino charged current quasi-elastic double-differential cross section. These data significantly extend the knowledge of neutrino and antineutrino interactions in the GeV range, a region that has recently come under scrutiny due to a number of conflicting experimental results. To maximize the precision of this measurement, three novel techniques were employed to measure the neutrino background component of the data set. Representing the first measurements of the neutrino contribution to an accelerator-based antineutrino beam in the absence of a magnetic field, the successful execution of these techniques carry implications for current and future neutrino experiments.

  13. Disorder-assisted transmission due to charge puddles in monolayer graphene: Transmission enhancement and local currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Leandro R. F.; Lewenkopf, Caio H.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the contribution of charge puddles to the nonvanishing conductivity minimum in disordered graphene flakes at the charge neutrality point. For that purpose, we study systems with a geometry that suppresses the transmission due to evanescent modes allowing us to single out the effect of charge fluctuations in the transport properties. We use the recursive Green's function technique to obtain local and total transmissions through systems that mimic vanishing density of states at the charge neutrality point in the presence of a local disordered local potential to model the charge puddles. Our microscopic model includes electron-electron interactions via a spin resolved Hubbard mean field term. We establish the relationship between the charge puddle disorder potential and the electronic transmission at the charge neutrality point. We find that electronic interactions do not play a significant role in this setting. We discuss the implications of our findings to high mobility graphene samples deposited on different substrates and provide a qualitative interpretation of recent experimental results.

  14. Weak Interaction Models with New Quarks and Right-handed Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczek, F. A.; Zee, A.; Kingsley, R. L.; Treiman, S. B.

    1975-06-01

    We discuss various weak interaction issues for a general class of models within the SU(2) x U(1) gauge theory framework, with special emphasis on the effects of right-handed, charged currents and of quarks bearing new quantum numbers. In particular we consider the restrictions on model building which are imposed by the small KL - KS mass difference and by the .I = = rule; and we classify various possibilities for neutral current interactions and, in the case of heavy mesons with new quantum numbers, various possibilities for mixing effects analogous to KL - KS mixing.

  15. Electron Neutrino Charged-Current Quasielastic Scattering in the MINERvA Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolcott, Jeremy [Rochester U.

    2015-10-28

    The electron-neutrino charged-current quasielastic (CCQE) cross section on nuclei is an important input parameter to appearance-type neutrino oscillation experiments. Current experiments typically work from the muon neutrino cross section and apply corrections from theoretical arguments to obtain a prediction for the electron neutrino cross section, but to date there has been no experimental verification of the estimates for this channel at an energy scale appropriate to such experiments. We present the first measurement of an exclusive reaction in few-GeV electron neutrino interactions, namely, the cross section for a CCQE-like process, made using the MINERvA detector. The result is given as differential cross-sections vs. the electron energy, electron angle, and square of the four-momentum transferred to the nucleus, $Q^2$. We also compute the ratio to a muon neutrino cross-section in $Q^2$ from MINERvA. We find satisfactory agreement between this measurement and the predictions of the GENIE generator.

  16. Electron Neutrino Charged-Current Quasielastic Scattering in the MINERvA Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolcott, J. [Tufts U.

    2015-12-31

    The electron-neutrino charged-current quasielastic (CCQE) cross section on nuclei is an important input parameter for electron neutrino appearance oscillation experiments. Current experiments typically begin with the muon neutrino cross section and apply theoretical corrections to obtain a prediction for the electron neutrino cross section. However, at present no experimental verification of the estimates for this channel at an energy scale appropriate to such experiments exists. We present the cross sections for a CCQE-like process determined using the MINERvA detector, which are the first measurements of any exclusive reaction in few-GeV electron neutrino interactions. The result is given as differential cross-sections vs. the electron energy, electron angle, and square of the four-momentum transferred to the nucleus, $Q^{2}$. We also compute the ratio to a muon neutrino cross-section in $Q^{2}$ from MINERvA. We find satisfactory agreement between these measurements and the predictions of the GENIE generator. We furthermore report on a photon-like background unpredicted by the generator which we interpret as neutral-coherent diffractive scattering from hydrogen.

  17. Electron Neutrino Charged-Current Quasielastic Scattering in the MINERvA Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Wolcott, J

    2016-01-01

    The electron-neutrino charged-current quasielastic (CCQE) cross section on nuclei is an important input parameter for electron neutrino appearance oscillation experiments. Current experiments typically begin with the muon neutrino cross section and apply theoretical corrections to obtain a prediction for the electron neutrino cross section. However, at present no experimental verification of the estimates for this channel at an energy scale appropriate to such experiments exists. We present the cross sections for a CCQE-like process determined using the MINERvA detector, which are the first measurements of any exclusive reaction in few-GeV electron neutrino interactions. The result is given as differential cross-sections vs. the electron energy, electron angle, and square of the four-momentum transferred to the nucleus, $Q^{2}$. We also compute the ratio to a muon neutrino cross-section in $Q^{2}$ from MINERvA. We find satisfactory agreement between these measurements and the predictions of the GENIE generato...

  18. Electron neutrino charged-current quasielastic scattering in the MINERvA experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Wolcott, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    The electron-neutrino charged-current quasielastic (CCQE) cross section on nuclei is an important input parameter to appearance-type neutrino oscillation experiments. Current experiments typically work from the muon neutrino cross section and apply corrections from theoretical arguments to obtain a prediction for the electron neutrino cross section, but to date there has been no experimental verification of the estimates for this channel at an energy scale appropriate to such experiments. We present the first measurement of an exclusive reaction in few-GeV electron neutrino interactions, namely, the cross section for a CCQE-like process, made using the MINERvA detector. The result is given as differential cross-sections vs. the electron energy, electron angle, and square of the four-momentum transferred to the nucleus, $Q^2$. We also compute the ratio to a muon neutrino cross-section in $Q^2$ from MINERvA. We find satisfactory agreement between this measurement and the predictions of the GENIE generator.

  19. A 128-channel picoammeter system and its application on charged particle beam current distribution measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 128-channel picoammeter system is constructed based on instrumentation amplifiers. Taking advantage of a high electric potential and narrow bandwidth in DC energetic charged beam measurements, a current resolution better than 5 fA can be achieved. Two sets of 128-channel strip electrodes are implemented on printed circuit boards and are employed for ion and electron beam current distribution measurements. Tests with 60 keV O3+ ions and 2 keV electrons show that it can provide exact boundaries when a positive charged particle beam current distribution is measured

  20. A 128-channel picoammeter system and its application on charged particle beam current distribution measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Deyang; Liu, Junliang; Xue, Yingli; Zhang, Mingwu; Cai, Xiaohong; Hu, Jianjun; Dong, Jinmei; Li, Xin

    2015-11-01

    A 128-channel picoammeter system is constructed based on instrumentation amplifiers. Taking advantage of a high electric potential and narrow bandwidth in DC energetic charged beam measurements, a current resolution better than 5 fA can be achieved. Two sets of 128-channel strip electrodes are implemented on printed circuit boards and are employed for ion and electron beam current distribution measurements. Tests with 60 keV O3+ ions and 2 keV electrons show that it can provide exact boundaries when a positive charged particle beam current distribution is measured.

  1. A 128-channel picoammeter system and its application on charged particle beam current distribution measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Deyang; Xue, Yingli; Zhang, Mingwu; Cai, Xiaohong; Hu, Jianjun; Dong, Jinmei; Li, Xin

    2015-01-01

    A 128-channel picoammeter system is constructed based on instrumentation amplifiers. Taking the advantages of high electric potential and narrow bandwidth in DC energetic charged beam measurements, current resolution better than 5 fA can be achieved. Two 128-channel Faraday cup arrays are built, and are employed for ion and electron beam current distribution measurements. Tests with 60 keV O3+ ions and 2 keV electrons show that it can provide exact boundaries when a positive charged particle beam current distribution is measured.

  2. Design and commissioning of the APS beam charge and current monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The non-intercepting charge and current monitors suitable for a wide range of beam parameters have been developed and installed in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) low energy transport lines, positron accumulator ring (PAR), and injector synchrotron. The positron or electron beam pulse in the APS has charge ranging from 100pC to l0nC with pulse width varying from 30ps to 30ns. The beam charge and current are measured with a current transformer and subsequent current monitoring electronics based on an ultrafast, high precision gated integrator. The signal processing electronics, data acquisition, and communication with the control system are managed by a VME-based system. This paper summarizes the hardware and software features of the systems. The results of recent operations are presented

  3. Finite temperature fermionic charge and current densities induced by a cosmic string with magnetic flux

    CERN Document Server

    Mohammadi, A; Saharian, A A

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the finite temperature expectation values of the charge and current densities for a massive fermionic field with nonzero chemical potential, $\\mu$, in the geometry of a straight cosmic string with a magnetic flux running along its axis. These densities are decomposed into the vacuum expectation values and contributions coming from the particles and antiparticles. The charge density is an even periodic function of the magnetic flux with the period equal to the quantum flux and an odd function of the chemical potential. The only nonzero component of the current density corresponds to the azimuthal current. The latter is an odd periodic function of the magnetic flux and an even function of the chemical potential. At high temperatures, the parts in the charge density and azimuthal current induced by the planar angle deficit and magnetic flux are exponentially small. The asymptotic behavior at low temperatures crucially depends whether the value $|\\mu|$ is larger or smaller than the mass of the fiel...

  4. Constraints on neutrino decay lifetime using long-baseline charged and neutral current data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the status of a scenario involving oscillations and decay for charged and neutral current data from the MINOS and T2K experiments. We first present an analysis of charged current neutrino and anti-neutrino data from MINOS in the framework of oscillation with decay and obtain a best fit for non-zero decay parameter α3. The MINOS charged and neutral current data analysis results in the best fit for |Δm322|=2.34×10−3 eV2, sin2⁡θ23=0.60 and zero decay parameter, which corresponds to the limit for standard oscillations. Our combined MINOS and T2K analysis reports a constraint at the 90% confidence level for the neutrino decay lifetime τ3/m3>2.8×10−12 s/eV. This is the best limit based only on accelerator produced neutrinos

  5. Constraints on neutrino decay lifetime using long-baseline charged and neutral current data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the status of a scenario involving oscillations and decay for charged and neutral current data from the MINOS and T2K experiments. We first present an analysis of charged current neutrino and anti-neutrino data from MINOS in the framework of oscillation with decay and obtain a best fit for non-zero decay parameter α3. The MINOS charged and neutral current data analysis results in the best fit for |Δm322|=2.34×10−3 eV2, sin2⁡θ23=0.60 and zero decay parameter, which corresponds to the limit for standard oscillations. Our combined MINOS and T2K analysis reports a constraint at the 90% confidence level for the neutrino decay lifetime τ3/m3>2.8×10−12 s/eV. This is the best limit based only on accelerator produced neutrinos.

  6. Finite temperature bosonic charge and current densities in compactified cosmic string spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Mohammadi, Azadeh

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we study the expectation values of the induced charge and current densities for a massive bosonic field with nonzero chemical potential in the geometry of a higher dimensional compactified cosmic string with magnetic fluxes, along the string core and also enclosed by the compactified direction, in thermal equilibrium at finite temperature $T$. These densities are calculated by decomposing them into the vacuum expectation values and finite temperature contributions coming from the particles and antiparticles. The only nonzero components correspond to the charge, azimuthal and axial current densities. By using the Abel-Plana formula, we decompose the components of the densities into the part induced by the cosmic string and the one by the compactification. The charge density is an odd function of the chemical potential and even periodic function of the magnetic flux with a period equal to the quantum flux. Moreover, the azimuthal (axial) current density is an even function of the chemical potentia...

  7. A sub-GeV charged-current quasi-elastic $\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walding, Joseph James [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-01

    Neutrino-nucleus charged-current quasi-elastic scattering is the signal interaction used by many neutrino oscillation experiments. For muon disappearance studies the signal mode is νμn → μp. Modern oscillation experiments, such as T2K, produce neutrino beams with peak beam energies of order a few-GeV. It is therefore vitally important to have accurate measurements of the charged-current quasi-elastic crosssection for future neutrino oscillation experiments. Neutrino-nucleus cross-sections in the few-GeV region are not well understood, with the main uncertainties coming from understanding of the neutrino beam flux and the final state interactions within nuclei. SciBooNE is a sub-GeV neutrino-nucleus cross-section experiment based at Fermilab, Batavia, USA, with the goal to measure neutrino cross-sections with precision of order 5%. SciBooNE took data from June 2007 until August 2008, in total 0.99×1020 and 1.53×1020 protons on target were collected in neutrino and anti-neutrino mode, respectively. In this thesis a νμ charged-current quasi-elastic (CCQE) cross-section contained within the SciBar sub-detector is presented. A method to tag muons in SciBar was developed and three samples were isolated. An excess in backwards tracks in the one-track sample is observed. A Poisson maximum likelihood is used to extract the CCQE cross-section. The fit was applied using a basic fit parameter model, successfully used to obtain the cross-section in the SciBar-MRD matched CCQE analysis. This method was found to be insufficient in describing the data for the SciBarcontained CCQE analysis. By adding two migration parameters the cross-section was calculated to be 1.004 ± 0.031 (stat)+0.101 -0.150(sys) × 10-38 cm2/neutron, excluding backwards tracks with a χ2 = 203.8/76 d.o.f. and 1.083 ± 0.030(stat)+0.115 -0.177(sys) × 10-38 cm2

  8. A sub-GeV charged-current quasi-elastic $\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walding, Joseph James; /Imperial Coll., London

    2010-04-01

    Neutrino-nucleus charged-current quasi-elastic scattering is the signal interaction used by many neutrino oscillation experiments. For muon disappearance studies the signal mode is {nu}{sub {mu}}n {yields} {mu}p. Modern oscillation experiments, such as T2K, produce neutrino beams with peak beam energies of order a few-GeV. It is therefore vitally important to have accurate measurements of the charged-current quasi-elastic cross-section for future neutrino oscillation experiments. Neutrino-nucleus cross-sections in the few-GeV region are not well understood, with the main uncertainties coming from understanding of the neutrino beam flux and the final state interactions within nuclei. SciBooNE is a sub-GeV neutrino-nucleus cross-section experiment based at Fermilab, Batavia, USA, with the goal to measure neutrino cross-sections with precision of order 5%. SciBooNE took data from June 2007 until August 2008, in total 0.99 x 10{sup 20} and 1.53 x 10{sup 20} protons on target were collected in neutrino and anti-neutrino mode, respectively. In this thesis a {nu}{sub {mu}} charged-current quasi-elastic (CCQE) cross-section contained within the SciBar sub-detector is presented. A method to tag muons in SciBar was developed and three samples were isolated. An excess in backwards tracks in the one-track sample is observed. A Poisson maximum likelihood is used to extract the CCQE cross-section. The fit was applied using a basic fit parameter model, successfully used to obtain the cross-section in the SciBar-MRD matched CCQE analysis. This method was found to be insufficient in describing the data for the SciBar-contained CCQE analysis. By adding two migration parameters the cross-section was calculated to be 1.004 {+-} 0.031 (stat){sub -0.150}{sup +0.101}(sys) x 10{sup -38} cm{sup 2}/neutron, excluding backwards tracks with a {chi}{sup 2} = 203.8/76 d.o.f. and 1.083 {+-} 0.030(stat){sub -0.177}{sup +0.115}(sys) x 10{sup -38} cm{sup 2}/neutron, including backwards tracks with

  9. Spin-Current to Charge-Current Conversion and Magnetoresistance in a Hybrid Structure of Graphene and Yttrium Iron Garnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, J. B. S.; Alves Santos, O.; Meireles, L. M.; Lacerda, R. G.; Vilela-Leão, L. H.; Machado, F. L. A.; Rodríguez-Suárez, R. L.; Azevedo, A.; Rezende, S. M.

    2015-11-01

    The use of graphene in spintronic devices depends, among other things, on its ability to convert a spin excitation into an electric charge signal, a phenomenon that requires a spin-orbit coupling (SOC). Here we report the observation of two effects that show the existence of SOC in large-area CVD grown single-layer graphene deposited on a single crystal film of the ferrimagnetic insulator yttrium iron garnet (YIG). The first is a magnetoresistance of graphene induced by the magnetic proximity effect with YIG. The second is the detection of a dc voltage along the graphene layer resulting from the conversion of the spin current generated by spin pumping from microwave driven ferromagnetic resonance into a charge current, which is attributed to the inverse Rashba-Edelstein effect.

  10. Neutrino and antineutrino inclusive charged-current cross section measurements with the MINOS near detector

    OpenAIRE

    Adamson, P.; Andreopoulos, C.; Arms, K. E.; Armstrong, R.; Auty, D. J.; Ayres, D. S.; Backhouse, C.; Barnes, JR; Barr, G.; Barrett, W. L.; Devenish, N. E.; Falk, E.; Harris, P.G.; Hartnell, J.; et al, ...

    2010-01-01

    The energy dependence of the neutrino-iron and antineutrino-iron inclusive charged-current cross sections and their ratio have been measured using a high-statistics sample with the MINOS Near Detector exposed to the NuMI beam from the Main Injector at Fermilab. Neutrino and antineutrino fluxes were determined using a low hadronic energy subsample of charged-current events. We report measurements of neutrino-Fe (antineutrinoFe) cross section in the energy range 3-50 GeV (5-50 GeV) with precisi...

  11. Suppressing flavor-changing neutral current interactions from leptoquark exchange by a family symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that the flavor-changing neutral current interaction of leptoquark exchange can be strongly suppressed by a global family symmetry without a numerical fine-tuning of the parameters. In the symmetry limit, if nxn degenerate leptoquarks couple universally to n generations of quarks and leptons in the weak basis, not only is the neutral current interaction flavor diagonal, but also the charged current interaction takes exactly the same form as W exchange at low energies. Neutrino reactions and atomic parity violation still impose tight constraints. A quantitative analysis is made on the stability of flavor diagonalization and family independence against symmetry breaking due to the Higgs-Yukawa coupling. The mechanism is robust against symmetry breaking in the environment of the standard model. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  12. Improved Interaction Potentials for Charged Residues in Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepp, Kasper Planeta

    2008-01-01

    -consistent, experimental set of hydration free energies for acetate (Asp), propionate (Glu), 4-methylimidazolium (Hip), n-butylammonium (Lys), and n-propylguanidinium (Arg), all resembling charged residue side chains, including -carbons. It is shown that OPLS-AA free energies depend critically on the type of water model...... directly in molecular simulations with no modification of neutral residues needed and are envisioned to be particular important in simulations where charged residues change environment....

  13. Spin and Charge Currents through a Quantum Dot Connected to Ferromagnetic Leads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHI Feng; LI Shu-Shen

    2005-01-01

    @@ We investigate the spin polarized current through a quantum dot connected to ferromagnetic leads in the presence of a finite spin-dependent chemical potential. The effects of the spin polarization of the leads p and the external magnetic field B are studied. It is found that both the magnitude and the symmetry of the current are dependent on the spin polarization of the leads. When the two ferromagnetic leads are in parallel configuration, the spin polarization p has an insignificant effect on the spin current, and an accompanying charge current appears with the increase of p. When the leads are in antiparallel configuration, however, the effect of p is distinct. The charge current is always zero regardless of the variation of p in the absence of B. The peaks appearing in the pure spin current are greatly suppressed and become asymmetric as p is increased. The applied magnetic field Bresults in an accompanying charge current in both the parallel and antiparallel configurations of the leads. The characteristics of the currents are explained in terms of the density of states of the quantum dot.

  14. High Performance Charge Pump Phase-Locked Loop with Low Current Mismatch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sujatha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In CMOS CPs, which have Up and Down switches made of p-channel and n-channel respectively, generates fluctuations in the VCO due to current mismatch occurs when dumping the charge to the loop filter and subsequently a large phase noise on the PLL output. This paper presents a new CP circuit after detailed analysis of the current mismatch problem. It combines an error amplifier with reference current sources to achieve good current matching characteristics and lower phase noises. Charge sharing can be eliminated by using charge removal transistors. In addition, a low-voltage cascode current mirror and gain-boosting circuit are used to enhance current matching over process corners and increase the output impedance of the CP. Good current matching characteristic is achieved with less than 0.1% difference of the Up/Down current and 1% over all process variations. The CP output compliance voltage range of 0.1-1.8 V is achieved for 1.8-V supply voltage. The circuit was designed using 0.18um TSMC CMOS technology and simulated by Spectre tools.

  15. Charged-current quasielastic neutrino cross sections on $^{12}$C with realistic spectral and scaling functions

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, M V; Caballero, J A; Megias, G D; Barbaro, M B; de Guerra, E Moya; Udias, J M

    2014-01-01

    Charge-current quasielastic (CCQE) (anti)neutrino scattering cross sections on a $^{12}$C target are analyzed using a spectral function $S(p,{\\cal E})$ that gives a scaling function in accordance with the ($e,e'$) scattering data. The spectral function accounts for the nucleon-nucleon (NN) correlations, it has a realistic energy dependence and natural orbitals (NO's) from the Jastrow correlation method are used in its construction. In all calculations the standard value of the axial mass $M_A= 1.032$ GeV/c$^2$ is used. The results are compared with those when NN correlations are not included, as in the Relativistic Fermi Gas (RFG) model, or when harmonic-oscillator (HO) single-particle wave functions are used instead of NO's. The role of the final-state interactions (FSI) on the theoretical spectral and scaling functions, as well as on the cross sections is accounted for. A comparison of the results for the cases with and without FSI, as well as to results from the phenomenological scaling function obtained f...

  16. Induced fermionic charge and current densities in two-dimensional rings

    CERN Document Server

    Bellucci, S; Grigoryan, A Kh

    2016-01-01

    For a massive quantum fermionic field, we investigate the vacuum expectation values (VEVs) of the charge and current densities induced by an external magnetic flux in a two-dimensional circular ring. Both the irreducible representations of the Clifford algebra are considered. On the ring edges the bag (infinite mass) boundary conditions are imposed for the field operator. This leads to the Casimir type effect on the vacuum characteristics. The radial current vanishes. The charge and the azimuthal current are decomposed into the boundary-free and boundary-induced contributions. Both these contributions are odd periodic functions of the magnetic flux with the period equal to the flux quantum. An important feature that distinguishes the VEVs of the charge and current densities from the VEV of the energy density, is their finiteness on the ring edges. The current density is equal to the charge density for the outer edge and has the opposite sign on the inner edge. The VEVs are peaked near the inner edge and, as f...

  17. The secondary electron emission yield of muscovite mica: Charging kinetics and current density effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaise, G.; Pesty, F.; Garoche, P.

    2009-02-01

    Using a dedicated scanning electron microscope, operating in the spot mode, the charging properties of muscovite mica have been studied in the energy range of 100-8000 eV. The intrinsic yield curve σ0(E), representing the variation of the yield of the uncharged material with the energy E, has been established: the maximum value of the yield is 3.92 at E =300 eV and the two crossovers corresponding to σ0(E)=1 are, respectively, at energies EIexoemission (bursts of electrons) is produced at low energy when the net stored charge is positive. The interpretation of the current density effect on σ(D ) is based on the high rate of charging, the effect relative to negative charging is due to the expansion of the electron distribution, while the exoemission effect is due to the collective relaxation process of electrons.

  18. Modulation of folding energy landscape by charge–charge interactions: Linking experiments with computational modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Tzul, Franco O.; Schweiker, Katrina L.; Makhatadze, George I.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative understanding of how individual interactions contribute to the kinetics and thermodynamics of protein folding is critical for deciphering the underlying molecular mechanisms that define the energy folding landscape. We applied a structure-based model that explicitly accounts for the interactions between charges, to folding–unfolding of four different protein pairs: rationally stabilized, via optimization of surface charge–charge interactions, variants, and respective wild types. ...

  19. Modulation and interactions of charged biomimetic membranes with bivalent ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazadi Badiambile, Adolphe

    biomolecules in a dynamic environment and the lack of appropriate physical and biochemical tools. In contrast, biomimetic membrane models that rely on the amphiphilic properties of phospholipids are powerful tools that enable the study of these molecules in vitro. By having control over the different experimental parameters such as temperature and pH, reliable and repeatable experimental conditions can be created. One of the key questions I investigated in this thesis is related to the clustering mechanism of PtdIns(4, 5)P2 into pools or aggregates that enable independent cellular control of this species by geometric separation. The lateral aggregation of PtdIns(4, 5)P2 and its underlying physical causes is still a matter of debate. In the first part of this thesis I introduce the general information on lipid membranes with a special focus on the PtdIns family and their associated signaling events. In addition, I explain the Langmuir-Blodgett film balance (LB) system as tool to study lipid membranes and lipid interactions. In the second chapter, I describe my work on the lateral compressibility of PtdIns(4, 5)P2, PtdIns and DOPG monolayers and its modulation by bivalent ions using Langmuir monolayers. In addition, a theoretical framework of compressibility that depends on a surface potential induced by a planar layer of charged molecules and ions in the bulk was provided. In the third part, I present my work on the excess Gibbs free energy of the lipid systems PtdIns(4, 5)P2 --POPC, PtdIns(4, 5)P2, and POPC as they are modulated by bivalent ions. In the fourth part, I report on my foray in engineering a light-based system that relies on different dye properties to simulate calcium induced calcium release (CICR) that occurs in many cell types. In the final chapter, I provide a general conclusion and present directions for future research that would build on my findings.

  20. Spin-polarized current through a lateral double quantum dot with spin-orbit interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the spin-polarized current through a vertical double quantum dot scheme. Both the Rashba spin-orbit (RSO) interaction inside one of the quantum dots and the strong intradot Coulomb interactions on the two dots are taken into account by using the second-quantized form of the Hamiltonian. Due to the existence of the RSO interaction, spin-up and spin-down electrons couple to the external leads with different strengths, and then a spin polarized current can be driven out of the middle lead by controlling a set of structure parameters and the external bias voltage. Moreover, by properly adjusting the dot levels and the external bias voltages, a pure spin current with no accompanying charge current can be generated in the weak coupling regime. We show that the difference between the intradot Coulomb interactions strongly influences the spin-polarized currents flowing through the middle lead and is undesirable in the generation of the net spin current. Based on the RSO interaction, the structure we propose can efficiently polarize the electron spin without the usage of any magnetic field or ferromagnetic material. This device can be used as a spin-battery and is realizable using the present available technologies

  1. The two photon decay of a bound state of exotic colored scalars charged under an additional unbroken gauge interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Foot, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We argue that a charged scalar particle $\\chi$ of mass around 375 GeV charged under both $\\mathrm{SU}(3)_{c}$ and a new confining non-abelian gauge interaction can explain the 750 GeV diphoton excess. After pair production, these interactions confine the exotic scalar into non-relativistic bound states whose decays into photons can explain the discrepancy. Taking the new confining group to be $\\mathrm{SU}(2)$, we find $\\chi$ must carry an electric charge of $Q \\approx 1/2$ to fit the data. Interestingly, we find that pair production of the scalars and the subsequent formation of the bound state dominates over direct bound state resonance production. This explanation is quite weakly constrained by current experimental bounds, and we expect future constraints to come from dijet, mono-jet and possibly dilepton searches.

  2. Meson exchange current and three-body force contributions to the 4He charge form factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of meson exchange current (MEC) on the charge form factor (CFF) and charge density of 4He are investigated, including pair, mesonic and retardation current terms. The influence of three-body force (3BF) is considered by adopting the realistic wave function obtained from the nuclear Hamiltonian which explicitly includes the two-pion exchange 3BF. As a result the 3BF is found to greatly enhance the MEC contribution. When the 3BF is taken into account, the MEC contribution is shown to remove most of the discrepancy between the theoretical and experimental CFF's at the second maximum. Resulting effects on the charge density are found to yield a depression in the central region. (author)

  3. Plasma-induced evolution behavior of space-charge-limited current for multiple-needle cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Properties of the plasma and beam flow produced by tufted carbon fiber cathodes in a diode powered by a ∼500 kV, ∼400 ns pulse are investigated. Under electric fields of 230-260 kV cm-1, the electron current density was in the range 210-280 A cm-2, and particularly at the diode gap of 20 mm, a maximum beam power density of about 120 MW cm-2 was obtained. It was found that space-charge-limited current exhibited an evolution behavior as the accelerating pulse proceeded. There exists a direct relation between the movement of plasma within the diode and the evolution of space-charge-limited current. Initially in the accelerating pulse, the application of strong electric fields caused the emission sites to explode, forming cathode flares or plasma spots, and in this stage the space-charge-limited current was approximately described by a multiple-needle cathode model. As the pulse proceeded, these plasma spots merged and expanded towards the anode, thus increasing the emission area and shortening the diode gap, and the corresponding space-charge-limited current followed a planar cathode model. Finally, the space-charge-limited current is developed from a unipolar flow into a bipolar flow as a result of the appearance of anode plasma. In spite of the nonuniform distribution of cathode plasma, the cross-sectional uniformity of the extracted electron beam is satisfactory. The plasma expansion within the diode is found to be a major factor in the diode perveance growth and instability. These results show that these types of cathodes can offer promising applications for high-power microwave tubes.

  4. On the Electromagnetic Momentum of Static Charge and Steady Current Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gsponer, Andre

    2007-01-01

    Faraday's and Furry's formulae for the electromagnetic momentum of static charge distributions combined with steady electric current distributions are generalized in order to obtain full agreement with Poynting's formula in the case where all fields are of class C[superscript 1], i.e., continuous and continuously differentiable, and the…

  5. Polarized parton distributions from charged-current deep-inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the capabilities of a neutrino factory in the determination of polarized parton distributions from charged-current deep-inelastic scattering experiments, with special attention to the accuracy of this kind of measurements. We show that a neutrino factory would allow to distinguish between different theoretical scenarios for the proton spin structure

  6. Simple DCM or CRM analog peak current controller for HV capacitor charge-discharge applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Dimopoulos, Emmanouil; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a simple analog current controller suitable for buck and boost converter topologies. The controller operates in DCM or CRM, depending on the setup. The experimental results are presented to validate the proposed controller functionality for a high voltage capacitor charge...

  7. Neutrino and antineutrino inclusive charged-current cross section measurement with the MINOS near detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Debdatta; /Pittsburgh U.

    2009-03-01

    This thesis presents the measurement of energy dependence of the neutrino-nucleon inclusive charged current cross section on an isoscalar target in the range 3-50 GeV for neutrinos and 5-50 GeV energy range for antineutrinos. The data set was collected with the MINOS Near Detector using the wide band NuMI beam at Fermilab. The size of the charged current sample is 1.94 x 10{sup 6} neutrino events and 1.60 x 10{sup 5} antineutrino events. The flux has been extracted using a low hadronic energy sub-sample of the charged current events. The energy dependence of the cross section is obtained by dividing the charged current sample with the extracted flux. The neutrino and antineutrino cross section exhibits a linear dependence on energy at high energy but shows deviations from linear behavior at low energy. We also present a measurement of the ratio of antineutrino to neutrino inclusive cross section.

  8. Finite temperature bosonic charge and current densities in compactified cosmic string spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, A.; Bezerra de Mello, E. R.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we study the expectation values of the induced charge and current densities for a massive bosonic field with nonzero chemical potential in the geometry of a higher-dimensional compactified cosmic string with magnetic fluxes along the string core and also enclosed by the compactified direction in thermal equilibrium at finite temperature T . These densities are calculated by decomposing them into the vacuum expectation values and finite temperature contributions coming from the particles and antiparticles. The only nonzero components correspond to the charge, azimuthal, and axial current densities. By using the Abel-Plana formula, we decompose the components of the densities into the part induced by the cosmic string and the one by the compactification. The charge density is an odd function of the chemical potential and even periodic function of the magnetic flux with a period equal to the quantum flux. Moreover, the azimuthal (axial) current density is an even function of the chemical potential and an odd (even) periodic function of the magnetic flux with the same period. In this paper, our main concern is the thermal effect on the charge and current densities, including some limiting cases, the low- and high-temperature approximations. We show that in all cases, the temperature enhances the induced densities.

  9. Possible deviations from (V-A) charged currents: precise measurement of muon decay parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This short review examines the experimental limits on possible deviations from (V-A) charged weak currents, as would occur at some mass scale, for example, in manifestly left-right-symmetric electro-weak theories. Both present and anticipated limits are considered, emphasizing muon-decay experiments but including other experimental input where convenient

  10. Standardization of calibration of clinic dosemeters using electric currents and charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical dosimeters used in radiotherapy are calibrated in Latin American countries, including Brazil, as a complete 'system, i.e., ionization chamber and electrometer together. Some countries, as European ones, and USA calibrate them by component, i.e., ionisation chamber apart from electrometer. This method is more advantageous than the previous one, since it makes possible the automation of the calibration process, allowing the acquisition of data related to the chamber and the electrometer measurements independently, as well as the substitution of one of the components, in case of failure. This work proposes a method for standardisation of low intensity electric charge and currents in order to implement electric calibration of electrometers. This will make possible the implementation of a by components calibration technique, by components, of clinical dosimeters in Brazil. The results obtained with the calibration by components prove that the proposed method of standardisation of low electric charges and currents is viable. The difficulties found for the generation and measurement of low intensity electric charges and currents and the procedures adopted for the calibration by components are presented. Additionally, a current source was built to yield reference electric charges that will make possible the quality control clinical dosimeters. This source will also allow the user to identify the defective components of the dosimeters, through a simple verification test. (author)

  11. Charged Particle Dynamics in the Magnetic Field of a Long Straight Current-Carrying Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, A.; Fatuzzo, M.; Toepker, T.

    2015-01-01

    By describing the motion of a charged particle in the well-known nonuniform field of a current-carrying long straight wire, a variety of teaching/learning opportunities are described: 1) Brief review of a standard problem; 2) Vector analysis; 3) Dimensionless variables; 4) Coupled differential equations; 5) Numerical solutions.

  12. Plug-in Electric Vehicle Collaborative Charging for Current Unbalance Minimization: Ant System Optimization Application

    OpenAIRE

    FERNANDEZ, Julian Alberto; Bacha, Seddik; Riu, Delphine; Hably, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are one of the solutions to reduce transportation dependency on oil. Nevertheless, uncoordinated charging in distribution low voltage (LV) networks can lead to local grid problems such as current unbalance and consequently voltage unbalance. In this paper, a combinatorial method based on Ant System (AS) optimization is proposed in order to minimize the current unbalance factor (CUF) by controlling the connection and disconnection of PEVs. The CUF is generated ...

  13. Charged current quasi-elastic neutrino analysis at MINERνA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MINERνA (Main INjector Experiment for ν-A) is a neutrino scattering experiment in the NuMI high-intensity neutrino beam at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. MINERvA was designed to make precision measurements of low energy neutrino and antineutrino cross sections on a variety of different materials (plastic scintillator, C, Fe, Pb, He and H2O). We present the current status of the charged current quasi-elastic scattering in plastic scintillator

  14. Charged-Current Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering off the Even Molybdenum Isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ydrefors

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrinos from supernovae constitute important probes of both the currently unknown supernova mechanisms and of neutrino properties. Reliable information about the nuclear responses to supernova neutrinos is therefore crucial. In this work, we compute the cross sections for the charged-current neutrino-nucleus scattering off the even-even molybdenum isotopes. The nuclear responses to supernova neutrinos are subsequently calculated by folding the cross sections with a Fermi-Dirac distribution.

  15. Wave-current interaction in the northern Agulhas Current and shipping safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uys, Louw

    2015-04-01

    The Agulhas Current along the south east coast of South Africa is well known for severe wave conditions and the occurrence of rogue waves. The statistical probability of rogue wave occurrence is a well-known topic, but the occurrence of rogue waves cannot be predicted. Similarly, interaction between the Agulhas Current and wave fields emanating from the south west is a known phenomenon, which results in the creation of modified waves that could be different from those predicted by standard models. Although this modelled interaction can contribute much to the research on rogue waves, the enhancement or attenuation of wave fields due to wave-current interaction, is seen as a stand-alone phenomenon. Currently, standard models generating wave field prediction do not make provision for the interaction between waves and currents. Modelling the wave-current interaction in a main shipping route and providing the results thereof for use in the shipping industry, is a necessity not widely available yet. This area spans a grid of 800 km by 240 km between Richards Bay in the north and Port Elizabeth in the south. Using a conventional model in an area that it was not necessarily intended for, can contribute significantly towards knowledge expansion in this field. The SWAN model is a near shore wave model that is widely used in the field of coastal engineering. This readily available model provides for wave-current interaction and its limited resource requirements makes it ideal to supply information on wave interaction to the shipping community. Although this may not be seen to be the best model to provide a final accurate product of wave interaction prediction to the shipping community, it does serve to provide a very good baseline for the provision of safety information. This safety information can be produced and used for the safe routing of ships as well as in the ship design process during the determination of Response Amplitude Operators (RAO).

  16. Electric Double-Layer Interaction between Dissimilar Charge-Conserved Conducting Plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Derek Y C

    2015-09-15

    Small metallic particles used in forming nanostructured to impart novel optical, catalytic, or tribo-rheological can be modeled as conducting particles with equipotential surfaces that carry a net surface charge. The value of the surface potential will vary with the separation between interacting particles, and in the absence of charge-transfer or electrochemical reactions across the particle surface, the total charge of each particle must also remain constant. These two physical conditions require the electrostatic boundary condition for metallic nanoparticles to satisfy an equipotential whole-of-particle charge conservation constraint that has not been studied previously. This constraint gives rise to a global charge conserved constant potential boundary condition that results in multibody effects in the electric double-layer interaction that are either absent or are very small in the familiar constant potential or constant charge or surface electrochemical equilibrium condition. PMID:26317329

  17. The Mathematics of Charged Particles interacting with Electromagnetic Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kim

    In this thesis, we study the mathematics used to describe systems of charged quantum mechanical particles coupled with their classical self-generated electromagnetic field. We prove the existence of a unique local in time solution to the many-body Maxwell-Schrödinger initial value problem expressed...

  18. Interaction of slow highly charged ions with surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haake, Christian; Peters, Thorsten; Wucher, Andreas; Schleberger, Marika [Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    A new ion beam installation has been built to investigate the mechanisms of energy dissipation in a substrate after the impact of highly charged ions. First experiments at the TU Wien made successful use of metal-insulator-metal (MIM) junctions to measure electronic excitations in the irradiated metal. These MIM-junctions offer the unique possibility to detect excitations below the work function which limits the external emission of electrons. In order to separate effects induced by either the kinetic or the potential energy of the projectile, both contributions need to be controlled independently. In the Vienna experiment the ions had medium charge states of q=1 up to to q=8 and kinetic energies of 400 eV to 12 keV. The new set-up offers higher charge states and is designed for kinetic energies of less than 100 eV/q. This will enable us to produce extremely slow highly charged ions. In addition, external electron emission as well as secondary and neutral mass spectrometry (SIMS/SNMS) will be used to follow the external pathways of energy dissipation.

  19. Impact of flavor-changing neutral current top quark interactions on BR(t→bW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the effect that flavor-changing neutral current interactions of the top quark will have on the branching ratio of charged decays of the top quark. We have performed an integrated analysis using Tevatron and B-factories data and with just the further assumption that the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix is unitary, we can obtain very restrictive bounds on the strong and electroweak flavor-changing neutral current branching ratios Br(t→qX)-4, where X is any vector boson and a sum in q=u, c is implied.

  20. N(+)-N long-range interaction energies and resonance charge exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallcop, J. R.; Partridge, H.

    1985-01-01

    The aerothermodynamic studies of proposed space missions require atmospheric charge-transfer data. N2(+) eigenstate energies are calculated with use of the complete-active-space self-consistent-field method with an extended Gaussian basis set. The N(+)-N charge-exchange cross section, determined from these energies, agrees with merged-beam measurements. This contradicts the previous theoretical conclusion. A simple physical description of the long-range interaction is presented and should expedite future charge-transfer studies.

  1. Off-shell Noether current and conserved charge in Horndeski theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Jin Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We derive the off-shell Noether current and potential in the context of Horndeski theory, which is the most general scalar–tensor theory with a Lagrangian containing derivatives up to second order while yielding at most to second-order equations of motion in four dimensions. Then the formulation of conserved charges is proposed on basis of the off-shell Noether potential and the surface term got from the variation of the Lagrangian. As an application, we calculate the conserved charges of black holes in a scalar–tensor theory with non-minimal coupling between derivatives of the scalar field and the Einstein tensor.

  2. Current signal of silicon detectors facing charged particles and heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work consisted in collecting and studying for the first time the shapes of current signals obtained from charged particles or heavy ions produced by silicon detectors. The document is divided into two main parts. The first consisted in reducing the experimental data obtained with charged particles as well as with heavy ions. These experiments were performed at the Orsay Tandem and at GANIL using LISE. These two experiments enabled us to create a data base formed of current signals with various shapes and various times of collection. The second part consisted in carrying out a simulation of the current signals obtained from the various ions. To obtain this simulation we propose a new model describing the formation of the signal. We used the data base of the signals obtained in experiments in order to constrain the three parameters of our model. In this model, the charge carriers created are regarded as dipoles and their density is related to the dielectric polarization in the silicon detector. This phenomenon induces an increase in permittivity throughout the range of the incident ion and consequently the electric field between the electrodes of the detector is decreased inside the trace. We coupled with this phenomenon a dissociation and extraction mode of the charge carriers so that they can be moved in the electric field. (author)

  3. The magnetic exchange current and the spin-orbit interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that model independent local isoscalar and isovector exchange current operators associated with the spin-orbit component of the nucleon-nucleon interaction may be constructed from such nucleon-nucleon interactions that have been derived from relativistic models (e.g. boson exchange) for the scattering amplitude. The resulting magnetic moment operators contain terms that cannot be obtained by direct gauging of the conventional spin-orbit interaction. It is shown that the model independent isoscalar exchange current associated with the spin-orbit interaction causes a quenching of the order 10% of the effective isoscalar magnetic moment operator in heavy nuclei. The corresponding isovector exchange current operator causes a somewhat smaller enhancement of the effective isovector magnetic moment operator, which counteracts the much larger quenching effect caused by isobar-hole screening of the nucleons. The isoscalar exchange current operator leads to a small modification of the calculated magnetic formfactor of deuterium, which counteracts the contribution from typical model dependent exchange current contributions. (orig.)

  4. Characterization of charge collection in CdTe and CZT using the transient current technique

    CERN Document Server

    Fink, J; Lodomez, P; Wermes, N; Fink, Johannes; Krueger, Hans; Lodomez, Philipp; Wermes, Norbert

    2005-01-01

    The charge collection properties in different particle sensor materials with respect to the shape of the generated signals, the electric field within the detector, the charge carrier mobility and the carrier lifetime are studied with the transient current technique (TCT). Using the well-known properties of Si as a reference, the focus is laid on Cadmium-Telluride (CdTe) and Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT), which are currently considered as promising candidates for the efficient detection of X-rays. All measurements are based on a transient-current technique (TCT) setup, which allows the recording of current pulses generated by an 241Am alpha-source. These signals will be interpreted with respect to the build-up of space-charges inside the detector material and the subsequent deformation of the electric field. Additionally the influence of different electrode materials (i.e. ohmic or Schottky contacts) on the current pulse shapes will be treated in the case of CdTe. Finally, the effects of polarization, i.e. the ...

  5. Finite temperature fermion condensate, charge and current densities in a (2+1)-dimensional conical space

    CERN Document Server

    Bellucci, S; Bragança, E; Saharian, A A

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate the fermion condensate and the expectation values of the charge and current densities for a massive fermionic field in (2+1)-dimensional conical spacetime with a magnetic flux located at the cone apex. The consideration is done for both irreducible representations of the Clifford algebra. The expectation values are decomposed into the vacuum expectation values and contributions coming from particles and antiparticles. All these contributions are periodic functions of the magnetic flux with the period equal to the flux quantum. Related to the non-invariance of the model under the parity and time-reversal transformations, the fermion condensate and the charge density have indefinite parity with respect to the change of the signs of the magnetic flux and chemical potential. The expectation value of the radial current density vanishes. The azimuthal current density is the same for both the irreducible representations of the Clifford algebra. It is an odd function of the magnetic flux and an even funct...

  6. Dependence of plasmon excitation energy on filler material in interaction of charged particle with filled nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahari, A., E-mail: bahari.a@lu.ac.i [Department of Physics, Lorestan University, Lorestan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohamadi, A. [Department of Physics, Shiraz Payaem Noor University, Fars (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    The interaction of charged particles with filled single-walled metallic nanotubes (SWMNT) has been investigated. Numerical results for the plasmon energy as a function of the wave vector are presented when the charged particle is outside the nanotube. Dependence of the plasmon energy on ratio of plasma frequency of the filler and SWMNT has been shown.

  7. Summary report on first research coordination meeting on heavy charged-particle interaction data for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary is given of the First Research Coordination Meeting on Heavy Charged-Particle Interaction Data for Radiotherapy. A programme to compile and evaluate charged-particle nuclear data for therapeutic applications was proposed. Detailed coordinated research proposals were also agreed. Technical discussions and the resulting work plan of the Coordinated Research Project are summarized, along with actions and deadlines. (author)

  8. Lithium-ion Battery Charging System using Constant-Current Method with Fuzzy Logic Based ATmega16

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi Passarella; Ahmad Fali Oklilas; Tarida Mathilda

    2014-01-01

    In this charging system, constant-current charging technique keeps the current flow into the battery on its maximum range of 2A. The use of fuzzy logic control of this charging system is to control the value of PWM. PWM is controlling the value of current flowing to the battery during the charging process. The current value into the battery depends on the value of battery voltage and also its temperature. The cutoff system will occur if the temperature of the battery reaches its maximum range

  9. Lithium-ion Battery Charging System using Constant-Current Method with Fuzzy Logic Based ATmega16

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi Passarella

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this charging system, constant-current charging technique keeps the current flow into the battery on its maximum range of 2A. The use of fuzzy logic control of this charging system is to control the value of PWM. PWM is controlling the value of current flowing to the battery during the charging process. The current value into the battery depends on the value of battery voltage and also its temperature. The cutoff system will occur if the temperature of the battery reaches its maximum range

  10. Superconducting properties of the weakly interacting charged Bose gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1955 Schafroth considered superconductivity of a charged ideal Bose gas. The Toc - ncc dependence, where Toc denotes the critical temperature for free bosons and noc - the condensate density (superconducting carriers density), has for T = 0 the known form Toc∼(noc)2/3/m*, which can be named the Uemura type relation. In some limits it agrees with the experimental data for high-Tc superconductors. (orig.)

  11. Optimizing interactive program for charged particle transport system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer program for charged particle transport system design is described. The program is written in the BASIC language and allows one to make calculations in dialogue with the computer. The BASTRA program permits to get output information both in digital and in graphical forms. The method for optimization is described, that allows one to put 10 limitation on beam parameters in arbitrary places of the transport system. The program can be adapted on every computer having the BASIC language in its software

  12. A double-stage start-up structure to limit the inrush current used in current mode charge pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Liu; Xinquan, Lai; Hanxiao, Du; Yuan, Chi

    2016-06-01

    A double-stage start-up structure to limit the inrush current used in current-mode charge pump with wide input range, fixed output and multimode operation is presented in this paper. As a widely utilized power source implement, a Li-battery is always used as the power supply for chips. Due to the internal resistance, a potential drop will be generated at the input terminal of the chip with an input current. A false shut down with a low supply voltage will happen if the input current is too large, leading to the degradation of the Li-battery's service life. To solve this problem, the inrush current is limited by introducing a new start-up state. All of the circuits have been implemented with the NUVOTON 0.6 μm CMOS process. The measurement results show that the inrush current can be limited below 1 A within all input supply ranges, and the power efficiency is higher than the conventional structure. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61106026).

  13. Charm production in charged current deep inelastic e+p scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of charm production in charged current deep inelastic positron-proton scattering is investigated with the ZEUS detector at the HERA collider. The data used has been collected from 1995 to 2000, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 110 pb-1. Charged D* mesons decaying in the channel D*+→D0π+s with D0→K-π+ and the charge conjugated channel are reconstructed to tag charm quarks. The visible cross section for D*, σD*vis=12.8±4.0(stat)+4.7-1.5(sys) pb, is measured in the kinematic range of Q2>200 GeV2 and yD*T>1.5 GeV and vertical stroke ηD* vertical stroke e+p→antiνecX < 109 pb at 90% confidence level. (orig.)

  14. Characteristics of high efficiency current charging system for HTS magnet with solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Wook; Yoon, Yong-Soo; Chung, Yoon-Do; Jo, Hyun-Chul; Kim, Ho-Min; Oh, Sung-Kwun; Kim, Hyun-Ki; Oh, Jae-Gi; Ko, Tae-Kuk

    In terms of electrical energy, the technical fusion with solar energy system is promisingly applied in order to improve the efficiency in the power applications, since the solar energy system can convert an eternal electric energy in all-year-around. As one of such power applications, we proposed a current charging system for HTS magnet combined with solar energy (CHS). As this system can operate without external utility power to charge the HTS load magnet due to the solar energy, the operating efficiency is practically improved. The power converter, which is interfaced with solar energy and HTS magnet systems, plays an important role to transfer the stable electric energy and thus, the stabilized performance of the converter with solar energy system is one of essential factors. In this study, we investigated various charging performances under different operating conditions of the converter. In addition, operating characteristics have been analyzed by solving solar cell equivalent equations based on circuit simulation program.

  15. Planck Charges, Planck Currents and The Hermitic Shangri-La for Magnetic Monopole

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Yanbin; Huang, Yong-Chang

    2016-01-01

    The concepts of Planck charges are summarized and extended in a consistent and unified manner to include Planck currents. These Planck parameters form a set of indicators serving as the boundary markers signaling the buffer zone separating the quantum gravity physics beyond Planck energy scale from the ordinary physics below the Planck scale. Combining the concepts of Planck charges with the Dirac electric-magnetic charge quantization relation, a lower bound is discovered and attributed to the value of magnetic monopole as half of the Planck magnetic monopole. The value of the running electric fine structure constant is required to be confined to a restricted interval to keep physics involving magnetic monopoles below the Planck scale. It provides a prediction about the hermitic Shangri-La, a remote place the magnetic monopoles are inhabiting near the boundary but still within the scope of ordinary physics. It opens a window of hope to the theoretical and/or experimental probe for magnetic monopoles realizing...

  16. Aberrations due to solenoid focusing of a multiply charged high-current ion beam

    CERN Document Server

    Grégoire, G; Lisi, N; Schnuriger, J C; Scrivens, R; Tambini, J

    2000-01-01

    At the output of a laser ion source, a high current of highly charged ions with a large range of charge states is available. The focusing of such a beam by magnetic elements causes a nonlinear space-charge field to develop which can induce large aberrations and emittance growth in the beam. Simulation of the beam from the CERN laser ion source will be presented for an ideal magnetic and electrostatic system using a radially symmetric model. In addition, the three dimensional software KOBRA3 is used for the simulation of the solenoid line. The results of these simulations will be compared with experiments performed on the CERN laser ion source with solenoids (resulting in a hollow beam) and a series of gridded electrostatic lenses. (5 refs).

  17. Ultrafast Charge Dynamics Initiated by High-Intensity, Ultrashort Laser-Matter Interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of high-intensity laser pulses with matter releases instantaneously ultra-large currents of highly energetic electrons, leading to the generation of highly-transient, large-amplitude electric and magnetic fields. We report results of recent experiment in which such charge dynamics have been studied by using proton probing techniques able to provide maps of the electrostatic fields with high spatial and temporal resolution. The dynamics of ponderomotive channelling in underdense plasmas have been studied in this way, as also the processes of Debye sheath formation and MeV ion front expansion at the rear of laser-irradiated thin metallic foils. An application employing laser-driven impulsive fields for energy-selective ion beam focusing is also presented

  18. Energy dissipation of highly charged ions interacting with solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motivated by the incomplete scientific description of the relaxation of highly charged ions in front of solid surfaces and their energy balance, this thesis describes an advanced complementary study of determining deposited fractions and re-emitted fractions of the potential energy of highly charged ions. On one side, a calorimetric measurement setup is used to determine the retained potential energy and on the other side, energy resolved electron spectroscopy is used for measuring the reemitted energy due to secondary electron emission. In order to study the mechanism of energy retention in detail, materials with different electronic structures are investigated: Cu, n-Si, p-Si and SiO2. In the case of calorimetry, a linear relationship between the deposited potential energy and the inner potential energy of the ions was determined. The total potential energy which stays in the solid remains almost constant at about (80 ± 10) %. Comparing the results of the Cu, n-Si and p-Si targets, no significant difference could be shown. Therefore we conclude that the difference in energy deposition between copper, n-doped Si and p-doped Si is below 10 %, which is significantly lower than using SiO2 targets. For this purpose, electron spectroscopy provides a complementary result. For Cu and Si surfaces, an almost linear increase of the re-emitted energy with increasing potential energy of the ion up to Ar7+ was also observed. The ratio of the re-emitted energy is about (10 ± 5) % of the total potential energy of the incoming ion, almost independent of the ion charge state. In contrast, an almost vanishing electron emission was observed for SiO2 and for charge states below q=7. For Ar8+ and Ar9+, the electron emission increased due to the contribution of the projectile LMM Auger electrons and the re-emitted energy amounts up to 20 % for Cu and Si and around 10 % for SiO2. These results are in good agreement with the calorimetric values. In addition, the experimental results

  19. Measurement of Neutrino Oscillation Parameters Using Anti-fiducial Charged Current Events in MINOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strait, Matthew Levy [Minnesota U.

    2010-09-01

    Abstract The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) obse rves the disappearance of muon neutrinos as they propagate in the long baseline Neutri nos at the Main Injector (NuMI) beam. MINOS consists of two detectors. The near detector sam ples the initial composition of the beam. The far detector, 735 km away, looks for an energy-d ependent deficit in the neutrino spectrum. This energy-dependent deficit is interpreted as q uantum mechanical oscillations be- tween neutrino flavors. A measurement is made of the effective two-neutrino mixing parameters ∆ m 2 ≈ ∆ m 2 23 and sin 2 2 θ ≈ sin 2 2 θ 23 . The primary MINOS analysis uses charged current events in the fiducial volume of the far detector. This analysis uses the roughly equal-sized sample of events that fails the fiducial cut, consisting of interact ions outside the fiducial region of the detector and in the surrounding rock. These events provide a n independent and complementary measurement, albeit weaker due to incomplete reconstructi on of the events. This analysis reports on an exposure of 7 . 25 × 10 20 protons-on-target. Due to poor energy resolution, the meas urement of sin 2 2 θ is much weaker than established results, but the measuremen t of sin 2 2 θ > 0 . 56 at 90% confidence is consistent with the accepted value. The measur ement of ∆ m 2 is much stronger. Assuming sin 2 2 θ = 1 , ∆ m 2 = (2 . 20 ± 0 . 18[stat] ± 0 . 14[syst]) × 10 − 3 eV 2 .

  20. Interactions of an eddy current sensor and a multilayered structure

    OpenAIRE

    Cung, Thanh Long; Joubert, Pierre-Yves; Vourc'H, Eric; Larzabal, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    In this letter, the interactions between a cup-core eddy current sensor and a metallic layered structure is studied. An affine relationship between the sensor normalized impedance and the distance between two plates of a metallic assembly is brought to light both by the experiment and by finite elements computations.

  1. Precision measurement of the cross section of charged-current and neutral current processes at large Q2 at HERA with the polarized-electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inclusive cross sections for both charged and neutral current processes have been measured in interactions of longitudinally polarized electrons (positrons) with unpolarized protons using the full data samples collected by H1 at HERA-II. The data taken at a center-of-mass energy of 319 GeV correspond to an integrated luminosity of 149.1 pb-1 and 180.0 pb-1 for e-p and e+p collisions, representing an increase in statistics of a factor of 10 and 2, respectively, over the data from HERA-I. The measured double differential cross sections d2σ/dxdQ2 cover more than two orders of magnitude in both Q2, the negative four-momentum transfer squared, up to 30000 GeV2, and Bjorken x, down to 0.003. The cross section data are compared to predictions of the Standard Model which is able to provide a good description of the data. The polarization asymmetry as a function of Q2 is measured with improved precision, confirming the previous observation of P violation effect in neutral current ep scattering at distances down to 10-18 m. The total cross sections of the charged current process, for Q2 > 400 GeV2 and inelasticity y ± beams and different polarization values. Together with the corresponding cross section obtained from the previously published unpolarized data, the polarization dependence of the charged current cross section is measured and found to be in agreement with the Standard Model prediction with the absence of right-handed charged current. The cross sections are combined with previously published data from H1 to obtain the most precise unpolarized measurements. These are used to extract the structure function xF3γZ which is sensitive to the valence quark distributions down to low x values. The new cross sections have also been used in a combined electroweak and QCD fit to significantly improve the light quark couplings to the Z-boson than those obtained based on the HERA-I data alone. (orig.)

  2. Space-charge-controlled field emission model of current conduction through Al2O3 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraiwa, Atsushi; Matsumura, Daisuke; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    This study proposes a model for current conduction in metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitors, assuming the presence of two sheets of charge in the insulator, and derives analytical formulae of field emission (FE) currents under both negative and positive bias. Since it is affected by the space charge in the insulator, this particular FE differs from the conventional FE and is accordingly named the space-charge-controlled (SCC) FE. The gate insulator of this study was a stack of atomic-layer-deposition Al2O3 and underlying chemical SiO2 formed on Si substrates. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics simulated using the SCC-FE formulae quantitatively reproduced the experimental results obtained by measuring Au- and Al-gated Al2O3/SiO2 MIS capacitors under both biases. The two sheets of charge in the Al2O3 films were estimated to be positive and located at a depth of greater than 4 nm from the Al2O3/SiO2 interface and less than 2 nm from the gate. The density of the former is approximately 1 × 1013 cm-2 in units of electronic charge, regardless of the type of capacitor. The latter forms a sheet of dipoles together with image charges in the gate and hence causes potential jumps of 0.4 V and 1.1 V in the Au- and Al-gated capacitors, respectively. Within a margin of error, this sheet of dipoles is ideally located at the gate/Al2O3 interface and effectively reduces the work function of the gate by the magnitude of the potential jumps mentioned above. These facts indicate that the currents in the Al2O3/SiO2 MIS capacitors are enhanced as compared to those in ideal capacitors and that the currents in the Al-gated capacitors under negative bias (electron emission from the gate) are more markedly enhanced than those in the Au-gated capacitors. The larger number of gate-side dipoles in the Al-gated capacitors is possibly caused by the reaction between the Al and Al2O3, and therefore gate materials that do not react with underlying gate insulators should be chosen

  3. EDITORIAL: The effects of spin-orbit interaction on charge transport The effects of spin-orbit interaction on charge transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenkamp, Laurens; Nitta, Junsaku

    2009-05-01

    As the information and communications technology industries continue to demand smaller and more powerful electronic devices, it is becoming clear that the technologies which we currently rely upon to store, process and encode data are no longer sufficient. Over the past two decades, the field of spintronics has emerged as a promising source of the new technologies that will help to meet these needs. Following the discovery of giant magnetoresistance in the late 1980s research originally focused on achieving larger and larger magnetoresistance effects in metal-based systems. The resulting devices have already found widespread applications (as read heads in hard drives, for example) and more recent developments (spin torque, domain wall effects) demonstrate a similarly large potential. The development of semiconductor spintronic devices, which promise an even more enhanced functionality, has proved a tougher challenge to researchers. While the physics of spin injection in semiconductors is well understood by now, we presently still do not have a reliable and robust means for spin detection. Moreover, while ferromagnetic semiconductors have shown a wealth of novel device physics, the applicability of these concepts is limited because the community still has not found a material that demonstrates robust ferromagnetism at and above room temperature. Because of this, a growing number of researchers has turned to the utilization of spin--orbit interaction as a tool to manipulate spin behaviour within semiconductors. This cluster of articles reflects this trend in spintronics research and the blend of reviews and novel research provides a good overview of the current status of investigation into spin--orbit interaction and its effect on charge transport. The collection includes review papers on the theory of the impact of spin-orbit effects on weak localization in semiconductor heterostructures (Glazov and Golub) and of shot noise in 2DEG devices (Nikolic and Dragomirova

  4. Search for a fourth generation charge -1/3 quark via flavor changing neutral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is some likelihood that a light (t) fourth generation charge -1/3 quark (b') would decay predominantly via loop induced flavor changing neutral currents. The charged current decay of b' to charm would be highly Cabibbo suppressed due to the fact that it changes the generation number by two. The D0 experiment has searched for b' pair production where one or both b' quarks decays via b' → b+γ, giving signatures photon + three jets and two photons + two jets. WE don not see a significant excess of such events over background. In both modes, we set an upper limit on the cross section times branching ratio that is sufficient to rule out a standard sequential b' decaying predominantly via FCNC in the mass range mZ/2 b' Z + mb. For b' masses larger than this, the dominant FCNC decay mode is expected to be b' → b + Z. 14 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs

  5. Space charge and steady state current in LDPE samples containing a permittivity/conductivity gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim; Bambery, K. R.; Fleming, R. J.

    2000-01-01

    Electromagnetic theory predicts that a dielectric sample in which a steady DC current of density ε is flowing, and in which the ratio of permittivity ε to conductivity σ varies with position, will acquire a space charge density j·grad(ε/σ). A simple and convenient way to generate an ε/σ gradient in...... a homogeneous sample is to establish a temperature gradient across it. The resulting spatial variation in ε is usually small in polymeric insulators, but the variation in σ can be appreciable. Laser induced pressure pulse (LIPP) measurements were made on 1.5 mm thick plaques of ultra pure LDPE...... equipped with vacuum-evaporated aluminium electrodes. Temperature differences up to 27°C were maintained across the samples, which were subjected to DC fields up to 20 kV/mm. Current density was measured as a function of temperature and field. Negligible thermally generated space charge was observed. The...

  6. First charged current data from the CERN-Dortmund-Heidelberg-Saclay neutrino experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CDHS Collaboration has analyzed data taken in the CERN narrow-band antineutrino and neutrino beams. From 12000 antineutrino and 36000 neutrino charged current events at neutrino energies between 30 GeV and 200 GeV, we obtain the average inelasticity and the cross-section ratio sigma antisub(ν)/sigmasub(ν) as a function of neutrino energy. On the basis of these data we cannot confirm the high y anomaly observed by previous experiments at Fermilab. Instead, the measured average inelasticity in anti neutrino reactions and the ratio of charged current total cross-sections sigma anti sub(ν)/sigma%sub(ν) are compatible with no energy variation within their errors in the energy range 30+. (orig.)

  7. Multi-jet cross sections in charged current e{sup {+-}}p scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (US)] (and others)

    2008-02-15

    Jet cross sections were measured in charged current deep inelastic e{sup {+-}}p scattering at high boson virtualities Q{sup 2} with the ZEUS detector at HERA II using an integrated luminosity of 0.36 fb{sup -1}. Differential cross sections are presented for inclusive-jet production as functions of Q{sup 2}, Bjorken x and the jet transverse energy and pseudorapidity. The dijet invariant mass cross section is also presented. Observation of three- and four-jet events in charged-current e{sup {+-}}p processes is reported for the first time. The predictions of next-to-leading-order (NLO) QCD calculations are compared to the measurements. The measured inclusive-jet cross sections are well described in shape and normalization by the NLO predictions. The data have the potential to constrain the u and d valence quark distributions in the proton if included as input to global fits. (orig.)

  8. Multijet cross sections in charged current e±p scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jet cross sections were measured in charged-current deep inelastic e±p scattering at high boson virtualities Q2 with the ZEUS detector at HERA II using an integrated luminosity of 0.36 fb-1. Differential cross sections are presented for inclusive-jet production as functions of Q2, Bjorken x and the jet transverse energy and pseudorapidity. The dijet invariant mass cross section is also presented. Observation of three- and four-jet events in charged-current e±p processes is reported for the first time. The predictions of next-to-leading-order (NLO) QCD calculations are compared to the measurements. The measured inclusive-jet cross sections are well described in shape and normalization by the NLO predictions. The data have the potential to constrain the u and d valence-quark distributions in the proton if included as input to global fits.

  9. Modulation of current through a nanopore induced by a charged globule: implications for DNA-docking

    CERN Document Server

    Chinappi, Mauro; Cecconi, Fabio; Marconi, Umberto Marini Bettolo; Melchionna, Simone

    2015-01-01

    The passage of DNA through a nanopore can be effectively decomposed into two distinct phases, docking and actual translocation. In experiments each phase is characterized by a distinct current signature which allows the discrimination of the two events. However, at low voltages a clear distinction of the two phases is lost. By using numerical simulations we clarify how the current signature associated to the docking events depends on the applied voltage. The simulations show that at small voltage the DNA globule enhances the pore conductance due to an enrichment of charge carriers. At high voltage, the globule drains substantial charge carriers from the pore region, thereby reducing the overall conductance. The results provide a new interpretation to the experimental data on conductance and show how docking interferes with the translocation signal, of potential interest for sequencing applications.

  10. On the lepton-nucleon neutral and charged current deep inelastic scattering cross sections

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xing-Long; Li, Xiao-Mei; Zhou, Dai-Mei; Cai, Xu; Sa, Ben-Hao

    2014-01-01

    Based on the requirement in the simulation of lepton-nucleus deep inelastic scattering (DIS), we construct a fortran program LDCS 1.0 calculating the differential and total cross sections for the unpolarized charged lepton-unpolarized nucleon and neutrino-unpolarized nucleon neutral current (charged current) DIS at leading order. Any set of the experimentally fitted parton distribution functions could be employed directly. The mass of incident and scattered leptons is taken into account and the boundary conditions calculating the single differential and total cross section are studied. The calculated results well agree with the corresponding experimental data which indicating the LDCS 1.0 program is good. It is also turned out that the effect of tauon mass is not negligible in the GeV energy level.

  11. Measurements of the Charged Current Cross Sections with the ZEUS Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new measurement of the charged current cross section in e-p scattering is presented in the range of Q2 > 200 GeV2 , using the 1998 and 1999 data with an integrated luminosity of 16.4 pb-1. This cross section is compared to the preliminary charged current cross section in e+p scattering using the 1999 and 2000 data with an integrated luminosity of 61.0 pb-1, and to predictions of the Standard Model using PDFs extracted from fits to NC data. Finally, the mass of the W boson determined from a fit to dσ/dQ2 of the e-p scattering data is presented. (author)

  12. Multi-jet cross sections in charged current e±p scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jet cross sections were measured in charged current deep inelastic e±p scattering at high boson virtualities Q2 with the ZEUS detector at HERA II using an integrated luminosity of 0.36 fb-1. Differential cross sections are presented for inclusive-jet production as functions of Q2, Bjorken x and the jet transverse energy and pseudorapidity. The dijet invariant mass cross section is also presented. Observation of three- and four-jet events in charged-current e±p processes is reported for the first time. The predictions of next-to-leading-order (NLO) QCD calculations are compared to the measurements. The measured inclusive-jet cross sections are well described in shape and normalization by the NLO predictions. The data have the potential to constrain the u and d valence quark distributions in the proton if included as input to global fits. (orig.)

  13. Measurement of charged and neutral current e-p deep inelastic scattering cross sections at high Q2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deep inelastic e-p scattering has been studied in both the charged current (CC) and neutral current (NC) reactions at momentum transfers squared, Q2, between 400 GeV2 and the kinematic limit of 87500 GeV2 using the ZEUS detector at the HERA ep collider. The CC and NC total cross sections, the NC to CC cross section ratio, and the differential cross sections, dσ/dQ2, are presented. For Q2∝MW2, where MW is the mass of the W boson, the CC and NC cross sections have comparable magnitudes, demonstrating the equal strengths of the weak and electromagnetic interactions at high Q2. The Q2 dependence of the CC cross section determines the mass term in the CC propagator to be MW=76±16±13 GeV. (orig.)

  14. Model for evaluating patterned charge regulation contribution to electrostatic interactions between proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbeck, Dawn; Martini, K. Michael; Langner, Andreas; Ross, David; Harkin, Anthony; Nelson, Edward; Thurston, George

    2010-03-01

    We study the pattern-specific work of charging for two spherical model proteins in close proximity in ionic solution, using a grand-canonical partition function together with a coarse-grained, linear Debye-Huckel model to calculate the needed work of charging for each possible proton occupancy configuration. We seek to delineate a parameter-space phase diagram to characterize the circumstances under which patterned charge regulation, attractions due to heterogeneous protein charging patterns, and screened net protein charge could individually dominate the electrostatic portion of the interaction between model particles. Within the model, we place titratable residues in accordance with the tertiary protein structure, as is done in the case of a single protein within the Tanford-Kirkwood protein electrostatics model. We use Monte-Carlo simulation and analytical work to evaluate how the local statistics of the charging patterns on each protein respond to close proximity and relative orientation of neighboring proteins.

  15. Charged-current neutrino-nucleus scattering off 95,97^Mo

    OpenAIRE

    Ydrefors, Emanuel; Suhonen, Jouni

    2013-01-01

    Background: Reliable cross sections for the neutrino-nucleus scattering off relevant nuclei for supernova neutrinos are essential for various applications in neutrino physics and astrophysics (e.g., supernova mechanisms). Studies of the nuclear responses for the stable molybdenum isotopes are of great interest for the planned MOON (Mo Observatory of Neutrinos) experiment. Purpose: The purpose of the present work is, thus, to perform a detailed study of the charged-current nuclear response...

  16. Charged current disappearance measurements in the NuMI off-axis beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. H. Bernstein

    2003-09-25

    This article studies the potential of combining charged-current disappearance measurements of {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}} from MINOS and an off-axis beam. The author finds that the error on {Delta}m{sup 2} from a 100 kt-yr off-axis measurement is a few percent of itself. Further, the author found little improvement to an off-axis measurement by combining it with MINOS.

  17. A few comments after the charged current measurement at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Fiorentini, G.; Villante, F. L.; Ricci, B.

    2001-01-01

    The comparison of the SNO charged current result with the solar neutrino signal measured by Super-Kamiokande has provided, for the first time, the evidence of a non electron flavour active neutrino component in the solar flux. We remark here that this evidence can be obtained in a model independent way, i.e. without any assumpion about solar models, about the energy dependence of the neutrino oscillation probability and about the presence of sterile neutrinos. Furthermore, from the 8B neutrin...

  18. Biquaternionic Model of Electro-Gravimagnetic Field, Charges and Currents. Law of Inertia

    CERN Document Server

    Alexeyeva, Lyudmila

    2016-01-01

    One the base of Maxwell and Dirac equations the one biquaternionic model of electro-gravimagnetic (EGM) fields is considered. The closed system of biquaternionic wave equations is constructed for determination of free system of electric and gravimagnetic charges and currents and generated by them EGM-field. By using generalized functions theory the fundamental and regular solutions of this system are determined and some of them are considered (spinors, plane waves, shock EGMwaves and others). The properties of these solutions are investigated.

  19. Charge independence, charge symmetry breaking in the S-wave nucleon-nucleon interaction, and renormalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvaro Calle Cordon,Manuel Pavon Valderrama,Enrique Ruiz Arriola

    2012-02-01

    We study the interplay between charge symmetry breaking and renormalization in the NN system for S-waves. We find a set of universality relations which disentangle explicitly the known long distance dynamics from low energy parameters and extend them to the Coulomb case. We analyze within such an approach the One-Boson-Exchange potential and the theoretical conditions which allow to relate the proton-neutron, proton-proton and neutron-neutron scattering observables without the introduction of extra new parameters and providing good phenomenological success.

  20. Interaction of bootstrap-current-driven magnetic islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation and interaction of fluctuating neoclassical pressure gradient driven magnetic islands is examined. The interaction of magnetic islands produces a stochastic region around the separatrices of the islands. This interaction causes the island pressure profile to be broadened, reducing the island bootstrap current and drive for the magnetic island. A model is presented that describes the magnetic topology as a bath of interacting magnetic islands with low to medium poloidal mode number (m congruent 3-30). The islands grow by the bootstrap current effect and damp due to the flattening of the pressure profile near the island separatrix caused by the interaction of the magnetic islands. The effect of this sporadic growth and decay of the islands (''magnetic bubbling'') is not normally addressed in theories of plasma transport due to magnetic fluctuations. The nature of the transport differs from statistical approaches to magnetic turbulence since the radial step size of the plasma transport is now given by the characteristic island width. This model suggests that tokamak experiments have relatively short-lived, coherent, long wavelength magnetic oscillations present in the steep pressure-gradient regions of the plasma. 42 refs

  1. Non-adiabatic quantized charge pumping with tunable-barrier quantum dots: a review of current progress

    OpenAIRE

    Kaestner, Bernd; Kashcheyevs, Vyacheslavs

    2014-01-01

    Precise manipulation of individual charge carriers in nanoelectronic circuits underpins practical applications of their most basic quantum property --- the universality and invariance of the elementary charge. A charge pump generates a net current from periodic external modulation of parameters controlling a nanostructure connected to source and drain leads; in the regime of quantized pumping the current varies in steps of $q_e f$ as function of control parameters, where $q_e$ is the electron...

  2. Heavy Inertial Confinement Energy: Interactions Involoving Low charge State Heavy Ion Injection Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuBois, Robert D

    2006-04-14

    During the contract period, absolute cross sections for projectile ionization, and in some cases for target ionization, were measured for energetic (MeV/u) low-charge-state heavy ions interacting with gases typically found in high and ultra-high vacuum environments. This information is of interest to high-energy-density research projects as inelastic interactions with background gases can lead to serious detrimental effects when intense ion beams are accelerated to high energies, transported and possibly confined in storage rings. Thus this research impacts research and design parameters associated with projects such as the Heavy Ion Fusion Project, the High Current and Integrated Beam Experiments in the USA and the accelerator upgrade at GSI-Darmstadt, Germany. Via collaborative studies performed at GSI-Darmstadt, at the University of East Carolina, and Texas A&M University, absolute cross sections were measured for a series of collision systems using MeV/u heavy ions possessing most, or nearly all, of their bound electrons, e.g., 1.4 MeV/u Ar{sup +}, Xe{sup 3+}, and U{sup 4,6,10+}. Interactions involving such low-charge-state heavy ions at such high energies had never been previously explored. Using these, and data taken from the literature, an empirical model was developed for extrapolation to much higher energies. In order to extend our measurements to much higher energies, the gas target at the Experimental Storage Ring in GSI-Darmstadt was used. Cross sections were measured between 20 and 50 MeV/u for U{sup 28+}- H{sub 2} and - N{sub 2}, the primary components found in high and ultra-high vacuum systems. Storage lifetime measurements, information inversely proportional to the cross section, were performed up to 180 MeV/u. The lifetime and cross section data test various theoretical approaches used to calculate cross sections for many-electron systems. Various high energy density research projects directly benefit by this information. As a result, the general

  3. Measurement of Neutrino and Antineutrino Charged-Current Inclusive Cross Sections with the MINERvA Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devan, Joshua D. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Neutrinos are a nearly massless, neutral particle in the Standard Model that only interact via the weak interaction. Experimental confirmation of neutrino oscillations, in which a neutrino created as a particular type (electron, muon or tau) can be observed as a different type after propagating some distance, earned the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physics. Neutrino oscillation experiments rely on accurate measurements of neutrino interactions with matter, such as that presented here. Neutrinos also provide a unique probe of the nucleus, complementary to electron scattering experiments. This thesis presents a measurement of the charged-current inclusive cross section for muon neutrinos and antineutrinos in the energy range 2 to 50 GeV with the MINERvA detector. MINERvA is a neutrino scattering experiment in the NuMI neutrino beam at Fermilab, near Chicago. A cross section measures the probability of an interaction occurring, measured here as a function of neutrino energy. To extract a cross section from data, the observed rate of interactions is corrected for detector efficiency and divided by the number of scattering nucleons in the target and the flux of neutrinos in the beam. The neutrino flux is determined with the low-$\

  4. BOTTOM SHEAR STRESS UNDER WAVE-CURRENT INTERACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Bing-chen; LI Hua-jun; LEE Dong-yong

    2008-01-01

    The present work adopts the COHERENS-SWAN model developed by the first author through coupling three-dimensional hydrodynamic model (COHERENS) and third-generation wave model (SWAN). Inside the COHERENS-SWAN, the SWAN is regarded as a subroutine and the time- and space-varying current velocity and surface elevation are obtained from the COHERENS. Wave-enhanced bottom shear stress, wave induced surface mixing length and wave dependent surface drag coefficient have been introduced into the COHERENS. Secondly, as wave-enhanced bottom shear stress ("bottom shear stress" described as BSS sometimes in this article) is concerned, a modified bottom shear stress Grant and Madsen model which introduces random wave field is given and introduced to COHERENS-SWAN. COHERENS-SWAN is also adopted to simulate three-dimensional flow in the Yellow River Delta with wave-current co-existing. Four numerical experiments were given to study the effects of wave-current interaction on enhancing bottom shear stress. The simulated current velocities, wave height and wave period match well with field measurement data. The simulated significant wave height and wave period for the case with considering the effects of current can give better agreement with measurement data than the case without involving the effects of current. The introduction of random wave generates lower the bottom shear stress than the case without introducing it. There are obvious differences between bottom shear stress of two way interaction and one way interaction. Velocity field obtained by the COHERENS-SWAN is reasonable according to previous studies and measurements.

  5. Exploiting the magnetomechanical interaction for cooling magnetic molecular junctions by spin-polarized currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, J.; Weiss, S.; Nalbach, P.; Thorwart, M.

    2016-02-01

    We present a scheme for cooling a vibrational mode of a magnetic molecular nanojunction by a spin-polarized charge current upon exploiting the interaction between its magnetic moment and the vibration. The spin-polarized charge current polarizes the magnetic moment of the nanoisland, thereby lowering its energy. A small but finite coupling between the vibration and the magnetic moment permits a direct exchange of energy such that vibrational energy can be transferred into the magnetic state. For positive bias voltages, this generates an effective cooling of the molecular vibrational mode. We determine parameter regimes for the cooling of the vibration to be optimal. Although the flowing charge current inevitably heats up the vibrational mode via Ohmic energy losses, we show that due to the magnetomechanical coupling, the vibrational energy (i.e, the effective phonon temperature) can be lowered below 50% of its initial value, when the two leads are polarized anti-parallel. In contrast to the cooling effect for positive bias voltages, net heating of the vibrational mode occurs for negative bias voltages. The cooling effect is enhanced for a stronger anti-parallel magnetic polarization of the leads, while the heating is stronger for a larger parallel polarization. Yet, dynamical cooling is also possible with parallel lead alignments when the two tunneling barriers are asymmetric.

  6. Two Models Relevant to the Interaction of a Point Charge and a Magnetic Moment

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, Timothy H

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of the interaction of a point charge and a magnetic moment is crucial for understanding the experiments involving electromagnetic momentum carried by permeable materials as well as the experimentally-observed Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher phase shifts. Here we present two simple models for a magnetic moment which have vastly different interactions with a distant point charge. It is suggested that a satisfactory theoretical understanding of the interaction is still lacking and that the "hidden momentum" interpretation has been introduced into the textbook literature prematurely.

  7. Nitric oxide and phytohormone interactions: current status and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano eFreschi

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is currently considered a ubiquitous signal in plant systems, playing significant roles in a wide range of plant responses to environmental and endogenous cues. During the signaling events leading to these plant responses, NO frequently interacts with plant hormones and other endogenous molecules, at times originating remarkably complex signaling cascades. Accumulating evidence indicates that virtually all major classes of plant hormones may influence, at least to some degre...

  8. Nitric oxide and phytohormone interactions: current status and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Freschi, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is currently considered a ubiquitous signal in plant systems, playing significant roles in a wide range of responses to environmental and endogenous cues. During the signaling events leading to these plant responses, NO frequently interacts with plant hormones and other endogenous molecules, at times originating remarkably complex signaling cascades. Accumulating evidence indicates that virtually all major classes of plant hormones may influence, at least to some degree, the...

  9. Conceptual misfits in email-based current awareness interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Attfield, Simon; Blandford, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - This research aims to identify some requirements for supporting user interactions with electronic current-awareness alert systems based on data from a professional work environment. Design/methodology/approach - Qualitative data was gathered using contextual inquiry observations with twenty-one workers at the London office of an international law firm. The analysis uses CASSM (‘Concept-based Analysis of Surface and Structural Misfits’), a usability evaluation method structured ...

  10. Spin-to-charge-current conversion in yttrium iron garnet-graphene hybrid structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Joaquim; Alves Santos, Obed; Meireles, Leonel; Lacerda, Rodrigo; Vilela-Leão, Luis; Machado, Fernando; Rodríguez-Suárez, Roberto; Azevedo, Antonio; Rezende, Sergio

    The use of graphene in spintronic devices depends, among other things, on its ability to convert a spin excitation into an electric charge signal, a phenomenon that requires a spin-orbit coupling (SOC). In this work we report the observation of two effects that show the existence of SOC in large-area CVD grown single-layer graphene (SLG) deposited on a single crystal film of the ferrimagnetic insulator yttrium iron garnet (YIG). The first is a magnetoresistance of graphene induced by the magnetic proximity effect with YIG. The second is the detection of a DC voltage along the graphene layer resulting from the conversion of the spin current generated by spin pumping from microwave driven FMR into charge current. We interpret the spin-to-charge conversion as arising from the inverse Rashba-Edelstein effect (IREE) made possible by the extrinsic spin-orbit coupling in graphene. These observations show that spin orbit coupling can be extrinsically enhanced in graphene by the proximity effect with a ferromagnetic layer. This result opens new possibilities for the use of graphene in spintronic devices with unique functionalities. Research supported in Brazil by the agencies CNPq, CAPES, FINEP, FAPEMIG, FACEPE, and in Chile by FONDECYT No. 1130705.

  11. Space-charge-limited currents for cathodes with electric field enhanced geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Dingguo; Qiu, Mengtong; Xu, Qifu; Huang, Zhongliang

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the approximate analytic solutions of current density for annulus and circle cathodes. The current densities of annulus and circle cathodes are derived approximately from first principles, which are in agreement with simulation results. The large scaling laws can predict current densities of high current vacuum diodes including annulus and circle cathodes in practical applications. In order to discuss the relationship between current density and electric field on cathode surface, the existing analytical solutions of currents for concentric cylinder and sphere diodes are fitted from existing solutions relating with electric field enhancement factors. It is found that the space-charge-limited current density for the cathode with electric-field enhanced geometry can be written in a general form of J = g(βE)2J0, where J0 is the classical (1D) Child-Langmuir current density, βE is the electric field enhancement factor, and g is the geometrical correction factor depending on the cathode geometry.

  12. Measurement methods of ionization current and electric charges in radiation dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozydar Knyziak, Adrian; Rzodkiewicz, Witold

    2016-06-01

    This paper deals with the problem of measurement of very low direct currents and electrical charges in dosimetric application. It describes the known and used methods of measurement: the current method, the charge method, and the null method. A new method, which is presented here, is a combination of the two latter methods. The new method is compared with the known methods of measurement and the results of this comparison are summarized and discussed. The new method allows achieving relative standard uncertainty of 0.003% for current measurements around 3 pA and a long term stability of about 0.01%. Apart from this, preliminary measurements by using a built in comparator were also performed. Therefore, the uncertainty budget of the measurements for the system without an external comparator was also taken into account in the paper. The combined measurement uncertainties for current measurements obtained for the above-mentioned two methods (the new method and the method with the comparator built in the 6517A Keithley electrometer used in our experiments) were similar.

  13. Theory of heavy charged particle thermoluminescence response: the extended track interaction model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theory of heavy charged particle TL response is described in the framework of the extended track interaction model which includes an enhanced understanding of the role/parameters of the individual track (i.e. the track structure) which influence the track interaction effects, a more sophisticated treatment of track interaction effects as well as a revised analytical treatment of saturation effects based on knowledge of the dose-filling constants of the TCs and LCs. (author)

  14. Analysis of surface and interface charge interactions in silicon on insulator (SOI) substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukasiak, L.; Roman, P.; Jakubowski, A.; Ruzyllo, J.

    2001-01-01

    Surface photovoltage (SPV) measurements may provide an effective method for determining electrical properties of silicon on insulator (SOI) surfaces. In the experimental part of this work the use of the non-contact SPV-based method of surface charge profiling (SCP) in the monitoring of surface charges is explored. It was demonstrated that application of this method is constrained by the interactions between charges on the Si surface and at the interface between the Si active layer and buried oxide (box). These interactions are subsequently modeled and related to the SCP measurements. It is demonstrated that at a given doping level, the thickness of the active layer and density of charge associated with the box are factors predetermining the effectiveness of this method in SOI surface characterization. Through modeling, the SOI substrate parameter space for which the SCP method can yield useful information is defined.

  15. Features of the low-power charge controller of lead-acid current sources charged by solar batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Influence of different factors on exploitations characteristics of solar photoelectric plant is investigated by field-performance data. A construction of charge controller of the lead-acid accumulator battery charging by means of solar battery is analyzed taking into account these factors. (authors)

  16. Modulated charge patterns and noise effect in a twisted DNA model with solvent interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabi, C. B.; Dang Koko, A.; Oumarou Doko, R.; Ekobena Fouda, H. P.; Kofané, T. C.

    2016-01-01

    We modify the Peyrard-Bishop-Holstein model and bring out the influence of the torsion and solvent interactions on charge transport in DNA. Through the linear stability analysis, we detect regions of instability and we compare the results with those of the standard Peyrard-Bishop-Holstein model. There are two regimes where modulated charge patterns can occur: the undertwisted and the overtwisted conformations. Numerical simulations are used to confirm our analytical predictions. Charge patterns are obtained and propagate more easily in an overwinded helix than in an underwinded one. The effects of dissipation and thermal fluctuations are also studied, which confirm the robustness of the obtained modulated patterns. On the one hand, we argue that in the absence of twisting, temperature can lead to the breaking of the hydrogen bonds between bases and prevent charges from propagating. On the other hand, when the molecule is overtwisted, the solvent and the temperature will rather enhance charge spreading patterns with random features.

  17. One meson π0 final state study in neutral current neutrino and antineutrino interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutral pion production by weak neutral currents was observed in the CERN-GARGAMELLE neutrino experiment. The aim of the analysis was the measurement of the ratios R(ν) and R(antiν) of neutral-current to charged-current cross sections. The background due to neutron interactions was computed. A lower and an upper limit of the background was obtained. Bounds on the ratios R(ν) and R(antiν) are given using these limits: 0.11< R(ν)<0.22; 0.16< R(antiν)<0.52. Theoretical predictions for R(ν) were obtained in the framework of the Weinberg-Salam model. It is not possible to compare the experimental result with these theoretical evaluation because of nuclear corrections

  18. Second Research Coordination Meeting on Heavy Charged-Particle Interaction Data for Radiotherapy. Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary is given of the 2nd Research Coordination Meeting (RCM) on Heavy Charged-Particle Interaction Data for Radiotherapy. The programme to compile and evaluate charged-particle nuclear data for therapeutic applications was reviewed. Technical discussions and the resulting work plan of the Coordinated Research Programme are summarized, along with planned actions and deadlines. Participants' reports at the 2nd RCM are also included in this report. (author)

  19. Interaction of a point charge with the surface of a uniaxial dielectric

    CERN Document Server

    Ribič, Primož Rebernik

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the force on a point charge moving at relativistic speeds parallel to the surface of a uniaxial dielectric. Two cases are examined: a lossless dielectric with no dispersion and a dielectric with a plasma type response. The treatment focuses on the peculiarities of the strength and direction of the interaction force as compared to the isotropic case. We show that a plasma type dielectric can, under specific conditions, repel the point charge.

  20. A General Four-Fermion Effective Lagrangian for Dirac and Majorana Neutrino-Charged Matter Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Mendy, J E B; Mendy, Jean El Bachir; Govaerts, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Given the most general Lorentz invariant four-fermion effective interaction possible for two neutrinos and two charged fermions, whether quarks or leptons, all possible 2-to-2 processes involving two neutrinos, whether Dirac or Majorana ones, and two charged fermions are considered. Explicit and convenient expressions are given for the associated differential cross-sections. Such a parametrization should help assess the sensitivity to physics beyond the Standard Model of neutrino beam experiments which are in the design stage at neutrino factories.

  1. Electron emission and defect formation in the interaction of slow, highly charged ions with diamond surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Sideras-Haddad, E.; Shrivastava, S; Rebuli, D.B.; Persaud, A.; Schneider, D. H.; Schenkel, T.

    2008-01-01

    We report on electron emission and defect formation in the interaction between slow (v~;0.3 vBohr) highly charged ions (SHCI) with insulating (type IIa) and semiconducting (type IIb) diamonds. Electron emission induced by 31Pq+ (q=5 to 13), and 136Xeq+ (q=34 to 44) with kinetic energies of 9 kVxq increase linearly with the ion charge states, reaching over 100 electrons per ion for high xenon charge states without surface passivation of the diamond with hydrogen. Yields from both diamond ...

  2. Heliospheric current sheet and its interaction with solar cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malova, Helmi; Popov, Victor; Grigorenko, Elena; Dunko, Andrey; Petrukovich, Anatoly

    2016-04-01

    We investigated effects resulting from the interaction of solar cosmic rays (SCR) with the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) in the solar wind. Self-consistent kinetic model of the HCS is developed, where ions demonstrate quasi-adiabatic dynamics. HCS is considered as the equilibrium embedded current structure, where the two main kinds of plasma with different temperatures give the main contribution to the current (low-energy background plasma and SCR). It is shown that HCS is a relatively thin multiscale configuration of the current sheet, embedded in a thicker plasma layer. The taking into account of SCR particles in HCS could lead to a change of its structure and to enhancement of its properties such as the embedding and multi-scaling. Parametric family of solutions is considered where the current balance in HCS is provided at different temperatures of SCR and different concentrations of high-energy plasma. Concentrations of SCR are determined which may contribute to the thickening of the HCS that can be observed in satellite studies. The possibility to apply this modeling for the explanation of experimental observations is considered.

  3. First measurements of inclusive muon neutrino charged current differential cross sections on argon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C; Antonello, M; Baller, B; Bolton, T; Bromberg, C; Cavanna, F; Church, E; Edmunds, D; Ereditato, A; Farooq, S; Fleming, B; Greenlee, H; Guenette, R; Haug, S; Horton-Smith, G; James, C; Klein, E; Lang, K; Laurens, P; Linden, S; McKee, D; Mehdiyev, R; Page, B; Palamara, O; Partyka, K; Patch, A; Rameika, G; Rebel, B; Rossi, B; Soderberg, M; Spitz, J; Szelc, A M; Weber, M; Yang, T; Zeller, G

    2012-04-20

    The ArgoNeuT Collaboration presents the first measurements of inclusive muon neutrino charged current differential cross sections on argon. Obtained in the NuMI neutrino beam line at Fermilab, the flux-integrated results are reported in terms of outgoing muon angle and momentum. The data are consistent with the Monte Carlo expectation across the full range of kinematics sampled, 0°energy neutrino scattering models important for interpreting results from long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments designed to investigate CP violation and the orientation of the neutrino mass hierarchy. PMID:22680709

  4. Charge-dependent many-body exchange and dispersion interactions in combined QM/MM simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate modeling of the molecular environment is critical in condensed phase simulations of chemical reactions. Conventional quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) simulations traditionally model non-electrostatic non-bonded interactions through an empirical Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential which, in violation of intuitive chemical principles, is bereft of any explicit coupling to an atom’s local electronic structure. This oversight results in a model whereby short-ranged exchange-repulsion and long-ranged dispersion interactions are invariant to changes in the local atomic charge, leading to accuracy limitations for chemical reactions where significant atomic charge transfer can occur along the reaction coordinate. The present work presents a variational, charge-dependent exchange-repulsion and dispersion model, referred to as the charge-dependent exchange and dispersion (QXD) model, for hybrid QM/MM simulations. Analytic expressions for the energy and gradients are provided, as well as a description of the integration of the model into existing QM/MM frameworks, allowing QXD to replace traditional LJ interactions in simulations of reactive condensed phase systems. After initial validation against QM data, the method is demonstrated by capturing the solvation free energies of a series of small, chlorine-containing compounds that have varying charge on the chlorine atom. The model is further tested on the SN2 attack of a chloride anion on methylchloride. Results suggest that the QXD model, unlike the traditional LJ model, is able to simultaneously obtain accurate solvation free energies for a range of compounds while at the same time closely reproducing the experimental reaction free energy barrier. The QXD interaction model allows explicit coupling of atomic charge with many-body exchange and dispersion interactions that are related to atomic size and provides a more accurate and robust representation of non-electrostatic non-bonded QM/MM interactions

  5. Charge-dependent many-body exchange and dispersion interactions in combined QM/MM simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuechler, Erich R. [BioMaPS Institute and Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854-8087 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455-0431 (United States); Giese, Timothy J.; York, Darrin M. [BioMaPS Institute and Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854-8087 (United States)

    2015-12-21

    Accurate modeling of the molecular environment is critical in condensed phase simulations of chemical reactions. Conventional quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) simulations traditionally model non-electrostatic non-bonded interactions through an empirical Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential which, in violation of intuitive chemical principles, is bereft of any explicit coupling to an atom’s local electronic structure. This oversight results in a model whereby short-ranged exchange-repulsion and long-ranged dispersion interactions are invariant to changes in the local atomic charge, leading to accuracy limitations for chemical reactions where significant atomic charge transfer can occur along the reaction coordinate. The present work presents a variational, charge-dependent exchange-repulsion and dispersion model, referred to as the charge-dependent exchange and dispersion (QXD) model, for hybrid QM/MM simulations. Analytic expressions for the energy and gradients are provided, as well as a description of the integration of the model into existing QM/MM frameworks, allowing QXD to replace traditional LJ interactions in simulations of reactive condensed phase systems. After initial validation against QM data, the method is demonstrated by capturing the solvation free energies of a series of small, chlorine-containing compounds that have varying charge on the chlorine atom. The model is further tested on the S{sub N}2 attack of a chloride anion on methylchloride. Results suggest that the QXD model, unlike the traditional LJ model, is able to simultaneously obtain accurate solvation free energies for a range of compounds while at the same time closely reproducing the experimental reaction free energy barrier. The QXD interaction model allows explicit coupling of atomic charge with many-body exchange and dispersion interactions that are related to atomic size and provides a more accurate and robust representation of non-electrostatic non-bonded QM

  6. Total neutrino and antineutrino charged current cross section measurements in 100, 160, and 200 GeV narrow band beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutrino and antineutrino total charged current cross sections on iron were measured in the 100, 160, and 200 GeV narrow band beams at the CERN SPS in the energy range 10 to 200 GeV. Assuming σ/E to be constant, the values corrected for non-isoscalarity are σν/E=(0.686 ±0.019)x10-38 cm2/(GeV . nucleon) and σν/E=(0.339±0.010)x10-38 cm2/(GeV . nucleon). Between 50 and 150 GeV no energy dependence of σ/E was observed within ±3% for neutrino and ±4% for antineutrino interactions. (orig.)

  7. Deep oceanic currents and sea floor interactions offshore SE Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raisson, François; Cazzola, Carlo; Ferry, Jean-Noel

    2016-04-01

    The Pamela Research program, which involves Total and Ifremer and their associated partners (French Universities, CNRS, IFPEN), is currently working to acquire new multidisciplinary data in the Mozambique Channel, in order to improve our knowledge and use this area as "laboratory" for comprehension of sedimentary/stratigraphical/geodynamical/structural and biological processes. The area comprised between the austral ocean and the southern tip of the African continent is a major place for Atlantic and Indian waters exchange, with high impact on the global climate (de Rujiter et al., 1999, Beal et al., 2011). Its prolongation toward the Mozambique Channel is a great playground to study effects of bottom currents on the sea floor. In this synthesis, we compile information about the major oceanic currents that occur at different water depth in the area, and we started listing the main published or ongoing studies, some of them in the scope of the Pamela project, related to sea floor interactions with bottom currents. These interactions are characterized by erosional features: submarine erosions, truncations, stratigraphic hiatuses, associated to depositional features: various types of contouritic drifts, sediment waves, asymmetric turbiditic levees etc. (Simpson et al., 1974, Uenzelmann-Neben et al., 2007, Uenzelmann-Neben & Huhn, 2009, Palermo et al., 2014). Movements of the main water masses in the Mozambique basin are strongly driven by thermohaline circulation but also sea floor topography and coast configuration: the Mozambique Current is not a persistent current but composed by southward moving anticyclonic eddies (De Rujiter et al., 2002, Ridderinkhof & de Rujiter, 2003, Swart et al., 2010, Halo et al., 2014). Deep currents flow northward along the western edge of the Mozambique basin: the North Atlantic Deep Waters (NADW) and the Antarctic Intermediate Waters (AAIW) flow along the Mozambican continental slope and form the Mozambique Undercurrent. A portion of

  8. Plasma regions, charged dust and field-aligned currents near Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, I. A. D.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Andrews, D. J.; Eriksson, A. I.; Ye, S.; Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Morooka, M. W.; Farrell, W. M.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2015-11-01

    We use data from several instruments on board Cassini to determine the characteristics of the plasma and dust regions around Saturn's moon Enceladus. For this we utilize the Langmuir probe and the electric antenna connected to the wideband receiver of the radio and plasma wave science (RPWS) instrument package as well as the magnetometer (MAG). We show that there are several distinct plasma and dust regions around Enceladus. Specifically they are the plume filled with neutral gas, plasma, and charged dust, with a distinct edge boundary region. Here we present observations of a new distinct plasma region, being a dust trail on the downstream side. This is seen both as a difference in ion and electron densities, indicating the presence of charged dust, and directly from the signals created on RPWS antennas by the dust impacts on the spacecraft. Furthermore, we show a very good scaling of these two independent dust density measurement methods over four orders of magnitude in dust density, thereby for the first time cross-validating them. To establish equilibrium with the surrounding plasma the dust becomes negatively charged by attracting free electrons. The dust distribution follows a simple power law and the smallest dust particles in the dust trail region are found to be 10 nm in size as well as in the edge region around the plume. Inside the plume the presence of even smaller particles of about 1 nm is inferred. From the magnetic field measurements we infer strong field-aligned currents at the geometrical edge of Enceladus.

  9. Charm production in charged current deep inelastic e{sup +}p scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M.

    2006-03-15

    The measurement of charm production in charged current deep inelastic positron-proton scattering is investigated with the ZEUS detector at the HERA collider. The data used has been collected from 1995 to 2000, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 110 pb{sup -1}. Charged D{sup *} mesons decaying in the channel D{sup *+}{yields}D{sup 0}{pi}{sup +}{sub s} with D{sup 0}{yields}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +} and the charge conjugated channel are reconstructed to tag charm quarks. The visible cross section for D{sup *}, {sigma}{sup D*}{sub vis}=12.8{+-}4.0(stat){sup +4.7}{sub -1.5}(sys) pb, is measured in the kinematic range of Q{sup 2}>200 GeV{sup 2} and y<0.9, and of p{sup D{sup *}}{sub T}>1.5 GeV and vertical stroke {eta}{sup D{sup *}} vertical stroke <1.5. The upper-limit for the charm production in the same DIS kinematic range is determined to be {sigma}{sup e{sup +}}{sup p{yields}} {sup anti} {sup {nu}{sub e}}{sup cX} < 109 pb at 90% confidence level. (orig.)

  10. Interacting tilt and kink instabilities in repelling current channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a numerical study in resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) where the initial equilibrium configuration contains adjacent, oppositely directed, parallel current channels. Since oppositely directed current channels repel, the equilibrium is liable to an ideal magnetohydrodynamic tilt instability. This tilt evolution, previously studied in planar settings, involves two magnetic islands or flux ropes, which on Alfvénic timescales undergo a combined rotation and separation. This in turn leads to the creation of (near) singular current layers, posing severe challenges to numerical approaches. Using our open-source grid-adaptive MPI-AMRVAC software, we revisit the planar evolution case in compressible MHD, as well as its extension to two-and-a-half-dimensional (2.5D) and full three-dimensional (3D) scenarios. As long as the third dimension can be ignored, pure tilt evolutions result that are hardly affected by out of plane magnetic field components. In all 2.5D runs, our simulations do show secondary tearing type disruptions throughout the near singular current sheets in the far nonlinear saturation regime. In full 3D runs, both current channels can be liable to additional ideal kink deformations. We discuss the effects of having both tilt and kink instabilities acting simultaneously in the violent, reconnection-dominated evolution. In 3D, both the tilt and the kink instabilities can be stabilized by tension forces. As a concrete space plasma application, we argue that interacting tilt-kink instabilities in repelling current channels provide a novel route to initiate solar coronal mass ejections, distinctly different from the currently favored pure kink or torus instability routes.

  11. Neutralization Of Multiply Charged Rydberg Ions Interacting With Solid Surfaces Under The Grazing Incidence Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majkic, M. D.; Nedeljkovic, N. N.; Galijas, S. M. D.

    2010-07-01

    We elaborated the time-symmetric, two-state vector model to investigate the intermediate stages of the electron capture into the Rydberg states of multiply charged ions interacting with solid surface under the grazing incidence geometry. The neutralization distances for the ions XeZ+ interacting with Al-surface are calculated, for core charges Z ?[5,30]. The corresponding mean neutralization distances are in agreement with the data deduced from the measured kinetic energy gain due to the image acceleration of the ions.

  12. Constraints on four-fermion interactions from the t anti t charge asymmetry at hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosello, M.P.; Vos, M. [IFIC (UVEG/CSIC), Valencia (Spain)

    2016-04-15

    The charge asymmetry in top quark production at hadron colliders is sensitive to beyond-the-Standard-Model four-fermion interactions. In this study we compare the sensitivity of t anti t cross-section and charge asymmetry measurements to effective operators describing four-fermion interactions and study the limits on the validity of this approach. A fit to a combination of Tevatron and LHC measurements yields stringent limits on the linear combinations C{sub 1} and C{sub 2} of the four-fermion effective operators. (orig.)

  13. Space Charge Behavior in Paper Insulation Induced by Copper Sulfide in High-Voltage Direct Current Power Transformers

    OpenAIRE

    Ruijin Liao; Ende Hu; Lijun Yang; Yuan Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The main insulation system in high-voltage direct current (HVDC) transformer consists of oil-paper insulation. The formation of space charge in insulation paper is crucial for the dielectric strength. Unfortunately, space charge behavior changes because of the corrosive sulfur substance in oil. This paper presents the space charge behavior in insulation paper induced by copper sulfide generated by corrosive sulfur in insulation oil. Thermal aging tests of paper-wrapped copper strip called the...

  14. 100 kV/2A three-phase constant-current repetitive-rate charging equipment

    CERN Document Server

    Tan Yu Gang; Chen Li Dong; Guo Zhi Gang; Zou Xiao Bing; Luo Min; Cao Shao Yun; Chang An Bi

    2002-01-01

    A 100 kV/2A three-phase constant-current repetitive-rate charging equipment was designed and constructed. A three-phase L-C converter is adopted as constant-current power source. Six Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) are connected in parallel to control the stop of charge. A Programmable Logical Controller (PLC) is the central element of the control unit. The equipment is used in the repetitive-rate discharge features test of the switch. It works stably under the conditions of 2A charging current, 10 Hz operating voltage, 100 kV repetitive rate and 1 mu F capacitor

  15. 100 kV/2A three-phase constant-current repetitive-rate charging equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 100 kV/2A three-phase constant-current repetitive-rate charging equipment was designed and constructed. A three-phase L-C converter is adopted as constant-current power source. Six Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) are connected in parallel to control the stop of charge. A Programmable Logical Controller (PLC) is the central element of the control unit. The equipment is used in the repetitive-rate discharge features test of the switch. It works stably under the conditions of 2A charging current, 10 Hz operating voltage, 100 kV repetitive rate and 1μF capacitor

  16. Interacting loop-current model of superconducting networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors review their recent approximation scheme to calculate the normal-superconducting phase boundary, Tc(H), of a superconducting wire network in a magnetic field in terms of interacting loop currents. The theory is based on the London approximation of the linearized Ginzburg-Landau equation. An approximate general formula is derived for any two-dimensional space-filling lattice comprising tiles of two shapes. Many examples are provided illustrating the use of this method, with a particular emphasis on the fluxoid distribution. In addition to periodic lattices, quasiperiodic lattices and fractal Sierpinski gaskets are also discussed

  17. Measurement of the νμ charged current quasielastic cross section on carbon with the T2K on-axis neutrino beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, K.; Adam, J.; Aihara, H.; Andreopoulos, C.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Assylbekov, S.; Autiero, D.; Barbi, M.; Barker, G. J.; Barr, G.; Bartet-Friburg, P.; Bass, M.; Batkiewicz, M.; Bay, F.; Berardi, V.; Berger, B. E.; Berkman, S.; Bhadra, S.; Blaszczyk, F. d. M.; Blondel, A.; Bolognesi, S.; Bordoni, S.; Boyd, S. B.; Brailsford, D.; Bravar, A.; Bronner, C.; Buchanan, N.; Calland, R. G.; Caravaca Rodríguez, J.; Cartwright, S. L.; Castillo, R.; Catanesi, M. G.; Cervera, A.; Cherdack, D.; Chikuma, N.; Christodoulou, G.; Clifton, A.; Coleman, J.; Coleman, S. J.; Collazuol, G.; Connolly, K.; Cremonesi, L.; Dabrowska, A.; Danko, I.; Das, R.; Davis, S.; de Perio, P.; De Rosa, G.; Dealtry, T.; Dennis, S. R.; Densham, C.; Dewhurst, D.; Di Lodovico, F.; Di Luise, S.; Dolan, S.; Drapier, O.; Duffy, K.; Dumarchez, J.; Dytman, S.; Dziewiecki, M.; Emery-Schrenk, S.; Ereditato, A.; Escudero, L.; Ferchichi, C.; Feusels, T.; Finch, A. J.; Fiorentini, G. A.; Friend, M.; Fujii, Y.; Fukuda, Y.; Furmanski, A. P.; Galymov, V.; Garcia, A.; Giffin, S.; Giganti, C.; Gilje, K.; Goeldi, D.; Golan, T.; Gonin, M.; Grant, N.; Gudin, D.; Hadley, D. R.; Haegel, L.; Haesler, A.; Haigh, M. D.; Hamilton, P.; Hansen, D.; Hara, T.; Hartz, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Hastings, N. C.; Hayashino, T.; Hayato, Y.; Hearty, C.; Helmer, R. L.; Hierholzer, M.; Hignight, J.; Hillairet, A.; Himmel, A.; Hiraki, T.; Hirota, S.; Holeczek, J.; Horikawa, S.; Hosomi, F.; Huang, K.; Ichikawa, A. K.; Ieki, K.; Ieva, M.; Ikeda, M.; Imber, J.; Insler, J.; Irvine, T. J.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Iwai, E.; Iwamoto, K.; Iyogi, K.; Izmaylov, A.; Jacob, A.; Jamieson, B.; Jiang, M.; Johnson, S.; Jo, J. H.; Jonsson, P.; Jung, C. K.; Kabirnezhad, M.; Kaboth, A. C.; Kajita, T.; Kakuno, H.; Kameda, J.; Kanazawa, Y.; Karlen, D.; Karpikov, I.; Katori, T.; Kearns, E.; Khabibullin, M.; Khotjantsev, A.; Kielczewska, D.; Kikawa, T.; Kilinski, A.; Kim, J.; King, S.; Kisiel, J.; Kitching, P.; Kobayashi, T.; Koch, L.; Koga, T.; Kolaceke, A.; Konaka, A.; Kopylov, A.; Kormos, L. L.; Korzenev, A.; Koshio, Y.; Kropp, W.; Kubo, H.; Kudenko, Y.; Kurjata, R.; Kutter, T.; Lagoda, J.; Lamont, I.; Larkin, E.; Laveder, M.; Lawe, M.; Lazos, M.; Lindner, T.; Lister, C.; Litchfield, R. P.; Longhin, A.; Lopez, J. P.; Ludovici, L.; Magaletti, L.; Mahn, K.; Malek, M.; Manly, S.; Marino, A. D.; Marteau, J.; Martin, J. F.; Martins, P.; Martynenko, S.; Maruyama, T.; Matveev, V.; Mavrokoridis, K.; Mazzucato, E.; McCarthy, M.; McCauley, N.; McFarland, K. S.; McGrew, C.; Mefodiev, A.; Metelko, C.; Mezzetto, M.; Mijakowski, P.; Miller, C. A.; Minamino, A.; Mineev, O.; Missert, A.; Miura, M.; Moriyama, S.; Mueller, Th. A.; Murakami, A.; Murdoch, M.; Murphy, S.; Myslik, J.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakahata, M.; Nakamura, K. G.; Nakamura, K.; Nakayama, S.; Nakaya, T.; Nakayoshi, K.; Nantais, C.; Nielsen, C.; Nirkko, M.; Nishikawa, K.; Nishimura, Y.; Nowak, J.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Ohta, R.; Okumura, K.; Okusawa, T.; Oryszczak, W.; Oser, S. M.; Ovsyannikova, T.; Owen, R. A.; Oyama, Y.; Palladino, V.; Palomino, J. L.; Paolone, V.; Payne, D.; Perevozchikov, O.; Perkin, J. D.; Petrov, Y.; Pickard, L.; Pinzon Guerra, E. S.; Pistillo, C.; Plonski, P.; Poplawska, E.; Popov, B.; Posiadala-Zezula, M.; Poutissou, J.-M.; Poutissou, R.; Przewlocki, P.; Quilain, B.; Radicioni, E.; Ratoff, P. N.; Ravonel, M.; Rayner, M. A. M.; Redij, A.; Reeves, M.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Riccio, C.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Rojas, P.; Rondio, E.; Roth, S.; Rubbia, A.; Ruterbories, D.; Rychter, A.; Sacco, R.; Sakashita, K.; Sánchez, F.; Sato, F.; Scantamburlo, E.; Scholberg, K.; Schoppmann, S.; Schwehr, J.; Scott, M.; Seiya, Y.; Sekiguchi, T.; Sekiya, H.; Sgalaberna, D.; Shah, R.; Shaker, F.; Shaw, D.; Shiozawa, M.; Short, S.; Shustrov, Y.; Sinclair, P.; Smith, B.; Smy, M.; Sobczyk, J. T.; Sobel, H.; Sorel, M.; Southwell, L.; Stamoulis, P.; Steinmann, J.; Still, B.; Suda, Y.; Suzuki, A.; Suzuki, K.; Suzuki, S. Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Tacik, R.; Tada, M.; Takahashi, S.; Takeda, A.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tanaka, H. K.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tanaka, M. M.; Terhorst, D.; Terri, R.; Thompson, L. F.; Thorley, A.; Tobayama, S.; Toki, W.; Tomura, T.; Totsuka, Y.; Touramanis, C.; Tsukamoto, T.; Tzanov, M.; Uchida, Y.; Vacheret, A.; Vagins, M.; Vasseur, G.; Wachala, T.; Wakamatsu, K.; Walter, C. W.; Wark, D.; Warzycha, W.; Wascko, M. O.; Weber, A.; Wendell, R.; Wilkes, R. J.; Wilking, M. J.; Wilkinson, C.; Williamson, Z.; Wilson, J. R.; Wilson, R. J.; Wongjirad, T.; Yamada, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Yanagisawa, C.; Yano, T.; Yen, S.; Yershov, N.; Yokoyama, M.; Yoo, J.; Yoshida, K.; Yuan, T.; Yu, M.; Zalewska, A.; Zalipska, J.; Zambelli, L.; Zaremba, K.; Ziembicki, M.; Zimmerman, E. D.; Zito, M.; Żmuda, J.; T2K Collaboration

    2015-06-01

    We report a measurement of the νμ charged current quasielastic cross-sections on carbon in the T2K on-axis neutrino beam. The measured charged current quasielastic cross-sections on carbon at mean neutrino energies of 1.94 GeV and 0.93 GeV are (11.95 ±0.19 (stat)-1.47+1.82(syst))×1 0-39 cm2/neutron , and (10.64 ±0.37 (stat)-1.65+2.03(syst))×1 0-39 cm2/neutron , respectively. These results agree well with the predictions of neutrino interaction models. In addition, we investigated the effects of the nuclear model and the multi-nucleon interaction.

  18. Secondary Flows and Sediment Transport due to Wave - Current Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Nabil; Wiegel, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Objectives: The main purpose of this study is to determine the modifications of coastal processes driven by wave-current interaction and thus to confirm hydrodynamic mechanisms associated with the interaction at river mouths and tidal inlets where anthropogenic impacts were introduced. Further, the aim of the work has been to characterize the effect of the relative strength of momentum action of waves to the opposing current on the nearshore circulation where river flow was previously effective to entrain sediments along the shoreline. Such analytical information are useful to provide guidelines for sustainable design of coastal defense structures. Methodology and Analysis: Use is made of an earlier study reported by the authors (1983) on the interaction of horizontal momentum jets and opposing shallow water waves at shorelines, and of an unpublished laboratory study (1980). The turbulent horizontal discharge was shore-normal, directed offshore, and the incident wave direction was shore-normal, travelling toward shore. Flow visualization at the smooth bottom and the water surface, velocity and water surface elevation measurements were made. Results were obtained for wave , current modifications as well as the flow pattern in the jet and the induced circulation on both sides of the jet, for a range of wave and jet characteristics. The experimental data, obtained from measurement in the 3-D laboratory basin, showed several distinct flow pattern regimes on the bottom and the water surface. The observed flow circulation regimes were found to depend on the ratio of the wave momentum action on the jet to the jet initial momentum. Based on the time and length scales of wave and current parameters and using the time average of the depth integrated conservation equations, it is found that the relative strength of the wave action on the jet could be represented by a dimensionless expression; Rsm ( ) 12ρSa20g-L0h-Cg- 2 Rsm ≈ (C0 - U) /ρ0U w (1) In the above dimensionless

  19. On the role of collective interactions in asymmetric ring current formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Bespalov

    Full Text Available The contribution of resonant wave-particle interactions to the formation and decay of the magnetospheric ring current is analysed in the framework of a self-consistent set of equations which take into account azimuthal plasmasphere asymmetry. It is shown that the cyclotron interaction of westward drifting energetic protons with Alfven waves in the evening-side plasmaspheric bulge region leads to the formation of a ring current asymmetry located near 18:00 MLT. The time-scale of this asymmetry is determined by the proton drift time through the plasmaspheric bulge and is about 1 - 3 h. A symmetrical ring current decays mainly due to charge exchange processes. The theory is compared with known experimental data on ions and waves in the ring current and on low-latitude magnetic disturbances. New low-latitude magnetometer data on the magnetic storm of 24 - 26 July 1986 are also discussed. The model presented explains the observed localization of an asymmetrical ring current loop in the evening sector and the difference in relaxation time-scales of the asymmetry and the Dst index. It also explains measured wave turbulence levels in the evening-side plasmasphere and wave observation statistics.

  20. Consistent analysis of neutral- and charged-current (anti)neutrino scattering off carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Good understanding of the cross sections for (anti)neutrino scattering off nuclear targets in the few-GeV energy region is a prerequisite for the correct interpretation of results of ongoing and planned oscillation experiments. To clarify a possible source of disagreement between recent measurements of the cross sections on carbon, we analyze the available data within an approach based on the realistic spectral function of carbon, treating neutral-current elastic (NCE) and charged-current quasielastic (CCQE) processes on equal footing. We show that the axial mass from the shape analysis of the MiniBooNE data is in good agreement with the results reported by the BNL E734 and NOMAD Collaborations. However, the combined analysis of the NCE and CCQE data does not seem to support the contribution of multinucleon final states being large enough to explain the normalization of the MiniBooNE-reported cross sections

  1. Consistent analysis of neutral- and charged-current (anti)neutrino scattering off carbon

    CERN Document Server

    Ankowski, Artur M

    2013-01-01

    Good understanding of the cross sections for (anti)neutrino scattering off nuclear targets in the few-GeV energy region is a prerequisite for the correct interpretation of results of ongoing and planned oscillation experiments. To clarify a possible source of disagreement between recent measurements of the cross sections on carbon, we analyze the available data within an approach based on the realistic spectral function of carbon, treating neutral-current elastic (NCE) and charged-current quasielastic (CCQE) processes on equal footing. We show that the axial mass from the shape analysis of the MiniBooNE data is in good agreement with the results reported by the BNL E734 and NOMAD Collaborations. However, the combined analysis of the NCE and CCQE data does not seem to support the contribution of multinucleon final states being large enough to explain the normalization of the MiniBooNE-reported cross sections.

  2. Interaction of a Magnet and a Point Charge: Unrecognized Internal Electromagnetic Momentum

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, Timothy H

    2014-01-01

    Whereas nonrelativistic mechanics always connects the total momentum of a system to the motion of the center of mass, relativistic systems, such as interacting electromagnetic charges, can have internal linear momentum in the absence of motion of the center of energy of the system. This internal linear momentum of the system is related to the controversial concept of "hidden momentum." We suggest that the term "hidden momentum" be abandoned. Here we use the relativistic conservation law for the center of energy to give an unambiguous definition of the "internal momentum of a system," and then we exhibit this internal momentum for the system of a magnet (modeled as a circular ring of moving charges) and a distant static point charge. The calculations provide clear illustrations of this system for three cases: a) the moving charges of the magnet are assumed to continue in their unperturbed motion, b) the moving charges of the magnet are free to accelerate but have no mutual interactions, and c) the moving charg...

  3. Exclusive Muon-Neutrino Charged Current Muon Plus Any Number of Protons Topologies In ArgoNeuT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partyka, Kinga Anna [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Neutrinos remain among the least understood fundamental particles even after decades of study. As we enter the precision era o f neutrino measurements bigger and more sophisticated detectors have emerged. The leading candidate among them is a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LArTPC ) detector technology due to its bubble-like chamber imaging, superb background rejection and scalability. I t is a perfect candidate that w ill aim to answer the remaining questions of the nature o f neutrino and perhaps our existence. Studying neutrinos with a detector that employs detection via beautiful images o f neutrino interactions can be both illuminating and surprising. The analysis presented here takes the full advantage of the LArTPC power by exploiting the first topological analysis of charged current muon neutrino p + N p , muon and any number of protons, interactions with the ArgoNeuT LArTPC experiment on an argon target. The results presented here are the first that address the proton multiplicity at the vertex and the proton kinematics. This study also addresses the importance o f nuclear effects in neutrino interactions. Furthermore, the developed here reconstruction techniques present a significant step forward for this technology and can be employed in the future LArTPC detectors.

  4. Measurement of the Antineutrino Double-Differential Charged-Current Quasi-Elastic Scattering Cross Section at MINERvA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick, Cheryl [Northwestern U.

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation neutrino oscillation experiments, such as DUNE and Hyper-Kamiokande, hope to measure charge-parity (CP) violation in the lepton sector. In order to do this, they must dramatically reduce their current levels of uncertainty, particularly those due to neutrino-nucleus interaction models. As CP violation is a measure of the difference between the oscillation properties of neutrinos and antineutrinos, data about how the less-studied antineutrinos interact is especially valuable. We present the MINERvA experiment's first double-differential scattering cross sections for antineutrinos on scintillator, in the few-GeV range relevant to experiments such as DUNE and NOvA. We also present total antineutrino-scintillator quasi-elastic cross sections as a function of energy, which we compare to measurements from previous experiments. As well as being useful to help reduce oscillation experiments' uncertainty, our data can also be used to study the prevalence of various cor relation and final-state interaction effects within the nucleus. We compare to models produced by different model generators, and are able to draw first conclusions about the predictions of these models.

  5. Exclusive Muon-Neutrino Charged Current muon plus any number of protons topologies in ArgoNeuT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partyka, Kinga Anna

    Neutrinos remain among the least understood fundamental particles even after decades of study. As we enter the precision era of neutrino measurements bigger and more sophisticated detectors have emerged. The leading candidate among them is a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LArTPC) detector technology due to its bubble-like chamber imaging, superb background rejection and scalability. It is a perfect candidate that will aim to answer the remaining questions of the nature of neutrino and perhaps our existence. Studying neutrinos with a detector that employs detection via beautiful images of neutrino interactions can be bath illuminating and surprising. The analysis presented here takes the full advantage of the LArTPC power by exploiting the first topological analysis of charged current muon neutrino mu + Np, muon and any number of protons, interactions with the ArgoNeuT LArTPC experiment on an argon target. The results presented here are the first that address the proton multiplicity at the vertex and the proton kinematics. This study also addresses the importance of nuclear effects in neutrino interactions. Furthermore, the developed here reconstruction techniques present a significant step forward for this technology and can be employed in the future LArTPC detectors.

  6. Spin and charge transport in the presence of spin-orbit interaction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T P Pareek; P Bruno

    2002-02-01

    We present the study of spin and charge transport in nanostructures in the presence of spin-orbit (SO) interaction. Single band tight binding Hamiltonians for Elliot–Yafet and Rashba SO interaction are derived. Using these tight binding Hamiltonians and spin resolved Landauer–Büttiker formula, spin and charge transport is studied. Specifically numerical results are presented for a new method to perform magnetic scanning tunneling microscopy with non-magnetic tip but in the presence of Elliot–Yafet SO interaction. The spin relaxation phenomena in two-dimensional electron gas in the presence of Rashba SO interaction are studied and contrary to naive expectation, it is shown that disorder helps to reduce spin relaxation.

  7. Effect of charge on ion-solid interaction at the surface of two-dimensional materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of charge on the ion-solid interaction between an incident carbon ion and a surface of graphite or hexagonal boron nitride was studied using ab initio molecular orbital calculations. The computational model was based on a carbon ion with a charge of +1, 0, or -1 incident on a (0 0 0 1) surface of graphite or hexagonal boron nitride. Carbon cations were found to make a strong stable covalent bond with the surface; carbon nonions were attracted to the surface through a van der Waals interaction; carbon anions were repulsed from the graphite surface, but attracted to the h-BN surface through ionic interaction. The stability of the structure and character of the bond is discussed below with reference to the electronic structure of the interacting incident ions and the surface. In conclusion, carbon cations were found to be suitable for the production of covalent bonds

  8. Pipette-surface interaction: current enhancement and intrinsic force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Richard W; Zhukov, Alexander; Richards, Owen; Johnson, Nicholas; Ostanin, Victor; Klenerman, David

    2013-01-01

    There is an intrinsic repulsion between glass and cell surfaces that allows noninvasive scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) of cells and which must be overcome in order to form the gigaseals used for patch clamping investigations of ion channels. However, the interactions of surfaces in physiological solutions of electrolytes, including the presence of this repulsion, for example, do not obviously agree with the standard Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) colloid theory accurate at much lower salt concentrations. In this paper we investigate the interactions of glass nanopipettes in this high-salt regime with a variety of surfaces and propose a way to resolve DLVO theory with the results. We demonstrate the utility of this understanding to SICM by topographically mapping a live cell's cytoskeleton. We also report an interesting effect whereby the ion current though a nanopipette can increase under certain conditions upon approaching an insulating surface, rather than decreasing as would be expected. We propose that this is due to electroosmotic flow separation, a high-salt electrokinetic effect. Overall these experiments yield key insights into the fundamental interactions that take place between surfaces in strong solutions of electrolytes. PMID:23210472

  9. Electrostatic potential profile and nonlinear current in an interacting one-dimensional molecular wire

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Lakshmi; Swapan K Pati

    2003-10-01

    We consider an interacting one-dimensional molecular wire attached to two metal electrodes on either side of it. The electrostatic potential profile across the wire-electrode interface has been deduced solving the Schrodinger and Poisson equations self-consistently. Since the Poisson distribution crucially depends on charge densities, we have considered different Hamiltonian parameters to model the nanoscale wire. We find that for very weak electron correlations, the potential gradient is almost zero in the middle of the wire but are large near the chain ends. However, for strong correlations, the potential is essentially a ramp function. The nonlinear current, obtained from the scattering formalism, is found to be less with the ramp potential than for weak correlations. Some of the interesting features in current-voltage characteristics have been explained using one-electron formalism and instabilities in the system.

  10. Studies of charge neutral FCC Lattice Gas with Yukawa Interaction and Accelerated Cartesian Expansion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, He

    In this thesis, I present the results of studies of the structural properties and phase transition of a charge neutral FCC Lattice Gas with Yukawa Interaction and discuss a novel fast calculation algorithm---Accelerated Cartesian Expansion (ACE) method. In the first part of my thesis, I discuss the results of Monte Carlo simulations carried out to understand the finite temperature (phase transition) properties and the ground state structure of a Yukawa Lattice Gas (YLG) model. In this model the ions interact via the potential q iqjexp(-kappar> ij)/rij where qi,j are the charges of the ions located at the lattice sites i and j with position vectors R i and Rj; rij = Ri-Rj, kappa is a measure of the range of the interaction and is called the screening parameter. This model approximates an interesting quaternary system of great current thermoelectric interest called LAST-m, AgSbPbmTem+2. I have also developed rapid calculation methods for the potential energy calculation in a lattice gas system with periodic boundary condition bases on the Ewald summation method and coded the algorithm to compute the energies in MC simulation. Some of the interesting results of the MC simulations are: (i) how the nature and strength of the phase transition depend on the range of interaction (Yukawa screening parameter kappa) (ii) what is the degeneracy of the ground state for different values of the concentration of charges, and (iii) what is the nature of two-stage disordering transition seen for certain values of x. In addition, based on the analysis of the surface energy of different nano-clusters formed near the transition temperature, the solidification process and the rate of production of these nano-clusters have been studied. In the second part of my thesis, we have developed two methods for rapidly computing potentials of the form R-nu. Both these methods are founded on addition theorems based on Taylor expansions. Taylor's series has a couple of inherent advantages: (i) it

  11. Fragmentation of phosphorylated and singly charged peptide ions via interaction with metastable atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkout, Vadym D; Doroshenko, Vladimir M

    2008-12-01

    Fragmentation of phosphorylated peptide ions via interaction with electronically excited metastable argon atoms was studied in a linear trap - time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Doubly charged ions of phosphorylated peptides from an Enolase digest were produced by electrospray ionization and subjected to a metastable atom beam in the linear trap. The metastable argon atoms were generated using a glow-discharge source. An intensive series of c- and z- ions were observed in all cases, with the phosphorylation group intact. The formation of molecular radical cations with reduced charge indicated that an electron transfer from a highly excited metastable state of argon to the peptide cation occurred. Additionally, singly charged Bradykinin, Substance P and Fibrinopeptide A molecular ions were fragmented via interaction with electronically excited metastable helium atoms. The fragmentation mechanism was different in this case and involved Penning ionization. PMID:19956340

  12. O({alpha}{sub s}) heavy flavor corrections to charged current deep-inelastic scattering in Mellin space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemlein, J.; Hasselhuhn, A.; Kovacikova, P.; Moch, S.

    2011-04-15

    We provide a fast and precise Mellin-space implementation of the O({alpha}{sub s}) heavy flavor Wilson coefficients for charged current deep inelastic scattering processes. They are of importance for the extraction of the strange quark distribution in neutrino-nucleon scattering and the QCD analyses of the HERA charged current data. Errors in the literature are corrected. We also discuss a series of more general parton parameterizations in Mellin space. (orig.)

  13. Interactions of human hemoglobin with charged ligand-functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles and effect of counterions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human hemoglobin is an important metalloprotein. It has tetrameric structure with each subunit containing a ‘heme’ group which carries oxygen and carbon dioxide in blood. In this work, we have investigated the interactions of human hemoglobin (Hb) with charged ligand-functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles and the effect of counterions, in aqueous medium. Several techniques like DLS and ζ-potential measurements, UV–vis, fluorescence, and CD spectroscopy have been used to characterize the interaction. The nanoparticle size was measured to be in the range of 20–30 nm. Our results indicated the binding of Hb with both positively as well as negatively charged ligand-functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles in neutral aqueous medium which was driven by the electrostatic and the hydrophobic interactions. The electrostatic binding interaction was not seen in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4. We have also observed that the ‘heme’ groups of Hb remained unaffected on binding with charged nanoparticles, suggesting the utility of the charged ligand-functionalized nanoparticles in biomedical applications

  14. Conformational transformations induced by the charge-curvature interaction: Mean-field approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yu B.; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Zakrzewski, W.J.

    2006-01-01

    A simple phenomenological model for describing the conformational dynamics of biological macromolecules via the nonlinearity-induced instabilities is proposed. It is shown that the interaction between charges and bending degrees of freedom of closed molecular aggregates may act as drivers giving ...

  15. Interactions of human hemoglobin with charged ligand-functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles and effect of counterions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Goutam, E-mail: ghoshg@yahoo.com [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Mumbai Centre (India); Panicker, Lata [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Solid State Physics Division (India)

    2014-12-15

    Human hemoglobin is an important metalloprotein. It has tetrameric structure with each subunit containing a ‘heme’ group which carries oxygen and carbon dioxide in blood. In this work, we have investigated the interactions of human hemoglobin (Hb) with charged ligand-functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles and the effect of counterions, in aqueous medium. Several techniques like DLS and ζ-potential measurements, UV–vis, fluorescence, and CD spectroscopy have been used to characterize the interaction. The nanoparticle size was measured to be in the range of 20–30 nm. Our results indicated the binding of Hb with both positively as well as negatively charged ligand-functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles in neutral aqueous medium which was driven by the electrostatic and the hydrophobic interactions. The electrostatic binding interaction was not seen in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4. We have also observed that the ‘heme’ groups of Hb remained unaffected on binding with charged nanoparticles, suggesting the utility of the charged ligand-functionalized nanoparticles in biomedical applications.

  16. Self-interacting charged massive spin two particles in Minkowski spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Ohara, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    A model of the self-interacting charged massive spin-two field is constructed. We investigate several properties of the model and find that the the trivial vacuum is only allowed due to the internal symmetry. This suggests that the Higgs mechanism might not be induced by the model of the massive spin-two field with the ghost-free potential.

  17. University Students' Explanatory Models of the Interactions between Electric Charges and Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglam, Murat

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the models that co-existed in students' cognitive structure to explain the interactions between electric charges and uniform magnetic fields. The sample consisted of 129 first-year civil engineering, geology and geophysics students from a large state university in western Turkey. The students answered five…

  18. Charge instabilities of the two-dimensional Hubbard model with attractive nearest neighbour interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frésard, Raymond; Steffen, Kevin; Kopp, Thilo

    2016-03-01

    Attractive non-local interactions jointly with repulsive local interaction in a microscopic modelling of electronic Fermi liquids generate a competition between an enhancement of the static charge susceptibility–ultimately signalling charge instability and phase separation–and its correlation induced suppression. We analyse this scenario through the investigation of the extended Hubbard model on a two-dimensional square lattice, using the spin rotation invariant slave-boson representation of Kotliar and Ruckenstein. The quasiparticle density of states, the renormalised effective mass and the Landau parameter F s 0 are presented, whereby the positivity of F s 0 – 1 constitutes a criterion for stability. Van Hove singularities in the density of states support possible charge instabilities. A (negative) next-nearest neighbour hopping parameter t' shifts their positions and produces a tendency towards charge instability even for low filling whereas the t'-controlled particle-hole asymmetry of the correlation driven effective mass is small. A region of instability on account of the attractive interaction V is identified, either at half filling in the absence of strong electronic correlations or, in the case of large on-site interaction U, at densities far from half filling.

  19. Nuclear charge radii and electric monopole transitions in the interacting boson model

    CERN Document Server

    Van Isacker, P

    2012-01-01

    The interacting boson model (IBM) of Arima and Iachello is applied to calculate nuclear charge radii and electric monopole transitions of even-even nuclei in the rare-earth region. Consistent operators are used for the two observables. A relation between summed M1 strength and $\\rho({\\rm E0})$ values is pointed out.

  20. Field emission in air and space-charge-limited currents from iridium-iridium oxide tips with gaps below 100 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimley, Scott; Miller, Mark S.; Hagmann, Mark J.

    2011-05-01

    Field emission diodes made with Ir/IrO2 tips separated by gaps below 100 nm and operating in air gave currents of up to 1 μA just above 10 V and largely survived potentials up to 200 V. The current-voltage characteristics included signatures of Fowler-Nordheim emission and both coherent and incoherent space-charge limited emission, where both behaviors implied molecular-scale effective emission areas. The significant, nanoampere currents that flowed at biases below the expected bulk work functions corroborate the 0.1 eV work functions from Fowler-Nordheim analysis, and are attributed to molecular scale oxide structures and adsorbates shifting the surface Fermi level. Electron transit time analysis indicates that on average only one electron crossed the gap at a time, implying that the space-charge effects are due to self-interactions.

  1. Conservative Currents of Boundary Charges in AdS2+1 Gravity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Sze-Shiang; WANG Bin; MENG Xin-He

    2001-01-01

    The boundary charge which constitutes the Virasoro algebra in (2-+ 1)-dirnensional anti-de Sitter gravity is derived by Noether theorem and diffeomorphic invariance. It shows that the boundary charge under discussion recently exhausts all the available independent nontrivial charges. Therefore, for any specific spacetime, the state counting via the central charge of the Virasoro algebra is exact.``

  2. Heavy ion beam-ionosphere interactions: Charging and neutralizing the payload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The argon release controlled studies (ARCS 1-3) rocket flights carried ion generators to altitudes of 400-500 km in the nighttime auroral ionosphere. Three distinct electrical charging and neutralization processes were seen on the payloads during gun operation: steady or dc vehicle charging, brief charging at gun turn-on, and extended oscillatory sequences. Many of the unexpected consequences of gun firings are attributed to these payload charging and neutralization processes. Electrical charging is regulated by the rate at which low-energy electrons escape from the generator, which in turn is dependent on magnetic field geometry. Each ion generator produced a dipolar magnetic field which merged with the Earth's field near the rocket. The resulting local magnetic field guided electrons back to the rocket for certain gun orientations, thereby inhibiting neutralization. Transient charging was attributed to the formation of an electron cloud around at least some vehicles, while dc charging altered the rocket's surroundings until the electron escape rate balanced the ion beam flux. The authors concluded that during oscillatory events the entire environment of a payload could alternate between hot electron and cold electron configurations at very high rates, possibly exceeding 10 kHz. These changes in the plasma environment did not produce substantial electric field perturbations at the dc or ac high impedance electric field sensors, so were not seen in data from typical wave detectors. However, changes in plasma density and temperature produced dramatic effects on low impedance electric current sensors such as Langmuir probes

  3. Effective electrostatic interactions among charged thermo-responsive microgels immersed in a simple electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Mozuelos, P.

    2016-02-01

    This work explores the nature and thermodynamic behavior of the effective electrostatic interactions among charged microgels immersed in a simple electrolyte, taking special interest in the effects due to the thermally induced variation of the microgel size while the remaining parameters (microgel charge and concentration, plus the amount of added salt) are kept constant. To this end, the rigorous approach obtained from applying the precise methodology of the dressed ion theory to the proper definition of the effective direct correlation functions, which emerge from tracing-out the degrees of freedom of the microscopic ions, is employed to provide an exact description of the parameters characterizing such interactions: screening length, effective permittivity, and renormalized charges. A model solution with three components is assumed: large permeable anionic spheres for the microgels, plus small charged hard spheres of equal size for the monovalent cations and anions. The two-body correlations among the components of this model suspension, used as the input for the determination of the effective interaction parameters, are here calculated by using the hyper-netted chain approximation. It is then found that at finite microgel concentrations the values of these parameters change as the microgel size increases, even though the ionic strength of the supporting electrolyte and the bare charge of the microgels remain fixed during this process. The variation of the screening length, as well as that of the effective permittivity, is rather small, but still interesting in view of the fact that the corresponding Debye length stays constant. The renormalized charges, in contrast, increase markedly as the microgels swell. The ratio of the renormalized charge to the corresponding analytic result obtained in the context of an extended linear response theory allows us to introduce an effective charge that accounts for the non-linear effects induced by the short

  4. Effective electrostatic interactions among charged thermo-responsive microgels immersed in a simple electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González-Mozuelos, P. [Departamento de Física, Cinvestav del I. P. N., Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional 2508, Mexico, Distrito Federal, C. P. 07360 (Mexico)

    2016-02-07

    This work explores the nature and thermodynamic behavior of the effective electrostatic interactions among charged microgels immersed in a simple electrolyte, taking special interest in the effects due to the thermally induced variation of the microgel size while the remaining parameters (microgel charge and concentration, plus the amount of added salt) are kept constant. To this end, the rigorous approach obtained from applying the precise methodology of the dressed ion theory to the proper definition of the effective direct correlation functions, which emerge from tracing-out the degrees of freedom of the microscopic ions, is employed to provide an exact description of the parameters characterizing such interactions: screening length, effective permittivity, and renormalized charges. A model solution with three components is assumed: large permeable anionic spheres for the microgels, plus small charged hard spheres of equal size for the monovalent cations and anions. The two-body correlations among the components of this model suspension, used as the input for the determination of the effective interaction parameters, are here calculated by using the hyper-netted chain approximation. It is then found that at finite microgel concentrations the values of these parameters change as the microgel size increases, even though the ionic strength of the supporting electrolyte and the bare charge of the microgels remain fixed during this process. The variation of the screening length, as well as that of the effective permittivity, is rather small, but still interesting in view of the fact that the corresponding Debye length stays constant. The renormalized charges, in contrast, increase markedly as the microgels swell. The ratio of the renormalized charge to the corresponding analytic result obtained in the context of an extended linear response theory allows us to introduce an effective charge that accounts for the non-linear effects induced by the short

  5. Effective electrostatic interactions among charged thermo-responsive microgels immersed in a simple electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Mozuelos, P

    2016-02-01

    This work explores the nature and thermodynamic behavior of the effective electrostatic interactions among charged microgels immersed in a simple electrolyte, taking special interest in the effects due to the thermally induced variation of the microgel size while the remaining parameters (microgel charge and concentration, plus the amount of added salt) are kept constant. To this end, the rigorous approach obtained from applying the precise methodology of the dressed ion theory to the proper definition of the effective direct correlation functions, which emerge from tracing-out the degrees of freedom of the microscopic ions, is employed to provide an exact description of the parameters characterizing such interactions: screening length, effective permittivity, and renormalized charges. A model solution with three components is assumed: large permeable anionic spheres for the microgels, plus small charged hard spheres of equal size for the monovalent cations and anions. The two-body correlations among the components of this model suspension, used as the input for the determination of the effective interaction parameters, are here calculated by using the hyper-netted chain approximation. It is then found that at finite microgel concentrations the values of these parameters change as the microgel size increases, even though the ionic strength of the supporting electrolyte and the bare charge of the microgels remain fixed during this process. The variation of the screening length, as well as that of the effective permittivity, is rather small, but still interesting in view of the fact that the corresponding Debye length stays constant. The renormalized charges, in contrast, increase markedly as the microgels swell. The ratio of the renormalized charge to the corresponding analytic result obtained in the context of an extended linear response theory allows us to introduce an effective charge that accounts for the non-linear effects induced by the short

  6. Analysis of total dose-induced dark current in CMOS image sensors from interface state and trapped charge density measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Goiffon, Vincent; Virmontois, Cédric; Magnan, Pierre; Girard, Sylvain; Paillet, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    The origin of total ionizing dose induced dark current in CMOS image sensors is investigated by comparing dark current measurements to interface state density and trapped charge density measurements. Two types of photodiode and several thick-oxide-FETs were manufactured using a 0,18 um CMOS image sensor process and exposed to 10 keV X-ray from 3 krad to 1 Mrad. It is shown that the radiation induced trapped charge extends the space charge region at the oxide interface, leading to an enhanceme...

  7. Modeling space-charge-limited currents in organic semiconductors: Extracting trap density and mobility

    KAUST Repository

    Dacuña, Javier

    2011-11-28

    We have developed and have applied a mobility edge model that takes drift and diffusion currents to characterize the space-charge-limited current in organic semiconductors into account. The numerical solution of the drift-diffusion equation allows the utilization of asymmetric contacts to describe the built-in potential within the device. The model has been applied to extract information of the distribution of traps from experimental current-voltage measurements of a rubrene single crystal from Krellner showing excellent agreement across several orders of magnitude in the current. Although the two contacts are made of the same metal, an energy offset of 580 meV between them, ascribed to differences in the deposition techniques (lamination vs evaporation) was essential to correctly interpret the shape of the current-voltage characteristics at low voltage. A band mobility of 0.13cm 2V-1s-1 for holes is estimated, which is consistent with transport along the long axis of the orthorhombic unit cell. The total density of traps deeper than 0.1 eV was 2.2×1016cm -3. The sensitivity analysis and error estimation in the obtained parameters show that it is not possible to accurately resolve the shape of the trap distribution for energies deeper than 0.3 eV or shallower than 0.1 eV above the valence-band edge. The total number of traps deeper than 0.3 eV, however, can be estimated. Contact asymmetry and the diffusion component of the current play an important role in the description of the device at low bias and are required to obtain reliable information about the distribution of deep traps. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  8. Neutrino-nucleus neutral current elastic interactions measurement in MiniBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perevalov, Denis; /Alabama U.

    2009-12-01

    The MiniBooNE experiment at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) was designed to search for {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} neutrino oscillations at {Delta}m{sup 2} {approx} 1 eV{sup 2} using an intense neutrino flux with an average energy E{sub {nu}} {approx} 700 MeV. From 2002 to 2009 MiniBooNE has accumulated more than 1.0 x 10{sup 21} protons on target (POT) in both neutrino and antineutrino modes. MiniBooNE provides a perfect platform for detailed measurements of exclusive and semiinclusive neutrino cross-sections, for which MiniBooNE has the largest samples of events up to date, such as neutral current elastic (NCE), neutral current {pi}{sup 0}, charged current quasi-elastic (CCQE), charged current {pi}{sup +}, and other channels. These measured cross-sections, in turn, allow to improve the knowledge of nucleon structure. This thesis is devoted to the study of NCE interactions. Neutrino-nucleus neutral current elastic scattering ({nu}N {yields} {nu}N) accounts for about 18% of all neutrino interactions in MiniBooNE. Using a high-statistics, high purity sample of NCE interactions in MiniBooNE, the flux-averaged NCE differential cross-section has been measured and is being reported here. Further study of the NCE cross-section allowed for probing the structure of nuclei. The main interest in the NCE cross-section is that it may be sensitive to the strange quark contribution to the nucleon spin, {Delta}s, this however requires a separation of NCE proton ({nu}p {yields} {nu}p) from NCE neutron ({nu}n {yields} {nu}n) events, which in general is a challenging task. MiniBooNE uses a Cherenkov detector, which imposes restrictions on the measured nucleon kinematic variables, mainly due to the impossibility to reconstruct the nucleon direction below the Cherenkov threshold. However, at kinetic energies above this threshold MiniBooNE is able to identify NCE proton events that do not experience final state interactions (FSI). These events were used for

  9. Neutrino-nucleus neutral current elastic interactions measurement in MiniBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perevalov, Denis [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)

    2009-12-01

    The MiniBooNE experiment at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) was designed to search for vμ → ve neutrino oscillations at Δm2 ~ 1 eV2 using an intense neutrino flux with an average energy Ev ~ 700 MeV. From 2002 to 2009 MiniBooNE has accumulated more than 1.0 x 1021 protons on target (POT) in both neutrino and antineutrino modes. MiniBooNE provides a perfect platform for detailed measurements of exclusive and semiinclusive neutrino cross-sections, for which MiniBooNE has the largest samples of events up to date, such as neutral current elastic (NCE), neutral current π0, charged current quasi-elastic (CCQE), charged current π+, and other channels. These measured cross-sections, in turn, allow to improve the knowledge of nucleon structure. This thesis is devoted to the study of NCE interactions. Neutrino-nucleus neutral current elastic scattering (vN → vN) accounts for about 18% of all neutrino interactions in MiniBooNE. Using a high-statistics, high purity sample of NCE interactions in MiniBooNE, the flux-averaged NCE differential cross-section has been measured and is being reported here. Further study of the NCE cross-section allowed for probing the structure of nuclei. The main interest in the NCE cross-section is that it may be sensitive to the strange quark contribution to the nucleon spin, Δs, this however requires a separation of NCE proton (vp → vp) from NCE neutron (vn → vn) events, which in general is a challenging task. MiniBooNE uses a Cherenkov detector, which imposes restrictions on the measured nucleon kinematic variables, mainly due to the impossibility to reconstruct the nucleon direction below the Cherenkov threshold. However, at kinetic energies above this threshold MiniBooNE is able to identify NCE proton events that do not experience final state interactions (FSI). These events were used for the Δs measurement. In this thesis

  10. Influence of electrostatic interactions on the release of charged molecules from lipid cubic phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrini, Renata; Sánchez-Ferrer, Antoni; Mezzenga, Raffaele

    2014-04-22

    The release of positive, negative, and neutral hydrophilic drugs from pH responsive bicontinuous cubic phases was investigated under varying conditions of electrostatic interactions. A weak acid, linoleic acid (LA), or a weak base, pyridinylmethyl linoleate (PML), were added to the neutral monolinolein (ML) in order to form lyotropic liquid-crystalline (LLC) phases, which are negatively charged at neutral pH and positively charged at acidic pH. Release studies at low ionic strength (I = 20 mM) and at different pH values (3 and 7) revealed that electrostatic attraction between a positive drug, proflavine (PF), and the negatively charged LLC at pH = 7 or between a negative drug, antraquinone 2-sulfonic acid sodium salt (AQ2S), and the positively charged LLC at pH = 3 did delay the release behavior, while electrostatic repulsion affects the transport properties only to some extent. Release profiles of a neutral drug, caffeine, were not affected by the surface charge type and density in the cubic LLCs. Moreover, the influence of ionic strength was also considered up to 150 mM, corresponding to a Debye length smaller than the LLC water channels radius, which showed that efficient screening of electrostatic attractions occurring within the LLC water domains results in an increased release rate. Four transport models were applied to fit the release data, providing an exhaustive, quantitative insight on the role of electrostatic interactions in transport properties from pH responsive bicontinuous cubic phases. PMID:24673189

  11. Interaction of slow highly-charged ions with metals and insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interaction of slow highly charged ions with insulator as well as metallic surfaces is discussed. In addition to the usual flat surface targets, studies with thin foils having a multitude of straight holes of ∼100 nm in diameter (micro-capillary foil) are introduced, which provide various unique information on the above surface interaction. In the case of an insulator micro-capillary foil, a so-called guiding effect was observed, where slow highly charged ions can transmit through the capillary tunnel keeping their initial charge state even when the capillary axis is tilted against the incident beam. A similar guiding effect has recently been found for slow highly-charged ions transmitted through a single tapered glass capillary. In both cases, the guiding effects are expected to be governed by a self-organized charging and discharging of the inner-wall of the insulator capillary. One of the prominent features of this guiding effect with the tapered capillary is the formation of a nano-size beam, which can be applied in various fields of science including surface nano-modification/analysis, nano-surgery of living cells, etc

  12. Analysis of Total Dose-Induced Dark Current in CMOS Image Sensors From Interface State and Trapped Charge Density Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The origin of total ionizing dose induced dark current in CMOS image sensors is investigated by comparing dark current measurements to interface state density and trapped charge density measurements. Two types of photodiode and several thick-oxide-FETs were manufactured using a 0.18-μm CMOS image sensor process and exposed to 10-keV X-ray from 3 krad to 1 Mrad. It is shown that the radiation induced trapped charge extends the space charge region at the oxide interface, leading to an enhancement of interface state SRH generation current. Isochronal annealing tests show that STI interface states anneal out at temperature lower than 100 C whereas about a third of the trapped charge remains after 30 min at 300 C. (authors)

  13. Simulation of the current distribution in lead-acid batteries to investigate the dynamic charge acceptance in flooded SLI batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowal, Julia; Schulte, Dominik; Sauer, Dirk Uwe [Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage Systems Group, Institute for Power Electronics and Electrical Drives (ISEA), RWTH Aachen University, 52066 Aachen (Germany); Karden, Eckhard [Ford Research and Advanced Engineering Europe, Aachen (Germany)

    2009-06-01

    Measurements show that the dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) of flooded SLI lead-acid batteries during micro-cycling in conventional and micro-hybrid vehicles is strongly dependent on the short-term history, such as previous charge or discharge, current rate, lowest state of charge in the last 24 h and more. Factors of 10 have been reported. Inhomogeneous current distribution, especially as a result of acid stratification, has been suggested to explain the DCA variability. This hypothesis was investigated by simulation of a two-dimensional macrohomogeneous model. It provides a spatial resolution of three elements in horizontal direction in each electrode and three elements in vertical direction. For an existing set of parameters, different current profiles were analyzed with regard to the current distribution during charging and discharging. In these simulations, a strong impact of the short-term history on current, charge and acid density distribution was found as well as a strong influence of micro-cycles on both charge distribution and acid stratification. (author)

  14. O(D,D) Covariant Noether Currents and Global Charges in Double Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Jeong-Hyuck; Rim, Woohyun; Sakatani, Yuho

    2015-01-01

    Double field theory is an approach for massless modes of string theory, unifying and geometrizing all gauge invariances in manifest $\\mathbf{O}(D,D)$ covariant manner. In this approach, we derive off-shell conserved Noether current and corresponding Noether potential associated with unified gauge invariances. We add Wald-type counter two-form to the Noether potential and define conserved global charges as surface integral. We check our $\\mathbf{O}(D,D)$ covariant formula against various string backgrounds, both geometric and non-geometric. In all cases we examined, we find perfect agreements with previous results. Our formula facilitates to evaluate momenta along not only ordinary spacetime directions but also dual spacetime directions on equal footing. From this, we confirm recent assertion that null wave in doubled spacetime is the same as macroscopic fundamental string in ordinary spacetime.

  15. Cross Sections of Charged Current Neutrino Scattering off 132Xe for the Supernova Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Divari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The total cross sections as well as the neutrino event rates are calculated in the charged current neutrino and antineutrino scattering off 132Xe isotope at neutrino energies Ev<100 MeV. Transitions to excited nuclear states are calculated in the framework of quasiparticle random-phase approximation. The contributions from different multipoles are shown for various neutrino energies. Flux-averaged cross sections are obtained by convolving the cross sections with a two-parameter Fermi-Dirac distribution. The flux-averaged cross sections are also calculated using terrestrial neutrino sources based on conventional sources (muon decay at rest or on low-energy beta-beams.

  16. Weak charged and neutral current induced one pion production off the nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Alam, M Rafi; Chauhan, S; Singh, S K

    2015-01-01

    We present a study of neutrino/antineutrino induced charged and neutral current single pion production off the nucleon. For this, we have considered $P_{33}(1232)$ resonance, non-resonant background terms, other higher resonances like $P_{11}(1440)$, $S_{11}(1535)$, $D_{13}(1520)$, $S_{11}(1650)$ and $P_{13}(1720)$. For the non-resonant background terms a microscopic approach based on SU(2) non-linear sigma model has been used. The vector form factors for the resonances are obtained by using the relationship between the electromagnetic resonance form factors and helicity amplitudes provided by MAID. Axial coupling $C_5^{A}(0)$ in the case of $P_{33}(1232)$ resonance is obtained by fitting the ANL and BNL $\

  17. Optical switching of electric charge transfer pathways in porphyrin: a light-controlled nanoscale current router.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanopulos, Ioannis; Paspalakis, Emmanuel; Yannopapas, Vassilios

    2008-11-01

    We introduce a novel molecular junction based on a thiol-functionalized porphyrin derivative with two almost energetically degenerate equilibrium configurations. We show that each equilibrium structure defines a pathway of maximal electric charge transfer through the molecular junction and that these two conduction pathways are spatially orthogonal. We further demonstrate computationally how to switch between the two equilibrium structures of the compound by coherent light. The optical switching mechanism is presented in the relevant configuration subspace of the compound, and the corresponding potential and electric dipole surfaces are obtained by ab initio methods. The laser-induced isomerization takes place in two steps in tandem, while each step is induced by a two-photon process. The effect of metallic electrodes on the electromagnetic irradiation driving the optical switching is also investigated. Our study demonstrates the potential for using thiol-functionalized porphyrin derivatives for the development of a light-controlled nanoscale current router. PMID:21832723

  18. Optical switching of electric charge transfer pathways in porphyrin: a light-controlled nanoscale current router

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce a novel molecular junction based on a thiol-functionalized porphyrin derivative with two almost energetically degenerate equilibrium configurations. We show that each equilibrium structure defines a pathway of maximal electric charge transfer through the molecular junction and that these two conduction pathways are spatially orthogonal. We further demonstrate computationally how to switch between the two equilibrium structures of the compound by coherent light. The optical switching mechanism is presented in the relevant configuration subspace of the compound, and the corresponding potential and electric dipole surfaces are obtained by ab initio methods. The laser-induced isomerization takes place in two steps in tandem, while each step is induced by a two-photon process. The effect of metallic electrodes on the electromagnetic irradiation driving the optical switching is also investigated. Our study demonstrates the potential for using thiol-functionalized porphyrin derivatives for the development of a light-controlled nanoscale current router.

  19. Plasma Charge Current for Controlling and Monitoring Electron Beam Welding with Beam Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trushnikov, Dmitriy; Belenkiy, Vladimir; Shchavlev, Valeriy; Piskunov, Anatoliy; Abdullin, Aleksandr; Mladenov, Georgy

    2012-01-01

    Electron beam welding (EBW) shows certain problems with the control of focus regime. The electron beam focus can be controlled in electron-beam welding based on the parameters of a secondary signal. In this case, the parameters like secondary emissions and focus coil current have extreme relationships. There are two values of focus coil current which provide equal value signal parameters. Therefore, adaptive systems of electron beam focus control use low-frequency scanning of focus, which substantially limits the operation speed of these systems and has a negative effect on weld joint quality. The purpose of this study is to develop a method for operational control of the electron beam focus during welding in the deep penetration mode. The method uses the plasma charge current signal as an additional informational parameter. This parameter allows identification of the electron beam focus regime in electron-beam welding without application of additional low-frequency scanning of focus. It can be used for working out operational electron beam control methods focusing exactly on the welding. In addition, use of this parameter allows one to observe the shape of the keyhole during the welding process. PMID:23242276

  20. Measurement and QCD Analysis of Neutral and Charged Current Cross Sections at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C; Andrieu, B; Anthonis, T; Astvatsatourov, A; Babaev, A; Bähr, J; Baranov, P S; Barrelet, E; Bartel, Wulfrin; Baumgartner, S; Becker, J; Beckingham, M; Beglarian, A; Behnke, O; Belousov, A; Berger, C; Berndt, T; Bizot, J C; Boudry, V; Braunschweig, W; Brisson, V; Broker, H B; Brown, D P; Bruncko, Dusan; Bunyatyan, A; Burrage, A; Buschhorn, G; Bystritskaya, L; Böhme, J; Büsser, F W; Campbell, A J; Cao, J; Caron, S; Cassol-Brunner, F; Chechelnitskii, S; Chekelian, V; Clarke, D; Collard, Caroline; Contreras, J G; Coppens, Y R; Coughlan, J A; Cousinou, M C; Cox, B E; Cozzika, G; Cvach, J; Dainton, J B; Dau, W D; Daum, K; Davidsson, M; De Wolf, E A; Delcourt, B; Delerue, N; Demirchyan, R A; Diaconu, C A; Dingfelder, J; Dixon, P; Dodonov, V; Dowell, John D; Dubak, A; Duprel, C; Eckerlin, G; Eckstein, D; Efremenko, V; Egli, S; Eichler, R; Eisele, F; Eisenhandler, E F; Ellerbrock, M; Elsen, E; Erdmann, M; Erdmann, W; Faulkner, P J W; Favart, L; Fedotov, A; Felst, R; Ferencei, J; Ferron, S; Fleischer, M; Fleischmann, P; Fleming, Y H; Flucke, G; Flügge, G; Fomenko, A; Foresti, I; Formánek, J; Franke, G; Frising, G; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gabathuler, K; Garvey, J; Gassner, J; Gayler, J; Gerhards, R; Gerlich, C; Ghazaryan, S; Gogitidze, N; Grab, C; Grabskii, V; Greenshaw, T; Grindhammer, G; Grässler, Herbert; Görlich, L; Haidt, Dieter; Hajduk, L; Haller, J; Heinemann, B; Heinzelmann, G; Henderson, R C W; Hengstmann, S; Henschel, H; Henshaw, O; Heremans, R; Herrera-Corral, G; Herynek, I; Hildebrandt, M; Hilgers, M; Hiller, K H; Hladky, J; Hoffmann, D; Horisberger, R P; Hoting, P; Hovhannisyan, A V; Ibbotson, M; Issever, C; Jacquet, M; Jaffré, M; Janauschek, L; Janssen, X; Jemanov, V; Johnson, C; Johnson, D P; Jones, M A S; Jung, H; Jönsson, L B; Kant, D; Kapichine, M; Karlsson, M; Karschnick, O; Katzy, J; Keil, F; Keller, N; Kennedy, J; Kenyon, I R; Kiesling, C; Kjellberg, P; Klein, M; Kleinwort, C; Kluge, T; Knies, G; Koblitz, B; Kolya, S D; Korbel, V; Kostka, P; Koutouev, R; Koutov, A; Kroseberg, J; Krüger, K; Kuhr, T; Lamb, D; Landon, M P J; Lange, W; Lastoviicka, T; Laycock, P; Lebailly, E; Lebedev, A; Leiner, B; Lemrani, R; Lendermann, V; Levonian, S; List, B; Lobodzinska, E; Lobodzinski, B; Loginov, A; Loktionova, N A; Lubimov, V; Lüke, D; Lytkin, L; Lüders, S; Malden, N; Malinovskii, E I; Mangano, S; Marage, P; Marks, J; Marshall, R; Martyn, H U; Martyniak, J; Maxfield, S J; Meer, D; Mehta, A; Meier, K; Meyer, A B; Meyer, H; Meyer, J; Michine, S; Mikocki, S; Milstead, D; Mohrdieck, S; Mondragón, M N; Moreau, F; Morozov, A; Morris, J V; Murn, P; Müller, K; Nagovizin, V; Naroska, Beate; Naumann, J; Naumann, T; Newman, P R; Niebergall, F; Niebuhr, C B; Nix, O; Nowak, G; Nozicka, M; Olivier, B; Olsson, J E; Ozerov, D; Panassik, V; Pascaud, C; Patel, G D; Peez, M; Petrukhin, A; Phillips, J P; Pitzl, D; Portheault, B; Potachnikova, I; Povh, B; Pérez, E; Pöschl, R; Rauschenberger, J; Reimer, P; Reisert, B; Risler, C; Rizvi, E; Robmann, P; Roosen, R; Rostovtsev, A A; Rusakov, S V; Rybicki, K; Sankey, D P C; Sauvan, E; Schatzel, S; Scheins, J; Schilling, F P; Schleper, P; Schmidt, D; Schmidt, S; Schmitt, S; Schneider, M; Schoeffel, L; Schröder, V; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Schwanenberger, C; Schöning, A; Schörner-Sadenius, T; Sedlak, K; Sefkow, F; Shevyakov, I; Shtarkov, L N; Sirois, Y; Sloan, T; Smirnov, P; Soloviev, Yu; South, D; Spaskov, V N; Specka, A E; Spitzer, H; Stamen, R; Stella, B; Stiewe, J; Strauch, I; Straumann, U; Thompson, G; Thompson, P D; Tomasz, F; Traynor, D; Truöl, P; Tsipolitis, G; Tsurin, I; Turnau, J; Turney, J E; Tzamariudaki, E; Uraev, A; Urban, M; Usik, A; Valkár, S; Valkárová, A; Vallée, C; Van Mechelen, P; Vargas-Trevino, A; Vasilev, S; Vazdik, Ya A; Veelken, C; Vest, A; Vichnevski, A; Volchinski; Wacker, K; Wagner, J; Wallny, R; Waugh, B; Weber, G; Weber, R; Wegener, D; Werner, C; Werner, N; Wessels, M; Wiesand, S; Winde, M; Winter, G G; Wissing, C; Wobisch, M; Woerling, E E; Wünsch, E; Wyatt, A C; Zaicek, J; Zaleisak, J; Zhang, Z; Zhokin, A; Zomer, F; Zur Nedden, M; de Roeck, A

    2003-01-01

    The inclusive e^+ p single and double differential cross sections for neutral and charged current processes are measured with the H1 detector at HERA. The data were taken in 1999 and 2000 at a centre-of-mass energy of \\sqrt{s} = 319 GeV and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 65.2 pb^-1. The cross sections are measured in the range of four-momentum transfer squared Q^2 between 100 and 30000 GeV^2 and Bjorken x between 0.0013 and 0.65. The neutral current analysis for the new e^+ p data and the earlier e^- p data taken in 1998 and 1999 is extended to small energies of the scattered electron and therefore to higher values of inelasticity y, allowing a determination of the longitudinal structure function F_L at high Q^2 (110 - 700 GeV^2). A new measurement of the structure function x F_3 is obtained using the new e^+ p and previously published e^\\pm p neutral current cross section data at high Q^2. These data together with H1 low Q^2 precision data are further used to perform new next-to-leading order QCD ...

  1. Interaction Between Charge Characteristics and Cu2+ Adsorption-Desorption of Soils with Variable or Permanent Charge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Charge characteristics and Cu2+ adsorption-desorption of soils with variable charge (latosol) and per-manent charge (brown soil) and the relationship between them were studied by means of back-titration andadsorption equilibrium respectively. The amount of variable negative charge was much less in variable-chargesoil than in permanent-charge soil and increased with the pH in the system, but the opposite trend occurredin the points of zero charge (PZCs). The amount of Cu2+ ions sorbed by permanent-charge soil was morethan that by variable-charge soil and increased with the increase of Cu2+ concentration within a certainrange in the equilibrium solution. The amount of Cu2+ ions desorbed with KCl from permanent-chargesoil was more than that from variable-charge soil, but the amount of Cu2+ ions desorbed with de-ionizedwater from permanent-charge soil was extremely low whereas there was still a certain amount of desorptionfrom variable-charge soil. The increase of PZC of soils with variable or permanent charge varied with theincrement of Cu2+ ions added. When the same amount of Cu2+ ions was added, the increments of PZC andvariable negative surface charge of permanent-charge soil were different from those of variable-charge soil.

  2. Charged patchy particle models in explicit salt: Ion distributions, electrostatic potentials, and effective interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce a set of charged patchy particle models (CPPMs) in order to systematically study the influence of electrostatic charge patchiness and multipolarity on macromolecular interactions by means of implicit-solvent, explicit-ion Langevin dynamics simulations employing the Gromacs software. We consider well-defined zero-, one-, and two-patched spherical globules each of the same net charge and (nanometer) size which are composed of discrete atoms. The studied mono- and multipole moments of the CPPMs are comparable to those of globular proteins with similar size. We first characterize ion distributions and electrostatic potentials around a single CPPM. Although angle-resolved radial distribution functions reveal the expected local accumulation and depletion of counter- and co-ions around the patches, respectively, the orientation-averaged electrostatic potential shows only a small variation among the various CPPMs due to space charge cancellations. Furthermore, we study the orientation-averaged potential of mean force (PMF), the number of accumulated ions on the patches, as well as the CPPM orientations along the center-to-center distance of a pair of CPPMs. We compare the PMFs to the classical Derjaguin-Verwey-Landau-Overbeek theory and previously introduced orientation-averaged Debye-Hückel pair potentials including dipolar interactions. Our simulations confirm the adequacy of the theories in their respective regimes of validity, while low salt concentrations and large multipolar interactions remain a challenge for tractable theoretical descriptions

  3. Charged patchy particle models in explicit salt: Ion distributions, electrostatic potentials, and effective interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yigit, Cemil; Dzubiella, Joachim, E-mail: joachim.dzubiella@helmholtz-berlin.de [Soft Matter and Functional Materials, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Helmholtz Virtual Institute “Multifunctional Biomaterials for Medicine,” 14513 Teltow (Germany); Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Heyda, Jan [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague, 166 28 Praha 6 (Czech Republic)

    2015-08-14

    We introduce a set of charged patchy particle models (CPPMs) in order to systematically study the influence of electrostatic charge patchiness and multipolarity on macromolecular interactions by means of implicit-solvent, explicit-ion Langevin dynamics simulations employing the Gromacs software. We consider well-defined zero-, one-, and two-patched spherical globules each of the same net charge and (nanometer) size which are composed of discrete atoms. The studied mono- and multipole moments of the CPPMs are comparable to those of globular proteins with similar size. We first characterize ion distributions and electrostatic potentials around a single CPPM. Although angle-resolved radial distribution functions reveal the expected local accumulation and depletion of counter- and co-ions around the patches, respectively, the orientation-averaged electrostatic potential shows only a small variation among the various CPPMs due to space charge cancellations. Furthermore, we study the orientation-averaged potential of mean force (PMF), the number of accumulated ions on the patches, as well as the CPPM orientations along the center-to-center distance of a pair of CPPMs. We compare the PMFs to the classical Derjaguin-Verwey-Landau-Overbeek theory and previously introduced orientation-averaged Debye-Hückel pair potentials including dipolar interactions. Our simulations confirm the adequacy of the theories in their respective regimes of validity, while low salt concentrations and large multipolar interactions remain a challenge for tractable theoretical descriptions.

  4. Net charge fluctuations in Au + Au interactions at sqrt[s(NN)]=130 GeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adcox, K; Adler, S S; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Alexander, J; Aphecetche, L; Arai, Y; Aronson, S H; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Barrette, J; Bassalleck, B; Bathe, S; Baublis, V; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Bellaiche, F G; Belyaev, S T; Bennett, M J; Berdnikov, Y; Botelho, S; Brooks, M L; Brown, D S; Bruner, N; Bucher, D; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Burward-Hoy, J; Butsyk, S; Carey, T A; Chand, P; Chang, J; Chang, W C; Chavez, L L; Chernichenko, S; Chi, C Y; Chiba, J; Chiu, M; Choudhury, R K; Christ, T; Chujo, T; Chung, M S; Chung, P; Cianciolo, V; Cole, B A; D'Enterria, D G; David, G; Delagrange, H; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dietzsch, O; Dinesh, B V; Drees, A; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Ebisu, K; Efremenko, Y V; El Chenawi, K; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Ewell, L; Ferdousi, T; Fields, D E; Fokin, S L; Fraenkel, Z; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fung, S-Y; Garpman, S; Ghosh, T K; Glenn, A; Godoi, A L; Goto, Y; Greene, S V; Grosse Perdekamp, M; Gupta, S K; Guryn, W; Gustafsson, H-A; Haggerty, J S; Hamagaki, H; Hansen, A G; Hara, H; Hartouni, E P; Hayano, R; Hayashi, N; He, X; Hemmick, T K; Heuser, J M; Hibino, M; Hill, J C; Ho, D S; Homma, K; Hong, B; Hoover, A; Ichihara, T; Imai, K; Ippolitov, M S; Ishihara, M; Jacak, B V; Jang, W Y; Jia, J; Johnson, B M; Johnson, S C; Joo, K S; Kametani, S; Kang, J H; Kann, M; Kapoor, S S; Kelly, S; Khachaturov, B; Khanzadeev, A; Kikuchi, J; Kim, D J; Kim, H J; Kim, S Y; Kim, Y G; Kinnison, W W; Kistenev, E; Kiyomichi, A; Klein-Boesing, C; Klinksiek, S; Kochenda, L; Kochetkov, V; Koehler, D; Kohama, T; Kotchetkov, D; Kozlov, A; Kroon, P J; Kurita, K; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lajoie, J G; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lee, D M; Leitch, M J; Li, X H; Li, Z; Lim, D J; Liu, M X; Liu, X; Liu, Z; Maguire, C F; Mahon, J; Makdisi, Y I; Manko, V I; Mao, Y; Mark, S K; Markacs, S; Martinez, G; Marx, M D; Masaike, A; Matathias, F; Matsumoto, T; McGaughey, P L; Melnikov, E; Merschmeyer, M; Messer, F; Messer, M; Miake, Y; Miller, T E; Milov, A; Mioduszewski, S; Mischke, R E; Mishra, G C; Mitchell, J T; Mohanty, A K; Morrison, D P; Moss, J M; Mühlbacher, F; Muniruzzaman, M; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagasaka, Y; Nagle, J L; Nakada, Y; Nandi, B K; Newby, J; Nikkinen, L; Nilsson, P; Nishimura, S; Nyanin, A S; Nystrand, J; O'Brien, E; Ogilvie, C A; Ohnishi, H; Ojha, I D; Ono, M; Onuchin, V; Oskarsson, A; Osterman, L; Otterlund, I; Oyama, K; Paffrath, L; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V S; Papavassiliou, V; Pate, S F; Peitzmann, T; Petridis, A N; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Pitukhin, P; Plasil, F; Pollack, M; Pope, K; Purschke, M L; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Rosati, M; Rose, A A; Ryu, S S; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, A; Sakaguchi, T; Sako, H; Sakuma, T; Samsonov, V; Sangster, T C; Santo, R; Sato, H D; Sato, S; Sawada, S; Schlei, B R; Schutz, Y; Semenov, V; Seto, R; Shea, T K; Shein, I; Shibata, T-A; Shigaki, K; Shiina, T; Shin, Y H; Sibiriak, I G; Silvermyr, D; Sim, K S; Simon-Gillo, J; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Sivertz, M; Soldatov, A; Soltz, R A; Sorensen, S; Stankus, P W; Starinsky, N; Steinberg, P; Stenlund, E; Ster, A; Stoll, S P; Sugioka, M; Sugitate, T; Sullivan, J P; Sumi, Y; Sun, Z; Suzuki, M; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tamai, M; Tanaka, K H; Tanaka, Y; Taniguchi, E; Tannenbaum, M J; Thomas, J; Thomas, J H; Thomas, T L; Tian, W; Tojo, J; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; Tsuruoka, H; Tsvetkov, A A; Tuli, S K; Tydesjö, H; Tyurin, N; Ushiroda, T; van Hecke, H W; Velissaris, C; Velkovska, J; Velkovsky, M; Vinogradov, A A; Volkov, M A; Vorobyov, A; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, H; Watanabe, Y; White, S N; Witzig, C; Wohn, F K; Woody, C L; Xie, W; Yagi, K; Yokkaichi, S; Young, G R; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zhang, Z; Zhou, S

    2002-08-19

    Data from Au + Au interactions at sqrt[s(NN)]=130 GeV, obtained with the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider, are used to investigate local net charge fluctuations among particles produced near midrapidity. According to recent suggestions, such fluctuations may carry information from the quark-gluon plasma. This analysis shows that the fluctuations are dominated by a stochastic distribution of particles, but are also sensitive to other effects, like global charge conservation and resonance decays. PMID:12190459

  5. Relative Nonlinear Electrodynamics Interaction of Charged Particles with Strong and Super Strong Laser Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Avetissian, Hamlet

    2006-01-01

    This book covers a large class of fundamental investigations into Relativistic Nonlinear Electrodynamics. It explores the interaction between charged particles and strong laser fields, mainly concentrating on contemporary problems of x-ray lasers, new type small set-up high-energy accelerators of charged particles, as well as electron-positron pair production from super powerful laser fields of relativistic intensities. It will also discuss nonlinear phenomena of threshold nature that eliminate the concurrent inverse processes in the problems of Laser Accelerator and Free Electron Laser, thus creating new opportunities for solving these problems.

  6. Charged pion albedo induced by cosmic antiproton interactions with the lunar surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the calculations of the energy spectra and fluxes of single and double albedo charged pions generated by cosmic proton and antiproton interactions with the lunar surface. Properties of such spectra and related fluxes are investigated in order to clarify some important facets of the antiproton detection via charged pion albedo flux from the lunar surface. Pion albedo measurement may represent a novel approach for the identification of cosmic antiprotons using the lunar surface as a calorimeter. Future scientific programs on the Moon designed to measure antiproton flux may benefit from the results of these calculations. (author)

  7. Topological Aspects in an Interacting Mixture of a Charged and a Neutral Superfluid in Neutron Stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By making use of the decomposition of U(1) gauge potential theory and the ø-mapping method we discuss a mixture of interacting neutral and charged Bose condensates, which is supposed to be realized in the interior of neutron stars in the form of a coexistent neutron superfluid and protonic superconductor. We propose that this system possesses vortex line knotted solitons and the topological charges of vortex lines are characterized by the winding numbers of the ø-mapping. Furthermore the spatial bifurcation of vortices is also discussed. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  8. Physical mechanisms leading to high currents of highly charged ions in laser-driven ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haseroth, Helmut [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Hora, Heinrich [New South Wales Univ., Kensington, NSW (Australia)]|[Regensburg Inst. of Tech. (Germany). Anwenderzentrum

    1996-12-31

    Heavy ion sources for the big accelerators, for example, the LHC, require considerably more ions per pulse during a short time than the best developed classical ion source, the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) provides; thus an alternative ion source is needed. This can be expected from laser-produced plasmas, where dramatically new types of ion generation have been observed. Experiments with rather modest lasers have confirmed operation with one million pulses of 1 Hz, and 10{sup 11} C{sup 4+} ions per pulse reached 2 GeV/u in the Dubna synchrotron. We review here the complexities of laser-plasma interactions to underline the unique and extraordinary possibilities that the laser ion source offers. The complexities are elaborated with respect to keV and MeV ion generation, nonlinear (ponderomotive) forces, self-focusing, resonances and ``hot`` electrons, parametric instabilities, double-layer effects, and the few ps stochastic pulsation (stuttering). Recent experiments with the laser ion source have been analyzed to distinguish between the ps and ns interaction, and it was discovered that one mechanism of highly charged ion generation is the electron impact ionization (EII) mechanism, similar to the ECR, but with so much higher plasma densities that the required very large number of ions per pulse are produced. (author).

  9. Interaction of HV-biased current collectors with their LEO space environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper considers the interaction of space borne power systems from the point of view of leakage current flow to the ionospheric plasma, and enhanced leakage due to modification of the plasma environment caused by the power system. Following a brief survey of the LEO environment and the physical processes occurring in the interaction, some relevant experimental results from several sounding rocket flights are presented. Data from experiments where particle beam emission both charges the platform and modifies the plasma environment is shown from experiments in a NASA program. In addition other data from a SDIO/DNA program are used to illustrate the effects of differentially biassed structures at electrical potentials up to 45kV. In general, the results show that in the ambient LEO environment the interaction at potentials in the 10s kV range is quite benign for the geometry used; however if that environment is perturbed by the emission of gas from on-board systems, then much higher currents can flow to an exposed power system

  10. Non-adiabatic quantized charge pumping with tunable-barrier quantum dots: a review of current progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestner, Bernd; Kashcheyevs, Vyacheslavs

    2015-10-01

    Precise manipulation of individual charge carriers in nanoelectronic circuits underpins practical applications of their most basic quantum property—the universality and invariance of the elementary charge. A charge pump generates a net current from periodic external modulation of parameters controlling a nanostructure connected to source and drain leads; in the regime of quantized pumping the current varies in steps of {{q}\\text{e}} f as function of control parameters, where {{q}\\text{e}} is the electron charge and f is the frequency of modulation. In recent years, robust and accurate quantized charge pumps have been developed based on semiconductor quantum dots with tunable tunnel barriers. These devices allow modulation of charge exchange rates between the dot and the leads over many orders of magnitude and enable trapping of a precise number of electrons far away from equilibrium with the leads. The corresponding non-adiabatic pumping protocols focus on understanding of separate parts of the pumping cycle associated with charge loading, capture and release. In this report we review realizations, models and metrology applications of quantized charge pumps based on tunable-barrier quantum dots.

  11. Space Charge Behavior in Paper Insulation Induced by Copper Sulfide in High-Voltage Direct Current Power Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijin Liao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The main insulation system in high-voltage direct current (HVDC transformer consists of oil-paper insulation. The formation of space charge in insulation paper is crucial for the dielectric strength. Unfortunately, space charge behavior changes because of the corrosive sulfur substance in oil. This paper presents the space charge behavior in insulation paper induced by copper sulfide generated by corrosive sulfur in insulation oil. Thermal aging tests of paper-wrapped copper strip called the pigtail model were conducted at 130 °C in laboratory. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to observe the surface of copper and paper. Pulse electroacoustic (PEA and thermally stimulated current (TSC methods were used to obtain the space charge behavior in paper. Results showed that both maximum and total amount of space charge increased for the insulation paper contaminated by semi-conductor chemical substance copper sulfide. The space charge decay rate of contaminated paper was significantly enhanced after the polarization voltage was removed. The TSC results revealed that copper sulfide increased the trap density and lowered the shallow trap energy levels. These results contributed to charge transportation by de-trapping and trapping processes. This improved charge transportation could be the main reason for the decreased breakdown voltage of paper insulation material.

  12. Non-adiabatic quantized charge pumping with tunable-barrier quantum dots: a review of current progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestner, Bernd; Kashcheyevs, Vyacheslavs

    2015-10-01

    Precise manipulation of individual charge carriers in nanoelectronic circuits underpins practical applications of their most basic quantum property--the universality and invariance of the elementary charge. A charge pump generates a net current from periodic external modulation of parameters controlling a nanostructure connected to source and drain leads; in the regime of quantized pumping the current varies in steps of [Formula: see text] as function of control parameters, where [Formula: see text] is the electron charge and f is the frequency of modulation. In recent years, robust and accurate quantized charge pumps have been developed based on semiconductor quantum dots with tunable tunnel barriers. These devices allow modulation of charge exchange rates between the dot and the leads over many orders of magnitude and enable trapping of a precise number of electrons far away from equilibrium with the leads. The corresponding non-adiabatic pumping protocols focus on understanding of separate parts of the pumping cycle associated with charge loading, capture and release. In this report we review realizations, models and metrology applications of quantized charge pumps based on tunable-barrier quantum dots. PMID:26394066

  13. Charged quantum dot micropillar system for deterministic light-matter interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androvitsaneas, P.; Young, A. B.; Schneider, C.; Maier, S.; Kamp, M.; Höfling, S.; Knauer, S.; Harbord, E.; Hu, C. Y.; Rarity, J. G.; Oulton, R.

    2016-06-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are semiconductor nanostructures in which a three-dimensional potential trap produces an electronic quantum confinement, thus mimicking the behavior of single atomic dipole-like transitions. However, unlike atoms, QDs can be incorporated into solid-state photonic devices such as cavities or waveguides that enhance the light-matter interaction. A near unit efficiency light-matter interaction is essential for deterministic, scalable quantum-information (QI) devices. In this limit, a single photon input into the device will undergo a large rotation of the polarization of the light field due to the strong interaction with the QD. In this paper we measure a macroscopic (˜6∘ ) phase shift of light as a result of the interaction with a negatively charged QD coupled to a low-quality-factor (Q ˜290 ) pillar microcavity. This unexpectedly large rotation angle demonstrates that this simple low-Q -factor design would enable near-deterministic light-matter interactions.

  14. Long-Ranged Oppositely Charged Interactions for Designing New Types of Colloidal Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirörs, Ahmet Faik; Stiefelhagen, Johan C. P.; Vissers, Teun; Smallenburg, Frank; Dijkstra, Marjolein; Imhof, Arnout; van Blaaderen, Alfons

    2015-04-01

    Getting control over the valency of colloids is not trivial and has been a long-desired goal for the colloidal domain. Typically, tuning the preferred number of neighbors for colloidal particles requires directional bonding, as in the case of patchy particles, which is difficult to realize experimentally. Here, we demonstrate a general method for creating the colloidal analogs of molecules and other new regular colloidal clusters without using patchiness or complex bonding schemes (e.g., DNA coating) by using a combination of long-ranged attractive and repulsive interactions between oppositely charged particles that also enable regular clusters of particles not all in close contact. We show that, due to the interplay between their attractions and repulsions, oppositely charged particles dispersed in an intermediate dielectric constant (4 Thomson problem. We also use the simulations to explore the dependence of such clusters on Debye screening length κ-1 and the ratio of charges on the particles, showing good agreement with experimental observations.

  15. Interactions of a Charged Particle with Parallel Two-Dimensional Quantum Electron Gases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chun-Zhi; SONG Yuan-Hong; WANG You-Nian

    2008-01-01

    @@ By using the linearized quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) theory, electronic excitations induced by a charged particle moving between or over two parallel two-dimensional quantum electron gases (2DQEG) are investigated. The calculation shows that the influence of the quantum effects on the interaction process should be taken into account. Including the quantum statistical and quantum diffraction effects, the general expressions of the induced potential and the stopping power are obtained. Our simulation results indicate that a V-shaped oscillatory wake potential exists in the electron gases during the test charge intrusion. Meanwhile, double peaks will occur in the stopping power when the distance of two surfaces is smaller and the test charge gets closer to any one of the two sheets.

  16. Electron emission and defect formation in the interaction of slow, highly charged ions with diamond surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sideras-Haddad, E. [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Wits 2050, Johannesburg (South Africa)]. E-mail: haddade@physics.wits.ac.za; Schenkel, T. [E. O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Rebuli, D.B. [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Wits 2050, Johannesburg (South Africa); Persaud, A. [E. O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Shrivastava, S. [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Wits 2050, Johannesburg (South Africa); Schneider, D.H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Mwakikunga, B. [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Wits 2050, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2007-03-15

    We report on electron emission and defect formation in the interaction between slow ({nu} {approx} 0.3 {nu}{sub Bohr}) highly charged ions (SHCI) with insulating (type IIa) and semiconducting (type IIb) diamonds. Electron emission induced by {sup 31}P {sup q+} (q = 5-13) and {sup 136}Xe {sup q+} (q = 34-44) with kinetic energies of 9 kV x q increase linearly with the ion charge states, reaching over 100 electrons per ion for high xenon charge states without surface passivation of the diamond with hydrogen. Yields from both diamond types are up to a factor of two higher than from reference metal surfaces. Crater like defects with diameters of 25-40 nm are formed by the impact of single Xe{sup 44+} ions. High secondary electron yields and single ion induced defects enable the formation of single dopant arrays on diamond surfaces.

  17. Transition from ultrafast laser photo-electron emission to space charge limited current in a 1D gap

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yangjie; Ang, L. K.

    2013-01-01

    A one-dimensional (1D) model has been constructed to study the transition of the time-dependent ultrafast laser photo-electron emission from a flat metallic surface to the space charge limited (SCL) current, including the effect of non-equilibrium laser heating on metals at the ultrafast time scale. At a high laser field, it is found that the space charge effect cannot be ignored and the SCL current emission is reached at a lower value predicted by a short pulse SCL current model that assumed...

  18. Measurement of the Charged-Current Quasi-Elastic Cross-Section for Electron Neutrinos on a Hydrocarbon Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolcott, Jeremy [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Appearance-type neutrino oscillation experiments, which observe the transition from muon neutrinos to electron neutrinos, promise to help answer some of the fundamental questions surrounding physics in the post-Standard-Model era. Because they wish to observe the interactions of electron neutrinos in their detectors, and because the power of current results is typically limited by their systematic uncertainties, these experiments require precise estimates of the cross-section for electron neutrino interactions. Of particular interest is the charged-current quasi-elastic (CCQE) process, which gures signi cantly in the composition of the reactions observed at the far detector. However, no experimental measurements of this crosssection currently exist for electron neutrinos; instead, current experiments typically work from the abundance of muon neutrino CCQE cross-section data and apply corrections from theoretical arguments to obtain a prediction for electron neutrinos. Veri cation of these predictions is challenging due to the di culty of constructing an electron neutrino beam, but the advent of modern high-intensity muon neutrino beams|together with the percent-level electron neutrino impurity inherent in these beams| nally presents the opportunity to make such a measurement. We report herein the rst-ever measurement of a cross-section for an exclusive state in electron neutrino scattering, which was made using the MINER A detector in the NuMI neutrino beam at Fermilab. We present the electron neutrino CCQE di erential cross-sections, which are averaged over neutrinos of energies 1-10 GeV (with mean energy of about 3 GeV), in terms of various kinematic variables: nal-state electron angle, nal-state electron energy, and the square of the fourmomentum transferred to the nucleus by the neutrino , Q2. We also provide a total cross-section vs. neutrino energy. While our measurement of this process is found to be in agreement with the predictions of the GENIE

  19. Conservative Currents of Boundary Charges in $AdS_{2+1}$ Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Sze-Shiang; Bin WANG; Meng, Xin-He

    1999-01-01

    The boundary charges which constitute the Virasoro algebra in 2+1 dimensional anti-de Sitter gravity are derived by way of Noether theorem and diffeomorphic invariance. It shows that the boundary charges under discussion recently exhaust all the independent nontrivial charges available. Therefore, the state counting via the Virasoro algebra is complete.

  20. In vivo demonstration of injectable microstimulators based on charge-balanced rectification of epidermically applied currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivorra, Antoni; Becerra-Fajardo, Laura; Castellví, Quim

    2015-12-01

    Objective. It is possible to develop implantable microstimulators whose actuation principle is based on rectification of high-frequency (HF) current bursts supplied through skin electrodes. This has been demonstrated previously by means of devices consisting of a single diode. However, previous single diode devices caused dc currents which made them impractical for clinical applications. Here flexible thread-like stimulation implants which perform charge balance are demonstrated in vivo. Approach. The implants weigh 40.5 mg and they consist of a 3 cm long tubular silicone body with a diameter of 1 mm, two electrodes at opposite ends, and, within the central section of the body, an electronic circuit made up of a diode, two capacitors, and a resistor. In the present study, each implant was percutaneously introduced through a 14 G catheter into either the gastrocnemius muscle or the cranial tibial muscle of a rabbit hindlimb. Then stimulation was performed by delivering HF bursts (amplitude intramuscular stimulation implants ever assayed in vertebrates.

  1. Antineutrino Neutral Current Interactions in MiniBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dharmapalan, Ranjan [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation reports the antineutrino-nucleus neutral current elastic scattering cross section on CH2 measured by the MiniBooNE experiment located in Batavia, IL. The data set consists of 60,605 events passing the selection cuts corresponding to 10.1×1020 POT, which represents the world’s largest sample of antineutrino neutral current elastic scattering events. The final sample is more than one order of magnitude lager that the previous antineutrino NCE scattering cross section measurement reported by the BNL E734 experiment. The measurement presented in this dissertation also spans a wider range in Q2, including the low-Q2 regime where the cross section rollover is clearly visible. A X2-based minimization was performed to determine the best value of the axial mass, MA and the Pauli blocking scaling function, that matches the antineutrino NCE scattering data. However, the best fit values of MA=1.29 GeV and K=1.026 still give a relatively poor X2, which suggests that the underlying nuclear model (based largely on the relativistic Fermi gas model) may not be an accurate representation for this particular interaction. Additionally, we present a measurement of the antineutrino/neutrino-nucleus NCE scattering cross section ratio. The neutrino mode NCE sample used in this study, corresponding to 6.4 × 1020 POT, is also the world’s largest sample (also by an order of magnitude). We have demonstrated that the ratio measurement is robust, as most of the correlated errors cancel, as expected. Furthermore, this ratio also proves to be rather insensitive to variations in the axial mass and the Pauli blocking parameter. This is the first time that this ratio has been experimentally reported. We believe this measurement will aid the theoretical physics community to test various model predictions of neutrino-nucleon/nucleus interactions.

  2. Transient charging and discharging current study in pure PVF and PVF/PVDF fluoro polyblends for application in microelectronics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Gupta; R Bajpai; J M Keller

    2011-02-01

    The transient current were analysed by considering the effect of variation of forming time, temperature, field and composition of blend specimens. Measurements indicated that transient charging and discharging currents exhibited thermally activated character but did not show mirror image behaviour at different temperatures and field values. The log –log plots were found to follow the Curie–Von Schweidler law with the value of decay constant `’ lying in the range of 0.029–2.9456. These observed characteristics also indicated that the transient charging in PVF:PVDF fluoro polyblends occur partly due to orientation of dipoles but predominantly due to trapped space charges and hopping of charge carriers amongst localized states. The modification in transient behaviour on blending PVDF with PVF have been explained on the basis of plasticization effect which increases free volume and molecular mobility and g modification in the trap structure.

  3. A Physics-Based Charge-Control Model for InP DHBT Including Current-Blocking Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Ji; JIN Zhi; SU Yong-Bo; CHENG Wei; WANG Xian-Wai; CHEN Gao-Peng; LIU Xin-Yu

    2009-01-01

    We develop a physics-based charge-control InP double heterojunction bipolar transistor model including three important effects: current blocking, mobile-charge modulation of the base-collector capacitance and velocity-field modulation in the transit time. The bias-dependent base-collector depletion charge is obtained analytically, which takes into account the mobile-charge modulation. Then, a measurement based voltage-dependent transit time formulation is implemented. As a result, over a wide range of biases, the developed model shows good agreement between the modeled and measured S-parameters and cutoff frequency. Also, the model considering current blocking effect demonstrates more accurate prediction of the output characteristics than conventional vertical bipolar inter company results.

  4. Internal charge transfer based ratiometric interaction of anionic surfactant with calf thymus DNA bound cationic surfactant: Study I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Abhijit; Chaudhuri, Tandrima; Moulik, Satya Priya; Banerjee, Manas

    2016-01-01

    Cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) binds calf thymus (ct-) DNA like anionic biopolymers electrostatically and established equilibrium both in the ground as well as in excited state in aqueous medium at pH 7. Anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) does not show even hydrophobic interaction with ct-DNA at low concentration. On contrary, SDS can establish well defined equilibrium with DNA bound CTAB in ground state where the same CTAB-DNA isosbestic point reappears. First report of internal charge transfer (ICT) based binding of CTAB with ct-DNA as well as ICT based interaction of anionic SDS with DNA bound CTAB that shows dynamic quenching contribution also. The reappearance of anodic peak and slight increase in cathodic peak current with increasing concentration (at lower range) of anionic SDS, possibly reflect the release of CTAB from DNA bound CTAB by SDS.

  5. Tunneling current noise in the fractional quantum Hall effect: when the effective charge is not what it appears to be

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fractional quantum Hall quasiparticles are famous for having fractional electric charge. Recent experiments report that the quasiparticle effective electric charge determined through tunneling current noise measurements can depend on the system parameters such as temperature or bias voltage. Several works proposed to understand this as a signature for edge theory properties changing with energy scale. I consider two of such experiments and show that in one of them the apparent dependence of the electric charge on a system parameter is likely to be an artefact of experimental data analysis. Conversely, in the second experiment the dependence cannot be explained in such a way.

  6. Tunneling current noise in the fractional quantum Hall effect: When the effective charge is not what it appears to be

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snizhko, Kyrylo

    2016-01-01

    Fractional quantum Hall quasiparticles are famous for having fractional electric charge. Recent experiments report that the quasiparticle's effective electric charge determined through tunneling current noise measurements can depend on the system parameters such as temperature or bias voltage. Several works proposed to understand this as a signature for edge theory properties changing with energy scale. I consider two of such experiments and show that in one of them the apparent dependence of the electric charge on a system parameter is likely to be an artefact of experimental data analysis. Conversely, in the second experiment the dependence cannot be explained in such a way.

  7. Nonlinear Wave-Currents interactions in shallow water

    CERN Document Server

    Lannes, David

    2015-01-01

    We study here the propagation of long waves in the presence of vorticity. In the irrotational framework, the Green-Naghdi equations (also called Serre or fully nonlinear Boussinesq equations) are the standard model for the propagation of such waves. These equations couple the surface elevation to the vertically averaged horizontal velocity and are therefore independent of the vertical variable. In the presence of vorticity, the dependence on the vertical variable cannot be removed from the vorticity equation but it was however shown in [?] that the motion of the waves could be described using an extended Green-Naghdi system. In this paper we propose an analysis of these equations, and show that they can be used to get some new insight into wave-current interactions. We show in particular that solitary waves may have a drastically different behavior in the presence of vorticity and show the existence of solitary waves of maximal amplitude with a peak at their crest, whose angle depends on the vorticity. We als...

  8. Charge-transfer energy in closed-shell ion-atom interactions. [for H and Li ions in He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Rizzatti, M.; Mason, E. A.

    1975-01-01

    The importance of charge-transfer energy in the interactions between closed-shell ions and atoms is investigated. Ab initio calculations on H(plus)-He and Li(plus)-He are used as a guide for the construction of approximate methods for the estimation of the charge-transfer energy for more complicated systems. For many alkali ion-rate gas systems the charge-transfer energy is comparable to the induction energy in the region of the potential minimum, although for doubly charged alkaline-earth ions in rare gases the induction energy always dominates. Surprisingly, an empirical combination of repulsion energy plus asymptotic induction energy plus asymptotic dispersion energy seems to give a fair representation of the total interaction, especially if the repulsion energy is parameterized, despite the omission of any explicit charge-transfer contribution. More refined interaction models should consider the charge-transfer energy contribution.

  9. Multiplicity of charged particles in π- interactions on nuclei at 40 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiparticle production in π--nucleus interactions at 40 GeV/c (Fifth Joint CERN-Serpukhov Experiment) has been studied using a spark-chamber technique at the Serpukhov accelerator. The mean multiplicities, the pseudorapidity distributions and the dispersion of the multiplicity distributions of charged particles produced on C, Al, Cu and Pb targets are presented. The results are compared with the predictions of the coherent tube model and with the soft hadron-nucleus collision model. (Auth.)

  10. Tuning of the Charged Hadrons Multiplicities for Deep Inelastic Interactions in NEUT

    CERN Document Server

    Bronner, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    We describe a procedure to tune the charged hadron multiplicities for deep inelastic events produced by the NEUT neutrino interaction generator. This tuning uses a model based on Koba-Nielsen-Olesen scaling, whose parameters are obtained by fitting multiplicity data from deuterium bubble chamber experiments. After tuning, the multiplicities of the events generated by NEUT are found to be in good agreement with the measurements from the bubble chamber experiments.

  11. Charge-exchange excitations with finite range interactions including tensor terms

    CERN Document Server

    De Donno, V; Anguiano, M; Lallena, A M

    2014-01-01

    We study charge-exchange excitations in doubly magic-nuclei by using a self-consistent Hartree-Fock plus Random Phase Approximation model. We use four Gogny-like finite-range interactions, two of them containing tensor forces. We investigate the effects of the various parts of the tensor forces in the two computational steps of our model, and we find that their presence is not negligible and improves the agreement with the experimental data.

  12. Computer simulation of a klystron using a field-charge interaction code (FCI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The field-charge interaction code (FCI), based on a particle-in-cell simulation, has been used to analyze and develop high power klystrons at KEK as well as at industry labs since 1989. Several new high-power klystrons have been developed by using the FCI code. This lecture describes the code, provides examples of its application, and evaluates performance of the newly developed tubes. Operational details are given in the users manual. (author)

  13. Fast Charging Stations: Simulating Entry and Location in a Game of Strategic Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardo, Valeria; Borrell, Joan-Ramon; Perdiguero, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses a game of strategic interaction to simulate entry and location of fast charging stations for electric vehicles. It evaluates the equilibria obtained in terms of social welfare and firm spatial differentiation. Using Barcelona mobility survey, demographic data and the street graph we find that only at an electric vehicle penetration rate above 3% does a dense network of stations appear as the equilibrium outcome of a market with no fiscal transfers. We also find that price comp...

  14. Charged sigma hyperon production in K-p interactions below 300 MeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an experiment on K-p interactions in a bubble chamber equipped with a TST, the cross sections and angular distributions have been studied for charged μ hyperon production in the momentum range 90-300 MeV/c. Good agreement was found with previous cross sections. The production angular distributions and the μ+ hyperon polarisation clearly indicate that P waves are present down to about 150 MeV/c, much lower than previously reported. (orig.)

  15. Search for fractionally charged particles in (anti)neutrino-deuterium interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A search for relativistic fractionally charged particles in (anti)neutrino-deuterium interactions was performed using the CERN SPS wide-band neutrino beam and the Big European Bubble Chamber. The experiment established the following upper limit: quark/event 0.02λ/sub π/, and mass m/sub q/<0.5 GeV. Other limits are quoted in the text

  16. Inclusive charged hadron and K0 production in two-photon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analogous process to quark pair production in e+ e- annihilation is the hard-scattering quark exchange process in γγ interactions. This hard-scattering process is expected to dominate the cross section at high transverse momenta of the produced quarks. Experimentally, one has looked for this process in two-jet as well as inclusive particle production and has found a relatively low PT onset of hard scattering in γγ interactions. This report examines the issue in more detail (high statistics) for charged particle inclusive production and checks if the heavier flavors display a similar behavior in inclusive K0 production

  17. Exploring effective interactions through transition charge density study of 70,72,74,76Ge nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Shukla; P K Raina; P K Rath

    2005-02-01

    Transition charge densities (TCD) for $0^{+} → 2_{1}^{+}$ excitation have been calculated for 70, 72, 74, 76Ge nuclei within microscopic variational framework employing 23/2, 15/2, 21/2 and 19/2 valence space. The calculated TCDs for different monopole variants of Kuo interaction are compared with available experimental results. Other systematics like reduced transition probabilities (2) and static quadrupole moments (2) are also presented. It is observed that the transition density study acts as a sensitive probe for discriminating the response of different parts of effective interactions.

  18. Effective interactions between concentration fluctuations and charge transfer in chemically ordering liquid alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The correlations between long-wavelength fluctuations of concentration in a liquid binary alloy are determined by a balance between an elastic strain free energy and an Ornstein-Zernike effective interaction. The latter is extracted from thermodynamic data in the case of the Li-Pb system, which is well known to chemically order with stoichiometric composition corresponding to Li4Pb. Strong attractive interactions between concentration fluctuations near the composition of chemical ordering originate from electronic charge transfer, which is estimated from the electron-ion partial structure factors as functions of composition in the liquid alloy. (author). 20 refs, 2 figs

  19. Charge-transfer interactions between TCNQ and silver clusters Ag20 and Ag13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Zhang, Hanyu; Liu, Xianhu; Yuan, Chengqian; Jia, Meiye; Luo, Zhixun; Yao, Jiannian

    2016-03-14

    Interactions between tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) and two typical silver clusters Ag13 and Ag20 are studied by first-principles DFT calculations. Charge transfer (CT) from silver clusters to TCNQ molecules initiates the Ag-N bond formation at selective sites resulting in the formation of different isomers of Ag13-TCNQ and Ag20-TCNQ complexes. We show here a comprehensive spectroscopic analysis for the two CT complexes on the basis of Raman and infrared activities. Furthermore, frontier molecular orbital (FMO) and natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis of the complexes provides a vivid illustration of electron cloud overlap and interactions. The behavior of TCNQ adsorbed on the tetrahedral Ag20 cluster was even found in good agreement with the experimental measurement of TCNQ molecules on a single-crystal Ag(111) surface. This study not only endeavors to clarify the charge-transfer interactions of TCNQ with silver, but also presents a finding of enhanced charge transfer between Ag13 and TCNQ indicating potential for candidate building blocks of granular materials. PMID:26888771

  20. Functional interaction between charged nanoparticles and cardiac tissue: a new paradigm for cardiac arrhythmia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruenraroengsak, Pakatip; Shevchuk, Andrew I; Korchev, Yuri E; Lab, Max J; Tetley, Teresa D; Gorelik, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Aim To investigate the effect of surface charge of therapeutic nanoparticles on sarcolemmal ionic homeostasis and the initiation of arrhythmias. Materials & methods Cultured neonatal rat myocytes were exposed to 50 nm-charged polystyrene latex nanoparticles and examined using a combination of hopping probe scanning ion conductance microscopy, optical recording of action potential characteristics and patch clamp. Results Positively charged, amine-modified polystyrene latex nanoparticles showed cytotoxic effects and induced large-scale damage to cardiomyocyte membranes leading to calcium alternans and cell death. By contrast, negatively charged, carboxyl-modified polystyrene latex nanoparticles (NegNPs) were not overtly cytotoxic but triggered formation of 50–250-nm nanopores in the membrane. Cells exposed to NegNPs revealed pro-arrhythmic events, such as delayed afterdepolarizations, reduction in conduction velocity and pathological increment of action potential duration together with an increase in ionic current throughout the membrane, carried by the nanopores. Conclusion The utilization of charged nanoparticles is a novel concept for targeting cardiac excitability. However, this unique nanoscopic investigation reveals an altered electrophysiological substrate, which sensitized the heart cells towards arrhythmias. PMID:23140503

  1. Sensitivity of the CSR self-interaction to the local longitudinal charge concentration of an electron bunch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent measurements of the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) effects indicated that the observed emittance growth and energy modulation due to the orbit-curvature-induced bunch self-interaction are sometimes bigger than predictions based on Gaussian longitudinal charge distributions. In this paper, by performing a model study, we show both analytically and numerically that when the longitudinal bunch charge distribution involves concentration of charges in a small fraction of the bunch length, enhancement of the CSR self-interaction beyond the Gaussian prediction may occur. The level of this enhancement is sensitive to the level of the local charge concentration

  2. Fractional Charge and Quantized Current in the Quantum Spin Hall State

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Xiao-Liang; Hughes, Taylor L.; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2007-01-01

    A profound manifestation of topologically non-trivial states of matter is the occurrence of fractionally charged elementary excitations. The quantum spin Hall insulator state is a fundamentally novel quantum state of matter that exists at zero external magnetic field. In this work, we show that a magnetic domain wall at the edge of the quantum spin Hall insulator carries one half of the unit of electron charge, and we propose an experiment to directly measure this fractional charge on an indi...

  3. Jet production in charged current deep inelastic e+p scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, T; Adamczyk, L; Adamus, M; Adler, V; Aghuzumtsyan, G; Antonioli, P; Antonov, A; Arneodo, M; Bailey, D S; Bamberger, A; Barakbaev, A N; Barbagli, G; Barbi, M; Bari, G; Barreiro, F; Bartsch, D; Basile, M; Bauerdick, L A T; Behrens, U; Bell, M; Bellagamba, L; Benen, A; Bertolin, A; Bhadra, S; Bloch, I; Bodmann, B; Bold, T; Boos, E G; Borras, K; Boscherini, D; Brock, I; Brook, N H; Brugnera, R; Brümmer, N; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bussey, P J; Butterworth, J M; Bylsma, B; Caldwell, A; Capua, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carli, T; Carlin, R; Catterall, C D; Chekanov, S; Chiochia, V; Chwastowski, J; Ciborowski, J; Ciesielski, R; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Cloth, P; Cole, J E; Collins-Tooth, C; Contin, A; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Coppola, N; Cormack, C; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; Cottrell, A; D'Agostini, Giulio; Dal Corso, F; Danilov, P; Dannheim, D; De Pasquale, S; Dementiev, R K; Derrick, M; Deshpande, A A; Devenish, R C E; Dhawan, S; Dolgoshein, B A; Doyle, A T; Drews, G; Durkin, L S; Dusini, S; Eisenberg, Y; Ermolov, P F; Eskreys, Andrzej; Ferrando, J; Ferrero, M I; Figiel, J; Filges, D; Foster, B; Foudas, C; Fourletov, S; Fourletova, J; Fricke, U; Fusayasu, T; Gabareen, A; Gallo, E; Garfagnini, A; Geiser, A; Genta, C; Gialas, I; Giusti, P; Gladilin, L K; Gladkov, D; Glasman, C; Gliga, S; Göbel, F; Goers, S; Golubkov, Yu A; Goncalo, R; González, O; Göttlicher, P; Grabowska-Bold, I; Grijpink, S; Grzelak, G; Gutsche, O; Gwenlan, C; Haas, T; Hain, W; Hall-Wilton, R; Hamatsu, R; Hamilton, J; Hanlon, S; Hart, J C; Hartmann, H; Hartner, G; Hartner, G F; Heaphy, E A; Heath, G P; Heath, H F; Helbich, M; Heusch, C A; Hilger, E; Hillert, S; Hirose, T; Hochman, D; Holm, U; Iacobucci, G; Iga, Y; Inuzuka, M; Irrgang, P; Jakob, H P; Jones, T W; Kagawa, S; Kahle, B; Kananov, S; Kappes, A; Karshon, U; Katkov, I I; Katz, U F; Kcira, D; Khein, L A; Kim, J Y; Kim, Y K; Kind, O; Kisielewska, D; Kitamura, S; Klimek, K; Koffeman, E; Kohno, T; Kooijman, P; Koop, T; Korzhav, I A; Kotanski, A; Kötz, U; Kowal, A M; Kowal, M; Kowalski, H; Kowalski, T; Krakauer, D A; Kram, G; Kreisel, A; Krumnack, N; Kuze, M; Kuzmin, V A; Labarga, L; Labes, H; Lainesse, J; Lammers, S; Lee, J H; Lee, S W; Lelas, D; Levchenko, B B; Levman, G M; Levy, A; Li, L; Lightwood, M S; Lim, H; Lim, I T; Limentani, S; Ling, T Y; Liu, X; Löhr, B; Lohrmann, E; Loizides, J H; Long, K R; Longhin, A; Lukina, O Yu; Lupi, A; Maddox, E; Magill, S; Mankel, R; Margotti, A; Marini, G; Martin, J F; Mastroberardino, A; Matsuzawa, K; Mattingly, M C K; McCubbin, N A; Mellado, B; Melzer-Pellmann, I A; Menary, S R; Metlica, F; Meyer, U; Milite, M; Mirea, A; Monaco, V; Moritz, M; Musgrave, B; Nagano, K; Nania, R; Nguyen, C N; Nigro, A; Ning, Y; Nishimura, T; Notz, D; Nowak, R J; Oh, B Y; Olkiewicz, K; Pac, M Y; Padhi, S; Paganis, S; Palmonari, F; Parenti, A; Park, I H; Patel, S; Paul, E; Pavel, N; Pawlak, J M; Pelfer, P G; Pellegrino, A; Pesci, A; Petrucci, M C; Piotrzkowski, K; Plucinsky, P P; Pokrovskiy, N S; Polini, A; Posocco, M; Proskuryakov, A S; Przybycien, M B; Rautenberg, J; Raval, A; Reeder, D D; Ren, Z; Renner, R; Repond, J; Riveline, M; Robins, S; Rodrigues, E; Ruspa, M; Sacchi, R; Salehi, H; Sartorelli, G; Savin, A A; Saxon, D H; Schagen, S; Schioppa, M; Schlenstedt, S; Schmidke, W B; Schneekloth, U; Sciulli, F; Scott, J; Selonke, F; Shcheglova, L M; Skillicorn, I O; Slominski, W; Smith, W H; Soares, M; Solano, A; Son, D; Sosnovtsev, V V; Stairs, D G; Stanco, L; Standage, J; Stifutkin, A; Stoesslein, U; Stonjek, S; Stopa, P; Straub, P B; Suchkov, S; Susinno, G; Suszycki, L; Sutton, M R; Sztuk, J; Szuba, D; Szuba, J; Tandler, J; Tapper, A D; Tapper, R J; Tassi, E; Tawara, T; Terron, J; Tiecke, H G; Tokushuku, K; Tsurugai, T; Turcato, M; Tymieniecka, T; Ukleja, A; Ukleja, J; Vázquez, M; Velthuis, J J; Vlasov, N N; Voss, K C; Walczak, R; Wang, M; Weber, A; Wessoleck, H; West, B J; Whitmore, J J; Wick, K; Wiggers, L; Wills, H H; Wing, M; Wolf, G; Yamada, S; Yamashita, T; Yamazaki, Y; Yoshida, R; Youngman, C; Zawiejski, L; Zeuner, W; Zhautykov, B O; Zichichi, A; Ziegler, A; Zotkin, S A; De Wolf, E; Del Peso, J

    2003-01-01

    The production rates and substructure of jets have been studied in charged current deep inelastic e+p scattering for Q**2>200 GeV**2 with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 110.5 pb**-1. Inclusive jet cross sections are presented for jets with transverse energies E_T(jet) > 14 GeV and pseudorapidities in the range -1 14 GeV and a second jet having E_T(jet) > 5 GeV. Measurements of the mean subjet multiplicity, , of the inclusive jet sample are presented. Predictions based on parton-shower Monte Carlo models and next-to-leading-order QCD calculations a re compared to the measurements. The value of alphas(M_Z), determined from at y_cut=0.01 for jets with 25

  4. Confronting current NLO parton fragmentation functions with inclusive charged-particle spectra at hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inclusive spectra of charged particles measured at high transverse momenta (pT≳2 GeV/c) in proton–proton and proton–antiproton collisions in the range of center-of-mass energies √(s)=200–7000 GeV are compared with next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations using seven recent sets of parton-to-hadron fragmentation functions (FFs). Accounting for the uncertainties in the scale choices and in the parton distribution functions, we find that most of the theoretical predictions tend to overpredict the measured LHC and Tevatron cross sections by up to a factor of two. We identify the currently too-hard gluon-to-hadron FFs as the probable source of the problem, and justify the need to refit the FFs using the available LHC and Tevatron data in a region of transverse momenta, pT≳10 GeV/c, which is supposedly free from additional non-perturbative contributions and where the scale uncertainty is only modest

  5. A first measurement of the charged current DIS cross sections with longitudinally polarised electrons in the H1 experiment at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunovic, B.

    2007-07-01

    The analysis presented in this thesis is based on data from electron-proton collisions with longitudinally polarised electron beams at a centre-of-mass energy of {radical}(s)=319 GeV. The data were taken with the H1 detector at the HERA collider in the year 2005 corresponding to two polarisation states: a left-handed electron polarisation of -27% and a right-handed electron polarisation of +37%, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 68.6 pb{sup -1} and 29.6 pb{sup -1}, respectively. The inclusive total deep inelastic charged current cross section and the differential cross sections are measured for both helicities in the kinematic domain Q{sup 2}>400 GeV{sup 2} and y<0.9. The entire analysis chain necessary for the determination of the cross sections is described with emphasis on the understanding of the performance of the Liquid Argon trigger system. The experimental results obtained are consistent with the predictions of the Standard Model. In particular, the measurement of the total polarised charged current cross section confirms the Standard Model expectation that there are no weak charged current interactions mediated by a hypothetical right-handed W boson. In addition, a measurement of the charged current structure function F{sup cc}{sub 2} has been performed at the H1 experiment for the first time. The measurements are well described by the theoretical expectations based on parton distributions derived from inclusive neutral current measurements in H1, and are in agreement with published data from the ZEUS (e{sup {+-}}p) and CCFR (anti {nu}{sub {mu}}Fe) experiments. (orig.)

  6. The effect of a direct current field on the microparticle charge in the plasma afterglow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wörner, L. [Max Planck Institute for extraterrestrial Physics, P.O. Box 1312, Giessenbachstr., 85741 Garching (Germany); Groupe de Recherches sur l' Energétique des Milieux Ionisés, UMR7344, CNRS, Univ. Orléans, F-45067 Orléans (France); Ivlev, A. V.; Huber, P.; Hagl, T.; Thomas, H. M.; Morfill, G. E. [Max Planck Institute for extraterrestrial Physics, P.O. Box 1312, Giessenbachstr., 85741 Garching (Germany); Couëdel, L. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Aix-Marseille-Université, Laboiratoire de Physique des Intéractions Ioniques et Moléculaires, UMR 7345, 13397 Marseille cedex 20 (France); Schwabe, M. [Max Planck Institute for extraterrestrial Physics, P.O. Box 1312, Giessenbachstr., 85741 Garching (Germany); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Mikikian, M.; Boufendi, L. [Groupe de Recherches sur l' Energétique des Milieux Ionisés, UMR7344, CNRS, Univ. Orléans, F-45067 Orléans (France); Skvortsov, A. [Yuri Gagarin Cosmonauts Training Center, RU-141160 Star City (Russian Federation); Lipaev, A. M.; Molotkov, V. I.; Petrov, O. F.; Fortov, V. E. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, RU-125412 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-15

    Residual charges of individual microparticles forming dense clouds were measured in a RF discharge afterglow. Experiments were performed under microgravity conditions on board the International Space Station, which ensured particle levitation inside the gas volume after the plasma switch-off. The distribution of residual charges as well as the spatial distribution of charged particles across the cloud were analyzed by applying a low-frequency voltage to the electrodes and measuring amplitudes of the resulting particle oscillations. Upon “free decharging” conditions, the charge distribution had a sharp peak at zero and was rather symmetric (with charges concentrated between −10e and +10e), yet positively and negatively charged particles were homogeneously distributed over the cloud. However, when decharging evolved in the presence of an external DC field (applied shortly before the plasma switch-off) practically all residual charges were positive. In this case, the overall charge distribution had a sharp peak at about +15e and was highly asymmetric, while the spatial distribution exhibited a significant charge gradient along the direction of the applied DC field.

  7. GMAG Dissertation Award Talk: All Spin Logic -- Multimagnet Networks interacting via Spin currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Srikant

    2012-02-01

    Digital logic circuits have traditionally been based on storing information as charge on capacitors, and the stored information is transferred by controlling the flow of charge. However, electrons carry both charge and spin, the latter being responsible for magnetic phenomena. In the last few decades, there has been a significant improvement in our ability to control spins and their interaction with magnets. All Spin Logic (ASL) represents a new approach to information processing where spins and magnets now mirror the roles of charges and capacitors in conventional logic circuits. In this talk I first present a model [1] that couples non-collinear spin transport with magnet-dynamics to predict the switching behavior of the basic ASL device. This model is based on established physics and is benchmarked against available experimental data that demonstrate spin-torque switching in lateral structures. Next, the model is extended to simulate multi-magnet networks coupled with spin transport channels. The simulations suggest ASL devices have the essential characteristics for building logic circuits. In particular, (1) the example of an ASL ring oscillator [2, 3] is used to provide a clear signature of directed information transfer in cascaded ASL devices without the need for external control circuitry and (2) a simulated NAND [4] gate with fan-out of 2 suggests that ASL can implement universal logic and drive subsequent stages. Finally I will discuss how ASL based circuits could also have potential use in the design of neuromorphic circuits suitable for hybrid analog/digital information processing because of the natural mapping of ASL devices to neurons [4]. [4pt] [1] B. Behin-Aein, A. Sarkar, S. Srinivasan, and S. Datta, ``Switching Energy-Delay of All-Spin Logic devices,'' Appl. Phys. Lett., 98, 123510 (2011).[0pt] [2] S. Srinivasan, A. Sarkar, B. Behin-Aein, and S. Datta, ``All Spin Logic Device with Inbuilt Non-reciprocity,'' IEEE Trans. Magn., 47, 10 (2011).[0pt] [3

  8. Measuring Muon-Neutrino Charged-Current Differential Cross Sections with a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitz, Joshua B. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    2011-01-01

    More than 80 years after its proposed existence, the neutrino remains largely mysterious and elusive. Precision measurements of the neutrino's properties are just now beginning to take place. Such measurements are required in order to determine the mass of the neutrino, how many neutrinos there are, if neutrinos are different than anti-neutrinos, and more. Muon-neutrino charged-current differential cross sections on an argon target in terms of the outgoing muon momentum and angle are presented. The measurements have been taken with the ArgoNeuT Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LArTPC) experiment. ArgoNeuT is the first LArTPC to ever take data in a low energy neutrino beam, having collected thousands of neutrino and anti-neutrino events in the NuMI beamline at Fermilab. The results are relevant for long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments searching for non-zero $\\theta_{13}$, CP-violation in the lepton sector, and the sign of the neutrino mass hierarchy, among other things. Furthermore, the differential cross sections are important for understanding the nature of the neutrino-nucleus interaction in general. These measurements represent a significant step forward for LArTPC technology as they are among the first neutrino physics results with such a device.

  9. Measuring Muon-Neutrino Charged-Current Differential Cross Sections with a Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitz, Joshua B.

    More than 80 years after its proposed existence, the neutrino remains largely mysterious and elusive. Precision measurements of the neutrino's properties are just now beginning to take place. Such measurements are required in order to determine the mass of the neutrino, how many neutrinos there are, if neutrinos are different than anti-neutrinos, and more. Muon-neutrino charged-current differential cross sections on an argon target in terms of the outgoing muon momentum and angle are presented. The measurements have been taken with the ArgoNeuT Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LArTPC) experiment. ArgoNeuT is the first LArTPC to ever take data in a low energy neutrino beam, having collected thousands of neutrino and anti-neutrino events in the NuMI beamline at Fermi-lab. The results are relevant for long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments searching for non-zero theta13, CP-violation in the lepton sector, and the sign of the neutrino mass hierarchy, among other things. Furthermore, the differential cross sections are important for understanding the nature of the neutrino-nucleus interaction in general. These measurements represent a significant step forward for LArTPC technology as they are among the first neutrino physics results with such a device.

  10. Interaction of low-energy highly charged ions with matter; Wechselwirkung niederenergetischer hochgeladener Ionen mit Materie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginzel, Rainer

    2010-06-09

    The thesis presented herein deals with experimental studies of the interaction between highly charged ions and neutral matter at low collision energies. The energy range investigated is of great interest for the understanding of both charge exchange reactions between ions comprising the solar wind and various astrophysical gases, as well as the creation of near-surface nanostructures. Over the course of this thesis an experimental setup was constructed, capable of reducing the kinetic energy of incoming ions by two orders of magnitude and finally focussing the decelerated ion beam onto a solid or gaseous target. A coincidence method was employed for the simultaneous detection of photons emitted during the charge exchange process together with the corresponding projectile ions. In this manner, it was possible to separate reaction channels, whose superposition presumably propagated large uncertainties and systematic errors in previous measurements. This work has unveiled unexpectedly strong contributions of slow radiative decay channels and clear evidence of previously only postulated decay processes in charge exchange-induced X-ray spectra. (orig.)

  11. Evolution of ring current formed by relativistic electron beam injection into a charge but not current neutralizing plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The time evolutions of the azimuthal momentum distribution of the axisymmetrically injected electrons and the resulting ring current are self-consistently analyzed under the assumption that no return current is induced in the background plasma. It is shown that the ring current grows linearly with time for a characteristic time from the start of beam injection, and afterthere it tends to saturate at some level. The dependence of the time evolution of the ring current on the beam energy at injection and on the injection current is also obtained. (author)

  12. Space-charge-limited currents: An E-infinity Cantorian approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zmeškal, O.; Nešpůrek, Stanislav; Weiter, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 2 (2007), s. 143-158. ISSN 0960-0779 R&D Projects: GA MPO FT-TA/036; GA AV ČR IAA100100622 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : space charge * fractal * charge injection Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.025, year: 2007

  13. Surface charge-specific interactions between polymer nanoparticles and ABC transporters in Caco-2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, Sourav, E-mail: sourav.bhattacharjee@wur.nl [Wageningen University, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry (Netherlands); Opstal, Edward J. van; Alink, Gerrit M. [Wageningen University, Division of Toxicology (Netherlands); Marcelis, Antonius T. M.; Zuilhof, Han [Wageningen University, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry (Netherlands); Rietjens, Ivonne M. C. M. [Wageningen University, Division of Toxicology (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    The surface charge-dependent transport of polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs) across Caco-2 monolayers grown on transwell culture systems as an in vitro model for intestinal transport was tested. The transport of well-characterized, monodisperse, and fluorescent tri-block copolymer nanoparticles (TCNPs/size {approx}45 nm) and polystyrene nanoparticles (PSNPs/size {approx}50 nm), with different surface charges (positive and negative), was quantified. The positive PNPs showed a higher intracellular uptake and flux across the Caco-2 monolayers than the negative PNPs. Multidrug resistance/P-glycoprotein (MDR1/P-gp), a specific ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, was found to play a major role in the cellular efflux of positive PNPs, whereas the multidrug resistance protein 1 took part in the efflux of negative PNPs from Caco-2 cells. The positive PNPs also caused an increased cellular uptake and apical to basolateral transport of the carcinogen PhIP across the Caco-2 monolayer. The flavonoid quercetin, which is known to interact with ABC transporters, promoted the intracellular uptake of different PNPs and interfered with the normal distribution patterns of PNPs in the transwell system. These results indicate that PNPs display surface charge-specific interactions with ABC transporters and can even affect the bioavailability of toxic food-borne compounds (like pro-carcinogens).

  14. Behaviour of interatomic interaction potentials in metal in the track area of heavy charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computational technique of interatomic interaction potentials in the presence of ionized states is developed. Using aluminium as an example, they are obtained for atoms with different ionization degree. The molecular-dynamic modeling of atom transfer in crystal lattice has shown that ion emission from fast charged particle track near surface (coulomb explosion) is possible if the life time of ionized states is 10-13 s or more. On the base of pseudopotential approach behaviour of interaction potentials in conditions of electron subsystem excitation is analyzed. It has been found out that thermal tailing of Fermi surface does not result in essential change of interatomic interaction forces, and the local increase of conduction electrons concentration induces softening of crystal lattice when configuration with lesser interatomic distance becomes equilibrium

  15. Sources, potentials and fields in Lorenz and Coulomb gauge: Cancellation of instantaneous interactions for moving point charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the coupling of the electromagnetic sources (charge and current densities) to the scalar and vector potentials in classical electrodynamics, using Green function techniques. As is well known, the scalar potential shows an action-at-a-distance behavior in Coulomb gauge. The conundrum generated by the instantaneous interaction has intrigued physicists for a long time. Starting from the differential equations that couple the sources to the potentials, we here show in a concise derivation, using the retarded Green function, how the instantaneous interaction cancels in the calculation of the electric field. The time derivative of a specific additional term in the vector potential, present only in Coulomb gauge, yields a supplementary contribution to the electric field which cancels the gradient of the instantaneous Coulomb gauge scalar potential, as required by gauge invariance. This completely eliminates the contribution of the instantaneous interaction from the electric field. It turns out that a careful formulation of the retarded Green function, inspired by field theory, is required in order to correctly treat boundary terms in partial integrations. Finally, compact integral representations are derived for the Liénard–Wiechert potentials (scalar and vector) in Coulomb gauge which manifestly contain two compensating action-at-a-distance terms. - Highlights: ► We investigate action-at-a-distance effects in electrodynamics in detail. ► We calculate the instantaneous interactions for scalar and vector potentials. ► The cancellation mechanism involves the retarded Green function. ► The mechanism is confirmed on the example of moving point charges. ► The Green function has to be treated with care for nontrivial boundary terms.

  16. Coulombic interactions and multicomponent ionic dispersion during transport of charged species in heterogeneous porous media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muniruzzaman, Muhammad; Rolle, Massimo

    Electrochemical cross-coupling plays a significant role for transport of charged species in porous media [1, 2]. In this study we performed flow-through experiments in a quasi two-dimensional setup using dilute solutions of strong electrolytes to study the influence of charge interactions on mass...... transfer of ionic species in saturated porous media. The experiments were carried out under advection-dominated conditions (seepage velocity: 1 and 1.5 m/day) in two well-defined heterogeneous domains where flow diverging around a low-permeability inclusion and flow focusing in high-permeability zones...... multicomponent transport simulations were compared with the high-resolution (5 mm spacing) concentration measurements of the ionic species at the outlet of the flow-through domain. The excellent agreement between the measured concentrations and the results of purely forward numerical simulations demonstrates the...

  17. Multiplicity of charged particles in 800 GeV p-p interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are reported concerning the charged-particle multiplicity distribution obtained in an exposure of the high-resolution hydrogen bubble chamber LEBC to a beam of 800 GeV protons at the Fermilab MPS. This is the first time that such data have been available at this energy. The distribution of the number nch of charged particles produced in inelastic interactions obeys KNO-scaling. The average multiplicity is ch>=10.26±0.15. For nch≥8 the data can be well fitted to a negative binomial. The difference between the overall experimental multiplicity distribution and that resulting from the latter fit is in agreement with the contribution expected from diffractive processes. (orig.)

  18. Charge transfer in the interactions of partially stripped ions with atoms at intermediate and high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Coulomb-Born (CB) approximation has been employed to study charge transfer cross sections in collisions of Cq+, Nq+ and Oq+ (q = 1-5) with atomic hydrogen in ground state in the energy range of 30-200 keV/amu. The interaction of the active electron with the incoming projectile ion has been approximated by a model potential containing both a long-range part and a short-range part. Variations of total capture cross sections with impact energy compare favourable well with the available experimental observations and with other theoretical findings. In addition, sub-shell distributions of total capture cross sections are given in graphical form. However, we are unable to find any oscillation in the charge-state dependence of total capture cross sections. (author)

  19. Solar wind/local interstellar medium interaction including charge exchange with neural hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, H. Louis; Zank, Gary P.

    1995-01-01

    We present results from a hydrodynamic model of the interaction of the solar wind with the local interstellar medium (LISM), self-consistently taking into account the effects of charge exchange between the plasma component and the interstellar neutrals. The simulation is fully time dependent, and is carried out in two or three dimensions, depending on whether the helio-latitudinal dependence of the solar wind speed and number density (both giving rise to three dimensional effects) are included. As a first approximation it is assumed that the neutral component of the flow can be described by a single, isotropic fluid. Clearly, this is not the actual situation, since charge exchange with the supersonic solar wind plasma in the region of the nose results in a 'second' neutral fluid propagating in the opposite direction as that of the LISM neutrals.

  20. Charge separation in organic solar cells: Effects of Coulomb interaction, recombination and hole propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati Aram, Tahereh; Asgari, Asghar; Mayou, Didier

    2016-07-01

    Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaic cells are analysed within a simple efficient model that includes the important physical properties of such photovoltaic systems. In this model, in contrast with most of the previous studies, we take into account the motion of both the electron and the hole in the separation process at the donor-acceptor interface. We theoretically examine the exciton dissociation yield under the influences of charge Coulomb interaction and non-radiative recombination. We find that the electron-hole local Coulomb attraction and charge carriers' coupling parameters play an important role in the system performance and in the optimal energy conversion efficiency of the BHJ photocell. We show that the fixed-hole models tend to underestimate the yield.

  1. Current, charge, and capacitance during scanning probe oxidation of silicon. II. Electrostatic and meniscus forces acting on cantilever bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagata, J. A.; Perez-Murano, F.; Martin, C.; Kuramochi, H.; Yokoyama, H.

    2004-08-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the electrical current passing through the tip-substrate junction during oxidation of silicon by scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is presented. This analysis identifies the electronic and ionic contributions to the total current, especially at the initial stages of the reaction, determines the effective contact area of the tip-substrate junction, and unifies the roles of space charge and meniscus formation. In this work, we concentrate on noncontact SPM oxidation. We analyze simultaneous force-distance and current-distance curves to demonstrate that total current flow during noncontact oxidation is significantly less for noncontact mode than for contact oxidation, although the resulting oxide volume is nearly identical. Ionization of water layers and mobile charge reorganization prior to and following meniscus formation is also shown to alter the tip-substrate capacitance and, therefore, the bending of the SPM cantilever.

  2. Estimation of Potential Gradient from Discharge Current through Hand-Held Metal Piece from Charged Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taka, Yoshinori; Fujiwara, Osamu

    Electrostatic discharge (ESD) events due to metal objects electrified with low voltages give a fatal electromagnetic interference to high-tech information equipment. In order to elucidate the mechanism, with a 6-GHz digital oscilloscope, we previously measured the discharge current due to collision of a hand-held metal piece from a charged human body, and gave a current calculation model. In this study, based on the calculation model, a method was presented for deriving a gap potential gradient from the measured discharge current. Measurements of the discharge currents were made for charge voltages from 200V to 1000V. The corresponding potential gradients were estimated, which were validated in comparison with an empirical formula based on the Paschen's law together with other researcher's experimental results.

  3. The Current Status and Future Directions of Heavy Charged Particle Therapy in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Richard P.; Blakely, Eleanor A.; Chu, William T.; Coutrakon, George B.; Hug, Eugen B.; Kraft, Gerhard; Tsujii, Hirohiko

    2009-03-01

    As aggressive, 3D-conformal treatment has become the clearly accepted goal of radiation oncology, heavy charged-particle treatment with protons and heavier ions has concurrently and relentlessly ascended to the forefront. Protons and helium nuclei, with relatively low linear-energy-transfer (LET) properties, have consistently been demonstrated to be beneficial for aggressive (high-dose) local treatment of many types of tumors. Protons have been applied to the majority of solid tumors, and have reached a high degree of general acceptance in radiation oncology after three decades and 55,000 patients treated. However, some 15% to 20% of tumor types have proven resistant to even the most aggressive low-LET irradiation. For these radio-resistant tumors, treatment with heavier ions (e.g., carbon) offers great potential benefit. These high-LET particles have increased relative biological effectiveness (RBE) that reaches its maximum in the Bragg peak. Irradiation with these heavier ions offers the unique combination of excellent 3D-dose distribution and increased RBE. We are presently witnessing several, important parallel developments in particle therapy. Protons will likely continue their exponential growth phase, and more compact design systems will make protons available to a larger patient population—thus becoming the "heavy charged particle of choice" for Cancer Centers with limited financial resources. In parallel, major academic efforts will further advance the field of heavier ion therapy, exploring all opportunities for particle treatment and continuing the search for the ideal particle(s) for specific tumors. The future of ion therapy will be best realized by clinical trials that have ready access to top-quality delivery of both protons and heavier ions that can be accurately shaped for treatment of a specific pathology, and which will permit direct randomized-trial comparison of the effectiveness of the various ions for different diseases. Optimal results

  4. 3-loop contributions to heavy flavor Wilson coefficients of neutral and charged current DIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasselhuhn, Alexander

    2013-11-15

    . A new method is presented for the calculation of such diagrams with equal masses, contributing to the OMEs A{sub gq,Q} and A{sub gg,Q}. The method uses a Mellin-Barnes representation instead of a generalized hypergeometric function and keeps, for convergence reasons, one of the Feynman parameter integrals unintegrated. The above symbolic summation methods are used to solve the sum of residues in terms of cyclotomic harmonic polylogarithms. Many properties of these functions are implemented in the package Harmonic Sums. Since the result is first derived as a generating function, the symbolic summation machinery is applied a second time, solving difference equations and simplifying sums needed to derive the Nth Taylor coefficient for symbolic N. First the O({alpha}{sub s}) contributions are revisited, due to partly different results in the foregoing literature, which can be clarified. At 1-loop order, an efficient representation in Mellin space allowing for fast numerical evaluations is designed, including power corrections. Also here errors in the literature are corrected. Here the 1-loop expressions are also expanded for 1>>m{sup 2}/Q{sup 2} up to the constant term. A careful recalculation of the gluonic contribution is performed as well as a calculation in leading logarithmic approximation. The leading logarithmic calculation shows that the same sign error occurs for the pure-singlet contribution at two loops. The heavy quark corrections of charged current deep-inelastic scattering are extended to 2-loop order. The factorization of the heavy flavor Wilson coefficients at large values of Q{sup 2} is derived for the charged current case. Using the light flavor Wilson coefficients and operator matrix elements up to 2-loop order from the literature, x- and N-space expressions for all heavy flavor Wilson coefficients at two loops are given.

  5. The Relativistic Green's function model and charged-current inclusive neutrino-nucleus scattering at T2K kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Meucci, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    We compare the results of the relativistic Green's function model with the experimental data of the charged-current inclusive differential neutrino-nucleus cross sections published by the T2K Collaboration. The model, which is able to describe both MINER$\

  6. The O(α2s) heavy quark corrections to charged current deep-inelastic scattering at large virtualities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We calculate the O(α2s) heavy flavor corrections to charged current deep-inelastic scattering at large scales Q2 >> m2. The contributing Wilson coefficients are given as convolutions between massive operator matrix elements and massless Wilson coefficients. Foregoing results in the literature are extended and corrected. Numerical results are presented for the kinematic region of the HERA data.

  7. Noise in space-charge-limited current in a CdS-single crystal at low injection level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driedonks, F.

    1967-01-01

    Current noise spectra (25Hz–20MHz) of a CdS-diode, working under space-charge-limited conditions. show trapping noise at low frequencies and slightly suppressed noise in the upper frequency range. Suppression is relatively small due to the effect of traps.

  8. NN Interaction JISP16: Current Status and Prospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazur E.A.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We discuss realistic nonlocal NN interactions of a new type — J -matrix Inverse Scattering Potential (JISP. In an ab exitu approach, these interactions are fitted to not only two-nucleon data (NN scattering data and deuteron properties but also to the properties of light nuclei without referring to three-nucleon forces. We discuss recent progress with the ab initio No-core Shell Model (NCSM approach and respective progress in developing ab exitu JISP-type NN -interactions together with plans of their forthcoming improvements.

  9. Analytical solutions of minimum ionization particle induced current shapes of silicon detectors and simulation of charge collection properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new analytical, one dimensional method to obtain the induced current shapes and simulation of chasrge shapes for p+ -n-n+ silicon detectors in the case of minimum ionization particle has been developed here. jExact solutions have been found for both electron and hole current shapes. Simulations of induced charge shapes of detectors have also been given. The results of this work are consistent with the earlier work where a semi-analytical method had been used

  10. Analytical Evaluation of the Ratio Between Injection and Space-Charge Limited Currents in Single Carrier Organic Diodes

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Angel Luis; Arredondo, Belen; Romero, Beatriz; Quintana Arregui, Patxi Xabier; Gutierrez Llorente, Araceli; Mallavia, Ricardo; Otón Sánchez, José Manuel

    2008-01-01

    An analytical, complete framework to describe the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of organic diodes without the use of previous approaches, such as injection or bulk-limited conduction is proposed. Analytical expressions to quantify the ratio between injection and space-charge-limited current from experimental I-V characteristics in organic diodes have been derived. These are used to propose a numerical model in which both bulk transport and injection mechanisms are considered simultane...

  11. Reservoir induced topological order and quantized charge pumps in open lattice models with interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linzner, Dominik; Koster, Malte; Grusdt, Fabian; Fleischhauer, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Since the discovery of the quantum Hall effect, topological states of matter have attracted the attention of scientists in many fields of physics. By now there is a rather good understanding of topological order in closed, non-interacting systems. In contrast the extension to open systems in particular with interactions is entirely in its infancy. Recently there have been advances in characterizing topology in reservoir driven systems without interactions, but the topological invariants introduced lack a clear physical interpretation and are restricted to non-interacting systems. We consider a one-dimensional interacting topological system whose dynamics is entirely driven by reservoir couplings. By slowly tuning these couplings periodically in time we realize an open-system analogue of the Thouless charge pump that proves to be robust against unitary and non-unitary perturbations. Making use of this Thouless pump we introduce a topological invariant, which is applicable to interacting systems. Finally we propose a conceptual detection scheme that translates the open-system topological invariant into the context of a well understood closed system.

  12. Space Charge Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrario, M; Palumbo, L

    2014-01-01

    The space charge forces are those generated directly by the charge distribution, with the inclusion of the image charges and currents due to the interaction of the beam with a perfectly conducting smooth pipe. Space charge forces are responsible for several unwanted phenomena related to beam dynamics, such as energy loss, shift of the synchronous phase and frequency , shift of the betatron frequencies, and instabilities. We will discuss in this lecture the main feature of space charge effects in high-energy storage rings as well as in low-energy linacs and transport lines.

  13. Charging unit for magnetic system of the JINR collective accelerator power supply on the base of alternating current thyristor converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The described charging unit of the capacity store for magnetic system of the JINR collective accelerator is intended for recharging capacitor battery energy loss value in a discharge circuit for the time not exceeding 10 ms. The developed system of automatic voltage control (AVC) for the charging unit ensures operating frequency up to 20-40 Hz, and permits to realize voltage stabilization of the capacitor battery. The three-phase thyristor converter at the inlet of the step-up trasformer of the charging unit controllable by means of the central data handing processing unit GZ 800 (development and fabrication of the GDR) is used. The experimentally measured summarized constant of time of the systems with AVC is 5-8 ms, maximum voltage at the battery of the 100 μF capacity at the frequency of 20 Hz-17.5 kV. The average magnitude of the charge current in the given regime has attained 7A. The charging unit working ability at the frequency of 20 Hz and the 5 kA discharge current has been verified

  14. Hinkley Point CAGR - fuel assembly vibration and charge route interaction during on-load refuelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A key feature of the UK advanced gas cooled reactor system is the ability to refuel while producing power. To achieve this the fuel and plug units are built up into a long slender fuel assembly, and an associated charge route constructed for each fuel assembly location in core. Currently, flow induced vibration of the fuel assembly limits the operating power during refuelling, with the disadvantages of lost power production, and reactor power cycling. The test work, analysis and subsequent theoretical appraisals carried out on the Hinkley Point B reactor systems (Hunterston, Heysham II and Torness being of equivalent design) with two specific aims: are described firstly to assess the impact velocities of the fuel against the charge-route wall, and secondly to consider possible methods of reducing these velocities. (author)

  15. Dynamics of charge-displacement channeling in intense laser-plasma interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamics of transient electric fields generated by the interaction of high intensity laser pulses with underdense plasmas has been studied experimentally with the proton projection imaging technique. The formation of a charged channel, the propagation of its front edge and the late electric field evolution have been characterized with high temporal and spatial resolution. Particle-in-cell simulations and an electrostatic, ponderomotive model reproduce the experimental features and trace them back to the ponderomotive expulsion of electrons and the subsequent ion acceleration

  16. Towards hot electron mediated charge exchange in hyperthermal energy ion-surface interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ray, M. P.; Lake, R. E.; Thomsen, Lasse Bjørchmar;

    2010-01-01

    electrons useful for driving chemical reactions at surfaces. Using the binary collision approximation and a nonadiabatic model that takes into account the time-varying nature of the ion–surface interaction, the energy loss of the ions is reproduced. The energy loss for Na + ions incident on the devices...... shows that the primary energy loss mechanism is the atomic displacement of Au atoms in the thin film of the metal–oxide–semiconductor device. We propose that neutral particle detection of the scattered flux from a biased device could be a route to hot electron mediated charge exchange....

  17. Interaction of slow and highly charged ions with surfaces: formation of hollow atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolterfoht, N.; Grether, M.; Spieler, A.; Niemann, D. [Hahn-Meitner Institut, Berlin (Germany). Bereich Festkoerperphysik; Arnau, A.

    1997-03-01

    The method of Auger spectroscopy was used to study the interaction of highly charged ions with Al and C surfaces. The formation of hollow Ne atoms in the first surface layers was evaluated by means of a Density Functional theory including non-linear screening effects. The time-dependent filling of the hollow atom was determined from a cascade model yielding information about the structure of the K-Auger spectra. Variation of total intensities of the L- and K-Auger peaks were interpreted by the cascade model in terms of attenuation effects on the electrons in the solid. (author)

  18. Final Report - Interaction of radiation and charged particles in miniature plasma structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonsen, Thomas M.

    2014-07-16

    The extension of our program to the development of theories and models capable of describing the interactions of intense laser pulses and charged particles in miniature plasma channels is reported. These channels, which have recently been created in the laboratory, have unique dispersion properties that make them interesting for a variety of applications including particle acceleration, high harmonic generation, and THz generation. Our program systematically explored the properties of these channels, including dispersion, losses, and coupling. A particular application that was pursued is the generation of intense pulses of THz radiation by short laser pulses propagating these channels. We also explored the nonlinear dynamics of laser pulses propagating in these channels.

  19. Search for active neutrino disappearance using neutral-current interactions in the MINOS long-baseline experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have measured the rates and spectra of neutral-current neutrino interactions in the MINOS detectors, which are separated by 734 km. A depletion in the rate at the far site would indicate mixing between νμ and a sterile particle. The depletion of the total neutral-current event rate at the far site is limited to be below 17% at 90% confidence level without νe appearance. Assuming oscillations occur at a single mass-squared splitting, a fit to the neutral- and charged-current energy spectra shows the fraction of νμ oscillating to a sterile neutrino is 0.28-0.28+0.25(stat.+syst.). Including νe appearance at the current experimental upper bound limits the depletion to be below 21% at 90% confidence level and the fit fraction of νμ oscillating to a sterile neutrino is 0.43-0.27+0.23(stat.+syst.)

  20. Return current and proton emission from short pulse laser interactions with wire targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented from laser-plasma interaction experiments using the VULCAN laser at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. Wire targets were used to elucidate the role of the return currents generated by the relativistic electron beam leaving the target at laser intensities up to 5x1019 W cm-2. For some shots an additional wire or a foil was placed near the target wire. In other shots, a foil was used as the target with a wire behind. Three main observations were made: (i) Z-pinch behavior in the wires due to the return currents, (ii) optical transition radiation (OTR) at the second harmonic of the laser, and (iii) proton emission. The OTR and the proton emission were observed from both the primary wire target and the adjacent wire. The OTR emission is associated with electron bunches at twice the laser frequency due to ponderomotive JxB acceleration by the laser. The proton emission from the adjacent target was likely due to field emission of electrons by the large potential produced from charging of the primary wire target. The observations agree with simulations using the three-dimensional tree code PEPC and the two-and-one-half-dimensional particle-in-cell code OSIRIS

  1. O (αs2) contributions to charm production in charged-current deep-inelastic lepton-hadron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most important part of the order αs2 corrections to the charm component of the charged-current structure functions F2(x,Q2) and F3(x,Q2) has been calculated. This calculation is based on the asymptotic form of the heavy-quark coefficient functions corresponding to the higher order corrections to the W-boson-gluon fusion process. These coefficient functions, which are in principle only valid for Q2>>m2, can also be used to estimate the order αs2 contributions at lower Q2 values provided x 2 region and they explain the discrepancy found for the structure functions between the fixed-flavour scheme (FFS) and the variable-flavour-number scheme (VFNS). These corrections also hamper the extraction of the strange-quark density from the data obtained for the charged-current and the electromagnetic-current processes. (orig.)

  2. The interaction energy of charged filaments in an electrolyte: Results for all filament spacings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D A

    2011-05-01

    Electrically charged long-chain macromolecules in an electrolyte can form an ordered lattice whose spacing is greater than their diameter. If entropic effects are neglected, these nematic structures can be predicted from a balance of Coulomb repulsion and van-der-Waals attraction forces. To enhance the utility of such theories, this paper extends existing results for the interaction between charged filaments, and gives approximate formulae for the screened Coulomb and van-der-Waals potentials over the whole range of their centre-to-centre spacing d. The repulsive Coulomb potential is proportional to exp(-λd)/λd for all spacings when the Debye screening length 1/λ is smaller than the sum of the filament radii. The attractive van-der-Waals potential is asymptotic to d⁻⁵ at large d. For smaller spacings, the potential is calculated by numerical integration and compared with published formulae: the series expansion of Brenner and McQuarrie converges too slowly, whereas the interpolation formula of Moisescu provides reasonable accuracy over the whole range of d. Combining these potentials shows that there is a finite range of charge densities for which a nematic crystal lattice is stable, but this conclusion ignores entropic effects associated with motile filaments. The role of electrostatic forces in aligning filaments and stabilizing a nematic liquid-crystal phase is discussed, in conjunction with other mechanisms such as motor proteins, crosslinkers or scaffolding structures. PMID:21295590

  3. Surface charge and interactions of 20-nm nanocolloids in a nematic liquid crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhkova, A. V.; Škarabot, M.; Muševič, I.

    2015-04-01

    We studied real-time motion of individual 20-nm silica nanoparticles in a thin layer of a nematic liquid crystal using a dark-field optical videomicroscopy. By tracking the positions of individual nanoparticles we observed that particle pair interactions are not only mediated by strong thermal fluctuations of the nematic liquid crystal, but also with a repulsive force of electric origin. We determined the total electric charge of silanated silica particles in the nematic liquid crystal 5CB by observing the electric-force-driven drift. Surprisingly, the surface electric charge density depends on colloidal size and is ˜4.5 ×10-3C/m2 for 20-nm nanocolloids, and two orders of magnitude lower, i.e., ˜2.3 ×10-5C/m2 , for 1 -μ m colloids. We conclude that electrostatic repulsion between like-charged particles prevents the formation of permanent colloidal assemblies of nanometer size. We also observed strong attraction of 20-nm silica nanoparticles to confining polyimide surfaces and larger clusters, which gradually results in complete expulsion of nanoparticles from the nematic liquid crystal to the surfaces of the confining cell.

  4. Sensitivity of the CSR Self-Interaction to the Local Longitudinal Charge Concentration of an Electron Bunch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent measurements of the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) effect carried out at CERN and at Jefferson Lab indicate that the observed emittance growth and energy modulation due to the orbit-curvature-induced bunch self-interaction are sometimes bigger than the results predicted from previous analyses and simulations based on a Gaussian longitudinal charge distribution. In this paper, by performing a model study, we show both analytically and numerically that when the longitudinal bunch charge distribution involves concentration of charges in a small fraction of the bunch length, enhancement of the CSR self-interaction beyond the Gaussian prediction may occur

  5. Charge-transfer interaction mediated organogels from 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid appended pyrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe herein the two-component charge-transfer (CT interaction induced organogel formation with 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid appended pyrene (GA-pyrene, 3 as the donor, and 2,4,7-trinitrofluorenone (TNF, 4 as the acceptor. The use of TNF (4 as a versatile electron acceptor in the formation of CT gels is demonstrated through the formation of gels in a variety of solvents. Thermal stability, stoichiometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, optical micrographs, and circular dichroism (CD are performed on these CT gels to investigate their thermal and assembly properties. UV–vis, fluorescence, mass spectrometric as well as variable-temperature 1H NMR experiments on these gels suggest that the CT interaction is one of the major driving forces for the formation of these organogels.

  6. Multi critical point structure for chiral phase transition induce by charge neutrality and vector interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhao

    2010-01-01

    The combined effect of the repulsive vector interaction and the positive electric chemical potential on the chiral phase transition is investigated by considering neutral color superconductivity. Under the charge-neutrality constraint, the chiral condensate, diquark condensate and quark number densities are obtained in two-plus-one-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with the so called Kobayashi-Maskawa-'t Hooft term. We demonstrate that multiple chiral critical-point structures always exist in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model within the self-consistent mean-field approximation, and that the number of chiral critical points can vary from zero to four, which is dependent on the magnitudes of vector interaction and the diquark coupling.

  7. Electrostatic interactions and aqueous two-phase separation modes of aqueous mixed oppositely charged surfactants system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Li-Sheng; Gui, Yuan-Xiang; Chen, Yan-Mei; He, Shao-Qing; Nan, Yan-Qing; You, Yi-Lan

    2012-08-30

    Electrostatic interactions play an important role in setting the aqueous two-phase separation behaviors of mixtures of oppositely charged surfactants. The aqueous mixture of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecylsulfonate (AS) is actually a five-component system, comprised of CTAB, AS, complex salt (cetyltrimethylammonium dodecylsulfonate, abbreviated as CTA(+)AS(-)), NaBr, and water. In the three-dimensional pyramid phase diagram, the aqueous two-phase region with excess AS or with excess CTAB extends successively from the region very near to the NaBr-H2O line through the CTAB-AS-H2O conventional mixing plane to the CTA(+)AS(-)-AS-H2O side plane or to the CTA(+)AS(-)-CTAB-H2O side plane, respectively. Large or small molar ratios between the counterions and their corresponding surfactant ions for oppositely charged surfactants located in the NaBr side or the CTA(+)AS(-) side of the pyramid imply strong or weak electrostatic screening. Electrostatic screening of counterions alters the electrostatic attractions between the oppositely charged head groups or the electrostatic repulsions between the like-charged head groups in excess, and the electrostatic free energy of aggregation thus affects the aqueous two-phase separation modes. Composition analysis, rheological property investigation, and TEM images suggest that there are two kinds of aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs). On the basis of these experimental results and Kaler's cell model, two kinds of phase separation modes were proposed. Experimental results also indicate that all of the top phases are surfactant-rich, and all of the bottom phases are surfactant-poor; the density difference between the top phase and the bottom phase in one ATPS is very small; the interfacial tension (σ) of the ATPS is ultralow. PMID:22856887

  8. Charge carrier dynamics and surface plasmon interaction in gold nanorod-blended organic solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Aniket; Gupta, Neeraj; Lochan, Abhiram; Sharma, G. D.; Chand, Suresh; Kumar, Mahesh; Singh, Rajiv K.

    2016-08-01

    The inclusion of plasmonic nanoparticles into organic solar cell enhances the light harvesting properties that lead to higher power conversion efficiency without altering the device configuration. This work defines the consequences of the nanoparticle overloading amount and energy transfer process between gold nanorod and polymer (active matrix) in organic solar cells. We have studied the hole population decay dynamics coupled with gold nanorods loading amount which provides better understanding about device performance limiting factors. The exciton and plasmon together act as an interacting dipole; however, the energy exchange between these two has been elucidated via plasmon resonance energy transfer (PRET) mechanism. Further, the charge species have been identified specifically with respect to their energy levels appearing in ultrafast time domain. The specific interaction of these charge species with respective surface plasmon resonance mode, i.e., exciton to transverse mode of oscillation and polaron pair to longitudinal mode of oscillations, has been explained. Thus, our analysis reveals that PRET enhances the carrier population density in polymer via non-radiative process beyond the concurrence of a particular plasmon resonance oscillation mode and polymer absorption range. These findings give new insight and reveal specifically the factors that enhance and control the performance of gold nanorods blended organic solar cells. This work would lead in the emergence of future plasmon based efficient organic electronic devices.

  9. X-ray spectroscopic study of charge exchange phenomena in plasma-wall interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renner O.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Jets of energetic ions launched at laser-burnt-through foils represent an efficient tool for investigation of plasma interaction with solid surfaces (plasma-wall interaction, PWI and for description of transient phenomena occurring close to the walls. Highly charged ions approaching the secondary target interpenetrate the near surface layer, collide with the counter-propagating matter and capture a large number of electrons. This results in a creation of atoms in highly excited Rydberg states or hollow ions with multiple inner vacancies; plasma jet and target ions may also undergo charge exchange (CE processes. We report PWI experiments with Al/Si(PMMA and Al/C targets irradiated at normal or oblique laser incidence. The distinct dip structures observed in red wings of Al Lyγ self-emission is interpreted in terms of CE between C6+ and Al12+ in the near-wall zone. The spectroscopic identification of CE phenomena is supported by results of analytical and numerical calculations.

  10. Acyl chain length and charge effect on Tamoxifen-lipid model membrane interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilge, Duygu; Kazanci, Nadide; Severcan, Feride

    2013-05-01

    Tamoxifen (TAM), which is an antiestrogenic agent, is widely used during chemotherapy of breast, pancreas, brain and liver cancers. In this study, TAM and model membrane interactions in the form of multilamellar vesicles (MLVs) were studied for lipids containing different acyl chain length and different charge status as a function of different TAM (1, 6, 9 and 15 mol%) concentrations. Zwitterionic lipids namely dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), and dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) lipids were used to see the acyl chain length effect and anionic dipalmitoyl phosphtidylglycerol (DPPG) lipid was used to see the charge effect. For this purpose Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) techniques have been conducted. For zwitterionic lipid, concentration dependent different action of TAM was observed both in the gel and liquid crystalline phases by significantly increasing the lipid order and decreasing the dynamics for 1 mol% TAM, while decreasing the lipid order and increasing the dynamics of the lipids for higher concentrations (6, 9 and 15 mol%). However, different than neutral lipids, the dynamics and disorder of DPPG liposome increased for all TAM concentrations. The interactions between TAM and head group of multilamellar liposomes was monitored by analyzing the Cdbnd O stretching and PO2- antisymmetric double bond stretching bands. Increasing Tamoxifen concentrations led to a dehydration around these functional groups in the polar part of the lipids. DSC studies showed that for all types of lipids, TAM eliminates the pre-transition, shifts the main phase transition to lower temperatures and broadened the phase transition curve. The results indicate that not the acyl chain length but the charge status of the polar head group induces different effects on lipid membranes order and dynamics.

  11. X-Ray Spectroscopy: An Experimental Technique to Measure Charge State Distribution Right at the Ion-Solid Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Prashant

    2015-01-01

    Charge state distributions of $^{56}$Fe and $^{58}$Ni projectile ions passing through thin carbon foils have been studied in the energy range of 1.44 - 2.69 MeV/u using a novel method from the x-ray spectroscopy technique. Interestingly the charge state distribution in the bulk show Lorentzian behavior instead of usual Gaussian distribution. Further, different parameters of charge state distribution like mean charge state, distribution width and asymmetric parameter are determined and compared with the empirical calculations and ETACHA predictions. It is found that the x-ray measurement technique is appropriate to determine the mean charge state right at the interaction zone or in the bulk. Interestingly, empirical formalism predicts much lower projectile mean charge states compare to x-ray measurements which clearly indicate multi-electron capture from the target surface. The ETACHA predictions and experimental results are found to be comparable for energies $\\geq$ 2 MeV/u.

  12. Interacting tilt and kink instabilities in repelling current channels

    CERN Document Server

    Keppens, Rony; Xia, Chun

    2014-01-01

    We present a numerical study in resistive magnetohydrodynamics where the initial equilibrium configuration contains adjacent, oppositely directed, parallel current channels. Since oppositely directed current channels repel, the equilibrium is liable to an ideal magnetohydrodynamic tilt instability. This tilt evolution, previously studied in planar settings, involves two magnetic islands or fluxropes, which on Alfvenic timescales undergo a combined rotation and separation. This in turn leads to the creation of (near) singular current layers, posing severe challenges to numerical approaches. Using our open-source grid-adaptive MPI-AMRVAC software, we revisit the planar evolution case in compressible MHD, as well as its extension to 2.5D and full 3D scenarios. As long as the third dimension remains ignorable, pure tilt evolutions result which are hardly affected by out of plane magnetic field components. In all 2.5D runs, our simulations do show secondary tearing type disruptions throughout the near singular cur...

  13. Unveiling the Mode of Interaction of Berberine Alkaloid in Different Supramolecular Confined Environments: Interplay of Surface Charge between Nano-Confined Charged Layer and DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Niloy; Roy, Arpita; Banik, Debasis; Sarkar, Nilmoni

    2016-02-18

    In this Article, we demonstrate a detailed characterization of binding interaction of berberine chloride (BBCl) with calf-thymus DNA (CT-DNA) in buffer solution as well as in two differently charged reverse micelles (RMs). The photophyscial properties of this alkaloid have been modulated within these microheterogeneous bioassemblies. The mode of binding of this alkaloid with DNA is of debate to date. However, fluorescence spectroscopic measurements, circular dichroism (CD) measurement, and temperature-dependent study unambiguously establish that BBCl partially intercalates into the DNA base pairs. The nonplanarity imposed by partial saturation in their structure causes the nonclassical types of intercalation into DNA. Besides the intercalation, electrostatic interactions also play a significant role in the binding between BBCl and DNA. DNA structure turns into a condensed form after encapsulation into RMs, which is followed by the CD spectra and microscopy study. The probe location and dynamics in the nanopool of the RMs depended on the electrostatic interaction between the charged surfactants and cationic berberine. The structural alteration of CT-DNA from B form to condensed form and the interplay of surface charge between RMs and DNA determine the interaction between the alkaloid and DNA in RMs. Time-resolved study and fluorescence anisotropy measurements successfully provide the binding interaction of BBCl in the nanopool of the RMs in the absence and in the presence of DNA. This study motivates us to judge further the potential applicability of this alkaloid in other biological systems or other biomimicking organized assemblies. PMID:26756221

  14. Measurement of the numu Charged Current pi+ to Quasi-Elastic Cross Section Ratio on Mineral Oil in a 0.8 GeV Neutrino Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linden, Steven K.; /Yale U.

    2011-01-01

    Charged current single pion production (CC{pi}{sup +}) and charged current quasi-elastic scattering (CCQE) are the most abundant interaction types for neutrinos at energies around 1 GeV, a region of great interest to oscillation experiments. The cross-sections for these processes, however, are not well understood in this energy range. This dissertation presents a measurement of the ratio of CC{pi}{sup +} to CCQE cross-sections for muon neutrinos on mineral oil (CH{sub 2}) in the MiniBooNE experiment. The measurement is presented here both with and without corrections for hadronic re-interactions in the target nucleus and is given as a function of neutrino energy in the range 0.4 GeV < E{sub {nu}} < 2.4 GeV. With more than 46,000 CC{pi}{sup +} events collected in MiniBooNE, and with a fractional uncertainty of roughly 11% in the region of highest statistics, this measurement represents a dramatic improvement in statistics and precision over previous CC{pi}{sup +} and CCQE measurements.

  15. Beam space charge effects in high-current cyclotron injector CI-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separated sector cyclotron-injector CI-5 has been studied in the framework of the external injection into phasotron project. The calculations of beam dynamics characteristics of Cyclotron CI-5 for H- beam of 5 MeV energy are presented. Space charge limits (both transverse and longitudinal) have been investigated. Analytical estimations and numerical simulations of particle motion taking into account space charge effects confirm that it is possible to achieve 10 mA in a 5 MeV separated sector H- Cyclotron

  16. Spatially resolved charge-state and current-density distributions at the extraction of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we present our measurements of charge-state and current-density distributions performed in very close vicinity (15 mm) of the extraction of our hexapole geometry electron cyclotron resonance ion source. We achieved a relatively high spatial resolution reducing the aperture of our 3D-movable extraction (puller) electrode to a diameter of only 0.5 mm. Thus, we are able to limit the source of the extracted ion beam to a very small region of the plasma electrode's hole (O = 4 mm) and therefore to a very small region of the neutral plasma sheath. The information about the charge-state distribution and the current density in the plane of the plasma electrode at each particular position is conserved in the ion beam. We determined the total current density distribution at a fixed coaxial distance of only 15 mm to the plasma electrode by remotely moving the small-aperture puller electrode which contained a dedicated Faraday cup (FC) across the aperture of the plasma electrode. In a second measurement we removed the FC and recorded m/q-spectra for the different positions using a sector magnet. From our results we can deduce that different ion charge-states can be grouped into bloated triangles of different sizes and same orientation at the extraction with the current density peaking at centre. This confirms observations from other groups based on simulations and emittance measurements. We present our measurements in detail and discuss possible systematic errors.

  17. Charged histidine affects alpha-helix stability at all positions in the helix by interacting with the backbone charges.

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, K M; Baldwin, R L

    1993-01-01

    To determine whether a charged histidine side chain affects alpha-helix stability only when histidine is close to one end of the helix or also when it is in the central region, we substitute a single histidine residue at many positions in two reference peptides and measure helix stability and histidine pKa. The position of a charged histidine residue has a major effect on helix stability in 0.01 M NaCl: the helix content of a 17-residue peptide is 24% when histidine is at position 3 compared ...

  18. Elastic, excitation, ionization and charge transfer cross sections of current interest in fusion energy research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, D.R.; Krstic, P.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. TN (United States). Physics Div.

    1997-01-01

    Due to the present interest in modeling and diagnosing the edge and divertor plasma regions in magnetically confined fusion devices, we have sought to provide new calculations regarding the elastic, excitation, ionization, and charge transfer cross sections in collisions among relevant ions, neutrals, and isotopes in the low-to intermediate-energy regime. We summarize here some of our recent work. (author)

  19. Supergravity currents and linearized interactions for matrix theory configurations with fermionic backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The leading terms in the long-range interaction potential between an arbitrary pair of matrix theory objects are calculated at one-loop order. This result generalizes previous calculations by including arbitrary fermionic background field configurations. The interaction potential at orders 1/r7 and 1/r8 is shown to correspond precisely with the leading terms expected from linearized supergravity interactions between arbitrary objects in M-theory. General expressions for the stress tensor, membrane current and 5-brane current of an arbitrary matrix configuration are derived, including fermionic contributions. Supergravity effects which are correctly reproduced include membrane/5-brane interactions, 0-brane/6-brane interactions, supercurrent/supercurrent interactions and the spin contributions to moments of the supergravity currents. The matrix theory description of the supergravity stress tensor, membrane current and 5-brane current are used to propose an explicit formulation of matrix theory in an arbitrary background metric and 3-form field. (author)

  20. Parametric study of a high current-density EBIS Charge Breeder regarding Two Stream plasma Instability (TSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shornikov, Andrey; Mertzig, Robert; Breitenfeldt, Martin; Lombardi, Alessandra; Wenander, Fredrik; Pikin, Alexander

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we report on our results from the design study of an advanced Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) based Charge Breeder (ECB). The ECB should fulfill the requirements of the HIE-ISOLDE upgrade, and if possible be adapted for ion injection into TSR@ISOLDE, as well as serve as an early prototype of a future EURISOL ECB. Fulfilling the HIE-ISOLDE/TSR@ISOLDE specifications requires simultaneous increase in electron beam energy, current and current density in order to provide the requested beams with proper charge state, high intensity and with a specified pulse repetition rate. We have carried out a study on the technical requirements of the ECB. The obtained parameters were optimized to comply with technical limitations arising from the electron beam technology and plasma physics in an ECB.