WorldWideScience

Sample records for charged anisotropic matter

  1. New charged anisotropic compact models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kileba Matondo, D.; Maharaj, S. D.

    2016-07-01

    We find new exact solutions to the Einstein-Maxwell field equations which are relevant in the description of highly compact stellar objects. The relativistic star is charged and anisotropic with a quark equation of state. Exact solutions of the field equations are found in terms of elementary functions. It is interesting to note that we regain earlier quark models with uncharged and charged matter distributions. A physical analysis indicates that the matter distributions are well behaved and regular throughout the stellar structure. A range of stellar masses are generated for particular parameter values in the electric field. In particular the observed mass for a binary pulsar is regained.

  2. Hidden Charged Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Jonathan L; Tu, Huitzu; Yu, Hai-Bo

    2009-01-01

    We examine the possibility that dark matter is hidden, that is, neutral under all standard model gauge interactions, but charged under an exact U(1) gauge symmetry of the hidden sector. Such candidates are predicted in simple WIMPless models, supersymmetric models in which hidden dark matter has the desired thermal relic density for a wide range of masses. Hidden charged dark matter has many potentially disastrous implications for astrophysics: (1) bound state formation and Sommerfeld-enhanced annihilation after chemical freeze out may destroy its relic density, (2) similar effects greatly enhance dark matter annihilation in protohalos at redshifts of z ~ 30, (3) Compton scattering off hidden photons delays kinetic decoupling, suppressing small scale structure, and (4) Rutherford scattering makes such dark matter self-interacting and collisional, potentially violating constraints from the Bullet Cluster and the observed morphology of galactic halos. We show that all of these constraints are satisfied and are ...

  3. Make Dark Matter Charged Again

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Prateek; Randall, Lisa; Scholtz, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    We revisit constraints on dark matter that is charged under a $U(1)$ gauge group in the dark sector, decoupled from Standard Model forces. We find that the strongest constraints in the literature are subject to a number of mitigating factors. For instance, the naive dark matter thermalization timescale in halos is corrected by saturation effects that slow down isotropization for modest ellipticities. The weakened bounds uncover interesting parameter space, making models with weak-scale charged dark matter viable, even with electromagnetic strength interaction. This also leads to the intriguing possibility that dark matter self-interactions within small dwarf galaxies are extremely large, a relatively unexplored regime in current simulations. Such strong interactions suppress heat transfer over scales larger than the dark matter mean free path, inducing a dynamical cutoff length scale above which the system appears to have only feeble interactions. These effects must be taken into account to assess the viabili...

  4. (N+2)-Dimensional Anisotropic Charged Fluid Spheres with Pressure: Riccati Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Bijalwan, Naveen

    2011-01-01

    General exact (N+2)-dimensional,n>=2 solutions in general theory of relativity of Einstein-Maxwell field equations for static anisotropic spherically symmetric distribution of charged fluid are expressed in terms of radial pressure. Subsequently, metrics (e(lambda) and e(nu)), matter density and electric intensity are expressible in terms of pressure. We extend the methodology used by Bijalwan (2011a, 2011c, 2011d) for charged and anisotropic fluid. Consequently, radial pressure is found to be an invertible arbitrary function of w(c1+c2r^2), where c1 and c2(non zero) are arbitrary constants, and r is the radius of star, i.e. p=p(w) . We present a general solution for static anisotropic charged pressure fluid in terms for w. We reduce to the problem of finding solutions to anisotropic charged fluid to that of finding solutions to a Riccati equation. Also, these solutions satisfy barotropic equation of state relating the radial pressure to the energy density.

  5. Charged anisotropic superdense stars with constant stability factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton Singh, Ksh; Pant, Neeraj

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we have presented charged anisotropic Vlasenko-Pronin solutions and a new charged anisotropic Schwarzschild interior solution of the general relativistic field equations in curvature coordinates. These exact solutions are stable and well behaved in all respects for a wide range of anisotropy parameter and charge parameter. These new solutions can be used to model charged, anisotropic neutron stars and quark stars whose masses are comparatively heavier. An interesting fact of these solutions is that their stability factors are constants. Also, we have presented a new and first solution where radial pressure is greater than transverse pressure (i.e. ). For a neutral solution it reduces to the Schwarzschild interior solution with constant density. Our charged analogue of the Schwarzschild solution has density decreasing outward to the surface of the star which is necessary for a physical star. The EOSs corresponding to the presented solutions are also studied with their stiffness or softness by comparing their compression moduli. Furthermore, these compression moduli are decreasing outwards from the center. We expect this as the core must be very compact compared to its surface.

  6. Static charged spheres with anisotropic pressure in general relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Krishna Rao; M Annapurna; M M Trivedi

    2000-02-01

    We report a generalization of our earlier formalism [Pramana, 54, 663 (1998)] to obtain exact solutions of Einstein–Maxwell's equations for static spheres filled with a charged fluid having anisotropic pressure and of null conductivity. Defining new variables: = (4/3)(ρ+)2, =4 2, r=4 pr2, ⊥}=4 ⊥2 [ρ,(=-(1/2)1414), r, ⊥ being respectively the energy densities of matter and electrostatic fields, radial and transverse fluid pressures whereas denotes the eigenvalue of the conformal Weyl tensor and interpreted as the energy density of the free gravitational field], we have recast Einstein's field equations into a form easy to integrate. Since the system is underdetermined we make the following assumptions to solve the field equations (i) =r=(2}/2)+2, ⊥=k1r, =2r; 2, (> 0), 1, 2 being constants with =((1+2)/3+2) and (ii) +=(2/2)+2, =r, ⊥-r=, with and as constants. In both cases the field equations are integrated completely. The first solution is regular in the metric as well as physical variables for all values of > 0. Even though the second solution contains terms like /2 since (0) = 0 it is argued that the pressure anisotropy, caused by the electric flux near the centre, can be made to vanish reducing it to the generalized Cooperstock–de la Cruz solution given in [14]. The interior solutions are shown to match with the exterior Reissner–Nordstrom solution over a fixed boundary.

  7. Conformal anisotropic relativistic charged fluid spheres with a linear equation of state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esculpi, M. [Universidad Central de Venezuela, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ingenieria, Caracas (Venezuela); Aloma, E. [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Departamento de Fisica, Caracas (Venezuela)

    2010-06-15

    We obtain two new families of compact solutions for a spherically symmetric distribution of matter consisting of an electrically charged anisotropic fluid sphere joined to the Reissner-Nordstrom static solution through a zero pressure surface. The static inner region also admits a one parameter group of conformal motions. First, to study the effect of the anisotropy in the sense of the pressures of the charged fluid, besides assuming a linear equation of state to hold for the fluid, we consider the tangential pressure p {sub perpendicular} {sub to} to be proportional to the radial pressure p{sub r}, the proportionality factor C measuring the grade of anisotropy. We analyze the resulting charge distribution and the features of the obtained family of solutions. These families of solutions reproduce for the value C=1, the conformal isotropic solution for quark stars, previously obtained by Mak and Harko. The second family of solutions is obtained assuming the electrical charge inside the sphere to be a known function of the radial coordinate. The allowed values of the parameters pertained to these solutions are constrained by the physical conditions imposed. We study the effect of anisotropy in the allowed compactness ratios and in the values of the charge. The Glazer's pulsation equation for isotropic charged spheres is extended to the case of anisotropic and charged fluid spheres in order to study the behavior of the solutions under linear adiabatic radial oscillations. These solutions could model some stage of the evolution of strange quark matter fluid stars. (orig.)

  8. Modelling of Charged anisotropic compact stars with EOS $\\rho=f(p)$

    CERN Document Server

    Maurya, S K

    2016-01-01

    Charged compact star models have been determined for anisotropic fluid distribution. We have solved the Einstein's- Maxwell field equations to construct the charged compact star models by using radial pressure, metric function $e^{\\lambda}$ and electric charge function. The generic charged anisotropic solution is verified by exploring different physical conditions like, causality condition, mass-radius relation and stability of the solution (via. adiabatic index, TOV equations and Herrera cracking concept). It is observed that the present charged anisotropic compact star is compatible with the star PSR 1937+21. However we also presented the EOS $\\rho=f(p)$ for present charged compact star model.

  9. Lattice-Boltzmann hydrodynamics of anisotropic active matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Joost; Menke, Henri; Mathijssen, Arnold J T M; Fabritius, Marc; Holm, Christian; Shendruk, Tyler N

    2016-04-01

    A plethora of active matter models exist that describe the behavior of self-propelled particles (or swimmers), both with and without hydrodynamics. However, there are few studies that consider shape-anisotropic swimmers and include hydrodynamic interactions. Here, we introduce a simple method to simulate self-propelled colloids interacting hydrodynamically in a viscous medium using the lattice-Boltzmann technique. Our model is based on raspberry-type viscous coupling and a force/counter-force formalism, which ensures that the system is force free. We consider several anisotropic shapes and characterize their hydrodynamic multipolar flow field. We demonstrate that shape-anisotropy can lead to the presence of a strong quadrupole and octupole moments, in addition to the principle dipole moment. The ability to simulate and characterize these higher-order moments will prove crucial for understanding the behavior of model swimmers in confining geometries. PMID:27059561

  10. Some new Wyman-Leibovitz-Adler type static relativistic charged anisotropic fluid spheres compatible to self-bound stellar modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murad, Mohammad Hassan [BRAC University, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Fatema, Saba [Daffodil International University, Department of Natural Sciences, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2015-11-15

    In this work some families of relativistic anisotropic charged fluid spheres have been obtained by solving the Einstein-Maxwell field equations with a preferred form of one of the metric potentials, and suitable forms of electric charge distribution and pressure anisotropy functions. The resulting equation of state (EOS) of the matter distribution has been obtained. Physical analysis shows that the relativistic stellar structure for the matter distribution considered in this work may reasonably model an electrically charged compact star whose energy density associated with the electric fields is on the same order of magnitude as the energy density of fluid matter itself (e.g., electrically charged bare strange stars). Furthermore these models permit a simple method of systematically fixing bounds on the maximum possible mass of cold compact electrically charged self-bound stars. It has been demonstrated, numerically, that the maximum compactness and mass increase in the presence of an electric field and anisotropic pressures. Based on the analytic models developed in this present work, the values of some relevant physical quantities have been calculated by assuming the estimated masses and radii of some well-known potential strange star candidates like PSR J1614-2230, PSR J1903+327, Vela X-1, and 4U 1820-30. (orig.)

  11. Anisotropic Open Cosmological Models of Spin Matter with Magnetic Moment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENLi-ming; SUNNai-jiang; 等

    2001-01-01

    We have derived a set of field equations for a Weyssenhoff spin fluid including magnetic interacton among the spinning particles prevailling in spatially homogeneous,but anisotropically cosmological models of Bianchi type V based on Einstein-Cartan theory.We analyze the field equations in three different equations of states specified by p=1(1/3)ρand p=0,The analytical solutions found are non-singular provided that the combined energy arising from matter spin and magnetic interaction among particles overcomes the anisotropy energy in the Universe,We have also deduced that the minimum particle numers for the radiation(p=(1/3)ρ) and matter(p=0) epochs are 1088 and 10108 respectively.the minimum particle number for the state p=ρ is 1096,leading to the conclusion that we must consider the existence of neutrinos and other creation of particles and anti-particles under torsion and strong gravitational field in the early Universe.

  12. Reopening the window on charged dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Chuzhoy, Leonid

    2008-01-01

    We reexamine the limits on charged dark matter particles. We show that if their mass and charge fall in the range 100(q_X/e)^2< m_X < 10^8(q_X/e) TeV, then magnetic fields prevent particles in the halo from entering the galactic disk, while those initially trapped inside are accelerated through the Fermi mechanism and ejected within about 0.1-1 Gyrs. Consequently, previous constraints on charged dark matter based on terrestrial non-observation are invalid within that range. Further, we find that charged massive particles may simultaneously solve several long-standing astrophysical problems, including the underabundance of dwarf galaxies, the shallow density profiles in the cores of the LSB galaxies, the absence of cooling flows in the cores of galaxy clusters, and several others.

  13. Anisotropic matter in cosmology: locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi I and VII o models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, David

    2016-05-01

    We examine the behaviour of homogeneous, anisotropic space-times, specifically the locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi types I and VII o in the presence of anisotropic matter. By finding an appropriate constant of the motion, and transforming the equations of motion we are able to provide exact solutions in the presence of perfect fluids with anisotropic pressures. The solution space covers matter consisting of a single perfect fluid which satisfies the weak energy condition and is rich enough to contain solutions which exhibit behaviour which is qualitatively distinct from the isotropic sector. Thus we find that there is more ‘matter that matters’ close to a homogeneous singularity than the usual stiff fluid. Example metrics are given for cosmologies whose matter sources are magnetic fields, relativistic particles, cosmic strings and domain walls.

  14. Enhanced response and sensitivity of self-corrugated graphene sensors with anisotropic charge distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Seung Yol Jeong; Sooyeon Jeong; Sang Won Lee; Sung Tae Kim; Daeho Kim; Hee Jin Jeong; Joong Tark Han; Kang-Jun Baeg; Sunhye Yang; Mun Seok Jeong; Geon-Woong Lee

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a high-performance molecular sensor using self-corrugated chemically modified graphene as a three dimensional (3D) structure that indicates anisotropic charge distribution. This is capable of room-temperature operation, and, in particular, exhibiting high sensitivity and reversible fast response with equilibrium region. The morphology consists of periodic, “cratered” arrays that can be formed by condensation and evaporation of graphene oxide (GO) solution on interdigitated electr...

  15. Charged Ising Model of Neutron Star Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Hasnaoui, K H O

    2012-01-01

    Background: The inner crust of a neutron star is believed to consist of Coulomb-frustrated complex structures known as "nuclear pasta" that display interesting and unique low-energy dynamics. Purpose: To elucidate the structure and composition of the neutron-star crust as a function of temperature, density, and proton fraction. Methods: A new lattice-gas model, the "Charged-Ising Model" (CIM), is introduced to simulate the behavior of neutron-star matter. Preliminary Monte Carlo simulations on 30^3 lattices are performed for a variety of temperatures, densities, and proton fractions. Results: Results are obtained for the heat capacity, pair-correlation function, and static structure factor for a variety of conditions appropriate to the inner stellar crust. Conclusions: Although relatively simple, the CIM captures the essence of Coulomb frustration that is required to simulate the subtle dynamics of the inner stellar crust. Moreover, the computationally demanding long-range Coulomb interactions have been pre-c...

  16. Dipolar matter-wave solitons in two-dimensional anisotropic discrete lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huaiyu; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Qiang; Shi, Yuhan; Pang, Wei; Li, Yongyao

    2016-05-01

    We numerically demonstrate two-dimensional (2D) matter-wave solitons in the disk-shaped dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) trapped in strongly anisotropic optical lattices (OLs) in a disk's plane. The considered OLs are square lattices which can be formed by interfering two pairs of plane waves with different intensities. The hopping rates of the condensates between two adjacent lattices in the orthogonal directions are different, which gives rise to a linearly anisotropic system. We find that when the polarized orientation of the dipoles is parallel to disk's plane with the same direction, the combined effects of the linearly anisotropy and the nonlocal nonlinear anisotropy strongly influence the formations, as well as the dynamics of the lattice solitons. Particularly, the isotropy-pattern solitons (IPSs) are found when these combined effects reach a balance. Motion, collision, and rotation of the IPSs are also studied in detail by means of systematic simulations. We further find that these IPSs can move freely in the 2D anisotropic discrete system, hence giving rise to an anisotropic effective mass. Four types of collisions between the IPSs are identified. By rotating an external magnetic field up to a critical angular velocity, the IPSs can still remain localized and play as a breather. Finally, the influences from the combined effects between the linear and the nonlocal nonlinear anisotropy with consideration of the contact and/or local nonlinearity are discussed too.

  17. Nuclear charge and neutron radii and nuclear matter: trend analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhard, P -G

    2016-01-01

    Radii of charge and neutron distributions are fundamental nuclear properties. They depend on both nuclear interaction parameters related to the equation of state of infinite nuclear matter and on quantal shell effects, which are strongly impacted by the presence of nuclear surface. In this work, by studying the dependence of charge and neutron radii, and neutron skin, on nuclear matter parameters, we assess different mechanisms that drive nuclear sizes. We apply nuclear density functional theory using a family of Skyrme functionals obtained by means of different optimization protocols targeting specific nuclear properties. By performing the Monte-Carlo sampling of reasonable functionals around the optimal parametrization, we study correlations between nuclear matter paramaters and observables characterizing charge and neutron distributions. We demonstrate the existence of the strong converse relation between the nuclear charge radii and the saturation density of symmetric nuclear matter and also between the n...

  18. An Expanding Locally Anisotropic (ELA) Metric Describing Matter in an Expanding Universe

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, P. Castelo

    2010-01-01

    It is suggested an expanding locally anisotropic metric (ELA) ansatz describing matter in a flat expanding universe which interpolates between the Schwarzschild (SC) metric near point-like central bodies of mass 'M' and the Robertson-Walker (RW) metric for large radial coordinate: 'ds^2=Z(cdt)2 - 1/Z (dr1-(Hr1/c) Z^(alpha/2+1/2)(cdt))^2-r1^2 dOmega', where 'Z=1-U' with 'U=2GM/(c^2r1)', 'G' is the Newton constant, 'c' is the speed of light, 'H=H(t)=\\dot(a)/a' is the time-dependent Hubble rate,...

  19. On the potentiality of the ZnWO{sub 4} anisotropic detectors to measure the directionality of Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappella, F. [Universita di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dip. di Fisica, Rome (Italy); Bernabei, R.; Di Marco, A. [Universita di Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Dip. di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN, Sez. Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome (Italy); Belli, P. [INFN, Sez. Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome (Italy); Caracciolo, V.; Cerulli, R. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Danevich, F.A.; Poda, D.V.; Tretyak, V.I. [MSP, Institute for Nuclear Research, Kyiv (Ukraine); D' Angelo, A. [Universita di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dip. di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN, Sez. Roma, Rome (Italy); Incicchitti, A. [INFN, Sez. Roma, Rome (Italy)

    2013-01-15

    In the anisotropic scintillators the light output and the pulse shape for heavy particles (p, {alpha}, nuclear recoils) depend on the direction with respect to the crystal axes; the response to {gamma}/{beta} radiation is isotropic instead. This feature offers the possibility to study the directionality approach, which is applicable in the particular case of those Dark Matter candidate particles inducing just nuclear recoils. Among the anisotropic scintillators, the ZnWO{sub 4} has unique features, which make it an excellent candidate for this type of research, and there is still plenty of room for the improvement of its performances. In this paper the possibility of a low background pioneer experiment (named ADAMO - Anisotropic detectors for DArk Matter Observation) to exploit deep underground the directionality approach by using anisotropic ZnWO{sub 4} scintillators is discussed. (orig.)

  20. A new class of solutions of anisotropic charged distributions on pseudo-spheroidal spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanpal, B. S.; Thomas, V. O.; Pandya, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    In the present article a new class of exact solutions of Einstein's field equations for charged anisotropic distribution is obtained on the background of pseudo-spheroidal spacetime characterized by the metric potential g_{rr}=1+K {r2/R2}/{1+r2/R2}, where K and R are geometric parameters of the spacetime. The radial pressure pr and electric field intensity E are taken in the form 8π pr=K-1/R2 (1-{r2/R2)}/{ (1+Kr2/R2 )2} and E2=α(K-1){r2/R2}/{R2 (1+Kr2/R2 )2}. The bounds of geometric parameter K and the parameter α appearing in the expression of E2 are obtained by imposing the requirements for a physically acceptable model. It is found that the model is in good agreement with the observational data of number of compact stars like 4U 1820-30, PSR J1903+327, 4U 1608-52, Vela X-1, PSR J1614-2230, Cen X-3 given by Gangopadhyay et al. (Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 431:3216, 2013). When α= 0, the model reduces to the uncharged anisotropic distribution given by Ratanpal et al. (arXiv:1506.08512 [gr-qc], 2015).

  1. Anisotropic pressure effects on the charge order transition of (TMTTF){sub 2}X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasawa, M., E-mail: nagasawa@chiba.dendai.ac.j [Department of Physics, Tokyo Denki University (Japan); Department of Green and Sustainable Chemistry, Tokyo Denki University (Japan); Nagasawa, T. [Department of Green and Sustainable Chemistry, Tokyo Denki University (Japan); Ichimura, K. [Division of Applied Physics, Hokkaido University (Japan); Nomura, K. [Division of Physics, Hokkaido University (Japan)

    2010-06-01

    We measured the conductivity along the a-direction {sigma}{sub a}(T) of the quasi one-dimensional organic conductor (TMTTF){sub 2}SbF{sub 6} under several anisotropic pressures of uniaxial strains which are parallel and perpendicular to the a-direction. The uniaxial strains were generated by so-called 'Frozen oil method'. It was found that the tendencies of the uniaxial strain dependence of the conductivity and the charge order (CO) transition temperature T{sub CO} are different. According to T{sub CO}, it decreases strongly with increasing uniaxial strain parallel to the a-direction; however, it is almost constant for that perpendicular to the a-direction. We discuss the effects of compressive uniaxial strains on the conductivity and the CO transition of (TMTTF){sub 2}SbF{sub 6}.

  2. Enhanced response and sensitivity of self-corrugated graphene sensors with anisotropic charge distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yol Jeong, Seung; Jeong, Sooyeon; Won Lee, Sang; Tae Kim, Sung; Kim, Daeho; Jin Jeong, Hee; Tark Han, Joong; Baeg, Kang-Jun; Yang, Sunhye; Seok Jeong, Mun; Lee, Geon-Woong

    2015-06-01

    We introduce a high-performance molecular sensor using self-corrugated chemically modified graphene as a three dimensional (3D) structure that indicates anisotropic charge distribution. This is capable of room-temperature operation, and, in particular, exhibiting high sensitivity and reversible fast response with equilibrium region. The morphology consists of periodic, “cratered” arrays that can be formed by condensation and evaporation of graphene oxide (GO) solution on interdigitated electrodes. Subsequent hydrazine reduction, the corrugated edge area of the graphene layers have a high electric potential compared with flat graphene films. This local accumulation of electrons interacts with a large number of gas molecules. The sensitivity of 3D-graphene sensors significantly increases in the atmosphere of NO2 gas. The intriguing structures have several advantages for straightforward fabrication on patterned substrates, high-performance graphene sensors without post-annealing process.

  3. In Granular Charging, Does Size Really Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Theodore; Mattson, Gregory; Shinbrot, Troy

    2014-03-01

    Spontaneous charging in systems of particles, causing particle separation and electrical discharges, is commonly observed in pharmaceutical powder beds, sandstorms and natural dust plumes. Previous studies have attributed size difference or external factors such as wind or an outside electric field as the primary driving force behind such large scale charging. In this talk we discuss experimental results showing that systems of uniformly sized particles with no external field still exhibit net polarization and charging buildup. We also present computational results modeled from a variation of Dyson's Ising model, which validates this behavior and predicts new types of phenomena.

  4. Charge diffusion and the butterfly effect in striped holographic matter

    CERN Document Server

    Lucas, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it has been proposed that the butterfly velocity - a speed at which quantum information propagates - may provide a fundamental bound on diffusion constants in dirty incoherent metals. We analytically compute the charge diffusion constant and the butterfly velocity in charge-neutral holographic matter with long wavelength "hydrodynamic" disorder in a single spatial direction. In this limit, we find that the butterfly velocity does not set a sharp lower bound for the charge diffusion constant.

  5. An Expanding Locally Anisotropic (ELA) Metric Describing Matter in an Expanding Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, P Castelo

    2010-01-01

    It is suggested an expanding locally anisotropic metric (ELA) ansatz describing matter in a flat expanding universe which interpolates between the Schwarzschild (SC) metric near point-like central bodies of mass 'M' and the Robertson-Walker (RW) metric for large radial coordinate: 'ds^2=Z(cdt)2 - 1/Z (dr1-(Hr1/c) Z^(alpha/2+1/2)(cdt))^2-r1^2 dOmega', where 'Z=1-U' with 'U=2GM/(c^2r1)', 'G' is the Newton constant, 'c' is the speed of light, 'H=H(t)=\\dot(a)/a' is the time-dependent Hubble rate, 'dOmega=dtheta^2+sin^2(theta) dvarphi^2' is the solid angle element, 'a' is the universe scale factor and we are employing the coordinates 'r1=ar', being 'r' the radial coordinate for which the RW metric is diagonal. For constant exponent 'alpha=alpha0=0' it is retrieved the isotropic McVittie (McV) metric and for 'alpha=alpha0=1' it is retrieved the locally anisotropic Cosmological-Schwarzschild (SCS) metric, both already discussed in the literature. However it is shown that only for constant exponent 'alpha=alpha0> 1' ...

  6. Cosmological Implications of Trace-Charged Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Morgan, Jason P

    2016-01-01

    Trace charge imbalances can explain puzzling cosmological observations such as the large `missing' fraction of electrons in cosmic rays and their contrast to the charge-neutral solar wind, the extreme energy sources that sustain quasars, galactic jets, and active galactic nuclei, the origin and nature of `dark matter' galaxy haloes, and the apparent acceleration of the expansion of the Universe, obviating $\\Lambda$CDM. When there are $\\sim \

  7. The accretion of dark matter subhaloes within the cosmic web: primordial anisotropic distribution and its universality

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Xi

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of galaxies displays anisotropy on different scales and it is often referred as galaxy alignment. To understand the origin of galaxy alignments on small scales, one must investigate how galaxies were accreted in the early universe and quantify their primordial anisotropic at the time of accretion. In this paper we use N-body simulations to investigate the accretion of dark matter subhaloes, focusing on their alignment with the host halo shape and the orientation of mass distribution on large scale, defined using the hessian matrix of the density field. The large/small (e1/e3) eigenvalues of the hessian matrix define the fast/slow collapse direction of dark matter on large scale. We find that: 1) the halo major axis is well aligned with the e3 (slow collapse) direction, and it is stronger for massive haloes; 2) subhaloes are predominately accreted along the major axis of the host halo, and the alignment increases with the host halo mass. Most importantly, this alignment is universal; 3) accret...

  8. Mass, Matter, Materialization, Mattergenesis and Conservation of Charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsan, Ung Chan

    2013-05-01

    Conservation of mass in classical physics and in chemistry is considered to be equivalent to conservation of matter and is a necessary condition together with other universal conservation laws to account for observed experiments. Indeed matter conservation is associated to conservation of building blocks (molecules, atoms, nucleons, quarks and leptons). Matter is massive but mass and matter are two distinct concepts even if conservation of mass and conservation of matter represent the same reality in classical physics and chemistry. Conservation of mass is a consequence of conservation of atoms. Conservation of mass is valid because in these cases it is a very good approximation, the variation of mass being tiny and undetectable by weighing. However, nuclear physics and particle physics clearly show that conservation of mass is not valid to express conservation of matter. Mass is one form of energy, is a positive quantity and plays a fundamental role in dynamics allowing particles to be accelerated. Origin of mass may be linked to recently discovered Higgs bosons. Matter conservation means conservation of baryonic number A and leptonic number L, A and L being algebraic numbers. Positive A and L are associated to matter particles, negative A and L are associated to antimatter particles. All known interactions do conserve matter thus could not generate, from pure energy, a number of matter particles different from that of number of antimatter particles. But our universe is material and neutral, this double message has to be deciphered simultaneously. Asymmetry of our universe demands an interaction which violates matter conservation but obeys all universal conservation laws, in particular conservation of electric charge Q. Expression of Q shows that conservation of (A-L) and total flavor TF are necessary and sufficient to conserve Q. Conservation of A and L is indeed a trivial case of conservation of (A-L) and is valid for all known interactions of the standard model

  9. Mass, matter, materialization, mattergenesis and conservation of charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conservation of mass in classical physics and in chemistry is considered to be equivalent to conservation of matter and is a necessary condition together with other universal conservation laws to account for observed experiments. Indeed matter conservation is associated to conservation of building blocks (molecules, atoms, nucleons, quarks and leptons). Matter is massive but mass and matter are two distinct concepts even if conservation of mass and conservation of matter represent the same reality in classical physics and chemistry. Conservation of mass is a consequence of conservation of atoms. Conservation of mass is valid because in these cases it is a very good approximation, the variation of mass being tiny and undetectable by weighing. However, nuclear physics and particle physics clearly show that conservation of mass is not valid to express conservation of matter. Mass is one form of energy, is a positive quantity and plays a fundamental role in dynamics allowing particles to be accelerated. Origin of mass may be linked to recently discovered Higgs bosons. Matter conservation means conservation of baryonic number A and leptonic number L, A and L being algebraic numbers. Positive A and L are associated to matter particles, negative A and L are associated to antimatter particles. All known interactions do conserve matter thus could not generate, from pure energy, a number of matter particles different from that of number of antimatter particles. But our universe is material and neutral, this double message has to be deciphered simultaneously. Asymmetry of our universe demands an interaction which violates matter conservation but obeys all universal conservation laws, in particular conservation of electric charge Q. Expression of Q shows that conservation of (A–L) and total flavor TF are necessary and sufficient to conserve Q. Conservation of A and L is indeed a trivial case of conservation of (A–L) and is valid for all known interactions of the standard

  10. Interaction between charged anisotropic macromolecules: Application to rod-like polyelectrolytes

    OpenAIRE

    Chapot, David; Bocquet, Lydéric; Trizac, Emmanuel

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we propose a framework allowing to compute the effective interactions between two anisotropic macromolecules, thereby generalizing the DLVO theory to non spherical finite size colloids. We show in particular that the effective interaction potential remains anisotropic at all distances and provide an expression for the anisotropy factor. We then apply this framework to the case of finite rod-like polyelectrolytes. The calculation of the interaction energy requires the numerical c...

  11. Order-disorder transition of vortex matter in Mg{sub 0.9}B{sub 2}: anisotropic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, A A M; Ortiz, W A [Grupo de Supercondutividade e Magnetismo, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Sharma, P A; Hur, N; Cheong, S-W, E-mail: ana@df.ufscar.b, E-mail: ana@df.ufscar.b [Rutgers Center for Emergent Materials and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, NJ (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Third-harmonic susceptibility studies have been employed to probe the order-disorder transition of Vortex Matter of a magnesium-deficient sample of MgB{sub 2}. Our results reveal that the measured threshold is anisotropic for different orientations of the applied magnetic field, suggesting that the pinning efficiency of the magnesium-deficient regions depend on the orientation of the penetrated vortices.

  12. Interaction of low-energy highly charged ions with matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thesis presented herein deals with experimental studies of the interaction between highly charged ions and neutral matter at low collision energies. The energy range investigated is of great interest for the understanding of both charge exchange reactions between ions comprising the solar wind and various astrophysical gases, as well as the creation of near-surface nanostructures. Over the course of this thesis an experimental setup was constructed, capable of reducing the kinetic energy of incoming ions by two orders of magnitude and finally focussing the decelerated ion beam onto a solid or gaseous target. A coincidence method was employed for the simultaneous detection of photons emitted during the charge exchange process together with the corresponding projectile ions. In this manner, it was possible to separate reaction channels, whose superposition presumably propagated large uncertainties and systematic errors in previous measurements. This work has unveiled unexpectedly strong contributions of slow radiative decay channels and clear evidence of previously only postulated decay processes in charge exchange-induced X-ray spectra. (orig.)

  13. An anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive model of brain white matter in biaxial tension and structural-mechanical relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labus, Kevin M; Puttlitz, Christian M

    2016-09-01

    Computational models of the brain require accurate and robust constitutive models to characterize the mechanical behavior of brain tissue. The anisotropy of white matter has been previously demonstrated; however, there is a lack of data describing the effects of multi-axial loading, even though brain tissue experiences multi-axial stress states. Therefore, a biaxial tensile experiment was designed to more fully characterize the anisotropic behavior of white matter in a quasi-static loading state, and the mechanical data were modeled with an anisotropic hyperelastic continuum model. A probabilistic analysis was used to quantify the uncertainty in model predictions because the mechanical data of brain tissue can show a high degree of variability, and computational studies can benefit from reporting the probability distribution of model responses. The axonal structure in white matter can be heterogeneous and regionally dependent, which can affect computational model predictions. Therefore, corona radiata and corpus callosum regions were tested, and histology and transmission electron microscopy were performed on tested specimens to relate the distribution of axon orientations and the axon volume fraction to the mechanical behavior. These measured properties were implemented into a structural constitutive model. Results demonstrated a significant, but relatively low anisotropic behavior, yet there were no conclusive mechanical differences between the two regions tested. The inclusion of both biaxial and uniaxial tests in model fits improved the accuracy of model predictions. The mechanical anisotropy of individual specimens positively correlated with the measured axon volume fraction, and, accordingly, the structural model exhibited slightly decreased uncertainty in model predictions compared to the model without structural properties. PMID:27214689

  14. An anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive model of brain white matter in biaxial tension and structural-mechanical relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labus, Kevin M; Puttlitz, Christian M

    2016-09-01

    Computational models of the brain require accurate and robust constitutive models to characterize the mechanical behavior of brain tissue. The anisotropy of white matter has been previously demonstrated; however, there is a lack of data describing the effects of multi-axial loading, even though brain tissue experiences multi-axial stress states. Therefore, a biaxial tensile experiment was designed to more fully characterize the anisotropic behavior of white matter in a quasi-static loading state, and the mechanical data were modeled with an anisotropic hyperelastic continuum model. A probabilistic analysis was used to quantify the uncertainty in model predictions because the mechanical data of brain tissue can show a high degree of variability, and computational studies can benefit from reporting the probability distribution of model responses. The axonal structure in white matter can be heterogeneous and regionally dependent, which can affect computational model predictions. Therefore, corona radiata and corpus callosum regions were tested, and histology and transmission electron microscopy were performed on tested specimens to relate the distribution of axon orientations and the axon volume fraction to the mechanical behavior. These measured properties were implemented into a structural constitutive model. Results demonstrated a significant, but relatively low anisotropic behavior, yet there were no conclusive mechanical differences between the two regions tested. The inclusion of both biaxial and uniaxial tests in model fits improved the accuracy of model predictions. The mechanical anisotropy of individual specimens positively correlated with the measured axon volume fraction, and, accordingly, the structural model exhibited slightly decreased uncertainty in model predictions compared to the model without structural properties.

  15. Exact Propagator for the Anisotropic Two-Dimensional Charged Harmonic Oscillator in a Constant Magnetic Field and an Arbitrary Electric Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Zhi-Yuan; YANG Tao; PAN Xiao-Yin

    2012-01-01

    The propagator for an anisotropic two-dimension charged harmonic oscillator in the presence of a constant external magnetic field and a time-dependent electric field is exactly evaluated. Various special cases appearing in the literature can be obtained by properly setting the values of the parameters in our results.%The propagator for an anisotropic two-dimension charged harmonic oscillator in the presence of a constant external magnetic field and a time-dependent electric field is exactly evaluated.Various special cases appearing in the literature can be obtained by properly setting the values of the parameters in our results.

  16. Anisotropic Flow of Charged Particles in Pb-Pb Collisions at √[s{NN}]=5.02 TeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, J; Adamová, D; Aggarwal, M M; Aglieri Rinella, G; Agnello, M; Agrawal, N; Ahammed, Z; Ahmad, S; Ahn, S U; Aiola, S; Akindinov, A; Alam, S N; Albuquerque, D S D; Aleksandrov, D; Alessandro, B; Alexandre, D; Alfaro Molina, R; Alici, A; Alkin, A; Almaraz, J R M; Alme, J; Alt, T; Altinpinar, S; Altsybeev, I; Alves Garcia Prado, C; Andrei, C; Andronic, A; Anguelov, V; Antičić, T; Antinori, F; Antonioli, P; Aphecetche, L; Appelshäuser, H; Arcelli, S; Arnaldi, R; Arnold, O W; Arsene, I C; Arslandok, M; Audurier, B; Augustinus, A; Averbeck, R; Azmi, M D; Badalà, A; Baek, Y W; Bagnasco, S; Bailhache, R; Bala, R; Balasubramanian, S; Baldisseri, A; Baral, R C; Barbano, A M; Barbera, R; Barile, F; Barnaföldi, G G; Barnby, L S; Barret, V; Bartalini, P; Barth, K; Bartke, J; Bartsch, E; Basile, M; Bastid, N; Basu, S; Bathen, B; Batigne, G; Batista Camejo, A; Batyunya, B; Batzing, P C; Bearden, I G; Beck, H; Bedda, C; Behera, N K; Belikov, I; Bellini, F; Bello Martinez, H; Bellwied, R; Belmont, R; Belmont-Moreno, E; Belyaev, V; Benacek, P; Bencedi, G; Beole, S; Berceanu, I; Bercuci, A; Berdnikov, Y; Berenyi, D; Bertens, R A; Berzano, D; Betev, L; Bhasin, A; Bhat, I R; Bhati, A K; Bhattacharjee, B; Bhom, J; Bianchi, L; Bianchi, N; Bianchin, C; Bielčík, J; Bielčíková, J; Bilandzic, A; Biro, G; Biswas, R; Biswas, S; Bjelogrlic, S; Blair, J T; Blau, D; Blume, C; Bock, F; Bogdanov, A; Bøggild, H; Boldizsár, L; Bombara, M; Book, J; Borel, H; Borissov, A; Borri, M; Bossú, F; Botta, E; Bourjau, C; Braun-Munzinger, P; Bregant, M; Breitner, T; Broker, T A; Browning, T A; Broz, M; Brucken, E J; Bruna, E; Bruno, G E; Budnikov, D; Buesching, H; Bufalino, S; Buncic, P; Busch, O; Buthelezi, Z; Butt, J B; Buxton, J T; Cabala, J; Caffarri, D; Cai, X; Caines, H; Calero Diaz, L; Caliva, A; Calvo Villar, E; Camerini, P; Carena, F; Carena, W; Carnesecchi, F; Castillo Castellanos, J; Castro, A J; Casula, E A R; Ceballos Sanchez, C; Cepila, J; Cerello, P; Cerkala, J; Chang, B; Chapeland, S; Chartier, M; Charvet, J L; Chattopadhyay, S; Chattopadhyay, S; Chauvin, A; Chelnokov, V; Cherney, M; Cheshkov, C; Cheynis, B; Chibante Barroso, V; Chinellato, D D; Cho, S; Chochula, P; Choi, K; Chojnacki, M; Choudhury, S; Christakoglou, P; Christensen, C H; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, S U; Cicalo, C; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Cleymans, J; Colamaria, F; Colella, D; Collu, A; Colocci, M; Conesa Balbastre, G; Conesa Del Valle, Z; Connors, M E; Contreras, J G; Cormier, T M; Corrales Morales, Y; Cortés Maldonado, I; Cortese, P; Cosentino, M R; Costa, F; Crochet, P; Cruz Albino, R; Cuautle, E; Cunqueiro, L; Dahms, T; Dainese, A; Danisch, M C; Danu, A; Das, D; Das, I; Das, S; Dash, A; Dash, S; De, S; De Caro, A; de Cataldo, G; de Conti, C; de Cuveland, J; De Falco, A; De Gruttola, D; De Marco, N; De Pasquale, S; Deisting, A; Deloff, A; Dénes, E; Deplano, C; Dhankher, P; Di Bari, D; Di Mauro, A; Di Nezza, P; Diaz Corchero, M A; Dietel, T; Dillenseger, P; Divià, R; Djuvsland, Ø; Dobrin, A; Domenicis Gimenez, D; Dönigus, B; Dordic, O; Drozhzhova, T; Dubey, A K; Dubla, A; Ducroux, L; Dupieux, P; Ehlers, R J; Elia, D; Endress, E; Engel, H; Epple, E; Erazmus, B; Erdemir, I; Erhardt, F; Espagnon, B; Estienne, M; Esumi, S; Eum, J; Evans, D; Evdokimov, S; Eyyubova, G; Fabbietti, L; Fabris, D; Faivre, J; Fantoni, A; Fasel, M; Feldkamp, L; Feliciello, A; Feofilov, G; Ferencei, J; Fernández Téllez, A; Ferreiro, E G; Ferretti, A; Festanti, A; Feuillard, V J G; Figiel, J; Figueredo, M A S; Filchagin, S; Finogeev, D; Fionda, F M; Fiore, E M; Fleck, M G; Floris, M; Foertsch, S; Foka, P; Fokin, S; Fragiacomo, E; Francescon, A; Frankenfeld, U; Fronze, G G; Fuchs, U; Furget, C; Furs, A; Fusco Girard, M; Gaardhøje, J J; Gagliardi, M; Gago, A M; Gallio, M; Gangadharan, D R; Ganoti, P; Gao, C; Garabatos, C; Garcia-Solis, E; Gargiulo, C; Gasik, P; Gauger, E F; Germain, M; Gheata, A; Gheata, M; Ghosh, P; Ghosh, S K; Gianotti, P; Giubellino, P; Giubilato, P; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Glässel, P; Goméz Coral, D M; Gomez Ramirez, A; Gonzalez, A S; Gonzalez, V; González-Zamora, P; Gorbunov, S; Görlich, L; Gotovac, S; Grabski, V; Grachov, O A; Graczykowski, L K; Graham, K L; Grelli, A; Grigoras, A; Grigoras, C; Grigoriev, V; Grigoryan, A; Grigoryan, S; Grinyov, B; Grion, N; Gronefeld, J M; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J F; Grosso, R; Guber, F; Guernane, R; Guerzoni, B; Gulbrandsen, K; Gunji, T; Gupta, A; Gupta, R; Haake, R; Haaland, Ø; Hadjidakis, C; Haiduc, M; Hamagaki, H; Hamar, G; Hamon, J C; Harris, J W; Harton, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayashi, S; Heckel, S T; Hellbär, E; Helstrup, H; Herghelegiu, A; Herrera Corral, G; Hess, B A; Hetland, K F; Hillemanns, H; Hippolyte, B; Horak, D; Hosokawa, R; Hristov, P; Humanic, T J; Hussain, N; Hussain, T; Hutter, D; Hwang, D S; Ilkaev, R; Inaba, M; Incani, E

    2016-04-01

    We report the first results of elliptic (v_{2}), triangular (v_{3}), and quadrangular (v_{4}) flow of charged particles in Pb-Pb collisions at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of sqrt[s_{NN}]=5.02  TeV with the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The measurements are performed in the central pseudorapidity region |η|<0.8 and for the transverse momentum range 0.2anisotropic flow is measured using two-particle correlations with a pseudorapidity gap greater than one unit and with the multiparticle cumulant method. Compared to results from Pb-Pb collisions at sqrt[s_{NN}]=2.76  TeV, the anisotropic flow coefficients v_{2}, v_{3}, and v_{4} are found to increase by (3.0±0.6)%, (4.3±1.4)%, and (10.2±3.8)%, respectively, in the centrality range 0%-50%. This increase can be attributed mostly to an increase of the average transverse momentum between the two energies. The measurements are found to be compatible with hydrodynamic model calculations. This comparison provides a unique opportunity to test the validity of the hydrodynamic picture and the power to further discriminate between various possibilities for the temperature dependence of shear viscosity to entropy density ratio of the produced matter in heavy-ion collisions at the highest energies.

  17. Anisotropic transport and optical spectroscopy study on antiferromagnetic triangular lattice EuCd2As2 : An interplay between magnetism and charge transport properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. P.; Wu, D. S.; Shi, Y. G.; Wang, N. L.

    2016-07-01

    We present anisotropic transport and optical spectroscopy studies on EuCd2As2 . The measurements reveal that EuCd2As2 is a low carrier density semimetal with moderate anisotropic resistivity ratio. The charge carriers experience very strong scattering from Eu magnetic moments, resulting in a Kondo-like increase of resistivity at low temperature. Below the antiferromagnetic transition temperature at TN=9.5 K, the resistivity drops sharply due to the reduced scattering from the ordered Eu moments. Nevertheless, the anisotropic ratio of ρc/ρa b keeps increasing, suggesting that the antiferromagnetic coupling is along the c axis. The optical spectroscopy measurement further reveals, besides an overdamped reflectance plasma edge at low energy, a strong coupling between phonon and electronic continuum. Our study suggests that EuCd2As2 is a promising candidate displaying intriguing interplay among charge, magnetism, and the underlying crystal lattice.

  18. Charge Asymmetric Cosmic Rays as a probe of Flavor Violating Asymmetric Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masina, Isabella; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    The recently introduced cosmic sum rules combine the data from PAMELA and Fermi-LAT cosmic ray experiments in a way that permits to neatly investigate whether the experimentally observed lepton excesses violate charge symmetry. One can in a simple way determine universal properties of the unknown...... component of the cosmic rays. Here we attribute a potential charge asymmetry to the dark sector. In particular we provide models of asymmetric dark matter able to produce charge asymmetric cosmic rays. We consider spin zero, spin one and spin one-half decaying dark matter candidates. We show that lepton...... flavor violation and asymmetric dark matter are both required to have a charge asymmetry in the cosmic ray lepton excesses. Therefore, an experimental evidence of charge asymmetry in the cosmic ray lepton excesses implies that dark matter is asymmetric....

  19. Anisotropic charge carrier mobilities in bulk silicon at high electric fields

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Julian; Klanner, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The mobility of electrons and holes in silicon depends on many parameters. Two of them are the electric field and the temperature. It has been observed previously that the mobility in the transition region between ohmic transport and saturation velocities is a function of the orientation of the crystal lattice. This paper presents a new set of parameters for the mobility as function of temperature and electric field for $$ and $$ crystal orientation. These parameters are derived from time of flight measurements of drifting charge carriers in planar p$^+$nn$^+$ diodes in the temperature range between -30$^\\circ$C and 50$^\\circ$C and electric fields of 2$\\times$10$^3$~V/cm to 2$\\times$10$^4$~V/cm.

  20. Light-driven dynamic Archimedes spirals and periodic oscillatory patterns of topological solitons in anisotropic soft matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Angel; Smalyukh, Ivan I

    2015-02-23

    Oscillatory and excitable systems commonly exhibit formation of dynamic non-equilibrium patterns. For example, rotating spiral patterns are observed in biological, chemical, and physical systems ranging from organization of slime mold cells to Belousov-Zhabotinsky reactions, and to crystal growth from nuclei with screw dislocations. Here we describe spontaneous formation of spiral waves and a large variety of other dynamic patterns in anisotropic soft matter driven by low-intensity light. The unstructured ambient or microscope light illumination of thin liquid crystal films in contact with a self-assembled azobenzene monolayer causes spontaneous formation, rich spatial organization, and dynamics of twisted domains and topological solitons accompanied by the dynamic patterning of azobenzene group orientations within the monolayer. Linearly polarized incident light interacts with the twisted liquid crystalline domains, mimicking their dynamics and yielding patterns in the polarization state of transmitted light, which can be transformed to similar dynamic patterns in its intensity and interference color. This shows that the delicate light-soft-matter interaction can yield complex self-patterning of both. We uncover underpinning physical mechanisms and discuss potential uses. PMID:25836496

  1. Anisotropic universe with anisotropic sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aluri, Pavan K.; Panda, Sukanta; Sharma, Manabendra; Thakur, Snigdha, E-mail: aluri@iucaa.ernet.in, E-mail: sukanta@iiserb.ac.in, E-mail: manabendra@iiserb.ac.in, E-mail: snigdha@iiserb.ac.in [Department of Physics, IISER Bhopal, Bhopal - 462023 (India)

    2013-12-01

    We analyze the state space of a Bianchi-I universe with anisotropic sources. Here we consider an extended state space which includes null geodesics in this background. The evolution equations for all the state observables are derived. Dynamical systems approach is used to study the evolution of these equations. The asymptotic stable fixed points for all the evolution equations are found. We also check our analytic results with numerical analysis of these dynamical equations. The evolution of the state observables are studied both in cosmic time and using a dimensionless time variable. Then we repeat the same analysis with a more realistic scenario, adding the isotropic (dust like dark) matter and a cosmological constant (dark energy) to our anisotropic sources, to study their co-evolution. The universe now approaches a de Sitter space asymptotically dominated by the cosmological constant. The cosmic microwave background anisotropy maps due to shear are also generated in this scenario, assuming that the universe contains anisotropic matter along with the usual (dark) matter and vacuum (dark) energy since decoupling. We find that they contribute dominantly to the CMB quadrupole. We also constrain the current level of anisotropy and also search for any cosmic preferred axis present in the data. We use the Union 2 Supernovae data to this extent. An anisotropy axis close to the mirror symmetry axis seen in the cosmic microwave background data from Planck probe is found.

  2. Electromagnetic Effects on Cracking of Anisotropic Polytropes

    CERN Document Server

    Sharif, M

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the electromagnetic effects on stability of spherically symmetric anisotropic fluid distribution satisfying two polytropic equations of state and construct the corresponding generalized Tolman Oppenheimer Volkoff equations. We apply perturbations on matter variables via polytropic constant as well as polytropic index and formulate the force distribution function. It is found that the compact object is stable for feasible choice of perturbed polytropic index in the presence of charge.

  3. Conductivities in an anisotropic medium

    CERN Document Server

    Khimphun, Sunly; Park, Chanyong

    2016-01-01

    In order to imitate anisotropic medium of a condensed matter system, we take into account an Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton-axion model as a dual gravity theory where the anisotropy is caused by different momentum relaxations. This gravity model allows an anisotropic charged black hole solution. On this background, we investigate how the linear responses of vector modes like electric, thermoelectric, and thermal conductivities rely on the anisotropy. We find that the electric conductivity in low frequency limit shows a Drude peak and that in the intermediate frequency regime it reveals the power law behavior. Especially, when the anisotropy increases the exponent of the power law becomes smaller. In addition, we find that there exist a critical value for the anisotropy at which the DC conductivity reaches to its maximum value.

  4. Baryon number conservation and enforced electric charge neutrality for bulk viscosity in quark matter

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Hui; Su, Nan; Wang, Qun

    2007-01-01

    General constraints on fluid velocity divergences for particles in quark matter are derived from baryon number conservation and enforced electric charge neutrality. A new oscillation pattern in three-flavor normal quark matter satisfying these conditions is found and its bulk viscosity is calculated. The result may have astrophysical implication for maximum rotation frequencies of compact stars.

  5. Dark matter indirect detection with charged cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overwhelming evidence for the existence of Dark Matter (DM), in the form of an unknown particle filling the galactic halos, originates from many observations in astrophysics and cosmology: its gravitational effects are apparent on galactic rotations, in galaxy clusters and in shaping the large scale structure of the Universe. On the other hand, a non-gravitational manifestation of its presence is yet to be unveiled. One of the most promising techniques is the one of indirect detection, aimed at identifying excesses in cosmic ray fluxes which could possibly be produced by DM annihilations or decays in the Milky Way halo. The current experimental efforts mainly focus in the GeV to TeV energy range, which is also where signals from WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles) are expected. Focussing on charged cosmic rays, in particular antiprotons, electrons and positrons, as well as their secondary emissions, an analysis of current and foreseen cosmic ray measurements and improvements on astrophysical models are presented. Antiproton data from PAMELA imposes constraints on annihilating and decaying DM which are similar to (or even slightly stronger than) the most stringent bounds from gamma ray experiments, even when kinetic energies below 10 GeV are discarded. However, choosing different sets of astrophysical parameters, in the form of propagation models and halo profiles, allows the constraints to span over one or two orders of magnitude. In order to exploit fully the power of antiprotons to constrain or discover DM, effects which were previously perceived as sub-leading turn out to be relevant especially for the analysis of the newly released AMS-02 data. In fact, including energy losses, diffusive re-acceleration and solar modulation can somewhat modify the current bounds, even at large DM masses. A wrong interpretation of the data may arise if they are not taken into account. Finally, using the updated proton and helium fluxes just released by the AMS-02

  6. Charge equilibrium of a laser-generated carbon-ion beam in warm dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using ion carbon beams generated by high intensity short pulse lasers we perform measurements of single shot mean charge equilibration in cold or isochorically heated solid density aluminum matter. We demonstrate that plasma effects in such matter heated up to 1 eV do not significantly impact the equilibration of carbon ions with energies 0.045-0.5 MeV/nucleon. Furthermore, these measurements allow for a first evaluation of semiempirical formulas or ab initio models that are being used to predict the mean of the equilibrium charge state distribution for light ions passing through warm dense matter. (authors)

  7. Three Dimensional Charged Black Hole Inspired by Noncommutative Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Larranaga, Alexis

    2010-01-01

    We find a new charged black hole in three-dimensional anti-de Sitter space using an anisotropic perfect fluid inspired by the noncommutative black hole as the source of matter and a gaussian distribution of electric charge. We deduce the thermodynamical quantities of this black hole and compare them with those of a charged BTZ solution.

  8. Cold Dark Matter and Preon Model with Preonic Charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senju, H.

    1988-06-01

    In our model a weakly-interacting massive stable particle l_{S}(e) exists. It is examined whether l_{S}(e) can be a candidate of the cold dark matter in the universe. Proton decay and the baryon asymmetry in the universe are also discussed.

  9. The Accretion of Dark Matter Subhalos within the Cosmic Web: Primordial Anisotropic Distribution and its Universality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Xi; Wang, Peng

    2015-11-01

    The distribution of galaxies displays anisotropy on different scales and it is often referred to as galaxy alignment. To understand the origin of galaxy alignments on small scales, one must investigate how galaxies were accreted in the early universe and quantify their primordial anisotropy at the time of accretion. In this paper we use N-body simulations to investigate the accretion of subhalos, focusing on their alignment with halo shape and the orientation of mass distribution on the large scale, defined using the Hessian matrix of the density field. The large/small (e1/e3) eigenvalues of the Hessian matrix define the fast/slow collapse direction of matter on the large scale. We find that: (1) the halo major axis is well aligned with the e3 (slow collapse) direction, and it is stronger for massive halos; (2) subhalos are predominantly accreted along the major axis of the host halo, and the alignment increases with the host halo mass. Most importantly, this alignment is universal; (3) accretion of subhalos with respect to the e3 direction is not universal. In massive halos, subhalos are accreted along the e3 (even more strongly than the alignment with the halo major axis), but in low-mass halos subhalos are accreted perpendicular to e3. The transitional mass is lower at high redshift. The last result well explains the puzzling correlation (both in recent observations and simulations) that massive galaxies/halos have their spin perpendicular to the filament, and the spin of low-mass galaxies/halos is slightly aligned with the filament, under the assumption that the orbital angular momentum of subhalos is converted to halo spin.

  10. Study of various charged p-meson masses in asymmetric nuclear matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Hai-Bo; WU Shi-Shu

    2009-01-01

    We study the effective masses of p-mesons for different charged states in asymmetric nuclear matter (ANM) using the Quantum Hadrodynamics II model.The closed form analytical results are presented for the effective masses of p-mesons.We have shown that the different charged p-mesons have mass splitting similar to various charged pions.The effect of the Dirac sea is also examined, and it is found that this effect is very important and leads to a reduction of the different charged p-meson masses in ANM.

  11. Charge balance functions in a scenario of continuing charge production in quark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ying-Hua; Zhang, Wei-Ning

    2015-11-01

    We study the charge balance functions of π+π- and K+K- in a scenario of continuing charge creation in a strongly interacting quark-gluon plasma (QGP) in high-energy heavy-ion collisions, using relativistic hydrodynamics and the lattice QCD results of quark susceptibilities and the equation of state of the QGP. We find that the charge balance functions are dominated by their QGP components because most charges are produced before the hadronic stage. The hadronic component of the balance function of π+π- is small but non-negligible. The balance function of K+K- has a negative hadronic component because the strangeness decreases during the system evolution. The correlation between light and strange quarks leads to small enhancements of the balance functions at small rapidity difference.

  12. Charge balance functions in a scenario of continuing charge production in quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the charge balance functions of π+π- and K+K- in a scenario of continuing charge creation in a strongly interacting quark-gluon plasma (QGP) in high-energy heavy-ion collisions, using relativistic hydrodynamics and the lattice QCD results of quark susceptibilities and the equation of state of the QGP. We find that the charge balance functions are dominated by their QGP components because most charges are produced before the hadronic stage. The hadronic component of the balance function of π+π- is small but non-negligible. The balance function of K+K- has a negative hadronic component because the strangeness decreases during the system evolution. The correlation between light and strange quarks leads to small enhancements of the balance functions at small rapidity difference. (orig.)

  13. Modification of generalized vector form factors and transverse charge densities of the nucleon in nuclear matter

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Hyun-Chul

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the medium modification of the generalized vector form factors of the nucleon, which include the electromagnetic and energy-momentum tensor form factors, based on an in-medium modified $\\pi$-$\\rho$-$\\omega$ soliton model. We find that the vector form factors of the nucleon in nuclear matter fall off faster than those in free space, which implies that the charge radii of the nucleon become larger in nuclear medium than in free space. We also compute the corresponding transverse charge densities of the nucleon in nuclear matter, which clearly reveal the increasing of the nucleon size in nuclear medium.

  14. Dark Matter as a consequence of electric charge non-conservation - will it remain dark forever?

    CERN Document Server

    Weiner, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    It is conjectured that dark matter (DM) was produced as a consequence of electric charge non-conservation during the early stages of the universe expansion. Charge conservation was restored through a phase transition of Rochelle-salt type. The corresponding critical temperature or energy has not yet been reached in the laboratory and this might explain why the constituents of DM have so far not been observed. Arguments are presented according to which DM was created even before inflation, implying that the corresponding conditions will possibly never be reproduced in the laboratory. The fact that the observed mass density of DM exceeds that of ordinary matter gets a most natural explanation.

  15. On the Origin of the Charge-Asymmetric Matter. II. Localized Dirac Waveforms

    CERN Document Server

    Makhlin, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This paper continues the author's work \\cite{PartI}, where a new framework of the matter-induced physical geometry was built and an intrinsic nonlinearity of the Dirac equation discovered. Here, the nonlinear Dirac equation is solved and the localized configurations are found analytically. Of the two possible types of the potentially stationary localized configurations of the Dirac field, only one is stable with respect to the action of an external field and it corresponds to a positive charge. A connection with the global charge asymmetry of matter in the Universe and with the recently observed excess of the cosmic positrons is discussed.

  16. The Search for Fractional Charge Elementary Particles and Very Massive Particles in Bulk Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Perl, Martin Lewis; Kim, P C; Lee, E R; Lee, I T; Loomba, D; Perl, Martin L.; Halyo, Valerie; Kim, Peter C.; Lee, Eric R.; Lee, Irwin T.; Loomba, Dinesh

    2000-01-01

    We describe our ongoing work on, and future plans for, searches in bulk matter for fractional charge elementary particles and very massive elementary particles. Our primary interest is in searching for such particles that may have been produced in the early universe and may be found in the more primeval matter available in the solar system: meteorites, material from the moon's surface, and certain types of ancient terrestrial rocks. In the future we are interested in examining material brought back by sample return probes from asteroids. We will describe our experimental methods that are based on new modifications of the Millikan liquid drop technique and modern technology: micromachining, CCD cameras, and desktop computers. Extensions of our experimental methods and technology allow searches for very massive charged particles in primeval matter; particles with masses greater than 10**13 GeV. In the first such searches carried out on earth there will be uncertainties in the mass search range. Therefore we wil...

  17. Charged Q-ball dark matter from B and L direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jeong-Pyong; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Yamada, Masaki

    2016-08-01

    We consider nearly equal number of gauge mediation type charged (anti-) Q-balls with charge of ±α-1 simeq ±137 well before the BBN epoch and discussed how they evolve in time. We found that ion-like objects with electric charges of +O(1) are likely to become relics in the present universe, which we expect to be the dark matter. These are constrained by MICA experiment, where the trail of heavy atom-like or ion-like object in 109 years old ancient mica crystals is not observed. We found that the allowed region for gauge mediation model parameter and reheating temperature have to be smaller than the case of the neutral Q-ball dark matter.

  18. Charged Q-ball Dark Matter from $B$ and $L$ direction

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Jeong-Pyong; Yamada, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    We consider nearly equal number of gauge mediation type charged (anti-) Q-balls with charge of $\\alpha^{-1}\\simeq137$ well before the BBN epoch and discussed how they evolve in time. We found that ion-like objects with electric charges of $+O(1)$ are likely to become relics in the present universe, which we expect to be the dark matter. These are constrained by MICA experiment, where the trail of heavy atom-like or ion-like object in $10^9$ years old ancient mica crystals is not observed. We found that the allowed region for gauge mediation model parameter and reheating temperature have to be smaller than the case of the neutral Q-ball dark matter.

  19. Anisotropic flow of charged particles in Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, Jaroslav; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmad, Shakeel; Ahn, Sang Un; Aiola, Salvatore; Akindinov, Alexander; Alam, Sk Noor; Silva De Albuquerque, Danilo; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alexandre, Didier; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Millan Almaraz, Jesus Roberto; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Arnaldi, Roberta; Arnold, Oliver Werner; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Audurier, Benjamin; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Balasubramanian, Supraja; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbano, Anastasia Maria; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartalini, Paolo; Barth, Klaus; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Bartsch, Esther; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batista Camejo, Arianna; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bello Martinez, Hector; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont Iii, Ronald John; Belmont Moreno, Ernesto; Belyaev, Vladimir; Benacek, Pavel; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhat, Inayat Rasool; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Biro, Gabor; Biswas, Rathijit; Biswas, Saikat; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blair, Justin Thomas; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Bock, Friederike; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Book, Julian Heinz; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Borri, Marcello; Bossu, Francesco; Botta, Elena; Bourjau, Christian; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Broker, Theo Alexander; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Brucken, Erik Jens; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Bashir Butt, Jamila; Buxton, Jesse Thomas; Cabala, Jan; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Calero Diaz, Liliet; Caliva, Alberto; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Carnesecchi, Francesca; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Castro, Andrew John; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Cerkala, Jakub; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Chartier, Marielle; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chauvin, Alex; Chelnokov, Volodymyr; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan Valeriev; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Dobrigkeit Chinellato, David; Cho, Soyeon; Chochula, Peter; Choi, Kyungeon; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Colamaria, Fabio Filippo; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Colocci, Manuel; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa Del Valle, Zaida; Connors, Megan Elizabeth; Contreras Nuno, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cortese, Pietro; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Crochet, Philippe; Cruz Albino, Rigoberto; Cuautle Flores, Eleazar; Cunqueiro Mendez, Leticia; Dahms, Torsten; Dainese, Andrea; Danisch, Meike Charlotte; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Supriya; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; De Caro, Annalisa; De Cataldo, Giacinto; De Conti, Camila; De Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; Deisting, Alexander; Deloff, Andrzej; Denes, Ervin Sandor; Deplano, Caterina; Dhankher, Preeti; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Dietel, Thomas; Dillenseger, Pascal; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Domenicis Gimenez, Diogenes; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Drozhzhova, Tatiana; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Dupieux, Pascal; Ehlers Iii, Raymond James; Elia, Domenico; Endress, Eric; Engel, Heiko; Epple, Eliane; Erazmus, Barbara Ewa; Erdemir, Irem; Erhardt, Filip; Espagnon, Bruno; Estienne, Magali Danielle; Esumi, Shinichi; Eum, Jongsik; Evans, David; Evdokimov, Sergey; Eyyubova, Gyulnara; Fabbietti, Laura; Fabris, Daniela; Faivre, Julien; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Feldkamp, Linus; Feliciello, Alessandro; Feofilov, Grigorii; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Gonzalez Ferreiro, Elena; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Feuillard, Victor Jose Gaston; Figiel, Jan; Araujo Silva Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Fleck, Martin Gabriel; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fronze, Gabriele Gaetano; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Furs, Artur; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoeje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago Medina, Alberto Martin; Gallio, Mauro; Gangadharan, Dhevan Raja; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Gao, Chaosong; Garabatos Cuadrado, Jose; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gargiulo, Corrado; Gasik, Piotr Jan; Gauger, Erin Frances; Germain, Marie; Gheata, Andrei George; Gheata, Mihaela; Ghosh, Premomoy; Ghosh, Sanjay Kumar; Gianotti, Paola; Giubellino, Paolo; Giubilato, Piero; Gladysz-Dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gomez Coral, Diego Mauricio; Gomez Ramirez, Andres; Sanchez Gonzalez, Andres; Gonzalez, Victor; Gonzalez Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Gorlich, Lidia Maria; Gotovac, Sven; Grabski, Varlen; Grachov, Oleg Anatolievich; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Graham, Katie Leanne; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Alina Gabriela; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoryev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grynyov, Borys; Grion, Nevio; Gronefeld, Julius Maximilian; Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grosso, Raffaele; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerzoni, Barbara; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Haake, Rudiger; Haaland, Oystein Senneset; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Haiduc, Maria; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Hamon, Julien Charles; Harris, John William; Harton, Austin Vincent; Hatzifotiadou, Despina; Hayashi, Shinichi; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Hellbar, Ernst; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hillemanns, Hartmut; Hippolyte, Boris; Horak, David; Hosokawa, Ritsuya; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Humanic, Thomas; Hussain, Nur; Hussain, Tahir; Hutter, Dirk; Hwang, Dae Sung; Ilkaev, Radiy; Inaba, Motoi; Incani, Elisa; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanov, Vladimir; Izucheev, Vladimir; Jacazio, Nicolo; Jacobs, Peter Martin; Jadhav, Manoj Bhanudas; Jadlovska, Slavka; Jadlovsky, Jan; Jahnke, Cristiane; Jakubowska, Monika Joanna; Jang, Haeng Jin; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Pahula Hewage, Sandun; Jena, Chitrasen; Jena, Satyajit; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jones, Peter Graham; Jusko, Anton; Kalinak, Peter; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kamin, Jason Adrian; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Kar, Somnath; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karayan, Lilit; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Keijdener, Darius Laurens; Keil, Markus; Khan, Mohammed Mohisin; Khan, Palash; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Daehyeok; Kim, Hyeonjoong; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Kiss, Gabor; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Carsten; Klein, Jochen; Klein-Boesing, Christian; Klewin, Sebastian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kobdaj, Chinorat; Kofarago, Monika; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kolozhvari, Anatoly; Kondratev, Valerii; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Kondratyuk, Evgeny; Konevskikh, Artem; Kopcik, Michal; Kostarakis, Panagiotis; Kour, Mandeep; Kouzinopoulos, Charalampos; Kovalenko, Oleksandr; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kralik, Ivan; Kravcakova, Adela; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kubera, Andrew Michael; Kucera, Vit; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paulus Gerardus; Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Jitendra; Lokesh, Kumar; Kumar, Shyam; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, Alexander; Kurepin, Alexey; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Ladron De Guevara, Pedro; Lagana Fernandes, Caio; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lara Martinez, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; Lattuca, Alessandra; Laudi, Elisa; Lea, Ramona; Leardini, Lucia; Lee, Graham Richard; Lee, Seongjoo; Lehas, Fatiha; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Lenti, Vito; Leogrande, Emilia; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Leon Vargas, Hermes; Leoncino, Marco; Levai, Peter; Li, Shuang; Li, Xiaomei; Lien, Jorgen Andre; Lietava, Roman; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Ljunggren, Hans Martin; Lodato, Davide Francesco; Lonne, Per-Ivar; Loginov, Vitaly; Loizides, Constantinos; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lowe, Andrew John; Luettig, Philipp Johannes; Lunardon, Marcello; Luparello, Grazia; Lutz, Tyler Harrison; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahajan, Sanjay; Mahmood, Sohail Musa; Maire, Antonin; Majka, Richard Daniel; Malaev, Mikhail; Maldonado Cervantes, Ivonne Alicia; Malinina, Liudmila; Mal'Kevich, Dmitry; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Margutti, Jacopo; Marin, Ana Maria; Markert, Christina; Marquard, Marco; Martin, Nicole Alice; Martin Blanco, Javier; Martinengo, Paolo; Martinez Hernandez, Mario Ivan; Martinez-Garcia, Gines; Martinez Pedreira, Miguel; Mas, Alexis Jean-Michel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayer, Christoph; Mazer, Joel Anthony; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Mcdonald, Daniel; Meddi, Franco; Melikyan, Yuri; Menchaca-Rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Meninno, Elisa; Mercado-Perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Miake, Yasuo; Mieskolainen, Matti Mikael; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Milano, Leonardo; Milosevic, Jovan; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Miskowiec, Dariusz Czeslaw; Mitra, Jubin; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mohammadi, Naghmeh; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Molnar, Levente; Montano Zetina, Luis Manuel; Montes Prado, Esther; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Perez Moreno, Luis Alberto; Moretto, Sandra; Morreale, Astrid; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhlheim, Daniel Michael; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Mulligan, James Declan; Gameiro Munhoz, Marcelo; Munzer, Robert Helmut; Murakami, Hikari; Murray, Sean; Musa, Luciano; Musinsky, Jan; Naik, Bharati; Nair, Rahul; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Naru, Muhammad Umair; Ferreira Natal Da Luz, Pedro Hugo; Nattrass, Christine; Rosado Navarro, Sebastian; Nayak, Kishora; Nayak, Ranjit; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nedosekin, Alexander; Nellen, Lukas; Ng, Fabian; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Niedziela, Jeremi; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Cabanillas Noris, Juan Carlos; Norman, Jaime; Nyanin, Alexander; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Saehanseul; Oh, Sun Kun; Ohlson, Alice Elisabeth; Okatan, Ali; Okubo, Tsubasa; Olah, Laszlo; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oliveira Da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Oliver, Michael Henry; Onderwaater, Jacobus; Oppedisano, Chiara; Orava, Risto; Oravec, Matej; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Ozdemir, Mahmut; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pagano, Davide; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Pal, Susanta Kumar; Pan, Jinjin; Pandey, Ashutosh Kumar; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Pareek, Pooja; Park, Woojin; Parmar, Sonia; Passfeld, Annika; Paticchio, Vincenzo; Patra, Rajendra Nath; Paul, Biswarup; Pei, Hua; Peitzmann, Thomas; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Peresunko, Dmitry Yurevich; Perez Lara, Carlos Eugenio; Perez Lezama, Edgar; Peskov, Vladimir; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petrov, Viacheslav; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Piano, Stefano; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Ozelin De Lima Pimentel, Lais; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Planinic, Mirko; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Polishchuk, Boris; Poljak, Nikola; Poonsawat, Wanchaloem; Pop, Amalia; Porteboeuf, Sarah Julie; Porter, R Jefferson; Pospisil, Jan; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; Puccio, Maximiliano; Puddu, Giovanna; Pujahari, Prabhat Ranjan; Punin, Valery; Putschke, Jorn Henning; Qvigstad, Henrik; Rachevski, Alexandre; Raha, Sibaji; Rajput, Sonia; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Rami, Fouad; Raniwala, Rashmi; Raniwala, Sudhir; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Rathee, Deepika; Read, Kenneth Francis; Redlich, Krzysztof; Reed, Rosi Jan; Rehman, Attiq Ur; Reichelt, Patrick Simon; Reidt, Felix; Ren, Xiaowen; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reolon, Anna Rita; Reshetin, Andrey; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riabov, Viktor; Ricci, Renato Angelo; Richert, Tuva Ora Herenui; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Ristea, Catalin-Lucian; Rocco, Elena; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Rodriguez Manso, Alis; Roeed, Ketil; Rogochaya, Elena; Rohr, David Michael; Roehrich, Dieter; Ronchetti, Federico; Ronflette, Lucile; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossi, Andrea; Roukoutakis, Filimon; Roy, Ankhi; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Rubio Montero, Antonio Juan; Rui, Rinaldo; Russo, Riccardo; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Ryabov, Yury; Rybicki, Andrzej; Saarinen, Sampo; Sadhu, Samrangy; Sadovskiy, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Sahlmuller, Baldo; Sahoo, Pragati; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahoo, Sarita; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakai, Shingo; Saleh, Mohammad Ahmad; Salzwedel, Jai Samuel Nielsen; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sandor, Ladislav; Sandoval, Andres; Sano, Masato; Sarkar, Debojit; Sarkar, Nachiketa; Sarma, Pranjal; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schuchmann, Simone; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schulc, Martin; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; Schweda, Kai Oliver; Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Scott, Rebecca Michelle; Sefcik, Michal; Seger, Janet Elizabeth; Sekiguchi, Yuko; Sekihata, Daiki; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Senosi, Kgotlaesele; Senyukov, Serhiy; Serradilla Rodriguez, Eulogio; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabanov, Arseniy; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shadura, Oksana; Shahoyan, Ruben; Shahzad, Muhammed Ikram; Shangaraev, Artem; Sharma, Ankita; Sharma, Mona; Sharma, Monika; Sharma, Natasha; Sheikh, Ashik Ikbal; Shigaki, Kenta; Shou, Qiye; Shtejer Diaz, Katherin; Sibiryak, Yury; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Sielewicz, Krzysztof Marek; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Silvestre, Catherine Micaela; Simatovic, Goran; Simonetti, Giuseppe; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singha, Subhash; Singhal, Vikas; Sinha, Bikash; Sarkar - Sinha, Tinku; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Slupecki, Maciej; Smirnov, Nikolai; Snellings, Raimond; Snellman, Tomas Wilhelm; Song, Jihye; Song, Myunggeun; Song, Zixuan; Soramel, Francesca; Sorensen, Soren Pontoppidan; Derradi De Souza, Rafael; Sozzi, Federica; Spacek, Michal; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Sputowska, Iwona Anna; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, Martha; Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Ionel; Stankus, Paul; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Steyn, Gideon Francois; Stiller, Johannes Hendrik; Stocco, Diego; Strmen, Peter; Alarcon Do Passo Suaide, Alexandre; Sugitate, Toru; Suire, Christophe Pierre; Suleymanov, Mais Kazim Oglu; Suljic, Miljenko; Sultanov, Rishat; Sumbera, Michal; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Szabo, Alexander; Szanto De Toledo, Alejandro; Szarka, Imrich; Szczepankiewicz, Adam; Szymanski, Maciej Pawel; Tabassam, Uzma; Takahashi, Jun; Tambave, Ganesh Jagannath; Tanaka, Naoto; Tarhini, Mohamad; Tariq, Mohammad; Tarzila, Madalina-Gabriela; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terasaki, Kohei; Terrevoli, Cristina; Teyssier, Boris; Thaeder, Jochen Mathias; Thakur, Dhananjaya; Thomas, Deepa; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Timmins, Anthony Robert; Toia, Alberica; Trogolo, Stefano; Trombetta, Giuseppe; Trubnikov, Victor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ullaland, Kjetil; Uras, Antonio; Usai, Gianluca; Utrobicic, Antonija; Vala, Martin; Valencia Palomo, Lizardo; Vallero, Sara; Van Der Maarel, Jasper; Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Van Leeuwen, Marco; Vanat, Tomas; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Varga, Dezso; Vargas Trevino, Aurora Diozcora; Vargyas, Marton; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vauthier, Astrid; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veen, Annelies Marianne; Veldhoen, Misha; Velure, Arild; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara Limon, Sergio; Vernet, Renaud; Verweij, Marta; Vickovic, Linda; Viesti, Giuseppe; Viinikainen, Jussi Samuli; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Villatoro Tello, Abraham; Vinogradov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Leonid; Vinogradov, Yury; Virgili, Tiziano; Vislavicius, Vytautas; Viyogi, Yogendra; Vodopyanov, Alexander; Volkl, Martin Andreas; Voloshin, Kirill; Voloshin, Sergey; Volpe, Giacomo; Von Haller, Barthelemy; Vorobyev, Ivan; Vranic, Danilo; Vrlakova, Janka; Vulpescu, Bogdan; Wagner, Boris; Wagner, Jan; Wang, Hongkai; Wang, Mengliang; Watanabe, Daisuke; Watanabe, Yosuke; Weber, Michael; Weber, Steffen Georg; Weiser, Dennis Franz; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Westerhoff, Uwe; Whitehead, Andile Mothegi; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Wilkinson, Jeremy John; Williams, Crispin; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Winn, Michael Andreas; Yang, Hongyan; Yang, Ping; Yano, Satoshi; Yasin, Zafar; Yin, Zhongbao; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yoon, Jin Hee; Yurchenko, Volodymyr; Yushmanov, Igor; Zaborowska, Anna; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zaman, Ali; Zampolli, Chiara; Correia Zanoli, Henrique Jose; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zardoshti, Nima; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Chunhui, Zhang; Zhang, Zuman; Zhao, Chengxin; Zhigareva, Natalia; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, You; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zyzak, Maksym

    2016-01-01

    We report the first results of elliptic ($v_2$), triangular ($v_3$) and quadrangular flow ($v_4$) of charged particles in Pb--Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{\\rm NN}}}=$ 5.02 TeV with the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The measurements are performed in the central pseudorapidity region $|\\eta| <$ 0.8 and for the transverse momentum range 0.2 $< p_{\\rm T} < $ 5 GeV/$c$. The anisotropic flow is measured using two--particle correlations with a pseudorapidity gap greater than one unit and with the multi--particle cumulant method. Compared to results from Pb--Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{\\rm NN}}}=$ 2.76 TeV, the anisotropic flow coefficients $v_{2}$, $v_{3}$ and $v_{4}$ are found to increase by (3.0$\\pm$0.6)\\%, (4.3$\\pm$1.4)\\% and (10.2$\\pm$3.8)\\%, respectively, over the centrality range 0-50\\%. This can be attributed mostly to an increase of the average transverse momentum between the two energies. The measurements are found to be compatible with hydrodynamic model calculations. This com...

  20. Probing charged matter through h → γγ, gamma ray lines, and EDMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, JiJi; Reece, Matthew

    2013-06-01

    Numerous experiments currently underway offer the potential to indirectly probe new charged particles with masses at the weak scale. For example, the tentative excess in h → γγ decays and the tentative gamma-ray line in Fermi-LAT data have recently attracted attention as possible one-loop signatures of new charged particles. We explore the interplay between such signals, dark matter direct detection through Higgs exchange, and measurements of the electron EDM, by studying the size of these effects in several models. We compute one-loop effects to explore the relationship among couplings probed by different experiments. In particular, models in which dark matter and the Higgs both interact with charged particles at a detectable level typically induce, at loop level, couplings between dark matter and the Higgs that are around the level of current direct detection sensitivity. Intriguingly, one-loop h → γγ and DM DM → γγ, two-loop EDMs, and loop-induced direct detection rates are all coming within range of existing experiments for approximately the same range of charged particle masses, offering the prospect of an exciting coincidence of signals at collider, astrophysical, underground and atomic physics measurements.

  1. Higher harmonic anisotropic flow measurements of charged particles in Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Aamodt, Kenneth; Abrahantes Quintana, Arian; Adamova, Dagmar; Adare, Andrew Marshall; Aggarwal, Madan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agocs, Andras Gabor; Agostinelli, Andrea; Aguilar Salazar, Saul; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmad, Arshad; Ahmad, Nazeer; Ahn, Sang Un; Akindinov, Alexander; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Almaraz Avina, Erick Jonathan; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altini, Valerio; Altsybeev, Igor; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anson, Christopher Daniel; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshauser, Harald; Arbor, Nicolas; Arcelli, Silvia; Arend, Andreas; Armesto, Nestor; Arnaldi, Roberta; Aronsson, Tomas Robert; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Asryan, Andzhey; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Awes, Terry; Aysto, Juha Heikki; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Bach, Matthias Jakob; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldini Ferroli, Rinaldo; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baldit, Alain; Ban, Jaroslav; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Barret, Valerie; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batyunya, Boris; Baumann, Christoph Heinrich; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont-Moreno, Ernesto; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdermann, Eleni; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Bergmann, Cyrano; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Biolcati, Emanuele; Blanco, F; Blanco, F; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Bock, Nicolas; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Bogolyubsky, Mikhail; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Bombonati, Carlo; Book, Julian; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Bortolin, Claudio; Bose, Suvendu Nath; Bossu, Francesco; Botje, Michiel; Bottger, Stefan; Boyer, Bruno Alexandre; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bravina, Larisa; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Broz, Michal; Brun, Rene; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Bugaiev, Kyrylo; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Canoa Roman, Veronica; Cara Romeo, Giovanni; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Carminati, Federico; Casanova Diaz, Amaya Ofelia; Caselle, Michele; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Catanescu, Vasile; Cavicchioli, Costanza; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Chinellato, David; Chochula, Peter; Chojnacki, Marek; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Coccetti, Fabrizio; Coffin, Jean-Pierre Michel; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa del Valle, Zaida; Constantin, Paul; Contin, Giacomo; Contreras, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cortese, Pietro; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Cotallo, Manuel Enrique; Crescio, Elisabetta; Crochet, Philippe; Cuautle, Eleazar; Cunqueiro, Leticia; D'Erasmo, Ginevra; Dainese, Andrea; Dalsgaard, Hans Hjersing; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; De Azevedo Moregula, Andrea; de Barros, Gabriel; De Caro, Annalisa; de Cataldo, Giacinto; de Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; de Rooij, Raoul Stefan; Del Castillo Sanchez, Eduardo; Delagrange, Hugues; Delgado Mercado, Ydalia; Dellacasa, Giuseppe; Deloff, Andrzej; Demanov, Vyacheslav; Denes, Ervin; Deppman, Airton; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Giglio, Carmelo; Di Liberto, Sergio; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Dietel, Thomas; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Dobrowolski, Tadeusz Antoni; Dominguez, Isabel; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Driga, Olga; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Ducroux, Laurent; Dupieux, Pascal; Dutta Majumdar, AK; Dutta Majumdar, Mihir Ranjan; Elia, Domenico; Emschermann, David Philip; Engel, Heiko; Erdal, Hege Austrheim; Espagnon, Bruno; Estienne, Magali Danielle; Esumi, Shinichi; Evans, David; Evrard, Sebastien; Eyyubova, Gyulnara; Fabjan, Christian; Fabris, Daniela; Faivre, Julien; Falchieri, Davide; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Fearick, Roger Worsley; Fedunov, Anatoly; Fehlker, Dominik; Fekete, Vladimir; Felea, Daniel; Feofilov, Grigory; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Ferretti, Alessandro; Ferretti, Roberta; Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Fini, Rosa Anna; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Fragkiadakis, Michail; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furano, Fabrizio; Furget, Christophe; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoje, Jens Joergen; Gadrat, Sebastien Gabriel; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago, Alberto; Gallio, Mauro; Gangadharan, Dhevan Raja; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Garabatos, Jose; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo; Gemme, Roberto; Gerhard, Jochen; Germain, Marie; Geuna, Claudio; Gheata, Andrei George; Gheata, Mihaela; Ghidini, Bruno; Ghosh, Premomoy; Gianotti, Paola; Girard, Martin Robert; Giubellino, Paolo; Gladysz-Dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gomez, Ramon; Gonzalez Ferreiro, Elena; Gonzalez-Trueba, Laura Helena; Gonzalez-Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Gotovac, Sven; Grabski, Varlen; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Grajcarek, Robert; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Alina Gabriela; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoriev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grinyov, Boris; Grion, Nevio; Gros, Philippe; Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grossiord, Jean-Yves; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerra Gutierrez, Cesar; Guerzoni, Barbara; Guilbaud, Maxime Rene Joseph; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gulkanyan, Hrant; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Gutbrod, Hans; Haaland, Oystein Senneset; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Haiduc, Maria; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Hanratty, Luke David; Harmanova, Zuzana; Harris, John William; Hartig, Matthias; Hasegan, Dumitru; Hatzifotiadou, Despoina; Hayrapetyan, Arsen; Heide, Markus Ansgar; Heinz, Mark Thomas; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Herrmann, Norbert; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hicks, Bernard; Hille, Per Thomas; Hippolyte, Boris; Horaguchi, Takuma; Hori, Yasuto; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Hrivnacova, Ivana; Huang, Meidana; Huber, Sebastian Bernd; Humanic, Thomas; Hwang, Dae Sung; Ilkaev, Radiy; Ilkiv, Iryna; Inaba, Motoi; Incani, Elisa; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Ivan, Cristian George; Ivanov, Andrey; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanov, Vladimir; Jacholkowski, Adam Wlodzimierz; Jacobs, Peter; Jancurova, Lucia; Jangal, Swensy Gwladys; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Janik, Rudolf; Jayarathna, Sandun; Jena, Satyajit; Jirden, Lennart; Jones, Goronwy Tudor; Jones, Peter Graham; Jovanovic, Predrag; Jung, Hyung Taik; Jung, Won Woong; Jusko, Anton; Kalcher, Sebastian; Kalinak, Peter; Kalisky, Matus; Kalliokoski, Tuomo Esa Aukusti; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kamermans, Rene; Kanaki, Kalliopi; Kang, Eunggil; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kazantsev, Andrey; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Khan, Mohisin Mohammed; Khan, Palash; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Beomkyu; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Dong Soo; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Jonghyun; Kim, Jin Sook; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Seon Hee; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Jochen; Klein-Bosing, Christian; Kliemant, Michael; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Koch, Kathrin; Kohler, Markus; Kolojvari, Anatoly; Kondratiev, Valery; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Konevskih, Artem; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Kour, Ravjeet; Kowalski, Marek; Kox, Serge; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kozlov, Konstantin; Kral, Jiri; Kralik, Ivan; Kramer, Frederick; Kraus, Ingrid Christine; Krawutschke, Tobias; Kretz, Matthias; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Krus, Miroslav; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kucheriaev, Yury; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paul; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, A; Kurepin, AB; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kushpil, Svetlana; Kushpil, Vasily; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; La Rocca, Paola; Ladron de Guevara, Pedro; Lafage, Vincent Claude; Lakomov, Igor; Lara, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; Larsen, Dag Toppe; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Bornec, Yves; Lea, Ramona; Lechman, Mateusz; Lee, Ki Sang; Lee, Sung Chul; Lefevre, Frederic; Lehnert, Joerg Walter; Leistam, Lars; Lenhardt, Matthieu Laurent; Lenti, Vito; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Leon Vargas, Hermes; Levai, Peter; Li, Xiaomei; Lien, Jorgen; Lietava, Roman; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Liu, Lijiao; Loenne, Per-Ivar; Loggins, Vera; Loginov, Vitaly; Lohn, Stefan Bernhard; Lohner, Daniel; Loizides, Constantinos; Loo, Kai Krister; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Noriega, Mercedes; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lovhoiden, Gunnar; Lu, Xianguo; Luettig, Philipp; Lunardon, Marcello; Luparello, Grazia; Luquin, Lionel; Luzzi, Cinzia; Ma, Ke; Ma, Rongrong; Madagodahettige-Don, Dilan Minthaka; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahapatra, Durga Prasad; Maire, Antonin; Mal'Kevich, Dmitry; Malaev, Mikhail; Maldonado Cervantes, Ivonne Alicia; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Mao, Yaxian; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Marin, Ana Maria; Markert, Christina; Martashvili, Irakli; Martinengo, Paolo; Martinez, Mario Ivan; Martinez Davalos, Arnulfo; Martinez Garcia, Gines; Martynov, Yevgen; Mas, Alexis Jean-Michel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Mastromarco, Mario; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Matthews, Zoe Louise; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayani, Daniel; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Meddi, Franco; Menchaca-Rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Mendez Lorenzo, Patricia; Mercado Perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Miake, Yasuo; Midori, Jumpei; Milano, Leonardo; Milosevic, Jovan; Mischke, Andre; Miskowiec, Dariusz; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mlynarz, Jocelyn; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Molnar, Levente; Montano Zetina, Luis Manuel; Monteno, Marco; Montes, Esther; Morando, Maurizio; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Moretto, Sandra; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhuri, Sanjib; Muller, Hans; Munhoz, Marcelo; Musa, Luciano; Musso, Alfredo; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Nattrass, Christine; Navach, Franco; Navin, Sparsh; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nazarov, Gleb; Nedosekin, Alexander; Nicassio, Maria; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Niida, Takafumi; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikolic, Vedran; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Nilsen, Bjorn Steven; Nilsson, Mads Stormo; Noferini, Francesco; Nooren, Gerardus; Novitzky, Norbert; Nyanin, Alexandre; Nyatha, Anitha; Nygaard, Casper; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Obayashi, Hideyuki; Ochirov, Alexander; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Sun Kun; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oppedisano, Chiara; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Ortona, Giacomo; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Ostrowski, Piotr Krystian; Otterlund, Ingvar; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Ozawa, Kyoichiro; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pachr, Milos; Padilla, Fatima; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Painke, Florian; Pajares, Carlos; Pal, S; Pal, Susanta Kumar; Palaha, Arvinder Singh; Palmeri, Armando; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Park, Woo Jin; Patalakha, Dmitri Ivanovich; Paticchio, Vincenzo; Pavlinov, Alexei; Pawlak, Tomasz Jan; 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Singha, Subhash; Sinha, Bikash; Sinha, Tinku; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Skjerdal, Kyrre; Smakal, Radek; Smirnov, Nikolai; Snellings, Raimond; Sogaard, Carsten; Soltz, Ron Ariel; Son, Hyungsuk; Song, Jihye; Song, Myunggeun; Soos, Csaba; Soramel, Francesca; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, Martha; Srivastava, Brijesh Kumar; Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Emil; Stefanek, Grzegorz; Stefanini, Giorgio; Steinbeck, Timm Morten; Steinpreis, Matthew; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Steyn, Gideon Francois; Stocco, Diego; Stokkevag, Camilla Hanquist; Stolpovskiy, Mikhail; Strmen, Peter; Suaide, Alexandre Alarcon do Passo; Subieta Vasquez, Martin Alfonso; Sugitate, Toru; Suire, Christophe Pierre; Sukhorukov, Mikhail; Sumbera, Michal; Susa, Tatjana; Swoboda, Detlef; Symons, Timothy; Szanto de Toledo, Alejandro; Szarka, Imrich; Szostak, Artur Krzysztof; Tagridis, Christos; Takahashi, Jun; Tapia Takaki, Daniel Jesus; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terrevoli, Cristina; Thader, Jochen Mathias; Thomas, Deepa; Thomas, Jim; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Timmins, Anthony; Tlusty, David; Toia, Alberica; Torii, Hisayuki; Traczyk, Tomasz; Truesdale, David Christopher; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Turvey, Andrew John; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ulery, Jason Glyndwr; Ullaland, Kjetil; Uras, Antonio; Urban, Jozef; Urciuoli, Guido Marie; Usai, Gianluca; Vajzer, Michal; Vala, Martin; Valencia Palomo, Lizardo; Vallero, Sara; van der Kolk, Naomi; van Leeuwen, Marco; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Vannucci, Luigi; Vargas, Aurora Diozcora; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veldhoen, Misha; Venaruzzo, Massimo; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara, Sergio; Vernekohl, Don Constantin; Vernet, Renaud; Verweij, Marta; Vickovic, Linda; Viesti, Giuseppe; Vikhlyantsev, Oleg; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Vinogradov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Leonid; Vinogradov, Yury; Virgili, Tiziano; Viyogi, Yogendra; Vodopianov, Alexander; Voloshin, Kirill; Voloshin, Sergey; Volpe, Giacomo; von Haller, Barthelemy; Vranic, Danilo; vrebekk, Gaute; Vrlakova, Janka; Vulpescu, Bogdan; Vyushin, Alexey; Wagner, Boris; Wagner, Vladimir; Wan, Renzhuo; Wang, Dong; Wang, Mengliang; Wang, Yifei; Wang, Yaping; Watanabe, Kengo; Wessels, Johannes; Westerhoff, Uwe; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilde, Martin Rudolf; Wilk, Alexander; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Williams, Crispin; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Xaplanteris Karampatsos, Leonidas; Yang, Hongyan; Yasnopolsky, Stanislav; Yi, JunGyu; Yin, Zhongbao; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yoon, Jongik; Yuan, Xianbao; Yushmanov, Igor; Zabrodin, Evgeny; Zach, Cenek; Zampolli, Chiara; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zaviyalov, Nikolai; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zelnicek, Pierre; Zenin, Anton; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, Fengchu; Zhou, You; Zhu, Xiangrong; Zichichi, Antonino; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zoccarato, Yannick Denis; Zynovyev, Mykhaylo

    2011-01-01

    We report on the first measurement of the triangular v3, quadrangular v4, and pentagonal v5 charged particle flow in Pb-Pb collisions at 2.76 TeV measured with the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. We show that the triangular flow can be described in terms of the initial spatial anisotropy and its fluctuations, which provides strong constraints on its origin. In the most central events, where the elliptic flow v2 and v3 have similar magnitude, a double peaked structure in the two-particle azimuthal correlations is observed, which is often interpreted as a Mach cone response to fast partons. We show that this structure can be naturally explained from the measured anisotropic flow Fourier coefficients.

  2. Hidden Fermion in Stueckelberg Z' Models as Milli-charged Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Kingman; Yuan, Tzu-Chiang

    2007-01-01

    The hidden Stueckelberg Z' model is augmented by a pair of Dirac fermions. If the Z' has a coupling strength comparable to weak scale coupling, one can show that this hidden fermion-antifermion pair could be a milli-charged dark matter candidate with a viable relic density. Monochromatic photon flux coming from the Galactic center due to pair annihilation of these milli-charged particles is calculated and is shown to be within reach of the next generation gamma-ray experiments. Characteristic...

  3. Self-modulation of a relativistic charged-particle beam as thermal matter wave envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The self-modulation, resulting from its interaction with the surrounding medium, of a relativistic charged-particle beam traveling through an overdense plasma, is investigated theoretically. The description of the transverse nonlinear and collective beam dynamics of an electron (or positron) beam in a plasma-based accelerator is provided in terms of a thermal matter wave envelope propagation. This is done using the quantum-like description provided by the thermal wave model. It is shown that the charged-particle beam dynamics is governed by a Zakharov-type system of equations, comprising a nonlinear Schrödinger equation that is governing the spatiotemporal evolution of the thermal matter wave envelope and a Poisson-like equation for the wake potential that is generated by the bunch itself

  4. Effects of the difference between the charge and matter deformations on fusion reactions of unstable nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Rumin, T; Rumin, Tamanna; Takigawa, Noboru

    2002-01-01

    Relativistic mean field calculations suggest that the charge and matter deformations significantly differ in some of the unstable neutron and proton rich nuclei. We discuss the effects of the difference on the fusion reactions induced by them at energies near and below the Coulomb barrier by taking the $^{19,25,37}$Na + $^{208}$Pb reactions as examples. We also discuss whether one can probe the difference by the so called fusion barrier distribution analysis.

  5. Bound States of Guided Matter Waves: An Atom and a Charged Wire

    OpenAIRE

    Hau, Lene Vestergaard; Burns, Michael M.; Golovchenko, Jene A.

    1992-01-01

    We argue that it is possible to bind a neutral atom in stable orbits around a wire charged by a time-varying sinusoidal voltage. Both classical and quantum-mechanical theories for this system are discussed, and a unified approach to the Kapitza picture of effective potentials associated with high-frequency fields is presented. It appears that cavities and waveguides for neutral-atomic-matter waves may be fashioned from these considerations.

  6. Simplified Dark Matter Models with Charged Mediators: Prospects for Direct Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Sandick, Pearl; Sinha, Kuver; Teng, Fei

    2016-01-01

    We consider direct detection prospects for a class of simplified models of fermionic dark matter (DM) coupled to left and right-handed Standard Model fermions via two charged scalar mediators with arbitrary mixing angle $\\alpha$. DM interactions with the nucleus are mediated by higher electromagnetic moments, which, for Majorana DM, is the anapole moment. After giving a full analytic calculation of the anapole moment, including its $\\alpha$ dependence, and matching with limits in the literatu...

  7. Probing Charged Matter Through Higgs Diphoton Decay, Gamma Ray Lines, and EDMs

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, JiJi

    2013-01-01

    Numerous experiments currently underway offer the potential to indirectly probe new charged particles with masses at the weak scale. For example, the tentative excess in Higgs diphoton decay and the tentative gamma-ray line in Fermi-LAT data have recently attracted attention as possible one-loop signatures of new charged particles. We explore the interplay between such signals, dark matter direct detection through Higgs exchange, and measurements of the electron EDM, by studying the size of these effects in several models. We compute one-loop effects to explore the relationship among couplings probed by different experiments. In particular, models in which dark matter and the Higgs both interact with charged particles at a detectable level typically induce, at loop level, couplings between dark matter and the Higgs that are around the level of current direct detection sensitivity. Intriguingly, one-loop Higgs diphoton decay and DM annihilation into two photons, two-loop EDMs, and loop-induced direct detection...

  8. Charged quantum dot micropillar system for deterministic light-matter interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androvitsaneas, P.; Young, A. B.; Schneider, C.; Maier, S.; Kamp, M.; Höfling, S.; Knauer, S.; Harbord, E.; Hu, C. Y.; Rarity, J. G.; Oulton, R.

    2016-06-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are semiconductor nanostructures in which a three-dimensional potential trap produces an electronic quantum confinement, thus mimicking the behavior of single atomic dipole-like transitions. However, unlike atoms, QDs can be incorporated into solid-state photonic devices such as cavities or waveguides that enhance the light-matter interaction. A near unit efficiency light-matter interaction is essential for deterministic, scalable quantum-information (QI) devices. In this limit, a single photon input into the device will undergo a large rotation of the polarization of the light field due to the strong interaction with the QD. In this paper we measure a macroscopic (˜6∘ ) phase shift of light as a result of the interaction with a negatively charged QD coupled to a low-quality-factor (Q ˜290 ) pillar microcavity. This unexpectedly large rotation angle demonstrates that this simple low-Q -factor design would enable near-deterministic light-matter interactions.

  9. Gamma-ray Signals from Dark Matter Annihilation Via Charged Mediators

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Jason; Teng, Fei; Yamamoto, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    We consider a simplified model in which Majorana fermion dark matter annihilates to charged fermions through exchange of charged mediators. We consider the gamma-ray signals arising from the processes $XX \\rightarrow \\bar f f \\gamma$, $\\gamma \\gamma$, and $\\gamma Z$ in the most general case, including non-trivial fermion mass and non-trivial left-right mixing and $CP$-violating phase for the charged mediators. In particular, we find the most general spectrum for internal bremsstrahlung, which interpolates between the regimes dominated by virtual internal bremsstrahlung and by final state radiation. We also examine the variation in the ratio $\\sigma(\\gamma \\gamma) / \\sigma (\\gamma Z)$ and the helicity asymmetry in the $XX \\rightarrow \\gamma \\gamma$ process, each as a function of mixing angle and $CP$-violating phase. As an application, we apply these results to searches for a class of MSSM models.

  10. Gamma-ray signals from dark matter annihilation via charged mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jason; Sandick, Pearl; Teng, Fei; Yamamoto, Takahiro

    2016-07-01

    We consider a simplified model in which Majorana fermion dark matter annihilates to charged fermions through the exchange of charged mediators. We consider the gamma-ray signals arising from the processes X X →f ¯ f γ , γ γ , and γ Z in the most general case, including nontrivial fermion mass and nontrivial left-right mixing and the C P -violating phase for the charged mediators. In particular, we find the most general spectrum for internal bremsstrahlung, which interpolates between the regimes dominated by virtual internal bremsstrahlung and by final state radiation. We also examine the variation in the ratio σ (γ γ )/σ (γ Z ) and the helicity asymmetry in the X X →γ γ process, each as a function of the mixing angle and C P -violating phase. As an application, we apply these results to searches for a class of minimal supersymmetric Standard Model models.

  11. Anisotropic spheres with Van derWaals-type equation of state

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Thirukkanesh; F C Ragel

    2014-07-01

    We study static spherically symmetric space-time to describe relativistic compact objects with anisotropic matter distribution and derive two classes of exact models to the Einstein–Maxwell system with a modified Van derWaals equation of state. We motivate a Van derWaals-type equation of state to physically signify a high-density domain of quark matter, and the generated exact solutions are shown to contain several classes of exact models reported previously that correspond to various physical scenarios. Geometrical analysis shows that the physical quantities are well behaved so that these models may be used to describe anisotropic charged compact spheres.

  12. Analytical solutions of equation for the order parameter of dense superfluid neutron matter with anisotropic spin-triplet p-wave pairing at finite temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The previously derived equations for the components of the order parameter (OP) of dense superfluid neutron matter (SNM) with anisotropic spin-triplet p-wave pairing and with taking into account the effects of magnetic field and finite temperatures are reduced to the single equation for the one-component OP in the limit of zero magnetic field. Here this equation is solved analytically for arbitrary parametrization of the effective Skyrme interaction in neutron matter and as the main results the energy gap (in the energy spectrum of neutrons in SNM) is obtained as nonlinear function of temperature T and density n in two limiting cases: for low temperatures near T = 0 and in the vicinity of phase transition temperature Tc0(n) for dense neutron matter from normal to superfluid state. These solutions for the energy gap are specified for generalized BSk21 and BSk24 parametrizations of the Skyrme forces (with additional terms dependent on density n) and figures are plotted on the interval 0.1n0 < n <2.0n0, where n0 = 0.17 fm-3 is nuclear density.

  13. NUT-charged black holes in matter-coupled N=2, D=4 gauged supergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colleoni, Marta; Klemm, Dietmar

    2012-06-01

    Using the results of Cacciatori, Klemm, Mansi, and Zorzan [J. High Energy Phys.JHEPFG1029-8479 05 (2008) 09710.1088/1126-6708/2008/05/097], where all timelike supersymmetric backgrounds of N=2, D=4 matter-coupled supergravity with Fayet-Iliopoulos gauging were classified, we construct genuine NUT-charged BPS black holes in anti-deSitter4 with nonconstant moduli. The calculations are exemplified for the SU(1,1)/U(1) model with prepotential F=-iX0X1. The resulting supersymmetric black holes have a hyperbolic horizon and carry two electric, two magnetic, and one NUT charge, which are however not all independent, but are given in terms of three free parameters. We find that turning on a NUT charge lifts the flat directions in the effective black hole potential, such that the horizon values of the scalars are completely fixed by the charges. We also oxidize the solutions to 11 dimensions, and find that they generalize the geometry found in the work of Gauntlett, Kim, Pakis, and Waldram [Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ0556-2821 65, 026003 (2001)10.1103/PhysRevD.65.026003] corresponding to membranes wrapping holomorphic curves in a Calabi-Yau fivefold. Finally, a class of NUT-charged Nernst branes is constructed as well, but these have curvature singularities at the horizon.

  14. Higgs portal dark matter and neutrino mass and mixing with a doubly charged scalar

    CERN Document Server

    Hierro, I M; Rigolin, S

    2016-01-01

    We consider an extension of the Standard Model involving two new scalar particles around the TeV scale: a singlet neutral scalar $\\phi$, to be eventually identified as the Dark Matter candidate, plus a doubly charged $SU(2)_L$ singlet scalar, $S^{++}$, that can be the source for the non-vanishing neutrino masses and mixings. Assuming an unbroken $Z_2$ symmetry in the scalar sector, under which only the additional neutral scalar $\\phi$ is odd, we write the most general (renormalizable) scalar potential. The model may be regarded as a possible extension of the conventional Higgs portal Dark Matter scenario which also accounts for neutrino mass and mixing. This framework cannot completely explain the observed positron excess. However a softening of the discrepancy observed in conventional Higgs portal framework can be obtained, especially when the scale of new physics responsible for generating neutrino masses and lepton number violating processes is around 2 TeV.

  15. Sterile neutrino dark matter and low scale leptogenesis from a charged scalar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frigerio, Michele [Laboratoire Charles Coulomb, Montpellier (France); Yaguna, Carlos E. [Universitaet Muenster, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Muenster (Germany)

    2015-01-01

    We show that novel paths to dark matter generation and baryogenesis are open when the standard model is extended with three sterile neutrinos N{sub i} and a charged scalar δ{sup +}. Specifically,we propose a new production mechanism for the dark matter particle - multi-keV sterile neutrino, N{sub 1} - that does not depend on the active-sterile mixing angle and does not rely on a large primordial lepton asymmetry. Instead, N{sub 1} is produced, via freeze-in, by the decays of δ{sup +} while it is in equilibrium in the early Universe. In addition, we demonstrate that, thanks to the couplings between the heavier sterile neutrinos N{sub 2,3} and δ{sup +}, baryogenesis via leptogenesis can be realized close to the electroweak scale. The lepton asymmetry is generated either by N{sub 2,3}-decays for masses M{sub 2,3} >or similar TeV, or by N{sub 2,3}-oscillations for M{sub 2,3} ∝ GeV. Experimental signatures of this scenario include an X-ray line from dark matter decays, and the direct production of δ{sup +} at the LHC. This model thus describes a minimal, testable scenario for neutrino masses, the baryon asymmetry, and dark matter. (orig.)

  16. Spherical Accretion of Matter by Charged Black Holes on f(T) Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, Manuel E

    2016-01-01

    We studied the spherical accretion of matter by charged black holes on $f(T)$ Gravity. Considering the accretion model of a isentropic perfect fluid we obtain the general form of the Hamiltonian and the dynamic system for the fluid. We have analysed the movements of an isothermal fluid model with $p=\\omega e$ and where $p$ is the pressure and $e$ the total energy density. The analysis of the cases shows the possibility of spherical accretion of fluid by black holes, revealing new phenomena as cyclical movement inside the event horizon.

  17. No-go theorem for static scalar field dark matter halos with no Noether charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez-Tejedor, Alberto; Gonzalez-Morales, Alma X.

    2013-09-01

    Classical scalar fields have been considered as a possible effective description of dark matter. We show that, for any metric theory of gravity, no static, spherically symmetric, regular, spatially localized, attractive, stable spacetime configuration can be sourced by the coherent excitation of a scalar field with positive definite energy density and no Noether charges. In the weak field regime, the result also applies for configurations with a repulsive gravitational potential. This extends Derrick’s theorem to the case of a general (noncanonical) scalar field, including the self-gravitational effects. Some possible ways out are briefly discussed.

  18. A no-go result for static scalar field dark matter halos with no Noether charges

    CERN Document Server

    Diez-Tejedor, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Classical scalar fields have been proposed as a possible solution to the dark matter problem in galaxies. We show that, within the framework of general relativity, no static, spherically symmetric, regular, spatially localized, attractive, stable configuration can be sourced by the coherent excitation of a scalar field with positive definite energy density and no Noether charges. This result extends Derrick's theorem to the case of a general (non-canonical) scalar field, including the self-gravitational effects. Some possible way-outs are briefly discussed.

  19. Interaction of low-energy highly charged ions with matter; Wechselwirkung niederenergetischer hochgeladener Ionen mit Materie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginzel, Rainer

    2010-06-09

    The thesis presented herein deals with experimental studies of the interaction between highly charged ions and neutral matter at low collision energies. The energy range investigated is of great interest for the understanding of both charge exchange reactions between ions comprising the solar wind and various astrophysical gases, as well as the creation of near-surface nanostructures. Over the course of this thesis an experimental setup was constructed, capable of reducing the kinetic energy of incoming ions by two orders of magnitude and finally focussing the decelerated ion beam onto a solid or gaseous target. A coincidence method was employed for the simultaneous detection of photons emitted during the charge exchange process together with the corresponding projectile ions. In this manner, it was possible to separate reaction channels, whose superposition presumably propagated large uncertainties and systematic errors in previous measurements. This work has unveiled unexpectedly strong contributions of slow radiative decay channels and clear evidence of previously only postulated decay processes in charge exchange-induced X-ray spectra. (orig.)

  20. A New Anisotropic Charge-Equilibration Method for Self-Assembly of Organics on Metal Surface: d-Alaninol on Cu(100).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, A; Satta, M

    2016-08-01

    The supramolecular chemistry at surfaces has been extensively studied by quantum and classical computational models in order to simulate and reproduce the correct energetics and structures of adsorbed molecules on surfaces at various coverages. We have developed a classical tool able to sample the configuration space overcoming the topological constraints of the standard classical molecular dynamics. Our model is based on the charge equilibration procedure combined with an anisotropic pairwise atomic interaction where an angular dependence, with respect to the metal surface, is explicitly taken into account. The d-alaninol molecule has been chosen as a prototype of a flexible and multifunctional chemical compound which can form manifold complex configurations upon absorption on a metal surface. A detailed analysis of molecular structures and energetics of partial and full coverage has been carried out. The experimental STM image of the monolayer is correctly reproduced by our calculations, indicating that this new approach represents a step forward in the efficient simulation of complex molecular self-assembly.

  1. Pseudorapidity dependence of the anisotropic flow of charged particles in Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}=2.76$ TeV

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2073687; Adamova, Dagmar; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmad, Shakeel; Ahn, Sang Un; Aiola, Salvatore; Akindinov, Alexander; Alam, Sk Noor; Silva De Albuquerque, Danilo; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alexandre, Didier; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Millan Almaraz, Jesus Roberto; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Arnaldi, Roberta; Arnold, Oliver Werner; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Audurier, Benjamin; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Balasubramanian, Supraja; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbano, Anastasia Maria; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartalini, Paolo; Barth, Klaus; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Bartsch, Esther; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batista Camejo, Arianna; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bello Martinez, Hector; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont Iii, Ronald John; Belmont Moreno, Ernesto; Espinoza Beltran, Lucina Gabriela; Belyaev, Vladimir; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhat, Inayat Rasool; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Biro, Gabor; Biswas, Rathijit; Biswas, Saikat; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blair, Justin Thomas; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Bock, Friederike; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Bonora, Matthias; Book, Julian Heinz; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Borri, Marcello; Bossu, Francesco; Botta, Elena; Bourjau, Christian; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Broker, Theo Alexander; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Brucken, Erik Jens; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Bashir Butt, Jamila; Buxton, Jesse Thomas; Cabala, Jan; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Calero Diaz, Liliet; Caliva, Alberto; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Carnesecchi, Francesca; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Castro, Andrew John; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Cerkala, Jakub; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Chartier, Marielle; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chauvin, Alex; Chelnokov, Volodymyr; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan Valeriev; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Dobrigkeit Chinellato, David; Cho, Soyeon; Chochula, Peter; Choi, Kyungeon; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Colamaria, Fabio Filippo; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Colocci, Manuel; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa Del Valle, Zaida; Connors, Megan Elizabeth; Contreras Nuno, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cortese, Pietro; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Crkovska, Jana; Crochet, Philippe; Cruz Albino, Rigoberto; Cuautle Flores, Eleazar; Cunqueiro Mendez, Leticia; Dahms, Torsten; Dainese, Andrea; Danisch, Meike Charlotte; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Supriya; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; De Caro, Annalisa; De Cataldo, Giacinto; De Conti, Camila; De Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; Derradi De Souza, Rafael; Deisting, Alexander; Deloff, Andrzej; Denes, Ervin Sandor; Deplano, Caterina; Dhankher, Preeti; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Di Ruzza, Benedetto; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Dietel, Thomas; Dillenseger, Pascal; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Domenicis Gimenez, Diogenes; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Drozhzhova, Tatiana; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Dupieux, Pascal; Ehlers Iii, Raymond James; Elia, Domenico; Endress, Eric; Engel, Heiko; Epple, Eliane; Erazmus, Barbara Ewa; Erdemir, Irem; Erhardt, Filip; Espagnon, Bruno; Estienne, Magali Danielle; Esumi, Shinichi; Eum, Jongsik; Evans, David; Evdokimov, Sergey; Eyyubova, Gyulnara; Fabbietti, Laura; Fabris, Daniela; Faivre, Julien; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Feldkamp, Linus; Feliciello, Alessandro; Feofilov, Grigorii; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Gonzalez Ferreiro, Elena; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Feuillard, Victor Jose Gaston; Figiel, Jan; Araujo Silva Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Fleck, Martin Gabriel; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Francisco, Audrey; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fronze, Gabriele Gaetano; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Furs, Artur; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoeje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago Medina, Alberto Martin; Gajdosova, Katarina; Gallio, Mauro; Duarte Galvan, Carlos; Gangadharan, Dhevan Raja; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Gao, Chaosong; Garabatos Cuadrado, Jose; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gargiulo, Corrado; Gasik, Piotr Jan; Gauger, Erin Frances; Germain, Marie; Gheata, Mihaela; Ghosh, Premomoy; Ghosh, Sanjay Kumar; Gianotti, Paola; Giubellino, Paolo; Giubilato, Piero; Gladysz-Dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gomez Coral, Diego Mauricio; Gomez Ramirez, Andres; Sanchez Gonzalez, Andres; Gonzalez, Victor; Gonzalez Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Gorlich, Lidia Maria; Gotovac, Sven; Grabski, Varlen; Grachov, Oleg Anatolievich; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Graham, Katie Leanne; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Alina Gabriela; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoryev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grynyov, Borys; Grion, Nevio; Gronefeld, Julius Maximilian; Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grosso, Raffaele; Gruber, Lukas; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerzoni, Barbara; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Haake, Rudiger; Haaland, Oystein Senneset; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Haiduc, Maria; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Hamon, Julien Charles; Harris, John William; Harton, Austin Vincent; Hatzifotiadou, Despina; Hayashi, Shinichi; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Hellbar, Ernst; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hillemanns, Hartmut; Hippolyte, Boris; Horak, David; Hosokawa, Ritsuya; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Hughes, Charles; Humanic, Thomas; Hussain, Nur; Hussain, Tahir; Hutter, Dirk; Hwang, Dae Sung; Ilkaev, Radiy; Inaba, Motoi; Incani, Elisa; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanov, Vladimir; Izucheev, Vladimir; Jacak, Barbara; Jacazio, Nicolo; Jacobs, Peter Martin; Jadhav, Manoj Bhanudas; Jadlovska, Slavka; Jadlovsky, Jan; Jahnke, Cristiane; Jakubowska, Monika Joanna; Jang, Haeng Jin; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Pahula Hewage, Sandun; Jena, Chitrasen; Jena, Satyajit; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jones, Peter Graham; Jusko, Anton; Kalinak, Peter; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Kar, Somnath; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karayan, Lilit; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Keijdener, Darius Laurens; Keil, Markus; Khan, Mohammed Mohisin; Khan, Palash; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Daehyeok; Kim, Hyeonjoong; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Kiss, Gabor; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Carsten; Klein, Jochen; Klein-Boesing, Christian; Klewin, Sebastian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kobdaj, Chinorat; Kofarago, Monika; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kolozhvari, Anatoly; Kondratev, Valerii; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Kondratyuk, Evgeny; Konevskikh, Artem; Kopcik, Michal; Kour, Mandeep; Kouzinopoulos, Charalampos; Kovalenko, Oleksandr; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kralik, Ivan; Kravcakova, Adela; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kubera, Andrew Michael; Kucera, Vit; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paulus Gerardus; Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Jitendra; Kumar, Lokesh; Kumar, Shyam; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, Alexander; Kurepin, Alexey; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Ladron De Guevara, Pedro; Lagana Fernandes, Caio; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lapidus, Kirill; Lara Martinez, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; Lattuca, Alessandra; Laudi, Elisa; Lea, Ramona; Leardini, Lucia; Lee, Seongjoo; Lehas, Fatiha; Lehner, Sebastian; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Lenti, Vito; Leogrande, Emilia; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Leon Vargas, Hermes; Leoncino, Marco; Levai, Peter; Li, Shuang; Li, Xiaomei; Lien, Jorgen Andre; Lietava, Roman; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Ljunggren, Hans Martin; Lodato, Davide Francesco; Lonne, Per-Ivar; Loginov, Vitaly; Loizides, Constantinos; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lowe, Andrew John; Luettig, Philipp Johannes; Lunardon, Marcello; Luparello, Grazia; Lupi, Matteo; Lutz, Tyler Harrison; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahajan, Sanjay; Mahmood, Sohail Musa; Maire, Antonin; Majka, Richard Daniel; Malaev, Mikhail; Maldonado Cervantes, Ivonne Alicia; Malinina, Liudmila; Mal'Kevich, Dmitry; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Mao, Yaxian; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Margutti, Jacopo; Marin, Ana Maria; Markert, Christina; Marquard, Marco; Martin, Nicole Alice; Martin Blanco, Javier; Martinengo, Paolo; Martinez Hernandez, Mario Ivan; Martinez-Garcia, Gines; Martinez Pedreira, Miguel; Mas, Alexis Jean-Michel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayer, Christoph; Mazer, Joel Anthony; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Mcdonald, Daniel; Meddi, Franco; Melikyan, Yuri; Menchaca-Rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Meninno, Elisa; Mercado-Perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Mhlanga, Sibaliso; Miake, Yasuo; Mieskolainen, Matti Mikael; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Milano, Leonardo; Milosevic, Jovan; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Miskowiec, Dariusz Czeslaw; Mitra, Jubin; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mohammadi, Naghmeh; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Molnar, Levente; Montano Zetina, Luis Manuel; Montes Prado, Esther; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Perez Moreno, Luis Alberto; Moretto, Sandra; Morreale, Astrid; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhlheim, Daniel Michael; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Mulligan, James Declan; Gameiro Munhoz, Marcelo; Munning, Konstantin; Munzer, Robert Helmut; Murakami, Hikari; Murray, Sean; Musa, Luciano; Musinsky, Jan; Naik, Bharati; Nair, Rahul; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Naru, Muhammad Umair; Ferreira Natal Da Luz, Pedro Hugo; Nattrass, Christine; Rosado Navarro, Sebastian; Nayak, Kishora; Nayak, Ranjit; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nedosekin, Alexander; Negrao De Oliveira, Renato Aparecido; Nellen, Lukas; Ng, Fabian; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Niedziela, Jeremi; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Cabanillas Noris, Juan Carlos; Norman, Jaime; Nyanin, Alexander; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Saehanseul; Oh, Sun Kun; Ohlson, Alice Elisabeth; Okatan, Ali; Okubo, Tsubasa; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oliveira Da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Oliver, Michael Henry; Onderwaater, Jacobus; Oppedisano, Chiara; Orava, Risto; Oravec, Matej; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Ozdemir, Mahmut; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pagano, Davide; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Pal, Susanta Kumar; Pan, Jinjin; Pandey, Ashutosh Kumar; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Pareek, Pooja; Park, Woojin; Parmar, Sonia; Passfeld, Annika; Paticchio, Vincenzo; Patra, Rajendra Nath; Paul, Biswarup; Pei, Hua; Peitzmann, Thomas; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Peresunko, Dmitry Yurevich; Perez Lezama, Edgar; Peskov, Vladimir; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petrov, Viacheslav; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Piano, Stefano; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Ozelin De Lima Pimentel, Lais; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Planinic, Mirko; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Polishchuk, Boris; Poljak, Nikola; Poonsawat, Wanchaloem; Pop, Amalia; Poppenborg, Hendrik; Porteboeuf, Sarah Julie; Porter, R Jefferson; Pospisil, Jan; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; Puccio, Maximiliano; Puddu, Giovanna; Pujahari, Prabhat Ranjan; Punin, Valery; Putschke, Jorn Henning; Qvigstad, Henrik; Rachevski, Alexandre; Raha, Sibaji; Rajput, Sonia; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Rami, Fouad; Raniwala, Rashmi; Raniwala, Sudhir; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Rathee, Deepika; Read, Kenneth Francis; Redlich, Krzysztof; Reed, Rosi Jan; Rehman, Attiq Ur; Reichelt, Patrick Simon; Reidt, Felix; Ren, Xiaowen; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reolon, Anna Rita; Reshetin, Andrey; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riabov, Viktor; Ricci, Renato Angelo; Richert, Tuva Ora Herenui; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Ristea, Catalin-Lucian; Rocco, Elena; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Rodriguez Manso, Alis; Roeed, Ketil; Rogochaya, Elena; Rohr, David Michael; Roehrich, Dieter; Ronchetti, Federico; Ronflette, Lucile; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossi, Andrea; Roukoutakis, Filimon; Roy, Ankhi; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Rubio Montero, Antonio Juan; Rui, Rinaldo; Russo, Riccardo; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Ryabov, Yury; Rybicki, Andrzej; Saarinen, Sampo; Sadhu, Samrangy; Sadovskiy, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Sahlmuller, Baldo; Sahoo, Pragati; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahoo, Sarita; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakai, Shingo; Saleh, Mohammad Ahmad; Salzwedel, Jai Samuel Nielsen; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sandor, Ladislav; Sandoval, Andres; Sano, Masato; Sarkar, Debojit; Sarkar, Nachiketa; Sarma, Pranjal; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schmidt, Martin; Schuchmann, Simone; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; Schweda, Kai Oliver; Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Scott, Rebecca Michelle; Sefcik, Michal; Seger, Janet Elizabeth; Sekiguchi, Yuko; Sekihata, Daiki; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Senosi, Kgotlaesele; Senyukov, Serhiy; Serradilla Rodriguez, Eulogio; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabanov, Arseniy; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shadura, Oksana; Shahoyan, Ruben; Shahzad, Muhammed Ikram; Shangaraev, Artem; Sharma, Ankita; Sharma, Mona; Sharma, Monika; Sharma, Natasha; Sheikh, Ashik Ikbal; Shigaki, Kenta; Shou, Qiye; Shtejer Diaz, Katherin; Sibiryak, Yury; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Sielewicz, Krzysztof Marek; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Silvestre, Catherine Micaela; Simatovic, Goran; Simonetti, Giuseppe; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singhal, Vikas; Sarkar - Sinha, Tinku; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Slupecki, Maciej; Smirnov, Nikolai; Snellings, Raimond; Snellman, Tomas Wilhelm; Song, Jihye; Song, Myunggeun; Song, Zixuan; Soramel, Francesca; Sorensen, Soren Pontoppidan; Sozzi, Federica; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Sputowska, Iwona Anna; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, Martha; Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Ionel; Stankus, Paul; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Steyn, Gideon Francois; Stiller, Johannes Hendrik; Stocco, Diego; Strmen, Peter; Alarcon Do Passo Suaide, Alexandre; Sugitate, Toru; Suire, Christophe Pierre; Suleymanov, Mais Kazim Oglu; Suljic, Miljenko; Sultanov, Rishat; Sumbera, Michal; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Szabo, Alexander; Szarka, Imrich; Szczepankiewicz, Adam; Szymanski, Maciej Pawel; Tabassam, Uzma; Takahashi, Jun; Tambave, Ganesh Jagannath; Tanaka, Naoto; Tarhini, Mohamad; Tariq, Mohammad; Tarzila, Madalina-Gabriela; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terasaki, Kohei; Terrevoli, Cristina; Teyssier, Boris; Thaeder, Jochen Mathias; Thakur, Dhananjaya; Thomas, Deepa; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Tikhonov, Anatoly; Timmins, Anthony Robert; Toia, Alberica; Trogolo, Stefano; Trombetta, Giuseppe; Trubnikov, Victor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ullaland, Kjetil; Uras, Antonio; Usai, Gianluca; Utrobicic, Antonija; Vala, Martin; Valencia Palomo, Lizardo; Vallero, Sara; Van Der Maarel, Jasper; Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Van Leeuwen, Marco; Vanat, Tomas; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Varga, Dezso; Vargas Trevino, Aurora Diozcora; Vargyas, Marton; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vauthier, Astrid; Vazquez Doce, Oton; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veen, Annelies Marianne; Veldhoen, Misha; Velure, Arild; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara Limon, Sergio; Vernet, Renaud; Verweij, Marta; Vickovic, Linda; Viinikainen, Jussi Samuli; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Villatoro Tello, Abraham; Vinogradov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Leonid; Virgili, Tiziano; Vislavicius, Vytautas; Viyogi, Yogendra; Vodopyanov, Alexander; Volkl, Martin Andreas; Voloshin, Kirill; Voloshin, Sergey; Volpe, Giacomo; Von Haller, Barthelemy; Vorobyev, Ivan; Vranic, Danilo; Vrlakova, Janka; Vulpescu, Bogdan; Wagner, Boris; Wagner, Jan; Wang, Hongkai; Wang, Mengliang; Watanabe, Daisuke; Watanabe, Yosuke; Weber, Michael; Weber, Steffen Georg; Weiser, Dennis Franz; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Westerhoff, Uwe; Whitehead, Andile Mothegi; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Wilkinson, Jeremy John; Willems, Guido Alexander; Williams, Crispin; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Winn, Michael Andreas; Yang, Ping; Yano, Satoshi; Yasin, Zafar; Yin, Zhongbao; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yoon, Jin Hee; Yurchenko, Volodymyr; Zaborowska, Anna; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zaman, Ali; Zampolli, Chiara; Correia Zanoli, Henrique Jose; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zardoshti, Nima; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Chunhui, Zhang; Zhang, Zuman; Zhao, Chengxin; Zhigareva, Natalia; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, You; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zyzak, Maksym

    2016-01-01

    We present measurements of the elliptic ($\\mathrm{v}_2$), triangular ($\\mathrm{v}_3$) and quadrangular ($\\mathrm{v}_4$) anisotropic azimuthal flow over a wide range of pseudorapidities ($-3.5< \\eta < 5$). The measurements are performed with Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\text{NN}}} = 2.76$ TeV using the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The flow harmonics are obtained using two- and four-particle correlations from nine different centrality intervals covering central to peripheral collisions. We find that the shape of $\\mathrm{v}_n(\\eta)$ is largely independent of centrality for the flow harmonics $n=2-4$, however the higher harmonics fall off more steeply with increasing $|\\eta|$. We assess the validity of extended longitudinal scaling of $\\mathrm{v}_2$ by comparing to lower energy measurements, and find that the higher harmonic flow coefficients are proportional to the charged particle densities at larger pseudorapidities. Finally, we compare our measurements to both hydrodynamical and...

  2. Catching the role of anisotropic electronic distribution and charge transfer in halogen bonded complexes of noble gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartocci, Alessio; Cappelletti, David; Pirani, Fernando [Dipartimento di Chimica, Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università di Perugia, Perugia 06123 (Italy); Belpassi, Leonardo [Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari del CNR, Perugia 06123 (Italy); Falcinelli, Stefano [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile ed Ambientale, Università degli Studi di Perugia, 06125 Perugia (Italy); Grandinetti, Felice [Dipartimento per la Innovazione nei sistemi Biologici, Agroalimentari e Forestali (DIBAF), Università della Tuscia, 01100 Viterbo (Italy); Tarantelli, Francesco [Dipartimento di Chimica, Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università di Perugia, Perugia 06123 (Italy); Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari del CNR, Perugia 06123 (Italy)

    2015-05-14

    The systems studied in this work are gas-phase weakly bound adducts of the noble-gas (Ng) atoms with CCl{sub 4} and CF{sub 4}. Their investigation was motivated by the widespread current interest for the intermolecular halogen bonding (XB), a structural motif recognized to play a role in fields ranging from elementary processes to biochemistry. The simulation of the static and dynamic behaviors of complex systems featuring XB requires the formulation of reliable and accurate model potentials, whose development relies on the detailed characterization of strength and nature of the interactions occurring in simple exemplary halogenated systems. We thus selected the prototypical Ng-CCl{sub 4} and Ng-CF{sub 4} and performed high-resolution molecular beam scattering experiments to measure the absolute scale of their intermolecular potentials, with high sensitivity. In general, we expected to probe typical van der Waals interactions, consisting of a combination of size (exchange) repulsion with dispersion/induction attraction. For the He/Ne-CF{sub 4}, the analysis of the glory quantum interference pattern, observable in the velocity dependence of the integral cross section, confirmed indeed this expectation. On the other hand, for the He/Ne/Ar-CCl{sub 4}, the scattering data unravelled much deeper potential wells, particularly for certain configurations of the interacting partners. The experimental data can be properly reproduced only including a shifting of the repulsive wall at shorter distances, accompanied by an increased role of the dispersion attraction, and an additional short-range stabilization component. To put these findings on a firmer ground, we performed, for selected geometries of the interacting complexes, accurate theoretical calculations aimed to evaluate the intermolecular interaction and the effects of the complex formation on the electron charge density of the constituting moieties. It was thus ascertained that the adjustments of the potential

  3. Averaging anisotropic cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine the effects of spatial inhomogeneities on irrotational anisotropic cosmologies by looking at the average properties of anisotropic pressure-free models. Adopting the Buchert scheme, we recast the averaged scalar equations in Bianchi-type form and close the standard system by introducing a propagation formula for the average shear magnitude. We then investigate the evolution of anisotropic average vacuum models and those filled with pressureless matter. In the latter case we show that the backreaction effects can modify the familiar Kasner-like singularity and potentially remove Mixmaster-type oscillations. The presence of nonzero average shear in our equations also allows us to examine the constraints that a phase of backreaction-driven accelerated expansion might put on the anisotropy of the averaged domain. We close by assessing the status of these and other attempts to define and calculate 'average' spacetime behaviour in general relativity

  4. Hidden fermion as milli-charged dark matter in Stueckelberg Z' model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We augment the hidden Stueckelberg Z' model by a pair of Dirac fermions in the hidden sector, in which the Z' has a coupling strength comparable to weak scale coupling. We show that this hidden fermion-antifermion pair could be a milli-charged dark matter candidate with a viable relic density. Existing terrestrial and astrophysical searches on milli-charged particles do not place severe constraints on this hidden fermion. We calculate the flux of monochromatic photons coming from the Galactic center due to pair annihilation of these milli-charged particles and show that it is within reach of the next generation γ-ray experiments. The characteristic signature of this theoretical endeavor is that the Stueckelberg Z' boson has a large invisible width decaying into the hidden fermion-antifermion pair. We show that existing Drell-Yan data do not constrain this model yet. Various channels of singly production of this Z' boson at the LHC and ILC are explored

  5. Effect of a cylindrical thin-shell of matter on the electrostatic self-force on a charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubín de Celis, Emilio

    2016-02-01

    The electrostatic self-force on a point charge in cylindrical thin-shell space-times is interpreted as the sum of a bulk field and a shell field. The bulk part corresponds to a field sourced by the test charge placed in a space-time without the shell. The shell field accounts for the discontinuity of the extrinsic curvature {κ ^p}_q. An equivalent electric problem is stated, in which the effect of the shell of matter on the field is reconstructed with the electric potential produced by a non-gravitating charge distribution of total image charge Q, to interpret the shell field in both the interior and exterior regions of the space-time. The self-force on a point charge q in a locally flat geometry with a cylindrical thin-shell of matter is calculated. The charge is repelled from the shell if {κ p}p=κ attracted toward the shell if κ >0 (exotic matter). The total image charge is zero for exterior problems, while for interior problems Q/q=-κ r_e, with r_e the external radius of the shell. The procedure is general and can be applied to interpret self-forces in other space-times with shells, e.g., for locally flat wormholes we found Q_{∓}^{wh}/q=-1/ (κ_{wh} r_{± }).

  6. Effect of a cylindrical thin-shell of matter on the electrostatic self-force on a charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin de Celis, Emilio [Universidad de Buenos Aires y IFIBA, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2016-02-15

    The electrostatic self-force on a point charge in cylindrical thin-shell space-times is interpreted as the sum of a bulk field and a shell field. The bulk part corresponds to a field sourced by the test charge placed in a space-time without the shell. The shell field accounts for the discontinuity of the extrinsic curvature κ{sup p}{sub q}. An equivalent electric problem is stated, in which the effect of the shell of matter on the field is reconstructed with the electric potential produced by a non-gravitating charge distribution of total image charge Q, to interpret the shell field in both the interior and exterior regions of the space-time. The self-force on a point charge q in a locally flat geometry with a cylindrical thin-shell of matter is calculated. The charge is repelled from the shell if κ{sup p}{sub q} = κ < 0 (ordinarymatter) and attracted toward the shell if κ > 0 (exotic matter). The total image charge is zero for exterior problems, while for interior problems Q/q = κr{sub e}, with re the external radius of the shell. The procedure is general and can be applied to interpret self-forces in other space-times with shells, e.g., for locally flat wormholes we found Q{sub -+}{sup wh}/q = -1/(κ{sub wh}r{sub ±}). (orig.)

  7. The Casimir effect with quantized charged spinor matter in background magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Sitenko, Yu A

    2014-01-01

    We study the influence of a background uniform magnetic field and boundary conditions on the vacuum of a quantized charged spinor matter field confined between two parallel neutral plates; the magnetic field is directed orthogonally to the plates. The admissible set of boundary conditions at the plates is determined by the requirement that the Dirac hamiltonian operator be self-adjoint. It is shown that, in the case of a sufficiently strong magnetic field and a sufficiently large separation of the plates, the Casimir force is repulsive, being independent of the choice of a boundary condition, as well as of the distance between the plates. The detection of this effect seems to be feasible in a foreseen future.

  8. Ultrafast Charge Dynamics Initiated by High-Intensity, Ultrashort Laser-Matter Interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of high-intensity laser pulses with matter releases instantaneously ultra-large currents of highly energetic electrons, leading to the generation of highly-transient, large-amplitude electric and magnetic fields. We report results of recent experiment in which such charge dynamics have been studied by using proton probing techniques able to provide maps of the electrostatic fields with high spatial and temporal resolution. The dynamics of ponderomotive channelling in underdense plasmas have been studied in this way, as also the processes of Debye sheath formation and MeV ion front expansion at the rear of laser-irradiated thin metallic foils. An application employing laser-driven impulsive fields for energy-selective ion beam focusing is also presented

  9. Charged Cylindrical Polytropes with Generalized Polytropic Equation of State

    CERN Document Server

    Azam, M; Noureen, I; Rehman, M A

    2016-01-01

    We study the general formalism of polytropes in relativistic regime with generalized polytropic equations of state in the vicinity of cylindrical symmetry. We take charged anisotropic fluid distribution of matter with conformally flat condition for the development of general framework of polytropes. We discussed the stability of the model by Whittaker formula and concluded that one of the developed model is physically viable.

  10. Nuclear charge and neutron radii and nuclear matter: Trend analysis in Skyrme density-functional-theory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, P.-G.; Nazarewicz, W.

    2016-05-01

    Background: Radii of charge and neutron distributions are fundamental nuclear properties. They depend on both nuclear interaction parameters related to the equation of state of infinite nuclear matter and on quantal shell effects, which are strongly impacted by the presence of nuclear surface. Purpose: In this work, by studying the correlation of charge and neutron radii, and neutron skin, with nuclear matter parameters, we assess different mechanisms that drive nuclear sizes. Method: We apply nuclear density functional theory using a family of Skyrme functionals obtained by means of optimization protocols, which do not include any radius information. By performing the Monte Carlo sampling of reasonable functionals around the optimal parametrization, we scan all correlations between nuclear matter properties and observables characterizing charge and neutron distributions of spherical closed-shell nuclei 48Ca,208Pb, and 298Fl. Results: By considering the influence of various nuclear matter properties on charge and neutron radii in a multidimensional parameter space of Skyrme functionals, we demonstrate the existence of two strong relationships: (i) between the nuclear charge radii and the saturation density of symmetric nuclear matter ρ0, and (ii) between the neutron skins and the slope of the symmetry energy L . The impact of other nuclear matter properties on nuclear radii is weak or nonexistent. For functionals optimized to experimental binding energies only, proton and neutron radii are found to be weakly correlated due to canceling trends from different nuclear matter characteristics. Conclusion: The existence of only two strong relations connecting nuclear radii with nuclear matter properties has important consequences. First, by requiring that the nuclear functional reproduces the empirical saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter practically fixes the charge (or proton) radii, and vice versa. This explains the recent results of ab initio calculations

  11. Experimental study of ion stopping power in warm dense matter: charge-state distribution measurements of ions leaving warm dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination if the ion slowing down process (or stopping power) in warm dense matter is essential especially in the frame of inertial confinement fusion. During my thesis, our interest was driven by the modification of the charge state of ion beam emerging from warm dense matter, this quantity playing a major role in ion stopping power calculation. We took advantage of the properties exhibited by ion beams produced by high intensity short pulse lasers to study during two experiments performed at ELFIE and TITAN facilities, the charge state modification of a carbon and helium ion beams emerging from an aluminum foil isochorically heated by an energetic proton beam. In the first two chapters are presented the major challenges regarding the subject from both a theoretical and experimental point of view. Here are exposed the different simulation tools used during the thesis. The third chapter is devoted to the study of the property of laser-produced ion beams in the scope of our experiments aiming at studying the stopping power. We have studied in particular ion beams generated using lower-than-solid density targets during two experiments: helium gas jet and laser-exploded target. In the last chapter are presented the set-ups and results of the two experiments on the charge state of ion beam emerging from warm dense matter. The data we measured in solid-density cold aluminum are successfully compared with the results already obtained in conventional accelerators. (author)

  12. Simplified Dark Matter Models with Charged Mediators: Prospects for Direct Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Sandick, Pearl; Teng, Fei

    2016-01-01

    We consider direct detection prospects for a class of simplified models of fermionic dark matter (DM) coupled to left and right-handed Standard Model fermions via two charged scalar mediators with arbitrary mixing angle $\\alpha$. DM interactions with the nucleus are mediated by higher electromagnetic moments, which, for Majorana DM, is the anapole moment. After giving a full analytic calculation of the anapole moment, including its $\\alpha$ dependence, and matching with limits in the literature, we compute the DM-nucleon scattering cross-section and show the LUX and future LZ constraints on the parameter space of these models. We then compare these results with constraints coming from $Fermi$-LAT continuum and line searches. Results in the supersymmetric limit of these simplified models are provided in all cases. We find that future direct detection experiments will be able to probe most of the parameter space of these models for $\\mathcal{O}(100-200)$ GeV DM and lightest mediator mass $\\lesssim \\mathcal{O}(5...

  13. Mimicking static anisotropic fluid spheres in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonserm, Petarpa; Ngampitipan, Tritos; Visser, Matt

    2016-11-01

    We argue that an arbitrary general relativistic static anisotropic fluid sphere, (static and spherically symmetric but with transverse pressure not equal to radial pressure), can nevertheless be successfully mimicked by suitable linear combinations of theoretically attractive and quite simple classical matter: a classical (charged) isotropic perfect fluid, a classical electromagnetic field and a classical (minimally coupled) scalar field. While the most general decomposition is not unique, a preferred minimal decomposition can be constructed that is unique. We show how the classical energy conditions for the anisotropic fluid sphere can be related to energy conditions for the isotropic perfect fluid, electromagnetic field, and scalar field components of the model. Furthermore, we show how this decomposition relates to the distribution of both electric charge density and scalar charge density throughout the model. The generalized TOV equation implies that the perfect fluid component in this model is automatically in internal equilibrium, with pressure forces, electric forces, and scalar forces balancing the gravitational pseudo-force. Consequently, we can build theoretically attractive matter models that can be used to mimic almost any static spherically symmetric spacetime.

  14. Searching for the dual of the Maxwell-Chern-Simons model minimally coupled to dynamical U(1) charged matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of dual equivalence between the self-dual and the Maxwell-Chern-Simons (MCS) models when the latter is coupled to dynamical, U(1) fermionic charged matter is examined. The proper coupling in the self-dual model is then disclosed using the iterative gauge embedding approach. We found that the self-dual potential needs to couple directly to the Chern kernel of the source in order to establish this equivalence besides the need for a self-interaction term to render the matter sector unchanged

  15. Effect of a cylindrical thin-shell of matter on the electrostatic self-force on a charge

    OpenAIRE

    Rubín de Celis, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    The electrostatic self-force on a point charge in cylindrical thin-shell space-times is interpreted as the sum of a $bulk$ field and a $shell$ field. The $bulk$ part corresponds to a field sourced by the test charge placed in a space-time without the shell. The $shell$ field accounts for the discontinuity of the extrinsic curvature ${\\kappa^p}_q$. An equivalent electric problem is stated, in which the effect of the shell of matter on the field is reconstructed with the electric potential prod...

  16. Anisotropic flow and flow fluctuations at the large hadron collider

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, You

    One of the fundamental questions in the phenomenology of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is what the properties of matter are at the extreme densities and temperatures where quarks and gluons are in a new state of matter, the so-called Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP). Collisions of high-energy heavy-ions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), allow us to create and study the properties of such a system in the laboratory. Anisotropic flow (vn) is strong evidence for the existence of QGP, and has been described as one of the most important observations measured in the ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. In this thesis, the anisotropic flow of not only charged particles but also identified particles are presented. In addition, the investigations of correlations and fluctuations of both flow angle (symmetry plane) and magnitude were discussed. The main goal of this thesis is to understand the nature of anisotropic flow and its response to the initial geometry of the created system as well as its fluctuations.

  17. Material Induced Anisotropic Damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niazi, M.S.; Wisselink, H.H.; Meinders, V.T.; Boogaard, van den A.H.; Hora, P.

    2012-01-01

    The anisotropy in damage can be driven by two different phenomena; anisotropic defor-mation state named Load Induced Anisotropic Damage (LIAD) and anisotropic (shape and/or distribution) second phase particles named Material Induced Anisotropic Damage (MIAD). Most anisotropic damage models are based

  18. Relativistic mean field theory with density dependent coupling constants for nuclear matter and finite nuclei with large charge asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Typel, S.; Wolter, H.H. [Sektion Physik, Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany)

    1998-06-01

    Nuclear matter and ground state properties for (proton and neutron) semi-closed shell nuclei are described in relativistic mean field theory with coupling constants which depend on the vector density. The parametrization of the density dependence for {sigma}-, {omega}- and {rho}-mesons is obtained by fitting to properties of nuclear matter and some finite nuclei. The equation of state for symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter is discussed. Finite nuclei are described in Hartree approximation, including a charge and an improved center-of-mass correction. Pairing is considered in the BCS approximation. Special attention is directed to the predictions for properties at the neutron and proton driplines, e.g. for separation energies, spin-orbit splittings and density distributions. (orig.)

  19. 具有磁矩自旋物质的开放的各向异性宇宙模型%Anisotropic Open Cosmological Models of Spin Matter with Magnetic Moment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈利明; 孙迺疆; 吉桂芳; 陆惠卿

    2001-01-01

    We have derived a set of field equations for a Weyssenhoff spin fluid including magnetic interaction among the spinning particles prevailing in spatially homogeneous, but anisotropically cosmological models of Bianchi type V based on Einstein-Cartan theory. We analyze the field equations in three different equations of states specified by p = (1/3) ρ, p = ρ and p = 0. The analytical solutions found are non-singular provided that the combined energy arising from matter spin and magnetic interaction among particles overcomes the anisotropy energy in the Universe. We have also deduced that the minimum particle numbers for the radiation (p = (1/3)ρ) and matter (p = 0) epochs are 10s8 and 10108 respectively, the minimum particle number for the state p = p is 1096, leading to the conclusion that we must consider the existence of neutrinos and other creation of particles and anti-particles under torsion and strong gravitational field in the early Universe.

  20. Anisotropic flow of charged hadrons, pions and (anti-)protons measured at high transverse momentum in Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=2.76 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Abelev, Betty; Adamova, Dagmar; Adare, Andrew Marshall; Aggarwal, Madan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agocs, Andras Gabor; Agostinelli, Andrea; Aguilar Salazar, Saul; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmad, Arshad; Ahmad, Nazeer; Ahn, Sang Un; Akindinov, Alexander; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Almaraz Avina, Erick Jonathan; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altini, Valerio; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anielski, Jonas; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshauser, Harald; Arbor, Nicolas; Arcelli, Silvia; Armesto, Nestor; Arnaldi, Roberta; Aronsson, Tomas Robert; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Awes, Terry; Aysto, Juha Heikki; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Bach, Matthias Jakob; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldini Ferroli, Rinaldo; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baldit, Alain; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Ban, Jaroslav; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Barret, Valerie; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batyunya, Boris; Baumann, Christoph Heinrich; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont-Moreno, Ernesto; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bergognon, Anais Annick Erica; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blanco, F; Blanco, Francesco; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Bock, Nicolas; Boettger, Stefan; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Bogolyubsky, Mikhail; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Book, Julian; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Bose, Suvendu Nath; Bossu, Francesco; Botje, Michiel; Boyer, Bruno Alexandre; Braidot, Ermes; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Brun, Rene; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Bugaiev, Kyrylo; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Canoa Roman, Veronica; Cara Romeo, Giovanni; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Carminati, Federico; Casanova Diaz, Amaya Ofelia; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Catanescu, Vasile; Cavicchioli, Costanza; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chawla, Isha; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chiavassa, Emilio; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Chinellato, David; Chochula, Peter; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Coccetti, Fabrizio; Colamaria, Fabio; Colella, Domenico; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa del Valle, Zaida; Constantin, Paul; Contin, Giacomo; Contreras, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cortese, Pietro; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Cotallo, Manuel Enrique; Crochet, Philippe; Cruz Alaniz, Emilia; Cuautle, Eleazar; Cunqueiro, Leticia; D'Erasmo, Ginevra; Dainese, Andrea; Dalsgaard, Hans Hjersing; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Kushal; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; de Barros, Gabriel; De Caro, Annalisa; de Cataldo, Giacinto; de Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; de Rooij, Raoul Stefan; Delagrange, Hugues; Deloff, Andrzej; Demanov, Vyacheslav; Denes, Ervin; Deppman, Airton; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Giglio, Carmelo; Di Liberto, Sergio; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Dietel, Thomas; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Dobrowolski, Tadeusz Antoni; Dominguez, Isabel; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Driga, Olga; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Ducroux, Laurent; Dupieux, Pascal; Dutta Majumdar, AK; Dutta Majumdar, Mihir Ranjan; Elia, Domenico; Emschermann, David Philip; Engel, Heiko; Erdal, Hege Austrheim; Espagnon, Bruno; Estienne, Magali Danielle; Esumi, Shinichi; Evans, David; Eyyubova, Gyulnara; Fabris, Daniela; Faivre, Julien; Falchieri, Davide; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Fearick, Roger Worsley; Fedunov, Anatoly; Fehlker, Dominik; Feldkamp, Linus; Felea, Daniel; Fenton-Olsen, Bo; Feofilov, Grigory; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Ferretti, Alessandro; Ferretti, Roberta; Figiel, Jan; Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago, Alberto; Gallio, Mauro; Gangadharan, Dhevan Raja; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Garabatos, Jose; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo; Garishvili, Irakli; Gerhard, Jochen; Germain, Marie; Geuna, Claudio; Gheata, Andrei George; Gheata, Mihaela; Ghidini, Bruno; Ghosh, Premomoy; Gianotti, Paola; Girard, Martin Robert; Giubellino, Paolo; Gladysz-Dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gomez, Ramon; Gonschior, Alexey; Gonzalez Ferreiro, Elena; Gonzalez-Trueba, Laura Helena; Gonzalez-Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Goswami, Ankita; Gotovac, Sven; Grabski, Varlen; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Grajcarek, Robert; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Alina Gabriela; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoriev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grinyov, Boris; Grion, Nevio; Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grossiord, Jean-Yves; Grosso, Raffaele; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerra Gutierrez, Cesar; Guerzoni, Barbara; Guilbaud, Maxime Rene Joseph; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Gutbrod, Hans; Haaland, Oystein Senneset; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Haiduc, Maria; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Hanratty, Luke David; Hansen, Alexander; Harmanova, Zuzana; Harris, John William; Hartig, Matthias; Hasegan, Dumitru; Hatzifotiadou, Despoina; Hayrapetyan, Arsen; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Heide, Markus Ansgar; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Herrmann, Norbert; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hicks, Bernard; Hille, Per Thomas; Hippolyte, Boris; Horaguchi, Takuma; Hori, Yasuto; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Hrivnacova, Ivana; Huang, Meidana; Humanic, Thomas; Hwang, Dae Sung; Ichou, Raphaelle; Ilkaev, Radiy; Ilkiv, Iryna; Inaba, Motoi; Incani, Elisa; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Ivan, Cristian George; Ivanov, Andrey; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanov, Vladimir; Ivanytskyi, Oleksii; Jacholkowski, Adam Wlodzimierz; Jacobs, Peter; Jangal, Swensy Gwladys; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Janik, Rudolf; Jayarathna, Sandun; Jena, Satyajit; Jha, Deeptanshu Manu; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jirden, Lennart; Jones, Peter Graham; Jung, Hyung Taik; Jusko, Anton; Kakoyan, Vanik; Kalcher, Sebastian; Kalinak, Peter; Kalliokoski, Tuomo Esa Aukusti; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kanaki, Kalliopi; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kazantsev, Andrey; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Khan, Mohisin Mohammed; Khan, Palash; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Beomkyu; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Jonghyun; Kim, Jin Sook; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Mimae; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Seon Hee; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Jochen; Klein-Bosing, Christian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Koch, Kathrin; Kohler, Markus; Kolojvari, Anatoly; Kondratiev, Valery; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Konevskih, Artem; Korneev, Andrey; Kour, Ravjeet; Kowalski, Marek; Kox, Serge; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kral, Jiri; Kralik, Ivan; Kramer, Frederick; Kraus, Ingrid Christine; Krawutschke, Tobias; Krelina, Michal; Kretz, Matthias; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Krus, Miroslav; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kucheriaev, Yury; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paul; Kulakov, Igor; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, A; Kurepin, AB; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kushpil, Svetlana; Kushpil, Vasily; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Ladron de Guevara, Pedro; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lara, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Bornec, Yves; Lea, Ramona; Lechman, Mateusz; Lee, Graham Richard; Lee, Ki Sang; Lee, Sung Chul; Lefevre, Frederic; Lehnert, Joerg Walter; Leistam, Lars; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Lenhardt, Matthieu Laurent; Lenti, Vito; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Leon Vargas, Hermes; Leoncino, Marco; Levai, Peter; Lien, Jorgen; Lietava, Roman; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Liu, Lijiao; Loenne, Per-Ivar; Loggins, Vera; Loginov, Vitaly; Lohn, Stefan Bernhard; Lohner, Daniel; Loizides, Constantinos; Loo, Kai Krister; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lovhoiden, Gunnar; Lu, Xianguo; Luettig, Philipp; Lunardon, Marcello; Luo, Jiebin; Luparello, Grazia; Luquin, Lionel; Luzzi, Cinzia; Ma, Rongrong; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahapatra, Durga Prasad; Maire, Antonin; Mal'Kevich, Dmitry; Malaev, Mikhail; Maldonado Cervantes, Ivonne Alicia; Malinina, Ludmila; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manceau, Loic Henri Antoine; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Mao, Yaxian; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Marin, Ana Maria; Marin Tobon, Cesar Augusto; Markert, Christina; Martashvili, Irakli; Martinengo, Paolo; Martinez, Mario Ivan; Martinez Davalos, Arnulfo; Martinez Garcia, Gines; Martynov, Yevgen; Mas, Alexis Jean-Michel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Mastromarco, Mario; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Matthews, Zoe Louise; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayani, Daniel; Mayer, Christoph; Mazer, Joel; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Meddi, Franco; Menchaca-Rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Mercado Perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Miake, Yasuo; Milano, Leonardo; Milosevic, Jovan; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Miskowiec, Dariusz; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mlynarz, Jocelyn; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Molnar, Levente; Montano Zetina, Luis Manuel; Monteno, Marco; Montes, Esther; Moon, Taebong; Morando, Maurizio; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Moretto, Sandra; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Muller, Hans; Munhoz, Marcelo; Musa, Luciano; Musso, Alfredo; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Nattrass, Christine; Naumov, Nikolay; Navin, Sparsh; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nazarov, Gleb; Nedosekin, Alexander; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Niida, Takafumi; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikolic, Vedran; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Nilsen, Bjorn Steven; Nilsson, Mads Stormo; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Novitzky, Norbert; Nyanin, Alexandre; Nyatha, Anitha; Nygaard, Casper; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Saehanseul; Oh, Sun Kun; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oppedisano, Chiara; Ortona, Giacomo; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pachr, Milos; Padilla, Fatima; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Painke, Florian; Pajares, Carlos; Pal, S; Pal, Susanta Kumar; Palaha, Arvinder Singh; Palmeri, Armando; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Park, Woo Jin; Passfeld, Annika; Patalakha, Dmitri Ivanovich; Paticchio, Vincenzo; Pavlinov, Alexei; Pawlak, Tomasz Jan; Peitzmann, Thomas; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, Elienos; Peresunko, Dmitri; Perez Lara, Carlos Eugenio; Perez Lezama, Edgar; Perini, Diego; Perrino, Davide; Peryt, Wiktor Stanislaw; Pesci, Alessandro; Peskov, Vladimir; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petran, Michal; Petris, Mariana; Petrov, Plamen Rumenov; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Piano, Stefano; Piccotti, Anna; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Pitz, Nora; Piuz, Francois; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Polichtchouk, Boris; Pop, Amalia; Porteboeuf-Houssais, Sarah; Pospisil, Vladimir; Potukuchi, Baba; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; Puchagin, Sergey; Puddu, Giovanna; Pujahari, Prabhat Ranjan; Pujol Teixido, Jordi; Pulvirenti, Alberto; Punin, Valery; Putis, Marian; Putschke, Jorn Henning; Quercigh, Emanuele; Qvigstad, Henrik; Rachevski, Alexandre; Rademakers, Alphonse; Radomski, Sylwester; Raiha, Tomi Samuli; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Ramirez Reyes, Abdiel; Raniwala, Rashmi; Raniwala, Sudhir; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Rathee, Deepika; Read, Kenneth Francis; Real, Jean-Sebastien; Redlich, Krzysztof; Reichelt, Patrick; Reicher, Martijn; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reolon, Anna Rita; Reshetin, Andrey; Rettig, Felix Vincenz; Revol, Jean-Pierre; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riccati, Lodovico; Ricci, Renato Angelo; Richert, Tuva; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Rodrigues Fernandes Rabacal, Bartolomeu; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Rodriguez Manso, Alis; Roed, Ketil; Rohr, David; Rohrich, Dieter; Romita, Rosa; Ronchetti, Federico; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossegger, Stefan; Rossi, Andrea; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Rubio Montero, Antonio Juan; Rui, Rinaldo; Russo, Riccardo; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Rybicki, Andrzej; Sadovsky, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakaguchi, Hiroaki; Sakai, Shingo; Sakata, Dosatsu; Salgado, Carlos Albert; Salzwedel, Jai; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sanchez Castro, Xitzel; Sandor, Ladislav; Sandoval, Andres; Sano, Masato; Sano, Satoshi; Santo, Rainer; Santoro, Romualdo; Sarkamo, Juho Jaako; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Scharenberg, Rolf Paul; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schreiner, Steffen; Schuchmann, Simone; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; Schweda, Kai Oliver; Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Scott, Patrick Aaron; Scott, Rebecca; Segato, Gianfranco; Selioujenkov, Ilya; Senyukov, Serhiy; Seo, Jeewon; Serci, Sergio; Serradilla, Eulogio; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shabratova, Galina; Shahoyan, Ruben; Sharma, Natasha; Sharma, Satish; Shigaki, Kenta; Shimomura, Maya; Shtejer, Katherin; Sibiriak, Yury; Siciliano, Melinda; Sicking, Eva; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Silvestre, catherine; Simatovic, Goran; Simonetti, Giuseppe; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singha, Subhash; Singhal, Vikas; Sinha, Bikash; Sinha, Tinku; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Skjerdal, Kyrre; Smakal, Radek; Smirnov, Nikolai; Snellings, Raimond; Sogaard, Carsten; Soltz, Ron Ariel; Son, Hyungsuk; Song, Jihye; Song, Myunggeun; Soos, Csaba; Soramel, Francesca; Sputowska, Iwona; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, Martha; Srivastava, Brijesh Kumar; Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Ionel; Stefanek, Grzegorz; Stefanini, Giorgio; Steinbeck, Timm Morten; Steinpreis, Matthew; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Steyn, Gideon Francois; Stiller, Johannes Hendrik; Stocco, Diego; Stolpovskiy, Mikhail; Strabykin, Kirill; Strmen, Peter; Suaide, Alexandre Alarcon do Passo; Subieta Vasquez, Martin Alfonso; Sugitate, Toru; Suire, Christophe Pierre; Sukhorukov, Mikhail; Sultanov, Rishat; Sumbera, Michal; Susa, Tatjana; Szanto de Toledo, Alejandro; Szarka, Imrich; Szczepankiewicz, Adam; Szostak, Artur Krzysztof; Szymanski, Maciej; Takahashi, Jun; Tapia Takaki, Daniel Jesus; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terrevoli, Cristina; Thader, Jochen Mathias; Thomas, Deepa; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Timmins, Anthony; Toia, Alberica; Torii, Hisayuki; Tosello, Flavio; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ulery, Jason Glyndwr; Ullaland, Kjetil; Ulrich, Jochen; Uras, Antonio; Urban, Jozef; Urciuoli, Guido Marie; Usai, Gianluca; Vajzer, Michal; Vala, Martin; Valencia Palomo, Lizardo; Vallero, Sara; van der Kolk, Naomi; van Leeuwen, Marco; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Vannucci, Luigi; Vargas, Aurora Diozcora; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veldhoen, Misha; Venaruzzo, Massimo; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara, Sergio; Vernet, Renaud; Verweij, Marta; Vickovic, Linda; Viesti, Giuseppe; Vikhlyantsev, Oleg; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Vinogradov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Leonid; Vinogradov, Yury; Virgili, Tiziano; Viyogi, Yogendra; Vodopianov, Alexander; Voloshin, Kirill; Voloshin, Sergey; Volpe, Giacomo; von Haller, Barthelemy; Vranic, Danilo; vrebekk, Gaute; Vrlakova, Janka; Vulpescu, Bogdan; Vyushin, Alexey; Wagner, Boris; Wagner, Vladimir; Wan, Renzhuo; Wang, Dong; Wang, Mengliang; Wang, Yifei; Wang, Yaping; Watanabe, Kengo; Weber, Michael; Wessels, Johannes; Westerhoff, Uwe; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilde, Martin Rudolf; Wilk, Alexander; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Williams, Crispin; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Xaplanteris Karampatsos, Leonidas; Yaldo, Chris G; Yamaguchi, Yorito; Yang, Hongyan; Yang, Shiming; Yasnopolsky, Stanislav; Yi, JunGyu; Yin, Zhongbao; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yoon, Jongik; Yu, Weilin; Yuan, Xianbao; Yushmanov, Igor; Zach, Cenek; Zampolli, Chiara; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zaviyalov, Nikolai; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zelnicek, Pierre; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, Fengchu; Zhou, You; Zhu, Jianhui; Zhu, Xiangrong; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zoccarato, Yannick Denis; Zynovyev, Mykhaylo; Zyzak, Maksym

    2013-01-01

    The elliptic, $v_2$, triangular, $v_3$, and quadrangular, $v_4$, azimuthal anisotropic flow coefficients are measured for unidentified charged particles, pions, and (anti-)protons in Pb–Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV with the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Results obtained with the event plane and four-particle cumulant methods are reported for the pseudo-rapidity range |$\\eta$|8 GeV/c. The small $p_T$ dependence of the difference between elliptic flow results obtained from the event plane and four-particle cumulant methods suggests a common origin of flow fluctuations up to $p_T$ =8 GeV/c. The magnitude of the (anti-)proton elliptic and triangular flow is larger than that of pions out to at least $p_T$ =8 GeV/c indicating that the particle type dependence persists out to high $p_T$.

  1. The role of electron capture and energy exchange of positively charged particles passing through matter

    OpenAIRE

    Ulmer, W.

    2011-01-01

    The conventional treatment of the Bethe-Bloch equation for protons accounts for electron capture at the end of the projectile track by the small Barkas correction. This is only a possible way for protons, whereas for light and heavier charged nuclei the exchange of energy and charge along the track has to be accounted for by regarding the projectile charge q as a function of the residual energy. This leads to a significant modification of the Bethe-Bloch equation, otherwise the range in a med...

  2. A General Four-Fermion Effective Lagrangian for Dirac and Majorana Neutrino-Charged Matter Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Mendy, J E B; Mendy, Jean El Bachir; Govaerts, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Given the most general Lorentz invariant four-fermion effective interaction possible for two neutrinos and two charged fermions, whether quarks or leptons, all possible 2-to-2 processes involving two neutrinos, whether Dirac or Majorana ones, and two charged fermions are considered. Explicit and convenient expressions are given for the associated differential cross-sections. Such a parametrization should help assess the sensitivity to physics beyond the Standard Model of neutrino beam experiments which are in the design stage at neutrino factories.

  3. Singularities of noncompact charged objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, M.; G., Abbas

    2013-03-01

    We formulate a model for noncompact spherical charged objects in the framework of noncommutative field theory. The Einstein—Maxwell field equations are solved with charged anisotropic fluid. We choose matter and charge densities as functions of the two parameters, instead of defining these quantities in terms of the Gaussian distribution function. It is found that the corresponding densities and the Ricci scalar are singular in origin, whereas the metric is nonsingular, indicating a spacelike singularity. The numerical solution of the horizon equation implies that there are two or one or no horizon(s), depending on the mass. We also evaluate the Hawking temperature and find that a black hole with two horizons is evaporated to an extremal black hole with one horizon.

  4. Singularities of noncompact charged objects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Sharif; G.Abbas

    2013-01-01

    We formulate a model for noncompact spherical charged objects in the framework of noncommutative field theory.The Einstein-Maxwell field equations are solved with charged anisotropic fluid.We choose matter and charge densities as functions of the two parameters,instead of defining these quantities in terms of the Gaussian distribution function.It is found that the corresponding densities and the Ricci scalar are singular in origin,whereas the metric is nonsingular,indicating a spacelike singularity.The numerical solution of the horizon equation implies that there are two or one or no horizon(s),depending on the mass.We also evaluate the Hawking temperature and find that a black hole with two horizons is evaporated to an extremal black hole with one horizon.

  5. The role of electron capture and energy exchange of positively charged particles passing through matter

    CERN Document Server

    Ulmer, W

    2011-01-01

    The conventional treatment of the Bethe-Bloch equation for protons accounts for electron capture at the end of the projectile track by the small Barkas correction. This is only a possible way for protons, whereas for light and heavier charged nuclei the exchange of energy and charge along the track has to be accounted for by regarding the projectile charge q as a function of the residual energy. This leads to a significant modification of the Bethe-Bloch equation, otherwise the range in a medium is incorrectly determined. The LET in the Bragg peak domain and distal end is significantly influenced by the electron capture. A rather significant result is that in the domain of the Bragg peak the superiority of carbon ions is reduced compared to protons.

  6. The Charge and Matter radial distributions of Heavy-Light mesons calculated on a lattice with dynamical fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Green, A M; Pennanen, P; Michael, C

    2003-01-01

    A knowledge of the radial distributions of quarks inside hadrons could lead to a better understanding of the QCD description of these hadrons and possibly suggest forms for phenomenological models. As a step in this direction, in an earlier work, the charge (vector) and matter (scalar) radial distributions of heavy-light mesons were measured in the quenched approximation on a 16^3x24 lattice with a lattice spacing of 'a' approx. 0.17 fm, and a hopping parameter corresponding to a light quark mass about that of the strange quark. Here several improvements are now made: 1) The configurations are generated using dynamical fermions with a approx 0.14 fm; 2) Many more gauge configurations areincluded; 3) The distributions at many off-axis, in addition to on-axis, points are measured; 4) The data analysis is much more complete. In particular, distributions involving excited states are extracted. The exponential decay of the charge and matter distributions can be described by mesons of mass 0.9 +- 0.1 and 1.5 +- 0.1...

  7. A new algorithm for anisotropic solutions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Chaisi; S D Maharaj

    2006-02-01

    We establish a new algorithm that generates a new solution to the Einstein field equations, with an anisotropic matter distribution, from a seed isotropic solution. The new solution is expressed in terms of integrals of an isotropic gravitational potential; and the integration can be completed exactly for particular isotropic seed metrics. A good feature of our approach is that the anisotropic solutions necessarily have an isotropic limit. We find two examples of anisotropic solutions which generalise the isothermal sphere and the Schwarzschild interior sphere. Both examples are expressed in closed form involving elementary functions only.

  8. Averaging anisotropic cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Barrow, J D; Barrow, John D.; Tsagas, Christos G.

    2006-01-01

    We examine the effects of spatial inhomogeneities on irrotational anisotropic cosmologies by looking at the average properties of pressure-free Bianchi-type models. Adopting the Buchert averaging scheme, we identify the kinematic backreaction effects by focussing on spacetimes with zero or isotropic spatial curvature. This allows us to close the system of the standard scalar formulae with a propagation equation for the shear magnitude. We find no change in the already known conditions for accelerated expansion. The backreaction terms are expressed as algebraic relations between the mean-square fluctuations of the models' irreducible kinematical variables. Based on these we investigate the early evolution of averaged vacuum Bianchi type $I$ universes and those filled with pressureless matter. In the latter case we show that the backreaction effects can modify the familiar Kasner-like singularity and potentially remove Mixmaster-type oscillations. We also discuss the possibility of accelerated expansion due to ...

  9. Supplemental figure: Anisotropic flow of charged hadrons, pions and (anti-)protons measured at high transverse momentum in Pb-Pb collisions at $\\mathbf{\\sqrt{{\\textit s}_{\\rm NN}}}$ = 2.76 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This note provides a supplemental figure for data on ``Anisotropic flow of charged hadrons, pions and (anti-)protons measured at high transverse momentum in Pb-Pb collisions $\\mathbf{\\sqrt{{\\textit s}_{\\rm NN}}}$ = 2.76~TeV" published in \\href{http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S037026931300004X}{Phys.\\ Lett.\\ B {\\bf 719}, 18 (2013)}, \\href{http://arxiv.org/abs/1205.5761}{arXiv:1205.5761}. The figure~(\\ref{fig:v2_pid}) presents the $v_2$ of charged pions and protons (particles and anti-particles are not distinguished in this analysis) from the event plane method as a function of transverse momentum for different centrality classes as reported in Fig. 5 of the \\href{http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S037026931300004X}{publication}. The proton $v_2$ is higher than that of pions out to $\\pt=8$~GeV/$c$ where the uncertainties become large.

  10. Influence of Electric Charge and Modified Gravity on Density Irregularities

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatti, M Zaeem Ul Haq

    2016-01-01

    This work aims to identify some inhomogeneity factors for plane symmetric topology with anisotropic and dissipative fluid under the effects of both electromagnetic field as well as Palatini $f(R)$ gravity. We construct the modified field equations, kinematical quantities and mass function to continue our analysis. We have explored the dynamical quantities, conservation equations and modified Ellis equations with the help of a viable $f(R)$ model. Some particular cases are discussed with and without dissipation to investigate the corresponding inhomogeneity factors. For non-radiating scenario, we examine such factors with dust, isotropic and anisotropic matter in the presence of charge. For dissipative fluid, we investigate the inhomogeneity factor with charged dust cloud. We conclude that electromagnetic field increases the inhomogeneity in matter while the extra curvature terms make the system more homogeneous with the evolution of time.

  11. Influence of electric charge and modified gravity on density irregularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatti, M.Z. Ul Haq; Yousaf, Z. [University of the Punjab, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2016-04-15

    This work aims to identify some inhomogeneity factors for a plane symmetric topology with anisotropic and dissipative fluid under the effects of both electromagnetic field as well as Palatini f(R) gravity. We construct the modified field equations, kinematical quantities, and mass function to continue our analysis. We have explored the dynamical quantities, conservation equations and modified Ellis equations with the help of a viable f(R) model. Some particular cases are discussed with and without dissipation to investigate the corresponding inhomogeneity factors. For a non-radiating scenario, we examine such factors as dust, and isotropic and anisotropic matter in the presence of charge. For a dissipative fluid, we investigate the inhomogeneity factor with a charged dust cloud. We conclude that the electromagnetic field increases the inhomogeneity in matter while the extra curvature terms make the system more homogeneous with the evolution of time. (orig.)

  12. Charged cylindrical polytropes with generalized polytropic equation of state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, M.; Mardan, S. A.; Noureen, I.; Rehman, M. A.

    2016-09-01

    We study the general formalism of polytropes in the relativistic regime with generalized polytropic equations of state in the vicinity of cylindrical symmetry. We take a charged anisotropic fluid distribution of matter with a conformally flat condition for the development of a general framework of the polytropes. We discuss the stability of the model by the Whittaker formula and conclude that one of the models developed is physically viable.

  13. On the Field of a Spherical Charged Pulsating Distribution of Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavroulakis N.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In the theory of the gravitational field generated by an isotropic spherical mass, the spheres centered at the origin of $R^3$ are non-Euclidean objects, so that each of them possesses a curvature radius distinct from its Euclidean radius. The classical theory suppresses this distinction and consequently leads to inadmissible errors. Specifically, it leads to the false idea that the field of a pulsating source is static. In a number of our previous publications (see references, we have exposed the inevitable role that the curvature radius plays and demonstrated that the field generated by a pulsating not charged spherical course is dynamical. In the present paper we prove that the curvature radius plays also the main role in the description of the gravitational field generated by a charged pulsating source.

  14. Charge state and energy loss of relativistic heavy ions in matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relativistic heavy-ion collisions of few-electron projectiles ranging from argon up to uranium have been investigated in solid and gaseous media. Electron-loss and electron-capture cross sections, charge-state distributions, as well as energy loss and energy deposition have been measured and are compared with theoretical predictions. Especially fully-ionized heavy projectiles represent a unique possibility to test atomic-collision theories. (orig.)

  15. Anisotropic Flow of Charged Particles in Pb-Pb Collisions at √[s{NN}]=5.02 TeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, J; Adamová, D; Aggarwal, M M; Aglieri Rinella, G; Agnello, M; Agrawal, N; Ahammed, Z; Ahmad, S; Ahn, S U; Aiola, S; Akindinov, A; Alam, S N; Albuquerque, D S D; Aleksandrov, D; Alessandro, B; Alexandre, D; Alfaro Molina, R; Alici, A; Alkin, A; Almaraz, J R M; Alme, J; Alt, T; Altinpinar, S; Altsybeev, I; Alves Garcia Prado, C; Andrei, C; Andronic, A; Anguelov, V; Antičić, T; Antinori, F; Antonioli, P; Aphecetche, L; Appelshäuser, H; Arcelli, S; Arnaldi, R; Arnold, O W; Arsene, I C; Arslandok, M; Audurier, B; Augustinus, A; Averbeck, R; Azmi, M D; Badalà, A; Baek, Y W; Bagnasco, S; Bailhache, R; Bala, R; Balasubramanian, S; Baldisseri, A; Baral, R C; Barbano, A M; Barbera, R; Barile, F; Barnaföldi, G G; Barnby, L S; Barret, V; Bartalini, P; Barth, K; Bartke, J; Bartsch, E; Basile, M; Bastid, N; Basu, S; Bathen, B; Batigne, G; Batista Camejo, A; Batyunya, B; Batzing, P C; Bearden, I G; Beck, H; Bedda, C; Behera, N K; Belikov, I; Bellini, F; Bello Martinez, H; Bellwied, R; Belmont, R; Belmont-Moreno, E; Belyaev, V; Benacek, P; Bencedi, G; Beole, S; Berceanu, I; Bercuci, A; Berdnikov, Y; Berenyi, D; Bertens, R A; Berzano, D; Betev, L; Bhasin, A; Bhat, I R; Bhati, A K; Bhattacharjee, B; Bhom, J; Bianchi, L; Bianchi, N; Bianchin, C; Bielčík, J; Bielčíková, J; Bilandzic, A; Biro, G; Biswas, R; Biswas, S; Bjelogrlic, S; Blair, J T; Blau, D; Blume, C; Bock, F; Bogdanov, A; Bøggild, H; Boldizsár, L; Bombara, M; Book, J; Borel, H; Borissov, A; Borri, M; Bossú, F; Botta, E; Bourjau, C; Braun-Munzinger, P; Bregant, M; Breitner, T; Broker, T A; Browning, T A; Broz, M; Brucken, E J; Bruna, E; Bruno, G E; Budnikov, D; Buesching, H; Bufalino, S; Buncic, P; Busch, O; Buthelezi, Z; Butt, J B; Buxton, J T; Cabala, J; Caffarri, D; Cai, X; Caines, H; Calero Diaz, L; Caliva, A; Calvo Villar, E; Camerini, P; Carena, F; Carena, W; Carnesecchi, F; Castillo Castellanos, J; Castro, A J; Casula, E A R; Ceballos Sanchez, C; Cepila, J; Cerello, P; Cerkala, J; Chang, B; Chapeland, S; Chartier, M; Charvet, J L; Chattopadhyay, S; Chattopadhyay, S; Chauvin, A; Chelnokov, V; Cherney, M; Cheshkov, C; Cheynis, B; Chibante Barroso, V; Chinellato, D D; Cho, S; Chochula, P; Choi, K; Chojnacki, M; Choudhury, S; Christakoglou, P; Christensen, C H; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, S U; Cicalo, C; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Cleymans, J; Colamaria, F; Colella, D; Collu, A; Colocci, M; Conesa Balbastre, G; Conesa Del Valle, Z; Connors, M E; Contreras, J G; Cormier, T M; Corrales Morales, Y; Cortés Maldonado, I; Cortese, P; Cosentino, M R; Costa, F; Crochet, P; Cruz Albino, R; Cuautle, E; Cunqueiro, L; Dahms, T; Dainese, A; Danisch, M C; Danu, A; Das, D; Das, I; Das, S; Dash, A; Dash, S; De, S; De Caro, A; de Cataldo, G; de Conti, C; de Cuveland, J; De Falco, A; De Gruttola, D; De Marco, N; De Pasquale, S; Deisting, A; Deloff, A; Dénes, E; Deplano, C; Dhankher, P; Di Bari, D; Di Mauro, A; Di Nezza, P; Diaz Corchero, M A; Dietel, T; Dillenseger, P; Divià, R; Djuvsland, Ø; Dobrin, A; Domenicis Gimenez, D; Dönigus, B; Dordic, O; Drozhzhova, T; Dubey, A K; Dubla, A; Ducroux, L; Dupieux, P; Ehlers, R J; Elia, D; Endress, E; Engel, H; Epple, E; Erazmus, B; Erdemir, I; Erhardt, F; Espagnon, B; Estienne, M; Esumi, S; Eum, J; Evans, D; Evdokimov, S; Eyyubova, G; Fabbietti, L; Fabris, D; Faivre, J; Fantoni, A; Fasel, M; Feldkamp, L; Feliciello, A; Feofilov, G; Ferencei, J; Fernández Téllez, A; Ferreiro, E G; Ferretti, A; Festanti, A; Feuillard, V J G; Figiel, J; Figueredo, M A S; Filchagin, S; Finogeev, D; Fionda, F M; Fiore, E M; Fleck, M G; Floris, M; Foertsch, S; Foka, P; Fokin, S; Fragiacomo, E; Francescon, A; Frankenfeld, U; Fronze, G G; Fuchs, U; Furget, C; Furs, A; Fusco Girard, M; Gaardhøje, J J; Gagliardi, M; Gago, A M; Gallio, M; Gangadharan, D R; Ganoti, P; Gao, C; Garabatos, C; Garcia-Solis, E; Gargiulo, C; Gasik, P; Gauger, E F; Germain, M; Gheata, A; Gheata, M; Ghosh, P; Ghosh, S K; Gianotti, P; Giubellino, P; Giubilato, P; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Glässel, P; Goméz Coral, D M; Gomez Ramirez, A; Gonzalez, A S; Gonzalez, V; González-Zamora, P; Gorbunov, S; Görlich, L; Gotovac, S; Grabski, V; Grachov, O A; Graczykowski, L K; Graham, K L; Grelli, A; Grigoras, A; Grigoras, C; Grigoriev, V; Grigoryan, A; Grigoryan, S; Grinyov, B; Grion, N; Gronefeld, J M; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J F; Grosso, R; Guber, F; Guernane, R; Guerzoni, B; Gulbrandsen, K; Gunji, T; Gupta, A; Gupta, R; Haake, R; Haaland, Ø; Hadjidakis, C; Haiduc, M; Hamagaki, H; Hamar, G; Hamon, J C; Harris, J W; Harton, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayashi, S; Heckel, S T; Hellbär, E; Helstrup, H; Herghelegiu, A; Herrera Corral, G; Hess, B A; Hetland, K F; Hillemanns, H; Hippolyte, B; Horak, D; Hosokawa, R; Hristov, P; Humanic, T J; Hussain, N; Hussain, T; Hutter, D; Hwang, D S; Ilkaev, R; Inaba, M; Incani, E

    2016-04-01

    We report the first results of elliptic (v_{2}), triangular (v_{3}), and quadrangular (v_{4}) flow of charged particles in Pb-Pb collisions at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of sqrt[s_{NN}]=5.02  TeV with the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The measurements are performed in the central pseudorapidity region |η|ion collisions at the highest energies. PMID:27081971

  16. Anisotropic Flow of Charged Particles in Pb-Pb Collisions at √{sN N }=5.02 TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, S.; Ahn, S. U.; Aiola, S.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Albuquerque, D. S. D.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alfaro Molina, R.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Almaraz, J. R. M.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Arnaldi, R.; Arnold, O. W.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Audurier, B.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Azmi, M. D.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Balasubramanian, S.; Baldisseri, A.; Baral, R. C.; Barbano, A. M.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartalini, P.; Barth, K.; Bartke, J.; Bartsch, E.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batista Camejo, A.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bello Martinez, H.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Belyaev, V.; Benacek, P.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Biro, G.; Biswas, R.; Biswas, S.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blair, J. T.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Borri, M.; Bossú, F.; Botta, E.; Bourjau, C.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Brucken, E. J.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Butt, J. B.; Buxton, J. T.; Cabala, J.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Calero Diaz, L.; Caliva, A.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Carnesecchi, F.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Castro, A. J.; Casula, E. A. R.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Cerkala, J.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Chartier, M.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chauvin, A.; Chelnokov, V.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Cho, S.; Chochula, P.; Choi, K.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa Del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cortese, P.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Crochet, P.; Cruz Albino, R.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dahms, T.; Dainese, A.; Danisch, M. C.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; de, S.; de Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Conti, C.; de Cuveland, J.; de Falco, A.; de Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; de Pasquale, S.; Deisting, A.; Deloff, A.; Dénes, E.; Deplano, C.; Dhankher, P.; di Bari, D.; di Mauro, A.; di Nezza, P.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divià, R.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Domenicis Gimenez, D.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Drozhzhova, T.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Endress, E.; Engel, H.; Epple, E.; Erazmus, B.; Erdemir, I.; Erhardt, F.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Eum, J.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Eyyubova, G.; Fabbietti, L.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Feldkamp, L.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Feuillard, V. J. G.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Fleck, M. G.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fronze, G. G.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Furs, A.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Gao, C.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Gasik, P.; Gauger, E. F.; Germain, M.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Giubilato, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Goméz Coral, D. M.; Gomez Ramirez, A.; Gonzalez, A. S.; Gonzalez, V.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Grabski, V.; Grachov, O. A.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Graham, K. L.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Gronefeld, J. M.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Haake, R.; Haaland, Ø.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hamon, J. C.; Harris, J. W.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Heckel, S. T.; Hellbär, E.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hillemanns, H.; Hippolyte, B.; Horak, D.; Hosokawa, R.; Hristov, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Hussain, N.; Hussain, T.; Hutter, D.; Hwang, D. S.; Ilkaev, R.; Inaba, M.; Incani, E.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Izucheev, V.; Jacazio, N.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jadhav, M. B.; Jadlovska, S.; Jadlovsky, J.; Jahnke, C.; Jakubowska, M. J.; Jang, H. J.; Janik, M. A.; Jayarathna, P. H. S. Y.; Jena, C.; Jena, S.; Jimenez Bustamante, R. T.; Jones, P. G.; Jusko, A.; Kalinak, P.; Kalweit, A.; Kamin, J.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Kar, S.; Karasu Uysal, A.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karayan, L.; Karpechev, E.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Keijdener, D. L. D.; Keil, M.; Mohisin Khan, M.; Khan, P.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kileng, B.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, D.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, T.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Kiss, G.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, C.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bösing, C.; Klewin, S.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Knospe, A. G.; Kobdaj, C.; Kofarago, M.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Kondratyuk, E.; Konevskikh, A.; Kopcik, M.; Kostarakis, P.; Kour, M.; Kouzinopoulos, C.; Kovalenko, O.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Králik, I.; Kravčáková, A.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kubera, A. M.; Kučera, V.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, J.; Kumar, L.; Kumar, S.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; La Pointe, S. L.; La Rocca, P.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Lagana Fernandes, C.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; Lattuca, A.; Laudi, E.; Lea, R.; Leardini, L.; Lee, G. R.; Lee, S.; Lehas, F.; Lemmon, R. C.; Lenti, V.; Leogrande, E.; León Monzón, I.; León Vargas, H.; Leoncino, M.; Lévai, P.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Ljunggren, H. M.; Lodato, D. F.; Loenne, P. I.; Loginov, V.; Loizides, C.; Lopez, X.; López Torres, E.; Lowe, A.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luparello, G.; Lutz, T. H.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahajan, S.; Mahmood, S. M.; Maire, A.; Majka, R. D.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Marchisone, M.; Mareš, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Margutti, J.; Marín, A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martin, N. A.; Martin Blanco, J.; Martinengo, P.; Martínez, M. I.; Martínez García, G.; Martinez Pedreira, M.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Mastroserio, A.; Matyja, A.; Mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazzoni, M. A.; McDonald, D.; Meddi, F.; Melikyan, Y.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meninno, E.; Mercado Pérez, J.; Meres, M.; Miake, Y.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Mikhaylov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A. N.; Miśkowiec, D.; Mitra, J.; Mitu, C. M.; Mohammadi, N.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Montaño Zetina, L.; Montes, E.; Moreira de Godoy, D. A.; Moreno, L. A. P.; Moretto, S.; Morreale, A.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Mühlheim, D.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Mulligan, J. D.; Munhoz, M. G.; Munzer, R. H.; Murakami, H.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Naik, B.; Nair, R.; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Naru, M. U.; Natal da Luz, H.; Nattrass, C.; Navarro, S. R.; Nayak, K.; Nayak, R.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Nellen, L.; Ng, F.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Niedziela, J.; Nielsen, B. S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Noris, J. C. C.; Norman, J.; Nyanin, A.; Nystrand, J.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.; Oh, S. K.; Ohlson, A.; Okatan, A.; Okubo, T.; Olah, L.; Oleniacz, J.; Oliveira da Silva, A. C.; Oliver, M. H.; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Orava, R.; Oravec, M.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Oskarsson, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Ozdemir, M.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pagano, D.; Pagano, P.; Paić, G.; Pal, S. K.; Pan, J.; Pandey, A. K.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Pareek, P.; Park, W. J.; Parmar, S.; Passfeld, A.; Paticchio, V.; Patra, R. N.; Paul, B.; Pei, H.; Peitzmann, T.; Pereira da Costa, H.; Peresunko, D.; Pérez Lara, C. E.; Perez Lezama, E.; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petráček, V.; Petrov, V.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pimentel, L. O. D. L.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Płoskoń, M.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Poghosyan, M. G.; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Poonsawat, W.; Pop, A.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Porter, J.; Pospisil, J.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puccio, M.; Puddu, G.; Pujahari, P.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Raha, S.; Rajput, S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Rami, F.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Räsänen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Read, K. F.; Redlich, K.; Reed, R. J.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reidt, F.; Ren, X.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Ristea, C.; Rocco, E.; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M.; Rodriguez Manso, A.; Røed, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohr, D.; Röhrich, D.; Ronchetti, F.; Ronflette, L.; Rosnet, P.; Rossi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Roy, A.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Ryabov, Y.; Rybicki, A.; Saarinen, S.; Sadhu, S.; Sadovsky, S.; Šafařík, K.; Sahlmuller, B.; Sahoo, P.; Sahoo, R.; Sahoo, S.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakai, S.; Saleh, M. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Šándor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Sarkar, D.; Sarkar, N.; Sarma, P.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schulc, M.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Šefčík, M.; Seger, J. E.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Sekihata, D.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Senosi, K.; Senyukov, S.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabanov, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shadura, O.; Shahoyan, R.; Shahzad, M. I.; Shangaraev, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, N.; Sheikh, A. I.; Shigaki, K.; Shou, Q.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siddhanta, S.; Sielewicz, K. M.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singha, S.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, B. C.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Slupecki, M.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J. M.; Snellman, T. W.; Song, J.; Song, M.; Song, Z.; Soramel, F.; Sorensen, S.; de Souza, R. D.; Sozzi, F.; Spacek, M.; Spiriti, E.; Sputowska, I.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stankus, P.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stiller, J. H.; Stocco, D.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Suleymanov, M.; Suljic, M.; Sultanov, R.; Šumbera, M.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Szabo, A.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Szymanski, M.; Tabassam, U.; Takahashi, J.; Tambave, G. J.; Tanaka, N.; Tarhini, M.; Tariq, M.; Tarzila, M. G.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Muñoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Terasaki, K.; Terrevoli, C.; Teyssier, B.; Thäder, J.; Thakur, D.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Timmins, A. R.; Toia, A.; Trogolo, S.; Trombetta, G.; Trubnikov, V.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ullaland, K.; Uras, A.; Usai, G. L.; Utrobicic, A.; Vala, M.; Valencia Palomo, L.; Vallero, S.; van der Maarel, J.; van Hoorne, J. W.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vanat, T.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Varga, D.; Vargas, A.; Vargyas, M.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vauthier, A.; Vechernin, V.; Veen, A. M.; Veldhoen, M.; Velure, A.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara Limón, S.; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Viesti, G.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Villatoro Tello, A.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Vinogradov, Y.; Virgili, T.; Vislavicius, V.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Völkl, M. A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S. A.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Vranic, D.; Vrláková, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, J.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, Y.; Weber, M.; Weber, S. G.; Weiser, D. F.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Whitehead, A. M.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilk, G.; Wilkinson, J.; Williams, M. C. S.; Windelband, B.; Winn, M.; Yang, H.; Yang, P.; Yano, S.; Yasin, Z.; Yin, Z.; Yokoyama, H.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yoon, J. H.; Yurchenko, V.; Yushmanov, I.; Zaborowska, A.; Zaccolo, V.; Zaman, A.; Zampolli, C.; Zanoli, H. J. C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zardoshti, N.; Zarochentsev, A.; Závada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zgura, I. S.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, C.; Zhigareva, N.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zimmermann, M. B.; Zinovjev, G.; Zyzak, M.; Alice Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    We report the first results of elliptic (v2), triangular (v3), and quadrangular (v4) flow of charged particles in Pb-Pb collisions at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of √{sN N }=5.02 TeV with the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The measurements are performed in the central pseudorapidity region |η |heavy-ion collisions at the highest energies.

  17. Anisotropic flow of charged and identified hadrons in the quark-gluon string model for Au+Au collisions at √(sNN)=200 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pseudorapidity behavior of the azimuthal anisotropy parameters v1 and v2 of inclusive charged (h±) hadrons and their dependence on centrality has been studied in Au+Au collisions at full relativistic-heavy-ion-collider energy of √(sNN)=200 GeV within the microscopic quark-gluon string model (QGSM). The QGSM simulation results for the directed flow v1 show antiflow alignment within the pseudorapidity range |η|≤2 in fair agreement with the experimental v1(η) data, but it cannot reproduce the further development of the antiflow up to |η|≅3.5. The η dependence of the elliptic flow v2 extracted from the simulations agrees well with the experimental data in the whole pseudorapidity range for different centrality classes. The centrality dependence of the integrated elliptic flow of charged hadrons in the QGSM almost coincides with the PHOBOS experimental distribution. The transverse momentum dependence of the elliptic flow of identified (π±,K±,p,p) and inclusive charged hadrons is studied also. The model reproduces quantitatively the low-pT part of the distributions rather well, but it underestimates the measured elliptic flow for transverse momenta pT>1 GeV/c. Qualitatively, however, the model can reproduce the saturation of the v2(pT) spectra with rising pT as well as the crossing of the elliptic flow for mesons and baryons

  18. The Spin-Charge-Family theory offers the explanation for all the assumptions of the Standard model, for the Dark matter, for the Matter-antimatter asymmetry, making several predictions

    OpenAIRE

    Borštnik, Norma Susana Mankoč

    2016-01-01

    The spin-charge-family theory, which is a kind of the Kaluza-Klein theories but with fermions carrying two kinds of spins (no charges), offers the explanation for all the assumptions of the standard model, with the origin of families, the higgs and the Yukawa couplings included. It offers the explanation also for other phenomena, like the origin of the dark matter and of the matter/antimatter asymmetry in the universe. It predicts the existence of the fourth family to the observed three, as w...

  19. Anisotropic flow of charged hadrons, pions and (anti-)protons measured at high transverse momentum in Pb–Pb collisions at √(s{sub NN})=2.76 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abelev, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Adam, J. [Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Adamová, D. [Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Řež u Prahy (Czech Republic); Adare, A.M. [Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Aggarwal, M.M. [Physics Department, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India); Aglieri Rinella, G. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Agocs, A.G. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); Agostinelli, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università and Sezione INFN, Bologna (Italy); Aguilar Salazar, S. [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City (Mexico); Ahammed, Z. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata (India); Ahmad Masoodi, A.; Ahmad, N. [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (India); Ahn, S.U. [Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of); Akindinov, A. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Aleksandrov, D. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Alessandro, B. [Sezione INFN, Turin (Italy); Alfaro Molina, R. [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City (Mexico); Alici, A. [Centro Fermi – Centro Studi e Ricerche e Museo Storico della Fisica “Enrico Fermi”, Rome (Italy); Alkin, A. [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kiev (Ukraine); and others

    2013-02-12

    The elliptic, v{sub 2}, triangular, v{sub 3}, and quadrangular, v{sub 4}, azimuthal anisotropic flow coefficients are measured for unidentified charged particles, pions, and (anti-)protons in Pb–Pb collisions at √(s{sub NN})=2.76 TeV with the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Results obtained with the event plane and four-particle cumulant methods are reported for the pseudo-rapidity range |η|<0.8 at different collision centralities and as a function of transverse momentum, p{sub T}, out to p{sub T}=20 GeV/c. The observed non-zero elliptic and triangular flow depends only weakly on transverse momentum for p{sub T}>8 GeV/c. The small p{sub T} dependence of the difference between elliptic flow results obtained from the event plane and four-particle cumulant methods suggests a common origin of flow fluctuations up to p{sub T}=8 GeV/c. The magnitude of the (anti-)proton elliptic and triangular flow is larger than that of pions out to at least p{sub T}=8 GeV/c indicating that the particle type dependence persists out to high p{sub T}.

  20. Plus Charge Prevalence in Cosmic Rays: Room for Dark Matter in the Positron Spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Malkov, M A; Sagdeev, R Z

    2016-01-01

    The unexpected energy spectrum of the positron/electron ratio is interpreted astrophysically, with a possible exception of the 100-300 GeV range. The data indicate that this ratio, after a decline between $0.5-8$ GeV, rises steadily with a trend towards saturation at 200-400GeV. These observations (except for the trend) appear to be in conflict with the diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) mechanism, operating in a \\emph{single} supernova remnant (SNR) shock. We argue that $e^{+}/e^{-}$ ratio can still be explained by the DSA if positrons are accelerated in a \\emph{subset} of SNR shocks which: (i) propagate in clumpy gas media, and (ii) are modified by accelerated CR \\emph{protons}. The protons penetrate into the dense gas clumps upstream to produce positrons and, \\emph{charge the clumps positively}. The induced electric field expels positrons into the upstream plasma where they are shock-accelerated. Since the shock is modified, these positrons develop a harder spectrum than that of the CR electrons accelerate...

  1. Anisotropic Model Colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kats, C. M.

    2008-10-01

    The driving forces for fundamental research in colloid science are the ability to manage the material properties of colloids and to unravel the forces that play a role between colloids to be able to control and understand the processes where colloids play an important role. Therefore we are searching for colloidal materials with specific physical properties to better understand our surrounding world.Until recently research in colloid science was mainly focused on spherical (isotropic) particles. Monodisperse spherical colloids serve as a model system as they exhibit similar phase behaviour as molecular and atomic systems. Nevertheless, in many cases the spherical shape is not sufficient to reach the desired research goals. Recently the more complex synthesis methods of anisotropic model colloids has strongly developed. This thesis should be regarded as a contribution to this research area. Anisotropic colloids can be used as a building block for complex structures and are expected not only to lead to the construction of full photonic band gap materials. They will also serve as new, more realistic, models systems for their molecular analogues. Therefore the term ‘molecular colloids” is sometimes used to qualify these anisotropic colloidal particles. In the introduction of this thesis, we give an overview of the main synthesis techniques for anisotropic colloids. Chapter 2 describes the method of etching silicon wafers to construct monodisperse silicon rods. They subsequently were oxidized and labeled (coated) with a fluorescent silica layer. The first explorative phase behaviour of these silica rods was studied. The particles showed a nematic ordering in charge stabilized suspensions. Chapter 3 describes the synthesis of colloidal gold rods and the (mesoporous) silica coating of gold rods. Chapter 4 describes the physical and optical properties of these particles when thermal energy is added. This is compared to the case where the particles are irradiated with

  2. Spin precession in anisotropic cosmologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamenshchik, A.Yu. [Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Bologna (Italy); L. D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); INFN, Bologna (Italy); Teryaev, O.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna (Russian Federation); Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-15

    We consider the precession of a Dirac particle spin in some anisotropic Bianchi universes. This effect is present already in the Bianchi-I universe. We discuss in some detail the geodesics and the spin precession for both the Kasner and the Heckmann-Schucking solutions. In the Bianchi-IX universe the spin precession acquires the chaotic character due to the stochasticity of the oscillatory approach to the cosmological singularity. The related helicity flip of fermions in the very early universe may produce the sterile particles contributing to dark matter. (orig.)

  3. Anisotropic pressure and hyperons in neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Sulaksono, A

    2014-01-01

    We study the effects of anisotropic pressure on properties of the neutron stars with hyperons inside its core within the framework of extended relativistic mean field. It is found that the main effects of anisotropic pressure on neutron star matter is to increase the stiffness of the equation of state, which compensates for the softening of the EOS due to the hyperons. The maximum mass and redshift predictions of anisotropic neutron star with hyperonic core are quite compatible with the result of recent observational constraints if we use the parameter of anisotropic pressure model $h \\le 0.8$[1] and $\\Lambda \\le -1.15$ [2]. The radius of the corresponding neutron star at $M$=1.4 $M_\\odot$ is more than 13 km, while the effect of anisotropic pressure on the minimum mass of neutron star is insignificant. Furthermore, due to the anisotropic pressure in the neutron star, the maximum mass limit of higher than 2.1 $M_\\odot$ cannot rule out the presence of hyperons in the neutron star core.

  4. A naive matrix-model approach to two-dimensional quantum gravity coupled to matter of arbitrary central charge

    CERN Document Server

    Brézin, E

    1992-01-01

    In the usual matrix-model approach to random discretized two-dimensional manifolds, one introduces n Ising spins on each cell, i.e. a discrete version of 2D quantum gravity coupled to matter with a central charge n/2. The matrix-model consists then of an integral over $2^{n}$ matrices, which we are unable to solve for $n>1$. However for a fixed genus we can expand in the cosmological constant g for arbitrary values of n, and a simple minded analysis of the series yields for n=0,1 and 2 the expected results for the exponent $\\gamma_{string}$ with an amazing precision given the small number of terms that we considered. We then proceed to larger values of n. Simple tests of universality are successfully applied; for instance we obtain the same exponents for n=3 or for one Ising model coupled to a one dimensional target space. The calculations are easily extended to states Potts models, through an integration over $q^{n}$ matrices. We see no sign of the tachyonic instability of the theory, but we have only consid...

  5. Charge and Matter Form Factors of Two-Neutron Halo Nuclei in Halo Effective Field Theory at Next-to-leading-order

    CERN Document Server

    Vanasse, Jared

    2016-01-01

    Using halo effective field theory (EFT), an expansion in $R_{core}/R_{halo}$, where $R_{core}$ is the radius of the core and $R_{halo}$ the radius of the halo nucleus, we calculate the charge and neutron form factors of the two-neutron halo nuclei $^{11}$Li, $^{14}$Be, and $^{22}$C to next-to-leading-order (NLO) by treating them as an effective three-body system. From the form factors we extract the point charge and point matter radii, inter-neutron distance, and neutron opening angle. Agreement is found with existing experimental extractions. Results are given for the point charge and point matter radii for arbitrary neutron core scattering effective range, $\\rho_{cn}$, that can be used for predictions once $\\rho_{cn}$ is measured. Estimates for $\\rho_{cn}$ are also used to make NLO predictions. Finally, our point charge radii are compared to other halo-EFT predictions, and setting the core mass equal to the neutron mass our point charge radius is found to agree with an analytical prediction in the unitary l...

  6. Quasiparticle anisotropic hydrodynamics for central collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Alqahtani, Mubarak; Strickland, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We use quasiparticle anisotropic hydrodynamics to study an azimuthally-symmetric boost-invariant quark-gluon plasma including the effects of both shear and bulk viscosities. In quasiparticle anisotropic hydrodynamics, a single finite-temperature quasiparticle mass is introduced and fit to the lattice data in order to implement a realistic equation of state. We compare results obtained using the quasiparticle method with the standard method of imposing the equation of state in anisotropic hydrodynamics and viscous hydrodynamics. Using these three methods, we extract the primordial particle spectra, total number of charged particles, and average transverse momentum for various values of the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio eta/s. We find that the three methods agree well for small shear viscosity to entropy density ratio, eta/s, but differ at large eta/s. We find, in particular, that when using standard viscous hydrodynamics, the bulk-viscous correction can drive the primordial particle spectra negative...

  7. Anisotropic Stars II Stability

    CERN Document Server

    Dev, K; Dev, Krsna; Gleiser, Marcelo

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the stability of self-gravitating spherically symmetric anisotropic spheres under radial perturbations. We consider both the Newtonian and the full general-relativistic perturbation treatment. In the general-relativistic case, we extend the variational formalism for spheres with isotropic pressure developed by Chandrasekhar. We find that, in general, when the tangential pressure is greater than the radial pressure, the stability of the anisotropic sphere is enhanced when compared to isotropic configurations. In particular, anisotropic spheres are found to be stable for smaller values of the adiabatic index $\\gamma$.

  8. Bounds on Cross-sections and Lifetimes for Dark Matter Annihilation and Decay into Charged Leptons from Gamma-ray Observations of Dwarf Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essig, Rouven; /SLAC; Sehgal, Neelima; Strigari, Louis E.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2009-06-19

    We provide conservative bounds on the dark matter cross-section and lifetime from final state radiation produced by annihilation or decay into charged leptons, either directly or via an intermediate particle {phi}. Our analysis utilizes the experimental gamma-ray flux upper limits from four Milky Way dwarf satellites: HESS observations of Sagittarius and VERITAS observations of Draco, Ursa Minor, and Willman 1. Using 90% confidence level lower limits on the integrals over the dark matter distributions, we find that these constraints are largely unable to rule out dark matter annihilations or decays as an explanation of the PAMELA and ATIC/PPB-BETS excesses. However, if there is an additional Sommerfeld enhancement in dwarfs, which have a velocity dispersion {approx} 10 to 20 times lower than that of the local Galactic halo, then the cross-sections for dark matter annihilating through {phi}'s required to explain the excesses are very close to the cross-section upper bounds from Willman 1. Dark matter annihilation directly into {tau}'s is also marginally ruled out by Willman 1 as an explanation of the excesses, and the required cross-section is only a factor of a few below the upper bound from Draco. Finally, we make predictions for the gamma-ray flux expected from the dwarf galaxy Segue 1 for the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. We find that for a sizeable fraction of the parameter space in which dark matter annihilation into charged leptons explains the PAMELA excess, Fermi has good prospects for detecting a gamma-ray signal from Segue 1 after one year of observation.

  9. First results from ALICE on anisotropic flow at Run 2 at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The goal of studies with relativistic heavy-ion collisions is to investigate the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP), a state of matter where quarks and gluons move freely over distances large in comparison to the typical size of a hadron. The exploration of QGP properties has broken new ground with the recent heavy-ion collisions from Run 2 operations at Large Hadron Collider, at the highest energies to date. The ALICE Collaboration has made the first observation of anisotropic flow of charged particles in lead-lead collisions at the record breaking energy of 5.02 TeV per nucleon pair. The talk presents these new results and discusses how they further enlighten the properties of matter produced in ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions.

  10. Anisotropic Contrast Optical Microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Peev, D; Kananizadeh, N; Wimer, S; Rodenhausen, K B; Herzinger, C M; Kasputis, T; Pfaunmiller, E; Nguyen, A; Korlacki, R; Pannier, A; Li, Y; Schubert, E; Hage, D; Schubert, M

    2016-01-01

    An optical microscope is described that reveals contrast in the Mueller matrix images of a thin, transparent or semi-transparent specimen located within an anisotropic object plane (anisotropic filter). The specimen changes the anisotropy of the filter and thereby produces contrast within the Mueller matrix images. Here we use an anisotropic filter composed of a semi-transparent, nanostructured thin film with sub-wavelength thickness placed within the object plane. The sample is illuminated as in common optical microscopy but the light is modulated in its polarization using combinations of linear polarizers and phase plate (compensator) to control and analyze the state of polarization. Direct generalized ellipsometry data analysis approaches permit extraction of fundamental Mueller matrix object plane images dispensing with the need of Fourier expansion methods. Generalized ellipsometry model approaches are used for quantitative image analyses. We demonstrate the anisotropic contrast optical microscope by mea...

  11. Anisotropic brane gravity with a confining potential

    CERN Document Server

    Heydari-Fard, M

    2007-01-01

    We consider an anisotropic brane world with Bianchi type I and V geometries where the mechanism of confining the matter on the brane is through the use of a confining potential. The resulting equations on the anisotropic brane are modified by an extra term that may be interpreted as the x-matter, providing a possible phenomenological explanation for the accelerated expansion of the universe. We obtain the general solution of the field equations in an exact parametric form for both Bianchi type I and V space-times. In the special case of a Bianchi type I the solutions of the field equations are obtained in an exact analytic form. Finally, we study the behavior of the observationally important parameters.

  12. Anisotropic brane gravity with a confining potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heydari-Fard, M. [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, Tehran 19839 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: m-heydarifard@sbu.ac.ir; Sepangi, H.R. [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, Tehran 19839 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: hr-sepangi@sbu.ac.ir

    2007-05-24

    We consider an anisotropic brane world with Bianchi type I and V geometries where the mechanism of confining the matter on the brane is through the use of a confining potential. The resulting equations on the anisotropic brane are modified by an extra term that may be interpreted as the x-matter, providing a possible phenomenological explanation for the accelerated expansion of the universe. We obtain the general solution of the field equations in an exact parametric form for both Bianchi type I and V space-times. In the special case of a Bianchi type I the solutions of the field equations are obtained in an exact analytic form. Finally, we study the behavior of the observationally important parameters.

  13. Electromagnetism on anisotropic fractal media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostoja-Starzewski, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Basic equations of electromagnetic fields in anisotropic fractal media are obtained using a dimensional regularization approach. First, a formulation based on product measures is shown to satisfy the four basic identities of the vector calculus. This allows a generalization of the Green-Gauss and Stokes theorems as well as the charge conservation equation on anisotropic fractals. Then, pursuing the conceptual approach, we derive the Faraday and Ampère laws for such fractal media, which, along with two auxiliary null-divergence conditions, effectively give the modified Maxwell equations. Proceeding on a separate track, we employ a variational principle for electromagnetic fields, appropriately adapted to fractal media, so as to independently derive the same forms of these two laws. It is next found that the parabolic (for a conducting medium) and the hyperbolic (for a dielectric medium) equations involve modified gradient operators, while the Poynting vector has the same form as in the non-fractal case. Finally, Maxwell's electromagnetic stress tensor is reformulated for fractal systems. In all the cases, the derived equations for fractal media depend explicitly on fractal dimensions in three different directions and reduce to conventional forms for continuous media with Euclidean geometries upon setting these each of dimensions equal to unity.

  14. Mesoscopic Phase Separation in Anisotropic Superconductors

    OpenAIRE

    V. I. Yukalov; Yukalova, E. P.

    2005-01-01

    General properties of anisotropic superconductors with mesoscopic phase separation are analysed. The main conclusions are as follows: Mesoscopic phase separation can be thermodynamically stable only in the presence of repulsive Coulomb interactions. Phase separation enables the appearance of superconductivity in a heterophase sample even if it were impossible in pure-phase matter. Phase separation is crucial for the occurrence of superconductivity in bad conductors. Critical temperature for a...

  15. Holographic study on the jet quenching parameter in anisotropic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Luying

    2016-01-01

    We first calculate the jet quenching parameter of an anisotropic plasma with a U(1) chemical potential via the AdS/CFT duality. The effects of charge, anisotropy parameter and quark motion direction on the jet quenching parameter are investigated. We then discuss the situation of anisotropic black brane in the IR region. We study both the jet quenching parameters along the longitudinal direction and transverse plane.

  16. Recent results on anisotropic flow and related phenomena in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Bilandzic, Ante

    2016-01-01

    The exploration of properties of an extreme state of matter, the Quark--Gluon Plasma, has broken new ground with the recent Run 2 operation of the Large Hadron Collider with heavy-ion collisions at the highest energy to date. With the heavy-ion data taken at the end of 2015, the ALICE Collaboration has made the first observation of anisotropic flow of charged particles and related phenomena in lead--lead collisions at the record breaking energy of 5.02 TeV per nucleon pair. The Run 2 results come after the proton-lead collisions, which provided a lot of unexpected results obtained with two- and multi-particle correlation techniques. In these proceedings, a brief overview of these results will be shown. We will discuss how they further enlighten the properties of matter produced in ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions. We indicate the possibility that, to leading order, the striking universality of flow results obtained with correlation techniques in pp, p--A and A--A collisions might have purely mathematical ...

  17. The Spin-Charge-Family theory offers the explanation for all the assumptions of the Standard model, for the Dark matter, for the Matter-antimatter asymmetry, making several predictions

    CERN Document Server

    Borštnik, Norma Susana Mankoč

    2016-01-01

    The spin-charge-family theory, which is a kind of the Kaluza-Klein theories but with fermions carrying two kinds of spins (no charges), offers the explanation for all the assumptions of the standard model, with the origin of families, the higgs and the Yukawa couplings included. It offers the explanation also for other phenomena, like the origin of the dark matter and of the matter/antimatter asymmetry in the universe. It predicts the existence of the fourth family to the observed three, as well as several scalar fields with the weak and the hyper charge of the standard model higgs ($\\pm \\frac{1}{2}, \\mp \\frac{1}{2}$, respectively), which determine the mass matrices of family members, offering an explanation, why the fourth family with the masses above $1$ TeV contributes weakly to the gluon-fusion production of the observed higgs and to its decay into two photons, and predicting that the two photons events, observed at the LHC at $\\approx 750$ GeV, might be an indication for the existence of one of several s...

  18. Laboratory measurements compellingly support charge-exchange mechanism for the 'dark matter' $\\sim$3.5 keV X-ray line

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Chintan; Dobrodey, Stepan; Bernitt, Sven; Steinbrügge, René; López-Urrutia, José R. Crespo; Gu, Liyi; Kaastra, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    The reported observations of an unidentified X-ray line feature at $\\sim$3.5 keV have driven a lively discussion about its possible dark matter origin. Motivated by this, we have measured the \\emph{K}-shell X-ray spectra of highly ionized bare sulfur ions following charge exchange with gaseous molecules in an electron beam ion trap, as a source of or a contributor to this X-ray line. We produce $\\mathrm{S}^{16+}$ and $\\mathrm{S}^{15+}$ ions and let them capture electrons in collision with tho...

  19. Quasiparticle anisotropic hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Alqahtani, Mubarak

    2016-01-01

    We study an azimuthally-symmetric boost-invariant quark-gluon plasma using quasiparticle anisotropic hydrodynamics including the effects of both shear and bulk viscosities. We compare results obtained using the quasiparticle method with the standard anisotropic hydrodynamics and viscous hydrodynamics. We consider the predictions of the three methods for the differential particle spectra and mean transverse momentum. We find that the three methods agree for small shear viscosity to entropy density ratio, $\\eta/s$, but show differences at large $\\eta/s$. Additionally, we find that the standard anisotropic hydrodynamics method shows suppressed production at low transverse-momentum compared to the other two methods, and the bulk-viscous correction can drive the primordial particle spectra negative at large $p_T$ in viscous hydrodynamics.

  20. Strongly interacting particles on an anisotropic kagome lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotta, Chisa; Pollmann, Frank, E-mail: chisa@cc.kyoto-su.ac.j [Kyoto Sangyo University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kyoto 603-8555, Japan Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA94720 (United States)

    2009-01-01

    We study a model of strongly interacting spinless fermions and hard-core bosons on an anisotropic kagome lattice near 2/3-filling. Our main focus lies on the strongly anisotropic case in which the nearest-neighbor repulsions V and V' are large compared to the hopping amplitudes |t| and |t'|. When t = t' = 0, the system has a charge ordered insulating ground state where the charges align in striped configurations. Doping one electron or hole into the ground state yields an anisotropic metal at V' > V, where the particle fractionalizes along the V'-bonds while propagates along the V-bonds in a one-body like manner. The sixth order ring exchange processes around the hexagonal unit of the lattice play a crucial role in forming a bound state of fractional charges.

  1. Strongly interacting particles on an anisotropic kagome lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Chisa; Pollmann, Frank

    2009-01-01

    We study a model of strongly interacting spinless fermions and hard-core bosons on an anisotropic kagome lattice near 2/3-filling. Our main focus lies on the strongly anisotropic case in which the nearest-neighbor repulsions V and V' are large compared to the hopping amplitudes |t| and |t'|. When t = t' = 0, the system has a charge ordered insulating ground state where the charges align in striped configurations. Doping one electron or hole into the ground state yields an anisotropic metal at V' > V, where the particle fractionalizes along the V'-bonds while propagates along the V-bonds in a one-body like manner. The sixth order ring exchange processes around the hexagonal unit of the lattice play a crucial role in forming a bound state of fractional charges.

  2. Molecular anisotropic magnetoresistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Fabian; Heinze, Stefan; Mokrousov, Yuriy

    2015-12-01

    Using density functional theory calculations, we demonstrate that the effect of anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) can be enhanced by orders of magnitude with respect to conventional bulk ferromagnets in junctions containing molecules sandwiched between ferromagnetic leads. We study ballistic transport in metal-benzene complexes contacted by 3 d transition-metal wires. We show that a gigantic AMR can arise from spin-orbit coupling effects in the leads, drastically enhanced by orbital-symmetry filtering properties of the molecules. We further discuss how this molecular anisotropic magnetoresistance (MAMR) can be tuned by the proper choice of materials and their electronic properties.

  3. Anisotropic elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Hwu, Chyanbin

    2010-01-01

    As structural elements, anisotropic elastic plates find wide applications in modern technology. The plates here are considered to be subjected to not only in plane load but also transverse load. In other words, both plane and plate bending problems as well as the stretching-bending coupling problems are all explained in this book. In addition to the introduction of the theory of anisotropic elasticity, several important subjects have are discussed in this book such as interfaces, cracks, holes, inclusions, contact problems, piezoelectric materials, thermoelastic problems and boundary element a

  4. Mixture of Anisotropic Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florkowski, W.; Maj, R.

    The recently introduced approach describing coupled quark and gluon anisotropic fluids is generalized to include explicitly the transitions between quarks and gluons. We study the effects of such processes on the thermalization rate of anisotropic systems. We find that the quark-gluon transitions may enhance the overall thermalization rate in the cases where the initial momentum anisotropies correspond to mixed oblate-prolate or prolate configurations. On the other hand, no effect on the thermalization rate is found in the case of oblate configurations. The observed regularities are connected with the late-time behavior of the analyzed systems which is described either by the exponential decay or the power law.

  5. Mixture of anisotropic fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Florkowski, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    The recently introduced approach describing coupled quark and gluon anisotropic fluids is generalized to include explicitly the transitions between quarks and gluons. We study the effects of such processes on the thermalization rate of anisotropic systems. We find that the quark-gluon transitions may enhance the overall thermalization rate in the cases where the initial momentum anisotropies correspond to mixed oblate-prolate or prolate configurations. On the other hand, no effect on the thermalization rate is found in the case of oblate configurations. The observed regularities are connected with the late-time behavior of the analyzed systems which is described either by the exponential decay or the power law.

  6. Anisotropic Weyl invariance

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez-Nadal, Guillem

    2016-01-01

    We consider a non-relativistic free scalar field theory with a type of anisotropic scale invariance in which the number of coordinates "scaling like time" is generically greater than one. We propose the Cartesian product of two curved spaces, with the metric of each space parameterized by the other space, as a notion of curved background to which the theory can be extended. We study this type of geometries, and find a family of extensions of the theory to curved backgrounds in which the anisotropic scale invariance is promoted to a local, Weyl-type symmetry.

  7. Anisotropic models for compact stars

    CERN Document Server

    Maurya, S K; Ray, Saibal; Dayanandan, Baiju

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper we obtain an anisotropic analogue of Durgapal-Fuloria (1985) perfect fluid solution. The methodology consists of contraction of anisotropic factor $\\Delta$ by the help of both metric potentials $e^{\

  8. Dirac dark matter with a charged mediator: a comprehensive one-loop analysis of the direct detection phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze the direct detection signals of a toy model consisting of a Dirac dark matter particle which couples to one Standard Model fermion via a scalar mediator. For all scenarios, the dark matter particle scatters off nucleons via one loop-induced electromagnetic and electroweak moments, as well as via the one-loop exchange of a Higgs boson. Besides, and depending on the details of the model, the scattering can also be mediated at tree level via the exchange of the scalar mediator or at one loop via gluon-gluon interactions. We show that, for thermally produced dark matter particles, the current limits from the LUX experiment on these scenarios are remarkably strong, even for dark matter coupling only to leptons. We also discuss future prospects for XENON1T and DARWIN and we argue that multi-ton xenon detectors will be able to probe practically the whole parameter space of the model consistent with thermal production and perturbativity. We also discuss briefly the implications of our results for the dark matter interpretation of the Galactic GeV excess

  9. Dirac dark matter with a charged mediator: a comprehensive one-loop analysis of the direct detection phenomenology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibarra, Alejandro; Wild, Sebastian [Physik-Department T30d, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Straße, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-05-26

    We analyze the direct detection signals of a toy model consisting of a Dirac dark matter particle which couples to one Standard Model fermion via a scalar mediator. For all scenarios, the dark matter particle scatters off nucleons via one loop-induced electromagnetic and electroweak moments, as well as via the one-loop exchange of a Higgs boson. Besides, and depending on the details of the model, the scattering can also be mediated at tree level via the exchange of the scalar mediator or at one loop via gluon-gluon interactions. We show that, for thermally produced dark matter particles, the current limits from the LUX experiment on these scenarios are remarkably strong, even for dark matter coupling only to leptons. We also discuss future prospects for XENON1T and DARWIN and we argue that multi-ton xenon detectors will be able to probe practically the whole parameter space of the model consistent with thermal production and perturbativity. We also discuss briefly the implications of our results for the dark matter interpretation of the Galactic GeV excess.

  10. Review of anisotropic flow correlations in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, You

    2016-01-01

    Anisotropic flow phenomena is a key probe of the existence of Quark-Gluon Plasma. Several new observable associated with correlations between anisotropic flow harmonics are developed, which are expected to be sensitive to the initial fluctuations and transport properties of the created matter in heavy ion collisions. I review recent developments of correlations of anisotropic flow harmonics. The experimental measurements, together with the comparisons to theoretical model calculations, open up new opportunities of exploring novel QCD dynamics in heavy-ion collisions.

  11. On the Newtonian anisotropic configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shojai, F. [University of Tehran, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), Foundations of Physics Group, School of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fazel, M.R.; Stepanian, A. [University of Tehran, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kohandel, M. [Alzahra University, Department of Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    In this paper we are concerned with the effects of an anisotropic pressure on the boundary conditions of the anisotropic Lane-Emden equation and the homology theorem. Some new exact solutions of this equation are derived. Then some of the theorems governing the Newtonian perfect fluid star are extended, taking the anisotropic pressure into account. (orig.)

  12. Anisotropic Lyra cosmology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B B Bhowmik; A Rajput

    2004-06-01

    Anisotropic Bianchi Type-I cosmological models have been studied on the basis of Lyra's geometry. Two types of models, one with constant deceleration parameter and the other with variable deceleration parameter have been derived by considering a time-dependent displacement field.

  13. Dynamics of Anisotropic Universes

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, J

    2006-01-01

    We present a general study of the dynamical properties of Anisotropic Bianchi Universes in the context of Einstein General Relativity. Integrability results using Kovalevskaya exponents are reported and connected to general knowledge about Bianchi dynamics. Finally, dynamics toward singularity in Bianchi type VIII and IX universes are showed to be equivalent in some precise sence.

  14. Dirac dark matter with a charged mediator: a comprehensive one-loop analysis of the direct detection phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Ibarra, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the direct detection signals of a toy model consisting of a Dirac dark matter particle which couples to one Standard Model fermion via a scalar mediator. For all scenarios, the dark matter particle scatters off nucleons via one loop-induced electromagnetic and electroweak moments, as well as via the one-loop exchange of a Higgs boson. Besides, and depending on the details of the model, the scattering can also be mediated at tree level via the exchange of the scalar mediator or at one loop via gluon-gluon interactions. We show that, for thermally produced dark matter particles, the current limits from the LUX experiment on these scenarios are remarkably strong, even for dark matter coupling only to leptons. We also discuss future prospects for XENON1T and DARWIN and we argue that multi-ton xenon detectors will be able to probe practically the whole parameter space of the model consistent with thermal production and perturbativity. We also discuss briefly the implications of our results for the dark ...

  15. The "approach unifying spin and charges" predicts the fourth family and a stable family forming the dark matter clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Borstnik, N S Mankoc

    2010-01-01

    The Approach unifying spin and charges, assuming that all the internal degrees of freedom---the spin, all the charges and the families---originate in $d > (1+3)$ in only two kinds of spins (the Dirac one and the only one existing beside the Dirac one and anticommuting with the Dirac one), is offering a new way in understanding the appearance of the families and the charges (in the case of charges the similarity with the Kaluza-Klein-like theories must be emphasized). A simple starting action in $d >(1+3)$ for gauge fields (the vielbeins and the two kinds of the spin connections) and a spinor (which carries only two kinds of spins and interacts with the corresponding gauge fields) manifests after particular breaks of the starting symmetry the massless four (rather than three) families with the properties as assumed by the Standard model for the three known families, and the additional four massive families. The lowest of these additional four families is stable. A part of the starting action contributes, toget...

  16. Electrically Charged Matter in Permanent Rotation around Magnetized Black Holes: A Toy Model for Self-gravitating Fluid Tori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trova, A.; Karas, V.; Slaný, P.; Kovář, J.

    2016-09-01

    We present an analytical approach for the equilibrium of a self-gravitating charged fluid embedded in a spherical gravitational and dipolar magnetic fields produced by a central mass. Our scheme is proposed, as a toy model, in the context of gaseous/dusty tori surrounding supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei. While the central black hole dominates the gravitational field and remains electrically neutral, the surrounding material has a non-negligible self-gravitational effect on the torus structure. By charging mechanisms it also acquires non-zero electric charge density, so the two influences need to be taken into account to achieve a self-consistent picture. Using our approach we discuss the impact of self-gravity, represented by the term {d}{{t}} (ratio of the torus total mass to the mass of the central body), on the conditions for existence of the equilibrium and the morphology and typology of the tori. By comparison with a previous work without self-gravity, we show that the conditions can be different. Although the main aim of the present paper is to discuss a framework for the classification of electrically charged, magnetized, self-gravitating tori, we also mention potential astrophysical applications to vertically stratified fluid configurations.

  17. Computational Study of Subdural Cortical Stimulation: Effects of Simulating Anisotropic Conductivity on Activation of Cortical Neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Seo

    Full Text Available Subdural cortical stimulation (SuCS is an appealing method in the treatment of neurological disorders, and computational modeling studies of SuCS have been applied to determine the optimal design for electrotherapy. To achieve a better understanding of computational modeling on the stimulation effects of SuCS, the influence of anisotropic white matter conductivity on the activation of cortical neurons was investigated in a realistic head model. In this paper, we constructed pyramidal neuronal models (layers 3 and 5 that showed primary excitation of the corticospinal tract, and an anatomically realistic head model reflecting complex brain geometry. The anisotropic information was acquired from diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI and then applied to the white matter at various ratios of anisotropic conductivity. First, we compared the isotropic and anisotropic models; compared to the isotropic model, the anisotropic model showed that neurons were activated in the deeper bank during cathodal stimulation and in the wider crown during anodal stimulation. Second, several popular anisotropic principles were adapted to investigate the effects of variations in anisotropic information. We observed that excitation thresholds varied with anisotropic principles, especially with anodal stimulation. Overall, incorporating anisotropic conductivity into the anatomically realistic head model is critical for accurate estimation of neuronal responses; however, caution should be used in the selection of anisotropic information.

  18. The Anisotropic Geometrodynamics For Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siparov, Sergey V.

    2009-05-01

    The classical geometrodynamics (GRT) and its modern features based on the use of the Fridman-Robertson-Walker type metrics are still unable to explain several important issues of extragalactic observations like flat rotation curves of the spiral galaxies, Tully-Fisher law, globular clusters behavior in comparisson to that of the stars belonging to the galactic plane etc. The chalenging problem of the Universe expansion acceleration stemming from the supernovae observations demands the existence of the repulsion forces which brings one to the choice between the cosmological constant and some quintessence. The popular objects of discussion are now still dark (matter and energy), nevertheless, they are supposed to correspond to more than 95% of the Universe which seems to be far from satisfactory. According to the equivalence principle we can not experimentally distinguish between the inertial forces and the gravitational ones. Since there exist the inertial forces depending on velocity (Coriolis), it seems plausible to explore the velocity dependent gravitational forces. From the mathematical point of view it means that we should use the anisotropic metric. It immediately turns out that the expression for the Einstein-Hilbert action changes in a natural way - contrary to the cases of f(R)-theories, additional scalar fields, arbitrary MOND functions etc.. We use the linear approximation for the metric and derive the generalized geodesics and the equation for the gravity force that contains not only the Newton-Einstein term. The relation between the obtained results and those of Lense-Thirring approach are discussed. The resulting anisotropic geometrodynamics includes all the results of the GRT and is used to give the explanation to the problems mentioned above. One of the impressive consequences is the possibility to explain the observed Hubble red shift not by the Doppler effect as usually but by the gravitational red shift originating from the metric anisotropy.

  19. Observation of an Anisotropic Wigner Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Hasdemir, S.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.; Baldwin, K. W.; Shayegan, M.

    2016-09-01

    We report a new correlated phase of two-dimensional charged carriers in high magnetic fields, manifested by an anisotropic insulating behavior at low temperatures. It appears in a large range of low Landau level fillings 1 /3 ≲ν ≲2 /3 in hole systems confined to wide GaAs quantum wells when the sample is tilted in magnetic field to an intermediate angle. The parallel field component (B∥) leads to a crossing of the lowest two Landau levels, and an elongated hole wave function in the direction of B∥. Under these conditions, the in-plane resistance exhibits an insulating behavior, with the resistance along B∥ about 10 times smaller than the resistance perpendicular to B∥. We interpret this anisotropic insulating phase as a two-component, striped Wigner crystal.

  20. Electrically charged matter in permanent rotation around magnetized black hole: A toy model for self-gravitating fluid tori

    CERN Document Server

    Trova, A; Slany, P; Kovar, J

    2016-01-01

    We present an analytical approach for the equilibrium of a self-gravitating charged fluid embedded in a spherical gravitational and dipolar magnetic fields produced by a central mass. Our scheme is proposed, as a toy-model, in the context of gaseous/dusty tori surrounding supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei. While the central black hole dominates the gravitational field and it remains electrically neutral, the surrounding material has a non-negligible self-gravitational effect on the torus structure. By charging mechanisms it also acquires non-zero electric charge density, so the two influences need to be taken into account to achieve a self-consistent picture. With our approach we discuss the impact of self-gravity, represented by the term dt (ratio of the torus total mass to the mass of the central body), on the conditions for existence of the equilibrium and the morphology and typology of the tori. By comparison with a previous work without self-gravity, we show that the conditions can be different...

  1. Inhomogeneous Anisotropic Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Kleban, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    In homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology, the topology of the universe determines its ultimate fate. If the Weak Energy Condition is satisfied, open and flat universes must expand forever, while closed cosmologies can recollapse to a Big Crunch. A similar statement holds for homogeneous but anisotropic (Bianchi) universes. Here, we prove that ${\\it arbitrarily}$ inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies with "flat" (including toroidal) and "open" (including compact hyperbolic) spatial topology that are initially expanding must continue to expand forever at least in some region, despite the presence of arbitrarily large density fluctuations and/or the formation of black holes. Because the set of 3-manifold topologies is countable, a single integer determines the ultimate fate of the universe, and, in a specific sense, most 3-manifolds are "flat" or "open". Our result has important implications for inflation: if there is a positive cosmological constant (or suitable inflationary potenti...

  2. Molecular anisotropic magnetoresistance

    OpenAIRE

    Otte, Fabian; Heinze, Stefan; Mokrousov, Yuriy

    2015-01-01

    Using density functional theory calculations, we demonstrate that the effect of anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) can be enhanced by orders of magnitude with respect to conventional bulk ferromagnets in junctions containing molecules sandwiched between ferromagnetic leads. We study ballistic transport in metal-benzene complexes contacted by $3d$ transition-metal wires. We show that the gigantic AMR can arise from spin-orbit coupling effects in the leads, drastically enhanced by orbital-symm...

  3. Quantum electrodynamics of inhomogeneous anisotropic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Adrian E.R.; Lombardo, Fernando C. [Ciudad Universitaria, Departamento de Fisica Juan Jose Giambiagi, Buenos Aires (Argentina); IFIBA CONICET-UBA, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-02-01

    In this work we calculate the closed time path generating functional for the electromagnetic (EM) field interacting with inhomogeneous anisotropic matter. For this purpose, we first find a general expression for the electromagnetic field's influence action from the interaction of the field with a composite environment consisting in the quantum polarization degrees of freedom in each point of space, at arbitrary temperatures, connected to thermal baths. Then we evaluate the generating functional for the gauge field, in the temporal gauge, by implementing the Faddeev-Popov procedure. Finally, through the point-splitting technique, we calculate closed expressions for the energy, the Poynting vector, and the Maxwell tensor in terms of the Hadamard propagator. We show that all the quantities have contributions from the field's initial conditions and also from the matter degrees of freedom. Throughout the whole work we discuss how the gauge invariance must be treated in the formalism when the EM-field is interacting with inhomogeneous anisotropic matter. We study the electrodynamics in the temporal gauge, obtaining the EM-field's equation and a residual condition. Finally we analyze the case of the EM-field in bulk material and also discuss several general implications of our results in relation with the Casimir physics in a non-equilibrium scenario. (orig.)

  4. Quark–gluon plasma phenomenology from anisotropic lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skullerud, Jon-Ivar; Kelly, Aoife [Department of Mathematical Physics, Maynooth University, Maynooth, Co Kildare (Ireland); Aarts, Gert; Allton, Chris; Amato, Alessandro; Evans, P. Wynne M.; Hands, Simon [Department of Physics, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP, Wales (United Kingdom); Burnier, Yannis [Institut de Théorie des Phénomènes Physiques, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH–1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Giudice, Pietro [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Münster, D–48149 Münster (Germany); Harris, Tim; Ryan, Sinéad M. [School of Mathematics, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Kim, Seyong [Department of Physics, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Lombardo, Maria Paola [INFN–Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, I–00044 Frascati (RM) (Italy); Oktay, Mehmet B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Rothkopf, Alexander [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, D–69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-01-22

    The FASTSUM collaboration has been carrying out simulations of N{sub f} = 2 + 1 QCD at nonzero temperature in the fixed-scale approach using anisotropic lattices. Here we present the status of these studies, including recent results for electrical conductivity and charge diffusion, and heavy quarkonium (charm and beauty) physics.

  5. Quark–gluon plasma phenomenology from anisotropic lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FASTSUM collaboration has been carrying out simulations of Nf = 2 + 1 QCD at nonzero temperature in the fixed-scale approach using anisotropic lattices. Here we present the status of these studies, including recent results for electrical conductivity and charge diffusion, and heavy quarkonium (charm and beauty) physics

  6. Quark-gluon plasma phenomenology from anisotropic lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Skullerud, Jon-Ivar; Allton, Chris; Amato, Alessandro; Burnier, Yannis; Evans, P Wynne M; Giudice, Pietro; Hands, Simon; Harris, Tim; Kelly, Aoife; Kim, Seyong; Lombardo, Maria Paola; Oktay, Mehmet B; Rothkopf, Alexander; Ryan, Sinéad M

    2015-01-01

    The FASTSUM collaboration has been carrying out simulations of N_f=2+1 QCD at nonzero temperature in the fixed-scale approach using anisotropic lattices. Here we present the status of these studies, including recent results for electrical conductivity and charge diffusion, and heavy quarkonium (charm and beauty) physics.

  7. Laboratory measurements compellingly support charge-exchange mechanism for the 'dark matter' $\\sim$3.5 keV X-ray line

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Chintan; Bernitt, Sven; Steinbrügge, René; López-Urrutia, José R Crespo; Gu, Liyi; Kaastra, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    The reported observations of an unidentified X-ray line feature at $\\sim$3.5 keV have driven a lively discussion about its possible dark matter origin. Motivated by this, we have measured the \\emph{K}-shell X-ray spectra of highly ionized bare sulfur ions following charge exchange with gaseous molecules in an electron beam ion trap, as a source of or a contributor to this X-ray line. We produce $\\mathrm{S}^{16+}$ and $\\mathrm{S}^{15+}$ ions and let them capture electrons in collision with those molecules with the electron beam turned off while recording X-ray spectra. We observed a charge-exchanged-induced X-ray feature at the Lyman series limit (3.47 $\\pm$ 0.06 keV). The inferred X-ray energy is in full agreement with the reported astrophysical observations and supports the novel scenario proposed by Gu and Kaastra (A \\& A \\textbf{584}, {L11} (2015)).

  8. Anisotropic cosmological solutions in massive vector theories

    CERN Document Server

    Heisenberg, Lavinia; Tsujikawa, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    In beyond-generalized Proca theories including the extension to theories higher than second order, we study the role of a spatial component $v$ of a massive vector field on the anisotropic cosmological background. We show that, as in the case of the isotropic cosmological background, there is no additional ghostly degrees of freedom associated with the Ostrogradski instability. In second-order generalized Proca theories we find the existence of anisotropic solutions on which the ratio between the anisotropic expansion rate $\\Sigma$ and the isotropic expansion rate $H$ remains nearly constant in the radiation-dominated epoch. In the regime where $\\Sigma/H$ is constant, the spatial vector component $v$ works as a dark radiation with the equation of state close to $1/3$. During the matter era, the ratio $\\Sigma/H$ decreases with the decrease of $v$. As long as the conditions $|\\Sigma| \\ll H$ and $v^2 \\ll \\phi^2$ are satisfied around the onset of late-time cosmic acceleration, where $\\phi$ is the temporal vector ...

  9. Model anisotropic quantum Hall states

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, R. -Z.; Haldane, F.D.M.; Wan, Xin; Yang, Kun; Yi, Su

    2012-01-01

    Model quantum Hall states including Laughlin, Moore-Read and Read-Rezayi states are generalized into appropriate anisotropic form. The generalized states are exact zero-energy eigenstates of corresponding anisotropic two- or multi-body Hamiltonians, and explicitly illustrate the existence of geometric degrees of in the fractional quantum Hall effect. These generalized model quantum Hall states can provide a good description of the quantum Hall system with anisotropic interactions. Some numeri...

  10. Physics of cooperative phenomena in condensed-matter systems: Non-linear dynamics of driven charge-density waves; model studies of high-temperature superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis examines four problems of cooperative phenomena in condensed matter physics. The first two topics deal with non-linear dynamics of charge density wave systems. The second two concern superconductivity with unusually high critical temperature. Firstly, the dynamics of one dimensional charge density waves are studied using models with only a few internal phase degrees of freedom. It is shown that these simple models are sufficient to produce the subharmonic current-lock observed experimentally. The relative simplicity of the model makes it suitable for studying details of the dynamics difficult to obtain with models having larger number of degrees of freedom. Secondly, it is shown that the introduction of phase-slip centers can account for the diverse dynamical phenomena observed in switching charge density wave systems. In particular, the following experimental phenomena are all explained in terms of phase-slips: switching, hysteresis, period doubling, chaos, strong tendency to current-lock, and the broad inductive response in ac conductivity measurement. Thirdly, superconductivity with high critical temperature (high-temperature superconductivity) is studies using a simple mean field theory of the single band Hubbard model where both superconducting and antiferromagnetic long-range orders are allowed. It is shown that the phase in which both of these symmetry breakings exist is likely to have the lowest free energy. Finally, the quantitative discrepancy found between the mean field theory of high-temperature superconductivity and experiment regarding the antiferromagnetic order is qualified. Quantum fluctuation is introduced as the next nearest neighbor antiferromagnetic coupling of spins. The derivation of the effective spin Hamiltonian and its study using the variational Monte Carlo method is presented

  11. Material Induced Anisotropic Damage in DP600

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niazi, M.S.; Wisselink, H.H.; Meinders, V.T.; Boogaard, van den A.H.

    2013-01-01

    Plasticity induced damage development in metals is anisotropic by nature. The anisotropy in damage is driven by two different phenomena; anisotropic deformation state i.e. Load Induced Anisotropic Damage (LIAD) and anisotropic microstructure i.e. Material Induced Anisotropic Damage (MIAD). The contr

  12. On the Relativistic anisotropic configurations

    CERN Document Server

    Shojai, F; Stepanian, A

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study anisotropic spherical polytropes within the framework of general relativity. Using the anisotropic Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov (TOV) equations, we explore the relativistic anisotropic Lane-Emden equations. We find how the anisotropic pressure affects the boundary conditions of these equations. Also we argue that the behaviour of physical quantities near the center of star changes in the presence of anisotropy. For constant density, a class of exact solution is derived with the aid of a new ansatz and its physical properties are discussed.

  13. On the relativistic anisotropic configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shojai, F. [University of Tehran, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), Foundations of Physics Group, School of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kohandel, M. [Alzahra University, Department of Physics and Chemistry, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Stepanian, A. [University of Tehran, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    In this paper we study anisotropic spherical polytropes within the framework of general relativity. Using the anisotropic Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov equations, we explore the relativistic anisotropic Lane-Emden equations. We find how the anisotropic pressure affects the boundary conditions of these equations. Also we argue that the behavior of physical quantities near the center of star changes in the presence of anisotropy. For constant density, a class of exact solution is derived with the aid of a new ansatz and its physical properties are discussed. (orig.)

  14. Quasilocal charges in integrable lattice systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilievski, Enej; Medenjak, Marko; Prosen, Tomaž; Zadnik, Lenart

    2016-06-01

    We review recent progress in understanding the notion of locality in integrable quantum lattice systems. The central concept concerns the so-called quasilocal conserved quantities, which go beyond the standard perception of locality. Two systematic procedures to rigorously construct families of quasilocal conserved operators based on quantum transfer matrices are outlined, specializing on anisotropic Heisenberg XXZ spin-1/2 chain. Quasilocal conserved operators stem from two distinct classes of representations of the auxiliary space algebra, comprised of unitary (compact) representations, which can be naturally linked to the fusion algebra and quasiparticle content of the model, and non-unitary (non-compact) representations giving rise to charges, manifestly orthogonal to the unitary ones. Various condensed matter applications in which quasilocal conservation laws play an essential role are presented, with special emphasis on their implications for anomalous transport properties (finite Drude weight) and relaxation to non-thermal steady states in the quantum quench scenario.

  15. Anisotropically Inflating Universes

    CERN Document Server

    Barrow, J D; Barrow, John D.; Hervik, Sigbjorn

    2008-01-01

    We show that in theories of gravity that add quadratic curvature invariants to the Einstein-Hilbert action there exist expanding vacuum cosmologies with positive cosmological constant which do not approach the de Sitter universe. Exact solutions are found which inflate anisotropically. This behaviour is driven by the Ricci curvature invariant and has no counterpart in the general relativistic limit. These examples show that the cosmic no-hair theorem does not hold in these higher-order extensions of general relativity and raises new questions about the ubiquity of inflation in the very early universe and the thermodynamics of gravitational fields.

  16. Anisotropic Stars Exact Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Dev, K; Dev, Krsna; Gleiser, Marcelo

    2000-01-01

    We study the effects of anisotropic pressure on the properties of spherically symmetric, gravitationally bound objects. We consider the full general relativistic treatment of this problem and obtain exact solutions for various form of equations of state connecting the radial and tangential pressures. It is shown that pressure anisotropy can have significant effects on the structure and properties of stellar objects. In particular, the maximum value of 2M/R can approach unity (2M/R < 8/9 for isotropic objects) and the surface redshift can be arbitrarily large.

  17. Anisotropic Thermal Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Anisotropic thermal diffusion in magnetized plasmas is an important physical phenomena for a diverse set of physical conditions ranging from astrophysical plasmas to MFE and ICF. Yet numerically simulating this phenomenon accurately poses significant challenges when the computational mesh is misaligned with respect to the magnetic field. Particularly when the temperature gradients are unresolved, one frequently finds entropy violating solutions with heat flowing from cold to hot zones for χ∥ /χ⊥ >=102 which is substantially smaller than the range of interest which can reach 1010 or higher. In this talk we present a new implicit algorithm for solving the anisotropic thermal diffusion equations and demonstrate its characteristics on what has become a fairly standard set of test problems in the literature. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND2013-5687A.

  18. Inhomogeneous anisotropic cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleban, Matthew; Senatore, Leonardo

    2016-10-01

    In homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology, the topology of the universe determines its ultimate fate. If the Weak Energy Condition is satisfied, open and flat universes must expand forever, while closed cosmologies can recollapse to a Big Crunch. A similar statement holds for homogeneous but anisotropic (Bianchi) universes. Here, we prove that arbitrarily inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies with ``flat'' (including toroidal) and ``open'' (including compact hyperbolic) spatial topology that are initially expanding must continue to expand forever at least in some region at a rate bounded from below by a positive number, despite the presence of arbitrarily large density fluctuations and/or the formation of black holes. Because the set of 3-manifold topologies is countable, a single integer determines the ultimate fate of the universe, and, in a specific sense, most 3-manifolds are ``flat'' or ``open''. Our result has important implications for inflation: if there is a positive cosmological constant (or suitable inflationary potential) and initial conditions for the inflaton, cosmologies with ``flat'' or ``open'' topology must expand forever in some region at least as fast as de Sitter space, and are therefore very likely to begin inflationary expansion eventually, regardless of the scale of the inflationary energy or the spectrum and amplitude of initial inhomogeneities and gravitational waves. Our result is also significant for numerical general relativity, which often makes use of periodic (toroidal) boundary conditions.

  19. Phase Space of Anisotropic $R^n$ Cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Leon, Genly

    2014-01-01

    We construct general anisotropic cosmological scenarios governed by an $f(R)=R^n$ gravitational sector. Focusing then on some specific geometries, and modelling the matter content as a perfect fluid, we perform a phase-space analysis. We analyze the possibility of accelerating expansion at late times, and additionally, we determine conditions for the parameter $n$ for the existence of phantom behavior, contracting solutions as well as of cyclic cosmology. Furthermore, we analyze if the universe evolves towards the future isotropization without relying on a cosmic no-hair theorem. Our results indicate that anisotropic geometries in modified gravitational frameworks present radically different cosmological behaviors compared to the simple isotropic scenarios.

  20. Quantum electrodynamics of inhomogeneous anisotropic media

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez, Adrian E Rubio

    2014-01-01

    In this work we calculate the closed time path (CTP) generating functional for the electromagnetic (EM) field interacting with inhomogeneous anisotropic matter. For this purpose, we first find a general expression for the electromagnetic field's influence action from the interaction of the field with a composite environment consisting in the quantum polarization degrees of freedom in each point of space, at arbitrary temperatures, connected to thermal baths. Then, we evaluate the generating functional for the gauge field, in the temporal gauge, by implementing the Faddeev-Popov procedure. Finally, through the point-splitting technique, we calculate closed expressions for the energy, the Poynting vector and the Maxwell tensor in terms of the Hadamard propagator. We show that all the quantities have contributions from the field's initial conditions and also from the matter degrees of freedom. Throughout the whole work we discuss and give insights about how the gauge invariance must be treated in the formalism w...

  1. Electric double layer of anisotropic dielectric colloids under electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, M.; Wu, H.; Luijten, E.

    2016-07-01

    Anisotropic colloidal particles constitute an important class of building blocks for self-assembly directed by electrical fields. The aggregation of these building blocks is driven by induced dipole moments, which arise from an interplay between dielectric effects and the electric double layer. For particles that are anisotropic in shape, charge distribution, and dielectric properties, calculation of the electric double layer requires coupling of the ionic dynamics to a Poisson solver. We apply recently proposed methods to solve this problem for experimentally employed colloids in static and time-dependent electric fields. This allows us to predict the effects of field strength and frequency on the colloidal properties.

  2. Holographic Fermions in Anisotropic Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton-Axion Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the properties of the holographic Fermionic system dual to an anisotropic charged black brane bulk in Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton-Axion gravity theory. We consider the minimal coupling between the Dirac field and the gauge field in the bulk gravity theory and mainly explore the dispersion relation exponents of the Green functions of the dual Fermionic operators in the dual field theory. We find that along both the anisotropic and the isotropic directions the Fermi momentum will be effected by the anisotropy of the bulk theory. However, the anisotropy has influence on the dispersion relation which is almost linear for massless Fermions with charge q=2. The universal properties that the mass and the charge of the Fermi possibly correspond to nonlinear dispersion relation are also investigated

  3. Holographic Fermions in Anisotropic Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton-Axion Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Qing Fang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the properties of the holographic Fermionic system dual to an anisotropic charged black brane bulk in Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton-Axion gravity theory. We consider the minimal coupling between the Dirac field and the gauge field in the bulk gravity theory and mainly explore the dispersion relation exponents of the Green functions of the dual Fermionic operators in the dual field theory. We find that along both the anisotropic and the isotropic directions the Fermi momentum will be effected by the anisotropy of the bulk theory. However, the anisotropy has influence on the dispersion relation which is almost linear for massless Fermions with charge q=2. The universal properties that the mass and the charge of the Fermi possibly correspond to nonlinear dispersion relation are also investigated.

  4. Thermodynamics of anisotropic branes

    CERN Document Server

    Ávila, Daniel; Patiño, Leonardo; Trancanelli, Diego

    2016-01-01

    We study the thermodynamics of flavor D7-branes embedded in an anisotropic black brane solution of type IIB supergravity. The flavor branes undergo a phase transition between a `Minkowski embedding', in which they lie outside of the horizon, and a `black hole embedding', in which they fall into the horizon. This transition depends on two independent dimensionless ratios, which are formed out of the black hole temperature, its anisotropy parameter, and the mass of the flavor degrees of freedom. It happens either at a critical temperature or at a critical anisotropy. A general lesson we learn from this analysis is that the anisotropy, in this particular realization, induces similar effects as the temperature. In particular, increasing the anisotropy bends the branes more and more into the horizon. Moreover, we observe that the transition becomes smoother for higher anisotropies.

  5. Anisotropic Inflation with General Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Jiaming; Qiu, Taotao

    2015-01-01

    Anomalies in recent observational data indicate that there might be some "anisotropic hair" generated in an inflation period. To obtain general information about the effects of this anisotropic hair to inflation models, we studied anisotropic inflation models that involve one vector and one scalar using several types of potentials. We determined the general relationship between the degree of anisotropy and the fraction of the vector and scalar fields, and concluded that the anisotropies behave independently of the potentials. We also generalized our study to the case of multi-directional anisotropies.

  6. Photon states in anisotropic media

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deepak Kumar

    2002-08-01

    Quantum aspects of optical polarization are discussed for waves traveling in anisotropic dielectric media with a view to relate the dynamics of polarization with that of photon spin and its manipulation by classical polarizers.

  7. Gradient expansion for anisotropic hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Florkowski, Wojciech; Spaliński, Michał

    2016-01-01

    We compute the gradient expansion for anisotropic hydrodynamics. The results are compared with the corresponding expansion of the underlying kinetic-theory model with the collision term treated in the relaxation time approximation. We find that a recent formulation of anisotropic hydrodynamics based on an anisotropic matching principle yields the first three terms of the gradient expansion in agreement with those obtained for the kinetic theory. This gives further support for this particular hydrodynamic model as a good approximation of the kinetic-theory approach. We further find that the gradient expansion of anisotropic hydrodynamics is an asymptotic series, and the singularities of the analytic continuation of its Borel transform indicate the presence of non-hydrodynamic modes.

  8. Anisotropic phenomena in gauge/gravity duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis we use gauge/gravity duality to model anisotropic effects realised in nature. Firstly we analyse transport properties in holographic systems with a broken rotational invariance. Secondly we discuss geometries dual to IR fixed points with anisotropic scaling behaviour, which are related to quantum critical points in condensed matter systems. Gauge/gravity duality relates a gravity theory in Anti-de Sitter space to a lower dimensional strongly coupled quantum field theory in Minkowski space. Over the past decade this duality provided many insights into systems at strong coupling, e.g. quark-gluon plasma and condensed matter close to quantum critical points. One very important result computed in this framework is the value of the shear viscosity divided by the entropy density in strongly coupled theories. The quantitative result agrees very well with measurements of the ratio in quark-gluon plasma. However, for isotropic two derivative Einstein gravity it is temperature independent. We show that by breaking the rotational symmetry of a system we obtain a temperature dependent shear viscosity over entropy density. This is important to make contact with real world systems, since substances in nature display such dependence. In addition, we derive various transport properties in strongly coupled anisotropic systems using the gauge/gravity dictionary. The most notable results include an electrical conductivity with Drude behaviour in the low frequency region. This resembles conductors with broken translational invariance. However, we did not implement the breaking explicitly. Furthermore, our analysis shows that this setup models effects, resembling the piezoelectric and exoelectric effects, known from liquid crystals. In a second project we discuss a geometry with non-trivial scaling behaviour in order to model an IR fixed point of condensed matter theories. We construct the UV completion of this geometry and analyse its properties by computing the

  9. Lifshitz holography and the phases of the anisotropic plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Roychowdhury, Dibakar

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, based on the method of scalar perturbations, we construct the \\textit{anisotropic} charged Lifshitz background perturbatively upto leading order in the anisotropy. As a next step of our analysis, we explore the consequences of this anisotropy on the holographic charge diffusion rates as well as on the superfluid condensation operator corresponding to the anisotropic plasma in the limit of the strong coupling. We observe that in the presence of the anisotropy, the DC conductivities along the two spatial directions of the brane differ significantly at any intermediate point in between the holographic RG flow. On the other hand, they turn out to be exactly identical at the UV fixed point of the theory. However, such differences go away smoothly in the limit of the vanishing anisotropy.

  10. Charge transport in polymeric transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Salleo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric semiconductors have attracted much attention because of their possible use as active materials in printed electronics. Thin-film transistors (TFTs are a convenient tool for studying charge-transport physics in conjugated polymers. Two families of materials are reviewed here: fluorene copolymers and polythiophenes. Because charge transport is highly anisotropic in molecular conductors, the electrical properties of conjugated polymers are strongly dependent on microstructure. Molecular weight, polydispersity, and regioregularity all affect morphology and charge-transport in these materials. Charge transport models based on microstructure are instrumental in identifying the electrical bottlenecks in these materials.

  11. Pseudorapidity Dependence of Anisotropic Azimuthal Flow with the ALICE Detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Alexander Colliander

    In ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions a new state of matter known as the strongly interacting quark-gluon plasma (sQGP) is produced. A key observable in the study of the sQGP is anisotropic azimuthal ow. The anisotropies are described by ow harmonics, vn. In this thesis, bias arising from no...... Detector and Silicon Pixel Detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The results are compared to other LHC experiments andprevious experiments at lower collision energies....

  12. Anisotropic compact stars in Karmarkar spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Ksh Newton; Govender, M

    2016-01-01

    We present a new class of solutions to the Einstein field equations for an anisotropic matter distribution in which the interior space-time obeys the Karmarkar condition. The necessary and sufficient condition required for a spherically symmetric space-time to be of class one reduces the gravitational behavior of the model to a single metric function. By assuming a physically viable form for the $g_{rr}$ metric potential we obtain an exact solution of the Einstein field equations which is free from any singularities and satisfies all the physical criteria. We utilize this solution to predict the masses and radii of well-known compact objects such as Cen X-3, PSR J0348+0432, PSRB0943+10 and XTE J1739-285. To be publish in Chinese Physics C (Accepted)

  13. Anisotropic metamaterials for microwave antennas and infrared nanostructured thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Zhihao

    Wave-matter interactions have long been investigated to discover unknown physical phenomena and exploited to achieve improved device performance throughout the electromagnetic spectrum ranging from quasi-static limit to microwave frequencies, and even at infrared and optical wavelengths. As a nascent but fast growing field, metamaterial technology, which relies on clusters of artificially engineered subwavelength structures, has been demonstrated to provide a wide variety of exotic electromagnetic properties unattainable in natural materials. This dissertation presents the research on novel anisotropic metamaterials for tailoring microwave radiation and infrared scattering of nanostructured thin films. First, a new inversion algorithm is proposed for retrieving the anisotropic effective medium parameters of a slab of metamaterial. Secondly, low-loss anisotropic metamaterial lenses and coatings are introduced for improving the gain and/or bandwidth for a variety of antennas. In particular, a quad-beam high-gain lens for a quarter-wave monopole, a low-profile grounded leaky metamaterial coating for slot antenna, and an ultra-thin anisotropic metamaterial bandwidth-enhancing coating for a quarter-wave monopole are experimentally demonstrated. In the infrared regime, novel nanostructured metamaterial free-standing thin-films, which are inherently anisotropic, are introduced for achieving exotic index properties and further for practical photonic devices. In particular, a low-loss near-infrared fishnet zero-index metamaterial, a dispersionengineered optically-thin, low-loss broadband metamaterial filter with a suppressed group delay fluctuation in the mid-infrared, and a conformal dual-band near-perfectly absorbing coating in the mid-infrared are experimentally demonstrated. These explorations show the great promise anisotropic metamaterials hold for the flexible manipulation of electromagnetic waves and their broad applicability in a wide spectrum range.

  14. Anisotropic Cosmological Model in Modified Brans--Dicke Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Rasouli, S. M. M.; Farhoudi, Mehrdad; Sepangi, Hamid R.

    2011-01-01

    It has been shown that four dimensional Brans-Dicke theory with effective matter field and self interacting potential can be achieved from vacuum 5D BD field equations, where we refer to as modified Brans-Dicke theory (MBDT). We investigate a generalized Bianchi type I anisotropic cosmology in 5D BD theory, and by employing obtained formalism, we derive induced-matter on any 4D hypersurface in context of the MBDT. We illustrate that if the usual spatial scale factors are functions of time whi...

  15. Decorrelation of anisotropic flow along the longitudinal direction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Long-Gang [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Petersen, Hannah [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Goethe University, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Qin, Guang-You [Central China Normal University, Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Wuhan (China); Roy, Victor [Goethe University, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Wang, Xin-Nian [Central China Normal University, Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Wuhan (China); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Nuclear Science Division MS70R0319, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-04-15

    The initial energy density distribution and fluctuations in the transverse direction lead to anisotropic flow of final hadrons through collective expansion in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. Fluctuations along the longitudinal direction, on the other hand, can result in decorrelation of anisotropic flow in different regions of pseudorapidity (η). Decorrelation of the 2nd- and 3rd-order anisotropic flow with different η gaps for final charged hadrons in high-energy heavy-ion collisions is studied in an event-by-event (3+1)D ideal hydrodynamic model with fully fluctuating initial conditions from A Multi-Phase Transport (AMPT) model. The decorrelation of anisotropic flow of final hadrons with large η gaps is found to originate from the spatial decorrelation along the longitudinal direction in the AMPT initial conditions through hydrodynamic evolution. The decorrelation is found to consist of both a linear twist and random fluctuation of the event plane angles. The agreement between our results and recent CMS data in most centralities suggests that the string-like mechanism of initial parton production in AMPT model captures the initial longitudinal fluctuation that is responsible for the measured decorrelation of anisotropic flow in Pb+Pb collisions at LHC. Our predictions for Au+Au collisions at the highest RHIC energy show stronger longitudinal decorrelation, indicating larger longitudinal fluctuations at lower beam energies. Our study also calls into question some of the current experimental methods for measuring anisotropic flow and the quantitative extraction of transport coefficients through comparisons to hydrodynamic simulations that do not include longitudinal fluctuations. (orig.)

  16. Decorrelation of anisotropic flow along the longitudinal direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Long-Gang; Petersen, Hannah; Qin, Guang-You; Roy, Victor; Wang, Xin-Nian

    2016-04-01

    The initial energy density distribution and fluctuations in the transverse direction lead to anisotropic flow of final hadrons through collective expansion in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. Fluctuations along the longitudinal direction, on the other hand, can result in decorrelation of anisotropic flow in different regions of pseudorapidity ( η . Decorrelation of the 2nd- and 3rd-order anisotropic flow with different η gaps for final charged hadrons in high-energy heavy-ion collisions is studied in an event-by-event (3+1)D ideal hydrodynamic model with fully fluctuating initial conditions from A Multi-Phase Transport (AMPT) model. The decorrelation of anisotropic flow of final hadrons with large η gaps is found to originate from the spatial decorrelation along the longitudinal direction in the AMPT initial conditions through hydrodynamic evolution. The decorrelation is found to consist of both a linear twist and random fluctuation of the event plane angles. The agreement between our results and recent CMS data in most centralities suggests that the string-like mechanism of initial parton production in AMPT model captures the initial longitudinal fluctuation that is responsible for the measured decorrelation of anisotropic flow in Pb+Pb collisions at LHC. Our predictions for Au+Au collisions at the highest RHIC energy show stronger longitudinal decorrelation, indicating larger longitudinal fluctuations at lower beam energies. Our study also calls into question some of the current experimental methods for measuring anisotropic flow and the quantitative extraction of transport coefficients through comparisons to hydrodynamic simulations that do not include longitudinal fluctuations.

  17. Maxwell Matters

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenberg, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Charges are everywhere because most atoms are charged. Chemical bonds are formed by electrons with their charge. Charges move and interact according to Maxwell's equations in space and in atoms where the equations of electrodynamics are embedded in Schroedinger's equation as the potential. Maxwell's equations are universal, valid inside atoms and between stars from times much shorter than those of atomic motion (0.1 femtoseconds) to years (32 mega-seconds). Maxwell's equations enforce the conservation of current. Analysis shows that the electric field can take on whatever value is needed to ensure conservation of current. The properties of matter rearrange themselves to satisfy Maxwell's equations and conservation of current. Conservation of current is as universal as Maxwell's equations themselves. Yet equations of electrodynamics find little place in the literature of material physics, chemistry, or biochemistry. Kinetic models of chemistry and Markov treatments of atomic motion are ordinary differential eq...

  18. Continuum mechanics of anisotropic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Cowin, Stephen C

    2013-01-01

    Continuum Mechanics of Anisotropic Materials(CMAM) presents an entirely new and unique development of material anisotropy in the context of an appropriate selection and organization of continuum mechanics topics. These features will distinguish this continuum mechanics book from other books on this subject. Textbooks on continuum mechanics are widely employed in engineering education, however, none of them deal specifically with anisotropy in materials. For the audience of Biomedical, Chemical and Civil Engineering students, these materials will be dealt with more frequently and greater accuracy in their analysis will be desired. Continuum Mechanics of Anisotropic Materials' author has been a leader in the field of developing new approaches for the understanding of anisotropic materials.

  19. Anisotropically structured magnetic aerogel monoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiligtag, Florian J.; Airaghi Leccardi, Marta J. I.; Erdem, Derya; Süess, Martin J.; Niederberger, Markus

    2014-10-01

    Texturing of magnetic ceramics and composites by aligning and fixing of colloidal particles in a magnetic field is a powerful strategy to induce anisotropic chemical, physical and especially mechanical properties into bulk materials. If porosity could be introduced, anisotropically structured magnetic materials would be the perfect supports for magnetic separations in biotechnology or for magnetic field-assisted chemical reactions. Aerogels, combining high porosity with nanoscale structural features, offer an exceptionally large surface area, but they are difficult to magnetically texture. Here we present the preparation of anatase-magnetite aerogel monoliths via the assembly of preformed nanocrystallites. Different approaches are proposed to produce macroscopic bodies with gradient-like magnetic segmentation or with strongly anisotropic magnetic texture.Texturing of magnetic ceramics and composites by aligning and fixing of colloidal particles in a magnetic field is a powerful strategy to induce anisotropic chemical, physical and especially mechanical properties into bulk materials. If porosity could be introduced, anisotropically structured magnetic materials would be the perfect supports for magnetic separations in biotechnology or for magnetic field-assisted chemical reactions. Aerogels, combining high porosity with nanoscale structural features, offer an exceptionally large surface area, but they are difficult to magnetically texture. Here we present the preparation of anatase-magnetite aerogel monoliths via the assembly of preformed nanocrystallites. Different approaches are proposed to produce macroscopic bodies with gradient-like magnetic segmentation or with strongly anisotropic magnetic texture. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Digital photographs of dispersions and gels with different water-to-ethanol ratios; magnetic measurements of an anatase aerogel containing 0.25 mol% Fe3O4 nanoparticles; XRD patterns of the iron oxide and

  20. Latest developments in anisotropic hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Tinti, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the leading order of anisotropic hydrodynamics expansion. It has already been shown that in the (0+1) and (1+1)-dimensional cases it is consistent with the second order viscous hydrodynamics, and it provides a striking agreement with the exact solutions of the Boltzmann equation. Quite recently, a new set of equations has been proposed for the leading order of anisotropic hydrodynamics, which is consistent with the second order viscous hydrodynamics in the most general (3+1)-dimensional case, and does not require a next-to-leading treatment for describing pressure anisotropies in the transverse plane.

  1. Dynamical analysis of anisotropic inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karčiauskas, Mindaugas

    2016-06-01

    The inflaton coupling to a vector field via the f(φ)2F μνFμν term is used in several contexts in the literature, such as to generate primordial magnetic fields, to produce statistically anisotropic curvature perturbation, to support anisotropic inflation, and to circumvent the η-problem. In this work, I perform dynamical analysis of this system allowing for the most general Bianchi I initial conditions. I also confirm the stability of attractor fixed points along phase-space directions that had not been investigated before.

  2. Anisotropic hydrodynamics: Motivation and methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this proceedings contribution I review recent progress in our understanding of the bulk dynamics of relativistic systems that possess potentially large local rest frame momentum-space anisotropies. In order to deal with these momentum-space anisotropies, a reorganization of relativistic viscous hydrodynamics can be made around an anisotropic background, and the resulting dynamical framework has been dubbed “anisotropic hydrodynamics”. I also discuss expectations for the degree of momentum-space anisotropy of the quark–gluon plasma generated in relativistic heavy ion collisions at RHIC and LHC from second-order viscous hydrodynamics, strong-coupling approaches, and weak-coupling approaches

  3. EIGEN THEORY OF VISCOELASTIC MECHANICS FOR ANISOTROPIC SOLIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Shaohua

    2001-01-01

    Anisotropic viscoelastic mechanics is studied under anisotropic subspace. It is proved that there also exist the eigen properties for viscoelastic medium. The modal Maxwell's equation,modal dynamical equation (or modal equilibrium equation) and modal compatibility equation are obtained. Based on them, a new theory of anisotropic viscoelastic mechanics is presented. The advantages of the theory are as follows: 1) the equations are all scalar, and independent of each other. The number of equations is equal to that of anisotropic subspaces, 2) no matter how complicated the anisotropy of solids may be, the form of the definite equation and the boundary condition are in common and explicit, 3) there is no distinction between the force method and the displacement method for statics, that is, the equilibrium equation and the compatibility equation are indistinguishable under the mechanical space, 4) each modal equation has a definite physical meaning, for example, the modal equations of order one and order two express the volume change and shear deformation respectively for isotropic solids, 5) there also exist the potential functions which are similar to the stress functions of elastic mechanics for viscoelastic mechanics, but they are not man-made, 6) the final solution of stress or strain is given in the form of modal superimposition, which is suitable to the proximate calculation in engineering.

  4. Decorrelation of anisotropic flows along the longitudinal direction

    CERN Document Server

    Pang, Long-Gang; Qin, Guang-You; Roy, Victor; Wang, Xin-Nian

    2015-01-01

    The initial energy density distribution and fluctuation in the transverse direction lead to anisotropic flows of final hadrons through collective expansion in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. Fluctuations along the longitudinal direction, on the other hand, can result in decorrelation of anisotropic flows in different regions of pseudo rapidity ($\\eta$). Decorrelation of the $2$nd and $3$rd order anisotropic flows with different $\\eta$ gaps for final charged hadrons in high-energy heavy-ion collisions is studied in an event-by-event (3+1)D ideal hydrodynamic model with fully fluctuating initial conditions from A Multi-Phase Transport (AMPT) model. The decorrelation of anisotropic flows of final hadrons with large $\\eta$ gaps are found to originate from the spatial decorrelation along the longitudinal direction in the AMPT initial conditions through hydrodynamic evolution. The decorrelation is found to consist of both a linear twist and random fluctuation of the event-plane angles. The agreement between our r...

  5. Asymmetric Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, David E.; Luty, Markus A.; Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2009-01-01

    We consider a simple class of models in which the relic density of dark matter is determined by the baryon asymmetry of the universe. In these models a $B - L$ asymmetry generated at high temperatures is transfered to the dark matter, which is charged under $B - L$. The interactions that transfer the asymmetry decouple at temperatures above the dark matter mass, freezing in a dark matter asymmetry of order the baryon asymmetry. This explains the observed relation between the baryon and dark m...

  6. Dark Matter Effective Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Nobile, Eugenio; Sannino, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    We organize the effective (self)interaction terms for complex scalar dark matter candidates which are either an isosinglet, isodoublet or an isotriplet with respect to the weak interactions. The classification has been performed ordering the operators in inverse powers of the dark matter cutoff s...... scale. We assume Lorentz invariance, color and charge neutrality. We also introduce potentially interesting dark matter induced flavor-changing operators. Our general framework allows for model independent investigations of dark matter properties....

  7. Method for producing through extrusion an anisotropic magnet with high energy product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandhok, Vijay K.

    2004-09-07

    A method for producing an anisotropic magnet with high energy product through extrusion and, more specifically, by placing a particle charge of a composition from the which magnet is to be produced in a noncircular container, heating the container and particle charge and extruding the container and particle charge through a noncircular extrusion die in such a manner that one of the cross-sectional axes or dimension of the container and particle charge is held substantially constant during the extrusion to compact the particle charge to substantially full density by mechanical deformation produced during the extrusion to achieve a magnet with anisotropic magnetic properties along the axes or dimension thereof and, more specifically, a high energy product along the transverse of the smallest cross-sectional dimension of the extruded magnet.

  8. Magnetic relaxation in anisotropic magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1971-01-01

    The line shape and the kinematic and thermodynamic slowing down of the critical and paramagnetic relaxation in axially anisotropic materials are discussed. Kinematic slowing down occurs only in the longitudinal relaxation function. The thermodynamic slowing down occurs in either the transverse or...

  9. Anisotropic Poisson Processes of Cylinders

    CERN Document Server

    Spiess, Malte

    2010-01-01

    Main characteristics of stationary anisotropic Poisson processes of cylinders (dilated k-dimensional flats) in d-dimensional Euclidean space are studied. Explicit formulae for the capacity functional, the covariance function, the contact distribution function, the volume fraction, and the intensity of the surface area measure are given which can be used directly in applications.

  10. Failure in imperfect anisotropic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Brian Nyvang

    2005-01-01

    The fundamental cause of crack growth, namely nucleation and growth of voids, is investigated numerically for a two phase imperfect anisotropic material. A unit cell approach is adopted from which the overall stress strain is evaluated. Failure is observed as a sudden stress drop and depending...

  11. Charge density waves in solids

    CERN Document Server

    Gor'kov, LP

    2012-01-01

    The latest addition to this series covers a field which is commonly referred to as charge density wave dynamics.The most thoroughly investigated materials are inorganic linear chain compounds with highly anisotropic electronic properties. The volume opens with an examination of their structural properties and the essential features which allow charge density waves to develop.The behaviour of the charge density waves, where interesting phenomena are observed, is treated both from a theoretical and an experimental standpoint. The role of impurities in statics and dynamics is considered and an

  12. Exact solutions of charged wormhole

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sung-Won; Lee, Hyunjoo

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the backreaction to the traversable Lorentzian wormhole spacetime by the scalar field or electric charge is considered to find the exact solutions. The charges play the role of the additional matter to the static wormhole which is already constructed by the exotic matter. The stability conditions for the wormhole with scalar field and electric charge are found from the positiveness and flareness for the wormhole shape function.

  13. Dynamic of charged planar geometry in tilted and non-tilted frames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharif, M., E-mail: msharif.math@pu.edu.pk; Zaeem Ul Haq Bhatti, M., E-mail: mzaeem.math@pu.edu.pk [University of the Punjab, Department of Mathematics (Pakistan)

    2015-05-15

    We investigate the dynamics of charged planar symmetry with an anisotropic matter field subject to a radially moving observer called a tilted observer. The Einstein-Maxwell field equations are used to obtain a relation between non-tilted and tilted frames and between kinematical and dynamical quantities. Using the Taub mass formalism and conservation laws, two evolution equations are developed to analyze the inhomogeneities in the tilted congruence. It is found that the radial velocity (due to the tilted observer) and the electric charge have a crucial effect on the inhomogeneity factor. Finally, we discuss the stability in the non-tilted frame in the pure diffusion case and examine the effects of the electromagnetic field.

  14. Validation of a finite-element solution for electrical impedance tomography in an anisotropic medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abascal, Juan-Felipe P J; Arridge, Simon R; Lionheart, William R B; Bayford, Richard H; Holder, David S

    2007-07-01

    Electrical impedance tomography is an imaging method, with which volumetric images of conductivity are produced by injecting electrical current and measuring boundary voltages. It has the potential to become a portable non-invasive medical imaging technique. Until now, implementations have neglected anisotropy even though human tissues such as bone, muscle and brain white matter are markedly anisotropic. We present a numerical solution using the finite-element method that has been modified for modelling anisotropic conductive media. It was validated in an anisotropic domain against an analytical solution in an isotropic medium after the isotropic domain was diffeomorphically transformed into an anisotropic one. Convergence of the finite element to the analytical solution was verified by showing that the finite-element error norm decreased linearly related to the finite-element size, as the mesh density increased, for the simplified case of Laplace's equation in a cubic domain with a Dirichlet boundary condition.

  15. SNe Ia tests of quintessence tracker cosmology in an anisotropic background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, W.; Carneiro, S.; Pigozzo, C.

    2014-07-01

    We investigate the observational effects of a quintessence model in an anisotropic spacetime. The anisotropic metric is a non-rotating particular case of a generalized Gödel's metric and is classified as Bianchi III. This metric is an exact solution of the Einstein-Klein-Gordon field equations with an anisotropic scalar field ψ, which is responsible for the anisotropy of the spacetime geometry. We test the model against observations of type Ia supernovae, analyzing the SDSS dataset calibrated with the MLCS2k2 fitter, and the results are compared to standard quintessence models with Ratra-Peebles potentials. We obtain a good agreement with observations, with best values for the matter and curvature density parameters ΩM = 0.29 and Ωk= 0.01 respectively. We conclude that present SNe Ia observations cannot, alone, distinguish a possible anisotropic axis in the cosmos.

  16. SNe Ia Tests of Quintessence Tracker Cosmology in an Anisotropic Background

    CERN Document Server

    Miranda, W; Pigozzo, C

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the observational effects of a quintessence model in an anisotropic spacetime. The anisotropic metric is a non-rotating particular case of a generalized Godel's metric and is classified as Bianchi III. This metric is an exact solution of the Einstein-Klein-Gordon field equations with an anisotropic scalar field, which is responsible for the anisotropy of the spacetime geometry. We test the model against observations of type Ia supernovae, analyzing the SDSS dataset calibrated with the MLCS2k2 fitter, and the results are compared to standard quintessence models with Ratra-Peebles potentials. We obtain a good agreement with observations, with best values for the matter and curvature density parameters $\\Omega_M = 0.29$ and $\\Omega_k= 0.01$ respectively. We conclude that present SNe Ia observations cannot, alone, distinguish a possible anisotropic axis in the cosmos.

  17. SNe Ia tests of quintessence tracker cosmology in an anisotropic background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the observational effects of a quintessence model in an anisotropic spacetime. The anisotropic metric is a non-rotating particular case of a generalized Gödel's metric and is classified as Bianchi III. This metric is an exact solution of the Einstein-Klein-Gordon field equations with an anisotropic scalar field ψ, which is responsible for the anisotropy of the spacetime geometry. We test the model against observations of type Ia supernovae, analyzing the SDSS dataset calibrated with the MLCS2k2 fitter, and the results are compared to standard quintessence models with Ratra-Peebles potentials. We obtain a good agreement with observations, with best values for the matter and curvature density parameters ΩM = 0.29 and Ωk= 0.01 respectively. We conclude that present SNe Ia observations cannot, alone, distinguish a possible anisotropic axis in the cosmos

  18. Longitudinal Decorrelation of Anisotropic Flows in Heavy-ion Collisions at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Pang, Long-Gang; Roy, Victor; Wang, Xin-Nian; Ma, Guo-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Fluctuations in the initial transverse energy-density distribution lead to anisotropic flows as observed in central high-energy heavy-ion collisions. Studies of longitudinal fluctuations of the anisotropic flows can shed further lights on the initial conditions and dynamical evolution of the hot quark-gluon matter in these collisions. Correlations between anisotropic flows with varying pseudo-rapidity gaps in Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC are investigated using both an event-by-event (3+1)-D ideal hydrodynamical model with fluctuating initial conditions and the AMPT Monte Carlo model for high-energy heavy-ion collisions. Anisotropic flows at different pseudo-rapidities are found to become significantly decorrelated with increasing pseudo-rapidity gaps due to longitudinal fluctuations in the initial states of heavy-ion collisions. The longitudinal correlation of the elliptic flow shows a strong centrality dependence while the correlation of the triangular flow is independent of the centrality. Longitudinal fluct...

  19. Magnetic phase diagram of the anisotropic double-exchange model: a Monte Carlo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnetic phase diagram of highly anisotropic double-exchange model systems is investigated as a function of the ratio of the anisotropic hopping integrals, i.e., tc/tab, on a three-dimensional lattice by using Monte Carlo calculations. The magnetic domain structure at low temperature is found to be a generic property of the strong anisotropy region. Moreover, the tc/tab ratio is crucial in determining the anisotropic charge transport due to the relative spin orientation of the magnetic domains. As a result, we show the anisotropic hopping integral is the most likely cause of the magnetic domain structure. It is noted that the competition between the reduced interlayer double-exchange coupling and the thermal frustration of the ordered two-dimensional ferromagnetic layer seems to be crucial in understanding the properties of layered manganites

  20. Equivalent medium theory of layered sphere particle with anisotropic shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingcai; Wang, Minzhong; Zhang, Beidou

    2016-08-01

    Researches on the optical properties of small particle have been widely concerned in the atmospheric science, astronomy, astrophysics, biology and medical science. This paper provides an equivalent dielectric theory for the functional graded particle with anisotropic shells, in which inhomogeneous and anisotropic particle was equivalently transformed into a new kind of homogeneous, continuous and isotropic sphere with same size but different permittivity, and then greatly simplify the calculation process of particle's optical property. Meanwhile, the paper also discusses whether the charge on the particle can change the expression of its equivalent permittivity or not. These results proposed in this paper can be used to simulate the electrical, optical properties of layered sphere, it also meet the research requirement in the design of functional graded particles in different subjects.

  1. Anisotropic Inflation and Cosmological Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Emami, Razieh

    2015-01-01

    Recent observations opened up a new window on the inflationary model building. As it was firstly reported by the WMAP data, there may be some indications of statistical anisotropy on the CMB map, although the statistical significance of these findings are under debate. Motivated by these observations, people begun considering new inflationary models which may lead to statistical anisotropy. The simplest possible way to construct anisotropic inflation is to introduce vector fields. During the course of this thesis, we study models of anisotropic inflation and their observational implications such as power spectrum, bispectrum etc. Firstly we build a new model, which contains the gauge field which breaks the conformal invariance while preserving the gauge invariance. We show that in these kind of models, there can be an attractor phase in the evolution of the system when the back-reaction of the gauge field becomes important in the evolution of the inflaton field. We then study the cosmological perturbation the...

  2. Stealths on Anisotropic Holographic Backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Ayón-Beato, Eloy; Juárez-Aubry, María Montserrat

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we are interested in exploring the existence of stealth configurations on anisotropic backgrounds playing a prominent role in the non-relativistic version of the gauge/gravity correspondence. By stealth configuration, we mean a nontrivial scalar field nonminimally coupled to gravity whose energy-momentum tensor evaluated on the anisotropic background vanishes identically. In the case of a Lifshitz spacetime with a nontrivial dynamical exponent z, we spotlight the role played by the anisotropy to establish the holographic character of the stealth configurations, i.e. the scalar field is shown to only depend on the radial holographic direction. This configuration which turns out to be massless and without integration constants is possible for a unique value of the nonminimal coupling parameter. Then, using a simple conformal argument, we map this configuration into a stealth solution defined on the so-called hyperscaling violation metric which is conformally related to the Lifshitz spacetime. Thi...

  3. Net Charge Fluctuation and String Fragmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SABen-Hao; CAIXu; TAIAn; ZHOUDai-Mei

    2004-01-01

    We present the simulation results of the net charge fluctuation in Au+Au collisions at √Snn=130 GeV from a dynamic model, JPCIAE, and its revisions. The simulations are done for the quark-gluon matter, the directly produced pions, the pion matter, and the hadron matter. The simulated net charge fluctuation of the quark-gluon matter is close to the thermal model prediction for the quark-gluon gas. However, the discrepancy exists comparing the simulated net charge fluctuation for directly produced pions and the pion matter with the thermal model prediction for pion gas and the resonance pion gas, respectively. The net charge fluctuation of hadron matter from default JPCIAE simulations is nearly 3.5 times larger than quark-gluon matter. A discussion is given for the net charge fluctuation as an evidence of QGP phase transition.

  4. Drag force of Anisotropic plasma at finite U(1) chemical potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Long; Ge, Xian-Hui [Shanghai University, Department of Physics, Shanghai (China); Wu, Shang-Yu [National Chiao Tung University, Department of Electrophysics, Yau Shing Tung Center, Hsinchu (China); National Center for Theoretical Science, Hsinchu (China)

    2016-05-15

    We perform the calculation of the drag force acting on a massive quark moving through an anisotropic N = 4 SU(N) Super Yang-Mills plasma in the presence of a U(1) chemical potential. We present the numerical results for any value of the anisotropy and arbitrary direction of the quark velocity with respect to the direction of the anisotropy. We find the effect of the chemical potential or charge density will enhance the drag force for our charged solution. (orig.)

  5. Highly-anisotropic and strongly-dissipative hydrodynamics for early stages of relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Florkowski, Wojciech; Ryblewski, Radoslaw

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a new framework of highly-anisotropic hydrodynamics that includes dissipation effects. Dissipation is defined by the form of the entropy source that depends on the pressure anisotropy and vanishes for the isotropic fluid. With a simple ansatz for the entropy source obeying general physical requirements, we are led to a non-linear equation describing the time evolution of the anisotropy in purely-longitudinal boost-invariant systems. Matter that is initially highly anisotropic app...

  6. Anisotropic hydrodynamics and the early-thermalization puzzle

    CERN Document Server

    Florkowski, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    The framework of anisotropic hydrodynamics is used in 3+1 dimensions to analyze behavior of matter produced in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The model predictions for the hadronic transverse-momentum spectra, directed and elliptic flows, and the HBT radii are presented. We show that the effects of the initial anisotropy of pressure may be compensated by appropriate adjustment of the initial energy density. In this way, the final hadronic observables become insensitive to the early stage dynamics and the early thermalization puzzle may be circumvented.

  7. Exact anisotropic sphere with polytropic equation of state

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Thirukkanesh; F C Ragel

    2012-05-01

    We study static spherically symmetric spacetime to describe compact objects with anisotropic matter distribution. We express the system of Einstein field equations as a new system of differential equations using a coordinate transformation, and then write the system in another form with polytropic equation of state and obtain two classes of exact models. The models satisfy all major physical features expected in a realistic star. For polytropic index = 2, we obtain expressions for mass and density which are comparable with the reported experimental observations.

  8. Secondary Cosmic Positrons in an Anisotropic Diffusion Model

    CERN Document Server

    Kappl, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    One aim of cosmic ray measurements is the search for possible signatures of annihilating or decaying dark matter. The so-called positron excess has attracted a lot of attention in this context. On the other hand it has been proposed that the data might challenge the established diffusion model for cosmic ray propagation. We investigate an anisotropic diffusion model by solving the corresponding equations analytically. Depending on the propagation parameters we find that the spectral features of the positron spectrum are affected significantly. We also discuss the influence of the anisotropy on hadronic spectra.

  9. Interacting Dark Fluid in Anisotropic Universe with Dynamical Deceleration Parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhav, K. S.; Bokey, V. D.; Bansod, A. S.; Munde, S. L.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we have studied the anisotropic and homogeneous Bianchi Type-I and V universe filled with Interacting Dark Matter and Holographic Dark Energy. The solutions of field equations are obtained for both models under the assumption of linearly varying deceleration parameter which yields dynamical deceleration parameter. It has been observed that the anisotropy of expansion dies out very quickly (soon after inflation) in both models (B-I, B-V). The physical and geometrical parameters for the both models have been obtained and discussed in details.

  10. Event-by-event anisotropic flow in heavy-ion collisions from combined Yang-Mills and viscous fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Gale, Charles; Schenke, Bjoern; Tribedy, Prithwish; Venugopalan, Raju

    2012-01-01

    Anisotropic flow coefficients v_1-v_5 in heavy ion collisions are computed by combining a classical Yang-Mills description of the early time glasma flow with the subsequent relativistic viscous hydrodynamic evolution of matter through the quark-gluon plasma and hadron gas phases. The glasma dynamics, as realized in the IP-Glasma model, takes into account event-by-event geometric fluctuations in nucleon positions and intrinsic sub-nucleon scale color charge fluctuations; the pre-equilibrium flow of matter is then matched to the MUSIC algorithm describing viscous hydrodynamic flow and particle production at freeze-out. The IP-Glasma+MUSIC model describes well both transverse momentum dependent and integrated v_n data measured at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The model also reproduces the event-by-event distributions of v_2, v_3 and v_4 measured by the ATLAS collaboration. The implications of our results for better understanding of the dynamics of the glasma as w...

  11. Carrier Transport and Related Effects in Detectors of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundqvist, Kyle Michael [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) is searching for weakly-interacting massive particles (WIMPS), which could explain the dark matter problem in cosmology and particle physics. By simultaneously measuring signals from deposited charge and the energy in nonequilibrium phonons created by particle interactions in intrinsic germanium crystals at a temperature of 40 mK, a signature response for each event is produced. This response, combined with phonon pulse-shape information, allows CDMS to actively discriminate candidate WIMP interactions with nuclei from electromagnetic radioactive background which interacts with electrons. The challenges associated with these techniques are unique. Carrier scattering is dominated by the spontaneous emission of Luke-Neganov phonons due to zeropoint fluctuations of the lattice ions. Drift fields are maintained at only a few V/cm, else these emitted phonons would dominate the phonons of the original interaction. The dominant systematic issues with CDMS detectors are due to the effects of space charge accumulation. It has been an open question how space charge accrues, and by which of several potential recombination and ionization processes. In this work, we have simulated the transport of electrons and holes in germanium under CDMS conditions. We have implemented both a traditional Monte Carlo technique based on carrier energy, followed later by a novel Monte Carlo algorithm with scattering rates defined and sampled by vector momentum. This vector-based method provides for a full anisotropic simulation of carrier transport including free-fight acceleration with an anisotropic mass, and anisotropic scattering rates. With knowledge of steady state carrier dynamics as a function of applied field, the results of our Monte Carlo simulations allow us to make a wide variety of predictions for energy dependent processes for both electrons and holes. Such processes include carrier capture by charged impurities, neutral impurities, static

  12. Anisotropic Expansion of the Black Hole Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianxi

    2009-01-01

    Recently, Zhang proposed a new cosmological model called black hole universe. According to this model, the universe originated from a hot star-like black hole with several solar masses, and grew up through a supermassive black hole with billion solar masses to the present state of temperature and density with hundred billion-trillion solar masses due to continuously inhaling matter from its outside. The structure of the entire space is similarly hierarchical or layered and the evolution is iterative. In each of iteration a universe passes through birth, growth, and death. The entire life of a universe roughly divides into three periods with different rates of expansion: slowly growing child universe, fast expanding adult universe, and gradually dying aged universe. When one universe expands to die out, a new universe grows up from its inside. On the AAS 211th meeting, the black hole universe model was shown to be consistent with Mach's principle, observations, and Einstein's general relativity. This new cosmological model can explain the cosmic microwave background radiation, quasars, and element abundances with the well-developed physics. Dark energy is not required for the universe to accelerate. Inflation is not necessary because the black hole universe does not have the horizon problem. In this presentation, the author will explain why the expansion of the universe is anisotropic as shown by the observed anisotropy of the Hubble constant. He will also compare the significant differences between the black hole universe and the big bang cosmology.

  13. Anisotropic and nonlinear optical waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Someda, CG

    1992-01-01

    Dielectric optical waveguides have been investigated for more than two decades. In the last ten years they have had the unique position of being simultaneously the backbone of a very practical and fully developed technology, as well as an extremely exciting area of basic, forefront research. Existing waveguides can be divided into two sets: one consisting of waveguides which are already in practical use, and the second of those which are still at the laboratory stage of their evolution. This book is divided into two separate parts: the first dealing with anisotropic waveguides, an

  14. Remarks on inhomogeneous anisotropic cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ali

    2016-08-01

    Recently a new no-global-recollapse argument was given for some inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies that utilizes surface deformation by the mean curvature flow. In this paper we discuss important properties of the mean curvature flow of spacelike surfaces in Lorentzian manifolds. We show that singularities may form during cosmic evolution, and the theorems forbidding the global recollapse lose their validity. The time evolution of the spatial scalar curvature that may kinematically prevent the recollapse is determined in normal coordinates, which shows the impact of inhomogeneities explicitly. Our analysis indicates a caveat in numerical solutions that give rise to inflation.

  15. Dark Matter Gravitational Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Tucker, R W

    1998-01-01

    We argue that the conjectured dark mater in the Universe may be endowed with a new kind of gravitational charge that couples to a short range gravitational interaction mediated by a massive vector field. A model is constructed that assimilates this concept into ideas of current inflationary cosmology. The model is also consistent with the observed behaviour of galactic rotation curves according to Newtonian dynamics. The essential idea is that stars composed of ordinary (as opposed to dark matter) experience Newtonian forces due to the presence of an all pervading background of massive gravitationally charged cold dark matter. The novel gravitational interactions are predicted to have a significant influence on pre-inflationary cosmology. The precise details depend on the nature of a gravitational Proca interaction and the description of matter. A gravitational Proca field configuration that gives rise to attractive forces between dark matter charges of like polarity exhibits homogeneous isotropic eternal cos...

  16. Density profiles of dark matter halos with anisotropic velocity tensors

    OpenAIRE

    Hiotelis, Nicolaos

    2002-01-01

    We present density profiles, that are solutions of the spherical Jeans equation, derived under the following two assumptions: (i) the coarse grained phase-density follows a power-law of radius, rho/(sigma^3) proportional to r^{-alpha}, and (ii) the velocity anisotropy parameter is given by the relation beta_a(r) = beta_1 + 2 beta_2 {(r/r_*)/(1+(r/r_*)^2)} where beta_1, beta_2 are parameters and r_* equals twice the virial radius, r_{vir}, of the system. These assumptions are well motivated by...

  17. ANISOTROPIC POLARIZATION TENSORS FOR ELLIPSES AND ELLIPSOIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyeonbae Kang; Kyoungsun Kim

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a systematic way of computing the polarization tensors,anisotropic as well as isotropic, based on the boundary integral method. We then use this method to compute the anisotropic polarization tensor for ellipses and ellipsoids. The computation reveals the pair of anisotropy and ellipses which produce the same polarization tensors.

  18. Anisotropic weak Hardy spaces and interpolation theorems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the authors establish the anisotropic weak Hardy spaces associated with very general discrete groups of dilations. Moreover, the atomic decomposition theorem of the anisotropic weak Hardy spaces is also given. As some applications of the above results, the authors prove some interpolation theorems and obtain the boundedness of the singular integral operators on these Hardy spaces.

  19. ANISOTROPIC BIQUADRATIC ELEMENT WITH SUPERCLOSE RESULT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongyang SHI; Shipeng MAO; Hui LIANG

    2006-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to study the convergence of biquadratic finite element for the second order problem on anisotropic meshes. By using some novel approaches and techniques, the optimal error estimates are obtained. At the same time, the anisotropic superclose results are also achieved. Furthermore, the numerical results are given to demonstrate our theoretical analysis.

  20. Spatial normalization of diffusion tensor images based on anisotropic segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinzhong; Shen, Dinggang; Misra, Chandan; Wu, Xiaoying; Resnick, Susan; Davatzikos, Christos; Verma, Ragini

    2008-03-01

    A comprehensive framework is proposed for the spatial normalization of diffusion tensor (DT) brain images using tensor-derived tissue attributes. In this framework, the brain tissues are first classified into three categories: the white matter (WM), the gray matter (GM), and the cerebral-spinal fluid (CSF) using the anisotropy and diffusivity information derived from the full tensor. The tissue attributes obtained from this anisotropic segmentation are then incorporated into a very-high-dimensional elastic registration method to produce a spatial deformation field. Finally, the rotational component in the deformation field, together with the estimated underlying fiber direction, is used to determine an appropriate tensor reorientation. This framework has been assessed quantitatively and qualitatively based on a sequence of experiments. A simulated experiment has been performed to evaluate the accuracy of the spatial warping by examining the variation between deformation fields. To verify the tensor reorientation, especially, in the anisotropic microstructures of WM fiber tissues, an experiment has been designed to compare the fiber tracts generated from the DT template and the normalized DT subjects in some regions of interest (ROIs). Finally, this method has been applied to spatially normalize 31 subjects to a common space, the case in which there exist large deformations between subjects and the existing approaches are normally difficult to achieve satisfactory results. The average across the individual normalized DT images shows a significant improvement in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR).

  1. New state of nuclear matter: Nearly perfect fluid of quarks and gluons in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC energies. From charged particle density to jet quenching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouicer, R.

    2016-03-01

    This article reviews several important results from RHIC experiments and discusses their implications. They were obtained in a unique environment for studying QCD matter at temperatures and densities that exceed the limits wherein hadrons can exist as individual entities and raises to prominence the quark-gluon degrees of freedom. These findings are supported by major experimental observations via measuring of the bulk properties of particle production, particle ratios and chemical freeze-out conditions, and elliptic flow; followed by hard probe measurements: high- pT hadron suppression, dijet fragment azimuthal correlations, and heavy-flavor probes. These measurements are presented for particles of different species as a function of system sizes, collision centrality, and energy carried out in RHIC experiments. The results reveal that a dense, strongly interacting medium is created in central Au+Au collisions at sqrt{s_{NN}} = 200 GeV at RHIC. This revelation of a new state of nuclear matter has also been observed in measurements at the LHC. Further, the IP-Glasma model coupled with viscous hydrodynamic models, which assumes the formation of a QGP, reproduces well the experimental flow results from Au+Au at sqrt{s_{NN}} = 200 GeV. This implies that the fluctuations in the initial geometry state are important and the created medium behaves as a nearly perfect liquid of nuclear matter because it has an extraordinarily low ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density, η/s≈ 0.12. However, these discoveries are far from being fully understood. Furthermore, recent experimental results from RHIC and LHC in small p+A, d+ Au and 3He+Au collision systems provide brand new insight into the role of initial and final state effects. These have proven to be interesting and more surprising than originally anticipated; and could conceivably shed new light in our understanding of collective behavior in heavy-ion physics. Accordingly, the focus of the experiments at both

  2. An anisotropic hydrogel with electrostatic repulsion between cofacially aligned nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingjie; Ishida, Yasuhiro; Ebina, Yasuo; Sasaki, Takayoshi; Hikima, Takaaki; Takata, Masaki; Aida, Takuzo

    2015-01-01

    Machine technology frequently puts magnetic or electrostatic repulsive forces to practical use, as in maglev trains, vehicle suspensions or non-contact bearings. In contrast, materials design overwhelmingly focuses on attractive interactions, such as in the many advanced polymer-based composites, where inorganic fillers interact with a polymer matrix to improve mechanical properties. However, articular cartilage strikingly illustrates how electrostatic repulsion can be harnessed to achieve unparalleled functional efficiency: it permits virtually frictionless mechanical motion within joints, even under high compression. Here we describe a composite hydrogel with anisotropic mechanical properties dominated by electrostatic repulsion between negatively charged unilamellar titanate nanosheets embedded within it. Crucial to the behaviour of this hydrogel is the serendipitous discovery of cofacial nanosheet alignment in aqueous colloidal dispersions subjected to a strong magnetic field, which maximizes electrostatic repulsion and thereby induces a quasi-crystalline structural ordering over macroscopic length scales and with uniformly large face-to-face nanosheet separation. We fix this transiently induced structural order by transforming the dispersion into a hydrogel using light-triggered in situ vinyl polymerization. The resultant hydrogel, containing charged inorganic structures that align cofacially in a magnetic flux, deforms easily under shear forces applied parallel to the embedded nanosheets yet resists compressive forces applied orthogonally. We anticipate that the concept of embedding anisotropic repulsive electrostatics within a composite material, inspired by articular cartilage, will open up new possibilities for developing soft materials with unusual functions. PMID:25557713

  3. Efficient Wavefield Extrapolation In Anisotropic Media

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq

    2014-07-03

    Various examples are provided for wavefield extrapolation in anisotropic media. In one example, among others, a method includes determining an effective isotropic velocity model and extrapolating an equivalent propagation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield. The effective isotropic velocity model can be based upon a kinematic geometrical representation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield. Extrapolating the equivalent propagation can use isotopic, acoustic or elastic operators based upon the determined effective isotropic velocity model. In another example, non-transitory computer readable medium stores an application that, when executed by processing circuitry, causes the processing circuitry to determine the effective isotropic velocity model and extrapolate the equivalent propagation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield. In another example, a system includes processing circuitry and an application configured to cause the system to determine the effective isotropic velocity model and extrapolate the equivalent propagation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield.

  4. Multidisciplinary approach to cylindrical anisotropic metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisotropic characteristics of cylindrically corrugated microstructures are analyzed in terms of their acoustic and electromagnetic (EM) behavior paying special attention to their differences and similarities. A simple analytical model has been developed using effective medium theory to understand the anisotropic features of both types of waves in terms of radial and angular components of the wave propagation velocity. The anisotropic constituent parameters have been obtained by measuring the resonances of cylindrical cavities, as well as from numerical simulations. This permits one to characterize propagation of acoustic and EM waves and to compare the fundamental anisotropic features generated by the corrugated effective medium. Anisotropic coefficients match closely in both physics fields but other relevant parameters show significant differences in the behavior of both types of waves. (paper)

  5. Designing Anisotropic Inflation with Form Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Asuka

    2015-01-01

    We study inflation with anisotropic hair induced by form fields. In four dimensions, the relevant form fields are gauge (one-form) fields and two-form fields. Assuming the exponential form of potential and gauge kinetic functions, we find new exact power-law solutions endowed with anisotropic hair. We also explore the phase space of anisotropic inflation and find fixed points corresponding to the exact power-law solutions. Moreover, we perform the stability analysis around the fixed points to reveal the structure of the phase space. It turns out that one of the fixed points becomes an attractor and others (if any) are saddle points. In particular, the one corresponding to anisotropic inflation becomes an attractor when it exists. We also argue that various anisotropic inflation models can be designed by choosing coupling constants.

  6. Designing anisotropic inflation with form fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Asuka; Soda, Jiro

    2015-12-01

    We study inflation with anisotropic hair induced by form fields. In four dimensions, the relevant form fields are gauge (one-form) fields and two-form fields. Assuming the exponential form of potential and gauge kinetic functions, we find new exact power-law solutions endowed with anisotropic hair. We also explore the phase space of anisotropic inflation and find fixed points corresponding to the exact power-law solutions. Moreover, we perform the stability analysis around the fixed points to reveal the structure of the phase space. It turns out that one of the fixed points becomes an attractor and others (if any) are saddle points. In particular, the one corresponding to anisotropic inflation becomes an attractor when it exists. We also argue that various anisotropic inflation models can be designed by choosing coupling constants.

  7. Dipole estimation errors due to not incorporating anisotropic conductivities in realistic head models for EEG source analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallez, Hans; Staelens, Steven; Lemahieu, Ignace [Department of Electronics and Information Systems, Institute of Broadband Technology (IBBT) Medical Image and Signal Processing (MEDISIP), Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)], E-mail: hans.hallez@ugent.be

    2009-10-21

    EEG source analysis is a valuable tool for brain functionality research and for diagnosing neurological disorders, such as epilepsy. It requires a geometrical representation of the human head or a head model, which is often modeled as an isotropic conductor. However, it is known that some brain tissues, such as the skull or white matter, have an anisotropic conductivity. Many studies reported that the anisotropic conductivities have an influence on the calculated electrode potentials. However, few studies have assessed the influence of anisotropic conductivities on the dipole estimations. In this study, we want to determine the dipole estimation errors due to not taking into account the anisotropic conductivities of the skull and/or brain tissues. Therefore, head models are constructed with the same geometry, but with an anisotropically conducting skull and/or brain tissue compartment. These head models are used in simulation studies where the dipole location and orientation error is calculated due to neglecting anisotropic conductivities of the skull and brain tissue. Results show that not taking into account the anisotropic conductivities of the skull yields a dipole location error between 2 and 25 mm, with an average of 10 mm. When the anisotropic conductivities of the brain tissues are neglected, the dipole location error ranges between 0 and 5 mm. In this case, the average dipole location error was 2.3 mm. In all simulations, the dipole orientation error was smaller than 10 deg. We can conclude that the anisotropic conductivities of the skull have to be incorporated to improve the accuracy of EEG source analysis. The results of the simulation, as presented here, also suggest that incorporation of the anisotropic conductivities of brain tissues is not necessary. However, more studies are needed to confirm these suggestions.

  8. Dipole estimation errors due to not incorporating anisotropic conductivities in realistic head models for EEG source analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EEG source analysis is a valuable tool for brain functionality research and for diagnosing neurological disorders, such as epilepsy. It requires a geometrical representation of the human head or a head model, which is often modeled as an isotropic conductor. However, it is known that some brain tissues, such as the skull or white matter, have an anisotropic conductivity. Many studies reported that the anisotropic conductivities have an influence on the calculated electrode potentials. However, few studies have assessed the influence of anisotropic conductivities on the dipole estimations. In this study, we want to determine the dipole estimation errors due to not taking into account the anisotropic conductivities of the skull and/or brain tissues. Therefore, head models are constructed with the same geometry, but with an anisotropically conducting skull and/or brain tissue compartment. These head models are used in simulation studies where the dipole location and orientation error is calculated due to neglecting anisotropic conductivities of the skull and brain tissue. Results show that not taking into account the anisotropic conductivities of the skull yields a dipole location error between 2 and 25 mm, with an average of 10 mm. When the anisotropic conductivities of the brain tissues are neglected, the dipole location error ranges between 0 and 5 mm. In this case, the average dipole location error was 2.3 mm. In all simulations, the dipole orientation error was smaller than 10 deg. We can conclude that the anisotropic conductivities of the skull have to be incorporated to improve the accuracy of EEG source analysis. The results of the simulation, as presented here, also suggest that incorporation of the anisotropic conductivities of brain tissues is not necessary. However, more studies are needed to confirm these suggestions.

  9. Warm anisotropic inflationary universe model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharif, M.; Saleem, Rabia [University of the Punjab, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2014-02-15

    This paper is devoted to the study of warm inflation using vector fields in the background of a locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type I model of the universe. We formulate the field equations, and slow-roll and perturbation parameters (scalar and tensor power spectra as well as their spectral indices) in the slow-roll approximation. We evaluate all these parameters in terms of the directional Hubble parameter during the intermediate and logamediate inflationary regimes by taking the dissipation factor as a function of the scalar field as well as a constant. In each case, we calculate the observational parameter of interest, i.e., the tensor-scalar ratio in terms of the inflaton. The graphical behavior of these parameters shows that the anisotropic model is also compatible with WMAP7 and the Planck observational data. (orig.)

  10. Warm Anisotropic Inflationary Universe Model

    CERN Document Server

    Sharif, M

    2014-01-01

    This paper is devoted to study the warm inflation using vector fields in the background of locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type I universe model. We formulate the field equations, slow-roll and perturbation parameters (scalar and tensor power spectra as well as their spectral indices) under slow-roll approximation. We evaluate all these parameters in terms of directional Hubble parameter during intermediate and logamediate inflationary regimes by taking the dissipation factor as a function of scalar field as well as a constant. In each case, we calculate the observational parameter of interest, i.e., tensor-scalar ratio in terms of inflation. The graphical behavior of these parameters shows that the anisotropic model is also compatible with WMAP7 and Planck observational data.

  11. Anisotropic scaling of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Horbury, T S; Oughton, S

    2008-01-01

    We present a quantitative estimate of the anisotropic power and scaling of magnetic field fluctuations in inertial range magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, using a novel wavelet technique applied to spacecraft measurements in the solar wind. We show for the first time that, when the local magnetic field direction is parallel to the flow, the spacecraft-frame spectrum has a spectral index near 2. This can be interpreted as the signature of a population of fluctuations in field-parallel wavenumbers with a $k_{\\parallel}^{-2}$ spectrum but is also consistent with the presence of a "critical balance" style turbulent cascade. We also find, in common with previous studies, that most of the power is contained in wavevectors at large angles to the local magnetic field and that this component of the turbulence has a spectral index of 5/3.

  12. Gravitational baryogenesis after anisotropic inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Mitsuhiro; Mizuno, Shuntaro; Maeda, Kei-ichi

    2016-05-01

    The gravitational baryogensis may not generate a sufficient baryon asymmetry in the standard thermal history of the Universe when we take into account the gravitino problem. Hence, it has been suggested that anisotropy of the Universe can enhance the generation of the baryon asymmetry through the increase of the time change of the Ricci scalar curvature. We study the gravitational baryogenesis in the presence of anisotropy, which is produced at the end of an anisotropic inflation. Although we confirm that the generated baryon asymmetry is enhanced compared with the original isotropic cosmological model, taking into account the constraint on the anisotropy by the recent CMB observations, we find that it is still difficult to obtain the observed baryon asymmetry only through the gravitational baryogenesis without suffering from the gravitino problem.

  13. I-Love-Q Anisotropically

    CERN Document Server

    Yagi, Kent

    2015-01-01

    Certain physical quantities that characterize neutron stars and quark stars (e.g. their mass, spin angular momentum and quadrupole moment) are interrelated in a way that is approximately insensitive to their internal structure. Such approximately universal relations are useful to break degeneracies in data analysis for future radio, X-ray and gravitational wave observations. Although the pressure inside compact stars is most likely nearly isotropic, certain scenarios have been put forth that suggest otherwise, for example due to phase transitions. We here investigate whether pressure anisotropy affects the approximate universal relations and whether it prevents their use in future observations. We achieve this by numerically constructing slowly-rotating and tidally-deformed, anisotropic, compact stars in General Relativity to third order in spin. We find that anisotropy affects the universal relations only weakly; the relations become less universal by a factor of 1.5-3 relative to the isotropic case, but rem...

  14. Gravitational Baryogenesis after Anisotropic Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Fukushima, Mitsuhiro; Maeda, Kei-ichi

    2016-01-01

    The gravitational baryogensis may not generate a sufficient baryon asymmetry in the standard thermal history of the Universe when we take into account the gravitino problem. Hence it has been suggested that anisotropy of the Universe can enhance the generation of the baryon asymmetry through the increase of the time change of the Ricci scalar curvature. We study the gravitational baryogenesis in the presence of anisotropy, which is produced at the end of an anisotropic inflation. Although we confirm that the generated baryon asymmetry is enhanced compared with the original isotropic cosmological model, taking into account the constraint on the anisotropy by the recent CMB observations, we find that it is still difficult to obtain the observed baryon asymmetry only through the gravitational baryogenesis without suffering from the gravitino problem.

  15. Anisotropic microstructure near the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radio scattering observations provide a means of measuring a two-dimensional projection of the three-dimensional spatial spectrum of electron density, i.e., in the plane perpendicular to the line of sight. Earlier observations have shown that the microstructure at scales of the order of 10 km becomes highly field-aligned inside of 10 R· [Armstrong et al., 1990]. Earlier work has also shown that density fluctuations at scales larger than 1000 km have a Kolmogorov spectrum, whereas the smaller scale structure has a flatter spectrum and is considerably enhanced above the Kolmogorov ''background'' [Coles et al., 1991]. Here we present new observations made during 1990 and 1992. These confirm the earlier work, which was restricted to one source on a few days, but they suggest that the anisotropy changes abruptly near 6 R· which was not clear in the earlier data. The axial ratio measurements are shown on Figure 1 below. The new observations were made with a more uniform sampling of the spatial plane. They show that contours of constant correlation are elliptical. This is apparently inconsistent with the spatial correlation of the ISEE-3 magnetic field which shows a 'Maltese Cross' shape [Matthaeus et al., 1990]. However this inconsistency may be only apparent: the magnetic field and density correlations need not have the same shape; the scale of the magnetic field correlations is at least 4 orders of magnitude larger; they are much further from the sun; and they are point measurements whereas ours are path-integrated. We also made two simultaneous measurements, at 10 R·, of the anisotropy on scales of 200 to 4000 km. Significant anisotropy was seen on the smaller scales, but the larger scale structure was essentially isotropic. This suggests that the process responsible for the anisotropic microstructure is independent of the larger scale isotropic turbulence. It is then tempting to speculate that the damping of this anisotropic process inside of 6 R· contributes to

  16. Search for new charged bosons and dark matter in final states with one lepton and missing transverse energy with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Read, Alexander Lincoln

    2015-04-30

    The Standard Model (SM), the current theory of elementary particles and interactions, has been extremely successful in predicting and describing experimental results. The prediction of the electron's anomalous magnetic moment served as an early triumph of quantum electrodynamics, and one success after another has followed, including the discovery of the weak interaction gauge bosons $W^\\pm$ and $Z^0$, and more recently the discovery of the Higgs boson at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2012. In spite of the success of the theory, though, there are phenomena which it does not explain, such as the dark matter and dark energy making up most of the universe. Extensions of the SM aiming to address its shortcomings typically predict observable deviations from the theory. Although theories predicting significant deviations from the SM in the energy regime so far explored can be immediately excluded, theories that predict deviations at higher, unexplored energies are still viable. Therefore, exploring physics...

  17. Semi-implicit anisotropic cosmic ray transport on an unstructured moving mesh

    CERN Document Server

    Pakmor, Ruediger; Simpson, Christine M; Kannan, Rahul; Springel, Volker

    2016-01-01

    In the interstellar medium of galaxies and the intracluster gas of galaxy clusters, the charged particles making up cosmic rays are moving almost exclusively along (but not across) magnetic field lines. The resulting anisotropic transport of cosmic rays in the form of diffusion or streaming not only affects the gas dynamics but also rearranges the magnetic fields themselves. The coupled dynamics of magnetic fields and cosmic rays can thus impact the formation and evolution of galaxies and the thermal evolution of galaxy clusters in critical ways. Numerically studying these effects requires solvers for anisotropic diffusion that are accurate, efficient, and robust, requirements that have proven difficult to satisfy in practice. Here, we present an anisotropic diffusion solver on an unstructured moving mesh that is conservative, does not violate the entropy condition, allows for semi-implicit time integration with individual timesteps, and only requires solving a single linear system of equations per timestep. ...

  18. Color Superconducting Quark Matter in Neutron Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Heiselberg, H.

    1999-01-01

    Color superconductivity in quark matter is studied for electrically charge neutral neutron star matter in $\\beta$-equilibrium. Both bulk quark matter and mixed phases of quark and nuclear matter are treated. The electron chemical potential and strange quark mass affect the various quark chemical potentials and therefore also the color superconductivity due to dicolor pairing or color-flavor locking.

  19. Singularities of Noncompact Charged Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Sharif, M; 10.1088/1674-1056/22/3/030401

    2013-01-01

    We formulate a model of noncompact spherical charged objects in the framework of noncommutative field theory. The Einstein-Maxwell field equations are solved with charged anisotropic fluid. We choose the forms of mass and charge densities which belong to two parameter family of density distribution functions instead of densities as Gaussian width length. It is found that the corresponding densities and the Ricci scalar are singular at origin whereas the metric is nonsingular indicating a spacelike singularity. The numerical solution of the horizon equation implies that there are either two or one or no horizon depending on the mass. We also evaluate the Hawking temperature which implies that a black hole with two horizons is evaporated to an extremal black hole with one horizon.

  20. Anisotropic surface tension of buckled fluid membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Noguchi, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Solid sheets and fluid membranes exhibit buckling under lateral compression. Here, it is revealed that fluid membranes have anisotropic buckling surface tension contrary to solid sheets. Surprisingly, the surface tension perpendicular to the buckling direction shows stronger dependence than that parallel to it. Our theoretical predictions are supported by numerical simulations of a meshless membrane model. This anisotropic tension can be used to measure the membrane bending rigidity. It is al...

  1. Theory of Compton scattering by anisotropic electrons

    OpenAIRE

    Poutanen, Juri; Vurm, Indrek

    2010-01-01

    Compton scattering plays an important role in various astrophysical objects such as accreting black holes and neutron stars, pulsars, and relativistic jets, clusters of galaxies as well as the early Universe. In most of the calculations it is assumed that the electrons have isotropic angular distribution in some frame. However, there are situations where the anisotropy may be significant due to the bulk motions, or anisotropic cooling by synchrotron radiation, or anisotropic source of seed so...

  2. Anisotropic rectangular metric for polygonal surface remeshing

    KAUST Repository

    Pellenard, Bertrand

    2013-06-18

    We propose a new method for anisotropic polygonal surface remeshing. Our algorithm takes as input a surface triangle mesh. An anisotropic rectangular metric, defined at each triangle facet of the input mesh, is derived from both a user-specified normal-based tolerance error and the requirement to favor rectangle-shaped polygons. Our algorithm uses a greedy optimization procedure that adds, deletes and relocates generators so as to match two criteria related to partitioning and conformity.

  3. Rainbow metric from quantum gravity: anisotropic cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Assanioussi, Mehdi; Dapor, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a construction of effective cosmological models which describe the propagation of a massive quantum scalar field on a quantum anisotropic cosmological spacetime. Each obtained effective model is represented by a rainbow metric in which particles of distinct momenta propagate on different classical geometries. Our analysis shows that upon certain assumptions and conditions on the parameters determining such anisotropic models, we surprisingly obtain a unique deformatio...

  4. Anisotropic cosmological solutions in massive vector theories

    OpenAIRE

    Heisenberg, Lavinia; Kase, Ryotaro; Tsujikawa, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    In beyond-generalized Proca theories including the extension to theories higher than second order, we study the role of a spatial component $v$ of a massive vector field on the anisotropic cosmological background. We show that, as in the case of the isotropic cosmological background, there is no additional ghostly degrees of freedom associated with the Ostrogradski instability. In second-order generalized Proca theories we find the existence of anisotropic solutions on which the ratio between...

  5. Anisotropic Transport Properties of Complex Metallic Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Smontara, Ana; Dolinšek, Janez

    2010-01-01

    Anisotropic transport properties (electrical resistivity, ρ, and thermal conductivity, κ) of the Y-phase Al-Ni-Co, o-Al13Co4 and Al4(Cr,Fe) complex metallic alloys were investigated. They belong to the class of decagonal approximant phases with stacked-layer crystallographic structure and allowed us to study the evolution of anisotropic transport properties with increasing structural complexity and the unit cell size.

  6. Anisotropic Stars: Exact Solutions and Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Dev, Krsna; Gleiser, Marcelo

    2004-01-01

    I report on recent work concerning the existence and stability of self-gravitating spheres with anisotropic pressure. After presenting new exact solutions, Chandrasekhar's variational formalism for radial perturbations is generalized to anisotropic objects and applied to investigate their stability. It is shown that anisotropy can not only support stars of mass M and radius R with 2M/R > 8/9 and arbitrarily large surface redshifts, but that stable configurations exist for values of the adiaba...

  7. Wormhole geometry from real feasible matter sources

    OpenAIRE

    Rahaman, F.; Kalam, M.; Rahman, K. A.

    2008-01-01

    We provide a prescription of real feasible sources that supply fuel to construct a traversable wormhole. A class of exact solutions for Einstein-Maxwell field equations describing wormhole with an anisotropic matter distribution has been presented. The anisotropy plays a crucial role for the existence of the spacetime comprising wormhole geometry.

  8. Numerical investigation of nanoparticles transport in anisotropic porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Amgad; Negara, Ardiansyah; El Amin, Mohamed; Sun, Shuyu

    2015-10-01

    In this work the problem related to the transport of nanoparticles in anisotropic porous media is investigated numerically using the multipoint flux approximation. Anisotropy of porous media properties is an essential feature that exists almost everywhere in subsurface formations. In anisotropic media, the flux and the pressure gradient vectors are no longer collinear and therefore interesting patterns emerge. The transport of nanoparticles in subsurface formations is affected by several complex processes including surface charges, heterogeneity of nanoparticles and soil grain collectors, interfacial dynamics of double-layer and many others. We use the framework of the theory of filtration in this investigation. Processes like particles deposition, entrapment, as well as detachment are accounted for. From the numerical methods point of view, traditional two-point flux finite difference approximation cannot handle anisotropy of media properties. Therefore, in this work we use the multipoint flux approximation (MPFA). In this technique, the flux components are affected by more neighboring points as opposed to the mere two points that are usually used in traditional finite volume methods. We also use the experimenting pressure field approach which automatically constructs the global system of equations by solving multitude of local problems. This approach facilitates to a large extent the construction of the global system. A set of numerical examples is considered involving two-dimensional rectangular domain. A source of nanoparticles is inserted in the middle of the anisotropic layer. We investigate the effects of both anisotropy angle and anisotropy ratio on the transport of nanoparticles in saturated porous media. It is found that the concentration plume and porosity contours follow closely the principal direction of anisotropy of permeability of the central domain.

  9. Numerical investigation of nanoparticles transport in anisotropic porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Amgad; Negara, Ardiansyah; El Amin, Mohamed; Sun, Shuyu

    2015-10-01

    In this work the problem related to the transport of nanoparticles in anisotropic porous media is investigated numerically using the multipoint flux approximation. Anisotropy of porous media properties is an essential feature that exists almost everywhere in subsurface formations. In anisotropic media, the flux and the pressure gradient vectors are no longer collinear and therefore interesting patterns emerge. The transport of nanoparticles in subsurface formations is affected by several complex processes including surface charges, heterogeneity of nanoparticles and soil grain collectors, interfacial dynamics of double-layer and many others. We use the framework of the theory of filtration in this investigation. Processes like particles deposition, entrapment, as well as detachment are accounted for. From the numerical methods point of view, traditional two-point flux finite difference approximation cannot handle anisotropy of media properties. Therefore, in this work we use the multipoint flux approximation (MPFA). In this technique, the flux components are affected by more neighboring points as opposed to the mere two points that are usually used in traditional finite volume methods. We also use the experimenting pressure field approach which automatically constructs the global system of equations by solving multitude of local problems. This approach facilitates to a large extent the construction of the global system. A set of numerical examples is considered involving two-dimensional rectangular domain. A source of nanoparticles is inserted in the middle of the anisotropic layer. We investigate the effects of both anisotropy angle and anisotropy ratio on the transport of nanoparticles in saturated porous media. It is found that the concentration plume and porosity contours follow closely the principal direction of anisotropy of permeability of the central domain. PMID:26212784

  10. Numerical investigation of nanoparticles transport in anisotropic porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad

    2015-07-13

    In this work the problem related to the transport of nanoparticles in anisotropic porous media is investigated numerically using the multipoint flux approximation. Anisotropy of porous media properties are an essential feature that exist almost everywhere in subsurface formations. In anisotropic media, the flux and the pressure gradient vectors are no longer collinear and therefore interesting patterns emerge. The transport of nanoparticles in subsurface formations is affected by several complex processes including surface charges, heterogeneity of nanoparticles and soil grain collectors, interfacial dynamics of double-layer and many others. We use the framework of the theory of filtration in this investigation. Processes like particles deposition, entrapment, as well as detachment are accounted for. From the numerical methods point of view, traditional two-point flux finite difference approximation cannot handle anisotropy of media properties. Therefore, in this work we use the multipoint flux approximation (MPFA). In this technique, the flux components are affected by more neighboring points as opposed to the mere two points that are usually used in traditional finite volume methods. We also use the experimenting pressure field approach which automatically constructs the global system of equations by solving multitude of local problems. This approach facilitates to a large extent the construction of the global system. A set of numerical examples is considered involving two-dimensional rectangular domain. A source of nanoparticles is inserted in the middle of the anisotropic layer. We investigate the effects of both anisotropy angle and anisotropy ratio on the transport of nanoparticles in saturated porous media. It is found that the concentration plume and porosity contours follow closely the principal direction of anisotropy of permeability of the central domain.

  11. Anisotropic diffusion-limited aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, M N; Hentschel, H G E; Family, F

    2004-06-01

    Using stochastic conformal mappings, we study the effects of anisotropic perturbations on diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) in two dimensions. The harmonic measure of the growth probability for DLA can be conformally mapped onto a constant measure on a unit circle. Here we map m preferred directions for growth to a distribution on the unit circle, which is a periodic function with m peaks in [-pi,pi) such that the angular width sigma of the peak defines the "strength" of anisotropy kappa= sigma(-1) along any of the m chosen directions. The two parameters (m,kappa) map out a parameter space of perturbations that allows a continuous transition from DLA (for small enough kappa ) to m needlelike fingers as kappa--> infinity. We show that at fixed m the effective fractal dimension of the clusters D(m,kappa) obtained from mass-radius scaling decreases with increasing kappa from D(DLA) approximately 1.71 to a value bounded from below by D(min) = 3 / 2. Scaling arguments suggest a specific form for the dependence of the fractal dimension D(m,kappa) on kappa for large kappa which compares favorably with numerical results. PMID:15244564

  12. Determination of charge densities in ReO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The charge densities in ReO3 were investigated by the x-ray structural analysis. The anisotropic charge distributions were found around a Re atom, which is attributable to the π bond formed by Re 5d (tsub(2g) and O 2p electrons. The calculated difference electron density map by the DV-Xα cluster method supports qualitatively the present observation. The measured thermal vibrations of oxygen atoms were highly anisotropic. The M-mode oxygen displacements will be readily enhanced by the existence of high pressures. (author)

  13. Radial stability of anisotropic of strange quark stars

    CERN Document Server

    Arbañil, José D V

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the anisotropy in the equilibrium and stability of strange stars is investigated through the numerical solution of the hydrostatic equilibrium equation and the radial oscillation equation, both modified from their original version to include this effect. The strange matter inside the quark stars is described by the MIT bag model equation of state. For the anisotropy two different kinds of local anisotropic $\\sigma=p_t-p_r$, where $p_t$ and $p_r$ are respectively the tangential and the radial pressure, are considered: one that is null at the star's surface defined by $p_r(R)=0$, and other that is nonnull on it, namely, $\\sigma_s=0$ and $\\sigma_s\

  14. Entanglement in an anisotropic spin-1 Heisenberg chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Yan; Zhu Shi-Qun; Hao Xiang

    2007-01-01

    The entanglement in an anisotropic spin-1 Heisenberg chain with a uniform magnetic field is investigated. The ground-state entanglement will undergo two different kinds of transitions when the anisotropy △ and the amplitude of the magnetic field B are varied. The thermal entanglement of the nearest neighbour always declines when B increases no matter what the value of the anisotropy is. It is very interesting to note that the entanglement of the next-nearest neighbour can increase to a maximum at a certain magnetic field. Regardless of the boundary condition, the nearest-neighbour entanglement always decreases and approaches to a constant value when the size of the system is very large. The constant value of open boundary condition is much larger than that of periodic boundary condition.

  15. Anisotropic Models for Globular Clusters, Galactic Bulges and Dark Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, P H

    2013-01-01

    Spherical systems with a polytropic equation of state are of great interest in astrophysics. They are widely used to describe neutron stars, red giants, white dwarfs, brown dwarfs, main sequence stars, galactic halos and globular clusters of diverse sizes. In this paper we construct analytically a family of self-gravitating spherical models in the post-Newtonian approximation of general relativity. These models present interesting cusps in their density profiles which are appropriate for the modeling of galaxies and dark matter halos. The systems described here are anisotropic in the sense that their equiprobability surfaces in velocity space are non-spherical, leading to an overabundance of radial or circular orbits, depending on the parameters of the model in consideration. Among the family, we find the post-Newtonian generalization of the Plummer and Hernquist models. A close inspection of their equation of state reveals that these solutions interpolate smoothly between a polytropic sphere in the asymptoti...

  16. Jet quenching effects on the anisotropic flow at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, R.P.G. [Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo André, SP, 09210-170 (Brazil); Noronha, J. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, C.P. 66318, 05315-970 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Denicol, Gabriel S. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2T8 (Canada)

    2014-12-15

    In this article we investigate how the energy and momentum deposited by partonic dijets in the quark–gluon plasma may perturb the geometry-induced hydrodynamic expansion of the bulk nuclear matter created in heavy ion collisions at the RHIC. The coupling between the jets and the medium is done through a source term in the energy–momentum conservation equations for ideal hydrodynamics. We concentrate our attention at mid-rapidity and solve the equations event-by-event imposing boost-invariance. For p{sub T}≳1 GeV the anisotropic flow is found to be considerably enhanced, if the dijets deposit on average more than 12 GeV in the medium (or equivalently 6 GeV for each jet of the pair), which corresponds, in our model, to an average suppression greater than 65% of the initial jet transverse energy.

  17. Jet quenching effects on the anisotropic flow at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article we investigate how the energy and momentum deposited by partonic dijets in the quark–gluon plasma may perturb the geometry-induced hydrodynamic expansion of the bulk nuclear matter created in heavy ion collisions at the RHIC. The coupling between the jets and the medium is done through a source term in the energy–momentum conservation equations for ideal hydrodynamics. We concentrate our attention at mid-rapidity and solve the equations event-by-event imposing boost-invariance. For pT≳1 GeV the anisotropic flow is found to be considerably enhanced, if the dijets deposit on average more than 12 GeV in the medium (or equivalently 6 GeV for each jet of the pair), which corresponds, in our model, to an average suppression greater than 65% of the initial jet transverse energy

  18. Constraining an Expanding Locally Anisotropic metric from the Pioneer anomaly

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, P Castelo

    2012-01-01

    It is discussed the possibility of a fine-tuneable contribution to the two way Doppler acceleration either towards, either outwards the Sun for heliocentric distances above 20 AU by considering a background described by an Expanding Locally Anisotropic (ELA) metric. This metric encodes both the standard local Schwarzschild gravitational effects and the cosmological Universe expansion effects allowing simultaneously to fine-tune other gravitational effects at intermediate scales, which may be tentatively interpreted as a covariant parameterization of either cold dark matter either gravitational interaction corrections. Are derived bounds for the ELA metric functional parameter by considering the bounds on the deviation from standard General Relativity imposed by the current updated limits for the Pioneer anomaly, taking in consideration both the natural outgassing and on-board radiation pressure, resulting in an average Doppler acceleration outwards the Sun of a_p = +0.4^{+2.1}_{-2.0} x 10^{-10} (m/s^2). It is...

  19. Holographic renormalization and anisotropic black branes in higher curvature gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Jahnke, Viktor; Trancanelli, Diego

    2014-01-01

    We consider five-dimensional AdS-axion-dilaton gravity with a Gauss-Bonnet term and find a solution of the equations of motion which corresponds to a black brane exhibiting a spatial anisotropy, with the source of the anisotropy being an axion field linear in one of the horizon coordinates. Our solution is static, regular everywhere on and outside the horizon, and asymptotically AdS. It is analytic and valid in a small anisotropy expansion, but fully non-perturbative in the Gauss-Bonnet coupling. We discuss various features of this solution and use it as a gravity dual to a strongly coupled anisotropic plasma with two independent central charges, $a\

  20. Anisotropic hydrodynamics, holography and the chiral magnetic effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gahramanov, Ilmar; Kalaydzhyan, Tigran; Kirsch, Ingo [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Zentrum fuer Mathematische Physik

    2012-03-15

    We discuss a possible dependence of the chiral magnetic effect (CME) on the elliptic flow coefficient {upsilon}{sub 2}. We first study this in a hydrodynamic model for a static anisotropic plasma with multiple anomalous U(1) currents. In the case of two charges, one axial and one vector, the CME formally appears as a first-order transport coefficient in the vector current. We compute this transport coefficient and show its dependence on {upsilon}{sub 2}. We also determine the CME-coefficient from first-order corrections to the dual AdS background using the fluid-gravity duality. For small anisotropies, we find numerical agreement with the hydrodynamic result. (orig.)

  1. Electroelasticity of Charged Black Branes

    CERN Document Server

    Armas, Jay; Obers, Niels A

    2013-01-01

    We present the first order corrected dynamics of fluid branes carrying higher-form charge by obtaining the general form of their equations of motion to pole-dipole order. Assuming linear response theory, we characterize the corresponding effective theory of stationary bent charged (an)isotropic fluid branes in terms of two sets of response coefficients, the Young modulus and the piezoelectric moduli. We subsequently find large classes of examples in gravity of this effective theory, by constructing stationary strained charged black brane solutions to first order in a derivative expansion. Using solution generating techniques and bent neutral black branes as a seed solution, we obtain a class of charged black brane geometries carrying smeared Maxwell charge in Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity. In the specific case of ten-dimensional space-time we furthermore use T-duality to generate bent black branes with higher-form charge, including smeared D-branes of type II string theory. By subsequently measuring the be...

  2. Continuum-mechanical, Anisotropic Flow model, based on an anisotropic Flow Enhancement factor (CAFFE)

    CERN Document Server

    Placidi, Luca; Seddik, Hakime; Faria, Sergio H

    2009-01-01

    A complete theoretical presentation of the CAFFE model (Continuum-mechanical, Anisotropic Flow model, based on an anisotropic Flow Enhancement factor) is given. The CAFFE model is an application of the theory of mixtures with continuous diversity for the case of large ice masses in which the induced anisotropy can not be neglected. The anisotropic response of the material is considered via a simple anisotropic generalization of Glen's flow law based on a scalar anisotropic enhancement factor. Such an enhancement factor depends upon the orientation mass density, that corresponds to the distribution of lattice orientations or simply to the orientation distribution function. The evolution of anisotropy is assumed to be modeled by the evolution of the orientation mass density, that is governed by the balance of mass of the present mixture with continuous diversity and explicitly depends upon four distinct effects interpreted, respectively, with grain rotation, local rigid body rotation, grain boundary migration (...

  3. Magnetoelectric charge states of matter-energy. A second approximation. Part VII. Diffuse relativistic superconductive plasma. Measurable and non-measurable physical manifestations. Kirlian photography. Laser phenomena. Cosmic effects on chemical and biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, F W

    1980-01-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that all objects, and especially living objects, contain and are surrounded by diffuse clouds of matter-energy probably best considered as a superconductive plasma state and best analyzed by application of an extended form of the Einstein special theory of relativity. Such a plasma state would have physical properties that for relativistic reasons the experimentalists could not expect to measure, and also those he could expect to measure. Not possible to measure should be (a) absorption or reflection of light, (b) electric charge mobilities of Hall effects, and (c) any particulate structure within the plasma. Possible to measure should be (a) channel formation ("arcing") in high applied electric fields (e.g., as in Kirlian photography), (b) effects of the plasma on temperatures and potentials of electrons in solid objects moving through that plasma, (c) facilitation of coupling between electromagnetic oscillations in sets of adjacent molecules, resulting in facilitation of laser and maser emissions of electromagnetic waves and in facilitation of geometrical alignment of adjacent molecules, and (d) magnetic and electric flux trapping with resultant magnetic and/or electric dipole moments. Experimental evidence suggests that diffuse superconductive plasma may reach the earth from the sun, resulting in diurnal and seasonal fluctuations in rates of antigen-antibody reactions as well as in rates of precipitation and crystallization of solids from solutions. PMID:7454856

  4. On the Matter of N=2 Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Doran, C F; Gates, S J Jr; Hübsch, T; Iga, K M; Landweber, G D

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a variety of four-dimensional N = 2 matter multiplets which have not previously appeared explicitly in the literature. Using these, we develop a class of supersymmetric actions supplying a context for a systematic exploration of N = 2 matter theories, some of which include Hypermultiplet sectors in novel ways. We construct an N = 2 supersymmetric field theory in which the propagating fields are realized off-shell exclusively as Lorentz scalars and Weyl spinors and which involves a sector with precisely the R-charge assignments characteristic of Hypermultiplets.

  5. Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Einasto, Jaan

    2013-01-01

    I give a review of the development of the concept of dark matter. The dark matter story passed through several stages from a minor observational puzzle to a major challenge for theory of elementary particles. Modern data suggest that dark matter is the dominant matter component in the Universe, and that it consists of some unknown non-baryonic particles. Dark matter is the dominant matter component in the Universe, thus properties of dark matter particles determine the structure of the cosmic...

  6. GREEN'S FUNCTIONS FOR 2D PROBLEMS OF ANISOTROPIC PIEZOELECTRIC MATERIAL WITH A STRIP REGION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Yiantai; Huang Yuying; Chen Chuanyao; Zhong Weifang

    2000-01-01

    By using Stroh's formalism and the conformal mapping technique, we derive the simple ex plicit elastic fields of a generalized line dislocation and a generalized line force in a general anisotropic piezo electric strip with fixed surfaces, which are two fixed conductor electrodes. The solutions obtained are usually considered as Green's functions which play important roles in the boundary element methods. The Coulomb forces of the distributed charges along the region boundaries on the line charge q at z0 are analysed in detail. The results are valid not only for plane and antiplane problems but also for the coupled problems between in plane and outplane deformations.

  7. Chromomagnetism in nuclear matter

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjan, Akhilesh; Raina, P. K.

    2011-01-01

    Quarks are color charged particles. Due to their motion there is a strong possibility of generation of color magnetic field. It is shown that however hadrons are color singlet particles they may have non-zero color magnetic moment. Due to this color magnetic moment hadrons can show color interaction. In this paper we have studied the chromomagnetic properties of nuclear matter.

  8. Anisotropic thermal conductivity of magnetic fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaopeng Fang; Yimin Xuan; Qiang Li

    2009-01-01

    Considering the forces acting on the particles and the motion of the particles, this study uses a numerical simulation to investigate the three-dimensional microstructure of the magnetic fluids in the presence of an external magnetic field. A method is proposed for predicting the anisotropic thermal conductivity of magnetic fluids. By introducing an anisotropic structure parameter which characterizes the non-uniform distribution of particles suspended in the magnetic fluids, the traditional Maxwell formula is modified and extended to calculate anisotropic thermal conductivity of the magnetic fluids. The results show that in the presence of an external magnetic field the magnetic nanoparticles form chainlike clusters along the direction of the external magnetic field, which leads to the fact that the thermal conduc-tivity of the magnetic fluid along the chain direction is bigger than that along other directions. The thermal conductivity of the magnetic fluids presents an anisotropic feature. With the increase of the magnetic field strength the chainlike clusters in the magnetic fluid appear to be more obvious, so that the anisotropic feature of heat conduction in the fluids becomes more evident.

  9. Effective medium theory for anisotropic metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiujuan

    2015-01-20

    Materials with anisotropic material parameters can be utilized to fabricate many fascinating devices, such as hyperlenses, metasolids, and one-way waveguides. In this study, we analyze the effects of geometric anisotropy on a two-dimensional metamaterial composed of a rectangular array of elliptic cylinders and derive an effective medium theory for such a metamaterial. We find that it is possible to obtain a closed-form analytical solution for the anisotropic effective medium parameters, provided the aspect ratio of the lattice and the eccentricity of the elliptic cylinder satisfy certain conditions. The derived effective medium theory not only recovers the well-known Maxwell-Garnett results in the quasi-static regime, but is also valid beyond the long-wavelength limit, where the wavelength in the host medium is comparable to the size of the lattice so that previous anisotropic effective medium theories fail. Such an advance greatly broadens the applicable realm of the effective medium theory and introduces many possibilities in the design of structures with desired anisotropic material characteristics. A real sample of a recently theoretically proposed anisotropic medium, with a near-zero index to control the flux, is achieved using the derived effective medium theory, and control of the electromagnetic waves in the sample is clearly demonstrated.

  10. Anisotropic matching principle for the hydrodynamic expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinti, Leonardo

    2016-10-01

    Following the recent success of anisotropic hydrodynamics, I propose here a new, general prescription for the hydrodynamic expansion around an anisotropic background. The anisotropic distribution fixes exactly the complete energy-momentum tensor, just like the effective temperature fixes the proper energy density in the ordinary expansion around local equilibrium. This means that momentum anisotropies are already included at the leading order, allowing for large pressure anisotropies without the need of a next-to-leading-order treatment. The first moment of the Boltzmann equation (local four-momentum conservation) provides the time evolution of the proper energy density and the four-velocity. Differently from previous prescriptions, the dynamic equations for the pressure corrections are not derived from the zeroth or second moment of the Boltzmann equation, but they are taken directly from the exact evolution given by the Boltzmann equation. As known in the literature, the exact evolution of the pressure corrections involves higher moments of the Boltzmann distribution, which cannot be fixed by the anisotropic distribution alone. Neglecting the next-to-leading-order contributions corresponds to an approximation, which depends on the chosen form of the anisotropic distribution. I check the the effectiveness of the leading-order expansion around the generalized Romatschke-Stricklad distribution, comparing with the exact solution of the Boltzmann equation in the Bjorken limit with the collisional kernel treated in the relaxation-time approximation, finding an unprecedented agreement.

  11. Introduction to the anisotropic geometrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Siparov, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the book is to provide a new and fruitful approach to the challenging problems of modern physics, astrophysics, and cosmology. The well-known observations of the flat rotation curves of spiral galaxies and of the gravitational lensing effect greatly exceeding the expectations based on the classical GRT can be explained without bringing in the notion of dark matter. The Tully-Fisher law and the unusual features of globular clusters' motion become clear. It also turns out that new features appear in the cosmological picture that involves the Universe expansion and the acceleration of

  12. General Expression of Elastic Tensor for Anisotropic Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Bo

    2005-01-01

    In order to formulate a general expression of elastic tensor for anisotropic materials, a method of tensor derivative is used for determining relationship between fourth-order elastic tensor and second-order structure tensor that has satisfied material symmetrical conditions. From this general expression of elastic tensor, specific expressions of elastic tensor for different anisotropic materials, such as isotropic materials, transverse isotropic materials and orthogonal-anisotropic materials, can be deduced. This expression underlies the scalar description of anisotropic factors, which are used for classifying and analyzing anisotropic materials. Cubic crystals are analyzed macroscopically by means of the general expression and anisotropic factor.

  13. Theory of Compton scattering by anisotropic electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Poutanen, Juri

    2010-01-01

    Compton scattering plays an important role in various astrophysical objects such as accreting black holes and neutron stars, pulsars, and relativistic jets, clusters of galaxies as well as the early Universe. In most of the calculations it is assumed that the electrons have isotropic angular distribution in some frame. However, there are situations where the anisotropy may be significant due to the bulk motions, or anisotropic cooling by synchrotron radiation, or anisotropic source of seed soft photons. We develop here an analytical theory of Compton scattering by anisotropic distribution of electrons that can simplify significantly the calculations. Assuming that the electron angular distribution can be represented by a second order polynomial over cosine of some angle (dipole and quadrupole anisotropy), we integrate the exact Klein-Nishina cross-section over the angles. Exact analytical and approximate formulae valid for any photon and electron energies are derived for the redistribution functions describin...

  14. Micromechanics and dislocation theory in anisotropic elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Lazar, Markus

    2016-01-01

    In this work, dislocation master-equations valid for anisotropic materials are derived in terms of kernel functions using the framework of micromechanics. The second derivative of the anisotropic Green tensor is calculated in the sense of generalized functions and decomposed into a sum of a $1/R^3$-term plus a Dirac $\\delta$-term. The first term is the so-called "Barnett-term" and the latter is important for the definition of the Green tensor as fundamental solution of the Navier equation. In addition, all dislocation master-equations are specified for Somigliana dislocations with application to 3D crack modeling. Also the interior Eshelby tensor for a spherical inclusion in an anisotropic material is derived as line integral over the unit circle.

  15. Anisotropic matching principle for the hydrodynamics expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Tinti, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    Following the recent success of anisotropic hydrodynamics we propose a new, general prescription for the hydrodynamics expansion around an anisotropic background. The anisotropic distribution is fixing exactly the complete energy-momentum tensor, just like the effective temperature is fixing the proper energy density in the ordinary expansion around local equilibrium. This means that momen- tum anisotropies are already included at the leading order, allowing for large pressure anisotropies without the need of a next to leading order treatment. The first moment of the Boltzmann equation (local four-momentum conservation) provides the time evolution of the proper energy density and the four velocity. Differently from previous prescriptions, the dynamic equations for the pressure corrections are not derived from the zeroth or second moment of the Boltzmann equation, but they are taken directly from the exact evolution given by the Boltzmann equation. We check the effec- tiveness of this new approach by matching ...

  16. Anisotropic pseudopotential for polarized dilute quantum gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An anisotropic pseudopotential arising in the context of collisions of two particles polarized by an external field is rigorously derived and its properties are investigated. Such a low-energy pseudopotential may be useful in describing collective properties of dilute quantum gases, such as molecules polarized by an electric field or metastable 3P2 atoms polarized by a magnetic field. The pseudopotential is expressed in terms of the reactance (K) matrix and derivatives of the Dirac δ function. In most applications, it may be represented as a sum of a traditional spherically symmetric contact term and an anisotropic part. The former contribution may be parametrized by a generalized scattering length. The anisotropic part of the pseudopotential may be characterized by the off-diagonal scattering length for dipolar interactions and off-diagonal scattering volume for quadrupolar interactions. The two-body matrix element of the pseudopotential in a basis of plane waves is also derived

  17. Obtuse triangle suppression in anisotropic meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Feng

    2011-12-01

    Anisotropic triangle meshes are used for efficient approximation of surfaces and flow data in finite element analysis, and in these applications it is desirable to have as few obtuse triangles as possible to reduce the discretization error. We present a variational approach to suppressing obtuse triangles in anisotropic meshes. Specifically, we introduce a hexagonal Minkowski metric, which is sensitive to triangle orientation, to give a new formulation of the centroidal Voronoi tessellation (CVT) method. Furthermore, we prove several relevant properties of the CVT method with the newly introduced metric. Experiments show that our algorithm produces anisotropic meshes with much fewer obtuse triangles than using existing methods while maintaining mesh anisotropy. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Gravitational stresses in anisotropic rock masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadei, B.; Savage, W.Z.; Swolfs, H.S.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents closed-form solutions for the stress field induced by gravity in anisotropic rock masses. These rocks are assumed to be laterally restrained and are modelled as a homogeneous, orthotropic or transversely isotropic, linearly elastic material. The analysis, constrained by the thermodynamic requirement that strain energy be positive definite, gives the following important result: inclusion of anisotropy broadens the range of permissible values of gravity-induced horizontal stresses. In fact, for some ranges of anisotropic rock properties, it is thermodynamically admissible for gravity-induced horizontal stresses to exceed the vertical stress component; this is not possible for the classical isotropic solution. Specific examples are presented to explore the nature of the gravity-induced stress field in anisotropic rocks and its dependence on the type, degree and orientation of anisotropy with respect to the horizontal ground surface. ?? 1987.

  19. Stability of charged strange quark stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbañil, José D. V.; Malheiro, Manuel [Departamento de Física, Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, Centro Técnico Aeroespacial, 12228-900 São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2015-12-17

    We investigate the hydrostatic equilibrium and the stability of charged stars made of a charged perfect fluid. The matter contained in the star follows the MIT bag model equation of state and the charge distribution to a power-law of the radial coordinate. The hydrostatic equilibrium and the stability of charged strange stars are analyzed using the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation and the Chandrasekhar’s equation pulsation, respectively. These two equation are modified from their original form to the inclusion of the electric charge. We found that the stability of the star decreases with the increment of the central energy density and with the increment of the amount of charge.

  20. Relativistic Solutions of Anisotropic Compact Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Bikash Chandra

    2016-01-01

    We present a class of new relativistic solutions with anisotropic fluid for compact stars in hydrostatic equilibrium. The interior space-time geometry considered here for compact objects are described by parameters namely, $\\lambda$, $k$, $A$, $R$ and $n$. The values of the geometrical parameters are determined here for obtaining a class of physically viable stellar models. The energy-density, radial pressure and tangential pressure are finite and positive inside the anisotropic stars. Considering some stars of known mass we present stellar models which describe compact astrophysical objects with nuclear density.

  1. Bouncing Anisotropic Universes with Varying Constants

    CERN Document Server

    Barrow, John D

    2013-01-01

    We examine the evolution of a closed, homogeneous and anisotropic cosmology subject to a variation of the fine structure 'constant', \\alpha, within the context of the theory introduced by Bekenstein, Sandvik, Barrow and Magueijo, which generalises Maxwell's equations and general relativity. The variation of \\alpha permits an effective ghost scalar field, whose negative energy density becomes dominant at small length scales, leading to a bouncing cosmology. A thermodynamically motivated coupling which describes energy exchange between the effective ghost field and the radiation field leads to an expanding, isotropizing sequence of bounces. In the absence of entropy production we also find solutions with stable anisotropic oscillations around a static universe.

  2. One-Dimensional Anisotropic Band Gap Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The band gap structure of one-dimensional anisotropic photonic crystal has been studied by means of the transfer matrix formalism. From the analytic expressions and numeric calculations we see some general characteristics of the band gap structure of anisotropic photonic crystals, each band separates into two branches and the two branches react to polarization sensitively. In the practical case of oblique incidence, gaps move towards high frequency when the angle of incidence increases. Under some special conditions, the two branches become degenerate again.

  3. Anisotropic Gold Nanocrystals:. Synthesis and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiufiuc, R.; Toderas, F.; Iosin, M.; Stiufiuc, G.

    In this letter we report on successful preparation and characterization of anisotropic gold nanocrystals bio-synthesized by reduction of aqueous chloroaurate ions in pelargonium plant extract. The nanocrystals have been characterized by means of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy and tapping mode atomic force microscopy (TM-AFM). Using these investigation techniques, the successful formation of anisotropic single nanocrystals with the preferential growth direction along the gold (111) plane has been confirmed. The high detail phase images could give us an explanation concerning the growth mechanism of the nanocrystals.

  4. CAVITATION BIFURCATION FOR COMPRESSIBLE ANISOTROPIC HYPERELASTIC MATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChengChangjun; RenJiusheng

    2004-01-01

    The effect of material anisotropy on the bifurcation for void tormation in anisotropic compressible hyperelastic materials is examined. Numerical solutions are obtained in an anisotropic sphere, whose material is transversely isotropic in the radial direction. It is shown that the bifurcation may occur either to the right or to the left, depending on the degree of material anisotropy. The deformation and stress contribution in the sphere before cavitation are different from those after cavitation. The stability of solutions is discussed through a comparison of energy.

  5. Anisotropic Stars: Exact Solutions and Stability

    CERN Document Server

    Dev, K; Dev, Krsna; Gleiser, Marcelo

    2004-01-01

    I report on recent work concerning the existence and stability of self-gravitating spheres with anisotropic pressure. After presenting new exact solutions, Chandrasekhar's variational formalism for radial perturbations is generalized to anisotropic objects and applied to investigate their stability. It is shown that anisotropy can not only support stars of mass M and radius R with 2M/R > 8/9 and arbitrarily large surface redshifts, but that stable configurations exist for values of the adiabatic index smaller than the corresponding isotropic value.

  6. Controllable underwater anisotropic oil-wetting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yong, Jiale; Chen, Feng, E-mail: chenfeng@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Yang, Qing; Farooq, Umar; Bian, Hao; Du, Guangqing; Hou, Xun [State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing System Engineering and Key Laboratory of Photonics Technology for Information of Shaanxi Province, School of Electronics and Information Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2014-08-18

    This Letter demonstrates a simple method to achieve underwater anisotropic oil-wetting using silicon surfaces with a microgroove array produced by femtosecond laser ablation. The oil contact angles along the direction perpendicular to the grooves are consistently larger than those parallel to the microgroove arrays in water because the oil droplet is restricted by the energy barrier that exists between the non-irradiated domain and the trapped water in the laser-ablated microgrooves. This underwater anisotropic oil-wetting is able to be controlled, and the anisotropy can be tuned from 0° to ∼20° by adjusting the period of the microgroove arrays.

  7. Anisotropic nanomaterials preparation, properties, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Quan

    2015-01-01

    In this book anisotropic one-dimensional and two-dimensional nanoscale building blocks and their assembly into fascinating and qualitatively new functional structures embracing both hard and soft components are explained. Contributions from leading experts regarding important aspects like synthesis, assembly, properties and applications of the above materials are compiled into a reference book. The anisotropy, i.e. the direction-dependent physical properties, of materials is fascinating and elegant and has sparked the quest for anisotropic materials with useful properties. With such a curiosi

  8. Modeling galactic halos with predominantly quintessential matter

    CERN Document Server

    Rahaman, F; Chakraborty, K; Kalam, M; Hossain, D

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses a new model for galactic dark matter by combining an anisotropic pressure field corresponding to normal matter and a quintessence dark energy field having a characteristic parameter $\\omega_q$ such that $-1<\\omega_q< -\\frac{1}{3}$. Stable stellar orbits together with an attractive gravity exist only if $\\omega_q$ is extremely close to $-\\frac{1}{3}$, a result consistent with the special case studied by Guzman et al. (2003). Less exceptional forms of quintessence dark energy do not yield the desired stable orbits and are therefore unsuitable for modeling dark matter.

  9. Modeling Galactic Halos with Predominantly Quintessential Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaman, F.; Kuhfittig, Peter K. F.; Chakraborty, K.; Kalam, M.; Hossain, D.

    2011-09-01

    This paper discusses a new model for galactic dark matter by combining an anisotropic pressure field corresponding to normal matter and a quintessence dark energy field having a characteristic parameter ω q such that -1attractive gravity exist only if ω q is extremely close to -1/3, a result consistent with the special case studied by Guzman et al. (Rev. Mex. Fis. 49:303, 2003). Less exceptional forms of quintessence dark energy do not yield the desired stable orbits and are therefore unsuitable for modeling dark matter.

  10. Colour-Charged Quark Matter in Astrophysics?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Cong-Xin; XU Ren-Xin

    2006-01-01

    Colour confinement is only a supposition, which has not yet been proven in QCD. Here we propose that macroscopic quark-gluon plasma in astrophysics could hardly maintain colourless because of causality. It is expected that the existence of chromatic strange quark stars as well as chromatic strangelets preserved from the QCD phase transition in the early Universe could be unavoidable if their colourless correspondents do exist.

  11. Albedo and constant source problems for extremely anisotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The half-space albedo problem and the constant source problem have been solved for a combination of the linearly anisotropic scattering and Inoenue's scattering functions. The linear transport equation for extremely anisotropic scattering kernel can be converted into an equivalent equation with a linearly anisotropic scattering kernel and the modified FN method can be used for albedo calculations. (orig.)

  12. Anisotropic Diffusion for Medical Image Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezamoddin N. Kachouie

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Advances in digital imaging techniques have made possible the acquisition of large volumes of Transrectal Ultrasound (TRUS prostate images so that there is considerable demand for automated segmentation. Prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment rely on segmentation of these Transrectal Ultrasound (TRUS prostate images, a challenging and difficult task due to weak prostate boundaries, speckle noise and the narrow range of gray levels, leading most image segmentation methods to perform poorly. The enhancement of ultrasound images is challenging, however prostate segmentation can be effectively improved in contrast enhanced images. Anisotropic diffusion has been used for image analysis based on selective smoothness or enhancement of local features such as region boundaries. In its formal form, anisotropic diffusion tends to encourage within-region smoothness and avoid diffusion across different regions. In this paper we extend the anisotropic diffusion to multiple directions such that segmentation methods can effectively be applied based on rich extracted features. A preliminary segmentation method based on extended diffusion is proposed. Finally an adaptive anisotropic diffusion is introduced based on image statistics.

  13. Orphan-Free Anisotropic Voronoi Diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Canas, Guillermo D

    2011-01-01

    We describe conditions under which an appropriately-defined anisotropic Voronoi diagram of a set of sites in Euclidean space is guaranteed to be composed of connected cells in any number of dimensions. These conditions are natural for problems in optimization and approximation, and algorithms already exist to produce sets of sites that satisfy them.

  14. Anisotropic Power Law Inflation from Rolling Tachyons

    CERN Document Server

    Bhowmick, Samrat

    2011-01-01

    We provide an explicit solution representing an anisotropic power law inflation within the framework of rolling tachyon model. This is generated by allowing a non-minimal coupling between the tachyon and the world-volume gauge field on non-BPS D3 brane.

  15. Nucleation in suspensions of anisotropic colloids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilling, T.; Frenkel, D.

    2005-01-01

    We report Monte Carlo studies of liquid crystal nucleation in two types of anisotropic colloidal systems: hard rods and hard ellipsoids. In both cases we find that nucleation pathways differ strongly from the pathways in systems of spherical particles. Short hard rods show an effect of self-poisonin

  16. Surface instabilities during straining of anisotropic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Brian Nyvang; Richelsen, Ann Bettina

    2006-01-01

    The development of instabilities in traction-free surfaces is investigated numerically using a unit cell model. Full finite strain analyses are conducted using isotropic as well as anisotropic yield criteria and both plane strain tension and compression are considered. In the load range of tension...

  17. ANISOTROPIC PARABOLIC EQUATIONS WITH MEASURE DATA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Fengquan; Zhao Huixiu

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we prove the existence of solutions to anisotropic parabolic equations with right hand side term in the bounded Radon measure M(Q) and the initial condition in M(Ω) or in Lm space (with m "small").

  18. A generalized anisotropic deformation formulation for geomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Z.; Rougier, Esteban; Knight, E. E.; Munjiza, A.; Viswanathan, H.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the combined finite-discrete element method (FDEM) has been applied to analyze the deformation of anisotropic geomaterials. In the most general case geomaterials are both non-homogeneous and non-isotropic. With the aim of addressing anisotropic material problems, improved 2D FDEM formulations have been developed. These formulations feature the unified hypo-hyper elastic approach combined with a multiplicative decomposition-based selective integration for volumetric and shear deformation modes. This approach is significantly different from the co-rotational formulations typically encountered in finite element codes. Unlike the co-rotational formulation, the multiplicative decomposition-based formulation naturally decomposes deformation into translation, rotation, plastic stretches, elastic stretches, volumetric stretches, shear stretches, etc. This approach can be implemented for a whole family of finite elements from solids to shells and membranes. This novel 2D FDEM based material formulation was designed in such a way that the anisotropic properties of the solid can be specified in a cell by cell basis, therefore enabling the user to seed these anisotropic properties following any type of spatial variation, for example, following a curvilinear path. In addition, due to the selective integration, there are no problems with volumetric or shear locking with any type of finite element employed.

  19. Spin Wave Theory of Strongly Anisotropic Magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1977-01-01

    A strong anisotropy gives rise to a non-spherical precession of the spins with different amplitudes in the x and y directions. The highly anharmonic exchange interaction thereby becomes effectively anisotropic. The possibility of detecting a genuine two-ion anisotropy is discussed, and comments a...... are given on the interpretation of the spin wave data in Tb and Er....

  20. A discrete anisotropic model for Scheibe aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Bang

    1991-05-01

    Full Text Available A discrete anisotropic nonlinear model for the dynamics of Scheibe aggregates is investigated. The collapse of the collective excitations found by Möbius and Kuhn is described as a shrinking ring wave, which is eventually absorbed by an acceptor molecule. An optimal acceptor loss is found.

  1. A rock physics model for analysis of anisotropic parameters in a shale reservoir in Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Keran; Zhang, Feng; Chen, Shuangquan; Li, Xiangyang; Zhang, Hui

    2016-02-01

    A rock physics model is a very effective tool to describe the anisotropy and mechanical properties of rock from a seismology perspective. Compared to a conventional reservoir, modelling a shale reservoir requires us to face two main challenges in modelling: the existence of organic matter and strong anisotropy. We construct an anisotropic rock physics workflow for a typical shale reservoir in Southwest China, in which the organic matter is treated separately from other minerals by using a combination of anisotropic self-consistent approximation and the differential effective medium method. The standard deviation of the distribution function is used to model the degree of lamination of clay and kerogen. A double scan workflow is introduced to invert the probability of pore aspect ratio and lamination simultaneously, which can give us a better understanding of the shale formation. The anisotropic properties of target formation have been analysed based on the proposed model. Inverted Thomsen parameters, especially the sign of delta, are analysed in terms of the physical properties of rock physics modelling.

  2. Anisotropic united-atoms (AUA) potential for alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pellitero, Javier; Bourasseau, Emeric; Demachy, Isabelle; Ridard, Jacqueline; Ungerer, Philippe; Mackie, Allan D

    2008-08-14

    An anisotropic united-atom (AUA4) intermolecular potential has been derived for the family of alkanols by first optimizing a set of charges to reproduce the electrostatic potential of the isolated molecules of methanol and ethanol and then by adjusting the parameters of the OH group to fit selected equilibrium properties. In particular, the proposed potential includes additional extra-atomic charges in order to improve the matching to the electrostatic field. Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo simulations were performed to determine the phase equilibria, while the critical region was explored by means of grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations combined with histogram reweighting techniques. In order to increase the transferability of the model, only the parameters of the Lennard-Jones OH group have been fitted, the parameters of the other AUA groups are taken from previous works. Nevertheless, a good level of agreement was obtained for all compounds considered in this work. In particular, excellent results were obtained for the Henry constants calculation of different gases in alkanols. PMID:18646801

  3. Boundedness of the Anisotropic Maximal and Anisotropic Singular Integral Operators in Generalized Morrey Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vagif S. GULIYEV; Rza Ch. MUSTAFAYEV

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we give the conditions on the pair (ω1,ω2) which ensures the boundedness of the anisotropic maximal operator and anisotropic singular integral operators from one generalized Morrey space Mp,ω1 to another Mp,ω2,1 < p < oo,and from the space M1,ω1 to the weak space W M1,ω2.

  4. Hydrodynamics and Elasticity of Charged Black Branes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gath, Jakob

    We consider long-wavelength perturbations of charged black branes to first order in a uidelastic derivative expansion. At first order the perturbations decouple and we treat the hydrodynamic and elastic perturbations separately. To put the results in a broader perspective, we present the rst-orde...... charged black brane solutions are parameterized by a total of four response coecients, both for the isotropic as well as for the anisotropic cases....... of the first-order dissipative corrections in terms of the shear and bulk viscosities as well as the transport coefficient associated with charge di usion. To dipole order, we furthermore, applying linear response theory, characterize the corresponding effective theory of stationary bent charged (an......)isotropic uid branes in terms of two sets of response coecients, the Young modulus and the piezoelectric moduli. We subsequently consider a large class of examples in gravity of this effective theory. In particular, we consider dilatonic black p-branes in two different settings: charged under a Maxwell gauge...

  5. Charge independence and charge symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, G A; Miller, Gerald A; van Oers, Willem T H

    1994-01-01

    Charge independence and charge symmetry are approximate symmetries of nature, violated by the perturbing effects of the mass difference between up and down quarks and by electromagnetic interactions. The observations of the symmetry breaking effects in nuclear and particle physics and the implications of those effects are reviewed.

  6. Plasma dark matter direct detection

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, Jackson D

    2015-01-01

    Dark matter in spiral galaxies like the Milky Way may take the form of a dark plasma. Hidden sector dark matter charged under an unbroken $U(1)'$ gauge interaction provides a simple and well defined particle physics model realising this possibility. The assumed $U(1)'$ neutrality of the Universe then implies (at least) two oppositely charged dark matter components with self-interactions mediated via a massless "dark photon" (the $U(1)'$ gauge boson). In addition to nuclear recoils such dark matter can give rise to keV electron recoils in direct detection experiments. In this context, the detailed physical properties of the dark matter plasma interacting with the Earth is required. This is a complex system, which is here modelled as a fluid governed by the magnetohydrodynamic equations. These equations are numerically solved for some illustrative examples, and implications for direct detection experiments discussed. In particular, the analysis presented here leaves open the intriguing possibility that the DAMA...

  7. A new solution of embedding class I representing anisotropic fluid sphere in general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Ksh Newton; Pant, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper we are willing to model anisotropic star by choosing a new grr metric potential. All the physical parameters like the matter density, radial and transverse pressure and are regular inside the anisotropic star, with the speed of sound less than the speed of light. So the new solution obtained by us gives satisfactory description of realistic astrophysical compact stars. The model of the present paper is compatible with observational data of compact objects like RX J1856-37, Her X-1, Vela X-12 and Cen X-3. A particular model of Her X-1 (Mass 0.98 times solar mass and radius=6.7 km.) is studied in detail and found that it satisfies all the condition needed for physically acceptable model. Our model is described analytically as well as with the help of graphical representation.

  8. Bianchi -V space-time with anisotropic dark energy in general relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Chandra Prakash [Department of Applied Mathematics, Delhi Technological University (Formerly Delhi College of Engineering), Delhi (India)

    2011-12-15

    In a spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type-V space-time the consequences of the presence of dynamically anisotropic dark energy and perfect fluid with heat-conduction are studied. We assume that dark energy is minimally interacting with matter and has an equation of state which is modified in a consistent way with the conservation of energy momentum tensor. Exact solutions of Einstein field equations are obtained by taking constant value of deceleration parameter. We find that this assumption is reasonable for the observation of the present day universe. The physical and geometrical properties of the models, the behavior of the anisotropy of dark energy and the thermodynamical relations that govern such solutions are discussed in detail. (author)

  9. Quirky composite dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kribs, Graham D.; Roy, Tuhin S.; Terning, John; Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2010-05-01

    We propose a new dark matter candidate, “quirky dark matter,” that is a scalar baryonic bound state of a new non-Abelian force that becomes strong below the electroweak scale. The bound state is made of chiral quirks: new fermions that transform under both the new strong force as well as in a chiral representation of the electroweak group, acquiring mass from the Higgs mechanism. Electric charge neutrality of the lightest baryon requires approximately degenerate quirk masses which also causes the charge radius of the bound state to be negligible. The abundance is determined by an asymmetry that is linked to the baryon and lepton numbers of the universe through electroweak sphalerons. Dark matter elastic scattering with nuclei proceeds through Higgs exchange as well as an electromagnetic polarizability operator which is just now being tested in direct detection experiments. A novel method to search for quirky dark matter is to look for a gamma-ray “dark line” spectroscopic feature in galaxy clusters that result from the quirky Lyman-alpha or quirky hyperfine transitions. Colliders are expected to dominantly produce quirky mesons, not quirky baryons, consequently large missing energy is not the primary collider signal of the physics associated with quirky dark matter.

  10. GUTzilla dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harigaya, Keisuke; Lin, Tongyan; Lou, Hou Keong

    2016-09-01

    Motivated by gauge coupling unification and dark matter, we present an extension to the Standard Model where both are achieved by adding an extra new matter multiplet. Such considerations lead to a Grand Unified Theory with very heavy WIMPzilla dark matter, which has mass greater than ˜ 107 GeV and must be produced before reheating ends. Naturally, we refer to this scenario as GUTzilla dark matter. Here we present a minimal GUTzilla model, adding a vector-like quark multiplet to the Standard Model. Proton decay constraints require the new multiplet to be both color and electroweak charged, which prompts us to include a new confining SU(3) gauge group that binds the multiplet into a neutral composite dark matter candidate. Current direct detection constraints are evaded due to the large dark matter mass; meanwhile, next-generation direct detection and proton decay experiments will probe much of the parameter space. The relic abundance is strongly dependent on the dynamics of the hidden confining sector, and we show that dark matter production during the epoch of reheating can give the right abundance.

  11. Dark matter

    OpenAIRE

    Einasto, J.

    2011-01-01

    I give a review of the development of the concept of dark matter. The dark matter story passed through several stages from a minor observational puzzle to a major challenge for theory of elementary particles. Modern data suggest that dark matter is the dominant matter component in the Universe, and that it consists of some unknown non-baryonic particles. Properties of dark matter particles determine the structure of the cosmic web.

  12. Charged Leptons

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, J; Babu, K; Bernstein, R H; Blum, T; Brown, D N; Casey, B C K; Cheng, C -h; Cirigliano, V; Cohen, A; Deshpande, A; Dukes, E C; Echenard, B; Gaponenko, A; Glenzinski, D; Gonzalez-Alonso, M; Grancagnolo, F; Grossman, Y; Harnik, R; Hitlin, D G; Kiburg, B; Knoepfe, K; Kumar, K; Lim, G; Lu, Z -T; McKeen, D; Miller, J P; Ramsey-Musolf, M; Ray, R; Roberts, B L; Rominsky, M; Semertzidis, Y; Stoeckinger, D; Talman, R; Van De Water, R; Winter, P

    2013-01-01

    This is the report of the Intensity Frontier Charged Lepton Working Group of the 2013 Community Summer Study "Snowmass on the Mississippi", summarizing the current status and future experimental opportunities in muon and tau lepton studies and their sensitivity to new physics. These include searches for charged lepton flavor violation, measurements of magnetic and electric dipole moments, and precision measurements of the decay spectrum and parity-violating asymmetries.

  13. Resonant SIMP dark matter

    OpenAIRE

    Soo-Min Choi; Hyun Min Lee

    2016-01-01

    We consider a resonant SIMP dark matter in models with two singlet complex scalar fields charged under a local dark U(1)D. After the U(1)D is broken down to a Z5 discrete subgroup, the lighter scalar field becomes a SIMP dark matter which has the enhanced 3→2 annihilation cross section near the resonance of the heavier scalar field. Bounds on the SIMP self-scattering cross section and the relic density can be fulfilled at the same time for perturbative couplings of SIMP. A small gauge kinetic...

  14. Views on the Anisotropic Nature of Ilva Valley Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA-ALINA MUREŞAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are two concepts important for the authors of this article: anisotropic region and anisotropic space. Anisotropic region is defined by A. Dauphiné, the geographer (-mathematician, as a territorial unit whose structure results from the organisation of space along one or more axes. From the point of view of a territorial system, this type of region has some characteristics which differentiate it both from the homogeneous region and from the polarised one. These specificities have been analysed for Ilva Valley. The region of Ilva Valley is formed along the morphological axis represented by the Ilva River. The aim is to identify these specificities or their absence within this region. In this way we can determine whether this region is an anisotropic one or just an anisotropic space, namely whether it can be considered as evolving towards an anisotropic region, not yet complying with all characteristics of anisotropic regions.

  15. Probing Anisotropic Surface Properties of Molybdenite by Direct Force Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhenzhen; Liu, Qingxia; Xu, Zhenghe; Zeng, Hongbo

    2015-10-27

    Probing anisotropic surface properties of layer-type mineral is fundamentally important in understanding its surface charge and wettability for a variety of applications. In this study, the surface properties of the face and the edge surfaces of natural molybdenite (MoS2) were investigated by direct surface force measurements using atomic force microscope (AFM). The interaction forces between the AFM tip (Si3N4) and face or edge surface of molybdenite were measured in 10 mM NaCl solutions at various pHs. The force profiles were well-fitted with classical DLVO (Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek) theory to determine the surface potentials of the face and the edge surfaces of molybdenite. The surface potentials of both the face and edge surfaces become more negative with increasing pH. At neutral and alkaline conditions, the edge surface exhibits more negative surface potential than the face surface, which is possibly due to molybdate and hydromolybdate ions on the edge surface. The point of zero charge (PZC) of the edge surface was determined around pH 3 while PZC of the face surface was not observed in the range of pH 3-11. The interaction forces between octadecyltrichlorosilane-treated AFM tip (OTS-tip) and face or edge surface of molybdenite were also measured at various pHs to study the wettability of molybdenite surfaces. An attractive force between the OTS-tip and the face surface was detected. The force profiles were well-fitted by considering DLVO forces and additional hydrophobic force. Our results suggest the hydrophobic feature of the face surface of molybdenite. In contrast, no attractive force between the OTS-tip and the edge surface was detected. This is the first study in directly measuring surface charge and wettability of the pristine face and edge surfaces of molybdenite through surface force measurements. PMID:26434695

  16. Silicon as an anisotropic mechanical material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Erik Vilain; Reck, Kasper; Skands, Gustav Erik;

    2014-01-01

    While silicon is an anisotropic material it is often in literature treated as an isotropic material when it comes to plate calculations. This leads to considerable errors in the calculated deflection. To overcome this problem, we present an in-depth analysis of the bending behavior of thin...... both exact analytical expressions and approximate expressions calculated by the Galerkin method. The results are applied to plates made on silicon (0 0 1), (0 1 1) and (1 1 1) substrates, respectively, and analytical equations for the deflection, strain energy and resonance frequency of such plates...... are presented. These expressions are in excellent agreement with anisotropic finite element calculations. The calculated deflection differs less than 0.1%, for both circular and rectangular plates, compared to finite element calculations. The results are presented as ready-to-use facilitating accurate...

  17. Anisotropic Long-Range Spin Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Defenu, Nicolò; Ruffo, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    We consider anisotropic long-range interacting spin systems in $d$ dimensions. The interaction between the spins decays with the distance as a power law with different exponents in different directions: we consider an exponent $d_{1}+\\sigma_1$ in $d_1$ directions and another exponent $d_{2}+\\sigma_2$ in the remaining $d_2\\equiv d-d_1$ ones. We introduce a low energy effective action with non analytic power of the momenta. As a function of the two exponents $\\sigma_1$ and $\\sigma_2$ we show the system to have three different regimes, two where it is actually anisotropic and one where the isotropy is finally restored. We determine the phase diagram and provide estimates of the critical exponents as a function of the parameters of the system, in particular considering the case of one of the two $\\sigma$'s fixed and the other varying. A discussion of the physical relevance of our results is also presented.

  18. Rainbow metric from quantum gravity: anisotropic cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Assanioussi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a construction of effective cosmological models which describe the propagation of a massive quantum scalar field on a quantum anisotropic cosmological spacetime. Each obtained effective model is represented by a rainbow metric in which particles of distinct momenta propagate on different classical geometries. Our analysis shows that upon certain assumptions and conditions on the parameters determining such anisotropic models, we surprisingly obtain a unique deformation parameter $\\beta$ in the modified dispersion relation of the modes. Hence inducing an isotropic deformation despite the general starting considerations. We then ensure the recovery of the dispersion relation realized in the isotropic case, studied in [arXiv:1412.6000], when some proper symmetry constraints are imposed, and we estimate the value of the deformation parameter for this case in loop quantum cosmology context.

  19. New formulation of leading order anisotropic hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Tinti, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Anisotropic hydrodynamics is a reorganization of the relativistic hydrodynamics expansion, with the leading order already containing substantial momentum-space anisotropies. The latter are a cause of concern in the traditional viscous hydrodynamics, since large momentum anisotropies generated in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions are not consistent with the hypothesis of small deviations from an isotropic background, i.e., from the local equilibrium distribution. We discuss the leading order of the expansion, presenting a new formulation for the (1+1)--dimensional case, namely, for the longitudinally boost invariant and cylindrically symmetric flow. This new approach is consistent with the well established framework of Israel and Stewart in the close to equilibrium limit (where we expect viscous hydrodynamics to work well). If we consider the (0+1)--dimensional case, that is, transversally homogeneous and longitudinally boost invariant flow, {the new form of anisotropic hydrodynamics leads to better agree...

  20. Anisotropic hydrodynamics for conformal Gubser flow

    CERN Document Server

    Strickland, Michael; Ryblewski, Radoslaw

    2015-01-01

    In this proceedings contribution, we review the exact solution of the anisotropic hydrodynamics equations for a system subject to Gubser flow. For this purpose, we use the leading-order anisotropic hydrodynamics equations which assume that the distribution function is ellipsoidally symmetric in local-rest-frame momentum. We then prove that the SO(3)_q symmetry in de Sitter space constrains the anisotropy tensor to be of spheroidal form with only one independent anisotropy parameter remaining. As a consequence, the exact solution reduces to the problem of solving two coupled non-linear differential equations. We show that, in the limit that the relaxation time goes to zero, one obtains Gubser's ideal hydrodynamic solution and, in the limit that the relaxation time goes to infinity, one obtains the exact free streaming solution obtained originally by Denicol et al. For finite relaxation time, we solve the equations numerically and compare to the exact solution of the relaxation-time-approximation Boltzmann equa...

  1. Comparing anisotropic displacement parameters in protein structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, E A

    1999-12-01

    The increasingly widespread use of synchrotron-radiation sources and cryo-preparation of samples in macromolecular crystallography has led to a dramatic increase in the number of macromolecular structures determined at atomic or near-atomic resolution. This permits expansion of the structural model to include anisotropic displacement parameters U(ij) for individual atoms. In order to explore the physical significance of these parameters in protein structures, it is useful to be able to compare quantitatively the electron-density distribution described by the refined U(ij) values associated with corresponding crystallographically independent atoms. This paper presents the derivation of an easily calculated correlation coefficient in real space between two atoms modeled with anisotropic displacement parameters. This measure is used to investigate the degree of similarity between chemically equivalent but crystallographically independent atoms in the set of protein structural models currently available from the Protein Data Bank.

  2. Anisotropic permeability in deterministic lateral displacement arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Vernekar, Rohan; Loutherback, Kevin; Morton, Keith; Inglis, David

    2016-01-01

    We investigate anisotropic permeability of microfluidic deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) arrays. A DLD array can achieve high-resolution bimodal size-based separation of micro-particles, including bioparticles such as cells. Correct operation requires that the fluid flow remains at a fixed angle with respect to the periodic obstacle array. We show via experiments and lattice-Boltzmann simulations that subtle array design features cause anisotropic permeability. The anisotropy, which indicates the array's intrinsic tendency to induce an undesired lateral pressure gradient, can lead to off-axis flows and therefore local changes in the critical separation size. Thus, particle trajectories can become unpredictable and the device useless for the desired separation duty. We show that for circular posts the rotated-square layout, unlike the parallelogram layout, does not suffer from anisotropy and is the preferred geometry. Furthermore, anisotropy becomes severe for arrays with unequal axial and lateral gaps...

  3. Anisotropic fluid from nonlocal tidal effects

    CERN Document Server

    Culetu, Hristu

    2014-01-01

    The Shiromizu et al. \\cite{SMS} covariant decomposition formalism is used to find out the brane properties rooted from the 5-dimensional Witten bubble spacetime. The non-local tensor $E_{ab}$ generated by the 5-dimensional Weyl tensor gives rise at an anisotropic energy-momentum tensor on the brane with negative energy density and $p = \\rho/3$ as equation of state. The tidal acceleration is towards the brane and that is in accordance with the negative energy density on the brane. The anisotropic fluid has vanishing "bulk" viscosity but the shear viscosity coefficient is $r$- and $t$- dependent. The brane is endowed with an apparent horizon which is exactly the radial null geodesic.

  4. Polarimetric characterization of optically anisotropic flexible substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stchakovsky, M. [HORIBA Jobin-Yvon SAS, Z.A. de la Vigne aux Loups, 5 Avenue Arago, 91380 Chilly-Mazarin (France)], E-mail: michel.stchakovsky@jobinyvon.fr; Caillaud, C. [HORIBA Jobin-Yvon SAS, Z.A. de la Vigne aux Loups, 5 Avenue Arago, 91380 Chilly-Mazarin (France); Foldyna, M.; Ossikovski, R.; Garcia-Caurel, E. [Laboratoire de Physique des Interfaces et des Couches Minces, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France)

    2008-02-15

    Phase Modulated Spectroscopic Ellipsometry as well as Liquid Crystal Mueller Matrix Polarimetry in reflection and in transmission configurations were used to systematically study five types of anisotropic polymer sheets: polyethylene-terephtalate (PET), polyethylene-naphtalate (PEN), polycarbonate (PC), polypropylene (PP) and triacetylcellulose (TAC). The measurements were performed at different sample azimuths in two ellipsometric configurations giving access to both standard ellipsometric data as well as to the entire Mueller matrix. Biaxial anisotropy, a common characteristic to all polymer types, as well as the in-depth optical properties, inhomogeneity present in the sheets were clearly evidenced. The data were interpreted in terms of a model consisting of a thick substrate (several microns) coated with a simple layer. Both, substrate and layer were anisotropic and characterized by a triplet of principal refractive indexes. The orientation of the principal indexes of the bulk and the layer were different revealing the in-depth inhomogeniety of the samples.

  5. Anomalous anisotropic magnetoresistance effects in graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwei Liu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the effect of external stimulus (temperature, magnetic field, and gases adsorptions on anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR in multilayer graphene. The graphene sample shows superlinear magnetoresistance when magnetic field is perpendicular to the plane of graphene. A non-saturated AMR with a value of −33% is found at 10 K under a magnetic field of 7 T. It is surprisingly to observe that a two-fold symmetric AMR at high temperature is changed into a one-fold one at low temperature for a sample with an irregular shape. The anomalous AMR behaviors may be understood by considering the anisotropic scattering of carriers from two asymmetric edges and the boundaries of V+(V- electrodes which serve as active adsorption sites for gas molecules at low temperature. Our results indicate that AMR in graphene can be optimized by tuning the adsorptions, sample shape and electrode distribution in the future application.

  6. Anisotropic silica mesostructures for DNA encapsulation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aparna Ganguly; Ashok K Ganguli

    2013-04-01

    The encapsulation of biomolecules in inert meso or nanostructures is an important step towards controlling drug delivery agents. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) are of immense importance owing to their high surface area, large pore size, uniform particle size and chemical inertness. Reverse micellar method with CTAB as the surfactant has been used to synthesize anisotropic mesoporous silica materials. We have used the anisotropic silica nanostructures for DNA encapsulation studies and observed a loading capacity of ∼8 g mg-1 of the sample. On functionalizing the pores of silica with amine group, the amount of DNA loaded on the rods decreases which is due to a reduction in the pore size upon grafting of amine groups.

  7. Endotoxin removal by charge-modified filters.

    OpenAIRE

    Gerba, C P; Hou, K

    1985-01-01

    The effects of positively charged nylon and depth (cellulose-diatomaceous earth) filters on endotoxin removal from various solutions were evaluated. The charged filter media removed significant amounts of Escherichia coli and natural endotoxin from tap water, distilled water, sugars, and NaCl solutions; no significant removal of endotoxin was observed with negatively charged filter media. The extent of removal was influenced by pH, the presence of salts, and organic matter. Such media may be ...

  8. Physical charges in QED and QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Ilderton, Anton; McMullan, David

    2009-01-01

    We show that the `dressing' approach, which describes physical charges as gauge invariant composites of matter and clouds of gauge bosons, arises naturally in gauge theories. We give perturbative examples of dressings for both asymptotic charges and for states in which the fields are confined to a compact volume as is required, for example, by causality in pair creation. In QCD, we use dressed states to demonstrate explicitly how Gribov copies obstruct the non-perturbative construction of colour charges.

  9. Mechanism of electric charge formation polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electric charge formation in irradiated dielectrics is a phenomenon resulting from interaction of radiation with matter. Using pressure-pulse techniques the general mechanism of eletric charge accumulation and space distribution in electron- and gamma-irradiated polyethylene (low and high density) was studied. The relationship between the charge accumulation and structural and radiation-induced defects in polyethylene was established. Results obtained are applied to other organic materials

  10. Solid Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  11. Acoustic anisotropic wavefields through perturbation theory

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2013-09-01

    Solving the anisotropic acoustic wave equation numerically using finite-difference methods introduces many problems and media restriction requirements, and it rarely contributes to the ability to resolve the anisotropy parameters. Among these restrictions are the inability to handle media with η<0 and the presence of shear-wave artifacts in the solution. Both limitations do not exist in the solution of the elliptical anisotropic acoustic wave equation. Using perturbation theory in developing the solution of the anisotropic acoustic wave equation allows direct access to the desired limitation-free solutions, that is, solutions perturbed from the elliptical anisotropic background medium. It also provides a platform for parameter estimation because of the ability to isolate the wavefield dependency on the perturbed anisotropy parameters. As a result, I derive partial differential equations that relate changes in the wavefield to perturbations in the anisotropy parameters. The solutions of the perturbation equations represented the coefficients of a Taylor-series-type expansion of the wavefield as a function of the perturbed parameter, which is in this case η or the tilt of the symmetry axis. The expansion with respect to the symmetry axis allows use of an acoustic transversely isotropic media with a vertical symmetry axis (VTI) kernel to estimate the background wavefield and the corresponding perturbation coefficients. The VTI extrapolation kernel is about one-fourth the cost of the transversely isotropic model with a tilt in the symmetry axis kernel. Thus, for a small symmetry axis tilt, the cost of migration using a first-order expansion can be reduced. The effectiveness of the approach was demonstrated on the Marmousi model.

  12. Crossing Statistics of Anisotropic Stochastic Surface

    CERN Document Server

    Nezhadhaghighi, M Ghasemi; Yasseri, T; Allaei, S M Vaez

    2015-01-01

    We use crossing statistics and its generalization to determine the anisotropic direction imposed on a stochastic fields in $(2+1)$Dimension. This approach enables us to examine not only the rotational invariance of morphology but also we can determine the Gaussianity of underlying stochastic field in various dimensions. Theoretical prediction of up-crossing statistics (crossing with positive slope at a given threshold $\\alpha$ of height fluctuation), $\

  13. Anisotropic magnetocapacitance in ferromagnetic-plate capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, J. A.; Ciccarelli, C.; Betz, A. C.; Irvine, A.; Novák, V.; Jungwirth, T.; Wunderlich, J.

    2015-04-01

    The capacitance of a parallel-plate capacitor can depend on the applied magnetic field. Previous studies have identified capacitance changes induced via classical Lorentz force or spin-dependent Zeeman effects. Here we measure a magnetization direction-dependent capacitance in parallel-plate capacitors where one plate is a ferromagnetic semiconductor, gallium manganese arsenide. This anisotropic magnetocapacitance is due to the anisotropy in the density of states dependent on the magnetization through the strong spin-orbit interaction.

  14. Anisotropic solutions in f(R) Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Tripathy, S K

    2016-01-01

    Anisotropic cosmological models are investigated in the frame work of $f(R)$ gravity in the metric formalism. Plane symmetric models are considered to incorporate anisotropy in the expansion rates along different spatial directions. The anisotropy in expansion rates are assumed to be maintained throughout the cosmic evolution. Two accelerating models are constructed by considering different functional forms for f(R). The viability of these models are tested through a stability analysis.

  15. Experimental compaction of anisotropic granular media

    OpenAIRE

    Ribière, Philippe; RICHARD, Patrick; Bideau, Daniel; Delannay, Renaud

    2005-01-01

    We report on experiments to measure the temporal and spatial evolution of packin g arrangements of anisotropic and weakly confined granular material, using high-resolution $\\gamma$-ray adsorption. In these experiments, the particle configurations start from an initially disordered, low-packing-fraction state and under vertical solicitation s evolve to a dense state. We find that the packing fraction evolution is slowed by the grain anisotropy but, as for spherically shaped grains, can be well...

  16. Highly-anisotropic hydrodynamics for central collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Ryblewski, Radoslaw

    2016-01-01

    The framework of leading-order anisotropic hydrodynamics is supplemented with realistic equation of state and self-consistent freeze-out prescription. The model is applied to central proton-nucleus collisions. The results are compared to those obtained within standard Israel-Stewart second-order viscous hydrodynamics. It is shown that the resulting hadron spectra are highly-sensitive to the hydrodynamic approach that has been used.

  17. Tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance in organic spin valves

    OpenAIRE

    Grünewald, M; M. Wahler; Schumann, F; Michelfeit, M.; Gould, C.; Schmidt, R.; Würthner, F.; Schmidt, G.; Molenkamp, L. W.

    2011-01-01

    We report the observation of tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance (TAMR) in an organic spin-valve-like structure with only one ferromagnetic electrode. The device is based on a new high mobility perylene diimide-based n-type organic semiconductor. The effect originates from the tunneling injection from the LSMO contact and can thus occur even for organic layers which are too thick to support the assumption of tunneling through the layer. Magnetoresistance measurements show a clear spin-val...

  18. Relativistic Bottomonium Spectrum from Anisotropic Lattices

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, X.; Manke, T.

    2001-01-01

    We report on a first relativistic calculation of the quenched bottomonium spectrum from anisotropic lattices. Using a very fine discretisation in the temporal direction we were able to go beyond the non-relativistic approximation and perform a continuum extrapolation of our results from five different lattice spacings (0.04-0.17 fm) and two anisotropies (4 and 5). We investigate several systematic errors within the quenched approximation and compare our results with those from non-relativisti...

  19. Exploring the mirror matter interpretation of the DAMA experiment: Has the dark matter problem been solved?

    OpenAIRE

    Foot, R.

    2004-01-01

    The self consistency between the impressive DAMA annual modulation signal and the differential energy spectrum is an important test for dark matter candidates.Mirror matter-type dark matter passes this test while other dark matter candidates, including standard (spin-independent) WIMPs and mini-electric charged particle dark matter, do not do so well.We argue that the unique properties of mirror matter-type dark matter seem to be just those required to fully explain the data, suggesting that ...

  20. Anisotropic power-law k-inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Ohashi, Junko; Tsujikawa, Shinji

    2013-01-01

    It is known that power-law k-inflation can be realized for the Lagrangian $P=Xg(Y)$, where $X=-(\\partial \\phi)^2/2$ is the kinetic energy of a scalar field $\\phi$ and $g$ is an arbitrary function in terms of $Y=Xe^{\\lambda \\phi/M_{pl}}$ ($\\lambda$ is a constant and $M_{pl}$ is the reduced Planck mass). In the presence of a vector field coupled to the inflaton with an exponential coupling $f(\\phi) \\propto e^{\\mu \\phi/M_{pl}}$, we show that the models with the Lagrangian $P=Xg(Y)$ generally give rise to anisotropic inflationary solutions with $\\Sigma/H=constant$, where $\\Sigma$ is an anisotropic shear and $H$ is an isotropic expansion rate. Provided these anisotropic solutions exist in the regime where the ratio $\\Sigma/H$ is much smaller than 1, they are stable attractors irrespective of the forms of $g(Y)$. We apply our results to concrete models of k-inflation such as the generalized dilatonic ghost condensate/the DBI model and we numerically show that the solutions with different initial conditions converge...

  1. ARTc: Anisotropic reflectivity and transmissivity calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malehmir, Reza; Schmitt, Douglas R.

    2016-08-01

    While seismic anisotropy is known to exist within the Earth's crust and even deeper, isotropic or even highly symmetric elastic anisotropic assumptions for seismic imaging is an over-simplification which may create artifacts in the image, target mis-positioning and hence flawed interpretation. In this paper, we have developed the ARTc algorithm to solve reflectivity, transmissivity as well as velocity and particle polarization in the most general case of elastic anisotropy. This algorithm is able to provide reflectivity solution from the boundary between two anisotropic slabs with arbitrary symmetry and orientation up to triclinic. To achieve this, the algorithm solves full elastic wave equation to find polarization, slowness and amplitude of all six wave-modes generated from the incident plane-wave and welded interface. In the first step to calculate the reflectivity, the algorithm solves properties of the incident wave such as particle polarization and slowness. After calculation of the direction of generated waves, the algorithm solves their respective slowness and particle polarization. With this information, the algorithm then solves a system of equations incorporating the imposed boundary conditions to arrive at the scattered wave amplitudes, and thus reflectivity and transmissivity. Reflectivity results as well as slowness and polarization are then tested in complex computational anisotropic models to ensure their accuracy and reliability. ARTc is coded in MATLAB ® and bundled with an interactive GUI and bash script to run on single or multi-processor computers.

  2. Anisotropic Optical Properties of Layered Germanium Sulfide

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Dezhi; Wang, Feijiu; Mohamed, Nur Baizura; Mouri, Shinichiro; Sandhaya, Koirala; Zhang, Wenjing; Miyauchi, Yuhei; Ohfuchi, Mari; Matsuda, Kazunari

    2016-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) layered materials, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus, have attracted much interest from the viewpoints of fundamental physics and device applications. The establishment of new functionalities in anisotropic layered 2D materials is a challenging but rewarding frontier, owing to their remarkable optical properties and prospects for new devices. Here, we report the anisotropic optical properties of layered 2D monochalcogenide of germanium sulfide (GeS). Three Raman scattering peaks corresponding to the B3g, A1g, and A2g modes with strong polarization dependence are demonstrated in the GeS flakes, which validates polarized Raman spectroscopy as an effective method for identifying the crystal orientation of anisotropic layered GeS. Photoluminescence (PL) is observed with a peak at around 1.66 eV that originates from the direct optical transition in GeS at room temperature. Moreover, determination of the polarization dependent characteristics of the PL and absorption reveals...

  3. Electrostatics in soft matter

    OpenAIRE

    Messina, Rene

    2008-01-01

    Recent progress in the understanding of the effect of electrostatics in soft matter is presented. A vast amount of materials contains ions ranging from the molecular scale (e.g., electrolyte) to the meso/macroscopic one (e.g., charged colloidal particles or polyelectrolytes). Their (micro)structure and physicochemical properties are especially dictated by the famous and redoubtable long-ranged Coulomb interaction. In particular theoretical and simulational aspects, including the experimental ...

  4. Skew-Flavored Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Prateek; Fortes, Elaine C F S; Kilic, Can

    2015-01-01

    We explore a novel flavor structure in the interactions of dark matter with the Standard Model. We consider theories in which both the dark matter candidate, and the particles that mediate its interactions with the Standard Model fields, carry flavor quantum numbers. The interactions are skewed in flavor space, so that a dark matter particle does not directly couple to the Standard Model matter fields of the same flavor, but only to the other two flavors. This framework respects Minimal Flavor Violation, and is therefore naturally consistent with flavor constraints. We study the phenomenology of a benchmark model in which dark matter couples to right-handed charged leptons. In large regions of parameter space the dark matter can emerge as a thermal relic, while remaining consistent with the constraints from direct and indirect detection. The collider signatures of this scenario include events with multiple leptons and missing energy. These events exhibit a characteristic flavor pattern that may allow this cla...

  5. Memory Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Memory Matters KidsHealth > For Kids > Memory Matters Print A ... of your complex and multitalented brain. What Is Memory? When an event happens, when you learn something, ...

  6. GUTzilla Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Harigaya, Keisuke; Lou, Hou Keong

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by gauge coupling unification and dark matter, we present an extension to the Standard Model where both are achieved by adding an extra new matter multiplet. Such considerations lead to a Grand Unified Theory with very heavy WIMPzilla dark matter, which has mass greater than ~10^7 GeV and must be produced before reheating ends. Naturally, we refer to this scenario as GUTzilla dark matter. Here we present a minimal GUTzilla model, adding a vector-like quark multiplet to the Standard Model. Proton decay constraints require the new multiplet to be both color and electroweak charged, which prompts us to include a new confining SU(3) gauge group that binds the multiplet into a neutral composite dark matter candidate. Current direct detection constraints are evaded due to the large dark matter mass; meanwhile, next-generation direct detection and proton decay experiments will probe much of the parameter space. The relic abundance is strongly dependent on the dynamics of the hidden confining sector, and we...

  7. Spin-coupled charge dynamics in layered manganite crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Tokura, Y; Ishikawa, T

    1998-01-01

    Anisotropic charge dynamics has been investigated for single crystals of layered manganites, La sub 2 sub - sub 2 sub x Sr sub 1 sub + sub 2 sub x Mn sub 2 O sub 7 (0.3<=X<=0.5). Remarkable variations in the magnetic structure and in the charge-transport properties are observed by changing the doping level x . A crystal with x = 0.3 behaves like a 2-dimensional ferromagnetic metal in the temperature region between approx 90 K and approx 270 K and shows an interplane tunneling magnetoresistance at lower temperatures which is sensitive to the interplane magnetic coupling between the adjacent MnO sub 2 bilayers. Optical probing of these layered manganites has also clarified the highly anisotropic and incoherent charge dynamics.

  8. Invisible Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Dolgov, A. D.

    1995-01-01

    These lectures have been given to particle physicists, mostly experimentalists and very briefly and at a pedestrian level review the problems of dark matter. The content of the lectures is the following: 1. Introduction. 2. Cosmological background. 3. Luminous matter. 4. Primordial nucleosynthesis and the total amount of baryons. 5. Gravitating invisible matter. 6. Baryonic crisis. 7. Inflationary omega. 8. Intermediate summary. 9. Possible forms of dark matter. 10. Structure formation: basic...

  9. An anisotropic mesh adaptation method for the finite element solution of heterogeneous anisotropic diffusion problems

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xianping

    2010-01-01

    Heterogeneous anisotropic diffusion problems arise in the various areas of science and engineering including plasma physics, petroleum engineering, and image processing. Standard numerical methods can produce spurious oscillations when they are used to solve those problems. A common approach to avoid this difficulty is to design a proper numerical scheme and/or a proper mesh so that the numerical solution validates the discrete counterpart (DMP) of the maximum principle satisfied by the continuous solution. A well known mesh condition for the DMP satisfaction by the linear finite element solution of isotropic diffusion problems is the non-obtuse angle condition that requires the dihedral angles of mesh elements to be non-obtuse. In this paper, a generalization of the condition, the so-called anisotropic non-obtuse angle condition, is developed for the finite element solution of heterogeneous anisotropic diffusion problems. The new condition is essentially the same as the existing one except that the dihedral ...

  10. Dark Matter Deprivation in Field Elliptical Galaxy NGC 7507

    CERN Document Server

    Lane, Richard R; Richtler, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the kinematics of the field elliptical galaxy NGC 7507 do not necessarily require dark matter. This is troubling because, in the context of LCDM cosmologies, all galaxies should have a large dark matter component. We use penalised pixel fitting software to extract velocities and velocity dispersions from GMOS slit mask spectra. Using Jeans and MONDian modelling we produce best fit models to the velocity dispersion. We find that NGC 7507 has a two component stellar halo, with the outer halo and inner haloes counter rotating. The velocity dispersion profile exhibits an increase at ~70" (~7.9 kpc), reminiscent of several other elliptical galaxies. Our best fit models are those under mild anisotropy which include ~100 times less dark matter than predicted by LCDM, although mildly anisotropic models that are completely dark matter free fit almost equally well. Our MONDian models, both isotropic and anisotropic, systematically fail to reproduce the measured velocity dispersions at a...

  11. Dynamical charge fluctuation at FAIR energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment to be held at the Facility for antiproton and ion research (FAIR) is being designed to investigate the baryonic matter under extreme thermodynamic conditions. The hot and dense matter produced in this experiment will be rich in baryon number. It would be worthwhile to examine how the signatures proposed for identifying and characterizing a baryon free QGP like state behave in a baryon rich environment. Event-by-event fluctuation of net electrical charge and/or baryon number is one such indicator of the formation of the QGP, used and tested in RHIC and LHC heavy-ion experiments. One starts by defining the net charge Q = (N+ - N-) and the total charge Nch = (N+ + N-) where the quantities N+ and N- are respectively, the multiplicities of positively and negatively charged particles

  12. Resonant SIMP dark matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Min Choi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We consider a resonant SIMP dark matter in models with two singlet complex scalar fields charged under a local dark U(1D. After the U(1D is broken down to a Z5 discrete subgroup, the lighter scalar field becomes a SIMP dark matter which has the enhanced 3→2 annihilation cross section near the resonance of the heavier scalar field. Bounds on the SIMP self-scattering cross section and the relic density can be fulfilled at the same time for perturbative couplings of SIMP. A small gauge kinetic mixing between the SM hypercharge and dark gauge bosons can be used to make SIMP dark matter in kinetic equilibrium with the SM during freeze-out.

  13. Resonant SIMP dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo-Min; Lee, Hyun Min

    2016-07-01

    We consider a resonant SIMP dark matter in models with two singlet complex scalar fields charged under a local dark U(1)D. After the U(1)D is broken down to a Z5 discrete subgroup, the lighter scalar field becomes a SIMP dark matter which has the enhanced 3 → 2 annihilation cross section near the resonance of the heavier scalar field. Bounds on the SIMP self-scattering cross section and the relic density can be fulfilled at the same time for perturbative couplings of SIMP. A small gauge kinetic mixing between the SM hypercharge and dark gauge bosons can be used to make SIMP dark matter in kinetic equilibrium with the SM during freeze-out.

  14. Axion Dark Matter Searches

    CERN Document Server

    Stern, I

    2014-01-01

    Nearly all astrophysical and cosmological data point convincingly to a large component of cold dark matter in the Universe. The axion particle, first theorized as a solution to the strong charge-parity problem of quantum chromodynamics, has been established as a prominent CDM candidate. Cosmic observation and particle physics experiments have bracketed the unknown mass of the axion between approximately a $\\mu$eV and a meV. The Axion Dark Matter eXperiement (ADMX) has successfully completed searches between 1.9 and 3.7 $\\mu$eV down to the KSVZ photon-coupling limit. ADMX and the Axion Dark Matter eXperiement High-Frequency (ADMX-HF) will search for axions at weaker coupling and/or higher frequencies within the next few years. Status of the experiments, current research and development, and projected mass-coupling exclusion limits are presented.

  15. Quirky Composite Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Kribs, Graham D; Terning, John; Zurek, Kathryn M

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new dark matter candidate, quirky dark matter, that is a scalar baryonic bound state of a new non-Abelian force that becomes strong below the electroweak scale. The bound state is made of chiral quirks: new fermions that transform under both the new strong force as well as in a chiral representation of the electroweak group, acquiring mass from the Higgs mechanism. Electric charge neutrality of the lightest baryon requires approximately degenerate quirk masses which also causes the charge radius of the bound state to be negligible. The abundance is determined by an asymmetry that is linked to the baryon and lepton numbers of the universe through electroweak sphalerons. Dark matter elastic scattering with nuclei proceeds through Higgs exchange as well as an electromagnetic polarizability operator which is just now being tested in direct detection experiments. A novel method to search for quirky dark matter is to look for a gamma-ray dark line spectroscopic feature in galaxy clusters that result fr...

  16. Anisotropic fluid for a set of non-diagonal tetrads in f(T) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamani Daouda, M., E-mail: daoudah8@yahoo.fr [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Centro de Ciencias Exatas, Departamento de Fisica, Av. Fernando Ferrari s/n, Campus de Goiabeiras, CEP 29075-910, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Universite Abdou Moumouni de Niamey, BP 10662, Niamey (Niger); Rodrigues, Manuel E., E-mail: esialg@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Centro de Ciencias Exatas, Departamento de Fisica, Av. Fernando Ferrari s/n, Campus de Goiabeiras, CEP 29075-910, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Houndjo, M.J.S., E-mail: sthoundjo@yahoo.fr [Departamento de Ciencias Naturais, CEUNES, Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, CEP 29933-415, Sao Mateus, ES (Brazil); Institut de Mathematiques et de Sciences Physiques (IMSP), 01 BP 613 Porto-Novo (Benin)

    2012-08-29

    We consider f(T) gravity for a Weitzenbock's spherically symmetric and static spacetime, where the metric is projected in the tangent space to the manifold, for a set of non-diagonal tetrads. The matter content is coupled through the energy-momentum tensor of an anisotropic fluid, generating various classes of new black hole and wormhole solutions. One of these classes is that of cold black holes. We also perform the reconstruction scheme of the algebraic function f(T) for two cases where the radial pressure is proportional to f(T) and its first derivative.

  17. Magnon nodal-line semimetals and drumhead surface states in anisotropic pyrochlore ferromagnets

    CERN Document Server

    Mook, Alexander; Mertig, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new type of topological magnon matter: the magnonic pendant to electronic nodal-line semimetals. Magnon spectra of anisotropic pyrochlore ferromagnets feature twofold degeneracies of magnon bands along a closed loop in reciprocal space. These magnon nodal lines are topologically protected by the coexistence of inversion and time-reversal symmetry; they require the absence of spin-orbit interaction (no Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction). We calculate the topological invariants of the nodal lines and show that details of the associated magnon drumhead surface states depend strongly on the termination of the surface. Magnon nodal-line semimetals complete the family of topological magnons in three-dimensional ferromagnetic materials.

  18. Anisotropic massive strings in the scalar-tensor theory of gravitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anil Kumar Yadav

    2013-01-01

    We present the model of an anisotropic universe with string fluid as the source of matter within the framework of the scalar-tensor theory of gravitation.An exact solution of field equations is obtained by applying Berman's law of variation to Hubble's parameter which yields a constant value of the deceleration parameter.The nature of classical potential is examined for the model under consideration.It has also been found that the massive strings dominate in the early universe and finally disappear from the universe.This is in agreement with current astronomical observations.The physical and dynamical properties of the model are also discussed.

  19. Observation of anisotropic diffusion of light in compacted granular porous materials

    CERN Document Server

    Alerstam, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Employing spatially resolved photon time-of-flight spectroscopy, we reveal anisotropic diffusion of light in compressed granular media. Findings correlate well with recent reports of pore structural anisotropy and its pressure dependence, and significantly reshape our understanding of the optics of compacted granular matter. New routes to material characterization and investigations of compression-induced anisotropy are opened, and an urgent need for better understanding of the relation between compression, microstructure and light scattering is disclosed. Important implications for quantitative spectroscopy of powder compacts in general, and pharmaceutical tablets in particular, are also discussed.

  20. Testing different formulations of leading-order anisotropic hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Tinti, Leonardo; Florkowski, Wojciech; Strickland, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A recently obtained set of the equations for leading-order (3+1)D anisotropic hydrodynamics is tested against exact solutions of the Boltzmann equation with the collisional kernel treated in the relaxation time approximation. In order to perform the detailed comparisons, the new anisotropic hydrodynamics equations are reduced to the boost-invariant and transversally homogeneous case. The agreement with the exact solutions found using the new anisotropic hydrodynamics equations is similar to that found using previous, less general, formulations of anisotropic hydrodynamics. In addition, we find that, when compared to a state-of-the-art second-order viscous hydrodynamics framework, leading-order anisotropic hydrodynamics better reproduces the exact solution for the pressure anisotropy and gives comparable results for the bulk pressure evolution. Finally, we compare the transport coefficients obtained using linearized anisotropic hydrodynamics with results obtained using second-order viscous hydrodynamics.

  1. Testing different formulations of leading-order anisotropic hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinti, Leonardo; Ryblewski, Radoslaw; Florkowski, Wojciech; Strickland, Michael

    2016-02-01

    A recently obtained set of the equations for leading-order (3+1)D anisotropic hydrodynamics is tested against exact solutions of the Boltzmann equation with the collisional kernel treated in the relaxation time approximation. In order to perform detailed comparisons, the new anisotropic hydrodynamics equations are reduced to the boost-invariant and transversally homogeneous case. The agreement with the exact solutions found using the new anisotropic hydrodynamics equations is similar to that found using previous, less general formulations of anisotropic hydrodynamics. In addition, we find that, when compared to a state-of-the-art second-order viscous hydrodynamics framework, leading-order anisotropic hydrodynamics better reproduces the exact solution for the pressure anisotropy and gives comparable results for the bulk pressure evolution. Finally, we compare the transport coefficients obtained using linearized anisotropic hydrodynamics with results obtained using second-order viscous hydrodynamics.

  2. On Einstein clusters as galactic dark matter halos

    OpenAIRE

    Böhmer, CG; Harko, T.

    2007-01-01

    We consider global and gravitational lensing properties of the recently suggested Einstein clusters of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) as galactic dark matter haloes. Being tangential pressure dominated, Einstein clusters are strongly anisotropic systems which can describe any galactic rotation curve by specifying the anisotropy. Due to this property, Einstein clusters may be considered as dark matter candidates. We analyse the stability of the Einstein clusters against both radi...

  3. Discrimination between different types of white matter edema with diffusion-weighted MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebisu, T; Naruse, S; Horikawa, Y; Ueda, S; Tanaka, C; Uto, M; Umeda, M; Higuchi, T

    1993-01-01

    Brain edema can be classified into three categories: vasogenic, cytotoxic, and interstitial. The mechanism of edema is thought to be different in each type. The authors studied the movement of water molecules in each type of white matter edema in a rat model by using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Conventional T2-weighted imaging did not allow distinction between the three types of white matter edema; the three types of edema were, however, distinguished by using diffusion-weighted imaging. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of water was different in each type of edema. Water molecules in cytotoxic edema induced by triethyl-tin intoxication showed a smaller and less anisotropic ADC than in normal white matter. In contrast, water in vasogenic edema induced by cold injury had a larger and more anisotropic ADC than in normal white matter. Water in interstitial edema due to kaolin-induced hydrocephalus had an anisotropic and very large ADC. PMID:8280975

  4. Structure Scalars for Charged Cylindrically Symmetric Relativistic Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Sharif, M

    2012-01-01

    We investigate some structure scalars developed through Riemann tensor for self-gravitating cylindrically symmetric charged dissipative anisotropic fluid. We show that these scalars are directly related to the fundamental properties of the fluid. We formulate dynamical-transport equation as well as the mass function by including charge which are then expressed in terms of structure scalars. The effects of electric charge are investigated in the structure and evolution of compact objects. Finally, we show that all possible solutions of the field equations can be written in terms of these scalars.

  5. Relativistic modelling of stable anisotropic super-dense star

    CERN Document Server

    Maurya, S K; Jasim, M K

    2015-01-01

    In the present article we have obtained new set of exact solutions of Einstein field equations for anisotropic fluid spheres by using the Herrera et al.[1] algorithm. The anisotropic fluid spheres so obtained join continuously to Schwarzschild exterior solution across the pressure free boundary.It is observed that most of the new anisotropic solutions are well behaved and utilized to construct the super-dense star models such as neutron star and pulsars.

  6. Fronts of Stress Wave in Anisotropic Piezoelectric Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颖; 刘凯欣; 高凌天

    2004-01-01

    The characteristic of wave fronts in anisotropic piezoelectric media is analysed by adopting the generalized characteristic theory. Analytical expressions for wave velocities and wave fronts are formulated. Apart from the ordinary characteristics, a new phenomenon, energy velocity funnel, is formed on the wave fronts of quasitransverse waves in anisotropic piezoelectric materials. A three-dimensional representation of wave fronts in anisotropic piezoelectric materials is given for a better understanding of the new phenomena.

  7. Orthonormal bases for anisotropic α-modulation spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kenneth Niemann

    2012-01-01

    In this article we construct orthonormal bases for bi-variate anisotropic α-modulation spaces. The construction is based on generating a nice anisotropic α-covering and using carefully selected tensor products of univariate brushlet functions with regards to this covering. As an application, we...... show that n-term nonlinear approximation with the orthonormal bases in certain anisotropic α-modulation spaces can be completely characterized....

  8. Orthonormal bases for anisotropic α-modulation spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kenneth Niemann

    In this article we construct orthonormal bases for bi-variate anisotropic α-modulation spaces. The construction is based on generating a nice anisotropic α-covering and using carefully selected tensor products of univariate brushlet functions with regards to this covering. As an application, we...... show that n-term nonlinear approximation with the orthonormal bases in certain anisotropic α-modulation spaces can be completely characterized....

  9. Albedo and constant source problems for extremely anisotropic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocmen, M.A. [Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, Ankara (Turkey); Tegmen, A.; Guelecyuez, M.C. [Ankara Univ., Besevler (Turkey). Dept. of Physics; Tuereci, R.G. [Kirikkale Univ. (Turkey). Kirikkale Vocational High School; Tuereci, D.

    2013-07-15

    The half-space albedo problem and the constant source problem have been solved for a combination of the linearly anisotropic scattering and Inoenue's scattering functions. The linear transport equation for extremely anisotropic scattering kernel can be converted into an equivalent equation with a linearly anisotropic scattering kernel and the modified F{sub N} method can be used for albedo calculations. (orig.)

  10. Nuclear modification factor in an anisotropic quark-gluon plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Mahatsab; Bhattacharya, Lusaka; Roy, Pradip

    2011-10-01

    We calculate the nuclear modification factor (RAA) of light hadrons by taking into account the initial state momentum anisotropy of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) expected to be formed in relativistic heavy ion collisions. Such an anisotropy can result from the initial rapid longitudinal expansion of the matter. A phenomenological model for the space-time evolution of the anisotropic QGP is used to obtain the time dependence of the anisotropy parameter ξ and the hard momentum scale, phard. The result is then compared with the PHENIX experimental data to constrain the isotropization time scale, τiso for fixed initial conditions (FIC). It is shown that the extracted value of τiso lies in the range 0.5⩽τiso⩽1.5. However, using a fixed final multiplicity (FFM) condition does not lead to any firm conclusion about the extraction of the isotropization time. The present calculation is also extended to contrast with the recent measurement of nuclear modification factor by the ALICE collaboration at s=2.76 TeV. It is argued that in the present approach, the extraction of τiso at this energy is uncertain and, therefore, refinement of the model is necessary. The sensitivity of the results on the initial conditions has been discussed. We also present the nuclear modification factor at Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energies with s=5.5 TeV.

  11. Giant single-molecule anisotropic magnetoresistance at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji-Jun; Bai, Mei-Lin; Chen, Zhao-Bin; Zhou, Xiao-Shun; Shi, Zhan; Zhang, Meng; Ding, Song-Yuan; Hou, Shi-Min; Schwarzacher, Walther; Nichols, Richard J; Mao, Bing-Wei

    2015-05-13

    We report an electrochemically assisted jump-to-contact scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) break junction approach to create reproducible and well-defined single-molecule spintronic junctions. The STM break junction is equipped with an external magnetic field either parallel or perpendicular to the electron transport direction. The conductance of Fe-terephthalic acid (TPA)-Fe single-molecule junctions is measured and a giant single-molecule tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance (T-AMR) up to 53% is observed at room temperature. Theoretical calculations based on first-principles quantum simulations show that the observed AMR of Fe-TPA-Fe junctions originates from electronic coupling at the TPA-Fe interfaces modified by the magnetic orientation of the Fe electrodes with respect to the direction of current flow. The present study highlights new opportunities for obtaining detailed understanding of mechanisms of charge and spin transport in molecular junctions and the role of interfaces in determining the MR of single-molecule junctions. PMID:25894840

  12. Anisotropic metal growth on phospholipid nanodiscs via lipid bilayer expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oertel, Jana; Keller, Adrian; Prinz, Julia; Schreiber, Benjamin; Hübner, René; Kerbusch, Jochen; Bald, Ilko; Fahmy, Karim

    2016-01-01

    Self-assembling biomolecules provide attractive templates for the preparation of metallic nanostructures. However, the intuitive transfer of the "outer shape" of the assembled macromolecules to the final metallic particle depends on the intermolecular forces among the biomolecules which compete with interactions between template molecules and the metal during metallization. The shape of the bio-template may thus be more dynamic than generally assumed. Here, we have studied the metallization of phospholipid nanodiscs which are discoidal particles of ~10 nm diameter containing a lipid bilayer ~5 nm thick. Using negatively charged lipids, electrostatic adsorption of amine-coated Au nanoparticles was achieved and followed by electroless gold deposition. Whereas Au nanoparticle adsorption preserves the shape of the bio-template, metallization proceeds via invasion of Au into the hydrophobic core of the nanodisc. Thereby, the lipidic phase induces a lateral growth that increases the diameter but not the original thickness of the template. Infrared spectroscopy reveals lipid expansion and suggests the existence of internal gaps in the metallized nanodiscs, which is confirmed by surface-enhanced Raman scattering from the encapsulated lipids. Interference of metallic growth with non-covalent interactions can thus become itself a shape-determining factor in the metallization of particularly soft and structurally anisotropic biomaterials. PMID:27216789

  13. Modeling anisotropic plasmon excitations in self-assembled fullerenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iurov, Andrii; Gumbs, Godfrey; Gao, Bo; Huang, Danhong

    2014-05-01

    The plasmon excitations in Coulomb-coupled spherical two-dimensional electron gases (S2DEGs) reveal an interesting dependence on the displacement vector between the centers of the spheres with respect to the axis of quantization for the angular momentum quantum number L. Specifically, plasmon modes for a bundle of three S2DEGs have been obtained within the random-phase approximation. The inter-sphere Coulomb interaction matrix elements and their symmetry properties were also investigated in detail. The case of a bundle gives an adequate picture of the way in which the Coulomb interaction depends on the orbital angular momentum quantum number L and its projection M. We concluded that the interaction between the S2DEGs aligned at an angle of 45° with the axis of quantization is negligible compared to the interaction along and perpendicular to the quantization axis, which are themselves unequal to each other. Consequently, the plasmon excitation frequencies reveal an interesting orientational anisotropic coupling to an external electromagnetic field probing the charge density oscillations. Our result on the spatial correlation may be experimentally observable. In this connection, there have already been some experimental reports pointing to a similar effect in nanoparticles.

  14. Anisotropic metal growth on phospholipid nanodiscs via lipid bilayer expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oertel, Jana; Keller, Adrian; Prinz, Julia; Schreiber, Benjamin; Hübner, René; Kerbusch, Jochen; Bald, Ilko; Fahmy, Karim

    2016-05-01

    Self-assembling biomolecules provide attractive templates for the preparation of metallic nanostructures. However, the intuitive transfer of the “outer shape” of the assembled macromolecules to the final metallic particle depends on the intermolecular forces among the biomolecules which compete with interactions between template molecules and the metal during metallization. The shape of the bio-template may thus be more dynamic than generally assumed. Here, we have studied the metallization of phospholipid nanodiscs which are discoidal particles of ~10 nm diameter containing a lipid bilayer ~5 nm thick. Using negatively charged lipids, electrostatic adsorption of amine-coated Au nanoparticles was achieved and followed by electroless gold deposition. Whereas Au nanoparticle adsorption preserves the shape of the bio-template, metallization proceeds via invasion of Au into the hydrophobic core of the nanodisc. Thereby, the lipidic phase induces a lateral growth that increases the diameter but not the original thickness of the template. Infrared spectroscopy reveals lipid expansion and suggests the existence of internal gaps in the metallized nanodiscs, which is confirmed by surface-enhanced Raman scattering from the encapsulated lipids. Interference of metallic growth with non-covalent interactions can thus become itself a shape-determining factor in the metallization of particularly soft and structurally anisotropic biomaterials.

  15. An eigen theory of static electromagnetic field for anisotropic media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-hua GUO

    2009-01-01

    Static electromagnetic fields are studied based on standard spaces of the physical presentation,and the modal equations of static electromagnetic fields for anisotropic media are derived. By introducing a new set of first-order potential functions,several novel theoretical results are obtained. It is found that,for isotropic media,electric or magnetic potentials are scalar; while for anisotropic media,they are vectors. Magnitude and direction of the vector potentials are related to the anisotropic subspaces. Based on these results,we discuss the laws of static electromagnetic fields for anisotropic media.

  16. Anisotropic hydrodynamics for a mixture of quark and gluon fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florkowski, Wojciech; Maksymiuk, Ewa; Ryblewski, Radoslaw; Tinti, Leonardo

    2015-11-01

    A system of equations for anisotropic hydrodynamics is derived that describes a mixture of anisotropic quark and gluon fluids. The consistent treatment of the zeroth, first, and second moments of the kinetic equations allows us to construct a new framework with more general forms of the anisotropic phase-space distribution functions than used before. In this way, the main deficiencies of the previous formulations of anisotropic hydrodynamics for mixtures are overcome and a good agreement with the exact kinetic-theory results is obtained.

  17. Anisotropic hydrodynamics for mixture of quark and gluon fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Florkowski, Wojciech; Ryblewski, Radoslaw; Tinti, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    A system of equations for anisotropic hydrodynamics is derived that describes a mixture of anisotropic quark and gluon fluids. The consistent treatment of the zeroth, first and second moments of the kinetic equations allows us to construct a new framework with more general forms of the anisotropic phase-space distribution functions than those used before. In this way, the main difficiencies of the previous formulations of anisotropic hydrodynamics for mixtures have been overcome and the good agreement with the exact kinetic-theory results is obtained.

  18. Generalized Jones matrices for anisotropic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Quijano, Noé; Arce-Diego, José Luis

    2013-03-25

    The interaction of arbitrary three-dimensional light beams with optical elements is described by the generalized Jones calculus, which has been formally proposed recently [Azzam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28, 2279 (2011)]. In this work we obtain the parametric expression of the 3×3 differential generalized Jones matrix (dGJM) for arbitrary optical media assuming transverse light waves. The dGJM is intimately connected to the Gell-Mann matrices, and we show that it provides a versatile method for obtaining the macroscopic GJM of media with either sequential or simultaneous anisotropic effects. Explicit parametric expressions of the GJM for some relevant optical elements are provided.

  19. Anisotropic perturbations due to dark energy

    CERN Document Server

    Battye, R A; Battye, Richard A.; Moss, Adam

    2006-01-01

    A variety of observational tests seem to suggest that the universe is anisotropic. This is incompatible with the standard dogma based on adiabatic, rotationally invariant perturbations. We point out that this is a consequence of the standard decomposition of the stress-energy tensor for the cosmological fluids, and that rotational invariance need not be assumed, if there is elastic rigidity in the dark energy. The dark energy required to achieve this might be provided by point symmetric domain wall network with $P/\\rho=-2/3$, although the concept is more general. We illustrate this with reference to a model with cubic symmetry and discuss various aspects of the model.

  20. Self-organized motion in anisotropic swarms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tianguang CHU; Long WANG; Tongwen CHEN

    2003-01-01

    This paper considers an anisotropic swarm model with a class of attraction and repulsion functions. It is shown that the members of the swarm will aggregate and eventually form a cohesive cluster of finite size around the swarm center. Moreover,It is also proved that under certain conditions, the swarm system can be completely stable, i. e., every solution converges to the equilibrium points of the system. The model and results of this paper extend a recent work on isotropic swarms to more general cases and provide further insight into the effect of the interaction pattern on self-organized motion in a swarm system.

  1. On Radiative Fluids in Anisotropic Spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Shogin, Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    We apply the second-order Israel-Stewart theory of relativistic fluid- and thermodynamics to a physically realistic model of a radiative fluid in a simple anisotropic cosmological background. We investigate the asymptotic future of the resulting cosmological model and review the role of the dissipative phenomena in the early Universe. We demonstrate that the transport properties of the fluid alone, if described appropriately, do not explain the presently observed accelerated expansion of the Universe. Also, we show that, in constrast to the mathematical fluid models widely used before, the radiative fluid does approach local thermal equilibrium at late times, although very slowly, due to the cosmological expansion.

  2. Ultrasonic Linear Motor with Anisotropic Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾周末; 王新辉; 赵伯雷

    2004-01-01

    An idea to make up the vibrating body of ultrasonic motor with anisotropic composite is proposed and a linear piezoelectric motor is developed in this paper. Relative problems such as actuating mechanism, resonant frequency are discussed theoretically. According to the feature that impulse exists between the elastic body of composite ultrasonic linear motor and the base, an impulse analysis is presented to calculate the motor′s friction driving force and frictional conversion efficiency. The impulse analysis essentially explains the reason why the ultrasonic motor has great driving force, and can be applied to analyze the non-linear ultrasonic motor.

  3. Generalized model for anisotropic compact stars

    CERN Document Server

    Maurya, S K; Ray, Saibal; Deb, Debabrata

    2016-01-01

    In the present investigation an exact generalized model for anisotropic compact stars of embedding class one is sought for under general relativistic background. The generic solutions are verified by exploring different physical aspects, viz. energy conditions, mass-radius relation, stability of the models, in connection to their validity. It is observed that the model present here for compact stars is compatible with all these physical tests and thus physically acceptable as far as the compact star candidates $RXJ~1856-37$, $SAX~J~1808.4-3658~(SS1)$ and $SAX~J~1808.4-3658~(SS2)$ are concerned.

  4. Anisotropic Spin Cluster as a Qubit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Xiao-Bo; WANG Ming-Ji

    2007-01-01

    We study an anisotropic spin cluster of 3 spin S=1/2 particles with antiferromagnetic exchange interaction with non-uniform coupling constants. A time-dependent magnetic field is applied to control the time evolution of the cluster. It is well known that for an odd number og sites a spin cluster qubit can be defined in terms of the ground state doublet. The universal one-qubit logic gate can be constructed from the time evolution operator of the non-autonomous many-body system, and the six basic one-qubit gates can be realized by adjusting the applied time-dependent magnetic field.

  5. Anisotropic flow in striped superhydrophobic channels

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Jiajia; Schmid, Friederike; Vinogradova, Olga I

    2012-01-01

    We report results of dissipative particle dynamics simulations and develop a semi-analytical theory and of an anisotropic flow in a parallel-plate channel with two superhydrophobic striped walls. Our approach is valid for any local slip at the gas sectors and an arbitrary distance between the plates, ranging from a thick to a thin channel. It allows us to optimize area fractions, slip lengths, channel thickness and texture orientation to maximize a transverse flow. Our results may be useful for extracting effective slip tensors from global measurements, such as the permeability of a channel, in experiments or simulations, and may also find applications in passive microfluidic mixing.

  6. Hydrodynamics of anisotropic quark and gluon fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florkowski, Wojciech; Maj, Radoslaw; Ryblewski, Radoslaw; Strickland, Michael

    2013-03-01

    The recently developed framework of anisotropic hydrodynamics is generalized to describe the dynamics of coupled quark and gluon fluids. The quark and gluon components of the fluids are characterized by different dynamical anisotropy parameters. The dynamical equations describing such mixtures are derived from kinetic theory, with the collisional kernel treated in the relaxation-time approximation, allowing for different relaxation times for quarks and gluons. Baryon number conservation is enforced in the quark and antiquark components of the fluid, but overall parton number nonconservation is allowed in the system. The resulting equations are solved numerically in the (0+1)-dimensional boost-invariant case at zero and finite baryon density.

  7. Hydrodynamics of anisotropic quark and gluon fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Florkowski, Wojciech; Ryblewski, Radoslaw; Strickland, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The recently developed framework of anisotropic hydrodynamics is generalized to describe the dynamics of coupled quark and gluon fluids. The quark and gluon components of the fluids are characterized by different dynamical anisotropy parameters. The dynamical equations describing such mixtures are derived from kinetic theory with the collisional kernel treated in the relaxation-time approximation. Baryon number conservation is enforced in the quark and anti-quark components of the fluid, but overall parton number non-conservation is allowed in the system. The resulting equations are solved numerically in the (0+1)-dimensional boost-invariant case at zero and finite baryon density.

  8. A transitioning universe with anisotropic dark energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Anil Kumar

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we present a model of transitioning universe with minimal interaction between perfect fluid and anisotropic dark energy in Bianchi I space-time. The two sources are assumed to minimally interacted and therefore their energy momentum tensors are conserved separately. The explicit expression for average scale factor are considered in hybrid form that gives time varying deceleration parameter which describes both the early and late time physical features of universe. We also discuss the physical and geometrical properties of the model derived in this paper. The solution is interesting physically as it explain accelerating universe as well as singularity free universe.

  9. A transitioning universe with anisotropic dark energy

    CERN Document Server

    Yadav, Anil Kumar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a model of transitioning universe with minimal interaction between perfect fluid and anisotropic dark energy in Bianchi I space-time. The two sources are assumed to minimally interacted and therefore their energy momentum tensors are conserved separately. The explicit expression for average scale factor are considered in hybrid form that gives time varying deceleration parameter which describes both the early and late time physical features of universe. We also discuss the physical and geometrical properties of the model derived in this paper. The solution is interesting physically as it explain accelerating universe as well as singularity free universe.

  10. Meson-Meson Scattering on Anisotropic Lattices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Xi-Ning; MIAO Chuan; MENG Guang-Wei; LIU Chuan

    2005-01-01

    Using the tadpole improved Wilson quark action on small, coarse, and anisotropic lattices, meson-meson scattering lengths are calculated within quenched approximation. The study covers pion-pion scattering in the I = 2 channel and kaon-pion scattering in the I = 3/2 channel. The results are extrapolated towards the chiral limit. Finite volume and finite lattice spacing errors are also analyzed and results in the infinite volume and continuum limit are obtained. Our results are compared with the results obtained using Roy equations, chiral perturbation theory, dispersion relations, and the experimental data. We also compare our results with other lattice results on the scattering lengths.

  11. An Interaction Model of Dark Matter with Ordinary Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Weng, Zihua

    2007-01-01

    Based on the Maxwellian quaternion electromagnetic theory, the electromagnetic interaction, gravitational interaction and their coupling influence with dark matter field in octonion space are discussed. The paper reveals the close relationships of dark matter field with electromagnetic and gravitational fields. In the dark matter field, the research discloses the movement properties of dark matter in certain conditions and its influence on ordinary matter movements. In the electromagnetic field, the variation of field energy density has direct effect on the force of electric charge and current. In the modified gravitational field, the planetary near circularity and rotation are deduced from the equations set. The change of centrifugal force of celestial body leads to fluctuation of revolution speed, when the mass spatial distribution and field energy density varied, or when the celestial body's momentum varied along its sense of revolution. The results explain that some observed abnormal phenomena about celes...

  12. Asymmetric condensed dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Anthony; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    We explore the viability of a boson dark matter candidate with an asymmetry between the number densities of particles and antiparticles. A simple thermal field theory analysis confirms that, under certain general conditions, this component would develop a Bose-Einstein condensate in the early universe that, for appropriate model parameters, could survive the ensuing cosmological evolution until now. The condensation of a dark matter component in equilibrium with the thermal plasma is a relativistic process, hence the amount of matter dictated by the charge asymmetry is complemented by a hot relic density frozen out at the time of decoupling. Contrary to the case of ordinary WIMPs, dark matter particles in a condensate must be lighter than a few tens of eV so that the density from thermal relics is not too large. Big-Bang nucleosynthesis constrains the temperature of decoupling to the scale of the QCD phase transition or above. This requires large dark matter-to-photon ratios and very weak interactions with standard model particles.

  13. Late-Time Evolution of Charged Gravitational Collapse and Decay of Charged Scalar Hair, 2

    CERN Document Server

    Hod, S; Hod, Shahar; Piran, Tsvi

    1998-01-01

    We study analytically the initial value problem for a charged massless scalar-field on a Reissner-Nordström spacetime. Using the technique of spectral decomposition we extend recent results on this problem. Following the no-hair theorem we reveal the dynamical physical mechanism by which the charged hair is radiated away. We show that the charged perturbations decay according to an inverse power-law behaviour at future timelike infinity and along future null infinity. Along the future outer horizon we find an oscillatory inverse power-law relaxation of the charged fields. We find that a charged black hole becomes ``bald'' slower than a neutral one, due to the existence of charged perturbations. Our results are also important to the study of mass-inflation and the stability of Cauchy horizons during a dynamical gravitational collapse of charged matter in which a charged black-hole is formed.

  14. Mirror matter

    OpenAIRE

    Ignatiev, A. Yu.; Volkas, R. R.

    2003-01-01

    One of the deepest unsolved puzzles of subatomic physics is why Nature prefers the left particles to the right ones. Mirror matter is an attempt to understand this mystery by assuming the existence of a "parallel''world where this preference is exactly opposite. Thus in the Universe consisting of the ordinary and the mirror matter the symmetry between the left and right is completely restored. Mirror matter is constrained to interact with us only very weakly. Still, its existence can be infer...

  15. Electrically Anisotropic Layered Perovskite Single Crystal

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ting-You

    2016-04-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites (OIHPs), which are promising materials for electronic and optoelectronic applications (1-10), have made into layered organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites (LOIHPs). These LOIHPs have been applied to thin-film transistors, solar cells and tunable wavelength phosphors (11-18). It is known that devices fabricated with single crystal exhibit the superior performance, which makes the growth of large-sized single crystals critical for future device applications (19-23). However, the difficulty in growing large-sized LOIHPs single crystal with superior electrical properties limits their practical applications. Here, we report a method to grow the centimeter-scaled LOIHP single crystal of [(HOC2H4NH3)2PbI4], demonstrating the potentials in mass production. After that, we reveal anisotropic electrical and optoelectronic properties which proved the carrier propagating along inorganic framework. The carrier mobility of in-inorganic-plane (in-plane) devices shows the average value of 45 cm2 V–1 s–1 which is about 100 times greater than the record of LOIHP devices (15), showing the importance of single crystal in device application. Moreover, the LOIHP single crystals show its ultra-short carrier lifetime of 42.7 ps and photoluminescence quantum efficiency (PLQE) of 25.4 %. We expect this report to be a start of LOIHPs for advanced applications in which the anisotropic properties are needed (24-25), and meets the demand of high-speed applications and fast-response applications.

  16. Finite-difference schemes for anisotropic diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Es, Bram van, E-mail: es@cwi.nl [Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica, P.O. Box 94079, 1090GB Amsterdam (Netherlands); FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM (Netherlands); Koren, Barry [Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Blank, Hugo J. de [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM (Netherlands)

    2014-09-01

    In fusion plasmas diffusion tensors are extremely anisotropic due to the high temperature and large magnetic field strength. This causes diffusion, heat conduction, and viscous momentum loss, to effectively be aligned with the magnetic field lines. This alignment leads to different values for the respective diffusive coefficients in the magnetic field direction and in the perpendicular direction, to the extent that heat diffusion coefficients can be up to 10{sup 12} times larger in the parallel direction than in the perpendicular direction. This anisotropy puts stringent requirements on the numerical methods used to approximate the MHD-equations since any misalignment of the grid may cause the perpendicular diffusion to be polluted by the numerical error in approximating the parallel diffusion. Currently the common approach is to apply magnetic field-aligned coordinates, an approach that automatically takes care of the directionality of the diffusive coefficients. This approach runs into problems at x-points and at points where there is magnetic re-connection, since this causes local non-alignment. It is therefore useful to consider numerical schemes that are tolerant to the misalignment of the grid with the magnetic field lines, both to improve existing methods and to help open the possibility of applying regular non-aligned grids. To investigate this, in this paper several discretization schemes are developed and applied to the anisotropic heat diffusion equation on a non-aligned grid.

  17. Scaling Argument of Anisotropic Random Walk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Bing-Zhen; JIN Guo-Jun; WANG Fei-Feng

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we analytically discuss the scaling properties of the average square end-to-end distance for anisotropic random walk in D-dimensional space ( D ≥ 2), and the returning probability Pn(ro) for the walker into a certain neighborhood of the origin. We will not only give the calculating formula for and Pn (ro), but also point out that if there is a symmetric axis for the distribution of the probability density of a single step displacement, we always obtain ~ n, where ⊥ refers to the projections of the displacement perpendicular to each symmetric axes of the walk; in D-dimensional space with D symmetric axes perpendicular to each other, we always have ~ n and the random walk will be like a purely random motion; if the number of inter-perpendicular symmetric axis is smaller than the dimensions of the space, we must have ~ n2 for very large n and the walk will be like a ballistic motion. It is worth while to point out that unlike the isotropic random walk in one and two dimensions, which is certain to return into the neighborhood of the origin, generally there is only a nonzero probability for the anisotropic random walker in two dimensions to return to the neighborhood.

  18. On Backus average for generally anisotropic layers

    CERN Document Server

    Bos, Len; Slawinski, Michael A; Stanoev, Theodore

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, following the Backus (1962) approach, we examine expressions for elasticity parameters of a homogeneous generally anisotropic medium that is long-wave-equivalent to a stack of thin generally anisotropic layers. These expressions reduce to the results of Backus (1962) for the case of isotropic and transversely isotropic layers. In over half-a-century since the publications of Backus (1962) there have been numerous publications applying and extending that formulation. However, neither George Backus nor the authors of the present paper are aware of further examinations of mathematical underpinnings of the original formulation; hence, this paper. We prove that---within the long-wave approximation---if the thin layers obey stability conditions then so does the equivalent medium. We examine---within the Backus-average context---the approximation of the average of a product as the product of averages, and express it as a proposition in terms of an upper bound. In the presented examination we use the e...

  19. New formulation of leading order anisotropic hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinti, Leonardo

    2015-05-01

    Anisotropic hydrodynamics is a reorganization of the relativistic hydrodynamics expansion, with the leading order already containing substantial momentum-space anisotropies. The latter are a cause of concern in the traditional viscous hydrodynamics, since large momentum anisotropies generated in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions are not consistent with the hypothesis of small deviations from an isotropic background, i.e., from the local equilibrium distribution. We discuss the leading order of the expansion, presenting a new formulation for the (1+1)- dimensional case, namely, for the longitudinally boost invariant and cylindrically symmetric flow. This new approach is consistent with the well established framework of Israel and Stewart in the close to equilibrium limit (where we expect viscous hydrodynamics to work well). If we consider the (0+1)-dimensional case, that is, transversally homogeneous and longitudinally boost invariant flow, the new form of anisotropic hydrodynamics leads to better agreement with known solutions of the Boltzmann equation than the previous formulations, especially when we consider massive particles.

  20. Gravitomagnetic Instabilities in Anisotropically Expanding Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleidis, Kostas; Kuiroukidis, Apostolos; Papadopoulos, Demetrios B.; Vlahos, Loukas

    Gravitational instabilities in a magnetized Friedman-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe, in which the magnetic field was assumed to be too weak to destroy the isotropy of the model, are known and have been studied in the past. Accordingly, it became evident that the external magnetic field disfavors the perturbations' growth, suppressing the corresponding rate by an amount proportional to its strength. However, the spatial isotropy of the FRW universe is not compatible with the presence of large-scale magnetic fields. Therefore, in this paper we use the general-relativistic version of the (linearized) perturbed magnetohydrodynamic equations with and without resistivity, to discuss a generalized Jeans criterion and the potential formation of density condensations within a class of homogeneous and anisotropically expanding, self-gravitating, magnetized fluids in curved space-time. We find that, for a wide variety of anisotropic cosmological models, gravitomagnetic instabilities can lead to subhorizontal, magnetized condensations. In the nonresistive case, the power spectrum of the unstable cosmological perturbations suggests that most of the power is concentrated on large scales (small k), very close to the horizon. On the other hand, in a resistive medium, the critical wave-numbers so obtained, exhibit a delicate dependence on resistivity, resulting in the reduction of the corresponding Jeans lengths to smaller scales (well bellow the horizon) than the nonresistive ones, while increasing the range of cosmological models which admit such an instability.

  1. Relativistic Heavy Quark Spectrum On Anisotropic Lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, X

    2003-01-01

    We report a fully relativistic quenched calculation of the heavy quark spectrum, including both charmonium and bottomonium, using anisotropic lattice QCD. We demonstrate that a fully relativistic treatment of a heavy quark system is well-suited to address the large systematic errors in non-relativistic calculations. In addition, the anisotropic lattice formulation is a very efficient framework for calculations requiring high temporal resolutions. A detailed excited charmonium spectrum is obtained, including both the exotic hybrids (with JPC = 1−+ , 0+−, 2+−) and orbitally excited mesons (with orbital angular momentum up to 3). Using three different lattice spacings (0.197, 0.131, and 0.092 fm), we perform a continuum extrapolation of the spectrum. The lowest lying exotic hybrid 1−+ lies at 4.428(41) GeV, slightly above the D**D (S + P wave) threshold of 4.287 GeV. Another two exotic hybrids 0+− and 2 +− are determined to be 4.70(17) GeV and 4.895(88)...

  2. Dark matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigman, Gary

    The observational evidence for dark matter in the universe is reviewed. Constraints on the baryon density from primordial nucleosynthesis are presented and compared to the dynamical estimates of the mass on various scales. Baryons can account for the observed luminous mass as well as some, perhaps most, of the 'observed' dark mass. However if, as inflation/naturalness suggest, the total density of the universe is equal to the critical density, then nonbaryonic dark matter is required. The assets and liabilities of, as well as the candidates for, hot and cold dark matter are outlined. At present, there is no completely satisfactory candidate for nonbaryonic dark matter.

  3. Anisotropic artificial substrates for microwave applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahvarpour, Attieh

    The perfect electromagnetic conductor (PEMC) boundary is a novel fundamental electromagnetic concept. It is a generalized description of the electromagnetic boundary conditions including the perfect electric conductor (PEC) and the perfect magnetic conductor (PMC) and due to its fundamental properties, it has the potential of enabling several electromagnetic applications. However, the PEMC boundaries concept had remained at the theoretical level and has not been practically realized. Therefore, motivated by the importance of this electromagnetic fundamental concept and its potential applications, the first contribution of this thesis is focused on the practical implementation of the PEMC boundaries by exploiting Faraday rotation principle and ground reflection in the ferrite materials which are intrinsically anisotropic. As a result, this thesis reports the first practical approach for the realization of PEMC boundaries. A generalized scattering matrix (GSM) is used for the analysis of the grounded-ferrite PEMC boundaries structure. As an application of the PEMC boundaries, a transverse electromagnetic (TEM) waveguide is experimentally demonstrated using grounded ferrite PMC (as particular case of the PEMC boundaries) side walls. Perfect electromagnetic conductor boundaries may find applications in various types of sensors, reflectors, polarization convertors and polarization-based radio frequency identifiers. Leaky-wave antennas perform as high directivity and frequency beam scanning antennas and as a result they enable applications in radar, point-to-point communications and MIMO systems. The second contribution of this thesis is introducing and analysing a novel broadband and highly directive two-dimensional leaky-wave antenna. This antenna operates differently in the lower and higher frequency ranges. Toward its lower frequencies, it allows full-space conical-beam scanning while at higher frequencies, it provides fixed-beam radiation (at a designable angle

  4. Charge-induced patchy attractions between proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weimin; Persson, Björn A; Morin, Maxim; Behrens, Manja A; Lund, Mikael; Zackrisson Oskolkova, Malin

    2015-01-15

    Static light scattering (SLS) combined with structure-based Monte Carlo (MC) simulations provide new insights into mechanisms behind anisotropic, attractive protein interactions. A nonmonotonic behavior of the osmotic second virial coefficient as a function of ionic strength is here shown to originate from a few charged amino acids forming an electrostatic attractive patch, highly directional and complementary. Together with Coulombic repulsion, this attractive patch results in two counteracting electrostatic contributions to the interaction free energy which, by operating over different length scales, is manifested in a subtle, salt-induced minimum in the second virial coefficient as observed in both experiment and simulations. PMID:25494398

  5. Anisotropic flow of identified particles in Pb--Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{\\rm NN}}} =$ 2.76 TeV with the ALICE detector

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, You

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of anisotropic flow of identified particles, including charged pion, kaon, (anti-)proton as well as strange and multi-strange particles (${\\rm K_{S}^{0}}$, ${\\rm \\Lambda}$, ${\\rm \\Xi}$ and ${\\rm \\Omega}$) are measured in Pb--Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{{\\rm NN}}}}$ = 2.76 TeV with the ALICE detector. The results are compared to measurements at RHIC and hydrodynamic model calculations. The mass splitting and the scaling with the number of constituent quarks of the anisotropic flow are also discussed.

  6. Visualization of anisotropic-isotropic phase transformation dynamics in battery electrode particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiajun; Karen Chen-Wiegart, Yu-Chen; Eng, Christopher; Shen, Qun; Wang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Anisotropy, or alternatively, isotropy of phase transformations extensively exist in a number of solid-state materials, with performance depending on the three-dimensional transformation features. Fundamental insights into internal chemical phase evolution allow manipulating materials with desired functionalities, and can be developed via real-time multi-dimensional imaging methods. Here, we report a five-dimensional imaging method to track phase transformation as a function of charging time in individual lithium iron phosphate battery cathode particles during delithiation. The electrochemically driven phase transformation is initially anisotropic with a preferred boundary migration direction, but becomes isotropic as delithiation proceeds further. We also observe the expected two-phase coexistence throughout the entire charging process. We expect this five-dimensional imaging method to be broadly applicable to problems in energy, materials, environmental and life sciences. PMID:27516044

  7. Magnetic resonance elastography of slow and fast shear waves illuminates differences in shear and tensile moduli in anisotropic tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, J L; Tweten, D J; Benegal, A N; Walker, C H; Portnoi, T E; Okamoto, R J; Garbow, J R; Bayly, P V

    2016-05-01

    Mechanical anisotropy is an important property of fibrous tissues; for example, the anisotropic mechanical properties of brain white matter may play a key role in the mechanics of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The simplest anisotropic material model for small deformations of soft tissue is a nearly incompressible, transversely isotropic (ITI) material characterized by three parameters: minimum shear modulus (µ), shear anisotropy (ϕ=µ1µ-1) and tensile anisotropy (ζ=E1E2-1). These parameters can be determined using magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) to visualize shear waves, if the angle between the shear-wave propagation direction and fiber direction is known. Most MRE studies assume isotropic material models with a single shear (µ) or tensile (E) modulus. In this study, two types of shear waves, "fast" and "slow", were analyzed for a given propagation direction to estimate anisotropic parameters µ, ϕ, and ζ in two fibrous soft materials: turkey breast ex vivo and aligned fibrin gels. As expected, the speed of slow shear waves depended on the angle between fiber direction and propagation direction. Fast shear waves were observed when the deformations due to wave motion induced stretch in the fiber direction. Finally, MRE estimates of anisotropic mechanical properties in turkey breast were compared to estimates from direct mechanical tests. PMID:26920505

  8. Long-Range Surface Plasmons on Highly Anisotropic Dielectric Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumen, L.; Nagaraj; Neogi, A.; Krokhin, A.

    We calculate the propagation length of surface plasmons in metal-dielectric structures with anisotropic substrates. We show that the Joule losses can be minimized by appropriate orientation of the optical axis of a birefringent substrate and that the favorable orientation of the axis depends on ω. A simple Kronig-Penney model for anisotropic plasmonic crystal is also proposed.

  9. Anisotropic Flow Measurements in ALICE at the Large Hadron Collider

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilandzic, A.

    2012-01-01

    Anisotropic flow is one of the observables which is sensitive to the properties of the created hot and dense system in heavy-ion collisions. In noncentral heavy-ion collisions the initial volume of the interacting system is anisotropic in coordinate space. Due to multiple interactions this anisotropy

  10. Anisotropic conductivity tensor imaging using magnetic induction tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic induction tomography aims to reconstruct the electrical conductivity distribution of the human body using non-contact measurements. The potential of the method has been demonstrated by various simulation studies and a number of phantom experiments. These studies have all relied on models having isotropic distributions of conductivity, although the human body has a highly heterogeneous structure with partially anisotropic properties. Therefore, whether the conventional modeling approaches used so far are appropriate for clinical applications or not is still an open question. To investigate the problem, we performed a simulation study to investigate the feasibility of (1) imaging anisotropic perturbations within an isotropic medium and (2) imaging isotropic perturbations inside a partially anisotropic background. The first is the case for the imaging of anomalies that have anisotropic characteristics and the latter is the case e.g. in lung imaging where an anisotropic skeletal muscle tissue surrounds the lungs and the rib cage. An anisotropic solver based on the singular value decomposition was used to attain conductivity tensor images to be compared with the ones obtained from isotropic solvers. The results indicate the importance of anisotropic modeling in order to obtain satisfactory reconstructions, especially for the imaging of the anisotropic anomalies, and address the resolvability of the conductivity tensor components

  11. Interpolation theory of anisotropic finite elements and applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN ShaoChun; XIAO LiuChao

    2008-01-01

    Interpolation theory is the foundation of finite element methods. In this paper, after reviewing some existed interpolation theorems of anisotropic finite element methods, we present a new way to analyse the interpolation error of anisotropic elements based on Newton's formula of polynomial interpolation as well as its applications.

  12. Interpolation theory of anisotropic finite elements and applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Interpolation theory is the foundation of finite element methods.In this paper,after reviewing some existed interpolation theorems of anisotropic finite element methods,we present a new way to analyse the interpolation error of anisotropic elements based on Newton’s formula of polynomial interpolation as well as its applications.

  13. A BEM FOR TRANSIENT HEAT CONDUCTION PROBLEM OF ANISOTROPIC FGM

    OpenAIRE

    Azis, Mohammad Ivan

    2014-01-01

    A boundary element method (BEM) for the solution of a certain class of nonlinear parabolic initial boundary value problems for a certain class of anisotropic functionally graded media is derived. The method is then used to obtain numerical values for some particular transient 2-D heat conduction problems for anisotropic functionally graded materials (FGM).

  14. Are There Topologically Charged States Associated with Quantum Electrodynamics ?

    CERN Document Server

    Marino, E C

    1994-01-01

    We present a formulation of Quantum Electrodynamics in terms of an antisymmetric tensor gauge field. In this formulation the topological current of this field appears as a source for the electromagnetic field and the topological charge therefore acts physically as an electric charge. The charged states of QED lie in the sector where the topological charge is identical to the matter charge. The antisymmetric field theory, however, admits new sectors where the topological charge is more general. These nontrivial, electrically charged, sectors contain massless states orthogonal to the vacuum which are created by a gauge invariant operator and can be interpreted as coherent states of photons. We evaluate the correlation functions of these states in the absence of matter. The new states have a positive definite norm and do interact with the charged states of QED in the usual way. It is argued that if these new sectors are in fact realized in nature then a very intense background electromagnetic field is necessary ...

  15. Anisotropic Diffusion in Mesh-Free Numerical Magnetohydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, Philip F

    2016-01-01

    We extend recently-developed mesh-free Lagrangian methods for numerical magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) to arbitrary anisotropic diffusion equations, including: passive scalar diffusion, Spitzer-Braginskii conduction and viscosity, cosmic ray diffusion/streaming, anisotropic radiation transport, non-ideal MHD (Ohmic resistivity, ambipolar diffusion, the Hall effect), and turbulent 'eddy diffusion.' We study these as implemented in the code GIZMO for both new meshless finite-volume Godunov schemes (MFM/MFV) as well as smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH). We show the MFM/MFV methods are accurate and stable even with noisy fields and irregular particle arrangements, and recover the correct behavior even in arbitrarily anisotropic cases. They are competitive with state-of-the-art AMR/moving-mesh methods, and can correctly treat anisotropic diffusion-driven instabilities (e.g. the MTI and HBI, Hall MRI). We also develop a new scheme for stabilizing anisotropic tensor-valued fluxes with high-order gradient estimators ...

  16. Hiding Charge in a Wormhole

    CERN Document Server

    Guendelman, Eduardo; Nissimov, Emil; Pacheva, Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    Existence of wormholes can lead to a host of new effects like Misner-Wheeler "charge without charge" effect, where without being generated by any source an electric flux arrives from one "universe" and flows into the other "universe". Here we show the existence of an intriguing opposite possibility. Namely, a charged object (a charged lightlike brane in our case) sitting at the wormhole "throat" expels all the flux it produces into just one of the "universes", which turns out to be of compactified ("tube-like") nature. An outside observer in the non-compact "universe" detects, therefore, a neutral object. This charge-hiding effect takes place in a gravity/gauge-field system self-consistently interacting with a charged lightlike brane as a matter source, where the gauge field subsystem is of a special non-linear form containing a square-root of the Maxwell term and which previously has been shown to produce a QCD-like confining gauge field dynamics in flat space-time.

  17. Dark Matter Assimilation into the Baryon Asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    D'Eramo, Francesco; Thaler, Jesse

    2011-01-01

    Pure singlets are typically disfavored as dark matter candidates, since they generically have a thermal relic abundance larger than the observed value. In this paper, we propose a new dark matter mechanism called "assimilation", which takes advantage of the baryon asymmetry of the universe to generate the correct relic abundance of singlet dark matter. Through assimilation, dark matter itself is efficiently destroyed, but dark matter number is stored in new quasi-stable heavy states which carry the baryon asymmetry. The subsequent annihilation and late-time decay of these heavy states yields (symmetric) dark matter as well as (asymmetric) standard model baryons. We study in detail the case of pure bino dark matter by augmenting the minimal supersymmetric standard model with vector-like chiral multiplets. In the parameter range where this mechanism is effective, the LHC can discover long-lived charged particles which were responsible for assimilating dark matter.

  18. Tensor Modes Damping in Matter and Vacuum Dominated Era

    CERN Document Server

    Khodagholizadeh, Jafar; Asgari, Ali A

    2016-01-01

    The present paper has developed an integro-differential equation to propagate cosmological gravitation waves in matter-dominated era in accounting for the presence of free streaming neutrinos as a traceless transverse tensor part of the anisotropic stress tensor. Its focus is on short and long wavelengths of GWs that enter the horizon in matter-dominated era. Results show that the anisotropic stress reduces the squared amplitude by $ 0.03\\%$ for wavelengths, entering the horizon during matter-dominated phase. This reduction is less for those wavelengths that enter the horizon at $ \\Lambda $ dominated era in flat spacetime. All of the calculations have been done in closed spacetime and the results have been compared with the radiation-dominated case for both flat and closed spacetimes. Finally the paper investigates the effect of closed background on the amplitude of the gravitational waves.

  19. Searches for Magnetic Monopoles and Anomalously Charged Objects with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Katre, Akshay; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Results of searches for highly ionising particles and particles with anomalously high electric charge produced in proton-proton collisions in the ATLAS detector are presented. Such signatures, encompassing particles with charges from 10 to 60 times the electron charge, involve high levels of ionization in the ATLAS detector and can arise from magnetic monopoles or models involving technicolor, doubly charged Higgs bosons or composite dark matter models.

  20. Anisotropic de Gennes Narrowing in Confined Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygård, Kim; Buitenhuis, Johan; Kagias, Matias; Jefimovs, Konstantins; Zontone, Federico; Chushkin, Yuriy

    2016-04-22

    The collective diffusion of dense fluids in spatial confinement is studied by combining high-energy (21 keV) x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy and small-angle x-ray scattering from colloid-filled microfluidic channels. We find the structural relaxation in confinement to be slower compared to the bulk. The collective dynamics is wave vector dependent, akin to the de Gennes narrowing typically observed in bulk fluids. However, in stark contrast to the bulk, the structure factor and de Gennes narrowing in confinement are anisotropic. These experimental observations are essential in order to develop a microscopic theoretical description of collective diffusion of dense fluids in confined geometries. PMID:27152823

  1. Recent developments in anisotropic heterogeneous shell theory

    CERN Document Server

    Grigorenko, Alexander Ya; Grigorenko, Yaroslav M; Vlaikov, Georgii G

    2016-01-01

    This volume focuses on the relevant general theory and presents some first applications, namely those based on classical shell theory. After a brief introduction, during which the history and state-of-the-art are discussed, the first chapter presents the mechanics of anisotropic heterogeneous shells, covering all relevant assumptions and the basic relations of 3D elasticity, classical and refined shell models. The second chapter examines the numerical techniques that are used, namely discrete orthogonalization, spline-collocation and Fourier series, while the third highlights applications based on classical theory, in particular, the stress-strain state of shallow shells, non-circular shells, shells of revolution, and free vibrations of conical shells. The book concludes with a summary and an outlook bridging the gap to the second volume.

  2. Anisotropic estimates for sub-elliptic operators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John; BLAND; Tom; DUCHAMP

    2008-01-01

    In the 1970’s,Folland and Stein studied a family of subelliptic scalar operators L_λwhich arise naturally in the(?)_b-complex.They introduced weighted Sobolev spaces as the natural spaces for this complex,and then obtained sharp estimates for(?)b in these spaces using integral kernels and approximate inverses.In the 1990’s,Rumin introduced a differential complex for compact contact manifolds,showed that the Folland-Stein operators are central to the analysis for the corresponding Laplace operator,and derived the necessary estimates for the Laplacian from the Folland Stein analysis. In this paper,we give a self-contained derivation of sharp estimates in the anisotropic Folland-Stein spaces for the operators studied by Rumin using integration by parts and a modified approach to bootstrapping.

  3. Surface phonon polaritons on anisotropic piezoelectric superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yuanxi; Sheng, Jiteng; Sedlacek, Jonathon A.; Shaffer, James P.

    2016-01-01

    A theoretical study of surface phonon polaritons (SPhPs) on periodically poled lithium niobate and periodically poled lithium tantalate surfaces is presented. We calculate the dielectric response for six different superlattice orientations and the associated SPhP dispersion relations. Our study of SPhPs accounts for the anisotropic nature of the dielectric response of the semi-infinite piezoelectric superlattices. We find that two different types of SPhPs can be supported. The first type consists of real surface dipole oscillations coupled to photons. The second type consists of virtual surface dipole oscillations driven by the incident photons. The dependence of the SPhPs on temperature and superlattice geometry is addressed. The use of these metamaterial excitations is discussed in the context of hybrid quantum systems.

  4. Theory of Random Anisotropic Magnetic Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1976-01-01

    A mean-field-crystal-field theory is developed for random, multicomponent, anisotropic magnetic alloys. It is specially applicable to rare-earth alloys. A discussion is given of multicritical points and phase transitions between various states characterized by order parameters with different...... spatial directions or different ordering wave vectors. Theoretical predictions based on known parameters for the phase diagrams and magnetic moments for the binary rare-earth alloys of Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er, Tb-Tm, Nd-Pr, and pure double-hcp Nd agree qualitatively with the experimental observations....... Quantitative agreement can be obtained by increasing the interaction between different alloy elements, in particular for alloys with very different axial anisotropy, e.g., Tb-Tm. A model system consisting of a singlet-singlet and singlet-doublet alloy is discussed in detail. A simple procedure to include...

  5. Electrodynamic features of anisotropic hard superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Voloshin, I F; Fisher, L M; Aksenov, A V; Yampolskij, V A

    2001-01-01

    The low-frequency electromagnetic response of the superconducting plates, which are characterized by strong anisotropy of the current-carrying capacity in the sample plane, is experimentally and theoretically studied. The measurements are carried out on the polycrystalline textured plates of the Y-123 system as well as on the monocrystal. It is shown that the form of curves describing the dependence of the q relative losses on the h sub 0 alternate field amplitudes is highly sensitive to the h sub 0 vector orientation in the sample plane. The q(h sub 0) dependence by the h sub 0 orientation along one of the main directions of the current anisotropic critical density symmetry the q(h sub 0) dependence is characterized by the single dimensional maximum. Two dimensional maxima are observed on the q(h sub 0) curve by the h sub 0 significant deviation from the main directions

  6. Anisotropic Cloth Modeling for Material Fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingmin; Pan, Zhigengx; Mi, Qingfeng

    Physically based cloth simulation has been challenging the graphics community for more than three decades. With the developing of virtual reality and clothing CAD, it has become the key technique of virtual garment and try-on system. Although it has received considerable attention in computer graphics, due to its flexible property and realistic feeling that the textile engineers pay much attention to, there is not a successful methodology to simulate cloth both in visual realism and physical accuracy. We present a new anisotropic textile modeling method based on physical mass-spring system, which models the warps and wefts separately according to the different material fabrics. The simulation process includes two main steps: firstly the rigid object simulation and secondly the flexible mass simulation near to be equilibrium. A multiresolution modeling is applied to enhance the tradeoff fruit of the realistic presentation and computation cost. Finally, some examples and the analysis results show the efficiency of the proposed method.

  7. Adiabatic theory for anisotropic cold molecule collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We developed an adiabatic theory for cold anisotropic collisions between slow atoms and cold molecules. It enables us to investigate the importance of the couplings between the projection states of the rotational motion of the atom about the molecular axis of the diatom. We tested our theory using the recent results from the Penning ionization reaction experiment 4He(1s2s 3S) + HD(1s2) → 4He(1s2) + HD+(1s) + e− [Lavert-Ofir et al., Nat. Chem. 6, 332 (2014)] and demonstrated that the couplings have strong effect on positions of shape resonances. The theory we derived provides cross sections which are in a very good agreement with the experimental findings

  8. Adiabatic theory for anisotropic cold molecule collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Mariusz; Shagam, Yuval; Narevicius, Edvardas; Moiseyev, Nimrod

    2015-08-21

    We developed an adiabatic theory for cold anisotropic collisions between slow atoms and cold molecules. It enables us to investigate the importance of the couplings between the projection states of the rotational motion of the atom about the molecular axis of the diatom. We tested our theory using the recent results from the Penning ionization reaction experiment (4)He(1s2s (3)S) + HD(1s(2)) → (4)He(1s(2)) + HD(+)(1s) + e(-) [Lavert-Ofir et al., Nat. Chem. 6, 332 (2014)] and demonstrated that the couplings have strong effect on positions of shape resonances. The theory we derived provides cross sections which are in a very good agreement with the experimental findings. PMID:26298122

  9. Adiabatic theory for anisotropic cold molecule collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawlak, Mariusz [Schulich Faculty of Chemistry, Technion–Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Faculty of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Gagarina 7, 87-100 Toruń (Poland); Shagam, Yuval; Narevicius, Edvardas [Department of Chemical Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Moiseyev, Nimrod [Schulich Faculty of Chemistry, Technion–Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Faculty of Physics, Technion–Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2015-08-21

    We developed an adiabatic theory for cold anisotropic collisions between slow atoms and cold molecules. It enables us to investigate the importance of the couplings between the projection states of the rotational motion of the atom about the molecular axis of the diatom. We tested our theory using the recent results from the Penning ionization reaction experiment {sup 4}He(1s2s {sup 3}S) + HD(1s{sup 2}) → {sup 4}He(1s{sup 2}) + HD{sup +}(1s) + e{sup −} [Lavert-Ofir et al., Nat. Chem. 6, 332 (2014)] and demonstrated that the couplings have strong effect on positions of shape resonances. The theory we derived provides cross sections which are in a very good agreement with the experimental findings.

  10. Anisotropic Shock Propagation in Single Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggert, J; Hicks, D; Celliers, P; Bradley, D; Cox, J; Unites, W; Collins, G; McWilliams, R; Jeanloz, R; Bruygoo, S; Loubeyre, P

    2005-05-26

    Most single-crystal shock experiments have been performed in high-symmetry directions while the nature of shock propagation in low-symmetry directions remains relatively unstudied. It is well known that small-amplitude, linear acoustic waves propagating in low-symmetry directions can focus and/or form caustics (Wolfe, 1995). In this report we provide evidence for similar focusing behavior in nonlinear (shock) waves propagating in single crystals of silicon and diamond. Using intense lasers, we have driven non-planar (divergent geometry) shock waves through single-crystals of silicon or diamond and into an isotropic backing plate. On recovery of the backing plates we observe a depression showing evidence of anisotropic plastic strain with well-defined crystallographic registration. We observe 4-, 2-, and 3-fold symmetric impressions for [100], [110], and [111] oriented crystals respectively.

  11. Anisotropic photon migration in human skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is demonstrated in the short head of the human biceps brachii of 16 healthy subjects (12 males and 4 females) that near infrared photon migration is anisotropic. The probability for a photon to travel along the direction of the muscle fibres is higher (∼0.4) than that of travelling along a perpendicular axis (∼0.3) while in the adipose tissue the probability is the same (∼0.33) in all directions. Considering that the muscle fibre orientation is different depending on the type of muscle considered, and that inside a given skeletal muscle the orientation may change, the present findings in part might explain the intrasubject variability observed in the physiological parameters measured by near infrared spectroscopy techniques. In other words, the observed regional differences might not only be physiological differences but also optical artefacts. (note)

  12. Anisotropic metamaterials with simultaneous attenuation and amplification

    CERN Document Server

    Mackay, Tom G

    2015-01-01

    Anisotropic metamaterials that are neither wholly dissipative nor wholly active at a specific frequency are permitted by classical electromagnetic theory. Well-established formalisms for the homogenization of particulate composite materials indicate that such a metamaterial may be conceptualized quite simply as a random mixture of electrically small spheroidal particles of at least two different isotropic dielectric materials, one of which must be dissipative but the other active. The realization of this metametarial is influenced by the volume fraction, spatial distribution, particle shape and size, and the relative permittivities of the component materials. Metamaterials displaying both dissipation and amplification at the same frequency with more complicated linear as well as nonlinear constitutive properties are possible.

  13. Anisotropic Diffusion Tensor Applied to Temporal Mammograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karemore, Gopal Raghunath; Brandt, Sami; Sporring, Jon;

    2010-01-01

    changes related to  specific  effects  like  Hormonal  Replacement  Therapy  (HRT) and aging. Given effect-grouped patient data, we demonstrated how  anisotropic  diffusion  tensor  and  its  coherence  features computed in an anatomically oriented breast coordinate system followed by statistical learning...... scheme provides non subjective and   reproducible   measure   compare   it   to   the   traditional BIRADS and computer aided percent density measure. We also demonstrate   how   orientation   of   breast   tissue   changes   in temporal study. This framework facilitates radiologist to assess breast...... tissue change and guide them to evaluate individual risk of having breast cancer....

  14. Anisotropic plasmas from axion and dilaton deformations

    CERN Document Server

    Donos, Aristomenis; Sosa-Rodriguez, Omar

    2016-01-01

    We construct black hole solutions of type IIB supergravity that are holographically dual to anisotropic plasmas arising from deformations of an infinite class of four-dimensional CFTs. The CFTs are dual to $AdS_5\\times X_5$, where $X_5$ is an Einstein manifold, and the deformations involve the type IIB axion and dilaton, with non-trivial periodic dependence on one of the spatial directions of the CFT. At low temperatures the solutions approach smooth domain wall solutions with the same $AdS_5\\times X_5$ solution appearing in the far IR. For sufficiently large deformations an intermediate scaling regime appears which is governed by a Lifshitz-like scaling solution. We calculate the DC thermal conductivity and some components of the shear viscosity tensor.

  15. Plasmons in Anisotropic Quark-Gluon Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Carrington, Margaret E; Mrowczynski, Stanislaw

    2014-01-01

    Plasmons of quark-gluon plasma - gluon collective modes - are systematically studied. The plasma is, in general, non-equilibrium but homogeneous. We consider anisotropic momentum distributions of plasma constituents which are obtained from the isotropic one by stretching or squeezing in one direction. This leads to prolate or oblate distributions, respectively. We study all possible degrees of one dimensional deformation from the extremely prolate case, when the momentum distribution is infinitely elongated in one direction, to the extremely oblate distribution, which is infinitely squeezed in the same direction. In between these extremes we discuss arbitrarily prolate, weakly prolate, isotropic, weakly oblate and arbitrarily oblate distributions. For each case, the number of modes is determined using a Nyquist analysis and the complete spectrum of plasmons is found analytically if possible, and numerically when not. Unstable modes are shown to exist in all cases except that of isotropic plasma. We derive con...

  16. Anisotropic dynamic mass density for fluidsolid composites

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Ying

    2012-10-01

    By taking the low frequency limit of multiple-scattering theory, we obtain the dynamic effective mass density of fluidsolid composites with a two-dimensional rectangular lattice structure. The anisotropic mass density can be described by an angle-dependent dipole solution, to the leading-order of solid concentration. The angular dependence vanishes for the square lattice, but at high solid concentrations there is a structure-dependent factor that contributes to the leading-order solution. In all cases, Woods formula is found to be accurately valid for the effective bulk modulus, independent of the structures. Numerical evaluations from the solutions are shown to be in excellent agreement with finite-element simulations. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  17. A model for anisotropic strange stars

    CERN Document Server

    Deb, Debabrata; Ray, Saibal; Rahaman, Farook; Guha, B K

    2016-01-01

    We attempt to find a singularity free interior solution for a neutral and static stellar model. We consider that (i) the star is made up of anisotropic fluid and (ii) the MIT bag model can be used. The total system is defined by assuming the density profile given by Mak and Harko \\cite{Mak2002}, which satisfies all the physical conditions of a stellar system and is stable by nature. We find that those stellar systems which obey such a non-linear density function must have maximum anisotropy at the surface. We also perform several tests for physical features of the proposed model and show that these are mostly acceptable within certain range. As a special mention, from our investigation we find that the maximum mass and radius of the quark star are $11.811 km$ and $3.53 {M}_{\\odot}$ respectively.

  18. Anisotropic magnetism in field-structured composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic field-structured composites (FSCs) are made by structuring magnetic particle suspensions in uniaxial or biaxial (e.g., rotating) magnetic fields, while polymerizing the suspending resin. A uniaxial field produces chainlike particle structures, and a biaxial field produces sheetlike particle structures. In either case, these anisotropic structures affect the measured magnetic hysteresis loops, with the magnetic remanence and susceptibility increased significantly along the axis of the structuring field, and decreased slightly orthogonal to the structuring field, relative to the unstructured particle composite. The coercivity is essentially unaffected by structuring. We present data for FSCs of magnetically soft particles, and demonstrate that the altered magnetism can be accounted for by considering the large local fields that occur in FSCs. FSCs of magnetically hard particles show unexpectedly large anisotropies in the remanence, and this is due to the local field effects in combination with the large crystalline anisotropy of this material. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  19. Anisotropic criteria for the type of superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogan, Vladimir G [Ames Laboratory; Prozorov, Ruslan [Ames Laboratory

    2014-08-01

    The classical criterion for classification of superconductors as type I or type II based on the isotropic Ginzburg-Landau theory is generalized to arbitrary temperatures for materials with anisotropic Fermi surfaces and order parameters. We argue that the relevant quantity for this classification is the ratio of the upper and thermodynamic critical fields Hc2/Hc, rather than the traditional ratio of the penetration depth and the coherence length λ/ξ. Even in the isotropic case, Hc2/Hc coincides with 2√λ/ξ only at the critical temperature Tc and they differ as T decreases, the long-known fact. Anisotropies of Fermi surfaces and order parameters may amplify this difference and render false the criterion based on the value of κ=λ/ξ.

  20. An Anisotropic Hardening Model for Springback Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Danielle; Xia, Z. Cedric

    2005-08-01

    As more Advanced High-Strength Steels (AHSS) are heavily used for automotive body structures and closures panels, accurate springback prediction for these components becomes more challenging because of their rapid hardening characteristics and ability to sustain even higher stresses. In this paper, a modified Mroz hardening model is proposed to capture realistic Bauschinger effect at reverse loading, such as when material passes through die radii or drawbead during sheet metal forming process. This model accounts for material anisotropic yield surface and nonlinear isotropic/kinematic hardening behavior. Material tension/compression test data are used to accurately represent Bauschinger effect. The effectiveness of the model is demonstrated by comparison of numerical and experimental springback results for a DP600 straight U-channel test.

  1. Long-range interaction of anisotropic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, J. Y.

    2015-02-01

    The first-order electrostatic interaction energy between two far-apart anisotropic atoms depends not only on the distance between them but also on their relative orientation, according to Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory. Using the first-order interaction energy and the continuum model, we study the long-range interaction between a pair of parallel pristine graphene sheets at zero temperature. The asymptotic form of the obtained potential density, &epsi:(D) &prop: ?D ?3 ?O(D?4), is consistent with the random phase approximation and Lifshitz theory. Accordingly, neglectance of the anisotropy, especially the nonzero first-order interaction energy, is the reason why the widely used Lennard-Jones potential approach and dispersion corrections in density functional theory give a wrong asymptotic form ε(D) &prop: ?D?4. © EPLA, 2015.

  2. Effective orthorhombic anisotropic models for wavefield extrapolation

    KAUST Repository

    Ibanez-Jacome, W.

    2014-07-18

    Wavefield extrapolation in orthorhombic anisotropic media incorporates complicated but realistic models to reproduce wave propagation phenomena in the Earth\\'s subsurface. Compared with the representations used for simpler symmetries, such as transversely isotropic or isotropic, orthorhombic models require an extended and more elaborated formulation that also involves more expensive computational processes. The acoustic assumption yields more efficient description of the orthorhombic wave equation that also provides a simplified representation for the orthorhombic dispersion relation. However, such representation is hampered by the sixth-order nature of the acoustic wave equation, as it also encompasses the contribution of shear waves. To reduce the computational cost of wavefield extrapolation in such media, we generate effective isotropic inhomogeneous models that are capable of reproducing the firstarrival kinematic aspects of the orthorhombic wavefield. First, in order to compute traveltimes in vertical orthorhombic media, we develop a stable, efficient and accurate algorithm based on the fast marching method. The derived orthorhombic acoustic dispersion relation, unlike the isotropic or transversely isotropic ones, is represented by a sixth order polynomial equation with the fastest solution corresponding to outgoing P waves in acoustic media. The effective velocity models are then computed by evaluating the traveltime gradients of the orthorhombic traveltime solution, and using them to explicitly evaluate the corresponding inhomogeneous isotropic velocity field. The inverted effective velocity fields are source dependent and produce equivalent first-arrival kinematic descriptions of wave propagation in orthorhombic media. We extrapolate wavefields in these isotropic effective velocity models using the more efficient isotropic operator, and the results compare well, especially kinematically, with those obtained from the more expensive anisotropic extrapolator.

  3. Radiative accidental matter

    CERN Document Server

    Sierra, D Aristizabal; Wegman, D

    2016-01-01

    Accidental matter models are scenarios where the beyond-the-standard model physics preserves all the standard model accidental and approximate symmetries up to a cutoff scale related with lepton number violation. We study such scenarios assuming that the new physics plays an active role in neutrino mass generation, and show that this unavoidably leads to radiatively induced neutrino masses. We systematically classify all possible models and determine their viability by studying electroweak precision data, big bang nucleosynthesis and electroweak perturbativity, finding that the latter places the most stringent constraints on the mass spectra. These results allow the identification of minimal radiative accidental matter models for which perturbativity is lost at high scales. We calculate radiative charged-lepton flavor violating processes in these setups, and show that $\\mu\\to e \\gamma$ has a rate well within MEG sensitivity provided the lepton-number violating scale is at or below $10^6\\,$ GeV, a value (natur...

  4. Superdense muonic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A possible method of creation of superdense matter with approximate atomic density 4 x 1029cm-3 is suggested. A pulsed beam of 108 muons, with duration 3 x 10-6sec is shone on liquid hydrogen of volume ∼(300A)3. A muon charge-exchanges with an electron in a hydrogen atom: with enough muonic hydrogen atoms, the compressibility tends to diverge and condensation into a much higher density state begins. The muon beam should be cooled by the ionization process and channeled through crystal axes before irradiation on the hydrogen specimen. When magnetic fields are present upon irradiation, the fields may be enhanced up to 109 Gauss. A possible state of this matter is speculated

  5. Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Einasto, Jaan

    2009-01-01

    A review of the development of the concept of dark matter is given. I begin the review with the description of the discovery of the mass paradox in our Galaxy and in clusters of galaxies. In mid 1970s the amount of observational data was sufficient to suggest the presence of a massive and invisible population around galaxies and in clusters of galaxies. The nature of the dark population was not clear at that time, but the hypotheses of stellar as well as of gaseous nature of the new population had serious difficulties. These difficulties disappeared when non-baryonic nature of dark matter was suggested in early 1980s. In addition to the presence of Dark Matter, recent observations suggest the presence of Dark Energy, which together with Dark Matter and ordinary baryonic matter makes the total matter/energy density of the Universe equal to the critical cosmological density. There are various hypothesis as for the nature of the dark matter particles, and generally some form of weakly interactive massive particl...

  6. Dark matter on top

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider a simplified model of fermionic dark matter which couples exclusively to the right-handed top quark via a renormalizable interaction with a color-charged scalar. We first compute the relic abundance of this type of dark matter and investigate constraints placed on the model parameter space by the latest direct detection data. We also perform a detailed analysis for the production of dark matter at the LHC for this model. We find several kinematic variables that allow for a clean signal extraction and we show that the parameter space of this model will be well probed during LHC Run-II. Finally, we investigate the possibility of detecting this type of dark matter via its annihilations into gamma rays. We compute the continuum and the line emission (which includes a possible ''Higgs in Space!'' line) and its possible discovery by future gamma-ray telescopes. We find that the annihilation spectrum has distinctive features which may distinguish it from other models

  7. Gaseous Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    aseous Matter focuses on the many important discoveries that led to the scientific interpretation of matter in the gaseous state. This new, full-color resource describes the basic characteristics and properties of several important gases, including air, hydrogen, helium, oxygen, and nitrogen. The nature and scope of the science of fluids is discussed in great detail, highlighting the most important scientific principles upon which the field is based. Chapters include:. Gaseous Matter An Initial Perspective. Physical Characteristics of Gases. The Rise of the Science of Gases. Kinetic Theory of

  8. Exact soluble two-dimensional charged wormhole

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Ji Young; Kim, Won Tae; Yee, Hee Ju

    2003-01-01

    We present an exactly soluble charged wormhole model in two dimensions by adding infalling chiral fermions on the static wormhole. The infalling energy due to the infalling charged matter requires the classical back reaction of the geometry, which is solved by taking into account of the nontrivial nonchiral exotic energy. Finally, we obtain the exact expression for the size of the throat depending on the total amount of the infalling net energy and discuss the interesting transition from the ...

  9. Fabrication of anisotropic microparticles by laser ablation and laser heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Kozue; Higuchi, Takeshi; Aita, Tadahiro, E-mail: aita@yz.yamagata-u.ac.jp

    2015-02-01

    Laser ablation and laser heating were used as micro-cutting and micro-bonding tools for fabrication of anisotropic microparticles. By using the techniques, two kinds of anisotropic microparticles to which a polymer film or magnetic particles was attached on their one hemisphere were fabricated from transparent spherical acrylic polymer particles of about 10 μm. In the fabrication of the anisotropic particles to which a polymer film attached, a mono-particle layer of the acrylic polymer particles formed on water surface was transferred on to a target plate coated with a polymer film and the plate was heated so that the particles strongly adhered to the polymer film. The plate was irradiated by 1064 nm or 532 nm pulse light from a Q-switched YAG laser to cause the ablation of the target. The ablation blew off the polymer film together with the acrylic polymer particles from the target plate, which gave the anisotropic particles. Anisotropic particles to which magnetic particles attached on their one hemisphere were fabricated by laser heating. A magnetic particle layer formed on water surface was transferred onto a quartz plate and then the monoparticle layer of the acrylic polymer particles was transferred onto the magnetic particle layer. The magnetic particles were heated by irradiation of 808 nm light from a CW diode laser, which caused the adhesion of the magnetic particles to the polymer particles. Rotation of the obtained magnetically anisotropic particles under rotating magnetic field was demonstrated. - Highlights: • Laser ablation and laser heating were used for fabrication of anisotropic particles. • Anisotropic microparticles having a polymer film or magnetic particles on their one hemisphere were fabricated. • The magnetically anisotropic microparticles rotated under a rotating magnetic field.

  10. CHARGE Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semanti Chakraborty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present here a case of 17-year-old boy from Kolkata presenting with obesity, bilateral gynecomastia, mental retardation, and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. The patient weighed 70 kg and was of 153 cm height. Facial asymmetry (unilateral facial palsy, gynecomastia, decreased pubic and axillary hair, small penis, decreased right testicular volume, non-palpable left testis, and right-sided congenital inguinal hernia was present. The patient also had disc coloboma, convergent squint, microcornea, microphthalmia, pseudohypertelorism, low set ears, short neck, and choanalatresia. He had h/o VSD repaired with patch. Laboratory examination revealed haemoglobin 9.9 mg/dl, urea 24 mg/dl, creatinine 0.68 mg/dl. IGF1 77.80 ng/ml (decreased for age, GH <0.05 ng/ml, testosterone 0.25 ng/ml, FSH-0.95 ΅IU/ml, LH 0.60 ΅IU/ml. ACTH, 8:00 A.M cortisol, FT3, FT4, TSH, estradiol, DHEA-S, lipid profile, and LFT was within normal limits. Prolactin was elevated at 38.50 ng/ml. The patient′s karyotype was 46XY. Echocardiography revealed ventricularseptal defect closed with patch, grade 1 aortic regurgitation, and ejection fraction 67%. Ultrasound testis showed small right testis within scrotal sac and undescended left testis within left inguinal canal. CT scan paranasal sinuses revealed choanalatresia and deviation of nasal septum to the right. Sonomammography revealed bilateral proliferation of fibroglandular elements predominantly in subareoalar region of breasts. MRI of brain and pituitary region revealed markedly atrophic pituitary gland parenchyma with preserved infundibulum and hypothalamus and widened suprasellar cistern. The CHARGE association is an increasingly recognized non-random pattern of congenital anomalies comprising of coloboma, heart defect, choanal atresia, retarded growth and development, genital hypoplasia, ear abnormalities, and/or deafness. [1] These anomalies have a higher probability of occurring together. In this report, we have

  11. Hints of Greater Matter - Antimatter Asymmetry Challenge Theorists

    CERN Multimedia

    Cho, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    "The universe is chock-full of matter and devoid of antimatter, and physicists can't say why. They think that matter piled up after the big bang thanks to a slight asymmetry, called charge-parity (CP) violation, in the way matter and antimatter behave, but the effects seen so far are too small to do the job" (1 page)

  12. Antimatter Matters

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN

    2016-01-01

    This video is a teaser-introduction to the Antimatter Matters exhibtion at the Royal Society's Summer Science exhibition July 4-10 2016. The exhibition is jointly organised and hosted by UK members of the ALPHA and LHCb collaborations.

  13. Tracking White Matter Fiber in Human Brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANGNing; ZHANGJun; EricSCarlson

    2004-01-01

    A new approach for noninvasively tracing brain white matter fiber tracts is presented using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) data. This technique is based on successive anisotropic diffusion simulations over the human brain, which are utilized to construct three dimensional diffusion fronts. The fiber pathways are determined by evaluating the distance and orientation from fronts to their corresponding diffusion seeds. Real DT-MRI data are used to demonstrate the tracking scheme. It is shown that several major white matter fiber pathways can be reproduced noninvasively, with the tract branching being allowed. Since the diffusion simulation,which is a truly physical phenomenon reflecting the underlying architecture of cerebral tissues, makes full use of the entire diffusion tensor data, the proposed approach is expected to enhance robustness and reliability of the DT-MRI based fiber tracking techniques in white matter fiber reconstruction.

  14. Q-factor and absorption enhancement for plasmonic anisotropic nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Wei; Miroshnichenko, Andrey E

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the scattering and absorption properties of anisotropic metal-dielectric core-shell nanoparticles. It is revealed that the radially anisotropic dielectric layer can accelerate the evanescent decay of the localized resonant surface modes, leading to Q-factor and absorption rate enhancement. Moreover, the absorption cross section can be maximized to reach the single resonance absorption limit. We further show that such artificial anisotropic cladding materials can be realized by isotropic layered structures, which may inspire many applications based on scattering and absorption of plasmonic nanoparticles.

  15. Design of anisotropic reflector with birefringent thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianguo Wang; Kui Yi; Jianda Shao; Zhengxiu Fan

    2005-01-01

    A novel design for dielectric anisotropic mirrors with birefringent thin films for normal incidence is presented. This mirror consists of a stack of quarter-wave biaxial layers. The biaxial anisotropic layers can be fabricated by oblique deposition. The reflectance is different for two linear polarizations of light incidence on the mirrors. As a numerical example, the design is carried out on glass with TiO2 and ZrO2. These thin films could be applied to anisotropic reflective devices for lasers.

  16. Critical exponents of the anisotropic Bak-Sneppen model

    OpenAIRE

    Maslov, Sergei; Rios, Paolo De Los; Marsili, Matteo; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    1998-01-01

    We analyze the behavior of spatially anisotropic Bak-Sneppen model. We demonstrate that a nontrivial relation between critical exponents tau and mu=d/D, recently derived for the isotropic Bak-Sneppen model, holds for its anisotropic version as well. For one-dimensional anisotropic Bak-Sneppen model we derive a novel exact equation for the distribution of avalanche spatial sizes, and extract the value gamma=2 for one of the critical exponents of the model. Other critical exponents are then det...

  17. Renormalized anisotropic exchange for representing heat assisted magnetic recording media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Yipeng; Liu, Zengyuan; Victora, R. H., E-mail: victora@umn.edu [MINT Center, Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    Anisotropic exchange has been incorporated in a description of magnetic recording media near the Curie temperature, as would be found during heat assisted magnetic recording. The new parameters were found using a cost function that minimized the difference between atomistic properties and those of renormalized spin blocks. Interestingly, the anisotropic exchange description at 1.5 nm discretization yields very similar switching and magnetization behavior to that found at 1.2 nm (and below) discretization for the previous isotropic exchange. This suggests that the increased accuracy of anisotropic exchange may also reduce the computational cost during simulation.

  18. Development of laser ablation plasma by anisotropic self-radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohnishi Naofumi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We have proposed a method for reproducing an accurate solution of low-density ablation plasma by properly treating anisotropic radiation. Monte-Carlo method is employed for estimating Eddington tensor with limited number of photon samples in each fluid time step. Radiation field from ablation plasma is significantly affected by the anisotropic Eddington tensor. Electron temperature around the ablation surface changes with the radiation field and is responsible for the observed emission. An accurate prediction of the light emission from the laser ablation plasma requires a careful estimation of the anisotropic radiation field.

  19. Anisotropic Cosmological Model with Variable G and Lambda

    CERN Document Server

    Tripathy, S K; Routray, T R

    2015-01-01

    Anisotropic Bianchi-III cosmological model is investigated with variable gravitational and cosmological constants in the framework of Einstein's general relativity. The shear scalar is considered to be proportional to the expansion scalar. The dynamics of the anisotropic universe with variable G and Lambda are discussed. Without assuming any specific forms for Lambda and the metric potentials, we have tried to extract the time variation of G and Lambda from the anisotropic model. The extracted G and Lambda are in conformity with the present day observation. Basing upon the observational limits, the behaviour and range of the effective equation of state parameter are discussed.

  20. Quantization of the radiation field in an anisotropic dielectric medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wei; Liu Shi-Bing; Yang Wei

    2009-01-01

    There are both loss and dispersion characteristics for most dielectric media. In quantum theory the loss in medium is generally described by Langevin force in the Langevin noise (LN) scheme by which the quantization of the radiation field in various homogeneous absorbing dielectrics can be successfully actualized. However, it is invalid for the anisotropic dispersion medium. This paper extends the LN theory to an anisotropic dispersion medium and presented the quantization of the radiation field as well as the transformation relation between the homogeneous and anisotropic dispersion media.

  1. Renormalized anisotropic exchange for representing heat assisted magnetic recording media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisotropic exchange has been incorporated in a description of magnetic recording media near the Curie temperature, as would be found during heat assisted magnetic recording. The new parameters were found using a cost function that minimized the difference between atomistic properties and those of renormalized spin blocks. Interestingly, the anisotropic exchange description at 1.5 nm discretization yields very similar switching and magnetization behavior to that found at 1.2 nm (and below) discretization for the previous isotropic exchange. This suggests that the increased accuracy of anisotropic exchange may also reduce the computational cost during simulation

  2. Electrochemical Impedance of a Battery Electrode with Anisotropic Active Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Song, J

    2013-01-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectra for battery electrodes are usually interpreted using models that assume isotropic active particles, having uniform current density and symmetric diffusivities. While this can be reasonable for amorphous or polycrystalline materials with randomly oriented grains, modern electrode materials increasingly consist of highly anisotropic, single-crystalline, nanoparticles, with different impedance characteristics. In this paper, analytical expressions are derived for the impedance of anisotropic particles with tensorial diffusivities and orientation-dependent surface reaction rates and capacitances. The resulting impedance spectrum contains clear signatures of the anisotropic material properties and aspect ratio, as well as statistical variations in any of these parameters.

  3. Flavoured Dark Matter Beyond MFV

    CERN Document Server

    Blanke, Monika

    2014-01-01

    We review a model of quark flavoured dark matter with new flavour violating interactions. This simplified model describes Dirac fermionic dark matter that is charged under a new U(3) flavour symmetry and couples to right-handed down quarks via a scalar mediator. The corresponding coupling matrix is assumed to be the only new source of flavour violation, which we refer to as the Dark Minimal Flavour Violation (DMFV) hypothesis. This ansatz ensures the stability of dark matter. We discuss the phenomenology of the simplest DMFV model in flavour violating observables, LHC searches, and direct dark matter detection experiments. Especially interesting is the non-trivial interplay between the constraints from the different sectors.

  4. Multipole charge conservation and implications on electromagnetic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Seraj, Ali

    2016-01-01

    It is shown that conserved charges associated with a specific subclass of gauge symmetries of Maxwell electrodynamics are proportional to the well known electric multipole moments. The symmetries are residual gauge transformations surviving after fixing the Lorenz gauge, and have nontrivial charge. These "Multipole charges" receive contributions both from the charged matter and electromagnetic fields. The former is nothing but the electric multipole moment of the source. In a stationary configuration, there is a novel equipartition relation between the two contributions. The multipole charge, while conserved, can freely interpolate between the source and the electromagnetic field, and therefore can be propagated with the radiation. Using the multipole charge conservation, we obtain infinite number of constraints over the radiation produced by the dynamics of charged matter.

  5. Reinterpreting aircraft measurements in anisotropic scaling turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Hovde

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to both systematic and turbulent induced vertical fluctuations, the interpretation of atmospheric aircraft measurements requires a theory of turbulence. Until now virtually all the relevant theories have been isotropic or "quasi isotropic" in the sense that their exponents are the same in all directions. However almost all the available data on the vertical structure shows that it is scaling but with exponents different from the horizontal: the turbulence is scaling but anisotropic. In this paper, we show how such turbulence can lead to spurious breaks in the scaling and to the spurious appearance of the vertical scaling exponent at large horizontal lags.

    We demonstrate this using 16 legs of Gulfstream 4 aircraft near the top of the troposphere following isobars each between 500 and 3200 km in length. First we show that over wide ranges of scale, the horizontal spectra of the aircraft altitude are nearly k-5/3. In addition, we show that the altitude and pressure fluctuations along these fractal trajectories have a high degree of coherence with the measured wind (especially with its longitudinal component. There is also a strong phase relation between the altitude, pressure and wind fluctuations; for scales less than ≈40 km (on average the wind fluctuations lead the pressure and altitude, whereas for larger scales, the pressure fluctuations leads the wind. At the same transition scale, there is a break in the wind spectrum which we argue is caused by the aircraft starting to accurately follow isobars at the larger scales. In comparison, the temperature and humidity have low coherencies and phases and there are no apparent scale breaks, reinforcing the hypothesis that it is the aircraft trajectory that is causally linked to the scale breaks in the wind measurements.

    Using spectra and structure functions for the wind, we then estimate their exponents (β, H at small (5/3, 1/3 and large scales (2

  6. Anisotropic nature of radially strained metal tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Julie N.

    Metal pipes are sometimes swaged by a metal cone to enlarge them, which increases the strain in the material. The amount of strain is important because it affects the burst and collapse strength. Burst strength is the amount of internal pressure that a pipe can withstand before failure, while collapse strength is the amount of external pressure that a pipe can withstand before failure. If the burst or collapse strengths are exceeded, the pipe may fracture, causing critical failure. Such an event could cost the owners and their customers millions of dollars in clean up, repair, and lost time, in addition to the potential environmental damage. Therefore, a reliable way of estimating the burst and collapse strength of strained pipe is desired and valuable. The sponsor currently rates strained pipes using the properties of raw steel, because those properties are easily measured (for example, yield strength). In the past, the engineers assumed that the metal would be work-hardened when swaged, so that yield strength would increase. However, swaging introduces anisotropic strain, which may decrease the yield strength. This study measured the yield strength of strained material in the transverse and axial direction and compared them to raw material, to determine the amount of anisotropy. This information will be used to more accurately determine burst and collapse ratings for strained pipes. More accurate ratings mean safer products, which will minimize risk for the sponsor's customers. Since the strained metal has a higher yield strength than the raw material, using the raw yield strength to calculate burst and collapse ratings is a conservative method. The metal has even higher yield strength after strain aging, which indicates that the stresses are relieved. Even with the 12% anisotropy in the strained and 9% anisotropy in the strain aged specimens, the raw yield strengths are lower and therefore more conservative. I recommend that the sponsor continue using the raw

  7. Matter-antimatter asymmetry and dark matter from torsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popławski, Nikodem J.

    2011-04-01

    We propose a simple scenario which explains the observed matter-antimatter imbalance and the origin of dark matter in the Universe. We use the Einstein-Cartan-Sciama-Kibble theory of gravity which naturally extends general relativity to include the intrinsic spin of matter. Spacetime torsion produced by spin generates, in the classical Dirac equation, the Hehl-Datta term which is cubic in spinor fields. We show that under a charge-conjugation transformation this term changes sign relative to the mass term. A classical Dirac spinor and its charge conjugate therefore satisfy different field equations. Fermions in the presence of torsion have higher energy levels than antifermions, which leads to their decay asymmetry. Such a difference is significant only at extremely high densities that existed in the very early Universe. We propose that this difference caused a mechanism, according to which heavy fermions existing in such a Universe and carrying the baryon number decayed mostly to normal matter, whereas their antiparticles decayed mostly to hidden antimatter which forms dark matter. The conserved total baryon number of the Universe remained zero.

  8. Condensed Matter Theories: Volume 25

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludeña, Eduardo V.; Bishop, Raymond F.; Iza, Peter

    2011-03-01

    pt. A. Fermi and Bose fluids, exotic systems. Reemergence of the collective mode in [symbol]He and electron layers / H. M. Bohm ... [et al.]. Dissecting and testing collective and topological scenarios for the quantum critical point / J. W. Clark, V. A. Khodel and M. V. Zverev. Helium on nanopatterned surfaces at finite temperature / E. S. Hernandez ... [et al.]. Towards DFT calculations of metal clusters in quantum fluid matrices / S. A. Chin ... [et al.]. Acoustic band gap formation in metamaterials / D. P. Elford ... [et al.]. Dissipative processes in low density strongly interacting 2D electron systems / D. Neilson. Dynamical spatially resolved response function of finite 1-D nano plasmas / T. Raitza, H. Reinholz and G. Ropke. Renormalized bosons and fermions / K. A. Gernoth and M. L. Ristig. Light clusters in nuclear matter / G. Ropke -- pt. B. Quantum magnets, quantum dynamics and phase transitions. Magnetic ordering of antiferromagnets on a spatially anisotropic triangular lattice / R. F. Bishop ... [et al.]. Thermodynamic detection of quantum phase transitions / M. K. G. Kruse ... [et al.]. The SU(2) semi quantum systems dynamics and thermodynamics / C. M. Sarris and A. N. Proto -- pt. C. Physics of nanosystems and nanotechnology. Quasi-one dimensional fluids that exhibit higher dimensional behavior / S. M. Gatica ... [et al.]. Spectral properties of molecular oligomers. A non-Markovian quantum state diffusion approach / J. Roden, W. T. Strunz and A. Eisfeld. Quantum properties in transport through nanoscopic rings: Charge-spin separation and interference effects / K. Hallberg, J. Rincon and S. Ramasesha. Cooperative localization-delocalization in the high T[symbol] cuprates / J. Ranninger. Thermodynamically stable vortex states in superconducting nanowires / W. M. Wu, M. B. Sobnack and F. V. Kusmartsev.pt. D. Quantum information. Quantum information in optical lattices / A. M. Guzman and M. A. Duenas E. -- pt. E. Theory and applications of molecular

  9. Reinterpreting aircraft measurements in anisotropic scaling turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lovejoy

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to unavoidable vertical fluctuations, the interpretation of atmospheric aircraft measurements requires a theory of turbulence. Until now virtually all the relevant theories have been isotropic. However almost all the available data on the vertical structure shows that it is scaling but with exponents different from the horizontal: the turbulence is anisotropic not isotropic. In this paper, we show how this can lead to spurious breaks in the scaling and to the spurious appearance of the vertical scaling exponent at large horizontal lags.

    We demonstrate this using 16 legs of Gulfstream 4 tropospheric data following isobars each between 500 and 3200 km in length. First we show that the horizontal spectra of the aircraft altitude are nearly k−5/3 (although smoothed by aircraft intertia at scales <3 km. In addition, we show that the altitude and pressure fluctuations along these fractal trajectories have a high degree of coherence with the measured wind (especially with its longitudinal component. There is also a strong phase relation between the altitude, pressure and wind fluctuations with all of these effects occurring over the entire range of scales so that the trajectories influence the wind measurements over large ranges of scale. In comparison, the temperature and humidity have no apparent scale breaks and the corresponding coherencies and phases are low reinforcing the hypothesis that it is the aircraft trajectory that is causally linked to the scale breaks in the wind measurements.

    Using spectra and structure functions we then estimate the small and large scale exponents finding that they are close to the Kolmogorov values (5/3, 1/3 and the vertical values (2.4, 0.73 respectively (for the spectral and real space scaling exponents (β, H the latter are close to those estimated by drop sondes (2.4, 0.75 in the vertical direction. In addition, for each leg we estimate the energy flux, the sphero

  10. Astronomical Signatures of Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Gorenstein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several independent astronomical observations in different wavelength bands reveal the existence of much larger quantities of matter than what we would deduce from assuming a solar mass to light ratio. They are very high velocities of individual galaxies within clusters of galaxies, higher than expected rotation rates of stars in the outer regions of galaxies, 21 cm line studies indicative of increasing mass to light ratios with radius in the halos of spiral galaxies, hot gaseous X-ray emitting halos around many elliptical galaxies, and clusters of galaxies requiring a much larger component of unseen mass for the hot gas to be bound. The level of gravitational attraction needed for the spatial distribution of galaxies to evolve from the small perturbations implied by the very slightly anisotropic cosmic microwave background radiation to its current web-like configuration requires much more mass than is observed across the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Distorted shapes of galaxies and other features created by gravitational lensing in the images of many astronomical objects require an amount of dark matter consistent with other estimates. The unambiguous detection of dark matter and more recently evidence for dark energy has positioned astronomy at the frontier of fundamental physics as it was in the 17th century.

  11. SH wave scattering problems in unbounded solid containing anisotropic inclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Volume Integral Equation Method (VIEM) is developed for the effective analysis of elastic wave scattering problems in unbounded solids containing general anisotropic inclusions. It should be noted that this newly developed numerical method does not require Green's function for anisotropic inclusions to solve this class of problems since only Green's function for the unbounded isotropic matrix is necessary for the analysis. This new method can also be applied to general two-dimensional elastodynamic and elastostatic problems with arbitrary shapes and number of anisotropic inclusions and voids or cracks. The detailed analysis of SH wave scattering problems are developed for unbounded isotropic matrix containing orthotropic cylindrical inclusions. Through the analysis of plane elastodynamic and elastostatic problems in unbounded isotropic matrix with orthotropic inclusions, it will be established that this new method is very accurate and effective for solving plane elastic problems in unbounded solids containing general anisotropic inclusions and voids or cracks.

  12. Modeling and Measurements of CMUTs with Square Anisotropic Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Mette Funding; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Dahl-Petersen, Christian;

    2013-01-01

    The conventional method of modeling CMUTs use the isotropic plate equation to calculate the deflection, leading to deviations from FEM simulations including anisotropic effects of around 10% in center deflection. In this paper, the deflection is found for square plates using the full anisotropic...... plate equation and the Galerkin method. Utilizing the symmetry of the silicon crystal, a compact and accurate expression for the deflection can be obtained. The deviation from FEM in center deflection is light interferometer. Fitting...... the anisotropic calculated deflection to the measurement a deviation of 0.5-1.5% is seen for the fitted values. Finally it was also measured how the device behaved under increasing bias voltage and it is observed that the model including anisotropic effects is within the uncertainty interval of the measurements....

  13. Weibel instability driven by spatially anisotropic density structures

    CERN Document Server

    Tomita, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Observations of afterglows of gamma-ray bursts suggest (GRBs) that post-shock magnetic fields are strongly amplified to about 100 times the shock-compressed value. The Weibel instability appears to play an important role in generating of the magnetic field. However, recent simulations of collisionless shocks in homogeneous plasmas show that the magnetic field generated by the Weibel instability rapidly decays. There must be some density fluctuations in interstellar and circumstellar media. The density fluctuations are anisotropically compressed in the downstream region of relativistic shocks. In this paper, we study the Weibel instability in electron--positron plasmas with the spatially anisotropic density distributions by means of two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. We find that large magnetic fields are maintained for a longer time by the Weibel instability driven by the spatially anisotropic density structure. Particles anisotropically escape from the high density region, so that the temperature ...

  14. Anisotropic thermal conduction in galaxy clusters with MHD in Gadget

    CERN Document Server

    Arth, Alexander; Beck, Alexander M; Petkova, Margarita; Lesch, Harald

    2014-01-01

    We present an implementation of thermal conduction including the anisotropic effects of magnetic fields for SPH. The anisotropic thermal conduction is mainly proceeding parallel to magnetic fields and suppressed perpendicular to the fields. We derive the SPH formalism for the anisotropic heat transport and solve the corresponding equation with an implicit conjugate gradient scheme. We discuss several issues of unphysical heat transport in the cases of extreme ansiotropies or unmagnetized regions and present possible numerical workarounds. We implement our algorithm into the GADGET code and study its behaviour in several test cases. In general, we reproduce the analytical solutions of our idealised test problems, and obtain good results in cosmological simulations of galaxy cluster formations. Within galaxy clusters, the anisotropic conduction produces a net heat transport similar to an isotropic Spitzer conduction model with an efficiency of one per cent. In contrast to isotropic conduction our new formalism ...

  15. Anisotropic plasma with flows in tokamak: Steady state and stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An adequate description of equilibrium and stability of anisotropic plasma with macroscopic flows in tokamaks is presented. The Chew-Goldberger-Low (CGL) approximation is consistently used to analyze anisotropic plasma dynamics. The admissible structure of a stationary flow is found to be the same as in the ideal magnetohydrodynamics with isotropic pressure (MHD), which means an allowance for the same relabeling symmetry as in ideal MHD systems with toroidally nested magnetic surfaces. A generalization of the Grad-Shafranov equation for the case of anisotropic plasma with flows confined in the axisymmetric magnetic field is derived. A variational principle was obtained, which allows for a stability analysis of anisotropic pressure plasma with flows, and takes into account the conservation laws resulting from the relabeling symmetry. This principle covers the previous stability criteria for static CGL plasma and for ideal MHD flows in isotropic plasma as well. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  16. Autofocus imaging: Experimental results in an anisotropic austenitic weld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Drinkwater, B. W.; Wilcox, P. D.; Hunter, A.

    2012-05-01

    The quality of an ultrasonic array image, especially for anisotropic material, depends on accurate information about acoustic properties. Inaccuracy of acoustic properties causes image degradation, e.g., blurring, errors in locating of reflectors and introduction of artifacts. In this paper, for an anisotropic austenitic steel weld, an autofocus imaging technique is presented. The array data from a series of beacons is captured and then used to statistically extract anisotropic weld properties by using a Monte-Carlo inversion approach. The beacon and imaging systems are realized using two separated arrays; one acts as a series of beacons and the other images these beacons. Key to the Monte-Carlo inversion scheme is a fast forward model of wave propagation in the anisotropic weld and this is based on the Dijkstra algorithm. Using this autofocus approach a measured weld map was extracted from an austenitic weld and used to reduce location errors, initially greater than 6mm, to less than 1mm.

  17. Levitating dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaloper, Nemanja; Padilla, Antonio

    2009-10-01

    A sizable fraction of the total energy density of the universe may be in heavy particles with a net dark U(1)' charge comparable to its mass. When the charges have the same sign the cancellation between their gravitational and gauge forces may lead to a mismatch between different measures of masses in the universe. Measuring galactic masses by orbits of normal matter, such as galaxy rotation curves or lensing, will give the total mass, while the flows of dark matter agglomerates may yield smaller values if the gauge repulsion is not accounted for. If distant galaxies which house light beacons like SNe Ia contain such dark particles, the observations of their cosmic recession may mistake the weaker forces for an extra `antigravity', and infer an effective dark energy equation of state smaller than the real one. In some cases, including that of a cosmological constant, these effects can mimic w < -1. They can also lead to a local variation of galaxy-galaxy forces, yielding a larger `Hubble Flow' in those regions of space that could be taken for a dynamical dark energy, or superhorizon effects.

  18. Levitating Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Kaloper, Nemanja

    2009-01-01

    A sizable fraction of the total energy density of the universe may be in heavy particles with a net dark $U(1)'$ charge equal to its mass, such as the BPS states in string theory. When the charges have the same sign the cancellation between their gravitational and gauge forces may lead to a mismatch between different measures of masses in the universe. Measuring galactic masses by orbits of normal matter, such as galaxy rotation curves or lensing, will give the total mass, while the flows of dark matter agglomerates may yield smaller values if the gauge repulsion is not accounted for. If distant galaxies which house light beacons like SNe Ia contain such dark particles, the observations of their cosmic recession may mistake the weaker forces for an extra `antigravity', and infer an effective dark energy equation of state smaller than the real one. In some cases, including that of a cosmological constant, these effects can mimic $w<-1$. They can also lead to a {\\it local} variation of galaxy-galaxy forces, ...

  19. Levitating dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaloper, Nemanja [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Padilla, Antonio, E-mail: kaloper@physics.ucdavis.edu, E-mail: antonio.padilla@nottingham.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-01

    A sizable fraction of the total energy density of the universe may be in heavy particles with a net dark U(1)' charge comparable to its mass. When the charges have the same sign the cancellation between their gravitational and gauge forces may lead to a mismatch between different measures of masses in the universe. Measuring galactic masses by orbits of normal matter, such as galaxy rotation curves or lensing, will give the total mass, while the flows of dark matter agglomerates may yield smaller values if the gauge repulsion is not accounted for. If distant galaxies which house light beacons like SNe Ia contain such dark particles, the observations of their cosmic recession may mistake the weaker forces for an extra 'antigravity', and infer an effective dark energy equation of state smaller than the real one. In some cases, including that of a cosmological constant, these effects can mimic w < −1. They can also lead to a local variation of galaxy-galaxy forces, yielding a larger 'Hubble Flow' in those regions of space that could be taken for a dynamical dark energy, or superhorizon effects.

  20. Aeroelastic modal dynamics of wind turbines including anisotropic effects

    OpenAIRE

    Skjoldan, Peter Fisker; Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Rubak, Rune; Thomsen, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Several methods for aeroelastic modal analysis of a rotating wind turbine are developed and used to analyse the modal dynamics of two simplified models and a complex model in isotropic and anisotropic conditions. The Coleman transformation is used to enable extraction of the modal frequencies, damping, and periodic mode shapes of a rotating wind turbine by describing the rotor degrees of freedom in the inertial frame. This approach is valid only for an isotropic system. Anisotropic systems, e...