WorldWideScience

Sample records for charge transfer collisions

  1. Ion momentum and energy transfer rates for charge exchange collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, J.; Banks, P. M.

    1973-01-01

    The rates of momentum and energy transfer have been obtained for charge exchange collisions between ion and neutral gases having arbitrary Maxwellian temperatures and bulk transport velocities. The results are directly applicable to the F-region of the ionosphere where 0+ - 0 charge is the dominant mechanism affecting ion momentum and energy transfer.

  2. Transfer of momentum, mass and charge in heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model for the first two phases of heavy ion collisions based on the transport of single nucleons through the window between the two scattering nuclei is described in some detail. It is pointed out that the model can account simultaneously for a large portion of the energy transfer from relative to intrinsic motion and for the observed variances in mass and charge numbers for reaction times up to the order of 10-21 s. (P.L.)

  3. Self-interaction effects on charge-transfer collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Quashie, Edwin E; Andrade, Xavier; Correa, Alfredo A

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the role of the self-interaction error in the simulation of collisions using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) and Ehrenfest dynamics. We compare many different approximations of the exchange and correlation potential, using as a test system the collision of $\\mathrm{H^+ + CH_4}$ at $30~\\mathrm{eV}$. We find that semi-local approximations, like PBE, and even hybrid functionals, like B3LYP, produce qualitatively incorrect predictions for the scattering of the proton. This discrepancy appears because the self-interaction error allows the electrons to jump too easily to the proton, leading to radically different forces with respect to the non-self-interacting case. From our results, we conclude that using a functional that is self-interaction free is essential to properly describe charge-transfer collisions between ions and molecules in TDDFT.

  4. On charge transfer in ion-atom collisions at intermediate collision velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors study charge transfer at intermediate energies for multielectron ion-atom collisions within the coupled-state impact-parameter method. They point out the importance of assumptions about electronic relaxation by comparing various calculations of cross sections for KK charge transfer in F9+ + Si as a test case. In these calculations, either the unrelaxed Hamiltonian of the atomic model or a relaxed molecular Hamiltonian has been employed, and two-state atomic or molecular basis sets have been used. To correct for the inadequacy of atomic orbitals for close collisions at intermediate energies, the authors propose to add orbitals of the united atom at the two collision centers. With such an atomic basis set, quasimolecular behavior of the system is represented sufficiently well. The authors report on results for the collision system H+ + He+ for which calculations with large molecular and atomic basis sets exist

  5. Transfer ionization cross-sections measured in collisions of highly charged argon ions with neon target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA; Xinwen(马新文); LIU; Huiping; (刘惠萍); CHEN; Ximeng; (陈熙萌); YANG; Zhihu; (杨治虎); SHEN; Ziyong; (申自勇); WANG; Youde; (王友德); YU; Deyang; (于得洋); CAI; Xiaohong; (蔡晓红); LIU; Zhaoyuan; (刘兆远)

    2003-01-01

    Multiple electron transfer processes are studied for Arq+ + Ne (q = 8, 9, 11, 12) collisions by using multi-parameter coincidence techniques. Various electron transfer processes are identified experimentally and the related cross-sections are measured. The dependence of transfer ionization cross-sections on the recoil charge states is compared with the results from the modified molecular classical overbarrier model. It is found that the modified model described the experimental results reasonably.

  6. Isotope effect in charge-transfer collisions of H with He{sup +}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loreau, J.; Dalgarno, A. [Institute for Theoretical Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Ryabchenko, S. [Northern (Arctic) Federal University, 17 Severnaya Dvina Emb., 163002 Arkhangelsk (Russian Federation); Laboratoire de Chimie Quantique et Photophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), CP160/09, 1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Vaeck, N. [Laboratoire de Chimie Quantique et Photophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), CP160/09, 1050 Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2011-11-15

    We present a theoretical study of the isotope effect arising from the replacement of H by T in the charge-transfer collision H(n=2) + He{sup +}(1s) at low energy. Using a quasimolecular approach and a time-dependent wave-packet method, we compute the cross sections for the reaction including the effects of the nonadiabatic radial and rotational couplings. For H(2s) + He{sup +}(1s) collisions, we find a strong isotope effect at energies below 1 eV/amu for both singlet and triplet states. We find a much smaller isotopic dependence of the cross section for H(2p) + He{sup +}(1s) collisions in triplet states, and no isotope effect in singlet states. We explain the isotope effect on the basis of the potential energy curves and the nonadiabatic couplings, and we evaluate the importance of the isotope effect on the charge-transfer rate coefficients.

  7. Total and differential cross sections for charge transfer in He2+-He+ collisions: trajectory effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross sections have been computed for charge transfer in collisions between 4He+ and 4He2+ ions for centre-of-mass collision energies 0.21 ≤ E ≤ 2.50 keV. The semi-classical impact parameter method was employed, with a basis of atomic orbitals modified by plane-wave translation factors. Both rectilinear and Coulomb trajectories were used, and the differential cross sections were found to be sensitive to the assumed form of trajectory. Comparison is made with molecular orbital calculations by previous workers. (author)

  8. Charge transfer cross sections for Hg+, Xe+, and Cs+ in collision with various metals and carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross sections for charge transfer between Hg+, Xe+, and Cs+ and the atomic species Fe, Mo, Al, Ti, Ta, and C have been measured in the ion energy range from 1 to 5000 eV. In general, the cross sections for charge transfer were found to be less than 2 x 10-15 cm2 for most processes over the total energy range. The one exception is Hg+ in collision with Ti. The reactants are all open shell atomic species and in most cases where the charge transfer process is exothermic, several resonant pathways exist leading to the products. Some discussion of possible reaction paths is given. The techniques used to form neutral beams of the various species studied is included

  9. Charge transfer cross sections for Hg + , Xe + , and Cs + in collision with various metals and carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, J. A.; Vroom, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    Cross sections for charge transfer between Hg+, Xe+, and Cs+ and the atomic species Fe, Mo, Al, Ti, Ta, and C have been measured in the ion energy range from 1 to 5000 eV. In general, the cross sections for charge transfer were found to be less than 2×10-15 cm2 for most processes over the total energy range. The one exception is Hg+ in collision with Ti. The reactants are all open shell atomic species and in most cases where the charge transfer process is exothermic, several resonant pathways exist leading to the products. Some discussion of possible reaction paths is given. The techniques used to form neutral beams of the various species studied is included.

  10. Charge transfer and structured vibrational distributions in H++CH4 low-energy collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inelastic and charge transfer collisions of protons with methane molecules have been investigated in a perpendicular-plane crossed beam experiment via the detection of the scattered protons and H atoms, respectively. Time-of-flight analysis of the protons and H atoms at scattering angles 00≤θ≤100 and collision energies 10≤E≤30 eV provided information on internal energy distributions of the CH4 and CH+4 products. Excitation of the n(ν1 ,ν3) +m (ν2 ,ν4) type vibrations, with n,m = 0, 1, 2,xxxwas found to be the most probable assignment of the observed structured energy distributions of CH4 (1 A1 ) at θ≤40. At θ>40, the energy transfer increases steeply up to the dissociation limit while the vibrational structure was no longer resolved. In the case of charge transfer, the observed narrow internal energy distributions corresponding to a most probable average internal energy of CH+4 of about 0.95 eV was centered at the recombination energy of the proton indicative of quasiresonant charge transfer. In addition, fragmentation of CH+4 formed in charge transfer collisions of H+ with CH4 was investigated in an independent experiment using mass spectrometric analysis to identify the individual fragment species. The relative intensities of the parent and fragment ions (i.e., of CH+4, CH+3, and CH+2) were found to be in good agreement with the known values of the appearance potentials of the fragment ions and the distribution of the CH+4 internal energy as obtained from the differential cross sections

  11. Charge and Energy Dependences of Ionization and Transfer for Helium in Collisions with Fast Charged Projectiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Hong-Bin; WANG Bao-Hong; DING Bao-Wei; LIU Zhao-Yuan

    2009-01-01

    The classical method within the independent electron model is employed to investigate (i) charge dependences of single and double ionization for helium by various charged ions Aq+ (q = 1 - 8) at impact energies of 0.64 and 1.44 MeV/u, respectively, (ii) energy dependences of transfer ionization for helium by 0.5-3 MeV/u A8,9+ ions impact. The Lenz-Jensen model of the atom is applied instead of the Bohr model of the atom, and the impact-parameter dependences are also introduced into the calculations. Satisfactory agreement is found between theoretical and experimental data.

  12. Resonant charge transfer in slow Li+-Li(2s) collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李铁成; 刘春华; 屈一至; 刘玲; 吴勇; 王建国

    2015-01-01

    The resonant charge transfer process for Li+–Li(2s) collision is investigated by the quantum-mechanical molecular orbital close-coupling (QMOCC) method and the two-center atomic-orbital close-coupling (AOCC) method in an energy range of 1.0 eV/u–104 eV/u. Accurate molecular structure data and charge transfer cross sections are given. Both the all-electron model (AEM) and one-electron model (OEM) are used in the QMOCC calculations, and the discrepancies between the two models are analyzed. The OEM calculation can also give a reliable prediction of the cross sections for energies below 1 keV/u.

  13. Integral cross section measurements and product recoil velocity distributions of Xe2+ + N2 hyperthermal charge-transfer collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hause, Michael L.; Prince, Benjamin D.; Bemish, Raymond J.

    2016-07-01

    Charge exchange from doubly charged rare gas cations to simple diatomics proceeds with a large cross section and results in populations of many vibrational and electronic product states. The charge exchange between Xe2+ and N2, in particular, is known to create N2 + in both the A and B electronic states. In this work, we present integral charge exchange cross section measurements of the Xe2+ + N2 reaction as well as axial recoil velocity distributions of the Xe+ and N2 + product ions for collision energies between 0.3 and 100 eV in the center-of-mass (COM) frame. Total charge-exchange cross sections decrease from 70 Å2 to about 40 Å2 with increasing collision energy through this range. Analysis of the axial velocity distributions indicates that a Xe2+ - N2 complex exists at low collision energies but is absent by 17.6 eV COM. Analysis of the axial velocity distributions reveals evidence for complexes with lifetimes comparable to the rotational period at low collision energies. The velocity distributions are consistent with quasi-resonant single charge transfer at high collision energies.

  14. Integral cross section measurements and product recoil velocity distributions of Xe(2+) + N2 hyperthermal charge-transfer collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hause, Michael L; Prince, Benjamin D; Bemish, Raymond J

    2016-07-28

    Charge exchange from doubly charged rare gas cations to simple diatomics proceeds with a large cross section and results in populations of many vibrational and electronic product states. The charge exchange between Xe(2+) and N2, in particular, is known to create N2 (+) in both the A and B electronic states. In this work, we present integral charge exchange cross section measurements of the Xe(2+) + N2 reaction as well as axial recoil velocity distributions of the Xe(+) and N2 (+) product ions for collision energies between 0.3 and 100 eV in the center-of-mass (COM) frame. Total charge-exchange cross sections decrease from 70 Å(2) to about 40 Å(2) with increasing collision energy through this range. Analysis of the axial velocity distributions indicates that a Xe(2+) - N2 complex exists at low collision energies but is absent by 17.6 eV COM. Analysis of the axial velocity distributions reveals evidence for complexes with lifetimes comparable to the rotational period at low collision energies. The velocity distributions are consistent with quasi-resonant single charge transfer at high collision energies. PMID:27475363

  15. Dynamics in charge transfer and ionization processes in fast ion-helium collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the course of this work transfer ionization (TI), radiative electron capture (REC), and single ionization (SI) in fast ion-helium collisions have been studied. For this purpose, two experimental techniques, a coincident ion-electron momentum spectrometer, namely a Reaction Microscope (REMI) and the heavy ion storage ring TSR, providing excellent beam properties, have been combined. In TI, i.e. the ejection of one plus the capture of a second target electron, the role of electron-electron correlations is of particular interest. In order to unravel different correlated as well as uncorrelated mechanisms, differential data has been recorded for different perturbations (projectile charge to speed ratio). For the first time strong evidence of a recently proposed, correlated TI process was found experimentally. In a second, pioneering experiment it has been attempted to perform the first kinematically complete measurement on REC. Here, an electron from the target is captured by the projectile simultaneously emitting a photon. In order to observe the emerging photons, a detector covering a large solid angle has been designed and implemented in the REMI. Although three particle coincidences have been recorded between recoil ions, projectile ions, and photons, experimental proof of the acquisition of REC coincidences was prevented due to limited statistics. Finally, in studies on SI, the influence of the projectile beam coherence properties on the collision dynamics has been investigated. The pronounced differences to earlier data taken with a projectile beam with much smaller coherence length provide evidence for its influence on the ionization dynamics, which is generally neglected in theoretical calculations. These results could pave the way to a final resolution of the long standing question on the origin of the discrepancies between theory and experiment in fully differential cross sections.

  16. Tuning Charge Transfer in Ion-Surface Collisions at Hyperthermal Energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yunxi; Giapis, Konstantinos P

    2016-05-18

    Charge exchange in ion-surface collisions may be influenced by surface adsorbates to alter the charge state of the scattered projectiles. We show here that the positive-ion yield, observed during ion scattering on metal surfaces at low incident energies, is greatly enhanced by adsorbing electronegative species onto the surface. Specifically, when beams of N(+) and O(+) ions are scattered off of clean Au surfaces at hyperthermal energies, no positive ions are observed exiting. Partial adsorption of F atoms on the Au surface, however, leads to the appearance of positively charged primary ions scattering off of Au, a direct result of the increase in the Au work function. The inelastic energy losses for positive-ion exits are slightly larger than the corresponding ionization energies of the respective N and O atoms, which suggest that the detected positive ions are formed by surface reionization during the hard collision event. PMID:26879471

  17. Low-Energy Charge Transfer in Multiply-Charged Ion-Atom Collisions Studied with the Combined SCVB-MOCC Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zygelman

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available A survey of theoretical studies of charge transfer involving collisions of multiply-charged ions with atomic neutrals (H and He is presented. The calculations utilized the quantum-mechanical molecular-orbital close-coupling (MOCC approach where the requisite potential curves and coupling matrix elements have been obtained with the spin-coupled valence bond (SCVB method. Comparison is made among various collision partners, for equicharged systems, where it is illustrated that even for total charge transfer cross sections, scaling-laws do not exist for low-energy collisions (i.e. < 1 keV/amu. While various empirical scaling-laws are well known in the intermediateand high-energy regimes, the multi-electron configurations of the projectile ions results in a rich and varied low-energy dependence, requiring an explicit calculation for each collision-partner pair. Future charge transfer problems to be addressed with the combined SCVB-MOCC approach are briefly discussed.

  18. Effects of Electron-Transfer Coupled with Collision-Induced Dissociation (ET/CID) on Doubly Charged Peptides and Phosphopeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chih-Wei; Lai, Chien-Chen

    2011-01-01

    Electron-transfer dissociation (ETD) is a useful peptide fragmentation technique that can be applied to investigate post-translational modifications (PTMs), the sequencing of highly hydrophilic peptides, and the identification of large peptides and even intact proteins. In contrast to traditional fragmentation methods, such as collision-induced dissociation (CID), ETD produces c- and z·-type product ions by randomly cleaving the N-Cα bonds. The disappointing fragmentation efficiency of ETD for doubly charged peptides and phosphopeptide ions has been improved by ETcaD (supplemental activation). However, the ETD data derived from most database search algorithms yield low confidence scores due to the presence of unreacted precursors and charge-reduced ions within MS/MS spectra. In this work, we demonstrate that eight out of ten standard doubly charged peptides and phosphopeptides can be effortlessly identified by electron-transfer coupled with collision-induced dissociation (ET/CID) using the SEQUEST algorithm without further spectral processing. ET/CID was performed with the further dissociation of the charge-reduced ions isolated from ETD ion/ion reactions. ET/CID had high fragmentation efficiency, which elevated the confidence scores of doubly charged peptide and phosphospeptide sequencing. ET/CID was found to be an effective fragmentation strategy in "bottom-up" proteomic analysis.

  19. Charge transfer in collisions of Beq+ (q=2-4) and Bq+ (q=3-5) ions with H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The charge transfer reactions in collisions of Beq+(q=2-3) and Bq+(q=3-4) ions and atomic hydrogen are investigated by using the quantal molecular orbital close-coupling (QMOCC) and the two-center atomic-orbital close-coupling (TC-AOCC) methods. Total and sub-shells state-selective cross sections are calculated for low and intermediate energy region and compared with other data available. Sets of recommended cross sections, based on the QMOCC and TC-AOCC calculations, are deduced and tabulated for Be2,3+ + H and B3,4+ + H collisions, which provide important atomic data needed in the charge-exchange-recombination spectroscopy diagnostics in magnetic fusion plasmas investigation

  20. Ab Initio Calculations of Differential Cross Sections for Single Charge Transfer in 3He2++4 He Collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yong; YAN Bing; LIU Ling; WANG Jian-Guo

    2007-01-01

    The single charge transfer process in 3 He2+ + 4He collisions is investigated using the quantum-mechanical molecularorbital close-coupling method, in which the adiabatic potentials and radial couplings are calculated by using the ab initio multireference single- and double-excitation configuration interaction methods. The differential cross sections for the single charge transfer are presented at the laboratorial energies E = 6kev and 10keV for the projectile 3He2+. Comparison with the existing data shows that the present results are better in agreement with the experimental measurements than other calculations in the dominant small angle scattering, which is attributed to the accurate calculations of the adiabatic potentials and the radial couplings.

  1. Dynamics of H+ + Kr and H+ + Xe elastic and charge-transfer collisions: State-selected differential cross sections at low collision energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elastic and charge-transfer scattering of protons by Kr and Xe targets has been investigated in a crossed-beam experiment at collision energies E/sub c.m./ = 30.6 and 51.7 eV. The charge-transfer collisions led to the formation of Kr+( 2P/sub 3/2/, 2P/sub 1/2/)+H(n = 1) and Xe+( 2P/sub 3/2/, 2P/sub 1/2/)+H(n = 1,n = 2) products respectively. Interference patterns in the state-selected relative differential cross sections were clearly resolved and have been ascribed to primary and secondary rainbows and/or Stueckelberg-type oscillations. The H++Xe collisions have also been investigated theoretically by the exact close-coupling method. A good agreement between theory and experiment has been found. A novel method for determining the absolute H-atom detection efficiency is suggested

  2. Charge transfer, excitation and evaporation in low energy collisions of simple metal clusters and fullerenes with atomic targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present charge transfer, excitation and evaporation cross sections in low energy collisions of small and medium-size metal clusters (Nanq+, Linq+) and C60 with atomic targets (H+, He2+ and Cs) using a molecular close-coupling formalism and a post-collision rate equation model. The theoretical model benefits from different time scales associated with the collision and the internal motion of the cluster nuclei. The collision description includes the many-electron aspect of the problem and makes use of a realistic cluster potential obtained with density functional theory and a spherical jellium model. The evaporation model takes into account the non-harmonic effects of the ionic motion and describes sequential evaporation to any order within the framework of the microcanonical statistical model of Weisskopf. We show that the relative abundance of different fragments depends critically on the cluster temperature and the spectrometer time of flight window. We have found good agreement with recent experimental results [Eur. Phys. J. D 12 (2000) 185

  3. Atomic collisions in fusion plasmas involving multiply charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short survey is given on atomic collisions involving multiply charged ions. The basic features of charge transfer processes in ion-ion and ion-atom collisions relevant to fusion plasmas are discussed. (author)

  4. Quantum dynamics of vibrational excitations and vibrational charge transfer processes in H+ + O2 collisions at collision energy 23 eV

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saieswari Amaran; Sanjay Kumar

    2009-09-01

    Quantum mechanical study of vibrational state-resolved differential cross sections and transition probabilities for both the elastic/inelastic and the charge transfer processes have been carried out in the H+ + O2 collisions at the experimental collision energy of 23 eV. The quantum dynamics has been performed within the vibrational close-coupling rotational infinite-order sudden approximation framework employing our newly obtained quasi-diabatic potential energy surfaces corresponding to the ground and the first excited electronic states which have been computed using ab initio procedures and Dunning’s correlation consistent-polarized valence triple zeta basis set at the multireference configuration interaction level of accuracy. The present theoretical results for elastic/inelastic processes provide an overall agreement with the available state-selected experimental data, whereas the results for the charge transfer channel show some variance in comparison with those of experiments and are similar to the earlier theoretical results obtained using model effective potential based on projected valence bond method and using semi-empirical diatomics-in-molecules potential. The possible reason for discrepancies and the likely ways to improve the results are discussed in terms of the inclusion of higher excited electronic states into the dynamics calculation.

  5. Excitation and charge transfer in low-energy hydrogen atom collisions with neutral atoms: Theory, comparisons, and application to Ca

    CERN Document Server

    Barklem, Paul S

    2016-01-01

    A theoretical method for the estimation of cross sections and rates for excitation and charge transfer processes in low-energy hydrogen atom collisions with neutral atoms, based on an asymptotic two-electron model of ionic-covalent interactions in the neutral atom-hydrogen atom system, is presented. The calculation of potentials and non-adiabatic radial couplings using the method is demonstrated. The potentials are used together with the multi-channel Landau-Zener model to calculate cross sections and rate coefficients. The main feature of the method is that it employs asymptotically exact atomic wavefunctions, which can be determined from known atomic parameters. The method is applied to Li+H, Na+H, and Mg+H collisions, and the results compare well with existing detailed full-quantum calculations. The method is applied to the astrophysically important problem of Ca+H collisions, and rate coefficients are calculated for temperatures in the range 1000-20000 K.

  6. Electron transfer processes in collisions of highly charged energetic (0. 1 to 1. 0 MeV/nucleon) ions with helium atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datz, S.; Hippler, R.; Andersen, L.H.; Dittner, P.F.; Knudsen, H.; Krause, H.F.; Miller, P.D.; Pepmiller, P.L.; Rosseel, T.; Stolterfoht, N.

    1987-01-01

    We have investigated charge transfer in collisions of energetic (0.1 - 1 MeV/nucleon) highly charged ions with helium atoms with the principal aim clarifying the nature of two-electron processes. The sensitivity of partial charge-changing cross sections (i.e., single- and double-charge transfer, transfer ionization (TI), and single and double ionization) to core configuration and scaling rules for one- and two-electron processes were investigated with iodine ions (q = 5+ ..-->.. 26+) and uranium ions (q = 17+ ..-->.. 44+) using an ion-charge state, recoil-ion coincidence method. Using zero-degree electron spectroscopy in coincidence with charge transfer, we found that at the higher energies, as in the case of 0.1 MeV/nucleon ions previously reported, TI involves the transfer of two electrons to a higher correlated state followed by loss of one electron to the continuum. In addition, we observe very high Rydberg electrons in coincidence with TI, implying a possible up-down correlation in the pair transfer. In addition, we made measurements of VUV photons emitted at the collision in coincidence with He/sup +/ and He/sup 2 +/ recoils. The results show that TI leads to capture into lower n states than single-charge transfer. 15 refs., 10 figs.

  7. One- and two-electron processes in charge transfer and single ionization in ion-lithium collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the dynamics of one- and two-electron transitions in ion-lithium collisions is investigated. The measurements are performed with a novel experimental technique (MOTReMi) combining a magneto-optically trapped (MOT) Li target with a Reaction Microscope (ReMi) enabling the momentum resolved and coincident detection of the target fragments. This apparatus was implemented in the ion storage ring TSR providing electron-cooled projectile beams with high currents and low momentum spread. Due to the high resolution and by means of optical excitation, for the first time initial state selective fully differential cross sections for ion-impact induced ionization and charge transfer became available. Transitions of 1s, 2s and 2p target electrons were investigated shedding light on the role of the projectile coherence length, electronic correlation in two-electron transitions and target polarization effects, thereby enhancing our understanding of the few-body problem in quantum dynamics.

  8. K+ charge transfer in H2 at low keV collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón, F. B.; Martinez, H.; Fuentes, B. E.; Yousif, F. B.

    2013-08-01

    Absolute electron capture cross sections for the K+-H2 pair, employing beam collision spectroscopy for 0.4-4 keV energy were measured. The capture cross section increased with the increase in collision energy. The results below 2 keV overlap with previously measured data of other investigators and extend down in energy to 400 eV, where no previous data have been reported. Experimental data were compared with calculations employing the Olson model, which were found to agree in behavior as well as with an absolute value above 100 keV.

  9. L X-ray emission from fast highly charged Cu ions in collisions with gaseous targets: Saturation effect in excitation and transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay; Misra, D.; Kadhane, U.; Kelkar, A. H.; Dhal, B. B.; Tribedi, L. C.

    2006-11-01

    We have measured L X-ray production cross sections for highly charged 156 MeV Be-like Cu ions in collisions with gaseous targets of H 2, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe. In the present collision systems, measured projectile L X-ray intensity is contributed by the excitation as well as electron transfer processes. The projectile L X-ray production cross sections are found to increase initially and then saturate with increasing target atomic number. The charge state dependence of projectile L X-ray production cross sections have been measured with Kr target.

  10. Charge transfer in keV proton collision with atomic oxygen: Differential and total cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Classical Trajectory Monte Carlo method (CTMC) with the modal interaction potential has been used to simulate the differential, total and partial capture cross sections in proton-oxygen atom collisions in the energy range of 0.5 - 200 keV. An interesting feature of the calculated differential cross sections (DCS) curve below the scattering angle 0.1 degree is the presence of oscillations showing asymmetry in angular positions. The oscillations in the partial cross sections are explained in terms of swapping effect. The DCS and total cross sections are found to be in good agreement with the experimental as well as other theoretical results. (authors)

  11. A time-dependent picture of the charge transfer process in the S3+ +H collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we observe for the first time the evolution of the electronic charge density in a collisional system. The model used is system S3+ + H over the range of relative ion kinetic energies from [1-10] eV. To this aim, ab initio potential energy surfaces and non-adiabatic couplings together with wavepacket propagations have been used.

  12. Charge transfer and ionization in proton-alkali atoms collisions with and without electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The classical trajectory Monte Carlo simulation has been used to investigate the collisions of protons with alkali metal atoms in their ground state. Model interaction potential has been used to describe the electron-ionic core interaction. The cross sections for the capture and ionization in the energy range 1-100 keV/amu have been calculated and compared with the available experimental and theoretical results. The effects of the presence of a strong static electric field in different geometrical features on the capture and ionization cross sections have also been investigated. It has been found that the electric field causes the cross section for the capture to decrease while for the ionization enhance dramatically. Many of the null field features are retained. The analyses of the final state n, l-distribution in the electron capture process reveals H(2p) to be the most populated level in both the cases, with and without electric field. (author)

  13. Four-body charge transfer processes in collisions of bare projectile ions with helium atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, S.; Mandal, C. R.; Purkait, M.

    2015-02-01

    Single-electron capture by a bare ion from a helium atom at intermediate and high energies in the framework of four-body distorted wave (DW-4B) approximation in both prior and post form has been considered. In the entrance channel, the initial bound state wave function is distorted by the incoming projectile ion, and the corresponding distortion is related to the Coulomb continuum states of the active electron and the residual target ion in the field of the projectile ion respectively. Continuum states of the active electron and the projectile ion in the field of the residual target ion are also included in the exit channel. It may be mentioned that the effect of dynamic electron correlation is explicitly taken into account through the complete perturbation potential. The total single-electron capture cross sections are obtained by summing over all contributions up to n = 3 shells and sub-shells respectively. In addition, the differential cross sections for alpha particle-helium collision are calculated at impact energies of 60, 150, 300, 450, and 630 keV amu-1, respectively. The cross sections exhibit a monotonically decreasing angular dependence, with clear peak structures around 0.1 to 0.2 mrad being found at low impact energies. The current theoretical results, both in prior and post forms of the transition amplitude for symmetric and asymmetric collision, are compared with the available theoretical and experimental results. Current computed results have been found to be satisfactory in comparison with other theoretical and experimental findings.

  14. Four-body charge transfer processes in collisions of bare projectile ions with helium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single-electron capture by a bare ion from a helium atom at intermediate and high energies in the framework of four-body distorted wave (DW-4B) approximation in both prior and post form has been considered. In the entrance channel, the initial bound state wave function is distorted by the incoming projectile ion, and the corresponding distortion is related to the Coulomb continuum states of the active electron and the residual target ion in the field of the projectile ion respectively. Continuum states of the active electron and the projectile ion in the field of the residual target ion are also included in the exit channel. It may be mentioned that the effect of dynamic electron correlation is explicitly taken into account through the complete perturbation potential. The total single-electron capture cross sections are obtained by summing over all contributions up to n = 3 shells and sub-shells respectively. In addition, the differential cross sections for alpha particle–helium collision are calculated at impact energies of 60, 150, 300, 450, and 630 keV amu−1, respectively. The cross sections exhibit a monotonically decreasing angular dependence, with clear peak structures around 0.1 to 0.2 mrad being found at low impact energies. The current theoretical results, both in prior and post forms of the transition amplitude for symmetric and asymmetric collision, are compared with the available theoretical and experimental results. Current computed results have been found to be satisfactory in comparison with other theoretical and experimental findings. (paper)

  15. Calculations of state-selective differential cross sections for charge transfer in collisions between O3+ and H2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chi Bao-Qian; Liu Ling; Wang Jian-Guo

    2008-01-01

    The non-dissociative charge-transfer processes in collisions between O3+ and H2 are investigated by using the quantum-mechanical molecular-orbital coupled-channel (QMOCC) method. The adiabatic potentials and radial cou-pling matrix elements.utilized in the QMOCC calculations are obtained with the spin-coupled valence-bond approach. Electronic and vibrational state-selective differential cross sections are presented for projectile energies of 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 eV/u in the H2 orientation angles of 45° and 89°. The electronic and the vibrational state-selective differential cross sections show similar behaviours: they decrease as the scattering angle increases, and beyond a specific angle the oscillating structures appear. Moreover, it is also found that the vibrational state-selective differential cross sections are strongly orientation-dependent, which provides a possibility to determine the orientations of molecule H2 by identifying the vibrational state-selective differential scattering processes.

  16. Ionization and charge transfer in high-energy ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron capture and loss by fast highly charged ions in a gas target, and ionization of the target by passage of the fast projectile beam, are fundamental processes in atomic physics. These processes, along with excitation, can be experimentally studied separately (''singles'') or together (''coincidence''). This paper is a review of recent results on singles measurements for electron capture and loss and for target ionization, for velocities which are generally high relative to the active electron, including recent ionization measurements for a nearly relativistic projectile. 11 refs., 6 figs

  17. Charge transfer cross sections for Hg/sup +/, Xe/sup +/, and Cs/sup +/ in collision with various metals and carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, J.A.; Vroom, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    Cross sections for charge transfer between Hg/sup +/, Xe/sup +/, and Cs/sup +/ and the atomic species Fe, Mo, Al, Ti, Ta, and C have been measured in the ion energy range from 1 to 5000 eV. In general, the cross sections for charge transfer were found to be less than 2 x 10/sup -15/ cm/sup 2/ for most processes over the total energy range. The one exception is Hg/sup +/ in collision with Ti. The reactants are all open shell atomic species and in most cases where the charge transfer process is exothermic, several resonant pathways exist leading to the products. Some discussion of possible reaction paths is given. The techniques used to form neutral beams of the various species studied is included.

  18. Influence of occupation number of single particle levels on K - K charge transfer in collisions of 90 keV - Ne{^9+} on Ne

    OpenAIRE

    Kürpick, Peter; Heinemann, Dirk; Sepp, Wolf-Dieter; Fricke, Burkhard

    1991-01-01

    The influence of the occupation of the single particle levels on the impact parameter dependent K - K charge transfer occuring in collisions of 90 keV Ne{^9+} on Ne was studied using coupled channel calculations. The energy eigenvalues and matrixelements for the single particle levels were taken from ab initio self consistent MO-LCAO-DIRAC-FOCK-SLATER calculations with occupation numbers corresponding to the single particle amplitudes given by the coupled channel calculations.

  19. A non-adiabatic wavepacket dynamical study of the low energy charge transfer process in the S{sup 3+} + H collision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labuda, Marta, E-mail: marta@mif.pg.gda.pl [Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdansk University of Technology, ul. Narutowicza 11/12, 80233 Gdansk (Poland); Gonzalez-Vazquez, Jesus [Instituto de Quimica Fisica Rocasolano, CSIC, C/ Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Martin, Fernando [Departamento de Quimica, Modulo 13, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto Madrileno de Estudios Avanzados en Nanociencia (IMDEA-Nanociencia), Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez, Leticia [Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 17, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2012-05-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S{sup 3+} + H charge transfer process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low energy collision in the [1-10] eV range. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-adiabatic wavepacket quantum dynamical study. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 2D time-dependent wavepacket approach in the femtosecond time scale. - Abstract: The collisional system S{sup 3+} + H {yields} S{sup 2+} + H{sup +} has been studied using a time-dependent wavepacket methodology in two-dimensions. Using available potential energy surfaces and coupling matrix elements obtained from multireference ab initio calculations, five non-adiabatically coupled electronic states of {sup 1}{Pi} symmetry have been included in the dynamical simulations. The collision has been studied in the low energy regime of 1-10 eV. The wavepacket treatment accounts for the description of the collision including all possible impact parameters simultaneously in all spatial directions of the considered plane. The molecular movie of the scattered products arising from charge transfer yields the angular distribution and the total charge transfer probability vs. initial kinetic energy of the projectile. A detailed analysis of the forward, sideways, and backward scattering mechanisms showing different patterns is presented.

  20. Study of elementary transfer mechanisms during a collision between a swift multi-charged heavy ion and a neutral atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is dedicated to the study of the energy transfer mechanisms which occur during a collision between a swift multicharged heavy ion and a neutral atom. The elementary energy energy transfer mechanisms (scattering, excitation, ionization, capture) and their consequences on the target velocity after the collision (recoil velocity) are recalled in the first chapter. In the case of small projectile diffusion angles, we show that the recoil velocity component, transverse to the incident projectile direction, results principally from the diffusion mechanism, while the longitudinal component is due essentially to the mass transfer and the inelastic energy transfer mechanisms. Since the target recoil velocities are very small, we have built an experimental set-up which reduces the impreciseness on their measurement due to the target thermal spread using, as targets, cooled atoms of a supersonic jet (temperature 44+(6.7 MeV/A) + Ar => Xe44 + Arq++qe- (q ranging from 1 to 7); Xe44+ (6.7 MeV/A) + He => Xe44+ He1+,2++1e-,2e-. We show that it is possible to interpret the recoil velocity in terms of kinetic energy transferred to the target and to the electrons ejected from the target. (author)

  1. Vibrational mode and collision energy effects on reaction of H2CO+ with C2H2: Charge state competition and the role of Franck-Condon factors in endoergic charge transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of collision energy (Ecol) and six different H2CO+ vibrational states on the title reaction have been studied over the center-of-mass Ecol range from 0.1 to 2.6 eV, including measurements of product ion recoil velocity distributions. Ab initio and Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus calculations were used to examine the properties of complexes and transition states that might be important in mediating the reaction. Reaction is largely direct, despite the presence of multiple deep wells on the potential surface. Five product channels are observed, with a total reaction cross section at the collision limit. The competition among the major H2+ transfer, hydrogen transfer, and proton transfer channels is strongly affected by Ecol and H2CO+ vibrational excitation, providing insight into the factors that control competition and charge state 'unmixing' during product separation. One of the more interesting results is that endoergic charge transfer appears to be controlled by Franck-Condon factors, implying that it occurs at large inter-reactant separations, contrary to the expectation that endoergic reactions should require intimate collisions to drive the necessary energy conversion

  2. Comparative study on contribution of charge-transfer collision to excitations of iron ion between argon radio-frequency inductively-coupled plasma and nitrogen microwave induced plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, Kozue; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki, E-mail: wagatuma@imr.tohoku.ac.jp

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes an ionization/excitation phenomenon of singly-ionized iron occurring in an Okamoto-cavity microwave induced plasma (MIP) as well as an argon radio-frequency inductively-coupled plasma (ICP), by comparing the Boltzmann distribution among iron ionic lines (Fe II) having a wide range of the excitation energy from 4.76 to 9.01 eV. It indicated in both the plasmas that plots of Fe II lines having lower excitation energies (4.76 to 5.88 eV) were fitted on each linear relationship, implying that their excitations were caused by a dominant thermal process such as collision with energetic electron. However, Fe II lines having higher excitation energies (more than 7.55 eV) had a different behavior from each other. In the ICP, Boltzmann plots of Fe II lines assigned to the higher excited levels also followed the normal Boltzmann relationship among the low-lying excited levels, even including a deviation from it in particular excited levels having an excitation energy of ca. 7.8 eV. This deviation can be attributed to a charge-transfer collision with argon ion, which results in the overpopulation of these excited levels, but the contribution is small. On the other hand, the distribution of the high-lying excited levels was non-thermal in the Okamoto-cavity MIP, which did not follow the normal Boltzmann relationship among the low-lying excited levels. A probable reason for the non-thermal characteristics in the MIP is that a charge-transfer collision with nitrogen molecule ion having many vibrational/rotational levels could work for populating the 3d{sup 6}4p (3d{sup 5}4s4p) excited levels of iron ion broadly over an energy range of 7.6–9.0 eV, while collisional excitation by energetic electron would occur insufficiently to excite these high-energy levels. - Highlights: • This paper describes the excitation mechanism of iron ion in Okamoto-cavity MIP in comparison with conventional ICP. • Boltzmann distribution is studied among iron ionic lines of

  3. Comparative study on contribution of charge-transfer collision to excitations of iron ion between argon radio-frequency inductively-coupled plasma and nitrogen microwave induced plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes an ionization/excitation phenomenon of singly-ionized iron occurring in an Okamoto-cavity microwave induced plasma (MIP) as well as an argon radio-frequency inductively-coupled plasma (ICP), by comparing the Boltzmann distribution among iron ionic lines (Fe II) having a wide range of the excitation energy from 4.76 to 9.01 eV. It indicated in both the plasmas that plots of Fe II lines having lower excitation energies (4.76 to 5.88 eV) were fitted on each linear relationship, implying that their excitations were caused by a dominant thermal process such as collision with energetic electron. However, Fe II lines having higher excitation energies (more than 7.55 eV) had a different behavior from each other. In the ICP, Boltzmann plots of Fe II lines assigned to the higher excited levels also followed the normal Boltzmann relationship among the low-lying excited levels, even including a deviation from it in particular excited levels having an excitation energy of ca. 7.8 eV. This deviation can be attributed to a charge-transfer collision with argon ion, which results in the overpopulation of these excited levels, but the contribution is small. On the other hand, the distribution of the high-lying excited levels was non-thermal in the Okamoto-cavity MIP, which did not follow the normal Boltzmann relationship among the low-lying excited levels. A probable reason for the non-thermal characteristics in the MIP is that a charge-transfer collision with nitrogen molecule ion having many vibrational/rotational levels could work for populating the 3d64p (3d54s4p) excited levels of iron ion broadly over an energy range of 7.6–9.0 eV, while collisional excitation by energetic electron would occur insufficiently to excite these high-energy levels. - Highlights: • This paper describes the excitation mechanism of iron ion in Okamoto-cavity MIP in comparison with conventional ICP. • Boltzmann distribution is studied among iron ionic lines of various

  4. Comparative study on contribution of charge-transfer collision to excitations of iron ion between argon radio-frequency inductively-coupled plasma and nitrogen microwave induced plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Kozue; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes an ionization/excitation phenomenon of singly-ionized iron occurring in an Okamoto-cavity microwave induced plasma (MIP) as well as an argon radio-frequency inductively-coupled plasma (ICP), by comparing the Boltzmann distribution among iron ionic lines (Fe II) having a wide range of the excitation energy from 4.76 to 9.01 eV. It indicated in both the plasmas that plots of Fe II lines having lower excitation energies (4.76 to 5.88 eV) were fitted on each linear relationship, implying that their excitations were caused by a dominant thermal process such as collision with energetic electron. However, Fe II lines having higher excitation energies (more than 7.55 eV) had a different behavior from each other. In the ICP, Boltzmann plots of Fe II lines assigned to the higher excited levels also followed the normal Boltzmann relationship among the low-lying excited levels, even including a deviation from it in particular excited levels having an excitation energy of ca. 7.8 eV. This deviation can be attributed to a charge-transfer collision with argon ion, which results in the overpopulation of these excited levels, but the contribution is small. On the other hand, the distribution of the high-lying excited levels was non-thermal in the Okamoto-cavity MIP, which did not follow the normal Boltzmann relationship among the low-lying excited levels. A probable reason for the non-thermal characteristics in the MIP is that a charge-transfer collision with nitrogen molecule ion having many vibrational/rotational levels could work for populating the 3d64p (3d54s4p) excited levels of iron ion broadly over an energy range of 7.6-9.0 eV, while collisional excitation by energetic electron would occur insufficiently to excite these high-energy levels.

  5. Excitation and charge transfer in low-energy hydrogen-atom collisions with neutral atoms: Theory, comparisons, and application to Ca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barklem, Paul S.

    2016-04-01

    A theoretical method is presented for the estimation of cross sections and rates for excitation and charge-transfer processes in low-energy hydrogen-atom collisions with neutral atoms, based on an asymptotic two-electron model of ionic-covalent interactions in the neutral atom-hydrogen-atom system. The calculation of potentials and nonadiabatic radial couplings using the method is demonstrated. The potentials are used together with the multichannel Landau-Zener model to calculate cross sections and rate coefficients. The main feature of the method is that it employs asymptotically exact atomic wave functions, which can be determined from known atomic parameters. The method is applied to Li+H , Na+H , and Mg+H collisions, and the results compare well with existing detailed full-quantum calculations. The method is applied to the astrophysically important problem of Ca+H collisions, and rate coefficients are calculated for temperatures in the range 1000-20 000 K.

  6. Charge transfer processes of low charge state heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, some aspects of the collision processes of accelerated heavy ions in very low charge state is reviewed, and the beam loss due to such collisions is estimated. The processes included in ion-atom collisions are electron capture, the electron stripping of ions, and target ionization. The stripping cross sections decrease slowly at high energy, and are much larger than the electron capture cross sections. At low energy, the electron capture is dominant, and this process plays a principal role near ion sources and preacceleration regions. This has not been taken into account properly. In order to keep the beam loss less than 0.1 percent, it is estimated that the average vacuum of about 10-7 to 10-8 Torr is required. An empirical formula to calculate the stripping cross sections of heavy ions in low charge state in collisions is derived. The beam loss due to ion-atom collisions can be estimated. The charge transfer and stripping processes in ion-ion collisions are also discussed. The typical processes in ion-ion collisions are almost same as those in ion-atom collisions. In order to minimize the ion beam loss due to charge-changing processes, it is important to choose the heavy ions with closed shell configurations, which correspond to the slightly more ionized states than the singly ionized state. (Kato, T.)

  7. Holographic heavy ion collisions with baryon charge

    CERN Document Server

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; van der Schee, Wilke; Triana, Miquel

    2016-01-01

    We numerically simulate collisions of charged shockwaves in Einstein-Maxwell theory in anti-de Sitter space as a toy model of heavy ion collisions with non-zero baryon charge. The stress tensor and the baryon current become well described by charged hydrodynamics at roughly the same time. The effect of the charge density on generic observables is typically no larger than 15\\%. %The rapidity profile of the charge is wider than the profile of the local energy density. We find significant stopping of the baryon charge and compare our results with those in heavy ion collision experiments.

  8. Excitation and charge transfer in He+ + H collisions. A molecular approach including two-electron translation factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a previous paper we have pointed out that the common-translation-factor (CTF) method is the only one which, at present, and within the framework of the molecular model of atomic collisions, can be shown to be both convergent and computationally fast, even for many-electron systems. In this Communication we check that this second statement is correct, presenting, for the first time, a molecular calculation involving two-electron translation factors, for He+ + H collisions. A careful study of the sensitivity of the calculated cross sections to the choice of the CTF is performed, and conclusions on that sensitivity are drawn, for several types of processes

  9. Charge-transfer collisions of multicharged ions with atomic and molecular hydrogen: measurements with low-energy accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron-capture cross sections for O/sup +q/ + H → O/sup +q-1/ + H+ and O/sup +q/ + H2 → O/sup +q-1/ + H2+ are shown for projectile energies from 10 to 1300 keV. At low energies the cross sections are determined by details of the quasi-molecule potential; at higher energies momentum transfer becomes the dominant mechanism, and the cross sections fall off similarly. Results with other projectiles are described briefly. 1 figure

  10. Charge-transfer cross sections of ground state He+ ions in collisions with He atoms and simple molecules in the energy range below 4.0 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charge-transfer cross sections of the ground state He+ ions in collisions with He atoms and simple molecules (H2, D2, N2, CO and CO2) have been measured in the energy range of 0.20 to 4.0 keV with the initial growth rate method. Since previously published experimental data are scattered in the low energy region, the present observations would provide reasonably reliable cross section data below 4 keV. The charge transfer accompanied by dissociation of product molecular ion can be dominant at low energies for molecular targets. In He+ + D2 collisions, any isotope effect was not observed over the present energy range, compared to H2 molecule. (author)

  11. Charge transferred in brush discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talarek, M.; Kacprzyk, R.

    2015-10-01

    Electrostatic discharges from surfaces of plastic materials can be a source of ignition, when appear in explosive atmospheres. Incendivity of electrostatic discharges can be estimated using the transferred charge test. In the case of brush discharges not all the energy stored at the tested sample is released and the effective surface charge density (or surface potential) crater is observed after the discharge. Simplified model, enabling calculation of a charge transferred during electrostatic brush discharge, was presented. Comparison of the results obtained from the simplified model and from direct measurements of transferred charge are presented in the paper.

  12. Symmetric laser-assisted charge transfer: A nonperturbative treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a nonperturbative treatment of laser-assisted charge transfer under conditions of high laser intensity and low collision energy in a specific symmetric charge transfer system: H(1s) + H+ + mhw → H+ + H(n = 1, 2). Previous work in laser-assisted charge transfer has demonstrated that although perturbative treatments are generally valid for lower laser intensities and higher collision energies, nonperturbative treatments are necessary in the present regime where the influence of the laser on the cross sections is more pronounced. The present work is based on the semiclassical impact parameter method, choosing initial conditions appropriate to charge transfer and treating the projectile-target system within a quasimolecular framework. The interaction with the laser is treated semiclassically, in the velocity gauge. We investigate the effect of the laser on both resonant and nonresonant charge transfer processes and provide comparisons with perturbative results. Finally, we shall discuss possibilities for future research

  13. Path integral approach to non-relativistic electron charge transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A path integral approach has been generalized for the non-relativistic electron charge transfer processes. The charge transfer - the capture of an electron by an ion passing another atom, or more generally the problem of rearrangement collisions - is formulated in terms of influence functionals. It has been shown that the electron charge transfer process can be treated either as an electron transition problem or as ion and atom elastic scattering in the effective potential field. The first-order Born approximation for the electron charge transfer reaction cross section has been reproduced to prove the adequacy of the path integral approach for this problem. (author)

  14. Charge transfer in ionic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charge transfer involving multiply charged ions in collision with atomic or molecular targets are determinant processes in controlled thermonuclear fusion research and astrophysical plasma. In such processes, an electron is generally captured in a excited state of the ion, followed by line emission. The observation of line intensities provides important information on the electron temperature, density and spacial distributions in the emitting region of the plasma. From a theoretical point of view, different approaches may be used with regard to the collisional energy range of the process. A semi-classical method is currently used at keV energies, but the description of very low-velocity processes requires a complete quantum mechanical treatment of the dynamics of both electrons and nuclei. The first approach extensively used is the resolution of the stationary close-coupling equations, but we have analyzed recently the efficiency of a time-dependent wave packet method which provides a clear and physical insight into the dynamics of the processes and may be particularly interesting for polyatomic systems since it allows the possibility of developing a fully quantal mechanical treatment for some degrees of freedom, the other ones being treated classically. The keV energy range treatment is presented on two examples pointing out the case of complex ion-atom collision systems, as well as the differences between ion-atom and ion-molecule mechanisms. In connection with translation energy spectroscopy experiments of McLaughlin et al in the 4-28 keV impact energy range, we present a complete ab-initio theoretical approach of the N4+(2s)2S + He system taking into account both single and double electron capture channels. This is an extremely complex collisional system which involves numerous channels with short range interactions and a very intricate interaction region may be observed for interatomic distances around R = 3.5 a.u.. In agreement with experimental data, the

  15. Collisions of oppositely charged black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Zilhão, Miguel; Herdeiro, Carlos; Lehner, Luis; Sperhake, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    The first fully non-linear numerical simulations of colliding charged black holes in D=4 Einstein-Maxwell theory were recently reported arXiv:1205.1063. These collisions were performed for black holes with equal charge-to-mass ratio, for which initial data can be found in closed analytic form. Here we generalize the study of collisions of charged black holes to the case of unequal charge-to-mass ratios. We focus on oppositely charged black holes, as to maximize acceleration-dependent effects. As |Q|/M increases from 0 to 0.99, we observe that the gravitational radiation emitted increases by a factor of ~ 2.7; the electromagnetic radiation emission becomes dominant for |Q|/M >~ 0.37 and at |Q|/M=0.99 is larger, by a factor of ~ 5.8, than its gravitational counterpart. We observe that these numerical results exhibit a precise and simple scaling with the charge. Furthermore, we show that the results from the numerical simulations are qualitatively captured by a simple analytic model that computes the electromagn...

  16. Catalysis: Quantifying charge transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Trevor E.; Campbell, Charles T.

    2016-02-01

    Improving the design of catalytic materials for clean energy production requires a better understanding of their electronic properties, which remains experimentally challenging. Researchers now quantify the number of electrons transferred from metal nanoparticles to an oxide support as a function of particle size.

  17. Analysis of charge transfer mechanisms in grazing incidence collisions between He sup + (1s) ions and Al(1 1 1) surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Gutíerrez, F A; Jequier, S; Jouin, H

    2003-01-01

    We analyze angular distributions of neutralized particles after grazing incidence collisions between slow He sup + (1s) ions and Al(1 1 1) surfaces by application of a numerical code which can include all the relevant charge exchange mechanisms. Our analysis is based on comparisons between calculated angular distributions of scattered species and experimental data for two different representations of the image potentials. We found that angular distributions produced by the collective surface-plasmon mode of ion neutralization are consistent in peak's position and angular range with the experimental results. The high of the calculated angular distribution is below the experimental one which indicates the need to consider the electron-hole excitation mode and possibly some other modes like those related to multipole surface-plasmon and bulk-plasmon emission. The present study shows the sensitivity of the calculated angular distributions to the scattering potentials and it also enlightens the important role play...

  18. Collision Rates in Charged Granular Gases

    OpenAIRE

    Scheffler, T. (Thomas); Wolf, D. E.

    2002-01-01

    The dissipation rate due to inelastic collisions between equally charged, insulating particles in a granular gas is calculated. It is equal to the known dissipation rate for uncharged granular media multiplied by a Boltzmann-like factor, that originates from Coulomb repulsion. Particle correlations lead to an effective potential that replaces the bare Coulomb potential in the Boltzmann factor. Collisional cooling in a granular gas proceeds with the known t^-2 -law, until the kinetic energy of...

  19. Overview on collision processes of highly charged ions with atoms present status and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides a brief discussion on the present status of the collision physics of highly charged ions with atoms. The emphasis is on the main achievements in understanding and describing the most important collision processes, and as charge transfer, ionization and Auger-type processes, and even more on those open problems which, due either to their scientific or practical importance, represent challenges to current research in this field. The paper concentrates on general ideas and problems whose development and solutions have advanced or will advance our basic understanding of the collision dynamics of multiply charged ions with atoms

  20. Correlated charge-changing ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the progress and accomplishments in accelerator atomic physics research supported by DOE grant DE-FG02-87ER13778 from March 16, 1991 through March 15, 1992. This work involves the experimental investigation of fundamental atomic processes in collisions of charged projectiles with neutral targets or electrons, with particular emphasis on two-electron interactions and electron correlation effects. Processes involving combinations of excitation, ionization, and charge transfer are investigated utilizing coincidence techniques in which projectiles charge-changing events are associated with x-ray emission, target recoil ions, or electron emission. New results have been obtained for studies involving (1) resonant recombination of atomic ions, (2) double ionization of helium, and (3) continuum electron emission. Experiments were conducted using accelerators at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, Michigan State University, Western Michigan University, and the Institute of Nuclear Research, Debrecen, Hungary. Brief summaries of work completed and work in progress are given in this report

  1. Medical radiation dosimetry theory of charged particle collision energy loss

    CERN Document Server

    McParland, Brian J

    2014-01-01

    Accurate radiation dosimetry is a requirement of radiation oncology, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. It is necessary so as to satisfy the needs of patient safety, therapeutic and diagnostic optimisation, and retrospective epidemiological studies of the biological effects resulting from low absorbed doses of ionising radiation. The radiation absorbed dose received by the patient is the ultimate consequence of the transfer of kinetic energy through collisions between energetic charged particles and atoms of the tissue being traversed. Thus, the ability of the medical physicist to both measure and calculate accurately patient dosimetry demands a deep understanding of the physics of charged particle interactions with matter. Interestingly, the physics of charged particle energy loss has an almost exclusively theoretical basis, thus necessitating an advanced theoretical understanding of the subject in order to apply it appropriately to the clinical regime. ​ Each year, about one-third of the worl...

  2. HICS: Highly charged ion collisions with surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Thorsten; Hopster, Johannes; Sokolovsky, Valentin; Wucher, Andreas; Schleberger, Marika

    2008-01-01

    The layout of a new instrument designed to study the interaction of highly charged ions with surfaces, which consists of an ion source, a beamline including charge separation and a target chamber, is presented here. By varying the charge state and impact velocity of the projectiles separately, the dissipation of potential and kinetic energy at or below the surface can be studied independently. The target chamber offers the use of tunable metal-insulator-metal devices as detectors for internal electronic excitation, a timeof-flight system to study the impact induced particle emission and the possibility to transfer samples in situ to a UHV scanning probe microscope. Samples and detectors can be prepared in situ as well. As a first example data on graphene layers on SrTiO3 which have been irradiated with Xe36+ are presented. Key words: highly charged ions, sputtering, AFM, graphene

  3. Optimal Control of charge transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Werschnik, J.; Gross, E.K.U.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we investigate how and to which extent a quantum system can be driven along a prescribed path in space by a suitably tailored laser pulse. The laser field is calculated with the help of quantum optimal control theory employing a time-dependent formulation for the control target. Within a two-dimensional (2D) model system we have successfully optimized laser fields for two distinct charge transfer processes. The resulting laser fields can be understood as a complicated interplay ...

  4. Theoretical treatment of charge transfer processes of relevance to astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krstic, P.S.; Stancil, P.C.; Schultz, D.R.

    1997-12-01

    Charge transfer is an important process in many astrophysical and atmospheric environments. While numerous experimental and theoretical studies exist for H and He targets, data on other targets, particularly metals and molecules, are sparse. Using a variety of theoretical methods and computational techniques the authors are developing methods to estimate the cross sections for electron capture (charge transfer) in slow collisions of low charge state ions with heavy (Mg, Ca, Fe, Co, Ni and Zn) neutrals. In this ongoing work particular attention is paid to ascertaining the importance of double electron capture.

  5. Imaging the electrons from transfer ionization collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrons emitted into the continuum in transfer ionization of He2+ on helium collisions in the energy range of 75 - 400 keV were imaged using reaction microscope. The electron emission patterns show big difference for projectile velocity lower and upper than 1 a.u. in the present studies.

  6. Charge-transfer with graphene and nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    C.N.R. Rao; Rakesh Voggu

    2010-01-01

    Charge-transfer between electron–donor and –acceptor molecules is a widely studied subject of great chemical interest. Some of the charge-transfer compounds in solid state exhibit novel electronic properties. In the last two to three years, occurrence of molecular charge-transfer involving single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and graphene has been demonstrated. This interaction gives rise to significant changes in the electronic properties of these nanocarbons. We examine charge-transfer ph...

  7. HICS - Highly charged ion collisions with surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haake, Christian; Peters, Thorsten; Hopster, Johannes; Wucher, Andreas; Schleberger, Marika [Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Fachbereich Physik, 47057 Duisburg (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    A new ion beam installation with the name HICS (highly charged ions collisions with surfaces) has been constructed to investigate the mechanisms of energy dissipation in a substrate after the impact of highly charged ions. The set-up offers high charge states (up to Ar{sup 16+} or Xe{sup 44+}) and adjustable kinetic energies which can be less than 100 eV/q. These low energies are achieved by a deceleration system which uses a device we call an ion escalator. An evaporation chamber for sample preparation is mounted and a load lock system offers in situ transport to other vacuum systems. To analyse the irradiation effects a time-of-flight system for secondary and neutral mass spectrometry (SIMS/SNMS) is installed. Inner Electronic excitations can be detected with metal-insulator-metal junctions. These detectors offer the possibility to study excitations below the work function which limits the external emission of electrons. First data measured with Ag-AlO{sub x}-Al detectors will be presented.

  8. Resonant charge transfer at dielectric surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Marbach, Johannes; Fehske, Holger

    2012-01-01

    We report on the theoretical description of secondary electron emission due to resonant charge transfer occurring during the collision of metastable nitrogen molecules with dielectric surfaces. The emission is described as a two step process consisting of electron capture to form an intermediate shape resonance and subsequent electron emission by decay of this ion, either due to its natural life time or its interaction with the surface. The electron capture is modeled using the Keldysh Green's function technique and the negative ion decay is described by a combination of the Keldysh technique and a rate equation approach. We find the resonant capture of electrons to be very efficient and the natural decay to be clearly dominating over the surface-induced decay. Secondary electron emission coefficients are calculated for aluminum oxide, magnesium oxide, silicon oxide, and diamond at several kinetic energies of the projectile. With the exception of magnesium oxide the coefficients turn out to be of the order of...

  9. Proceedings of the workshop on 'spin-charge transfer reaction in atomic collision process' for planning of next period of cascade project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This workshop was held on February 29, 1992, and was planned to investigate from the theoretical side the spin-charge transfer reaction which is used for a polarized heavy ion source, the development of which has been advanced in the Research Center for Nuclear Physics. In fiscal year 1992, the plan of installing an ECR ion source, Neomafios-10 GHz, as the AVF cyclotron external incident ion source is in progress. This external incidence system can be used also for the research on various atomic physics, in addition to the research on atomic nucleus physics. In this workshop, heated discussion was carried out on what research on atomic physics can be advanced in the Research Center for Nuclear Physics hereafter, through the investigation of the various problems that the atomic physics from low to high energy holds and new technical development. Particularly, the atomic physics using polarized ions seems to become a very unique study in the world. It seems proper to name this polarized heavy ion incidence system Spin factory. This report was edited based on the copies of the transparencies. (K.I.)

  10. Theoretical studies of slow collisions. Elastic electron scattering from positive ions, charge transfer in one-electron ion-ion systems and mutual neutralization of H-/D- and H2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantal and semi-classical methods have been used to investigate slow electron, ionic and molecular collisions. Three distinct areas have been considered: the elastic scattering of electrons from positive ions, the symmetric resonance charge transfer in one-electron ion-ion collisions and the mutual neutralization of the hydrogen molecular ion and the negative hydrogen or deuterium ion. Differential cross sections for the elastic scattering of electrons from the closed-shell ions Na+, Cs+, Mg2+, N3+ and Ar8+ were obtained employing model and psuedopotential and quantum defect methods in a partial-wave analysis. Results were found to be consistent with recent experiments (Williams 1999 Rep. Prog. Phys. 62 1431) for Na+ and N3+, but less good agreement was obtained for Cs+ and Ar8+. The symmetric resonance charge transfer reaction AZ+ + A(Z-1)+ (1s) → A(Z-1)+ (1s) + AZ+ with Z > 1 has been investigated. In particular, differential cross sections for charge transfer in the 4He+-3He2+ system were determined in the perturbed stationary states approximation. These two-state semi-classical calculations were found to be in excellent agreement with fully quantal calculations of Falcon (1983 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Phys. 16 1793), and in reasonable agreement with calculations and experiment of Kruedener et al (1997 Phys.Rev. Lett. 79 1002). Total cross sections for this and iso-electronic systems were found to agree with simple approximations. Total cross sections for the mutual neutralization reaction H2+ + D- → H2(1s, nl) + D(1s) + Δε were found using the Landau-Zener curve-crossing model. This method of calculation is heavily dependent on the reliability of estimates of the coupling matrix elements. Potential energy curves for the H2 molecule were found using the MOLPRO package in order to have a consistent base from which to determine the energetics of the reaction. Agreement with early experiments of Aberth et al (1971 AFCRL Report No. 71-0481 Bedford, Mass.) is

  11. Experimental results on charge fluctuations in heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, D K; Netrakanti, P K; Pant, L M; Mohanty, A K

    2016-01-01

    We present a subset of experimental results on charge fluctuation from the heavy-ion collisions to search for phase transition and location of critical point in the QCD phase diagram. Measurements from the heavy-ion experiments at the SPS and RHIC energies observe that total charge fluctuations increase from central to peripheral collisions. The net-charge fluctuations in terms of dynamical fluctuation measure $\

  12. Transfer ionization of the isocharge sequence ion and Ar collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Xiao-Hong; Yu De-Yang; Cao Zhu-Rong; Lu Rong-Chun; Yang Wei; Shao Cao-Jie; Chen Xi-Meng

    2004-01-01

    The ratios of transfer ionization to single capture for isocharge Cq+, Nq+, Oq+, Neq+ ions on Ar atoms are measured by using position-sensitive and time-of-flight techniques. It is found that the ratio R1 increases with nuclear charge Z in a q=4 sequence, and the ratio R1 sequences have the minimum values at Z=7 and Z=8 in q=5 and q=6 sequences, respectively, and the ratio R1 decreases with the increase in the nuclear charge Z in a q=7 sequence. The results may be explained within the frame of the statistical model. It may be concluded that the transfer ionization depends remarkably upon the electronic structure of the projectile. The projectiles used in this study have the same charge state and velocity, but different electronic structures. The dependence of the ratio R1 on q is studied for Neq+-Ar collisions. The ratio R1 is found to increase as q increases for Neq+-Ar collisions. The measured dependence of the ratio R1 on q is compared with the calculation using the molecular Coulomb over-barrier model.

  13. Argand diagram representation of orbiting resonance in proton-transfer collision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutrus, C.K. (Department of Physics and Graduate Center for Cloud Physics Research, University of Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, Missouri 65401 (USA)); Suck Salk, S.H. (Department of Physics, Pohang Institute of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-600, (Korea))

    1991-05-01

    Dynamic resonance in atom-diatomic molecule collisions has been relatively well studied compared to orbiting resonance. We discuss orbiting resonance on reactive scattering involving proton (charge) transfer. Resonance structure is predicted to exist at forward-scattering angles in both the state-to-state angular distribution and the Argand diagram for the proton-transfer collision system of He+H{sub 2}{sup +}{r arrow}HeH{sup +}+H. The present study demonstrates the possibility of orbiting resonance particularly in proton (charge) -transfer reaction involving atom-diatomic molecule systems.

  14. Argand diagram representation of orbiting resonance in proton-transfer collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutrus, C. K.; Suck Salk, S. H.

    1991-05-01

    Dynamic resonance in atom-diatomic molecule collisions has been relatively well studied compared to orbiting resonance. We discuss orbiting resonance on reactive scattering involving proton (charge) transfer. Resonance structure is predicted to exist at forward-scattering angles in both the state-to-state angular distribution and the Argand diagram for the proton-transfer collision system of He+H+2-->HeH++H. The present study demonstrates the possibility of orbiting resonance particularly in proton (charge) -transfer reaction involving atom-diatomic molecule systems.

  15. Long-range charge transfer in biopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astakhova, T. Yu; Likhachev, V. N.; Vinogradov, G. A.

    2012-11-01

    The results of theoretical and experimental studies on the charge transfer in biopolymers, namely, DNA and peptides, are presented. Conditions that ensure the efficient long-range charge transport (by several tens of nanometres) are considered. The known theoretical models of charge transfer mechanisms are discussed and the scopes of their application are analyzed. Attention is focused on the charge transport by the polaron mechanism. The bibliography includes 262 references.

  16. Universal behavior of charged particle production in heavy ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phobos Collaboration; Steinberg, Peter A.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2003-03-01

    The PHOBOS experiment at RHIC has measured the multiplicity of primary charged particles as a function of centrality and pseudorapidity in Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 19.6, 130 and 200 GeV. Two kinds of universal behavior are observed in charged particle production in heavy ion collisions. The first is that forward particle production, over a range of energies, follows a universal limiting curve with a non-trivial centrality dependence. The second arises from comparisons with pp/pbar-p and e+e- data. N_tot/(N_part/2) in nuclear collisions at high energy scales with sqrt(s) in a similar way as N_tot in e+e- collisions and has a very weak centrality dependence. This feature may be related to a reduction in the leading particle effect due to the multiple collisions suffered per participant in heavy ion collisions.

  17. Charge-transfer with graphene and nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.N.R. Rao

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Charge-transfer between electron–donor and –acceptor molecules is a widely studied subject of great chemical interest. Some of the charge-transfer compounds in solid state exhibit novel electronic properties. In the last two to three years, occurrence of molecular charge-transfer involving single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs and graphene has been demonstrated. This interaction gives rise to significant changes in the electronic properties of these nanocarbons. We examine charge-transfer phenomenon in graphene and SWNTs in this article in view of its potential utility in device applications.

  18. Contribution to very inelastic collisions. Emission mechanism of light charged particles and angular momentum transfer in 40Ar (280 MeV) + 58Ni nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work ends a particularly detailed study on very inelastic collisions in 40A (280 MeV) + 58Ni reaction. The two experiments in coincidence (fragment-fragment and particle-fragment) which are this work basis, essentially experimental, are the following of the very precise inclusive measurements already done on this system. They allowed to precise many important aspects of the reaction mechanism. Conclusions from a precise analysis of the fragment kinematics near the mass symmetry is the new aspect of this study. Information implicitely contained in the two complementary fragment angular correlation width are particularly detailed. Concerning the particle-fragment coincidence experiment, a quantitative analysis method of the invariant cross sections (in the reaction plane) has been developed; it shows clearly what is the origin of the emitted particles. The result of a two-stage mechanism allows to interpret simply the anisotropy out-of-plane of the alpha particle emission. The individual spin has been obtained for the first time for each of the two fragments of very inelastic collisions in nearly all the mass asymmetry domain

  19. Charge Transfer and Charge Transport on the Double Helix

    OpenAIRE

    N. P. Armitage; Briman, M.; Gruner, G.

    2003-01-01

    We present a short review of various experiments that measure charge transfer and charge transport in DNA. Some general comments are made on the possible connection between 'chemistry-style' charge transfer experiments that probe fluorescence quenching and remote oxidative damage and 'physics-style' measurements that measure transport properties as defined typically in the solid-state. We then describe measurements performed by our group on the millimeter wave response of DNA. By measuring ov...

  20. Spectator charge splitting of directed flow in heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Szczurek, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    We estimate the effect of the spectator charge on distortion of single charged pion distributions as well as on azimuthal anisotropies in heavy ion collisions. A large electromagnetic effect on directed flow $v_1$ is predicted in good agreement with existing WA98 as well as RHIC data. This effect results in a splitting of $v_1$ for positive and negative pions. Detailed analysis of this phenomenon may provide new information on the collision dynamics.

  1. Charge transfer and transport in DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Jortner, Joshua; Bixon, Mordechai; Langenbacher, Thomas; Michel-Beyerle, Maria E.

    1998-01-01

    We explore charge migration in DNA, advancing two distinct mechanisms of charge separation in a donor (d)–bridge ({Bj})–acceptor (a) system, where {Bj} = B1,B2, … , BN are the N-specific adjacent bases of B-DNA: (i) two-center unistep superexchange induced charge transfer, d*{Bj}a → d∓{Bj}a±, and (ii) multistep charge transport involves charge injection from d* (or d+) to {Bj}, charge hopping within {Bj}, and charge trapping by a. For off-resonance coupling, mechanism i prevails with the char...

  2. Simulation for signal charge transfer of charge coupled devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zujun; Liu Yinong; Chen Wei; Tang Benqi; Xiao Zhigang; Huang Shaoyan; Liu Minbo; Zhang Yong

    2009-01-01

    Physical device models and numerical processing methods are presented to simulate a linear buried channel charge coupled devices (CCDs). The dynamic transfer process of CCD is carried out by a three-phase clock pulse driver. By using the semiconductor device simulation software MEDICI, dynamic transfer pictures of signal charges cells, electron concentration and electrostatic potential are presented. The key parameters of CCD such as charge transfer efficiency (CTE) and dark electrons are numerically simulated. The simulation results agree with the theoretic and experimental results.

  3. Excitation of atoms and molecules in collisions with fast, highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the following topics: charge distributions for Ar recoil-ions produced in one- and two-electron capture collisions by Oq+ projectiles; charge distributions of He, Ne, and Ar recoil-ions produced in collisions with 10 to 30 MeV/u N7+ ions; studies of recoil ions produced in collisions of 40 MeV Ar13+ with atomic and molecular targets; two-fragment coincidence studies of molecular dissociation induced by heavy ion collisions; resonant electron transfer to double K-vacancy states in oxygen compounds; quenching of metastable states in fast Mg projectiles; and design and construction of an atomic physics beamline for the ECR ion source

  4. Electronic excitation and charge transfer processes in collisions of H+, H2+, and H3+ ions with carbon monoxide at typical solar-wind velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luminescence in the 200-580 nm spectral region was observed in the collisions of H+, H2+, and H3+ with CO in the 50-1000 eV projectile energy range. Using computer simulations, we have identified emission of the following products in the observed spectra: the CO+(A-X) comet-tail system, CO+(B-X) first negative system, CO+(B-A) Baldet-Johnson system, and CO(b-a) third positive system. Also, an emission from atomic hydrogen (Hβ line at 486nm) has been observed. From the analysis of the experimental spectra, we have determined the absolute emission cross-sections for the formation of the observed products. Computer simulations gave the excited-product population distributions over vibrational and rotational energy levels. The vibrational level distribution from the CO+(A-X) comet-tail system is compared with the data for CO excited by 100 eV electrons and extreme ultraviolet radiation (XUV) photons. We have used these data to analyze the excitation conditions in the comet Humason (1961e). From the vibrational population distributions observed in the comet, we found that this distribution can be reproduced if electrons produce 25%, protons 70%, and XUV photons produce 5% of the emitting molecules. We find that the ratio of the CO+(B-X) emission to the sum of two main emissions (CO+(A-X)+CO+(B-X)) is velocity dependent and does not depend on the projectile ion type. For small velocities (below 100 km s–1) the ratio is about 5%, while for higher velocities it increases to 30%. For these data, we have found an empirical formula that satisfactorily describes the experimental data: R = R max(1 – v th/v), (where R max = 33%, v th = 87 km s–1). This could be used to infer the velocity of ions producing the observed emission of CO+ products.

  5. Behavior of Charge Fluctuations in Relativistic Nucleus-nucleus Collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SA; Ben-hao; TAI; An

    2002-01-01

    Using a hadron and string cascade model JPCIAE, we have investigated the dependence ofevent-by-event charge fluctuations on (pseudo)rapidity window size, final state interaction, resonancedecay, centrality, and reaction energy for Pb + Pb collisions at SPS and LHC energies and for Au + Aucollisions at RHIC energies. The JPCIAE results of the charge fluctuations as a function of rapidity

  6. Collision and recombination driven instabilities in variable charged dusty plasmas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Bal; M Bose

    2013-04-01

    The dust-acoustic instability driven by recombination of electrons and ions on the surface of charged and variably-charged dust grains as well as by collisions in dusty plasmas with significant pressure of background neutrals have been theoretically investigated. The recombination driven instability is shown to be dominant in the long wavelength regime even in the presence of dust-neutral and ion-neutral collisions, while in the shorter wavelength regime, the dust-neutral collision is found to play a major role. In an earlier research work, the dust-neutral collision was neglected in comparison to the effect due to the recombination for estimating the dust-acoustic instability; later the other report shows that the recombination effect is negligible in the presence of dust-neutral collisions. In line of this present situation our investigation revealed that the recombination is more important than dust-neutral collisions in laboratory plasma and fusion plasma, while the dust-neutral collision frequency is dominant in the interstellar plasmas. The effects of ion and dust densities and ion streaming on the recombination and collision driven mode in parameter regimes relevant for many experimental studies on dusty plasmas have also been calculated.

  7. [Electron transfer, ionization and excitation in atomic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research being carried out at Penn State by Winter and Alston addresses the fundamental atomic-collision processes of electron transfer, ionization, and excitation. Winter has focussed attention on intermediate and, more recently, higher collision energies -- proton energies of at least about 50 keV -- for which coupled-state approaches are appropriate. Alston has concentrated on perturbative approaches to symmetric ion-ion/atom collisions at high energies and to asymmetric collisions at intermediate to high energies

  8. MULTIPLY CHARGED IONS COLLISIONS WITH ATOMS INTO EXCITED STATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PanGuangyan

    1990-01-01

    The emission spectra in collisions between Ions and Atoms have been measured by an Optical Multichannel Analysis System (OMA).The experimental results demonstrate that there are two channels of excitation in collision between single charged ions and atoms and three channels of excitation in collision between double charged ions and atoms.Emission cross cestions and excitation cross sections have been obtained.K.Kadota et al and R.Shingal et al suggested that,under the appropriate conditions,the H42+-Li and He2++Na collision systems can be used efficiently to produce a laser of Lyman-α(30,4nm) and Lyman-β(25.6nm)lines via cascade to He+(2P)state.

  9. HICS: Highly charged ion collisions with surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Thorsten; Haake, Christian; Hopster, Johannes; Sokolovsky, Valentin; Wucher, Andreas; Schleberger, Marika

    2008-01-01

    The layout of a new instrument designed to study the interaction of highly charged ions with surfaces, which consists of an ion source, a beamline including charge separation and a target chamber, is presented here. By varying the charge state and impact velocity of the projectiles separately, the dissipation of potential and kinetic energy at or below the surface can be studied independently. The target chamber offers the use of tunable metal-insulator-metal devices as detectors for internal...

  10. Magnetohydrodynamics and charged currents in heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hot QCD matter produced in any heavy ion collision with a nonzero impact parameter is produced within a strong magnetic field. We study the imprint the magnetic fields produced in non-central heavy ion collisions leave on the azimuthal distributions and correlations of the produced charged hadrons. The magnetic field is time-dependent and the medium is expanding, which leads to the induction of charged currents due to the combination of Faraday and Hall effects. We find that these currents result in a charge-dependent directed flow v1 that is odd in rapidity and odd under charge exchange. It can be detected by measuring correlations between the directed flow of charged hadrons at different rapidities, 〈v1±(y1)v1±(y2)〉

  11. Charged-Particle Multiplicity in Proton-Proton Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes and critically reviews measurements of charged-particle multiplicity distributions and pseudorapidity densities in p+p(pbar) collisions between sqrt(s) = 23.6 GeV and sqrt(s) = 1.8 TeV. Related theoretical concepts are briefly introduced. Moments of multiplicity distributions are presented as a function of sqrt(s). Feynman scaling, KNO scaling, as well as the description of multiplicity distributions with a single negative binomial distribution and with combinations of two or more negative binomial distributions are discussed. Moreover, similarities between the energy dependence of charged-particle multiplicities in p+p(pbar) and e+e- collisions are studied. Finally, various predictions for pseudorapidity densities, average multiplicities in full phase space, and multiplicity distributions of charged particles in p+p(pbar) collisions at the LHC energies of sqrt(s) = 7 TeV, 10 TeV, and 14 TeV are summarized and compared.

  12. Interfacial charge transfer in nanoscale polymer transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Worne, J. H.; Giridharagopal, R.; Kelly, K. F.; Natelson, D.

    2008-01-01

    Interfacial charge transfer plays an essential role in establishing the relative alignment of the metal Fermi level and the energy bands of organic semiconductors. While the details remain elusive in many systems, this charge transfer has been inferred in a number of photoemission experiments. We present electronic transport measurements in very short channel ($L < 100$ nm) transistors made from poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). As channel length is reduced, the evolution of the contact resistan...

  13. Production of Charge in Heavy Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Pratt, Scott; Ratti, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    By analyzing preliminary experimental measurements of charge-balance functions from the STAR Collaboration at the Relativistic-Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC), it is found that pictures where balancing charges are produced in a single surge, and therefore separated by a single length scale, are inconsistent with data. In contrast, a model that assumes two surges, one associated with the formation of a thermalized quark-gluon plasma and a second associated with hadronization, provides a far superior reproduction of the data. A statistical analysis of the model comparison finds that the two-surge model best reproduces the data if the charge production from the first surge is similar to expectations for equilibrated matter taken from lattice gauge theory. The charges created in the first surge appear to separate by approximately one unit of spatial rapidity before emission, while charges from the second wave appear to have separated by approximately a half unit or less.

  14. Production of charge in heavy ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Scott; McCormack, William Patrick; Ratti, Claudia

    2015-12-01

    By analyzing preliminary experimental measurements of charge-balance functions from the STAR Collaboration at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), it is found that scenarios in which balancing charges are produced in a single surge, and therefore separated by a single length scale, are inconsistent with data. In contrast, a model that assumes two surges, one associated with the formation of a thermalized quark-gluon plasma and a second associated with hadronization, provides a far superior reproduction of the data. A statistical analysis of the model comparison finds that the two-surge model best reproduces the data if the charge production from the first surge is similar to expectations for equilibrated matter taken from lattice gauge theory. The charges created in the first surge appear to separate by approximately one unit of spatial rapidity before emission, while charges from the second wave appear to have separated by approximately a half unit or less.

  15. Symmetric charge transfer cross section of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symmetric charge transfer cross section of uranium was calculated under consideration of reaction paths. In the charge transfer reaction a d3/2 electron in the U atom transfers into the d-electron site of U+(4I9/2) ion. The J value of the U atom produced after the reaction is 6, 5, 4 or 3, at impact energy below several tens eV, only resonant charge transfer in which the product atom is ground state (J=6) takes place. Therefore, the cross section is very small (4-5 x 10-15 cm2) compared with that considered so far. In the energy range of 100-1000eV the cross section increases with the impact energy because near resonant charge transfer in which an s-electron in the U atom transfers into the d-electron site of U+ ion. Charge transfer cross section between U+ in the first excited state (289 cm-1) and U in the ground state was also obtained. (author)

  16. Theory of transfer-induced transport in nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nucleons transferred between two colliding nuclei transport charge, mass, linear and angular momentum, and energy. General expressions are obtained for the corresponding transport coefficients by modelling the dinuclear system as two Fermi-Dirac gases in contact. The drift and diffusion coefficients are related by a generalized Einstein relation, reflecting the fluctuation-dissipation theorem; particular simplicity arises in the extreme quantal and classical limits. Application of the nuclear proximity method leads to simple factorized formulas valid for a certain general family of binary configurations relevant to nuclear collisions: the corresponding form factors can be estimated in a parameter-free semiclassical (Thomas-Fermi) mean-field model of nuclei. A simulation method is suggested for the numerical solution of the ensuing multi-dimensional transport problem. (Auth.)

  17. Measuring charge fluctuations in high-energy nuclear collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Mrowczynski, Stanislaw

    2001-01-01

    Various measures of charge fluctuations in heavy-ion collisions are discussed. Advantages of the Phi-measure are demonstrated and its relation to other fluctuation measures is established. To get the relation, Phi is expressed through the moments of multiplicity distribution. We study how the measures act in the case of a `background' model which represents the classical hadron gas in equilibrium. The model assumes statistical particle production constrained by charge conservation. It also ta...

  18. Magnetohydrodynamics and charge identified directed flow in heavy ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürsoy, Umut; Kharzeev, Dmitri; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    Strong magnetic fields produced in any non-central heavy ion collision are expected to affect the dynamics of the hot QCD matter produced in this collision. The magnetic field is time-dependent and the medium is expanding, which leads to the induction of charged currents due to the combination of Faraday and Hall effects. We study the imprint the magnetic fields produced in non-central heavy ion collisions leave on the azimuthal distributions and correlations of the produced charged hadrons by employing an analytic solution to hydrodynamics combined with the electromagnetic effects in a perturbative fashion. We use the Cooper-Frye freeze-out procedure on an isothermal freeze-out surface to obtain the azimuthal hadron distributions. We find that the charged currents induced by the present of the electromagnetic fields result in a charge-dependent directed flow v1 that is odd in rapidity and odd under charge exchange. It can be detected by measuring correlations between the directed flow of charged hadrons at different rapidities, .

  19. Collision of highly charged ion with clusters. Simulation study for electronic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yabana, Kazuhiro [Niigata Univ. (Japan)

    1997-05-01

    Collision of highly charged ion with cluster, for example, collision of C{sub 60}-Ar{sup 8+} at E=80 KeV, was simulated by the time-dependence Kohn-Shame equation. The distribution of electron densities and the self-consistent potential were obtained. A part of C{sub 60} potential curve became depressed by the Coulomb force of ion, so that the saddle point was produced on the potential. The behavior of electron transfer on the saddle point was agreed with the classical barrier model. Time-dependent density functional method was explained. (S.Y.)

  20. Collision of highly charged ion with clusters. Simulation study for electronic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collision of highly charged ion with cluster, for example, collision of C60-Ar8+ at E=80 KeV, was simulated by the time-dependence Kohn-Shame equation. The distribution of electron densities and the self-consistent potential were obtained. A part of C60 potential curve became depressed by the Coulomb force of ion, so that the saddle point was produced on the potential. The behavior of electron transfer on the saddle point was agreed with the classical barrier model. Time-dependent density functional method was explained. (S.Y.)

  1. Collisions of slow highly charged ions with surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Burgdoerfer, J.; Lemell, C.; Schiessl, K.; Solleder, B.; Reinhold, C.; Tokesi, K.; Wirtz, Ludger

    2006-01-01

    Progress in the study of collisions of multiply charged ions with surfaces is reviewed with the help of a few recent examples. They range from fundamental quasi-one electron processes to highly complex ablation and material modification processes. Open questions and possible future directions will be discussed.

  2. Medium effects on charged pion ratio in heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Ko, Che Ming; Xu, Jun

    2010-01-01

    We have recently studied in the delta-resonance--nucleon-hole model the dependence of the pion spectral function in hot dense asymmetric nuclear matter on the charge of the pion due to the pion p-wave interaction in nuclear medium. In a thermal model, this isospin-dependent effect enhances the ratio of negatively charged to positively charged pions in neutron-rich nuclear matter, and the effect is comparable to that due to the uncertainties in the theoretically predicted stiffness of nuclear symmetry energy at high densities. This effect is, however, reversed if we also take into account the s-wave interaction of the pion in nuclear medium as given by chiral perturbation theory, resulting instead in a slightly reduced ratio of negatively charged to positively charged pions. Relevance of our results to the determination of the nuclear symmetry energy from the ratio of negatively to positively charged pions produced in heavy ion collisions is discussed.

  3. Medium effects on charged pion ratio in heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have recently studied in the delta-resonance–nucleon-hole model the dependence of the pion spectral function in hot dense asymmetric nuclear matter on the charge of the pion due to the pion p-wave interaction in nuclear medium. In a thermal model, this isospin-dependent effect enhances the ratio of negatively charged to positively charged pions in neutron-rich nuclear matter, and the effect is comparable to that due to the uncertainties in the theoretically predicted stiffness of nuclear symmetry energy at high densities. This effect is, however, reversed if we also take into account the s-wave interaction of the pion in nuclear medium as given by chiral perturbation theory, resulting instead in a slightly reduced ratio of negatively charged to positively charged pions. Relevance of our results to the determination of the nuclear symmetry energy from the ratio of negatively to positively charged pions produced in heavy ion collisions is discussed. (author)

  4. Electron transfer, ionization, and excitation in atomic collisions: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fundamental processes of electron transfer, ionization, and excitation in ion-atom collisions are being studied at Penn State by Winter. (The related work of Alston, who recently came to Penn State, is not described here since he is not at present funded by DOE.) These collision processes are treated in the context of simple one- or two-electron systems in order to provide unambiguous results and reveal more clearly the collisional mechanisms. Three coupled-state calculations are being carried out over the present three-year period and are discussed here: a Sturmian-pseudostate study of electron transfer in collisions between protons and the hydrogenic ions He+, Li2+, Be3+, ...; a triple-center, atomic-state study of ionization in collisions between α particles and H(ls) atoms and between protons and He+(ls) ions; and a coupled-state study of electron transfer and excitation in collisions between protons and neutral He atoms

  5. Mass and charge distribution in heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A statistical model based on the independent particle picture is used to calculate mass and charge distributions in deep inelastic heavy-ion collisions. Different assumptions on volume and charge equilibrations are compared with measured variances of charge distributions. One combination of assumptions is clearly favoured by experiment, and gives a reasonable description of the variance versus energy loss curves up to energy losses of about 200 MeV in the heavy systems Kr+Ho and Xe+Bi, and up to about 60 MeV for the light system Ar+Ca

  6. Electron transfer in gas surface collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis electron transfer between atoms and metal surfaces in general is discussed and the negative ionization of hydrogen by scattering protons at a cesiated crystalline tungsten (110) surface in particular. Experimental results and a novel theoretical analysis are presented. In Chapter I a theoretical overview of resonant electron transitions between atoms and metals is given. In the first part of chapter II atom-metal electron transitions at a fixed atom-metal distance are described on the basis of a model developed by Gadzuk. In the second part the influence of the motion of the atom on the atomic charge state is incorporated. Measurements presented in chapter III show a strong dependence of the fraction of negatively charged H atoms scattered at cesiated tungsten, on the normal as well as the parallel velocity component. In chapter IV the proposed mechanism for the parallel velocity effect is incorporated in the amplitude method. The scattering process of protons incident under grazing angles on a cesium covered surface is studied in chapter V. (Auth.)

  7. Satellite structure in laser-assisted charge-transfer cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A six-state coupled-channel calculation has been performed on the laser-assisted charge-transfer collision H++Na+hω. A greatly enhanced charge-transfer cross section is observed for low-energy collisions if the photon energy is matched to the classical satellite frequency. This frequency is determined by the location of an extremum in the difference of potential energies between the laser-pumped initial and final molecular states. The stationary-phase method has been used to reproduce the general features and the magnitude of the cross-section structure

  8. [Electron transfer, ionization, and excitation in atomic collisions]: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fundamental processes of electron transfer, ionization, and excitation in ion-atom collisions are being studied. These collision processes are treated in the context of simple one- or two-electron systems in order to provide unambiguous results and reveal more clearly the collisional mechanisms. As outlined in the original proposal, three coupled-state calculations are being carried out over the present three-year period: a Sturmian-pseudostate study of ionization in collisions between protons and the hydrogenic ions He+, Li2+, Be3+, ...; a triple-center, atomic-state study of ionization in collisions between α particles and H(ls) atoms and between protons and He+(ls) ions; and an atomic-state study of electron transfer and excitation in collisions between protons and neutral He atoms. 12 refs

  9. Fragmentation processes of OCS in collision with highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragmentation of (OCS)3+ and (OCS)4+ produced by 120 keV Ar8+ collision was studied by using a position-sensitive time-of-flight (PS-TOF) method. We identified stepwise processes involving CO2+ and CS2+ metastable species as well as the concerted process (simultaneous breakup of the two bonds). For the (OCS)4+ events, the stepwise processes were found for fragmentation channels containing a doubly-charged terminal atom

  10. Charged-Particle Multiplicity in Proton-Proton Collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Reygers, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes and critically reviews measurements of charged-particle multiplicity distributions and pseudorapidity densities in p+p(pbar) collisions between sqrt(s) = 23.6 GeV and sqrt(s) = 1.8 TeV. Related theoretical concepts are briefly introduced. Moments of multiplicity distributions are presented as a function of sqrt(s). Feynman scaling, KNO scaling, as well as the description of multiplicity distributions with a single negative binomial distribution and with combinations of...

  11. X-UV SPECTROSCOPY OF LOW ENERGY CHARGE EXCHANGE COLLISIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Bliman, S.; Bonnet, J.; Bonnefoy, M.; Dousson, S.; Fleury, A.; Hitz, D.; Lu Dac, T.; Mayo, M.

    1986-01-01

    In the field of hot plasmas, it is well known that a knowledge of the relation between collisions and radiation is needed. We show that considering the charge exchange process in which a highly charged, low velocity ion impinges on an atom, we have an X-UV light source allowing new developments. Basically, at velocities less than the atomic unit (vo = 2.2 108 cm/s), the capture of one electron will leave the projectile ion in an excited state. The most probably populated level np is dependant...

  12. I. Charge exchange collisions of highly stripped ions with atomic hydrogen. II. Development of a three-stage double tandem accelerator-decelerator system for low energy, highly stripped ions. Final report, March 1, 1977-May 30, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first measurements of charge exchange (electron transfer) in kiloelectron-volt-energy highly stripped boron, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen ion collisions with atoms have been extended to additional collision energies and charge values for the ions. A first accelerator-decelerator source of very highly stripped ions has been developed, and its usefulness in charge exchange studies established

  13. Biological charge transfer via flickering resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuqi; Liu, Chaoren; Balaeff, Alexander; Skourtis, Spiros S; Beratan, David N

    2014-07-15

    Biological electron-transfer (ET) reactions are typically described in the framework of coherent two-state electron tunneling or multistep hopping. However, these ET reactions may involve multiple redox cofactors in van der Waals contact with each other and with vibronic broadenings on the same scale as the energy gaps among the species. In this regime, fluctuations of the molecular structures and of the medium can produce transient energy level matching among multiple electronic states. This transient degeneracy, or flickering electronic resonance among states, is found to support coherent (ballistic) charge transfer. Importantly, ET rates arising from a flickering resonance (FR) mechanism will decay exponentially with distance because the probability of energy matching multiple states is multiplicative. The distance dependence of FR transport thus mimics the exponential decay that is usually associated with electron tunneling, although FR transport involves real carrier population on the bridge and is not a tunneling phenomenon. Likely candidates for FR transport are macromolecules with ET groups in van der Waals contact: DNA, bacterial nanowires, multiheme proteins, strongly coupled porphyrin arrays, and proteins with closely packed redox-active residues. The theory developed here is used to analyze DNA charge-transfer kinetics, and we find that charge-transfer distances up to three to four bases may be accounted for with this mechanism. Thus, the observed rapid (exponential) distance dependence of DNA ET rates over distances of ≲ 15 Å does not necessarily prove a tunneling mechanism. PMID:24965367

  14. Influence of charge changing collisions on charge state distributions (CSD) in non-equilibrium plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For an optimal design of ion sources and for some aspects of plasma diagnostics it is important to study the influence of all processes and parameters that are essential for the production and loss of multiply charged ions. Till now all existing calculations of CSD neglected charge transfer because of missing data. Now many of the very big charge transfer cross sections are measured and so we are able to include them into our calculations. (orig.)

  15. [Electron transfer, ionization, and excitation in atomic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fundamental processes of electron transfer, ionization, and excitation in ion-atom and ion-ion collisions are studied. Attention is focussed on one- and two-electron systems and, more recently, quasi-one-electron systems whose electron-target-ion core can be accurately modeled by one-electron potentials. The basic computational approaches can then be taken with few, if any, approximations, and the underlying collisional mechanisms can be more clearly revealed. At intermediate collision energies (e.g., proton energies for p-He+ collisions on the order of 100 kilo-electron volts), many electronic states are strongly coupled during the collision, a coupled-state approach, such as a coupled-Sturmian-pseudostate approach, is appropriate. At higher collision energies (million electron-volt energies) the coupling is weaker with, however, many more states being coupled together, so that high-order perturbation theory is essential

  16. Electron emitted in transfer ionization in He2+ on helium collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complete experiment for He2+ on helium collisions was performed over a relatively broad energy range by using a reaction microscope in Lanzhou in order to clarify the emission properties. In the experiment the momenta of recoil ions, the emitted electron, and the charge state of the scattered projectiles were recorded in coincidence in event-by-event mode. By reconstruction of the momentum vector of electrons, the momentum distributions of the continuum electrons in the scattering plane were obtained. The distributions show characteristics of the electrons originated from transfer ionization in the collisions.

  17. Elastic, excitation, ionization and charge transfer cross sections of current interest in fusion energy research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, D.R.; Krstic, P.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. TN (United States). Physics Div.

    1997-01-01

    Due to the present interest in modeling and diagnosing the edge and divertor plasma regions in magnetically confined fusion devices, we have sought to provide new calculations regarding the elastic, excitation, ionization, and charge transfer cross sections in collisions among relevant ions, neutrals, and isotopes in the low-to intermediate-energy regime. We summarize here some of our recent work. (author)

  18. Electron transfer, ionization, and excitation atomic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic atomic-collision processes at intermediate and high energies are being studied theoretically at Penn State by Alston and Winter. In the high velocity regime, single-electron capture is treated using a high order multiple-scattering approach; extensive comparison with experiment and analysis of mechanisms have been made. Fitting the calculated amplitude with a simple analytic form, the asymptotic velocity dependence of the cross section is obtained. The effect on the capture amplitude of altering the inner part of the internuclear potential has also been explored. In the intermediate velocity regime, earlier work on collisions between protons and hydrogenic-ion targets using a coupled-state approach is being extended to the two-electron helium target. 29 refs

  19. Effect of collisions on dust particle charging via particle-in-cell Monte-Carlo collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovagnati, B.; Davoudabadi, M.; Lapenta, G.; Mashayek, F.

    2007-10-01

    In this paper, the effect of collisions on the charging and shielding of a single dust particle immersed in an infinite plasma is studied. A Monte-Carlo collision (MCC) algorithm is implemented in the particle-in-cell DEMOCRITUS code to account for the collisional phenomena which are typical of dusty plasmas in plasma processing, namely, electron-neutral elastic scattering, ion-neutral elastic scattering, and ion-neutral charge exchange. Both small and large dust particle radii, as compared to the characteristic Debye lengths, are considered. The trends of the steady-state dust particle potential at increasing collisionality are presented and discussed. The ions and electron energy distributions at various locations and at increasing collisionality in the case of large particle radius are shown and compared to their local Maxwellians. The ion-neutral charge-exchange collision is found to be by far the most important collisional phenomenon. For small particle radius, collisional effects are found to be important also at low level of collisionality, as more ions are collected by the dust particle due to the destruction of trapped ion orbits. For large particle radius, the major collisional effect is observed to take place in proximity of the presheath. Finally, the species energy distribution functions are found to approach their local Maxwellians at increasing collisionality.

  20. Momentum transfer theory of non-conservative charged particle transport in crossed electric and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momentum - transfer approximation is applied to momentum and energy balance equations describing reacting particle swarms in gases in crossed electric and magnetic fields. Transport coefficients of charged particles undergoing both inelastic and reactive, non-particle-conserving collisions with a gas of neutral molecules are calculated. Momentum - transfer theory (MTT) has been developed mainly by Robson and collaborators. It has been applied to a single reactive gas and mixtures of reactive gases in electric field only. MTT has also been applied in crossed electric and magnetic fields recently and independently of our work but the reactive collisions were not considered. Consider a swarm of electrons of charge e and mass m moving with velocity rvec v through a neutral gas under the influence of an applied electric rvec E and magnetic rvec B field. The collision processes which we shall investigate are limited to elastic, inelastic and reactive collisions of electrons with gas molecules. Here we interpret reactive collisions as collisions which produce change in number of the swarm particles. Reactive collisions involve creation (ionization by electron impact) or loss (electron attachment) of swarm particles. We consider only single ionization in approximation of the mass ratio m/m00 are masses of electrons and neutral particles, respectively. We assume that the stage of evolution of the swarm is the hydrodynamic limit (HDL). In HDL, the space - time dependence of all properties is carried by the number density n of swarm particles

  1. Charge Injection, Charge Trapping and Charge Transfer in Quantum-Dot Solids

    OpenAIRE

    Boehme, S.C.

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on fundamental processes in Quantum-Dot Solids, after light absorption. Transient Absorption and Time-resolved Photoluminescence spectrocopy reveal the dynamics of charge transfer and charge trapping processes. Typically, both occur on a picosecond time scale and compete with each other. We find that the efficiency of these processes depends on the Fermi level in the Quantum-Dot Solid. The latter can be controlled electrochemically, via charge injection into the Quantum-Dot...

  2. Transfer Ionization of Isocharge Sequence Ion and Ar Collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CaiXiaohong; YuDeyang; CaoZhurong; LuRongchun; YangWei; ShaoCaojie

    2003-01-01

    The study of multi-electron process has been a very active area of atomic physics research. The simultaneous electron emission and electron transfer is one of the most interesting two-electron processes in the study Of ionatom collisions, In last decade much experimental and theoretical attention has been devoted to the process, named transfer ionization (TI). This process is normally considered as the successive process of the single electron capture and the ionization of the second or more target electrons. The studies of transfer ionization are motivated by the understanding of the role of the electron correlation in ion-atom collisions which is of great interest in basic atomic physics and may provide important information for the applications both in astrophysics and fusion plasmas researches. Different authors have investigated the transfer ionization process by measuring the angular distribution of the emitted electrons. Up to now, the systematic study of the transfer ionization and the dependences of these processes on the collision parameters for the low energy ion-atom collisions are still rarely reported in the literatures.

  3. Charge exchange and X-ray emission in 70 MeV/u Bi-Au collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, P. [GSI, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany) and Vaish College, Rohtak 124 001 (India) and J. Liebig University, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)]. E-mail: P.Verma@gsi.de; Mokler, P.H. [GSI, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); JMI University, New Delhi 110 025 (India); Braeuning-Demian, A. [GSI, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Braeuning, H. [JMI University, New Delhi 110 025 (India); Berdermann, E. [GSI, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Chatterjee, S. [GSI, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Gumberidze, A. [GSI, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Hagmann, S. [J.W. Goethe University, D-60486 Frankfurt (Germany); Kozhuharov, C. [GSI, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Orsic-Muthig, A. [GSI, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Reuschl, R. [J.W. Goethe University, D-60486 Frankfurt (Germany); Schoeffler, M. [J.W. Goethe University, D-60486 Frankfurt (Germany); Spillmann, U. [GSI, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Stoehlker, Th. [GSI, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Stachura, Z. [Institute for Nuclear Physics, PL-31-342 Cracow (Poland); Tashenov, S. [GSI, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Wahab, M.A. [Vaish College, Rohtak 124 001 (India)

    2005-07-01

    Charge exchange and X-ray emission for 70 MeV/u highly charged ions of Bi {sup q+} [77 q 82] colliding with thin Au targets [21 t in {mu}g/cm{sup 2} 225] were measured at the heavy ion synchrotron SIS at GSI. For the innermost shells this beam energy implies a quasiadiabatic collision regime. The charge state distribution of the emerging ions was measured by a position sensitive CVD-diamond detector after being analyzed by a magnet spectrometer. Charge exchange cross sections have been deduced from the target thickness dependence of the charge state distribution. Electron capture at distant collision dominates completely over ionization at close collision. The X-ray emission from the collision partners were measured by solid state detectors, Ge(i). The K X-ray emission for closed and open incoming projectile K vacancies gives access to vacancy transfer in the superheavy quasi-molecule transiently formed during collision for the innermost shells.

  4. Coronene-based charge-transfer complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yukihiro; Isomura, Kazuhide; Kumagai, Yoshihide; Maesato, Mitsuhiko; Kishida, Hideo; Mizuno, Motohiro; Saito, Gunzi

    2016-08-01

    Recent developments in the arena of charge-transfer complexes composed of the D 6h-symmetric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, coronene, are highlighted with emphasis on the structural and physical properties of these complexes. Because of the dual electron-donating and -accepting abilities of coronene, this group involves structurally-defined four cation salts and three anion salts. The Jahn-Teller distortions and in-plane motion of coronene molecules in the solids, both of which are closely associated with the high symmetry of coronene molecules, and syntheses of clathrate-type complexes are also presented. PMID:27294380

  5. ANISOTROPY EFFECTS IN SINGLE-ELECTRON TRANSFER BETWEEN LASER-EXCITED ATOMS AND HIGHLY-CHARGED IONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1995-01-01

    Recent collision experiments are reviewed in which one-electron transfer between laser excited target atoms and (highly charged) keV-ions has been studied. Especially results showing a dependence of the charge exchange on the initial target orbital alignment are discussed. The question to what exten

  6. Fluctuation spectroscopy in organic charge transfer salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quasi-twodimensional organic charge-transfer salts show certain analogies to the High-Temperature Cuprate Superconductors (HTSC), e.g., the layered structure where conducting and insulating sheets do alternate as well as the direct proximity of the antiferromagnetic insulating ground state to the superconducting phase. At higher temperatures the formation of a pseudo-gap in the density of states is discussed also. In contrast to the HTSC the electronic properties of the organic charge-transfer salts can be easily influenced by external parameters such as hydrostatic or chemical pressure - in a generalized phase diagram the usage of different anions X can be mapped on the axis W/U as well, see Sec. 4.2 - or moderate temperatures. In the quasi-twodimensional K-(BEDT-TTF)2X salts, e.g., a moderate pressure of p ∝ 250 bar is sufficient to shift the antiferromagnetic-insulating system (X=Cu[N(CN)2]Cl) to the metallic side of the phase diagram showing even superconductivity below a critical temperature of Tc ∝ 12.8 K. Doping as in the HTSC and the undesirable disorder accompanied with it is not necessary to induce a metal-to-insulator transition. Therefore the experimental requirements are more easily met in this class of materials compared to other strongly correlated electron systems. All this makes the organic charge-transfer salts ideal model systems to study fundamental concepts of theoretical solid state physics some of which have been of academical interest only so far. In this work fluctuation spectroscopy has been used for the first time to investigate the low-frequency dynamics of the TT-electron system in the quasi-twodimensional organic charge-transfer salts K-(BEDT-TTF)2X with the aim to gain information about the temperature, pressure and magnetic field dependence of the power spectral density of the resistance noise and therefore about the dynamics of the charge carrier fluctuations. Especially in the vicinity of correlation driven ordering phenomena

  7. Systematics of Charged Particle Production in Heavy-Ion Collisions with the PHOBOS Detector at Rhic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Peter A.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Corbo, J.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Henderson, C.; Hicks, D.; Hofman, D.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A.; Mülmenstädt, J.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Rafelski, M.; Rbeiz, M.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2002-03-01

    The multiplicity of charged particles produced in Au+Au collisions as a function of energy, centrality, rapidity and azimuthal angle has been measured with the PHOBOS detector at RHIC. These results contribute to our understanding of the initial state of heavy ion collisions and provide a means to compare basic features of particle production in nuclear collisions with more elementary systems.

  8. Gaseous charge transfer reactions of multiply charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doubly charged ions produced in electron impact ionization have received relatively little study due to their low abundance and masking from singly charged ions which are detected at the same mass-to-charge ratio by a mass spectrometer. This interference problem was avoided by exploiting a technique in which doubly charged molecular and fragment ions are monitored using a collisional charge-exchange process where only fast singly charged product ions are allowed to reach the detector. Primary research efforts were to determine structures and energetics of multiply charged ions formed in high energy electron impact ionization processes and their reactivities in ion-molecule charge exchange interactions. Doubly charged ion mass distributions for various chemical classes (including acetylenes, alkenes, terpenes and organophosphorus compounds) were recorded and appearance energies of prominent doubly charged ions were measured. Computer molecular orbital calculations (at the MINDO/3 level) of ionic structures, energies and charge distributions were utilized to augment the analysis of experimental results

  9. Charge Exchange Collisions between Ultracold Fermionic Lithium Atoms and Calcium Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Haze, Shinsuke; Saito, Ryoichi; Mukaiyama, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    An observation of charge exchange collisions between ultracold fermionic 6Li atoms and 40Ca+ ions is reported. The reaction product of the charge exchange collision is dentified via mass spectrometry where the motion of the ions is excited parametrically. We measure the cross section of the charge exchange collisions between the 6Li atoms in the ground state and the 40Ca+ ions in the ground and metastable excited states. Investigation of the inelastic collision characteristics in the atom-ion mixture is an important step toward ultracold chemistry based on ultracold atoms and ions.

  10. Inclusive Production of Charged Hadrons in Photon-Photon Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G; Åkesson, P F; Alexander, G; Anagnostou, G; Anderson, K; Asai, S; Axen, D; Bailey, I; Barberio, E; Barillari, T; Barlow, R; Batley, R; Bechtle, P; Behnke, T; Bell, K W; Bell, P; Bella, G; Bellerive, A; Benelli, G; Bethke, S; Biebel, O; Boeriu, O; Bock, P; Boutemeur, M; Braibant, S; Brown, R; Burckhart, H; Campana, S; Capiluppi, P; Carnegie, R; Carter, A; Carter, J; Chang, C; Charlton, D; Ciocca, C; Csilling, A; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; de Roeck, A; De Wolf, E; Desch, K; Dienes, B; Dubbert, J; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I; Etzion, E; Fabbri, F; Ferrari, P; Fiedler, F; Fleck, I; Ford, M; Frey, A; Gagnon, P; Gary, J; Geich-Gimbel, C; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Giunta, M; Goldberg, J; Gross, E; Grunhaus, J; Gruwé, M; Sen-Gupta, A; Hajdu, C; Hamann, M; Hanson, G; Harel, A; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hill, J; Horváth, D; Igo-Kemenes, P; Ishii, K; Jeremie, H; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T; Kanzaki, J; Karlen, D; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Keeler, R; Kellogg, R; Kennedy, B; Kluth, S; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Komamiya, S; Kramer, T; Krasznahorkay, A; Krieger, P; Von Krogh, J; Kühl, T; Kupper, M; Lafferty, G; Landsman, H; Lanske, D; Lellouch, D; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Lillich, J; Lloyd, S; Loebinger, F K; Lü, J; Ludwig, A; Ludwig, J; Mader, W; Marcellini, S; Martin, A; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McKenna, J; McPherson, R; Meijers, F; Menges, W; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Meyer, N; Michelini, A; Mihara, S; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D; Mohr, W; Mori, T; Mutter, A; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Nanjo, H; Neal, H; Nisius, R; O'Neale, S W; Oh, A; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pahl, C; Pásztor, G; Pater, J; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, J L; Plane, D; Pooth, O; Przybycien, M B; Quadt, A; Rabbertz, K; Rembser, C; Renkel, P; Roney, J; Rossi, A; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Schaile, A; Schaile, O; Scharff-Hansen, P; schiecks, J; Schörner-Sadenius, T; Schröder, M; Schumacher, M; Seuster, R; Shears, T G; Shen, B; Sherwood, P; Skuja, A; Smith, A; Sobie, R J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Spanó, F; Stahl, A; Strom, D; Ströhmer, R; Tarem, S; Tasevsky, M; Teuscher, R; Thomson, M; Torrence, E; Toya, D; Tran, P; Trigger, I; Trócsányi, Z L; Tsur, E; Turner-Watson, M F; Ueda, I; Ujvári, B; Vollmer, C; Vannerem, P; Vertesi, R; Verzocchi, M; Voss, H; Vossebeld, Joost Herman; Ward, C; Ward, D; Watkins, P; Watson, A; Watson, N; Wells, P; Wengler, T; Wermes, N; Wilson, G; Wilson, J; Wolf, G; Wyatt, T; Yamashita, S; Zer-Zion, D; Zivkovic, L

    2007-01-01

    The inclusive production of charged hadrons in the collisions of quasi-real photons e+e- -> e+e- +X has been measured using the OPAL detector at LEP. The data were taken at e+e- centre-of-mass energies from 183 to 209 GeV. The differential cross-sections as a function of the transverse momentum and the pseudorapidity of the hadrons are compared to theoretical calculations of up to next-to-leading order (NLO) in the strong coupling constant alpha{s}. The data are also compared to a measurement by the L3 Collaboration, in which a large deviation from the NLO predictions is observed.

  11. Laser induced fluorescence studies of the charge transfer reactions of N2+ with Ar and N2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The charge transfer reactions of N2+ with Ar and N2 have been studied using laser induced fluorescence to monitor N2+. The ions were formed initially within a quadrupole ion trap by electron impact of neutral N2. The experimental conditions were varied such that the trapped N2+ could be examined under collision free conditions or after experiencing a controlled number of collisions with selected background gas. The ion--molecule collisions rapidly altered the internal energy distribution of the trapped N2+ and by monitoring these changes charge transfer cross sections for individual initial vibrational states of the N2+ with Ar and N2 have been estimated. The results show a strong vibrational dependence of the charge transfer cross section in the N2+--N2 system and no measureable dependence in the N2+--Ar system

  12. Computational Approach to Electron Charge Transfer Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Elvar Örn

    The step from ab initio atomic and molecular properties to thermodynamic - or macroscopic - properties requires the combination of several theoretical tools. This dissertation presents constant temperature molecular dynamics with bond length constraints, a hybrid quantum mechanics...... show general (or expected) properties. Properties such as in the physical and (semi-)chemical interface between classical and quantum systems and the effects of molecular bond length constraints on the temperature during simulations. As a second step the methodology is applied to the symmetric and...... asymmetric charge transfer reactions between several first-row transition metals in water. The results are compared to experiments and rationalised with classical analytic expressions. Shortcomings of the methods are accounted for with clear steps towards improved accuracy. Later the analysis is extended to...

  13. Charge transfer reaction laser with preionization means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauderslager, J. B.; Pacala, T. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A helium-nitrogen laser is described in which energy in the visible range is emitted as a result of charge transfer reaction between helium ions and nitrogen molecules. The helium and nitrogen are present in a gas mixture at several atmospheres pressure, with a nitrogen partial pressure on the order of a pair of main discharge electrodes, the gas mixture is preionized to prevent arcing when the discharge pulse is applied. The preionization is achieved by the application of a high voltage across a pair of secondary electrodes which are spaced apart in a direction perpendicular to the spacing direction of the main discharge electrodes and the longitudinal axis of the space in which the gas mixture is contained. Feedback, by means of a pair of appropriately spaced mirrors, is provided, to produce coherent energy pulses at a selected wavelength.

  14. A theoretical model for electron transfer in ion-atom collisions: Calculations for the collision of a proton with an argon atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a theoretical model of ion-atom collisions based on the time-dependent density-functional theory. We solve the time-dependent Kohn-Sham equation for electrons employing the real-space and real-time method, while the ion dynamics are described in classical mechanics by the Ehrenfest method. Taking advantage of the real-space grid method, we introduce the 'coordinate space translation' technique to allow one to focus on a certain space of interest. Benchmark calculations are given for collisions between proton and argon over a wide range of impact energy. Electron transfer total cross sections showed a fairly good agreement with available experimental data. -- Highlights: → We have developed a theoretical model of ion-atom collisions based on TDDFT. → The coordinate space translation technique was introduced into present calculation. → Charge transfer cross sections showed a good agreement with available experimental data.

  15. Charged particle multiplicities in nuclear collisions at 200 GeV/N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on multiplicities of charged particles produced in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at 200 GeV per nucleon are presented. It is shown that the mean multiplicity of negative particles is proportional to the mean number of nucleons participating in the collision both for nucleus-nucleus and proton-nucleus collisions. The apparent consistency of pion multiplicity data with the assumption of an incoherent superposition of nucleon-nucleon collisions is critically discussed. (orig.)

  16. Charge Exchange in Low-Energy H, D + C4+ Collisions with Full Account of Electron Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Riera

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the anisotropy of the interaction potential on ion-diatom non-adiabatic collisions is analized by considering the influence of the anisotropy on orientation averaged total cross sections for charge transfer in H++H2(X1Σ+g collisions. We discuss the possibility of employing simpli ed methods such as an isotropic approximation, where only the electronic energies and interactions of a single orientation are necessary. The use of several isotropic calculations to evaluate the orientation averaged cross section is analized.

  17. Nucleic Acid Charge Transfer: Black, White and Gray

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatramani, Ravindra; Keinan, Shahar; Balaeff, Alexander; Beratan, David N.

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical studies of charge transport in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and peptide nucleic acid (PNA) indicate that structure and dynamics modulate the charge transfer rates, and that different members of a structural ensemble support different charge transport mechanisms. Here, we review the influences of nucleobase geometry, electronic structure, solvent environment, and thermal conformational fluctuations on the charge transfer mechanism. We describe an emerging framework for understanding...

  18. Charge-dependent directed flow in asymmetric nuclear collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Voronyuk, V; Voloshin, S A; Cassing, W

    2014-01-01

    The directed flow of identified hadrons is studied within the parton-hadron-string-dynamics (PHSD) approach for the asymmetric system Cu+Au in non-central collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV. It is emphasized that due to the difference in the number of protons of the colliding nuclei an electric field emerges which is directed from the heavy to the light nucleus. This strong electric field is only present for about 0.25 fm/c at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV and leads to a splitting of the directed flow $v_1$ for particles with the same mass but opposite electric charges in case of an early presence of charged quarks and antiquarks. The microscopic calculations of the directed flow for $\\pi^\\pm, K^\\pm, p$ and $\\bar{p}$ are carried out in the PHSD by taking into account the electromagnetic field induced by the spectators as well as its influence on the hadronic and partonic quasiparticle trajectories. It is shown that the splitting of the directed flow as a function of pseudorapidity $\\eta$ and in particular as...

  19. Charge-exchange collision dynamics and ion engine grid geometry optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Bradford

    The development of a new three-dimensional model for determining the absolute energy distribution of ions at points corresponding to spacecraft surfaces to the side of an ion engine is presented. The ions resulting from elastic collisions, both charge-exchange (CEX) and direct, between energetic primary ions and thermal neutral xenon atoms are accounted for. Highly resolved energy distributions of CEX ions are found by integration over contributions from all points in space within the main beam formed by the primary ions.The sputtering rate due to impingement of these ions on a surface is calculated. The CEX ions that obtain significant energy (10 eV or more) in the collision are responsible for the majority of the sputtering, though this can depend on the specific material being sputtered. In the case of a molybdenum surface located 60 cm to the side of a 30 cm diameter grid, nearly 90% of the sputtering is due to the 5% of ions with the highest collision exit energies. Previous models that do not model collision energetics cannot predict this. The present results agree with other models and predict that the majority of the ion density is due to collisions where little to no energy is transferred.The sputtering model is combined with a grid-structure model in an optimization procedure where the sputtering rate at specified locations is minimized by adjustment of parameters defining the physical shape of the engine grids. Constraints are imposed that require that the deflection of the grid under a specified load does not exceed a maximum value, in order to ensure survivability of the grids during launch. To faciliate faster execution of the calculations, simplifications based on the predicted behavior of the CEX ions are implemented. For diametrically opposed sputtering locations, a rounded barrel-vault shape reduces the expected sputtering rate by up to 30% in comparison to an NSTAR-shaped grid.

  20. Charge-transfer excitons in DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conwell, E M; McLaughlin, P M; Bloch, S M

    2008-02-21

    There have been a number of theoretical treatments of excitons in DNA, most neglecting both the intrachain and interchain wavefunction overlaps of the electron and hole, treating them as Frenkel excitons. Recently, the importance of the intrachain and interchain coupling has been highlighted. Experiments have shown that in (dA)n oligomers and in duplex (dA)n.(dT)n, to be abbreviated (A/T), where A is adenine and T is thymine, the exciton wavefunction is delocalized over several bases. In duplexes it is possible to have charge-transfer (CT) excitons. Theoretical calculations have suggested that CT excitons in DNA may have lower energy than single chain excitons. In all the calculations of excitons in DNA, the polarization of the surrounding water has been neglected. Calculations have shown, however, that polarization of the water by an excess electron or a hole in DNA lowers its energy by approximately 1/2 eV, causing it to become a polaron. It is therefore to be expected that polarization charge induced in the surrounding water has a significant effect on the properties of the exciton. In what follows, we present calculations of some properties CT excitons would have in an A/T duplex taking into account the wavefunction overlaps, the effect of the surrounding water, which results in the electron and hole becoming polarons, and the ions in the water. As expected, the CT exciton has lowest energy when the electron and hole polarons are directly opposite each other. By appropriate choice of the dielectric constant, we can obtain a CT exciton delocalized over the number of sites found in photoinduced absorption experiments. The absorption threshold that we then calculate for CT exciton creation in A/T is in reasonable agreement with the lowest singlet absorption deduced from available data. PMID:18232682

  1. Second order Born calculation for charge transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charge transfer cross sections, from the ground state of the target to the ground state of the projectile, have been computed in a second order Born approximation for protons incident upon hydrogen at energies of 1, 10, and 50 MeV. The exact second order matrix element is evaluated numerically, and the results are compared to a standard peaking approximation (SP), as well as to a new peaking approximation (LP) developed herein. At 50 MeV two distinct second order effects are evident in the differential cross section. For very small (center of mass) scattering angles (THETA approx. = .0320) the second order cross section is smaller than the first order cross section, while at larger angles (THETA approx. = .0540) a second Born peak occurs. This peak can be kinematically associated with a classical two step process which gives rise to the well known dominating v-11 asymptotic velocity dependence of the total cross section. The reduction of the differential cross section at smaller angles serves to decrease the total cross section, as is predicted by the asymptotic expression. At 10 MeV second order effects become less important, and at 1 MeV the kinematic peak has all but disappeared, while the second order cross section has here become larger than the first order cross section. At intermediate energies experimental results indicate that the first order cross section used here is itself too large

  2. Saturation effects in charge-changing collisions with multiply-charged C and O ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electron loss of multiply-charged dressed ions by heavy neutral atoms can have a significant contribution from collisions with small impact parameters. This can render one of the two competing mechanisms which govern the electron loss, i.e. the screening, highly non-perturbative. The other mechanism (antiscreening) is due to electron-electron interactions and its contribution can be treated perturbatively. The dependence of the total electron loss cross sections on the target atomic number, Z2, presents a strong saturation as the value of Z2 increases. Calculations based on the plane wave Born approximation present such a behavior for the antiscreening but not for the screening, since this saturation is related to a non-perturbative regime. In this work we compare data for the total electron loss cross sections of C3+ and O5+ ions by H, He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe targets, with energies ranging from 1.0 to 3.5 MeV, with calculations for the screening contribution based on the free-collision model. This comparison shows that, for highly-charged ions, the electron capture and direct target ionization channels play a major role in the description of experimental electron loss data. (orig.)

  3. Preparation and characterization of three charge-transfer complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Yuliang [Inst. of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, BJ (China); Gao Yuanming [Inst. of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, BJ (China); Wu Zi [Inst. of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, BJ (China); Bai Fenglian [Inst. of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, BJ (China); Li Yongfang [Inst. of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, BJ (China); Mo Yiming [Inst. of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, BJ (China); Zhang Bin [Inst. of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, BJ (China); Han Hongxian [Inst. of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, BJ (China); Zhu Daoben [Inst. of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, BJ (China)

    1995-03-15

    We wish to report the preparation and characterization of three new charge transfer complexes of derivatizations of tetrathiafulvalene with buckminsterfullerene. The charge transfer complexes had been characterized by electronic absorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and elemental analysis and the crystal structure had been analyzed. (orig.)

  4. Electron transfer, ionization, and excitation in atomic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research being carried out at Penn State by Winter and Alston addresses the fundamental processes of electron transfer, ionization, and excitation in ion-atom (and ion-ion) collisions. The focus is on intermediate- and higher-energy collisions, corresponding to proton energies of about 25 kilo-electron-volts (keV) or larger. At intermediate energies, where the transition probabilities are not small, many states must be coupled in a large calculation, while at higher energies, perturbative approaches may be used. Several studies have been carried out in the current three-year period; most of these treat systems with only one or two electrons, so that fewer approximations need be made and the basic collisional mechanisms can be more clearly described

  5. Correlated charge-changing ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the progress and accomplishments in accelerator atomic physics research supported by DOE grant DE-FG02-87ER13778 from February 16, 1990 through February 15, 1993. This work involves the experimental investigation of atomic interactions in collisions of charged projectiles with neutral targets or electrons, with particular emphasis on two-electron interactions and electron-correlation effects. The processes studied are of interest both from fundamental and applied points of view. In the latter case, results are obtained which are relevant to the understanding of laboratory and astrophysical plasmas, highly-excited (Rydberg) and continuum states of atoms and ions, atomic structure effects, the interaction of ions with surfaces, and the development of heavy-ion storage-rings. The results obtained have provided the basis for several M.A. thesis projects at Western Michigan and several Ph.D. dissertation projects are currently underway. Summaries of work completed and work in progress are given below in Section II. This research has resulted in 26 papers (in print and in press), 12 invited presentations at national and international meetings, and 28 contributed presentations as detailed in Section III

  6. Universal behavior of charged particle production in heavy ion collisions at RHIC energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PHOBOS experiment at RHIC has measured the multiplicity of primary charged particles as a function of centrality and pseudorapidity in Au+Au collisions at √SNN = 19.6, 130 and 200 GeV. Two kinds of universal behavior are observed in charged particle production in heavy ion collisions. The first is that forward particle production, over a range of energies, follows a universal limiting curve with a non-trivial centrality dependence. The second arises from comparisons with pp/p-barp and e+e- data. ch>/part/2> in nuclear collisions at high energy scales with √s in a similar way as Nch in e+e- collisions and has a very weak centrality dependence. This feature may be related to a reduction in the leading particle effect due to the multiple collisions suffered per participant in heavy ion collisions

  7. UNIVERSAL BEHAVIOR OF CHARGED PARTICLE PRODUCTION IN HEAVY ION COLLISIONS AT RHIC ENERGIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PHOBOS experiment at RHIC has measured the multiplicity of primary charged particles as a function of centrality and pseudorapidity in Au+Au collisions at √(sNN) = 19.6, 130 and 200 GeV. Two observations indicate universal behavior of charged particle production in heavy ion collisions. The first is that forward particle production, over a range of energies, follows a universal limiting curve with a non-trivial centrality dependence. The second arises from comparisons with pp/(bar p)p and e+e- data. ch>/part/2> in nuclear collisions at high energy scales with √s in a similar way as Nch in e+e- collisions and has a very weak centrality dependence. These features may be related to a reduction in the leading particle effect due to the multiple collisions suffered per participant in heavy ion collisions

  8. Universal behavior of charged particle production in heavy ion collisions at RHIC energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Peter A.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Holyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.; Phobos Collaboration

    2003-04-01

    The PHOBOS experiment at RHIC has measured the multiplicity of primary charged particles as a function of centrality and pseudorapidity in Au+Au collisions at √ SNN = 19.6, 130 and 200 GeV. Two kinds of universal behavior are observed in charged particle production in heavy ion collisions. The first is that forward particle production, over a range of energies, follows a universal limiting curve with a non-trivial centrality dependence. The second arises from comparisons with pp/ overlinepp and e +e - data. / in nuclear collisions at high energy scales with √ s in a similar way as Nch in e +e - collisions and has a very weak centrality dependence. This feature may be related to a reduction in the leading particle effect due to the multiple collisions suffered per participant in heavy ion collisions.

  9. Transfer ionization in isocharge sequence ion and Ne collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAIXiao-hong; YUDe-yang; LURong-chun; CAOZhu-rong; YANGWei; SHAOCao-jie

    2004-01-01

    The dependence of the ratio RI for transfer ionization to single capture for Cq+ , Nq+ , Oq+ , Neq+ ions on Ne target upon the electronic structure of the projectile is studied. For Aq+ -Ne collisions the ratio R1 decreases as the atomic number Z of the projectile increases for q= 4,5,6,7 sequences which provides strong evidence for the increase of the binding energy of the target valence electron after single electron capture. The in crease inbinding energy depends both upon the atomic number of the projectile and the target atom.

  10. Transfer ionization in isocharge sequence ion and Ne collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Xiao-hong; YU De-yang; LU Rong-chun; CAO Zhu-rong; YANG Wei; SHAO Cao-jie

    2004-01-01

    The dependence of the ratio R1 for transfer ionization to single capture for Cq+, Nq+, Oq+, Neq+ ions on Ne target upon the electronic structure of the projectile is studied. For Aq+-Ne collisions the ratio R1 decreases as the atomic number Z of the projectile increases for q=4,5,6,7 sequences which provides strong evidence for the increase of the binding energy of the target valence electron after single electron capture. The increase in binding energy depends both upon the atomic number of the projectile and the target atom.

  11. Charged-particle pseudorapidity distributions in Au+Au collisions at RHIC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zeng-Wei; JIANG Zhi-Jin

    2009-01-01

    Using the Glauber model, we present the formulas for calculating the numbers of participants,spectators and binary nucleon-nucleon collisions. Based on this work, we get the pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles as the function of the impact parameter in nucleus-nucleus collisions. The theoretical results agree well with the experimental observations made by the BRAHMS Collaboration in Au+Au collisions at √SNN=200 GeV in different centrality bins over the whole pseudorapidity range.

  12. Directed Flow of Charged Kaons in Au+Au Collisions from the BES Program at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Yadav; STAR Collaboration

    2015-08-01

    We report the measurement of the directed flow (v1) for charged kaons in Au+Au collisions at =7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27, 39, 62.4 and 200 GeV as a function of rapidity and compare these results for pions, protons and antiprotons. These new kaon results may help to constrain the medium properties and collision dynamics including the in-medium kaon potential and baryon number transport in these collisions.

  13. Fragmentation of molecules under charge-changing collisions of a few MeV heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated molecular fragmentation of CO and C2H2 molecules by impact of various fast heavy ions. Fragment ions produced in electron capture and loss collisions of projectile ions were measured in coincidence with final projectile charge states. Data acquisition using position sensitive detection system allows us to obtain 3D momentum imaging of fragment ions and kinetic energy release (KER) in various charge-changing collisions. It was found that the KER spectra show strong dependence on the type of charge-changing collisions. This may be caused by the difference of impact parameters associated with individual charge-changing collisions. Moreover we revealed the different fragmentation pathway between ion impacts and photoionization

  14. Charged particle density distributions in Au + Au collisions at relativistic heavy-ion collider energies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fauad Rami

    2003-05-01

    Charged particle pseudorapidity distributions have been measured in Au + Au collisions using the BRAHMS detector at RHIC. The results are presented as a function of the collision centrality and the center of mass energy. They are compared to the predictions of different parton scattering models and the important role of hard scattering processes at RHIC energies is discussed.

  15. Cross sections for ion-molecular reactions in hydrogen systems and for charge transfer reactions of slow multiply charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross sections of ion-molecular reactions in hydrogen systems of H+-H2, H2+-H2 and H3+-H2 and charge transfer cross sections of multiply charged ions in atomic and molecular targets are presented in graphs and tables of the part A, B and C. All data presented for 99 collision systems have been measured systematically using an octo-pole ion beam guide (OPIG) technique till now since 1985. The part A is for ion-molecular reactions in hydrogen systems. In the lower energy region below few eV in center-of-mass systems, it is seen obviously at a glance that the ion-molecular reaction in hydrogen systems is dominated by H3+ formation process. In the energy region from few eV to few hundred eV in center-of-mass systems, many reaction channels of decay processes from intermediate molecular states seem to be opened resonantly. Some of cross section data in the part B for charge transfer reactions of low-charged ions produced by a conventional electron impact type (Nier type) ion source should be noted to strongly depend on the electron impact energy due to contamination of low lying metastable states in projectile ions. The part C is for charge transfer reactions of multiply charged ions extracted from a small type of electron beam ion source (Mini-EBIS). In measurements using the mini-EBIS, no evidence of metastable ions existing in the primary ion beam has been found except for doubly charged ion beam. The higher energy end of the present cross sections are connected with previous data in fairly good

  16. Charge separation with fluctuating domains in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Shou, Qi-Ye; Ma, Guo-Liang; Ma, Yu-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Charge separation induced by the chiral magnetic effect suggested that some ${\\cal P}$- or ${\\cal CP}$-odd metastable domains could be produced in a QCD vacuum in the early stage of relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Based on a multi-phase transport model, our results suggest that a domain-based scenario with final state interactions can describe the solenoidal tracker at RHIC detector (STAR) measurements of both same- and opposite-charge azimuthal angle correlations, $$, in Au+Au collisions ...

  17. Rovibrationally selected ion-molecule collision study using the molecular beam vacuum ultraviolet laser pulsed field ionization-photoion method: charge transfer reaction of N2(+)(X 2Σg+; v+ = 0-2; N+ = 0-9) + Ar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yih Chung; Xu, Yuntao; Lu, Zhou; Xu, Hong; Ng, C Y

    2012-09-14

    We have developed an ion-molecule reaction apparatus for state-selected absolute total cross section measurements by implementing a high-resolution molecular beam vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser pulsed field ionization-photoion (PFI-PI) ion source to a double-quadrupole double-octopole ion-guide mass spectrometer. Using the total cross section measurement of the state-selected N(2)(+)(v(+), N(+)) + Ar charge transfer (CT) reaction as an example, we describe in detail the design of the VUV laser PFI-PI ion source used, which has made possible the preparation of reactant N(2)(+)(X (2)Σ(g)(+), v(+) = 0-2, N(+) = 0-9) PFI-PIs with high quantum state purity, high intensity, and high kinetic energy resolution. The PFI-PIs and prompt ions produced in the ion source are shown to have different kinetic energies, allowing the clean rejection of prompt ions from the PFI-PI beam by applying a retarding potential barrier upstream of the PFI-PI source. By optimizing the width and amplitude of the pulsed electric fields employed to the VUV-PFI-PI source, we show that the reactant N(2)(+) PFI-PI beam can be formed with a laboratory kinetic energy resolution of ΔE(lab) = ± 50 meV. As a result, the total cross section measurement can be conducted at center-of-mass kinetic energies (E(cm)'s) down to thermal energies. Absolute total rovibrationally selected cross sections σ(v(+) = 0-2, N(+) = 0-9) for the N(2)(+)(X (2)Σ(g)(+); v(+) = 0-2, N(+) = 0-9) + Ar CT reaction have been measured in the E(cm) range of 0.04-10.0 eV, revealing strong vibrational enhancements and E(cm)-dependencies of σ(v(+) = 0-2, N(+) = 0-9). The thermochemical threshold at E(cm) = 0.179 eV for the formation of Ar(+) from N(2)(+)(X; v(+) = 0, N(+)) + Ar was observed by the measured σ(v(+) = 0), confirming the narrow ΔE(cm) spread achieved in the present study. The σ(v(+) = 0-2; N(+)) values obtained here are compared with previous experimental and theoretical results. The theoretical predictions

  18. Rovibrationally selected ion-molecule collision study using the molecular beam vacuum ultraviolet laser pulsed field ionization-photoion method: Charge transfer reaction of N2+(X 2Σg+; v+= 0–2; N+= 0–9) + Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed an ion-molecule reaction apparatus for state-selected absolute total cross section measurements by implementing a high-resolution molecular beam vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser pulsed field ionization-photoion (PFI-PI) ion source to a double-quadrupole double-octopole ion-guide mass spectrometer. Using the total cross section measurement of the state-selected N2+(v+, N+) + Ar charge transfer (CT) reaction as an example, we describe in detail the design of the VUV laser PFI-PI ion source used, which has made possible the preparation of reactant N2+(X 2Σg+, v+= 0–2, N+= 0–9) PFI-PIs with high quantum state purity, high intensity, and high kinetic energy resolution. The PFI-PIs and prompt ions produced in the ion source are shown to have different kinetic energies, allowing the clean rejection of prompt ions from the PFI-PI beam by applying a retarding potential barrier upstream of the PFI-PI source. By optimizing the width and amplitude of the pulsed electric fields employed to the VUV-PFI-PI source, we show that the reactant N2+ PFI-PI beam can be formed with a laboratory kinetic energy resolution of ΔElab=± 50 meV. As a result, the total cross section measurement can be conducted at center-of-mass kinetic energies (Ecm’s) down to thermal energies. Absolute total rovibrationally selected cross sections σ(v+= 0–2, N+= 0–9) for the N2+(X 2Σg+; v+= 0–2, N+= 0–9) + Ar CT reaction have been measured in the Ecm range of 0.04–10.0 eV, revealing strong vibrational enhancements and Ecm-dependencies of σ(v+= 0–2, N+= 0–9). The thermochemical threshold at Ecm= 0.179 eV for the formation of Ar+ from N2+(X; v+= 0, N+) + Ar was observed by the measured σ(v+= 0), confirming the narrow ΔEcm spread achieved in the present study. The σ(v+= 0–2; N+) values obtained here are compared with previous experimental and theoretical results. The theoretical predictions calculated based on the Landau-Zener-Stückelberg formulism are found to be

  19. Improved Charge-Transfer Fluorescent Dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Improved charge-transfer fluorescent dyes have been developed for use as molecular probes. These dyes are based on benzofuran nuclei with attached phenyl groups substituted with, variously, electron donors, electron acceptors, or combinations of donors and acceptors. Optionally, these dyes could be incorporated as parts of polymer backbones or as pendant groups or attached to certain surfaces via self-assembly-based methods. These dyes exhibit high fluorescence quantum yields -- ranging from 0.2 to 0.98, depending upon solvents and chemical structures. The wavelengths, quantum yields, intensities, and lifetimes of the fluorescence emitted by these dyes vary with (and, hence, can be used as indicators of) the polarities of solvents in which they are dissolved: In solvents of increasing polarity, fluorescence spectra shift to longer wavelengths, fluorescence quantum yields decrease, and fluorescence lifetimes increase. The wavelengths, quantum yields, intensities, and lifetimes are also expected to be sensitive to viscosities and/or glass-transition temperatures. Some chemical species -- especially amines, amino acids, and metal ions -- quench the fluorescence of these dyes, with consequent reductions in intensities, quantum yields, and lifetimes. As a result, the dyes can be used to detect these species. Another useful characteristic of these dyes is a capability for both two-photon and one-photon absorption. Typically, these dyes absorb single photons in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum (wavelengths dyes can be excited by two-photon absorption at near-infrared wavelengths (600 to 800 nm) to produce fluorescence spectra identical to those obtained in response to excitation by single photons at half the corresponding wavelengths (300 to 400 nm). While many prior fluorescent dyes exhibit high quantum yields, solvent-polarity- dependent fluorescence behavior, susceptibility to quenching by certain chemical species, and/or two-photon fluorescence, none of them has

  20. Electron transfer and decay processes of highly charged iodine ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present experimental work we have investigated multi-electron transfer processes in Iq+ (q=10, 15, 20 and 25) + Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe collisions at 1.5q keV energy. The branching ratios between Auger and radiative decay channels have been measured in decay processes of multiply excited states formed by multi-electron transfer collisions. It has been shown that, in all the multi-electron transfer processes investigated, the Auger decays are far dominant over the radiative decay processes and the branching ratios are clearly characterized by the average principal quantum number of the initial excited states of projectile ions. We could express the branching ratios in high Rydberg states formed in multi-electron transfer processes by using the decay probability of one Auger electron emission. (author)

  1. Charge Transfer and Catalysis at the Metal Support Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Lawrence Robert [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-07-31

    Kinetic, electronic, and spectroscopic characterization of model Pt–support systems are used to demonstrate the relationship between charge transfer and catalytic activity and selectivity. The results show that charge flow controls the activity and selectivity of supported metal catalysts. This dissertation builds on extensive existing knowledge of metal–support interactions in heterogeneous catalysis. The results show the prominent role of charge transfer at catalytic interfaces to determine catalytic activity and selectivity. Further, this research demonstrates the possibility of selectively driving catalytic chemistry by controlling charge flow and presents solid-state devices and doped supports as novel methods for obtaining electronic control over catalytic reaction kinetics.

  2. On the Possibility of Superfast Charge Transfer in DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Lakhno, V. D.; Sultanov, V. B.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous experiments on charge transfer in DNA yield a contradictory picture of the transfer: on the one hand they suggest that it is a very slow process and the charge is almost completely localized on one Watson-Crick pair, but on the other hand they demonstrate that the charge can travel a very large distance. To explain this contradiction we propose that superfast charge transitions are possible between base pairs on individual DNA fragments resulting in the establishment of a quasi-equil...

  3. Identified charged hadron production in pp and Pb-Pb collisions with ALICE at the LHC

    OpenAIRE

    Vasileiou, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear matter under extreme conditions can be investigated in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The measurement of transverse momentum distributions and yields of identified particles is a fundamental step in understanding collective and thermal properties of the matter produced in such collisions. The ALICE Experiment results on identified charged hadron production are presented for pp collisions at \\sqrt{s} = 0.9, 2.76 and 7 TeV and for Pb-Pb collisions at \\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 2.76 TeV. ...

  4. Muon transfer from muonic hydrogen to heavier atoms; Transfert de charge muonique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupays, A

    2004-06-01

    This work concerns muon transfer from muonic hydrogen to heavier atoms. Recently, a method of measurement of the hyperfine structure of ground-state muonic hydrogen based on the collision energy dependence of the muon transfer rate to oxygen has been proposed. This proposal is based on measurements which where performed at the Paul Scherrer Institute in the early nineties which indicate that the muon transfer from muonic hydrogen to oxygen increases by a factor of 4 going from thermal to 0.12 eV energies. The motivation of our calculations was to confirm this behaviour. To study the collision energy dependence of the muon transfer rate, we have used a time-independent close-coupling method. We have set up an hyperspherical elliptic formalism valid for nonzero total angular momentum which allows accurate computations of state-to-state reactive and charge exchange processes. We have applied this formalism to muon-transfer process to oxygen and neon. The comparison with experimental results is in both cases excellent. Finally, the neon transfer rate dependence with energy suggests to use neon instead of oxygen to perform a measurement of the hyperfine structure of muonic hydrogen. The results of accurate calculations of the muon transfer rates from muonic protium and deuterium atoms to nitrogen, oxygen and neon are also reported. Very good agreement with measured rates is obtained and for the three systems, the isotopic effect is perfectly reproduced. (author)

  5. Charge transfer reactions in nematic liquid crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiederrecht, G.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.; Wasielewski, M.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.]|[Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Galili, T.; Levanon, H. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel). Dept. of Physical Chemistry

    1998-07-01

    Ultrafast transient absorption studies of intramolecular photoinduced charge separation and thermal charge recombination were carried out on a molecule consisting of a 4-(N-pyrrolidino)naphthalene-1,8-imide donor (PNI) covalently attached to a pyromellitimide acceptor (PI) dissolved in the liquid crystal 4{prime}-(n-pentyl)-4-cyanobiphenyl (5CB). The temperature dependencies of the charge separation and recombination rates were obtained at temperatures above the nematic-isotropic phase transition of 5CB, where ordered microdomains exist and scattering of visible light by these domains is absent. The authors show that excited state charge separation is dominated by molecular reorientation of 5CB perpendicular to the director within the liquid crystal microdomains. They also show that charge recombination is adiabatic and is controlled by the comparatively slow collective reorientation of the liquid crystal microdomains relative to the orientation of PNI{sup +}-PI{sup {minus}}. They also report the results of time resolved electron paramagnetic resonance (TREPR) studies of photoinduced charge separation in a series of supramolecular compounds dissolved in oriented liquid crystal solvents. These studies permit the determination of the radical pair energy levels as the solvent reorganization energy increases from the low temperature crystalline phase, through the soft glass phase, to the nematic phase of the liquid crystal.

  6. Controlled transfer of single charge carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the design and operation of two devices, the turnstile and the pump, that transfer electrons one by one. They are both based on the existence of stable electrostatic configurations in arrays of ultrasmall tunnel junctions. While the turnstile only works in the normal state the pump could in principle achieve the transfer of single Cooper pairs

  7. The effective charge effect in partially stripped ion-helium collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The double and single ionization cross section ratios of helium by partially stripped carbon, oxygen and fluorine ions are measured for projectile charge states ranging from +1 to +4 and impact energies from 1.5 MeV to 7.5 MeV. The effective charge effect in partially stripped ion-helium collisions is studied. It is found that the effective charge qeff increases as the impinging energy increases and qeff shows a modest dependence upon the projectile charge state in the present energy range. The projectile charge state, projectile energy, projectile and target electronic state dependences of the effective charge effect may be explained using orbital interpenetrating. (orig.)

  8. Vibrationally resolved inelastic and charge transfer scattering of H+ by H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inelastic and charge transfer scattering of protons by water molecules at collision energies of 27.0 and 46.0 eV have been investigated in a high-resolution crossed beam experiment up to the rainbow scattering angles. Excitation of the stretching (symmetric or asymmetric) and bending mode vibrations within the electronic ground state, X 1A1, of H2O was observed in the proton energy-loss spectra. In the case of charge transfer, formation of H2O+ in the X 2B1 and A 2A1 electronic states was identified in the corresponding H-atom spectra; the vibrational states within the X and A bands were for the most part resolved and, at small angles (θ≤20), they were found to be nearly the same as in photoionization (symmetric stretch and bending mode excitation within the X state and pure bending mode excitation within the A state). The vibronic transition probabilities deviate, however, considerably from the corresponding Franck--Condon factors in favor of the enhancement of the quasiresonant states. For both the inelastic and charge transfer scattering, state-selected quantities characteristic of the detailed collision dynamics have been derived. In addition, rotational excitation superimposed on the vibrational transitions could be estimated and for both processes it was found to be of the order of 50--100 meV

  9. Charge transfer induced activity of graphene for oxygen reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Anli; Xia, Weijun; Zhang, Lipeng; Dou, Shuo; Xia, Zhenhai; Wang, Shuangyin

    2016-05-01

    Tetracyanoethylene (TCNE), with its strong electron-accepting ability, was used to dope graphene as a metal-free electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The charge transfer process was observed from graphene to TCNE by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman characterizations. Our density functional theory calculations found that the charge transfer behavior led to an enhancement of the electrocatalytic activity for the ORR.

  10. A Monte Carlo study of charge transfer in DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Jakobsson, Mattias; Stafström, Sven

    2008-01-01

    A model describing charge (hole) transport in DNA has been developed. The individual charge transfer steps in the transport process are described by Marcus theory modified to account for electron delocalization over adjacent identical nucleobases. Such a modification, as well as introducing a distance dependence in the reorganization energy, is necessary in order to reach an agreement with the observed transfer rates in well defined model systems to DNA. Using previously published results as ...

  11. Charge transfer energies of tetraphenyl-porphyrin-fullerene dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zope, Rajendra; Olguin, Marco; Baruah, Tunna

    2011-03-01

    Porphyrin-fullerene dyads are extensively studied for their photoinduced charge transfer properties. They form a donor-acceptor pair where the fullerene is the acceptor. Accurate theoretical estimate of the charge transfer energies in such systems has proven to be a challenge. In this study we examine the charge transfer energetics for such dyads using our recently developed density functional based excited state method which can yield reliable estimates of charge transfer energetics. In this study the effect of varying both the donor and acceptor components are studied by changing the tetra-phenyl-porphyrin (TPP) to Zn-TPP. Similarly the acceptor component is changed from C60 to C70. The structures were optimized using DFT-D3 theory at the all-electron level. Among the donor-acceptor pairs studied, we find that the ZnTPP-C60 has the lowest charge transfer energy (1.69 eV) and the TPP-C70 (2.13 eV) has the highest charge transfer energy. Supported by the Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the US Department of Energy through grant DE-SC0002168.

  12. Single-collision studies of energy transfer and chemical reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentini, J.J. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The research focus in this group is state-to-state dynamics of reaction and energy transfer in collisions of free radicals such as H, OH, and CH{sub 3} with H{sub 2}, alkanes, alcohols and other hydrogen-containing molecules. The motivation for the work is the desire to provide a detailed understanding of the chemical dynamics of prototype reactions that are important in the production and utilization of energy sources, most importantly in combustion. The work is primarily experimental, but with an important and growing theoretical/computational component. The focus of this research program is now on reactions in which at least one of the reactants and one of the products is polyatomic. The objective is to determine how the high dimensionality of the reactants and products differentiates such reactions from atom + diatom reactions of the same kinematics and energetics. The experiments use highly time-resolved laser spectroscopic methods to prepare reactant states and analyze the states of the products on a single-collision time scale. The primary spectroscopic tool for product state analysis is coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy. CARS is used because of its generality and because the extraction of quantum state populations from CARS spectra is straightforward. The combination of the generality and easy analysis of CARS makes possible absolute cross section measurements (both state-to-state and total), a particularly valuable capability for characterizing reactive and inelastic collisions. Reactant free radicals are produced by laser photolysis of appropriate precursors. For reactant vibrational excitation stimulated Raman techniques are being developed and implemented.

  13. Charge exchange cross section database for proton collisions with hydrocarbon molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The available experimental and theoretical cross section data on charge exchange processes in collisions of protons with hydrocarbon molecules have been collected and critically assessed. Using well established scaling relationships for the charge exchange cross sections at low and high collision energies, as well as the known rate coefficients for these reactions in the thermal energy region, a complete cross sections database is constructed for proton-CxHy charge exchange reactions from thermal energies up to several hundreds keV for all CxHy molecules with x=1,2,3 and 1≤y≤2x+2. (author)

  14. INTRAMOLECULAR CHARGE AND ENERGY TRANSFER IN MULTICHROMOPHORIC AROMATIC SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward C. Lim

    2008-09-09

    A concerted experimental and computational study of energy transfer in nucleic acid bases and charge transfer in dialkylaminobenzonitriles, and related electron donor-acceptor molecules, indicate that the ultrafast photoprocesses occur through three-state conical interactions involving an intermediate state of biradical character.

  15. Charge transfer in the presence of a radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the first Borm approximation, the dressing modification in laser-assisted charge exchange collision is investigated. The cross sections for electron capture by a proton from dressed atomic hydrogen and dressed helium targets are calculated within a wide energy range. Theoretical results show that with impact energy increasing, the dressing effect leads to increasingly significant cross-section modifications. The modified capture cross sections are increasing functions of the ratio of laser strength to frequency. (author)

  16. Multiplicity and Pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles in asymmetric and deformed nuclear collisions in a Wounded Quark Model

    OpenAIRE

    Chaturvedi, O. S. K.; P.K. Srivastava; Kumar, Ashwini; Singh, B. K.

    2016-01-01

    The charged particle multiplicity ($n_{ch}$) and pseudorapidity density $(dn_{ch}/d\\eta)$ are key observables to characterize the properties of matter created in heavy ion collisions. The dependence of these observables on collision energy and the collision geometry are a key tool to understand the underlying particle production mechanism. Recently a lot of focus on asymmetric nuclei as well as deformed nuclei collisions has been made as these collisions can provide a deeper understanding of ...

  17. Resonance charge exchange between excited states in slow proton-hydrogen collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theory of resonance charge exchange in slow collisions of a proton with a hydrogen atom in the excited state is developed. It extends the Firsov-Demkov theory of resonance charge exchange to the case of degenerate initial and final states. The theory is illustrated by semiclassical and quantum calculations of charge exchange cross sections between states with n=2 in parabolic and spherical coordinates. The results are compared with existing close-coupling calculations.

  18. Ultrafast Charge Transfer Visualized by Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mančal T.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2D-ES is used to investigate ultrafast excited-state dynamics in a lutetium bisphthalocyanine dimer. Following optical excitation, a chain of electron and hole transfer steps gives rise to characteristic cross-peak dynamics in the electronic 2D spectra. The combination of density matrix propagation and quantum chemical calculations results in a molecular view of the charge transfer dynamics and highlights the role of the counter-ion in providing an energetic perturbation which promotes charge transfer across the complex.

  19. Charge Transfer Dynamics from Photoexcited Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haiming; Yang, Ye; Wu, Kaifeng; Lian, Tianquan

    2016-05-01

    Understanding photoinduced charge transfer from nanomaterials is essential to the many applications of these materials. This review summarizes recent progress in understanding charge transfer from quantum dots (QDs), an ideal model system for investigating fundamental charge transfer properties of low-dimensional quantum-confined nanomaterials. We first discuss charge transfer from QDs to weakly coupled acceptors within the framework of Marcus nonadiabatic electron transfer (ET) theory, focusing on the dependence of ET rates on reorganization energy, electronic coupling, and driving force. Because of the strong electron-hole interaction, we show that ET from QDs should be described by the Auger-assisted ET model, which is significantly different from ET between molecules or from bulk semiconductor electrodes. For strongly quantum-confined QDs on semiconductor surfaces, the coupling can fall within the strong coupling limit, in which case the donor-acceptor interaction and ET properties can be described by the Newns-Anderson model of chemisorption. We also briefly discuss recent progress in controlling charge transfer properties in quantum-confined nanoheterostructures through wavefunction engineering and multiple exciton dissociation. Finally, we identify a few key areas for further research.

  20. Cross sections for charge transfer between mercury ions and other metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroom, D. A.; Rutherford, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Cross sections for charge transfer between several ions and metals of interest to the NASA electro propulsion program have been measured. Specifically, the ions considered were Hg(+), Xe(+) and Cs(+) and the metals Mo, Fe, Al, Ti, Ta, and C. Measurements were made in the energy regime from 1 to 5,000 eV. In general, the cross sections for charge transfer were found to be less than 10 to the minus 15 power sq cm for most processes over the total energy range. Exceptions are Hg(+) in collision with Ti and Ta. The results obtained for each reaction are given in both graphical and numerical form in the text. For quick reference, the data at several ion velocities are condensed into one table given in the summary.

  1. Dynamics of Charge Transfer in Ordered and Chaotic Nucleotide Sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Fialko, N S

    2013-01-01

    Charge transfer is considered in systems composed of a donor, an acceptor and bridge sites of (AT) nucleotide pairs. For a bridge consisting of 180 (AT) pairs, three cases are dealt with: a uniform case, when all the nucleotides in each strand are identical; an ordered case, when nucleotides in each DNA strand are arranged in an orderly fashion; a chaotic case, when (AT) and (TA) pairs are arranged randomly. It is shown that in all the cases a charge transfer from a donor to an acceptor can take place. All other factors being equal, the transfer is the most efficient in the uniform case, the ordered and chaotic cases are less and the least efficient, accordingly. The results obtained are in agreement with experimental data on long-range charge transfer in DNA.

  2. On the Possibility of Superfast Charge Transfer in DNA

    CERN Document Server

    Lakhno, V D

    2013-01-01

    Numerous experiments on charge transfer in DNA yield a contradictory picture of the transfer: on the one hand they suggest that it is a very slow process and the charge is almost completely localized on one Watson-Crick pair, but on the other hand they demonstrate that the charge can travel a very large distance. To explain this contradiction we propose that superfast charge transitions are possible between base pairs on individual DNA fragments resulting in the establishment of a quasi-equilibrium charge distribution during the time less than that of charge solvation. In other words, we hypothesize these states irrespective of the nature of a mechanism responsible for their establishment, whether it be a hopping mechanism, or a band mechanism, or superexchange, or polaron transport, etc., leaving aside the debates of which one is more advantageous. We discuss qualitative differences between the charge transfer in a dry DNA and that in a solution. In a solution, of great importance is the charge solvation whi...

  3. Light-Induced Charge Separation and Transfer in Bacteriorhodopsin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yu-Hua; LI Qing-Guo; ZHAO You-Yuan; ZHANG Zhong-Bin; OU-YANG Xiao-Ping; GONG Qin-Gan; CHEN Ling-Bing; LI Fu-Ming; LIU Jian; DING Jian-Dong

    2000-01-01

    The photo-voltage signals in bacteriorhodopsin(bR) excited by 1064nm pulse laser are different from those by 532 or 355 nm. It shows that the positive and negative photoelectric signals are produced by the motion of the positive and negative charges, respectively, and more energy is needed for producing the positive charges than the negative. The mechanism of light-induced charge generation and charge transfer in bR was studied and analyzed by measuring the photoelectric signals with different impedance of measuring circuit and different pulse-width of 532 nm laser as pump light.

  4. Charged Particle Multiplicity and Open Heavy Flavor Physics in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yujiao

    In this thesis, two independent measurements are presented: the measurements of centrality dependence and pseudo-rapidity dependence of charged particle multiplicities, and the measurements of centrality dependence of open heavy flavor suppression. These measurements are carried out with the Pb+Pb collisions data at the LHC energy sNN = 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector. For the charged particle measurements, charged particles are reconstructed with two algorithms (2-point "tracklet" and full tracking) from the pixel detector only. Measurements are presented of the per-event charged particle density distribution, dNch /deta and the average charged particle multiplicity in the pseudo-rapidity interval |eta| measurements at the LHC and RHIC. The variation of the mid-rapidity charged particle yield per colliding nucleon pair with the number of participants is consistent with the lower sNN results measured at RHIC. The shape of the dNch/deta distribution is found to be independent of centrality within the systematic uncertainties of the measurement. For the open heavy flavor suppression measurements, muons identified by the muon spectrometer are classified as heavy flavor decays and background contributions by using a fitting procedure with templates from Monte Carlo samples. Results are presented for the per-event muon yield as a function of muon transverse momentum, p T, over the range of 4 measure, muon production from heavy quark decays is found to be suppressed by a centrality-dependent factor that increases smoothly from peripheral to central collisions. Muon production is suppressed by approximately a factor of two in central collisions relative to peripheral collisions. Within the experimental errors, the observed suppression is independent of muon pT for all centralities. Furthermore, the p T dependence of the relative muon yields in Pb+Pb collisions to p+p collisions with the same center of mass collision energy per nucleon is presented by the nuclear

  5. K-Vacancy Production in the Collision of Highly Charged Relativistic Ions With Heavy Atoms

    OpenAIRE

    Khabibullaev, P. K.

    2000-01-01

    A general expression for the cross section of the inelastic collision of relativistic highly charged ion with heavy (relativistic) atoms is obtained using the generalized eikonal approximation. In the ultrarelativistic limit, the obtained formula coincides with a known exact one. As an application of the obtained result, probability and cross section of the K-vacany production in the U92+ - U91+ collision are calculated.

  6. Charged hadron transverse momentum distributions in Au+Au collisions at S=200 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Christof; PHOBOS Collaboration; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2003-03-01

    We present transverse momentum distributions of charged hadrons produced in Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV. The evolution of the spectra for transverse momenta p_T from 0.25 to 5GeV/c is studied as a function of collision centrality over a range from 65 to 344 participating nucleons. We find a significant change of the spectral shape between proton-antiproton and peripheral Au+Au collisions. Comparing peripheral to central Au+Au collisions, we find that the yields at the highest p_T exhibit approximate scaling with the number of participating nucleons, rather than scaling with the number of binary collisions.

  7. Nanohydration of uracil: emergence of three-dimensional structures and proton-induced charge transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchus-Montabonel, Marie-Christine; Calvo, Florent

    2015-04-21

    Stepwise hydration of uracil has been theoretically revisited using different methods ranging from classical force fields to quantum chemical approaches. Hydration initially begins within the uracil plane but proceeds at four molecules into three-dimensional configurations or even water clusters next to the nucleobase. The relative stability between the various structures is significantly affected by zero-point energy and finite temperature (entropy) effects and also gives rise to markedly different responses to an excitation by an impinging high-energy proton. In particular, charge transfer to the molecular complex is dramatically altered in collisions toward the coating cluster but barely modified for peripheral hydration patterns. PMID:25793649

  8. Beam-Energy Dependence of Charge Balance Functions from Au+Au Collisions at RHIC

    OpenAIRE

    STAR Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Balance functions have been measured in terms of relative pseudorapidity ($\\Delta \\eta$) for charged particle pairs at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) from Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}$ = 7.7 GeV to 200 GeV using the STAR detector. These results are compared with balance functions measured at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) from Pb+Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV by the ALICE Collaboration. The width of the balance function decreases as the collisions beco...

  9. Simulations of Ion Velocity Distribution Functions Taken into Account Both Elastic and Charge Exchange Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Huihui; Kaganovich, Igor D; Mustafaev, Alexander S

    2016-01-01

    Based on accurate representation of the He+-He differential angular scattering cross sections consisting of both elastic and charge exchange collisions, we performed detailed numerical simulations of the ion velocity distribution functions (IVDF) by Monte Carlo collision method (MCC). The results of simulations are validated by comparison with the experimental data of the mobility and the transverse diffusion. The IVDF simulation study shows that due to significant effect of scattering in elastic collisions IVDF cannot be separated into product of two independent IVDFs in the transverse and parallel to the electric field directions.

  10. Collision phenomena involving highly-charged ions in astronomical objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutjian, A.

    2001-01-01

    A description of the role of highly charged ions in various astronomical objects; includes the use of critical quantities such as cross sections for excitation, charge-exchange, X-ray emission, radiative recombination (RR) and dielectronic recombination (DR); and lifetimes, branching ratios, and A-values.

  11. Charged Particle, Photon Multiplicity, and Transverse Energy Production in High-Energy Heavy-Ion Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review the charged particle and photon multiplicities and transverse energy production in heavy-ion collisions starting from few GeV to TeV energies. The experimental results of pseudorapidity distribution of charged particles and photons at different collision energies and centralities are discussed. We also discuss the hypothesis of limiting fragmentation and expansion dynamics using the Landau hydrodynamics and the underlying physics. Meanwhile, we present the estimation of initial energy density multiplied with formation time as a function of different collision energies and centralities. In the end, the transverse energy per charged particle in connection with the chemical freeze-out criteria is discussed. We invoke various models and phenomenological arguments to interpret and characterize the fireball created in heavy-ion collisions. This review overall provides a scope to understand the heavy-ion collision data and a possible formation of a deconfined phase of partons via the global observables like charged particles, photons, and the transverse energy measurement

  12. Ga Nanoparticle/Graphene Platforms: Plasmonic and Charge Transfer Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Congwen; Kim, Tong-Ho; Yang, Yang; Losurdo, Maria; Brown, April S.

    2013-03-01

    Metal nanoparticle (NP) - graphene multifunctional platforms are of great interest for numerous applications, such as sensing and catalysis, and for fundamental studies on charge transfer and light-matter interactions. To understand platform-photon interactions, it is important to articulate the coupling of photon-based excitations, such as the interaction between plasmons in each of the material components, as well as their charge-based interactions dependent upon the energy alignment at the metal/graphene interface. Herein, we use liquid metal Ga nanoparticles, which can be deposited at 300K on graphene, to explore the surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy modulation induced by the NPs,. The localized charge transfer between Ga NPs and graphene are investigated, and enhancement of the graphene Raman modes is correlated with metal coverage the transfer of electrons from Ga to graphene creating local regions of enhanced electron concentration which modify the electron-phonon interaction in graphene.

  13. Charge transfer properties of pentacene adsorbed on silver: DFT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charge transfer properties of pentacene adsorbed on silver is investigated using DFT methods. Optimized geometry of pentacene after adsorption on silver indicates distortion in hexagonal structure of the ring close to the silver cluster and deviations in co-planarity of carbon atoms due to the variations in bond angles and dihedral angles. Theoretically simulated absorption spectrum has a symmetric surface plasmon resonance peak around 486nm corresponding to the transfer of charge from HOMO-2 to LUMO. Theoretical SERS confirms the process of adsorption, tilted orientation of pentacene on silver surface and the charge transfers reported. Localization of electron density arising from redistribution of electrostatic potential together with a reduced bandgap of pentacene after adsorption on silver suggests its utility in the design of electro active organic semiconducting devices

  14. Intramolecular Charge Transfer States in the Condensed Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C. F.; Herbert, J. M.

    2009-06-01

    Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT) with long range corrected functionals can give accurate results for the energies of electronically excited states involving Intramolecular Charge Transfer (ICT) in large molecules. If this is combined with a Molecular Mechanics (MM) representation of the surrounding solvent this technique can be used to interpret the results of condensed phase UV-Vis Spectroscopy. Often the MM region is represented by a set of point charges, however this means that the solvent cannot repolarize to adapt to the new charge distribution as a result of ICT and so the excitation energies to ICT states are overestimated. To solve this problem an algorithm that interfaces TDDFT with the polarizable force-field AMOEBA is presented; the effect of solvation on charge transfer in species such as 4,4'dimethylaminobenzonitrile (DMABN) is discussed. M.A. Rohrdanz, K.M. Martins, and J.M. Herbert, J. Chem. Phys. 130 034107 (2008).

  15. Multiple-charge transfer and trapping in DNA dimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornow, Sabine; Bulla, Ralf; Anders, Frithjof B.; Zwicknagl, Gertrud

    2010-11-01

    We investigate the charge transfer characteristics of one and two excess charges in a DNA base-pair dimer using a model Hamiltonian approach. The electron part comprises diagonal and off-diagonal Coulomb matrix elements such a correlated hopping and the bond-bond interaction, which were recently calculated by Starikov [E. B. Starikov, Philos. Mag. Lett. 83, 699 (2003)10.1080/0950083031000151374] for different DNA dimers. The electronic degrees of freedom are coupled to an ohmic or a superohmic bath serving as dissipative environment. We employ the numerical renormalization group method in the nuclear tunneling regime and compare the results to Marcus theory for the thermal activation regime. For realistic parameters, the rate that at least one charge is transferred from the donor to the acceptor in the subspace of two excess electrons significantly exceeds the rate in the single charge sector. Moreover, the dynamics is strongly influenced by the Coulomb matrix elements. We find sequential and pair transfer as well as a regime where both charges remain self-trapped. The transfer rate reaches its maximum when the difference of the on-site and intersite Coulomb matrix element is equal to the reorganization energy which is the case in a guanine/cytosine (GC)-dimer. Charge transfer is completely suppressed for two excess electrons in adenine/thymine (AT)-dimer in an ohmic bath and replaced by damped coherent electron-pair oscillations in a superohmic bath. A finite bond-bond interaction W alters the transfer rate: it increases as function of W when the effective Coulomb repulsion exceeds the reorganization energy (inverted regime) and decreases for smaller Coulomb repulsion.

  16. On the role of charge transfer in the stabilization of weakly bound complexes involving water and hydrogen sulphide molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: A charge-displacement analysis allows to quantitatively assess charge-transfer effects in hydrogen-bonded complexes. Highlights: ► We compare water with hydrogen sulphide both interacting with krypton. ► In both cases the interaction possesses a definite charge transfer component. ► Charge-transfer differs slightly in the two systems and exhibits different stereoselectivity. - Abstract: Integral cross section data for collisions of water and hydrogen sulphide molecules with noble gas atoms, measured with the same apparatus under identical conditions and analyzed by exploiting the same potential model, provided a set of internally consistent potential parameters. Their critical comparison is exploited not only to identify those systems where the intermolecular bond is not simply due to the balancing of size repulsion with dispersion and induction attraction, but also to establish the amount of bond stabilization by charge-transfer effects. Such experimental findings are analyzed through extensive and accurate ab initio calculations, addressed at discovering the relevant differences in the basic features of the potential energy surfaces. In particular, we have analyzed in detail the prototype H2S, H2O–Kr systems and found pronounced differences in the dependence of the interaction nature and energy on the relative orientation of the colliding systems. Using the recently proposed charge-displacement analysis we have been able to quantitatively assess charge-transfer effects, which differ significantly in the two systems and exhibit different stereoselectivity. This casts further light on the specificity of water interactions.

  17. Valence Topological Charge-Transfer Indices for Dipole Moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Torrens

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available New valence topological charge-transfer indices are applied to the calculation of dipole moments. The algebraic and vector semisum charge-transfer indices are defined. The combination of the charge-transfer indices allows the estimation of the dipole moments. The model is generalized for molecules with heteroatoms. The ability of the indices for the description of the molecular charge distribution is established by comparing them with the dipole moments of a homologous series of phenyl alcohols. Linear and non-linear correlation models are obtained. The new charge-transfer indices improve the multivariable non-linear regression equations for the dipole moment. When comparing with previous results, the variance decreases 92%. No superposition of the corresponding Gk–Jk and GkV – JkV pairs is observed. This diminishes the risk of co-linearity. Inclusion of the oxygen atom in the p-electron system is beneficial for the description of the dipole moment, owing to either the role of the additional p orbitals provided by the heteroatom or the role of steric factors in the p-electron conjugation. Linear and non-linear correlations between the fractal dimension and various descriptors point not only to a homogeneous molecular structure but also to the ability to predict and tailor drug properties.

  18. PHOTOINDUCED CHARGE TRANSFER POLYMERIZATION OF STYRENE INITIATED BY ELECTRON ACCEPTOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Weixiao; ZHANG Peng; FENG Xinde

    1995-01-01

    Photoinduced charge transfer polymerization of styrene(St) with electron acceptor as initiator was investigated. In case of fumaronitrile (FN) or maleic anhydride (MA) as initiator the polymerization takes place regularly, whereas the tetrachloro-1, 4-benzenequinone (TCQ), 2, 3-dichloro-5, 6-dicyano-1, 4-benzenequinone (DDQ) . or tetracyano ethylene (TCNE) as initiator the polymerization proceeds reluctantly only after the photoaddition reaction. A mechanism was proposed that free radicals would be formed following the charge and proton transfer in the exciplex formed between St and electron acceptors.

  19. Bioexcimers as Precursors of Charge Transfer and Reactivity in Photobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Andrés, Luis; Merchán, Manuela; Roca-Sanjuán, Daniel; Olaso-González, Gloria; Rubio, Mercedes

    2007-11-01

    Accurate CASPT2//CASSCF calculations show that π-stacked interactions in different biochromophores such as DNA nucleobases or porphyrin-quinone pairs yield excimer-like situations which behave as precursors of processes like charge transfer or photoreactivity. Examples are the transfer of charge between a reduced pheophytin and an accepting quinone molecule, process that trigger the sequence of electron transfer phenomena in photosynthetic photosystem II, the electron transfer between adjacent DNA nucleobases in a strand of oligonucleotides, and the photodimerization taking place in cytosine pairs leading to cyclobutanecytosine mutants. These processes take place through nonadiabatic photochemical mechanisms whose evolution is determined by the presence and accessibility of conical intersections and other surface crossings between different electronic states.

  20. Ultrafast Charge Transfer Visualized by Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Mančal T.; Milota F.; Hauer J; Christensson N.; Bixner O.; Lukeš V.; Kauffmann H. F.

    2013-01-01

    Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2D-ES) is used to investigate ultrafast excited-state dynamics in a lutetium bisphthalocyanine dimer. Following optical excitation, a chain of electron and hole transfer steps gives rise to characteristic cross-peak dynamics in the electronic 2D spectra. The combination of density matrix propagation and quantum chemical calculations results in a molecular view of the charge transfer dynamics and highlights the role of the counter-ion in providing an en...

  1. Energy and charge state dependences of transfer ionization to single capture ratio for fast multiply charged ions on helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Ridvan

    The charge state and energy dependences of Transfer Ionization (TI) and Single Capture (SC) processes in collisions of multiply charged ions with He from intermediate to high velocities are investigated using coincident recoil ion momentum spectroscopy. The collision chamber is commissioned on the 15-degree port of a switching magnet, which allows the delivery of a beam with very little impurity. The target was provided from a supersonic He jet with a two-stage collimation. The two-stage, geometrically cooled, supersonic He jet has significantly reduced background contribution to the spectrum compared to a single stage He jet. In the case of a differentially pumped gas cell complex calculations based on assumptions for the correction due to the collisions with the contaminant beam led to corrections, which were up to 50%. The new setup allows one to make a direct separation of contaminant processes in the experimental data using the longitudinal momentum spectra. Furthermore, this correction is much smaller (about 8.8%) yielding better overall precision. The collision systems reported here are 1 MeV/u O(4--8)+ , 0.5--2.5 MeV/u F(4--9)+, 2.0 MeV/u Ti 15,17,18+, 1.6--1.75 MeV/u Cu18,20+ and 0.25--0.5 MeV/u I(15--25)+ ions interacting with helium. We have determined the sTIsSC ratio for high velocity highly charged ions on He at velocities in the range of 6 to 10 au and observed that the ratio is monotonically decreasing with velocity. Furthermore, we see a ratio that follows a q2 dependence up to approximately q = 9. Above q = 9 the experimental values exceed the q2 dependence prediction due to antiscreening. C. D. Lin and H. C. Tseng have performed coupled channel calculations for the energy dependence of TI and SC for F9+ + He and find values slightly higher than our measured values, but with approximately the same energy dependence. The new data, Si, Ti and Cu, go up only to q = 20 and show a smooth monotonically increasing TI/SC ratio. The TI/SC ratio for I (15

  2. Bose—Einstein correlations of charged kaons in p + p collisions with the STAR detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigmatkulov, Grigory

    2016-01-01

    We report the results of charged kaon Bose-Einstein Correlations (BEC) measured in proton- proton collisions at √s =200 and 510 GeV with the STAR detector at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The one-dimensional correlation functions are studied as a function of the charged particle multiplicity. The femtoscopic radii, R, and the correlation strength, λ, are extracted. The dependence of the source radii and the correlation strengths on the particle multiplicity are investigated.

  3. Preliminary study for the detection of neutrons in heavy-ion collisions with charged particle detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Auditore L.; Pagano A.; Russotto P.

    2015-01-01

    At Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS) the CHIMERA 4π multidetector has been designed and setup to detect charged particles emitted in heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies. Properties and performances of CHIMERA have been widely demonstrated by published results obtained in the performed experiments. Moreover, in recent years, a new charged particle detector (ChPD) for correlation studies (FARCOS) has been designed, and recently a first prototype has been coupled to CHIMERA, in order ...

  4. Search for Fractionally Charged Nuclei in High-Energy Oxygen-Lead Collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    We propose to use stacks of CR-39 plastic track detectors to look for fractionally charged projectile fragments produced in collisions of high-energy oxygen, sulfur, and calcium nuclei with a lead target. The expected charge resolution is @s^z~=~0.06e for fragments with 17e/3~@$<$~Z~@$<$~23e/3. We request that two target + stack assemblies be exposed to 1~x~10|5 oxygen nuclei at maximum available energy.

  5. Bibliography on electron transfer processes in ion-ion/atom/molecule collisions (updated 1993)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following our previous compilations [IPPJ-AM-45 (1986), NIFS-DATA-7 (1990)], bibliographic information on experimental and theoretical studies on electron transfer processes in ion-ion/atom/molecule collisions is up-dated. The references published through 1980-1992 are included. For easy finding references for particular combination of collision partners, a simple list is also provided. (author) 1542 refs

  6. Atomic collision experiments utilizing low-velocity, highly-charged ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intense beams of highly-stripped ions are now routinely produced at low velocities using the Brookhaven dual MP-tandems in a unique four-stage accel/decel mode. This mode of operation combines three stages of acceleration, stripping at high energy, and one stage of deceleration to near-zero velocity. To date, experiments have used 10-100 nA beams of bare and few-electron heavy ions at energies as low as 0.2 MeV/amu, and upgrades of the facility should push the lower limit below 0.1 MeV/amu. Recent experiments, such as measurements of charge transfer and x-ray production for S6-16+ on He and Ar at 6-20 MeV and P(b) measurements for MO x-rays produced in Cl16+ + Ar collisions at 20, 10 and 5 MeV have demonstrated the usefulness of highly-stripped, low-velocity projectiles. These experiments and a few possibilities for future experiments are discussed

  7. Charged kaon femtoscopic correlations in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Abelev, B; Adamova, D; Adare, A M; Aggarwal, M M; Aglieri Rinella, G; Agnello, M; Agocs, A G; Agostinelli, A; Ahammed, Z; Ahmad, N; Ahmad Masoodi, A; Ahn, S U; Ahn, S A; Ajaz, M; Akindinov, A; Aleksandrov, D; Alessandro, B; Alici, A; Alkin, A; Almaraz Avina, E; Alme, J; Alt, T; Altini, V; Altinpinar, S; Altsybeev, I; Andrei, C; Andronic, A; Anguelov, V; Anielski, J; Anson, C; Anticic, T; Antinori, F; Antonioli, P; Aphecetche, L; Appelshauser, H; Arbor, N; Arcelli, S; Arend, A; Armesto, N; Arnaldi, R; Aronsson, T; Arsene, I C; Arslandok, M; Asryan, A; Augustinus, A; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Aysto, J; Azmi, M D; Bach, M; Badala, A; Baek, Y W; Bailhache, R; Bala, R; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Baldisseri, A; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F; Ban, J; Baral, R C; Barbera, R; Barile, F; Barnafoldi, G G; Barnby, L S; Barret, V; Bartke, J; Basile, M; Bastid, N; Basu, S; Bathen, B; Batigne, G; Batyunya, B; Baumann, C; Bearden, I G; Beck, H; Behera, N K; Belikov, I; Bellini, F; Bellwied, R; Belmont-Moreno, E; 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Yamaguchi, Y; Yang, H; Yang, S; Yasnopolskiy, S; Yi, J; Yin, Z; Yoo, I K; Yoon, J; Yu, W; Yuan, X; Yushmanov, I; Zaccolo, V; Zach, C; Zampolli, C; Zaporozhets, S; Zarochentsev, A; Zavada, P; Zaviyalov, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zelnicek, P; Zgura, I S; Zhalov, M; Zhang, H; Zhang, X; Zhou, D; Zhou, Y; Zhou, F; Zhu, J; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, X; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, A; Zinovjev, G; Zoccarato, Y; Zynovyev, M; Zyzak, M

    2013-01-01

    Correlations of two charged identical kaons (K$^{ch}$ K$^{ch}$) are measured in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=7 TeV by the ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). One-dimensional K$^{ch}$ K$^{ch}$ correlation functions are constructed in three multiplicity and four transverse momentum ranges. The K$^{ch}$ K$^{ch}$ femtoscopic source parameters R and lambda are extracted. The K$^{ch}$ K$^{ch}$ correlations show a slight increase of femtoscopic radii with increasing multiplicity and a slight decrease of radii with increasing transverse momentum. These trends are similar to the ones observed for $\\pi\\pi$ and $K_s^0 K_s^0$ correlations in pp and heavy-ion collisions. However, the observed one dimensional correlation radii for charged kaons are larger at high multiplicities than those for pions in contrast to what was observed in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC.

  8. Charged kaon femtoscopic correlations in pp collisions at s=7TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelev, B.; Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Adare, A. M.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agocs, A. G.; Agostinelli, A.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, N.; Ahmad Masoodi, A.; Ahn, S. U.; Ahn, S. A.; Ajaz, M.; Akindinov, A.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Almaráz Aviña, E.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altini, V.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Anson, C.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arbor, N.; Arcelli, S.; Arend, A.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Asryan, A.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Äystö, J.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Bán, J.; Baral, R. C.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartke, J.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batyunya, B.; Baumann, C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bergognon, A. A. E.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Boccioli, M.; Böttger, S.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Bogolyubsky, M.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Bossú, F.; Botje, M.; Botta, E.; Braidot, E.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Brun, R.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Canoa Roman, V.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Carlin Filho, N.; Carminati, F.; Casanova Díaz, A.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Castillo Hernandez, J. F.; Casula, E. A. R.; Catanescu, V.; Cavicchioli, C.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chawla, I.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Chochula, P.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Coccetti, F.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contin, G.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortese, P.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Cotallo, M. E.; Crescio, E.; Crochet, P.; Cruz Alaniz, E.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dainese, A.; Dalsgaard, H. H.; Danu, A.; Das, S.; Das, I.; Das, D.; Das, K.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; De, S.; de Barros, G. O. V.; De Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; Delagrange, H.; Deloff, A.; De Marco, N.; Dénes, E.; De Pasquale, S.; Deppman, A.; D Erasmo, G.; de Rooij, R.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Di Bari, D.; Dietel, T.; Di Giglio, C.; Di Liberto, S.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Divià, R.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Driga, O.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Dutta Majumdar, A. K.; Dutta Majumdar, M. R.; Elia, D.; Emschermann, D.; Engel, H.; Erazmus, B.; Erdal, H. A.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Evans, D.; Eyyubova, G.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Falchieri, D.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Fearick, R.; Fehlker, D.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Feliciello, A.; Fenton-Olsen, B.; Feofilov, G.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Floratos, E.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Garishvili, I.; Gerhard, J.; Germain, M.; Geuna, C.; Gheata, M.; Gheata, A.; Ghosh, P.; Gianotti, P.; Girard, M. R.; Giubellino, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Gomez, R.; Ferreiro, E. G.; González-Trueba, L. H.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Goswami, A.; Gotovac, S.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Grajcarek, R.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, S.; Grigoryan, A.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Gros, P.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J.-Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Guilbaud, M.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Haaland, Ø.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Han, B. H.; Hanratty, L. D.; Hansen, A.; Harmanová-Tóthová, Z.; Harris, J. W.; Hartig, M.; Harton, A.; Hasegan, D.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Heckel, S. T.; Heide, M.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Herrmann, N.; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hicks, B.; Hippolyte, B.; Hori, Y.; Hristov, P.; Hřivnáčová, I.; Huang, M.; Humanic, T. J.; Hwang, D. S.; Ichou, R.; Ilkaev, R.; Ilkiv, I.; Inaba, M.; Incani, E.; Innocenti, G. M.; Innocenti, P. G.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Ivan, C.; Ivanov, V.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanytskyi, O.; Jachołkowski, A.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jang, H. J.; Janik, M. A.; Janik, R.; Jayarathna, P. H. S. Y.; Jena, S.; Jha, D. M.; Jimenez Bustamante, R. T.; Jones, P. G.; Jung, H.; Jusko, A.; Kaidalov, A. B.; Kalcher, S.; Kaliňák, P.; Kalliokoski, T.; Kalweit, A.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Karasu Uysal, A.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karpechev, E.; Kazantsev, A.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Khan, M. M.; Khan, P.; Khan, K. H.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kileng, B.; Kim, S.; Kim, M.; Kim, M.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, B.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, T.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bösing, C.; Kliemant, M.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Knospe, A. G.; Köhler, M. K.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kompaniets, M.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Konevskikh, A.; Kour, R.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.; Kox, S.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Kral, J.; Králik, I.; Kramer, F.; Kravčáková, A.; Krawutschke, T.; Krelina, M.; Kretz, M.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Krus, M.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kucheriaev, Y.; Kugathasan, T.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, J.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kurepin, A.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, V.; Kushpil, S.; Kvaerno, H.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; Ladrón de Guevara, P.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; La Pointe, S. L.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; La Rocca, P.; Lea, R.; Lechman, M.; Lee, G. R.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S. C.; Legrand, I.; Lehnert, J.; Lenhardt, M.; Lenti, V.; León, H.; León Monzón, I.; León Vargas, H.; Lévai, P.; Li, S.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Ljunggren, H. M.; Loenne, P. I.; Loggins, V. R.; Loginov, V.; Lohner, D.; Loizides, C.; Loo, K. K.; Lopez, X.; López Torres, E.; Løvhøiden, G.; Lu, X.-G.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luo, J.; Luparello, G.; Luzzi, C.; Ma, K.; Ma, R.; Madagodahettige-Don, D. M.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Maire, A.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manceau, L.; Mangotra, L.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Mao, Y.; Marchisone, M.; Mareš, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Marín, A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martashvili, I.; Martin, N. A.; Martinengo, P.; Martínez, M. I.; Martínez Davalos, A.; Martínez García, G.; Martynov, Y.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Massacrier, L.; Mastroserio, A.; Matthews, Z. L.; Matyja, A.; Mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Meddi, F.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Mercado Pérez, J.; Meres, M.; Miake, Y.; Mikhailov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A. N.; Miśkowiec, D.; Mitu, C.; Mizuno, S.; Mlynarz, J.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Montaño Zetina, L.; Monteno, M.; Montes, E.; Moon, T.; Morando, M.; Moreira De Godoy, D. A.; Moretto, S.; Morreale, A.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Müller, H.; Munhoz, M. G.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Musso, A.; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Nattrass, C.; Navin, S.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Nielsen, B. S.; Niida, T.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikolic, V.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Nilsen, B. S.; Nilsson, M. S.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Novitzky, N.; Nyanin, A.; Nyatha, A.; Nygaard, C.; Nystrand, J.; Ochirov, A.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S. K.; Oh, S.; Oleniacz, J.; Oliveira Da Silva, A. C.; Oppedisano, C.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Oskarsson, A.; Ostrowski, P.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Ozawa, K.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pachr, M.; Padilla, F.; Pagano, P.; Paić, G.; Painke, F.; Pajares, C.; Pal, S. K.; Palaha, A.; Palmeri, A.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Park, W. J.; Passfeld, A.; Patalakha, D. I.; Paticchio, V.; Paul, B.; Pavlinov, A.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Pereira Da Costa, H.; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, E.; Peresunko, D.; Pérez Lara, C. E.; Perini, D.; Perrino, D.; Peryt, W.; Pesci, A.; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petráček, V.; Petran, M.; Petris, M.; Petrov, P.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Piccotti, A.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Pitz, N.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Planinic, M.; Płoskoń, M.; Pluta, J.; Pocheptsov, T.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Poghosyan, M. G.; Polák, K.; Polichtchouk, B.; Pop, A.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Pospíšil, V.; Potukuchi, B.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puddu, G.; Punin, V.; Putiš, M.; Putschke, J.; Quercigh, E.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Rademakers, A.; Räihä, T. S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Ramírez Reyes, A.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Räsänen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Read, K. F.; Real, J. S.; Redlich, K.; Reed, R. J.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reicher, M.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Rettig, F.; Revol, J.-P.; Reygers, K.; Riccati, L.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M.; Rodriguez Manso, A.; Røed, K.; Rohr, D.; Röhrich, D.; Romita, R.; Ronchetti, F.; Rosnet, P.; Rossegger, S.; Rossi, A.; Roy, P.; Roy, C.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, S.; Šafařík, K.; Sahoo, R.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakaguchi, H.; Sakai, S.; Sakata, D.; Salgado, C. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Sanchez Castro, X.; Šándor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Santagati, G.; Santoro, R.; Sarkamo, J.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schmidt, C.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schuster, T.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, P. A.; Scott, R.; Segato, G.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Senyukov, S.; Seo, J.; Serci, S.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shabratova, G.; Shahoyan, R.; Sharma, S.; Sharma, N.; Rohni, S.; Shigaki, K.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Sicking, E.; Siddhanta, S.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singha, S.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, T.; Sinha, B. C.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Skjerdal, K.; Smakal, R.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J. M.; Søgaard, C.; Soltz, R.; Son, H.; Song, M.; Song, J.; Soos, C.; Soramel, F.; Sputowska, I.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Srivastava, B. K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stefanek, G.; Steinpreis, M.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stiller, J. H.; Stocco, D.; Stolpovskiy, M.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Subieta Vásquez, M. A.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Sultanov, R.; Šumbera, M.; Susa, T.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Szostak, A.; Szymański, M.; Takahashi, J.; Tapia Takaki, J. D.; Tarantola Peloni, A.; Tarazona Martinez, A.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Muñoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Terrevoli, C.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Toia, A.; Torii, H.; Toscano, L.; Trubnikov, V.; Truesdale, D.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ulery, J.; Ullaland, K.; Ulrich, J.; Uras, A.; Urbán, J.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Usai, G. L.; Vajzer, M.; Vala, M.; Valencia Palomo, L.; Vallero, S.; Vande Vyvre, P.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vannucci, L.; Vargas, A.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vechernin, V.; Veldhoen, M.; Venaruzzo, M.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara, S.; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Viesti, G.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Vinogradov, Y.; Vinogradov, L.; Vinogradov, A.; Virgili, T.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Vranic, D.; Vrláková, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Vyushin, A.; Wagner, V.; Wagner, B.; Wan, R.; Wang, D.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Watanabe, K.; Weber, M.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilde, M.; Wilk, A.; Wilk, G.; Williams, M. C. S.; Windelband, B.; Xaplanteris Karampatsos, L.; Yaldo, C. G.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yang, H.; Yang, S.; Yasnopolskiy, S.; Yi, J.; Yin, Z.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yoon, J.; Yu, W.; Yuan, X.; Yushmanov, I.; Zaccolo, V.; Zach, C.; Zampolli, C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zarochentsev, A.; Závada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zelnicek, P.; Zgura, I. S.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, F.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, X.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zinovjev, G.; Zoccarato, Y.; Zynovyev, M.; Zyzak, M.

    2013-03-01

    Correlations of two charged identical kaons (KchKch) are measured in pp collisions at s=7TeV by the ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). One-dimensional KchKch correlation functions are constructed in three multiplicity and four transverse momentum ranges. The KchKch femtoscopic source parameters R and λ are extracted. The KchKch correlations show a slight increase of femtoscopic radii with increasing multiplicity and a slight decrease of radii with increasing transverse momentum. These trends are similar to the ones observed for ππ and Ks0Ks0 correlations in pp and heavy-ion collisions. However at high multiplicities, there is an indication that the one-dimensional correlation radii for charged kaons are larger than those for pions in contrast to what was observed in heavy-ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider.

  9. Two components in charged particle production in heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylinkin, A. A.; Chernyavskaya, N. S.; Rostovtsev, A. A.

    2016-02-01

    Transverse momentum spectra of charged particle production in heavy-ion collisions are considered in terms of a recently introduced Two Component parameterization combining exponential ("soft") and power-law ("hard") functional forms. The charged hadron densities calculated separately for them are plotted versus number of participating nucleons, Npart. The obtained dependences are discussed and the possible link between the two component parameterization introduced by the authors and the two component model historically used for the case of heavy-ion collisions is established. Next, the variations of the parameters of the introduced approach with the center of mass energy and centrality are studied using the available data from RHIC and LHC experiments. The spectra shapes are found to show universal dependences on Npart for all investigated collision energies.

  10. Correlated charge changing ion-atom collisions: Progress report for the period August 15, 1984-February 14, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correlations between x-ray emission and charge-changing interactions have been measured for high charged ions (16 ≤ Z ≤ 23) in the energy range of 0.1 to 10 MeV/u incident on gas targets under single collision conditions. These experiments combined with theoretical studies have established the existence of resonant transfer and excitation (RTE) and indicated a close relationship between RTE and dielectronic recombination. Detailed investigations of RTE include: (1) the projectile Z dependence; (2) the projectile charge-state dependence; (3) the effect of the target electron momentum distribution; and (4) observations of RTE involving L-shell excitation. These measurements are in reasonable agreement with theoretical calculations. Evidence for non-resonant transfer and excitation has been obtained from studies of 15 to 200 MeV S13+ + He collisions. Single-electron capture and loss were measured for 2.5 to 200 MeV S13+ + He thereby providing a comparison with theory over a very wide energy range. For single capture in Ca/sup 16,17,18,19+ + H2 a significant contribution due to RTE was observed for energies where RTE is important. Cross sections for double-electron capture for S13+ + He and Ne and Ar15+ + Ne were found to be 1 to 2 orders of magnitude smaller than the corresponding single-capture cross sections. Target ionization associated with projectile charge exchange has been measured for 0.5 to 1.5 MeV/u O/sup 5,6,7,8+ + He and H2. 26 refs., 13 figs

  11. The theoretical study of charge transfer through damaged DNA duplexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebera, Jakub; Humpolíčková, Jana; Hof, Martin; Kratochvílová, Irena; Páv, Ondřej; Rosenberg, Ivan; Nencka, Radim; Tanaka, Y.; Sychrovský, Vladimír

    Nagybörzsöny : -, 2014. [CESTC 2014. Central European Symposium on Theoretical Chemistry. 21.09.2014-25.09.2014, Nagybörzsöny] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-27676S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:61388955 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : charge transfer * 8-oxoguanine * fluorescence spectroscopy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  12. Enhancing SERS by Means of Supramolecular Charge Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Eric; Flood, Amar; Morales, Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    In a proposed method of sensing small quantities of molecules of interest, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy would be further enhanced by means of intermolecular or supramolecular charge transfer. There is a very large potential market for sensors based on this method for rapid detection of chemical and biological hazards. In SERS, the Raman signals (vibrational spectra) of target molecules become enhanced by factors of the order of 108 when those molecules are in the vicinities of nanostructured substrate surfaces that have been engineered to have plasmon resonances that enhance local electric fields. SERS, as reported in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles and elsewhere, has remained a research tool and has not yet been developed into a practical technique for sensing of target molecules: this is because the short range (5 to 20 nm) of the field enhancement necessitates engineering of receptor molecules to attract target molecules to the nanostructured substrate surfaces and to enable reliable identification of the target molecules in the presence of interferants. Intermolecular charge-transfer complexes have been used in fluorescence-, photoluminescence-, and electrochemistry-based techniques for sensing target molecules, but, until now, have not been considered for use in SERS-based sensing. The basic idea of the proposed method is to engineer receptor molecules that would be attached to nanostructured SERS substrates and that would interact with the target molecules to form receptor-target supramolecular charge-transfer complexes wherein the charge transfer could be photoexcited.

  13. CORRELATING ELECTRONIC AND VIBRATIONAL MOTIONS IN CHARGE TRANSFER SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, Munira

    2014-06-27

    The goal of this research program was to measure coupled electronic and nuclear motions during photoinduced charge transfer processes in transition metal complexes by developing and using novel femtosecond spectroscopies. The scientific highlights and the resulting scientific publications from the DOE supported work are outlined in the technical report.

  14. Positron Annihilation in Solid Charge-Transfer Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lévay, B.; Jansen, P.

    1979-01-01

    Positron lifetime and angular correlation measurements have been carried out on 1:1 charge-transfer complexes, on their pure donor and acceptor components and on the 1:1 M mechanical mixtures of these components. Complex formation reduced the intensity of the long-lifetime component of the donor ...

  15. Causal Diffusion and the Survival of Charge Fluctuations in Nuclear Collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz, Mohamed Abdel; Gavin, Sean

    2004-01-01

    Diffusion may obliterate fluctuation signals of the QCD phase transition in nuclear collisions at SPS and RHIC energies. We propose a hyperbolic diffusion equation to study the dissipation of net charge fluctuations. This equation is needed in a relativistic context, because the classic parabolic diffusion equation violates causality. We find that causality substantially limits the extent to which diffusion can dissipate these fluctuations.

  16. ELECTRON-CAPTURE IN HIGHLY-CHARGED ION-ATOM COLLISIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MORGENSTERN, R

    1993-01-01

    An attempt is made to identify the most important mechanisms responsible for the rearrangement of electrons during collisions between multiply charged ions and atoms at keV energies. It is discussed to which extent the influence of binding energy, angular momentum of heavy particles and electrons, a

  17. Electron and X-ray emission in collisions of multiply charged ions and atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author presents experimental results of electron and X-ray emission following slow collisions of multiply charged ions and atoms. The aim of the investigation was to study the mechanisms which are responsible for the emission. (G.T.H.)

  18. pp collisions with a high psub(T) charged hadron trigger at the CERN ISR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented from an investigation of proton proton collision at a cm energy of 52.6 GeV in which a charged hadron at large transverse momentum (0.5-6 GeV/c) is emitted near 900 in the cms. Jet-like structures are observed, and their properties discussed in some detail. (Auth.)

  19. Ab initio calculation of H+He+ charge-transfer cross sections for plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The charge-transfer in low-energy (0.25 to 150 eV/amu) H(nl)+He+(1s) collisions is investigated using a quasimolecular approach for the n=2,3 as well as the first two n=4 singlet states. The diabatic potential energy curves of the HeH+ molecular ion are obtained from the adiabatic potential energy curves and the nonadiabatic radial coupling matrix elements using a two-by-two diabatization method, and a time-dependent wave-packet approach is used to calculate the state-to-state cross sections. We find a strong dependence of the charge-transfer cross section on the principal and orbital quantum numbers n and l of the initial or final state. We estimate the effect of the nonadiabatic rotational couplings, which is found to be important even at energies below 1 eV/amu. However, the effect is small on the total cross sections at energies below 10 eV/amu. We observe that to calculate charge-transfer cross sections in an n manifold, it is only necessary to include states with n'≤n, and we discuss the limitations of our approach as the number of states increases.

  20. Charge transfer in the interactions of partially stripped ions with atoms at intermediate and high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Coulomb-Born (CB) approximation has been employed to study charge transfer cross sections in collisions of Cq+, Nq+ and Oq+ (q = 1-5) with atomic hydrogen in ground state in the energy range of 30-200 keV/amu. The interaction of the active electron with the incoming projectile ion has been approximated by a model potential containing both a long-range part and a short-range part. Variations of total capture cross sections with impact energy compare favourable well with the available experimental observations and with other theoretical findings. In addition, sub-shell distributions of total capture cross sections are given in graphical form. However, we are unable to find any oscillation in the charge-state dependence of total capture cross sections. (author)

  1. A tetrastable naphthalenediimide: anion induced charge transfer, single and double electron transfer for combinational logic gates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayakumar, M R; Hundal, Geeta; Mukhopadhyay, Pritam

    2013-09-11

    Herein we demonstrate the formation of the first tetrastable naphthalenediimide (NDI, 1a) molecule having multiple distinctly readable outputs. Differential response of 1a to fluoride anions induces intramolecular charge transfer (ICT), single/double electron transfer (SET/DET) leading to a set of combinational logic gates for the first time with a NDI moiety. PMID:23752683

  2. Search for fractionally charged particles in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aguilo, Ernest; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Christine; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Luyckx, Sten; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Staykova, Zlatka; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Reis, Thomas; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Marcken, Gil; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Garcia, Guillaume; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Ceard, Ludivine; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Schul, Nicolas; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Custódio, Analu; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Soares Jorge, Luana; Sznajder, Andre; Souza Dos Anjos, Tiago; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Khalil, Shaaban; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Karjalainen, Ahti; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Millischer, Laurent; Nayak, Aruna; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Shreyber, Irina; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Benhabib, Lamia; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Daci, Nadir; Dahms, Torsten; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Juillot, Pierre; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Anagnostou, Georgios; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Caudron, Julien; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Olschewski, Mark; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Weber, Martin; Bontenackels, Michael; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Lingemann, Joschka; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Costanza, Francesco; Dammann, Dirk; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Glushkov, Ivan; Gunnellini, Paolo; Habib, Shiraz; Hauk, Johannes; Hellwig, Gregor; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Novgorodova, Olga; Olzem, Jan; Perrey, Hanno; Petrukhin, Alexey; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Riedl, Caroline; Ron, Elias; Rosin, Michele; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stein, Matthias; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Draeger, Jula; Enderle, Holger; Erfle, Joachim; Gebbert, Ulla; Görner, Martin; Hermanns, Thomas; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Lange, Jörn; Mura, Benedikt; Nowak, Friederike; Peiffer, Thomas; Pietsch, Niklas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Seidel, Markus; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Vanelderen, Lukas; Barth, Christian; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Guthoff, Moritz; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Nürnberg, Andreas; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Ratnikova, Natalia; Röcker, Steffen; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Zeise, Manuel; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Ntomari, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Karancsi, János; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Kaur, Manjit; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mehta, Pourus; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Aziz, Tariq; Ganguly, Sanmay; Guchait, Monoranjan; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Hesari, Hoda; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Singh, Gurpreet; Venditti, Rosamaria; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Tosi, Silvano; Benaglia, Andrea; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Cavallo, Nicola; De Cosa, Annapaola; Dogangun, Oktay; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Romeo, Francesco; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Taroni, Silvia; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Fanelli, Cristiano; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Sigamani, Michael; Soffi, Livia; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Costa, Marco; Demaria, Natale; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Marone, Matteo; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Schizzi, Andrea; Heo, Seong Gu; Kim, Tae Yeon; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Chang, Sunghyun; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Ro, Sang-Ryul; Son, Dong-Chul; Son, Taejin; Kim, Jae Yool; Kim, Zero Jaeho; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Cho, Yongjin; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Min Suk; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Bilinskas, Mykolas Jurgis; Grigelionis, Ignas; Janulis, Mindaugas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Martínez-Ortega, Jorge; Sánchez-Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A; Krofcheck, David; Bell, Alan James; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Reucroft, Steve; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Ansari, Muhammad Hamid; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Almeida, Nuno; Bargassa, Pedrame; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Savina, Maria; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Evstyukhin, Sergey; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Erofeeva, Maria; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kossov, Mikhail; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Popov, Andrey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Ekmedzic, Marko; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Soares, Mara Senghi; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Graziano, Alberto; Jorda, Clara; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benitez, Jose F; Bernet, Colin; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; De Roeck, Albert; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dobson, Marc; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Frisch, Benjamin; Funk, Wolfgang; Georgiou, Georgios; Giffels, Manuel; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Giunta, Marina; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Govoni, Pietro; Gowdy, Stephen; Guida, Roberto; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hartl, Christian; Harvey, John; Hegner, Benedikt; Hinzmann, Andreas; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kaadze, Ketino; Karavakis, Edward; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Lecoq, Paul; Lee, Yen-Jie; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Lourenco, Carlos; Magini, Nicolo; Maki, Tuula; Malberti, Martina; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Musella, Pasquale; Nesvold, Erik; Orimoto, Toyoko; Orsini, Luciano; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Perez, Emmanuelle; Perrozzi, Luca; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Polese, Giovanni; Quertenmont, Loic; Racz, Attila; Reece, William; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovelli, Chiara; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Santanastasio, Francesco; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sekmen, Sezen; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Worm, Steven; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; Bäni, Lukas; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Deisher, Amanda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Mohr, Niklas; Moortgat, Filip; Nägeli, Christoph; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Starodumov, Andrei; Stieger, Benjamin; Takahashi, Maiko; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Urscheler, Christina; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Wehrli, Lukas; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Otiougova, Polina; Robmann, Peter; Snoek, Hella; Tupputi, Salvatore; Verzetti, Mauro; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Zong-Kai; Lu, Yun-Ju; Mekterovic, Darko; Singh, Anil; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Shi, Xin; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wan, Xia; Wang, Minzu; Asavapibhop, Burin; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karaman, Turker; Karapinar, Guler; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Yildirim, Eda; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Cankocak, Kerem; Levchuk, Leonid; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Kreczko, Lukasz; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Jackson, James; Kennedy, Bruce W; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Mathias, Bryn; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Stoye, Markus; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardle, Nicholas; Whyntie, Tom; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Charaf, Otman; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; St John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; Sulak, Lawrence; Alimena, Juliette; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Cutts, David; Demiragli, Zeynep; Ferapontov, Alexey; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Houtz, Rachel; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Mall, Orpheus; Miceli, Tia; Pellett, Dave; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Rutherford, Britney; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Yohay, Rachel; Andreev, Valeri; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Duris, Joseph; Erhan, Samim; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Plager, Charles; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Traczyk, Piotr; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Giordano, Ferdinando; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Mangano, Boris; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lowette, Steven; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Chen, Yi; Di Marco, Emanuele; Duarte, Javier; Gataullin, Marat; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Rogan, Christopher; Spiropulu, Maria; Timciuc, Vladlen; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Drell, Brian Robert; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bloch, Ingo; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Green, Dan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Kilminster, Benjamin; Klima, Boaz; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Hugon, Justin; Kim, Bockjoo; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Park, Myeonghun; Remington, Ronald; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Sellers, Paul; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Snowball, Matthew; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Gaultney, Vanessa; Hewamanage, Samantha; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Lacroix, Florent; Malek, Magdalena; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Strom, Derek; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Tan, Ping; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Kenny Iii, Raymond Patrick; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Tinti, Gemma; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Barfuss, Anne-Fleur; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kirn, Malina; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Peterman, Alison; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Twedt, Elizabeth; Apyan, Aram; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Krajczar, Krisztian; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Velicanu, Dragos; Wenger, Edward Allen; Wolf, Roger; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cooper, Seth; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Franzoni, Giovanni; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Keller, Jason; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Haley, Joseph; Nash, David; Trocino, Daniele; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Chan, Kwok Ming; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Vuosalo, Carl; Williams, Grayson; Winer, Brian L; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hunt, Adam; Jindal, Pratima; Lopes Pegna, David; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Raval, Amita; Safdi, Ben; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Brownson, Eric; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Everett, Adam; Hu, Zhen; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Kress, Matthew; Laasanen, Alvin T; Leonardo, Nuno; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Guragain, Samir; Parashar, Neeti; Adair, Antony; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Li, Wei; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Malik, Sarah; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Rekovic, Vladimir; Robles, Jorge; Rose, Keith; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Seitz, Claudia; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Sengupta, Sinjini; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Roh, Youn; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Florez, Carlos; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Belknap, Donald; Borrello, Laura; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Friis, Evan; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Palmonari, Francesco; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Swanson, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    A search is presented for free heavy long-lived fractionally charged particles produced in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV. The data sample was recorded by the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 inverse femtobarns. Candidate fractionally charged particles are identified by selecting tracks with associated low charge measurements in the silicon tracking detector. Observations are found to be consistent with expectations for background processes. The results of the search are used to set upper limits on the cross section for pair production of fractionally charged, massive spin-1/2 particles that are neutral under SU(3)$_C$ and SU(2)$_L$. We exclude at 95% confidence level such particles with electric charge ±2e/3 with masses below 310 GeV, and those with charge ±e/3 with masses below 140 GeV.

  3. Tight-binding parameters for charge transfer along DNA

    CERN Document Server

    Hawke, L G D; Simserides, C

    2009-01-01

    We systematically examine all the tight-binding parameters pertinent to charge transfer along DNA. The $\\pi$ molecular structure of the four DNA bases (adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine) is investigated by using the linear combination of atomic orbitals method with a recently introduced parametrization. The HOMO and LUMO wavefunctions and energies of DNA bases are discussed and then used for calculating the corresponding wavefunctions of the two B-DNA base-pairs (adenine-thymine and guanine-cytosine). The obtained HOMO and LUMO energies of the bases are in good agreement with available experimental values. Our results are then used for estimating the complete set of charge transfer parameters between neighboring bases and also between successive base-pairs, considering all possible combinations between them, for both electrons and holes. The calculated microscopic quantities can be used in mesoscopic theoretical models of electron or hole transfer along the DNA double helix, as they provide the necessar...

  4. Measurements of Charge Transfer Efficiency in a Proton-irradiated Swept Charge Device

    CERN Document Server

    YuSa, Wang; XiaoYan, Liu; WeiWei, Cui; YuPeng, Xu; ChengKui, Li; MaoShun, Li; DaWei, Han; TianXiang, Chen; Jia, Huo; Juan, Wang; Wei, Li; Wei, Hu; Yi, Zhang; Bo, Lu; GuoHe, Yin; Yue, Zhu; ZiLiang, Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs) have been successfully used in several low energy X-ray astronomical satellite over the past two decades. Their high energy resolution and high spatial resolution make them an perfect tool for low energy astronomy, such as formation of galaxy clusters and environment of black holes. The Low Energy X-ray Telescope (LE) group is developing Swept Charge Device (SCD) for the Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT) satellite. SCD is a special low energy X-ray CCD, which could be read out a thousand times faster than traditional CCDs, simultaneously keeping excellent energy resolution. A test method for measuring the charge transfer efficiency (CTE) of a prototype SCD has been set up. Studies of the charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) have been performed at a temperature range of operation, with a proton-irradiated SCD.

  5. Energy transfer in reactive and non-reactive H2 + OH collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have used the methods of quasi-classical dynamics to compute energy transfer properties of non-reactive and reactive H2 + OH collisions. Energy transfer has been investigated as function of translational temperature, reagent rotational energy, and reagent vibrational energy. The energy transfer mechanism is complex with ten types of energy transfer possible, and evidence was found for all types. There is much more exchange between the translational degree of freedom and the H2 vibrational degree of freedom than there is between translation and OH vibration. Translational energy is transferred to the rotational degrees of freedom of each molecule. There is a greater propensity for the transfer of translation to OH rotation than H2 rotation. In reactive collisions, increases in reagent translational temperature predominantly appear as vibrational energy in the water molecule. Energy transfer in non-reactive and reactive collisions does not depend strongly on the initial angular momentum in either molecule. In non-reactive collisions, vibrational energy is transferred to translation, to the rotational degree of freedom of the same molecule, and to the rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom of the other molecule. In reactive collisions, the major effect of increasing the vibrational energy in reagent molecules is that, on the average, the vibrational energy of the reagents appears as product vibrational energy. 18 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs

  6. Fragmentation of CO2 molecules in slow charge exchange collisions with Ar8+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charge exchange collisions between multiply charged ions and CO2 have been studied at low collision velocities (E=400 eV/amu). The stability of the ion, produced in different charge states, is analyzed by means of a time-of-flight spectrometer. Recoil ions and fragments are measured in coincidence with projectile ions, which are selected with respect to their charge state and the scattering angle. For large impact parameters the production of singly and doubly charged CO2 ions turns out to be the major process. The opening of one out of two molecular bindings is found to be more likely than the total fragmentation of the molecule. The formation of O+ and CO+ fragments with very small kinetic energies is explained by single electron capture forming CO2+ in the excited (C 2Σg+) state. Collisions with smaller impact parameters and multi-electron capture processes always lead to a total fragmentation of the molecule characterized by a symmetric Coulomb explosion

  7. Photoinduced charge and energy transfer in molecular wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Mélina; Albinsson, Bo

    2015-02-21

    Exploring charge and energy transport in donor-bridge-acceptor systems is an important research field which is essential for the fundamental knowledge necessary to develop future applications. These studies help creating valuable knowledge to respond to today's challenges to develop functionalized molecular systems for artificial photosynthesis, photovoltaics or molecular scale electronics. This tutorial review focuses on photo-induced charge/energy transfer in covalently linked donor-bridge-acceptor (D-B-A) systems. Of utmost importance in such systems is to understand how to control signal transmission, i.e. how fast electrons or excitation energy could be transferred between the donor and acceptor and the role played by the bridge (the "molecular wire"). After a brief description of the electron and energy transfer theory, we aim to give a simple yet accurate picture of the complex role played by the bridge to sustain donor-acceptor electronic communication. Special emphasis is put on understanding bridge energetics and conformational dynamics effects on the distance dependence of the donor-acceptor electronic coupling and transfer rates. Several examples of donor-bridge-acceptor systems from the literature are described as a support to the discussion. Finally, porphyrin-based molecular wires are introduced, and the relationship between their electronic structure and photophysical properties is outlined. In strongly conjugated porphyrin systems, limitations of the existing electron transfer theory to interpret the distance dependence of the transfer rates are also discussed. PMID:25212903

  8. An electrostatic charge measurement of blowing snow particles focusing on collision frequency to the snow surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omiya, S.; Sato, A.

    2010-12-01

    Blowing snow particles are known to have an electrostatic charge. This charge may be a contributing factor in the formation of snow drifts and snow cornices and changing of the trajectory of blowing snow particles. These formations and phenomena can cause natural disaster such as an avalanche and a visibility deterioration, and obstruct transportation during winter season. Therefore, charging phenomenon of the blowing snow particles is an important issue in terms of not only precise understanding of the particle motion but disaster prevention. The primary factor of charge accumulation to the blowing snow particles is thought to be due to “saltation” of them. The “saltation” is one of movement forms of blowing snow: when the snow particles are transported by the wind, they repeat frictional collisions with the snow surface. In previous studies, charge-to-mass ratios measured in the field were approximately -50 to -10 μC/kg, and in the wind tunnel were approximately -0.8 to -0.1 μC/kg. While there were qualitatively consistent in sign, negative, there were huge gaps quantitatively between them. One reason of those gaps is speculated to be due to differences in fetch. In other words, the difference of the collision frequency of snow particles to the snow surface has caused the gaps. But it is merely a suggestion and that has not been confirmed. The purpose of this experiment is to measure the charge of blowing snow particles focusing on the collision frequency and clarify the relationship between them. Experiments were carried out in the cryogenic wind tunnel of Snow and Ice Research Center (NIED, JAPAN). A Faraday cage and an electrometer were used to measure the charge of snow particles. These experiments were conducted over the hard snow surface condition to prevent the erosion of the snow surface and the generation of new snow particles from the surface. The collision frequency of particle was controlled by changing the wind velocity (4.5 to 7 m/s) under

  9. Localized state and charge transfer in nitrogen-doped graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Joucken, Frederic; Tison, Yann; Lagoute, Jerome; Dumont, Jacques; Cabosart, Damien; Zheng, Bing; Repain, Vincent; Chacon, Cyril; Girard, Yann; Botello-Mendez, Andres Rafael; Rousset, Sylvie; Sporken, Robert; Charlier, Jean-Christophe; Henrard, Luc

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped epitaxial graphene grown on SiC(000?1) was prepared by exposing the surface to an atomic nitrogen flux. Using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) and Spectroscopy (STS), supported by Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations, the simple substitution of carbon by nitrogen atoms has been identifi?ed as the most common doping con?guration. High-resolution images reveal a reduction of local charge density on top of the nitrogen atoms, indicating a charge transfer to the neighbor...

  10. Charged pion production in fixed target Pb + Pb collisions at 158 GeV per nucleon

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrosini, G; Arsenescu, R.; Baglin, C.; Beringer, J.; C. Böhm; Borer, Kurt; Bussière, A.; B. Dittus, F.; Elsener, Konrad; Gorodetzky, P.; Guillaud, J.P.; O. Hess, P.; Kabana, S.; Klingenberg, R.; Lindén, T.

    1999-01-01

    Changes in pion production as a function of the impact parameter of the collision or the incident energy, may reveal characteristics of a possible first-order phase transition from nuclear to quark matter, as predicted by lattice quantum chromodynamics. In this paper we investigate charged pion production in Pb+Pb collisions at 158 GeV/nucleon near 0° production angle and at forward rapidity $(4.3\\leq y \\leq 6.3)$. The centrality dependence of pion production is shown in the impact parameter ...

  11. Identified charged hadron production in pp and Pb-Pb collisions with ALICE at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Vasileiou, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear matter under extreme conditions can be investigated in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The measurement of transverse momentum distributions and yields of identified particles is a fundamental step in understanding collective and thermal properties of the matter produced in such collisions. The ALICE Experiment results on identified charged hadron production are presented for pp collisions at \\sqrt{s} = 0.9, 2.76 and 7 TeV and for Pb-Pb collisions at \\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 2.76 TeV. Spectral shapes, production yields and nuclear modification factors are shown and compared to previous experiments and Monte Carlo predictions. The spectral shapes in Pb-Pb collisions indicate a strong increase of the radial flow velocity with respect to RHIC energies, which in hydrodynamic models is expected as a consequence of the increasing particle density. The observed suppression of high transverse momentum particles in central Pb-Pb collisions provides evidence for strong parton energy loss in the hot and dense med...

  12. Investigation of transfer ionization in collisions of partially stripped carbon ions with helium at low to intermediate velocities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xi-Meng; Liu Yu-Wen; Du Juan; Sun Guang-Zhi; Gao Zhi-Min; Liu Zhao-Yuan; Ding Bao-Wei; Lu Yan-Xia; Fu Hong-Bin; Shao Jian-Xiong; Cui Ying; Zhang Hong-Qiang

    2007-01-01

    The ratios of transfer ionization (TI) to single-electron capture (SC) cross sections have been measured for the collisions of partially stripped Cq+ ions (q=1-4) with He. The collision velocity ranges from 0.7 to 4.4 v0 (v0 is the Bohr velocity). The projectile-ion and recoil-ion coincidence technique is used to separate the processes of TI and SC. The ratios reach the maximum when the velocity is about 3.7 v0. This can be explained qualitatively based on the two-step mechanism. The experimental results are also compared with the results calculated using the classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method. The CTMC results are in agreement with the experimental data basically. The discrepancies in higher velocity region are interpreted by the effective charge effect.

  13. Charge transfer efficiency improvement of a 4-T pixel by the optimization of electrical potential distribution under the transfer gate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The charge transfer efficiency improvement method is introduced by optimizing the electrical potential distribution under the transfer gate along the charge transfer path. A non-uniform doped transfer transistor channel is introduced to provide an ascending electrical potential gradient in the transfer transistor channel. With the adjustments to the overlap length between the R1 region and the transfer gate, the doping dose of the R1 region, and the overlap length between the anti-punch-through (APT) implantations and transfer gate, the potential barrier and potential pocket in the connecting region of transfer transistor channel and the pinned photodiode (PPD) are reduced to improve the electrical potential connection. The simulation results show that the percentage of residual charges to total charges drops from 1/104 to 1/107, and the transfer time is reduced from 500 to 110 ns. This means the charge transfer efficiency is improved. (semiconductor devices)

  14. Charge transfer in conjugated oligomers encapsulated into carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almadori, Y.; Alvarez, L.; Michel, T.; Le Parc, R.; Bantignies, J.L.; Hermet, P.; Sauvajol, J.L. [Laboratoire Charles Coulomb UMR 5521, Universite Montpellier 2, 34095 Montpellier (France); Laboratoire Charles Coulomb UMR 5521, CNRS, 34095 Montpellier (France); Arenal, R. [Laboratoire d' Etude des Microstructures, CNRS-ONERA, 92322 Chatillon (France); Laboratorio de Microscopias Avanzadas, Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon, U. Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Babaa, R. [Laboratoire de Chimie des Surfaces et Interfaces, CEA, IRAMIS, SPCSI, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Chemical Engineering Department, University of Technology PETRONAS, UTP, Ipoh-Perak (Malaysia); Jouselme, B.; Palacin, S. [Laboratoire de Chimie des Surfaces et Interfaces, CEA, IRAMIS, SPCSI, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2011-11-15

    This study deals with a hybrid system consisting in quaterthiophene derivative encapsulated inside single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Investigations of the encapsulation step are performed by transmission electron microscopy. Raman spectroscopy data point out different behaviors depending on the laser excitation energy with respect to the optical absorption of quaterthiophene. At low excitation energy (far from the oligomer resonance window) there is no significant modification of the Raman spectra before and after encapsulation. By contrast, at high excitation energy (close to the oligomer resonance window), Raman spectra exhibit a G-band shift together with an important RBM intensity loss, suggesting a significant charge transfer between the inserted molecule and the host nanotubes. Those results suggest a photo induced process leading to a significant charge transfer. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Negative ion-uranium hexafluoride charge transfer reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Gerald E.; Newton, T. W.

    1980-10-01

    The flowing afterglow technique has been used to study the process of charge transfer from selected negative ions (F-, Cl-, Br-, I-, SF6-) to UF6. The sole ionic product in all cases was observed to be UF6-. Data analysis was complicated by an unexpected coupling of chemical and diffusive ion loss processes when UF6- product ions were present. The rate coefficients for the charge transfer processes are (k in 10-9 cm3 molecule-1 s-1) F-, 1.3; Cl-, 1.1; Br-, 0.93; I-, 0.77; and SF6-, 0.69. The rate constants agree quite well with the classical Langevin predictions.

  16. Fingerprint of fractional charge transfer at metal/organic interface

    OpenAIRE

    Savu, Sabine-A.; Biddau, Giulio; Pardini, Lorenzo; Bula, Rafael; Bettinger, Holger F; Draxl, Claudia; Chassé, Thomas; Casu, M. Benedetta

    2015-01-01

    Although physisorption is a widely occurring mechanism of bonding at the organic/metal interface, contradictory interpretations of this phenomenon are often reported. Photoemission and X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigations of nanorods of a substituted pentacene, 2,3,9,10-tetrafluoropentacene, deposited on gold single crystals reveal to be fundamental to identify the bonding mechanisms. We find fingerprints of a fractional charge transfer from the clean metal substrate to the physisorbe...

  17. Ultrafast photoinduced intra- und intermolecular charge transfer and solvation

    OpenAIRE

    Bizjak, Tanja

    2004-01-01

    Intra- and intermolecular charge transfer as well as internal conversion processes are studied in various molecular systems. The dynamics of these fundamental photoinduced processes are investigated by pump-probe femtosecond spectroscopy and steady-state fluorescence. Transient spectra are obtained using white light continuum as probe, while time resolved measurements are performed by probing at specific wavelengths with non dispersive detec-tion. Noncollinearly phase matched optical parametr...

  18. Tight-binding parameters for charge transfer along DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Hawke, L. G.D.; Kalosakas, G.; Simserides, C.

    2009-01-01

    We systematically examine all the tight-binding parameters pertinent to charge transfer along DNA. The $\\pi$ molecular structure of the four DNA bases (adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine) is investigated by using the linear combination of atomic orbitals method with a recently introduced parametrization. The HOMO and LUMO wavefunctions and energies of DNA bases are discussed and then used for calculating the corresponding wavefunctions of the two B-DNA base-pairs (adenine-thymine and gua...

  19. Femtosecond direct observation of charge transfer between bases in DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Chaozhi; Fiebig, Torsten; Schiemann, Olav; Barton, Jacqueline K.; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2000-01-01

    Charge transfer in supramolecular assemblies of DNA is unique because of the notion that the π-stacked bases within the duplex may mediate the transport, possibly leading to damage and/or repair. The phenomenon of transport through π-stacked arrays over a long distance has an analogy to conduction in molecular electronics, but the mechanism still needs to be determined. To decipher the elementary steps and the mechanism, one has to directly measure the dynamics in ...

  20. Interfacial Charge Transfer States in Condensed Phase Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandewal, Koen

    2016-05-27

    Intermolecular charge transfer (CT) states at the interface between electron-donating (D) and electron-accepting (A) materials in organic thin films are characterized by absorption and emission bands within the optical gap of the interfacing materials. CT states efficiently generate charge carriers for some D-A combinations, and others show high fluorescence quantum efficiencies. These properties are exploited in organic solar cells, photodetectors, and light-emitting diodes. This review summarizes experimental and theoretical work on the electronic structure and interfacial energy landscape at condensed matter D-A interfaces. Recent findings on photogeneration and recombination of free charge carriers via CT states are discussed, and relations between CT state properties and optoelectronic device parameters are clarified. PMID:26980308

  1. Charge Transfer Excitons at van der Waals Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoyang; Monahan, Nicholas R; Gong, Zizhou; Zhu, Haiming; Williams, Kristopher W; Nelson, Cory A

    2015-07-01

    The van der Waals interfaces of molecular donor/acceptor or graphene-like two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors are central to concepts and emerging technologies of light-electricity interconversion. Examples include, among others, solar cells, photodetectors, and light emitting diodes. A salient feature in both types of van der Waals interfaces is the poorly screened Coulomb potential that can give rise to bound electron-hole pairs across the interface, i.e., charge transfer (CT) or interlayer excitons. Here we address common features of CT excitons at both types of interfaces. We emphasize the competition between localization and delocalization in ensuring efficient charge separation. At the molecular donor/acceptor interface, electronic delocalization in real space can dictate charge carrier separation. In contrast, at the 2D semiconductor heterojunction, delocalization in momentum space due to strong exciton binding may assist in parallel momentum conservation in CT exciton formation. PMID:26001297

  2. Evaluation of excitation energy and spin from light charged particles multiplicities in heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Steckmeyer, J C; Grotowski, K; Pawowski, P; Aiello, S; Anzalone, A; Bini, M; Borderie, B; Bougault, R; Cardella, G; Casini, G; Cavallaro, S; Charvet, J L; Dayras, R; De Filippo, E; Durand, D; Femin, S; Frankland, J D; Galíchet, E; Geraci, M; Giustolisi, F; Guazzoni, P; Iacono-Manno, M; Lanzalone, G; Lanzan, G; Le Neindre, N; Lo Nigro, S; Lo Piano, F; Olmi, A; Pagano, A; Papa, M; Pârlog, M; Pasquali, G; Piantelli, S; Pirrone, S; Politi, G; Porto, F; Rivet, M F; Rizzo, F; Rosato, E; Roy, R; Sambataro, S; Sperduto, M L; Stefanini, A A; Sutera, C; Tamain, B; Vient, E; Volant, C; Wieleczko, J P; Zetta, L

    2005-01-01

    A simple procedure for evaluating the excitation energy and the spin transfer in heavy-ion dissipative collisions is proposed. It is based on a prediction of the GEMINI evaporation code : for a nucleus with a given excitation energy, the average number of emitted protons decreases with increasing spin, whereas the average number of alpha particles increases. Using that procedure for the reaction 107Ag+58Ni at 52 MeV/nucleon, the excitation energy and spin of quasi-projectiles have been evaluated. The results obtained in this way have been compared with the predictions of a model describing the primary dynamic stage of heavy-ion collisions.

  3. Charge-dependent azimuthal correlation measurements in Pb-Pb collisions with ALICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parity violation in strong interactions is predicted to be observable in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The occurrence of parity-odd domains may result in charge separation along a strong magnetic field created by moving ions - a phenomenon dubbed the chiral magnetic effect (CME). Sensitive experimental observables include two particle azimuthal correlations and correlation of particle pairs relative to the reaction plane. A challenge is to separate contributions to these correlations from background sources, which include local charge conservation and initial density fluctuations. Correlations for lead-lead collisions at sNN=√(2.76) TeV measured with the ALICE detector are presented as a function of centrality, average and relative transverse momentum, and separation in pseudorapidity, providing additional constraints for models.

  4. Transverse energy distribution, charged particle multiplicities and spectra in 16O-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The HELIOS (High Energy Lepton and Ion Spectrometer) experiment, installed at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron, proposes to examine in details the physical properties of a state of high energy created in nuclei by ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. It is generally believed that, at high densities or temperatures, a phase transition to a plasma of quark and gluons will occur. The dynamic of the expansion of such a plasma and its subsequent condensation into a hadron gas should markedly affect the composition and momentum distribution of the emerging particles and photons. The HELIOS experimental setup therefore combines 4π calorimetric coverage with measurements of inclusive particle spectra, two particle correlations, low and high mass lepton pairs and photons. The emphasis is placed on transverse energy flow (E/sub T/) measurements with good energy resolution, and the ability to trigger the acquisition of data in a variety of E/sub T/ ranges, thereby selecting the impact parameter or the violence of the collisions. This short note presents HELIOS results, for the most part still preliminary, on 16O-nucleus collisions at the incident energies of 60 and 200 GeV per nucleon. The E/sub T/ distributions from Al, Ag and W targets are discussed and compared to the associated charged particle multiplicities from W. Charged particle and (converted) photon spectra measured with the external magnetic spectrometer are compared for 16O + W and p + W collisions at 200 GeV per nucleon. 5 refs., 7 figs

  5. Charge transfer along DNA dimers, trimers and polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Simserides, Constantinos

    2013-01-01

    The transfer of electrons and holes along DNA dimers, trimers and polymers is described at the base-pair level, using the relevant on-site energies of the base-pairs and the hopping parameters between successive base-pairs. The temporal and spatial evolution of carriers along a $N$ base-pair DNA segment is determined, solving a system of $N$ coupled differential equations. Useful physical quantities are calculated including the pure mean carrier transfer rate $k$, the inverse decay length $\\beta$ used for exponential fit ($k = k_0 \\textrm{exp}(-\\beta d)$) of the transfer rate as a function of the charge transfer distance $d = N \\times$ 3.4 {\\AA} and the exponent $\\eta$ used for a power law fit ($k = k_0' N^{-\\eta}$) of the transfer rate as function of the number of monomers $N$. Among others, the electron and hole transfer along the polymers poly(dG)-poly(dC), poly(dA)-poly(dT), GCGCGC..., ATATAT... is studied. $\\beta$ ($\\eta$) falls in the range $\\approx$ 0.2 - 2 {\\AA}$^{-1}$ (1.7 - 17), $k_0$ ($k_0'$) is us...

  6. Characterization of charge-exchange collisions between ultracold $\\rm{^6Li}$ atoms and $\\rm{^{40}Ca^+}$ ions

    CERN Document Server

    Saito, R; Sasakawa, M; Nakai, R; Raoult, M; Silva, H Da; Dulieu, O; Mukaiyama, T

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the energy dependence and the internal-state dependence of the charge-exchange collision cross sections in a mixture of $^6$Li atoms and $^{40}$Ca$^+$ ions in the collision energy range from 0.2 mK to 1 K. Deliberately excited ion micromotion is used to control the collision energy of atoms and ions. The energy dependence of the charge-exchange collision cross section obeys the Langevin model in the temperature range of the current experiment, and the measured magnitude of the cross section is correlated to the internal state of the $^{40}$Ca$^+$ ions. Revealing the relationship between the charge-exchange collision cross sections and the interaction potentials is an important step toward the realization of the full quantum control of the chemical reactions at an ultralow temperature regime.

  7. Evidence for charged cluster emission in 147 GeV/c π-p collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of charged particle production in 147 GeV/c π-p collisions yields no evidence for an electrically neutral central region or corresponding rapidity plateau. The results do indicate that electric charge and transverse momentum may be locally conserved over small intervals on the rapidity axis. These results support a picture in which the observed hadrons are emitted in clusters whose quantum numbers vary as a function of rapidity and reflect the incident channel quantum numbers at the extremes of the rapidity scale. (Auth.)

  8. Charge-state dependence of electron loss from H by collisions with heavy, highly stripped ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical calculations, confirmed by experimental measurements, are used to obtain a new scaling for electron loss from a hydrogen atom in collision with a heavy, highly stripped ion. The calculations cover the energy range 50 to 5000 keV/amu and charge states q from 1 to 50. The experiments are in the range 108 to 1140 keV/amu and charge states 3 to 22. A simple analytic expression that describes the electron-loss cross section for 1 < or = q < or = 50 in the energy range 50 to 5000 keV/amu is presented

  9. Hydrodynamics with chiral anomaly and charge separation in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Yin, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Matter with chiral fermions is microscopically described by theory with quantum anomaly and macroscopically described (at low energy) by anomalous hydrodynamics. For such systems in the presence of external magnetic field and chirality imbalance, a charge current is generated along the magnetic field direction --- a phenomenon known as the Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME). The quark-gluon plasma created in relativistic heavy ion collisions provides an (approximate) example, for which the CME predicts a charge separation perpendicular to the collisional reaction plane. Charge correlation measurements designed for the search of such signal have been done at RHIC and the LHC for which the interpretations, however, remain unclear due to contamination by background effects that are collective flow driven, theoretically poorly constrained, and experimentally hard to separate. Using anomalous (and viscous) hydrodynamic simulations, we make a first attempt at quantifying contributions to observed charge correlations from...

  10. Nanocontact electrification: patterned surface charges affecting adhesion, transfer, and printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jesse J; Barry, Chad R; Knuesel, Robert J; Wang, Xinyu; Jacobs, Heiko O

    2011-06-01

    Contact electrification creates an invisible mark, overlooked and often undetected by conventional surface spectroscopic measurements. It impacts our daily lives macroscopically during electrostatic discharge and is equally relevant on the nanoscale in areas such as soft lithography, transfer, and printing. This report describes a new conceptual approach to studying and utilizing contact electrification beyond prior surface force apparatus and point-contact implementations. Instead of a single point contact, our process studies nanocontact electrification that occurs between multiple nanocontacts of different sizes and shapes that can be formed using flexible materials, in particular, surface-functionalized poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) stamps and other common dielectrics (PMMA, SU-8, PS, PAA, and SiO(2)). Upon the formation of conformal contacts and forced delamination, contacted regions become charged, which is directly observed using Kelvin probe force microscopy revealing images of charge with sub-100-nm lateral resolution. The experiments reveal chemically driven interfacial proton exchange as the dominant charging mechanism for the materials that have been investigated so far. The recorded levels of uncompensated charges approach the theoretical limit that is set by the dielectric breakdown strength of the air gap that forms as the surfaces are delaminated. The macroscopic presence of the charges is recorded using force-distance curve measurements involving a balance and a micromanipulator to control the distance between the delaminated objects. Coulomb attraction between the delaminated surfaces reaches 150 N/m(2). At such a magnitude, the force finds many applications. We demonstrate the utility of printed charges in the fields of (i) nanoxerography and (ii) nanotransfer printing whereby the smallest objects are ∼10 nm in diameter and the largest objects are in the millimeter to centimeter range. The printed charges are also shown to affect the electronic

  11. Efficient charge generation by relaxed charge-transfer states at organic interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Vandewal, Koen

    2013-11-17

    Interfaces between organic electron-donating (D) and electron-accepting (A) materials have the ability to generate charge carriers on illumination. Efficient organic solar cells require a high yield for this process, combined with a minimum of energy losses. Here, we investigate the role of the lowest energy emissive interfacial charge-transfer state (CT1) in the charge generation process. We measure the quantum yield and the electric field dependence of charge generation on excitation of the charge-transfer (CT) state manifold via weakly allowed, low-energy optical transitions. For a wide range of photovoltaic devices based on polymer:fullerene, small-molecule:C60 and polymer:polymer blends, our study reveals that the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) is essentially independent of whether or not D, A or CT states with an energy higher than that of CT1 are excited. The best materials systems show an IQE higher than 90% without the need for excess electronic or vibrational energy. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  12. Preliminary study for the detection of neutrons in heavy-ion collisions with charged particle detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auditore L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available At Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS the CHIMERA 4π multidetector has been designed and setup to detect charged particles emitted in heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies. Properties and performances of CHIMERA have been widely demonstrated by published results obtained in the performed experiments. Moreover, in recent years, a new charged particle detector (ChPD for correlation studies (FARCOS has been designed, and recently a first prototype has been coupled to CHIMERA, in order to test performances in view of correlation measurements in coincidence with 4π detectors. Simultaneous neutrons and charged particles detection in heavy ion collisions represents an important experimental progress for future experiments to be performed with both stable and exotic nuclei. In order to investigate about this possibility, simple Monte Carlo simulations have been performed. Preliminary simulations have been carried out by means of MCNPX transport code to evaluate the perturbation effects, including cross-talk and time response, induced in CHIMERA and/or FARCOS Si-CsI(Tl telescopes on (typical 20MeV neutron signals coming froma typical reaction in heavy ion collisions at the Fermi energy. Moreover, first data analysis results of the INKIISSY experiment indicates sizable probability to detect neutrons by properly shadowing CHIMERA Si-CsI(Tl telescopes. Analysis is still in progress.

  13. TOPICAL REVIEW: Charged-particle multiplicity in proton-proton collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiete Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan; Reygers, Klaus

    2010-08-01

    This review summarizes and critically reviews measurements of charged-particle multiplicity distributions and pseudorapidity densities in p+p(\\bar{p}) collisions between \\sqrt{s} = 23.6 {\\;GeV} and \\sqrt{s} = 1.8\\;TeV. Related theoretical concepts are briefly introduced. Moments of multiplicity distributions are presented as a function of \\sqrt{s}. Feynman scaling, KNO scaling as well as the description of multiplicity distributions with a single negative binomial distribution and with combinations of two or more negative binomial distributions is discussed. Moreover, similarities between the energy dependence of charged-particle multiplicities in p+p(\\bar{p}) and e+e- collisions are studied. Finally, various predictions for pseudorapidity densities, average multiplicities in full phase space and multiplicity distributions of charged particles in p+p(\\bar{p}) collisions at the LHC energies of \\sqrt{s} = 7\\;TeV, 10\\;TeV and 14 TeV are summarized and compared.

  14. Bibliography on electron transfer processes in ion-ion/atom/molecule collisions. Updated 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawara, H.

    1997-04-01

    Following our previous compilations (IPPJ-AM-45 (1986), NIFS-DATA-7 (1990), NIFS-DATA-20 (1993)), bibliographic information on experimental and theoretical studies on electron transfer processes in ion-ion/atom/molecule collisions is up-dated. The references published through 1954-1996 are listed in the order of the publication year. For easy finding of the references for a combination of collision partners, a simple list is provided. (author)

  15. Bibliography on electron transfer processes in ion-ion/atom/molecule collisions. Updated 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following our previous compilations (IPPJ-AM-45 (1986), NIFS-DATA-7 (1990), NIFS-DATA-20 (1993)), bibliographic information on experimental and theoretical studies on electron transfer processes in ion-ion/atom/molecule collisions is up-dated. The references published through 1954-1996 are listed in the order of the publication year. For easy finding of the references for a combination of collision partners, a simple list is provided. (author)

  16. Bibliography on electron transfer processes in ion-ion/atom/molecule collisions, updated 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following a previous compilation, new bibliographic information on experimental and theoretical studies on electron transfer processes in ion-ion/atom/molecule collisions is up-dated. The references published through 1989 are surveyed. For easy finding references for particular combination of collision partners, a simple list is also provided. Furthermore, for convenience, a copy of the previous compilation (IPPJ-AM-45 (1986)) is included. (author) 1363 refs

  17. Scaling of charged particle production in d+Au collisions at √(sNN)=200GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Becker, B.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Harrington, A. S.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lee, J. W.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sedykh, I.; Skulski, W.; Smith, C. E.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S.; Sukhanov, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wolfs, F. L.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wysłouch, B.; Zhang, J.

    2005-09-01

    The measured pseudorapidity distributions of primary charged particles over a wide pseudorapidity range of |η|≤5.4 and integrated charged particle multiplicities in d+Au collisions at √(sNN)=200GeV are presented as a function of collision centrality. The longitudinal features of d+Au collisions at √(sNN)=200GeV are found to be very similar to those seen in p+A collisions at lower energies. The total multiplicity of charged particles is found to scale with the total number of participants according to NdAuch=1/2Nppch, and the energy dependence of the density of charged particles produced in the fragmentation region exhibits extended longitudinal scaling.

  18. Charged-particle (pseudo)rapidity distributions in e+e-, pp, and AA collisions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A unified formula which describes the (pseudo)rapidity distributions of charged particles produced in high energy collisions is presented. The calculated results are compared and found to be in agreement with the experimental data of e+e-, pp, and AA collisions at high energies

  19. Charged particle multiplicity fluctuations in Au+Au collisions at \\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 200\\, {\\rm GeV}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Krzysztof; PHOBOS Collaboration; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Holynski, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J. L.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wyslouch, B.

    2004-08-01

    This paper presents the first PHOBOS results on charged particle multiplicity fluctuations measured for Au+Au collisions at the highest RHIC energy within a wide pseudorapidity range of |eegr| < 3. The dependence on collision geometry is removed in the analysis by using the normalized difference between the number of particles in separate eegr bins. We compare our data to HIJING model predictions.

  20. Coupled electron-nuclear dynamics: Charge migration and charge transfer initiated near a conical intersection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendive-Tapia, David; Vacher, Morgane; Bearpark, Michael J.; Robb, Michael A.

    2013-07-01

    Coupled electron-nuclear dynamics, implemented using the Ehrenfest method, has been used to study charge migration with fixed nuclei, together with charge transfer when nuclei are allowed to move. Simulations were initiated at reference geometries of neutral benzene and 2-phenylethylamine (PEA), and at geometries close to potential energy surface crossings in the cations. Cationic eigenstates, and the so-called sudden approximation, involving removal of an electron from a correlated ground-state wavefunction for the neutral species, were used as initial conditions. Charge migration without coupled nuclear motion could be observed if the Ehrenfest simulation, using the sudden approximation, was started near a conical intersection where the states were both strongly coupled and quasi-degenerate. Further, the main features associated with charge migration were still recognizable when the nuclear motion was allowed to couple. In the benzene radical cation, starting from the reference neutral geometry with the sudden approximation, one could observe sub-femtosecond charge migration with a small amplitude, which results from weak interaction with higher electronic states. However, we were able to engineer large amplitude charge migration, with a period between 10 and 100 fs, corresponding to oscillation of the electronic structure between the quinoid and anti-quinoid cationic electronic configurations, by distorting the geometry along the derivative coupling vector from the D6h Jahn-Teller crossing to lower symmetry where the states are not degenerate. When the nuclear motion becomes coupled, the period changes only slightly. In PEA, in an Ehrenfest trajectory starting from the D2 eigenstate and reference geometry, a partial charge transfer occurs after about 12 fs near the first crossing between D1, D2 (N+-Phenyl, N-Phenyl+). If the Ehrenfest propagation is started near this point, using the sudden approximation without coupled nuclear motion, one observes an

  1. Charged hadron transverse momentum distributions in Au+Au collisions at √sNN=200 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Lee, J. W.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2004-01-01

    We present transverse momentum distributions of charged hadrons produced in Au+Au collisions at sNN=200 GeV. The spectra were measured for transverse momenta pT from 0.25 to 4.5 GeV/c in a pseudorapidity range of 0.2<η<1.4. The evolution of the spectra is studied as a function of collision centrality, from 65 to 344 participating nucleons. The results are compared to data from proton-antiproton collisions and Au+Au collisions at lower RHIC energies. We find a significant change of the spectral shape between proton-antiproton and semi-peripheral Au+Au collisions. Comparing semi-peripheral to central Au+Au collisions, we find that the yields at high pT exhibit approximate scaling with the number of participating nucleons, rather than scaling with the number of binary collisions.

  2. Radiative charge transfer in cold and ultracold Sulfur atoms colliding with Protons

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, G; Wang, J G; McCann, J F; McLaughlin, B M

    2015-01-01

    Radiative decay processes at cold and ultra cold temperatures for Sulfur atoms colliding with protons are investigated. The MOLPRO quantum chemistry suite of codes was used to obtain accurate potential energies and transition dipole moments, as a function of internuclear distance, between low-lying states of the SH$^{+}$ molecular cation. A multi-reference configuration-interaction (MRCI) approximation together with the Davidson correction is used to determine the potential energy curves and transition dipole moments, between the states of interest, where the molecular orbitals (MO's) are obtained from state-averaged multi configuration-self-consistent field (MCSCF) calculations. The collision problem is solved approximately using an optical potential method to obtain radiative loss, and a fully two-channel quantum approach for radiative charge transfer. Cross sections and rate coefficients are determined for the first time for temperatures ranging from 10 $\\mu$ K up to 10,000 K. Results are obtained for all ...

  3. Geometric rearrangement of adsorbate driven by the charge transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlyukh, Yaroslav; Berakdar, Jamal [Institut fuer Physik, Martin-Luther-Universitaet Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Germany); Huebner, Wolfgang [Department of Physics and Research Center OPTIMAS, Kaiserslautern University of Technology (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    Adsorption of alkali atoms induces a significant charge redistribution in the region around the adatom. Such charge displacement is associated with a large dipole moment responsible for the interaction of adatoms and a reduction of the surface work function. In addition to these well-known effects our first principles simulations for the Na{sub 9}{sup +} cluster on the Cu(001) surface demonstrate how the charge transfer (CT) from the adsorbate to the substrate can drastically change the geometric structure of the cluster. We report on a detailed study of the adsorption process using quantum chemistry. A representation of the substrate by a cluster of 54 Cu atoms allows us to treat quantum mechanically the electronic structure of both systems, the adsorbate and the surface, on equal footing. Subsequently, we analyze the charge distribution in the composite system. Convergence of the results is verified by considering a much larger substrate cluster containing 126 Cu atoms. The role of the CT is further elucidated by the geometry optimization of the bare cluster with and without an electron deficit. It is shown that the CT drives the system to a meta-stable state which thereafter relaxes to a new configuration. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  4. Correlated charge changing ion-atom collisions: Progress report for the period February 15, 1987-March 14, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the progress and accomplishments in accelerator atomic physics research supported by DOE grant DE-FG02-87ER13778 for a period of 13 months from February 15, 1987 through March 14, 1988. The general scope of this work involves the experimental investigation of fundamental atomic interactions in collisions of highly charged projectiles with neutral targets, with a particular emphasis on two-electron interactions. Inner-shell processes involving excitation, ionization, and charge transfer are investigated using coincidence techniques in which projectile charge-changing events are associated with x-ray emission, target recoil ions, or electron emission. New measurements were conducted using accelerators at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, Hahn-Meitner-Institut (Berlin), and Western Michigan University. The work at Hahn-Meitner resulted from a collaboration initiated while J. A. T. was on research leave from Western Michigan University during the 1986-1987 academic year. The principal new results obtained during the past year using each of the three coincidence techniques are summarized below. A major emphasis of all these investigations is to determine the role of electron correlation in two- (and multiple-) electron interactions

  5. Tunable charge transfer properties in metal-phthalocyanine heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siles, P. F.; Hahn, T.; Salvan, G.; Knupfer, M.; Zhu, F.; Zahn, D. R. T.; Schmidt, O. G.

    2016-04-01

    Organic materials such as phthalocyanine-based systems present a great potential for organic device applications due to the possibility of integrating films of different organic materials to create organic heterostructures which combine the electrical capabilities of each material. This opens the possibility to precisely engineer and tune new electrical properties. In particular, similar transition metal phthalocyanines demonstrate hybridization and charge transfer properties which could lead to interesting physical phenomena. Although, when considering device dimensions, a better understanding and control of the tuning of the transport properties still remain in the focus of research. Here, by employing conductive atomic force microscopy techniques, we provide an insight about the nanoscale electrical properties and transport mechanisms of MnPc and fluorinated phthalocyanines such as F16CuPc and F16CoPc. We report a transition from typical diode-like transport mechanisms for pure MnPc thin films to space-charge-limited current transport regime (SCLC) for Pc-based heterostructures. The controlled addition of fluorinated phthalocyanine also provides highly uniform and symmetric-polarized transport characteristics with conductance enhancements up to two orders of magnitude depending on the polarization. We present a method to spatially map the mobility of the MnPc/F16CuPc structures with a nanoscale resolution and provide theoretical calculations to support our experimental findings. This well-controlled nanoscale tuning of the electrical properties for metal transition phthalocyanine junctions stands as key step for future phthalocyanine-based electronic devices, where the low dimension charge transfer, mediated by transition metal atoms could be intrinsically linked to a transfer of magnetic moment or spin.Organic materials such as phthalocyanine-based systems present a great potential for organic device applications due to the possibility of integrating films of

  6. Charge transfer reaction of multi-charged oxygen ions with O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzscheiter, H. M.; Church, D. A.

    1981-10-01

    The reaction rates for charge transfer from O2 to doubly and triply charged oxygen atoms are measured in a demonstration of the measurement capabilities of a system at ultrahigh vacuum with low-energy magnetically confined ions. Ions were produced by electron impact ionization of gas within a Penning-type ion trap, with selective removal of unwanted ionization states by radio-frequency resonant excitation. Ion number mass-to-charge ratio spectra obtained at partial pressures of O2 from 9.9 x 10 to the -9th to 1.5 x 10 to the -7th torr yield rate constants of 1.0 x 10 to the -9th cu cm/sec and 2.5 x 10 to the -9th cu cm/sec for the O(2+) and O(3+) reactions, respectively. Measurements made at a 30% increase of the effective axial well depth of the trap demonstrate that the rate constant is essentially energy independent in the energy range studies, implying that the O(2+) cross section for charge transfer has an inverse velocity dependence of the Langevin type, despite a reaction rate lower than the Langevin valve.

  7. Polarization and charge transfer in the hydration of chloride ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theoretical study of the structural and electronic properties of the chloride ion and water molecules in the first hydration shell is presented. The calculations are performed on an ensemble of configurations obtained from molecular dynamics simulations of a single chloride ion in bulk water. The simulations utilize the polarizable AMOEBA force field for trajectory generation and MP2-level calculations are performed to examine the electronic structure properties of the ions and surrounding waters in the external field of more distant waters. The ChelpG method is employed to explore the effective charges and dipoles on the chloride ions and first-shell waters. The quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) is further utilized to examine charge transfer from the anion to surrounding water molecules. The clusters extracted from the AMOEBA simulations exhibit high probabilities of anisotropic solvation for chloride ions in bulk water. From the QTAIM analysis, 0.2 elementary charges are transferred from the ion to the first-shell water molecules. The default AMOEBA model overestimates the average dipole moment magnitude of the ion compared to the quantum mechanical value. The average magnitude of the dipole moment of the water molecules in the first shell treated at the MP2-level, with the more distant waters handled with an AMOEBA effective charge model, is 2.67 D. This value is close to the AMOEBA result for first-shell waters (2.72 D) and is slightly reduced from the bulk AMOEBA value (2.78 D). The magnitude of the dipole moment of the water molecules in the first solvation shell is most strongly affected by the local water-water interactions and hydrogen bonds with the second solvation shell, rather than by interactions with the ion.

  8. Polarization and charge transfer in the hydration of chloride ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhen; Rogers, David M.; Beck, Thomas L.

    2010-01-01

    A theoretical study of the structural and electronic properties of the chloride ion and water molecules in the first hydration shell is presented. The calculations are performed on an ensemble of configurations obtained from molecular dynamics simulations of a single chloride ion in bulk water. The simulations utilize the polarizable AMOEBA force field for trajectory generation and MP2-level calculations are performed to examine the electronic structure properties of the ions and surrounding waters in the external field of more distant waters. The ChelpG method is employed to explore the effective charges and dipoles on the chloride ions and first-shell waters. The quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) is further utilized to examine charge transfer from the anion to surrounding water molecules. The clusters extracted from the AMOEBA simulations exhibit high probabilities of anisotropic solvation for chloride ions in bulk water. From the QTAIM analysis, 0.2 elementary charges are transferred from the ion to the first-shell water molecules. The default AMOEBA model overestimates the average dipole moment magnitude of the ion compared to the quantum mechanical value. The average magnitude of the dipole moment of the water molecules in the first shell treated at the MP2-level, with the more distant waters handled with an AMOEBA effective charge model, is 2.67 D. This value is close to the AMOEBA result for first-shell waters (2.72 D) and is slightly reduced from the bulk AMOEBA value (2.78 D). The magnitude of the dipole moment of the water molecules in the first solvation shell is most strongly affected by the local water-water interactions and hydrogen bonds with the second solvation shell, rather than by interactions with the ion.

  9. Nuclear fragmentation energy and momentum transfer distributions in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Govind S.; Khan, Ferdous

    1989-01-01

    An optical model description of energy and momentum transfer in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, based upon composite particle multiple scattering theory, is presented. Transverse and longitudinal momentum transfers to the projectile are shown to arise from the real and absorptive part of the optical potential, respectively. Comparisons of fragment momentum distribution observables with experiments are made and trends outlined based on our knowledge of the underlying nucleon-nucleon interaction. Corrections to the above calculations are discussed. Finally, use of the model as a tool for estimating collision impact parameters is indicated.

  10. Excitons with charge transfer in sncl2-phthalocyanine films

    OpenAIRE

    Vertsimakha, Ya. I.; Lutsyk, P. M.

    2014-01-01

    The absorption, modulated photoreflectance, and photovoltage spectra of dichlorotin phthalocyanine (SnCl2Pc) films have been measured. These films are thermally deposited in vacuum at different substrate temperatures. The energies of charge-transfer-states (CT-states) in SnCl2Pc films (1.35, 1.52, and 2.05 eV) and the diffusion length of Frenkel excitons (130+/-30 nm) have been determined. The photosensitivity of SnCl2Pc films is comparable to that of n-type perylene derivative (MPP) layers a...

  11. Charge transfer between epitaxial graphene and silicon carbide

    OpenAIRE

    Kopylov, S; A. Tzalenchuk; Kubatkin, Sergey; Fal'ko, V. I.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze doping of graphene grown on SiC in two models which differ by the source of charge transferred to graphene, namely, from SiC surface and from bulk donors. For each of the two models, we find the maximum electron density induced in monolayer and bilayer graphene, which is determined by the difference between the work function for electrons in pristine graphene and donor states on/in SiC, and analyze the responsivity of graphene to the density variation by means of electrostatic gate...

  12. Optics of Chromites and Charge-Transfer Transitions

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei V. Zenkov

    2008-01-01

    Specific features of the charge-transfer (CT) states and O2p→Cr3d transitions in the octahedral (CrO6)9− complex are considered in the cluster approach. The reduced matrix elements of the electric-dipole transition operator are calculated on many-electron wave functions of the complex corresponding to the initial and final states of a CT transition. Modeling the optic spectrum of chromites has yielded a complicated CT band. The model spectrum is in satisfactory agreement with experi...

  13. Endoergic and resonant charge transfer excitation in He-Cu discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezei, P.; Rózsa, K.; Jánossy, M.; Apai, P.

    1987-09-01

    The intensity of Cu-II lines with upper level energies near and above those of the He ion was measured as a function of He pressure in a Cu hollow cathode tube. In this tube at low pressures the negative glow could expand above the cathode. The maximum intensity of the Cu-II 493.1 nm line was found in the low voltage, high pressure hollow cathode discharge region in accordance with a resonant charge transfer excitation process. Enhancement of the intensity of the Cu-II 436.5 nm and 417.9 nm lines was observed in the cathode glow at low pressures. Excitation of these lines is attributed to endoergic charge transfer collisions between He ions accelerated by the 2 kV tube voltage and ground state Cu atoms. The cross-section for this reaction exciting the 436.5 nm line was estimated to be of the order of 10-17 cm2.

  14. Photoinduced charge-transfer materials for nonlinear optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBranch, Duncan W.

    2006-10-24

    A method using polyelectrolyte self-assembly for preparing multi-layered organic molecular materials having individual layers which exhibit ultrafast electron and/or energy transfer in a controlled direction occurring over the entire structure. Using a high molecular weight, water-soluble, anionic form of poly-phenylene vinylene, self-assembled films can be formed which show high photoluminescence quantum efficiency (QE). The highest emission QE is achieved using poly(propylene-imine) (PPI) dendrimers as cationic binders. Self-quenching of the luminescence is observed as the solid polymer film thickness is increased and can be reversed by inserting additional spacer layers of transparent polyelectrolytes between each active conjugated layer, such that the QE grows with thickness. A red shift of the luminescence is also observed as additional PPV layers are added. This effect persists as self-quenching is eliminated. Charge transfer superlattices can be formed by additionally incorporating C.sub.60 acceptor layers.

  15. Molecular orientation effect on the fragmentation of C2H4 in charge-changing collisions of carbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a role of molecular orientation in collision-induced fragmentation of C2H4 molecule under conditions of electron loss and capture collisions of C2+ ions at an energy of 857keV (v=1.69 a.u.). Coincidence measurements of fragment ions from C2H4 and charge-selected projectile ions were performed by means of a momentum three-dimensional imaging technique. The effect of molecular orientation is observed rather strongly in all the charge-changing collisions investigated. The experimental data are fitted to a newly developed formula which is often used to predict the orientation effect of diatomic molecules. (author)

  16. Energy and centrality dependences of charged multiplicity pseudorapidity density in relativistic nuclear collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou Dai Mei; Sá Ben-Hao; Li Zhong Dao

    2002-01-01

    Using a hadron and string cascade model, JPCIAE, and the corresponding Monte Carlo events generator, the energy and centrality dependences of charged particle pseudorapidity density in relativistic nuclear collisions were studied. Within the framework of this model, both the relativistic p anti p experimental data and the PHOBOS and PHENIX Au + Au data could be reproduced fairly well without retuning the model parameters. The author shows that since is not a well defined physical variable both experimentally and theoretically, the charged particle pseudorapidity density per participant pair can increase and also can decrease with increasing of , so it may be hard to use charged particle pseudorapidity density per participant pair as a function of to distinguish various theoretical models for particle production

  17. Energy and centrality dependences of charged multiplicity pseudorapidity density in relativistic nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a hadron and string cascade model, JPCIAE, and the corresponding Monte Carlo events generator, the energy and centrality dependences of charged particle pseudorapidity density in relativistic nuclear collisions were studied. Within the framework of this model, both the relativistic p anti p experimental data and the PHOBOS and PHENIX Au + Au data could be reproduced fairly well without retuning the model parameters. The author shows that since part> is not a well defined physical variable both experimentally and theoretically, the charged particle pseudorapidity density per participant pair can increase and also can decrease with increasing of part>, so it may be hard to use charged particle pseudorapidity density per participant pair as a function of part> to distinguish various theoretical models for particle production

  18. Inclusive production of charged hadrons and $K_{s}^{0}$ mesons in photon-photon collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerstaff, K; Allison, J; Altekamp, N; Anderson, K J; Anderson, S; Arcelli, S; Asai, S; Ashby, S F; Axen, D A; Azuelos, Georges; Ball, A H; Barberio, E; Barlow, R J; Bartoldus, R; Batley, J Richard; Baumann, S; Bechtluft, J; Behnke, T; Bell, K W; Bella, G; Bentvelsen, Stanislaus Cornelius Maria; Bethke, Siegfried; Betts, S; Biebel, O; Biguzzi, A; Bird, S D; Blobel, Volker; Bloodworth, Ian J; Bobinski, M; Bock, P; Böhme, J; Boutemeur, M; Braibant, S; Bright-Thomas, P G; Brown, R M; Burckhart, Helfried J; Burgard, C; Bürgin, R; Capiluppi, P; Carnegie, R K; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Chrisman, D; Ciocca, C; Clarke, P E L; Clay, E; Cohen, I; Conboy, J E; Cooke, O C; Couyoumtzelis, C; Coxe, R L; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; Dallavalle, G M; Davis, R; De Jong, S; del Pozo, L A; de Roeck, A; Desch, Klaus; Dienes, B; Dixit, M S; Doucet, M; Dubbert, J; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Eatough, D; Estabrooks, P G; Etzion, E; Evans, H G; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Fanfani, A; Fanti, M; Faust, A A; Fiedler, F; Fierro, M; Fischer, H M; Fleck, I; Folman, R; Fürtjes, A; Futyan, D I; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Gascon, J; Gascon-Shotkin, S M; Geich-Gimbel, C; Geralis, T; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Gibson, V; Gibson, W R; Gingrich, D M; Glenzinski, D A; Goldberg, J; Gorn, W; Grandi, C; Gross, E; Grunhaus, Jacob; Gruwé, M; Hanson, G G; Hansroul, M; Hapke, M; Hargrove, C K; Hartmann, C; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Hemingway, Richard J; Herndon, M; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hildreth, M D; Hill, J C; Hillier, S J; Hobson, P R; Höcker, Andreas; Homer, R James; Honma, A K; Horváth, D; Hossain, K R; Howard, R; Hüntemeyer, P; Igo-Kemenes, P; Imrie, D C; Ishii, K; Jacob, F R; Jawahery, A; Jeremie, H; Jimack, Martin Paul; Joly, A; Jones, C R; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Karlen, D A; Kartvelishvili, V G; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kayal, P I; Keeler, Richard K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Klier, A; Kluth, S; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Koetke, D S; Kokott, T P; Kolrep, M; Komamiya, S; Kowalewski, R V; Kress, T; Krieger, P; Von Krogh, J; Kyberd, P; Lafferty, G D; Lanske, D; Lauber, J; Lautenschlager, S R; Lawson, I; Layter, J G; Lazic, D; Lee, A M; Lefebvre, E; Lellouch, Daniel; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Liebisch, R; List, B; Littlewood, C; Lloyd, A W; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Long, G D; Losty, Michael J; Ludwig, J; Liu, D; Macchiolo, A; MacPherson, A L; Mannelli, M; Marcellini, S; Markopoulos, C; Martin, A J; Martin, J P; Martínez, G; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McDonald, W J; McKenna, J A; McKigney, E A; McMahon, T J; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Menke, S; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Meyer, J; Michelini, Aldo; Mihara, S; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Mir, R; Mohr, W; Montanari, A; Mori, T; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Neal, H A; Nellen, B; Nisius, R; O'Neale, S W; Oakham, F G; Odorici, F; Ögren, H O; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pálinkás, J; Pásztor, G; Pater, J R; Patrick, G N; Patt, J; Pérez-Ochoa, R; Petzold, S; Pfeifenschneider, P; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, James L; Plane, D E; Poffenberger, P R; Poli, B; Polok, J; Przybycien, M B; Rembser, C; Rick, Hartmut; Robertson, S; Robins, S A; Rodning, N L; Roney, J M; Roscoe, K; Rossi, A M; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Runólfsson, O; Rust, D R; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sahr, O; Sang, W M; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sbarra, C; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharf, F; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schieck, J; Schmitt, B; Schmitt, S; Schöning, A; Schörner-Sadenius, T; Schröder, M; Schumacher, M; Schwick, C; Scott, W G; Seuster, R; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Sherwood, P; Siroli, G P; Sittler, A; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Snow, G A; Sobie, Randall J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sproston, M; Stahl, A; Stephens, K; Steuerer, J; Stoll, K; Strom, D; Ströhmer, R; Tafirout, R; Talbot, S D; Tanaka, S; Taras, P; Tarem, S; Teuscher, R; Thiergen, M; Thomson, M A; Von Törne, E; Torrence, E; Towers, S; Trigger, I; Trócsányi, Z L; Tsur, E; Turcot, A S; Turner-Watson, M F; Van Kooten, R; Vannerem, P; Verzocchi, M; Vikas, P; Voss, H; Wäckerle, F; Wagner, A; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wermes, N; White, J S; Wiesler, T; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Yekutieli, G; Zacek, V; Zer-Zion, D

    1999-01-01

    The production of charged hadrons and K_s mesons in the collisions of quasi-real photons has been measured using the OPAL detector at LEP. The data were taken at e+e- centre-of-mass energies of 161 and 172 GeV. The differential cross-sections as a function of the transverse momentum and the pseudorapidity of the charged hadrons and K_s mesons have been compared to the leading order Monte Carlo simulations of PHOJET and PYTHIA and to perturbative next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD calculations. The distributions have been measured in the range 10-125 GeV of the hadronic invariant mass W. By comparing the transverse momentum distribution of charged hadrons measured in gamma-gamma interactions with gamma-proton and meson-proton data we find evidence for hard photon interactions in addition to the purely hadronic photon interactions.

  19. Beam energy dependence of pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sumit; Nayak, Tapan K.; Datta, Kaustuv

    2016-06-01

    Heavy-ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory and the Large Hadron Collider at CERN probe matter at extreme conditions of temperature and energy density. Most of the global properties of the collisions can be extracted from the measurements of charged-particle multiplicity and pseudorapidity (η ) distributions. We have shown that the available experimental data on beam energy and centrality dependence of η distributions in heavy-ion (Au +Au or Pb +Pb ) collisions from √{sNN}=7.7 GeV to 2.76 TeV are reasonably well described by the AMPT model, which is used for further exploration. The nature of the η distributions has been described by a double Gaussian function using a set of fit parameters, which exhibit a regular pattern as a function of beam energy. By extrapolating the parameters to a higher energy of √{sNN}=5.02 TeV, we have obtained the charged-particle multiplicity densities, η distributions, and energy densities for various centralities. Incidentally, these results match well with some of the recently published data by the ALICE Collaboration.

  20. Maximizing kinetic energy transfer in one-dimensional many-body collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main problem discussed in this paper involves a simple one-dimensional two-body collision, in which the problem can be extended into a chain of one-dimensional many-body collisions. The result is quite interesting, as it provides us with a thorough mathematical understanding that will help in designing a chain system for maximum energy transfer for a range of collision types. In this paper, we will show that there is a way to improve the kinetic energy transfer between two masses, and the idea can be applied recursively. However, this method only works for a certain range of collision types, which is indicated by a range of coefficients of restitution. Although the concept of momentum, elastic and inelastic collision, as well as Newton’s laws, are taught in junior college physics, especially in Singapore schools, students in this level are not expected to be able to do this problem quantitatively, as it requires rigorous mathematics, including calculus. Nevertheless, this paper provides nice analytical steps that address some common misconceptions in students’ way of thinking about one-dimensional collisions. (paper)

  1. Determination of the collisional energy transfer distribution responsible for the collision-induced dissociation of NO2 with Ar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steill, Jeffrey D.; Jasper, Ahren W.; Chandler, David W.

    2015-09-01

    Collisional energy transfer is an essential aspect of chemical reactivity and maintenance of thermal equilibrium. Here we report the shape (energy-dependence) of the collisional energy transfer probability function for collisions of vibrationally excited NO2 entrained in a molecular beam and photoexcited to within 40 cm-1 of its dissociation threshold. The internally excited molecules undergo collisions with Ar atoms in a crossed beam apparatus. Dissociative collisions rapidly produce the NO(J) fragment, which is observed by velocity-mapped ion imaging and REMPI techniques. The measured collisional energy transfer function is obtained via energy conservation and is compared with the results of classical trajectory calculations. Good agreement between the theory and experiment is found for collisions that transfer small amounts of energy, but the theory predicts a higher likelihood of energetic collisions than is observed experimentally. We explore possible explanations for this discrepancy in the dynamics of the collision excitation process.

  2. Measuring charge-odd correlations at lepton-proton and photon-proton collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The charge-odd correlations (COC) in cross sections of processes of charged particle production are considered. The cases of muonic pair and pion systems π+π-, π+π-π0 are considered in detail for electron-proton or photon-proton collisions in the proton fragmentation region kinematics. COC arise from interference of amplitudes which describe different mechanisms of charged lepton (pion) creation. One of them corresponds to production of particles in the charge-odd state (one virtual photon or vector meson annihilation to this system of particles) and the other corresponds to the charge-even state of produced particles (creation by two photons). COC for muon-antimuon pair creation have a pure QED nature and can be considered as a normalization process. The processes with pion production are sensitive to some characteristics of proton wave functions and, besides, can be used for checking anomalous and normal parts of the effective pionic Lagrangian. The matrix element of three electromagnetic currents can be measured in photon-proton interactions with lepton pair production. For this aim a charge-odd combination of cross sections can be constructed as a conversion of leptonic 3-rank tensor with hadronic ones. These experiments can be considered as an alternative to deep virtual compton scattering

  3. Heat and mass transfer induced by collision cascades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation of materials with energetic particles produces changes in the microstructure that affect mechanical properties. In previous work the authors studied the thermal aspects of the quenching of collision cascades that involve nanoscale phase transitions between the solid and the liquid states of the target. In this work they present a rigorous treatment of these phenomena, including a detailed description of the Stefan problem in three dimensions and diffusion in thermal gradients. This approach is oriented to give a quantitative description of the influence of the primary knock-on spectrum on the microstructure short after the quenching of the heat spike

  4. Dynamical Theory of Charge Transfer Between Complex Atoms and Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Basudev; Marston, Brad

    2000-03-01

    An existing dynamical quantum many-body theory of charge transfer(A. V. Onufriev and J. B. Marston, Phys. Rev. B 53), 13340 (1996); J. Merino and J. B. Marston, Phys. Rev. B 58, 6982 (1998). describes atoms with simple s-orbitals, such as alkalis and alkaline-earths, interacting with metal surfaces. The many-body equations of motion (EOM) are developed systematically as an expansion in the number of surface particle-hole excitations. Here we generalize this theory to describe atoms with richer orbital structures, such as atomic oxygen. In the simplest version of the model, only the single-particle p_z-orbitals of the atom, the ones oriented perpendicular to the surface, participate directly in resonant charge transfer as they have the largest overlap with the metallic wavefunctions. However, as the several-electron Russell-Saunders eigenstates, labeled by total angular momenta quantum numbers J, L, and S, are built out of products of single-particle orbitals, non-trivial matrix elements must be incorporated into the many-body EOM's. Comparison to recent experimental results(A. C. Lavery, C. E. Sosolik, and B. H. Cooper, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 157), 42 (1999); A. C. Lavery et al. to appear in Phys. Rev. B. on the scattering of low-energy oxygen ions off Cu(001) surfaces is made.

  5. Charge Transfer Based Colorimetric Detection of Silver Ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have demonstrated the colorimetric chemosensor for detection of Ag+ via formation of nanoparticles which is based on the intramolecular CT interaction between the electron-rich (2,6-dialkoxynaphthalene; Np) moiety and the electron-deficient (methyl viologen; MV2+) moiety of a single sensor molecule. Under irradiation of light, Ag+ was reduced to very small silver nanoparticle by CT interaction in the presence of OEGs as flexible recognition moiety of Ag+ and stabilizer for Ag nanoparticles, thus Ag nanoparticles resulted to reddish brown in the color change of sensor solution, gradually. Therefore, the charge-transfer interaction between an electron-deficient and an electron-rich units existing at a sensor molecule can be regarded as a new and efficient method to construct various colorimetric chemosensors. Donor.acceptor interactions or charge transfer (CT) interactions are an important class of non-covalent interactions and have been widely exploited in self-assembling systems. Beyond molecular chemistry, supramolecular chemistry aims at constituting highly complex, functional chemical systems from components held together by intermolecular forces. Chemosensors are the molecules of abiotic origin that bind selectively and reversibly with the analyte with concomitant change in one or more properties of the system. The recognition and signaling of ionic and neutral species of varying complexity is one of the most intensively studied areas of contemporary supramolecular chemistry

  6. Excited State Structural Dynamics of Carotenoids and Charge Transfer Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation describes the development and implementation of a visible/near infrared pump/mid-infrared probe apparatus. Chapter 1 describes the background and motivation of investigating optically induced structural dynamics, paying specific attention to solvation and the excitation selection rules of highly symmetric molecules such as carotenoids. Chapter 2 describes the development and construction of the experimental apparatus used throughout the remainder of this dissertation. Chapter 3 will discuss the investigation of DCM, a laser dye with a fluorescence signal resulting from a charge transfer state. By studying the dynamics of DCM and of its methyl deuterated isotopomer (an otherwise identical molecule), we are able to investigate the origins of the charge transfer state and provide evidence that it is of the controversial twisted intramolecular (TICT) type. Chapter 4 introduces the use of two-photon excitation to the S1 state, combined with one-photon excitation to the S2 state of the carotenoid beta-apo-8'-carotenal. These 2 investigations show evidence for the formation of solitons, previously unobserved in molecular systems and found only in conducting polymers Chapter 5 presents an investigation of the excited state dynamics of peridinin, the carotenoid responsible for the light harvesting of dinoflagellates. This investigation allows for a more detailed understanding of the importance of structural dynamics of carotenoids in light harvesting

  7. Ionization and single electron capture in collision of highly charged Ar16+ ions with helium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Fei; Gou Bing-Cong

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses the two-centre atomic orbital close-coupling method to study the ionization and the single electron capture in collision of highly charged Ar16+ ions with He atoms in the velocity range of 1.2-1.9 a.u.. The relative importance of single ionization (SI) to single capture (SC) is explored. The comparison between the calculation and experimental data shows that the SI/SC cross section ratios from this work are in good agreement with experimental data. The total single electron ionization cross sections and the total single electron capture cross sections are also given for this collision. The investigation of the partial electron capture cross section shows a general tendency of capture to larger n and l with increasing velocity from 1.2 to 1.9 a.u..

  8. Fluctuations of conserved charges in relativistic heavy ion collisions: An introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Asakawa, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Bulk fluctuations of conserved charges measured by event-by-event analysis in relativistic heavy ion collisions are observables which are believed to carry significant information on the primordial thermodynamics of the hot medium created by the collisions. Active studies have been done recently experimentally, theoretically, and on the lattice. In particular, non-Gaussianity of the fluctuations aquires much attention recently. In this review, we give a pedagogical introduction to these physics, and overview recent developments in this field of research. Starting from the definition of cumulants, basic concepts in fluctuation physics, such as thermal fluctuations in statistical mechanics and time evolution of fluctuations in diffusive systems, are described. Physics which are expected to occur in the QCD phase diagram and their measurement by event-by-event analyses are also elucidated.

  9. Fluctuations in Charged Particle Multiplicities in Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Choudhury, Subikash; Nayak, Tapan K

    2016-01-01

    Multiplicity distributions of charged particles and their event-by-event fluctuations have been compiled for relativistic heavy-ion collisions from the available experimental data at Brookhaven National Laboratory and CERN and also by the use of an event generator. Multiplicity fluctuations are sensitive to QCD phase transition and to the presence of critical point in the QCD phase diagram. In addition, multiplicity fluctuations provide baselines for other event-by-event measurements. Multiplicity fluctuation expressed in terms of the scaled variance of the multiplicity distribution is an intensive quantity, but is sensitive to the volume fluctuation of the system. The importance of the choice of narrow centrality bins and the corrections of centrality bin width effect for controlling volume fluctuations have been discussed. It is observed that the mean and width of the multiplicity distributions monotonically increase as a function of increasing centrality at all collision energies, whereas the multiplicity ...

  10. Fluctuations of conserved charges in relativistic heavy ion collisions: An introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Masayuki; Kitazawa, Masakiyo

    2016-09-01

    Bulk fluctuations of conserved charges measured by event-by-event analysis in relativistic heavy ion collisions are observables which are believed to carry significant amount of information on the hot medium created by the collisions. Active studies have been done recently experimentally, theoretically, and on the lattice. In particular, non-Gaussianity of the fluctuations has acquired much attention recently. In this review, we give a pedagogical introduction to these issues, and survey recent developments in this field of research. Starting from the definition of cumulants, basic concepts in fluctuation physics, such as thermal fluctuations in statistical mechanics and time evolution of fluctuations in diffusive systems, are described. Phenomena which are expected to occur in finite temperature and/or density QCD matter and their measurement by event-by-event analyses are also elucidated.

  11. Azimuthally-integrated HBT parameters for charged pions in nuclear-nuclear collisions versus initial energy

    CERN Document Server

    Okorokov, V A

    2014-01-01

    In the paper energy dependence of space-time extent of charged pion source is studied for various ion collisions for all experimentally available energies. There are no sharp changing of femtoscopy parameter values with increasing of $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ in domain of collision energies $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} \\geq 5$ GeV. Energy dependence of estimations for emission duration is almost flat for all energy domain under study within large error bars. Analytic function is suggested for smooth approximation of energy dependence of main HBT parameters. Fit curves demonstrate reasonable agreement with experimental data for most femtoscopy parameters in energy domain $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} \\geq 5$ GeV. Estimations of femtoscopy observables are obtained for energies of the LHC and FCC project.

  12. Mid-rapidity charged hadron transverse spherocity in pp collisions simulated with Pythia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pp collisions have been studied for a long time, however, there are still some effects which are not completely understood, such as the long range angular correlations and the flow patterns in high multiplicity events, which were recently discovered at the LHC. In a recent work it was demonstrated that in Pythia 8, multi-parton interactions and color reconnection can give some of the observed effects similar to the collective flow well known from heavy-ion collisions. Now using the same model, a study based on mid-rapidity charged hadron transverse spherocity is presented. The main purpose of this work is to show that a differential study combining multiplicity and event shapes opens the possibility to understand better the features of data, specially at high multiplicity

  13. Energy Dependence of the Transverse Momentum Distributions of Charged Particles in pp Collisions Measured by ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Abelev, Betty Bezverkhny; Adamova, Dagmar; Adare, Andrew Marshall; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agocs, Andras Gabor; Agostinelli, Andrea; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmad, Nazeer; Ahmad, Arshad; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ahn, Sul-Ah; Ahn, Sang Un; Aimo, Ilaria; Aiola, Salvatore; Ajaz, Muhammad; Akindinov, Alexander; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alexandre, Didier; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altini, Valerio; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anielski, Jonas; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arbor, Nicolas; Arcelli, Silvia; Armesto Perez, Nestor; Arnaldi, Roberta; Aronsson, Tomas; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Awes, Terry; Aysto, Juha Heikki Eskeli; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Bach, Matthias Jakob; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Ban, Jaroslav; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Baumann, Christoph Heinrich; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont Moreno, Ernesto; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bergognon, Anais Annick Erica; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blanco, Fernando; Blanco, Francesco; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Bock, Friederike; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Bogolyubskiy, Mikhail; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Book, Julian Heinz; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Bornschein, Joerg; Botje, Michiel; Botta, Elena; Boettger, Stefan; Braidot, Ermes; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Broker, Theo Alexander; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Brun, Rene; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Caliva, Alberto; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Canoa Roman, Veronica; Cara Romeo, Giovanni; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Carminati, Federico; Casanova Diaz, Amaya Ofelia; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Catanescu, Vasile Ioan; Cavicchioli, Costanza; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan Valeriev; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Dobrigkeit Chinellato, David; Chochula, Peter; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Colamaria, Fabio Filippo; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Colocci, Manuel; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa Del Valle, Zaida; Connors, Megan Elizabeth; Contin, Giacomo; Contreras Nuno, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortese, Pietro; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Crochet, Philippe; Cruz Albino, Rigoberto; Cuautle Flores, Eleazar; Cunqueiro Mendez, Leticia; Dainese, Andrea; Dang, Ruina; Danu, Andrea; Das, Kushal; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; Delagrange, Hugues; Deloff, Andrzej; Denes, Ervin Sandor; Deppman, Airton; Oliveira Valeriano De Barros, Gabriel; De Caro, Annalisa; De Cataldo, Giacinto; De Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; De Rooij, Raoul Stefan; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Dietel, Thomas; Divia, Roberto; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Giglio, Carmelo; Di Liberto, Sergio; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Dobrowolski, Tadeusz Antoni; Doenigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Dupieux, Pascal; Dutt Mazumder, Abhee Kanti; D'Erasmo, Ginevra; Elia, Domenico; Emschermann, David Philip; Engel, Heiko; Erazmus, Barbara Ewa; Erdal, Hege Austrheim; Eschweiler, Dominic; Espagnon, Bruno; Estienne, Magali Danielle; Esumi, Shinichi; Evans, David; Evdokimov, Sergey; Eyyubova, Gyulnara; Fabris, Daniela; Faivre, Julien; Falchieri, Davide; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Fehlker, Dominik; Feldkamp, Linus; Felea, Daniel; Feliciello, Alessandro; Feofilov, Grigory; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Gonzalez Ferreiro, Elena; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Figiel, Jan; Araujo Silva Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Floratos, Emmanouil; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoeje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago Medina, Alberto Martin; Gallio, Mauro; Gangadharan, Dhevan Raja; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Garabatos Cuadrado, Jose; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gargiulo, Corrado; Garishvili, Irakli; Gerhard, Jochen; Germain, Marie; Gheata, Andrei George; Gheata, Mihaela; Ghidini, Bruno; Ghosh, Premomoy; Gianotti, Paola; Giubellino, Paolo; Gladysz-Dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gorlich, Lidia Maria; Gomez Jimenez, Ramon; Gonzalez Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Gotovac, Sven; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Grajcarek, Robert; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoras, Alina Gabriela; Grigoryev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grynyov, Borys; Grion, Nevio; Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grossiord, Jean-Yves; Grosso, Raffaele; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerzoni, Barbara; Guilbaud, Maxime Rene Joseph; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gulkanyan, Hrant; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Khan, Kamal; Haake, Rudiger; Haaland, Oystein Senneset; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Haiduc, Maria; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Hanratty, Luke David; Hansen, Alexander; Harris, John William; Harton, Austin Vincent; Hatzifotiadou, Despina; Hayashi, Shinichi; Hayrapetyan, Arsen; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Heide, Markus Ansgar; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Herrmann, Norbert; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hicks, Bernard Richard; Hippolyte, Boris; Hori, Yasuto; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Hrivnacova, Ivana; Huang, Meidana; Humanic, Thomas; Hutter, Dirk; Hwang, Dae Sung; Ichou, Raphaelle; Ilkaev, Radiy; Ilkiv, Iryna; Inaba, Motoi; Incani, Elisa; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Ionita, Costin; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Ivanov, Vladimir; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanytskyi, Oleksii; Jacholkowski, Adam Wlodzimierz; Jahnke, Cristiane; Jang, Haeng Jin; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Pahula Hewage, Sandun; Jena, Satyajit; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jones, Peter Graham; Jung, Hyungtaik; Jusko, Anton; Kalcher, Sebastian; Kalinak, Peter; Kalliokoski, Tuomo Esa Aukusti; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Kar, Somnath; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kazantsev, Andrey; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Ketzer, Bernhard Franz; Khan, Palash; Khan, Mohammed Mohisin; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Beomkyu; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Mimae; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Kiss, Gabor; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Jochen; Klein-Boesing, Christian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kohler, Markus Konrad; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kolozhvari, Anatoly; Kondratyev, Valery; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Konevskikh, Artem; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Kox, Serge; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kral, Jiri; Kralik, Ivan; Kramer, Frederick; Kravcakova, Adela; Krelina, Michal; Kretz, Matthias; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Krus, Miroslav; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kucera, Vit; Kucheryaev, Yury; Kugathasan, Thanushan; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paulus Gerardus; Kulakov, Igor; Kumar, Jitendra; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, Alexey; Kurepin, Alexander; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kushpil, Svetlana; Kushpil, Vasilij; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; Ladron De Guevara, Pedro; Lagana Fernandes, Caio; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lara Martinez, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Lea, Ramona; Lechman, Mateusz Arkadiusz; Lee, Sung Chul; Lee, Graham Richard; Legrand, Iosif; Lehnert, Joerg Walter; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Lenhardt, Matthieu Laurent; Lenti, Vito; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Levai, Peter; Li, Shuang; Lien, Jorgen Andre; Lietava, Roman; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Ljunggren, Hans Martin; Lodato, Davide Francesco; Lonne, Per-Ivar; Loggins, Vera Renee; Loginov, Vitaly; Lohner, Daniel; Loizides, Constantinos; Loo, Kai Krister; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lovhoiden, Gunnar; Lu, Xianguo; Luettig, Philipp Johannes; Lunardon, Marcello; Luo, Jiebin; Luparello, Grazia; Luzzi, Cinzia; Jacobs, Peter Martin; Ma, Rongrong; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahapatra, Durga Prasad; Maire, Antonin; Malaev, Mikhail; Maldonado Cervantes, Ivonne Alicia; Malinina, Liudmila; Mal'Kevich, Dmitry; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manceau, Loic Henri Antoine; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Marin, Ana Maria; Markert, Christina; Marquard, Marco; Martashvili, Irakli; Martin, Nicole Alice; Martinengo, Paolo; Martinez Hernandez, Mario Ivan; Martinez-Garcia, Gines; Martin Blanco, Javier; Martynov, Yevgen; Mas, Alexis Jean-Michel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mazer, Joel Anthony; Mazumder, Rakesh; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Meddi, Franco; Menchaca-Rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Mercado-Perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Miake, Yasuo; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Milano, Leonardo; Milosevic, Jovan; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Miskowiec, Dariusz Czeslaw; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mlynarz, Jocelyn; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Molnar, Levente; Montano Zetina, Luis Manuel; Monteno, Marco; Montes Prado, Esther; Moon, Taebong; Morando, Maurizio; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Moretto, Sandra; Morreale, Astrid; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Muller, Hans; Gameiro Munhoz, Marcelo; Murray, Sean; Musa, Luciano; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Nattrass, Christine; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nedosekin, Alexander; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Nilsen, Bjorn Steven; Nilsson, Mads Stormo; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Nyanin, Alexander; Nyatha, Anitha; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Sun Kun; Oh, Saehanseul; Olah, Laszlo; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oliveira Da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Onderwaater, Jacobus; Oppedisano, Chiara; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pachr, Milos; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Painke, Florian; Pajares Vales, Carlos; Pal, Susanta Kumar; Palaha, Arvinder Singh; Palmeri, Armando; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Park, Woojin; Passfeld, Annika; Patalakha, Dmitry; Paticchio, Vincenzo; Paul, Biswarup; Pawlak, Tomasz Jan; Peitzmann, Thomas; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, Elienos; Peresunko, Dmitry Yurevich; Perez Lara, Carlos Eugenio; Perrino, Davide; Peryt, Wiktor Stanislaw; Pesci, Alessandro; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petran, Michal; Petris, Mariana; Petrov, Plamen Rumenov; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Piano, Stefano; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Pitz, Nora; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Planinic, Mirko; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Pohjoisaho, Esko Heikki Oskari; Polishchuk, Boris; Poljak, Nikola; Pop, Amalia; Porteboeuf, Sarah Julie; Pospisil, Vladimir; Potukuchi, Baba; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; Puddu, Giovanna; Punin, Valery; Putschke, Jorn Henning; Qvigstad, Henrik; Rachevski, Alexandre; Rademakers, Alphonse; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Raniwala, Sudhir; Raniwala, Rashmi; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Rathee, Deepika; Rauch, Wolfgang Hans; Rauf, Aamer Wali; Razazi, Vahedeh; Read, Kenneth Francis; Real, Jean-Sebastien; Redlich, Krzysztof; Reed, Rosi Jan; Rehman, Attiq Ur; Reichelt, Patrick Simon; Reicher, Martijn; Reidt, Felix; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reolon, Anna Rita; Reshetin, Andrey; Rettig, Felix Vincenz; Revol, Jean-Pierre; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riccati, Lodovico; Ricci, Renato Angelo; Richert, Tuva Ora Herenui; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Rivetti, Angelo; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Rodriguez Manso, Alis; Roeed, Ketil; Rogochaya, Elena; Sharma, Rohni; Rohr, David Michael; Roehrich, Dieter; Romita, Rosa; Ronchetti, Federico; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossegger, Stefan; Rossi, Andrea; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Rubio Montero, Antonio Juan; Rui, Rinaldo; Russo, Riccardo; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Rybicki, Andrzej; Sadovskiy, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakaguchi, Hiroaki; Sakai, Shingo; Sakata, Dosatsu; Salgado Lopez, Carlos Alberto; Salzwedel, Jai Samuel Nielsen; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sanchez Castro, Xitzel; Sandor, Ladislav; Sandoval, Andres; Sano, Masato; Santagati, Gianluca; Santoro, Romualdo; Sarkar, Debojit; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Scharenberg, Rolf Paul; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schuchmann, Simone; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schulc, Martin; Schuster, Tim Robin; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; Schweda, Kai Oliver; Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Scott, Rebecca Michelle; Scott, Patrick Aaron; Segato, Gianfranco; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Seo, Jeewon; Serci, Sergio; Serradilla Rodriguez, Eulogio; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shabratova, Galina; Shahoyan, Ruben; Sharma, Satish; Sharma, Natasha; Shigaki, Kenta; Shtejer Diaz, Katherin; Sibiryak, Yury; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Silvestre, Catherine Micaela; Simatovic, Goran; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singha, Subhash; Singhal, Vikas; Sinha, Bikash; Sarkar - Sinha, Tinku; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Skjerdal, Kyrre; Smakal, Radek; Smirnov, Nikolai; Snellings, Raimond; Soegaard, Carsten; Soltz, Ron Ariel; Song, Myunggeun; Song, Jihye; Soos, Csaba; Soramel, Francesca; Spacek, Michal; Sputowska, Iwona Anna; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, Martha; Srivastava, Brijesh Kumar; Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Ionel; Stefanek, Grzegorz; Steinpreis, Matthew Donald; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Steyn, Gideon Francois; Stiller, Johannes Hendrik; Stocco, Diego; Stolpovskiy, Mikhail; Strmen, Peter; Alarcon Do Passo Suaide, Alexandre; Subieta Vasquez, Martin Alfonso; Sugitate, Toru; Suire, Christophe Pierre; Suleymanov, Mais Kazim Oglu; Sultanov, Rishat; Sumbera, Michal; Susa, Tatjana; Symons, Timothy; Szanto De Toledo, Alejandro; Szarka, Imrich; Szczepankiewicz, Adam; Szymanski, Maciej Pawel; Takahashi, Jun; Tangaro, Marco-Antonio; Tapia Takaki, Daniel Jesus; Tarantola Peloni, Attilio; Tarazona Martinez, Alfonso; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terrevoli, Cristina; Ter-Minasyan, Astkhik; Thaeder, Jochen Mathias; Thomas, Deepa; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Timmins, Anthony Robert; Toia, Alberica; Torii, Hisayuki; Trubnikov, Victor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ulery, Jason Glyndwr; Ullaland, Kjetil; Ulrich, Jochen; Uras, Antonio; Urciuoli, Guido Maria; Usai, Gianluca; Vajzer, Michal; Vala, Martin; Valencia Palomo, Lizardo; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Vannucci, Luigi; Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Van Leeuwen, Marco; Vargas Trevino, Aurora Diozcora; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veldhoen, Misha; Venaruzzo, Massimo; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara Limon, Sergio; Vernet, Renaud; Verweij, Marta; Vickovic, Linda; Viesti, Giuseppe; Viinikainen, Jussi Samuli; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Vinogradov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Leonid; Vinogradov, Yury; Virgili, Tiziano; Viyogi, Yogendra; Vodopyanov, Alexander; Volkl, Martin Andreas; Voloshin, Sergey; Voloshin, Kirill; Volpe, Giacomo; Von Haller, Barthelemy; Vorobyev, Ivan; Vranic, Danilo; Vrlakova, Janka; Vulpescu, Bogdan; Vyushin, Alexey; Wagner, Boris; Wagner, Vladimir; Wagner, Jan; Wang, Yifei; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Mengliang; Watanabe, Daisuke; Watanabe, Kengo; Weber, Michael; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Westerhoff, Uwe; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilde, Martin Rudolf; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Wilkinson, Jeremy John; Williams, Crispin; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Winn, Michael Andreas; Xiang, Changzhou; Yaldo, Chris G; Yamaguchi, Yorito; Yang, Hongyan; Yang, Ping; Yang, Shiming; Yano, Satoshi; Yasnopolskiy, Stanislav; Yi, Jungyu; Yin, Zhongbao; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yushmanov, Igor; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zach, Cenek; Zampolli, Chiara; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zelnicek, Pierre; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Yonghong; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, You; Zhou, Fengchu; Zhu, Xiangrong; Zhu, Jianlin; Zhu, Jianhui; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zimmermann, Alice; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zoccarato, Yannick Denis; Zynovyev, Mykhaylo; Zyzak, Maksym

    2013-01-01

    Differential cross sections of charged particles in inelastic pp collisions as a function of $p_T$ have been measured at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 0.9, 2.76 and 7 TeV at the LHC. The $p_T$ spectra are compared to NLO-pQCD calculations. Though the differential cross section for an individual $\\sqrt{s}$ cannot be described by NLO-pQCD, the relative increase of cross section with $\\sqrt{s}$ is in agreement with NLO-pQCD. Based on these measurements and observations, procedures are discussed to construct pp reference spectra at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 2.76 and 5.02 TeV up to $p_T$ = 50 GeV/c as required for the calculation of the nuclear modification factor in nucleus-nucleus and proton-nucleus collisions.

  14. Mid-rapidity charged hadron transverse spherocity in pp collisions simulated with Pythia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Antonio; Cuautle, Eleazar; Paić, Guy

    2015-09-01

    The pp collisions have been studied for a long time, however, there are still some effects which are not completely understood, such as the long range angular correlations and the flow patterns in high multiplicity events, which were recently discovered at the LHC. In a recent work it was demonstrated that in Pythia 8, multi-parton interactions and color reconnection can give some of the observed effects similar to the collective flow well known from heavy-ion collisions. Now using the same model, a study based on mid-rapidity charged hadron transverse spherocity is presented. The main purpose of this work is to show that a differential study combining multiplicity and event shapes opens the possibility to understand better the features of data, specially at high multiplicity.

  15. Cross sections for charge transfer between mercury ions and other metals. Final report, June 1973--April 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross sections for charge transfer between several ions and metals of interest to the NASA electro propulsion program have been measured. Specifically, the ions considered were Hg+, Xe+ and Cs+ and the metals Mo, Fe, Al, Ti, Ta, and C. Measurements were made in the energy regime from 1 to 5,000 eV. In general, the cross sections for charge transfer were found to be less than 10-15 cm2 for most processes over the total energy range. Exceptions are Hg+ in collision with Ti and Ta. The results obtained for each reaction are given in both graphical and numerical form in the text. For quick reference, the data at several ion velocities are condensed into one table given in the summary

  16. Collision induced dissociation of doubly-charged ions: Coulomb explosion vs. neutral loss in [Ca(urea)]2+ gas phase unimolecular reactivity via chemical dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we report different theoretical approaches to study the gas-phase unimolecular dissociation of the doubly-charged cation [Ca(urea)]2+, in order to rationalize recent experimental findings. Quantum mechanical plus molecular mechanical (QM/MM) direct chemical dynamics simulations were used to investigate collision induced dissociation (CID) and rotational-vibrational energy transfer for Ar+ [Ca(urea)]2+ collisions. For the picosecond time-domain of the simulations, both neutral loss and Coulomb explosion reactions were found and the differences in their mechanisms elucidated. The loss of neutral urea subsequent to collision with Ar occurs via a shattering mechanism, while the formation of two singly-charged cations follows statistical (or almost statistical) dynamics. Vibrational-rotational energy transfer efficiencies obtained for trajectories that do not dissociate during the trajectory integration were used in conjunction with RRKM rate constants to approximate dissociation pathways assuming complete intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution (IVR) and statistical dynamics. This statistical limit predicts, as expected, that at long time the most stable species on the potential energy surface (PES) dominate. These results, coupled with experimental CID from which both neutral loss and Coulomb explosion products were obtained, show that the gas phase dissociation of this ion occurs by multiple mechanisms leading to different products and that reactivity on the complicated PES is dynamically complex. (authors)

  17. Pseudorapidity density of charged particles p-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Abelev, Betty; Adamova, Dagmar; Adare, Andrew Marshall; Aggarwal, Madan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agocs, Andras Gabor; Agostinelli, Andrea; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmad, Nazeer; Ahmad, Arshad; Ahn, Sang Un; Ahn, Sul-Ah; Ajaz, Muhammad; Akindinov, Alexander; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Almaraz Avina, Erick Jonathan; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altini, Valerio; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anielski, Jonas; Anson, Christopher Daniel; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshauser, Harald; Arbor, Nicolas; Arcelli, Silvia; Arend, Andreas; Armesto, Nestor; Arnaldi, Roberta; Aronsson, Tomas Robert; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Asryan, Andzhey; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Awes, Terry; Aysto, Juha Heikki; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Bach, Matthias Jakob; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldini Ferroli, Rinaldo; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Ban, Jaroslav; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Barret, Valerie; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batyunya, Boris; Baumann, Christoph Heinrich; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont-Moreno, Ernesto; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bergognon, Anais Annick Erica; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blanco, Francesco; Blanco, F; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Boccioli, Marco; Boettger, Stefan; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Bogolyubsky, Mikhail; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Book, Julian; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Bossu, Francesco; Botje, Michiel; Botta, Elena; Braidot, Ermes; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Brun, Rene; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Caballero Orduna, Diego; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Canoa Roman, Veronica; Cara Romeo, Giovanni; Carena, Wisla; Carena, Francesco; Carlin Filho, Nelson; Carminati, Federico; Casanova Diaz, Amaya Ofelia; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Castillo Hernandez, Juan Francisco; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Catanescu, Vasile; Cavicchioli, Costanza; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chawla, Isha; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Chinellato, David; Chochula, Peter; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Coccetti, Fabrizio; Colamaria, Fabio; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa del Valle, Zaida; Connors, Megan Elizabeth; Contin, Giacomo; Contreras, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortese, Pietro; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Cotallo, Manuel Enrique; Crescio, Elisabetta; Crochet, Philippe; Cruz Alaniz, Emilia; Cuautle, Eleazar; Cunqueiro, Leticia; Dainese, Andrea; Dalsgaard, Hans Hjersing; Danu, Andrea; Das, Kushal; Das, Indranil; Das, Supriya; Das, Debasish; Dash, Sadhana; Dash, Ajay Kumar; De, Sudipan; de Barros, Gabriel; De Caro, Annalisa; de Cataldo, Giacinto; de Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; Delagrange, Hugues; Deloff, Andrzej; De Marco, Nora; Denes, Ervin; De Pasquale, Salvatore; Deppman, Airton; D'Erasmo, Ginevra; de Rooij, Raoul Stefan; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Di Bari, Domenico; Dietel, Thomas; Di Giglio, Carmelo; Di Liberto, Sergio; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Dobrowolski, Tadeusz Antoni; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Driga, Olga; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Dupieux, Pascal; Dutta Majumdar, Mihir Ranjan; Dutta Majumdar, AK; Elia, Domenico; Emschermann, David Philip; Engel, Heiko; Erazmus, Barbara; Erdal, Hege Austrheim; Espagnon, Bruno; Estienne, Magali Danielle; Esumi, Shinichi; Evans, David; Eyyubova, Gyulnara; Fabris, Daniela; Faivre, Julien; Falchieri, Davide; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Fearick, Roger Worsley; Fehlker, Dominik; Feldkamp, Linus; Felea, Daniel; Feliciello, Alessandro; Fenton-Olsen, Bo; Feofilov, Grigory; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Figiel, Jan; Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago, Alberto; Gallio, Mauro; Gangadharan, Dhevan Raja; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Garabatos, Jose; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo; Garishvili, Irakli; Gerhard, Jochen; Germain, Marie; Geuna, Claudio; Gheata, Andrei George; Gheata, Mihaela; Ghosh, Premomoy; Gianotti, Paola; Girard, Martin Robert; Giubellino, Paolo; Gladysz-Dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gomez, Ramon; Gonzalez Ferreiro, Elena; Gonzalez-Trueba, Laura Helena; Gonzalez-Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Goswami, Ankita; Gotovac, Sven; Grabski, Varlen; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Grajcarek, Robert; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Alina Gabriela; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoriev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grigoryan, Ara; Grinyov, Boris; Grion, Nevio; Gros, Philippe; Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grossiord, Jean-Yves; Grosso, Raffaele; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerra Gutierrez, Cesar; Guerzoni, Barbara; Guilbaud, Maxime Rene Joseph; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gulkanyan, Hrant; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Haaland, Oystein Senneset; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Haiduc, Maria; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Han, Byounghee; Hanratty, Luke David; Hansen, Alexander; Harmanova, Zuzana; Harris, John William; Hartig, Matthias; Harton, Austin; Hasegan, Dumitru; Hatzifotiadou, Despoina; Hayashi, Shinichi; Hayrapetyan, Arsen; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Heide, Markus Ansgar; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Herrmann, Norbert; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hicks, Bernard; Hippolyte, Boris; Hori, Yasuto; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Hrivnacova, Ivana; Huang, Meidana; Humanic, Thomas; Hwang, Dae Sung; Ichou, Raphaelle; Ilkaev, Radiy; Ilkiv, Iryna; Inaba, Motoi; Incani, Elisa; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Innocenti, Pier Giorgio; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Ivan, Cristian George; Ivanov, Vladimir; Ivanov, Andrey; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanytskyi, Oleksii; Jacholkowski, Adam Wlodzimierz; Jacobs, Peter; Jang, Haeng Jin; Janik, Rudolf; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Jayarathna, Sandun; Jena, Satyajit; Jha, Deeptanshu Manu; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jones, Peter Graham; Jung, Hyung Taik; Jusko, Anton; Kaidalov, Alexei; Kalcher, Sebastian; Kalinak, Peter; Kalliokoski, Tuomo Esa Aukusti; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kazantsev, Andrey; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Khan, Kamal Hussain; Khan, Palash; Khan, Mohisin Mohammed; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Taesoo; Kim, Beomkyu; Kim, Jonghyun; Kim, Jin Sook; Kim, Mimae; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Dong Jo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Jochen; Klein-Bosing, Christian; Kliemant, Michael; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kohler, Markus; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kolojvari, Anatoly; Kondratiev, Valery; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Konevskih, Artem; Kour, Ravjeet; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Kox, Serge; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kral, Jiri; Kralik, Ivan; Kramer, Frederick; Kravcakova, Adela; Krawutschke, Tobias; Krelina, Michal; Kretz, Matthias; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Krus, Miroslav; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kucheriaev, Yury; Kugathasan, Thanushan; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paul; Kulakov, Igor; Kumar, Jitendra; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, A; Kurepin, AB; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kushpil, Vasily; Kushpil, Svetlana; Kvaerno, Henning; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; Ladron de Guevara, Pedro; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; Lara, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; La Rocca, Paola; Lea, Ramona; Lechman, Mateusz; Lee, Ki Sang; Lee, Sung Chul; Lee, Graham Richard; Legrand, Iosif; Lehnert, Joerg Walter; Lenhardt, Matthieu Laurent; Lenti, Vito; Leon, Hermes; Leoncino, Marco; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Leon Vargas, Hermes; Levai, Peter; Lien, Jorgen; Lietava, Roman; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Ljunggren, Hans Martin; Loenne, Per-Ivar; Loggins, Vera; Loginov, Vitaly; Lohner, Daniel; Loizides, Constantinos; Loo, Kai Krister; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lovhoiden, Gunnar; Lu, Xianguo; Luettig, Philipp; Lunardon, Marcello; Luo, Jiebin; Luparello, Grazia; Luzzi, Cinzia; Ma, Ke; Ma, Rongrong; Madagodahettige-Don, Dilan Minthaka; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahapatra, Durga Prasad; Maire, Antonin; Malaev, Mikhail; Maldonado Cervantes, Ivonne Alicia; Malinina, Ludmila; Mal'Kevich, Dmitry; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manceau, Loic Henri Antoine; Mangotra, Lalit Kumar; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Mao, Yaxian; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Marin, Ana Maria; Markert, Christina; Marquard, Marco; Martashvili, Irakli; Martin, Nicole Alice; Martinengo, Paolo; Martinez, Mario Ivan; Martinez Davalos, Arnulfo; Martinez Garcia, Gines; Martynov, Yevgen; Mas, Alexis Jean-Michel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Matthews, Zoe Louise; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayer, Christoph; Mazer, Joel; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Meddi, Franco; Menchaca-Rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Mercado Perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Miake, Yasuo; Milano, Leonardo; Milosevic, Jovan; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Miskowiec, Dariusz; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mizuno, Sanshiro; Mlynarz, Jocelyn; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Molnar, Levente; Montano Zetina, Luis Manuel; Monteno, Marco; Montes, Esther; Moon, Taebong; Morando, Maurizio; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Moretto, Sandra; Morreale, Astrid; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Muller, Hans; Munhoz, Marcelo; Musa, Luciano; Musso, Alfredo; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Nattrass, Christine; Navin, Sparsh; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nedosekin, Alexander; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Niida, Takafumi; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikolic, Vedran; Nikulin, Vladimir; Nikulin, Sergey; Nilsen, Bjorn Steven; Nilsson, Mads Stormo; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Novitzky, Norbert; Nyanin, Alexandre; Nyatha, Anitha; Nygaard, Casper; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Ochirov, Alexander; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Sun Kun; Oh, Saehanseul; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oliveira Da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Oppedisano, Chiara; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Ostrowski, Piotr Krystian; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Ozawa, Kyoichiro; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pachr, Milos; Padilla, Fatima; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Painke, Florian; Pajares, Carlos; Pal, Susanta Kumar; Palaha, Arvinder Singh; Palmeri, Armando; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Park, Woo Jin; Passfeld, Annika; Pastircak, Blahoslav; Patalakha, Dmitri Ivanovich; Paticchio, Vincenzo; Paul, Biswarup; Pavlinov, Alexei; Pawlak, Tomasz Jan; Peitzmann, Thomas; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, Elienos; Peresunko, Dmitri; Perez Lara, Carlos Eugenio; Perini, Diego; Perrino, Davide; Peryt, Wiktor Stanislaw; Pesci, Alessandro; Peskov, Vladimir; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petran, Michal; Petris, Mariana; Petrov, Plamen Rumenov; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Piano, Stefano; Piccotti, Anna; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Pitz, Nora; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Planinic, Mirko; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pocheptsov, Timur; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Polak, Karel; Polichtchouk, Boris; Pop, Amalia; Porteboeuf-Houssais, Sarah; Pospisil, Vladimir; Potukuchi, Baba; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; Puddu, Giovanna; Punin, Valery; Putis, Marian; Putschke, Jorn Henning; Quercigh, Emanuele; Qvigstad, Henrik; Rachevski, Alexandre; Rademakers, Alphonse; Raiha, Tomi Samuli; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Ramirez Reyes, Abdiel; Raniwala, Rashmi; Raniwala, Sudhir; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Rathee, Deepika; Read, Kenneth Francis; Real, Jean-Sebastien; Redlich, Krzysztof; Reed, Rosi Jan; Rehman, Attiq Ur; Reichelt, Patrick; Reicher, Martijn; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reolon, Anna Rita; Reshetin, Andrey; Rettig, Felix Vincenz; Revol, Jean-Pierre; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riccati, Lodovico; Ricci, Renato Angelo; Richert, Tuva; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Rodriguez Manso, Alis; Roed, Ketil; Rohr, David; Rohrich, Dieter; Romita, Rosa; Ronchetti, Federico; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossegger, Stefan; Rossi, Andrea; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Rubio Montero, Antonio Juan; Rui, Rinaldo; Russo, Riccardo; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Rybicki, Andrzej; Sadovsky, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakaguchi, Hiroaki; Sakai, Shingo; Sakata, Dosatsu; Salgado, Carlos Albert; Salzwedel, Jai; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sanchez Castro, Xitzel; Sandor, Ladislav; Sandoval, Andres; Sano, Masato; Sano, Satoshi; Santagati, Gianluca; Santoro, Romualdo; Sarkamo, Juho Jaako; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Scharenberg, Rolf Paul; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schreiner, Steffen; Schuchmann, Simone; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schuster, Tim; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; Schweda, Kai Oliver; Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Scott, Patrick Aaron; Scott, Rebecca; Segato, Gianfranco; Selioujenkov, Ilya; Senyukov, Serhiy; Seo, Jeewon; Serci, Sergio; Serradilla, Eulogio; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shabratova, Galina; Shahoyan, Ruben; Sharma, Satish; Sharma, Natasha; Sharma, Rohini; Shigaki, Kenta; Shtejer, Katherin; Sibiriak, Yury; Siciliano, Melinda; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Silvestre, Catherine; Simatovic, Goran; Simonetti, Giuseppe; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singha, Subhash; Singhal, Vikas; Sinha, Bikash; Sinha, Tinku; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Skjerdal, Kyrre; Smakal, Radek; Smirnov, Nikolai; Snellings, Raimond; Sogaard, Carsten; Soltz, Ron Ariel; Son, Hyungsuk; Song, Jihye; Song, Myunggeun; Soos, Csaba; Soramel, Francesca; Sputowska, Iwona; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, Martha; Srivastava, Brijesh Kumar; Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Ionel; Stan, Ionel; Stefanek, Grzegorz; Steinpreis, Matthew; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Steyn, Gideon Francois; Stiller, Johannes Hendrik; Stocco, Diego; Stolpovskiy, Mikhail; Strmen, Peter; Suaide, Alexandre Alarcon do Passo; Subieta Vasquez, Martin Alfonso; Sugitate, Toru; Suire, Christophe Pierre; Sultanov, Rishat; Sumbera, Michal; Susa, Tatjana; Symons, Timothy; Szanto de Toledo, Alejandro; Szarka, Imrich; Szczepankiewicz, Adam; Szostak, Artur Krzysztof; Szymanski, Maciej; Takahashi, Jun; Tapia Takaki, Daniel Jesus; Tarantola Peloni, Attilio; Tarazona Martinez, Alfonso; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terrevoli, Cristina; Thader, Jochen Mathias; Thomas, Deepa; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Timmins, Anthony; Tlusty, David; Toia, Alberica; Torii, Hisayuki; Toscano, Luca; Trubnikov, Victor; Truesdale, David Christopher; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ulery, Jason Glyndwr; Ullaland, Kjetil; Ulrich, Jochen; Uras, Antonio; Urban, Jozef; Urciuoli, Guido Marie; Usai, Gianluca; Vajzer, Michal; Vala, Martin; Valencia Palomo, Lizardo; Vallero, Sara; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; van Leeuwen, Marco; Vannucci, Luigi; Vargas, Aurora Diozcora; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veldhoen, Misha; Venaruzzo, Massimo; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara, Sergio; Vernet, Renaud; Verweij, Marta; Vickovic, Linda; Viesti, Giuseppe; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Vinogradov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Yury; Vinogradov, Leonid; Virgili, Tiziano; Viyogi, Yogendra; Vodopianov, Alexander; Voloshin, Kirill; Voloshin, Sergey; Volpe, Giacomo; von Haller, Barthelemy; Vorobyev, Ivan; Vranic, Danilo; Vrlakova, Janka; Vulpescu, Bogdan; Vyushin, Alexey; Wagner, Vladimir; Wagner, Boris; Wan, Renzhuo; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Mengliang; Wang, Dong; Wang, Yifei; Watanabe, Kengo; Weber, Michael; Wessels, Johannes; Westerhoff, Uwe; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilde, Martin Rudolf; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Wilk, Alexander; Williams, Crispin; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Xaplanteris Karampatsos, Leonidas; Yaldo, Chris G; Yamaguchi, Yorito; Yang, Shiming; Yang, Hongyan; Yasnopolsky, Stanislav; Yi, JunGyu; Yin, Zhongbao; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yoon, Jongik; Yu, Weilin; Yuan, Xianbao; Yushmanov, Igor; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zach, Cenek; Zampolli, Chiara; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zaviyalov, Nikolai; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zelnicek, Pierre; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Fengchu; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, You; Zhu, Jianhui; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianlin; Zhu, Xiangrong; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zoccarato, Yannick Denis; Zynovyev, Mykhaylo; Zyzak, Maksym

    2013-01-01

    The charged-particle pseudorapidity density measured over 4 units of pseudorapidity in non-single-diffractive (NSD) p-Pb collisions at a centre-of-mass energy per nucleon pair $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV is presented. The average value at midrapidity is measured to be 16.81 $\\pm$ 0.71 (syst.), which corresponds to 2.14 $\\pm$ 0.17 (syst.) per participating nucleon. This is 16% lower than in NSD pp collisions interpolated to the same collision energy, and 84% higher than in d-Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 0.2 TeV. The measured pseudorapidity density in p-Pb collisions is compared to model predictions, and provides new constraints on the description of particle production in high-energy nuclear collisions.

  18. Determination of Energy-Transfer Distributions in Ionizing Ion-Molecule Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclot, S.; Delaunay, R.; Piekarski, D. G.; Domaracka, A.; Huber, B. A.; Adoui, L.; Martín, F.; Alcamí, M.; Avaldi, L.; Bolognesi, P.; Díaz-Tendero, S.; Rousseau, P.

    2016-08-01

    The ionization and fragmentation of the nucleoside thymidine in the gas phase has been investigated by combining ion collision with state-selected photoionization experiments and quantum chemistry calculations. The comparison between the mass spectra measured in both types of experiments allows us to accurately determine the distribution of the energy deposited in the ionized molecule as a result of the collision. The relation of two experimental techniques and theory shows a strong correlation between the excited states of the ionized molecule with the computed dissociation pathways, as well as with charge localization or delocalization.

  19. Multiplicity of charged particles in Pb-Pb collisions at SPS energies

    CERN Document Server

    Antinori, F; Badalà, A; Barbera, R; Belogianni, A; Bhasin, A; Bloodworth, Ian J; Bombara, M; Bruno, G; Bull, S A; Caliandro, R; Campbell, M; Carena, W; Carrer, N; Clarke, R F; Dainese, A; De Haas, A P; De Rijke, P C; Di Bari, D; Di Liberto, S; Divià, R; Elia, D; Evans, D; Feofilov, G A; Fini, R A; Ganoti, P; Ghidini, B; Grella, G; Helstrup, H; Hetland, K F; Holme, A K; Jacholkowski, A; Jones, G T; Jovanovic, P; Jusko, A; Kamermans, R; Kinson, J B; Knudson, K; Kolojvari, A A; Kondratiev, V; Králik, I; Kravcakova, A; Kuijer, P; Lenti, V; Lietava, R; Løvhøiden, G; Manzari, V; Martinská, G; Mazzoni, M A; Meddi, F; Michalon, A; Morando, M; Nappi, E; Navach, F; Norman, P I; Palmeri, A; Pappalardo, G S; Pastircák, B; Pisút, J; Pisútová, N; Platt, R J; Posa, F; Quercigh, Emanuele; Riggi, F; Röhrich, D; Romano, G; Safarík, K; Sándor, L; Schillings, E; Segato, G F; Sené, M; Sené, R; Snoeys, W; Soramel, F; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M; Staroba, P; Toulina, T A; Turrisi, R; Tveter, T S; Urbán, J; Valiev, F F; Van den Brink, A; Van de Ven, P; Van den Vyvre, P; van Eijndhoven, N; Van Hunen, J J; Vascotto, Alessandro; Vik, T; Villalobos Baillie, O; Vinogradov, L I; Virgili, T; Votruba, M F; Vrláková, J; Závada, P

    2005-01-01

    The multiplicity of charged particles in the central rapidity region has been measured by the NA57 experiment in Pb--Pb collisions at the CERN SPS at two beam momenta: 158 A GeV/{\\it c} and 40 A GeV/{\\it c}. The value of $dN_{ch}/d\\eta$ at the maximum has been determined and its behaviour as a function of centrality has been studied in the centrality range covered by NA57 (about 50% of the inelastic cross section). The multiplicity increases approximately logarithmically with the centre of mass energy.

  20. Charged particle spectra in αα and αp collisions at the CERN ISR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momenta of charged particles produced in inelastic αα, αp, and pp collisions were measured using the Split-Field-Magnet detector at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings. Inclusive and semi-inclusive spectra are presented as a function of rapidity y, Feynman-x, and transverse momentum psub(T). The inclusive y distributions agree well with predictions of the dual parton model; the highest particle densities are reached at yapprox.=0 and the momenta of leading protons decrease significantly for increasing total multiplicity. ''Temperatures'' are equal in αα, αp, and pp interactions. The psub(T) distributions depend weakly on the multiplicity. (orig.)

  1. Unfolding of event-by-event net-charge distributions in heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Garg, P; Netrakanti, P K; Mohanty, A K; Mohanty, B

    2013-01-01

    An unfolding method, based on Bayes theorem is presented to obtain true event-by-event net-charge multiplicity distribution from a corresponding measured distribution, which is subjected to detector artifacts. The unfolding is demonstrated to work for widely varying particle production mechanism, beam energy and collision centrality. Further the necessity of taking into account the detector effects is emphasized before comparing the experimental measurements to the theoretical calculations, particularly in case of higher moments. The advantage of this approach being that one need not construct new observable to cancel out detector effects which loose their ability to be connected to physical quantities calculable in standard theories.

  2. Energy losses of fast heavy multiply charged structural ions in collisions with complex atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveev, V. I.; Sidorov, D. B.

    2007-07-01

    A nonperturbatve theory of energy losses of fast heavy multiply charged structural ions in collisions with neutral complex atoms is elaborated with allowance for simultaneous excitations of ionic and atomic electron shells. Formulas for the effective deceleration that are similar to the well-known Bethe-Bloch formulas are derived. By way of example, the energy lost by partially stripped U q+ ions (10 ≤ q ≤ 70) colliding with argon atoms and also the energy lost by Au, Pb, and Bi ions colliding with various targets are calculated. The results of calculation are compared with experimental data.

  3. Electrical conduction in organic charge transfer complexes under pressure: A theoretical view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yadunath

    2016-05-01

    We propose a theoretical view of temperature dependent electrical conductivity in organic charge transfer complexes and radical ion salts. Understanding of the basic conduction mechanism under high pressure in these systems is our aim. The mechanism is discussed mainly on the basis of molecular orbital overlap theory, role of charge transfer forces and charge density waves etc.

  4. Transverse Momentum Distributions of Charged Particles in Nuclear Collisions at RHIC Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reports on measurements of the transverse momentum distributions of produced particles from nuclear collisions at the highest center-of-mass energies provided by the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The transverse momentum spectra of charged hadrons produced in d + Au and Au + Au collisions at the top RHIC energy of 200 GeV in the nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass system are presented. For the Au + Au system, the measurements at the lower energy of 62.4 GeV are also reported. The analyzed data were collected by the PHOBOS experiment during several RHIC data-taking runs from 2001 to 2004. The main emphasis of this paper is the measurement of particle production at very low transverse momenta, a possibility uniquely available to the PHOBOS detector. A new non-standard method was developed to extract yields of (π+ + π-), (K+ + K-) and (p + p(bar)) at the lowest transverse momentum values accessible at RHIC. The results do not confirm the prediction of a significant enhancement in particle production at very low pT . The flattening of proton and antiproton pT spectra, consistent with the expectations of transverse expansion of the system, is clearly observed down to very low pT . In contrast to Au + Au collisions, such a flattening is not observed in yields of d + Au collisions at √sNN = 200 GeV. The scaling properties of mT spectra in Au + Au and d + Au collisions, as well as particle ratios, are discussed. Results obtained from the analysis of the transverse momentum distributions clearly show that the matter produced in nuclear collisions at RHIC energies is strongly coupled and undergoes a rapid transverse expansion. Comparison to the predictions of different models aiming to describe particle production in ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions is discussed. The characteristics of the system derived from this study of the transverse momentum distributions has provided a significant contribution to the RHIC discovery of a new state of matter, a

  5. Extension of model potential methods to treat charge transfer in open shell systems. Application to the Si3+/He, He2+/He (21S) and He2+/He (23S) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charge transfer reactions in ion-atom collisions are investigated theoretically for systems involving open-shell configurations. Both model potential and ab-initio methods are used to treat the adiabatic states of the collision complex. A quantum mechanical treatment of the collision dynamics is used. Electron capture cross sections for two representative systems (He2+ in collision with either 21S or 23S metastable He and for Si3+ with ground state He) are calculated in the eV-keV energy range. (author)

  6. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering and its Beam Charge Asymmetry in $e^{\\pm} p$ Collisions at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F D; Alexa, C; Alimujiang, K; Andreev, V; Antunovic, B; Backovic, S; Baghdasaryan, A; Barrelet, E; Bartel, W; Begzsuren, K; Belousov, A; Bizot, J C; Boudry, V; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I; Bracinik, J; Brandt, G; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Bruncko, D; Bunyatyan, A; Buschhorn, G; Bystritskaya, L; Campbell, A J; Cantun Avila, K B; Cerny, K; Cerny, V; Chekelian, V; Cholewa, A; Contreras, J G; Coughlan, J A; Cozzika, G; Cvach, J; Dainton, J B; Daum, K; Deak, M; de Boer, Y; Delcourt, B; Del Degan, M; Delvax, J; De Wolf, E A; Diaconu, C; Dodonov, V; Dossanov, A; Dubak, A; Eckerlin, G; Efremenko, V; Egli, S; Eliseev, A; Elsen, E; Falkiewicz, A; Favart, L; Fedotov, A; Felst, R; Feltesse, J; Ferencei, J; Fischer, D J; Fleischer, M; Fomenko, A; Gabathuler, E; Gayler, J; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Glazov, A; Glushkov, I; Goerlich, L; Gogitidze, N; Gouzevitch, M; Grab, C; Greenshaw, T; Grell, B R; Grindhammer, G; Habib, S; Haidt, D; Helebrant, C; Henderson, R.C W; Hennekemper, E; Henschel, H; Herbst, M; Herrera, G; Hildebrandt, M; Hiller, K H; Hoffmann, D; Horisberger, R; Hreus, T; Jacquet, M; Janssen, M E; Janssen, X; Jonsson, L; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, H; Kapichine, M; Katzy, J; Kenyon, I R; Kiesling, C; Klein, M; Kleinwort, C; Kluge, T; Knutsson, A; Kogler, R; Kostka, P; Kraemer, M; Krastev, K; Kretzschmar, J; Kropivnitskaya, A; Kruger, K; Kutak, K; Landon, M.P J; Lange, W; Lastovicka-Medin, G; Laycock, P; Lebedev, A; Leibenguth, G; Lendermann, V; Levonian, S; Li, G; Lipka, K; Liptaj, A; List, B; List, J; Loktionova, N; Lopez-Fernandez, R; Lubimov, V; Makankine, A; Malinovski, E; Marage, P; Marti, Ll; Martyn, H U; Maxfield, S J; Mehta, A; Meyer, A B; Meyer, H; Meyer, H; Meyer, J; Michels, V; Mikocki, S; Milcewicz-Mika, I; Moreau, F; Morozov, A; Morris, J V; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mudrinic, M; Muller, K; Murin, P; Naumann, Th; Newman, P R; Niebuhr, C; Nikiforov, A; Nikitin, D; Nowak, G; Nowak, K; Nozicka, M; Olivier, B; Olsson, J E; Osman, S; Ozerov, D; Palichik, V; Panagoulias, I; Pandurovic, M; Papadopoulou, Th; Pascaud, C; Patel, G D; Pejchal, O; Perez, E; Petrukhin, A; Picuric, I; Piec, S; Pitzl, D; Placakyte, R; Pokorny, B; Polifka, R; Povh, B; Radescu, V; Rahmat, A J; Raicevic, N; Raspiareza, A; Ravdandorj, T; Reimer, P; Rizvi, E; Robmann, P; Roland, B; Roosen, R; Rostovtsev, A; Rotaru, M; Ruiz Tabasco, J E; Rurikova, Z; Rusakov, S; Salek, D; Sankey, D.P C; Sauter, M; Sauvan, E; Schmitt, S; Schoeffel, L; Schoning, A; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Sefkow, F; Shaw-West, R N; Shtarkov, L N; Shushkevich, S; Sloan, T; Smiljanic, Ivan; Soloviev, Y; Sopicki, P; South, D; Spaskov, V; Specka, Arnd E; Staykova, Z; Steder, M; Stella, B; Stoicea, G; Straumann, U; Sunar, D; Sykora, T; Tchoulakov, V; Thompson, G; Thompson, P D; Toll, T; Tomasz, F; Tran, T H; Traynor, D; Trinh, T N; Truol, P; Tsakov, I; Tseepeldorj, B; Turnau, J; Urban, K; Valkarova, A; Vallee, C; Van Mechelen, P; Vargas Trevino, A; Vazdik, Y; Vinokurova, S; Volchinski, V; von den Driesch, M; Wegener, D; Wissing, Ch; Wunsch, E; Zacek, J; Zalesak, J; Zhang, Z; Zhokin, A; Zimmermann, T; Zohrabyan, H; Zomer, F; Zus, R

    2009-01-01

    A measurement of elastic deeply virtual Compton scattering gamma* p -> gamma p using e^+ p and e^- p collision data recorded with the H1 detector at HERA is presented. The analysed data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 306 pb^-1, almost equally shared between both beam charges. The cross section is measured as a function of the virtuality Q^2 of the exchanged photon and the centre-of-mass energy W of the gamma* p system in the kinematic domain 6.5 < Q^2 < 80 GeV^2, 30 < W < 140 GeV and |t| < 1 GeV^2, where t denotes the squared momentum transfer at the proton vertex. The cross section is determined differentially in t for different Q^2 and W values and exponential t-slope parameters are derived. Using e^+ p and e^- p data samples, a beam charge asymmetry is extracted for the first time in the low Bjorken x kinematic domain. The observed asymmetry is attributed to the interference between Bethe-Heitler and deeply virtual Compton scattering processes. Experimental results are dis...

  7. Thermo-mechanical modeling of turbulent heat transfer in gas-solid flows including particle collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thermo-mechanical turbulence model is developed and used for predicting heat transfer in a gas-solid flow through a vertical pipe with constant wall heat flux. The new four-way interaction model makes use of the thermal kθ-τθ equations, in addition to the hydrodynamic k-τ transport, and accounts for the particle-particle and particle-wall collisions through a Eulerian/Lagrangian formulation. The simulation results indicate that the level of thermal turbulence intensity and the heat transfer are strongly affected by the particle collisions. Inter-particle collisions attenuate the thermal turbulence intensity near the wall but somewhat amplify the temperature fluctuations in the pipe core region. The hydrodynamic-to-thermal times-scale ratio and the turbulent Prandtl number in the region near the wall increase due to the inter-particle collisions. The results also show that the use of a constant or the single-phase gas turbulent Prandtl number produces error in the thermal eddy diffusivity and thermal turbulent intensity fields. Simulation results also indicate that the inter-particle contact heat conduction during collision has no significant effect in the range of Reynolds number and particle diameter studied

  8. Dual Fluorescence in GFP Chromophore Analogues: Chemical Modulation of Charge Transfer and Proton Transfer Bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Tanmay; Mandal, Mrinal; Das, Ananya; Bhattacharyya, Kalishankar; Datta, Ayan; Mandal, Prasun K

    2016-04-14

    Dual fluorescence of GFP chromophore analogues has been observed for the first time. OHIM (o-hydroxy imidazolidinone) shows only a charge transfer (CT) band, CHBDI (p-cyclicamino o-hydroxy benzimidazolidinone) shows a comparable intensity CT and PT (proton transfer) band, and MHBDI (p-methoxy o-hydroxy benzimidazolidinone) shows a higher intensity PT band. It could be shown that the differential optical behavior is not due to conformational variation in the solid or solution phase. Rather, control of the excited state electronic energy level and excited state acidity constant by functional group modification could be shown to be responsible for the differential optical behavior. Chemical modification-induced electronic control over the relative intensity of the charge transfer and proton transfer bands could thus be evidenced. Support from single-crystal X-ray structure, NMR, femtosecond to nanosecond fluorescence decay analysis, and TDDFT-based calculation provided important information and thus helped us understand the photophysics better. PMID:26998908

  9. Elastic, charge transfer, and related transport cross sections for proton impact of atomic hydrogen for astrophysical and laboratory plasma modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, D. R.; Ovchinnikov, S. Yu; Stancil, P. C.; Zaman, T.

    2016-04-01

    Updating and extending previous work (Krstić and Schultz 1999 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 32 3458 and other references) comprehensive calculations were performed for elastic scattering and charge transfer in proton—atomic hydrogen collisions. The results, obtained for 1301 collision energies in the center-of-mass energy range of 10‑4–104 eV, are provided for integral and differential cross sections relevant to transport modeling in astrophysical and other plasma environments, and are made available through a website. Use of the data is demonstrated through a Monte Carlo transport simulation of solar wind proton propagation through atomic hydrogen gas representing a simple model of the solar wind interaction with heliospheric neutrals.

  10. Single Production of Doubly Charged Higgs Boson via e7 Collision in Higgs Triplet Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏雪松; 岳崇兴; 张娇; 王珏

    2011-01-01

    The Higgs triplet model (HTM) predicts the existence of a pair of doubly charged Higgs bosons H±±. Single production of H±± via e7 collision at the next generation e+ e- International Linear Collider (ILC) and the Large Hadron electron Collider (LHeC) is considered. The numerical results show that the production cross sections are very sensitive to the neutrino oscillation parameters. Their values for the inverted hierarchy mass spectrum are larger than those for the normal hierarchy mass spectrum at these two kinds of collider experiments. With reasonable values of the relevant free parameters, the possible signals of the doubly charged Higgs bosons predicted by the HTM might be detected in future ILC experiments.

  11. Charge state distribution of light ions at glancing collision with solid surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many experimental results have suggested that the charge state distribution of ions have penetrated through solid is different from that inside the solid. It is important to clarify the physical process taking place at solid surface in order to know the states of ions inside the solid from those observed outside the solid. In the present paper, we report our measurement of charge state distributions of He+ and H2+ ions having been scattered in small angles (less than 40) at surfaces of Au, Ag and C. One of the advantages of the use of the glancing collision of ions at solid surface for the study of ion-surface interaction is that the dwell time of ion near solid surface can be made more than 100 times longer than that in normal transmission experiments. The longer dwell times may alter any contribution of solid surface to electron capture and loss of ions

  12. Optics of Chromites and Charge-Transfer Transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei V. Zenkov

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Specific features of the charge-transfer (CT states and O2p→Cr3d transitions in the octahedral (CrO69− complex are considered in the cluster approach. The reduced matrix elements of the electric-dipole transition operator are calculated on many-electron wave functions of the complex corresponding to the initial and final states of a CT transition. Modeling the optic spectrum of chromites has yielded a complicated CT band. The model spectrum is in satisfactory agreement with experimental data which demonstrates the limited validity of the generally accepted concept of a simple structure of CT spectra.

  13. Magnetic ordering in fullerene charge-transfer complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tohru; Yamabe, Tokio; Tanaka, Kazuyoshi

    1997-07-01

    We have determined the ground states of the charge-transfer (CT) complexes in which the energy levels of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of donors and the lowest unoccupied MO (LUMO) of acceptors are closely located, and examined some fullerene complexes consisting of C60, C70, tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene (TDAE), and 1,1',3,3'-tetramethyl-Δ2,2'-bi(imidazolidine) (TMBI). The observed magnetic properties of TDAE-C60, TMBI-C60, and TDAE-C70 can be accounted for by employing realistic parameters. The effective Hamiltonian including up to the fourth-order perturbation has also been derived in the fourfold degenerate model space. The effective Hamiltonian can plausibly reproduce the magnetic phase diagram obtained by the variational treatment of TDAE-C60. It has been shown that the third and the fourth processes contribute to the stabilization of the antiferromagnetic state.

  14. Positron annihilation studies of some charge transfer molecular complexes

    CERN Document Server

    El-Sayed, A; Boraei, A A A

    2000-01-01

    Positron annihilation lifetimes were measured for some solid charge transfer (CT) molecular complexes of quinoline compounds (2,6-dimethylquinoline, 6-methoxyquinoline, quinoline, 6-methylquinoline, 3-bromoquinoline and 2-chloro-4-methylquinoline) as electron donor and picric acid as an electron acceptor. The infrared spectra (IR) of the solid complexes clearly indicated the formation of the hydrogen-bonding CT-complexes. The annihilation spectra were analyzed into two lifetime components using PATFIT program. The values of the average and bulk lifetimes divide the complexes into two groups according to the non-bonding ionization potential of the donor (electron donating power) and the molecular weight of the complexes. Also, it is found that the ionization potential of the donors and molecular weight of the complexes have a conspicuous effect on the average and bulk lifetime values. The bulk lifetime values of the complexes are consistent with the formation of stable hydrogen-bonding CT-complexes as inferred...

  15. Deuteron-proton charge exchange reaction at small transfer momentum

    CERN Document Server

    Ladygina, N B

    2004-01-01

    The charge-exchange reaction pd -> npp at 1 GeV projectile proton energy is studied. This reaction is considered in a special kinematics, when the transfer momentum from the beam proton to fast outgoing neutron is close to zero. Our approach is based on the Alt-Grassberger-Sandhas formulation of the multiple-scattering theory for the three-nucleon system. The matrix inversion method has been applied to take account of the final state interaction (FSI) contributions. The differential cross section, tensor analyzing power $C_{0,yy}$, vector-vector $C_{y,y}$ and vector-tensor $C_{y,xz}$ spin correlation parameters of the initial particles are presented. It is shown, that the FSI effects play a very important role under such kinematical conditions. The high sensitivity of the considered observables to the elementary nucleon-nucleon amplitudes has been obtained.

  16. Fluctuations in charged particle multiplicities in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Basu, Sumit; Choudhury, Subikash; Nayak, Tapan K.

    2016-08-01

    Multiplicity distributions of charged particles and their event-by-event fluctuations have been compiled for relativistic heavy-ion collisions from the available experimental data at Brookhaven National Laboratory and CERN and also by the use of an event generator. Multiplicity fluctuations are sensitive to QCD phase transition and to the presence of a critical point in the QCD phase diagram. In addition, multiplicity fluctuations provide baselines for other event-by-event measurements. Multiplicity fluctuation expressed in terms of the scaled variance of the multiplicity distribution is an intensive quantity, but is sensitive to the volume fluctuation of the system. The importance of the choice of narrow centrality bins and the corrections of the centrality bin-width effect for controlling volume fluctuations have been discussed. It is observed that the mean and width of the multiplicity distributions monotonically increase as functions of increasing centrality at all collision energies, whereas the multiplicity fluctuations show minimal variations with centrality. The beam-energy dependence shows that the multiplicity fluctuations have a slow rise at lower collision energies and remain constant at higher energies.

  17. Metal-Organic Coordination Number Determined Charge Transfer Magnitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hung-Hsiang; Chu, Yu-Hsun; Lu, Chun-I.; Yang, Tsung-Han; Yang, Kai-Jheng; Kaun, Chao-Cheng; Hoffmann, Germar; Lin, Minn-Tsong

    2014-03-01

    By the appropriate choice of head groups and molecular ligands, various metal-organic coordination geometries can be engineered. Such metal-organic structures provide different chemical environments for molecules and give us templates to study the charge redistribution within the metal-organic interface. We created various metal-organic bonding environment by growing self-assembly nanostructures of Fe-PTCDA (3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride) chains and networks on a Au(111) surface. Bonding environment dependent frontier molecular orbital energies are acquired by low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and scanning tunneling spectroscopy. By comparing the frontier energies with the molecular coordination environments, we conclude that the specific coordination affects the magnitude of charge transfer onto each PTCDA in the Fe-PTCDA hybridization system. H.-H. Yang, Y.-H. Chu, C.-I Lu, T.-H. Yang, K.-J. Yang, C.-C. Kaun, G. Hoffmann, and M.-T. Lin, ACS Nano 7, 2814 (2013).

  18. Charge Independent(CI) and Charge Dependent(CD) correlations vs. Centrality from $\\Delta \\phi \\Delta \\eta$ Charged Pairs in Minimum Bias Au + Au Collisions at 200 Gev

    CERN Document Server

    Abelev, B I; Ahammed, Z; Anderson, B D; Arkhipkin, D; Averichev, G S; Bai, Y; Balewski, J; Barannikova, O; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Baumgart, S; Beavis, D R; Bellwied, R; Benedosso, F; Betts, R R; Bhardwaj, S; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Biritz, B; Bland, L C; Bombara, M; Bonner, B E; Botje, M; Bouchet, J; Braidot, E; Brandin, A V; Bültmann, S; Burton, T P; Bystersky, M; Cai, X Z; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca-Sanchez, M; Callner, J; Catu, O; Cebra, D; Cendejas, R; Cervantes, M C; Chajecki, Z; Chaloupka, P; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, J Y; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Choi, K E; Christie, W; Chung, S U; Clarke, R F; Codrington, M J M; Coffin, J P; Cormier, T M; Cosentino, M R; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Das, D; Dash, S; Daugherity, M; De Moura, M M; Dedovich, T G; De Phillips, M; Derevshchikov, A A; Derradide Souza, R; Didenko, L; Dietel, T; Djawotho, P; Dogra, S M; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, F; Dunlop, J C; Dutta-Majumdar, M R; Edwards, W R; Efimov, L G; Elhalhuli, E; Elnimr, M; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Estienne, M; Eun, L; Fachini, P; Fatemi, R; Fedorisin, J; Feng, A; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fine, V; Fisyak, Yu; Gagliardi, C A; Gaillard, L; Gangadharan, D R; Ganti, M S; García-Solis, E; Ghazikhanian, V; Ghosh, P; Gorbunov, Y N; Gordon, A; Grebenyuk, O; Grosnick, D; Grube, B; Guertin, S M; Guimaraes, K S F F; Sen-Gupta, A; Gupta, N; Guryn, W; Haag, B; Hallman, T J; Hamed, A; Harris, J W; He, W; Heinz, M; Heppelmann, S; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hoffman, A M; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Hollis, R S; Huang, H Z; Hughes, E W; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Iordanova, A; Jacobs, W W; Jakl, P; Jin, F; Jones, P G; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kajimoto, K; Kang, K; Kapitan, J; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kettler, D; Khodyrev, V Yu; Kiryluk, J; Kisiel, A; Klein, S R; Knospe, A G; Kocoloski, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Kopytine, M; Kotchenda, L; Kouchpil, V; Kravtsov, P; Kravtsov, V I; Krüger, K; Kuhn, C; Kumar, A; Kumar, L; Kurnadi, P; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; La Pointe, S; Laue, F; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, C-H; Le Vine, M J; Li, C; Li, Y; Lin, G; Lin, X; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, H; Liu, J; Liu, L; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Longacre, R S; Love, W A; Lu, Y; Ludlam, T; Lynn, D; Ma, G L; Ma, J G; Ma, Y G; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Mangotra, L K; Manweiler, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McShane, T S; Meschanin, A; Millane, J; Miller, M L; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mischke, A; Mitchell, J; Mohanty, B; Morozov, D A; Munhoz, M G; Nandi, B K; Nattrass, C; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nepali, C; Netrakanti, P K; Ng, M J; Nogach, L V; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Ogawa, A; Okada, H; Okorokov, V; Olson, D; Pachr, M; Pal, S K; Panebratsev, Yu A; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Perevozchikov, V; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Phatak, S C; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Poljak, N; Porile, N; Poskanzer, A M; Potekhin, M; Potukuchi, B V K S; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C; Pruthi, N K; Putschke, J; Qattan, I A; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ridiger, A; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevski, O V; Romero, J L; Rose, A; Roy, C; Ruan, L; Russcher, M J; Rykov, V; Sahoo, R; Sakai, S; Sakrejda, I; Sakuma, T; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sarsour, M; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Selyuzhenkov, I; Seyboth, P; Shabetai, A; Shahaliev, E; Shao, M; Sharma, M; Shi, S S; Shi, X-H; Sichtermann, E P; Simon, F; Singaraju, R N; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Sørensen, P; Sowinski, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stadnik, A; Stanislaus, T D S; Staszak, D; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Suaide, A A P; Suarez, M C; Subba, N L; Sumbera, M; Sun, X M; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarnowsky, T; Thein, D; Thomas, J H; Tian, J; Timmins, A R; Timoshenko, S; Tokarev, M; Tram, V N; Trattner, A L; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tsai, O D; Ulery, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; Van der Kolk, N; Van Leeuwen, M; Van der Molen, A M; Varma, R; Vasconcelos, G M S; Vasilevski, I M; Vasilev, A N; Videbaek, F; Vigdor, S E; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Wada, M; Waggoner, W T; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, J S; Wang, Q; Wang, X; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, J; Wu, Y; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, Z; Yepes, P; Yoo, I-K; Yue, Q; Zawisza, M; Zbroszczyk, H; Zhan, W; Zhang, H; Zhang, S; Zhang, W M; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, Y; Zhong, C; Zhou, J; Zoulkarneev, R; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zuo, J X

    2008-01-01

    We report high precision charged-particle pair (2-D) correlation analyses in the space of $\\Delta \\phi$ (azimuth) and $\\Delta \\eta$ (pseudorapidity), for minimum bias Au + Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV as a function of centrality (0-80%). The intermediate transverse momenta region chosen $0.8 < p_t < 4.0$ GeV/c corresponds to an emission source size $\\sim2$fm obtained from HBT measurements and should resolve substructures at the scale of $\\sim2$fm. The difference and the sum of unlike-sign and like-sign charged pairs form Charge Dependent (CD) correlations and Charge Independent (CI) correlations respectively. The CD displays the initial correlation at hadronization of the opposite sign pairs emitted from the same space-time region as modified by further medium interactions before kinetic freeze-out. Our analysis of the CD correlations shows approximately jet-like structure, independent of centrality and is consistent with the initial correlation which is predicted by Pythia (or HIJING) jet...

  19. Azimuthal angular correlations between heavy-flavour decay particles and charged hadrons in pp collisions in ALICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy quarks produced in pp and heavy ion collisions are studied using heavy-flavour decay electrons and heavy-flavour mesons. Detailed understanding of the production processes and fragmentation of heavy quarks can be obtained by studying the azimuthal angular correlation of heavy-flavour hadrons. The azimuthal angular correlations of heavy-flavour mesons and charged hadrons can be used to disentangle charm and beauty-hadrons in pp collisions. In this contribution the fraction of electrons from beauty-hadron decays in the heavy-flavour decay electron yield is shown as well as the beauty production cross section in pp collisions at √S = 2.76 TeV. The measurements are compared to the predictions from next-to leading order perturbative QCD calculations. We also show the results from correlation analysis of charged D* mesons and hadrons performed using pp collision data at √S = 7 TeV

  20. Correlation between the fragmentation modes and light charged particles emission in heavy ion collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG YingXun[1; ZHOU ChengShuang[1,2; CHEN JiXian[1,2; WANG Ning[2; ZHAO Kai[1; LI ZhuXia[1

    2015-01-01

    The correlation between the shape of rapidity distribution of the yield of light charged particles and the fragmentation modes in semi-peripheral collisions for 70Zn+70Zn, 64Zn+64Zn and 64Ni+64Ni at the beam energy of 35 MeV/nucleon is investigated based on ImQMD05 code. Our studies show there is an interplay between the binary, ternary and multi-fragmentation break-up modes. The binary and ternary break-up modes more prefer to emit light charged particles at middle rapidity and give larger values of Rmid compared with the multi-fragmentation break-up mode does. The reduced rapidity distribution for the normalized yields of yield p, d, t, 3He, 4He and 6He and the corresponding values ~ Rmid oI yield can be used to estimate the probability of multi-fragmentation break-up modes. By comparing to experimental data, our results illustrate that ~40% of the collisions events belong to the multi- fragmentation break-up mode for the reactions we studied.

  1. Doping graphene films via chemically mediated charge transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishikawa Ryousuke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transparent conductive films (TCFs are critical components of a myriad of technologies including flat panel displays, light-emitting diodes, and solar cells. Graphene-based TCFs have attracted a lot of attention because of their high electrical conductivity, transparency, and low cost. Carrier doping of graphene would potentially improve the properties of graphene-based TCFs for practical industrial applications. However, controlling the carrier type and concentration of dopants in graphene films is challenging, especially for the synthesis of p-type films. In this article, a new method for doping graphene using the conjugated organic molecule, tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ, is described. Notably, TCNQ is well known as a powerful electron accepter and is expected to favor electron transfer from graphene into TCNQ molecules, thereby leading to p-type doping of graphene films. Small amounts of TCNQ drastically improved the resistivity without degradation of optical transparency. Our carrier doping method based on charge transfer has a huge potential for graphene-based TCFs.

  2. Charge Transfer Characteristics and Initiation Mechanisms of Long Delayed Sprites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Cummer, S. A.; Lyons, W. A.; Nelson, T. E.

    2007-12-01

    Simultaneous measurements of high altitude optical emissions and the magnetic field produced by sprite-associated lightning discharges enable a close examination of the link between low altitude lightning process and high altitude sprite process. In this work, we report results of the coordinated analysis of high speed (1000--10000 frames per second) sprite video and wideband (0.1 Hz to 30 kHz) magnetic field measurements made simultaneously at the Yucca Ridge Field Station and Duke University during the June through August 2005 campaign period. During the observation period, the high speed camera detected 83 sprite events in 67 TLE sequences, which are caused by the same number of +CGs. 46% of these sprite events are delayed more than 10 ms after the lightning return stroke. With the estimated lightning source current moment waveform, we computed the continuing current amplitude and total charge transfer characteristics of the long delayed sprites (>10 ms delay). Our calculation shows the total charge moment change of the long delayed sprites can vary from several hundred C km to more than ten thousand C km. All the long delayed sprites are related with intense continuing current bigger than 2 kA. This continuing current provides about 50% to 90% of the total charge transfer. However, a bigger continuing current does not necessarily mean a shorter time delay. This indicates that other processes also involved in the sprite initiation for long delayed sprites. In our observations, the sferic burst, a high frequency noise caused by intra-cloud activity, is always accompanied by a slow intensification in the lightning source current before the time of sprite initiation. Thus we used the lightning source current as an input and employed a 2-D FDTD model to numerically simulate the electric field at different altitudes and compare it with the breakdown field. Including the effect of the electron mobility dependence on electric field, the simulation results showed that

  3. Dissociation of Methanol and Acetylene by slow Highly Charged Ion Collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report here the results of dissociation of multiple charged methanol and acetylene molecules in collision with 1.2 MeV Ar8+ projectiles. We observed a wide range of dissociation products from the TOF spectrum starting from undissociated molecular ions, fragments losing an hydrogen atom due to breakage of C-H and/or O-H bonds, to complete rupture of C-C and C-O skeletons for the respective molecules. From the coincidence map of the fragments, we could separate out the different dissociation channels between carbon and oxygen ionic fragments as well as complete two-body dissociation events. The most striking feature in the breakup of CH3OH is the formation of H2+ and H3+ due to intramolecular rearrangement of the C-H bonds within the methyl group. In dissociative ionization studies of C2H2, we observed a diatom-like behaviour of the C-C charged complex as evidenced from the measured slopes of the coincidence islands for carbon atomic charged fragments and theoretical values determined from the charge and momentum distribution of the correlated particles. The shape and orientation of the islands give further information about the momentum balance in the fragmentation process in two-body dissociation

  4. Hydrodynamics with chiral anomaly and charge separation in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yi; Liao, Jinfeng

    2016-05-01

    Matter with chiral fermions is microscopically described by theory with quantum anomaly and macroscopically described (at low energy) by anomalous hydrodynamics. For such systems in the presence of external magnetic field and chirality imbalance, a charge current is generated along the magnetic field direction - a phenomenon known as the Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME). The quark-gluon plasma created in relativistic heavy ion collisions provides an (approximate) example, for which the CME predicts a charge separation perpendicular to the collisional reaction plane. Charge correlation measurements designed for the search of such signal have been done at RHIC and the LHC for which the interpretations, however, remain unclear due to contamination by background effects that are collective flow driven, theoretically poorly constrained, and experimentally hard to separate. Using anomalous (and viscous) hydrodynamic simulations, we make a first attempt at quantifying contributions to observed charge correlations from both CME and background effects in one and same framework. The implications for the search of CME are discussed.

  5. Electron Capture in Collisions of Slow Highly Charged Ions with an Atom and a Molecule: Processes and Fragmentation Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier Husson; Dominique Hennecart; Xavier Fléchard; Jean-Yves Chesnel; Amine Cassimi; Lamri Adoui; Medhi Tarisien; Przemyslaw Sobocinski; Jimmy Rangama; Guillaume Laurent; François Frémont

    2002-01-01

    Abstract : Processes involved in slow collisions between highly charged ions (HCI) and neutral targets are presented. First, the mechanisms responsible for double electron capture are discussed. We show that, while the electron-nucleus interaction is expected to be dominant at projectile velocities of about 0.5 a.u., the electron-electron interaction plays a decisive role during the collision and gains importance when the projectile velocity decreases. This interaction has also to be invoked ...

  6. Charge transfer inefficiency in the pre- and post-irradiated Swept Charge Device CCD236

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the mapping of spectral response of an e2v technologies Swept Charge Device (SCD) CCD236 pre and post irradiation with a 10 MeV equivalent proton fluence of 5.0 × 108 protons cm−2. The CCD236 is a large area (4.4 cm2) X-ray detector which will be used in India's Chandrayaan-2 Large Soft X-ray Spectrometer (CLASS) and China's Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT). To enable the suppression of surface dark current, clocking is performed continuously resulting in a linear readout. As such the flat field illumination used to measure any change in spectral response over a conventional Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs) is not possible. An alternative masking technique has been used to expose pinpoint regions of the device to Mn-Kα and Mn-Kβ X-rays, enabling a local map of spectral response to be built up over the device. This novel approach allows for an estimation of the Charge Transfer Inefficiency (CTI) of the device to be made by allowing the creation of a CTI scatter plot similar to that typically observed in conventional CCDs

  7. Modeling molecular conduction in DNA wires: Charge transfer theories and dissipative quantum transport

    OpenAIRE

    Bulla, R; Gutierrez, R.; Cuniberti, G.

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of electron transfer rates as well as of charge transport characteristics in DNA produced a number of seemingly contradictory results, ranging from insulating behaviour to the suggestion that DNA is an efficient medium for charge transport. Among other factors, environmental effects appear to play a crucial role in determining the effectivity of charge propagation along the double helix. This chapter gives an overview over charge transfer theories and their implication for addres...

  8. Charged-particle multiplicity at mid-rapidity in Au–Au collisions at relativistic heavy-ion collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Silvermyr

    2003-05-01

    The particle density at mid-rapidity is an essential global variable for the characterization of nuclear collisions at ultra-relativistic energies. It provides information about the initial conditions and energy density reached in these collisions. The pseudorapidity densities of charged particles at mid-rapidity in Au + Au collisions at $\\sqrt{S_{NN}}=130$ and 200 GeV at RHIC (relativistic heavy ion collider) have been measured with the PHENIX detector. The measurements were performed using sets of wire-chambers with pad readout in the two central PHENIX tracking arms. Each arm covers one quarter of the azimuth in the pseudorapidity interval || < 0.35. Data is presented and compared with results from proton–proton collisions and nucleus–nucleus collisions at lower energies. Extrapolations to LHC energies are discussed.

  9. Transverse momentum and transverse mass distributions of charged hadrons produced in Au-Au collisions at high energies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Fu-Hu

    2008-01-01

    The transverse momentum distribution and the transverse mass distribution of charged hadrons produced in nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energies are described by using a two-cylinder model. The results calculated by the model are compared and found to be in agreement with the experimental data of the STAR and E895 Collaborations, measured in Au-Au collisions at the relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and alternating-gradient synchrotron (AGS) energies, respectively. In the energy range concerned, the excitation degree of emission source close to the central axis of cylinders increases obviously with the collision centrality and incident energy increasing, but it does not show any obvious change with the increase of the (pseudo) rapidity in central collisions. The excitation degree of emission source close to the side-surface of cylinders does not show any obvious change with the collision centrality, the (pseudo) rapidity, and the incident energy increasing.

  10. Charge Transfer and Support Effects in Heterogeneous Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hervier, Antoine [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-12-21

    The kinetic, electronic and spectroscopic properties of two-dimensional oxide-supported catalysts were investigated in order to understand the role of charge transfer in catalysis. Pt/TiO2 nanodiodes were fabricated and used as catalysts for hydrogen oxidation. During the reaction, the current through the diode, as well as its I-V curve, were monitored, while gas chromatography was used to measure the reaction rate. The current and the turnover rate were found to have the same temperature dependence, indicating that hydrogen oxidation leads to the non-adiabatic excitation of electrons in Pt. A fraction of these electrons have enough energy to ballistically transport through Pt and overcome the Schottky barrier at the interface with TiO2. The yield for this phenomenon is on the order of 10-4 electrons per product molecule formed, similar to what has been observed for CO oxidation and for the adsorption of many different molecules. The same Pt/TiO2 system was used to compare currents in hydrogen oxidation and deuterium oxidation. The current through the diode under deuterium oxidation was found to be greater than under hydrogen oxidation by a factor of three. Weighted by the difference in turnover frequencies for the two isotopes, this would imply a chemicurrent yield 5 times greater for D2 compared to H2, contrary to what is expected given the higher mass of D2. Reversible changes in the rectification factor of the diode are observed when switching between D2 and H2. These changes are a likely cause for the differences in current between the two isotopes. In the nanodiode experiments, surface chemistry leads to charge flow, suggesting the possibility of creating charge flow to tune surface chemistry. This was done first by exposing a Pt/Si diode to visible light while using it as a catalyst for H2 oxidation. Absorption of the light in the Si, combined with

  11. Pseudorapidity distribution of charged hadrons in proton-proton collisions at √{ s} = 13 TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; de Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; van de Klundert, M.; van Haevermaet, H.; van Mechelen, P.; van Remortel, N.; van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; de Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; van Doninck, W.; van Mulders, P.; van Onsem, G. P.; van Parijs, I.; Barria, P.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; de Lentdecker, G.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-Conde, A.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; McCartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Tytgat, M.; van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hamer, M.; Hensel, C.; Mora Herrera, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; da Costa, E. M.; de Jesus Damiao, D.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca de Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; de Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Assran, Y.; El Sawy, M.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Kamel, M.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Mohammed, Y.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Davignon, O.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Lisniak, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. 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M.; Lanza, G.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Sciacca, C.; Thyssen, F.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Benato, L.; Bisello, D.; Boletti, A.; Branca, A.; Carlin, R.; Checchia, P.; Dall'Osso, M.; Dorigo, T.; Dosselli, U.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Gonella, F.; Gozzelino, A.; Kanishchev, K.; Lacaprara, S.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Pazzini, J.; Pozzobon, N.; Ronchese, P.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Tosi, M.; Zanetti, M.; Zotto, P.; Zucchetta, A.; Zumerle, G.; Braghieri, A.; Magnani, A.; Montagna, P.; Ratti, S. P.; Re, V.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vai, I.; Vitulo, P.; Alunni Solestizi, L.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G. M.; Ciangottini, D.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Spiezia, A.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bernardini, J.; Boccali, T.; Broccolo, G.; Castaldi, R.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Donato, S.; Fedi, G.; Foà, L.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M. T.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Serban, A. T.; Spagnolo, P.; Squillacioti, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; D'Imperio, G.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Gelli, S.; Jorda, C.; Longo, E.; Margaroli, F.; Meridiani, P.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Preiato, F.; Rahatlou, S.; Rovelli, C.; Santanastasio, F.; Traczyk, P.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Bellan, R.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Costa, M.; Covarelli, R.; Degano, A.; Demaria, N.; Finco, L.; Kiani, B.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Monteil, E.; Musich, M.; Obertino, M. M.; Pacher, L.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinna Angioni, G. 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    2015-12-01

    The pseudorapidity distribution of charged hadrons in pp collisions at √{ s} = 13 TeV is measured using a data sample obtained with the CMS detector, operated at zero magnetic field, at the CERN LHC. The yield of primary charged long-lived hadrons produced in inelastic pp collisions is determined in the central region of the CMS pixel detector (| η | < 2) using both hit pairs and reconstructed tracks. For central pseudorapidities (| η | < 0.5), the charged-hadron multiplicity density is dNch / dη | | η | < 0.5 = 5.49 ± 0.01(stat) ± 0.17(syst), a value obtained by combining the two methods. The result is compared to predictions from Monte Carlo event generators and to similar measurements made at lower collision energies.

  12. Pseudorapidity distribution of charged hadrons in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} =$ 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

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Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Micanovic, Sasa; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; El Sawy, Mai; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Kamel, Mohamed; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Mohammed, Yasser; Calpas, Betty; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Zghiche, Amina; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Davignon, Olivier; Filipovic, Nicolas; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Lisniak, Stanislav; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Skovpen, Kirill; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heister, Arno; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Preuten, Marius; Raupach, Frank; Schael, Stefan; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Verlage, Tobias; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nayak, Aruna; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Trippkewitz, Karim Damun; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Gonzalez, Daniel; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Junkes, Alexandra; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Nowatschin, Dominik; Ott, Jochen; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schwandt, Joern; Seidel, Markus; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Fink, Simon; Frensch, Felix; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Maier, Benedikt; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Roscher, Frank; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Agapitos, Antonis; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hazi, Andras; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Makovec, Alajos; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mehta, Ankita; Mittal, Monika; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Nishu, Nishu; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Bhardwaj, Rishika; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dey, Sourav; Dutta, Suchandra; Jain, Sandhya; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukherjee, Swagata; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sarkar, Tanmay; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Sharma, Seema; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Goldouzian, Reza; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Monge, Maria Roberta; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Brianza, Luca; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Esposito, Marco; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lanza, Giuseppe; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gonella, Franco; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fedi, Giacomo; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Tamponi, Umberto; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Schizzi, Andrea; Zanetti, Anna; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Tae Jeong; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Bylinkin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Khein, Lev; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Lukina, Olga; Myagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Soares, Mara Senghi; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Castiñeiras De Saa, Juan Ramon; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benaglia, Andrea; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Berruti, Gaia Maria; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Castello, Roberto; Cerminara, Gianluca; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Dorney, Brian; Du Pree, Tristan; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kirschenmann, Henning; Kortelainen, Matti J; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Neugebauer, Hannes; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Piparo, Danilo; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Ruan, Manqi; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Steggemann, Jan; 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    2015-01-01

    The pseudorapidity distribution of charged hadrons in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} =$ 13 TeV is measured using a data sample obtained with the CMS detector, operated at zero magnetic field, at the CERN LHC. The yield of primary charged long-lived hadrons produced in inelastic pp collisions is determined in the central region of the CMS pixel detector ($|\\eta|$ < 2) using both hit pairs and reconstructed tracks. For central pseudo-rapidities ($|\\eta|$ < 0.5), the charged-hadron multiplicity density ${\\rm d}N_{\\rm ch}/{\\rm d}\\eta | _{|\\eta| {\\rm\\ < 0.5}}$ = $5.49 \\pm 0.01 {\\rm\\ (stat)} \\pm 0.17 {\\rm\\ (syst)}$ , a value obtained by combining the two methods. The result is compared to predictions from Monte Carlo event generators and to similar measurements made at lower collision energie.

  13. Beam-energy dependence of charge separation along the magnetic field in Au+Au collisions at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Adamczyk, L; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Anson, C D; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Averichev, G S; Banerjee, A; Beavis, D R; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Borowski, W; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Brovko, S G; Bültmann, S; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Sánchez, M Calderón de la Barca; Cebra, D; Cendejas, R; Cervantes, M C; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, L; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Chwastowski, J; Codrington, M J M; Contin, G; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Cui, X; Das, S; Leyva, A Davila; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; de Souza, R Derradi; Dhamija, S; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Ding, F; Djawotho, P; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Engle, K S; Eppley, G; Eun, L; Evdokimov, O; Eyser, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Fedorisin, J; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Gagliardi, C A; Gangadharan, D R; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Gliske, S; Greiner, L; Grosnick, D; Gunarathne, D S; Guo, Y; Gupta, A; Gupta, S; Guryn, W; Haag, B; Hamed, A; Han, L-X; Haque, R; Harris, J W; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Huang, X; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kesich, A; Khan, Z H; Kikola, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konzer, J; Koralt, I; Kosarzewski, L K; Kotchenda, L; Kraishan, A F; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Kycia, R A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, W; Li, X; Li, Y; Li, Z M; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lomnitz, M; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Don, D M M D Madagodagettige; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; McShane, T S; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nigmatkulov, G; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Ohlson, A; Okorokov, V; Oldag, E W; Olvitt, D L; Pachr, M; Page, B S; Pal, S K; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlak, T; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Poljak, N; Poniatowska, K; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Przybycien, M; Pujahari, P R; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Riley, C K; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Ross, J F; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Rusnakova, O; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sangaline, E; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, B; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Singaraju, R N; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Solanki, D; Sorensen, P; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stevens, J R; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Sumbera, M; Sun, X; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Symons, T J M; Szelezniak, M A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarnowsky, T; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Turnau, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vandenbroucke, M; Vanfossen,, J A; Varma, R; Vasconcelos, G M S; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Vossen, A; Wada, M; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y F; Xiao, Z; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, H; Xu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, Y; Xu, Z; Yan, W; Yang, C; Yang, Y; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Yu, N; Zawisza, Y; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, J B; Zhang, J L; Zhang, S; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, F; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhu, X; Zhu, Y H; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2014-01-01

    Local parity-odd domains are theorized to form inside a Quark-Gluon-Plasma (QGP) which has been produced in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. The local parity-odd domains manifest themselves as charge separation along the magnetic field axis via the chiral magnetic effect (CME). The experimental observation of charge separation has previously been reported for heavy-ion collisions at the top RHIC energies. In this paper, we present the results of the beam-energy dependence of the charge correlations in Au+Au collisions at midrapidity for center-of-mass energies of 7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27, 39 and 62.4 GeV from the STAR experiment. After background subtraction, the signal gradually reduces with decreased beam energy, and tends to vanish by 7.7 GeV. The implications of these results for the CME will be discussed.

  14. Charged-Particle Pseudorapidity Density Distributions from Au+Au Collisions at (sNN) = 130 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Mülmenstädt, J.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2001-09-01

    The charged-particle pseudorapidity density dNch/dη has been measured for Au+Au collisions at (sNN) = 130 GeV at RHIC, using the PHOBOS apparatus. The total number of charged particles produced for the 3% most-central Au+Au collisions for \\|η\\|<=5.4 is found to be 4200+/-470. The evolution of dNch/dη with centrality is discussed, and compared to model calculations and to data from proton-induced collisions. The data show an enhancement in charged-particle production at midrapidity, while in the fragmentation regions, the results are consistent with expectations from pp and pA scattering.

  15. Multiplicity and Pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles in asymmetric and deformed nuclear collisions in a Wounded Quark Model

    CERN Document Server

    Chaturvedi, O S K; Kumar, Ashwini; Singh, B K

    2016-01-01

    The charged particle multiplicity ($n_{ch}$) and pseudorapidity density $(dn_{ch}/d\\eta)$ are key observables to characterize the properties of matter created in heavy ion collisions. The dependence of these observables on collision energy and the collision geometry are a key tool to understand the underlying particle production mechanism. Recently a lot of focus on asymmetric nuclei as well as deformed nuclei collisions has been made as these collisions can provide a deeper understanding of the nature of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). On phenomenological perspective a unified model which describes the experimental data coming from various kind of collision experiments, is much needed to provide the physical insights about the production mechanism. In this paper, firstly we have calculated the charged hadron multiplicities for nucleon-nucleus (such as proton-lead (p-Pb) and asymmetric nuclei collisions like deutron-gold (d-Au), and copper-gold (Cu-Au) within our recently proposed wounded quark model (WQM) and ...

  16. Single-collision studies of hot atom energy transfer and chemical reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses research in the collision dynamics of translationally hot atoms, with funding with DOE for the project ''Single-Collision Studies of Hot Atom Energy Transfer and Chemical Reaction,'' Grant Number DE-FG03-85ER13453. The work reported here was done during the period September 9, 1988 through October 31, 1991. During this period this DOE-funded work has been focused on several different efforts: (1) experimental studies of the state-to-state dynamics of the H + RH → H2 R reactions where RH is CH4, C2H6, or C3H8, (2) theoretical (quasiclassical trajectory) studies of hot hydrogen atom collision dynamics, (3) the development of photochemical sources of translationally hot molecular free radicals and characterization of the high resolution CARS spectroscopy of molecular free radicals, (4) the implementation of stimulated Raman excitation (SRE) techniques for the preparation of vibrationally state-selected molecular reactants

  17. Charge transport in columnar stacked triphenylenes: Effects of conformational fluctuations on charge transfer integrals and site energies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senthilkumar, K.; Grozema, F.C.; Bickelhaupt, F.M.; Siebbeles, L.D.A.

    2003-01-01

    Values of charge transfer integrals, spatial overlap integrals and site energies involved in transport of positive charges along columnar stacked triphenylene derivatives are provided. These parameters were calculated directly as the matrix elements of the Kohn–Sham Hamiltonian, defined in terms of

  18. A schematic model for energy and charge transfer in the chlorophyll complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Malik, F.B.

    2011-01-01

    A theory for simultaneous charge and energy transfer in the carotenoid-chlorophyll-a complex is presented here and discussed. The observed charge transfer process in these chloroplast complexes is reasonably explained in terms of this theory. In addition, the process leads to a mechanism to drive...... are in the range of pico-seconds and less. The change in electronic charge distribution in internuclear space as the system undergoes an electronic transition to a higher-energy state could, under appropriate physical conditions, lead to oscillating dipoles capable of transmitting energy from the...... ground state by fluorescence with no electron being transferred. In the process proposed herein, charge and energy both are transferred from donor to acceptor which can further de-excite by fluorescence. The charge transfer time scale involving an actual transfer of electron is in the pico-second range....

  19. Energy and Charge Transfer from Guest to Host in Doped Organic Electroluminescent Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏建; 彭景翠; 许雪梅; 瞿述; 罗小华; 赵楚军

    2002-01-01

    The luminescence properties of doped organic electroluminescent devices are explained by means off Hamiltonian model. The results show that there is a corresponding relation between the amount of transferred charge and the change of the energy originating from charge transfer, and the relation can be influenced by dopant concentration.As the amount of transferred charge increases, the total energy decreases and the luminescence intensity increases.Therefore, we deduce that the energy transfer from guest to host may be derived from the charge transfer. For a given organic electroluminescent device, the maximum value of the conductivity can be observed in a specific dopant concentration. The calculated results show that the greater the transferred charges, the higher the conductivities in doped organic electroluminescent devices. The results agree basically with experimental results.

  20. Atomic collision studies at moderate projectile velocities using highly charged, decelerated heavy ions from the GSI-UNILAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beams of highly ionized, very heavy atoms at moderate velocities have been produced at the UNILAC using the acceleration-stripping-deceleration method. The available ion species range from Kr33+ to U66+ in the energy region between 2 and 5 MeV/u. A survey on first experiments at GSI using these moderate velocity, few electron, heavy ion beams is given. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated for Xesup(q+)-Xe collision experiments with 41 <= q <= 45. Results on vacancy transfer between inner quasimolecular levels for close collisions, and on distant collision electron capture are reported. (orig.)

  1. Bibliography of electron transfer in heavy particle collisions, 1950--1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawthorne, S.W.; Barnett, C.F.; Crandall, D.H.; Gilbody, H.B.; Kirkpatrick, M.I.; McDaniel, E.; Phaneuf, R.A.; Thomas, E.W. (eds.)

    1979-02-01

    This annotated bibliography lists published work on electron transfer in heavy particle collisions for the period 1950 to 1975. Sources include scientific journals, abstract compilations, conference proceedings, books, and reports. The bibliography is arranged alphabetically by author. Each entry indicates whether the work was experimental or theoretical, what energy range was covered, and what reactants were investigated. Following the bibliographical listing are indexes of reactants and authors.

  2. Bibliography of electron transfer in heavy particle collisions, 1950--1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annotated bibliography lists published work on electron transfer in heavy particle collisions for the period 1950 to 1975. Sources include scientific journals, abstract compilations, conference proceedings, books, and reports. The bibliography is arranged alphabetically by author. Each entry indicates whether the work was experimental or theoretical, what energy range was covered, and what reactants were investigated. Following the bibliographical listing are indexes of reactants and authors

  3. Pseudorapidity Distribution of Charged Particles in d+Au Collisions at √(sNN)=200 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Becker, B.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Harrington, A. S.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lee, J. W.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sedykh, I.; Skulski, W.; Smith, C. E.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S.; Sukhanov, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wolfs, F. L.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wysłouch, B.; Zhang, J.

    2004-08-01

    The measured pseudorapidity distribution of primary charged particles in minimum-bias d+Au collisions at √(sNN)=200 GeV is presented for the first time. This distribution falls off less rapidly in the gold direction as compared to the deuteron direction. The average value of the charged particle pseudorapidity density at midrapidity is ∣η∣≤0.6=9.4±0.7(syst) and the integrated primary charged particle multiplicity in the measured region is 82±6(syst). Estimates of the total charged particle production, based on extrapolations outside the measured pseudorapidity region, are also presented. The pseudorapidity distribution, normalized to the number of participants in d+Au collisions, is compared to those of Au+Au and p+p¯ systems at the same energy. The d+Au distribution is also compared to the predictions of the parton saturation model, as well as microscopic models.

  4. Dynamic Peptide Library for the Discovery of Charge Transfer Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdugo, Cristina; Nalluri, Siva Krishna Mohan; Javid, Nadeem; Escuder, Beatriu; Miravet, Juan F; Ulijn, Rein V

    2015-11-25

    Coupling of peptide self-assembly to dynamic sequence exchange provides a useful approach for the discovery of self-assembling materials. In here, we demonstrate the discovery and optimization of aqueous, gel-phase nanostructures based on dynamically exchanging peptide sequences that self-select to maximize charge transfer of n-type semiconducting naphthalenediimide (NDI)-dipeptide bioconjugates with various π-electron-rich donors (dialkoxy/hydroxy/amino-naphthalene or pyrene derivatives). These gel-phase peptide libraries are characterized by spectroscopy (UV-vis and fluorescence), microscopy (TEM), HPLC, and oscillatory rheology and it is found that, of the various peptide sequences explored (tyrosine Y-NDI with tyrosine Y, phenylalanine F, leucine L, valine V, alanine A or glycine G-NH2), the optimum sequence is tyrosine-phenylalanine in each case; however, both its absolute and relative yield amplification is dictated by the properties of the donor component, indicating cooperativity of peptide sequence and donor/acceptor pairs in assembly. The methodology provides an in situ discovery tool for nanostructures that enable dynamic interfacing of supramolecular electronics with aqueous (biological) systems. PMID:26540455

  5. Charge transfer and in-cloud structure of large-charge-moment positive lightning strokes in a mesoscale convective system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Gaopeng; Cummer, Steven A.; Li, Jingbo; Han, Feng; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Christian, Hugh J.

    2009-08-01

    Lightning observations in the very high frequency band and measurements of ultra low frequency magnetic fields are analyzed to investigate the charge transfer and in-cloud structure of eight positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) strokes in a mesoscale convective system. Although no high altitude images were recorded, these strokes contained large charge moment changes (1500-3200 C·km) capable of producing nighttime sprites. Even though the convective region of the storm was where the flashes originated and where the CG strokes could occur, the charge transferred to ground was mainly from the stratiform region. The post-stroke long continuing currents were connected to highly branched negative leader extension into the stratiform region. While the storm dissipated, the altitude of negative leader propagation in the stratiform area dropped gradually from 8 to 5 km, indicating that in some and perhaps all of these strokes, it was the upper positive charge in the stratiform region that was transferred.

  6. Interaction potentials and energy transfer cross sections for collisions of metastable helium and neon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differential cross sections for elastic and excitation transfer scattering were measured for He(21S) + Ne collisions at kinetic energies between 25 and 225 meV. A kinematic analysis and time-of-flight measurements show that Ne atoms can be excited into all energetically allowed states. From simultaneous fits of the elastic and inelastic differential cross sections information is obtained on the interaction potentials and the energy transfer cross sections. Total cross sections are in agreement with measurements in He-Ne discharges. (author)

  7. Pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles in d+Au and p+p collisions at {\\sqrt{s_{{\\rm NN}}} = \\rm {200 \\;GeV} }

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouicer, Rachid; PHOBOS Collaboration; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Becker, B.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Harrington, A. S.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Holynski, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lee, J. W.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sedykh, I.; Skulski, W.; Smith, C. E.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.; Wyslouch, B.; Zhang, J.

    2004-08-01

    The measured pseudorapidity distributions of primary charged particles are presented for d+Au and p+p collisions at {\\sqrt{s_{{\\rm NN}}} = \\rm {200\\;GeV} } over a wide pseudorapidity range of |eegr|les 5.4. The results for d+Au collisions are presented for minimum-bias events and as a function of collision centrality. The measurements for p+p collisions are shown for minimum-bias events. The ratio of the charged particle multiplicity in d+Au and p+A collisions relative to that for inelastic p+p collisions is found to depend only on langNpartrang, and it is remarkably independent of collision energy and system mass. The deuteron and gold fragmentation regions in d+Au collisions are in good agreement with proton nucleus data at lower energies.

  8. Scaling for state-selective charge exchange due to collisions of multicharged ions with hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, A.; Illescas, Clara; Miraglia, J. E.; Gravielle, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    In this article we evaluate state-resolved charge exchange cross sections for Be{}4+, {{{B}}}5+, {{{C}}}6+, {{{N}}}7+, and {{{O}}}8+ projectiles colliding with atomic hydrogen employing two different methods: the classical trajectory Monte Carlo and the eikonal impulse approximations. These cross sections are used to extend previously derived scaling laws for n-, nl-, and nlm-distributions to highly excited final levels with 4≤slant n≤slant 9, covering energies in the range 50-2000 {{keV}}/ amu. Present total and partial capture cross sections are in agreement with available experimental and theoretical data for these collision systems. Besides, the proposed scaling rules are also verified by other theories, becoming a useful instrument for plasma research.

  9. Azimuthally Integrated HBT Parameters for Charged Pions in Nucleus-Nucleus Interactions versus Collision Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy dependence of spatiotemporal characteristics of particle emission region is studied for charged pions produced in nuclear collisions. No dramatic change is observed for the HBT parameters with increasing of the center-of-mass (c.m.) energy per nucleon-nucleon pair, √(sNN), for √(sNN) of a few GeV to a few TeV. The emission duration is obtained to be almost independent of the c.m. energy within the measurement uncertainties. The analytic function is suggested for a smooth approximation of the energy dependence of the main HBT parameters. The fits demonstrate reasonable agreement with the experimental data. Predictions are made for future LHC and FCC experiments

  10. Pair Production of Majorana Neutrinos by Annihilation of Charged Particles in High Energy Collision

    CERN Document Server

    Goh, Young Moon; Paeng, Won-Gi; Yoon, Yongsung

    2013-01-01

    Assuming that neutrinos have non-vanishing magnetic moments, we discuss the possibility of pair production through annihilation of charged fermions in high-energy collisions. Adopting the Pauli interaction for photon-neutrino coupling, we calculate the neutrino pair production cross section in the photon channel and compare the result with the standard model in $ Z^{0} $ channel. we demonstrated that the enhancement of the production rate for Majorana neutrino pairs over the standard model rate can be possible at the center-of-mass energy of $10 - 100$ TeV for the Large Hadron Collider or the ultra-high-energy cosmic Ray when the transition magnetic moment is not smaller than $10^{-9} - 10^{-10} \\mu_B$.

  11. Mechanism of Charge Transfer from Plasmonic Nanostructures to Chemically Attached Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerigter, Calvin; Aslam, Umar; Linic, Suljo

    2016-06-28

    Plasmonic metal nanoparticles can efficiently convert the energy of visible photons into the energy of hot charge carriers within the nanoparticles. These energetic charge carriers can transfer to molecules or semiconductors, chemically attached to the nanoparticles, where they can induce photochemical transformations. Classical models of photoinduced charge excitation and transfer in metals suggest that the majority of the energetic charge carriers rapidly decay within the metal nanostructure before they are transferred into the neighboring molecule or semiconductor, and therefore, the efficiency of charge transfer is low. Herein, we present experimental evidence that calls into question this conventional picture. We demonstrate a system where the presence of a molecule, adsorbed on the surface of a plasmonic nanoparticle, significantly changes the flow of charge within the excited plasmonic system. The nanoparticle-adsorbate system experiences high rates of direct, resonant flow of charge from the nanoparticle to the molecule, bypassing the conventional charge excitation and thermalization process taking place in the nanoparticle. This picture of charge transfer suggests that the yield of extracted hot electrons (or holes) from plasmonic nanoparticles can be significantly higher than the yields expected based on conventional models. We discuss a conceptual physical framework that allows us to explain our experimental observations. This analysis points us in a direction toward molecular control of the charge transfer process using interface and local field engineering strategies. PMID:27268233

  12. Quantum State Transfer between Charge and Flux Qubits in Circuit-QED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qin-Qin; LIAO Jie-Qiao; KUANG Le-Man

    2008-01-01

    @@ We propose a scheme to implement quantum state transfer in a hybrid circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED)system which consists of a superconducting charge qubit, a flux qubit, and a transmission line resonator (TLR).It is shown that quantum state transfer between the charge qubit and the flux qubit can be realized by using the TLR as the data bus.

  13. Electron transfer and ionization in collisions of highly stripped ions with neutral targets at intermediate velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A highly-charged ion impinging upon a neutral target atom will capture electrons into excited states of the projectile. If the velocity is much less than that of the target electrons, little direct ionization is expected, although appreciable target ionization has been reported for very highly charged ions. Recent studies on both transfer and ionization for Arq+ (6≤q≤17) and O+8,7 on Ar and He target shave been performed for projectile velocities between 0.2 and 1.7 a.u. The measured quantities include charge-state-correlated differential cross sections, K-x-ray emission, and longitudinal recoil- ion momentum transfer, from which Q values can be deduced. Non-negligible direct ionization is observed. Information is extracted on both the primary transfer process and the decay of the multiply excited projectile states formed. Comparisons with model predictions will be made

  14. The role of collective motion in the ultrafast charge transfer in van der Waals heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han; Bang, Junhyeok; Sun, Yiyang; Liang, Liangbo; West, Damien; Meunier, Vincent; Zhang, Shengbai

    2016-01-01

    The success of van der Waals heterostructures made of graphene, metal dichalcogenides and other layered materials, hinges on the understanding of charge transfer across the interface as the foundation for new device concepts and applications. In contrast to conventional heterostructures, where a strong interfacial coupling is essential to charge transfer, recent experimental findings indicate that van der Waals heterostructues can exhibit ultrafast charge transfer despite the weak binding of these heterostructures. Here we find, using time-dependent density functional theory molecular dynamics, that the collective motion of excitons at the interface leads to plasma oscillations associated with optical excitation. By constructing a simple model of the van der Waals heterostructure, we show that there exists an unexpected criticality of the oscillations, yielding rapid charge transfer across the interface. Application to the MoS2/WS2 heterostructure yields good agreement with experiments, indicating near complete charge transfer within a timescale of 100 fs. PMID:27160484

  15. The role of collective motion in the ultrafast charge transfer in van der Waals heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han; Bang, Junhyeok; Sun, Yiyang; Liang, Liangbo; West, Damien; Meunier, Vincent; Zhang, Shengbai

    2016-05-01

    The success of van der Waals heterostructures made of graphene, metal dichalcogenides and other layered materials, hinges on the understanding of charge transfer across the interface as the foundation for new device concepts and applications. In contrast to conventional heterostructures, where a strong interfacial coupling is essential to charge transfer, recent experimental findings indicate that van der Waals heterostructues can exhibit ultrafast charge transfer despite the weak binding of these heterostructures. Here we find, using time-dependent density functional theory molecular dynamics, that the collective motion of excitons at the interface leads to plasma oscillations associated with optical excitation. By constructing a simple model of the van der Waals heterostructure, we show that there exists an unexpected criticality of the oscillations, yielding rapid charge transfer across the interface. Application to the MoS2/WS2 heterostructure yields good agreement with experiments, indicating near complete charge transfer within a timescale of 100 fs.

  16. ARCHITECTURE OF A CHARGE-TRANSFER STATE REGULATING LIGHT HARVESTING IN A PLANT ANTENNA PROTEIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Graham; Ahn, Tae Kyu; Avenson, Thomas J.; Ballottari, Matteo; Cheng, Yuan-Chung; Niyogi, Krishna K.; Bassi, Roberto; Fleming, Graham R.

    2008-04-02

    Energy-dependent quenching of excess absorbed light energy (qE) is a vital mechanism for regulating photosynthetic light harvesting in higher plants. All of the physiological characteristics of qE have been positively correlated with charge-transfer between coupled chlorophyll and zeaxanthin molecules in the light-harvesting antenna of photosystem II (PSII). In this work, we present evidence for charge-transfer quenching in all three of the individual minor antenna complexes of PSII (CP29, CP26, and CP24), and we conclude that charge-transfer quenching in CP29 involves a de-localized state of an excitonically coupled chlorophyll dimer. We propose that reversible conformational changes in CP29 can `tune? the electronic coupling between the chlorophylls in this dimer, thereby modulating the energy of the chlorophylls-zeaxanthin charge-transfer state and switching on and off the charge-transfer quenching during qE.

  17. Crystal Growth of new charge-transfer salts based on $\\pi$-conjugated molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Morherr, Antonia; Chernenkaya, Alisa; Bäcker, Jan-Peter; Schönhense, Gerd; Bolte, Michael; Krellner, Cornelius

    2016-01-01

    New charge transfer crystals of $\\pi$-conjugated, aromatic molecules (phenanthrene and picene) as donors were obtained by physical vapor transport. The melting behavior, optimization of crystal growth and the crystal structure is reported for charge transfer salts with (fluorinated) tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ-F$_x$, x=0, 2, 4), which was used as acceptor material. The crystal structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Growth conditions for different vapor pressures in closed ampules were applied and the effect of these starting conditions for crystal size and quality is reported. The process of charge transfer was investigated by geometrical analysis of the crystal structure and by infrared spectroscopy on single crystals. With these three different acceptor strengths and the two sets of donor materials, it is possible to investigate the distribution of the charge transfer systematically. This helps to understand the charge transfer process in this class of materials with $\\pi$-conjug...

  18. Crystal growth of new charge-transfer salts based on π-conjugated donor molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morherr, Antonia; Witt, Sebastian; Chernenkaya, Alisa; Bäcker, Jan-Peter; Schönhense, Gerd; Bolte, Michael; Krellner, Cornelius

    2016-09-01

    New charge transfer crystals of π-conjugated, aromatic molecules (phenanthrene and picene) as donors were obtained by physical vapor transport. The melting behavior, optimization of crystal growth and the crystal structure are reported for charge transfer salts with (fluorinated) tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ-Fx, x=0, 2, 4), which was used as acceptor material. The crystal structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Growth conditions for different vapor pressures in closed ampules were applied and the effect of these starting conditions for crystal size and quality is reported. The process of charge transfer was investigated by geometrical analysis of the crystal structure and by infrared spectroscopy on single crystals. With these three different acceptor strengths and the two sets of donor materials, it is possible to investigate the distribution of the charge transfer systematically. This helps to understand the charge transfer process in this class of materials with π-conjugated donor molecules.

  19. Baryon stopping and charged particle production from lead-lead collisions at 158 GeV per nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Net proton (proton minus antiproton) and negative charge hadron spectra (h-) from central Pb+Pb collisions at 158 GeV per nucleon at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron were measured and compared to spectra from central collisions of the lighter S+S system. Net baryon distributions were derived from those of net protons and net lambdas. Stopping, or rapidity shift with respect to the beam, of net protons and net baryons increase with system size. The mean transverse momentum T>60;T>62; of net protons also increase with system size. The h- rapidity density scales with the number of participant nucleons for nuclear collisions, where their T>60;T>62; is independent of system size. The T>60;T>62; dependence upon particle mass and system size is consistent with larger transverse flow velocity at midrapidity for central collisions of Pb+Pb compared to that of S+S

  20. Pseudo-rapidity distributions of charged hadrons in pp and pA collisions at the LHC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hong-Min; LIU Jia-Fu; HOU Zhao-Yu; SUN Xian-Jing

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of the Color Glass Condensate,the pseudo-rapidity distributions of charged hadrons in pp and pA collisions at the LHC are studied with the UGD function from the GBW model.With a x2 analysis of the CMS data in pp collisions at √s=0.9,2.36,7 TeV,the normalization factor is obtained and the theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental data.Then,considering the influence of nucleon hard partons transverse distribution on the number of participants in pA collisions by using a Glauber Monte Carlo method,we also give the predictive results for the multiplicity distributions in pPb collisions at √s=4.4 TeV.

  1. Elliptic flow of charged particles in Pb-Pb collisions at 2.76 TeV

    OpenAIRE

    Aamodt, K.; Chojnacki, M.; Christakoglou, P.(Nikhef, National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Amsterdam, The Netherlands); de Rooij, R. S.; Grelli, A.; Kamermans, R.; Mischke, A.; Nooren, G.J.L.; Peitzmann, T.; Thomas, D.; Van Leeuwen, M; M. Veldhoen; Verweij, M.

    2010-01-01

    We report the first measurement of charged particle elliptic flow in Pb-Pb collisions at 2.76 TeV with the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The measurement is performed in the central pseudorapidity region (|eta|

  2. Production of charged kaons in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at 200 GeV/nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production of charged kaons in proton-sulphur, proton-gold, sulphur-sulphur and oxygen-gold collisions at 200 GeV/nucleon has been studied in the NA35 Streamer Chamber experiment. Rapidity and transverse mass distributions as well as mean multiplicities were obtained. The results are compared with nucleon-nucleon data and with model predictions. (orig.)

  3. Dynamics of the excited state intramolecular charge transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 6-dodecanoyl-2-dimethylaminonaphtalene (laurdan), a derivative of 6-propanoyl- 2-dimethylaminonaphthalene (prodan), has been used as a fluorescent probe in cell imaging, especially in visualizing the lipid rafts by the generalized polarization (GP) images, where GP=(I440-I490)/(I440+I490) with I being the fluorescence intensity. The fluorescence spectrum of laurdan is sensitive to its dipolar environment due to the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) process in S1 state, which results in a dual emission from the locally excited (LE) and the ICT states. The ICT process and the solvation of the ICT state are very sensitive to the dipolar nature of the environment. In this work, the ICT of laurdan in ethanol has been studied by femtosecond time resolved fluorescence (TRF), especially TRF spectra measurement without the conventional spectral reconstruction method. TRF probes the excited states exclusively, a unique advantage over the pump/probe transient absorption technique, although time resolution of the TRF is generally lower than transient absorption and the TRF spectra measurement was possible only though the spectral reconstruction. Over the years, critical advances in TRF technique have been made in our group to achieve <50 fs time resolution with direct full spectra measurement capability. Detailed ICT and the subsequent solvation processes can be visualized unambiguously from the TRF spectra. Fig. 1 shows the TRF spectra of laurdan in ethanol at several time delays. Surprisingly, two bands at 433 and 476 nm are clearly visible in the TRF spectra of laurdan even at T = 0 fs. As time increases, the band at 476 nm shifts to the red while its intensity increases. The band at 433 nm also shifts slightly to the red, but loses intensity as time increases. The intensity of the 476 nm band reaches maximum at around 5 ps, where it is roughly twice as intense as that at 0 fs, and stays constant until lifetime decay is noticeable. The spectra were fit by two log

  4. Dissipative processes in heavy ion collisions. Fusion, deep inelastic transfer and frontier phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review concerns nuclear reactions in which a large fraction of the incident kinetic energy is relaxed, i.e. transformed into excitation energy of the colliding nuclei. The present status of experimental research on fusion, deeply inelastic processes and intermediate phenomena is presented, together with the evolution of these studies over the last ten years, particularly at the Orsay 'Institut de Physique Nucleaire'. The following themes are mentioned: - limitation to fusion (fusion cross section measurements), - deexcitation of compound nuclei with high angular momentum (measurements of characteristics of evaporated particles and evaporation residues), - deeply inelastic transfer (charge and excitation energy equilibration) mass transfer and angular momentum transfer, - frontier phenomena between deeply inelastic transfer and quasi-elastic transfer (oscillations in the incompletely relaxed part of energy spectra), - frontier between deeply inelastic transfer and fusion (fast fission process)

  5. Self-interaction and charge transfer in organic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerzdoerfer, Thomas

    2009-12-18

    This work concentrates on the problem of self-interaction, which is one of the most serious problems of commonly used approximative density functionals. As a major result of this work, it is demonstrated that self-interaction plays a decisive role for the performance of different approximative functionals in predicting accurate electronic properties of organic molecular semiconductors. In search for a solution to the self-interaction problem, a new concept for correcting commonly used density functionals for self-interaction is introduced and applied to a variety of systems, spanning small molecules, extended molecular chains, and organic molecular semiconductors. It is further shown that the performance of functionals that are not free from self-interaction can vary strongly for different systems and observables of interest, thus entailing the danger of misinterpretation of the results obtained from those functionals. The underlying reasons for the varying performance of commonly used density functionals are discussed thoroughly in this work. Finally, this thesis provides strategies that allow to analyze the reliability of commonly used approximations to the exchange-correlation functional for particular systems of interest. This cumulative dissertation is divided into three parts. Part I gives a short introduction into DFT and its time-dependent extension (TDDFT). Part II provides further insights into the self-interaction problem, presents a newly developed concept for the correction of self-interaction, gives an introduction into the publications, and discusses their basic results. Finally, the four publications on self-interaction and charge-transfer in extended molecular systems and organic molecular semiconductors are collected in Part III. (orig.)

  6. Azimuthal Single-Spin Asymmetries of Charged Pions in Jets in p↑ p Collisions at STAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Kevin; STAR Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The transversity distribution h1(x), which describes the transverse spin structure of quarks inside of transversely polarized protons, is only accessible through channels that couple h1(x) to another chiral odd distribution, such as the Collins fragmentation function (ΔD(z,kT)). Significant Collins asymmetries of charged pions have been observed in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) data. These SIDIS asymmetries combined with e+e- process asymmetries from Belle have allowed for the extraction of h1(x) and ΔD(z ,kT). Uncertainties on h1(x) remain large due to the limited statistics and kinematic reach of the available data. In transversely polarized hadronic collisions, Collins asymmetries may be isolated and extracted by measuring the spin dependent azimuthal distributions of charged pions in jets. This presentation will show the first significant midrapditiy (| η | access higher momentum scales than the existing SIDIS data and will allow for a comprehensive study of evolution and factorization of the Collins channel.

  7. First Observation of Collins Asymmetries for Charged Pions in Jets in p↑ p Collisions at STAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Kevin; STAR Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The transversity distribution (h1 x), which describes the transverse polarization of quarks in transversely polarized protons, is only accessible through channels that couple h1 x to another chiral odd distribution, such as the Collins fragmentation function (ΔN D z ,kT). Significant Collins asymmetries of charged pions have been observed in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) data. These SIDIS asymmetries combined with e+e- process asymmetries from Belle and BaBar have allowed for the extraction of h1 x and ΔN D z ,kT . Uncertainties on h1 x remain large due to the limited statistics and kinematic reach of the available data. In transversely polarized hadronic collisions, Collins asymmetries may be isolated and extracted by measuring the spin dependent azimuthal distributions of charged pions in jets. This presentation will show the first observation of midrapditiy (| η | access higher momentum scales than the existing SIDIS data and will allow for a comprehensive study of evolution and factorization of the Collins channel.

  8. C60 fragmentation in charge-changing collisions with slow Au+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated ionization and fragmentation of C60 in the charge-changing collisions of 2.0 keV/amu Au+ ions with C60 molecules. We performed simultaneous measurements of product ions, the number of secondary electrons, and a charge-selected outgoing Au projectile. The production of C60+ ions was predominant in the single-electron capture (1-capture) process. In contrast, multifragmentation of C60 was predominant in the single-electron loss (1-loss) process. The multifragmentation was enhanced in the 1-loss process compared with the 1-capture process when the same number of electrons was emitted from C60. This enhancement was also observed when a fast Si ion traveled close to a carbon nucleus [T. Majima et al., Phys. Rev. A 74, 033201 (2006)]. The 1-loss process of slow Au+ ions is considered to occur closer to a carbon nucleus than does the 1-capture process. Multifragmentation of C60 is caused by internal electronic excitation although it is probably assisted by nuclear stopping when, at least, the electronic excitation of C60 is small.

  9. Atomic collision physics: A summary and some projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It seems that it is my task to represent the ''Collision Physics Community'' at this symposium. First, we consider the part of atomic collision physics covered at this conference, i.e., multiple electron transfer to highly charged ions, and second we consider some applications of atomic collision experiments to tests of QED

  10. Parton Energy Loss in Heavy-Ion Collisions via Direct-Photon and Charged-Particle Azimuthal Correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Abelev, B. I.; Benedosso, F.; Braidot, E.; Mischke, A.; Peitzmann, T.(Institute for Subatomic Physics of Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands); Russcher, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    Charged-particle spectra associated with direct photon ($\\gamma_{dir} $) and $\\pi^0$ are measured in $p$+$p$ and Au+Au collisions at center-of-mass energy $\\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=200$ GeV with the STAR detector at RHIC. A hower-shape analysis is used to partially discriminate between $\\gamma_{dir}$ and $\\pi^0$. Assuming no associated charged particles in the $\\gamma_{dir}$ direction (near side) and small contribution from fragmentation photons ($\\gamma_{frag}$), the associated charged-particle yiel...

  11. Multiplicity and Pseudorapidity Distributions of Charged Particles and Photons at Forward Pseudorapidity in Au + Au Collisions at sqrt{s_NN} = 62.4 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, J; Ahammed, Z; Amonett, J; Anderson, B D; Arkhipkin, D; Averichev, G S; Badyal, S K; Bai, Y; Balewski, J; Barannikova, O; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Bekele, S; Belaga, V V; Bellingeri-Laurikainen, A; Bellwied, R; Berger, J; Bezverkhny, B I; Bharadwaj, S; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Billmeier, A; Bland, L C; Blyth, C O; Blyth, S L; Bonner, B E; Botje, M; Boucham, A; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Bravar, A; Bystersky, M; Cadman, R V; Cai, X Z; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca-Sanchez, M; Castillo, J; Catu, O; Cebra, D; Chajecki, Z; Chaloupka, P; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, Y; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Choi, H A; Christie, W; Coffin, J P; Cormier, T M; Cosentino, M R; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Das, D; Das, S; Daugherity, M; De Moura, M M; Dedovich, T G; De Phillips, M; Derevshchikov, A A; Didenko, L; Dietel, T; Dogra, S M; Dong, W J; Dong, X; Draper, J E; Du, F; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Dutta-Majumdar, M R; Eckardt, V; Edwards, W R; Efimov, L G; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Estienne, M; Fachini, P; Faivre, J; Fatemi, R; Fedorisin, J; Filimonov, K; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fine, V; Fisyak, Yu; Fornazier, K S F; Fu, J; Gagliardi, C A; Gaillard, L; Gans, J; Ganti, M S; Geurts, F; Ghazikhanian, V; Ghosh, P; González, J E; Gorbunov, Y G; Gos, H; Grachov, O; Grebenyuk, O; Grosnick, D P; Guertin, S M; Guo, Y; Sen-Gupta, A; Gupta, N; Gutíerrez, T D; Hallman, T J; Hamed, A; Hardtke, D; Harris, J W; Heinz, M; Henry, T W; Hepplemann, S; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffmann, G W; Horner, M J; Huang, H Z; Huang, S L; Hughes, E W; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Ishihara, A; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Jiang, H; Jones, P G; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kang, K; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Khodyrev, V Yu; Kim, B C; Kiryluk, J; Kisiel, A; Kislov, E M; Klay, J; Klein, S R; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Kopytine, M; Kotchenda, L; Kowalik, K L; Krämer, M; Kravtsov, P; Kravtsov, V I; Krüger, K; Kuhn, C; Kulikov, A I; Kumar, A; Kutuev, R K; Kuznetsov, A A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; Laue, F; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, C H; Lehocka, S; Le Vine, M J; Li, C; Li, Q; Li, Y; Lin, G; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, H; Liu, J; Liu, L; Liu, Q J; Liu, Z; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Long, H; Longacre, R S; López-Noriega, M; Love, W A; Lu, Y; Ludlam, T; Lynn, D; Ma, G L; Ma, J G; Ma, Y G; Magestro, D; Mahajan, S; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Mangotra, L K; Manweiler, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Martin, L; Marx, J N; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McClain, C J; McShane, T S; Meissner, F; Melnik, Yu M; Meschanin, A; Miller, M L; Minaev, N G; Mironov, C; Mischke, A; Mishra, D K; Mitchell, J; Mohanty, B; Molnár, L; Moore, C F; Morozov, D A; Munhoz, M G; Nandi, B K; Nayak, S K; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Netrakanti, P K; Nikitin, V A; Nogach, L V; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Ogawa, A; Okorokov, V; Oldenburg, M; Olson, D; Pal, S K; Panebratsev, Yu A; Panitkin, S Y; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Perevozchikov, V; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Petrov, V A; Phatak, S C; Picha, R; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Porile, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Potekhin, M V; Potrebenikova, E V; Potukuchi, B V K S; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C A; Putschke, J; Rakness, G; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ravel, O; Ray, R L; Razin, S V; Reichhold, D M; Reid, J G; Reinnarth, J; Renault, G; Retière, F; Ridiger, A; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevski, O V; Romero, J L; Rose, A; Roy, C; Ruan, L; Russcher, M J; Sahoo, R; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sarsour, M; Savin, I; Sazhin, P S; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Schweda, K; Seger, J; Selyuzhenkov, I; Seyboth, P; Shahaliev, E; Shao, M; Shao, W; Sharma, M; Shen, W Q; Shestermanov, K E; Shimansky, S S; Sichtermann, E P; Simon, F; Singaraju, R N; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Sood, G; Sørensen, P; Sowinski, J; Speltz, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stadnik, A; Stanislaus, T D S; Stock, R; Stolpovsky, A; Strikhanov, M N; Stringfellow, B C; Suaide, A A P; Sugarbaker, E R; Sumbera, M; Surrow, B; Swanger, M; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Tai, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tarnowsky, T J; Thein, D; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Timoshenko, S; Tokarev, M; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tsai, O D; Ulery, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; Van der Kolk, N; Van Leeuwen, M; Van der Molen, A M; Varma, R; Vasilevski, I M; Vasilev, A N; Vernet, R; Vigdor, S E; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Waggoner, W T; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Wang, Z M; Ward, H; Watson, J W; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Wetzler, A; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wood, J; Wu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Z; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, E; Yepes, P; Yoo, I K; Yurevich, V I; Zborovský, I; Zhang, H; Zhang, W M; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhong, C; Zoulkarneev, R; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zubarev, A N; Zuo, J X

    2006-01-01

    We present the centrality dependent measurement of multiplicity and pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles and photons in Au + Au collisions at sqrt{s_NN} = 62.4 GeV. The charged particles and photons are measured in the pseudorapidity region 2.9 < eta < 3.9 and 2.3 < eta < 3.7, respectively. We have studied the scaling of particle production with the number of participating nucleons and the number of binary collisions. The photon and charged particle production in the measured pseudorapidity range has been shown to be consistent with energy independent limiting fragmentation behavior. The photons are observed to follow a centrality independent limiting fragmentation behavior while for the charged particles it is centrality dependent. We have carried out a comparative study of the pseudorapidity distributions of positively charged hadrons, negatively charged hadrons, photons, pions, net protons in nucleus--nucleus collisions and pseudorapidity distributions from p+p collisions. From the...

  12. CHARGE-TRANSFER AND ENERGY-TRANSFER IN THE PHOTO-INDUCED COPOLYMERIZATION OF 2-VINYLNAPHTHALENE WITH MALEIC ANHYDRIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Tong; LUO Bin; LI Shanjun; CHU Guobei

    1990-01-01

    The initiation mechanism of the copolymerization of 2-vinylnaphthalene with maleic anhydride was studied under irradiation of 365 nm. The excited complex was formed from ( 1 ) the local excitation of 2-vinylnaphthalene followed by the charge-transfer interaction with maleic anhydride and ( 2 ) the excitation of the ground state charge-transfer complex, and then it collapsed to 1,4-tetramethylene biradical for initiation. A 1:1 alternating copolymer was formed in different monomer feeds. Addition of benzophenone could greatly enhance the rate of copolymerization through energy-transfer mechanism.

  13. Charge transport in columnar stacked triphenylenes: Effects of conformational fluctuations on charge transfer integrals and site energies

    OpenAIRE

    K. Senthilkumar; Grozema, F.C.; Bickelhaupt, F.M.; Siebbeles, L.D.A.

    2003-01-01

    Values of charge transfer integrals, spatial overlap integrals and site energies involved in transport of positive charges along columnar stacked triphenylene derivatives are provided. These parameters were calculated directly as the matrix elements of the Kohn–Sham Hamiltonian, defined in terms of the molecular orbitals on individual triphenylene molecules. This was realized by exploiting the unique feature of the Amsterdam density functional theory program that allows one to use molecular o...

  14. Excitation of atoms and molecules in collisions with fast, highly charged ions: Progress report for the period January 1, 1988 to February 28, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes progress in research supported by DOE Grant FG05-84ER13262 during the period January 1, 1988 to February 29, 1989. The research program continues to emphasize the investigation of multielectron ionization and capture processes in fast heavy-ion collisions. Several major projects were completed this year and a number of new ones begun. Among the completed projects were an investigation of resonant multielectron transfer to double K-vacancy states in solid oxygen compounds, and a study of collisional quenching of 23P and 24P states in 33 MeV two- and three-electron Mg ions. New projects include a systematic investigation of the projectile charge dependence of cross sections for Ar recoil-ion production in 1 MeV/amu oxygen ion collisions production, and a design study for an atomic physics beam line to be connected to an electron-cyclotron-resonance (ECR) ion source. Work on molecular fragmentation in heavy-ion collisions continued

  15. Production of leading charged particles and leading charged-particle jets at small transverse momenta in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Ochesanu, Silvia; Rougny, Romain; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dobur, Didar; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Léonard, Alexandre; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Perniè, Luca; Randle-conde, Aidan; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Zenoni, Florian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Crucy, Shannon; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Poyraz, Deniz; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Dos Reis Martins, Thiago; Molina, Jorge; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santaolalla, Javier; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Genchev, Vladimir; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Marinov, Andrey; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Zheng; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma

    2015-01-01

    The per-event yield of the highest transverse momentum charged particle and charged-particle jet, integrated above a given $p_{\\mathrm{T}}^{\\mathrm{min}}$ threshold starting at $p_{\\mathrm{T}}^{\\mathrm{min}} = $ 0.8 and 1 GeV, respectively, is studied in PbPb collisions at $\\sqrt{s} =$ 8 TeV. The particles and the jets are measured for absolute pseudorapidities lower than 2.4 and 1.9, respectively. The data are sensitive to the momentum scale at which parton densities saturate in the proton, to multiple partonic interactions, and other key aspects of the transition between the soft and hard QCD regimes in hadronic collisions.

  16. Energy and charge transfer in ionized argon coated water clusters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočišek, Jaroslav; Lengyel, Jozef; Fárník, Michal; Slavíček, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 139, č. 21 (2013), s. 214308. ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/11/0161 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 238671 - ICONIC Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Charged clusters * Charged fragments * Complex reactions Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.122, year: 2013

  17. Effect of isospin-dependent cross-section on fragment production in the collision of charge asymmetric nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anupriya Jain; Suneel Kumar

    2012-05-01

    To understand the role of isospin effects on fragmentation due to the collisions of charge asymmetric nuclei, we have performed a complete systematical study using isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model. Here simulations have been carried out for ${}^{124}X_n + {}^{124}X_n$ ,where varies from 47 to 59 and for 40Y$_m$ + 40Y$_m$ , where varies from 14 to 23. Our study shows that isospin-dependent cross-section shows its influence on fragmentation in the collision of neutron-rich nuclei.

  18. Electron Capture in Collisions of Slow Highly Charged Ions with an Atom and a Molecule: Processes and Fragmentation Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Husson

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract : Processes involved in slow collisions between highly charged ions (HCI and neutral targets are presented. First, the mechanisms responsible for double electron capture are discussed. We show that, while the electron-nucleus interaction is expected to be dominant at projectile velocities of about 0.5 a.u., the electron-electron interaction plays a decisive role during the collision and gains importance when the projectile velocity decreases. This interaction has also to be invoked in the capture of core electrons by HCI. Finally, the molecular fragmentation of H2 following the impact of HCI is studied.

  19. Jets and charged particles in p+Pb and Pb+Pb collisions with the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Spousta, Martin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Jets provide a powerful tool for probing the dynamics of the quark-gluon plasma created in Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC. The modification of high-pT jets as they propagate in the quark-gluon plasma provides insight on structure of the plasma at short-length scale. Such modifications have been observed in a variety of measurements of single jet, dijet, photon-jet and charged-particle fragmentation functions. Recent results of modifications of jets in proton-lead and Pb+Pb collisions will be presented.

  20. Exceptional photosensitivity of a polyoxometalate-based charge-transfer hybrid material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jian-Zhen; Wu, Chen; Wu, Xiao-Yuan; Deng, Shui-Quan; Lu, Can-Zhong

    2016-05-31

    An unusual room-temperature light sensitivity was realized in a polyoxometalate-based hybrid material due to cooperative multicomponent molecular charge-transfer interactions taking place in this material, mainly among POMs, NDIs, and other molecules. The functional π-acidic NDI linkers and POM clusters in the discussed hybrid material were individually designed as photosensors and electron reservoirs. To propose a photo-induced charge-transfer mechanism, EPR, XPS, UV-Vis and computational studies were carried out, and indicated the presence of active charge-transfer interactions among several of the components. PMID:27192943

  1. Charged particle multiplicity near mid-rapidity in central Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 56 and 130 AGeV

    CERN Document Server

    Back, B B; Barton, D S; Basilev, S N; Baum, R; Betts, R R; Bialas, A; Bindel, R; Bogucki, W; Budzanowski, A; Busza, W; Carroll, A S; Ceglia, M; Chang, Y H; Chen, A E; Coghen, T; Conner, C L; Czyz, W; Dabrowski, B; Decowski, M P; Despet, M; Fita, P; Fitch, J; Friedl, M; Galuszka, K; Ganz, R E; García-Solis, E; George, N; Godlewski, J; Gomes, C; Griesmayer, E; Gulbrandsen, K H; Gushue, S; Halik, J; Halliwell, C; Haridas, P; Hayes, A; Heintzelman, G A; Henderson, C; Hollis, R; Holynski, R; Holzman, B; Johnson, E; Kane, J; Katzy, J M; Kita, W; Kotula, J; Kraner, H W; Kucewicz, W; Kulinich, P A; Law, C; Lemler, M A; Ligocki, T J; Lin, W T; Manly, S L; McLeod, D; Michalowski, J; Mignerey, A C; Mülmenstädt, J; Neal, M; Nouicer, R; Olszewski, A; Pak, R; Park, I C; Patel, M; Pernegger, H; Plesko, M; Reed, C; Remsberg, L P; Reuter, M; Roland, C; Roland, G; Ross, D; Rosenberg, L J; Ryan, J; Sanzgiri, A; Sarin, P; Sawicki, P; Scaduto, J; Shea, J; Sinacore, J; Skulski, W; Steadman, S G; Stephans, G S F; Steinberg, P; Straczek, A; Stodulski, M; Strek, M; Stopa, Z; Sukhanov, A; Surowiecka, K; Tang, J L; Teng, R; Trzupek, A; Vale, C J; van Nieuwenhuizen, G J; Verdier, R; Wadsworth, B; Wolfs, F L H; Wosiek, B; Wozniak, K; Wuosmaa, A H; Wyslouch, B; Zalewski, Kasper

    2000-01-01

    We present the first measurement of pseudorapidity densities of primary charged particles near mid-rapidity in Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s} =$ 56 and 130 AGeV. For the most central collisions, we find the charged particle pseudorapidity density to be $dN/d\\eta |_{|\\eta|<1} = 408 \\pm 12 {(stat)} \\pm 30 {(syst)}$ at 56 AGeV and $555 \\pm 12 {(stat)} \\pm 35 {(syst)}$ at 130 AGeV, values that are higher than any previously observed in nuclear collisions. Compared to proton-antiproton collisions, our data show an increase in the pseudorapidity density per participant by more than 40% at the higher energy.

  2. A comparative study of rotational energy transfer in H+ collisions with HF and CO2 molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measured time of flight spectra and angular distributions for proton collisions with CO2 and HF targets at various energies (10-30 eV) reveal marked differences in the behaviour of these systems with regard to the dominance of either vibrational or rotational inelasticity during the encounters. Previous theoretical calculations of the full potential energy surfaces are employed to generate integral cross sections for rotational energy transfer, and a comparison with the corresponding experimental results shows that there is a good agreement between computed and measured quantities. (author)

  3. Inclusive probability calculations for the K-vacancy transfer in collisions of S{^15+} on Ar

    OpenAIRE

    Kürpick, Peter; Sepp, Wolf-Dieter; Fricke, Burkhard

    1992-01-01

    Using the single-particle amplitudes from a 20-level coupled-channel calculation with ab initio relativistic self consistent LCAO-MO Dirac-Fock-Slater energy eigenvalues and matrix elements we calculate within the frame of the inclusive probability formalism impact-parameter-dependent K-hole transfer probabilities. As an example we show results for the heavy asymmetric collision system S{^15+} on Ar for impact energies from 4.7 to 16 MeV. The inclusive probability formalism whi...

  4. Thermodynamic, kinetic and electronic structure aspects of a charge-transfer active bichromophoric organofullerene

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Senthil Kumar; Archita Patnaik

    2013-03-01

    Our recent work on charge transfer in the electronically push-pull dimethylaminoazobenzene-fullerene C60 donor-bridge-acceptor dyad through orbital picture revealed charge displacement from the n(N=N) (non-bonding) and (N=N) type orbitals centred on the donor part to the purely fullerene centred LUMOs and (LUMO+n) orbitals, delocalized over the entire molecule. Consequently, this investigation centres around the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters involved in the solvent polarity dependent intramolecular photo-induced electron transfer processes in the dyad, indispensable for artificial photosynthetic systems. A quasi-reversible electron transfer pathway was elucidated with electrode-specific heterogeneous electron transfer rate constants.

  5. Electron emission in collisions of fast highly charged bare ions with helium atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Abhoy; Mandal, Chittranjan; Purkait, Malay

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the electron emission from ground state helium atom in collision with fast bare heavy ions at intermediate and high incident energies. In the present study, we have applied the present three-body formalism of the three Coulomb wave (3C-3B) model and the previously adopted four-body formalism of the three Coulomb wave (3C-4B). To represent the active electron in the helium atom in the 3C-3B model, the initial bound state wavefunction is chosen to be hydrogenic with an effective nuclear charge. The wavefunction for the ejected electron in the exit channel has been approximated to be a Coulomb continuum wavefunction with same effective nuclear charge. Effectively the continuum-continuum correlation effect has been considered in the present investigation. Here we have calculated the energy and angular distribution of double differential cross sections (DDCS) at low and high energy electron emission from helium atom. The large forward-backward asymmetry is observed in the angular distribution which is explained in terms of the two-center effect (TCE). Our theoretical results are compared with available experimental results as well as other theoretical calculations based on the plain wave Born approximation (PWBA), continuum-distorted wave (CDW) approximation, continuum-distorted wave eikonal-initial state (CDW-EIS) approximation, and the corresponding values obtained from the 3C-4B model [S. Jana, R. Samanta, M. Purkait, Phys. Scr. 88, 055301 (2013)] respectively. It is observed that the four-body version of the present investigation produces results which are in better agreement with experimental observations for all cases.

  6. Extended Classical Over-Barrier Model for Collisions of Highly Charged Ions with Conducting and Insulating Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Ducree, Jens J.; Casali, Fulvio; Thumm, Uwe

    1997-01-01

    We have extended the classical over-barrier model to simulate the neutralization dynamics of highly charged ions interacting under grazing incidence with conducting and insulating surfaces. Our calculations are based on simple model rates for resonant and Auger transitions. We include effects caused by the dielectric response of the target and, for insulators, localized surface charges. Characteristic deviations regarding the charge transfer processes from conducting and insulating targets to...

  7. Identified charged hadron production in pp, p−Pb and Pb−Pb collisions at LHC energies with ALICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volpe Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    The latest results on charged pions, kaons and (antiprotons transverse momentum (pT spectra, ratios and integrated yields, measured in pp collisions at √s = 7 TeV and √s = 2.76 TeV, Pb−Pb collisions at √sNN = 2.76 TeV and p-Pb collisions at √sNN = 5.02 TeV, will be presented. The nuclear modification factors as a function of pT, for Pb−Pb and p−Pb interactions, will be shown. The results from different colliding systems will be compared. These will also be compared with calculations from hydrodynamical and statistical hadronization models.

  8. Topological effects of charge transfer in telomere G-quadruplex: Mechanism on telomerase activation and inhibition

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    We explore charge transfer in the telomere G-Quadruplex (TG4) DNA theoretically by the nonequilibrium Green's function method, and reveal the topological effect of charge transport in TG4 DNA. The consecutive TG4(CTG4) is semiconducting with 0.2 ~ 0.3eV energy gap. Charges transfers favorably in the consecutive TG4, but are trapped in the non-consecutive TG4 (NCTG4). The global conductance is inversely proportional to the local conductance for NCTG4. The topological structure transition from NCTG4 to CTG4 induces abruptly ~ 3nA charge current, which provide a microscopic clue to understand the telomerase activated or inhibited by TG4. Our findings reveal the fundamental property of charge transfer in TG4 and its relationship with the topological structure of TG4.

  9. Topological Effects of Charge Transfer in Telomere G-Quadruplex Mechanism on Telomerase Activation and Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Liang, Shi-Dong

    2013-02-01

    We explore the charge transfer in the telomere G-Quadruplex (TG4) DNA theoretically by the nonequilibrium Green's function method, and reveal the topological effect of the charge transport in TG4 DNA. The consecutive TG4 (CTG4) is semiconducting with 0.2 0.3 eV energy gap. Charges transfer favorably in the CTG4, but are trapped in the nonconsecutive TG4 (NCTG4). The global conductance is inversely proportional to the local conductance for NCTG4. The topological structure transition from NCTG4 to CTG4 induces abruptly 3nA charge current, which provide a microscopic clue to understand the telomerase activated or inhibited by TG4. Our findings reveal the fundamental property of charge transfer in TG4 and its relationship with the topological structure of TG4.

  10. A fast calculation algorithm for the charge transfer loss in CCDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charge transfer loss due to deep level traps in CCDs is a common phenomenon. In single-photon counting CCDs for X-ray detection, the charge loss results in a degradation of spectroscopic resolution. The transfer loss of a signal depends on various parameters like temperature, number of transferred charges, number of charges in the preceding signals and the elapsed time between these signals. Each signal has to be corrected individually with respect to these parameters. An algorithm based on first principles of capture and emission, that allows a fast determination of the transfer loss is presented. The model was tested on calibration data of an X-ray pn-CCD of the EPIC consortium for XMM. The model describes the experimental data very well

  11. Electrical resistivity study of some organic charge transfer complexes under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrical resistivity study of the organic charge transfer complexes tetramethyl benzidine - TCNQ and tetramethyl p-phenylene diamine - TCNQ has been carried out up to pressure 80 kilobar. Using the structural aspect, a conduction mechanism under pressure is suggested. (author)

  12. Excitation of atoms and molecules in collisions with highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the double ionization of He by high-energy N7+ ions was extended up in energy to 40 MeV/amu. Coincidence time-of-flight studies of multicharged N2, O2, and CO molecular ions produced in collisions with 97-MeV Ar14+ ions were completed. Analysis of the total kinetic energy distributions and comparison with the available data for CO2+ and CO3+ from synchrotron radiation experiments led to the conclusion that ionization by Ar-ion impact populates states having considerably higher excitation energies than those accessed by photoionization. The dissociation fractions for CO1+ and CO2+ molecular ions, and the branching ratios for the most prominent charge division channels of CO2+ through CO7+ were determined from time-of-flight singles and coincidence data. An experiment designed to investigate the orientation dependence of dissociative multielectron ionization of molecules by heavy ion impact was completed. Measurements of the cross sections for K-shell ionization of intermediate-Z elements by 30-MeV/amu H, N, Ne, and Ar ions were completed. The cross sections were determined for solid targets of Z = 13, 22, 26, 29, 32, 40, 42, 46, and 50 by recording the spectra of K x rays with a Si(Li) spectrometer

  13. Cross section database for collision processes of helium atom with charged particles. 1. Electron impact processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive and critically assessed cross section database for the inelastic collision processes of ground state and excited helium atoms colliding with electrons, protons and multiply-charged ions has been prepared at the Data and Planning Center at NIFS. The present report describes the first part of the database containing the recommended data for electron impact excitation and ionization of neutral helium. An states (atomic terms) with n ≤ 4 are treated individually while the states with n > 4 are considered degenerate. For the processes involving transitions to and from n > 4 levels, suitable cross section scaling relations are presented. For a large number of electron impact transitions, both from the ground and excited states, new convergent close coupling (CCC) calculations were performed to achieve a high accuracy of the data. The evaluated/recommended cross section data are presented by analytic fit functions which preserve the correct asymptotic behavior of the cross sections. The cross sections are also displayed in a graphical form. (author)

  14. Metal-organic charge transfer can produce biradical states and is mediated by conical intersections

    OpenAIRE

    Tishchenko, Oksana; Li, Ruifang; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2010-01-01

    The present paper illustrates key features of charge transfer between calcium atoms and prototype conjugated hydrocarbons (ethylene, benzene, and coronene) as elucidated by electronic structure calculations. One- and two-electron charge transfer is controlled by two sequential conical intersections. The two lowest electronic states that undergo a conical intersection have closed-shell and open-shell dominant configurations correlating with the 4s2 and 4s13d1 states of Ca, respectively. Unlike...

  15. Oxidation and metal-insertion in molybdenite surfaces: evaluation of charge-transfer mechanisms and dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Shutthanandan V; Becker U; Ramana CV; Julien CM

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), a layered transition-metal dichalcogenide, has been of special importance to the research community of geochemistry, materials and environmental chemistry, and geotechnical engineering. Understanding the oxidation behavior and charge-transfer mechanisms in MoS2 is important to gain better insight into the degradation of this mineral in the environment. In addition, understanding the insertion of metals into molybdenite and evaluation of charge-transfer me...

  16. Quantum Plasmonics: Optical Monitoring of DNA-Mediated Charge Transfer in Plasmon Rulers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, Sarah; Reinhard, Björn M

    2016-03-01

    Plasmon coupling between DNA-tethered gold nanoparticles is investigated by correlated single-particle spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy for interparticle separations between 0.5 and 41 nm. Spectral characterization reveals a weakening of the plasmon coupling due to DNA-mediated charge transfer for separations up to 2.8 nm. Electromagnetic simulations indicate a coherent charge transfer across the DNA. PMID:26789736

  17. The role of multiple electron capture in the x-ray emission process following charge exchange collisions with neutral targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we theoretically study photonic spectra that follow charge exchange processes between highly charged ions and neutral argon and CO targets. The range of collision energies studied is 5 eV/amu-10 keV/amu, covering typical EBIT-traps and Solar Wind energies. Our studies are based on multiple electrons schemes within the classical trajectory Monte Carlo method. Electrons are sorted with the sequential binding energies for the target under consideration. The role played by the multiple electron capture process for the different collision systems under consideration is explicitly analyzed and its contribution separated as arising from double radiative decay and autoionizing multiple capture. Present studies are stimulated by the upcoming launch of the Astro-H mission in 2015, which will provide high resolution spectra in the 0.3 keV-12keV band

  18. Removing flow backgrounds from the charge-separation observable perpendicular to the reaction plane in heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Wen, Fufang; Wang, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Recent charge-dependent azimuthal correlation measurements in high-energy heavy-ion collisions have observed charge-separation signals perpendicular to the reaction plane, and the observations have been related to the chiral magnetic effect (CME). However, the correlation signal is contaminated with the background contributions due to the collective motion (flow) of the collision system, and it remains elusive to effectively remove the background from the correlation. We present a method study with Monte Carlo simulations and a multi-phase transport model, and develop a scheme to reveal the true CME signal via the event-shape engineering with the flow vector, $\\overrightarrow{q}$. An alternative approach using the ensemble averages of observables is also discussed.

  19. Beam energy dependence of moments of the net-charge multiplicity distributions in Au+Au collisions at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2014-01-01

    We report the first measurements of the moments -mean ($M$), variance ($\\sigma^{2}$), skewness ($S$) and kurtosis ($\\kappa$) -of the net-charge multiplicity distributions at mid-rapidity in Au+Au collisions at seven energies, ranging from $\\sqrt {{s_{\\rm NN}}}$=7.7 to 200 GeV, as a part of the Beam Energy Scan program at RHIC. The moments are related to the thermodynamic susceptibilities of net-charge, which are expected to diverge at the QCD critical point. We compare the products of the moments, $\\sigma^{2}/M$, $S\\sigma$ and $\\kappa\\sigma^{2}$ with the expectations from Poisson and negative binomial distributions (NBD). The $S\\sigma$ values deviate from Poisson and are close to NBD baseline, while the $\\kappa\\sigma^{2}$ values tend to lie between the two. Within the present uncertainties, our data do not show clear evidence of non-monotonic behavior as a function of collision energy.

  20. Observation of charge-dependent azimuthal correlations and possible local strong parity violation in heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelev, B. I.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alakhverdyants, A. V.; Anderson, B. D.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G. S.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L. S.; Baumgart, S.; Beavis, D. R.; Bellwied, R.; Benedosso, F.; Betancourt, M. J.; Betts, R. R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Biritz, B.; Bland, L. C.; Bnzarov, I.; Bonner, B. E.; Bouchet, J.; Braidot, E.; Brandin, A. V.; Bridgeman, A.; Bruna, E.; Bueltmann, S.; Burton, T. P.; Cai, X. Z.; Caines, H.; Calderón de La Barca Sánchez, M.; Catu, O.; Cebra, D.; Cendejas, R.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chajecki, Z.; Chaloupka, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, J. Y.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Choi, K. E.; Christie, W.; Chung, P.; Clarke, R. F.; Codrington, M. J. M.; Corliss, R.; Cormier, T. M.; Cosentino, M. R.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, D.; Dash, S.; Daugherity, M.; de Silva, L. C.; Dedovich, T. G.; Dephillips, M.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Derradi de Souza, R.; Didenko, L.; Djawotho, P.; Dzhordzhadze, V.; Dogra, S. M.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Dutta Mazumdar, M. R.; Efimov, L. G.; Elhalhuli, E.; Elnimr, M.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Estienne, M.; Eun, L.; Fachini, P.; Fatemi, R.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, A.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fine, V.; Fisyak, Y.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganti, M. S.; Garcia-Solis, E. J.; Geromitsos, A.; Geurts, F.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Ghosh, P.; Gorbunov, Y. N.; Gordon, A.; Grebenyuk, O.; Grosnick, D.; Grube, B.; Guertin, S. M.; Guimaraes, K. S. F. F.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, N.; Guryn, W.; Haag, B.; Hallman, T. J.; Hamed, A.; Harris, J. W.; Heinz, M.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffman, A. M.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Huang, H. Z.; Humanic, T. J.; Huo, L.; Igo, G.; Iordanova, A.; Jacobs, P.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jakl, P.; Jena, C.; Jin, F.; Jones, C. L.; Jones, P. G.; Joseph, J.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kajimoto, K.; Kang, K.; Kapitan, J.; Kauder, K.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kettler, D.; Khodyrev, V. Yu.; Kikola, D. P.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Klein, S. R.; Knospe, A. G.; Kocoloski, A.; Koetke, D. D.; Konzer, J.; Kopytine, M.; Koralt, I.; Korsch, W.; Kotchenda, L.; Kouchpil, V.; Kravtsov, P.; Kravtsov, V. I.; Krueger, K.; Krus, M.; Kumar, L.; Kurnadi, P.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Lapointe, S.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, C.-H.; Lee, J. H.; Leight, W.; Levine, M. J.; Li, C.; Li, N.; Li, Y.; Lin, G.; Lindenbaum, S. J.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Liu, H.; Liu, J.; Liu, L.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Longacre, R. S.; Love, W. A.; Lu, Y.; Ludlam, T.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, Y. G.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Majka, R.; Mall, O. I.; Mangotra, L. K.; Manweiler, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; Matulenko, Yu. A.; McDonald, D.; McShane, T. S.; Meschanin, A.; Milner, R.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mischke, A.; Mohanty, B.; Morozov, D. A.; Munhoz, M. G.; Nandi, B. K.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Ng, M. J.; Nogach, L. V.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Okada, H.; Okorokov, V.; Olson, D.; Pachr, M.; Page, B. S.; Pal, S. K.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Perevoztchikov, V.; Perkins, C.; Peryt, W.; Phatak, S. C.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Ploskon, M. A.; Pluta, J.; Plyku, D.; Poljak, N.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Potukuchi, B. V. K. S.; Prindle, D.; Pruneau, C.; Pruthi, N. K.; Pujahari, P. R.; Putschke, J.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Redwine, R.; Reed, R.; Ridiger, A.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Rose, A.; Roy, C.; Ruan, L.; Russcher, M. J.; Sahoo, R.; Sakai, S.; Sakrejda, I.; Sakuma, T.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmitz, N.; Seele, J.; Seger, J.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Semertzidis, Y.; Seyboth, P.; Shahaliev, E.; Shao, M.; Sharma, M.; Shi, S. S.; Shi, X.-H.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Simon, F.; Singaraju, R. N.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, N.; Sorensen, P.; Sowinski, J.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Staszak, D.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Suarez, M. C.; Subba, N. L.; Sumbera, M.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Tarini, L. H.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thein, D.; Thomas, J. H.; Tian, J.; Timmins, A. R.; Timoshenko, S.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Tram, V. N.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tsai, O. D.; Ulery, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vanfossen, J. A., Jr.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G. M. S.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Videbaek, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Wada, M.; Walker, M.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, Q.; Wang, X.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Westfall, G. D.; Whitten, C., Jr.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y.; Xie, W.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Y.; Yepes, P.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yue, Q.; Zawisza, M.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zhan, W.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, W. M.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, Y.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, X.; Zoulkarneev, R.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zuo, J. X.; STAR Collaboration

    2010-05-01

    Parity (P)-odd domains, corresponding to nontrivial topological solutions of the QCD vacuum, might be created during relativistic heavy-ion collisions. These domains are predicted to lead to charge separation of quarks along the orbital momentum of the system created in noncentral collisions. To study this effect, we investigate a three-particle mixed-harmonics azimuthal correlator which is a P-even observable, but directly sensitive to the charge-separation effect. We report measurements of this observable using the STAR detector in Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions at sNN=200 and 62 GeV. The results are presented as a function of collision centrality, particle separation in rapidity, and particle transverse momentum. A signal consistent with several of the theoretical expectations is detected in all four data sets. We compare our results to the predictions of existing event generators and discuss in detail possible contributions from other effects that are not related to P violation.

  1. Charge transfer along DNA molecule within Peyrard-Bishop-Holstein model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edirisinghe, Neranjan; Apalkov, Vadym

    2010-03-01

    Charge transport through DNA molecule is important in many areas ranging from DNA damage repair to molecular nanowires. It is now widely accepted that a phonon mediated hopping of a charge carrier plays a major role in charge transport through DNA. In the present study we investigate system dynamics within Peyrard-Bishop-Holstein model for the charge transfer between donor and acceptor sites. We found that an escape time of a charge, trapped at the donor state of the DNA strand, is very sensitive to the initial value of H-bond stretching. This suggests importance of ensemble averaging. Moreover sharp phase transitions were observed for escape time in parameter space of transfer integrals and phonon-charge coupling constant.

  2. Real-time observation of the charge transfer to solvent dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Fabrizio; Bräm, Olivier; Cannizzo, Andrea; Chergui, Majed

    2013-07-01

    Intermolecular electron-transfer reactions have a crucial role in biology, solution chemistry and electrochemistry. The first step of such reactions is the expulsion of the electron to the solvent, whose mechanism is determined by the structure and dynamical response of the latter. Here we visualize the electron transfer to water using ultrafast fluorescence spectroscopy with polychromatic detection from the ultraviolet to the visible region, upon photo-excitation of the so-called charge transfer to solvent states of aqueous iodide. The initial emission is short lived (~60 fs) and it relaxes to a broad distribution of lower-energy charge transfer to solvent states upon rearrangement of the solvent cage. This distribution reflects the inhomogeneous character of the solvent cage around iodide. Electron ejection occurs from the relaxed charge transfer to solvent states with lifetimes of 100-400 fs that increase with decreasing emission energy.

  3. Fermi level alignment in molecular nanojunctions and its relation to charge transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadler, Robert; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2006-01-01

    by orders of magnitude. We present a quantitative analysis of the relation between this level alignment (which can be estimated from charging free molecules) and charge transfer for bipyridine and biphenyl dithiolate (BPDT) molecules attached to gold leads based on density functional theory...... energetically higher end of the gap in the transmission function for bipyridine and at its lower end for BPDT....

  4. Fragmentation study of isolated and nanosolvated biomolecules induced by collision with multiply charged ions and neutral particles

    OpenAIRE

    Bernigaud, Virgile

    2009-01-01

    This thesis concerns a gas phase study of the fragmentation of biomolecular systems induced by slow collisions with multiply charged ions (in the keV-region), alkali atoms and rare gases. The main objective was to study the physical processes involved in the dissociation of highly electronically excited systems. In order to elucidate the intrinsic properties of certain biomolecules (porphyrins and amino acids) we have performed experiments in the gas phase with isolated systems. The obtained ...

  5. Integer versus Fractional Charge Transfer at Metal(/Insulator)/Organic Interfaces: Cu(/NaCl)/TCNE

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, O.; Rinke, P.; Scheffler, M.; Heimel, G.

    2015-01-01

    Semilocal and hybrid density functional theory was used to study the charge transfer and the energy-level alignment at a representative interface between an extended metal substrate and an organic adsorbate layer. Upon suppressing electronic coupling between the adsorbate and the substrate by inserting thin, insulating layers of NaCl, the hybrid functional localizes charge. The laterally inhomogeneous charge distribution resulting from this spontaneous breaking of translational symmetry is re...

  6. Electrostatic sensors applied to the measurement of electric charge transfer in gas-solids pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Woodhead, Stephen; Denham, John; Armour-Chelu, David

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a number of electric charge sensors. The sensors have been developed specifically to investigate triboelectric charge transfer which takes place between particles and the pipeline wall, when powdered materials are conveyed through a pipeline using air. A number of industrial applications exist for such gas-solids pipelines, including pneumatic conveyors, vacuum cleaners and dust extraction systems. The build-up of electric charge on pipelines and powder...

  7. Search for a charged Higgs boson in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} =$ 8 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Knünz, Valentin; König, Axel; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Rougny, Romain; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Van Parijs, Isis; Barria, Patrizia; Brun, Hugues; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Perniè, Luca; Randle-conde, Aidan; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Crucy, Shannon; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Gul, Muhammad; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Poyraz, Deniz; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Mertens, Alexandre; Nuttens, Claude; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Beliy, Nikita; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Hamer, Matthias; Hensel, Carsten; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Souza Santos, Angelo; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Micanovic, Sasa; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; El-khateeb, Esraa; Elkafrawy, Tamer; Mohamed, Amr; Radi, Amr; Salama, Elsayed; Calpas, Betty

    2015-01-01

    A search for a charged Higgs boson is performed with a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 $\\pm$ 0.5 fb$^{-1}$ collected with the CMS detector in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} =$ 8 TeV. The charged Higgs boson is searched for in top quark decays for $ m_{\\mathrm{H}^\\pm} $ lower then $ m_{\\mathrm t} - m_{\\mathrm b}$, and in the direct production ${\\rm pp \\rightarrow t (b) H^\\pm}$ for $m_{\\mathrm H^\\pm} $ larger than $ m_{\\mathrm t} - m_{\\mathrm b}$. The ${\\mathrm H^\\pm\\rightarrow \\tau^\\pm\

  8. Charged-particle multiplicity distributions in oxygen-nucleus collisions at 60 and 200 GeV per nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiplicity distributions of charged particles produced in the pseudorapidity range 0.9lab<5.5 were measured in oxygen-nucleus collisions for Al, Ag, and W target nuclei at incident energies of 60 and 200 GeV per nucleon. The multiplicity differential cross sections and the pseudorapidity distributions as a function of transverse energy are presented for the various target nuclei. The correlation between charged multiplicity and transverse energy is studied as a function of transverse energy. Data are compared with predictions of the IRIS and FRITIOF generators. (orig.)

  9. About the probability of close collisions during stochastic deflection of positively charged particles by a bent crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The probability of close interactions of high-energy positively charged particle with atoms in a bent crystal was considered as a function of the angle between the initial particle momentum and the bending plane. The results of simulation of particle motion presented in the article show the great efficiency of high-energy positively charged particle deflection by a bent crystal due to the stochastic deflection mechanism and strong reduction of the probability of close collisions during the stochastic deflection in comparison to the planar channeling in a bent crystal.

  10. Final state effects on charge asymmetry of pion elliptic flow in high-energy heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Guo-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Within a multi-phase transport (AMPT) model with string melting mechanism and an imported electric charge quadrupole distribution in the initial partonic coordinate space, the elliptic flow asymmetry between positive and negative pions is investigated. The slope parameter $r$ of the linear dependence of $\\Delta v_{2}=v_{2}(\\pi^{-})-v_{2}(\\pi^{+})$ on $A_{ch}=(N^{+}-N^{-})/(N^{+}+N^{-})$ is yielded by the conversion from an initial electric charge quadrupole distribution to a charge-dependent elliptic flow via a strong parton cascade process. The slope parameter $r$ is increased by the hadronization of coalescence, and then decreased by final resonance decays. Because the slope parameter $r$ is very sensitive to both initial electric charge quadrupole percentage and centrality, a helpful constraint of the effect from chiral magnetic wave is extracted out in Au+Au collisions at the top RHIC energy.

  11. Measurement of charged particle multiplicities in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV in the forward region

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Arrabito, L; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Bailey, D S; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, C; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chiapolini, N; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Constantin, F; Conti, G; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Cowan, G A; Currie, R; D'Almagne, B; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Lorenzi, F; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Deissenroth, M; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Domingo Bonal, F; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisele, F; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Esperante Pereira, D; Estève, L; Falabella, A; Fanchini, E; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gauvin, N; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Gracianiv Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harji, R; Harnew, N; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Holubyev, K; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Huston, R S; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Keaveney, J; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Knecht, M; Koppenburg, P; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kruzelecki, K; Kucharczyk, M; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, L; Li Gioi, L; Lieng, M; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Mac Raighne, A; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Magnin, J; Malde, S; Mamunur, R M D; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinez Santos, D; Massafferri, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Maynard, B; Mazurov, A; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Mclean, C; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Messi, R; Miglioranzi, S; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Musy, M; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Nedos, M; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, K; Palacios, J; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Paterson, S K; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petrella, A; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pie Valls, B; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Plackett, R; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; du Pree, T; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Rinnert, K; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodrigues, F; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Rosello, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santinelli, R; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schleich, S; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shao, B; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, A C; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Sobczak, K; Soler, F J P; Solomin, A; Soomro, F; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tran, M T; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urquijo, P; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Visniakov, J; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Voss, H; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yushchenko, O; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zverev, E; Zvyagin, A

    2012-01-01

    The charged particle production in proton-proton collisions is studied with the LHCb detector at a centre-of-mass energy of ${\\sqrt{s} =7}$TeV in different intervals of pseudorapidity $\\eta$. The charged particles are reconstructed close to the interaction region in the vertex detector, which provides high reconstruction efficiency in the $\\eta$ ranges $-2.5<\\eta<-2.0$ and $2.0<\\eta<4.5$. The data were taken with a minimum bias trigger, only requiring one or more reconstructed tracks in the vertex detector. By selecting an event sample with at least one track with a transverse momentum greater than 1 GeV/c a hard QCD subsample is investigated. Several event generators are compared with the data; none are able to describe fully the multiplicity distributions or the charged particle density distribution as a function of $\\eta$. In general, the models underestimate the charged particle production.

  12. Charge-dependent directed flow in Cu+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}$ = 200 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adamczyk, L; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Anderson, D M; Aoyama, R; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Ashraf, M U; Attri, A; Averichev, G S; Bai, X; Bairathi, V; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Bouchet, J; Brandenburg, J D; Brandin, A V; Bunzarov, I; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Sánchez, M Calderón de la Barca; Campbell, J M; Cebra, D; Chakaberia, I; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chatterjee, A; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, X; Chen, J H; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Christie, W; Contin, G; Crawford, H J; Das, S; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Esha, R; Esumi, S; Evdokimov, O; Eyser, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Federic, P; Fedorisin, J; Feng, Z; Filip, P; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Fulek, L; Gagliardi, C A; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Greiner, L; Grosnick, D; Gunarathne, D S; Guo, Y; Gupta, S; Gupta, A; Guryn, W; Hamad, A I; Hamed, A; Haque, R; Harris, J W; He, L; Heppelmann, S; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Horvat, S; Huang, B; Huang, X; Huang, H Z; Huang, T; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jentsch, A; Jia, J; Jiang, K; Jowzaee, S; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Khan, Z H; Kikoła, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Kochenda, L; Koetke, D D; Kosarzewski, L K; Kraishan, A F; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kumar, L; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; Li, Y; Li, C; Li, W; Li, X; Li, X; Lin, T; Lisa, M A; Liu, Y; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lomnitz, M; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Luo, S; Ma, G L; Ma, R; Ma, Y G; Ma, L; Magdy, N; Majka, R; Manion, A; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; McKinzie, S; Meehan, K; Mei, J C; Miller, Z W; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mishra, D; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nigmatkulov, G; Niida, T; Nogach, L V; Nonaka, T; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Okorokov, V A; Olvitt, D; Page, B S; Pak, R; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Pile, P; Pluta, J; Poniatowska, K; Porter, J; Posik, M; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Przybycien, M; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Ray, R L; Reed, R; Rehbein, M J; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Roth, J D; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Rusnakova, O; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, A; Sharma, M K; Sharma, B; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shi, Z; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Sikora, R; Simko, M; Singha, S; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Solyst, W; Song, L; Sorensen, P; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stepanov, M; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Sugiura, T; Sumbera, M; Summa, B; Sun, Z; Sun, Y; Sun, X M; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarnowsky, T; Tawfik, A; Thäder, J; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Todoroki, T; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Tripathy, S K; Tsai, O D; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Upsal, I; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Varma, R; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Vossen, A; Wang, G; Wang, F; Wang, J S; Wang, Y; Wang, H; Wang, Y; Webb, J C; Webb, G; Wen, L; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y; Xiao, Z G; Xie, W; Xie, G; Xin, K; Xu, Q H; Xu, Y F; Xu, H; Xu, Z; Xu, N; Xu, J; Yang, C; Yang, Y; Yang, S; Yang, Y; Yang, Q; Yang, Y; Ye, Z; Ye, Z; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I -K; Yu, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, J; Zhang, X P; Zhang, S; Zhang, Y; Zhang, J B; Zhang, Z; Zhang, S; Zhang, J; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhou, L; Zhu, X; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2016-01-01

    We present the first measurement of charge-dependent directed flow in Cu+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}$ = 200 GeV. The results are presented as a function of the particle transverse momentum and pseudorapidity for different centralities. A finite difference between the directed flow of positive and negative charged particles is observed that qualitatively agrees with the expectations from the effects of the initial strong electric field between two colliding ions with different nuclear charges. The measured difference in directed flow is much smaller than that obtained from the parton-hadron-string-dynamics (PHSD) model, which suggests that most of the electric charges, i.e. quarks and antiquarks, have not yet been created during the lifetime of the strong electric field, which is of the order of, or less than, 1fm/$c$.

  13. Charged Hadron Transverse Momentum Spectra In Gold+gold And Deuteron+gold Collisions At 200 Gev Per Nucleon Pair

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, J L

    2005-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) collides Au ions at a center of mass energy of 200 GeV per nucleon pair, which produces the most energetic collisions yet seen in the laboratory. RHIC has also collided proton beams and deuteron+gold beams. By studying these collisions important information about hadronic matter under extreme conditions and quantum chromodynamics (QCD) can be collected. One of the predictions of QCD is that at very high energy densities the quarks and gluons within hadrons will become deconfined and form a Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). These densities are thought to be achievable with Au+Au collisions at RHIC energies. Another prediction theorizes that before the collision, the very high energies of the nuclei will create a condensate of the low momentum gluons within the nuclei before any collisions occur. This condensate is termed the Color Glass Condensate (CGC). Both of these predictions can be tested by studying the transverse momentum, pT, spectra of charged hadrons produced in the...

  14. Centrality and energy dependence of charged-particle multiplicities in heavy ion collisions in the context of elementary reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; Nieuwenhuizen, G. J. Van; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2006-08-01

    The PHOBOS experiment at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider has measured the total multiplicity of primary charged particles as a function of collision centrality in Au+Au collisions at sNN= 19.6, 130, and 200 GeV. An approximate independence of / on the number of participating nucleons is observed, reminiscent of “wounded nucleon” scaling (Nch∝Npart) observed in proton-nucleus collisions. Unlike p+A, the constant of proportionality does not seem to be set by the pp/p¯p data at the same energy. Rather, there seems to be a surprising correspondence with the total multiplicity measured in e+e- annihilations, as well as the rapidity shape measured over a large range. The energy dependence of the integrated multiplicity per participant pair shows that e+e- and A+A data agree over a large range of center-of-mass energies (s>20 GeV), and pp/p¯p data can be brought to agree approximately with the e+e- data by correcting for the typical energy taken away by leading particles. This is suggestive of a mechanism for soft particle production that depends mainly on the amount of available energy. It is conjectured that the dominant distinction between A+A and p+p collisions is the multiple collisions per participant, which appears to be sufficient to substantially reduce the energy taken away by leading particles.

  15. Conformationally Gated Charge Transfer in DNA Three-Way Junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuqi; Young, Ryan M; Thazhathveetil, Arun K; Singh, Arunoday P N; Liu, Chaoren; Berlin, Yuri A; Grozema, Ferdinand C; Lewis, Frederick D; Ratner, Mark A; Renaud, Nicolas; Siriwong, Khatcharin; Voityuk, Alexander A; Wasielewski, Michael R; Beratan, David N

    2015-07-01

    Molecular structures that direct charge transport in two or three dimensions possess some of the essential functionality of electrical switches and gates. We use theory, modeling, and simulation to explore the conformational dynamics of DNA three-way junctions (TWJs) that may control the flow of charge through these structures. Molecular dynamics simulations and quantum calculations indicate that DNA TWJs undergo dynamic interconversion among "well stacked" conformations on the time scale of nanoseconds, a feature that makes the junctions very different from linear DNA duplexes. The studies further indicate that this conformational gating would control charge flow through these TWJs, distinguishing them from conventional (larger size scale) gated devices. Simulations also find that structures with polyethylene glycol linking groups ("extenders") lock conformations that favor CT for 25 ns or more. The simulations explain the kinetics observed experimentally in TWJs and rationalize their transport properties compared with double-stranded DNA. PMID:26266714

  16. Energy and charge transfer between quasi-zero-dimensional nanostructures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Král, Karel; Menšík, Miroslav

    Washington, DC : TechConnect, 2015, s. 71-74. ISBN 978-1-4987-4727-1. [TechConnect World Innovation . Washington, DC (US), 14.06.2015-17.06.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14011; GA MŠk LH12236 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : exciton transfer * electron transfer * electron-phonon interaction * quantum dots * irreversible quantum transport Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  17. Centrality dependence of charged hadron production in deuteron+gold and nucleon+gold collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=200 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, S S; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Al-Jamel, A; Alexander, J; Aoki, K; Aphecetche, L; Armendariz, R; Aronson, S H; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Babintsev, V; Baldisseri, Alberto; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Bassalleck, B; Bathe, S; Batsouli, S; Baublis, V; Bauer, F; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Bjorndal, M T; Boissevain, J G; Borel, H; Brooks, M L; Brown, D S; Bruner, N; Bucher, D; Büsching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Burward-Hoy, J M; Butsyk, S; Camard, X; Chand, P; Chang, W C; Chernichenko, S; Chi, C Y; Chiba, J; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choudhury, R K; Chujo, T; Cianciolo, V; Cobigo, Y; Cole, B A; Comets, M P; Constantin, P; Csanad, M; Csorg}o, T; Cussonneau, J P; D'Enterria, D; Das, K; Dávid, G; Deák, F; Delagrange, H; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Devismes, A; Dietzsch, O; Drachenberg, J L; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Dzhordzhadze, V; Efremenko, Yu V; Enyo, H; Espagnon, B; Esumi, S; Fields, D E; Finck, C; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fox, B D; Fraenkel, Zeev; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fukao, Y; Fung, S Y; Gadrat, S; Germain, M; Glenn, A; Gonin, M; Gosset, J; Goto, Y; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Gustafsson, Hans Åke; Hachiya, T; Haggerty, J S; Hamagaki, H; Hansen, A G; Hartouni, E P; Harvey, M; Hasuko, K; Hayano, R; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Heuser, J M; Hidas, P; Hiejima, H; Hill, J C; Hobbs, R; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Hoover, A; Horaguchi, T; Ichihara, T; Ikonnikov, V V; Imai, K; Inaba, M; Inuzuka, M; Isenhower, D; Isenhower, L; Ishihara, M; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jinnouchi, O; Johnson, B M; Johnson, S C; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Kajihara, F; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kaneta, M; Kang, J H; Katou, K; Kawabata, T; Kazantsev, A V; Kelly, S; Khachaturov, B; Khanzadeev, A; Kikuchi, J; Kim, D J; Kim, E; Kim, G B; Kim, H J; Kinney, E; Kiss, A; Kistenev, E; Kiyomichi, A; Klein-Bösing, C; Kobayashi, H; Kochenda, L; Kochetkov, V; Kohara, R; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Kotchetkov, D; Kozlov, A; Kroon, P J; Kuberg, C H; Kunde, G J; Kurita, K; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lajoie, J G; Le Bornec, Y; Lebedev, A; Leckey, S; Lee, D M; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Li, X H; Lim, H; Litvinenko, A; Liu, M X; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Man'ko, V I; Mao, Y; Martínez, G; Masui, H; Matathias, F; Matsumoto, T; McCain, M C; McGaughey, P L; Miake, Y; Miller, T E; Milov, A; Mioduszewski, S; Mishra, G C; Mitchell, J T; Mohanty, A K; Morrison, D P; Moss, J M; Mukhopadhyay, D; Muniruzzaman, M; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Nakamura, T; Newby, J; Nyanin, A S; Nystrand, J; O'Brien, E; Ogilvie, C A; Ohnishi, H; Ojha, I D; Okada, H; Okada, K; Oskarsson, A; Otterlund, I; Oyama, K; Ozawa, K; Pal, D; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, J; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Pei, H; Penev, V; Peng, J C; Pereira, H; Peresedov, V; Pierson, A; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Qualls, J M; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reuter, M; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Roche, G; Romana, A; Rosati, M; Rosendahl, S S E; Rosnet, P; Rykov, V L; Ryu, S S; Saitô, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakai, S; Samsonov, V; Sanfratello, L; Santo, R; Sato, H D; Sato, S; Sawada, S; Schutz, Y; Semenov, V; Seto, R; Shea, T K; Shein, I; Shibata, T A; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Sim, K S; Soldatov, A; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sørensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Staley, F; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stepanov, M; Ster, A; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Sullivan, J P; Takagi, S; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tanaka, K H; Tanaka, Y; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Taranenko, A; Tarjan, P; Thomas, T L; Togawa, M; Tojo, J; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tram, V N; Tserruya, Itzhak; Tsuchimoto, Y; Tydesjo, H; Tyurin, N; Uam, T J; Velkovska, J; Velkovsky, M; Veszpremi, V; Vinogradov, A A; Volkov, M A; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, Y; White, S N; Willis, N; Wohn, F K; Woody, C L; Xie, W; Yanovich, A; Yokkaichi, S; Young, G R; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zhang, C; Zhou, S; Zimányi, J; Zolin, L; Zong, X; van Hecke, H W

    2007-01-01

    We present transverse momentum (p_T) spectra of charged hadrons measured in deuteron-gold and nucleon-gold collisions at \\sqrts = 200 GeV for four centrality classes. Nucleon-gold collisions were selected by tagging events in which a spectator nucleon was observed in one of two forward rapidity detectors. The spectra and yields were investigated as a function of the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions, \

  18. Charge Transfer in FeO: A combined Molecular-Dynamics and Ab Initio Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular dynamics simulations and ab initio electronic structure calculations were carried out to determine the rate of charge transfer in stoichiometric w-stite (FeO). The charge transfer of interest occurs by II/III valence interchange between nearest-neighbor Fe atoms, with the Fe(III) constituting a ''hole'' electronic defect. There are two possible nearest-neighbor charge transfers in the FeO lattice, which occur between edge-sharing or corner-sharing FeO6 octahedra. Molecular dynamics simulations predict charge transfer rates of 3.7x1011 and 1.9x109 s-1 for the edge and corner transfers, respectively, in good agreement with those calculated using an ab initio cluster approach (1.6x1011 and 8.0x108 s-1, respectively). The calculated rates are also similar to those along basal and c-axis directions in hematite (?-Fe2O3) determined previously. Therefore, as is the case for hematite, w-stite is predicted to show anisotropic electrical conductivity. Our findings indicate that a rigid ion model does not give acceptable results, thus showing the need to account for the change in polarizability of the system upon charge transfer. Our model achieves this by using a simple mechanical shell model. By calculating the electronic coupling matrix elements for many transition state configurations obtained from the molecular dynamics simulations, we found evidence that the position of the bridging oxygen atoms can greatly affect the amount electronic coupling between the donor and acceptor states. Finally, we address the effect of oxygen vacancies on the charge transfer. It was found that an oxygen vacancy not only creates a driving force for holes to transport away from the vacancy (or equivalently for electrons to diffuse toward the vacancy) but also lowers the free energy barriers for charge transfer. In addition, the reorganization energy significantly differed from the non-defective case in a small radius around the defect

  19. On the HSAB based estimate of charge transfer between adsorbates and metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Left: molecule-to-metal electron charge transfer (ΔN) is proportional to the difference between the metal’s work function and molecular electronegativity. Right: correlation between the work function and explicitly DFT calculated ΔN. Highlights: ► HSAB based electron transfer parameter, ΔN, is analyzed for adsorbates on metal surfaces. ► ΔN gives reasonably estimated trends of charge transfer for atomic and molecular adsorbates. ► Adatom-metal bond strength is linearly proportional to metal-to-adatom charge transfer. ► DFT calculated adsorption energies of the N, O, and Cl adatoms on 11 different metals. ► DFT calculated work functions of low Miller index surfaces for 11 different metals. - Abstract: The applicability of the HSAB based electron charge transfer parameter, ΔN, is analyzed for molecular and atomic adsorbates on metal surfaces by means of explicit DFT calculations. For molecular adsorbates ΔN gives reasonable trends of charge transfer if work function is used for electronegativity of metal surface. For this reason, calculated work functions of low Miller index surfaces for 11 different metals are reported. As for reactive atomic adsorbates, e.g., N, O, and Cl, the charge transfer is proportional to the adatom valence times the electronegativity difference between the metal surface and the adatom, where the electronegativity of metal is represented by a linear combination of atomic Mulliken electronegativity and the work function of metal surface. It is further shown that the adatom-metal bond strength is linearly proportional to the metal-to-adatom charge transfer thus making the ΔN parameter a useful indicator to anticipate the corresponding adsorption energy trends.

  20. Parasitic components from charge transfer in neutral beams for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, O.A.

    1978-02-01

    Charge exchange within accelerating grids in neutral beam systems produces parasitic beam components which degrade the performance of the systems. These components also change the plasma confinement properties at the target. This note discusses parasitic beams produced in three types of grid systems: (1) TFTR/MFTF sources, (2) accel-decel grids for low energy beams, and (3) the JSC negative ion system.

  1. Intermediate energies heavy ion collisions : study of the charged particles emission dynamics and emitters characterization; Collisions d`ions lourds aux energies intermediaires: etude de la dynamique d`emission des particules chargees et caracterisation des emetteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauge, E.

    1994-07-01

    In heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies, reaction processes are ranging from slow processes where equilibrium is achieved between every emission, up to direct processes where nucleon nucleon scattering and phase space availability are the deciding factors. In order to investigate this transition, both the emission dynamics and the characteristics of the emitter have been studied, both theoretically and experimentally in the AMPHORA detector, for the systems 7, 17, 27 and 34 AMeV, {sup 40}Ar+Al, {sup 40}Ar+Cu and {sup 40}Ar+Ag. First, the linear momentum transfer of the most central collisions has been evaluated for these systems, by measuring the velocity of heavy residues. Then, by measuring azimuthal angle correlations functions, and by comparing them with statistical model predictions, the average angular momentum of the emitter has been evaluated. To study the charged particles emission dynamics, experimental azimuthal angle and relative momentum correlation functions have been compared with simulations based on a classical trajectory model. Finally, predictions of an advanced BUU model have been studied for the system 34 AMeV 40 Ar+Al. (authors). 69 refs., 52 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Giant quantum Hall plateaus generated by charge transfer in epitaxial graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander-Webber, J A; Huang, J; Maude, D K; Janssen, T J B M; Tzalenchuk, A; Antonov, V; Yager, T; Lara-Avila, S; Kubatkin, S; Yakimova, R; Nicholas, R J

    2016-01-01

    Epitaxial graphene has proven itself to be the best candidate for quantum electrical resistance standards due to its wide quantum Hall plateaus with exceptionally high breakdown currents. However one key underlying mechanism, a magnetic field dependent charge transfer process, is yet to be fully understood. Here we report measurements of the quantum Hall effect in epitaxial graphene showing the widest quantum Hall plateau observed to date extending over 50 T, attributed to an almost linear increase in carrier density with magnetic field. This behaviour is strong evidence for field dependent charge transfer from charge reservoirs with exceptionally high densities of states in close proximity to the graphene. Using a realistic framework of broadened Landau levels we model the densities of donor states and predict the field dependence of charge transfer in excellent agreement with experimental results, thus providing a guide towards engineering epitaxial graphene for applications such as quantum metrology. PMID:27456765

  3. Giant quantum Hall plateaus generated by charge transfer in epitaxial graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander-Webber, J. A.; Huang, J.; Maude, D. K.; Janssen, T. J. B. M.; Tzalenchuk, A.; Antonov, V.; Yager, T.; Lara-Avila, S.; Kubatkin, S.; Yakimova, R.; Nicholas, R. J.

    2016-07-01

    Epitaxial graphene has proven itself to be the best candidate for quantum electrical resistance standards due to its wide quantum Hall plateaus with exceptionally high breakdown currents. However one key underlying mechanism, a magnetic field dependent charge transfer process, is yet to be fully understood. Here we report measurements of the quantum Hall effect in epitaxial graphene showing the widest quantum Hall plateau observed to date extending over 50 T, attributed to an almost linear increase in carrier density with magnetic field. This behaviour is strong evidence for field dependent charge transfer from charge reservoirs with exceptionally high densities of states in close proximity to the graphene. Using a realistic framework of broadened Landau levels we model the densities of donor states and predict the field dependence of charge transfer in excellent agreement with experimental results, thus providing a guide towards engineering epitaxial graphene for applications such as quantum metrology.

  4. Integer Charge Transfer and Hybridization at an Organic Semiconductor/Conductive Oxide Interface

    KAUST Repository

    Gruenewald, Marco

    2015-02-11

    We investigate the prototypical hybrid interface formed between PTCDA and conductive n-doped ZnO films by means of complementary optical and electronic spectroscopic techniques. We demonstrate that shallow donors in the vicinity of the ZnO surface cause an integer charge transfer to PTCDA, which is clearly restricted to the first monolayer. By means of DFT calculations, we show that the experimental signatures of the anionic PTCDA species can be understood in terms of strong hybridization with localized states (the shallow donors) in the substrate and charge back-donation, resulting in an effectively integer charge transfer across the interface. Charge transfer is thus not merely a question of locating the Fermi level above the PTCDA electron-transport level but requires rather an atomistic understanding of the interfacial interactions. The study reveals that defect sites and dopants can have a significant influence on the specifics of interfacial coupling and thus on carrier injection or extraction.

  5. Orientation dependence of the probability of close collisions during passage of high-energy negatively charged particle through a bent crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The probability of close collisions of high-energy negatively charged particle with atoms in a bent crystal was considered as a function of the angle between the initial particle momentum and the bending plane. This allowed to compare the probability of close collisions of high-energy negatively charged particle in a bent crystal in two different regimes of deflection: planar channeling and stochastic deflection. The results of simulation of negatively charged particle motion in a bent crystal shown the great efficiency of high-energy negatively charged particle beam deflection by a bent crystal due to stochastic deflection and small efficiency of deflection due to planar channeling

  6. Inductive Power Transfer with Resonance for Wireless Charging of Batteries in Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Roaldset, Johanna Ruud

    2010-01-01

    This report investigates inductive power transfer with resonance for wireless charging of electric vehicle (EV) batteries. The inspiration for the topic came from the paper Basic experimental study on helical antennas of wireless power transfer for Electric Vehicles by using magnetic resonant couplings by T. Imura, H. Okabe and Y. Hory [7]. The paper presents laboratory results of more than 97% power transfer efficiency at a distance between the coils of up to 20 cm. The coils used are air ...

  7. Longitudinal spin transfer to Lambda and Lambda hyperons in polarized proton-proton collisions at s=200 GeV

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abelev, B. I.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Anderson, B. D.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G. S.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L. S.; Baudot, J.; Baumgart, S.; Beavis, D.R.; Bellwied, R.; Benedosso, F.; Betancourt, M.J.; Betts, R. R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A.K.; Bichsel, H.; Bielčík, Jaroslav; Bielčíková, Jana; Biritz, B.; Bland, L.C.; Bombara, M.; Bonner, B. E.; Botje, M.; Bouchet, J.; Braidot, E.; Brandin, A. V.; Bruna, E.; Bueltmann, S.; Burton, T. P.; Bysterský, Michal; Cai, X.Z.; Caines, H.; Sanchez, M.C.D.; Catu, O.; Cebra, D.; Cendejas, R.; Cervantes, M.C.; Chajecki, Z.; Chaloupka, Petr; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, J.H.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Choi, K.E.; Christie, W.; Clarke, R.F.; Codrington, M.J.M.; Corliss, R.; Cormier, T.M.; Coserea, R. M.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, D.; Dash, S.; Daugherity, M.; De Silva, L.C.; Dedovich, T. G.; DePhillips, M.; Derevschikov, A.A.; de Souza, R.D.; Didenko, L.; Djawotho, P.; Dunlop, J.C.; Mazumdar, M.R.D.; Edwards, W.R.; Efimov, L.G.; Elhalhuli, E.; Elnimr, M.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Estienne, M.; Eun, L.; Fachini, P.; Fatemi, R.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, A.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fine, V.; Fisyak, Y.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gaillard, L.; Ganti, M. S.; Gangaharan, D.R.; Garcia-Solis, E.J.; Geromitsos, A.; Geurts, F.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Ghosh, P.; Gorbunov, Y.N.; Gordon, A.; Grebenyuk, O.; Grosnick, D.; Grube, B.; Guertin, S.M.; Guimaraes, K.S.F.F.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, N.; Guryn, W.; Haag, B.; Hallman, T.J.; Hamed, A.; Harris, J.W.; He, W.; Heinz, M.; Heppelmann, S.; Hippolyte, B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffman, A.M.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Hofman, D.J.; Hollis, R.S.; Huang, H.Z.; Humanic, T.J.; Igo, G..; Iordanova, A.; Jacobs, P.; Jacobs, W.W.; Jakl, Pavel; Jena, C.; Jin, F.; Jones, C.L.; Jones, P.G.; Joseph, J.; Judd, E.G.; Kabana, S.; Kajimoto, K.; Kang, K.; Kapitán, Jan; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kettler, D.; Khodyrev, V.Yu.; Kikola, D.P.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Klein, S.R.; Knospe, A.G.; Kocoloski, A.; Koetke, D.D.; Kopytine, M.; Korsch, W.; Kotchenda, L.; Kushpil, Vasilij; Kravtsov, P.; Kravtsov, V.I.; Krueger, K.; Krus, M.; Kuhn, C.; Kumar, L.; Kurnadi, P.; Lamont, M.A.C.; Landgraf, J.M.; LaPointe, S.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednický, Richard; Lee, Ch.; Lee, J.H.; Leight, W.; LeVine, M.J.; Li, N.; Li, C.; Li, Y.; Lin, G.; Lindenbaum, S.J.; Lisa, M.A.; Liu, F.; Liu, J.; Liu, L.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W.J.; Longacre, R.S.; Love, W.A.; Lu, Y.; Ludlam, T.; Ma, G.L.; Ma, Y.G.; Mahapatra, D.P.; Majka, R.; Mall, O.I.; Mangotra, L.K.; Manweiler, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Matis, H.S.; Matulenko, Yu.A.; McShane, T.S.; Meschanin, A.; Milner, R.; Minaev, N.G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mischke, A.; Mitchell, J.; Mohanty, B.; Morozov, D.A.; Munhoz, M. G.; Nandi, B.K.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J.M.; Netrakanti, P.K.; Ng, M.J.; Nogach, L.V.; Nurushev, S.B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Okada, H.; Okorokov, V.; Olson, D.; Pachr, M.; Page, B.S.; Pal, S.K.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Panitkin, S.Y.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Perevoztchikov, V.; Perkins, C.; Peryt, W.; Phatak, S.C.; Poljak, N.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Potukuchi, B.V.K.S.; Prindle, D.; Pruneau, C.; Pruthi, N.K.; Putschke, J.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R.L.; Redwine, R.; Reed, R.; Ridiger, A.; Ritter, H.G.; Roberts, J.B.; Rogachevskiy, O.V.; Romero, J.L.; Rose, A.; Roy, C.; Ruan, L.; Russcher, M.J.; Sahoo, R.; Sakrejda, I.; Sakuma, T.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarsour, M.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R.P.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Seyboth, P.; Shabetai, A.; Shahaliev, E.; Shao, M.; Sharma, M.; Shi, S.S.; Shi, X.H.; Sichtermann, E.P.; Simon, F.; Singaraju, R.N.; Skoby, M.J.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R.; Sorensen, P.; Sowinski, J.; Spinka, H.M.; Srivastava, B.; Stadnik, A.; Stanislaus, T.D.S.; Staszak, D.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Suaide, A.A.P.; Suarez, M.C.; Subba, N.L.; Šumbera, Michal; Sun, X.M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Symons, T.J.M.; de Toledo, A. S.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A.H.; Tang, Z.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thein, D.; Thomas, J.H.; Tian, J.; Timmins, A.R.; Timoshenko, S.; Tokarev, M. V.; Trainor, T.A.; Tram, V.N.; Trattner, A.L.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tsai, O.D.; Ulery, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D.G.; Van Buren, G.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vander Molen, A.M.; Vanfossen, J.A.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G.S.M.; Vasilevski, I.M.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Videbaek, F.; Vigdor, S.E.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S.A.; Wada, M.; Walker, M.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, J.S.; Wang, Q.; Wang, X.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Webb, J.C.; Westfall, G.D.; Whitten, C.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S.W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y.; Tlustý, David; Xie, W.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q.H.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, P.; Yepes, P.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.K.; Yue, Q.; Zawisza, M.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zhan, W.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, W.M.; Zhang, X.P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, Y.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, J.; Zoulkarneev, R.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zuo, J.X.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 11 (2009), 111102/1-111102/7. ISSN 1550-7998 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505; CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : CHARGED CURRENT INTERACTIONS * PP COLLISIONS * (LAMBDA)OVER-BAR POLARIZATION Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 4.922, year: 2009

  8. Cross sections for charge transfer between mercury ions and other metals. Final report, June 1973--April 1977. [1 to 5000 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vroom, D.A.; Rutherford, J.A.

    1977-06-16

    Cross sections for charge transfer between several ions and metals of interest to the NASA electro propulsion program have been measured. Specifically, the ions considered were Hg/sup +/, Xe/sup +/ and Cs/sup +/ and the metals Mo, Fe, Al, Ti, Ta, and C. Measurements were made in the energy regime from 1 to 5,000 eV. In general, the cross sections for charge transfer were found to be less than 10/sup -15/ cm/sup 2/ for most processes over the total energy range. Exceptions are Hg/sup +/ in collision with Ti and Ta. The results obtained for each reaction are given in both graphical and numerical form in the text. For quick reference, the data at several ion velocities are condensed into one table given in the summary.

  9. Photophysics of charge transfer in a polyfluorene/violanthrone blend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanillas-Gonzalez, J.; Virgili, T.; Lanzani, G.; Yeates, S.; Ariu, M.; Nelson, J.; Bradley, D. D. C.

    2005-01-01

    We present a study of the photophysical and photovoltaic properties of blends of violanthrone in poly[9, 9-bis (2-ethylhexyl)-fluorene-2, 7-diyl ] (PF2/6) . Photoluminescence quenching and photocurrent measurements show moderate efficiencies for charge generation, characteristic of such polymer/dye blends. Pump-probe measurements on blend films suggest that while ˜47% of the total exciton population dissociates within 4ps of photoexcitation, only ˜32% subsequently results in the formation of dye anions. We attribute the discrepancy to the likely formation of complex species with long lifetimes, such as stabilized interface charge pairs or exciplexes. This conclusion is supported by the appearance of a long lifetime component of 2.4ns in the dynamics of the photoinduced absorption signal associated to polarons in photoinduced absorption bands centered at 560nm .

  10. Analysis of incomplete charge transfer effects in a CMOS image sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Liqiang; Yao Suying; Xu Jiangtao; Xu Chao; Gao Zhiyuan

    2013-01-01

    A method to judge complete charger transfer is proposed for a four-transistor CMOS image sensor with a large pixel size.Based on the emission current theory,a qualitative photoresponse model is established to the preliminary prediction.Further analysis of noise for incomplete charge transfer predicts the noise variation.The test pixels were fabricated in a specialized 0.18μm CMOS image sensor process and two different processes of buried N layer implantation are compared.The trend prediction corresponds with the test results,especially as it can distinguish an unobvious incomplete charge transfer.The method helps us judge whether the charge transfer time satisfies the requirements of the readout circuit for the given process especially for pixels of a large size.

  11. Charge transfer excitations from excited state Hartree-Fock subsequent minimization scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Theophilou, Iris; Thanos, S

    2014-01-01

    Photoinduced charge transfer processes play a key role for novel photovoltaic phenomena and devices. Thus, the development of ab initio methods that allow for accurate and computationally inexpensive treatment of charge transfer excitations is a topic that attracts nowadays a lot of scientific attention. In this paper we extend an approach recently introduced for the description of single and double excitations (M. Tassi, I. Theophilou and S. Thanos, Int. J. Quantum Chem., {113}, 690 (2013), M. Tassi, I. Theophilou and S. Thanos, J. Chem. Phys. {138}, 124107 (2013)) to allow for the description of intermolecular charge transfer excitations. For the description of an excitation where an electron is transferred from a donor system to an acceptor one, it is necessary to keep the excited state orthogonal to the ground sate in order to avoid variational collapse. These conditions are achieved by decomposing the subspace spanned by the Hartree-Fock (HF) ground state orbitals to four subspaces: The subspace spanned ...

  12. Dynamics of the Rydberg state population of slow highly charged ions impinging a solid surface at arbitrary collision geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedeljković, N. N.; Majkić, M. D.; Božanić, D. K.; Dojčilović, R. J.

    2016-06-01

    We consider the population dynamics of the intermediate Rydberg states of highly charged ions (core charge Z\\gg 1, principal quantum number {n}{{A}}\\gg 1) interacting with solid surfaces at arbitrary collision geometry. The recently developed resonant two-state vector model for the grazing incidence (2012 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 45 215202) is extended to the quasi-resonant case and arbitrary angle of incidence. According to the model, the population probabilities depend both on the projectile parallel and perpendicular velocity components, in a complementary way. A cascade neutralization process for {{{Xe}}}Z+ ions, for Z=15{--}45, interacting with a conductive-surface is considered by taking into account the population dynamics. For an arbitrary collision geometry and given range of ionic velocities, a micro-staircase model for the simultaneous calculation of the kinetic energy gain and the charge state of the ion in front of the surface is proposed. The relevance of the obtained results for the explanation of the formation of nanostructures on solid surfaces by slow highly charged ions for normal incidence geometry is briefly discussed.

  13. Charge breeding investigation in EBIS/T and collision study of ions with cold atoms for HITRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highly charged ions (HCI) at low velocities or at rest are interesting systems for various atomic physics experiments. For investigations on HCI of heavy stable or radioactive nuclides the HITRAP (Highly charged Ion TRAP) decelerator facility has been set up at GSI to deliver cooled beams of HCI at an energy of 5 keV/q. The HCI are produced in a stripper foil at relativistic energies and are decelerated in several steps at ESR storage ring and HITRAP before they are delivered to experimental setups. One of the experiments is the investigation of multi-electron charge exchange in collisions of heavy HCI with cold atoms using novel MOTRIMS technique. Collision experiments on light ions from an ECR ion source colliding with cold atoms in a MOT have been performed and the results are described. An electron beam ion trap (EBIT) has been tested and optimized for commissioning of the HITRAP physics experiments. The process of charge breeding in the EBIT has been successfully studied with gaseous elements and with an alkaline element injected from an external ion source. (orig.)

  14. Measurement of Charge Multiplicity Asymmetry Correlations in High Energy Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions at 200 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adamczyk, L; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alakhverdyants, A V; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Anson, C D; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E; Averichev, G S; Balewski, J; Banerjee, A; Barnovska, Z; Beavis, D R; Bellwied, R; Betancourt, M J; Betts, R R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Borowski, W; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Brovko, S G; Bruna, E; Bültmann, S; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Butterworth, J; Cai, X Z; Caines, H; Sánchez, M Calderón de la Barca; Cebra, D; Cendejas, R; Cervantes, M C; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, J Y; Chen, L; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Chung, P; Chwastowski, J; Codrington, M J M; Corliss, R; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Cui, X; Das, S; Leyva, A Davila; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; de Souza, R Derradi; Dhamija, S; Didenko, L; Ding, F; Dion, A; Djawotho, P; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Elnimr, M; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Eun, L; Evdokimov, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Fedorisin, J; Fersch, R G; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flores, E; Gagliardi, C A; Gangadharan, D R; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Gliske, S; Gorbunov, Y N; Grebenyuk, O G; Grosnick, D; Gupta, A; Gupta, S; Guryn, W; Haag, B; Hajkova, O; Hamed, A; Han, L-X; Harris, J W; Hays-Wehle, J P; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jena, C; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kang, K; Kapitan, J; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kesich, A; Kikola, D P; Kiryluk, J; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Kizka, V; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konzer, J; Koralt, I; Koroleva, L; Korsch, W; Kotchenda, L; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; LaPointe, S; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; Leight, W; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, W; Li, X; Li, Y; Li, Z M; Lima, L M; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Longacre, R S; Lu, Y; Luo, X; Luszczak, A; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Don, D M M D Madagodagettige; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; McShane, T S; Mioduszewski, S; Mitrovski, M K; Mohammed, Y; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, B; Munhoz, M G; Mustafa, M K; Naglis, M; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nogach, L V; Novak, J; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Ohlson, A; Okorokov, V; Oldag, E W; Oliveira, R A N; Olson, D; Ostrowski, P; Pachr, M; Page, B S; Pal, S K; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlak, T; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Poljak, N; Porter, J; Powell, C B; Pruthi, N K; Przybycien, M; Pujahari, P R; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Redwine, R; Riley, C K; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Ross, J F; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandacz, A; Sandweiss, J; Sangaline, E; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, B; Schmitz, N; Schuster, T R; Seele, J; Seger, J; Selyuzhenkov, I; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shao, M; Sharma, B; Sharma, M; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Singaraju, R N; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Solanki, D; Sorensen, P; deSouza, U G; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Steadman, S G; Stevens, J R; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Suaide, A A P; Suarez, M C; Sumbera, M; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Symons, T J M; de Toledo, A Szanto; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarini, L H; Tarnowsky, T; Thomas, J H; Tian, J; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Turnau, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vanfossen,, J A; Varma, R; Vasconcelos, G M S; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Vossen, A; Wada, M; Wang, F; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y F; Xiao, Z; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, H; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, W; Xu, Y; Xu, Z; Xue, L; Yang, Y; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Zawisza, M; Zbroszczyk, H; Zhang, J B; Zhang, S; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, F; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhu, X; Zhu, Y H; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2013-01-01

    A study is reported of the same- and opposite-sign charge-dependent azimuthal correlations with respect to the event plane in Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV. The charge multiplicity asymmetries between the up/down and left/right hemispheres relative to the event plane are utilized. The contributions from statistical fluctuations and detector effects were subtracted from the (co-)variance of the observed charge multiplicity asymmetries. In the mid- to most-central collisions, the same- (opposite-) sign pairs are preferentially emitted in back-to-back (aligned on the same-side) directions. The charge separation across the event plane, measured by the difference, $\\Delta$, between the like- and unlike-sign up/down $-$ left/right correlations, is largest near the event plane. The difference is found to be proportional to the event-by-event final-state particle ellipticity (via the observed second-order harmonic $v_2^{\\rm obs}$, where $\\Delta=(1.3\\pm1.4({\\rm stat})^{+4.0}_{-1.0}({\\rm syst}))\\times10^{-5}+(3.2\\pm0.2({...

  15. Charge breeding investigation in EBIS/T and collision study of ions with cold atoms for HITRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolov, Alexey

    2010-01-29

    Highly charged ions (HCI) at low velocities or at rest are interesting systems for various atomic physics experiments. For investigations on HCI of heavy stable or radioactive nuclides the HITRAP (Highly charged Ion TRAP) decelerator facility has been set up at GSI to deliver cooled beams of HCI at an energy of 5 keV/q. The HCI are produced in a stripper foil at relativistic energies and are decelerated in several steps at ESR storage ring and HITRAP before they are delivered to experimental setups. One of the experiments is the investigation of multi-electron charge exchange in collisions of heavy HCI with cold atoms using novel MOTRIMS technique. Collision experiments on light ions from an ECR ion source colliding with cold atoms in a MOT have been performed and the results are described. An electron beam ion trap (EBIT) has been tested and optimized for commissioning of the HITRAP physics experiments. The process of charge breeding in the EBIT has been successfully studied with gaseous elements and with an alkaline element injected from an external ion source. (orig.)

  16. The lowest-energy charge-transfer state and its role in charge separation in organic photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Guangjun; Zhang, Xu; Lu, Gang

    2016-06-29

    Energy independent, yet higher than 90% internal quantum efficiency (IQE), has been observed in many organic photovoltaics (OPVs). However, its physical origin remains largely unknown and controversial. The hypothesis that the lowest charge-transfer (CT) state may be weakly bound at the interface has been proposed to rationalize the experimental observations. In this paper, we study the nature of the lowest-energy CT (CT1) state, and show conclusively that the CT1 state is localized in typical OPVs. The electronic couplings in the donor and acceptor are found to determine the localization of the CT1 state. We examine the geminate recombination of the CT1 state and estimate its lifetime from first principles. We identify the vibrational modes that contribute to the geminate recombination. Using material parameters determined from first principles and experiments, we carry out kinetic Monte Carlo simulations to examine the charge separation of the localized CT1 state. We find that the localized CT1 state can indeed yield efficient charge separation with IQE higher than 90%. Dynamic disorder and configuration entropy can provide the energetic and entropy driving force for charge separation. Charge separation efficiency depends more sensitively on the dimension and crystallinity of the acceptor parallel to the interface than that normal to the interface. Reorganization energy is found to be the most important material parameter for charge separation, and lowering the reorganization energy of the donor should be pursued in the materials design. PMID:27306609

  17. Study of high-$p_T$ charged particle suppression in PbPb compared to pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=2.76 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Hoch, Michael; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Krammer, Manfred; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Christine; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Teischinger, Florian; Wagner, Philipp; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Bansal, Sunil; Benucci, Leonardo; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Luyckx, Sten; Maes, Thomas; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Charaf, Otman; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wickens, John; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Garcia, Guillaume; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Vanelderen, Lukas; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Ceard, Ludivine; De Favereau De Jeneret, Jerome; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Grégoire, Ghislain; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Schul, Nicolas; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Alves, Gilvan; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Custódio, Analu; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Silva Do Amaral, Sheila Mara; Soares Jorge, Luana; Sznajder, Andre; Souza Dos Anjos, Tiago; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Karadzhinova, Aneliya; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Shuang; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Wang, Siguang; Zhu, Bo; Zou, Wei; Cabrera, Andrés; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Dzelalija, Mile; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Khalil, Shaaban; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Hektor, Andi; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Azzolini, Virginia; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Czellar, Sandor; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Sillou, Daniel; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Marionneau, Matthieu; Millischer, Laurent; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Shreyber, Irina; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Benhabib, Lamia; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Daci, Nadir; Dahms, Torsten; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Elgammal, Sherif; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Thiebaux, Christophe; Veelken, Christian; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Greder, Sebastien; Juillot, Pierre; Karim, Mehdi; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Baty, Clement; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bedjidian, Marc; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Boumediene, Djamel; Brun, Hugues; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Falkiewicz, Anna; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Le Grand, Thomas; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sordini, Viola; Tosi, Silvano; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Lomidze, David; Anagnostou, Georgios; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Caudron, Julien; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Erdmann, Martin; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Lanske, Dankfried; Lingemann, Joschka; Magass, Carsten; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Olschewski, Mark; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Weber, Martin; Bontenackels, Michael; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Davids, Martina; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Linn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Rennefeld, Jörg; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Zoeller, Marc Henning; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Cakir, Altan; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Dammann, Dirk; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flossdorf, Alexander; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Hauk, Johannes; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Olzem, Jan; Petrukhin, Alexey; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Rosin, Michele; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stein, Matthias; Tomaszewska, Justyna; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Autermann, Christian; Blobel, Volker; Bobrovskyi, Sergei; Draeger, Jula; Enderle, Holger; Erfle, Joachim; Gebbert, Ulla; Görner, Martin; Hermanns, Thomas; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Lange, Jörn; Mura, Benedikt; Nowak, Friederike; Pietsch, Niklas; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Barth, Christian; Berger, Joram; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Feindt, Michael; Gruschke, Jasmin; Guthoff, Moritz; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Honc, Simon; Katkov, Igor; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Kuhr, Thomas; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Ratnikova, Natalia; Renz, Manuel; Röcker, Steffen; Saout, Christophe; Scheurer, Armin; Schieferdecker, Philipp; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schmanau, Mike; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Weiler, Thomas; Zeise, Manuel; Ziebarth, Eva Barbara; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Ntomari, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Triantis, Frixos A; Aranyi, Attila; Bencze, Gyorgy; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Kapusi, Anita; Krajczar, Krisztian; Sikler, Ferenc; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Veszpremi, Viktor; Karancsi, János; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Jindal, Monika; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Anil; Singh, Jasbir; Singh, Supreet Pal; Ahuja, Sudha; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Sarkar, Subir; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Aziz, Tariq; Ganguly, Sanmay; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Saha, Anirban; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Hesari, Hoda; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Manna, Norman; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Romano, Francesco; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Singh, Gurpreet; Tupputi, Salvatore; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gianni; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Benaglia, Andrea; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Cavallo, Nicola; De Cosa, Annapaola; Dogangun, Oktay; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellan, Paolo; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Mazzucato, Mirco; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Michelotto, Michele; Nespolo, Massimo; Perrozzi, Luca; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Baesso, Paolo; Berzano, Umberto; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Viviani, Claudio; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Caponeri, Benedetta; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Lucaroni, Andrea; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Romeo, Francesco; Santocchia, Attilio; Taroni, Silvia; Valdata, Marisa; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Palmonari, Francesco; Rizzi, Andrea; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Fanelli, Cristiano; Franci, Daniele; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Pandolfi, Francesco; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Sigamani, Michael; Soffi, Livia; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Botta, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Castello, Roberto; Costa, Marco; Demaria, Natale; Graziano, Alberto; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Belforte, Stefano; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Marone, Matteo; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Heo, Seong Gu; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Chang, Sunghyun; Chung, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Ji Eun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Ro, Sang-Ryul; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Jae Yool; Kim, Zero Jaeho; Song, Sanghyeon; Jo, Hyun Yong; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Seo, Eunsung; Sim, Kwang Souk; Choi, Minkyoo; Kang, Seokon; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Cho, Yongjin; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Min Suk; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Bilinskas, Mykolas Jurgis; Grigelionis, Ignas; Janulis, Mindaugas; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Martínez-Ortega, Jorge; Sánchez-Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A; Krofcheck, David; Bell, Alan James; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Reucroft, Steve; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Brona, Grzegorz; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Bialkowska, Helena; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Almeida, Nuno; Bargassa, Pedrame; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Musella, Pasquale; Nayak, Aruna; Pela, Joao; Ribeiro, Pedro Quinaz; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Evstyukhin, Sergey; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Toropin, Alexander; Troitsky, Sergey; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Erofeeva, Maria; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kossov, Mikhail; Krokhotin, Andrey; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Korotkikh, Vladimir; Lokhtin, Igor; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Vardanyan, Irina; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Korablev, Andrey; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Ekmedzic, Marko; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Soares, Mara Senghi; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Jorda, Clara; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Sobron Sanudo, Mar; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bernet, Colin; Bialas, Wojciech; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Breuker, Horst; Bunkowski, Karol; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Curé, Benoît; D'Enterria, David; De Roeck, Albert; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dobson, Marc; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Frisch, Benjamin; Funk, Wolfgang; Gaddi, Andrea; Georgiou, Georgios; Gerwig, Hubert; Giffels, Manuel; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Giunta, Marina; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Govoni, Pietro; Gowdy, Stephen; Guida, Roberto; Guiducci, Luigi; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hartl, Christian; Harvey, John; Hegner, Benedikt; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hoffmann, Hans Falk; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kaadze, Ketino; Karavakis, Edward; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Lecoq, Paul; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Lourenco, Carlos; Maki, Tuula; Malberti, Martina; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Nesvold, Erik; Nguyen, Matthew; Orimoto, Toyoko; Orsini, Luciano; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Perez, Emmanuelle; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Polese, Giovanni; Quertenmont, Loic; Racz, Attila; Reece, William; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Rolandi, Gigi; Rommerskirchen, Tanja; Rovelli, Chiara; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Santanastasio, Francesco; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Spiropulu, Maria; Stoye, Markus; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vichoudis, Paschalis; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Worm, Steven; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; Bäni, Lukas; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Chen, Zhiling; Deisher, Amanda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Dünser, Marc; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Mohr, Niklas; Moortgat, Filip; Nägeli, Christoph; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Sawley, Marie-Christine; Starodumov, Andrei; Stieger, Benjamin; Takahashi, Maiko; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Urscheler, Christina; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Wehrli, Lukas; Weng, Joanna; Aguilo, Ernest; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Otiougova, Polina; Robmann, Peter; Snoek, Hella; Verzetti, Mauro; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Zong-Kai; Lu, Yun-Ju; Mekterovic, Darko; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Shi, Xin; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wan, Xia; Wang, Minzu; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karapinar, Guler; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Uzun, Dilber; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Yildirim, Eda; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Levchuk, Leonid; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Kreczko, Lukasz; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Basso, Lorenzo; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Jackson, James; Kennedy, Bruce W; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Mathias, Bryn; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Tapper, Alexander; Tourneur, Stephane; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardle, Nicholas; Wardrope, David; Whyntie, Tom; Barrett, Matthew; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Henderson, Conor; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; St John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; Sulak, Lawrence; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Cutts, David; Ferapontov, Alexey; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Caulfield, Matthew; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Houtz, Rachel; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Mall, Orpheus; Miceli, Tia; Nelson, Randy; Pellett, Dave; Robles, Jorge; Rutherford, Britney; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Andreev, Valeri; Arisaka, Katsushi; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Duris, Joseph; Erhan, Samim; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Plager, Charles; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Tucker, Jordan; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Giordano, Ferdinando; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Mangano, Boris; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pi, Haifeng; Pieri, Marco; Ranieri, Riccardo; Sani, Matteo; Sfiligoi, Igor; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lowette, Steven; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; West, Christopher; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Di Marco, Emanuele; Duarte, Javier; Gataullin, Marat; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Rogan, Christopher; Timciuc, Vladlen; Traczyk, Piotr; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Jun, Soon Yung; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Drell, Brian Robert; Edelmaier, Christopher; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Heyburn, Bernadette; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Zang, Shi-Lei; Agostino, Lorenzo; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Hopkins, Walter; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Puigh, Darren; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Biselli, Angela; Cirino, Guy; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Atac, Muzaffer; Bakken, Jon Alan; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bloch, Ingo; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Cooper, William; Eartly, David P; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Esen, Selda; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Green, Dan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jensen, Hans; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Miao, Ting; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Pivarski, James; Pordes, Ruth; Prokofyev, Oleg; Schwarz, Thomas; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Tan, Ping; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Goldberg, Sean; Hugon, Justin; Kim, Bockjoo; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Remington, Ronald; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Schmitt, Michael; Scurlock, Bobby; Sellers, Paul; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Snowball, Matthew; Wang, Dayong; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Gaultney, Vanessa; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Sekmen, Sezen; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Kunde, Gerd J; Lacroix, Florent; Malek, Magdalena; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Silvestre, Catherine; Strom, Derek; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Griffiths, Scott; Lae, Chung Khim; McCliment, Edward; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Bonato, Alessio; Eskew, Christopher; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Tran, Nhan Viet; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Grachov, Oleg; Kenny Iii, Raymond Patrick; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Tinti, Gemma; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Barfuss, Anne-Fleur; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kirn, Malina; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Peterman, Alison; Rossato, Kenneth; Rumerio, Paolo; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Twedt, Elizabeth; Alver, Burak; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Lee, Yen-Jie; Li, Wei; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Velicanu, Dragos; Wenger, Edward Allen; Wolf, Roger; Wyslouch, Bolek; Xie, Si; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cooper, Seth; Cushman, Priscilla; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Franzoni, Giovanni; Gude, Alexander; Haupt, Jason; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rekovic, Vladimir; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Godang, Romulus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Summers, Don; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Jindal, Pratima; Keller, Jason; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R; Baur, Ulrich; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Shipkowski, Simon Peter; Smith, Kenneth; Wan, Zongru; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Trocino, Daniele; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Ziegler, Jill; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Hill, Christopher; Killewald, Phillip; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Rodenburg, Marissa; Vuosalo, Carl; Williams, Grayson; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hunt, Adam; Laird, Edward; Lopes Pegna, David; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Raval, Amita; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Acosta, Jhon Gabriel; Huang, Xing Tao; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Oliveros, Sandra; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bolla, Gino; Borrello, Laura; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Everett, Adam; Gutay, Laszlo; Hu, Zhen; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Kress, Matthew; Laasanen, Alvin T; Leonardo, Nuno; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Guragain, Samir; Parashar, Neeti; Adair, Antony; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Cuplov, Vesna; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Gotra, Yury; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Petrillo, Gianluca; Sakumoto, Willis; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Malik, Sarah; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Atramentov, Oleksiy; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hits, Dmitry; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Richards, Alan; Rose, Keith; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Seitz, Claudia; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Sengupta, Sinjini; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Akchurin, Nural; Bardak, Cemile; Damgov, Jordan; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Mane, Poonam; Roh, Youn; Sill, Alan; Volobouev, Igor; Wigmans, Richard; Appelt, Eric; Brownson, Eric; Engh, Daniel; Florez, Carlos; Gabella, William; Gurrola, Alfredo; Issah, Michael; Johns, Willard; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Conetti, Sergio; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goadhouse, Stephen; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Yohay, Rachel; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Mattson, Mark; Milstène, Caroline; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Bachtis, Michail; Belknap, Donald; Bellinger, James Nugent; Bernardini, Jacopo; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Efron, Jonathan; Friis, Evan; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Swanson, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    The transverse momentum spectra of charged particles have been measured in pp and PbPb collisions at sqrt(sNN) = 2.76 TeV by the CMS experiment at the LHC. In the transverse momentum range pt = 5-10 GeV/c, the charged particle yield in the most central PbPb collisions is suppressed by up to a factor of 5 compared to the pp yield scaled by the number of incoherent nucleon-nucleon collisions. At higher pt, this suppression is significantly reduced, approaching roughly a factor of 2 for particles with pt in the range pt=40-100 GeV/c.

  18. Centrality dependence of charged particle multiplicity at midrapidity in Au+Au collisions at (sNN)=130 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hołyński, R.; Hofman, D. J.; Holzman, B.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Mülmenstädt, J.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Stephans, G. S.; Steinberg, P.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2002-03-01

    We present a measurement of the pseudorapidity density of primary charged particles near midrapidity in Au+Au collisions at (sNN)=130 GeV as a function of the number of participating nucleons. The pseudorapidity density, dNch/dη\\|\\|η\\|), rises from 2.87+/-0.21 in peripheral events (~83) to 3.45+/-0.18 in central events (~353), which is 53+/-8% higher than pp&; collisions at a similar center-of-mass energy. This is consistent with an additional contribution to charged particle production that scales with the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions (Ncoll).

  19. Persistence of odd-even staggering in charged fragment yields from the 112Sn+58Ni collision at 35 MeV/nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Casini, G; Maurenzig, P R; Olmi, A; Bardelli, L; Barlini, S; Benelli, M; Bini, M; Calviani, M; Marini, P; Mangiarotti, A; Pasquali, G; Poggi, G; Stefanini, A A; Bruno, M; Morelli, L; Kravchuk, V L; Amorini, F; Auditore, L; Cardella, G; De Filippo, E; Galichet, E; La Guidara, E; Lanzalone, G; Lanzano', G; Maiolino, C; Pagano, A; Papa, M; Pirrone, S; Politi, G; Pop, A; Rizzo, F; Russotto, P; Santonocito, D; Trifiro', A; Trimarchi, M

    2012-01-01

    Odd-even staggering effects on charge distributions are investigated for fragments produced in semiperipheral and central collisions of 112Sn+58Ni at 35 MeV/nucleon. For fragments with Z<16 one observes a clear overproduction of even charges, which decreases for heavier fragments. In peripheral collisions staggering effects persist up to Z about 40. For light fragments, staggering appears to be substantially independent of the centrality of the collisions, suggesting that it is mainly related to the last few steps in the decay of hot nuclei.

  20. Charge Transfer Properties Through Graphene Layers in Gas Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Thuiner, P; Jackman, R.B.; Müller, H.; Nguyen, T.T.; Oliveri, E.; Pfeiffer, D.; Resnati, F.; Ropelewski, L.; Smith, J.A.; van Stenis, M.; Veenhof, R.

    2015-01-01

    Graphene is a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice with remarkable mechanical, elect